URL: 16. Abstract Many freeways and arterials in major cities in

URL: 16. Abstract Many freeways and arterials in major cities in
Technical Report Documentation Page
1. Report No.
FHWA/TX-12/0-6432-1
2. Government
Accession No.
3. Recipient’s Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle
Low Cost Wireless Network Camera Sensors for Traffic
Monitoring
5. Report Date
Published: July 2012
6. Performing Organization Code
7. Author(s)
Yan Huang and Bill P. Buckles
8. Performing Organization Report No.
0-6432-1
9. Performing Organization Name and Address
University of North Texas
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
College of Engineering
University of North Texas
Denton, Texas 76203-1366
10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)
11. Contract or Grant No.
0-6432
12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address
Texas Department of Transportation
Research and Technology Implementation Office
P.O. Box 5080
Austin, TX 78763-5080
13. Type of Report and Period Covered
Technical Report
Sept. 1, 2009-Aug. 31, 2011
14. Sponsoring Agency Code
15. Supplementary Notes
Project performed in cooperation with the Texas Department of Transportation and the Federal Highway
Administration.
Project: Low Cost Network Camera Sensors for Traffic Monitoring
URL:
16. Abstract
Many freeways and arterials in major cities in Texas are presently equipped with video detection cameras to
collect data and help in traffic/incident management. In this study, carefully controlled experiments determined
the throughput and output quality of various communication configurations. Configurations entailed antennas at
several cost levels and it was determined that the least expensive antennas were adequate only for one-hop
systems. Via a survey to which 20 districts responded, incidents, volume, and speed were found to be the
functionalities most in demand for autonomous surveillance systems. Most systems are monitored by human
operators. An alternative to operator-based video monitoring is video analytics. An autonomous traffic
monitoring system from a vendor was tested. A demonstration surveillance system was developed and delivered
to TxDOT.
17. Key Words
18. Distribution Statement
Wireless communication; Traffic cameras;
No restrictions. This document is available to the
Surveillance software; Network configurations
public through the National Technical Information
Service, Alexandria, Virginia 22312; www.ntis.gov.
19. Security Classif. (of report) 20. Security Classif. (of this page) 21. No. of pages
22. Price
Unclassified
Unclassified
222
Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized
LOW COST WIRELESS NETWORK CAMERA SENSORS FOR TRAFFIC
MONITORING
by
Yan Huang, Ph.D.
and
Bill P. Buckles, Ph.D.
Report: 0-6432-1
Project: 0-6432
Project Title: Low Cost Network Camera Sensors for Traffic Monitoring
Performed in cooperation with the
Texas Department of Transportation
and the
Federal Highway Administration
Published: July 2012
University of North Texas
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
College of Engineering
University of North Texas
Denton, Texas 76203-1366
Disclaimers
Author’s Disclaimer: The contents of this report reflect the views of the authors, who
are responsible for the facts and the accuracy of the data presented herein. The contents do not
necessarily reflect the official view or policies of the Federal Highway Administration or the
Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT). This report does not constitute a standard,
specification, or regulation.
Patent Disclaimer: There was no invention or discovery conceived or first actually
reduced to practice in the course of or under this contract, including any art, method, process,
machine manufacture, design or composition of matter, or any new useful improvement thereof,
or any variety of plant, which is or may be patentable under the patent laws of the United States
of America or any foreign country.
Notice: The United States Government and the State of Texas do not endorse products or
manufacturers. If trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein, it is solely because they are
considered essential to the object of this report.
Engineering Disclaimer
NOT INTENDED FOR CONSTRUCTION, BIDDING, OR PERMIT PURPOSES.
The researcher in charge of this project was Yan Huang.
v
Acknowledgments
This project was conducted in cooperation with the Texas Department of Transportation
(TxDOT). Project members extend thanks to the TxDOT project director Frank Phillips, program
coordinator Wade O’Dell, and to members of the Project Management Committee (PMC)
including Joseph Hunt, Valerie Taylor, Heath Bozeman, Leo Ramirez, Robert Packert, and
Sandra Kaderka.
vi
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Research Method Overview ...................................................................................... 1
Chapter 2. Literature Review and Background......................................................................... 3
2.1 Surveillance Procedural Methods: State of the Art ...............................................................3
2.1.1 Video Analytics ............................................................................................................. 3
2.1.2 Communications ............................................................................................................ 6
2.2 Existing Surveillance Technologies.....................................................................................15
2.2.1 Video Camera and VIP ................................................................................................ 15
2.3 Case Studies .........................................................................................................................18
2.4 Application Scenarios ..........................................................................................................23
2.4.1 Intersection Control ..................................................................................................... 23
2.4.2 Tunnel Surveillance ..................................................................................................... 23
2.4.3 Work Zones Surveillance ............................................................................................. 24
2.4.4 Dilemma Zones Protection .......................................................................................... 24
2.5 Conclusions ..........................................................................................................................24
Chapter 3. Survey of Texas Practice ......................................................................................... 27
3.1 Introduction..........................................................................................................................27
3.1.1 Equipment Preference .................................................................................................. 29
3.1.2 Other Sensors ............................................................................................................... 34
3.2 Surveillance Applications and Functionalities ....................................................................35
3.2.1 Application Scenarios .................................................................................................. 35
3.2.2 System Configuration .................................................................................................. 38
3.3 Cost Analysis .......................................................................................................................39
3.4 Conclusions ..........................................................................................................................39
Chapter 4. Equipment Survey ................................................................................................... 43
4.1 Introduction..........................................................................................................................43
4.2 Camera Parameters ..............................................................................................................43
4.2.1 Explanations of Parameters.......................................................................................... 43
4.2.2 Parameters Value Selection ......................................................................................... 45
4.3 Camera Survey .....................................................................................................................46
4.3.1 Analog Cameras ........................................................................................................... 46
vii
4.3.2 Network Camera .......................................................................................................... 52
4.4 Parameters for Wireless Equipment ....................................................................................73
4.4.1 Parameter Value Selection ........................................................................................... 74
4.5 Wireless Equipment Survey.................................................................................................74
4.5.1 2.4 GHz ........................................................................................................................ 74
4.5.2 4.9 GHz ........................................................................................................................ 82
4.5.3 5 GHz ........................................................................................................................... 83
4.5.4 900 MHz ...................................................................................................................... 95
4.5.5 Others ........................................................................................................................... 98
4.6 Equipment Selection Guidelines ........................................................................................112
4.6.1 Situation Definition .................................................................................................... 113
4.6.2 Camera Selection ....................................................................................................... 114
4.6.3 Bandwidth Calculation for Data Transmission (Honovich 2008) ............................. 115
4.6.4 Wireless Equipment Selection ................................................................................... 116
4.6.5 System Analysis and Cost Control ............................................................................ 119
Chapter 5. System Development.............................................................................................. 121
5.1 Considerations for Deployment of Wireless Devices ........................................................121
5.1.1 Architecture of Wireless Network ............................................................................. 121
5.1.2 Antenna Pattern .......................................................................................................... 123
5.1.3 Fresnel Zone............................................................................................................... 124
5.1.4 Frequency Conformance and Interference ................................................................. 125
5.2 Site Investigation ...............................................................................................................125
5.3 System Development .........................................................................................................128
5.3.1 PTP 54300 Configuration .......................................................................................... 128
5.3.2 NanoStation M5 Configuration.................................................................................. 130
5.3.3 Rocket M5 Configuration .......................................................................................... 136
5.3.4 Performance Comparison of Wireless Devices ......................................................... 137
5.3.5 Camera ....................................................................................................................... 142
5.4 System Monitoring ............................................................................................................143
5.4.1 Video .......................................................................................................................... 143
5.4.2 Wireless Communication ........................................................................................... 144
Chapter 6. Video Analytics ...................................................................................................... 147
viii
6.1 Traffic Surveillance Video Analytics Survey ....................................................................147
6.1.1 Typical Scenarios ....................................................................................................... 147
6.1.2 Generic System Configuration ................................................................................... 149
6.1.3 Selection Guidelines .................................................................................................. 151
6.2 TxDOT Video Analytics Demonstration System ..............................................................158
6.2.1 Baseline Requirements............................................................................................... 158
6.2.2 System Components................................................................................................... 161
6.2.3 Usage Guidelines ....................................................................................................... 170
6.3 Performance Evaluation .....................................................................................................174
6.3.1 Phase One, System Stabilization................................................................................ 175
6.3.2 Phase Two, Live Traffic ............................................................................................ 181
Chapter 7. Conclusions and Recommendations..................................................................... 189
7.1 Communications Equipment..............................................................................................189
7.2 Video Analytics (VA) ........................................................................................................190
References .................................................................................................................................. 193
Appendix A: System Devices.................................................................................................... 197
Appendix B: Testing Devices ................................................................................................... 199
Appendix C: Development Platform and Software ............................................................... 203
ix
x
List of Figures
Figure 1 VA Components ............................................................................................................... 3
Figure 2 Video Analytics Module................................................................................................... 4
Figure 3 Communication Module ................................................................................................... 7
Figure 4 Wireless Camera Configuration ..................................................................................... 14
Figure 5 Infrastructure-connected Camera Configuration ............................................................ 14
Figure 6 Cellular-connected Camera Configuration ..................................................................... 15
Figure 7 Typical CCTV Station (Leader 2005) ............................................................................ 20
Figure 8 Function Diagram of CCTV Station (Leader 2005) ....................................................... 20
Figure 9 System Architecture (Leader 2005)................................................................................ 21
Figure 10 Final Wireless Network (Leader 2005) ........................................................................ 21
Figure 11 System Architecture (Zhang et al. 2008) ...................................................................... 23
Figure 12 Survey Coverage .......................................................................................................... 27
Figure 13 Surveillance System Components ................................................................................ 28
Figure 14 Video Cameras in Use .................................................................................................. 29
Figure 15 Manufacturers of Wireless Equipment in Use.............................................................. 32
Figure 16 Sensor Usage Based on Number of Installations ......................................................... 35
Figure 17 Video Camera Installations .......................................................................................... 36
Figure 18 Greatest Distance between TMC and a Video Camera ................................................ 36
Figure 19 Importance Weighting of Detection Functions ............................................................ 37
Figure 20 Importance of Events to Detect .................................................................................... 38
Figure 21 Usage of Wireline and Wireless Communication ........................................................ 38
Figure 22 Components of Cost Analysis ...................................................................................... 39
Figure 23 Roadblocks to System Expansion ................................................................................ 39
Figure 24 Costs Tradeoffs between Loops and VIVDS ............................................................... 40
Figure 25 Practical Issues Relevant to System Design ............................................................... 113
Figure 26 Loss in Wireless Transmission ................................................................................... 119
Figure 27 Scenarios of Single-Hop Transmission ...................................................................... 121
Figure 28 Scenario of Linear-Chain Transmission ..................................................................... 123
Figure 29 An Example of Antenna Pattern ................................................................................. 124
Figure 30 An Example of Fresnel Zone...................................................................................... 125
Figure 31 Profiles Obtained from LINKPlanner ........................................................................ 127
xi
Figure 32 An Antenna Alignment Tool ...................................................................................... 132
Figure 33 Channel Usage in the Test Bed .................................................................................. 133
Figure 34 Signal Strength and Noise Floor Changes by Channel Width ................................... 135
Figure 35 Influence of Output Power on Signal Strength and Noise Floor ................................ 135
Figure 36 Influence of Output Power on Throughput for NanoStation M5 ............................... 136
Figure 37 Influence of Output Power on Throughput for Rocket M5 ........................................ 137
Figure 38 20-min uteThroughput Plot for (a) Motorola PTP54300; (b) NanoStation M5;
(c) RocketDish ................................................................................................................ 139
Figure 39 MPEG-4 Settings of Camera Axis 213PTZ ............................................................... 143
Figure 40 General Image Settings of Camera Axis 213PTZ ...................................................... 143
Figure 41 Snapshots of Traffic Monitoring Video ..................................................................... 144
Figure 42 Data Rate in Diagnostic Plotter .................................................................................. 145
Figure 43 Throughput Change in a Day ..................................................................................... 145
Figure 44 Signal Strength ........................................................................................................... 146
Figure 45 Typical Scenarios ....................................................................................................... 148
Figure 46 Generic System Configuration ................................................................................... 151
Figure 47 Typical Road Structure and Camera Location ........................................................... 159
Figure 48 Camera Perspective from Different Viewing Angles ................................................. 159
Figure 49 General System Framework ....................................................................................... 162
Figure 50 System Framework Flow-Chart ................................................................................. 163
Figure 51 Motion Correspondence ............................................................................................. 165
Figure 52 Trajectory Analysis .................................................................................................... 166
Figure 53 Vanishing Points-based Camera Calibration .............................................................. 166
Figure 54 Functional Architecture of Video Analytics Processor .............................................. 169
Figure 55 System Setup with On-site Processor ......................................................................... 170
Figure 56 Settings for Camera .................................................................................................... 171
Figure 57 Settings for Road Structure ........................................................................................ 172
Figure 58 Parameters for Speed Estimation and Incident Detection .......................................... 173
Figure 59 Visualization for Traffic Data .................................................................................... 174
Figure 60 Intermediate Results ................................................................................................... 176
Figure 61 Speed Estimation Evaluation UPDATE ..................................................................... 177
Figure 62 Volume Estimation Results for Direction 1 UPDATE............................................... 177
Figure 63 Illustration of Side Occlusion of Two Rightmost Lanes ............................................ 178
xii
Figure 64 Detection of a Stopped Vehicle .................................................................................. 178
Figure 65 Initialization Tableau (a) Camera Configuration Tab (b) Vehicles within the
Frame Boundary Defined in (a) Are Successfully Detected ........................................... 180
Figure 66 Alarm Scene: (a) Video Frame Boundaries Configured for Video Clip 2; (b)
Stopped Vehicle Detected ............................................................................................... 181
Figure 67 TxDOT Road Structure Settings for Four Testing Videos (a) for May 09, 2011;
(b) for May 17, 2011; (c) for May 20, 2011; (d) for Video with Stopped Car ............... 183
Figure 68 Overlay Configured for (a) May 09, 2011; (b) May 17, 2011; (c) May 20,
2011; (d) Video with Stopped Car .................................................................................. 184
Figure 69 Speed Estimation Comparison for (a) May 09, 2011; (b) May 17, 2011; (c)
May 20, 2011 with Light Rain ........................................................................................ 186
Figure 70 Count Estimation Comparison for (a) May 09, 2011; (b) May 17, 2011; (c)
May 20, 2011 with Light Rain; (d) for May 20, 2011 with Heavy Rain ........................ 188
xiii
xiv
List of Tables
Table 1 Comparison of Wireless Technology .............................................................................. 12
Table 2 System Cost (Zhang et al. 2008) ...................................................................................... 22
Table 3 Comparison of Camera Models ....................................................................................... 30
Table 4 Common Operating Ranges of Video Cameras in Use ................................................... 31
Table 5 Comparison of Wireless Equipment in Use ..................................................................... 33
Table 6 Commonalities across Wireless Communication Options............................................... 34
Table 7 Approximate Compression Ratios ................................................................................. 116
Table 8 Geographic Information of Test Bed ............................................................................. 126
Table 9 Relationship of MCS Index and Data Rate .................................................................... 134
Table 10 Performance Comparison of Wireless Devices ........................................................... 138
Table 11 Throughput Comparison Based on 20-minute Duration.............................................. 138
Table 12 One-hop Wireless Transmission Comparison Based on Perceived Video Quality ..... 140
Table 13 Two-hop Wireless Transmission Comparison for Motorola and NanoStation ........... 141
Table 14 Throughput Degrade Comparison for Two-hop NanoStation ..................................... 141
Table 15 Summaries of Traffic Data Collected and Most Events Detected by Existing
Products........................................................................................................................... 149
Table 16 Video Analytics Products ............................................................................................ 153
Table 17 Levels of Service ......................................................................................................... 161
Table 18 Traffic Data Collected from Abacus Compared with the Ground Truth ..................... 180
Table 19 Characteristics of Test Videos ..................................................................................... 182
Table 20 Important Parameters for Abacus Setup ...................................................................... 184
Table 21 Incident Detection Performance from Both Abacus and TxDOT Systems ................. 188
xv
xvi
Executive Summary
Within the last decade, we have seen tremendous technological advances in sensors, networking,
and processing that not only make the connection between the physical world and cyberinformatics world possible, but also make such connections much more affordable. We
investigated how these new technologies can be used in the Texas transportation systems to
improve the cost-effectiveness, accuracy, and timeliness of data collection.
Many freeways and arterials in major cities in Texas are presently equipped with video detection
cameras to collect data and help in traffic/incident management. With the proliferation of lessexpensive cameras and the ability to link them via a Wi-Fi network to form a network of sensors,
the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) could feasibly use these relatively low-cost
technologies in traffic surveillance, at a lower cost than the commercial off-the-shelf traffic
surveillance systems.
An alternative to operator-based video monitoring is video analytics. With video analytics, the
information processing is ideally performed at a remote site and only alarms are returned to the
central location. Employing video analytics on-site at a traffic management center is also
feasible. Either provides the promise of increased safety and system coverage while reducing
costs and staffing requirements. While a number of vendors now have this technology available,
it has not been tested in typical situations with respect to typical TxDOT needs, and no
guidelines exist for when and where installations may be appropriate.
Although existing information infrastructures are in place throughout Texas, some districts have
much more comprehensive coverage than the others. For those areas with extensive
infrastructure, the challenge lies in integrating the new data acquisition technologies into the
existing systems and synthesize the information provided by both systems to provide a unified
interface and service to the user without incurring substantial capital expenses and extensive
maintenance effort.
In this study, carefully controlled experiments determined the throughput and output quality of
various communication configurations. Configurations entailed antennas at several cost levels
and it was determined that the least expensive antennas were adequate only for one-hop systems.
Via a survey to which 20 districts responded, incidents, volume, and speed were found to be the
functionalities most in demand for autonomous surveillance systems. Therefore, both a
commercial system and a team-developed demonstration system were tested. Following are some
of the findings:
•
Communication
o Single-hop configurations (sensor to backbone) can use inexpensive antennas
with little loss of throughput or quality.
o Multi-hop configurations require antennas with stable (small variation)
throughput.
o In single-camera configurations, antennas across a broad cost range are
adequate; multiple camera systems will require further study.
xvii
•
Autonomous surveillance systems
o Precise calibration and operator-controlled camera movement are competitive
goals.
o Specialized expertise is required for development.
o Camera placement (perspective) is very important; placement near the
shoulder of the roadway with a height of less than 60 feet diminishes
occlusion and facilitates self-calibration.
o If bandwidth is not an issue, placing autonomous surveillance processing at
the Traffic Management Center is as effective as placing it adjacent to the
camera.
o It would be cost-effective for TxDOT to develop and deploy its own freewayoriented video analytics system if 20 or more installations are anticipated.
xviii
Chapter 1. Research Method Overview
The research project was divided into tasks according to the following list:
• Literature survey
• Survey of Texas practice
• Equipment survey
• System development
• Video analytics
• Validation
• Documentation
The literature and background review included a very broad review of technical papers,
patents, books, and research reports on issues including traffic monitoring, infrastructure
design, and equipment. Much of the literature is online (particularly state reports) and is
cited within this document as web sites with date of last access. The remaining literature
is in the References section.
The survey of Texas practice was performed via a lengthy survey to which 20 districts
responded. The survey determined such data as the following:
• Existence of a local Traffic Management Center (TMC)
• Number and manufacturers of cameras deployed
• Status of wireless deployment and the manufacturer of any equipment
• The relative importance of various autonomous surveillance functions
• Distance to the most remote surveillance site
The system development used two sites. One was on the campus of the University of
North Texas (UNT), which afforded an opportunity to install and reconfigure
communication devices. The configuration included an embedded camera. The second
site included an operational traffic camera for which access was provided by DalTrans, a
Dallas-area intelligent traffic system. The traffic surveillance software was placed at a
TMC substation; the video was intercepted from a fiber backbone several miles from the
camera site.
The technique of video analytics (VA) was investigated by examining a version of
Abacus loaned by Iteris, Inc. Additionally, a demonstration system with a more limited
functionality was implemented and installed on a weather-hardened processor.
Validation was performed by separate experiments over the communications
configuration and the VA systems. Well-designed experiments for one-hop and two-hop
communication systems measured throughput and video quality at the receiving end. The
controlled variables included:
1
• Frequency;
• Channel width; and
• Power.
Validation of the VA component was conducted in two phases. The development phase
used video taken from overpasses with a probe car, which allowed gauging the accuracy
of speed. The live traffic phase used three long time periods (3 hours each) plus a video
supplied by Iteris. For the latter phase, truth data was acquired manually for volume and a
microwave vehicle detector (MVD) that was mounted adjacent to the camera. Quality of
the output was compared for the following elements:
• Traffic volume
• Vehicle speed
• Stopped vehicles (false positives and false negatives)
2
Chapter 2. Literature Review and Background
2.1 Surveillance Procedural Methods: State of the Art
Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) have been improving with the incorporation of
multiple technologies into vehicles, roadways, highways, tunnels, and bridges. Such
technologies include image processing, pattern recognition, electronics, and
communication. These have been employed for monitoring traffic conditions, reducing
congestion, enhancing mobility, and increasing safety. Vision-based technology is a
state-of-the-art approach with the advantages of easy maintenance, real-time
visualization, and high flexibility compared with other technologies, which makes it one
of the most popular ITS techniques for traffic control.
In general, a video-based ITS (also called as video detection and monitoring system)
consists of two major components as shown in Figure 1: a video analytics module and a
communication module. The video analytics module utilizes image processing and
pattern recognition techniques to convert and analyze raw video data, deriving valuable
traffic data and signaling commands that are used to monitor, control, and improve traffic
condition.
Figure 1 VA Components
2.1.1 Video Analytics
The video analytics module takes raw video as input and has four main parts as depicted
in Figure 2: pre-processing, event detection, data collection, and post-collection
processing.
3
Pre-processing
The pre-processing includes foreground and background extraction, shadow removal, and
calibration. Detecting the object of interest from complex backgrounds is an important
process also called object detection. In real traffic applications, objects appearing on the
freeway, arterials, bridges, and in tunnels mostly consist of moving or stopped vehicles,
debris, and moving or stopped pedestrians. A complex and continuously changing
background challenges a video analytics system and hinders the easy extraction of
objects. It is essential for an ITS to recognize and identify accurately many different
objects.
Shadow removal is another issue that proves to be a major source of error in detection
and classification. In particular, the shadows of large trucks prevent smaller, adjacent
vehicles from being detected successfully.
Calibration consists of both camera calibration and image calibration. In real-time traffic
applications, the process is more difficult than usual. Perspective effects cause vehicle
geometry features such as length, width, and height to vary. In other words, the different
positions at which cameras are installed give different perception angles for each lane.
Thus, it is very important to calibrate the camera and allow the computer to perceive the
traffic situation in more accurately given the calibration parameters. Image calibration
means, in part, manual configuration for detection zones. However, manual calibration
cannot be applied to most video PTZ (pan, tilt, zoom) cameras because PTZ cameras
change positions, making the predefined configuration inoperable. Another approach is to
automatically distinguish lanes and detect width and length of each lane with a noncalibrated camera 1.
Figure 2 Video Analytics Module
1
See website http://www.westernsystems-inc.com/communication_casestudy1.htm.
4
Thus, raw video data needs to be pre-processed to improve image quality and prepare it
for further processing.
Data Collection
Traffic flow data is among the most important information collected. This data is the
basis for computing indicators for traffic conditions such as congestion level, crash
potential, and incident probability. Traffic flow data includes volume counts, vehicle
speed, and lane occupancy. Often traffic flow data is detected in multi-lane
configurations using loop detectors, radar technology, or digital image processing.
Another useful component of traffic data often collected is vehicle classification.
Classification can give a better perspective on traffic patterns. The literature describes
many image processing approaches focusing on classifying vehicles into only two
classes: cars and non-cars. Meanwhile, extant vision sensors approach the problem by
classifying based on length. However, with the diversity of vehicles on the road today, it
is both necessary and useful to classify them into many more types such as car, truck, van
truck, van, minivan, motorcycle, and bicycle 2.
Events Detection
Event detection is one of key components of any video analytics system. Generally, it
includes vehicle detection and tracking, congestion identification, and incident detection,
such as wrong-way drivers, fast and slow drivers, stopped vehicles, and pedestrians.
Traffic congestion identification is a real-time task requiring an ITS to make rapid
decisions based on available traffic data from all sorts of sensors such as cameras, loop
detectors, and so on. First, the quality of the traffic flow data should be improved via
preprocessing because congestion identification depends on such flow data. Second, the
time consumption and computational complexity of congestion identification algorithms
should be limited to a specified level because event detection is a real-time task and
doesn’t allow much time delay. Finally, accuracy of congestion identification is the most
important factor in evaluating system performance. These three factors should be kept in
mind when designing a comprehensive and efficient real-time congestion identification
scheme (Cherkassky et al. 2002).
In addition to events detected by speed monitoring, fire/smoke detection in tunnels and
accident recognition are other examples of anomalous incidents that can be detected.
Traditional fire/smoke detection approaches are typically based on detecting the presence
of certain particles that fire and smoke generate. The disadvantages are that the
fire/smoke cannot be detected immediately and the approach is not applicable in open
spaces. Vision-based approaches make it possible to detect fire/smoke in open spaces in a
more timely fashion (Zhang et al. 2008). Anomalous incident detection solutions follow
two major directions. The first group of solutions identifies accident or anomalous
incidents when the data collected is similar to those data collected in past accidents or
anomalous incidents—also known as positive recognition. The second group of
approaches detects outliers of normal conditions and is known as negative identification.
2
See website http://www.westernsystems-inc.com/communication_casestudy1.htm.
5
Vehicle Tracking
The objective of vehicle tracking is to provide the trajectory of a moving vehicle over
time by locating its position in every frame of the video. The tasks of vehicle tracking can
be accomplished with two major steps: object detection and correspondence
establishment.
For each vehicle successfully detected and tracked, data is collected. Speed is the most
important factor; it assists in detecting other events such as stopped vehicles, wrong-way
or opposite direction driver, pedestrians, over- or under-speed driver, and so on.
Traditionally, radar technology is used to realize vehicle speed monitoring or detection.
However, radar has two major disadvantages for this task: 1) a radar sensor can track
only one vehicle at any time, and 2) cosine errors can result from the incorrect direction
of the radar gun as well as errors caused by shadowing and radio-frequency interference.
Thus, researchers have begun to apply vision-based approaches to speed detection, which
entails tracking.
Post-collection Processing
Post-collection processing of traffic flow data and incidents assists an ITS by identifying
and predicting congestion and traffic incidents. In other words, it provides real-time and
short-term predictions of when and where incidents and congestion are likely to occur. It
is achieved through the combination of network modeling, traffic flow simulation,
statistical regression and prediction methodologies, and archived and real-time traffic
sensor information.
Traffic flow and congestion prediction is an essential task for intelligent transportation
planning and traffic control, because reallocating traffic resources beforehand is ideal.
Weather and environment data is also an informative indicator for accident and crash
prediction.
2.1.2 Communications
As shown in Figure 3, the communication module is responsible for transmitting
processed data to the TMC using a wireline or wireless network. The wireline networks
include telephone networks, cable television, Internet access, and fiber-optical
communication. The wireless networks include personal area, local area, metropolitan,
wide area, and state and national networks, all categorized based on the ranges and
coverage.
6
Figure 3 Communication Module
Wireline Communication
Telephone networks and the Internet typically use twisted pair cable. Twisted pair cable
can be categorized by the number of pairs per meter. Of the eight categories (CAT1–
CAT7 and CAT5E), CAT3 and CAT5 are most widely utilized. CAT3 is used in
telephone services and 10 Base-T Ethernet and CAT5 is usually used in 10/100 Base-T
networks.
Coaxial cable was originally used to provide communications in video incident
management system and now it is mostly replaced by fiber optics. It is still commonly
used in linking closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras and monitors and video
switchers. (If a CCTV camera has a fiber optic transceiver, fiber optics is also used).
The transmission of fiber optics takes the form of light impulses. Fiber strands are
typically divided into two classes: single mode and multimode. The former is designed to
transmit a single ray of light and can carry a signal a longer distance (40 to 60 miles) than
multimode fiber. The latter is used for transmission of multiple rays concurrently and the
transmission distance is less than 15,000 feet.
7
Wireless Communication 3
A wireless communication network interconnects nodes without the use of wire. Wireless
communication networks are implemented with various types of remote information
transmission systems, which use radio waves (point-to-point, spread spectrum radio, and
two-way radio), and electromagnetic waves. Wireless communication technologies are
classified into five categories based on range: WPAN, WLAN, WMAN, wide area
networks, and state and national networks.
WPAN
A wireless personal area network (WPAN) generally has a range of 8 inches to 30 feet
and can reach 300 feet with high power. It interconnects devices within a relatively small
area, generally within reach of a person.
Bluetooth provides a WPAN for interconnecting a headset to a laptop. It operates in the
unlicensed 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) frequency band, which is a
wireless frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) technology for transferring data at
very short ranges. The data rates can be as low as 1Mbs on small chips designed to sell
for $5 or less. Because the range is comparatively short, local data wirelessly transmitted
via Bluetooth would then be transferred to a repeater or remote management center by
wireline communication technologies such as Ethernet or T1 line.
ZigBee is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small,
low-power digital radios based on the IEEE 802.15.4-2003 standard for WPANs. One use
is wireless headphones connecting with cell phones via short-range radio. The technology
defined by the ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than
other WPANs. ZigBee is targeted at radio frequency applications that require a low data
rate, long battery life and secure networking.
The Infrared Data Association (IrDA) defines physical specifications communications
protocol standards for the short-range exchange of data over infrared light. IrDA has
established a standard for wireless communications that uses infrared light (0.003–
4X1014 Hz) and can produce data rates of 4 Mbps at low power within a range between 8
inches to 3 feet. It can provide 75 kbps over roughly 300 feet at higher power. It is
limited to line-of-sight communication within a room as infrared light is not able to go
penetrate obstacles such as walls. This technology has been in use for communications
between various personal devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) and laptops.
This technology is inexpensive.
Ultra-wideband (UWB) is a radio technology that can be used at very low energy levels
for short-range high-bandwidth communications by using a large portion of the radio
spectrum. The frequency is from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz. The speed is between 40 Mbps and
over 1000 Mbps and the range is from 3 to 30 feet. It is designed to avoid interfering with
other devices or equipment licensed to use the same spectrum. UWB can also be
designed to use more power and therefore compete with WLAN, although considered a
WPAN technology. It is a candidate technology for WMAN due to its capability to solve
the problem of the last mile of transmission to home.
3
See website http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_network#Wireless_PAN.
8
WLAN
A wireless local area network (WLAN) uses radio instead of wire to transmit data back
and forth between computers in the same network. It is standardized under the IEEE
802.11 series.
Wi-Fi, short for wireless fidelity, is a wireless LAN technology. Wi-Fi systems require no
license. They have standards developed by IEEE, and most comply with IEEE 802.11
standards. 802.11b and 802.11g have a frequency of 2.4 GHz, but the former has a slower
speed of 11 Mbps while the latter has a speed of 54 Mbps; 802.11a has 5 GHz frequency
and 54 Mbps speed (Hwang et al. 2006). As a variation of a Wi-Fi network, mesh Wi-Fi
is usually used in corridor and metropolitan areas, as will be described later. Each device
can be regarded as a relay node by other devices. If some nodes in the network are
disabled or overloaded, communications of other nodes can bypass these nodes by
finding another way to transmit signals. A Wi-Fi wireless router costs between $20 and
$120 and must be connected to an Internet access point such as DSL or cable.
Fixed wireless data is a type of wireless data network used to connect two or more
buildings in order to extend or share the network bandwidth without physically wiring the
buildings together. It is also known as point-to-point radio systems when used to transfer
information and data between fixed locations through licensed or unlicensed frequencies.
Microware, one of the point-to-point radio systems, utilizes a licensed frequency
approved by the FCC (Federal Communications Commission) to connect fixed locations.
Dedicated short range communications (DSRC) lies within the family of IEEE 802.11
standards and has been designated 802.11p. DSRCs are one-way or two-way short- to
medium-range wireless channels specifically designed for communication between
vehicles and a corresponding set of protocols and standards. The FCC allocated 75 MHz
of the U.S. spectrum in the 5.9 GHz band for DSRC to be used in ITS. DSRCs have
seven channels and data rates that are generally within the range of 6 to 27 Mbps. The
communication range could be 1,000 meters or less. Data rates vary depending on the
performance envelopes for different applications.
WMAN
A wireless metropolitan area network (WMAN) connects several WLANs. WMAN
solutions to be discussed include 1G, 2G, 2.5G, and 3G generation voice and data
services. These include analog, cellular personal communication services (PCS), wireless
internet service providers (WISPs), Wi-Fi Mesh, WiMAX, and Flash-OFDM.
The Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN) is a mobile telecommunications
technology developed by Motorola. Compared with analog cellular and two-way radio
systems, iDEN places more users in a given spectral space by using speech compression
and time division multiple access (TDMA). iDEN is one of the most widely used wireless
systems in the United States. A distinguishing feature of Nextel’s iDEN service is direct
phone-to-phone communications. The phone does not have to communicate via a base
station.
The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is a wideband TDMA
communications technology that handles video and data. Cellular network and mobile
phones can be connected to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. A GSM
9
network has five different cell sizes: macro, micro, pico, femto, and umbrella cells. The
coverage area of each cell varies according to the implementation environment. A
distinguishing feature of GSM is each user must have a Subscriber Identify Module
(SIM) smart card. GSM networks operate in a number of different frequency ranges.
Most 2G GSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands.
General packet radio service (GPRS) is a packet-oriented mobile data service with data
rates of 56–114 Kbit/s. The service is available to users of the 2G cellular communication
systems global system for mobile communications. GPRS is intended for data
communication and aims to provide users high capacity internet access. GPRS uses
TDMA for modulation and must work with GSM. The range of GPRS is 7–8 miles and
with external antenna or amplifier the transmission distance can easily be doubled.
Monthly cost for GPRS is approximately $20–$80.
Wi-Fi Mesh is a wide area, high-speed broadband, IP network built up from Wi-Fi base
stations that adhere to IEEE 802.11 (a, b, g, or i). The Wi-Fi Mesh can cover hundreds of
square miles. It has a high degree of redundancy with self-organizing and self-healing
capabilities. A Wi-Fi Mesh can cover a construction site, campus, a metropolitan area, or
even wider region.
Serial Wi-Fi involves daisy-chaining Wi-Fi units and thus communicates in hops along
point-to-point connections. Serial Wi-Fi can provide communication over distance of 2.5
miles to 30 miles. A typical serial Wi-Fi deployment would be a multi-hop system
involving telephone poles with antennas spaced up to 3 miles apart. An 8-hop system
would have over 500 Kbp/s of bandwidth at the most distant node. Serial Wi-Fi is much
cheaper than optical fiber because it uses commercial-off-the-shelf technology.
Installation costs appear to be an order of magnitude cheaper than optical fiber. Thus, in
the long term, it could be a cost-effective option.
WiMAX is the term used to refer to WMANs, which are based on IEEE standard 802.16.
WiMAX may cover a larger area than Wi-Fi. It uses a different transmission mechanism
than Wi-Fi. The installation of WiMAX devices does not require line-of-sight. The
bandwidth of WiMAX can be divided into multiple channels to transmit signals
efficiently. Based on the IEEE 802.16e standard, WiMAX has a frequency of 2.5 GHz.
Based on 802.16-2004, it has a frequency of 3.5 GHz and 5.8 GHz. The 2.5 GHz and 3.5
GHz transmissions need licenses, yet 5.8 GHz does not (Hwang et al. 2006).
Wireless Wide Area Networks
The spread spectrum radio frequency communication is also used in communication
systems and makes use of more than one radio frequency for security reasons. It either
transmits signals with the frequencies simultaneously, or uses one at a time and changes
to another at specific intervals. Two-way radio can transmit and receive signals
concurrently using different frequencies. The transmission media of a free space optics
(FSO) system is laser and the limitation of the coverage range is 3 air miles.
Wireless State and National Networks
Satellite communication uses a space-based artificial satellite for telecommunications.
Modern communications satellites use a variety of orbits, including geostationary orbits,
10
molniya orbits, other elliptical orbits, and low earth orbits. Satellite communication’s
communication capabilities range from narrow to broadband and thus satellite is able to
communicate everything from data to voice to television images.
Wireless Technology Comparison
In order to choose a cost-effective wireless option for traffic transportation, the coverage,
data rates, operation, and equipment cost should be compared for all available wireless
communication options. Several wireless technologies are listed in Table 1.
11
Table 1 Comparison of Wireless Technology
Frequency
Operation
Cost
Equipment
Cost
2.4 GHz
$0
$0
$0
$0
Technology
Distance
Data
Rates
Bluetooth
35 feet
1 Mbps
IrDA
8 inches to 3
feet
4 Mbps
Wi-Fi (IEEE
802.11a)
100 feet
outdoors; 50
feet indoors
54 Mbps
5 GHz
$0–
$50/month
$225–
$1500/
router
11 Mbps
2.4 GHz
$0–
$50/month
$20–
$120/
router
No comments
54 Mbps
2.4 GHz
$0–
$50/month
$20–
$120/
router
Will fall back
to 5.5, 2, or 1
Mbps
600 Mbps
5 GHz/2.4
GHz
$0–
$50/month
$120/
router
No comments
20 kbps
800–900
MHz
$20/month
$60–$70
No comments
City and
nationwide
9.6 kbps
450, 800,
1900 MHz
for different
U.S. systems
NA
NA
No comments
City and
nationwide;
7–8 miles
from base
station; can
double with
antenna or
amplifier
14.4 kbps
to 115.2
kbps
900, 1800,
1900 MHz
$25–
$80/month
$75–
$100/air
card
No comments
NA
Equipment and
software
commercially
available and
being deployed
in many U.S.
Wi-Fi (IEEE
802.11b)
Wi-Fi (IEEE
802.11g)
Wi-Fi (IEEE
802.11n)d
Integrated Digital
Enhanced
Network (iDEN)
Global System
for Mobile
Communication
(GSM)
General Packet
Radio Service
(GPRS)
Wi-Fi Mesh
300 feet
outdoors;
150 feet
indoors
300 feet
outdoors;
150 feet
indoors
600 feet
outdoors;
300 feet
indoors
City and
nationwide
City,
corridor, site
Max based
on Wi-Fi
bit rates
0.003–4x
414
2.4/5 GHz
12
NA
Comments
Built into home
and business
electronics
Built into home
and business
electronics
Will fall back
to 48, 36, 24,
18, 12, 9, or 6
Mbps
Technology
Distance
Data
Rates
Frequency
Operation
Cost
Equipment
Cost
Comments
cities
WiMAX
Spread spectrum
radio frequency
communication
30 miles at
low
frequencies;
4–6 miles
typical
Basic
technology
that can
cover
corridors or
areas of
varying sizes
including
WANs
40 Mbps
typical
2–11 GHz
NA
NA
Similar system
deployed in
Santa Clara,
CA
Depends
on radio
and many
factors
Depends on
radio and
many factors
Depends
Depends
No comments
$500–
$5,000
$500–
$5,000
Satellite
communication
—narrow band
Country or
hemisphere
2.4 kbps–
28.8 kbps
Varies
$2.30–
$11.30
/month
Satellite
communication
—broadband
Country or
hemisphere
64 kbps–
256 kbps
Varies
$100–
$500/
month
A large number
of satellite data
service
providers
A large number
of satellite data
service
providers
Technologies Identification According to System Configuration (Chiu et al. 2005)
Prior to identifying a feasible and cost-effective wireless communication technology, a
system configuration must be designed. Three configurations are possible. In
configuration 1, depicted in Figure 4 Wireless Camera Configuration, the data are
transmitted directly to the TMC wirelessly. This is especially useful when the system
serves a remote place with no existing traffic infrastructure. In configuration 2, given in
Figure 5, the data are transmitted from cameras to the cabinet and then an existing
wireline communication technology is used to transfer the data to the TMC. For
configuration 3, shown in Figure 6 Cellular-connected Camera Configuration, the data
are sent to the center using cellular technology such as GPRS and iDEN. In order to
choose a cost-effective solution, it is necessary to decide which system configuration is
feasible, which means the possible system configuration should capitalize on utilizing
existing communication infrastructure according to different application scenarios.
13
Figure 4 Wireless Camera Configuration
In the first configuration, long-range transmission from thousands of feet to miles is
needed and line-of-sight is required. Considering the data rate requirement in different
applications, the wireless communication options are spread spectrum and microwavebased technologies.
Figure 5 Infrastructure-connected Camera Configuration
In the second configuration, short-range communication (hundreds of feet) is needed. The
prevalent wireless technology for this configuration is based on the IEEE 802.11x
standard.
14
Figure 6 Cellular-connected Camera Configuration
In the third configuration, the data are transmitted from the cameras to the TMC through
a wireless services provider’s base station. The possible options for this configuration
could be 2.5G technologies—GPRS (GSM-based), EDGE (GSM-based), 1xRTT
(CDMA-based)—or 3G technologies—1XV-DO (CDMA2000 based) and UMTS
(WCDMA).
2.2 Existing Surveillance Technologies
An increasing number of surveillance products on the market utilize cameras and
machine vision sensors in a large scale to assist intelligent traffic monitoring, analysis,
and control.
2.2.1 Video Camera and VIP
Camera
Cameras have two important measurements: light sensitivity and display resolution. Light
sensitivity indicates the amount of light necessary for a recognizable image and display
resolution defines the number of lines that compose an image from the camera. Based on
the color and spectral coverage of images, cameras can be divided into three categories:
monochrome, color, and infrared cameras. Monochrome cameras can function with only
0.13 FC while color cameras require at least 0.8 FC (Neudorff et al. 2003), where FC
(foot-candle) is usually used as a unit to define luminance in photography. Note that color
cameras provide more information, such as vehicle color, than monochrome cameras.
Although digital cameras are widely applied in transportation currently, previously
analog cameras were prevalent. Analog cameras always utilize CCD (Charge Coupled
Device) sensors that can be classified as interline CCD and frame CCD. Frame CCD is
more sensitive than interline CCD (Neudorff et al. 2003), and for strong light sources, the
former sensor produces more prominent vertical lines in images. Another type of analog
camera uses CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) sensors.
15
IP cameras are one sort of CCTV camera having an IP interface for connection with
Ethernets. This type of video equipment can use standard Ethernet communications
backbones directly and requires fewer wires compared with analog cameras.
The lens is one of most significant components of a camera. Focal length is an important
parameter for the lens. Focal length refers to the distance between the lens and imager. If
the focal length is great, the camera can take images with smaller angle of view but
provide more details of objects far away; if small, the images obtained have wider angles
of view.
Accessories
Transportation surveillance cameras usually have PTZ functions—pan (P) refers to
movement of the camera from left to right, tilt (T) is movement up and down, and zoom
(Z) is near/far. To fulfill pan and tilt (P&T) functions, two types of equipment work are
available: dome enclosed systems and external P&T systems. The former has a wider
motion range and is more difficult for drivers to detect.
To protect camera systems, environmental enclosure is also necessary. This enclosure can
be atmospheric vented enclosure, which costs less, or a self-contained, sealed enclosure
(Neudorff et al. 2003).
Coding
A digital camera system, in addition to the camera itself, requires a device known as the
codec, which is a combination of coder and decoder. The following paragraph is a brief
introduction of codec approaches.
H.261 codecs use the H.261 standard to code audio and video. This standard was
originally designed for video conferencing. To transmit signals coded by H.261, POTS
(Plain Old Telephone Service) or T-1 circuits are used. DS-3 codecs were formerly used
in distance learning. Signals coded by DS-3 coders are usually sent via DS-3 services.
JPEG (Joint Photographic Group Experts) and Motion JPEG (MJPEG) are popular in
photograph compression. On the decoder side, the receiving photos are decoded and
played at a sufficient rate to allow viewing video motion. POTS, broadband copper, fiber
optics, spread spectrum radio, and CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data) services are
approaches for transmission of signals coded by JPEG. MPEG (Moving Picture Experts
Group) is widely utilized in audio and video compression and transmission, and comes in
six versions: MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-3, MPEG-4, MPEG-7, and MPEG-21. Current
surveillance systems use primarily MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 standards. MPEG-2 is usually
used in television systems and DVD, while MPEG-4 is the standard for multimedia
transmission over the web and has a higher compression rate than MPEG-2.
Video Image Processor (Mimbela and Klein 2007, Klein et al. 2006)
A video image processor (VIP) system, also known as a machine vision processor (MVP)
system, is usually composed of camera(s), microprocessor (for digitizing, compression,
and processing functions), and software to interpret images in order to provide traffic
data. Therefore, these systems sometimes can also serve as surveillance cameras
(Hourdakis et al. 2005). On the market are some VIP products that have a processor but
16
not an integrated camera. Chapter 6 provides a schematic of the camera-side and centerside components of a typical wireless system for an existing VIP-based traffic monitoring
system.
For the data collected by a machine vision processor, a communication component is
needed for transmission to a central site such as a TMC. The capabilities of the
communication component mainly consist of data compression, alarms, video/images,
and interfaces to link the MVP with different types of communication networks such as
direct line, telephone lines, fiber networks, wireless communication, and so on.
In actual applications, a sensor network consisting of a large number of cameras and
processors is necessary. A typical installation consists of several machine vision
processor boards (possibly serving different types of applications) that are integrated into
a standard rack.
Remote camera control and processor reconfiguration are possible with the management
software installed at the center side (TMC). Management software makes it possible to
remotely execute a complete camera set-up, modify detection zones, and check the results
on-screen. Other software applications of data management and analysis are designed in
particular for visualizing statistical data and incident alarms transmitted from camera side
(traffic field) to center side (TMC). All traffic data, including events and alarms, are
stored in the database for management and analysis. Management software can also
provide an interface for monitoring and reporting application. Monitoring includes event
visualization, documentation of event status, pre- and post-image sequences, all event
information, and an incident video. For reporting applications, a database is required to
generate data summaries or event reports as exportable graphs or tables. More advanced
analysis functions might be available such as map visualization, map zoom tools, a
central map image where the status of each camera can be verified, and event alerts. The
latter may incorporate a visual indication on the central map image for the camera at
which the event or alarm occurred. Generally, management and analysis software
associated with different products have basic features in common but vary with respect to
specialized functionalities.
VIP has three tracking method categories: tripline, closed-loop tracking, and data
association tracking. Tripline tracking is the more commonly utilized. Tripline-related
products include Solo Terra and Solo Pro from Autoscope, Traficon VIP, Iteris Vantage
Edge2 processors (Mimbela and Klein 2007), and others. The principal idea of tripline is
to predefine zones within the field of view of camera. When vehicles are detected in a
zone, traffic measurements are taken. Surface-based and grid-based technologies are used
in this tracking approach. The former technology makes use of characteristics’ edges
within the image while the latter is based on categorizing squares on a grid. Closed-loop
tracking is a variant of tripline tracking that can detect vehicles’ larger areas and provide
information such as lane-to-lane actions of vehicles. Data association tracking can track a
specific vehicle or a collection of vehicles.
Much research has been conducted on the evaluation of existing VIP systems. For
example, a report from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) (Rhodes et al.,
2006) compares Autoscope (version 8.10), Peek UniTrak (version 2), and Iteris Vantage
(Camera CAM-RZ3) on the basis of performance on comprehensive tests. Prevedouros et
17
al. (3006) compare Autoscope, VisioPad, VIP/I, Vantage, and Video Track with respect
to incident detection performance. Weather and environment such as wind, rain, snow,
fog, and a day/night switch are vital factors influencing the performances of machine
vision system configuration. Reports (Cherkassky 2002, Zhang 2008) have compared
weather and environment influence among popular machine vision systems such as
Autoscope, Iteris Vantage, and others. 4 Chapter 6 contains basic information for a
number of VIP products.
2.3 Case Studies
• The Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) contracted with AVD
Technologies to transmit real-time images to a monitoring center using a
Wi-Fi network (Chiu et al. 2005).
• The Korean Highway Corporation selected Wi-Fi Mesh-based Strix
systems 5 to construct a testbed for wireless data transmission between
Korea’s two largest cities—Seoul and Pusan. The test bed is located on the
Kyungbu highway at a 31-kilometer (19 mile) stretch between Pangyo and
Osan. The system enabled the wireless delivery of video surveillance and
voice streamed to and from public safety and commuter vehicles. It is
capable of streaming megapixel video across four wireless hops at 180
kilometers per hour.
• Motorola’s Canopy broadband wireless solution—wi4, which is based on
WiMAX technology 6 helps to provide the Nevada DOT a cost-effective way
to monitor road conditions at the crossroads of interstate 80 and State
Highway 93. It is geographically the same size as New Jersey and a wireless
broadband data system supports a network of digital video cameras along a
200-mile stretch of I-80. The video network consists of seven mountaintop
installations of backhaul units, access points, and subscriber modules that
support five video cameras positioned at remote weather stations at
mountain passes. In addition to remote weather station data, the DOT TMC
also has a view of real-time road conditions.
Oakland County, located northwest of Detroit, Michigan, also chose the
WiMAX-based wireless technology wi4 solution 7 in order to operate their
adaptive traffic signal system more efficiently with reduced costs. The pilot
program covers 4 miles of roadway and more than 15 signalized
intersections. The wi4 solution features 10 and 20 Mbps backhaul modules
and point-to-multipoint technology capable of delivering high speed
connectivity in line-of-sight (LOS), non-line-of-sight (NLOS), near-line-ofsight (nLOS).
4
See website http://www.westernsystems-inc.com/communication_casestudy1.htm.
See http://www.strixsystems.com/press/Koreas-intelligent-highway-infrastructure.asp.
6
See website http://www.motorola.com/ content.jsp?globalObjectId=8688.
7
See website http://southwesternwireless.com/downloads/case_studies/cs_road-comm-oakland-county.pdf.
5
18
• Some wireless services provided by companies are used in video
surveillance systems. CDPD is one of data services commonly utilized in
AMPS mobile phones. Hourdakis et al. (2005) and Lou (2005) used this
service in their systems. A promising wireless transmission method, GPRS,
can convert the data in a wireless network to an internet package. The ideal
speed of GPRS is 171.2 Kbps.
• The city of Colorado Springs chose Microwave Data System (MDS) spread
spectrum radios 8 at many of its intersection controllers to reduce costs for
communication in traffic management and high network infrastructure.
Their MDS transceivers were chosen for use at over 200 sites in the
network. The transceivers use advanced spread spectrum technology and
operate at 900 MHz frequencies. The system contains a remote network of
upgraded intersection controllers, weather stations, video cameras, loop
detectors, and carbon monoxide monitors, from which critical information is
collected and forwarded to Colorado Springs Traffic Control Center.
Another city division, the Colorado Springs Water Department, also
installed MDS radios. Zero monthly fees and free licenses are two cost
benefits of MDS radio. An experimental system in the Duluth
Transportation Operations and Communications Center (TOCC) Network
System (Cherkassky 2002) uses a 2.4 GHz spread spectrum radio link to
transmit digitized video from highway cameras to the control center.
• To update its traffic signal system, after comparisons with leased
telecommunication services, the city of Irving, Texas, decided to make use
of a wireless infrastructure based on 5.8 GHz, 24/23 GHz, and 18 GHz. The
instruments utilizing 5.8 GHz microwave are compliant with the IEEE
802.16 standard and manage the transmission of data and video from CCTV
cameras. The communications backbone, which connects five major
systems, utilizes licensed 18–24 GHz two-way microwave.
A typical CCTV station in the field and its diagram are illustrated in Figure
7 and Figure 8, respectively. As shown in Figure 7, the power supply of a
station is located in the cabinet, which provides power for the CCTV
camera, PTZ module with camera, and power-communication module. VIP
and PTZ signals from camera are sent to a communication module through
CAT-5 cable. The CCTV video can be converted to IP format using a builtin codec at the camera. In addition, the communication module can also
offer an Ethernet connection for a wireless antenna system.
8
See website http://www.westernsystems-inc.com/communication_casestudy1.htm.
19
Figure 7 Typical CCTV Station (Leader 2005)
Figure 8 Function Diagram of CCTV Station (Leader 2005)
• Portable detection and surveillance systems can play an important role in
scenarios such as construction sites. However, few off-the-shelf products
can provide both temporary and reliable functions. Therefore, Hourdakis et
al. from the University of Minnesota studied this problem and developed an
applicable detection and surveillance system (Houdakis et al. 2005).
Through thorough investigation and comparison, the researchers decided to
use MV (machine vision) sensors to obtain traffic measurements. When MV
sensors work with proper equipment, e.g., lens and correct settings, they can
also be used as surveillance cameras. The outputs of the MV sensors used in
this system are RS-485 signals. To transmit them through wireless networks,
these signals must be converted to Ethernet packets via converters.
A small form-factor PC is used in the field to encode and store videos. This
computer is equipped with a video capture board and applications to encode
and record video in MPEG-4 format. Because the video capture board has
one input channel on and four CCTV outputs, a four-to-one quad processor
is added to translate the four video signals into one. The stored video files
on this PC can be downloaded by a supervising station through an FTP
connection and real-time video can be transmitted using a streaming
application. The architecture of this system is displayed in Figure 9.
20
Figure 10 depicts the final physical configuration. To provide sufficient
bandwidth for data and video transmission, this system uses TSUNAMI,
produced by the company Proxim. The wireless link is 20 Mbps and the
frequency is 5.4 GHz. This network is compliant with IEEE 802.16 and
utilizes a frequency hopping protocol.
Figure 9 System Architecture (Leader 2005)
Figure 10 Final Wireless Network (Leader 2005)
21
• The North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTCOG) is
coordinating the Regional Data and Video Communication System
(RDVCS). The RDVCS is an effort to create a regional network to exchange
data and video. The city of Irving was connected to the RDVCS via wireless
Ethernet because of the lack of fiber routes around the city. Tsunami 480
wireless fast Ethernet bridge was used as a representative vendor for this
wireless connection. This product provides a 480 Mbps full-duplex link and
has a range up to 20 miles. Using a wireless connection, the city of Irving
will connect to TransVISION Satellite 3 (over 4 miles away), which in turn
connects to various RDVCS backbone switches allowing transmission of
data and video. The city of Irving has 12 cameras and video from the
cameras is available for simultaneous viewing throughout the region.
• Zhang et al. researched a cost-effective traffic data collection system based
on the iDEN mobile telecommunication network. The cost-effective data
collection system for 170 Caltrans controllers is based on TCP/IP
communication over existing low-cost mobile communication networks and
Motorola iDEN mobile handsets. Each handset can deliver data fetched
from a signal controller at a period of 200 ms continuously over 95% of the
time. One set of data collection devices cost less than $100 and monthly cost
can be as low as $10. Detailed cost information is listed in Table 2.
Table 2 System Cost (Zhang et al. 2008)
As shown in Figure 11, the moderately priced Motorola iDEN series phones
are used as remote data modems. The phones feature a standard RS232
serial port, the iDEN wireless data connection support and Global
Positioning System (GPS) support. The iDEN wireless network serves as a
cost-effective and reliable communication link for the system. The channel
capacity limit is 9.6Kbp/s. This data rate is adequate for the traffic
application and the service contract pricing for this network is superior to
other available rate plans.
22
In order to achieve high data rates and reliable communications, high level
control protocols were developed. An adaptive flow control protocol was
employed in order to maintain a data link channel with variable but highly
reliable capacity on top of the TCP/IP over the iDEN network.
Figure 11 System Architecture (Zhang et al. 2008)
2.4 Application Scenarios
Camera surveillance systems are widely applied in many scenarios including intersection
control, tunnel surveillance, highway management, arterial traffic monitoring, dilemma
zone protection, temporary and work zone detection, and other scenarios.
2.4.1 Intersection Control
A number of intersection control systems are applications of video imaging vehicle
detection systems (VIVDSs). Nearly 10% of the intersections in Texas use VIVDSs
(Bonneson and Abbas 2002). Because of the uniqueness of each intersection, several
details should be given attention: occlusion of camera view caused by vehicles, camera
stability, sun glare and reflection, image size, illuminance, headlight glare, shadows, and
so on.
2.4.2 Tunnel Surveillance
Schwabach et al. (2005) introduce VITUS-1, which automatically detects alarm events in
tunnels and stores incident video. Tunnels have no variation of brightness due to weather
or alternation of day and night. As illustrated in Schwabach et al. (2005), other factors
may affect the effectiveness of tunnel surveillance systems, including effects of the wall
or deficiency of light. One of the requirements for a tunnel surveillance system is
response time. It must be short to provide enough time for travelers to evacuate as tunnels
have limited emergency exits (especially long tunnels). Much research and testing has
been conducted on tunnel scenarios. Prevedouros et al. (2006) invited Autoscope, Citilog,
23
and Traficon to install their respective VIP devices for testing of incident detection
capabilities in tunnels.
2.4.3 Work Zones Surveillance
To reduce incidents at work zones, video surveillance systems should have full
functionality compared to permanent system. However, these systems have different
characteristics compared to the most common freeway monitoring systems (Lou 2005).
Such systems must be portable, which means they are easy to deploy and uninstall, and
require as little wiring as possible. They should not interfere with operations at work
zones; they should provide timely information for drivers passing through. When the
construction is finished, such systems have no further purpose.
2.4.4 Dilemma Zones Protection
A dilemma zone is the area before a stop line at which drivers may take different actions
(abruptly stop or pass through the intersection by speeding up). The “dilemma” typically
occurs when a signal light at an intersection changes to yellow. To evaluate the
performance of current video systems serving dilemma zones, Middleton et al.
(Middleton et al. 2008) studied VIVDS used for that purpose.
2.5 Conclusions
Previous sections discussed most aspects of vision-based traffic surveillance systems.
This included available video analytics functionalities, communication options (wireless
options in particular), existing surveillance technologies (video cameras and machine
vision processors), three different system configurations, case studies of typical current
technologies applied in vision-based traffic surveillance systems, and, finally, application
scenarios in which vision-based surveillance systems are highly valued.
Cost-effective system design has always been an important topic for traffic monitoring
system deployment. Given all the information in the previous sections, the basic system
requirements are clearly the principal guide in designing a cost-effective system. With the
basic requirements, we can narrow the possible choices. Following is a list of the basic
requirements of vision-based surveillance systems.
• Video cameras: the necessary video quality, compression option and rate,
weather and environment durability and cost.
• Video analytics: the basic and necessary functionalities such as data
collection and event detection, visualization for data collected and events
detected and corresponding data load for transmission.
• Wireless communication: the appropriate choice of range and coverage,
transmission speed, equipment and operation cost, life cycle cost, and risk of
available technologies.
• Realistic system design and deployment: the consideration and utilization of
existing traffic monitoring infrastructure.
24
The concept of life cycle cost and risk is important because technologies develop faster
than expected. The advent of new technologies causes previous technologies to be
outdated, entailing an upgrading or replacement cost.
With the knowledge of basic requirements, resource availability, comparisons of costeffective technologies, and a comprehensive and forward-looking design, implementing a
vision-based surveillance system would be an easy task.
25
Chapter 3. Survey of Texas Practice
3.1 Introduction
A comprehensive understanding of current practice regarding camera-based surveillance
and wireless communication is necessary prior to recommending effective configurations.
Of the 25 districts in the TxDOT system surveyed, 20 responded, providing data on
current practice and experience. In Figure 12, districts contributing to this report are
indicated with a red marker. Obviously, the response was excellent and the coverage is
adequate for us to present reliable and comprehensive information relevant to the major
components of current surveillance systems in Texas.
Figure 12 Survey Coverage
Generally, as illustrated in Figure 13, traffic surveillance systems consist principally of
hardware and software components. Hardware includes video cameras and
communication systems; software components include video analytics to process
streaming video in order to collect statistical data and detect events automatically without
manual intervention. Video cameras and video analytics can be integrated into one unit
by embedding the analytics processing at the camera side. Communication systems can
be wireline, wireless, or a combination of wireline and wireless connectivity.
27
Figure 13 Surveillance System Components
Four steps were necessary to conduct the survey: (1) design a survey instrument; (2)
engage in two rounds of reviews of the instrument by TxDOT personnel, each followed
by modification by the team with the assistance of the project director; (3) distribute and
collect the survey with the assistance of the project director; and (4) analyze the
responses using graphs, lists, and simple statistical measures.
From comprehensive analysis of data collected from 20 districts, the following types of
information are available:
• Types of corridors that are under surveillance: freeway or arterials
• The transmission distances between TMCs and surveillance cameras
• Types of video cameras that are widely employed in TxDOT surveillance
systems
• The basic capability and specification requirements for video cameras in use
• The most cost-effective video camera model currently in use
• The popularity of wireless technology in traffic video surveillance system
• Types of wireless technology used in traffic surveillance system
• The basic range (possible maximal transmission distance), frequency, and
data transmission rate requirements based on practical needs
• The most cost-effective wireless technology currently employed
• Types of sensors other than video cameras used in the surveillance systems
• The functionalities desired by TxDOT district personnel of camera-based
surveillance systems
• The greatest barrier for expanding surveillance systems
• Possible approaches to improve the cost effectiveness of a traffic
surveillance system
28
First, equipment preference as expressed by survey respondents are discussed, including
video camera and communication technologies. Second, application scenarios, video
camera coverage, video analytics functionalities, and system configurations are also
covered. Cost analysis is discussed later on. Finally, a conclusion in the last section
presents the comprehensive summary of the knowledge obtained by analyzing the survey.
3.1.1 Equipment Preference
The design of a surveillance system includes the choices of video camera and
communication technologies. In this section, the choices that have led to existing TxDOT
systems are summarized.
Video Camera
Video cameras from eight manufacturers are used in the surveillance systems of the 20
responding districts in Texas. These include makes from Cohu, Pelco, IndigoVision,
Axis, Iteris, Vicon, American Dynamics, and Sony. Cohu is the most popular
manufacturer with 64% usage among the eight manufacturers, as depicted in Figure 14.
Figure 14 Video Cameras in Use
More important than the manufacturer, however, is the basic capability and specifications
of the chosen video cameras. Table 3 compares the basic specifications of the different
models employed in current systems. Some models are no longer marketed. For this and
other reasons, some model specification information is not provided. Thus, the seven
video cameras, including different models of the same make, in the comparison are the
Cohu 3950, 3920, and 3960, Axis 213 PTZ, Pelco Spectral III, Iteris Vantage RZ4C, and
indigoVision. While sufficient data is provided for the Cohu make, which enjoys a 64%
share of usage, information for the 3850 series is not currently available.
29
Table 3 Comparison of Camera Models
30
Features/Models
Cohu 3950
Cohu 3920
Cohu 3960
Axis 213 PTZ
Pelco Spectral
III
Iteris Vantage
RZ4C
Indigo Vision 9000
Color/Mono
Color/Mono
Color/Mono
Color/Mono
Color/Mono
Color/Mono
Color/Mono
Color/Mono
Focal length (mm)
3.60–82.8
3.4–119
3.4–119
3.5–91
3.6–82.8
N/A
3.4–119
Resolution (TV
lines)
470
Lines
540
540
704 x 576
(effective
pixels)
>470
768 x 494
(effective pixels)
>540
Day/Night
D/N
D/N
D/N
D/N
D/N
D/N
D/N
Optical Zoom
23X
35X
35X
26X
23X
N/A
18X, 35X, 36X
Compression
N/A
N/A
N/A
D/N
N/A
H.264
Power
Consumption
(Watts)
MJPEG/
MPEG-4
50
104
54
13
N/A
N/A
24
PT
P(360°), T(90° - +40°)
P(360°), T(90° - +5°)
P(360°), T(90° - +90°)
P(340°), T(10° - +90°)
P(340°), T(-2° N/A
+90°)
P(360°), T(-2° +90°)
-40 to 131
-29.2 to 131
-29.2 to 165
-41 to 104
-60 to 140
-31 to 140
-4 to 140
IP67
IP67
Positioner:
IP66 Camera:
IP67
N/A
IP66
IP67
IP67
RJ45
2.4 GHz wireless
operation
RS232, RJ45
1415
N/A
N/A
Operation
Temperature (°F)
Enclosure/
Protection
Standard
Interface
RS422/485
RS232/422
RS232/422
RJ45, RS232
from
connection
module
Cost
N/A
N/A
N/A
1,498.95
A study of the data in Table 3 yields the summary depicted in Table 4, which indicates
the operating ranges met by all or nearly all cameras.
Table 4 Common Operating Ranges of Video Cameras in Use
Specification
Day/Night
Color/Mono
Focal length
(mm)
Description
Day and night traffic monitoring are both very
important, which requires the camera to be able to
function in both Day and Night Mode.
It should be possible for the video camera to
switch between color and mono both day and
night, if possible automatically.
3.4–82.2 is focal length range all systems cover
Resolution
No less than 470 horizontal lines
Optical Zoom
18–36X
Compression
Power (watts)
PT
Operation
Temperature
(°F)
Enclosure/Prote
ction Standard
Preferably, video compression is embedded within
the video camera; JPEG, MPEG, and H264 could
be the options.
Within the range of [13,104]
P(360°)/P(340), T(-90° - +40°)
Pan Tilt functionality is a must for video
surveillance.
Basic range should be within [-4,122].
IP66, IP67
Interface
Options are RS232/422/485, RJ45.
Cost
N/A
Communication
Wireline communication technologies used in the 20 districts included T1, telephone
lines, DSL, fiber optics, MPEG-4 over IP, ISDN lines, JPEG/MPEG2 digital encoding
over SONET, digital encoding over ISDN, MPEG-4 over IP, and others. While wireline
communication technologies were solicited in the survey, wireless communication
technologies are the focus of this study.
Based on survey responses, most districts utilize wireless technologies in some capacity
and more detailed discussion is contained in the following sections.
31
As Figure 15 illustrates, Encom is the most popular wireless equipment manufacturer and
is used in eight districts for video data transmission. Motorola and GE ranked second,
being the preference of three districts.
Figure 15 Manufacturers of Wireless Equipment in Use
The detailed comparisons of the various wireless equipment options in Table 5 yield the
summary depicted in Table 6. This summary is particularly valuable in selecting future
system configurations that are compatible with present deployed technologies.
32
Table 5 Comparison of Wireless Equipment in Use
Features/
Models
Data Rates
Range
Frequency
33
Interface
Price
Encom
5200
1200
baud to
115
kbps
60
miles
900
MHz
RS232/
485
1500–
2000
Commpak
BB49
Proxim
Commpak
BB58
GE MDS
GX200
9810
54 Mbps
54 Mbps
100 Mbps
19.2
Kbps
60 miles
60 miles
20 miles
long
4.9 GHz
5.8 GHz
5.8 GHz
900
MHz
802.11 a
RJ-45
N/A
1500–
2000
N/A
1580
802.11
a/b/g
1500–
2000
InetII
-900
512
Kbps
–1
Mbps
15–20
miles
900
MHz
802.3,
RJ-45
2400
Trango
ISS
Motorola
Trans
Net
900
Atlas
Series
EIS
G4
EIS
X2
PTP
58600
PTP300
2400BH
RF20
115.2
kbps
45
Mbps
24
Gbps
45
Mbps
150 Mbps
54 Mbps
20
30
miles
900
MHz
RS23
2/485
6–20
miles
5.8
GHz
RJ45,
802.3
76m
N/A
124 miles
155 miles
35 miles
2.4
GHz
900
MHz
5.8 GHz
5.4/5.8 GHz
2.4 GHz
N/A
NA
RJ-45,
802.3
RJ-45, 802.3
802.3
1100
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
1489
Table 6 Commonalities across Wireless Communication Options
Features
Data Rates
Descriptions
Min=115 kps, Max=24 Gbps, most in the 10–60 Mbps
range.
There are three different levels of data rates in magnitudes
of Kbps, Mbps, and Gbps. However, taking into
consideration video transmission, the basic data rates for
video transmission should be within the range of [20 Mbps,
150 Mbps].
Range
Min=15 miles, Max=155 miles, most on the order of 50
miles.
The transmission range of majority is between [15 and 155
miles] (limits); a radar-based short-range transmission range
less than 100 meters is not included, with the preference
being long range based transmission.
Frequency
Lowest=900 Mhz, many in the ITS reserved band (5.8 Ghz).
Interface
IEEE 802.x protocol dominates.
Possible physical interface options are RS232/485 and RJ45,
and possible compliant protocol options are 802.3,802.11.
Price
Low=$1100, High=$2400, Median=$1500.
Generally, cellular networks based transmission has comparatively lower data rates with
cost reduction. Because only three districts did take advantage of cellular network for
video data transmission, cellular network based wireless technologies have great potential
to help improve the cost-effectiveness of wireless communication equipment.
3.1.2 Other Sensors
Apart from video cameras, other sensors are in use such as loops, radar vehicle detectors
(RVDs), toll tag readers, and video imaging. A comparison of the percentage of usage
among these four sensors is shown in Figure 16. Loops are still the most widely deployed
with 71% of usage. VIVDS ranks second with 18% of usage as measured by number of
installations. Toll tag readers are the least frequently employed, no doubt due to the
absence of significant mileage of tolled freeways in many districts. In summary, the
survey responses indicate that loops are the first choice among all sensor choices,
excluding video cameras.
34
Figure 16 Sensor Usage Based on Number of Installations
3.2 Surveillance Applications and Functionalities
3.2.1 Application Scenarios
To determine configurations for future use of video analytics in wireless networks, we
must first understand the present application scenarios within TxDOT districts. One
survey question addressed the issue of whether the district manages roadways other than
freeways that are not on the TXDOT ITS communication backbone. Based on the survey,
most of districts (14 out of 20) manage only freeways and only a few manage arterials.
Video Camera Deployment
The total number of video cameras employed in each district is shown in Figure 17. Only
5 districts—Houston, Austin, Dallas, San Antonio, and El Paso—have deployed more
than 100 video cameras. This low deployment indicates great opportunity for expansion
of video camera coverage; video cameras have not been taken full advantage of on a
large scale in many regions.
35
Figure 17 Video Camera Installations
One factor in deciding the range the wireless communication technology should have, an
issue is the distance across regions currently covered. As illustrated in Figure 18, for 13
districts the greatest distance between the TMC and a video camera is between 10 and
100 miles. This distance is probably a reasonable basic range that should be noted for
future expansion.
Figure 18 Greatest Distance between TMC and a Video Camera
Video Analytics Functionalities
Video analytic functions consist of data collection and measurement components.
Measureable statistics include vehicle class, turn counts, queue length, counts, gap time,
headway, traffic flow, occupancy, volume, and speed. Importance weights for each type
of measure were assigned by survey responders. Statistical results were calculated by
averaging the rating values among all districts with a 5 indicating the most important
functionalities and a 1 indicating the least important. Figure 19 shows the raw results
from averaging. Should we group the categories subjectively into classes such as high
(very important), normal (necessary), and low (least important), it is clear that the
36
important data to collect are volume, counts, speed, and traffic flow; necessary data to
collect are vehicle class, turn counts, queue length, and occupancy; the least important
data to collect are gap time and headway.
Figure 19 Importance Weighting of Detection Functions
In the same way, detectable events such as abnormal lane change count, accident,
fire/smoke, slow/fast driver, pedestrian, roadway debris, stalled vehicle, wrong-way
driver, and congestion were assigned importance weights and summarized by averaging.
Again, a 5 indicated the most important events to be detected and a 1 indicated the least
important. Using the responses detectable events were subjectively grouped into three
categories of decreasing importance – high (very important), normal (necessary), and low
(least important). From the raw data averages shown in Figure 20, the important events to
detect are congestion and accident; necessary events to detect are wrong-way driver,
stalled vehicle, roadway debris, fire/smoke, pedestrian, and abnormal lane change count;
the least important event to detect is slow/fast driver.
37
Figure 20 Importance of Events to Detect
3.2.2 System Configuration
Nineteen districts indicated their communication technologies. As shown in Figure 21,
four districts have only wireline-based communication systems; four districts have only
wireless-based communication systems; and the majority has both. When both exist, as
they do in 11 districts, the systems are presumably interconnected in some fashion. In
summary, 15 out of 19 districts (19 indicating communications technologies) have an
existing wireline communication system. In considering wireless communication, we
wish to take full advantage of existing wireline communication systems in designing a
new cost-effective video surveillance system.
Figure 21 Usage of Wireline and Wireless Communication
38
3.3 Cost Analysis
The survey was not designed to gather extensive cost data, as collecting it would be an
onerous task for the responders. Yet the objective of designing cost-effective wireless
solutions demands the calculation of cost. Figure 22 shows that the major cost
components include equipment installation, monthly service, system maintenance, and
system cycle risk.
Figure 22 Components of Cost Analysis
In order to reduce system cost, it is helpful to know the obstacles to system expansion.
For the survey, we rolled equipment and installation costs into one. As seen in Figure 23,
in decreasing order, the barriers to expansion are installation costs, maintenance costs,
and recurring utility costs. It is interesting to note that lack of need does not register very
highly.
Figure 23 Roadblocks to System Expansion
3.4 Conclusions
After comprehensive analysis of the surveys, we acquired much useful information that
we can apply in designing a cost-effective, wireless video surveillance system. Following
are some of the most useful observations.
39
1. Most districts manage only freeways.
2. The camera manufacturer in the greatest use is Cohu.
3. Most districts have developed wireless system and about the same percentage will
consider wireless communication in future expansions.
4. The greatest transmission distance between TMC and a surveillance camera is
between 10 and 100 miles.
5. Other than video cameras, loops are the most widely deployed sensor considering
the set loop, RVD, TTR, and VIVDS.
6. Volume, speed, and counts are the statistical data with highest preference.
7. Accidents and congestion are the event detection capabilities more greatly
preferred.
8. Installation costs are the greatest barrier to expanding surveillance coverage.
The overall conclusion is that room exists to expand current systems, cost is the most
important criterion in expansion, existing communication systems technologically
support wireless communication, and the regional distribution of present systems are
within the reach of wireless system. With respect to there being room for expansion and
VIVDS being a cost-effective approach, we point to previous TxDOT research from
2002. Note that the application scenario studied was intersections. Nevertheless, we
believe the results are credible in other applications.
In Figure 24, cameras are shown to be the most cost-effective for intersections requiring
12 or more cameras regardless of the lifespan of the loop technology employed.
Figure 24 Costs Tradeoffs between Loops and VIVDS
40
Our next steps are to acquire the current status of each utilized technology and equipment
component, explore new technologies, and make a comprehensive comparison. The
objective is to determine a cost-effective wireless traffic video surveillance system. The
principal criterion is system cost reduction. In choosing an economical configuration of
video camera, the basic specification requirements determined from the survey will be
considered. Additional considerations are reducing the data transmission load, thus
reducing the cost of wireless equipment and the number of staff needed to monitor traffic
video. One approach might be to incorporate video analytics and transmit processed
traffic data most of the time instead of streaming video.
41
Chapter 4. Equipment Survey
4.1 Introduction
Currently, a wide range of equipment is available for satisfying ITS needs and the price
trend is downward. This trend suggests transportation monitoring in the future may cost
less, offer greater functionality, or both. Provided here is a survey of camera and wireless
devices that are already or soon will be used in transportation surveillance systems. Of
the many products for wireless monitoring, however, not all are suited for transportation
applications. This survey is organized as follows: clarification of the requirements,
setting the parameters, and finally information on candidate products.
4.2 Camera Parameters
Cameras inherit different technologies and provide different functions. Yet they share
several parameters that lead into our equipment survey. In the following subsections, we
outline important camera parameters and explain their significance.
4.2.1 Explanations of Parameters
Imager. The imagers of cameras used in traffic monitoring are most often 1/4 inch in
diameter. Two types of sensors can be utilized in transportation field but in different
situations: 1) a charge coupled device (CCD) is the prevailing format of camera sensors
on the market and has better sensitivity but higher price, and 2) a complementary metal
oxide semiconductor (CMOS), in comparison with a CCD sensor, has faster read-out
capability and lower power consumption.
The scanning techniques, usually known as interlaced and progressive scanning
technologies, are also critical in obtaining high quality images. In interlaced scanning,
only odd lines or even lines of images are refreshed during one scan. This technique can
reduce the transmission bandwidth requirements. With respect to the progressive
technique, the entire frame is sent to the viewer after each scan. The viewer obtains more
detailed pictures of high speed objects in place of the twittering images obtained from
interlaced scanning. 9
Focal Length. Focal length is the distance between the center of the lens and the imager.
The greater the focal length, the greater the image of distant objects. However, the angle
of view is narrower.
Angle of View. Angle of view refers to the extent, described by angle, of the scene
captured by a camera system. The two types of angles of view are horizontal and vertical.
Datasheets of many products provide only the former. The relationship between angle of
view and focal length has been indicated above.
Resolution. Both analog and digital cameras have the parameter known as resolution
although they may use different measurements. Practically the two may be interchanged
via a conversion formula.
9
See technical guide at http://www.axis.com/products/video/about_networkvideo/image_scanning.htm,
accessed Mar. 4, 2011.
43
For resolution of analog cameras, TV lines from the television industry are used.
Traditional television has three formats: NTSC (National Television System Committee),
PAL (phase alternate line), and SECAM (sequential color with memory). In this
document, we discuss only the NTSC format which is used in North America. This
format has 480 lines and a 60Hz refresh rate. Because video in NTSC format can be
digitized, we can also express the resolution in pixels. The finest resolution of NTSC is
D1 (720 × 480) but 4CIF (704 × 480) is the most frequently used resolution 10.
A digital camera has some components in common with an analog camera, such as an
optical system. It also is able to provide NTSC resolution. Additionally, digital cameras
may provide resolution choices other than that of the TV industry. Such cameras may
have VGA (640 × 480) resolution, which is commonly used in network cameras with
resolution of just under a megapixel. Megapixel cameras can provide images having
more details. Of course, more bandwidth is needed to transmit the images.
Minimum Illumination. Minimum illumination indicates the minimal amount of light
needed to make an image recognizable. The unit of minimum illumination is lux.
Although many manufactures provide this parameter, there is not a standardized
measuring process for it.
Pan/Tilt/Zoom. In surveillance systems, most cameras have PTZ functions. Pan
represents left and right movement; tilt refers to up and down movement; and zoom
allows magnification of distant objects to obtain more details.
Digital camera systems have two kinds of zoom: optical and digital. Optical zoom
actually changes the focal length. Thus, the imager captures larger images of fewer, more
distant objects or smaller images of more objects with the same resolution. Digital zoom
is not a real zoom. It only enlarges a portion of the image up the original image size.
Using this process, image quality is lost.
Compression. For network cameras, compression is employed before transmission. It is
particularly significant for video or image wireless communications. Constrained by
various factors, wireless communications cannot supply the same bandwidth and distance
as some wired systems (such as fiber systems). Accordingly, given bandwidth,
compression is necessary to achieve quality. For video, most products support MJPEG,
MPEG-4, or H.264 standards. The size of a video file processed by H.264 may be up to
50% smaller than a file using MPEG-4, and 20% of the size of an MJPEG video file,
without sacrificing quality 11 . Therefore, H.264 is more effective but needs a more
powerful processor.
Protection. Manufacturers of outdoor cameras provide housing for protection purposes.
Some housings are directly integrated with the camera but some are not and need to be
ordered separately.
10
See technical guide at http://www.axis.com/products/video/about_networkvideo/resolution.htm, accessed
Feb. 15, 2010.
11
See technical guide at
http://www.axis.com/products/video/about_networkvideo/compression_formats.htm, accessed Mar. 1,
2010.
44
Most products use an IP code (international protection rating) to define the protection
level 12. The format of the code is IPXX where “XX” are digits. The first digit is the
protection rating against solid objects and the second is the level against moisture. The
greater the digit value, the higher the protection level. For example, a camera with IP 66
protection means its enclosure can prevent dust from entering and has the capability
withstand water jets from all directions. Some products also use the NEMA (National
Electrical Manufacturers Association) standard. For example, NEMA 4 is used to
characterize indoor/outdoor enclosure which can protect equipment from dust, rain,
snow, hose water, and other hazards.
4.2.2 Parameters Value Selection
To narrow the candidate camera choices for traffic monitoring, we provide parameter
choices below. The choices are based on camera specifications for TxDOT transportation
surveillance applications. 13 However, in order for the survey to remain relatively
comprehensive, our choices are less restrictive than the specifications.
Camera and Lens:
• Imager: 1/4 in. CCD
• Resolution: minimum of 460 horizontal TV lines by 350 vertical TV lines or
640×480 pixels
• Focal Length: ≥ 70mm
• Zoom: optical zoom ≥18X; digital zoom ≥4X
• Angle of View: ≥40°
• Day/Night function: to permit night surveillance, the camera must have the
day/night function and the illumination of the camera must meet this
requirement. Different manufacturers use different methods to measure
sensitivity in various conditions, and use different processes to measure this
parameter. Consequently, it is difficult to compare products simply based on
the sensitivity parameter. Nevertheless, we place this parameter in the list as
a reference.
Pan and Tilt:
• Angle: ≥ 90° vertical movement, ≥340° horizontal movement
• Speed: pan--->80°/second; tilt--->70°/second
Environment:
• IP66 / NEMA 4
Operating Temperature of Camera: -20°C to +50°C (-4°F to -122°F)
12
See website http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IP_Code, accessed Feb. 24, 2010.
See TxDOT website http://ftp.dot.state.tx.us/pub/txdot-info/ftw/dfw_connector/cda/book2/17-1.pdf and
Georgia DOT website http://www.itsga.org/Knowledgebase/NAV01050%20%28Rev%207.0%29%20936%2001-26-05.pdf.
13
45
4.3 Camera Survey
In the following subsections, we categorize cameras as either analog or network cameras.
In each group, cameras are ordered by decreasing price of camera with housing.
Most products here meet the requirements listed above. If not, we indicate it in
comments. Prices include camera cost and housing cost (if needed), which are in dollars.
4.3.1 Analog Cameras
Manufacturer:
COHU
Product:
3960
Format:
1/4 in. Sony Ex-View HAD
Focal Length (mm): 3.4 mm to 119 mm (±15%)
Zoom:
35X optical /12X digital
Angle of View:
56° to 1.7°
Resolution:
540 HTVL; 400 VTVL
Minimum Illumination:
(F1.4 @ 50IRE, Progressive Scan Mode) 0.1 fc (1.0 lx) @
1/60 shutter (color mode); 0.01 fc (0.10 lx) @ 1/4 shutter (color mode); 0.005 fc (0.05 lx)
@ 1/2 shutter (color mode); 0.001 fc (0.01 lx) @ 1/4 shutter (mono mode)
P/T:
Pan Range: 360° continuous; Pan Speed: (preset) max 120°/sec
(manual) 0.1° to >80°/sec; Tilt Range: -90° to +90°; Tilt Speed: (preset) max
120°/sec(manual)0.1° to >40°/sec
Compression:
N/A
Temperature:
-29.2° to 165°F (-34° to 74°C)
Protection:
4X/ASTM-B117
Camera IP-67/NEMA-4X/ASTM-B117; Positioner IP-66/NEMA-
Camera Cost:
4,845.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
Wiper optional
Website:
http://www.cohu-cameras.com
Manufacturer:
COHU
Product:
3920
Format:
1/4 in. Sony Ex-View HAD
Focal Length (mm): 3.4 mm to 119 mm (±15%)
Zoom:
35X optical/12X digital
Angle of View:
56° to 1.7°
46
Resolution:
540 HTVL; 400 VTVL
Minimum Illumination:
(F1.4 @ 50IRE, Progressive Scan Mode) 0.1 fc (1.0 lx) @
1/60 shutter (color mode); 0.01 fc (0.10 lx) @ 1/4 shutter (color mode); 0.005 fc (0.05 lx)
@ 1/2 shutter (color mode); 0.001 fc (0.01 lx) @ 1/4 shutter (mono mode)
P/T:
Pan Range: 360° continuous; Pan Speed: (preset) max 250°/sec
(manual) 0.1° to >80°/sec; Tilt Range: -90° to +5°; Tilt Speed: (preset) max 120°/sec
(manual)0.1° to >40°/sec
Compression:
N/A
Temperature:
-29.2° to 131°F (-34° to 55°C)
Protection:
IP-67 / NEMA 4X / ASTM-B117
Camera Cost:
3,594.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
Website:
http://www.cohu-cameras.com
Manufacturer:
Pelco
Product:
ESPRIT (ES30C/ES31C)(35X)
Format:
1/4 in. EXview HAD CCD
Focal Length (mm): 3.4–119 mm
Zoom:
35X optical, 12X digital
Angle of View:
55.8° at 3.4 mm wide zoom; 1.7° at 119 mm telephoto zoom
Resolution:
35X: >540HTVL
Minimum Illumination:
0.55 lux at 1/60 sec shutter (color); 0.063 lux at 1/4 sec
shutter (color); 0.00018 lux at 1/2 sec shutter (B-W)
P/T:
Pan Range: 360° continuous Speed: 0.1° to 40°/sec (manual)
100°/sec (turbo & preset); Tilt Range: +33° to –83° Speed: 0.1° to 20°/sec (manual)
30°/sec (preset)
Compression:
N/A
Temperature:
-50° to 122°F (-45° to 50°C)
Protection:
NEMA Type 4X and IP66 standards
Camera Cost:
wiper) 2,728.00
(ES30CBW35-5W) (standard) 2,588.00; (ES31CBW35-5W) (with
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
Tilt speed is low; Suggested model: ES30CBW355W/ES31CBW35-5W; Analog camera
47
Website:
http://www.pelco.com
Manufacturer:
Vicon Industries Inc.
Product:
SVFT-PRS23
Format:
Color (Day/Night with Wide Dynamic Range) NTSC/PAL
Focal Length (mm):
Zoom:
23X optical/12X digital
Angle of View:
Resolution:
540 TV lines
Minimum Illumination:
P/T:
Pan Range: 360° Speed: 0.1 to 360°/sec; Tilt Range -2.5° to 92.5°
Speed:
0.1 to 150°/sec
Compression:
Temperature:
14° F (-10° C) to 140° F (60° C)
Protection:
IP67
Camera Cost:
2,645.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
Video can be transmitted through coaxial cable; Vicon also
provides the option of interface boards for TCP/IP transmission; lowest maintained
temperature is just 14° F (-10° C)
Website:
http://www.vicon-cctv.com/
Manufacturer:
Pelco
Product:
ESPRIT (ES30C/ES31C)(22X)
Format:
1/4 in. EXview HAD CCD
Focal Length (mm): 4–88 mm
Zoom:
22X optical, 10X digital
Angle of View:
47.3° at 4.0 mm wide zoom; 2.2° at 88 mm telephoto zoom
Resolution:
>470HTVL (NTSC)
Minimum Illumination:
0.02 lux at 1/2 sec shutter
P/T:
Pan Range: 360° continuous Speed: 0.1° to 40°/sec (manual)
100°/sec (turbo & preset); Tilt Range: +33° to –83° Speed: 0.1° to 20°/sec (manual)
30°/sec (preset)
Compression:
N/A
48
Temperature:
-50° to 122°F (-45° to 50°C)
Protection:
NEMA Type 4X and IP66 standards
Camera Cost:
2,479.00
(ES30C22-5W) (Standard) 2,357.00 (ES31C22-5W) (With wiper)
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
Tilt speed is low; Suggested model: ES30C22-5W/ES31C22-5W;
Analog camera; Color, LowLight camera
Website:
http://www.pelco.com
Manufacturer:
Pelco
Product:
ESPRIT (ES30C/ES31C)(24X)
Format:
1/4 in. CCD
Focal Length (mm): 3.8–91.2 mm
Zoom:
24X optical, 10X digital
Angle of View:
50.7° at 3.8 mm wide zoom; 2.3° at 91.2 mm telephoto zoom
Resolution:
>520HTVL
Minimum Illumination:
0.005 lux at 1/2 sec shutter (color); 0.015 lux at 1/60 sec
shutter (B-W); 0.0005 lux at 1/2 sec shutter (B-W)
P/T:
Pan Range: 360° continuous Speed: 0.1° to 40°/sec (manual)
100°/sec (turbo & preset); Tilt Range: +33° to –83° Speed: 0.1° to 20°/sec (manual)
30°/sec (preset)
Compression:
N/A
Temperature:
-50° to 122°F (-45° to 50°C)
Protection:
NEMA Type 4X and IP66 standards
Camera Cost:
wiper) 2,373.00
(ES30CBW24-5W) (Standard) 2,251.00 (ES31CBW24-5W) (With
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
Tilt speed is low; Suggested model: ES30CBW245W/ES31CBW24-5W; Analog camera
Website:
http://www.pelco.com
Manufacturer:
Pelco
Product:
Spectra IV SE(35X)
Format:
1/4 in. EXview HAD
Focal Length (mm): 3.4–119 mm
49
Zoom:
35X optical, 12X digital
Angle of View:
55.8° at 3.4 mm wide zoom; 1.7° at 119 mm telephoto zoom
Resolution:
>540 HTVL
Minimum Illumination:
Maximum Sensitivity at 35 IRE NTSC/EIA 0.55 lux at
1/60 sec (color); 0.018 lux at 1/2 sec (color); 0.00018 lux at 1/2 sec (B-W)
P/T:
Pan Range:360° continuous, Speed: 0.1° to 80°/sec (manual),
150°/sec (Turbo), 400°/sec (preset); Tilt Range: +2° to –92° Speed: 0.1° to 40°/sec
(manual),200°/sec(preset)
Compression:
N/A
Temperature:
-50°F (-45°C) to 122°F (50°C) for outdoor model
Protection:
Meets NEMA Type 4X, IP66
Camera Cost:
2,254.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
camera
Suggested model: (35X) SD435-PG-E0/SD435-PG-E1; Analog
Website:
http://www.pelco.com
Manufacturer:
Pelco
Product:
Spectra IV SE (27X)
Format:
1/4 in. EXview HAD
Focal Length (mm): 3.4–91.8 mm
Zoom:
27X optical, 12X digital
Angle of View:
55.8° at 3.4 mm wide zoom; 2.3° at 91.8 mm telephoto zoom
Resolution:
>540 HTVL
Minimum Illumination:
Maximum Sensitivity at 35 IRE NTSC/EIA 0.55 lux at
1/60 sec (color); 0.018 lux at 1/2 sec (color); 0.00018 lux at 1/2 sec (B-W)
P/T:
Pan Range: 360° continuous, Speed: 0.1° to 80°/sec (manual),
150°/sec (Turbo), 400°/sec (preset); Tilt Range: +2° to –92° Speed: 0.1° to 40°/sec
(manual), 200°/sec(preset)
Compression:
N/A
Temperature:
-50°F (-45°C) to 122°F (50°C) for outdoor model
Protection:
Meets NEMA Type 4X, IP66
Camera Cost:
1,836.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
Suggested model: SD427-PG-E0/SD427-PG-E1; Analog camera
50
Website:
http://www.pelco.com
Manufacturer:
Elmo
Product:
ESD-380DR PTZ Camera
Format:
Progressive 1/4 in. CCD
Focal Length (mm): 3.6–82.8 mm
Zoom:
23X optical/1x–12x variable
Angle of View:
Resolution:
NTSC: 480 TV lines
Minimum Illumination:
0.01 lux, 0 lux (IR illuminator)
P/T:
Pan: 360° endless; Tilt:-10° to 190°; P&T Preset Speed: 5° to
400°/sec; P&T Manual Speed: 1° to 90°/sec
Compression:
N/A
Temperature:
-30°C to 45°C (-22°F to 113°F)
Protection:
IP66
Camera Cost:
1,595.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
Controller Interface: RS-485
Website:
http://www.elmousa.com
Manufacturer:
Pelco
Product:
Pelco Spectra IV SL
Format:
1/4 in. progressive scan CCD
Focal Length (mm): 3.6–82.8 mm (f1.6)
Zoom:
23X optical, 12X digital
Angle of View:
54° at 3.6 mm wide zoom; 2.5° at 82.8 mm telephoto zoom
Resolution:
540 HTVL
Minimum Illumination:
Maximum Sensitivity at 35 IRE NTSC/EIA: 0.65 lux at
1/60 sec (color), 0.15 lux at 1/60 sec (B-W)
P/T:
Pan Range: 360° continuous, Speed: 0.1° to 80°/sec (manual),
400°/sec(preset); Tilt Range: +2° to –92° Speed 0.1° to 40°/sec (manual),
200°/sec(preset)
Compression:
Temperature:
N/A
-50°F (-45°C) to 122°F (50°C) for outdoor model
51
Protection:
NEMA Type 4X, IP66
Camera Cost:
1,178.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
Suggested model: SD423-PG-E0/ SD423-PG-E1; Analog camera
Website:
http://www.pelco.com
Manufacturer:
Iteris
Product:
Vantage RZ4
Format:
CCD
Focal Length (mm):
Zoom:
Angle of View:
5.4° wide to 50.7° wide
Resolution:
470 TV lines
Minimum Illumination:
0.1lux
P/T:
N/A
Compression:
N/A
Temperature:
-31° F to +140° F (-35° C to +60° C)
Protection:
IP67
Camera Cost:
1,000.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
No PTZ functions; Analog camera
Website:
http://www.iteris.com/
4.3.2 Network Camera
Manufacturer:
COHU
Product:
3980
Format:
1/4 in. Sony Ex-View HAD
Focal Length (mm): 3.4 mm to 119 mm (±15%)
Zoom:
35X optical and 12X digital
Angle of View:
56° to 1.7° (±15%)
Resolution:
Camera Resolution: Typical 540 HTVL, 400 VTVL; Video
Resolution: 640 x 480 (VGA), 640 x 240 (2CIF), 320 x 240 (CIF)
52
Minimum Illumination: (F1.4 @ 50IRE, Progressive Scan Mode) 0.1 fc (1.0 lx) @ 1/60
shutter (color mode); 0.01 fc (0.10 lx) @ 1/4 shutter (color mode); 0.005 fc (0.05 lx) @
1/2 shutter (color mode); 0.001 fc (0.01 lx) @ 1/4 shutter (mono mode)
P/T:
Pan Range: 360° continuous; Pan Speed: max 120°/sec (preset)
0.1° to >80°/sec (manual); Tilt Range: -90° to +90°; Tilt Speed max 120°/sec: ( preset)
0.1° to >40°/sec(manual)
Compression:
MPEG 4
Temperature:
Standard: -29.2° to 131°F (-34° to 55°C)
Protection:
Camera: IP-67/NEMA-4X/ASTM-B117; Positioner: IP66/NEMA-4X/ASTM-B117
Camera Cost:
6,770.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
IP camera
Website:
http://www.cohu-cameras.com
Manufacturer:
COHU
Product:
3960HD
Format:
Ex-View ICX445AKA Progressive Scan
Focal Length (mm): 4.7 mm to 86.4 mm
Zoom:
18X optical zoom
Angle of View:
54° to 3.25
Resolution:
Sensor Effective Resolution: 1280(H) x 720(V); Image
Resolution:720p, D1, VGA, CIF
Minimum Illumination:
@ 1/60 shutter, mono
1.7 Lux (0.17 fc) @ 1/60 shutter, color; 0.1 Lux (0.01 fc)
P/T:
Pan Range: 360° continuous; Pan Speed: max 120°/sec(preset)
0.1° to 80°/sec(manual); Tilt Range: -90° to +90°; Tilt Speed: max 120°/sec(preset) 0.1°
to 40°/sec(manual)
Compression:
H.264 & MJPEG
Temperature:
-29.2° to 165°F (-34° to 74°C)
Protection:
4X/ASTM-B117
Camera IP-67/NEMA-4X/ASTM-B117; Positioner IP-66/NEMA-
Camera Cost:
–6,500.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
New product, available soon; IP camera
Website:
http://www.cohu-cameras.com
53
Manufacturer:
COHU
Product:
3940
Format:
1/4 in. Sony Ex-View HAD
Focal Length (mm): 3.4 mm to 119 mm (±15%)
Zoom:
35X optical and 12X digital
Angle of View:
56° to 1.7° (±15%)
Resolution:
Camera Resolution: Typical 540 HTVL, 400 VTVL; Video
Resolution: 640 x 480 (VGA), 640 x 240 (2CIF), 320 x 240 (CIF)
Minimum Illumination:
(F1.4 @ 50IRE, Progressive Scan Mode) 0.1 fc (1.0 lx) @
1/60 shutter (color mode); 0.01 fc (0.10 lx) @ 1/4 shutter (color mode); 0.005 fc (0.05 lx)
@ 1/2 shutter (color mode); 0.001 fc (0.01 lx) @ 1/4 shutter (mono mode)
P/T:
Pan Range: 360° continuous; Pan Speed: max 250°/sec (preset)
0.1° to >80°/sec (manual); Tilt Range: -90° to +5°; Tilt Speed : max 120°/sec(preset)
0.1° to >40°/sec(manual)
Compression:
MPEG 4
Temperature:
-29.2 to 122° F (-34 to 50° C)
Protection:
IP-67 / NEMA 4X / ASTM-B117
Camera Cost:
5,180.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
IP camera
Website:
http://www.cohu-cameras.com
Manufacturer:
Indigo Vision
Product:
9000 PTZ IP Dome Camera (36X)
Format:
1/4 in. Sony ExView HAD
Focal Length (mm): 3.4 mm to 122.4 mm, F1.6 to F4.5
Zoom:
36x optical; 12x digital
Angle of View:
1.7° to 57.8°
Resolution:
Camera resolution: >540 TVL; Video resolution: 704X480
Minimum Illumination:
1/4 sec (mono)
(NTSC, F1.6, 50 IRE): 0.1 lx at 1/4 sec (color); 0.01 lx at
P/T:
Pan Range: 360° continuous; Tilt Range: -2° to +90°; P&T Speed:
0.001°/s to 360°/s; Preset move speed: 200°/s
Compression:
Temperature:
Full frame rate H.264
-4° to 122°F (-20° to 50°C)
54
Protection:
IP67
Camera Cost:
3,576.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
IP camera
Website:
http://www.indigovision.com
Manufacturer:
Indigo Vision
Product:
9000 PTZ IP Dome Camera (35X)
Format:
1/4 in. Sony ExView HAD
Focal Length (mm): 3.4 mm to 119 mm, F1.4 to F4.2
Zoom:
35x optical; 12x digital
Angle of View:
1.7° to 55.8°
Resolution:
Camera resolution: >540 TVL; Video resolution: 704X480
Minimum Illumination: Interlace mode, NTSC, F1.4, 35 IRE: 0.05 lx at 1/4s (color); 0.01
lx at 1/4s (mono). Progressive mode, figures are doubled
P/T:
Pan Range: 360° continuous; Tilt Range: -2° to +90°; P&T Speed:
0.001°/s to 360°/s; Preset move speed: 200°/s
Compression:
Full frame rate H.264
Temperature:
-4° to 122°F (-20° to 50°C)
Protection:
IP67
Camera Cost:
3,576.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
IP camera
Website:
http://www.indigovision.com
Manufacturer:
Indigo Vision
Product:
9000 PTZ IP Dome Camera (18X)
Format:
1/4 in. Sony ExView HAD
Focal Length (mm): 4.1 mm to 73.8 mm, F1.4 to F3.0
Zoom:
18xoptical; 12x digital
Angle of View:
2.8° to 48°
Resolution:
Camera resolution: >540 TVL; Video resolution: 704X480
55
Minimum Illumination:
1/4 sec (mono)
NTSC, F1.4, 50 IRE: 0.07 lx at 1/4 sec (color); 0.01 lx at
P/T:
Pan Range: 360° continuous; Tilt Range: -2° to +90°; P&T Speed:
0.001°/s to 360°/s; Preset move speed: 200°/s
Compression:
Full frame rate H.264
Temperature:
-4° to 122°F (-20° to 50°C)
Protection:
IP67
Camera Cost:
3,386.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
IP camera
Website:
http://www.indigovision.com
Manufacturer:
JVC
Product:
VN-V686WPBU
Format:
1/4 in. IT CCD
Focal Length (mm): 3.43 mm to 122 mm
Zoom:
36x optical/32x digital
Angle of View:
Resolution:
640x480, 320x240
Minimum Illumination:
Color: 1.0 lx (50%, AGC SUPER) 0.5 lx (25%, AGC
SUPER); B&W: 0.08 lx (50%, AGC SUPER) 0.04 lx (25%, AGC SUPER)
P/T:
400°/sec
Pan: 360° endless; Tilt: -5° to 185°; Pan/Tilt speed: 0.04° to
Compression:
MJPEG & MPEG-4
Temperature:
-40°C to 50°C /14°F to 122°F
Protection:
IP66
Camera Cost:
3,299.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
Outdoor IP camera; POE
Website:
http://pro.jvc.com
Manufacturer:
Axis
Product:
Q6032-E
Format:
1/4 in. ExView HAD Progressive Scan CCD
56
Focal Length (mm): 3.4–119 mm
Zoom:
35x optical/12x digital
Angle of View:
1.7°0–55.8°
Resolution:
704x480 to 176x120
Minimum Illumination:
P/T:
Color: 0.5 lux at 30 IRE; B/W: 0.008 lux at 30 IRE
Pan: 360° endless; Tilt: 220°; P&T Speed 0.05 – 450°/s
Compression:
H.264/MJEPG
Temperature:
-40 °C to 50 °C (-40 °F to 122 °F)
Protection:
IP66
Camera Cost:
2,992.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
Network camera; High Power over Ethernet; H.264 compression
Website:
http://www.axis.com
Manufacturer:
Axis
Product:
233D
Format:
1/4 in. ExView HAD Progressive scan CCD
Focal Length (mm): 3.4–119 mm, F1.4–4.2
Zoom:
35x optical/12x digital
Angle of View:
1.73°0–55.8°
Resolution:
704x480 - 176x120
Minimum Illumination:
P/T:
450°/s
Color: 0.5 lux at 30 IRE; B/W: 0.008 lux at 30 IRE
Pan Range: 360° endless; Tilt Range180°; P&T Speed: 0.05 –
Compression:
MPEG-4, MJPEG
Temperature:
-5 to -45 °C; with housing can work at -40 to 50 ˚C (-40 to 122 ˚F)
Protection:
Can work with IP66 housing
Camera Cost:
2,336.00
Housing Cost:
model 25733: 608.00
Comments:
Network camera; Need housing for outdoor usage
Website:
http://www.axis.com
57
Manufacturer:
Bosch
Product:
AutoDome 300 Series (36x)
Format:
1/4 in. Exview HAD CCD
Focal Length (mm): 3.4–122.4 mm
Zoom:
36x optical/12x digital
Angle of View:
1.7° to 57.8°
Resolution:
540 HTVL
Minimum Illumination:
Day -- SensUp Off: 0.66 lx at 30IRE SensUp On(15x):
0.033 lx at 30IRE; Night -- SensUp Off: 0.166 lx at 30IRE SensUp On(15x): 0.0065 lx
at 30IRE
P/T:
Pan Range: 360° continuous Pan Preposition Speed:360°/sec; Tilt
Range:18° above horizon; Tilt Preposition Speed: 100°/s; P&T manual Speed: 0.1°/s120°/s
Compression:
IP operation (MPEG-4)
Temperature:
-40°C to 50°C (-40°F to 122°F)
Protection:
IP66
Camera Cost:
2,797.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
ECE1P
Optional hybrid analog/IP operation; Suggested modle:VG4-324-
Website:
http://www.boschsecurity.us/en-us/
Manufacturer:
American Dynamics
Product:
VideoEdge IP SpeedDome(ADVEIPSD35N)
Format:
Interline transfer 1/4 in. CCD array
Focal Length (mm): 3.4 to 119 mm
Zoom:
35x optical/12x digital
Angle of View:
55.8 (H)
Resolution:
x 480 (NTSC)
Camera resolution 540HTVL; Video resolution 320 x 240 to 704
Minimum Illumination:
0.24 lux (Color); 0.028 lux (Color with 1/4 sec open
shutter);0.021 lux (B/W IR Mode);0.00041 lux (B/W IR Mode with 1/2 sec open shutter)
P/T:
Pan: 360° continuous; tilt: 110°; P&T manual speed: 0.25°–
100°/sec; Pan preset speed: 360°/sec; T preset speed:220/sec
58
Compression:
technology
H.264, MJPEG, MPEG-4 and Active Content Compression (ACC)
Temperature:
-10°C to 50°C (14°F to 122°F); with environmental housing: 40°C to 50°C (-40°F to 122°F)
Protection:
Can work with NEMA 4, IP66 housing
Camera Cost:
2,216.00
Housing Cost:
565.00
ADVESDHOC (pendant, clear)/ADVESDHOS (pendant, smoke):
Comments:
IP camera; PoE; Supports H.264, MJPEG, MPEG-4 and Active
Content Compression (ACC) technology; need to order housing separately
Website:
http://americandynamics.net
Manufacturer:
Panasonic
Product:
WV-NW964
Format:
1/4-type interline transfer CCD
Focal Length (mm): 3.8 mm–114 mm
Zoom:
30x optical/ 10x digital
Angle of View:
H: 1.9°–52.0°, V: 1.4°–40.0°
Resolution:
VGA (640 x 480) / QVGA (320 x 240)
Minimum Illumination:
Color (30IRE): 0.5 lux (Sens up: OFF), 0.02 lux (Sens up:
32x) at F1.4; B/W (10IRE): 0.04 lux (Sens up: OFF), 0.0013 lux (Sens up: 32x) at F1.4
P/T:
Panning:360° endless, 0.065°/s–120°/s(manual), 400°/s (preset);
tilting:–5°–185°, 0.065°/s–120°/s (manual), 400°/s (preset)
Compression:
MPEG-4 and JPEG dual streaming
Temperature:
–40 °C–+50 °C (–40 °F–122 °F) (Heater ON)
Protection:
IP66
Camera Cost:
2,741.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
Website:
http://www.panasonic.com/
Manufacturer:
Axis
Product:
232D+
Format:
1/4 in. Exview HAD CCD
59
Focal Length (mm): 4.1 mm to 73.8 mm (F1. 4–3.0)
Zoom:
18x optical/12x digital
Angle of View:
2.8°–48°
Resolution:
160x120 to 704x576
Minimum Illumination:
Color: 0.3 lux at 30IRE; B/W: 0.005 lux at 30IRE
P/T:
360°/sec
Pan Range: 360° endless; Tilt Range: 0°-90° (± 3°) P&T Speed:
Compression:
MPEG-4, MJPEG
Temperature:
to 122 °F)
50–50 °C (410–122 °F); with housing can work at -20 to 50 °C (-4
Protection:
Can work with IP66 housing
Camera Cost:
1,870.00
Housing Cost:
model 25733: 608.00
Comments:
Network camera; Need housing for outdoor usage
Website:
http://www.axis.com
Manufacturer:
Bosch
Product:
AutoDome 300 Series (26x)
Format:
1/4 in. Exview HAD CCD
Focal Length (mm): 3.5–91.0 mm
Zoom:
26x optical/12x digital
Angle of View:
2.3° to 55°
Resolution:
470 HTVL
Minimum Illumination:
Day -- SensUp Off: 0.5 lx at 30IRE SensUp On(15x):
0.0052 lx at 30IRE; Night -- SensUp Off: 0.10 lx at 30IRE SensUp On(15x): 0.0013 lx
at 30IRE
P/T:
Pan Range: 360° continuous Pan Preposition Speed:360°/sec; Tilt
Range:18° above horizon; Tilt Preposition Speed: 100°/s; P&T manual Speed: 0.1°/s120°/s
Compression:
IP operation (MPEG-4)
Temperature:
-40°C to 50°C (-40°F to 122°F)
Protection:
IP66
Camera Cost:
2,466.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
60
Comments:
ECE1P
Optional hybrid analog/IP operation; Suggested model: VG4-323-
Website:
http://www.boschsecurity.us/en-us/
Manufacturer:
Bosch
Product:
AutoDome 300 Series (18x)
Format:
1/4 in. Exview HAD CCD
Focal Length (mm): 4.1–73.8 mm, F1.4 to F3.0
Zoom:
18x optical/12x digital
Angle of View:
2.7° to 48°
Resolution:
470 HTVL
Minimum Illumination:
Day -- SensUp Off: 0.4 lx at 30IRE SensUp On(15x):
0.0041 lx at 30IRE; Night -- SensUp Off: 0.05 lx at 30IRE SensUp On(15x): 0.0007 lx
at 30IRE
P/T:
Pan Range: 360° continuous Pan Preposition Speed: 360°/sec;
Tilt Range: 18° above horizon; Tilt Preposition Speed: 100°/s; P&T manual Speed:
0.1°/s-120°/s
Compression:
IP operation (MPEG-4)
Temperature:
-40°C to 50°C (-40°F to 122°F)
Protection:
IP66
Camera Cost:
2,372.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
ECE1P
Optional hybrid analog/IP operation; Suggested model: VG4-322-
Website:
http://www.boschsecurity.us/en-us/
Manufacturer:
CP Technologies
Product:
FCS-4200(Level One)
Format:
1/4 in. Exview HAD CCD
Focal Length (mm): 3.4–122.4 mm/F1.6–4.5
Zoom:
36x optical/12x digital
Angle of View:
57.8°–1.7°
Resolution:
704x480 pixels at 30 fps (NTSC)
Minimum Illumination:
1.4Lux/F1.6 Color; 0.01Lux/F1.6 Monochrome
61
P/T:
Pan range: 360° continuous Pan Speed: 0.1–240°/Sec; Tilt range:
0°–90° Manual Tilt Speed 0.1–120°/Sec; P&T preset speed: 240°/Sec
Compression:
MPEG-4/MJPEG
Temperature:
-20°C–50°C
Protection:
Indoor/Outdoor use; IP66 water-proof
Camera Cost:
2,235.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
Work with POS-4001 outdoor High Power PoE Splitter (12V)
Website:
http://www.cptechusa.com
Manufacturer:
Inscape Data
Product:
NVC3000 (NVC3026)
Format:
1/4 in. Sony Exview HAD CCD
Focal Length (mm): 3.5–91.0 mm
Zoom:
Optical26X; Digital 12X
Angle of View:
80° to 4°
Resolution:
(NTSC)
D1(704x480), CIF (352x240), QCIF (176 x 144) Max 704 x 480
Minimum Illumination:
0.01Lux (ICR On)
Normal mode: 0.7Lux (50IRE); Night (B/W) Mode:
P/T:
Pan Range: 360° Endless, Manual Speed: 100°–200°/sec, Preset
Speed: Max 350° /sec; Tilt range: 0°–90°, Manual Speed 100°–200°/sec, Preset Speed
Max 250° /sec
Compression:
JPEG & MPEG-4
Temperature:
-40°C–60°C (-40°F–140°F)
Protection:
IP66
Camera Cost:
2,157.25
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
Simultaneous IP and CCTV Video
Website:
http://www.inscapedata.com
Manufacturer:
CP Technologies
Product:
FCS-4100(Level One)
Format:
1/4 in. Exview HAD CCD
62
Focal Length (mm): 3.5–91 mm/F1.6–3.8
Zoom:
26x optical/12x digital
Angle of View:
54.2° –2.2°
Resolution:
704x480 pixels at 30 fps (NTSC)
Minimum Illumination:
1.0Lux/F1.6 Color; 0.01Lux/F1.6 Monochrome
P/T:
Pan range: 360° continuous Pan Speed: 0.1–240°/Sec; Tilt range:
0°–90° Manual Tilt Speed 0.1–120°/Sec; P&T preset speed: 240°/Sec
Compression:
MPEG-4/MJPEG
Temperature:
-20°C–50°C
Protection:
Indoor/Outdoor use; IP66 water-proof
Camera Cost:
2,026.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
Work with POS-4001 outdoor High Power PoE Splitter (12V)
Website:
http://www.cptechusa.com
Manufacturer:
Sony
Product:
SNC-RZ50N
Format:
1/4-type Super HAD CCD
Focal Length (mm): f=3.5 to 91.0 mm
Zoom:
26x optical, 12x digital
Angle of View:
1.7 °to 42.0°
Resolution:
640 x 480; 320 x 240; 160 x 120 (JPEG/MPEG-4/H.264)
Minimum Illumination:
Color: 2.2 lx (50IRE F1.6 AGC ON); B/W: 0.3 lx (50IRE)
P/T:
Pan: -170° to +170° speed 300°/s; Tilt: -90° to +25° speed 300°/s
Compression:
JPEG/MPEG-4 Dual, H.264
Temperature:
32 °F to 104 °F (0 °C to 40 °C)
Protection:
Camera Cost:
1,148.00
Housing Cost:
UNIONS7C1/UNIONS7T1 (pendant mount, clear/tinted):424.00,
UNIOPS7C1/UNIOPS7T1(pressurized, pendant mount, clear/tinted): 875.00,
UNIORS7C1/UNIORS7T1(Vandal resistant, pendant mount, clear/tinted): 539.00
Comments:
IP camera; Indoor camera; Need housing for outdoor usage
Website:
http://pro.sony.com/bbsc/home.do
63
Manufacturer:
Vivotek
Product:
SD7313
Format:
SONY 1/4 in. EXview HAD CCD sensor in D1 resolution
Focal Length (mm): f = 3.4–119 mm
Zoom:
35x optical
Angle of View:
1.7°–55.8°
Resolution:
704x480
Minimum Illumination:
0.05 Lux / F1.4 (Color), 0.01 Lux / F1.4 (B/W)
P/T:
Pan range: 360° continuous Pan Speed: 0.1°–300°/sec; Tilt range:
0°–90° Tilt Speed 0.1°–120°/sec
Compression:
MJPEG & MPEG-4
Temperature:
-20–60 °C (-4–140 °F)
Protection:
IP66
Camera Cost:
2,011.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
Website:
http://www.vivotek.com
Manufacturer:
Axis
Product:
213 PTZ
Format:
1⁄4” Interlaced CCD
Focal Length (mm): 3.5–91 mm, F1.6– F4.0
Zoom:
26x optical/12x digital
Angle of View:
1.7°–47°
Resolution:
160x90 to 704x576
Minimum Illumination:
Color mode: 1 lux, F1.6; IR mode: 0.1 lux, F1.6; using
built-in IR light in complete darkness up to 3 m (9.8ft)
P/T:
Speed: 1–70°/sec
Pan Range: ±170° Speed: 10–90°/sec; Tilt Range: -10° to +90°
Compression:
MPEG-4, MJPEG
Temperature:
40 to 100 ˚F)
50–40 °C (410–104°F); with housing can work at -40 to 38 ˚C (-
Protection:
Can work with IP66 housing
64
Camera Cost:
1,402.00
Housing Cost:
Model 25733: 608.00
Comments:
Network camera; Need housing for outdoor usage
Website:
http://www.axis.com
Manufacturer:
SAMSUNG Electronics
Product:
SNC-C7478
Format:
1/4 in. Ex-View HAD Progressive Scan CCD
Focal Length (mm): 3.4–122.4 mm
Zoom:
36x Optical, 12x Digital
Angle of View:
57.8°(H) x 43.35°(V)
Resolution:
Camera resolution (Color) 540HTVL (B/W) 570. Video resolution
D1: 720x480; VGA 640x480; CIF NTSC: 352x240
Minimum Illumination:
Color: 0.84Lux with Sens-up off at 30IRE, 0.0131Lux with
64 times Sens-up at 30IRE; B/W: 0.09Lux with Sens-up off at 30IRE,0.0014Lux with 64
times Sens-up at 30IRE;
P/T:
Pan: 0°–360° (Endless); Tilt: 180°; P&T Speed: 0.05°–360°/s
(manual), 360°/s (preset)
Compression:
MPEG-4 & MJPEG Dual
Temperature:
-49°F–+122°F / -45°C–+50°C
Protection:
Vandal Proof/ Weather Proof
Camera Cost:
1,943.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
Website:
http://www.samsung-security.com
Manufacturer:
ACTi
Product:
CAM-6610
Format:
1/4 in. EXviewHAD CCD
Focal Length (mm): 4.1–73.8 mm
Zoom:
18x optical/X1–X12 variable digital
Angle of View:
48°–2.8°
Resolution:
Horizontal: 530 TVL
65
Minimum Illumination:
0.1 Lux (F1.4, 1/4s (NTSC) or 1/3s (PAL)); 0.01 Lux
(F1.4, 1/1s (NTSC) or 1/1s (PAL), IR ON)
P/T:
Pan: 360° Continuous; Tilt: -10°–100° (190° in Image Flip mode);
preset P&T speed 5°–400°/sec; manual P&T speed 1°–90°/sec
Compression:
MPEG-4 ASP compliant
Temperature:
-45 °C–50 °C (-49 °F–122 °F)
Protection:
IP66
Camera Cost:
1,905.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
CAM-6600 Series also have 23X and 35X models
Website:
http://www.acti.com
Manufacturer:
Canon
Product:
VB-C60
Format:
1/4 in. Progressive Scan CCD
Focal Length (mm): 3.4–136.0 mm
Zoom:
40x Optical/4X Digital
Angle of View:
55.8° (W)–1.5 (T)
Resolution:
640 x 480, 320 x 240, 160 x 120
Minimum Illumination:
(Normal use) Day mode: 0.7lux (F1.6, color, 1/30 sec.);
Night mode: 0.2lux (F1.6, monochrome, 1/30 sec.)
P/T:
pan: 340° (±170°); tilt: 115°; P&T speed: 150°/sec
Compression:
JPEG /MJPEG/ MPEG-4
Temperature:
-10–50°
Protection:
Can work with IP66 or IPX4 (selectable) housing
Camera Cost:
1,456.00
Housing Cost:
A-ODW5C (wall mount, clear, 5 in.): 326.00, A-ODW5CS (wall
mount, clear, sunshield 5 in.):411.00
Comments:
Indoor model, need housing for outdoor usage
Website:
http://www.usa.canon.com
Manufacturer:
CP Technologies
Product:
FCS-4000 (Level One)
Format:
1/4 in. Exview HAD CCD
66
Focal Length (mm): 4.0–72 mm/F1.4–3.0
Zoom:
18x optical/12x digital
Angle of View:
48°–2.8°
Resolution:
704x480 pixels at 30 fps (NTSC)
Minimum Illumination:
0.7 Lux/F1.4 Color; 0.01Lux/F1.4 Monochrome
P/T:
Pan range: 360° continuous Pan Speed: 0.1–240°/Sec; Tilt range:
0°–90° Manual Tilt Speed 0.1–120°/Sec; P&T preset speed: 240°/Sec
Compression:
MPEG-4/MJPEG
Temperature:
-20°C–50°C
Protection:
Indoor/Outdoor use; IP66 water-proof
Camera Cost:
1,852.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
Work with POS-4001 outdoor High Power PoE Splitter (12V)
Website:
http://www.cptechusa.com
Manufacturer:
Axis
Product:
214 PTZ
Format:
1/4 in. ExView HAD CCD
Focal Length (mm): 4.1–73.8 mm, F1.3–3.0
Zoom:
18x optical/12x digital
Angle of View:
2.7°–48°
Resolution:
160x120 to 704x576
Minimum Illumination:
0.005 lux at F1.4, 30IRE
Color mode: 0.3 lux at F1.4, 30IRE; Black/white mode:
P/T:
Speed: 90°/sec
Pan Range: ±170° Speed: 100°/sec; Tilt Range: -30° to +90°
Compression:
MPEG-4, MJPEG
Temperature:
40 to 100 ˚F)
00–45 °C (320–113 °F); with housing can work at -40 to 38 ˚C (-
Protection:
Can work with IP66 housing
Camera Cost:
1,215.00
Housing Cost:
Model 25733: 608.00
Comments:
Network camera; Need housing for outdoor usage
Website:
http://www.axis.com
67
Manufacturer:
Canon
Product:
VB-C50iR
Format:
1/4 in. CCD (primary color filter)
Focal Length (mm): 3.5 mm to 91.0 mm
Zoom:
26x Optical/12x Digital
Angle of View:
Resolution:
160 x 120, 320 x 240, 640 x 480
Minimum Illumination:
Normal mode: 1 Lux (at 1/30 sec.); Night Mode: 0 lux
P/T:
Pan: 340 degrees; Tilt: 120 degrees
Compression:
JPEG &MJPEG
Temperature:
00–40°C
Protection:
Can work with IP66 or IPX4 (selectable) housing
Camera Cost:
1,333.00
Housing Cost:
A-ODW5C (wall mount, clear, 5 in.): 326.00, A-ODW5CS (wall
mount, clear, sunshield 5 in.): 411.00
Comments:
Indoor model, need housing for outdoor usage
Website:
http://www.usa.canon.com
Manufacturer:
PiXORD
Product:
P-463
Format:
ExView HAD CCD, 1/4 in. Interline Transfer CCD
Focal Length (mm): 3.8–95 mm
Zoom:
25X optical, no digital zoom
Angle of View:
Wide: 39.2° (V) 51.9° (H)
Resolution:
Full D1 (4SIF): 720 x 480; SIF: 352 x 240; QSIF: 176 x 112;
Minimum Illumination:
Mono: 0.01 Lux at F1.6; Color: 0.1 Lux at F1.6
P/T:
Pan: 360° Continuous; Tilt: -5°–+95°; preset P&T speed: 1°/s–
255°/s; manual P&T speed: 0.18°–180° / sec
Compression:
MPEG-4 Simple Profile (SP) / MJPEG, Dual codec
Temperature:
-10°C–+50°C (14–122 °F)
Protection:
Camera Cost:
1,472.00
Housing Cost:
P-2652(IP68, wall mount): 239.00
68
Comments:
No digital zoom declared; Dome camera, need housing
Website:
http://www.pixord.com
Manufacturer:
Panasonic
Product:
WV-NS202A
Format:
1/4-type interline transfer CCD
Focal Length (mm): 3.79 mm–83.4 mm
Zoom:
22X optical/10X digital
Angle of View:
H: 2.6°–51.7°, V: 2.0°–39.9°
Resolution:
VGA (640x480) / QVGA(320x240)
Minimum Illumination:
Color (30 IRE): 0.7 lux (Sen up: OFF), 0.02 lux (Sens up:
32x) at F1.6; B/W (10 IRE): 0.5 lux (Sens up: OFF), 0.015 lux (Sens up: 32x) at F1.6
P/T:
Panning:0°–350°, 1°/s–100°/s(manual), 300°/s (preset); tilting:–
30°–90°, 1°/s–100°/s(manual), 100°/s (preset)
Compression:
MPEG-4/JPEG
Temperature:
-10 °C–+50 °C (14 °F–122 °F)
Protection:
Indoor model
Camera Cost:
978.00
Housing Cost:
551.00
PODV7CWNS(Outdoor Vandal Resistant, clear, wall mount)
Comments:
model
Simple Day-Night function (No IR cut filter moving); Indoor
Website:
http://www.panasonic.com/
Manufacturer:
PiXORD
Product:
P-465
Format:
1/4 in. Interline Transfer CCD
Focal Length (mm): 3.6 mm–126 mm
Zoom:
35x optical
Angle-of-View:
Wide: 41.6°(V) 53.8°(H)
Resolution:
Full D1 (4SIF): 720 x 480; SIF: 352 x 240; QSIF: 176 x 112;
Minimum Illumination:
Color: 0.1 Lux at F1.6; Mono:0.01 Lux at F1.6
P/T:
Pan: 360° Continuous; Tilt: -6°–+96°; preset P&T speed: 1°/s–
255°/s; manual P&T speed: 0.15°/s–120°/s
69
Compression:
MPEG-4 Simple Profile (SP) / MJPEG, Dual codec
Temperature:
-40°C–+50°C (-40 –122 °F)
Protection:
IP 66
Camera Cost:
1,509.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
No digital zoom declared
Website:
http://www.pixord.com
Manufacturer:
Advanced Technology
Product:
IPSD518S
Format:
1/4 in., SONY Super HAD CCD
Focal Length (mm): 4.1 mm–73.8 mm
Zoom:
18X optical/ 12X digital
Angle of View:
48°–2.7°
Resolution:
D1 (NTSC: 720 x 480), 640 x 480, 320 x 240, 160 x 120
Minimum Illumination:
Color 0.7 Lux; B/W 0.05 Lux; Slow-shutter 0.01 Lux
P/T:
Pan: 360°; tilt:-10°–+90°; P&T max speed: 380°/sec
Compression:
MPEG-4
Temperature:
Protection:
Can work with IP66 housing
Camera Cost:
1,237.00
Housing Cost:
DH304-OC: 170.00
Comments:
Network Camera; need order housing separately
Website:
http://www.atvideo.com
Manufacturer:
Vivotek
Product:
SD7151
Format:
SONY 1/4 in. progressive scan CCD sensor in VGA resolution
Focal Length (mm): 4.1–73.8 mm
Zoom:
18x optical
Angle of View:
2.8°–48° (horizontal)
Resolution:
640x480
70
Minimum Illumination:
cut filter)
1.61 Lux (F1.4, 1/30s), 0.38 Lux (F1.4, 1/30s, without IR-
P/T:
Pan range: 360° Pan Speed: 0.1°–300°/sec; Tilt range: 0°–90° Tilt
Speed 0.1°–120°/sec
Compression:
MJPEG & MPEG-4
Temperature:
-20–60 °C (-4–140 °F)
Protection:
IP66
Camera Cost:
1,365.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
Comments:
No digital zoom declared
Website:
http://www.vivotek.com
Manufacturer:
Sony
Product:
SNC-RZ25N
Format:
1/4 in. type ExwaveHAD CCD
Focal Length (mm): f=4.1 mm to 73.8 mm
Zoom:
18x optical, 12x digital
Angle of View:
Resolution:
640 x 480,480 x 360,384 x 288,320 x 240,256 x 192,160 x 120
Minimum Illumination:
ON)
Color: 0.7 lx (AGC ON F1.4 50IRE); B/W: 0.06 lx (AGC
P/T:
Pan:-170 to +170°; Tilt: -90° to +30°
Compression:
JPEG/MPEG-4 Selectable
Temperature:
0 °C to + 40 °C (32 °F to 104 °F)
Protection:
Camera Cost:
768.00
Housing Cost:
UNIONL7C2 (Pendant mount, clear):366.00, UNIORL7C2
(vandal resistant, pendant mount, Clear Lower Dome):477.00
Comments:
IP camera; Built-in Web Server - View and control using standard
web browsers; Indoor camera; need housing for outdoor usage
Website:
http://pro.sony.com/bbsc/home.do
Manufacturer:
Toshiba
Product:
IK-WB21A
71
Format:
1/4 in. interline transfer SuperCCD
Focal Length (mm): f=4.0 mm to 88.0 mm
Zoom:
22x optical
Angle of View:
Resolution:
SXVGA (1280 x 960), VGA (640 x 480) default,QVGA (320 x
240),QQVGA (160 x 120)
Minimum Illumination:
0.13 lux @ F1.6 at AGC High
P/T:
Pan range:-175° to +175° Pan Speed: 300°/second; Tilt range: 90° to 30° Tilt Speed 200°/sec
Compression:
Temperature:
JPEG &MJPEG
14° F to 104° F (-10° C to 40° C)
Protection:
Camera Cost:
862.00
Housing Cost:
FB-3610-92-HB-C (Environmental Dome):277.00
Comments:
Indoor, need housing for outdoor usage; high resolution; no digital
zoom declared; compression method: JPEG&MJPEG
Website:
http://www.toshibasecurity.com
Manufacturer:
CNB
Product:
ISS2765NW/ISS2765PW
Format:
1/4 in. Interlace IT CCD
Focal Length (mm):
Zoom:
27x optical/ 10X digital
Angle of View:
Resolution:
D1 (704 x 480), CIF (352 x 240)
Minimum Illumination:
30IRE
1.0Lux (color), 0.5Lux (BW), 0.001Lux (DSS 128FLD)
P/T:
Panning: 360°; tilting: 90°; P&T speed: Manual: 1˚–360˚/sec;
Preset: 360˚/sec; Swing: 1˚–180˚/sec
Compression:
MJPEG / MPEG-4 / H.264
Temperature:
-30℃–50℃
Protection:
IP66
Camera Cost:
612.00
Housing Cost:
0.00
72
Comments:
Website:
http://www.cnbtec.com
4.4 Parameters for Wireless Equipment
Frequency. The transmission frequency is the cycles per second of the radio waves. Not
all frequency bands are free. Licenses for frequency require both time and a recurring
cost. However, licensed frequencies have less interference. Currently, 900 MHz, 2.4
GHz, and 5.8 GHz are the commonly used license-exempt frequencies. The 4.9 GHz
public safety frequency is reserved for ITS and other municipal services.
Data Rate and Bandwidth. Data rate is the speed in bits per second that data is
transmitted across the communication pathway. Given a frequency range, bandwidth is
the value obtained, in hertz, by subtracting the lowest frequency from highest frequency.
It is restricted by both the transmitter and communication medium (Stallings 2005).
Given a fixed error rate, the greater the bandwidth, the greater the data rate, but the more
expensive the equipment. Based on Hartley’s law, the largest data rate under ideal
condition is associated with the bandwidth as measured in hertz. So in the digital world,
bandwidth is also a term used to refer to the data rate in bits per second.
Standard. At present, most Wi-Fi devices employ the standards IEEE802.11a/b/g and
802.11n (a new amendment issued in October 2009). The 802.11a standard is compatible
with 5 GHz and allows a maximum data rate of 54 Mbps; 802.11b operates at 2.4 GHz
with 11 Mbps at most; 802.11g also uses 2.4 GHz as its functioning frequency with the
data rate no larger than 54 Mbps. When the 802.11n standard appears, the data rate in
Wi-Fi systems will rise to 300 Mbps and function in both the 5 GHz and 2.4 GHz
frequencies.
Additionally, there are WiMAX devices on the wireless equipment market. Some of them
function in licensed frequencies and some do not. The standards upon which WiMAX
devices are based are 802.16d and 802.16e.
Transmit Power/Receive Sensitivity. Transmit power is the power emitted by wireless
devices. It is always defined in dBm units (decibel in milliwatts), which can be converted
from mW units (milliwatts). Receiver sensitivity is the minimum power that can be
sensed by the wireless receiver and achieve an acceptable connection for certain
performance.
Antenna. The antenna is the device transferring energy from an electrical format to an
electromagnetic format and sending electromagnetic signals into the transmission
medium, or vice versa. An antenna can implement both transmission and reception tasks.
To describe distribution of radiation around an antenna, one uses the polar coordinate
system. In this graphic description, the length from antenna to a point represents the
amount of power. The angle of the line connecting the antenna and the point on the polar
axis indicates the physical location. On the basis of a radiation pattern, beamwidth refers
to the angle within which the power transmitted is no less than half of the maximum
power radiated.
Antenna gain (Stallings 2005) is the ratio of the power in a given direction to the power
in any direction using an ideal omni antenna. Increase of antenna gain does not mean the
73
enhancement of total power, but relates to power augmentation in a particular direction.
In other words, an antenna increases the power in one direction at the expense of
decreasing the power in other directions. Because the FCC sets power constraints for
license-free usage, one cannot increase the communication power arbitrarily. Therefore,
taking antenna gain into account is important when choosing a wireless device.
Channel. A channel is a path from transmitter to receiver. The maximum data rate over a
channel is called the channel capacity.
Protection. The typical protection standards for wireless devices are the IP code and
NEMA rating. For detailed information, please refer to the protection description in
camera section.
Types. Because of various practical needs, wireless networks are arranged in different
architectures: Point-to-Point (PTP), Point-to-Multipoint (PTMP), and mesh network.
An individual wireless device can function as an access point, station, or CPE (customer
premises equipment). An access point bridges between the wireless network and wired
network (Geier 2004). Station is not a well-defined term. Some manufacturers use it to
refer to a client node that communicates with an access point wirelessly but some
companies sell their base station and subscriber products to implement PTMP
communication systems. It is a terminal on the customer side.
4.4.1 Parameter Value Selection
Frequency. The choices are license-exempt frequencies such as 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, and
5.8 GHz, or the public safety frequency 4.9 GHz.
Coverage and Data Rate. Although coverage and data rate are vital to selecting the
proper wireless equipment, practically one cannot rely on the parameter values posted by
manufacturers. One reason is that coverage and data rates are greatly affected by the
environment such as buildings or trees between transmitters and receivers. The antennas
used and many other factors can also affect performance. Additionally, some companies
prefer not to put this information in the product datasheets. Therefore, we do not
prescribe thresholds. However, we do include the coverage and data rate in the
descriptions below if they are available.
Operating Temperature: -20°C to +50°C (-4°F to -122°F)
4.5 Wireless Equipment Survey
In this section, products are categorized by their frequencies: 2.4 GHz, 4.9 GHz, 5 GHz,
900 MHz, and mixed frequencies (within one model or model series). In each group, the
products are ordered from highest price to lowest price. Prices do not include antenna and
accessories. Each is expressed in dollars.
4.5.1 2.4 GHz
Manufacturer:
Trango
Product:
M2400S
Frequency:
24000–2483 MHz
74
Coverage:
Standard Integrated Antenna (Each End): 15 Miles; Standard AP
Antenna and SU w/Grid Antenna: 25 Miles
Data Rate:
Up to 5 Mbps
Standard:
Power/Sensitivity:
Output Power: +23 dBm Max Setting, +10 dBm Min Setting;
Sensitivity: -90 dBm typical
Antenna:
Access point: Integrated 13 dBi, optional 12 dBi or 17 dBi
antenna; Subscriber: Integrated 15 dBi, optional 24 dBi
Channels:
8 channels, 10 MHz channel size
Enclosure:
All-weather, powder coated, cast aluminum with Polycarbonate
Environment:
-40° to 60° C (-40 to 140°F)
Cost:
Base Station: 1,993.00; Subscriber: 713.00
Comments:
PTMP (Base station support up to 128 sub unit)
Website:
http://www.trangobroadband.com
Manufacturer:
Alvarion
Product:
BreezeMAX Wi²/BreezeACCESS Wi²
Frequency:
802.11b/g: 2.4–2.4835 GHz
Coverage:
Data Rate:
11 Mbps
802.11g: 6, 9, 11, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54 Mbps; 802.11b:1, 2, 5.5,
Standard:
802.11b/g
Power/Sensitivity:
802.11g Tx: 20 dbm with 6 Mbps to 18 dbm with 54 Mbps, Rx:95 dbm with 6 Mbps to -70 dbm with 54 Mbps; 802.11b Tx:
20 dbm with 1 Mbps to 11 Mbps, Rx:-111 dbm with 1 Mbps to -91
with 11 Mbps
Antenna:
2 x 8 dBi Omni directional (2.4–2.5 GHz)
Channels:
Maximum Channels: FCC/IC: 1–11
Enclosure:
Environment:
-40 to 60°C (-40 to 140°F)
Cost:
1,860
ALVR-Wi2-ODU-b/g (Wi-Fi 802.11 b/g outdoor Access Point)
Comments:
mesh
Website:
http://www.alvarion.com
75
Manufacturer:
Encom
Product:
Commpak BB24
Frequency:
2.4 GHz
Coverage:
Up to 60miles
Data Rate:
Up to54 Mbps
Standard:
802.11 b/g or eMax Proprietary protocol
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit power: 28 dB, 700 mW; Receive signal: 1 Mbps -97 dBm
to 54 Mbps -74 dBm
Antenna:
antennas
Integrated antenna (23 dBi) or external Omni, Yagi and Panel
Channels:
5 MHz, 10 MHz and 20 MHz channels
Enclosure:
IP67
Environment:
-30°C to +60°C (-22 to 140°F)
Cost:
1,750.00
Comments:
Access point and station
Website:
http://www.encomwireless.com
Manufacturer:
Alvarion
Product:
BreezeNET DS.11
Frequency:
2.4 GHz
Coverage:
Up to 25 km (15 miles)
Data Rate:
11/5.5/2/1 Mbps
Standard:
IEEE 802.11b
Power/Sensitivity:
Sensitivity: 11 Mbps -85 dBm; 5.5 Mbps -88 dBm; 2 Mbps -90
dBm; 1 Mbps -93 dBm; Output power: -4, -2, 4, 6, 12, 14, 20, 24
(dBm)
Antenna:
external
Integrated Antenna: Flat Panel 16 dBi, 20° Vertical /Horizontal; or
Channels:
1–11
Enclosure:
Environment:
Outdoor unit: - 40°C to 55°C (-40 to 122°F)/ Indoor unit: 0°C to
40°C (-32 to 104°F)
76
Cost:
1,395.00
Comments:
PTP & PTMP
Website:
http://www.alvarion.com
Manufacturer:
Inscape Data
Product:
AirEther AB54E Pro
Frequency:
2.412–2.462 GHz
Coverage:
Data Rate:
IEEE802.11b: 1/2/5.5/11 Mbps; IEEE802.11g:
6/9/12/18/24/36/48/54 Mbps; Super g: up to 108 Mbps
Standard:
IEEE 802.11b/g
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit Power 28 dBm max; Sensitivity 802.11b -85 [email protected]
11 Mbps to -94 [email protected] 1 mbps, 802.11g -91 [email protected] 6 Mbps to -70
[email protected] 108 Mbps
Antenna:
N-Female
Channels:
11
Enclosure:
IP68
Environment:
-22°F to +158°F (-30°C to +70°C)
Cost:
549.99
Comments:
Access point with bridge, repeater, client features
Website:
http://www.inscapedata.com
Manufacturer:
Tranzeo wireless
Product:
TR-6019
Frequency:
2401 MHz to 2483.5 MHz
Coverage:
Data Rate:
802.11b: 5.5/11 Mbps, 2 Mbps, 1 Mbps; 802.11g: 48/54 Mbps,
24/36 Mbps, 12/18 Mbps, 6/9 Mbps
Standard:
802.11 b/g
Power/Sensitivity:
Output Power: +23 dbm max; Sensitivity: 802.11b: -85 dbm @ 11
Mbps, -90 dbm @ 1 Mbps; 802.11g: -72 dbm @ 54 Mbps, 89 dbm @ 6 Mbps
Antenna:
19 dBi Panel (internal)
77
Channels:
Enclosure:
Environment:
-65°C to +60°C (-85 to 140°F)
Cost:
356.00
Comments:
Access Point, a PTP bridge, or a Client Adapter (CPE).
Website:
http://www.tranzeo.com
Manufacturer:
Tranzeo wireless
Product:
TR-CPQ-19
Frequency:
2400–2483.5 MHz
Coverage:
10miles
Data Rate:
802.11b: 5.5/11 Mbps, 2 Mbps, 1 Mbps; 802.11g: 48/54 Mbps,
24/36 Mbps, 12/18 Mbps, 6/9 Mbps BPSK
Standard:
802.11b/g
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit Power: 23 dBm max; Sensitivity: 802.11a: -85 dbm @ 11
Mbps, -90 dbm @ 1 Mbps, 802.11g: -72 dbm @ 54 Mbps, 89 dbm @ 6 Mbps
Antenna:
19 dBi Panel (internal)
Channels:
Enclosure:
Environment:
-65°C to +60°C (-85 to 140°F)
Cost:
301.00
Comments:
Client Adapter (CPE)
Website:
http://www.tranzeo.com
Manufacturer:
Teletronics
Product:
TT2400
Frequency:
2.4 GHz
Coverage:
Data Rate:
up to 54 Mbps
Standard:
IEEE 802.11b/g
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit Power: IEEE 802.11b: 23 dbm (+/- 1.5dB)@
78
to
Mbps
1/2/5.5/11 Mbps, IEEE 802.11g: 20 dbm (+/- 1.5dB) @ 54 Mbps
23 dbm (+/- 1.5dB) @ 6 Mbps; Sensitivity: IEEE 802.11g 54
<= -72 dbm to 6 Mbps <= -89 dbm, IEEE 802.11b 11 Mbps: <=88 dbm to 1 Mbps: <= -95 dbm
Antenna:
N-type Female
Channels:
Total of 3 Non-Overlapping Channels
Enclosure:
Environment:
-40 to 70 °C (-40 to 158°F)
Cost:
220.00
Comments:
AP/Bridge/CPE
Website:
http://www.teletronics.com
Manufacturer:
Ubiquiti
Product:
NanoStation M2
Frequency:
2412 MHz–2462 MHz
Coverage:
15km
Data Rate:
150 Mbps
Standard:
802.11b/g/n/airmax
Power/Sensitivity:
Output Power: 802.11b/g: 28 dBm @1–24 Mbps to 24 dBm @
54 Mbps, 802.11n/Airmax: 28 dBm to 22 dbm; Sensitivity:
802.11b/g: -97 dBm @ 1–24 Mbps to -75 dBm @ 54 Mbps,
802.11n/Airmax: -96 dBm to -75 dbm
Antenna:
10.4–11.2 dBi
Channels:
Enclosure:
Outdoor UV Stabalized Plastic
Environment:
-30°C to +80°C (-22 to 176°F)
Cost:
89.95
Comments:
WIRELESS CPE; 2 X 10/100 Ethernet Interface
Website:
http://www.ubnt.com
Manufacturer:
Teletronics
79
Product:
EZStation2
Frequency:
2.412 GHz0–2.4835 GHz
Coverage:
Data Rate:
Mbps,
Mbps)
802.11b (11 Mbps, 5.5 Mbps, 2 Mbps, 1 Mbps); 802.11g (54
48 Mbps, 36 Mbps, 24 Mbps, 18 Mbps, 12 Mbps, 9 Mbps, 6
Standard:
802.11b/g
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit Power: 26±1.5 [email protected], 20±1.5 [email protected];
Sensitivity: 802.11b -80 dBm, 802.11g -68 dBm
Antenna:
15 dBi patch antenna
Channels:
2.412–2.462 GHz (11 Channels)
Enclosure:
Environment:
-40 to 70 °C (-40 to 158°F)
Cost:
89.00
Comments:
AP Client Router, AP Router, AP Bridge, Repeater
Website:
http://www.teletronics.com
Manufacturer:
Ubiquiti
Product:
Rocket M2
Frequency:
2412 MHz–2462 MHz
Coverage:
50km
Data Rate:
150 Mbps
Standard:
802.11b/g/n/airmax
Power/Sensitivity:
Output Power: 802.11b/g: 28 dBm @ 1–24 Mbps to 24 dBm @
54 Mbps, 802.11n/Airmax: 28 dBm to 22 dbm; Sensitivity:
802.11b/g: -97 dBm @ 1–24 Mbps to -75 dBm @ 54 Mbps,
802.11n/Airmax: -96 dBm to -75 dbm
Antenna:
External Antenna: AirMax Sector 2G-16-90(16.0–17.0 dBi);
AirMax Sector 2G-15-120(15.0–16.0 dBi)
Channels:
Enclosure:
Outdoor UV Stabalized Plastic
Environment:
-30°C to 75°C (-22 to 167°F)
80
Cost:
89.00
Comments:
PTP; 2 X 10/100 Ethernet Interface
Website:
http://www.ubnt.com
Manufacturer:
Ubiquiti
Product:
Bullet M2
Frequency:
2412–2462 MHz
Coverage:
50km
Data Rate:
100 Mbps
Standard:
802.11b/g/n
Power/Sensitivity:
Output Power: 802.11b/g: 28 dBm @ 6–24 Mbps to 23 dBm @
54 Mbps, 802.11n: 28 dBm to 22 dbm; Sensitivity: 802.11b/g: -83
dBm @ 24 Mbps to -75 dBm @ 54 Mbps, 802.11n/Airmax: -96
dBm to -74 dbm
Antenna:
Any antenna like grid antenna and sector antenna
Channels:
Enclosure:
Outdoor UV Stabalized Plastic
Environment:
-40°C to 80°C (-40 to 176°F)
Cost:
79.00
Comments:
PTP; 1 X 10/100 Ethernet Interface
Website:
http://www.ubnt.com
Manufacturer:
Deliberant
Product:
Deliberant CPE 2
Frequency:
2.3 GHz–2.5 GHz (Country dependent)
Coverage:
Data Rate:
Mbps
802.11g: 54 / 48 / 36 / 24 / 12 / 9 / 6 Mbps; 802.11b: 11 / 5.5 / 2 / 1
Standard:
802.11 b/g
Power/Sensitivity:
Sensitivity:
RF output power: Up to 27 dBm (Adjustable); Receiver
802.11g: -93 +/- 2 dbm @ 6 Mbps, -75 +/- 2 dbm @ 54 Mbps;
802.11b: -96 +/- 2 dbm @ 1 Mbps, -90 +/- 2 dbm @ 11 Mbps
Antenna:
Software selectable—14 dBi Integrated Panel or N-connector for
81
custom antenna application
Channels:
Enclosure:
IP67
Environment:
–25°C–65°C (-13 to 149°F)
Cost:
76.00
Comments:
Client Bridge/Client/Router/WDS/CPE
Website:
http://www.deliberant.com
4.5.2 4.9 GHz
Manufacturer:
Trango
Product:
ATLAS 4900-INT22
Frequency:
4.9 GHz Public Safety Band
Coverage:
5 Mbps: 20 miles; 45 Mbps: 3 miles
Data Rate:
up to 45 Mbps
Standard:
Power/Sensitivity:
Sensitivity: -71 dBm (54 Mbits) to -90 dBm (6 Mbits)
Antenna:
Integrated, 22 dBi
Channels:
Enclosure:
NEMA 4
Environment:
-40° to 60° C (-40° to 140° F)
Cost:
5,195.00
Comments:
PTP
Website:
http://www.trangobroadband.com
Manufacturer:
Encom
Product:
Commpak BB49
Frequency:
4.9 GHz licensed public safety frequency band
Coverage:
Up to 60miles
Data Rate:
Up to54 Mbps
Standard:
802.11 a/b/g or eMax Proprietary protocol
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit power: 28 dB, 700 mW; Receive signal: 1 Mbps -97 dBm
to 54 Mbps -74 dBm
82
Antenna:
antennas
Integrated antenna (23 dBi) or external Omni, Yagi and Panel
Channels:
5 MHz, 10 MHz and 20 MHz channels
Enclosure:
IP67
Environment:
-30°C to +60°C (-22 to 140°F)
Cost:
1,800.00
Comments:
Access point and station
Website:
http://www.encomwireless.com
4.5.3 5 GHz
Manufacturer:
Motorola
Product:
PTP 58600
Frequency:
5.470 GHz–5.725 GHz, 5.725 GHz–5.850 GHz
Coverage:
LOS range 124 mi (200 km); NLOS range 5 mi (8 km); nLOS
range 20 mi (32 km)
Data Rate:
full: 5 MHz Channel – Up to 40 Mbps /10 MHz Channel – Up to
84 Mbps /15 MHz Channel – Up to 126 Mbps/30 MHz Channel –
Up to 300 Mbps lite: 10 MHz Channel – Up to 42 Mbps /15 MHz
Channel – Up to 63 Mbps/30 MHz Channel – Up to 150 Mbps
Standard:
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit Power: Varies with modulation mode and settings up to
25 dBm; Sensitivity: varying between -98 dBm and -58 dBm
Antenna:
Integrated flat plate 23 dBi / 7°or External
Channels:
Configurable to 5, 10, 15, or 30 MHz
Enclosure:
Environment:
-40°C to +60°C (-40 to 140°F)
Cost:
15,995(Lite)/19,995(Full)
Comments:
PTP; non-line-of-sight, line-of-sight, near-line- of- sight
Website:
http://www.motorola.com
Manufacturer:
Motorola
Product:
PTP 58500
Frequency:
5.725 GHz–5.875 GHz; 5.470 GHz–5.725 GHz
83
Coverage:
LOS range 155 mi (250 km), NLOS range 6 mi (10 km), nLOS
range 25 mi (40 km)
Data Rate:
full: 5 MHz Channel – Up to 35 Mbps /10 MHz Channel – Up to
70 Mbps /15 MHz Channel – Up to 105 Mbps
lite: 5 MHz Channel – Up to 17 Mbps /10 MHz Channel – Up to
35 Mbps /15 MHz Channel – Up to 52 Mbps
Standard:
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit Power: Varies with modulation mode and settings from
18 dBm to 27 dBm; Sensitivity: varying between -94 dBm and -69
dBm
Antenna:
Integrated flat plate 23 dBi / 8°or External
Channels:
Configurable to 5, 10, or 15 MHz
Enclosure:
Environment:
-40°C to +60°C (-40 to 140°F)
Cost:
9,995 (Lite); 13,995 (Full)
Comments:
PTP Bridge; NLOS, nLOS, and LOS
Website:
http://www.motorola.com\
Manufacturer:
Proxim
Product:
MP-8150
Frequency:
5.8 GHz
Coverage:
up to 43 miles (70km)
Data Rate:
High Throughput mode (6.5–300 Mbps); legacy mode (6 Mbps–
54 Mbps)
Standard:
Power/Sensitivity:
dbm,-
Transmit Power: 18 dbm; Sensitivity: (40 MHz) -87 dbm,-71
69 dbm, (20 MHz) -93 dbm, -75 dbm, -71 dbm
Antenna:
21 dBi Integrated antenna
Channels:
upgrade)
40 MHz, 20 MHz (10 MHz and 5 MHz are available by firmware
Enclosure:
IP67
Environment:
-40° to 60°C (-40 to 140°F)
84
Cost:
Base station: 8,999; Subscriber: 1,799
Comments:
PTMP; non-line-of-sight
Website:
http://www.proxim.com
Manufacturer:
Motorola
Product:
PTP 58300
Frequency:
5.725 GHz–5.875 GHz, 5.470 GHz–5.725 GHz
Coverage:
25 mi (40 km)
LOS: Up to 155 miles (250 km) / NLOS: 6 mi (10 km) / nLOS:
Data Rate:
LOS: up to 50 Mbps over 6 miles (10 km)
Standard:
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit Power: Varies with modulation mode and settings from
18 dBm to 27 dBm; Sensitivity: varying between -94 dBm and -69
dBm
Antenna:
Integrated flat plate 23 dBi /8° or External
Channels:
Configurable to 5, 10, or 15 MHz
Enclosure:
Environment:
-40°C to +60°C (-40 to 140°F)
Cost:
5,995.00
Comments:
PTP Bridge; NLOS, nLOS, and LOS
Website:
http://www.motorola.com
Manufacturer:
Airspan
Product:
MicroMAXd
Frequency:
in both licensed (700 MHz, 1.5 GHz, 3.3 GHz, 3.5, 3.7 GHz,
4.9 GHz) and unlicensed (5.1, 5.4 GHz, 5.8 GHz, 5.9 GHz) bands
Coverage:
Data Rate:
Standard:
IEEE802.16-2004
Power/Sensitivity:
+27 dbm
Antenna:
Channels:
10 MHz, 5 MHz, 3.5 MHz, 1.75 MHz
Enclosure:
85
Environment:
Cost:
light version: 5,000, full version: 9,000
Comments:
Base Station
Website:
http://www.airspan.com
Manufacturer:
Alvarion
Product:
BreezeNET B100 (BU/RB-B100D-5.8 and BU/RB-B100-5.8)
Frequency:
5.7250–5.875 GHz
Coverage:
Data Rate:
Up to 73 Mbps
Standard:
Power/Sensitivity:
Up to 21 dBm
Antenna:
21 dBi integrated antenna, 23 or 28 dBi external antenna
Channels:
10, 20, and 40 MHz channels
Enclosure:
Environment:
Outdoor unit: - 40°C to 55°C (-40 to 122°F) / Indoor unit: 0°C to
40°C (-32 to 104°F)
Cost:
3,995 (BU/RB-B100D-5.8 and BU/RB-B100-5.8)
Comments:
PTP
Website:
http://www.alvarion.com
Manufacturer:
Ruckus
Product:
ZoneFlex 7731
Frequency:
5.15–5.85 GHz
Coverage:
LOS: Up to 190 Mbps at 1.5 km/1 mi; Up to 165 Mbps at 3 km/2
mi; Up to 100 Mbps at 5 km/3 mi; Up to 50 Mbps at 10 km/6 mi;
15km maximum range
Data Rate:
802.11n: 6.5 Mbps–130 Mbps (20 MHz) / 6.5 Mbps–270 Mbps
(40 MHz); 802.11a: up to 54 Mbps
Standard:
802.11a/n
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit Power: 22 dBm
Antenna:
Internal 14 dBi directional antenna & two external
Channels:
20 MHz and/or 40 MHz
86
Enclosure:
IP-65
Environment:
-40°C to 65° C (-40°F to 149°F)
Cost:
2,398/pair
Comments:
PTP
Website:
http://www.ruckuswireless.com
Manufacturer:
Alvarion
Product:
BreezeNET B28 (BU/RB-B28D-5.8 and BU/RB-B28-5.8)
Frequency:
5.7250–5.875 GHz
Coverage:
Data Rate:
Up to 28 Mbps
Standard:
Power/Sensitivity:
Up to 21 dBm
Antenna:
21 dBi integrated antenna; 23 and 28 dBi external antenna
Channels:
10, 20, and 40 MHz channels
Enclosure:
Environment:
Outdoor unit: - 40°C to 55°C (-40 to 122°F) / Indoor unit: 0°C to
40°C (-32 to 104°F)
Cost:
1,995 (BU/RB-B28D-5.8 and BU/RB-B28-5.8)
Comments:
PTP
Website:
http://www.alvarion.com
Manufacturer:
Trango
Product:
Access5830
Frequency:
5725 MHz to 5850 MHz
Coverage:
Up to 18-mile range with external antenna
Data Rate:
10 Mbps
Standard:
Power/Sensitivity:
Sensitivity: 1600 byte packets: -83 dBm, 64 byte packets: -87 dBm
Antenna:
Integrated patch: 14 dBi; External Antenna: 16 dBi or 12 dBi
Channels:
6 non-overlapping channels
Enclosure:
NEMA 4
Environment:
-40° to 60° C (-40 to 140°F)
87
Cost:
Base Station: 1,993.00; Subscriber Unit: 786
Comments:
AP)
PTMP/wireless base station (Supports up to 500 subscribers per
Website:
http://www.trangobroadband.com
Manufacturer:
Motorola
Product:
5750APDD
Frequency:
5725–5850 MHz
Coverage:
2 mi (3.2 km)
Data Rate:
14 Mbps Maximum
Standard:
Power/Sensitivity:
Sensitivity: -86 dB
Antenna:
7 dB antenna gain
Channels:
20 MHz; 6 channels
Enclosure:
Environment:
-40° C to +55° C (-40° F to +131° F)
Cost:
1,895.00
Comments:
Access point; Not on Motorola company website now
Website:
http://www.motorola.com
Manufacturer:
Encom
Product:
Commpak BB58
Frequency:
5.8 GHz
Coverage:
Up to 60 miles
Data Rate:
Up to 54 Mbps
Standard:
802.11 a or eMax Proprietary protocol
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit power: 28 dB, 700 mW; Receive signal: 1 Mbps -97 dBm
to 54 Mbps -74 dBm
Antenna:
antennas
Integrated antenna (23 dBi) or external Omni, Yagi, and Panel
Channels:
5 MHz, 10 MHz, and 20 MHz channels
Enclosure:
IP67
Environment:
-30°C to +60°C (-22 to 140°F)
88
Cost:
1,750.00
Comments:
Access point and station
Website:
http://www.encomwireless.com
Manufacturer:
Tranzeo wireless
Product:
TR-WMX-58-pBS pico Base Station
Frequency:
5.725 to 5.875 GHz
Coverage:
Data Rate:
Standard:
IEEE 802.16-2004
Power/Sensitivity:
Output Power: 17 dBm; Sensitivity: -89 dBm (BPSK1/2) -72 dbm
(64 QAM 2/3)
Antenna:
Selection of Omni and Sector Antennas
Channels:
10 MHz
Enclosure:
IP67 weathertight
Environment:
-35°C to +50°C (-31 to 122°F)
Cost:
1,600.00
Comments:
WiMAX Base Station; LOS, NLOS PTMP Cellular Architecture
Website:
http://www.tranzeo.com
Manufacturer:
AIRAYA
Product:
AI108-4958-OSU (Outdoor subscriber unit)
Frequency:
5.25–5.35, 5.47–5.72, or 5.725–5.85 GHz
Coverage:
Up to 2.5 miles in multipoint mode
Data Rate:
up to 35 Mbps
Standard:
802.11a
Power/Sensitivity:
Tx: 0 and 21 dBm; Rx: -71 to -85 dBm
Antenna:
integrated 23 dBi antenna
Channels:
5.25–5.35 GHz: 4 x 20 MHz, 2 x 40 MHz; 5.47–5.72 GHz: 11 x 20
MHz; 5.725–5.850 GHz: 5 x 20 MHz, 2 x 40 MHz
Enclosure:
Environment:
Cost:
1,399.00
89
Comments:
outdoor subscriber
Website:
https://secure.airaya.com
Manufacturer:
Alvarion
Product:
BreezeNET B14 (BU/RB-B14D-5.8 and BU/RB-B14-5.8)
Frequency:
5.7250–5.875 GHz
Coverage:
Data Rate:
Up to 14 Mbps
Standard:
Power/Sensitivity:
Up to 21 dBm
Antenna:
16 dBi integrated antenna or 24 dBi external antenna
Channels:
10 and 20 MHz channels
Enclosure:
Environment:
Outdoor unit: - 40°C to 55°C (-40 to 122°F) / Indoor unit: 0°C to
40°C (-32 to 104°F)
Cost:
1,195(BU/RB-B14D-5.8 and BU/RB-B14-5.8)
Comments:
PTP
Website:
http://www.alvarion.com
Manufacturer:
Motorola
Product:
5750SMDD
Frequency:
5.725 to 5.850 GHz
Coverage:
2 miles (3.2 km), 10 miles (16 km) with reflector
Data Rate:
14 Mbps (1 mile)
Standard:
Power/Sensitivity:
Sensitivity: -86 dbm
Antenna:
7 dBi
Channels:
20 MHz; 6 channels
Enclosure:
Environment:
-40° C to +55° C (-40 to 131°F)
Cost:
895.00
Comments:
Access point; Not on Motorola company website now
Website:
http://www.motorola.com
90
Manufacturer:
Inscape Data
Product:
AirEther BR108
Frequency:
5.15–5.85 GHz
Coverage:
Data Rate:
IEEE802.11a: 6/12/18/24/36/48/54/108 Mbps
Standard:
IEEE 802.11a
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit Power: 23 dBm; Receiver Sensitivity: -88 @ 6 Mbps to
-64 @ 108 Mbps
Antenna:
N-Female
Channels:
13
Enclosure:
IP68
Environment:
-22°F to +158°F (-30°C to +70°C)
Cost:
617.68
Comments:
PTP or PTMP; Tri-Band
Website:
http://www.inscapedata.com
Manufacturer:
Tranzeo wireless
Product:
TR-5PLUS-24
Frequency:
5170 MHz to 5805 MHz
Coverage:
Data Rate:
up to 54 Mbps
Standard:
802.11a
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit Power: +23 dbm; Sensitivity: -76 dbm @ 54 Mbps
Antenna:
24 dBi Panel (internal)
Channels:
Enclosure:
Environment:
-65°C to +60°C (-85 to 140°F)
Cost:
357.00
Comments:
Access Point (AP) / PTP / Customer Premise
Equipment (CPE)
Website:
http://www.tranzeo.com
91
Manufacturer:
Teletronics
Product:
TT5800
Frequency:
5.7250–5.850 GHz
Coverage:
Data Rate:
54, 48, 36, 24, 18, 12, 9, and 6 Mbps
Standard:
IEEE 802.11a
Power/Sensitivity:
Output Power: 23 dBm (+/- 1.5dB) @ 6/9/12/18/24 Mbps0–18
dBm @ 54 Mbps; Sensitivity: -90 dBm <=6 Mbps, -72 dBm <=54
Mbps
Antenna:
N-type Female
Channels:
5 Channels
Enclosure:
Silver Powder Coated Cast Aluminum
Environment:
-40 to 70 °C (-40 to 158°F)
Cost:
245.00
Comments:
AP/Bridge/CPE
Website:
http://www.teletronics.com
Manufacturer:
E-ZY.NET
Product:
EZ-Bridge-LT5
Frequency:
5 GHz
Coverage:
3miles
Data Rate:
real world throughput up to 25 Mbps
Standard:
802.11g/b
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit power: 802.11g: 50, 100mW, 802.11b: 100, 150, 200,
250mW; Sensitivity: 802.11g: -73 +2 dbm @ 54 Mbps, 802.11b:
-84 + 2 dbm @ 11 Mbps
Antenna:
14 dBi Panel Antenna
Channels:
11 channels
Enclosure:
Environment:
-30°C to 50°C (-22°F to 122°F)
Cost:
230.00
Comments:
PTP Bridge, Access Point, Client
Website:
http://www.e-zy.net
92
Manufacturer:
Compex
Product:
MMJ543LVA-P26 (MIMO Junior)
Frequency:
5.45–5.85 GHz
Coverage:
Data Rate:
up to 300 Mbps
Standard:
IEEE 802.11a/n
Power/Sensitivity:
400mW (26 dbm)
Antenna:
13 dBi directional dual-polarization
Channels:
Enclosure:
Outdoor
Environment:
-20°C to 70°C (-4 to 158°F)
Cost:
89.95
Comments:
Station/Station WDS/AP/AP WDS/Repeater WDS
Website:
http://www.cpx.com
Manufacturer:
Ubiquiti
Product:
NanoStation M5
Frequency:
5745 MHz–5825 MHz
Coverage:
15km
Data Rate:
150 Mbps
Standard:
802.11a/n
Power/Sensitivity:
Output Power: 802.11a: 27 dBm @ 6–24 Mbps to 22 dBm @
54 Mbps, 802.11n: 27 dBm to 21 dbm; Sensitivity: 802.11a: -94
–
dBm @ 6–24 Mbps to -75 dBm @ 54 Mbps, 802.11n: -96 dBm to
75 dbm
Antenna:
14.6–16.1 dBi
Channels:
Enclosure:
Outdoor UV Stabalized Plastic
Environment:
-30°C to +80°C (-22 to 176°F)
Cost:
89.95
Comments:
WIRELESS CPE; 2 X 10/100 Ethernet Interface
93
Website:
http://www.ubnt.com
Manufacturer:
Ubiquiti
Product:
Rocket M5
Frequency:
5470 MHz–5825 MHz
Coverage:
50km
Data Rate:
150 Mbps
Standard:
802.11 a/n
Power/Sensitivity:
Output Power: 802.11a: 27 dBm @ 6–24 Mbps to 22 dBm @
54 Mbps, 802.11n: 27 dBm to 21 dbm; Sensitivity: 802.11a: -94
dBm @ 6–24 Mbps to -75 dBm @ 54 Mbps, 802.11n: -96 dBm to –
75 dbm
Antenna:
External Antenna: AirMax Sector 5G-17-90(16.1–17.1 dBi);
AirMax Sector 5G-16-120(15.0–16.0 dBi); AirMax Sector 5G-2090(19.4–20.3 dBi); AirMax Sector 5G-19-120(18.6-19.1);
RocketDish5G-34(32.1–34.2 dBi)
Channels:
Enclosure:
Outdoor UV Stabalized Plastic
Environment:
-30°C to 75°C (-22 to 167°F)
Cost:
89.00
Comments:
PTP; 1 X 10/100 Ethernet Interface
Website:
http://www.ubnt.com
Manufacturer:
Ubiquiti
Product:
Bullet M5
Frequency:
5470 MHz–5825 MHz
Coverage:
50km
Data Rate:
100 Mbps
Standard:
802.11 a/n
Power/Sensitivity:
Output Power: 802.11a: 25 dBm @ 1–24 Mbps to 20 dBm @
54 Mbps, 802.11n: 25 dBm to 19 dBm; Sensitivity: 802.11a: -83
dBm @ 24 Mbps to -75 dBm @ 54 Mbps, 802.11n: -96 dBm to –
74 dbm
94
Antenna:
Any antenna like grid antenna and sector antenna
Channels:
Enclosure:
Outdoor UV Stabalized Plastic
Environment:
-40°C to 80°C (-40 to 176°F)
Cost:
79.00
Comments:
PTP; 1 X 10/100 Ethernet Interface
Website:
http://www.ubnt.com
4.5.4 900 MHz
Manufacturer:
GE
Product:
MDS Inetii-900 900 MHz
Frequency:
902–928 MHz ISM band
Coverage:
Range (512 Kbps) Up to 20 miles (fixed), and Up to 3 miles
(mobile); Range (1 Mbps) Up to 15 miles
Data Rate:
1 Mbps/512 Kbps
Standard:
Power/Sensitivity:
100mW to 1W (20 to 30 dBm); Sensitivity: 512 Kbps -97 dBm, 1
Mbps -92 dBm
Antenna:
External
Channels:
Enclosure:
die cast aluminum
Environment:
-30°C to +60°C (-22 to 140°F)
Cost:
2,400.00
Comments:
transceiver
Website:
http://www.gedigitalenergy.com
Manufacturer:
Trango
Product:
M900S
Frequency:
9020–928 MHz
Coverage:
Up to 20 miles LOS
Data Rate:
3 Mbps
Standard:
95
Power/Sensitivity:
Output Power: +26 dBm Max Setting, -4 dBm Min Setting;
Sensitivity: -90 dBm typical
Antenna:
Integrated 10 dBi & external antenna
Channels:
4 non-overlapping, 6 MHz
Enclosure:
radome
All-weather, powder coated, cast aluminum with polycarbonate
Environment:
-40° to 60° C (-40 to 140°F)
Cost:
Base Station: 1,993.00; Subscriber: 713.00
Comments:
of-sight
PTMP (Base station support up to 126 sub unit); LOS & Non-line-
Website:
http://www.trangobroadband.com
Manufacturer:
GE
Product:
MDS TransNet 900 MHz
Frequency:
902–928 MHz ISM band
Coverage:
Up to 30 miles
Data Rate:
115.2 kbps
Standard:
Power/Sensitivity:
100 mW to 1W (20 to 30 dBm); Sensitivity -105 dBm
Antenna:
External
Channels:
Enclosure:
Environment:
-40° C to +70° C (-40 to 158°F)
Cost:
1,100.00
Comments:
PTMP: Master/Remote/Repeater Extension
Website:
http://www.gedigitalenergy.com
Manufacturer:
Hana Wireless
Product:
HW9
Frequency:
902–928 MHz ISM Band
Coverage:
Distances up to 15 Miles LOS
Data Rate:
Real Data Rates of 25 Mbps+
Standard:
96
Power/Sensitivity:
Sensitivity: -93 dbm
Antenna:
13 dBi Integrated Antenna
Channels:
5/10/20 MHz Wide Channels
Enclosure:
UV Stabilized Radome
Environment:
Cost:
379.00
Comments:
Multi-Point or PTP
Website:
http://www.hanawireless.com
Manufacturer:
Tranzeo wireless
Product:
TR-902-11
Frequency:
902 MHz to 928 MHz
Coverage:
up to 4 miles with 2 to 3 Mbps
Data Rate:
802.11b: up to 11 Mbps/ 802.11g: up to 54 Mbps
Standard:
802.11b/g
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit Power: +25 dbm mean, +29 dbm peak; Sensitivity:
802.11b: -83 dbm @ 11 Mbps to -92 dbm @ 1 Mbps, 802.11g: 67 dbm @ 54 Mbps to -87 dbm @ 6 Mbps
Antenna:
11 dBi
Channels:
Enclosure:
Environment:
-55°C to +60°C (-67 to 140°F)
Cost:
370.00
Comments:
AP/PtP/CPE
Website:
http://www.tranzeo.com
Manufacturer:
Teletronics
Product:
TT 900
Frequency:
902–928 MHz
Coverage:
Data Rate:
54, 48, 36, 24, 18, 12, 11, 9, 6, 5.5, and 1 Mbps
Standard:
IEEE 802.11b/g
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit Power: 23 dBm (+/- 1.5dB) @ 1–24 Mbps, 22 dBm @ 36
97
Mbps, 21 dBm @ 48 Mbps, 20 dBm @ 54 Mbps; Sensitivity: -92
dBm @ 6 Mbps, -72 dBm @ 54 Mbps
Antenna:
N-type Female
Channels:
2 Channels: 913, 918 MHz
Enclosure:
NEMA 4 Enclosure
Environment:
-40 to 70 °C (-40 to 158°F)
Cost:
289.00
Comments:
AP/Bridge
Website:
http://www.teletronics.com
4.5.5 Others
Manufacturer:
Alvarion
Product:
BreezeNET B300
Frequency:
4.90–5.9 GHz
Coverage:
Data Rate:
Up to 250 Mbps
Standard:
Power/Sensitivity:
Up to 18 dBm
Antenna:
23 dBi (integrated antenna) or 23 and 28 dBi external antenna
Channels:
5, 10, 20, and 40 MHz channels
Enclosure:
Environment:
Outdoor units: -40°C to 60°C (-40 to 140°F)/ Indoor unit: 0°C to
40°C (-32 to 104°F)
Cost:
7,995.00
Comments:
PTP
Website:
http://www.alvarion.com
Manufacturer:
Alvarion
Product:
BreezeACCESS VL
Frequency:
902–927 MHz, 4.9–5.1 GHz, 5.15–5.35 GHz, 5.47–5.725 GHz,
5.725–5.875 GHz/4.9–5.875 GHz (SU-L)
Coverage:
SU: up to 30 km (LOS)/ SU-L: up to 12 km (LOS) /SU-Video: up
98
to 30 km (LOS)
Data Rate:
SU(5.8 GHz) SU-3 and SU-3L: 3 Mbps, SU-6 and SU-6L: 6 Mbps,
SU-12L: 12 Mbps, SU-54: 54 Mbps, SU-Video: 8 Mbps uplink
and 2 Mbps downlink; 900 MHz SU: 3 Mbps( upgradable to
8 Mbps)
Standard:
Power/Sensitivity:
Max input power (at ant. port) -48 dBm typical; Max output power
(at antenna port) AU: -10 dBm to 21 dBm, AU (900 MHz): -10
dBm to 27 dBm; SU: -10 dBm to 21 dBm, SU (900 MHz): -10
dBm to 27 dBm, SU-L: -9 dBm to 18 dBm
Antenna:
Integrated antenna: (SU) 20 dBi (19 dBi in 4.9–5.1 GHz band),
(SU-L) 17 dBi AU: 16 dBi sector 60° vertical, 16 dBi sector 90°
vertical, 15 dBi sector 120° vertical, 8 dBi Omni horizontal
Channels:
MHz
AU/SU: 5 MHz (900 MHz), 10 MHz, 20 MHz; SU-L: 20 MHz, 10
Enclosure:
Environment:
Outdoor unit: - 40°C to 55°C (-40 to 122°F)/ Indoor unit: 0°C to
40°C (-32 to 104°F)
Cost:
SA-
5.8 GHz Access Point: 5,245(AU-E-SA-5.8-VL); 5,595(AU-D5.8-120-VL/AU-D-SA-5.8-90-VL); 2,595(AUS-E-SA-5.8-VL)
5.8 GHz Subscriber: 649(SU-3); 799(SU-6); 999(SU-Video);
1199 (SU-54)
900 MHz Access Point: 2,495(AUS-E-SA-900-VL)
900 MHz Subscriber: 649(SU)
Comments:
PTMP; AU stands for access unit; SU stands for subscriber unit;
SU-L is light version for subscriber unit; SU-Video is used in
video transmission.
Website:
http://www.alvarion.com
Manufacturer:
Cisco
Product:
Aironet 1524SB
Frequency:
2.401 to 2.473 GHz; 5.725 to 5.850 GHz
99
Coverage:
Data Rate:
802.11a: 54, 48, 36, 24, 18, 12, 9, 6 Mbps; 802.11b: 11, 5.5, 2, 1
Mbps; 802.11g: 54, 48, 36, 24, 18, 12, 9, 6 Mbps
Standard:
802.11a/b/g
Power/Sensitivity:
Rx sensitivity 802.11a 5.0 GHz: –91 dBm @ 6 Mbps to –73 dBm
@ 54 Mbps; 802.11b: –96 dBm @ 1 Mbps to –92 dBm @ 11
Mbps; 802.11g with MRC: –96 dBm @ 1 Mbps to –80 dBm @ 54
Mbps TX max. Power: 28 dBm
Antenna:
3 external antennas
Channels:
2.401 to 2.473 GHz: 11 channels; 5.725 to 5.850 GHz: 5 channels
Enclosure:
IP67/NEMA Type 4X
Environment:
-40 to 55°C (-40 to 131°F)
Cost:
3,230.95
Comments:
Access Point (Secure Wireless Mesh); suggested model: AIRLAP1524SB-A-K9
Website:
http://www.cisco.com
Manufacturer:
Proxim
Product:
MeshMAX 3500
Frequency:
Mesh and Wi-Fi
3.40–3.6 GHz for WiMAX/5.150–5.85 GHz and 2.4120–2.472 for
Coverage:
Data Rate:
up to 54 Mbps
Standard:
802.11 a/b/g & IEEE 802.16e
Power/Sensitivity:
+20 dbm
Transmit Power: 3.5 GHz: +21 dbm, 5 GHz: +18 dbm, 2.4 GHz:
Antenna:
Must order separately
Channels:
3.5 MHz and 7 MHz for WiMAX radio, 20 MHz for mesh
backhaul and Wi-Fi access
Enclosure:
Environment:
-33° to 60°C (-27.4 to 140°F)
Cost:
Base Station: 2,749/ Subscriber: 1,549
Comments:
WiMAX subscriber and Wi-Fi Access Point
100
Website:
http://www.proxim.com
Manufacturer:
Proxim
Product:
MeshMAX 5054
Frequency:
5.15–6.08 GHz for unlicensed WiMAX/5.150–6.08 GHz and
2.4120–2.472 for Mesh and Wi-Fi
Coverage:
Data Rate:
up to 54 Mbps
Standard:
802.11 a/b/g & IEEE 802.16e
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit Power: 5 GHz: +18 dbm, 2.4 GHz: +20 dbm
Antenna:
Three external (two for 5 GHz and one for 2.4 GHz)
Channels:
5 MHz, 10 MHz and 20 MHz for WiMAX radio, 20 MHz for mesh
backhaul and Wi-Fi access
Enclosure:
Environment:
-35° to 60°C (-31 to 140°F)
Cost:
MeshMAX 5054WM:2,749; MeshMAX 5054W: 1,549
Comments:
WiMAX 5 GHz subscriber and Wi-Fi Mesh Access Point
Website:
http://www.proxim.com
Manufacturer:
Cisco
Product:
Aironet 1522AG
Frequency:
5 GHz, 4.9 GHz, 2.4 GHz
Coverage:
Data Rate:
802.11a: 54, 48, 36, 24, 18, 12, 9, 6 Mbps; 802.11b: 11, 5.5, 2, 1
Mbps; 802.11g: 54, 48, 36, 24, 18, 12, 9, 6 Mbps
4.9 GHz: 5 MHz: 13.5, 12, 9, 6, 4. 5, 3, 2.25, 1.5 Mbps; 10 MHz:
27, 24, 18, 12, 9, 6, 4.5, 3 Mbps; 20 MHz: 54, 48, 36, 24, 18, 12,
9, 6 Mbps
Standard:
802.11a and 802.11b/g dual radio
Power/Sensitivity:
Rx sensitivity 802.11a 5.0 GHz: –91 dBm @ 6 Mbps to–73 dBm
@ 54 Mbps; 802.11b: –96 dBm @ 1 Mbps to –92 dBm @ 11
Mbps; 802.11g with MRC: –96 dBm @ 1 Mbps to –80 dBm @
54 Mbps; 4.9 GHz, 20 MHz: –89 dBm @ 6 Mbps to –74 dBm
101
@ 54 Mbps Tx max. Power: 2.4 GHz/ 5 GHz 28 dBm;
4.9 GHz 20 dBm
Antenna:
3 external antennas
Channels:
2.401 to 2.473 GHz: 11 channels; 4.940 to 4.990 GHz: 5 MHz—10
channels, 10 MHz—5 channels, 20 MHz—2 channels; 5.250 to
5.850 GHz: 16 channels (excludes channel 120, 124, 128)
Enclosure:
IP68/NEMA Type 4X
Environment:
–40 to 55°C (-40 to 131°F)
Cost:
2,699.99
Comments:
Access Point (Secure Wireless Mesh)
Website:
http://www.cisco.com
Manufacturer:
Neteon
Product:
BAT54-F
Frequency:
5810 MHz
2 x independent: each 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz: 2400–2483 and 5170–
Coverage:
Up to 20 km with external antenna
Data Rate:
IEEE 802.11b
up to 54 Mbps according to IEEE 802.11g/a/h; up to 11 Mbps for
Standard:
IEEE 802.11a/b/g/h/i
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit Power: 2.4 GHz 802.11b: +19 dbm @1 and 2 Mbps,
+19 dbm @ 5.5 and 11 Mbps, 2,4 GHz 802.11g: +19 dBm @ 6
Mbps, +14 dBm @ 54 Mbps, 5 GHz 802.11a/h: +18 dBm @ 6
Mbps, +12 dBm @ 54 Mbps with TPC and DFS;
Sensitivity: 2.4 GHz 802.11b: -87 dBm @ 11 Mbps, -94 dBm @ 1
Mbps; 2.4 GHz 802.11g: -87 dBm @ 6 Mbps, -70 dBm @ 54
Mbps; 5 GHz 802.11a/h: -87 dBm @ 6 Mbps, -67 dBm @ 54
Mbps
Antenna:
External
Channels:
Enclosure:
IP57
Environment:
-20° to +50°C (-4 to 122°F)
Cost:
2,565.00
102
Comments:
AP/Router with Dual band
Website:
http://www.neteon.net
Manufacturer:
Proxim
Product:
ORiNOCO AP-4000MR-LR
Frequency:
802.11b/g: 2.412 to 2.462 GHz; 802.11a:5.745 to 5.85 GHz
Coverage:
Data Rate:
Mbps
802.11b:1, 2, 5.5, 11 Mbps; 802.11a/g: 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54
Standard:
802.11a/b/g
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit Power: +24 dBm for 802.11b, +24 dBm for 802.11g and
802.11a
Antenna:
Two external (2.4 GHz and 5 GHz)
Channels:
Enclosure:
IP65
Environment:
-35° to 60°C (-31 to 140°F)
Cost:
2,499.00
Comments:
Mesh Access Point
Website:
http://www.proxim.com
Manufacturer:
Proxim
Product:
Tsunami MP.11 2454-R/5054-R/5054-R-LR
Frequency:
2454-R: 2.4–2.4835 GHz; 5054-R: 5.25–5.35 GHz, 5.47–5.725
GHz, 5.725–5.850 GHz; 5054-R-LR: 5.725–5.850 GHz
Coverage:
5054-R-LR version provides extended range up to 20 miles
Data Rate:
54, 48, 36, 24, 18, 12, 9, 6, 4.5, 3, 2.25, 1.5 Mbps
Standard:
capabilities of the IEEE 802.16e
Power/Sensitivity:
Antenna:
5054-R Subscriber Unit with Integrated 23 dBi antenna; 5054-RLR Subscriber Unit for extended range with Integrated 23 dBi
or external
Channels:
antenna; 2454-R Subscriber Unit with Integrated 18 dBi antenna;
2454-R: 13 channels; 5054-R: 5.25–5.35 GHz (15 channels), 5.47–
103
GHz (46 channels), 5.725–5.850 GHz (21 channels); 5054R-LR: 21 channels
Enclosure:
Environment:
-33° to 60°C (-27.4 to 140°F)
Cost:
2454-R Base Station: 1,999 / Subscriber: 1,199
5054-R Base Station: 1,999 / Subscriber: 1,199 (with antenna)
999 (without antenna)
5054-R-LR Base Station: 2,299 / Subscriber: 1,399 (with 23 dBi
antenna) 1,199 (without antenna)
Comments:
PTMP
Website:
http://www.proxim.com
Manufacturer:
Proxim
Product:
ORiNOCO AP-4000MR
Frequency:
802.11b/g: 2.412 to 2.472 GHz; 802.11a: 5.15 to 5.25 GHz, 5.25 to
5.35 GHz, 5.47 to 5.725 GHz, 5.85 to 6.08 GHz;
Coverage:
Data Rate:
802.11b:1, 2, 5.5, 11 Mbps; 802.11a/g: 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54
Mbps
Standard:
802.11a/b/g
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit Power: +20 dBm for 802.11b, +18 dBm for 802.11g and
802.11a
Antenna:
Two external (2.4 GHz and 5 GHz )
Channels:
Enclosure:
IP65
Environment:
-40° to 60°C (-40 to 140°F)
Cost:
1,999.00
Comments:
Mesh Access Point
Website:
http://www.proxim.com
Manufacturer:
Meru
Product:
OAP180
Frequency:
802.11a: 5.180–5.240 GHz 4 channels; 5.260–5.320 GHz 4
104
channels; 5.745–5.825 GHz 5 channels / 802.11b/g: 2.4 GHz–
2.4835 GHz
Coverage:
Data Rate:
802.11b: 11, 5.5, 2 and 1 Mbps; 802.11a: 54, 48, 36, 24, 18, 12, 9,
and 6 Mbps; 802.11g: 54, 48, 36, 24, 18, 12, 11, 9, 6, 5.5, 2, 1
Mbps
Standard:
Dual radios enable simultaneous support of 802.11a and 802.11b/g
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit Power: 802.11b/g–+20 dBm (100 mW) nominal, 802.11a
–+18 dBm (65 mW) nominal; Sensitivity: 802.11 a -71 dBm at 54
Mbps to -89 dBm at 6 Mbps, 802.11b -90 dBm at 11 Mbps to -96
dBm at 1 Mbps, 802.11g -73 dBm at 54 Mbps to -91 dBm at 6
Mbps
Antenna:
External
Channels:
802.11a: 13 channels; 802.11b/g: 11 channels
Enclosure:
IP65 / NEMA 4 enclosure with sealed connectors
Environment:
-40° to 60° C (-40 to 140°F)
Cost:
1,995.00
Comments:
Access Point
Website:
http://www.merunetworks.com
Manufacturer:
Moxa
Product:
AWK-6222
Frequency:
2.412 to 2.462 GHz/5.18 to 5.24 GHz
Coverage:
Data Rate:
Mbps
802.11b: 1, 2, 5.5, 11 Mbps; 802.11a/g: 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54
Standard:
Security
IEEE 802.11a/g/b for Wireless LAN; IEEE 802.11i Wireless
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit Power: 802.11b: 23±1.5 dBm @ 1 to 11 Mbps, 802.11g:
18±1.5 dBm @ 6 to 24 Mbps to 15±1.5 dBm @ 54 Mbps,
802.11a:20±1.5 dBm @ 6 to 24 Mbps to 17±1.5 dBm @ 54 Mbps;
Sensitivity: 802.11b: -97 dBm @ 1 Mbps to -90 dBm @ 11 Mbps,
802.11g: -93 dBm @ 6 Mbps to -74 dBm @ 54 Mbps, 802.11a: 105
90 dBm @ 6 Mbps to -74 dBm @ 54 Mbps
Antenna:
5 dBi, 2.4 GHz omni-directional antenna and External
Channels:
2.412 to 2.462 GHz (11 channels) /5.18 to 5.24 GHz (4 channels)
Enclosure:
Metal, IP68 protection
Environment:
-40 to 75°C (-40 to 167°F)
Cost:
1,899.00
Comments:
AP/Bridge/Client
Website:
http://www.moxa.com
Manufacturer:
AIRAYA
Product:
AI108-4958-BSU (Base station)
Frequency:
4.94–4.99, 5.25–5.35, 5.47–5.72, or 5.725–5.85 GHz
Coverage:
Up to 2.5 miles in multipoint mode
Data Rate:
up to 42 Mbps
Standard:
Power/Sensitivity:
Tx: 0 and 21 dBm; Rx: -71 to -85 dBm
Antenna:
degree
60/90 degree sector (17 dBi), 120 degree sector (16 dBi), 360
Omni (10 dBi) options
Channels:
5.25–5.35 GHz: 4 x 20 MHz, 2 x 40 MHz; 5.47–5.72 GHz: 11 x 20
MHz; 5.725–5.850 GHz: 5 x 20 MHz, 2 x 40 MHz
Enclosure:
Environment:
Cost:
1,599.00
Comments:
outdoor radio
each base station includes an indoor signal/power injector, and an
Website:
https://secure.airaya.com
Manufacturer:
Neteon
Product:
BAT 54 Rail
Frequency:
Two independent radio modules, each 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz: 2400–
2483,5 MHz (ISM) and 5150–5750 MHz
Coverage:
Up to 20km with external antenna
106
Data Rate:
IEEE 802.11b
up to 54 Mbps according to IEEE 802.11g/a/h; up to 11 Mbps for
Standard:
IEEE 802.11a/b/g/h/i
Power/Sensitivity:
Sensitivity: 2.4 GHz 802.11b:-87 [email protected] Mbps,
-94 dbm @ 1 Mbps; 2.4 GHz 802.11g: -87 dbm @ 6 Mbps,
-70 dbm @ 54 Mbps; 5 GHz 802.11a/h: -87 dbm @ 6 Mbps,
-67 dbm @ 54 Mbps
Transmit Power: 802.11b: +19 dbm @ 1 and 2 Mbps, +19 dbm @
5.5 and 11 Mbps; 802.11g: +19 dbm @ 6 Mbps, +14 dbm @ 54
Mbps; 802.11a/h: +18 dbm @ 6 Mbps, +12 [email protected] 4 Mbps with
TPC and DFS
Antenna:
External
Channels:
Enclosure:
IP40-housing
Environment:
-20° to +50°C (-4 to 122°F)
Cost:
1,400.00
Comments:
Rail mounted; Dual band access point/client
Website:
http://www.neteon.net
Manufacturer:
Moxa
Product:
AWK-4121
Frequency:
2.412 to 2.462 GHz, 5.18 to 5.24 GHz
Coverage:
Long-distance data transmission over 10 km
Data Rate:
Mbps
802.11b: 1, 2, 5.5, 11 Mbps; 802.11a/g: 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54
Standard:
Security
IEEE 802.11a/g/b for Wireless LAN; IEEE 802.11i Wireless
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit Power (V1.2): 802.11b: 23±1.5 dBm @ 1 to 11 Mbps,
802.11g: 18±1.5 dBm @ 6 to 24 Mbps to 15±1.5 dBm @ 54 Mbps,
802.11a: 20±1.5 dBm @ 6 to 24 Mbps to 17±1.5 dBm @ 54 Mbps;
Sensitivity(V1.2): 802.11b: -97 dBm @ 1 Mbps to -90 dBm @ 11
Mbps, 802.11g: -93 dBm @ 6 Mbps to -74 dBm @ 54 Mbps,
802.11a: -90 dBm @ 6 Mbps to -74 dBm @ 54 Mbps
107
Antenna:
external antenna
Default Antenna 5 dBi, 2.4 GHz omni-directional antenna and
Channels:
2.412 to 2.462 GHz (11 channels), 5.18 to 5.24 GHz (4 channels)
Enclosure:
Metal, IP67 protection
Environment:
-40 to 75°C (-40 to 167°F)
Cost:
1,249.00
Comments:
AP/Bridge/Client
Website:
http://www.moxa.com
Manufacturer:
D-Link
Product:
DWL-7700AP
Frequency:
2.4 GHz to 2.4835 GHz 5.725 GHz to 5.850 GHz
Coverage:
Outdoors: 367ft (112m) @ 54 Mbps/ 820ft (250m) @ 18 Mbps/
1640ft (500m) @ 6 Mbps
Data Rate:
For 802.11a/g: 54, 48, 36, 24, 18, 12, 9 and 6 Mbps; For 802.11b:
11, 5.5, 2, and 1 Mbps
Standard:
802.11a/b/g
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit Output Power for 802.11a: up to + 100mW (20 dbm);
for 802.11b: + 200mW (23 dbm); For 802.11g: + 200mW
(23 dbm)
Receiver Sensitivity: For 802.11a: -85 dbm @ 6 Mbps to -68 dbm
@ 54 Mbps; For 802.11b: -94 dbm @ 1 Mbps to -85 dbm @
Mbps
Antenna:
11 Mbps; For 802.11g: -95 dbm @ 1 Mbps to -72 dbm @ 54
5 dBi Gain Diversity Dualband Dipole Antenna
Channels:
Enclosure:
Built-in Heater with Temperature Sensor
Environment:
-40˚C to 60˚C (-40 to 140°F)
Cost:
929.99
Comments:
Access Point/ WDS with AP/WDS/Bridge (No AP Broadcasting)
Website:
http://www.dlink.com/default.aspx
Manufacturer:
D-Link
108
Product:
DAP-3520
Frequency:
5.85 GHz
2.4 GHz to 2.4835 GHz, 5.15 GHz to 5.25 GHz and 5.725 GHz to
Coverage:
Data Rate:
up to 300 Mbps
Standard:
IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n
Power/Sensitivity:
Maximum Transmit Output Power: 17 dBm @ 2.4 GHz; 16 dBm
@ 5 GHz
Antenna:
8 dBi at 2.4 GHz; 10 dBi at 5 GHz
Channels:
Enclosure:
IP65
Environment:
-20˚C to 60˚C (-4 to 140°F)
Cost:
659.99
Comments:
Access Point (AP)/ WDS with AP/ WDS/ Wireless Client
Website:
http://www.dlink.com/default.aspx
Manufacturer:
EnGenius
Product:
EOR7550
Frequency:
802.11a: 5.15–5.35 GHz, 5.47–5.725 GHz, 5.725–5.825 GHz;
802.11b/g/n: 2.400 to 2.484 GHz
Coverage:
Data Rate:
IEEE802.11a/g/n up to 54 Mbps; IEEE802.11b up to 11 Mbps
Standard:
802.11a/g/n
Power/Sensitivity:
Receive sensitivity: 802.11a: -92 dbm @ 6 Mbps to -73 dbm @
54 Mbps, 802.11g: -94 dBm @ 6 Mbps to -74 dBm @ 54Mbp,
91
802.11b: -97 dBm @ 1 Mbps to -92 dBm @ 11 Mbps, 802.11n: dBm @ MCS8 to -74 dBm @ MCS15
Transmit power: (Radio 1)802.11a 28 dbm @ 6–24 Mbp to
22 dbm @ 54 Mbps, 802.11g 28 dbm @ 6–24 Mbp to
24 dbm @ 54 Mbps, 802.11b 28 dbm @ 1–11 Mbps
(Radio 2)802.11g/n 19 dbm @ 6–24 Mbp to 16 dbm @ 54 Mbps,
802.11b 18 dbm @ 1–11 Mbps
109
Antenna:
Integeral Omni Antenna or external antenna
Channels:
12 non-overlapping channels
Enclosure:
IP-65
Environment:
-20°C to 70°C (-4 to 158°F)
Cost:
159.99
Comments:
Website:
http://www.engeniustech.com
Manufacturer:
Deliberant
Product:
AP Solo
Frequency:
4.9 GHz–5.85 GHz (Country dependent)/2.4 GHz–2.497 GHz
(Country dependent)
Coverage:
Data Rate:
802.11a: 54 / 48 / 36 / 24 / 12 / 9 / 6 Mbps; 802.11g: 54 / 48 / 36 /
24 / 12 / 9 / 6 Mbps; 802.11b: 11 / 5.5 / 2 / 1 Mbps
Standard:
802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g
Power/Sensitivity:
RF output power: Up to 24 dBm - Adjustable; Tx sensitivity:
802.11a: -93 +/- 2 dbm @ 6 Mbps, -74 +/- 2 dbm @ 54 Mbps;
802.11b: -99 +/- 2 dbm @ 1 Mbps, -90 +/- 2 dbm @ 11 Mbps;
802.11g: -93 +/- 2 dbm @ 6 Mbps, -75 +/- 2 dbm @ 54 Mbps
Antenna:
External
Channels:
Enclosure:
Rugged Cast Aluminum IP67
Environment:
–30°C–60°C (-22 to 140°F)
Cost:
159.95
Comments:
AP/AP Client/WDS (Wireless Repeater, PTP, PTMP)/
AP Router/AP Client Router
Website:
http://www.deliberant.com
Manufacturer:
Teletronics
Product:
EZStation5
Frequency:
5.03 GHz–5.85 GHz, 4.9 GHz Public Safety Spectrums
Coverage:
110
Data Rate:
54, 48, 36, 24, 18, 12, 9, and 6 Mbps
Standard:
802.11a
Power/Sensitivity:
Transmit Power: 26 dbm (+/-1.5dB)@6/9/12/18/24 Mbps, 20 dbm
(+/-1.5dB)@54 Mbps; Sensitivity: -90 dBm ---- ≤ 6 Mbps, -70
dBm --- ≤ 54 Mbps
Antenna:
12 dBi/19 dBi (optional) patch antenna
Channels:
Enclosure:
Environment:
-20°C to 70°C (-4 to 158°F)
Cost:
118.00
Comments:
Access Point/ Client/Repeater/Gateway
Website:
http://www.teletronics.com
Manufacturer:
Deliberant
Product:
Deliberant CPE 5
Frequency:
4.9 GHz–5.85 GHz (Country dependent)
Coverage:
Data Rate:
802.11a: 54 / 48 / 36 / 24 / 12 / 9 / 6 Mbps
Standard:
802.11a
Power/Sensitivity:
RF output power: Up to 22 dBm - Adjustable; Receiver
Sensitivity: -93 +/- 2 dbm @ 6 Mbps, -74 +/- 2 dbm @54 Mbps
Antenna:
Software selectable—18 dBi Integrated Panel or N-connector for
custom antenna application
Channels:
Enclosure:
IP68
Environment:
–30°C to 60°C (-22 to 140°F)
Cost:
86.00
Comments:
Website:
http://www.deliberant.com
Few devices for wireless connection are made available by communications providers.
Before choosing such devices, check the network coverage in the installation area.
Among others, these devices include the following:
111
• U301 USB Device (Sprint): easy to plug in USB port; supports 3G/4G
mode. Regular price: $299.99; current price from Sprint (based on fulfilling
requirements): $0.00.
• Sierra Wireless W801 Mobile Hotspot (Sprint): supports 3G/4G mode.
Regular price: $349.99; current price from Sprint based on some
requirements: $99.99.
• EUROTECH ZyWAN cellular router: provides link to CDMA, EVDO,
GSM/GPRS, 3G, and iDEN. Price: $815.
• MiFi™2200 Intelligent Mobile Hotspot (Verizon): supports Mobile
Broadband provided by Verizon. Retail price: $99.99; current price from
Verizon (based on some requirements): $49.99.
• webConnect™ USB Laptop Stick (T-Mobile): laptop USB; supports 3G.
Retail price: $129.99; current price from T-Mobile (based on some
requirements): $19.99.
• AT&T USBConnect Lightning (AT&T): USB; supports 3G. Nocommitment price: $249.99; current price from AT&T (based on fulfilling
requirements): $0.00.
4.6 Equipment Selection Guidelines
Designing a cost-effective system requires a practical understanding of each system
component. For traffic surveillance systems, the major components are the camera and
communications equipment. The following subsections describe factors that should be
considered when selecting and installing a wireless surveillance system.
Figure 25 depicts the decision sequence recommended for addressing the issues. The
number preceding each step refers to the subsection below in which the key points that
should be considered are discussed.
112
Figure 25 Practical Issues Relevant to System Design
4.6.1 Situation Definition
At the outset, a definition of the situation at which deployment will occur is necessary.
Situation description involves a number of aspects:
• The environmental condition of system deployment location such as ground
flatness, general height information, and distribution density for buildings,
trees, or other obstructions.
• The number of sites that will be monitored and number of video cameras
needed.
• The topological relationship between different sites/video cameras and the
likely configurations: PTP, PTMP, or Mesh.
• The distance between the TMC and the farthest site/video camera,
considering utilization of existing infrastructure.
• The existing wireless network deployment for the site, especially noting the
ambient wireless signal strengths at different frequencies (approximation of
interference between signals).
113
• The level of service needed, such as streaming video 24 hours a day, video
only during certain time intervals, or incident alarms that require
confirmation.
Without a definition of the situation in terms of aspects discussed above, it is difficult to
assess practical issues such as approximating signal attenuation due to interference,
calculation of video bandwidth requirements, choice of type of wireless equipment
(PTP/PTMP/Mesh), estimation of the number of hops needed, and so on.
4.6.2 Camera Selection
Analog and Network Camera. The merits of analog vs. network cameras, especially IP
cameras, generate much argument that revolves around both cost and technology.
An IP camera has several pros: the output video is digitalized; compression components
are located in the camera; an in-camera web server provides direct network access and
makes web-based application easier; PTZ functions and video transmission need just one
Ethernet cable—some products even utilize PoE (power over Ethernet) technology to
provide power to the camera through the Ethernet cable; and most megapixel cameras are
IP cameras, which can be used in places requiring high quality video such as casino and
law enforcement sites. For an analog camera, the cost of the camera itself may be lower
and have better compatibility with the existing analog camera systems.
One of the most discussed disadvantages of an IP camera is its higher cost. However,
some experts argue, if the whole system cost (including cost of wiring, transmitting,
storing, encoding, etc.) is taken into account, the IP system might not actually cost more.
Axis, one network camera manufacturer, compares IP and analog camera systems, and
draws the conclusion that although the IP camera is more expensive, the total system cost
is less.
One significant problem of analog cameras is transmission security. Analog video has no
encryption when transmitted through coaxial cable. Thus, it is easily tapped. 14 When it
comes to wireless transmission, the analog signal is also unencrypted, which makes
unauthorized access possible. But a network camera does not have such problem. It uses
standard IEEE 802.11 with built-in encryption.
With the development of technology and marketing, the network camera has caught up
with the analog camera. In some aspects it even supersedes its counterpart. Currently, it is
widely used in various applications: bank, industrial, transportation, retail, and home
monitoring. More and more analog camera manufacturers, such as COHU and Pelco, are
developing their own network edition. Axis even anticipates “the analog will still be
around in 10 years but only for smaller projects and replacement of existing systems” and
“all major players” will “focus on IP in the next 5 to 7 years.” 15
Protection/Housing. Clearly, traffic surveillance cameras should be able to perform well
under adverse conditions. Beyond the basic protection from moisture, heat, and cold,
14
See website http://www.axis.com/files/feature_articles/ar_10reasons_34954_en_0903_lo.pdf, accessed
Feb. 11, 2010.
15
See website http://ipvideomarket.info/report/ip_vs_cctv , accessed May 24, 2010.
114
other needs may arise based on the local situation. For example, in some parts of Texas
dust is a serious problem.
Video Codecs. 16 As stated, wireless traffic surveillance system must employ codecs
(compression/decompression) for effective real-time monitoring. In the market, most
network cameras incorporate compression standards such as MJPEG, MPEG-4, or H.264.
Additional compression techniques are available, such as JPEG2000, MJPEG-1, MJPEG2, H.261, and H.263, as well as others. However, the more advanced the compression
technology, the more processing power required.
4.6.3 Bandwidth Calculation for Data Transmission (Honovich 2008)
It is intuitive that bandwidth will be predominantly consumed by the uplink direction
from the camera to the network. The network operator has to allocate a portion of the
bandwidth to the downlink direction from the network to the camera. The downlink
bandwidth is used to control the camera’s pan, tilt, zoom, and other functions. Thus both
downlink and uplink bandwidth should be considered when purchasing wireless
equipment.
Because traffic surveillance requires little downlink bandwidth capacity, only the uplink
bandwidth calculation is discussed in detail via the following formulae:
Bandwidth (Mbps) = (Frame_Size (KB) × Frame_Rate × Camera_Count × 8 / 1024) × (1
+ Overhead)
(Eq. 4-1)
where Overhead is normally taken to be 0.05;
Camera_Count refers to the number of cameras;
b stands for bit while B stands for byte;
Frame_Rate is the number of frames displayed or transmitted per second.
Normally, it is 30, 15, or 10.
For Frame_Size, use Equation 4-2:
Frame_Size (KB) = (Pixel_Width × Pixel_Height × Bit_Depth) /8 / 1024 ×
Compression_Ratio
(Eq. 4-2)
where Pixel_Width and Pixel_Height express the resolution of the video;
Bit_Depth is the number of bits required to describe one pixel in an image. The
larger the bit depth, the more colors that can be represented;
Compression_Ratio is the ratio of the size of compressed file to that of
uncompressed version of the same image. Compression techniques such as
MJPEG, MPEG-4, and H.264 are only for digitalized video; should compression
of an analog signal before transmission be desirable, the signal must be converted
to digital at the source.
Practically, the value of the variable Compression_Ratio is dependent on certain factors
beyond the compression protocol employed:
16
See website http://jmcgowan.com/avialgo.html.
115
(1) Video quality requirement—compression incurs loss of data and the more data
discarded the lower the video quality. A greater compression ratio will be at a cost
of video quality, and different applications lead to different video quality
requirements. Because quality requirements are set manually by an operator,
Compression_Ratio will be within a range instead of a fixed value.
(2) Motion effects—for all compression techniques except MPEG, the motion
content affects the compression ratio; a greater level of motion lowers the
compression ratio. This is because reference frames are inserted that internal
frames refer to indicate “no change here.” The more motion there is, the less
useful reference frames become. Thus, the compression ratio, for a fixed quality
requirement, will change dynamically.
(3) Camera resolution—the higher the resolution of the camera, the greater the
data redundancy; this affords more opportunities to reduce redundancy; thus, a
greater compression ratio is obtained.
Given the discussion above, the ranges for the variable Compression_Ratio in Table 7
must be treated as approximate. The exact ratio is dependent on application needs (user
compression quality selection and resolution selection) and scene motion. What’s more,
because MJPEG, MPEG-4, and H.264 are the three most popular video compression
techniques embedded in current traffic cameras, Compression_Ratio values are only
listed for these three techniques. To practically approximate the bandwidth needed, the
lower bound of the ratio is recommended in order to guarantee sufficient margin.
Table 7 Approximate Compression Ratios
Video Compression
Ratio Range
MJPG
10:1–20:1
MPEG-4
25:1–50:1
H.264
50:1–100:1
4.6.4 Wireless Equipment Selection
In some cases, an 11 Mbps wireless system yields only 5.5 Mbps for streaming video.
Furthermore, common environmental conditions can reduce the bandwidth to 2.75 Mbps.
In practice, the bandwidth is always much less than the theoretical bandwidth. Normally,
usable bandwidth is in the range of 30–70% of theoretical bandwidth. For example
(Honovich 2008), 500 Mbps is the practical bandwidth for a 1 Gigabit Ethernet, 55–60
Mbps for a 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet, 6–7 Mbps for a 10 Mb Ethernet, and 12–25 Mbps
for a Wi-Fi 802.11g 54 Mb.
In practice, the performance of wireless communication is dependent on the system
location, environmental conditions, and even the weather. Thus, practical bandwidth
capacity should be calculated by taking the factors mentioned above into consideration.
To estimate the actual performance within an acceptable margin is of the great
116
importance. Achieving full utilization of the capability of the chosen wireless technology
is necessary for a cost-effective solution.
PTP, PTMP, Mesh. Different architectures (PTP, PTMP, and mesh networks) might be
preferred in different situations. If cameras are aligned almost in a line, PTP is apparently
the best choice. PTMP or mesh networks might be the options when cameras are sparsely
distributed. As with other equipment options, the network architecture might be obvious
once the situation definition is given. At least, the situation will assist in narrowing the
options.
Signal Propagation Factors. 17 Line-of-sight performance of wireless equipment is
limited due to the curvature of the earth. Obstructions may exist in the path between
transmitters and receivers. Moreover, under normal atmospheric conditions, radio waves
do not propagate in a straight line due to the atmospheric refraction; the height of poles or
towers for antenna or wireless equipment is often dictated by pre-existing structures or
partially constrained by environmental reality. Pre-existing structures are normally
intended for reuse. With respect to the environment, local geography or ordnances may
limit the transmitter or receiver height. Even if new structures can be erected, the height
must be reasonable because greater height incurs greater wind load, which is particularly
significant if poles are considered for equipment mounting. In order to maximize
practical wireless performance and minimize the limitations at the same time, the Fresnel
zone clearance and height calculation of transmitters and receiver configuration are used.
The Fresnel zone is a long ellipsoid that stretches between two antennas. If a significant
portion of the Fresnel zone is obstructed, the signal strength at the receiver will be greatly
attenuated. At least 60% of the first Fresnel zone should be clear of any obstructions so
that the radio wave propagation will behave as if it is in “free space.” Taking into account
the Fresnel Zone clearance and the possible height options for both transmitter and
receiver antennas, the maximal data range can be approximated.
Interference. Given the proliferation of wireless technologies, finding locations not
already covered by a wireless networks, except for remote sites, is difficult. Frequency
interference is another possible “signal loss” that should be avoided or minimized. Thus,
interference should be considered when choosing candidate wireless equipment and
specifically in choosing the frequency band employed.
Loss. 18 Radio waves propagate first from the transmitter via cable to the transmit
antenna, second through an open free space (possibly obstructed by buildings and trees),
next to the receiver antenna, and finally to the receivers via cable. Signal strength is
greatly attenuated due to the loss in this propagation sequence. Free space loss (FSL) and
obstacle absorption loss (OAL) are the two major causes of loss. FSL occurs when the
signal spreads out in space. The loss is theoretically proportional to both the square of the
distance and the square of signal frequency. OAL is due to tree leaves, water, and other
obstructions. Quantifying the signal attenuation from obstacle absorption is difficult but
the loss is to some extent dependent on the operation frequency. Moreover, the cable
connecting the radio equipment and antennas will also cause a small signal loss. Poor
17
18
See website http://wndw.net/pdf/wndw2-en/ch02-physics.pdf.
See website http://www.afar.net/tutorials/.
117
weather condition will increase the free space loss and obstacle absorption loss because
water absorbs radio waves at certain frequencies. Generally the losses are dependent on
the location at which the system is deployed (e.g., whether there are tall buildings and
trees between antennas), on the range of the system, on the frequency of the carrier wave,
and on the weather conditions. Estimation of possible loss in different scenarios is quite
necessary and useful in choosing the most effective wireless equipment.
Allowable Loss Calculation. 19 Practical comparisons of wireless equipment choices
should include allowable loss. However, signal attenuation due to FSL, OAL, and
frequency interference is dependent on the operational frequency employed. The
allowable loss calculation scheme described here is only useful in comparing wireless
technologies having the same operation frequencies. If comparison across equipment
choices having different operation frequencies is necessary, some extra calculations to
make them comparable will be needed because path loss (FSL and OAL) for equipment
with different frequencies will not be the same. Generally, system location is dictated a
priori for any system design, the choice of antenna height is inflexible, and weather
conditions are variable. Thus, given the same bandwidth, the more the allowable loss, the
more coverage the wireless equipment is able to provide. Conversely, given the same
coverage the greater the bandwidth that can be delivered.
Figure 26 depicts the points at which loss of signal occurs (FSL and OAL). When no
external antenna is required, cable loss can be ignored. The following calculation of
allowable loss does consider the cable loss.
Allowable Loss_AB = TransPower_A - CableLoss_A + AntennaGain_A +
AntennaGain_B - ReceiveSensitivity_B
19
See website http://www.afar.net/tutorials/.
118
(Eq. 4-3)
Figure 26 Loss in Wireless Transmission
In a previous subsection, the calculation of video bandwidth requirements is explained.
Based on the video bandwidth requirement, receiver sensitivity can be determined for
each wireless component and then the allowable loss of different wireless component
choices is easily compared.
Assume the bandwidth for data transmission is known after selecting level of service and
camera. This bandwidth requirement is the minimum value that any candidate wireless
equipment should provide. Of course, a margin of error should be included in order to
assume a reliable transmission channel because unpredictable weather and fluctuations of
system component performance can definitely reduce further the practical bandwidth.
4.6.5 System Analysis and Cost Control
Recall the requirement of bandwidth capability calculated using equations (4-1) and (42), the approximate minimal allowable loss (including margin) during radio propagation
calculated in equation (4-3), and the chosen type of wireless equipment
(PTP/PTMP/Mesh). A list of candidate wireless equipment can now be easily compiled.
By fully utilizing the capability of each system component and minimizing the overall
cost at the same time, a cost-effective system can be finalized with respect to the actual
requirements derived from the deployment situation definition.
119
Chapter 5. System Development
After surveying the literature, Texas practice, and off-the-shelf equipment in the market,
we designed and set up wireless transmission systems with ten wireless devices and one
camera. This report describes system development for the UNT-developed TxDOT
demonstration system. It is organized as follows: firstly, we describe our considerations
in setting up systems; secondly, the steps we followed in building the systems are
described, namely site investigation, installation, configuration, testing, and monitoring.
In addition, Appendix A lists information concerning the hardware and software that was
used.
5.1 Considerations for Deployment of Wireless Devices
The first step in setting up a wireless system is to determine the architecture based on
practical conditions. Then the Fresnel zone of the link path, the antenna pattern, and the
radio frequency must be considered. We discuss each in detail in the following section.
5.1.1 Architecture of Wireless Network
There are several typical wireless network topologies, such as mesh, star, tree, and line.
For video or data transmission along a highway, the structure is typically linear. In this
specific context, we further divide configurations of wireless networks into two
categories: single-hop point-to-point structure, and linear chain connection.
Single-Hop Transmission
Single-hop transmission is mainly used over short-distances with no or few obstructions
(Figure 27). It is typically applicable where the video or data sources are near the TMC,
the backbone access point is near the camera or data processor, or there are difficulties in
connecting devices in the field with wired stations.
backbon
wired
T
n
t
Figure 27 Scenarios of Single-Hop Transmission
Signal attenuation affects the transmission quality and distance choice. Even if a wireless
link is in line-of-sight, signal losses between transmitter and receiver may occur. Reasons
include free-space loss, cable loss, and absorption. Generally the majority of loss comes
from the free-space loss.
121
Free-Space Loss
Free-space loss is the loss between actual performance and the ideal vacuum transmission
of a wireless signal. It greatly depends on the frequency of the radio and the link distance.
The formula to calculate free-space loss is as follows20:
20
where
20
36.58
(Eq. 5-1)
is the frequency in Hertz, is the distance in miles between the two ends of the
link, and the unit of free-space loss is dB.
Fade Margin
To determine the capability of the device in handling the losses, one value called fade
margin can be used.
Fade margin is the difference between received signal strength and the minimum strength
which can be captured by the receiver. This parameter indicates the reliability of a link. It
can be obtained using the following formula:
(Eq. 5-2)
where
is the transmission power,
and
are the antenna gains of transmitter
and receiver respectively,
is the cable loss from the wireless transmission
is the cable loss from the wireless
equipment to the transmission antenna,
receiving equipment to the receiving antenna,
is sensitivity of a receiver whose
value is usually negative, and
is the free-space loss.
The larger the fade margin is, the more reliable the wireless link and the better the
performance.
Throughput Estimation
For a single-hop wireless transmission, the formula to estimate the throughput, taking
into account retransmission and timeout influences (Madsen et al. 2009), is as follows:
min
,
(Eq. 5-3)
,
where
is the maximum congestion window size;
is the Round Trip Time (RTT);
is the number of packets which are acknowledged by a single ACK;
is the packet error rate;
is the average timeout duration and does not include retransmission time.
20
See website http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free-space_path_loss, accessed Nov. 20, 2010.
122
Linear-Chain Transmission
A linear-chain configuration is utilized not only in long-distance transmission but also
under conditions where large obstructions are on the link path.
Although line-of-sight is not a necessary factor for wireless transmission, engineers
always account for it. Signal under line-of-sight condition are stronger and more reliable.
When there are obstacles blocking the link path, one possible solution is to use a linear
chain configuration. For example, in Figure 28(a), antenna 4 can hardly receive video or
data from antenna 1. If we add antenna 2 and 3, then 1 2, 3 and 4 are two line-of-sight
links. Data can be transmitted between antenna 1 and 4.
2
orantenn
a
dv
ai
t
a
or
3
a
4
1
(a) Transmission with Obstructed Link Path
antenna
antenna
(b) Long-Distance Transmission
Figure 28 Scenario of Linear-Chain Transmission
Additionally, linear chain structures can be used in long-distance transmission as shown
in Figure 28(b). However, this structure may result in significant delays if the number of
hops is large.
5.1.2 Antenna Pattern
An antenna pattern is a graphic description of antenna’s signal spatial distribution. Based
on different usages, antennas may take various forms and use different mechanisms.
Examples are dipole, yagi, patch, sector antenna, etc. Different antennas have different
123
antenna patterns. For patch array antenna, an example of its pattern is depicted in Figure
29. 21
(a) 3D Pattern
(b) Azimuth Plane
(c) Elevation Plane
Figure 29 An Example of Antenna Pattern
As shown in Figure 29(a), the radiation energy on z axis has the highest value, which tells
us the best position of a peer antenna when aligned. Figure 29(b) and (c) illustrates the
sliced view of 3D antenna pattern through the x-z plane and y-z plane, respectively. In
this case, (b) is called azimuth plane and (c) is elevation plane. Both of them are in polar
coordinates. If an engineer knows the antenna pattern before setting up a wireless system,
a better understanding of antenna alignment is obtainable.
5.1.3 Fresnel Zone
Fresnel zones define regions in which a particular phase difference is produced by
obstructions. 22 Figure 30 shows an example of a Fresnel zone. The most important one is
the first Fresnel zone occupying the most transmission power. The formula to calculate
radius of this zone at any point between two termini is the following:
𝑐
𝑅=� ∗
𝑓
𝑠1∗𝑠2
(Eq. 5-4)
,
𝑠1+𝑠2
where c is velocity of wave in meters/second,
f is the frequency in Herz,
s1 and s2 are distances in meters from the chosen point to each terminus.
Theoretically, it is not necessary to have this zone totally obstruction free. Only when the
size of the object or part of the object in this zone is larger than 40% of the radius of the
zone is the reduction effect significant (Freeman 1997).
21
See website
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/wireless/ps7183/ps469/prod_white_paper0900aecd806a1a3e.h
tml, accessed Nov. 20, 2010.
22
See website http://radiomobile.pe1mew.nl/?Calculations:Propagation_calculation:Fresnel_zones,
accessed June 20, 2010.
124
R
s1
s2
Figure 30 An Example of Fresnel Zone
5.1.4 Frequency Conformance and Interference
The transmission frequency is the number of cycles per second of the radio waves. It is
the reciprocal of the wavelength. Not all frequency bands are cost free. Licenses for nonfree frequencies require both time and a recurring cost. However, licensed frequencies
have less interference. Currently, 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, and 5.8 GHz are the commonly
used license-exempt frequencies. The 4.9 GHz public safety frequency is reserved for
ITS and other municipal services. Even for license-free frequencies, their usage is subject
to regulations that vary in different countries. These principles include the following
considerations: which wireless devices can be used in a country; which frequencies are
license-free; what is the highest output power under specific conditions; in practical
usage what is the relationship between antenna gain, channel width, and output power;
what are the obligations of wireless network configuration, etc. In the U.S., the FCC is
responsible for regulating radio spectrum usage. For detailed information, please consult
resources concerning relevant codes. One such code is the Electronic Code of Federal
Regulations. 23 Fortunately, manufacturers usually take care to assure frequency
conformance to the regulations in each country, which makes operation of wireless
devices much easier for end users. However, users have to check conformance
themselves if an external antenna to be used is not integrated with a radio by the
manufacturer.
License-exempt frequencies charge no fees for usage. However, if too many devices are
in operation with similar frequencies in an area, there are significant interferences. Thus,
checking the frequency usage at planned installation sites is essential. One may use a
tool, such as AirView, 24 which is provided by Ubiquiti Networks. When setting up the
system, avoid setting the device to operate over crowded channels.
5.2 Site Investigation
Because long distance transmissions are needed in transportation and because
environmental factors may influence transmission quality, site investigation is necessary
before setting up a wireless system. The input for site investigation is the geographic
information of the intended locations. The main information acquired from site
23
See website
http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/textidx?c=ecfr&sid=1143b55e16daf5dce6d225ad4dc6514a&tpl=/ecfrbr
owse/Title47/47cfr15_main_02.tpl, accessed Nov. 20, 2010.
24
See website http://ubnt.com/airview/downloads, accessed May 5, 2010.
125
investigation is distance between antenna pairs, terrain overview, possible obstructions on
the link path, and minimum antenna height at each terminus.
For our configuration tests, we selected three sites on the UNT campus: two in Discovery
Park (DP), which is about 3 miles from the main campus, and the other one on the roof of
the EESAT building on the main campus. One DP site is on a weather station, and the
other is on the roof of the DP building. They are approximately 0.5 miles apart. There
roof of EESAT has two poles. The geographic information of these three places is shown
in Table 8.
Table 8 Geographic Information of Test Bed
Location
DP Building
EESAT (Pole 1)
EESAT (Pole 2)
DP Weather
Station
-97.15111
-97.15109
-97.14997
(-97° 9' 7.0194")
(-97° 9' 3.996")
(-97° 9' 3.9234")
(97° 8' 59.8914")
33.25355
33.21429
33.21428
33.25690
(33° 15'
12.7794")
(33° 12'
51.4434")
(33° 12' 51.408")
(33° 15' 24.84")
Elevation
228.3m/749ft
226m/741.5ft
226m/741.5ft
221m/725.1 ft
Above
Ground
Level
15.2m/50ft
16m/52.5ft
15.5m/50.9ft
10m/32.8ft
Azimuth
358.97° (From EESAT to DP
Building)
181.26°(From DP Weather Station to
EESAT)
Distance
4.365 km (2.712 miles)
4.739 km (2.945 miles)
Longitude -97.15195
Latitude
Our testing configurations had two link configurations. One was a one-hop link from the
EESAT to the DP building; the other was a two-hop linear link consisting of a link from
the DP weather station to the EESAT and then to the DP building. The former
configuration is used to compare performances of different wireless devices and the latter
is for testing characteristics of a linear multi-hop configuration.
Engineers have tools to survey sites virtually before visiting the field. For instance, we
initially used Radio Mobile, which is easily downloaded, as is the terrain data. 25 In the
end, however, we analyzed the propagation path with Motorola PTP LINKPlanner, 26
which is a more user-friendly and functionally capable tool. Although this tool is
designed for estimating the performance of Motorola products, it is also a useful source
for obtaining transmission path information for other products. It has an interface with
25
Radio Mobile is downloadable from http://www.g3tvu.co.uk/Radio_Mobile_Setup.zip, and the terrain
data from http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/srtm/.
26
See website http://motorola.wirelessbroadbandsupport.com/software/ptp/, accessed Nov. 29, 2010.
126
Google Earth, 27 which provides a bird’s-eye view of the transmission path. After
inputting location data into PTP LINKPlanner and selecting frequency and regulation, we
obtained profiles as shown in Figure 31.
(a) DP Weather Station to EESAT
(b) EESAT to DP Building
Figure 31 Profiles Obtained from LINKPlanner
In Figure 31, the brown line outlines the contour of the terrain between two link nodes;
the red lines connect antennas and the largest obstacle on the path; the blue shadowed
region indicates the Fresnel zone; the green part is an obstacle above ground level. When
checking the link, we need to pay special attention to Fresnel zone clearance, especially
at high points between two paired antennas.
PTP LINKPlanner allows for mapping the link as an overlay on Google Earth. 28 With the
help of map view, we can determine what objects may obstruct the path of
communication, especially at the three points where a link is most inclined to be blocked.
The obstructions may have a great influence on excess path loss. However, an on-site
survey of link paths is essential and cannot be totally replaced by planning tools. An onsite survey is necessary to obtain the height of the obstructions, identify unknown
blockages, and determine feasibility of the antenna height. In our test configuration,
although there are buildings at three high points on the link path from the EESAT to DP
building, they are not in the first Fresnel zone and exert little effect on transmission.
27
28
See website http://earth.google.com/, accessed July 1, 2010.
See website http://earth.google.com/, accessed July 1, 2010.
127
5.3 System Development
Between the EESAT building and DP building, we developed three separate links with
the Motorola PTP 54300, 29 the NanoStation M5 30 and the Rocket M5 31 (+ Rocket
Dish 32 ). In the first stage, we configured, installed, tested, and compared the
performances of these devices. Once the one-hop characteristics were investigated, we
extended the system by developing a two-hop linear system with the NanoStation M5 and
a two-hop linear system with Motorola PTP58300 and Motorola PTP54300. This latter
configuration consists of two links: one is from the DP Weather Station to the EESAT
building (pole 2), and the other from the EESAT building (pole 1) to the DP building.
Price information of equipment can be obtained from the equipment survey that begins
on page 74.
5.3.1 PTP 54300 Configuration
Configuration Prior to Installation. Before installing wireless devices, we need to
access the device’s parameter interface and enter the pre-installation configuration. For
the Motorola PTP 54300, the default IP address is 169.254.1.1 for the master unit and
169.254.1.2 for the slave unit. If the IP address of wireless equipment is unknown, we
can reset it to the default one. One connects to the wireless device using its IP address.
Then, using the interface, we can validate the license key which assures the link
compliance to regulations of a certain country; update the firmware if necessary; change
the IP address; set the MAC address of a peer node or link name to define a link pair;
identify the working mode for each device; prescribe the output power whose value
should not be greater than the maximum value defined in LINKPlanner; set the channel
width which should be the same for devices at each end of the link; set link symmetry on
the master unit; and enable audio tone if engineers wish to use this tone to tune the
antenna, and others.
Antenna Alignment
As illustrated in the antenna pattern section, the power of the wireless signal emanating
from an antenna forms a distribution pattern in the space. To achieve the best
transmission result, it is essential to align the antennas carefully. Here we describe two
stages to do so: theoretical calculation and practical alignment.
29
See website
http://www.motorola.com/web/Business/Products/Wireless%20Networks/Wireless%20Broadband%20Net
works/Point-toPoint/PTP%20300%20Series/WNS%20PTP%20300%20SS%20Updt%20072910%20r1.pdf, accessed Nov.
20, 2010.
30
See website http://www.ubnt.com/nanostationm, accessed May 5, 2010.
31
See website http://ubnt.com/rocketm, accessed Nov. 20, 2010.
32
see website
http://www.motorola.com/web/Business/Products/Wireless%20Networks/Wireless%20Broadband%20Net
works/Point-toPoint/PTP%20300%20Series/WNS%20PTP%20300%20SS%20Updt%20072910%20r1.pdf, accessed Nov.
20, 2010
128
Based on the geography of the sites, we can compute the azimuth and tilt angles of each
antenna in the link. The FCC provides an online tool 33 to calculate the azimuth angle.
The tilt angle can be estimated by a simple triangle transformation.
In the practical installation stage, with the help of the compass and angle scale on the
antenna, we can determine roughly the azimuth and tilt angle. Next we need to perform
fine adjustments: fix the slave antenna and tune the master unit; fix the master antenna
and move its counterpart. Repeat these steps several times until the signal strength
achieves the largest one. If the audio aid on the device is enabled, engineers can roughly
judge the communication quality by listening to the tone. When the tone is stable with a
high pitch, the quality is good. Otherwise it is not good and may need more alignment.
Important Parameters and Settings
Frequency
Motorola PTP 54300 has several options of for spectrum management. In places where
radar avoidance is not required, fixed frequency and intelligent dynamic frequency
selection (i-DFS) are two choices. If radar avoidance is required, engineers may choose
dynamic frequency selection (DFS) or DFS with i-DFS. For instance, at our test site there
is a weather radar working at 5640 MHz. We chose DFS with i-DFS method. The DFS
scheme changes the frequency only when interferences by radar are detected. The DFS
with i-DFS can not only avoid radar spectrum but select channel with the least
interference automatically as well. We learned that DFS with i-DFS causes improper
functioning for about 60–120 seconds each time the device switches frequency. So the
threshold for frequency hopping is quite important. We decided to use the default value:
85 dbm in the testing system.
Users can control the frequency not only by setting the spectrum management mode but
also by modifying the lower center frequency. The choices in this setting are 5478, 5480,
and 5482 MHz. For a 10 MHz channel width, the subsequent center frequency is
increased by 5 MHz, starting from the user-selected lower center frequency (there is an
overlap between adjacent channels). Through this parameter, engineers can change the
center frequency of channels deployed. The final center frequency is chosen by the
device based-on the practical conditions. In our tests, the lower center frequency is 5480
MHz.
After setting the channel management mode and lower center frequency, the Motorola
PTP 54300 can autonomously select the frequency.
Transmission Symmetry
On the basis of practical requirements, users can choose 1:3, 3:1, or 1:1 symmetry
schemes if the channel width is larger than 5 MHz. The main task of this wireless
network is to transmit the video or data back from the field, which requires much more
bandwidth from the video collection side to the receiving side than the reverse direction.
For testing, we set link symmetry to 3:1. This setting allows the data rate to be about
33
http://www.fcc.gov/mb/audio/bickel/distance.html (accessed Nov. 20, 2010.
129
three times greater transmitting from field than the reverse direction. That is, more
bandwidth is used for transmitting information (videos) back from the field than for
sending commands to the field.
Data Rate
If dual payload mode is enabled, 12 coding techniques are available, from 64QAM
(Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) with 0.83 code rate to BPSK (Binary Phase Shift
Keying) with 0.5 code rate. The devices automatically select a coding scheme and decide
the data rate suitable for current circumstances. With the help of LINKPlanner, the
estimated total data rate for our test configuration is 23.16 Mpbs (5.68 Mbps and
17.48 Mbps in each direction). In practice, we obtain an average speed of 19.43 Mbps
(4.83 Mbps and 14.6 Mbps in each direction).
Channel Width
There are three options for channel width: 5, 10, and 15 MHz. As indicated in
LINKPlanner, the 5 MHz channel width allows very low throughput. There was no large
difference in throughput for channel widths of 15 MHz or 10 MHz. Because the narrower
the channel width, the less influence noise exerts on signal, we made the channel width
10 MHz.
Output Power
Based on the above channel width, the maximum output power suggested by
LINKPlanner is 3 dbm. This parameter is limited by the FCC regulations. The user
should set output power equal to or lower than this value. The throughput will decrease
accordingly in the testing conditions if we decrease the output power. Therefore, we set
output power to 3 dbm in the testing system.
Disarming the Device
After finishing alignment and setting up a wireless link, the device should be disarmed to
allow automatic modulation to take effect, disable the alignment tone, enable the
programmed hopping scheme, and allow a higher data rate to come into operation. In the
“Installation” tab on the device web interface, there is a “Disarm Installation Agent”
button to disarm the unit. This can also be done automatically after link is set up
following a lapse of 24 hours.
Note: The PTP58300 was set up following the same configuration steps for PTP54300
described above. Because the PTP58300 (from the DP Weather Station to the EESAT
building [pole 2]) and PTP54300 (from the EESAT building [pole 1] to the DP building)
operate in different frequency ranges, some of the settings must differ. For example, the
maximum output power suggested by LINKPlanner is 27 dbm instead of 3 dbm.
5.3.2 NanoStation M5 Configuration
Although Motorola PTP54300 works well for our scenario, a goal of the project is to test
other low-cost wireless transmission systems. Consequently, we can recommend costeffective systems with tradeoffs between quality and system expense. NanoStation M5 is
130
a product having low cost and good quality. In one test configuration, we used it to
establish a one-hop system and a two-hop linear system.
Configuration Prior to Installation
Like the PTP54300, the NanoStation M5 also requires pre-configuration leading up to
installation. The main settings to be attended to are IP address, wireless mode, SSID,
frequency, channel width, and output power.
When the unit is connected for the first time, the default IP address is 192.168.1.20, and
default user name and password both are “ubnt.” Users can change these items after
successful connection.
The wireless mode defines the role of a unit in a wireless network; the four modes are
Access Point (AP), AP WDS (Wireless Distribution System), Station, and Station WDS.
The device that is functioning as a subscriber is set to be a station while the device that
bridges the wireless network and wired network is an access point. AP WDS and Station
WDS are used in a wireless distribution system. The user guide is online. 34 They are
transparent on Layer 2 of an OSI network model. In our test configuration, the device on
the EESAT roof acts as a station and the one on the DP roof is set to be an AP.
The Service Set Identifier (SSID) is the name of a link. Equipment on both sides of a link
should have the same SSID. Users can also specify the AP MAC address at the station
side to create a communication pair.
Using the tool provided by Ubiquiti Networks, 35 one can investigate the best frequency at
a certain location and set this frequency at the AP side. The working frequency can be
modified after a link is set up. For detailed information, please refer to the “Important
Parameters and Settings” part of this document.
Channel width and output power can also be changed after a system is established. The
channel width should be the same on both sides at the pre-establishment stage. Output
power should be sufficient to allow the two devices to communicate with each other.
Antenna alignment is similar to that described for the PTP 54300. However, the
NanoStation M5 does not have an indication tone to aid antenna alignment. The
alternative is the tool in the system interface provided by Ubiquiti. This tool reports
signal strength in real time. Thus, engineers can align the antenna at the position at which
the device achieves the greatest signal strength. Figure 32 provides an example of an
alignment tool.
34
35
http://ubnt.com/wiki/AirOS_5.2 accessed Dec. 10, 2010.
See website http://www.ubnt.com/nanostationm, accessed May 5, 2010.
131
Figure 32 An Antenna Alignment Tool
The antenna gain of this device is 16 dbi. The vertical and horizontal polarizations are 41
and 43 degrees, respectively. We did not use a kit to adjust the tilt angle of the antennas.
We adjusted the heights of the antennas to be as equal as possible under the line-of-sight
conditions.
Important Parameters and Settings.
Frequency
The frequency of the NanoStation M5 for the test configuration is in the 5470 MHz–5825
MHz band. The goal in this section is to choose an appropriate frequency to minimize the
interference with other wireless systems.
Using the AirView 36 software provided by Ubiquiti Networks, we can analyze the
frequency usage at each site. In Figure 33, the vertical axis indicates the usage of each
channel measured in percentages. The usage values show the occupancy rate, which takes
into account quantity and energy level of wireless links in that channel. The horizontal
axis is the frequency channel ranging from 5735 to 5815 MHz.
36
See website http://ubnt.com/airview/downloads, accessed May 5, 2010.
132
(a) From device in DP Building
(b) From device in EESAT
Figure 33 Channel Usage in the Test Bed
From Figure 33(a), we can see channel 154 (5770 MHz) has the highest usage, and
frequencies on each side of this channel have lower usage. And in Figure 33(b), the usage
has a similar distribution. The rule of thumb for choosing a channel is to select the one
with the least interference on both sites. In our test configuration, we set the channel to be
160 (5800 MHz).
Data Rate
This product uses the 802.11a/n standard. For wireless products with standard IEEE
802.11n, the data rate is usually expressed with the MCS (Modulation and Coding
Scheme) index, which represents different combinations of the number of streams,
modulation method, and coding rate. So for different channel widths, the same MCS
index refers to different data rates. Table 9 shows their relationship.
MCS0 and MCS8 use the BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying) modulation method;
MCS1-2 and MCS9-10 use the QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) modulation
algorithm; MCS3-4 and MCS11-12 are based on 16-QAM (Quadrature Amplitude
Modulation), while MCS5-7 and MCS13-15 are on 64-QAM.
133
Table 9 Relationship of MCS Index and Data Rate
MCS
Index
Data Rate (Mbps)
0
13.5
1
10 MHz
5 MHz
6.5
3.25
1.625
27
13
6.5
3.25
2
40.5
19.5
9.75
4.875
3
54
26
13
6.5
4
81
39
19.5
9.75
5
108
52
26
13
6
121.5
58.5
29.25
14.625
7
135/150
65
32.5
16.25
8
27
13
6.5
3.25
9
54
26
13
6.5
10
81
39
19.5
9.75
11
108
52
26
13
12
162
78
39
19.5
13
216
104
52
26
14
243
117
58.5
29.25
15
270/300
130
65
32.5
Fortunately, extensive experiments are not necessary to determine a sufficient data rate.
The wireless equipment chooses the data rate automatically to cater to current conditions
if the engineer checks the Automatic box in the unit interface.
Channel Width
Channel width may be likened to the diameter of a pipe. The wider the channel width, the
higher the throughput may be for the same MCS index value when the link is not
saturated. However, we must consider another factor when we choose the channel width:
the signal strength. From Figure 34, we see the signal strength changes according to
variation of channel width. Signal strength of -80 dBm or better is suggested for a reliable
link. The noise floor indicates the noise level that can be used in the SNR (Signal-toNoise Ratio) calculation. The larger the gap between signal strength and noise floor, the
larger the margin of the link. From experience, a 20 dbm or larger deviation between
signal strength and noise floor works well. Therefore, we chose 10 MHz as the channel
width for testing.
134
dBm
-100
Signal Strength Noise Floor
-91
-88
-88
-94
-90
-80
-68
5MHz
-70
-71
10MHz
-74
-75
20MHz
40MHz
Channel Width
Figure 34 Signal Strength and Noise Floor Changes by Channel Width
Output Power
We investigated the influence of output power on signal strength, noise floor, and overall
throughput. Here, we set MCS index at 15 in each test and chose to change data rate
automatically. Figure 35 gives the alterations of signal strength and noise floor with
respect to output power changes. With the enhancement of output power, the noise floor
remains almost the same for the same channel width, while signal strength increases.
From Figure 35 we see throughput rises with increase of output power. Consequently,
output power is set as the maximum 26 dbm in the test system.
-100
-90
dBm
Signal Strength
-88 -88
-85 -83
-80
-70
8
14
-88
-81
17
-88
-80
20
-88
-77
23
Noise Floor
-88
-75
26
-100
dBm
-90
-88
-85
-80
-70
Signal Strength
-88
-81
8
dBm
-91
-92
Signal Strength
-91 -92 -91
14
-70
17
-88
-77
20
-88
-74
23
26
Output Power (dBm)
Noise Floor -100
-91
dBm
-94
-95
Signal Strength
-95 -95 -95
Noise Floor
-94
-90
-90
-80
-88
-80 -79
Output Power (dBm)
-100
-88
Noise Floor
-81
8
-78
-77
14
17
-75
20
-80 -79
-74
-74
-71
23
26
-70
8
14
-73
17
-72
20
-70
23 -6826
Output Power (dBm)
Output Power (dBm)
video
long distance
Figure 35 Influence of Output Power on Signal Strength and Noise Floor
135
Figure 36 depicts the relationship between output power and throughput in the test
configuration.
Throughput (Mbps)
30
25
20
40MHz
15
20MHz
10
10MHz
5
5MHz
0
8
14
17
20
23
26
Output Power (dBm)
Figure 36 Influence of Output Power on Throughput for NanoStation M5
Note: both pairs of the NanoStation M5 are set up in the fashion described above. In
order to diminish interference the frequency of the first pair (from the DP Weather
Station to the EESAT building [pole 2]) is set to be 5240Hz.
5.3.3 Rocket M5 Configuration
The Rocket M5 can function with such antennas as AirMax sectors and Rocket Dish
(both are products of Ubiquiti Networks) to provide higher throughput and cover longer
distances. Additionally, the Rocket M5 itself has a larger memory than the NanoStation
M5. Therefore, it can be used in circumstances in which a more powerful but costeffective system is required.
Pre-configuration prior to installation for the Rocket M5 is similar to the NanoStation
M5. But for antenna alignment, the RocketDish5G-30 is more difficult than the
NanoStation M5 because the former has a higher antenna gain (30 dBi) than the latter (16
dBi). The beamwidth of RocketDish5G-30 is just 5 degrees while NanoStation M5 has a
more than 40-degree beamwidth. Thus, this procedure should be implemented with care.
When tuning the antenna, we can adjust it up or down, turn it left or right, and tilt it
upward or downward. However, it should not be rotated.
Frequency and Channel Width
As indicated in AirView for channel usage, there were interferences near our test bed and
the channel width should not be too broad. Here we set our frequency to be 5805 with 20
MHz as the channel width.
Output Power
Because our link is of short distance, it is not necessary to set the output power to the
maximum. Figure 37 illustrates that as the output power increases the throughput remains
at almost the same level.
136
Throughput (Mbps)
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
8
14
16
17
18
19
20
Output Power(dBm)
Figure 37 Influence of Output Power on Throughput for Rocket M5
Here we set the output power to be the minimum value, 8 dbm.
5.3.4 Performance Comparison of Wireless Devices
Note: comparisons of wireless devices were performed over two time periods using
different channels obtained from AirView. The frequencies of the devices were adjusted
as necessary.
One-hop Transmission. Data rate is the nominal speed in bits per second at which data
is transmitted across the communication pathway. Data refers to not only the user
information but network information as well. The term throughput refers to the
transmission speed of real user data. This parameter is the crucial measurement by which
to judge a wireless system. Besides link throughput, perceived video quality and
throughput stability were also measured for comparison.
Throughput (as tested in first time period). After we set up the three links—with
Motorola PTP54300, NanoStation M5, and Rocket M5, respectively—we used Jperf 37 to
test their throughput. Jperf is a graphical edition of Iperf. Information on Iperf may be
found online 38. It is a popular Java application to measure the throughput of a network
using the TCP or UDP protocol. The specifications of the test laptop are in Appendix B.
In each test, two experiment replications are performed. The final result in Table 10 is the
average of the two experiments.
37
See website http://code.google.com/p/xjperf/, accessed Nov. 29, 2010.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iperf (accessed Sept. 10, 2010) and http://www.noc.ucf.edu/Tools/Iperf/
(accessed June 2, 2010).
38
137
Table 10 Performance Comparison of Wireless Devices
Channel
Width
(MHz)
Output
Power
(dBm)
Throughpu
t from
EESAT to
DP (Mbps)
Throughput
from DP to
EESAT
(Mbps)
Motorola PTP
5480
54300
10
3
14.6
4.83
NanoStation
M5
5800
10
26
14.5
15.1
Rocket M5+
RocketDish5G 5805
-30
20
8
27.8
28.8
Products
Freque
ncy
(MHz)
As the table indicates, the NanoStation M5 and Rocket M5+ RocketDish5G-30 have
competitive performances in terms of link throughput. They should be candidates to
construct cost-effective wireless systems. The Motorola PTP 54300 we used is not the
best in this series. It may achieve better performance if the license was upgraded. It also
provides several unique functions such as intelligent channel selection, transmission
symmetry, alignment tone aid, and system monitoring, which are missing in the
NanoStation M5 and Rocket M5.
Throughput stability (as tested in second time period). Table 11 presents a throughput
stability comparison based on 20-minute duration for three separate single-hop wireless
devices. Because our focus is on throughput stability we analyzed only one direction
throughput. Figure 38 illustrates that the single-hop link from Motorola PTP543000 is the
most stable and the single-hop link from NanoStation M5 is the least stable.
Table 11 Throughput Comparison Based on 20-minute Duration
Products
Frequen
cy
(MHz)
Channel
Width
(MHz)
Output
Power
(dBm)
Average
Throughput
from
EESAT to
DP (Mbps)
Throughput
Variance
from EESAT
to DP (Mbps)
Motorola PTP
54300
5480
10
3
14.6
0.067
NanoStation
M5
5805
10
26
14.7
1.12
Rocket M5+
RocketDish5G30
5245
20
17
29
0.57
138
20
15
10
5
0
throughput
1
55
109
163
217
271
325
379
433
487
541
595
649
703
757
811
865
919
973
1027
1081
1135
1189
Mbps
Motorola
(a)
Nano Station
Mbps
20
10
throughput
1
54
107
160
213
266
319
372
425
478
531
584
637
690
743
796
849
902
955
1008
1061
1114
1167
0
(b)
40
30
20
10
0
throughput
1
54
107
160
213
266
319
372
425
478
531
584
637
690
743
796
849
902
955
1008
1061
1114
1167
Mbps
RocketDish
(c)
Figure 38 20-min uteThroughput Plot for (a) Motorola PTP54300; (b) NanoStation M5;
(c) RocketDish
Perceived video quality (as tested in second time period). EvalVid, a public wireless
transmission evaluation tool available online, is utilized for comparing three separate
links with the Motorola PTP 54300, the NanoStation M5, and the Rocket M5(+ Rocket
Dish) according to the perceived video quality. Average delay, accumulated jitter, and
video quality loss (PSNR) are used for comparison in Table 12.
139
Table 12 One-hop Wireless Transmission Comparison Based on Perceived Video
Quality
Products
Frequency
(MHz)
Channel
Width
(MHz)
Output
Power
(dBm)
Average
Delay(s)
Accumulative
Jitters(s)
Image
Quality
PSNR
Loss
Motorola PTP
54300
5480
10
3
0.033298
0.00130
0%
NanoStation
M5
5805
10
26
0.033304
0.00133
0%
Rocket M5+
RocketDish5G30
5245
20
17
0.033305
0.00091
0%
Two-hop transmission (tested in time period 2). For two-hop transmission comparison,
we utilized link throughput for measurement.
As shown in Table 13, the two-hop Motorola link has better throughput performance. As
was discussed previously in the single-hop transmission comparison, the Motorola
PTP54300 has much less throughput variance compared with NanoStation M5. We tried
to decrease the throughput variance of NanoStationM5 pair from ESSAT to DP building
by narrowing the bandwidth from 10 MHz to 5 MHz. As presented in Table 14, when the
single-hop transmission throughput is more stable, the throughput degrade due to twohop configuration is much less. Throughput degrade is calculated by the following
formula.
ThroughputDegrade =
thoughput _ linkAC − min( throughput _ linkAB, throughput _ linkBC)
min( throughput _ linkAB, throughput _ linkBC)
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Table 13 Two-hop Wireless Transmission Comparison for Motorola and NanoStation
From Field to ESSAT
Products
From Field
to DP
From ESSAT to DP
Frequency
(MHz)
Channel
Width
(MHz)
Output
Power
(dBm)
One-Hop
Throughput
(Mbps)
Frequency
(MHz)
Channel
Width
(MHz)
Output
Power
(dBm)
One-Hop
Throughput
(Mbps)
Two-Hop
Throughput
(Mbps)
Motorola
5480
10
3
14.7
5800
10
27
14.7
14.1
Nano
Station
M5
5240
10
26
17.7
5805
10
26
14.1
11.5
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Table 14 Throughput Degrade Comparison for Two-hop NanoStation
Products
From Field to
ESSAT
(Link_AB)
From ESSAT to DP (Link_BC)
From Field to DP (Link_AC)
One-Hop
Throughput
(Mbps)
Frequency
(MHz)
Channel
Width
(MHz)
Output
Power
(dBm)
One-Hop
Throughput
(Mbps)
Throughput
Variance
(Mbps)
Two-Hop
Throughput
(Mbps)
Throughput
Degrade
Nano
Station M5
17.7
5805
10
26
14.1
0.49
11.5
-18.4%
Nano
Station M5
17.7
5805
5
26
8.4
0.06
8.0
-4.8%
5.3.5 Camera
Because we chose an IP camera for which the output can be directly transmitted through
the Internet without conversion equipment, the wiring is quite simple. Power is supplied
through a power cord. An Ethernet cable can connect the camera and wireless equipment
directly without a switch (if the wireless equipment has an extra Ethernet interface) or
through a switch.
Proper camera settings are important because they not only provide the operator with
acceptable quality for live video but also conserve the limited communication bandwidth.
The first significant setting is the compression method. The method chosen must achieve
satisfactory quality for the given bandwidth. Most IP camera products support motion
MJPEG, MPEG-4, H.264 standards, or a combination. The size of a video file processed
by H.264 may be up to 50% smaller than a file using MPEG-4, and an 80% smaller video
file can be produced by MJPEG without sacrificing quality. 39 But generally, cameras
supporting H.264 are more expensive and there are fewer product choices in the current
market. Cameras with the MPEG-4 codec are good compromises. The Axis 213PTZ 40,
which we tested, is a cost-efficient IP camera with MPEG-4 and MJPEG codecs.
The Axis 213PTZ supplies a web interface within which to set parameters. In the “Setup”
page, there is an “MPEG-4” setting page under “Advanced” in the “Video & Image”
category, as displayed in Figure 39. “Video object type” has two options: “simple” and
“advanced simple.” The former uses the H.263 coding method. H.263 has a lower
compression rate but video in this format can be viewed through QuickTime. The latter
option takes advantage of MPEG-4 part 2 and it can function with AMC (AXIS Media
Control) in IE, an ActiveX component developed by AXIS. To conserve bandwidth, we
set the type as “advanced simple.”
Intra-coded frame (I-frame) and predicted frame (P-frame) are two frame types in
compressed video. An I-frame is independent of content from other frames when
decoded. P-frames are decompressed in reference to previous frames. A video with a
larger number of P-frames has a greater compression rate. So we chose an IP structure
with both I-frames and P-frames. The length of the GOV (group of video object plane) is
set to 8, which means that for seven P-frames there is an I-frame.
Additionally, due to the limitation of wireless capacity in practical usage, we constrained
the maximum bit rate to 1500 kbps.
39
See website http://www.axis.com/products/video/about_networkvideo/compression_formats.htm,
accessed June 4, 2010.
40
See website http://www.axis.com/files/datasheet/ds_213ptz_33081_en_0909_lo.pdf, accessed April 20,
2010.
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Figure 39 MPEG-4 Settings of Camera Axis 213PTZ
In a general image setting, we set the resolution to be 1CIF (352 x 240) and compression
level to be 30. In practice, 15 frames/second is acceptable for video fluency. Therefore,
we limit maximum frame rate to be 15 frames/second for each viewer (Figure 40).
Figure 40 General Image Settings of Camera Axis 213PTZ
5.4 System Monitoring
5.4.1 Video
Using the wireless and camera settings introduced above, we can obtain smooth traffic
videos in real time. With the AMC component (a recommended ActiveX component used
143
to view videos and control cameras) in IE, the PTZ response is so quick that we can
change pan/tilt angle and zoom in /out instantly.
Figure 41 provides some snapshots of traffic monitoring video of the deployed system.
Even though we have to install the camera around 90 meters (300 feet) away the road due
to lack of better location, we can still have clear view of cars and traffic signs.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 41 Snapshots of Traffic Monitoring Video
5.4.2 Wireless Communication
To judge the communication quality of this system, we not only checked its throughput,
throughput stability, and perceived video quality, but also used tools to monitor the
system over time.
The Motorola PTP54300 provides the Diagnostic Plotter to monitor the link (Figure 42).
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Figure 42 Data Rate in Diagnostic Plotter
For Ubiquiti devices, we used a tool called The Dude 41 to monitor the performance of
wireless devices. The wireless equipment we used supports SNMP (Simple Network
Management Protocol), which is a protocol typically applied in network monitoring.
Through SNMP, The Dude gets such real-time transmission parameters as signal
strength, transmitted packages and bytes, working data rate, etc. The Dude can also
demonstrate those data by charts in hour, day, week, or year scale. Figure 43 and Figure
44 provide some example images of The Dude.
Figure 43 Throughput Change in a Day
41
See website http://www.mikrotik.com/thedude.php, accessed June 3, 2010.
145
Figure 44 Signal Strength
146
Chapter 6. Video Analytics
Video analytics (VA), as applied to traffic monitoring, operates autonomously to collect
statistics and generate alerts when incidents occur. Such capabilities promise to extend
the radius of a TMC’s surveillance region while keeping equipment costs low and adding
very little to the operational costs. This chapter aims to inform TxDOT engineers by
providing (1) a survey of the existing VA products for traffic surveillance, (2) data on one
such product—Abacus from Iteris, and (3) insight into the software architecture of a
typical roadside VA system. The latter is achieved in the context of a TxDOT
demonstration system that has been developed by UNT. The configuration of the
demonstration system allows it to collect statistics and report a small class of traffic
anomalies.
The report is organized as follows: firstly we survey currently existing video analytics
products; secondly we describe the components, design, and usage of the TxDOT
demonstration system. This includes how such a system could be integrated within
existing surveillance systems as well as the functionality it might provide. Later on we
report preliminary performance evaluation results for the TxDOT demonstration system
and Abacus (an existing video analytics product). Finally, we provide recommendations
and discuss the forthcoming evaluation phase.
6.1 Traffic
Surveillance Video Analytics Survey
A number of video analytics products are marketed for ITS. Narrowing the choices from
the products on the market requires taking into consideration three factors: (1) the
scenarios to which the products are to be applied and the necessary traffic data to be
collected for each; (2) the system configurations that are possible, particularly with
respect to communication; (3) the minimal performance requirements, taking into
consideration all necessary aspects such as data transmission and system configuration.
To make a wise choice regarding VA products, criteria must be established and a
comparison of existing products must be conducted. Based on the three factors listed, we
provide data and discussion in the following three subsections that will be helpful in
framing the problem of product selection.
6.1.1 Typical Scenarios
Figure 45 illustrates the four typical scenarios that current VA products target: urban
arterials, tunnels, freeways, and bridges. Different scenarios require the same basic
processing functionalities, but may have different high-level functionalities, as delineated
in
147
Table 15. For urban arterials, vehicle presence detection is one of the basic functions
required. Some products perform only intersection control so that vehicle presence
detection is the only function available. Other products not only assist in intersection
control but also collect traffic data and detect incidents. Such products could serve for
intersection control, freeway monitoring, or bridge monitoring. Traffic data produced by
VA includes speed, volume, density, headway, occupancy, and so on. Incident detection,
another high-level functionality, covers congestion, pedestrians, stopped vehicles, and
fast/slow drivers. For the tunnel scenario, fire and smoke detection is required above all
other incidents.
Figure 45 Typical Scenarios
148
Table 15 Summaries of Traffic Data Collected and Most Events Detected by
Existing Products
Traffic Data and Monitoring
Speed
Speed of individual vehicles
Volume
The number of vehicles per time unit per lane
Occupancy
The average number of vehicles per lane
Traffic Flow
Total number of vehicles summed over all directions
Density
The density of vehicles per lane
Headway
Distance between vehicles
Gap time
Time distance between vehicles
Counts
Number of vehicles passing over a detection zone
Queue length
The length of the queue formed by waiting vehicles
Turn counts
The number of turns occurring at intersections
Automatic Event Detection
Congestion
Congestion level
Stopped vehicles Vehicles stopped roadside
Slow/fast drivers Speed not within nominal bounds
Wrong-way
Wrong way
drivers
Pedestrians
Pedestrians on roadway
Debris
Trash or fallen objects
Fire/smoke
Fire or smoke in tunnel
Accident
Recognition of vehicle collision
Recognition
System Technical Alarms
Image Quality
Image quality is not sufficient for viewing or processing
Camera
Camera’s instability affects the quality of video output
Movement
Video Failure
No video output
PTZ out of home PTZ camera is not focusing on right scene
6.1.2 Generic System Configuration
Two types of traffic surveillance system configuration are available: an onsite system
with processors deployed on-site and a centralized system with a processor in the TMC.
A centralized system with wireless communication is not preferred because it will result
in a heavy bandwidth burden in order to transmit videos. Figure 46 is a schematic of the
camera-side and TMC-side components of a typical wireless system for traffic
monitoring.
The component labeled “machine vision processor” (at top of Figure 46) is vital to a
traffic monitoring system. It plays an important role in intelligently processing traffic
video and providing either a compressed video stream (MPEG2 or MPEG-4) or statistical
data with incident alarms. There are two major types of machine vision processors. One
is a single board processor and the other is a camera with an imbedded processor. For the
149
data collected by a machine vision processor, a communication component is needed for
transmission to a central site such as a TMC.
The communication component links the machine vision processor with a variety of
communication networks such as direct line, telephone lines, fiber networks, and wireless
communication.
Remote camera control and processor reconfiguration are possible with the management
software installed at the center side (TMC). Management software makes it possible to
remotely execute a complete camera set-up, modify detection zones, and check the results
on-screen. Other software applications of data management and analysis are designed in
particular for visualizing statistical data and incident alarms transmitted from camera side
(traffic field) to center side (TMC). Traffic data, events, and alarms are typically stored in
a relational database by the software for management and analysis. Management software
can also provide an interface for monitoring and reporting applications. Monitoring
includes event visualization, documentation of event status, pre- and post-event image
sequences, all event information, and an incident video. For reporting applications, a
database is required to generate data summaries or event reports as exportable graphs or
tables. More advanced analysis functions might be available such as map tree
visualization, map zoom tool, a central map image where the status of each camera can
be verified. The latter may incorporate a visual indication on the central map for the
camera at which the event or alarm occurred. Generally, management and analysis
software associated with different products have basic features in common but vary with
respect to specialized functionalities.
150
Camera side
Machine Vision Processor
Input
Sensor
Camera
Processor
Wired Communication
Wireless Communication
Communication
Switch
Center side
Data Visualization
Remote Control
Figure 46 Generic System Configuration
6.1.3 Selection Guidelines
Table 16 summarizes video analytics products compared across five aspects: application,
object classification, data aggregation, events detected, and video compression. Products
from one company are grouped with the same color. A total of 10 companies are listed in
the table.
In order to find the right solution at low cost, it is necessary to verify what the real needs
are for traffic monitoring and management in the deployment context. Intuitively, the
more processing functions a product has, the better it is. However, this concept is not
151
helpful in practical terms because of the tradeoff between the size of data to be
transmitted and the cost of wireless equipment with the required bandwidth capability.
Thus a comprehensive cost-effective solution should be chosen based on this tradeoff.
152
Table 16 Video Analytics Products
Product
1
Autoscope
Solo Terra
Applications
Arterials,
freeway, tunnel,
and bridges
Arterials,
freeway, tunnel,
and bridges
3
Autoscope
RackVison
System One
Arterials,
freeway, and
bridges
4
Autoscope
Phoenix
Vehicle
classification
Vehicle
classification
Data
Aggregation
Events Detection
Video
Compression
Specifications
Speed, volume,
occupancy
Stopped vehicle, debris,
wrong-way driver
detection, fire/smoke
detection, pedestrian
and slow moving
vehicles detection
MPEG-4
15 W, 85–265
VAC, 50–60 Hz
Speed, volume,
occupancy
Stopped vehicle, debris,
wrong-way driver
detection, fire/smoke
detection, pedestrian
and slow moving
vehicles detection
MPEG-4
12–24VDC, 11 W
maximum,
12VDC,11W,900m
A; 24 VDC: 11W,
500mA
N/A
12 W maximum,
110–240
VAC,0.098A; 10
VDC, 0.81A, 30
VDC, 0.36A
N/A
12–24 VDC, 11W
maximum, 12VDC,
6W, 500mA; 24
VDC,7W,290 mA
Wavelet
codec
RS170/NTSC:
24VAC 60 Hz;
CCIR/PAL: 24
VAC 50Hz, 10–28
VDC, 17 watts with
heater on (25 watts
153
2
Autoscope
RackVison
Terra
Object
Classification
5
Autoscope
Solo ProII
Arterials
Arterials,
freeway, tunnel,
and bridges
Vehicle
classification
Speed, volume,
occupancy
N/A
N/A
Vehicle
classification
Volume, speed,
occupancy,
density, headway,
traffic counts
Vehicle detection
Vehicle detection
Incident detection,
vehicle detection
Product
Applications
Object
Classification
Data
Aggregation
Events Detection
Video
Compression
Specifications
with optional video
compression
module)
6
Vantage
Edge 2
Arterials,
freeway, tunnel,
and bridges
Vehicle
classification
Traffic count,
speed, occupancy
Bicycle detection, slow
moving or wrong way
motion detection,
vehicle detection,
highway congestion
N/A
12 or 24 VDC, 7 W
maximum; 12VDC490mA; 24VDC280mA
Vehicle detection
N/A
48VDC 22W
typical; 100–240
VAC 50/60 Hz,
0.7A
154
7
VersiCam
Arterials
N/A
Traffic count,
speed, occupancy
8
VersiCam
Wireless
Arterials
N/A
Traffic count,
speed, occupancy
Vehicle detection
N/A
N/A
9
Abacus (no
zone
configureation)
Arterials ,
freeway, tunnel,
and bridges
Vehicle
classification
Volume, speed,
Occupancy,
vehicle counts of
different class
Stopped vehicle
detection, roadway
debris detection, wrong
way driver detection,
fire/smoke detection
N/A
N/A
Traffic flow,
occupancy
Stopped vehicle
detection, queue
detection, speed drop,
sudden speed variation,
smoke/fog, video
failure, wrong way
driver
N/A
5VDC (600mA) to
26VDC (200mA)
10
VIP/I
Arterials,
freeway, and
tunnel
N/A
Product
Applications
11
VIP/D
Arterials,
freeway
12
VIP/P
Arterials
Data
Aggregation
Events Detection
Video
Compression
Specifications
N/A
Volume, speed,
gap time, head
way, occupancy
per lane, zone
occupancy
concentration,
average length,
confidence level,
traffic flow
Wrong-way driver,
sudden speed
variations, image
quality
N/A
5VDC (600mA) to
26VDC(200mA)
N/A
Counts, queue
length
measurement
Presence of vehicle
approaching or waiting
at the intersection
N/A
5VDC (600mA) to
26VDC (200mA)
Vehicle
classification
Traffic flow
speed, zone
occupancy,
volume (count),
average speed per
vehicle class per
lane, gap time,
density, headway,
confidence level
Vehicle presence,
stopped vehicle, inverse
direction, pedestrian,
speed drop, traffic
congestion, underspeed,
fallen object, smoke,
technical alarms, bad
video, camera
movement, PTZ out of
home
MPEG-4,
pre- and
post-image
sequences
of incident
N/A
N/A
N/A
Vehicle presence
detection
MPEG-4
N/A
Volume, speed,
occupancy, traffic
flow and zone
occupancy,
distinguish five
N/A
N/A
Suitable for standalone solar-powered
installation
155
Object
Classification
13
VIP/T
Arterials,
freeway, tunnel,
and bridges
14
TrafiCam
Xstream
Arterials
15
TrafiCam
Collect-R
Arterials,
freeway
Vehicle
classification
Product
Applications
Object
Classification
Data
Aggregation
Events Detection
Video
Compression
Specifications
levels of service
156
16
TrafiCam
Arterials
N/A
N/A
Vehicle presence
detection
N/A
115mA,10VDC,
1.2W; 55mA,
25VDC, 1.4W
17
Agilent
N9385A
(Self
Calibration)
Arterials,
freeway
Vehicle
classification
Traffic count,
average speed,
occupancy
N/A
N/A
Input: Vdc 10–15
V, 30 W
18
Eagle Vision
Arterials
N/A
N/A
Vehicle presence
detection
N/A
24VDC, 13W
maximum
Pre- and
post-image
sequences
of incident,
incident
video clip
12/24 V AC/DC,
3W maximal
19
XCam-I
Arterials,
freeway, and
bridges
N/A
N/A
Trajectory and trackingbased topped vehicle
detection, traffic slow
and congestion
detection, fluid traffic
and congested traffic
discrimination
20
XCam-p
Arterials
N/A
N/A
Trajectory and trackingbased vehicle presence
detection
Available
12/24 V AC/DC,
3W maximum
21
XCam-ng
Arterials
N/A
Queue length
measurement,
static occupancy
Trajectory and trackingbased vehicle presence
detection, grid detection
Available
12/24 V AC/DC,
3W maximum
22
GridSmart
(no zone
creation)
Arterials
Vehicle
classification
Speed, turn counts
Vehicles, pedestrians,
golf carts, bicycles,
emergency vehicles
detection, incident
N/A
120–240VAC,
30Watts (control
unit),
48VDC(camera)
Product
Applications
Object
Classification
Data
Aggregation
Events Detection
Video
Compression
Specifications
N/A
N/A
identification
23
Kapsch VR2 (no zone
creation)
Freeway and
tunnels
N/A
N/A
Accident recognition,
obstacle detection,
wrong-way driver
detection, traffic jam
detection
24
Video Trak
IQ
Arterials
N/A
N/A
Vehicle presence
detection
MPEG-4
540mA,12V,6.5W;
290mA, 24V, 7.0W;
10–26 VDC
25
Uni Trak 2
Arterials
N/A
N/A
Vehicle presence
detection
N/A
10.8–30V
157
6.2 TxDOT Video Analytics Demonstration System
In this section the baseline requirements for the TxDOT video analytics demonstration
system are introduced. As the system is a demonstration, the software is not intended for
all-weather, all-illumination conditions; thus, the baseline requirements circumscribe the
nominal operating environment. System components and usage guidelines are also
included to assist in understanding the system.
6.2.1 Baseline Requirements
The baseline requirements for the TxDOT video analytics demonstration system entail
external factors, functionalities, and levels of service. The requirements can assist in
deciding whether deploying the video analytics demonstration in a specific highway site
can achieve optimal performance. The requirements also provide essential guidance when
choosing between different levels of service in accordance with available network
bandwidth capability.
External Factors
Highway Road Structure
In general, most roads, particularly freeways, conform to a uniform standard. A typical
structure is illustrated in Figure 47. As shown in Figure 47(b) and (d), most highways are
bidirectional (d1: oncoming traffic, d2: departing traffic) and the road segment between
the camera and the dashed line is both straight and flat. The TxDOT video analytics
demonstration system performs as expected if the observed highway segment is typical as
shown in Figure 47(b) and (d). Generally, we want to be able to monitor traffic in both
directions. However, performance and coverage are trade-offs. When many lanes are
under observation, the lanes far from the camera will have occlusion. Thus, we suggest
the four lanes as the maximum number to observe. When the total number of lanes
exceeds this limit, we suggest deploying two cameras, one to monitor the traffic of each
direction.
(a)
(b)
158
(c)
(d)
Figure 47 Typical Road Structure and Camera Location
Figure 47 (a) and (c) illustrate the typical practical camera location relative to the road;
(b) and (d) show, respectively, the road structure captured in the camera view.
Camera Perspective
Camera calibration is the process of estimating camera parameters so that pixel points in
camera coordinates can be mapped into real-world coordinates. The camera parameters
include the camera perspective such as height, tilt angle, and pan angle. Automatic
vanishing-point-based camera calibration is used in the TxDOT video analytics
demonstration system. In order to achieve acceptable accuracy for camera calibration, the
camera perspective is preferred to be one of the typical views shown in Figure 48(a) and
(c). The height of the camera should be sufficient so that the camera captures a highangle view such that the vertical occlusion is minimized. Moreover, the horizontal
distance from the camera to the road surface, Δx, should be reasonable so that horizontal
occlusion is also minimized. In Figure 48, both poor and reasonable camera perspectives
from different viewing angles are illustrated.
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 48 Camera Perspective from Different Viewing Angles
Figure 48(a) shows the camera perspective with low angle because of camera height is
not adequate; (b) shows the far view perspective with with excessive Δx; and (c) presents
the ideal camera perspective.
Other Necessary Constraints
Even when the camera is installed at a location with an ideal perspective, challenges still
exist. Visibility changes occur due to lighting conditions caused by day-night transition
and various weather conditions such as sun, clouds, heavy rain, fog, and snow.
159
Before discussing the tolerance of the TxDOT video analytics demonstration system to
visibility conditions, we introduce the two basic phases: initialization phase and steadystate phase. During the initialization phase, the background must be estimated quickly,
followed by autonomous camera calibration and detection zone generation. During the
steady-state phase, with the camera now calibrated and detection zones ready, the system
collects traffic data and detects events.
During the initialization phase, free-flow traffic is preferred for achieving an accurate
background estimation. Background estimation is possible only when background
information is the most prevalent value at each pixel location. Normal lighting is
preferred for autonomous camera calibration. The most important step is to estimate
perpendicular vanishing points based on detected car edges. The visibility available
during daylight is always better than the visibility at night. Extreme weather conditions
hinder accurate calibration. Therefore, the system should initialize itself under conditions
of free-flowing traffic and normal weather conditions during daytime. Fortunately, during
the steady-state phase, the system functions with fewer restrictions but performance
degrades as visibility deteriorates. In general, vision-based video analytics techniques are
sensitive to image visibility; accordingly, the better the visibility, the better the TxDOT
demonstration system will perform.
Functionalities
The available functionalities are part of the baseline requirements. Familiarity with the
functionality assists users in deciding whether the system satisfies the functional
requirements for their particular application scenario. In general functionalities can be
categorized into data collection and event detection, which varies with respect to different
application scenarios. The proposed functionalities for the TxDOT video analytics
demonstration system are listed in the following paragraphs.
Data Collection
Traffic data collected includes vehicle counts and average speed aggregated over
specified time granularity. The data are collected for each lane. How often traffic data is
updated can be redefined by the user and the default granularity is one minute.
Event Detection
Stopped vehicles will be detected as an event. The incident of a car stopping is one of the
most important signs of accidents or emergencies requiring immediate response and
action. However, only vehicles that have stopped for a specified time (defined by users)
will be detected in order not to flag vehicles stopped by law enforcement or drivers
making adjustments.
Levels of Service
Transmission of streaming video challenges the capability of network bandwidth. The
levels of service, by our definition, are driven by bandwidth requirements. The four levels
of service, corresponding to increasing bandwidth requirements, are described in Table
17.
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Table 17 Levels of Service
Level
Description
1
Video analysis (traffic data collection and event detection)
will be processed in the camera site; Traffic data and alarms
will be transmitted to TMC
2
Video analysis (traffic data collection and event detection)
will be processed in the camera site; Traffic data, alarms
together with image sequence or video clip will be transmitted
to TMC and streaming video will be transmitted into TMC via
request
3
Video analysis (traffic data collection and event detection)
will be processed in the camera site; Traffic data, alarms
together with image sequence or video clip will be transmitted
to TMC
4
Streaming Video will be transmitted into TMC all the time;
and video analysis (traffic data collection and event detection)
will be processed in TMC
6.2.2 System Components
Before discussing the details of components of the TxDOT video analytics demonstration
system, we wish to introduce them in a more general way. This introduction will provide
better insight into the manner in which the system could be upgraded or simplified.
Video Analytics General System Framework
As illustrated in Figure 49, the general system framework consists of four major
components: pre-processing, event detection, data collection, and post-processing. Preprocessing is basically low-level image processing, from which primitive elements useful
for higher-level video understanding are obtained. For example, background estimation
and foreground detection are the most basic computations of a video analytics system.
Event detection and data collection, which provide intermediate understanding of a traffic
scene, are obtained through the primitive elements. The difference between event
detection and data collection is that event detection focuses on interesting events resulting
from motion such as vehicle fire, a vehicle being tracked, and vehicle stalled in
congestion; data collection emphasizes static characteristics of vehicles such as vehicle
size and shape or traffic data indicating traffic conditions (including average speed as
well as counts). The post-processing component attempts to understand the traffic scene
at a higher level compared to event detection and data collection. Post-processing
establishes such understanding using knowledge accumulated over a given period of
time.
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In Figure 49, the sub-components indicated by solid lines are provided in the TxDOT
video analytics demonstration system and the sub-components in dashed lines are not
available but the system could be extended to include them.
Figure 49 General System Framework
System Framework Flowchart
Given the general discussion above of the video analytic system, we wish now to
introduce the system framework with a flowchart and detailed explanations of each
component.
As shown in Figure 50, the input is streaming video in the form of consecutive frames.
The output is traffic data (speed and counts) and incident detected (stopped vehicles). The
details of the intermediate steps and components are discussed in the following
paragraphs.
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Figure 50 System Framework Flow-Chart
Background Estimation
A sequence of intensity values is acquired by taking the intensity value of each location
from a sequence of consecutive frames. The intensity value that appears most often is
assumed to comprise the background. A temporal median filter (G. Zhang et al. 2007) is
applied over a sequence of consecutive frames sampled in temporal rate rt in order to
estimate the background image. The lighting condition changes slowly throughout the
day, however. Thus, it is necessary to reestablish the background periodically, such as
every hour (Tbgr=60 minutes). It should be mentioned that during the initialization phase,
a faster background estimation is performed within 30 seconds.
Object Detection
With an estimated background from a sequence of consecutive frames, the foreground is
detected (i.e., the vehicles) by subtracting the background from each frame. Using the
difference image, we apply thresholding with a parameter td. In other words, we locate
pixel for which the difference is larger than td.
Because the background is estimated over a short time period, any sudden change of
illumination affects the result of subtracting the current new frame and estimated
background image. Automatic gain control (AGC) 42 is basically a form of amplification
in which the camera will automatically boost the image received so that objects are seen
more clearly. When the lighting condition drops below a certain level, the camera will
42
See website http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automatic_gain_control.
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begin to boost the signal to compensate. Besides the passing of clouds, AGC is the most
frequent cause for unexpected sudden illumination changes.
Gamma correction controls the overall brightness of an image. Images that are not
properly corrected can look either bleached out or too dark. Thus, in order to deal with
sudden illumination changes, gamma correction 43 is applied to balance the illumination
from frame to frame. In this way, it is assured that the brightness of the background
image is similar to each incoming frame. The foreground is detectable in a much more
robust way. There is another illumination issue. The sun causes objects/vehicles to cast
shadows at certain times of the day. As the sun climbs/descends, the lengths of shadows
change. The existence of shadow affects the description of the foreground objects. Thus,
we adapted the real-time shadow removal technique proposed in Xiao et al. (2007)
directly on the foreground detected in the previous step.
Tracking
We calculate the center of mass to serve as a representative of each object/vehicle
detected. This allows a more general approach for feature-based tracking. Here we
formulate the problem of object tracking as a motion correspondence problem (Veenman
2007) or, more generally, an assignment problem (Kuhn 1955). Any approaches used
should be able to deal with entering and exiting (initiation and termination of tracking),
false points (due to errors in detection) and missing points (due to occlusions). Given a
sequence of n frames denoted by Ft1, Ft2, ... , Ftn, we assume that every object is
represented as a point (center of mass). Therefore, each frame Ftk has a set of points. The
aim is to develop one-to-one object assignments for consecutive n frames (n≥2) such that
proximate uniformity and smooth motion constraints are best preserved. The larger the
number of consecutive frames n, the more we need to take into consideration the
computation efficiency. Because motion constancy can only be reflected over a minimum
of three frames, we assign a value of 3 to n. As illustrated in Figure 51, the motion of two
objects is captured in three consecutive frames: Ftk-1, Ftk, and Ftk+1. Both objects are
moving in the directions indicated by the arrows. Tracking of these two moving objects
can be interpreted as establishing frame-to-frame matchings. Three objects, one from
each of the three consecutive frames, must be put in correspondence. As in Figure 51,
tracking of the two objects is illustrated as matchings in solid and dashed lines,
respectively. The Hungarian algorithm (Kuhn 1955) is a classical method for the
“assignment problem” such as the 2-D matching of assigning persons to tasks. We
generalized the classical 2-D Hungarian algorithm to an n-D Hungarian and actually
applied a 3-D Hungarian algorithm to solve the tracking problem described above.
Initiation and termination of tracking was incorporated; detection errors and occlusions
are also handled by logical reasoning. Objects will not match unless proximal uniformity
is satisfied and the motion is smooth. Tracking is initialized to tolerate absent points due
to occlusion using a Kalman filter 44 to predict the location of a missed object for a limited
number of frames.
43
44
See website http://www.cgsd.com/papers/gamma_intro.html.
See website http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalman_filter.
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Figure 51 Motion Correspondence
Trajectory Analysis
The center of mass is used to represent objects/vehicles as a sequence of points—the
trajectory is obtained through object/vehicle tracking. During the initialization phase,
objects/vehicles are tracked and a large number of trajectories are collected. This enables
derivation of higher-level knowledge through trajectory analysis. In the context of traffic
surveillance, the aim of trajectory analysis is to model the traffic scene in order to obtain
the road structure (spatial knowledge) and to learn the motion pattern (spatio-temporal
knowledge) of objects/vehicles travelling on the road. One focus is to learn the road
structure and to estimate the parallel vanishing point as shown in Figure 52 and Figure
53, respectively.
In order to learn road structure we adapted the unsupervised dominant-set based
clustering technique (Pavan and Pelillo 2007) to hierarchically cluster trajectories
collected in the initialization phase into K dominant sets. Practically, K is known a priori.
Figure 52 illustrates a set of trajectories that are clustered into two dominant sets. Each
cluster represents one highway lane (one sketched via a solid line and the other via a
dashed line). From each dominant set of trajectories we derive one representative
trajectory by median filtering—eliminating most of the noise. Parallel lines in the real
world appear to converge to a point—the vanishing point in the image plane. We
consider trajectories of vehicles to be parallel to one another in the real world with the
assumption that most vehicles maintain lane discipline. Unavoidably the trajectories,
even after filtering, are somewhat noisy. Thus, we adapted the Levenberg-Marquardt
optimization algorithm 45 for the parallel vanishing point estimation. As shown in Figure
53, the parallel vanishing point Vpar (u0,v0) is circled in green.
45
See website http://cobweb.ecn.purdue.edu/~kak/courses-iteach/ECE661.08/homework/HW5_LM_handout.pdf.
165
Figure 52 Trajectory Analysis
Figure 53 Vanishing Points-based Camera Calibration
Camera Calibration
Similar to the parallel vanishing point, the perpendicular vanishing point is a point of
convergence. It must be constructed from lines perpendicular to the highway lanes. Based
on the assumption that the road is not inclined, i.e., on the plane z=0 in the real-world
coordinates, the vanishing-point-based camera calibration (Schoepflin and Dailey, 2003)
considers the two vanishing points constructed from two pairs of parallel lines. The
second pair must be perpendicular to the first pair in the real world. We refer to the
vanishing point computed from the traffic lanes as Vpar (u0,v0). The second, from lines
perpendicular to the traffic lanes, is referred to as vanishing point Vper (u1,v0). For the
conditions just described (i.e., z=0), the two vanishing points lie on the line y=v0 in the
image plane. With the assumption that the horizontal edges of vehicles are approximately
perpendicular to the highway lane, we collect a set of several perpendicular lines. This is
accomplished by detecting the leading edges of vehicles using the Canny edge detection
(Canny, 1986) followed by utilizing the Hough transform (Duda and Hart, 1972). In the
image plane, the intersection of every perpendicular line and line v=v0 gives one
candidate for Vper = (u1i, v0). The perpendicular vanishing point candidates spread along
line y=v0 are expected to be quite noisy. Under some circumstances, it is customary to
apply the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm. We chose a simpler approach.
We take x-coordinate of all the perpendicular point candidates {u11, u12, …, u1N} (N is
the number of candidate perpendicular lines). Values falling outside ±2 standard
deviations are discarded and the remaining ones are averaged for the final Vper estimation.
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In addition to Vpar(u0,v0) and Vper(u1,v0), a real-world distance between any two points
or between any two parallel lines in the image plane is needed for estimating the
following camera parameters: f (focal length), pan angle, tilt angle, and h (the height of
the camera). The FHWA reported 46 that every state strictly follows highway lane width
standards; thus, we are able to utilize this information as a known value (together with
Vpar and Vper) prior to calibrating the camera. This is explained in equations (6-1)–(6-4).
𝑓 = �−(𝑣0 ∗ 𝑣0 + 𝑢0 ∗ 𝑢1 )
v0
𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑡 = tan−1 �− �
f
− 𝟐)
ℎ=
pan = tan−1 �−
𝑓∗𝑎∗sin(tilt)
cos(pan)
,𝑎 =
(𝐄𝐪. 𝟔 − 𝟏)
(𝐄𝐪. 𝟔
u0 ∗ cos(tilt)
�
f
(𝐄𝐪. 𝟔 − 𝟑)
𝑤
(𝐄𝐪. 𝟔 − 𝟒)
∆
In equation (6-4), 𝑎 is scale factor relating distance in image coordinates to distance in
real-world coordinates; and here the scale factor 𝑎 is calculated as the ratio of lane width
𝑤 (𝑤 = 3.6𝑚 𝑏𝑦 𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑎𝑢𝑙𝑡) and the real-world distance between two neighboring lanes.
Speed Estimation
With the camera calibrated, any point in the image plane can be mapped/transformed to
the plane z=0 in the real-world coordinates. In other words, the real-world distance of any
two points in the image could be calculated easily. Assume that it takes ∆t seconds for
one vehicle to travel in the image plane from point (𝑝𝑢 , pv ) to point (𝑐𝑢 , cv ) and these two
points are mapped to (𝑝𝑥 , 𝑝𝑦 , 0) and (𝑐𝑥 , 𝑐𝑦 , 0) in real-world coordinates as described in
equations (6-5)–(6-8). The average speed (in miles per hour) of the vehicle can be
calculated using equations (6-9)–(6-10).
𝑝𝑥 =
ℎ ∗ 𝑝𝑢 ∗ sec(tilt)
pv + f ∗ tan(tilt)
𝑐𝑥 =
ℎ ∗ 𝑐𝑢 ∗ sec(tilt)
cv + f ∗ tan(tilt)
𝑝𝑦 =
𝑐𝑦 =
ℎ ∗ (𝑓 − 𝑝𝑣 ∗ tan(𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑡))
(pv + f ∗ tan(tilt))
ℎ ∗ (𝑓 − 𝑐𝑣 ∗ tan(𝑡𝑖𝑙𝑡))
(cv + f ∗ tan(tilt))
∆d = �(𝑝𝑥 − 𝑐𝑥 )2 + �𝑝𝑦 − 𝑐𝑦 �
46
(𝐄𝐪. 𝟔 − 𝟓)
(𝐄𝐪. 𝟔 − 𝟔)
(𝐄𝐪. 𝟔 − 𝟕)
(𝐄𝐪. 𝟔 − 𝟖)
2
(𝐄𝐪. 𝟔 − 𝟗)
See website http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics/2008/hm39.cfm.
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𝑣=
∆d ∗ 0.621 ∗ 3.6
∆t
(𝐄𝐪. 𝟔 − 𝟏𝟎)
Counts
As mentioned earlier, detection zones are automatically generated utilizing the results of
trajectory clustering. Detection zones are necessary for accurately counting the
objects/vehicles. A detection zone has two states: occupied (O) and unoccupied (U).
Transition from state O to state U indicates that a moving object/vehicle has just passed
the detection zone. The number of O→U transitions captured is equal to the number of
objects/vehicles that have passed.
Stopped Vehicle Detection
We store the trajectories of moving objects/vehicles that have not yet exited the scene and
delete them after they exit. Normally, it does not take long for a object to exit the scene.
Objects/vehicles that have remain at the same place in the scene longer than 1–2 seconds
are associated with a stopped-car tracker. The stopped-car tracker keeps a record of how
long the vehicle has stopped and of the location. It is also designed to tolerate missed
detections of the stopped vehicle over time; in other words, it has the ability to recognize
the stopped vehicle when it reappears again at the same location. If the vehicle remains
stationary for more than Ts seconds, an alarm is triggered and sent to the TMC for
response. An operator can set any reasonable value for Ts according to needs. (Ts is set to
be 10 seconds by default.)
Hardware Setup
Processor
A roadside streaming-video analytics traffic surveillance system requires the processor to
be weather-hardened and computationally powerful. With these two requirements in
mind, we decided to use the Logic Supply Extreme Environment PT-9WC1 Core2
Fanless backbone 47 as the processor. With respect to extreme environments, the PT9WC1 has the ability to withstand extended temperatures between -40 °C–70 °C and is
resilient to shock and vibration. With respect to computation power, it has a 2.26 GHz
Intel Core2 Duo P8400 CPU and 2GB DDR2 wide-temperature memory in a ruggedized
and fanless enclosure; it is pre-installed with Ubuntu 10.04 OS.
Pre-configuration
Before integrating the video analytics processor with the existing network, we need to
assign a valid IP address for the processor so that via an Ethernet cable it can be
connected and made accessible within the network.
Figure 54 illustrates the three major components for the network-connected video
analytics processor: core computation unit, web server, and database server.
47
See website http://www.logicsupply.com/products/pt_9wc1.
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Figure 54 Functional Architecture of Video Analytics Processor
The database server and web server cooperate to store and visualize data provided
through a web-based interface to the user. The interface bridges the communication gap
between the operators in the TMC and the data from the on-site processor. The core
computation unit is mainly developed in C/C++ with utilization of several open source
libraries. One library is OpenCV with FFmpeg enabled and MYSQL++, which must be
pre-installed and configured correctly for the processor. Also, the web server Apache
with a PHP processor module and database management server MySQL must be
installed.
• OpenCV (http://opencv.willowgarage.com/wiki/)
OpenCV (Open Source Computer Vision) is a library of programming
functions aimed at real-time computer vision. It is free for both academic
and commercial use under the open source BSD license.
• FFmpeg (http://www.ffmpeg.org/ )
FFmpeg is a complete, cross-platform solution for handling multimedia data
such as recording, converting, and streaming audio and video. It also has
functions for manipulating video. The most notable library component of
FFmpegis is the libavcodec—an audio/video codec library. OpenCV
depends on it to encode and decode streaming videos. The latest version is
FFmpeg 0.6. FFmpeg should be installed prior to OpenCV so that OpenCV
can be installed with the FFmpeg functionalities enabled.
• MySQL++ (http://www.ffmpeg.org/ )
MySQL++ is a powerful C++ library wrapper for MySQL’s C API. Its
purpose is to simplify database queries by adapting C++ standard template
libraries such as STL containers.
• Web Server Apache (http://httpd.apache.org/)
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Apache is possibly the most popular Linux-based web server application in
use. It also has the ability to process PHP script.
• Database Management Server MySQL (http://www.mysql.com/)
MySQL is a relational database management system that runs as a server
providing multi-user access to a number of databases. It is utilized in the
TxDOT video analytics demonstration system in order to record the
collected traffic and incident data as the output from the system. Moreover,
MySQL is also a popular database choice for use in web applications.
Setup
Assuming that a wireless network between the traffic monitoring site and Traffic
Management Center is already established, the processor installed with the TxDOT video
analytics can be easily integrated with the existing traffic management communication
system via network interconnection equipment such as a network router or switch. As
shown in Figure 55, the remote processor (the green box) is connected into the existing
wireless network via an on-site network switch. Similarly the processor can also be
connected to the network via a network switch in the TMC if installation of the processor
on-site is not a favorable option.
Figure 55 System Setup with On-site Processor
Interface
The web-based interface is a necessity because it plays an important role in bridging the
communication gap between the user and the remote processor on which the TxDOT
video analytics demonstration system is installed. As a user-friendly interface, it provides
a convenient interface for users to remotely configure and launch the video analytics
system. It also enables visualization of traffic data in graphical form. Therefore,
functionally, it consists of two major components: remote configuration and data
visualization. In the following section more details are given.
6.2.3 Usage Guidelines
In this section we provide usage instructions for remote access, remote configuration, and
data visualization. Potential customizations of the processor’s functions are described.
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Remote Access and Configuration
Just as the video analytics processor should be assigned a valid IP address, the desktop
temporally used for testing and developing is also assigned an IP. An HTTP protocol
allows access to the interface of the video analytics processor via the IP. Through the
interface, users can edit the camera settings camera and the road structure view captured
by the camera. The user can change the frequency at which the traffic data is updated
and, of course, launch or stop execution of video analytics.
Settings
The settings tableau is an important interface component. It is accessed before the video
analytics is launched. One must set the URL link necessary for accessing snapshots or
video from the camera. (Each camera model has its own rules for providing access.)
Additionally, it provides a screen tableau on which to specify the road structure and the
information required for the video analytics units to perform optimally. As shown in
Figure 56, video input may originate from an IP camera or a stored video clip. (The latter
is effective for testing.)
• IP Camera
Figure 56 Settings for Camera
• Road Structure
Figure 57 depicts the tableau for describing the road structure. Several inputs based on
human observation are required:
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• D1: the number of lanes in Direction 1 (oncoming traffic)
• D2: the number of lanes in Direction 2 (departing traffic)
• Lane Width: the real-world distance between two neighboring lane center
lines
• Perpendicular Angle: slope angle of lines perpendicular to the traffic lanes
in real-world coordinates 48 (the range is -180 to180 degrees)
• Top Ratio (default: 0), Bottom Ratio (default: 1), Left Ratio (default: 0) and
Right Ratio (default: 1): parameters for defining the boundary of the region
of interest (ROI) (normally, the user avoids processing the distant objects by
setting the top ratio to 0.5, allowing only the lower half of the image to be
processed).
Vehicle views may be needed to determine the perpendicular angle; a “refresh snapshot”
button requests a new static image if the current image is not informative enough. Check
Yes or No for “Remove Shadow” to determine whether the current view has shadows.
Figure 57 Settings for Road Structure
48
Wind shields on oncoming vehicles can be used to gauge the perpendicular direction.
172
Data Visualization
DataView
• Parameters
Before launching the core computation unit of the video analytics unit, parameters for
traffic data collection and stopped vehicle detection must be established. For example,
how often should statistics be updated? How long must a vehicle be stopped before it is
treated as an incident? Who will receive the emergency warning email whenever an
incident is detected? The appropriate fields for data entry are shown in Figure 58.
Figure 58 Parameters for Speed Estimation and Incident Detection
• Direction1/Direction2
Visualization of average speed and counts for Direction 1 and Direction 2 are displayed
separately. Illustrated in Figure 59 are speed and counts, which are updated each minute.
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Figure 59 Visualization for Traffic Data
Execution
Control
• Start/End Program
Processing can be started and ended by clicking corresponding buttons.
• Real-Time View
Real-time views provide the operator with real-time visuals whenever an incident is
detected. This step permits the operator to validate the detection.
Data Download
The collected traffic data can also be downloaded, including incident reports, by clicking
Data Download.
Note: please refer to TxDOT Demo User Manual for detailed instructions on using the
TxDOT demonstration system.
6.3 Performance Evaluation
Performance evaluation experiments were performed in two phases for which the TxDOT
video analytics demonstration system was deployed. The first phase, system refinement,
focused on short video clips taken from a bridge at I35E, exit 466B, overlooking the
freeway. We arranged a probe vehicle to drive past at a constant speed of 55 mph.
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Experiments in phase one, the system stabilization phase, played a major role in
optimizing the core processing algorithms of the TxDOT demonstration system.
Experiments in phase two, the live traffic phase, were designed to evaluate the
performance with respect to traffic data collection (speed estimation and vehicle counts)
and incident detection (stopped car detection).
6.3.1 Phase One, System Stabilization
Testing Setup
Two traffic video clips were used for preliminary performance evaluation. One fourminute video clip (clip 1) was taken from a bridge at I35E, exit 466B, overlooking the
interstate. During the four minutes we arranged a probe vehicle to drive past at a constant
speed of 55 mph; the other video clip (clip 2) is distributed as a demonstration of Abacus.
Clip 2 is 10 minutes long. In our experiments, video clip 1 is used for camera
calibration/speed and volume estimation; video clip 2 is used to evaluate only stopped-car
detection because ground truth for speed is not available.
TxDOT Video Analytics System
A visualization of the intermediate results from the TxDOT video analytics system is
shown in Figure 60. In video clip 1, the camera has a good but not ideal perspective
because there is occlusion of vehicles in rightmost two lanes due to the limited camera
height. (Recall that video clip 1 was taken from a bridge.)
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(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 60 Intermediate Results
Figure 60(a) shows the background estimated during the initialization phase; (b) shows
the trajectory for one vehicle being tracked; (c) depicts the dominant paths learned from
clustering collected trajectories; and (d) presents the automatically generated detection
zones.
Camera Calibration/Speed Estimation
Highways, even interstates, do not offer ideal, straight, horizontal terrain. Thus, it is
difficult to obtain accurate camera tilt and pan angles or the vertical distance between the
camera and highway surface. Without a priori camera parameters, the accuracy of
calibration is best reflected in the accuracy at which vehicle speed is estimated (given
accurate vehicle tracking). Speed estimation is dependent only on camera calibration and
tracking. Based on the probe vehicle moving at a constant speed of 55 mph, we
approximated the speed of four other vehicles that traveled in the same lane as the probe
car. In order to minimize trajectory noise, manually traced trajectories of the five vehicles
were created. These were for use alongside automatically extracted tracks. We estimated
the speed utilizing both manually and automatically extracted trajectory sets.
In the initialization phase, camera parameters (camera height, focal length, tilt angle, and
pan angle) were estimated. They are obtained using parallel and perpendicular vanishing
points and road structure. Based on the camera parameters estimated in the initialization
phase, the speed estimation was obtained for the five vehicles using, separately,
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trajectories automatically extracted and those manually extracted. The results are shown
in the Figure 61. Compared to the GT (ground truth) of speed, one can see that speed
estimation based on both trajectory sets are accurate with maximal error of 2.6% and
2.5%, respectively. The low error rates for either trajectory set indicate that not only is
the camera well-calibrated and but also speed is accurately estimated. However, in
reality, tracking in some environments may be noisy.
Figure 61 Speed Estimation Evaluation
Volume Estimation
It is easier to acquire ground truth for volume. One can manually count the number of
passing vehicles for a given time interval (one minute in our experiments). As shown in
Figure 62, the traffic volume for four periods is estimated for each lane. However, results
are shown for only the two leftmost lanes (Direction 1). The reason is that the median
barrier affects detection of vehicles traveling in the two rightmost lanes (Figure 63). The
zones generated for the rightmost lanes (Direction 2) are shifted as was illustrated in
Figure 60. The results for Direction 1 indicate that traffic volume estimation using the
TxDOT video analytics system is acceptable and has an approximate error rate of 3.6%.
(a)
(b)
Figure 62 Volume Estimation Results for Direction 1
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Figure 63 Illustration of Side Occlusion of Two Rightmost Lanes
Stopped Vehicle Detection
In video clip 2, only one vehicle pulled to the shoulder and stopped for approximately 35
seconds. For stopped vehicle detection, a parameter for stop duration toleration needs to
be entered to prevent notification of vehicles stopped momentarily. We entered a stop
duration tolerance of 10 seconds. The stopped vehicle was successfully detected just at
the 10-second mark. The scene is illustrated in Figure 64. The stopped vehicle continued
to be detected for approximately 34–35 seconds when it left the scene. No redundant
incident detection warnings were generated and sent to the simulated TMC.
Figure 64 Detection of a Stopped Vehicle
Abacus
Iteris, Inc.’s Abacus™ is one video analytics product on the market. It uses a unique
blend of artificial intelligence and video detection algorithms to allow either fixed or PTZ
cameras to be used for data collection and incident detection. The system tracks all
vehicles as they move through the camera’s field of view (FOV). As a result, all
information is captured and incidents can be detected by identifying anomalous driving
behaviors without the need for virtual or detection zone configurations. The functionality
of this version of Abacus is described in the paragraphs below.
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Traffic Data Collection
The traffic data collection capabilities are designed to provide a continuous feed of data
similar to other technologies. In this way, a single camera can be used for both
surveillance and data collection while at the same time monitoring for incidents. The
default reporting period of data collection is 60 seconds. Information is provided in the
form of a universal XML schema. Each camera can collect data from up to two directions
of traffic. The data collected includes volume (reported in vehicles per minute), speed
(reported as the average vehicle speed during the reporting interval), occupancy (reported
as a percentage), classification (reported as the number of vehicles for each classification
group), and traffic incident detection.
Traffic Incident Detection
The Abacus system is designed to continuously monitor video feeds for incidents.
Abacus can act as a digital video recorder to record incidents or work with existing
digital video recorder units to provide notification of an event. These notifications can be
provided by means of e-mail or an SMS text message. The types of incidents which can
be detected for immediate notification are stopped vehicle detection, roadway debris
detection, wrong way driver detection, and fire or smoke detection.
Experiments
The version of Abacus used in the phase one experiments is Abacus Highway
v1.2.3709.277BO BETA. The detailed installation and user manual is accessible online 49.
We also used video clip 1 and clip 2 as testing datasets to evaluate the accuracy of
speed/volume estimation and stopped vehicle detection. The system must be initialized
for streaming video or video clip input. The details of configuration are not included here.
However, it is worth noting that parameters must be tuned for best performance. An
initialization tableau is illustrated in Figure 65.
49
See website
http://www.interprovincial.com/files/manuals/iteris/Abacus%20Installation%20and%20User%20Manual.p
df.
179
(a)
(b)
Figure 65 Initialization Tableau (a) Camera Configuration Tab (b) Vehicles within the
Frame Boundary Defined in (a) Are Successfully Detected
Speed/Volume Estimation
As noted in the previous section, the perspective of video clip 1 is not ideal. Occlusions
exist for vehicles in the rightmost two lanes; thus, we utilized traffic data collected for
Direction 1 (oncoming traffic) to evaluate the Abacus. Note that video clip 1 is only 4
minutes long. Speed estimation by Abacus improves if it observes traffic for a longer
period. To partially compensate, we ran video clip 1 repeatedly for 20 minutes. The
comparison between Abacus and ground truth is given in Table 18.
Table 18 Traffic Data Collected from Abacus Compared with the Ground Truth
Traffic Incident Detection
As shown in Figure 65, four parameters relate to stopped vehicle detection: 1) stationary
time prior to raising an alarm—20 seconds by default; 2) maximum consecutive misses
(the maximal number of consecutive frames the candidate stopped vehicles can be
misdetected)—4 frames by default; 3) area change tolerance (the tolerance for the change
of the size of candidate stopped vehicles)—5% by default; and 4) location change
tolerance (the tolerance for the change of the location of candidate stopped vehicles)—
5% by default. Video clip 2 was utilized to evaluate the stopped vehicle detection
function. All parameters including those four for the stopped vehicle detection were kept
intact except the video frame boundaries. The boundaries are specified as shown in
Figure 66(a). Most vehicles are detected successfully. The clip was run repeatedly
because Abacus needs initialization time. Nevertheless, the stopped vehicle was not
detected well enough. It was detected successfully for a short period of time as it slowed
down before stopping. A stopped vehicle incident was not triggered. The default
stationary time before raising an alarm is 20 seconds. The stationary time before raising
an alarm was changed to less than 6 seconds (the actual stationary time is 35 seconds).
180
The alarm scene is shown in Figure 66. However, parameters maximum consecutive
misses, area change tolerance, and location change tolerance did not affect the detection
of the stopped vehicles. We had only the single test case. More intensive testing with
more data must be done before a valid judgment can be given.
(a)
(b)
Figure 66 Alarm Scene: (a) Video Frame Boundaries Configured for Video Clip 2; (b)
Stopped Vehicle Detected
6.3.2 Phase Two, Live Traffic
Testing Setup
Courtesy of DalTrans, we were give direct access to the traffic camera at Mayhill and
I35E. Four time periods having different characteristics were chosen for evaluation.
These four and the Iteris-provided stopped vehicle video are described in Table 19. While
we had access to an MVD (microwave vehicle detector), for greater accuracy we
acquired vehicle counts manually. Speed, volume, and stopped vehicles statistics were
collected. We compared systems based on traffic data collected for only one direction
(the direction closer to the camera).
181
Table 19 Characteristics of Test Videos
Date
Time
Period
May 09,
2011
17:06 PM–
21:16 PM
Characteristics
Normal lighting without apparent shadows and night vision
May 17,
2011
17:38 PM–
21:58 PM
Begin with apparent short shadows, long weak shadows, and night
vision
May 20,
2011
12:37 PM–
15:47 PM
Light rain and heavy rain
From
Iteris
daytime
Normal condition with a stopped vehicle
182
Configuration Setup
For the TxDOT demo system, the usage parameters as defined for the experiments are
shown in Figure 67. For Abacus, the ROIs for each time period are shown in Figure 68.
In Figure 68(a) and (d), the ROI includes the shoulder in order to detect stopped vehicles.
The important Abacus parameter settings are shown in Table 20.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 67 TxDOT Road Structure Settings for Four Testing Videos (a) for May 09, 2011;
(b) for May 17, 2011; (c) for May 20, 2011; (d) for Video with Stopped Car
183
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 68 Overlay Configured for (a) May 09, 2011; (b) May 17, 2011; (c) May 20,
2011; (d) Video with Stopped Car
Table 20 Important Parameters for Abacus Setup
Detection
Sensitivity
May 09, 2011 1.8
May 17, 2011 3
May 20, 2011 1.8
Stopped car
2
Top
Boundary
96
96
84
96
Bottom
Boundary
192
192
240
200
Left
Boundary
53
106
0
53
Right
Boundary
352
352
211
352
Comparison
Comparisons in the live traffic phase is on the basis of speed, volume (count), and
incident detection.
• Speed: For each of the cases (time periods) in the first three rows of Table
19, there is a companion comparison chart in Figure 69(a) through (c). In
each chart, the detector response is the data returned by the MVD. TxDOT
refers to the demo system. The tail of Figure 69(b) shows fluctuations after
9:00 p.m. This is the nighttime sub-segment. The TxDOT system does not
incorporate specific algorithmic methods for analyzing low ambient light
conditions.
184
Axis Title
19:01
19:06
19:11
19:16
19:21
19:26
19:31
19:36
19:41
19:46
19:51
19:56
20:01
20:06
20:11
20:16
20:21
20:26
20:31
20:36
20:41
20:46
20:51
20:56
mph
Speed
70
60
50
40
Detector
30
Abacus
20
10
TxDOT
0
(a)
Speed
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Detector
Abacus
TxDOT
(b)
185
Speed
120
100
mph
80
Abacus
60
TxDOT
40
Detector
20
0
13:32 13:37 13:42 13:47 13:52 13:57 14:02 14:07 14:12 14:17
(c)
Figure 69 Speed Estimation Comparison for (a) May 09, 2011; (b) May 17, 2011; (c)
May 20, 2011 with Light Rain
• Count: For each of the cases (time periods) in the first three rows of Table
19, there is a companion comparison chart in Figure 70(a) through (d). In
each chart, the ground truth response is the data determined by manual
counting. TxDOT refers to the demo system. The rainy subsequence of the
third time period is separated into a separate chart, Figure 70(d).
Vehicles
Counts
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
Groundtruth
Abacus
TxDOT
(a)
186
Counts
250
Vehicles
200
150
Groundtruth
Abacus
100
TxDOT
50
0
(b)
Count
300
Vehicles
250
200
GroundTruth
150
Abacus
100
TxDOT
50
0
13:32 13:37 13:42
13:47 13:52 13:57 14:02
(c)
187
14:07
14:12
14:17
Count (Heavy Rain)
250
vehicls
200
150
GroundTruth
Abacus
100
TxDOT
50
0
15:17
15:22
15:27
15:32
15:37
15:42
15:47
(d)
Figure 70 Count Estimation Comparison for (a) May 09, 2011; (b) May 17, 2011; (c)
May 20, 2011 with Light Rain; (d) for May 20, 2011 with Heavy Rain
• Incident detection: The only implemented incident detection algorithm was
for stopped vehicle. The functionality of both Abacus and the TxDOT
demonstration system included detection. While stopped vehicle is the most
common incident, it is relatively rare. Across the four time periods
characterized in Table 19, only the last contains a stopped vehicle. As
shown in Table 21, the two systems behaved identically, with no false
positives or false negatives.
Table 21 Incident Detection Performance from Both Abacus and TxDOT Systems
Date
Location
Time Period
Events/Accuracy
False Alarm
May 09, 2011
[email protected]
17:06 PM–21:16
PM
0/100%
0
May 17, 2011
[email protected]
17:38 PM–21:58
PM
0/100%
0
May 20, 2011
[email protected]
12:37 PM–15:47
PM
0/100%
0
From Iteris
N/A
daytime
1/100%
0
188
Chapter 7. Conclusions and Recommendations
A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of extending the range of traffic
monitoring systems using low-cost communications and autonomous cameras. For
communications, three sets of antennas were investigated: a very low-cost radio (Ubiquiti
Nanostation M5), a low-cost radio (Ubiquiti Rocket Dish), and the Motorola PTP300
series. For cameras, we used an Axis 213 PTZ supplied by TranStar in Houston and a
Cohu supplied by DalTrans in Dallas.
To evaluate autonomous operation, we used a commercial video analytics product,
Abacus Highway Product, marketed by Iteris. In addition, a demonstration system was
developed and delivered to TxDOT. Both had the functionality of self-calibration,
speed/volume detection, and stopped vehicle identification. The TxDOT demonstration
system was restricted to operation under nominal lighting conditions and is capable of
self-calibration for straight, flat roadways. Both systems performed satisfactorily.
7.1 Communications Equipment
In the area of wireless communications, we made several observations regarding both
bandwidth and antennas. With respect to bandwidth, the following was determined:
For single-camera configurations, all tested
antennas tested were adequate as determined
by video quality metrics.
This observation may not hold for multiple-camera configurations.
We conclude the following for antennas:
Single-hop configurations (sensor to
backbone) can use inexpensive antennas.
We found no essential differences in operational quality, regardless of antenna quality, if
the video could be transported to the network backbone in a single hop. It may be noted
that we were not, within the confines of this study, capable of investigating the durability
of the antennas or survivability to extreme events. Additionally, we noted this:
Multi-hop configurations require antennas
with stable (small variation) throughput.
While relatively high numbers of drop-outs did not precipitate drastic reductions in
throughput in single-hop configurations, when combined in two-hop configurations, the
throughput diminished by half. While this occurrence was consistently observed, direct
experimentation was not possible. Drop-outs are random, non-controllable events that
cannot be replicated from one experiment repetition to the next.
189
7.2 Video Analytics (VA)
The communications choices represent the primary means to control equipment and
maintenance costs. Autonomous monitoring, the role of video analytics, is an option that
controls operational cost. Deploying VA reduces the need for attention by human
operators.
Our conclusions include the following.
Precise calibration and operator-controlled
camera movement are competitive goals.
Camera calibration is computationally expensive. Also, even if “self-calibrating,” the
software will not operate properly without some input from the operator. (Perhaps this
function is in place to ascertain whether the result is reasonable.) If the camera is moved
by a human operator, the calibration process must be repeated.
A number of commercial products are on the market; Iteris’s Abacus was selected for
testing as part of the study. Should a unique system be developed for TxDOT, this should
be noted:
Specialized expertise is required for
development.
The development of a VA system for traffic monitoring requires knowledge of image
processing, computer vision, projective geometry pattern recognition, and artificial
intelligence.
A VA system may be placed camera-side or TMC-side.
If bandwidth is not an issue, placing VA
processing at the TMC is as effective as
placing it in the field.
The input to the VA system is video. The quality of the video is important. If good
quality video is available at the TMC (and it generally is), then the system operation is
equal to a road-side installation. Furthermore, the costs of housing, weather hardening,
and field maintenance is less.
Camera placement (perspective) is crucial.
Near or over the roadway at a height of 40 to 60 feet is ideal. The farther the camera is
from the road, the greater becomes the problem of occlusion. Vehicle counts become less
accurate. The height of the camera affects the perceived size of the vehicles and
ultimately makes calibration more difficult.
TxDOT has the option of purchasing an existing autonomous surveillance system or
developing its own in-house.
190
It would be cost-effective for TxDOT to
develop and deploy its own freewayoriented VA system.
Admittedly, this conclusion is dependent on the number of installations that are
anticipated. Not counting maintenance in the years following installation, the breakeven
point likely occurs with approximately 12 installations.
191
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195
Appendix A: System Devices
The following devices are those used in the test systems.
Wireless Devices
 Nanostation M5 (http://ubnt.com/airview/downloads, accessed May 5, 2010)
Manufacturer: Ubiquiti Networks
Frequency: 5470 MHz–5825 MHz
Coverage: up to 15km (9 miles)
Data Rate: up to 150 Mbps
Standard: 802.11a/n
Power/Sensitivity: Tx Power: 802.11a: 27 dBm @ 6–24 Mbps to 22 dBm @
54 Mbps, 802.11n: 27 dBm @ MCS 0 to 21 dbm @ MCS 15;
Sensitivity: 802.11a: -94 dBm @ 6–24 Mbps to -75 dBm @
54 Mbps, 802.11n: -96 dBm @ MCS0 to -75 dbm @ MCS15
Antenna: 14.6–16.1 dBi
Enclosure: Outdoor UV Stabalized Plastic
Environment: -30° to +80°C (-22 to 176°F)
 Rocket M5 (http://ubnt.com/rocketm, accessed Nov. 20,2010) + RocketDish5G-30
(http://ubnt.com/rocketdish , accessed Nov. 20, 2010)
Manufacturer: Ubiquiti Networks
Frequency: 5470 MHz–5825 MHz
Coverage: up to 50km (31miles)
Data Rate: up to 150 Mbps
Standard: 802.11a/n
Power/Sensitivity: Tx Power: 802.11a: 27 dBm @ 6–24 Mbps to 22 dBm @
54 Mbps, 802.11n: 27 dBm @ MCS 0 to 21 dbm @ MCS 15;
Sensitivity: 802.11a: -94 dBm @ 6–24 Mbps to -75 dBm @
54 Mbps, 802.11n: -96 dBm @ MCS0 to -75 dbm @ MCS15
Antenna: 28.0–30.25 dBi (RocketDish5G-30)
Enclosure: Outdoor UV Stabalized Plastic
Environment: -30° to +75°C (-22 to 167°F)
19
To judge the performance of cost-effective testing wireless system, we also set up a
system composed by Motorola PTP 54300 which have been used in the other TxDOT
project and obtained good feedbacks.
 PTP 54300 (Part Number: WB3151BB)
(http://www.motorola.com/web/Business/Products/Wireless%20Networks/Wireless%20Broadband%2
0Networks/Point-toPoint/PTP%20300%20Series/WNS%20PTP%20300%20SS%20Updt%20072910%20r1.pdf, accessed
Nov. 20, 2010)
Manufacturer: Motorola
Frequency: 5470 MHz–5725 MHz
Coverage: up to 250 km (155 miles); in optional LOS up to 10km (6 miles)
Data Rate: (standard) 5 MHz: up to 13 Mbps; 10 MHz: up to 25 Mbps;
15 MHz: up to 25 Mbps
(LOS) 5 MHz: up to 18 Mbps; 10 MHz: up to 35 Mbps; 15 MHz: up to 50
Mbps
Power/Sensitivity: Transmission power: -18 dBm to 27 dBm;
Receiving sensitivity: -94 dBm to -69 dBm
Antenna: 23 dBi
Environment: -40° to +60°C (-40° to +140°F)
Camera
 Axis 213 PTZ (http://www.axis.com/files/datasheet/ds_213ptz_33081_en_0909_lo.pdf , accessed
April 20, 2010)
Name: 213 PTZ (http://www.axis.com/products/cam_213/, accessed May 5, 2010)+Housing
25733
Manufacturer: Axis
Format: 1⁄4” Interlaced CCD
Focal Length (mm): 3.5–91 mm, F1.6–F4.0
Zoom: 26x optical/12x digital
Angle of View: 1.7°–47°
Resolution: 160x90 to 704x576
Minimum Illumination: Color mode: 1 lux, F1.6; IR mode: 0.1 lux, F1.6; using built-in
IR light in complete darkness up to 3 m (9.8ft)
19
Appendix B: Testing Devices
Hardware
 Laptop1
Manufacturer: Dell
CPU: Intel Core2 Duo CPU @1.4 GHz 795 MHz
RAM: 2.00GB
Network: Broadcom 440x 10/100 Integrated Controller
 Laptop2
Manufacturer: Dell
CPU: Intel CPU T2050 @1.60 GHz 798 MHz
RAM: 0.99GB
Network: Broadcom 440x 10/100 Integrated Controller
Software
 LINKPlanner
Developer: MotorolaTM
Version: 2.3.10
Usage in the project: Site investigation and performance estimation for Motorola
products
Link: http://motorola.wirelessbroadbandsupport.com/software/ptp/index.php, accessed Nov. 29,
2010
Screenshot:
199
 Google Earth
Developer: GoogleTM
Version: 5.2.1.1588
Usage in the project: Site investigation
Link: http://www.google.com/earth/index.html, accessed July 1, 2010
Screenshot:
 Jperf
Developer: Nicolas Richasse
Version: 2.02
Usage in the project: Throughput Testing
Link: http://code.google.com/p/xjperf/, accessed Nov. 29, 2010
Screenshot:
200
 The Dude
Developer: MikroTikTM
Version: 3.6
Usage in the project: Network Monitoring
Link: http://www.mikrotik.com/thedude.php, accessed June 3, 2010
Screenshot:
201
Appendix C: Development Platform and Software
Development Platform
The following desktop computer is used for basic development and implementation for
the video analytics system.
 Desktop
Manufacturer: Dell
CPU: Intel Core2 Duo CPU @ 3 GHz 2.99 GHz
RAM: 3.00GB
Open Source Dependencies: OpenCV (http://opencv.willowgarage.com/wiki/), FFmpeg
(http://www.ffmpeg.org/), MySQL++ (http://www.ffmpeg.org/), Apache
(http://httpd.apache.org/) and MySQL (http://www.mysql.com/)
Software
 Abacus
(http://www.interprovincial.com/files/manuals/iteris/Abacus%20Installation%20and
%20User%20Manual.pdf)
Developer: Iteris’s AbacusTM
Version: v1.2.3709.277BO BETA
Usage in the project: Video Analytics Product Reference
User Manual Available Online:
http://www.interprovincial.com/files/manuals/iteris/Abacus%20Installation%20and%20U
ser%20Manual.pdf
Screenshot:
203
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