Energy in Ireland 1990

Energy in Ireland 1990
Energy in Ireland 1990 – 2014
2015 Report
1
Energy in Ireland 1990 – 2014
2015 Report
Report prepared by
Martin Howley, Mary Holland, Dr Denis Dineen and Dr Eimear Cotter
Energy Policy Statistical Support Unit
November 2015
2
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland
The Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland’s (SEAI) mission is to play a leading role in transforming Ireland into
a society based on sustainable energy structures, technologies and practices. To fulfil this mission SEAI aims to
provide well-timed and informed advice to Government, and deliver a range of programmes efficiently and
effectively, while engaging and motivating a wide range of stakeholders, and showing continuing flexibility and
innovation in all activities. SEAI’s actions will help advance Ireland to the vanguard of the global green technology
movement, so that Ireland is recognised as a pioneer in the move to decarbonised energy systems.
Energy Policy Statistical Support Unit (EPSSU)
SEAI has a lead role in developing and maintaining comprehensive national and sectoral statistics for energy
production, transformation and end-use. This data is a vital input in meeting international reporting obligations,
for advising policymakers and informing investment decisions. Based in Cork, EPSSU is SEAI’s specialist statistics
team. Its core functions are to:
•• Collect, process and publish energy statistics to support policy analysis and development in line with national
needs and international obligations;
•• Conduct statistical and economic analyses of energy services sectors and sustainable energy options;
•• Contribute to the development and promulgation of appropriate sustainability indicators.
Acknowledgements
SEAI gratefully acknowledges the cooperation of the all the organisations, agencies, energy suppliers and
distributors that provided data and responded to questionnaires throughout the year.
© Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland
Reproduction of the contents is permissible provided the source is acknowledged.
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ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
Foreword
It is timely that this report is published in the week preceding COP21 in
Paris, the 21st Conference of Parties under the UN Framework Convention on
Climate Change (UNFCCC). The conference will bring together more than 190
countries in a bid to reach a legally binding agreement on reducing global
carbon emissions. The report provides insights and shows us where we are
doing well in developing sustainable energy alternatives to fossil fuels, which
is to be warmly welcomed ahead of the negotiations.
Following many difficult years it is good to see the economy recovering.
So far, this growth has been achieved with an overall modest reduction in
energy use, demonstrating the impact of energy efficiency actions across
the economy. However there are some cautionary indicators within these
figures which show increasing energy use in industry and transport, albeit
below the sectoral growth rates themselves.
Dr Brian Motherway
It is encouraging to see that renewable energy use continued to grow in 2014 pushing us over the half way mark
towards our 2020 target. The renewables contribution to electricity generation increased again and as a result the
carbon content of electricity generation hit a record low in 2014, half the level in 1990. In fact without renewables
our power generation emissions would have been 23% higher.
We must be vigilant to maintain momentum in reducing the overall energy intensity of our economy, particularly
in the heat and transport sectors. The Government’s Energy White Paper will guide Ireland through the energy
transition between now and 2030 and bring to the fore the important contribution that a sustainable energy policy
can make to facilitating economic growth and job creation while also reducing environmental impacts.
The transition to a sustainable, decarbonised energy system requires the participation of all citizens and communities
in both decision making and action. It is vital that we have an informed debate about the choices for Ireland to lead
us away from our dependence on imported, polluting fossil fuels. SEAI is committed to the provision of robust and
transparent data, such as that contained in this report, to ensure that the policy formation, decision-making and our
energy transition are evidence-based.
Dr Brian Motherway, Chief Executive, Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland
4
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Highlights
Highlights – the year 2014
•• In 2014, the economy grew with GDP increasing
by 5.2% while overall energy use fell by 0.5%.
•• Energy-related CO2 emissions decreased by 1.2%
in 2014 and now stand at 17% above 1990 levels.
When compared with 2005 energy-related CO2
emissions have fallen by 23%.
•• Consumption of all fuels fell in 2014 with the
exception of peat, renewables and non-renewable
wastes.
•• Ireland’s import dependency decreased to 85%
in 2014 (from 89% in 2013). The cost of all energy
imports to Ireland was approximately €5.7 billion,
down from €6.5 billion (revised) in 2013 due
mainly to falling oil and, to a lesser extent, gas
import prices.
Electricity
•• Final consumption of electricity was almost static
at 24 TWh with a 0.7% reduction in the fuel inputs.
Electricity demand peaked in 2008 and has since
returned to 2004 levels.
•• Renewable electricity generation, consisting
of wind, hydro, landfill gas, biomass and
biogas, accounted for 22.7% of gross electricity
consumption.
•• The use of renewables in electricity generation in
2014 reduced CO2 emissions by 2.6 Mt and avoided
€255 million in fossil fuel imports.
•• In 2014, wind generation accounted for 18.2% of
electricity generated and as such was the second
largest source of electricity generation after
natural gas.
•• The carbon intensity of electricity fell by 49%
since 1990 to a new low of 457 g CO2/kWh in 2014.
Progress towards Targets
•• The contribution of renewables to gross final
consumption (GFC) was 8.6% in 2014. This
compares to a target of 16% to be achieved by
2020. This avoided 3.3 million tonnes of CO2
emissions and €346 million of fossil fuel imports.
•• In 2014, we were just over halfway towards
each of the separate targets for contributions of
renewable energy in electricity, transport and
heat.
•• The average emissions of new cars purchased in
2014 was 117.5 g CO2/km, which is below the EU
target for car manufacturers of 130 g CO2/km to
be reached by 2015.
•• Energy-related CO2 emissions in those sectors
outside the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (which
covers transport, heating in households, buildings
and small industry) were 21% below 2005 levels in
2014.
Sectoral Highlights
•• In 2014 industry energy use increased by 3.1% and
was 14% lower than the peak in 2006. Between
1990 and 2014, industrial energy consumption
increased by 33% while value added increased by
208%.
•• Transport continues to dominate as the largest
energy consuming sector, with a share of 42% in
2014.
•• Transport energy use increased by 4% in 2014 with
the majority of the growth occurring in diesel use.
Private car travel accounts for 47% of energy use
in transport and increased by 0.4%. Heavy goods
vehicles (HGVs) account for 14% of fuel use and
experienced an increase of 6.9% in 2014.
•• Residential energy use fell by 8.1% in 2014 relative
to 2013. When corrected for weather effects –
2014 was a warmer year than 2013 – the decrease
in energy use was 1.5%.
•• In 2014 the average household emitted 5.4 tonnes
of CO2 of which 61% came from direct fuel use in
the home and the remainder from electricity use.
•• Final energy use in the commercial and public
services fell by 3.6% in 2014 – on a weather
corrected basis it increased by 3%.
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ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
Table of Contents
Foreword3
Highlights4
1Introduction
9
2 Energy Trends
10
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
Energy Supply
Energy Use by Mode of Application
Energy Balance for 2014
Energy Demand
Heating Degree Days
Energy Intensities
Energy Efficiency
Electricity Generation
2.8.1 Combined Heat and Power
2.8.2 Primary Fuel Inputs into Electricity Generation
2.9 Electricity Demand
2.10 Energy, Weather and the Economic Downturn
3
Key Policy Issues
3.1
Progress towards Renewable Energy Targets
3.1.2.1Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources (RES-E)
3.1.2.2Heat from Renewable Energy Sources (RES-H)
3.1.2.3Transport Energy from Renewable Sources (RES-T)
3.2
3.3
3.4
4
3.1.1CO2 Displacement and Avoided Fuel Imports
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Targets
3.2.1 Transboundary Gas Emissions
Energy Security
Cost Competitiveness
3.4.1 Energy Prices in Industry
11
14
15
15
18
18
20
21
24
26
28
28
31
31
33
35
37
38
39
43
44
46
47
Sectoral Indicators
51
4.1Industry
4.1.1 Industry Energy Intensity
4.2Transport
4.2.1 Transport Energy Demand by Mode
4.2.2 Private Car Transport
4.2.3 Key Policy Measures Affecting Private Car CO2 Emissions
4.2.4CO2 Emissions of New Private Cars
4.2.5 Energy Efficiency of New Private Cars
4.2.6 Private Car Average Annual Mileage
4.2.7 Heavy Goods Vehicle Activity
4.2.8 Transport Sector Energy Efficiency
4.3Residential
4.3.1 Unit Consumption of the Residential Sector
4.3.2 Residential Sector Energy Efficiency
4.4 Commercial and Public Services
4.4.1 Energy Intensity of the Commercial and Public Services Sector
4.4.2 Public Sector Developments
51
53
55
56
57
58
59
61
62
63
65
66
68
72
74
75
77
5 Energy Statistics Revisions and Corrections
79
Glossary of Terms
80
Energy Conversion Factors
81
Sources83
References84
Energy Balance 2014
86
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ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Table of Figures
Figure 1
Index of Gross Domestic Product, Total Primary Energy (TPER) and Energy-Related CO2 10
Figure 2
Total Primary Energy Requirement
12
Figure 3
Total Primary Energy Requirement by Sector
13
Figure 4
Primary Energy by Mode of Application
14
Figure 5
Energy Flow in Ireland 2014
15
Figure 6
Total Final Consumption by Fuel
16
Figure 7
Total Final Energy Consumption by Sector
17
Figure 8
Heating Degree Day Trend 2014 versus 2013
18
Figure 9
Primary, Final and Electricity Intensity
19
Figure 10 Energy Efficiency Index 1995 – 2014
20
Figure 11 Flow of Energy in Electricity Generation 2014
22
Figure 12 Flow of Energy in Electricity Generation 2014 – Outputs by Fuel
22
Figure 13 Efficiency of Electricity Supply
23
Figure 14 CO2 Emissions per kWh of Electricity Supplied; with Contributions by Fuel
24
Figure 15 CHP Fuel Input and Thermal/Electricity Output 1994 – 2014
25
Figure 16 CHP Electricity as percentage of Total Electricity Generation 1990 – 2014
26
Figure 17 Primary Fuel Mix for Electricity Generation
26
Figure 18 Final Consumption of Electricity by Sector
28
Figure 19 Index of GDP, Final Energy Demand, Final Energy Intensity and Energy Price
29
Figure 20 Annual Changes in Economic Growth, Weather and Sectoral Energy Demand
30
Figure 21 Progress to Targets 2014
31
Figure 22 Renewable Energy (%) Contribution to Gross Final Consumption (Directive 2009/28/EC)
32
Figure 23 Renewable Energy (%) Contribution to GFC by Mode
33
Figure 24 Renewable Energy Contribution to Gross Electricity Consumption (RES-E normalised)
34
Figure 25 Installed Wind Generating Capacity 2000 – 2014
35
Figure 26 Renewable Energy Contribution to Thermal Energy (RES-H)
36
Figure 27 Composition of Biomass used for Heat in TFC in 2014
37
Figure 28 Renewable Energy as a Proportion of (Petrol and Diesel) Transport (RES-T)
38
Figure 29 Avoided CO2 from Renewable Energy 1990 – 2014
39
Figure 30 Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Source
39
Figure 31 Energy-Related CO2 Emissions by Sector ,
40
Figure 32 Energy-Related CO2 Emissions by Mode of Energy Application
42
Figure 33 Non Emissions Trading Energy-Related CO2 (non-ETS industry from 2005 onwards)
43
Figure 34 Import Dependency of Ireland and EU
44
Figure 35 Indigenous Energy by Fuel
45
Figure 36 Imported Energy by Fuel
46
Figure 37 Electricity Prices to Industry
47
Figure 38 Oil Prices to Industry
48
Figure 39 Natural Gas Prices to Industry
49
Figure 40 Real Energy Price Change to Industry since 2010 in EU-15 (index)
50
Figure 41 Industry Final Energy Use by Fuel
51
Figure 42 Industry Energy-Related CO2 Emissions by Fuel
52
Figure 43 Industry Energy Intensity
53
Figure 44 Index of Energy Intensity of Industry 1995 – 2014
54
Figure 45 Industry ODEX 1995 – 2014
54
Figure 46 Transport Final Energy Use by Fuel
55
Figure 47 Transport Energy Demand by Mode 1990 – 2014
57
Figure 48 Private Cars per 1,000 of Population
58
Figure 49 Shares of New Private Cars in each Emissions Band 2000 – 2014 (+2015 to October)
59
Figure 50 Specific CO2 Emissions of New Cars, 2000 – 2014 (2015 estimated)
60
Figure 51 Specific CO2 Emissions of New Cars: International Comparison – 2013
61
Figure 52 Weighted Average Specific Fuel Consumption of New Cars 2000 – 2014
62
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ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
Figure 53 Total Private Car Annual Mileage 2000 – 2014
63
Figure 54 Road Freight Activity 1991 – 2014
63
Figure 55 Absolute Change in Road Freight Activity by Main Type of Work Done 1990 – 2014
64
Figure 56 Transport ODEX 1995 – 2014
65
Figure 57 Residential Final Energy Use by Fuel
66
Figure 58 Residential Energy-Related CO2 by Fuel
68
Figure 59 Unit Consumption of Energy per Dwelling (permanently occupied) 69
Figure 60 Floor Areas of New Houses and New Flats
70
Figure 61 Average Floor Area of the Housing Stock 1990 – 2014
71
Figure 62 Unit Energy-Related CO2 Emissions per Dwelling
72
Figure 63 Household ODEX 1995 – 2014
73
Figure 64 Commercial and Public Services Final Energy Use by Fuel
74
Figure 65 Commercial and Public Services Sector CO2 Emissions by Fuel
75
Figure 66 Energy Intensity of Commercial and Public Services Sector
76
Figure 67 Unit Consumption of Energy and Electricity per Employee in the Commercial and Public Services Sector
76
8
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Table of Tables
Table 1
GDP, TPER and CO2 Growth Rates
11
Table 2
Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of TPER Fuels
12
Table 3
Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of TPER by Sector
13
Table 4
Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of TFC Fuels
16
Table 5
Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of TFC by Sector
17
Table 6
Number of Units and Installed Capacity by Fuel 2014
25
Table 7
Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of Electricity Generation Fuel Mix (primary fuel inputs)
27
Table 8
Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of Electricity Final Consumption
28
Table 9
Renewable Energy Progress to Targets
32
Table 10
Renewable Energy Contribution to Gross Electricity Consumption (RES-E normalised)
34
Table 11
Annual Capacity Factor for Wind and Hydro Generation in Ireland 2000, 2005 – 2014
35
Table 12
Biofuels Growth in ktoe and as a Proportion of Road and Rail Transport Energy 2005 – 2014
38
Table 13
Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of ETS and non-ETS Energy-Related CO2 since 2005
40
Table 14
Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of Primary Energy-Related CO2 by Sector
41
Table 15
SO2 and NOx Emissions and NEC Directive Ceilings for 2010
43
Table 16
Electricity Price to Industry Increase since 2010
47
Table 17
Oil Price to Industry Increase since 2010
48
Table 18
Natural Gas Price to Industry Increase since 2010
49
Table 19
Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of Final Consumption in Industry
51
Table 20
Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in Industry
52
Table 21
Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of Final Consumption in Transport
55
Table 22
Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in Transport
56
Table 23
Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of Transport Final Energy Demand by Mode, 1990 – 2014
56
Table 24
CO2­based Vehicle Registration and Road Tax Bands
58
Table 25
Shares of New Private Cars in each Emissions Band, 2000, 2005 – 2014 (+2015 to October)
60
Table 26
Road Freight Activity 1991 – 2014
64
Table 27
Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of Final Consumption in Residential Sector
67
Table 28
Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in Residential Sector
68
Table 29
Growth Rates in Residential Floor Areas per New Dwelling
69
Table 30
Growth in Average Floor Area – Housing Stock
70
71
Table 31
Growth Rates and Quantities of Residential Unit Energy Consumption and Unit CO2 Emissions
Table 32
Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of Final Consumption in the Commercial and Public Services Sector
74
Table 33
Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of CO2 Emissions in Commercial and Public Services
75
Table 34
Growth Rates and Quantities of Unit Consumption per Employee in Commercial and Public Services
77
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
9
1 Introduction
Timely and reliable energy statistics underpin evidence-based decision making. To this end, this publication
presents a comprehensive overview of energy supply and demand in Ireland in order to inform Government policy
and the wider energy debate.
The information in the report is based on an energy balance for the country which shows the flow of energy from
production, transformation and energy sector own use through to final consumption in different sectors of the
economy. The energy balance is the starting point for the construction of various indicators of energy consumption
(for example consumption per unit of GDP), of energy efficiency and also of other areas of national interest such as
energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
The data in the energy balance is based on monthly and annual surveys received from approximately 300
organisations including energy producers, import/export companies and energy supply companies. In addition,
SEAI uses this data to fulfil Ireland’s energy statistics reporting obligations to Eurostat, under the EU Energy Statistics
Regulation (1099/2008 EC), and to the International Energy Agency (IEA) through the completion of upwards of one
hundred annual, quarterly, monthly and ad hoc questionnaires each year.
The energy balance develops continuously as new methods and methodologies become available. This ensures
that the best information is available. The main changes related to the period 1990 – 2014 are presented in this
report and are described later.
A companion publication, Energy Statistics – 2015 Report, is also available, presenting the background data for the
analysis contained herein. Additionally, Energy in Ireland Key Statistics is available, which summaries Ireland’s energy
statistics in a concise pocket-sized booklet. It is intended that these publications serve as resources for policymakers,
analysts and researchers with an interest in energy use in Ireland.
Feedback and comment on this report are welcome and should be sent by post to the address on the back cover or
by email to [email protected]
1 Introduction
This annual publication from the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) presents national energy statistics
on energy production and consumption in Ireland over the period 1990 – 2014. Specifically, the report presents
energy trends and underlying drivers as well as discussing sectoral energy consumption and how energy trends
relate to Government and EU renewable energy targets.
10
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
2 Energy Trends
Energy supply depends on the demand for energy services (heating, transportation and electricity uses) and how
that demand is delivered. Energy service demand in turn is driven primarily by economic activity and by the energy
end-use technologies employed in undertaking the activity. Figure 1 shows the historical trends for GDP, TPER and
Energy CO2, each expressed as an index relative to 1990. Throughout the 1990s and early 2000s economic growth
was particularly strong, especially from 1993 onwards. This resulted in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – a measure of
economic growth – in 2007 being almost three times that of 1990. In 2008 the economy experienced a downturn that
deepened into 2009. Initially in 2008, certain sectors, namely industry and transport, also experienced reductions in
energy use while there was continuing energy growth in the residential and services sectors partly due to weather
conditions. In 2009, however, all sectors of the economy experienced reductions in energy use and related CO2
emissions. 2011 to 2013 were mild years compared with 2010 and, notwithstanding the flat growth in GDP, there was
a drop in energy demand across all sectors of the economy during these years. In 2014 the economy started to grow
strongly again with GDP increasing by 5.2% while overall energy use continued to fall albeit at a slower rate of 0.5%.
Figure 1 Index of Gross Domestic Product, Total Primary Energy (TPER) and Energy-Related CO2
300
280
260
240
Index 1990 = 100
2 Energy Trends
This section provides an overview of energy trends in Ireland, covering the period 1990 – 2014 with a particular focus
on 2014. Ireland’s total energy supply (gross energy consumption or total primary energy requirement [TPER]) is
examined first, both in terms of the mix of fuels used and consumption by individual sectors. Trends in final energy
demand, i.e. the amount of energy used directly by final consumers, are then assessed. The link between energy use
and economic activity, and the impacts of structural and efficiency changes are also discussed and finally electricity
production is examined in its own right because of its importance as an energy service and the amount of energy
consumed in its generation.
220
200
180
160
140
120
100
1990
1992
1994
1996
GDP (CSO)
1998
2000
2002
TPER
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
Energy CO₂
Source: Based on SEAI and CSO data.
Figure 1 shows the relative decoupling of TPER (also known as gross inland consumption1) from economic growth
since 1992, in particular during 2002 – 2003, 2006 – 20082 and 2010 – 2014. This is a result of changes in the structure
of the economy and improvements in energy efficiency. To a lesser extent, the decoupling of CO2 emissions3 from
1 As energy cannot be created or destroyed energy is not strictly speaking consumed. Energy commodities, or fuels, are in effect energy carriers and allow
the energy contained in them to be used for mobility, power and heat purposes. When a commodity is used the energy is not lost but transformed into a
state that is no longer readily useful, mainly in the form of low grade heat. When this happens the commodity that carried the energy has been consumed
and is removed from the energy (commodity) balance. In this way terms such as Gross Inland Consumption and Total Final Consumption (TFC) may be
interpreted as the final consumption of energy commodities.
2 In 2002 and 2003 a significant factor in the reduction in TPER was the commissioning of two new high-efficiency gas-fired electricity generating plants. A
similar situation occurred in 2006 – 2007. Reduction in demand after 2007 was mainly due to reduced economic activity.
3 Energy-related CO2 emissions shown here (2014 data are provisional) cover all energy-related CO2 emissions associated with TPER, including emissions
associated with international air transport. These are usually excluded from the national GHG emissions inventory in accordance with the reporting
procedures of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) guidelines.
11
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
energy use is also evident, particularly since 1993, and this is due to changes in the fuel mix and the efficiency of the
power generation sector. Changes in the fuel mix of the final consuming sectors also contributed to this decoupling
with, for example, the move away from high carbon fuels such as coal and peat in the residential sector to lower
carbon fuels such as natural gas and more recently renewables.
Since 2010 the economy has grown to some extent each year while energy use has continued to fall, with a cumulative
drop of 11% between 2010 and 2014. Some of the reduction in energy use can be accounted for by weather as it has
generally been warmer since the very cold year that was experienced in 2010. Other reasons for the reduction can
also be attributed to a large increase (83%) in wind generation, which reduced the primary energy requirements for
electricity generation. There were also continued improvements in the energy performance of households arising
from changes to the building regulations and the retrofit grant schemes. Also, in transport 38% of the private cars
on the road in 2014 are the more fuel efficient models purchased since 2008 when the Vehicle Registration and Road
Taxes changed to be biased towards lower emission vehicles.
Table 1 displays the growth rates for the economy (GDP), primary energy (TPER) and energy-related CO2 emissions
for the period 1990 – 2014. It highlights the high GDP growth rates compared with those for energy and CO2 prior
to 2008 and the continued decreases in primary energy and energy-related CO2 in 2014.
It is interesting to compare the trend over the nine year period 2005 – 2014 with that for the whole period, given
the significance of 2005 with respect to the EU Decision 406/2009/EC on the effort of Member States to reduce their
greenhouse gas emissions to meet the Community’s greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments up to 2020. Under
the EU Decision, Ireland’s greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in non-Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS) sectors (i.e.
in transport, agriculture, heating in buildings, waste and small industry) are required to be 20% below 2005 levels by
2020. Estimation of non-ETS energy emissions is given in Section 3.2. Over the nine years, overall energy-related CO2
emissions have fallen by 2.9% per annum on average, an aggregate decrease of 23%, returning to 1997 levels, while
the economy has returned to 2007 levels. In contrast, over the 23 year period since 1990, on average, energy-related
CO2 emissions grew by 0.7% per annum, while the economy grew by 4.6% per annum.
Table 1 GDP4, TPER and CO2 Growth Rates5
GDP
TPER
Energy CO2
Energy CO2 (excl. international aviation)
Growth %
1990 – 2014
197.6
39.7
17.4
‘90 – ‘14
4.6
1.4
0.7
14.2
0.6
Average annual growth rates %
‘00 – ‘05
‘05 – ‘10
‘10 – ‘14
5.3
0.8
2.3
2.8
-1.4
-2.6
2.4
-2.5
-3.2
2.2
-2.6
-3.4
2014
5.2
-0.5
-1.2
-1.9
2.1Energy Supply
Ireland’s energy supply is discussed in terms of changes to the TPER, defined as the total amount of energy used
within Ireland in any given year. This includes the energy requirements for the conversion of primary sources of
energy into forms that are useful for the final consumer, for example electricity generation and oil refining. These
conversion activities are not all directly related to the level of economic activity that drives energy use but are
dependent to a large extent, as in the case of electricity, on the efficiency of the transformation process and the
technologies involved.
Figure 2 illustrates the trend in energy supply over the period 1990 – 2014, emphasising changes in the fuel mix.
Primary energy consumption in Ireland in 2014 was 13,270 ktoe. Over the period 1990 – 2014 Ireland’s annual TPER
grew in absolute terms by 40% (1.4% per annum on average). In 2014 Ireland’s primary energy requirement fell by
0.5% following a 0.9% fall in 2013. Between 2005 and 2014 primary energy requirement fell by 16%.
4 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) rates are calculated using constant market prices chain-linked annually and referenced to 2013.
5 Throughout the report where annual growth rates are across multiple years they always refer to average annual growth rates.
2 Energy Trends
In 2008 when the economy entered recession, GDP fell by 2.6% compared with 2007, while primary energy use
grew by 0.7% and energy-related CO2 emissions grew by 0.9%. In 2009, the downturn in the economy deepened
with GDP falling by 6.4% and energy and related CO2 emissions falling by 9.8% and 10.8% respectively. With energy
use falling at a faster rate than GDP and emissions falling faster than energy use, there continued to be decoupling
of energy use from economic activity and emissions from energy use. In 2010 the rate of decline of the economy
slowed to 0.3% while overall energy use grew by 0.5% and emissions fell by 0.3%.
12
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Figure 2 Total Primary Energy Requirement6
16
14
12
Mtoe
10
8
6
2 Energy Trends
4
2
0
1990
1992
Coal
1994
Peat
1996
Oil
1998
2000
Natural Gas
2002
Renewables
2004
2006
2008
NR(W)
2010
2012
2014
Net Electricity Import/Export
The individual fuel growth rates, quantities and shares are shown in Table 2. Primary energy requirement peaked in
2008 and has fallen by 18% since then.
Table 2 Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of TPER Fuels
Growth %
Average annual growth rates %
1990 – 2014 ‘90 – ‘14 ‘00 – ‘05 ‘05 – ‘10 ‘10 – ‘14
Fossil Fuels (Total)
Coal
Peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Renewables (Total)
Hydro
Wind
Biomass
Other Renewables
Non-Renewable (Wastes)
Electricity Imports (net)
Total
Quantity (ktoe)
Shares %
2014
1990
2014
1990
2014
28.6
1.1
2.5
-1.8
-3.7
-1.5
9,330
12,001
98.2
90.4
-39.4
-44.2
41.3
157.3
508.8
1.7
188.2
8971.1
39.7
-2.1
-2.4
1.5
4.0
7.8
0.1
4.5
20.7
1.4
0.8
-0.4
3.0
2.6
9.7
-5.7
35.4
9.8
8.9
83.6
2.8
-8.0
-1.1
-4.4
6.2
13.0
-1.0
20.4
3.1
33.7
-25.5
-1.4
0.4
0.8
-3.8
-5.7
10.4
4.3
16.2
9.6
3.9
64.8
46.2
-2.6
-4.6
6.2
-0.8
-3.1
13.3
18.2
13.2
13.9
11.6
9.1
-4.2
-0.5
2,085
1,377
4,422
1,446
168
60
0
105
2
9,497
1,262
768
6,249
3,721
1,021
61
442
304
214
63
185
13,270
22.0
14.5
46.6
15.2
1.8
0.6
1.1
0.0
-
9.5
5.8
47.1
28.0
7.7
0.5
3.3
2.3
1.6
0.5
1.4
The following are the main trends in national fuel share:
•• Overall primary energy use fell by 0.5% in 2014. Consumption of all fuels fell in 2014 with the exception of peat,
renewables and non-renewable wastes.
•• Fossil fuels accounted for 90% of all energy used in Ireland in 2014, excluding the embodied fossil fuel content
of imported electricity. Demand for fossil fuels fell by 1.5% in 2014 to 12,001 ktoe and has fallen 21% since 2005.
•• Coal use fell by 4.6% and its share fell back to 9.5% in 2014 from 9.9% in 2013. Over the nine years 2005 – 2014,
coal demand fell by 33% (4.4% per annum).
•• Peat use grew by 6.2% and its share of overall energy use was 5.8% in 2014.
•• Oil continues to be the dominant energy source and had a 47% share in 2014 – the same as in 1990. The share
of oil in overall energy use peaked in 1999 at 60%. Consumption of oil, in absolute terms, fell by 0.8% in 2014 to
6,249 ktoe. Over the nine years 2005 – 2014, oil demand fell by 32% (4.1% per annum).
6 ‘NR(W)’ in the chart represents energy from Non-Renewable Wastes.
13
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
•• Natural gas use fell in 2014 by 3.1% to 3,721 ktoe and its share of TPER was 28%. Over the period 2005 – 2014,
natural gas use increased by 7% (0.8% per annum).
•• Total renewable energy increased by 13.3% during 2014 to 1,021 ktoe. All forms of renewable energy experienced
growth with hydro, wind and biomass growing by 18.2%, 13.2% and 13.9% respectively. The overall share of
renewables in primary energy stood at 7.7% in 2014.
•• Energy from non-renewable wastes increased by 9.1% in 2014 to 63 ktoe following a 32% increase in 2013.
•• Electricity imports (net) fell by 4.2% to 185 ktoe in 2014. The interconnector to the UK came on stream in 2013.
Figure 3 allocates Ireland’s primary energy supply to each sector of the economy, according to its energy demand.
The allocation is straightforward where fuels are used directly by a particular sector. Regarding electricity, the
primary energy associated with each sector’s electricity consumption is included to yield the total energy supply
for each sector.
Figure 3 Total Primary Energy Requirement by Sector7
2 Energy Trends
16
14
12
Mtoe
10
8
6
4
2
0
1990
1992
Industry
1994
1996
Transport
1998
2000
Residential
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
Commercial/Public Services
2012
2014
Agriculture
Primary energy supply gives a more complete measure than final energy demand (accounted for in the gas, oil,
electricity and coal bills) of the impact of the individual sectors on national energy use and on energy-related CO2
emissions.
Table 3 shows the growth rates of the different sectors in terms of TPER and also provides the percentage shares of
TPER for 1990 and 2014. Industry and transport energy use grew in 2014, which can be directly attributed to the
growth in the economy, while energy use in the residential and services sectors fell. Energy use in the residential
and services sectors is mainly for space heating and 2014 was a comparatively mild year.
Table 3 Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of TPER by Sector
Industry
Transport
Residential
Services
Agriculture / Fisheries
Growth %
Average annual growth rates %
1990 – 2014 ‘90 – ‘14 ‘00 – ‘05 ‘05 – ‘10 ‘10 – ‘14
27.2
1.0
-0.9
-2.0
-0.4
122.8
3.4
4.5
-2.1
-0.5
10.2
0.4
2.2
1.6
-6.1
27.3
1.0
3.7
-3.0
-4.6
-20.9
-1.0
1.3
-5.2
-5.6
2014
2.4
4.1
-7.2
-2.3
-6.5
Quantity (ktoe)
1990
2014
2,524
3,210
2,054
4,576
2,995
3,301
1,476
1,878
359
284
Shares %
1990
2014
26.8
24.2
21.8
34.5
31.8
24.9
15.7
14.2
3.8
2.1
Changes in sectoral primary energy consumption presented in Table 3 are as follows:
7 International air transport kerosene is included in the transport sector in these graphs. Later graphs showing CO2 emissions by sector omit international
air transport energy emissions following UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. In addition, the effects of cross border trade
(fuel tourism) and the smuggling of diesel and petrol are not included in this analysis. Estimates of fuel tourism produced by the Department of the
Environment, Community and Local Government are now included in the energy balance and presented in the Transport section.
14
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
•• Transport experienced an increase in primary energy use in 2014 of 4.1% to 4,576 ktoe. Transport primary energy
use had fallen by 28% between 2007 and 2012. Transport remains the largest energy consuming sector with a
35% share of primary energy in 2014.
•• Industry primary energy increased by 2.4% in 2014 to 3,210 ktoe. Industry’s share of primary energy was 24%
in 2014. Primary energy use in industry fell in general between 2006 and 2013, with 2010 and 2012 being the
exceptions.
•• In 2014, primary energy use in households fell by 7.2% to 3,301 ktoe. 2014 was milder than 2013 with 10% fewer
heating degree days. Residential share of primary energy was 25% in 2014.
•• Use of primary energy in the commercial and public services sector fell by 2.3% in 2014 to 1,878 ktoe. Services’
share of primary energy was 14% in 2014.
•• Agriculture/fisheries’ primary energy use decreased by 6.5% in 2014 to 284 ktoe and accounted for 2.1% of
primary energy.
2.2Energy Use by Mode of Application
Energy use can be categorised by its mode of application: whether it is used for mobility (transport), power
applications (electricity) or for thermal uses (space, water or process heating). These modes also represent three
distinct energy markets. Where thermal or transport energy is provided by electricity (e.g. electric heaters and
electric vehicles) this energy is considered under electricity, and not under thermal or transport, so that double
counting is avoided.
In 1990 thermal uses for energy (4,211 ktoe) accounted for a significant proportion of all primary energy (45%), while
electricity accounted for 33% (3,094 ktoe) and transport 22% (2,017 ktoe). This contrasts with the situation in 2014
when the transport share had risen to 34% (4,519 ktoe), the thermal share had fallen to 32% (4,238 ktoe) and the
share of energy use for electricity generation remained at 33% (4,365 ktoe). The changes in mode shares are shown
in Figure 4.
Figure 4 Primary Energy by Mode of Application
6
5
4
Mtoe
2 Energy Trends
•• Primary energy use in the residential sector and services sector can be considered collectively as energy in
buildings as most of the energy use is associated with heating/cooling and lighting the buildings. In 2014, primary
energy in buildings accounted for 39% of primary energy supply. Overall, primary energy use in buildings had
increased by 16% since 1990 (0.6% per annum) and in 2014 it fell by 5.5% to 5,179 ktoe.
3
2
1
0
1990
1995
Transport
2000
2005
Electricity
2010
Thermal
2014
15
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
2.3Energy Balance for 2014
Figure 5 shows the energy balance for Ireland in 2014 as a flow diagram. This illustrates clearly the significance of
each of the fuel inputs as well as showing how much energy is lost in transformation and the sectoral split of final
energy demand.
Figure 5 Energy Flow in Ireland 20148
Hydro
61 ktoe
Biomass, Other Renewables
and Wastes 581 ktoe
Electricity Imports
(net) 185 ktoe
Total Primary Energy Requirement
13,270 ktoe
Briquetting
13 ktoe
Oil
6,249 ktoe
Natural Gas
3,721 ktoe
Coal
1,262 ktoe
Peat
768 ktoe
Natural Gas
own use/loss
64 ktoe
Oil Refining
71 ktoe
Electricity Transformation
and Transmission Losses
2,222 ktoe
Total Fin
al C
10,833 kt onsumption
oe
Agriculture and Fisheries
230 ktoe
Services
1,251 ktoe
Note: Some statistical differences exist between inputs and outputs
Transport
4,522 ktoe
Residential
2,539 ktoe
Industry
2,291 ktoe
Oil dominates as a fuel, accounting for 6,249 ktoe, representing 47% of the total requirement. Renewables are
disaggregated into wind, hydro and other renewables in this version of the diagram. Transport continues to be the
largest of the end-use sectors, accounting for 4,522 ktoe, representing 42% of TFC (see section 2.4) in 2014.
Losses associated with the transformation of primary energy to electricity, power plant in-house load and electricity
network losses were 17% of TPER or 2,222 ktoe in 2014 (51% of the primary energy used for electricity generation).
In 1990 losses associated with electricity generation represented 22% of TPER and 67% of the primary energy used
for generation.
2.4Energy Demand
Final energy demand is a measure of the energy that is delivered for use in activities as diverse as manufacturing,
movement of people and goods, essential services and other day-to-day energy requirements of living; space and
water heating, cooking, communication, entertainment, etc. This is also known as Total Final Consumption (TFC) and
is essentially total primary energy less the quantities of energy required to transform primary sources such as crude
oil and other fossil fuels into forms suitable for end-use consumers; electricity, patent fuels, etc. (transformation,
processing or other losses entailed in delivery to final consumers are known as ‘energy overhead’).
Figure 6 shows the shift in the pattern of final energy demand by fuel over the period 1990 – 2014.
8 All energy inputs shown here represent the sum of indigenous production plus, where applicable, net imports i.e. imports minus exports.
2 Energy Trends
Wind
442 ktoe
16
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Figure 6 Total Final Consumption by Fuel
14
12
10
Mtoe
8
6
2 Energy Trends
4
2
0
1990
1992
Coal
1994
Peat
1996
Oil
1998
2000
2002
Natural Gas
2004
2006
Electricity
2008
2010
Renewables
2012
2014
NR(W)
Ireland’s TFC in 2014 was 10,833 ktoe, an decrease of 0.4% on 2013 and 49% above the 1990 level of 7,249 ktoe
(representing growth of 1.7% per annum on average). When corrected for weather, final energy consumption
increased in 2014 by 2.1%. Final consumption peaked in 2008 at 13,206 ktoe and has fallen by 18% since then.
The changes in the growth rates, quantities and respective shares of individual fuels in final consumption over
the period are shown in Table 4. For more detail on absolute values associated with Table 4 see the companion
document Energy Statistics 1990 – 2014.
Table 4 Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of TFC Fuels
Growth %
Average annual growth rates %
1990 – 2014 ‘90 – ‘14 ‘00 – ‘05 ‘05 – ‘10 ‘10 – ‘14
Fossil Fuels (Total)
36.0
1.3
2.9
-1.9
-2.9
Coal
-61.3
-3.9
4.0
-5.4
-2.9
-73.5
-5.4
-2.0
-1.5
-5.7
Peat
Oil
56.0
1.9
3.1
-2.7
-3.7
186.5
4.5
2.6
3.1
0.6
Natural Gas
Renewables
267.3
5.6
10.2
10.9
5.4
Non-Renewable (Wastes)
45.7
Combustible Fuels (Total)
39.8
1.4
3.0
-1.6
-2.6
Electricity
103.4
3.0
3.7
0.9
-1.3
Total
49.4
1.7
3.1
-1.2
-2.3
Total Climate Corrected
47.1
1.6
3.3
-2.2
-1.0
2014
-1.1
-8.2
-8.1
-0.7
-0.1
14.7
10.3
-0.5
-0.3
-0.4
2.1
Quantity (ktoe)
1990
2014
6,121
8,323
843
326
757
201
3,952
6,165
570
1,631
108
396
0
38
6,229
8,708
1,021
2,076
7,249 10,833
7,393 10,878
Shares %
1990 2014
84.4
76.8
11.6
3.0
10.4
1.9
54.5
56.9
7.9
15.1
1.5
3.7
0.0
0.4
85.9
80.4
14.1
19.2
The most significant changes can be summarised as follows:
• All fuels use, with the exception of renewables and non-renewable wastes, fell in final consumption in 2014.
Energy from renewable sources experienced the largest increase in 2014 growing by 14.7% to 396 ktoe.
• Final consumption of oil fell by 0.7% in 2014 to 6,165 ktoe. Consumption of oil was 28% lower in 2014 than prior
to the economic slowdown in 2007. Its share of final energy consumption in 2014 was 57% compared with 65%
in 2007. Almost three quarters (71% or 4,402 ktoe) of this oil was used in transport and the remaining 1,762 ktoe
was used for thermal energy. Final use of oil increased in the transport sectors by 3.8% while it fell in industry,
residential and services by 13.5%, 6.5% and 17% respectively.
• In 2014 natural gas consumption fell 0.1% to 1,631 ktoe. The share of gas in final consumption in 2014 was 15%.
• Final consumption of coal fell by 8.2% in 2014 to 326 ktoe. Its share of final use in 2014 was at 3.0%. Coal use in
industry increased by 30% to 107 ktoe while coal use in the residential sector fell by 20% to 219 ktoe. The fall in
coal consumption may have also been in part due to a certain amount of stockpiling by householders ahead of
the introduction of the carbon tax on solid fuels in 2013. These stocks would then have been used in 2014 but
didn’t show up in the purchases of coal for that year.
17
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
•• Final consumption of electricity in 2014 fell by 0.3% to 2,076 ktoe (or 24,135 GWh). In 2014, electricity accounted
for 19% of final energy use.
•• Final consumption of peat fell by 8.1% in 2014 to 201 ktoe. Peat accounted for 1.9% of final energy consumption
in 2014.
Figure 7 also shows the trend in TFC over the period, here allocated to each sector of the economy.
Figure 7 Total Final Energy Consumption by Sector
14
12
10
2 Energy Trends
Mtoe
8
6
4
2
0
1990
1992
Industry
1994
1996
Transport
1998
2000
Residential
2002
2004
2006
2008
Commercial/Public Services
2010
2012
2014
Agriculture
The effect of the economic downturn is evident from 2008 onwards. It is also evident from Figure 7 that transport
continues to dominate (since the mid-1990s) as the largest energy consuming sector (on a final energy basis) with a
share of 42% in 2014. The shares of the industry and residential sectors have decreased since 1990. In 2014 industry
accounted for approximately one fifth of final energy use and the residential sector for approximately one quarter.
Table 5 Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of TFC by Sector
Growth %
Average annual growth rates %
1990 – 2014 ‘90 – ‘14 ‘00 – ‘05 ‘05 – ‘10 ‘10 – ‘14 2014
Industry
33.3
1.2
0.7
-3.0
0.3
3.1
Transport
124.0
3.4
4.4
-2.0
-0.4
4.0
Residential
12.4
0.5
3.3
2.2
-6.1
-8.1
Commercial / Public
28.6
1.1
3.6
-1.3
-4.0
-3.6
Agriculture / Fisheries
-18.2
-0.8
2.1
-5.1
-6.0
-7.7
Total
49.4
1.7
3.1
-1.2
-2.3
-0.4
Quantity (ktoe)
1990
2014
1,720
2,291
2,019
4,522
2,258
2,539
972
1,251
280
230
7,249 10,833
Shares %
1990
2014
23.7
21.2
27.8
41.7
31.2
23.4
13.4
11.5
3.9
2.1
The changes in growth rates, quantities and shares are shown in Table 5 and summarised as follows:
• Overall final energy consumption fell by 0.4% in 2014 to 10,833 ktoe.
• Energy use in transport grew in 2014 by 4.0% to 4,522 ktoe but was 21% lower than in 2007.
• In 2014, final energy use in industry grew 3.1% to 2,291 ktoe. Over the 1990 – 2014 period, the average growth
rate in final energy use in industry was 1.2% per annum (or 33% in absolute terms) and its share of TFC dropped
from 24% to 21%.
• Final energy use in the residential sector fell by 8.1% in 2014 to 2,539 ktoe, partly due to the weather being milder
compared with 2013. Correcting for weather9, the reduction in energy use was 1.5%.
• There was a 3.6% fall in final energy use in the commercial and public services sector in 2014 to 1,251 ktoe.
Correcting for weather there was an increase of 3%.
• The agricultural and fisheries sectors’ relative share fell from 3.9% in 1990 to 2.1% in 2014. In absolute terms,
agriculture energy consumption in 2014 fell by 7.7% to 230 ktoe.
9 See Glossary for description of Weather Correction.
18
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
2.5Heating Degree Days
Weather variations from year to year can have a significant effect on the energy demand of a country, in particular
on the portion of the energy demand associated with space heating. A method to measure the weather or climatic
variation is through the use of ‘degree days’.
Degree days is the measure or index used to take account of the severity of the weather when looking at energy
use in terms of heating (or cooling) load on a building. A degree day is an expression of how cold (or warm) it is
outside, relative to a day on which little or no heating (or cooling) would be required. It is thus a measure of the
cumulative temperature deficit (or surplus) of the outdoor temperature relative to a neutral target temperature
(base temperature) at which no heating or cooling would be required. It should be noted that the larger the number
of heating degree days, the colder the weather. Also note that the typical heating season in Ireland is October to
May. If, for example, the outdoor temperature for a particular day is 10 degrees lower than the base temperature
(15.5 degrees), this would contribute 10 degree days to the annual or monthly total.
Figure 8 shows the heating degree days per month for 2014 and 2013.
Figure 8 Heating Degree Day Trend 2014 versus 2013
500
450
400
350
Degree Days
2 Energy Trends
Met Éireann calculates degree day data for each of its synoptic weather stations. SEAI calculates a population
weighted average of these data to arrive at a meaningful degree day average for Ireland that is related to the heating
energy demand of the country.
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
Jan
Feb
2014
Mar
Apr
2013
May
Jun
Min
Jul
Aug
Max
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Average
Source: Met Eireann and SEAI
The graphs show the minimum, maximum and average degree days for each month for the last 30 years together
with the monthly degree days for each year. Figure 8 shows that 2014 was an average year in terms of heating
requirement with the profile of degree days following almost exactly the average for the last 30 years. Compared
with 2013 there were 10% fewer degree days (i.e. it was warmer) in 2014.
2.6Energy Intensities
Energy intensity is defined as the amount of energy required to produce some functional output. In the case of
the economy, the measure of output is generally taken to be the GDP10. GDP measured in constant prices is used
to remove the influence of inflation. The inverse of energy intensity represents the energy productivity of the
economy.
The intensity of primary and final energy and of electricity requirements has been falling (reflecting improving
energy productivity) since 1990, as shown in Figure 9. The primary energy intensity of the economy fell by 39%
between 1990 and 2007 (2.8% per annum). In 1990 it required 150 grammes of oil equivalent (goe) to produce one
10 It can be argued that in Ireland’s case, gross national product (GNP) should be used to address the impacts due to the practice of transfer pricing by some
multinationals. The counter argument is that energy is used to produce the GDP and by using the GNP some of the activity would be omitted. The practice
internationally is to use GDP, so for comparison purposes it is sensible to follow this convention.
19
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
euro of GDP (in constant 2013 values) whereas in 2007 just 87 goe was required. Between 2007 and 2014 primary
energy intensity fell by 19.5% to 70 goe/€2013 and was 53% lower than 1990.
Figure 9 shows the trend in both primary (TPER/GDP) and final (TFC/GDP) energy intensities (at constant 2013
prices). The difference between these two trends reflects the amount of energy required in the transformation
from primary energy to final energy – primarily used for electricity generation. Throughout the 1990s there was
a slight convergence of these trends, particularly after 1994, mostly reflecting the increasing efficiency of the
electricity generation sector. This trend towards convergence intensified from 2001 to 2007 (increased efficiency
in electricity generation) when primary intensity fell at a faster rate than final intensity. The decrease in primary
intensity between 2001 and 2007 was 19% whereas for final intensity the decrease was 15%.
Figure 9 Primary, Final and Electricity Intensity
0.16
0.50
0.35
0.10
0.30
0.08
0.25
0.20
0.06
0.15
0.04
0.10
0.02
0.05
0.00
0.00
1990
1992
1994
1996
Primary Intensity
1998
2000
2002
2004
Final Intensity
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
Electricity Intensity
Conversely, the increase in final intensity of 2.7% in 2008 is related to the downturn in the economy and the colder
weather. In 2009 primary energy intensity fell by 4.3% and final intensity by 3.8%. In 2010 both primary and final
intensities remained virtually static as any further efficiency changes were masked by the lack of economic growth
and weather impacts.
Between 2010 and 2014, the primary and final intensity trends converged slightly with primary energy intensity
falling at a slightly faster rate, 18%, compared with a 17% fall in final intensity.
There are many factors that contribute to how the trend in energy intensity evolves. These factors include:
technological efficiency and the fuel mix, particularly in relation to electricity generation; economies of scale in
manufacturing, and not least; the structure of the economy. Economic structure, in Ireland’s case, has changed
considerably over the past twenty years. The structure of the economy has shifted in the direction of the high
value-added11 sectors such as pharmaceuticals , electronics and services. Relative to traditional ‘heavier’ industries,
such as car manufacturing and steel production, these growing sectors are not highly energy intensive. Examples
of changes to the industry sector structure include the cessation of steel production in 2001, of fertiliser production
in late 2002 and of sugar production in 2007.
Energy intensity will continue to show a decreasing trend if, as expected, the economy becomes increasingly
dominated by high value-added, low energy consuming sectors. This results in a more productive economy from
an energy perspective but does not necessarily mean that the actual processes used are more energy efficient.
There may therefore still be room for improvement.
The increase in primary intensity of 4.3% in 2008 is interesting if not unexpected. As well as some reductions in
economies of scale due to the downturn, which would tend to increase intensity, the weather also played a part in
the intensity increase. As 2008 was considerably colder than 2007, with 20% more heating degree days; energy use
increased at a time when the economy declined.
Similarly, 2010 was even colder than 2008; heating degree days were 26% above the long-term average (2008
was 7% above the average), resulting in primary energy intensity falling only slightly, by 0.4%. With the return to
11 See Glossary.
2 Energy Trends
Primary and Final Intensities (kgoe/€(constant))
0.40
0.12
Electricity Intensity (kWh/€(constant))
0.45
0.14
20
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
mild weather in 2011 the effect of the increased energy productivity becomes apparent again, with a reduction in
primary energy intensity of 8.8%. Primary energy intensity continued to decrease with a fall of 5.4% in 2014 and a
cumulative decrease of 18% since 2010.
The final electricity intensity of the economy has not been falling as fast as primary or final energy intensities. Over
the period 1990 – 2007 the electricity intensity fell by 26%. This is attributed to the shift towards increased electricity
consumption in energy end-use. While electricity consumption increased by 118% between 1990 and 2007 (4.7%
average annual growth), final energy demand increased by 81% (3.6% annual growth). Electricity final intensity
increased by 6.1% between 2007 and 2010, but fell by 13.4% between 2010 and 2014.
2.7Energy Efficiency
As mentioned in Section 2.6 energy intensity is a crude indicator and variation may result from many factors such
as economic, structural, technical, weather, behavioural issues, or because real energy efficiency gains have been
made. To better understand energy efficiency trends and to clarify the role of the energy-related factors, an
approach focusing on techno-economic effects is required to clean or remove changes due to macroeconomic
or structural effects13. This type of analysis has been developed since 1993 through the ODYSSEE14 project, which
includes Irish involvement through the SEAI. A set of indicators have been developed which measure achievements
in energy efficiency at the level of the main end-uses.
Figure 10 Energy Efficiency Index 1995 – 2014
100
95
91
90
89
85
Index 1995 = 100
2 Energy Trends
Energy efficiency is defined as a ratio between an output of performance, service, goods or energy and an input
of energy. Essentially improvements in energy efficiency enable the same achievement with less energy, or the
achievement of an improved performance with the same energy. For a more detailed discussion on energy
efficiency in Ireland see the SEAI’s Energy Efficiency in Ireland 2009 Report12. However the energy efficiency indicators
presented in this report have been recalculated, using updated energy and activity data, to 2014 figures.
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Overall Energy Efficiency Index (Observed)
Overall Energy Efficiency Index (Technical)
The indicators developed include ODEX (ODYSSEE Energy Efficiency IndeX) indicators which are referenced in the
Energy End-Use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive (ESD)15. The ODEX indicators are innovative compared to
similar indices as they aggregate trends in unit consumption by sub-sector or end-use into one index per sector
based on the weight of each sub-sector/end-use in the total energy consumption of the sector. The sectoral
indicators can then be combined into an economy-wide indicator.
Top-down energy efficiency indices (including ODEX) provide an alternative to the usual energy intensities used to
12 Available from www.seai.ie
13 Bosseboeuf D. et al, (2005), Energy Efficiency Monitoring in the EU-15, published by ADEME and the European Commission. Available from: www.ODYSSEEindicators.org
14 For full details of the project go to www.ODYSSEE-indicators.org
15See http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32006L0032 for details and a copy of the Directive.
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
21
assess energy efficiency changes at the sectoral or national level. This is because these indices include effects related
only to energy efficiency. It is important to note that ODEX indicators only provide a measurement of the gross
energy savings realised within a sector or type of end-use. In addition to savings that result from energy efficiency
policies and measures, these savings include a number of factors – for example, price effects and autonomous
progress16. They exclude the changes in energy use due to other effects (climate fluctuations, changes in economic
and industry structures, lifestyle changes, etc.) at the economy or sectoral level.
In the case of Ireland, the contribution from industry to the overall index is an index of intensity at constant structure
as opposed to the industry ODEX. The overall energy efficiency index for Ireland is the weighted sum of this
industrial index and the indices for the residential and transport sectors. The services sector is not included due to
a lack of the sufficiently disaggregated data required to create an ODEX in this sector.
Figure 10 presents both the observed and technical overall energy efficiency indicators for Ireland for the period
1995 – 2014.
Technical efficiency gains arise from the use of more energy efficient technologies whereas behavioural gains
are the result of how technologies are used. The difference between the observed and technical indicators is the
influence of behavioural effects, i.e. Ireland would have achieved the greater improvement in energy efficiency
but for the increases in energy usage due to behaviour. It is important to note that behavioural effects can also be
beneficial – for example, the purchase of more efficient technologies or improvements in insulation.
Note that the top-down energy efficiency index indicators are calculated as a three-year moving average to avoid
short-term fluctuations due, for example, to imperfect climatic corrections, behavioural factors, business cycles, etc.
2.8Electricity Generation
Figure 11 shows the flow of energy in electricity generation17. Total energy inputs to electricity generation in 2014
amounted to 4,364 ktoe, 33% of TPER. The relative size of the useful final electricity consumption compared to the
energy lost in transformation and transmission is striking. These losses represent 51% of the energy inputs. The
growing contribution from renewables (hydro, wind, landfill gas and biomass) is also notable, as is the dominance
of gas in the generation fuel mix. In 2014, natural gas accounted for 45% (1,973 ktoe) of the fuel inputs to electricity
generation.
In 2014 the share of renewables in the generation fuel mix grew to 14.5% compared with 12.8% in 2013. Overall the
use of renewables in the electricity generation fuel mix increased by 12.6% in 2014 compared with 2013.
16 Bosseboeuf D., Lapillonne Dr B., Desbrosses N., (2007), Top Down Evaluative Methods for Monitoring Energy Savings, La Colle-sur-Loup: EMEEES European
Expert Group Meeting,
17 Electricity generation is covered by the ETS and as such is not covered by EU Decision 406/2009/EC. Therefore, a CO2 impact comparison with 2005 is not
considered in this section.
2 Energy Trends
The observed index shows that between 1995 and 2014 there was an 8.8% decrease, which indicates an improvement
in energy efficiency. To separate out the influence of behavioural factors, a technical index is calculated and used to
better assess the technical energy efficiency progress. As shown in Figure 10, technical efficiency improved by 11%
from 1995 to 2014.
22
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Figure 11 Flow of Energy in Electricity Generation 2014
Electricity Imports Wind 442 ktoe
185 ktoe
Landfill Gas, Biomass,
Biogas and Wastes 152 ktoe
Hydro 61 ktoe
Own Use /
Transmission Loss
262 ktoe
Natural Gas
1,973 ktoe
Electricity
Transformation
Loss 1,960 ktoe
Transform
atio
and Transm n, Own Use
is
2,222 ktoe sion Losses
Primary En
er
4,365 ktoe gy Input
Final Cons
um
2,076 ktoe ption
2 Energy Trends
Coal
942 ktoe
Fuel Oil
47 ktoe
Gasoil and
Refinery Gas 13 ktoe
Industry
808 ktoe
Peat
550 ktoe
Note: Some statistical differences and rounding errors exist between inputs and outputs
Transport
Services
3 ktoe
Agriculture 554 ktoe
48 ktoe
Residential
663 ktoe
Figure 12 shows a similar picture to Figure 11 except that the electricity outputs are shown by fuel used to generate
the electricity and as percentages, for the purposes of assessing against the various targets. Renewable generation
consists of wind, hydro, landfill gas, biomass (including the renewable portion of wastes and a small amount of
biodiesel) and other biogas and, in 2014, in total reached 6,385 GWh, accounting for between one fifth and one
quarter (22.7%) of gross electricity consumption compared with 20.1% in 2013.
In calculating the contribution of hydropower and wind power for the purposes of Directive 2009/28/EC, the effects
of climatic variation are smoothed through the use of a normalisation rule18. Using normalised figures for wind
and hydro, renewables also accounted for 22.7% of gross electricity consumption in 2014. The national target is to
achieve at least a 40% share by 2020.
In 2014, wind generation accounted for 18.2% of electricity generated and as such was the second largest source of
electricity generation after natural gas.
Figure 12 Flow of Energy in Electricity Generation 2014 – Outputs by Fuel
Landfill gas, biomass,
Wind 10.1%
biogas and wastes 3.5%
Electricity
Imports 4.2%
Hydro 1.4%
Electricity Transformation
Loss 44.9% (of inputs)
Natural
gas 45.2%
Electricity
Generatio
n Inputs
(100%)
Gross Elec
tricity Co
Natural gas 45.8%
nsumptio
n (100%)
Coal 21.6%
Peat 12.6%
Fuel Oil 1.1%
Gas oil and refinery
gas 0.3%
Oil 0.7%
Landfill gas, biomass,
biogas and wastes 2.1% Hydro 2.5%
Note: Some statistical differences and rounding errors exist between inputs and outputs.
Percentages of inputs on the left refer to percentages of total inputs.
Percentages of output, with the exception of electricity transformation loss, refer to
percentages of gross electricity generated.
Coal 14.3%
Electricity
imports 7.6%
Wind 18.2%
Peat 8.8%
Renewables as % of gross electricity consumption = 22.7%
Renewables as % of gross electricity consumption (normalised) = 22.7%
CHP as % of total electricity generation = 7.4%
The efficiency of electricity supply shown in Figure 13 is defined as final consumption of electricity divided by the
fuel inputs required to generate this electricity and expressed as a percentage. The inputs include wind, hydro and
imports which are direct electricity inputs and do not have transformation losses associated with them that is the
18 Article 5 and Annex II of Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources.
23
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
case with the fossil fuels and combustible renewables. The final consumption excludes the generation plant’s ‘own
use’ of electricity and transmission and distribution losses. Hence this is supply efficiency rather than generating
efficiency. In 2014, the supply efficiency was 49% whereas the overall generating efficiency was 54%.
Figure 13 Efficiency of Electricity Supply
50%
49.1%
48%
46%
44%
42%
40%
2 Energy Trends
38%
36%
34%
32%
30%
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
From the mid-1990s onwards the influence of the use of higher efficiency natural gas plants and the increase
in production from renewable sources is evident. The sharp rise between 2001 and 2004 (from 35% to 40%) is
accounted for, principally, by the coming on stream of new CCGT installations (392 MW in August 2002 and 343 MW
in November 2002), an increase in imports of electricity and the closure of old peat fired stations.
There was an increase in electricity supply efficiency from 41.9% in 2006 to 43.6% in 2007, due largely to the
commissioning of two further CCGT plants, Tynagh (384 MW) in 2006 and Huntstown 2 (401 MW) in 2007, and the
increase in renewable electricity. During 2010 the efficiency decreased to 44.6% from a high of 45.5% in 2009 due
in part to the reduction in wind and hydro resources and also due to the commissioning phases of two new CCGT
power plants in Whitegate and Aghada that came online during the year. In 2014 a new 460 MW CCGT generation
plant operated by Endesa in Great Island commenced commissioning phase and went into commercial operation in
2015 while 240 MW of heavy fuel oil generation plant also at Great Island was retired.
In 2011, with these new CCGT power plants fully operational and with the increased contribution from wind and
hydro, efficiency increased to 47.3%. In 2012 the high price of gas coupled with low prices for coal and CO2 resulted
in less gas and more coal and peat being used in electricity generation. This reduced efficiency to 45.6%. 2013 saw
somewhat of a reversal of the trend evident in 2012 and, with increased imports, saw the efficiency of supply rise to
48.4% and then to 49.1% in 2014. These shifts in generating technology and indeed fuel mix have also resulted in
changes in the CO2 emissions per kWh of electricity supplied, as illustrated in Figure 14.
Figure 14 shows as stacked bars the shares of the various fuels contributing to the overall emissions intensity as well
as the reduction in intensity as a result of emissions avoided by renewable generation from wind, hydro and other
renewables. It is important to note that this graph represents the shares of the fuels to the overall intensity and not
the intensity of the generation by the individual fuels themselves. The net overall intensity is shown as a line graph
in Figure 14.
24
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Figure 14 CO2 Emissions per kWh of Electricity Supplied; with Contributions by Fuel
Coal
Peat
Oil
Natural Gas
Non-Renewable (wastes)
Wind (avoided)
Hydro (avoided)
Other Renewables (avoided)
Net Overall Intensity
1,000
900
800
g CO2/kWh
700
600
500
456.6
400
300
2 Energy Trends
200
100
0
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
Since 1990 the share of high carbon content fuels, such as coal and oil, has been reducing with a corresponding rise
in the relatively lower carbon natural gas, and zero carbon renewables. Imported electricity is also considered zero
carbon from Ireland’s perspective under the Kyoto Protocol as emissions are counted in the jurisdiction in which
they are emitted. This resulted in the carbon intensity of electricity dropping by 49%, from 896 g CO2/kWh in 1990,
to a new low of 457 g CO2/kWh in 2014. With reduced gas and wind, and increased peat and coal use the intensity
had increased to 528 g CO2/kWh in 2012 but it has fallen back by 13.8% since then.
The reasons for the increase in generating efficiency and decrease in carbon intensity of electricity in 2014 were a:
•• 2.9% decrease in coal used in generation;
•• 18% increase in hydro generation;
•• 13.2% increase in wind generation;
•• 8.1% increase in the use of other renewables in generation;
Countering these were a:
•• 9.4% increase in peat used in generation;
•• 38.7% increase in oil used in generation (albeit to a share of just 1.4%);
•• 6% reduction in gas use for electricity generation;
•• 7.3% increase in non-renewable wastes use for electricity generation.
2.8.1 Combined Heat and Power
Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is the simultaneous generation of usable heat and electricity in a single process. In
conventional electricity generation much of the input energy is lost to the atmosphere as waste heat. Typically up
to 60% of the input energy is lost with as little as 40% being transformed into electricity. CHP systems channel this
extra heat to useful purposes so that usable heat and electricity are generated in a single process. The efficiency of
a CHP plant can typically be 20% to 25% higher than the combined efficiency of heat-only boilers and conventional
power stations. Also, if embedded in the network close to the point of electrical consumption, CHP can avoid some
of the transmission losses incurred by centralised generation. Therefore in the right circumstances CHP can be
an economic means of improving the efficiency of energy use and achieving environmental targets for emissions
reduction.
The installed capacity19 of CHP in Ireland at the end of 2014 was 339 megawatt electrical (MWe) (366 units20) – up from
343 MWe (340 units) in 2013 – an increase of 1.5%. Of the 340 units, only 262 were reported as being operational.
19 Megawatt electrical or MWe is the unit by which the installed electricity generating capacity or size of a CHP plant is quantified, representing the maximum
electrical power output of the plant.
20 Note that units are distinct from CHP plants or schemes and that there may be more than one CHP unit at a site.
25
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
The operational installed capacity increased by 2.8 MWe, to 311 MWe, in 2014 compared with 2013.
Table 6 Number of Units and Installed Capacity by Fuel 2014
Natural Gas
Solid Fuels
Biomass
Oil Fuels
Biogas
Total
Source: SEAI
No. of Units
Installed Capacity MWe
No. of Units %
Installed Capacity %
321
313.3
88%
92%
2
3
23
17
366
5.2
5.5
9.0
6.4
339
1%
1%
6%
5%
100%
2%
2%
3%
2%
100%
Figure 15 illustrates the contribution from CHP to Ireland’s energy requirements in the period 1994 – 2014. Fuel
inputs have increased by 167% (5% per annum) while the thermal and electrical outputs increased by 196% (5.6%
per annum) and 693% (10.9% per annum) respectively over the period. This suggests that the overall stock of CHP
installations has become more efficient over the period. In 2014 fuel input decreased by 4.0% and thermal output
decreased by 6.7%, while electricity generated increased by 0.7%. The large increase in 2006 is accounted for by the
Aughinish Alumina plant which came online in that year.
Figure 15 CHP Fuel Input and Thermal/Electricity Output 1994 – 2014
7,000
6,000
5,000
GWh
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
0
1994
1996
1998
Electricity
2000
2002
Heat
2004
2006
Useful Heat
2008
2010
2012
2014
Fuel Input
Figure 16 focuses on CHP generated electricity in Ireland as a proportion of gross electricity consumption (i.e.
electricity generation plus net imports) in the period 1990 – 2014. In 2014, 7.4% of total electricity generation was
generated in CHP installations compared with 7.3% in 2013. Some CHP units export electricity to the national grid.
In 2014 there were 18 units exporting electricity to the grid. These units exported 1,372 GWh of electricity in 2014,
a decrease of 0.4% on 2013.
21 Oil products are comprised of LPG, heavy fuel oil, refinery gas and biodiesel.
22 Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (2014), Combined Heat and Power in Ireland: Trends and Issues – 2014 Update. Available from: www.seai.ie
2 Energy Trends
Natural gas was the fuel of choice for 313 MWe (321 units) in 2014. It is worth noting that there is one single 160 MWe
gas plant which dominates. Oil products21 made up the next most significant share with 9.0 MWe (23 units) and the
remainder was biogas at 6.4 MWe (17 units), biomass at 5.5 MWe (3 units) and solid fuels at 5.2 MWe (2 units). CHP in
Ireland is examined in more detail in a separate SEAI publication22.
26
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Figure 16 CHP Electricity as percentage of Total Electricity Generation 1990 – 2014
9.0%
CHP electricity as % of total electricity generated
7.0%
6.0%
5.0%
4.0%
3.0%
2.0%
1.0%
0.0%
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
2.8.2Primary Fuel Inputs into Electricity Generation
The trends in the mix of primary fuels employed for electricity generation are shown in Figure 17. The shift from oil
to gas since 2001 is evident, as is the decline of coal since 2005, its revival between 2010 and 2012 and subsequent
reduction up to 2014.
Figure 17 Primary Fuel Mix for Electricity Generation
6
5
4
Mtoe
2 Energy Trends
8.0%
3
2
1
0
1990
1992
Coal
1994
Peat
1996
Oil
1998
2000
Natural Gas
2002
2004
Renewables
2006
2008
NR Wastes
2010
2012
2014
Net Imports
Table 7 shows the growth rates, quantities and shares of the primary fuel mix for electricity generation over the
period 1990 – 2014.
The primary fuel requirement for electricity generation grew by 71% from 3,062 ktoe in 1990 to a high of 5,237
ktoe in 2001. Between 2001 and 2014 the requirement reduced by 17%, while the final consumption of electricity
increased by 15%. In 2014, 4,365 ktoe of energy was used to generate electricity, 0.7% less than in 2013 and 17% less
than peak levels in 2001.
27
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
The fuel inputs to electricity generation were one third (33%) of the TPER in 2014. Electricity consumption as a share
of TFC increased from 14% to 19% between 1990 and 2014.
Growth %
Average annual growth rates %
1990 – 2014 ‘90 – ‘14 ‘00 – ‘05 ‘05 – ‘10 ‘10 – ‘14
Fossil Fuels (Total)
16.2
0.6
-0.1
-1.0
-6.0
Coal
-24.3
-1.2
-0.1
-9.4
2.1
Peat
-8.9
-0.4
0.2
-0.2
2.9
Oil (Total)
-82.4
-7.0
-5.2
-29.6
-18.6
Fuel Oil
-85.8
-7.8
-6.4
-32.1
-17.7
Gas Oil and Refinery Gas
4.0
0.2
18.6
-17.4
-26.8
Gas
134.0
3.6
2.3
8.2
-10.1
Renewables (Total)
952.4
10.3
8.9
15.4
14.4
Hydro
1.7
0.1
-5.7
-1.0
4.3
Wind
35.4
20.4
16.2
Other Renewables
4.8
20.1
14.5
Non-Renewable (Wastes)
Combustible Fuels (Total)
21.2
0.8
-0.1
-0.8
-5.4
Electricity Imports (net)
83.6
-25.5
46.2
2014
-2.6
-2.9
8.4
38.7
42.4
67.7
-6.0
12.6
18.2
13.2
8.1
7.3
-2.2
-4.2
Quantity (ktoe)
1990
2014
3,034
3,525
1,245
942
604
550
343
60
334
47
7
8
843
1,973
60
631
60
61
442
128
25
3,034
3,677
185
Total
-0.7
3,094
41.1
1.4
0.8
-0.7
-3.0
Shares %
1990 2014
98.1
80.8
40.2
21.6
19.5
12.6
11.1
1.4
10.8
1.1
0.2
0.2
27.2
45.2
1.9
14.5
1.9
1.4
10.1
2.9
0.6
98.1
84.2
4.2
4,365
The main trends are:
•• Overall fuel inputs into electricity generation fell by 0.7% in 2014, to 4,365 ktoe, while final consumption of
electricity fell slightly, by 0.3%, to 2,076 ktoe (or 24,135 GWh).
•• The overall share of fossil fuels used in electricity generation was 81% in 2014 (3,525 ktoe), down from 98%
throughout the 1990s.
•• Natural gas remains the dominant fuel in electricity generation but its share fell from a peak of 61% in 2010 to
45% in 2014. Natural gas use in electricity generation was 1,973 ktoe in 2014, 6% lower than in 2013.
•• Fuel oil had a share in electricity generation of 11% in 1990; this rose to 28% in 1999 but in 2014 was minimal at
1.1%. Consumption of fuel oil in electricity generation in 2014 was 47 ktoe.
•• The share of coal used in electricity generation reduced from 40% in 1990 to 22% in 2014. Coal use was at its
lowest in 2009 at 775 ktoe but increased by 50%, to 1,160 ktoe, in 2012. In 2014 consumption of coal for electricity
generation fell by 2.9% to 942 ktoe.
•• Peat consumption in electricity generation increased by 8.4%, to 550 ktoe, in 2014 and accounted for 12.6% of
the fuel inputs to electricity generation.
•• Renewable energy use for electricity generation increased its share from 1.9% to 14.5% between 1990 and 2014.
In 2014 there was a 12.6% increase in renewables’ contribution to the electricity fuel mix due to the increased
contribution from hydro, wind and biomass. Wind contribution to electricity generation grew by 13.2% in 2014,
hydro grew by 18% and other renewables, in the form of landfill gas, biogas, renewable wastes, grew by 8.1%.
Solar photovoltaic is now included in other renewables.
•• The use of energy from waste as a fuel source for electricity generation increased by 7.3% in 2014 to 25 ktoe and
accounted for 0.6% of all fuel inputs.
•• Net electricity imports fell by 4.2% in 2014 to 185 ktoe.
The primary energy attributed to hydro and wind is equal to the amount of electrical energy generated, rather than
the primary energy avoided through the displacement of fossil fuel based generation23 (see Renewable Energy in
Ireland – 2013 Report). It is therefore more common to see the share of hydro and wind reported as a percentage
of electricity generated. Electricity generated from hydro accounted for 2.5% of the total and wind accounted for
18.2% in 2014.
Overall, the share of electricity generated by renewables was 22.7% in 2014, up from 20.1% in 2013, while the
renewables share of energy inputs to electricity generation was 14.5%. Normalising for wind and hydro as per
Directive 2009/29/EC the share of electricity generated from renewables in 2014 was also 22.7%.
23 An alternative approach based on primary energy equivalent was developed in a separate report: SEAI (2014), Renewable Energy in Ireland – 2012. Available
from http://www.seai.ie/Publications/Statistics_Publications/Renewable_Energy_in_Ireland/
2 Energy Trends
Table 7 Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of Electricity Generation Fuel Mix (primary fuel inputs)
28
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
2.9Electricity Demand
Figure 18 shows the final electricity consumption in each of the main sectors. The difference between fuel input
(see Figure 17) and delivered electricity output (Figure 18) is accounted for by the transformation losses, totalling
1,960 ktoe in 2014, as shown in Figure 11 and Figure 12. This size of the transformation loss is due to electricity
in Ireland being predominantly generated thermally (72% in 2014) and therefore actual energy requirement has
always been significantly higher than final electricity consumption. This ratio of primary to final energy in electricity
consumption reduced from 3.0 in 1990 to 2.1 in 2014. Final consumption of electricity decreased by 0.3% in 2014 to
24,135 GWh with a 0.7% reduction in the fuel inputs to electricity generation.
Figure 18 Final Consumption of Electricity by Sector
2.5
1.5
Mtoe
2 Energy Trends
2
1
0.5
0
1990
1992
Industry
1994
1996
Transport
1998
2000
Residential
2002
2004
2006
2008
Commercial/Public Services
2010
2012
2014
Agricultural
Final electricity demand peaked in 2008 at 2,294 ktoe and has fallen 9.5% since to 2,076 ktoe.
Table 8 shows changes in individual sectors’ electricity demand and the impact on final consumption of electricity.
The electricity use in transport includes that used in Dublin by the DART and the Luas. In absolute terms electricity
consumption in transport is small at 39 GWh (3 ktoe). This figure doesn’t yet account for road electric vehicles which
is currently insignificant.
Industry and the services sectors both experienced a growth in electricity demand of 1.1%, increasing to 808 ktoe
and 554 ktoe respectively. The residential sector’s electricity use fell by 3.1%, to 663 ktoe, in 2014 and transport fell
by 6.6%, a drop of just 0.24 ktoe or 3 GWh.
In terms of shares of final electricity use, industry has the largest share at 39% with the residential sector being the
second largest at 32%.
Table 8 Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of Electricity Final Consumption
Growth %
Average annual growth rates %
1990 – 2014 ‘90 – ‘14 ‘00 – ‘05 ‘05 – ‘10 ‘10 – ‘14
2014
Industry
109.5
3.1
-0.1
3.5
0.8
1.1
Transport
144.1
3.8
17.8
-5.0
-3.8
-6.6
Residential
86.0
2.6
3.3
2.6
-2.6
-3.1
Commercial / Public
130.4
3.5
8.7
-3.3
-2.6
1.1
Agriculture
29.8
1.1
2.4
-2.8
0.0
0.0
Total
103.4
3.0
3.7
0.9
-1.3
-0.3
Quantity (ktoe)
1990
2014
386
808
1
3
356
663
240
554
37
48
1,021
2,076
Shares %
1990 2014
37.8
38.9
0.1
0.2
34.9
31.9
23.6
26.7
3.6
2.3
2.10 Energy, Weather and the Economic Downturn
In 2008 the economy in Ireland entered a recession and GDP fell, it approached 2005 levels by 2010 before growth
was observed again in 2011. Figure 19 shows the trend in GDP in the period 2007 – 2014 as an index relative to 2007
29
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
levels. The impact of the recession on energy demand (TFC) is also clear in Figure 19. Between 2007 and 2009, the
economy contracted by 7.7% but by 2014 had recovered to be 1.6% above 2007 level. However, overall energy use
has fallen continuously since 2008 and in 2014 was 19% lower than 2008.
Figure 19 also provides the trend in final energy intensity (TFC/GDP, the inverse of energy productivity) of the
economy. In two of the years shown, 2008 and 2013, the energy intensity grew (by 2.7% and 0.4% respectively)
while in all other years it decreased. These trends suggest that while the economic recession clearly affected energy
use there were other factors at play, such as weather effects, changes in energy efficiency, fuel mix changes and
energy prices, all of which can have an impact on energy use and emissions.
Figure 19 also shows an overall energy-price index for Ireland calculated by the International Energy Agency (IEA).
This index encompasses the spike in the price of oil in 2008 and its collapse in 2009, the continuing increase in oil
and gas prices from 2010 to 2013 and the start of the price drop in both in 2014. High energy prices tend to dampen
energy demand.
Figure 19 Index of GDP, Final Energy Demand, Final Energy Intensity and Energy Price
2 Energy Trends
130
Index 100 = 2005
120
110
100
90
80
70
2007
2008
GDP
2009
TFC
2010
Energy CO₂
2011
2012
Final Intensity
2013
2014
Price
Source: SEAI, CSO and IEA
Figure 20 illustrates more clearly the separate effects that the economy and weather have had on Ireland’s energy
demand since 2009. Figure 20 shows the year-on-year percentage change in GDP, degree days (indicator of weather)
and final energy consumption for the industry, transport, residential and services sectors. While the recession
impacts on energy demand in all sectors, the residential (in particular) and services sectors are also affected by
weather, because the significant proportion of energy use in buildings is for space heating, which is clearly
dependent on external temperatures. 2008 and 2010 were cold, as indicated by the increase in degree days in those
years. This would likely have contributed to an increase in energy demand in the residential sector for those years,
despite the recession, as indicated in Figure 20.
In 2011 by contrast, the weather was considerably milder than 2010 and energy use in the residential sector
decreased by 13.1%. Final energy use continued to fall in 2012, rose in 2013 by 1.3%, and fell again in 2014 by 8.1%.
On a weather corrected basis, energy use per household has fallen by 18% since 2009. Changes in the energy
demand per household are discussed in Section 4.3.1.
The services sector is clearly also dependent on the weather as well as on economic activity. The year 2010 saw a
0.2% contraction in services’ economic activity, but energy demand dropped a greater amount (3.8%) even though
it was a relatively cold year. Services energy consumption fell in 2013 by 2.6% and a further 3.6% in 2014, while the
economic output of services grew over the two-year period by 6.4%.
30
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Figure 20 Annual Changes in Economic Growth, Weather and Sectoral Energy Demand
20
15
10
% change
5
0
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
-5
2 Energy Trends
-10
-15
-20
GDP
Industry TFC
Transport TFC
Residential TFC
Services TFC
Degree Days
Source: SEAI, CSO and Met Éireann
Energy demand in industry and in transport is less dependent on the weather as is illustrated in Figure 20. Energy
use in both these sectors fell in 2008 and 2009 as did economic activity. Transport demand fell in the four years up
to 2012, while energy demand in industry increased in 2010 by 3.8%. While the economy as a whole contracted in
that year, industry economic activity grew by 4%.
Industry and transport experienced growth in energy use in 2014 broadly in line with the increase in economic
activity. The residential and services sectors on the other hand experienced a fall in energy use in 2014 partly as a
result of the milder weather, as signified by the reduction in degree days.
31
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
3 Key Policy Issues
The energy trends discussed in Section 2 are analysed to assess performance with regard to Government policies
and targets, in particular those detailed in the EU Directives related to renewable energy, energy efficiency and
greenhouse gas and transboundary emissions.
3.1 Progress towards Renewable Energy Targets
The target for Ireland in the Directive 2009/28/EC is a 16% share of renewable energy in GFC by 2020. The Directive
requires each Member State to adopt a national renewable energy action plan (NREAP) to set out Member States’
national targets for the share of energy from renewable sources consumed in transport, electricity and heating in
2020 that will ensure delivery of the overall renewable energy target. These sectoral targets are RES-E (electricity),
RES-T (transport) and RES-H (heat) respectively.
The contribution from renewables in 1990 was 2.3%, rising to 8.6%24 of GFC25 in 2014. Figure 21 illustrates where the
various renewable targets fit within overall energy use in Ireland and the position with regard to progress towards
those targets in 2014. Towards the right of the figure the 2014 contribution percentages of renewables are shown
relative to the respective amount of final energy that they refer to. Also shown is how these relate to the Directive’s
target (see also Table 9).
Figure 21 Progress to Targets 2014
Hydro 61 ktoe
Electricity Imports (net)
185 ktoe
Briquetting 13 ktoe
Natural Gas own
use / loss 64 ktoe
Oil Refining 71 ktoe
Electricity Transformation
2,222 ktoe
Oil
6,249 ktoe
RE = 7.7% of TPER
Total Primary Energy Requirement
13,270 ktoe
Aviation 745 ktoe
RE Directive
= 8.6% of GFC
Natural Gas 3,721 ktoe
Coal 1,262 ktoe
Peat 768 ktoe
Note: Some statistical differences exist between inputs and outputs.
RES-E Normalised wind and hydro.
RES-T adjusted to account for double certificates
RES-T
5.2%
Total Fina
l Consum
10,833 kt
ption
oe
RES-E
22.7%
Transport (excl. Aviation)
3,777 ktoe
RES-H
6.6%
Thermal 4,239 ktoe
Gross Electricity 2,405 ktoe
Towards the left of Figure 21 the overall contribution of renewable energy to TPER is shown at 7.7%. Whilst there is
no specific target for this measure it does help to illustrate the position of renewables in the overall energy use in
Ireland.
Table 9 shows progress towards the individual national modal targets and to the overall Directive target for the
period 1990 – 2014. Here the percentages in each row (RES-E, RES-T and RES-H) relate to the specific modal targets
and the percentages in the final row relate to the overall target using the definition in Directive 2009/29/EC.
24 Calculated as per Directive 2009/28/EC.
25 Gross Final Consumption (GFC) in the Directive is different from Total Final Consumption (TFC) as conventionally defined in the energy balance. See
Glossary of Terms on page 80. Hydro and wind electricity generation are normalised as per the Directive in order to smooth out variations in climate.
3 Key Policy Issues
Biomass, Other Renewables
Wind 442 ktoe
and Wastes 581 ktoe
32
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Table 9 Renewable Energy Progress to Targets26
% of each target
RES-E (normalised)
RES-T
RES-H
Directive (2009/29/EC)
1990
5.3
0
2.6
2000
4.8
0
2.4
2.3
2.0
Progress towards targets
2005
2010
2011
2012
7.2
14.5
17.3
19.5
0
2.4
3.8
4.0
3.5
4.5
4.9
5.1
2.8
5.6
6.5
2013
20.8
4.9
5.5
2014
22.7
5.2
6.6
7.6
8.6
7.1
Targets
2010 2020
15
40
3
10
5
12
16
Source: SEAI
Figure 22 shows the contribution as per the Directive methodology from 1990 to 2014 while Figure 23 shows the
renewable energy percentage contributions to GFC by mode with RES-E normalised.
Figure 22 Renewable Energy (%) Contribution to Gross Final Consumption (Directive 2009/28/EC)
9.0%
8.0%
7.0%
6.0%
3 Key Policy Issues
5.0%
4.0%
3.0%
2.0%
1.0%
0.0%
1990
1992
1994
Hydro
1996
1998
Wind
Source: SEAI
26 Note: Individual target percentages are not additive.
2000
2002
Biomass
2004
2006
2008
Geothermal
2010
2012
Solar
2014
33
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
Figure 23 Renewable Energy (%) Contribution to GFC by Mode
9.0
8.0
2.5%
Renewable Contribution to GFC %
7.0
6.0
1.1%
5.0
4.0
3.0
5.0%
2.0
1.0
0.0
1995
RES-H
2000
RES-T
2005
2010
RES-E% Normalised
Source: SEAI
A more detailed discussion of renewable energy in Ireland can be found in SEAI’s publication Renewable Energy in
Ireland27. This section presents key graphs and updates where available from the renewables report.
3.1.2.1 Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources (RES-E)
Ireland’s NREAP specified a target of 40% electricity consumption from renewable sources by 2020. The total
contribution from renewable energy to gross electricity consumption in 2014 was 22.7% (compared with 20.1% in
2013 and 4.9% in 1990). Using normalised hydro and wind figures as specified in EU Directive 2009/28/EC the share
in 2014 was also 22.7%.
The share of electricity from renewable energy has more than quadrupled between 1990 and 2014 – from 4.9% to
22.7% – an increase of almost 18 percentage points over 24 years. In absolute terms there has been an ninefold
increase (816% or 810% normalised) in the volume of renewable electricity generated. Most of this increase has
taken place since 2000 and the vast majority has been from wind energy.
Figure 24 and Table 10 shows how electricity production from wind energy has increased to the point that it accounted
for 81% of the renewable electricity generated in 2014. Electricity generated from biomass accounted for 8% of
renewable electricity in 2014. Biomass consists of contributions from solid biomass, landfill gas, the renewable
portion of waste and other biogas. Wind, hydro and biomass-generated electricity in 2014, respectively, accounted
for 18.2%, 2.6% and 1.9% of Ireland’s gross electricity consumption.
27 Available from www.seai.ie/statistics.
3 Key Policy Issues
1990
34
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Figure 24 Renewable Energy Contribution to Gross Electricity Consumption (RES-E normalised)
24%
22%
20%
18%
16%
14%
12%
10%
8%
6%
4%
2%
0%
1990
1992
1994
1996
3 Key Policy Issues
Hydro (normalised)
1998
2000
2002
Wind (normalised)
2004
2006
Landfill Gas
2008
2010
Biogas
2012
2014
Biomass
Table 10 Renewable Energy Contribution to Gross Electricity Consumption (RES-E normalised)
Renewable Electricity %
Hydro (normalised)
Wind (normalised)
Biomass
Landfill Gas
Biogas
Overall
1990
5.3
0
0
0
0
2000
3.4
1.0
0
0.4
0
2005
2.7
4.0
0
0.4
0.1
2010
2.6
10.8
0.4
0.6
0.1
2011
2.7
13.4
0.5
0.6
0.1
2012
2.7
15.2
0.9
0.6
0.1
2013
2.6
16.4
1.1
0.6
0.1
2014
2.6
18.2
1.2
0.6
0.1
5.3
4.8
7.2
14.5
17.3
19.5
20.8
22.7
Figure 25 shows the annual growth in installed wind generating capacity and overall cumulative capacity since 2000.
By the end of 2014 the installed capacity of wind generation reached 2,211 MW. The peak recorded wind power
output was 2,035 MW delivered on 18th November 201528.
Based on data published on EirGrid’s and ESB Network’s websites (September 2015) there are 268 MW of wind
generation contracted for connection before the end of 2015 and a further 1,027 MW by the end of 2016. There are
an additional 475 MW contracted for connection beyond then.
28 Wind generation data, EirGrid, http://smartgriddashboard.eirgrid.com/#roi/wind
35
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
Figure 25 Installed Wind Generating Capacity 2000 – 201429
2500
350
2000
250
1500
200
150
1000
100
Total Wind Capacity (MWe)
Annual Wind Capacity Growth (MWe)
300
500
50
0
0
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Annual Wind Growth
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Total Wind Installed Capacity
The output from wind and hydro generation is affected by the amount of the resource (wind and rainfall) in a
particular year. It is also affected by the extent of outages of the plant for reasons such as faults, maintenance and
curtailment. An indication of how these factors affect the output of wind and hydro can be obtained by examining
the capacity factor for these generation types. The capacity factor is the ratio of average electricity produced to
the theoretical maximum possible. For wind, it is the ratio of the actual electricity generated to the theoretical
maximum possible for the installed capacity, as if that capacity were generating at a maximum for the full year.
The rate of capacity increase each year can significantly impact on the capacity factor in periods of large annual
capacity increases. If significant capacity is added late in the year this would artificially reduce the capacity factor
for the year. To mitigate this the wind capacity factors in Table 11 are calculated using the average of the installed
capacity in any given year and the previous year.
Table 11 Annual Capacity Factor for Wind and Hydro Generation in Ireland 2000, 2005 – 2014
Capacity Factor 2000
Wind
30%
Hydro
41%
Source: EirGrid and SEAI
2005
30%
31%
2006
30%
35%
2007
28%
33%
2008
29%
47%
2009
29%
44%
2010
24%
29%
2011
33%
34%
2012
27%
39%
2013
28%
29%
2014
29%
34%
The average countrywide wind capacity factor fell between 2006 and 2009 but averaged around 29%. It was 24% in
2010 largely due to the lack of wind. The hydro capacity was also at its lowest level since 2003 due to the low level of
rainfall in 2010. The wind capacity factor was 33% in 2011 due to the increased wind resource and was 29% in 2014.
The hydro capacity factor was 34% in 2014.
3.1.2.2 Heat from Renewable Energy Sources (RES-H)
Ireland’s NREAP specified a target of 12% renewable heat by 2020. Figure 26 shows the contribution from renewable
energy to heat or thermal energy uses. The increasing activity in specific sub-sectors of industry, as well as some
incentives for residential biomass heat systems, has led to renewable energy use more than doubling, from 108 ktoe
in 1990 to 280 ktoe in 2014 (a growth of 160%). In 2014 renewable thermal energy increased by 15% in absolute
terms relative to 2013 and the renewable share of thermal energy stood at 6.6% in 2014.
29 Installed Wind Report, Eirgrid, http://www.eirgridgroup.com/site-files/library/EirGrid/ConnectedTSOWind-Farms18thSept2015.pdf and ESB Networks,
http://www.esb.ie/esbnetworks/en/generator-connections/Connected-Contracted-Generators.jsp
3 Key Policy Issues
Source: Eirgrid
36
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Figure 26 Renewable Energy Contribution to Thermal Energy (RES-H)
7.0%
6.0%
5.0%
4.0%
3.0%
2.0%
1.0%
0.0%
1990
1992
1994
3 Key Policy Issues
Biomass
1996
1998
2000
Biogas
2002
2004
Solar
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
Geothermal
Following a decline in the contribution from renewable energy to thermal energy in the early 1990s (from 2.6% in
1990 to 2.1% in 1995), RES-H has grown between 2000 and 2014, from 2.4 % to 6.6%. This growth, dominated by
solid biomass30, is mostly due to the increased use of wood waste as an energy source in the wood products and
food sub-sectors of industry. In addition, recent growth in renewable energy use in the residential and services
sectors can be attributed to the support of grant schemes and revisions to building regulations requiring a share of
the energy demand to come from renewable sources.
Figure 27 shows the composition of biomass in TFC in 2014. Approximately half (47%) of all solid biomass is consumed
in the wood and wood products industry sub-sector where wood wastes or wood residues of that sector are being
combusted for heat. Similarly tallow, a by-product or output of the food sector, is combusted for heat in that sector
and is also being refined for use as a biofuel in transport. Tallow accounts for 14% of all solid biomass. A further 13%
in 2014 of solid biomass is consumed in the cement industry in the form of the renewable portion of solid wastes.
Wood chips, pellets and briquettes make up approximately 20% of all the solid biomass consumed in Ireland. The
remaining 6% is an estimate of the non-traded wood logs which are being used in open fires or stoves. The nontraded wood consumption is estimated in the absence of available data and varies with different methodologies.
However, as this non-traded wood is only a small part of the total solid biomass consumption, the relative variation
in estimates is small relative to the overall total solid biomass consumption used for the calculation of RES-H.
30 Solid biomass covers organic, non-fossil material of biological origin which may be used as fuel for heat production. It is primarily wood, wood wastes
(firewood, wood chips, barks, sawdust, shavings, chips, black liquor [a recycled by-product formed during the pulping of wood in the paper-making
industry] etc.), other solid wastes (straw, oat hulls, nut shells, tallow, meat and bone meal, etc.) and the renewable portion of industrial and municipal
wastes.
37
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
Figure 27 Composition of Biomass used for Heat in TFC in 2014
Renewable portion of
wastes 13%
Residential non-traded
wood 6%
Residential traded
wood (chips/pellets/
briquettes/logs) 6%
Tallow 14%
Non-residential traded
wood (chips/pellets/
briquettes/logs) 14%
Source: SEAI
3.1.2.3 Transport Energy from Renewable Sources (RES-T)
Directive 2009/28/EC established a mandatory minimum 10% target for the contribution of renewable energy in
the final consumption of energy in transport by 2020. According to the Directive for this target a weighting of 2.5 is
applied to the electricity from renewable energy sources consumed by electric road vehicles, where the contribution
is calculated as the share of electricity from renewable energy sources as measured two years before the year in
question. Also supported through a weighting factor of 2 are second generation biofuels, and biofuels from waste;
that is biofuels that diversify the range of feedstocks used to become commercially viable should receive an extra
weighting compared with first generation biofuels. These weighting factors are used for the calculation of RES-T
only and do not apply when calculating the transport contribution to the overall RES share.
The figure for renewables in transport energy (RES-T) in 2014 was 3.1%, or 5.2% when the weightings for double
certificates are applied in accordance with the Directive.
In order to provide incentives to achieve the 2020 target, a Mineral Oil Tax Relief Scheme was introduced in 2005.
In 2010 a biofuel obligation scheme was established which required fuel suppliers and consumers to include, on
average, 4% biofuel by volume (equivalent to approximately 3% in energy terms) in their annual sales. The biofuel
obligation scheme is a certificate based scheme which grants one certificate for each litre of biofuel placed on the
market in Ireland; two certificates are granted to biofuel which is produced from wastes and residues. Oil companies
and consumers are required to apply to the National Oil Reserves Agency (NORA) for certificates and demonstrate
that the quantities of biofuel for which they are claiming certificates are accurate. Since the introduction of the
Sustainability Regulations (SI 33 of 2012) in 2012, the companies are also required to demonstrate that the biofuel
that is being placed on the market is sustainable. Biofuel that is not deemed to be sustainable will not be awarded
certificates and cannot be counted towards the biofuel obligation.
The obligation was increased to 6% for 2013 and 2014. The Department of Communications, Marine and Natural
Resources opened a consultation in October 2015 on increasing the obligation rate to 7–8% from 2016.
3 Key Policy Issues
Boardmills, Sawmills
and CHP 47%
38
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Figure 28 Renewable Energy as a Proportion of (Petrol and Diesel) Transport (RES-T)
6.0%
5.0%
4.0%
3.0%
2.0%
1.0%
0.0%
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
3 Key Policy Issues
Biofuels Share
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Weighted Biofuels Share
In absolute terms, biofuels in transport increased from 1 ktoe in 2005 (0.03%) to 98 ktoe in 2011 (2.6% of transport
energy). The quantity fell in 2012 to 85 ktoe mainly as a result of the majority of biodiesel qualifying for double
certificates, thereby allowing the obligation to be met with certificates but causing the actual volume of biofuel
to fall. Actual volumes increased again in 2013 and 2014 by 20% and 14% respectively, to reach 117 ktoe (3.1% of
transport energy). In 2014, 86% of the biodiesel used for road transport was eligible for double certificates, down
from 99% in 2013.
It is evident from Figure 28 that the growth coincided with the introduction of tax relief support for biofuels, with
slow growth, from 2004 to 0.06% in 2006, followed by an increase to 1.2% in 2008, 1.5% in 2009 and 2.4% in 2010.
The Mineral Oil Tax Relief scheme ended in 2010 with the introduction of the biofuels obligation scheme. The figure
for renewables in transport energy (RES-T) in 2014 was 3.1%, or 5.2% when the weightings for double certificates are
applied in accordance with the Directive.
Table 12 Biofuels Growth in ktoe and as a Proportion of Road and Rail Transport Energy 2005 – 2014
Fuel
Petrol (ktoe)
Diesel (ktoe)
Biofuels (ktoe)
Petrol plus Diesel
Biofuel Penetration
Weighted biofuels (ktoe)
Weighted biofuels share
Source: SEAI
2005
1,822
2,378
1.1
4,200
0.0%
1
0.0%
2006
1,849
2,590
2.7
4,440
0.1%
3
0.1%
2007
1,886
2,759
21.5
4,644
0.5%
22
0.5%
2008
1,798
2,615
55.6
4,413
1.2%
56
1.3%
2009
1,636
2,378
77.4
4,015
1.9%
77
1.9%
2010
1,478
2,236
92.6
3,713
2.4%
93
2.4%
2011
1,399
2,221
97.8
3,621
2.6%
138
3.8%
2012
1,272
2,224
84.9
3,497
2.4%
140
4.0%
2013
1,197
2,368
102.2
3,566
2.8%
176
4.9%
2014
1,134
2,519
116.2
3,652
3.1%
193
5.2%
3.1.1 CO2 Displacement and Avoided Fuel Imports
The avoided carbon emissions and displacement of fossil fuel imports by renewable energy generation are
estimated using the Primary Energy Equivalent approach. The results obtained using this methodology have been
further refined, using the results of a more detailed dispatch model of the operation of the entire all-island electricity
system in the year 2012, so that the effects of ramping and cycling of fossil fuel plants are accounted for31.
Figure 29 shows the trend in avoided CO2 emissions from renewable energy for the period 1990 – 2014. The estimated
amount of CO2 avoided from renewable energy increased by 482% over the period 1990 – 2014, reaching 3,319 kt
CO2 as illustrated in Figure 29. The emissions avoided from wind were most significant again in 2014, at 1,851 kt CO2,
followed by hydro at 283 kt CO2, solid biomass at 274 kt CO2 and liquid biofuels used in transport at 243 kt CO2.
31 See the SEAI reports Quantifying Ireland’s Fuel and CO2 Emissions Savings from Renewable Electricity in 2012 and Renewable Energy in Ireland 2012 for further
details on the methodologies used to calculate the avoided emissions.
39
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
In relation to the displacement of fossil fuels by renewable energy, it is estimated that in 2014 approximately €255
million in fossil fuel imports were avoided, of which €200 million was avoided by wind generation. The displacement
of fuel imports is calculated by estimating how much extra fossil fuel would have had to be imported had there
been no renewable generation in 2014. The estimates are based on the use of marginal generation fuel that would
otherwise have been required to produce what had been generated by renewable energy.
Figure 29 Avoided CO2 from Renewable Energy 1990 – 2014
3,500
3,000
2,500
kt CO2
2,000
1,500
1,000
0
1990
1992
Solid Biomass (H)
Landfill Gas (E)
1994
1996
Biogas (H)
Hydro (E)
1998
2000
2002
Geothermal (H)
Wind (E)
2004
2006
2008
Solar Thermal (H)
Solid Biomass (E)
2010
2012
2014
Liquid Biofuels (T)
Renewable Wastes (E)
3.2Greenhouse Gas Emissions Targets
In 2008, the EU agreed a Climate Energy Package that included a target to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
across the EU by 20% below 1990 levels by the year 2020. This resulted in two specific pieces of GHG emissions
legislation affecting Ireland:
•• Directive 2009/29/EC requiring Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) companies to reduce their emissions by 21%
below 2005 levels by 2020;
•• Decision 406/2009/EC requiring Ireland to reduce non-ETS emissions by 20% below 2005 levels by 2020.
Figure 30 shows GHG emissions by source for 1990 and provisional figures for 2014 as reported by the Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA).
Figure 30 Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Source
Waste
3%
Base year (1990)
Waste
2%
Agriculture
33%
Agriculture
36%
Energy-related
55%
Industrial
Processes
6%
Source: Based on EPA data
2014 Provisional
56.7 Mt CO2
Energy-related
60%
Industrial
Processes
5%
58.2 Mt CO2
3 Key Policy Issues
500
40
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
It is evident from Figure 30 that energy-related emissions contributed a higher share towards total national
emissions in 2014 compared with 1990. The share of GHG emissions arising from energy-related activities was 60%
in 2014 compared with 55% in 1990. The share from agriculture dropped from 36% to 33% in the same period. It
is interesting to note that for the EU as a whole, energy production and use represented 79% of GHG emissions in
1990. The significant role of agriculture in the Irish economy underlies Ireland’s variance from the EU average.
Figure 31 shows the sectoral breakdown of energy-related CO2 emissions (which represent 96% of energy-related
GHG emissions with the remaining 4% accounted for by energy-related nitrous oxide [N2O] and methane [CH4]).
Energy-related CO2 emissions in 2014 were 17% higher than 1990 levels. Between 2005 and 2014 energy-related CO2
emissions fell by 23%.
Figure 31 Energy-Related CO2 Emissions by Sector32,33
50
45
40
35
Mt CO2
30
25
3 Key Policy Issues
20
15
10
5
0
1990
1992
1994
Industry
1996
1998
Transport
2000
2002
2004
Residential
2006
2008
Services
2010
2012
2014
Agriculture
Table 13 shows Non-ETS sectors’ (including non-ETS industry) energy-related CO2 emissions decreased by 1.5% per
annum between 2005 and 2010, and 3.8% per annum between 2010 and 2014, with emissions falling by 1.4% in
2014. Non-ETS energy-related CO2 emissions are now 21% below 2005 levels. Under EU Decision 406/2009/EC there
is a requirement for Ireland to achieve a 20% reduction in total non-ETS GHG emissions (including, notably, methane
emissions from agriculture) on 2005 levels by 2020.
The emissions trading sector has experienced a 27% fall in energy-related emissions since 2005 and emissions
increased by 5% in 2014 compared with the previous year. The share of emissions covered in the ETS in overall
energy-related emissions stands at 40% in 2014.
Table 13 Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of ETS and non-ETS Energy-Related CO2 since 2005
ETS CO2
non-ETS CO2
Total Energy-Related CO2
Growth %
2005 – 2014
-27.4
-20.6
-22.8
Average annual growth rates %
‘05 – ‘10
‘10 – ‘14
2014
-3.6
-3.4
-1.9
-1.5
-3.8
-1.4
-2.5
-3.2
-1.2
Shares %
2005
2014
41.7
39.5
58.3
60.5
The growth rates for the individual sectors are presented in Table 14.
32 Figure 31 and Table 14 are based on SEAI estimates and use a different methodology to that used by EPA for compiling the national inventory. International
air transport emissions are excluded from the national GHG emissions inventory in accordance with the reporting procedures of the UNFCCC guidelines
and are also excluded here.
33 Emissions for agriculture shown in the chart and the table are for energy-related emissions only.
41
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
Table 14 Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of Primary Energy-Related CO2 by Sector
Growth %
Average annual growth rates %
1990 – 2014 ‘90 – ‘14 ‘00 – ‘05 ‘05 – ‘10 ‘10 – ‘14
Industry
0.7
0.0
-1.6
-3.7
-2.3
Transport
120.2
3.3
4.4
-2.4
-0.5
Residential
-15.4
-0.7
1.2
0.5
-6.9
Commercial / Public
-1.3
-0.1
3.1
-4.8
-6.3
Agriculture and Fisheries
-28.3
-1.4
1.0
-5.7
-6.3
2014
0.4
3.9
-8.4
-4.2
-7.8
Quantity (kt)
1990
2014
7,899
7,958
6,043
13,309
10,764
9,103
4,730
4,668
1,133
812
Shares %
1990 2014
25.8
22.2
19.8
37.1
35.2
25.4
15.5
13.0
3.7
2.3
The most significant area of growth overall since 1990 has been in the transport sector, where CO2 emissions in
2014 were 13.3 Mt, 120% higher than in 1990 (3.3% average annual growth rate). In 2007 they were 184% higher.
Transport energy-related CO2 emissions fell for the first time in 2008, by 5.2%. The reduction was greater in 2009
with a fall of 11.6% followed by smaller reductions of 6.3% in 2010, 3.1% in 2011 and 5.4% in 2012. Overall between
2007 and 2014 transport energy-related CO2 emissions fell by 22%. Transport emissions grew by 3.9% in 2014.
Energy use in transport accounted for over one third (37%) of energy-related CO2 emissions in 2014. Transport is by
far the largest CO2 emitting sector – amounting to 1.7 times the energy-related CO2 emissions of industry. There has
been very limited decoupling of CO2 emissions from transport energy consumption since 1990.
The residential sector experienced a decrease of 8.4% in primary energy-related emissions during 2014, to 9.1
Mt, and services experienced a decrease of 4.2%, to 4.7 Mt. In both these sectors a significant portion of energy
use relates to space heating. Therefore, when looking at yearly changes it is important to take the weather into
account as well as other factors such as the fuel mix at the household level and the emissions intensity of electricity
generation. When taking weather into account the change in residential and services energy-related emissions in
2014 were a fall of 2.7% and an increase of 1.1% respectively.
Agriculture and fisheries’ energy-related CO2 emissions fell by 7.8% in 2014 but the sector’s share of these emissions
is small at 2.3% (0.8 Mt). This is also small compared to other agriculture-related GHG emissions due primarily to
livestock and also fertiliser use.
Figure 32 illustrates the variations in emissions by mode of energy use. Here the emissions are allocated according
to whether the energy used is: for transport; electricity; or thermal energy. These modes also represent distinct
energy markets. The graph presents the emissions at five-yearly intervals up to 2010, plus 2014. In 2014, the shares
of energy-related CO2 emissions from transport, electricity and thermal applications were 35.0%, 31.3% and 33.7%
respectively.
3 Key Policy Issues
Energy-related CO2 emissions increased in industry in 2014 by 0.4%, to 7.96 Mt. Under the ETS only the emissions
directly generated on site by industrial entities are taken into account. If upstream electricity emissions are omitted
industry experienced an increase in CO2 emissions of 2.1% in 2014. This change in emissions happened in the context
of a 7% increase in the economic output of industry.
42
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Figure 32 Energy-Related CO2 Emissions by Mode of Energy Application
18
16
14
12
Mt CO2
10
8
6
4
2
0
1990
1995
3 Key Policy Issues
Transport
2000
2005
Electricity
2010
2014
Thermal
The growth in emissions related to mobility (153% over the period to 2005) is again striking, although fell after 2008
they have risen again since 2013 and are back to 2002 levels (120% above 1990). Electricity was the dominant mode
in terms of emissions from 1996 until 2002. Transport became the dominant mode between 2006 and 2009 and
although thermal emissions made up the largest share (35%) of all energy-related emissions in 2010 due to the cold
weather, in 2014 transport was the dominant mode with 35% of all energy-related emissions.
In 2012, energy-related emissions from electricity increased from the 2011 level by 6.9%, to 12.9 Mt CO2, while final
consumption of electricity fell by 2.9%, causing an increase in the emissions intensity of electricity. This increase in
emissions intensity was caused primarily by the increased share of coal generation at the expense of gas generation,
coupled with a small drop in wind generation. The share of coal in the generation mix increased from 20% to 25%
and the gas share fell from 56% to 49% (see Figure 17 and Table 7).
This trend was reversed in 2013 and 2014 when the coal share fell back to 22%. Gas continued to fall, to 45%, and
with increased wind generation and electricity imports, energy-related emissions from electricity fell by 12% after
2012. The net result of this was that the CO2 intensity of electricity fell to its lowest level ever of 457 g CO2/kWh in
2014, as shown in Figure 14.
Overall, electricity generation emissions were 6.3% above 1990 levels in 2014.
Emissions from thermal energy applications fell by 6.5% in 2014 to 11.5 Mt and overall the thermal mode emissions
were 17% below 1990 levels.
Given the policy focus on the non-ETS34, Figure 33 shows the trend in energy-related CO2 emissions for the transport,
residential, services and agriculture sectors since 1990 and non-ETS industry from 2005 onwards. This excludes
emissions associated with electricity usage by these sectors as these emissions are included in emissions trading.
The historical data are not sufficiently disaggregated to include, prior to 2005, the energy-related CO2 emissions
associated with thermal energy usage by manufacturing companies that are not participating in emissions trading.
34 EU Decision 406/2009/EC.
43
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
Figure 33 Non Emissions Trading Energy-Related CO2 (non-ETS industry from 2005 onwards)35
30
30000
25
25000
2020 Target: 20% below 2005 level
20000
15
15000
10
10000
Services
Residential
Transport
2014
2012
2010
2008
2006
2004
2002
2000
Agriculture
Target
3.2.1 Transboundary Gas Emissions
Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides36 (NOX) from energy use are associated with acid rain, smog and
other environmental issues (including acidification and eutrophication) that are commonly described as air quality
issues. Under Article 4.1 of the Directive 2001/81/EC, Member States must limit their annual national emissions of
the pollutants sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3) and volatile organic compounds (VOC).
Table 15 shows the emission levels for SO2 and NOx in 2013 as well as the 2010 ceiling limit set in the Directive.
Table 15 SO2 and NOx Emissions and NEC Directive Ceilings for 201037
1990
(kt)
2013
(kt)
2010 Ceiling
(kt)
% above 2010 Ceiling
NOX
140
76.5
65
17.8%
SO2
183
25.4
42
-
Source: EPA
SO2 levels in Ireland fell by 86% between 1990 and 2013. Emissions from power generation fell by 92% over the
period as a result of the installation of abatement equipment and the switch from oil to natural gas. Reductions
in the order of 77% in SO2 emissions in the residential and services sectors and an 85% reduction in industry were
achieved over the period through the use of low sulphur coal and a switch to natural gas from oil.
NOx emissions contribute to the acidification of soils and surface waters, tropospheric ozone formation and nitrogen
saturation in terrestrial ecosystems. Power generation plants and motor vehicles are the principal sources of NOx,
through high-temperature combustion. NOx emissions in Ireland decreased by 45% between 1990 and 2013 and
have decreased by 35.4 kt, or 32% since 2008. These reductions were achieved due to improved abatement in the
Moneypoint power plant, reduced demand for clinker/cement and a reduction in fuel used in road transportation.
The latest estimate is 76.5 kt in 2013, which is an increase of 1% on the previous year and was due to an increase in
emissions from transport and an increase in clinker production in the cement industry. In 2013, NOx emissions were
17.8% above the 2010 ceiling.
The transport sector, which mainly consists of road transport, is the principal source of NOx emissions, contributing
approximately 53% of the total in 2013. The industrial and power generation sectors are the other main sources of
NOx emissions, with contributions of 16% and 11% respectively in 2013. The remainder of NOx emissions emanate
from the residential/commercial and the agricultural sectors, which together produced around 20% of the total in
2013. See http://www.epa.ie/pubs/reports/air/airemissions/NECD%20Summary%20Report%202015.pdf for more detail.
35 The 2020 target of 20% below 2005 levels refers to total GHG emissions and not just energy-related CO2 emission. While there’s no specific target for
energy-related CO2, the datum of 20% below 2005 levels is shown here for illustrative purposes.
36 Collective term for nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
37See http://www.epa.ie/downloads/pubs/air/airemissions/
3 Key Policy Issues
Industry non-ETS (2005 on)
1998
0
1996
0
1994
5000
1992
5
1990
Mt CO2
20
44
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
3.3Energy Security
Energy security relates to import dependency, fuel diversity and the capacity and integrity of the supply and
distribution infrastructure. Ireland’s energy security is closely linked to EU security of supply, but import dependency
is examined here for Ireland in its own right. Energy security is treated in more detail in a separate SEAI publication38.
Figure 34 illustrates the trend in import dependency since 1990, comparing it with that for the EU as a whole.
Domestic production accounted for 32% of Ireland’s energy requirements in 1990. However, since the mid1990s import dependency has grown significantly, due to the increase in energy use together with the decline in
indigenous natural gas production at Kinsale since 1995 and decreasing peat production. Imported oil and gas
accounted for 74% of TPER in 2014, compared with 50% in the early 1990s. Ireland’s overall import dependency
reached 90% in 2006. It has varied between 85% and 90% since then, and was at 85% in 2014. It is estimated that
in 2014 the cost of all energy imports to Ireland was approximately €5.7 billion, down from €6.5 billion (revised) in
2013, due mainly to falling oil and, to a lesser extent, gas import prices.
This trend reflects the fact that Ireland is not endowed with significant indigenous fossil fuel resources and has only
in recent years begun to harness significant quantities of renewable resources. Figure 35 shows the indigenous
energy fuel mix for Ireland over the period. The reduction in indigenous supply of natural gas is clearly evident from
the graph as is the switch away from peat. Production of indigenous gas decreased by 92% over the period since
1990, to 123 ktoe. Renewable energy in contrast increased by 431% to 891 ktoe. Indigenous production peaked in
1995 at 4,105 ktoe and there has been a 50% reduction since then to 2,048 ktoe.
Figure 34 Import Dependency of Ireland and EU
90%
80%
Import Dependency
3 Key Policy Issues
Peat production was depressed in 2012 due to the very wet summer of that year. Production was down 59% in 2012
compared with 2011. In contrast, the summer of 2013 provided very good harvesting conditions for peat and as a
result production was 310% above 2012 levels, at 1,292 ktoe, with a considerable amount of the production going to
building up stock levels. Production in 2014 was 971 ktoe.
70%
60%
50%
40%
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
Ireland
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
EU
Source: SEAI and Eurostat
The share of the total indigenous fuels contribution from native gas was 6% in 2014, compared with 54% in 1990.
The share of peat increased from 41% in 1990 to 47% in 2014 but in absolute terms peat production fell by 31%.
Renewable energy accounted for 44% of indigenously produced energy in 2014.
Developments that are likely to affect this trend include the expected commencement of production from the
Corrib Gas Field in 2015/16 and the targets for increasing the deployment of renewable energy.
38 Sustainable Energy Ireland (2015), Energy Security in Ireland, www.seai.ie
45
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
Figure 35 Indigenous Energy by Fuel39
4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
Mtoe
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
1992
1994
Gas
1996
1998
2000
Peat
2002
Coal
2004
2006
2008
2010
Renewables
2012
2014
NR(W)
Figure 36 shows the trend for net fuel imports (imports minus exports) over the period 1990 – 2014. The growing
dependence on oil due largely to an increase in energy use in transport is the most striking feature up until 2008
and the subsequent fall off in oil imports is a result of the economic downturn. There was a 117% increase in total
net imports from 1990 to 2008, with an 87% increase in net imports of oil. Between 2008 and 2014 net imports have
fallen by 23% with oil imports falling 29%. In 2014 net imports were 69% above 1990 levels while oil imports were
up 32%.
The decline of indigenous natural gas reserves at Kinsale is also indicated by the growth in imported natural gas in
the latter part of the decade. Coal imports have remained stable over the period, reflecting the base load operation
of Moneypoint electricity generating plant. In 2014, oil, gas and coal accounted for 56%, 31% and 10% of net imports
respectively.
Other contributions to the reduction in import dependency in 2014 were:
•• Coal imports were down 18% to 1,216 ktoe;
•• Oil imports were down 4.7% to 6,507 ktoe;
•• Natural gas imports were down 3.4% to 3,590 ktoe;
•• Electricity imports were down 4.2% to 185 ktoe.
Countering this was a 16% increase in renewable energy imports (biomass and biofuels).
39 NR(W) is non-renewable energy from wastes.
3 Key Policy Issues
1990
46
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Figure 36 Imported Energy by Fuel
16
14
12
Mtoe
10
8
6
4
2
0
1990
1992
1994
1996
3 Key Policy Issues
Coal
Oil
1998
2000
Gas
2002
2004
2006
Renewables
2008
2010
2012
2014
Electricity
3.4 Cost Competitiveness
Energy use is an important part of economic activity and therefore the price paid for energy is a determining factor
in the competitiveness of the economy. Ireland has a high import dependence on oil and gas and is essentially a
price taker on these commodities. The EU has introduced competition into the electricity and gas markets through
the liberalisation process in order to reduce energy costs to final consumers.
Since 2010, energy prices40 in Ireland have increased by 19% in real terms, compared with an average rise of 7.6% in
OECD Europe and a 5.8% increase in the US over the same period based on data from the IEA. In 2014, overall energy
prices in Ireland were 2.2% lower than in 2013, compared with a fall of 2.4% in OECD Europe and a 2.3% drop in the
US. These price trends reflect Ireland’s heavy dependence on imported oil and gas as these were the main drivers
of global energy prices over this period.
Crude oil prices were at around $109/barrel for the first half of 2014. However, from July onwards the price fell
steadily to reach $55/barrel by the end of December and averaged $89/barrel for the second half of the year. The
price of oil continued to fall in January 2015 to reach a low of $46/barrel, before levelling off at the $50 to $60 dollar
range and falling below €50 at the end of the 3rd quarter.
The price of natural gas at the UK Balancing Point was on average 22% lower in 2014 compared with 2013.
SEAI publishes biannual reports titled Understanding Electricity and Gas Prices in Ireland41 based on the methodology
for the revised EU Directive on the transparency of gas and electricity prices42, which came into effect on the 1st
January 2008. These reports focus specifically on gas and electricity prices using data published by Eurostat and are
a useful reference on cost-competitiveness.
This section presents comparisons of the cost of energy in various forms in Ireland and compares prices in OECD
Europe and the US. The source of the data presented here is the IEA’s Energy Prices and Taxes. This data source
was chosen because it is produced quarterly and the latest complete data is available for the first quarter of 2015.
Prices shown are US dollars and are in current (nominal) money43. Relative price increases since 2010, however, are
tabulated for EU-15 countries and the US in index format in both nominal and real terms.
40
41
42
43
International Energy Agency, 2014, Energy Prices and Taxes - 2nd Quarter 2014, http://www.iea.org/W/bookshop/add.aspx?id=636
Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (various dates), Understanding Electricity and Gas Prices in Ireland, www.seai.ie
http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/energy/internal_energy_market/l27002_en.htm
Nominal and real values: Nominal value refers to the current value expressed in money terms in a given year, whereas real value adjusts nominal value to
remove effects of price changes and inflation, to give the constant value over time indexed to a reference year.
47
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
3.4.1 Energy Prices in Industry
Figure 37 Electricity Prices to Industry
250
US$/MWh excluding taxes
200
150
100
50
Ireland
OECD Europe
United States
Source: Energy Prices and Taxes © OECD/IEA, 2015
OECD Europe
Austria
Belgium
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Ireland
Italy
Luxembourg
Netherlands
Portugal
Spain
Sweden
United Kingdom
United States
Table 16 Electricity Price to Industry Increase since 2010
1st qtr 2015
114
(nominal)
92
100
85
105
122
128
120
123
124
86
97
125
117
80
121
96
1st qtr 2015
107
(real)
88
99
79
99
119
124
121
116
118
84
94
124
111
79
115
91
Index
2010 = 100
Source: Energy Prices and Taxes © OECD/IEA, 2015
Table 16 shows that electricity prices to Irish industry increased by 16% in real terms between 2010 and early 2015, the
sixth highest for the countries listed. The fuel mix for electricity generation is one factor that has a key bearing on
the variation in the price of electricity. In the EU, Ireland has close to the highest overall dependency for electricity
generation on fossil fuels at 68% behind the Netherlands at 80%, Cyprus at 92% and Malta at 98%. Ireland also
has a high dependency on oil and gas generation at 49%. Apart from Malta and Cyprus, only Lithuania and the
Netherlands, at 56% and 51% respectively, have higher gas and oil generation dependency than Ireland.
3 Key Policy Issues
0
48
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Figure 38 Oil Prices to Industry
1400
1200
800
600
400
1Q2015
1Q2014
OECD Europe
United States
Source: Energy Prices and Taxes © OECD/IEA, 2015
Austria
Belgium
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Ireland
Italy
Luxembourg
Netherlands
Portugal
Spain
Sweden
United Kingdom
United States
Table 17 Oil Price to Industry Increase since 2010
OECD Europe
3 Key Policy Issues
Ireland
1Q2013
1Q2012
0
1Q2011
200
1Q2010
US$/1000 litres excluding taxes
1000
1st qtr 2015
104
(nominal)
94
103
105
112
101
103
93
100
114
102
105
102
101
107
95
96
1st qtr 2015
(real)
89
102
98
105
98
99
94
94
109
99
103
101
96
105
90
91
Index
2010 = 100
98
Source: Energy Prices and Taxes © OECD/IEA, 2015
Table 17 shows that oil prices to industry in Ireland were 6% lower in real terms in early 2015 than in the year 2010.
The average decrease in oil price in Europe was 2% and 9% in the US.
49
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
Figure 39 Natural Gas Prices to Industry44
60
US$/MWh excluding taxes
50
40
30
20
10
0
OECD Europe
United States
Source: Energy Prices and Taxes © OECD/IEA, 2015
Belgium
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Ireland
Italy
Luxembourg
Netherlands
Portugal
Spain
United Kingdom
United States
118
145
103
155
124
93
118
130
108
103
114
153
129
131
83
1st qtr 2015
(real)
110
138
102
146
121
89
119
122
103
100
112
151
123
124
79
Sweden
Austria
1st qtr 2015
(nominal)
Denmark
Index
2010 = 100
OECD Europe
Table 18 Natural Gas Price to Industry Increase since 2010
Source: Energy Prices and Taxes © OECD/IEA, 2015
With reference to Figure 39, natural gas prices to Irish industry increased from the second quarter 2010 until the end
of 2013. In general, the price has been falling since then. In the first quarter of 2015 the price of gas to industry in
Ireland was 22% above 2010 levels in real terms.
Figure 39 shows the gap between gas prices in Europe and the US.
Figure 40 summarises the data presented in Tables 16, 17 and 18. The IEA publishes an overall energy price index
(real) for industry which shows that the overall energy price to Irish industry between 2010 and early 2015 increased
by 19%, compared with 7.3% for OECD Europe and 5.9% for the US. This should be considered in the context of the
weighting of energy in the cost base of Irish industry45.
44 Breaks in the trends for Ireland and Greece are due to non-availability of data.
45 Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (2007), Energy in Industry 2007 Report, available from www.seai.ie. This report found that 94% of industrial
enterprises in Ireland spent less than 4% of their overall costs on energy. These enterprises also accounted for 93% of industrial gross value added.
3 Key Policy Issues
Ireland
50
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Figure 40 Real Energy Price Change to Industry since 2010 in EU-15 (index)
150
Index 1st Qtr 2015 (year 2010 = 100)
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
Industry Electricity Price Index (real)
Industry Oil Price Index (real)
Industry Gas Price Index (real)
3 Key Policy Issues
Source: Energy Prices and Taxes © OECD/IEA, 2015
Between 2010 and 2014, energy prices for industry in Ireland increased by 19% in real terms. In OECD Europe the
increase was also 18% while in the US energy prices increased by 5.8% over the same period. This reflects Ireland’s
dependence on oil and gas as these were the main drivers of global energy prices over this period.
2014 was also a period of falling global oil and gas prices. This is reflected in overall energy prices to industry in
Ireland being 2.2% lower than 2013. In OECD Europe prices fell by 2.4% and by 2.3% in the US.
51
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
4 Sectoral Indicators
This section explores the changes in energy trends that are taking place at a sectoral level in order to deepen our
understanding of energy use patterns generally and to assist in assessing the likely impacts of policies and measures
on achieving particular targets.
4.1 Industry
Final energy use in industry grew by 55% to a high of 2,672 ktoe over the period 1990 – 2006. Between 2006 and
2009 there was an 18% fall in industrial final energy use. Following a small increase in 2010 of 2.8%, consumption in
industry has levelled off. In 2014 industry energy use increased by 3.1% to 2,291 ktoe and was 14% lower than the
peak in 2006.
Figure 41 shows that over the period 1990 – 2014 only electricity, natural gas and renewables have increased their
share. Since 2009 non-renewable wastes have been used as an energy source in industry. The share of electricity has
risen from 22% to 35%, natural gas from 21% to 30% and renewables from 3.7% to 7.5%. The increase in renewables
is mainly due to the use of biomass in the wood processing industry, the use of tallow in the rendering industry and
the use of the renewable portion of wastes in cement manufacturing.
Figure 41 Industry Final Energy Use by Fuel
3
2.5
Mtoe
2
4 Sectoral Indicators
1.5
1
0.5
0
1990
1992
Coal
1994
1996
Oil
1998
2000
Natural Gas
2002
2004
2006
Renewables
2008
NR(W)
2010
2012
2014
Electricity
Table 19 shows the growth rates, quantities and relative shares of energy in industry.
Table 19 Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of Final Consumption in Industry
Growth %
Average annual growth rates %
1990 – 2014 ‘90 – ‘14 ‘00 – ‘05 ‘05 – ‘10 ‘10 – ‘14
Fossil Fuels (Total)
0.3
0.0
0.3
-6.2
-0.8
Coal
-50.5
-2.9
13.4
-11.8
-1.3
Oil
-32.3
-1.6
-1.1
-7.8
-11.2
Gas
93.9
2.8
-0.4
-0.7
11.7
Renewables
171.5
4.2
10.3
-1.4
2.9
Non-Renewable (Wastes)
45.7
Combustible Fuels (Total)
11.2
0.4
0.9
-5.6
0.1
Electricity
109.5
3.1
-0.1
3.5
0.8
Total
33.3
1.2
0.7
-3.0
0.3
2014
2.1
30.1
-13.5
11.9
21.7
10.3
4.2
1.1
3.1
Quantity (ktoe)
1990
2014
1,271
1,274
216
107
696
471
358
695
63
171
38
1,334
1,484
386
808
1,720 2,291
Shares %
1990 2014
73.9
55.6
12.6
4.7
40.5
20.6
20.8
30.3
3.7
7.5
0.0
1.7
77.6
64.7
22.4
35.3
In 2014, coal use grew at the fastest rate in industry, by 30%, although it still only accounted for 4.7% of the energy
share of industry. The increased coal use in industry is mainly as a result of the increased activity in cement
52
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
manufacturing. Renewables saw the second highest rate of growth in industry, with a 22% increase. The increase
in renewables is associated with increased tallow use in the food sector, wood in wood processing and renewable
wastes in the cement sector. Natural gas use in industry grew by 11.9% in 2014 and accounted for 30% of industry’s
energy use. Electricity consumption increased by 1.1% to 808 ktoe. Non-renewable wastes used for energy in
industry increased by 10.3% to 38 ktoe and its share in industry energy was 1.7% in 2014. Oil consumption in
industry fell by 13.5% to 471 ktoe and was the only energy source to experience a reduction in industry in 2014.
Electricity accounted for the largest share of final energy use in industry at 35%, oil accounted for 21% and gas 30%.
In order to determine industry’s total energy-related CO2 emissions it is necessary to view electricity on a primary
energy basis, i.e. the fuels required to generate the electricity consumed by industry. Figure 42 shows the primary
energy-related CO2 emissions of industry, showing the on-site CO2 emissions associated with direct fuel use and the
upstream emissions associated with electricity consumption.
Figure 42 Industry Energy-Related CO2 Emissions by Fuel
12
10
MtCO2
8
6
4
4 Sectoral Indicators
2
0
1990
1992
Coal
1994
1996
Oil
1998
2000
2002
Natural Gas
2004
2006
2008
2010
NR(W)
2012
2014
Electricity
As detailed in Table 20, industrial energy-related CO2 emissions increased by 0.4% in 2014 to 7.96 Mt CO2. Electricity
consumption was responsible for 54% of industry’s energy-related emissions in 2014. Electricity is indirectly
responsible for more than half of CO2 emissions in industry, more than all the other fuels used by industry combined.
Table 20 shows the growth rates, quantities and relative shares of energy-related CO2 emissions in industry.
Table 20 Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in Industry
Growth %
Average annual growth rates %
1990 – 2014 ‘90 – ‘14 ‘00 – ‘05 ‘05 – ‘10 ‘10 – ‘14
Coal
-50.5
-2.9
13.4
-11.8
-1.3
Oil Total
-31.7
-1.6
-0.8
-8.5
-10.8
Kerosene
340.2
6.4
6.8
-2.0
-9.8
Fuel Oil
-83.8
-7.3
-6.8
-8.0
-31.6
LPG
68.8
2.2
3.6
-0.1
0.4
Gas Oil
-24.7
-1.2
0.8
-4.6
-8.2
Petroleum Coke
139.1
3.7
8.4
-21.3
11.5
Natural Gas
101.3
3.0
-0.4
-0.6
11.7
Non-Renewable (Wastes)
48.5
Total Combustible Fuels
-5.4
-0.2
0.8
-7.1
-1.5
Electricity
6.7
0.3
-3.9
-0.2
-2.9
Overall Total
0.7
0.0
-1.6
-3.7
-2.3
2014
30.1
-12.2
-5.2
-50.5
-10.2
-10.3
27.9
12.0
10.3
2.1
-1.0
0.4
Quantity (kt)
1990
2014
856
424
2,199
1,501
50
222
1,341
217
165
278
454
342
185
442
824
1,659
81
3,879
3,669
4,020
4,289
7,899 7,958
Shares %
1990 2014
10.8
5.3
27.8
18.9
0.6
2.8
17.0
2.7
2.1
3.5
5.7
4.3
2.3
5.5
10.4
20.9
0.0
1.0
49.1
46.1
50.9
53.9
If upstream electricity-related emissions are omitted then there was a 2.1% increase in CO2 emissions from
combustible fuels used on-site in industry in 2014. This is as a result of changes in the volume and fuel mix used in
53
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
industry, with increased coal, gas and non-renewable wastes (+30%, +11.9% and +10.3% respectively), countered by
reduced oil (-13.5%) and increased renewables (+22%).
4.1.1 Industry Energy Intensity
Industrial energy intensity is the amount of energy required to produce a unit of value added, measured in constant
money values. Figure 43 shows the industrial energy intensity between 1990 and 2014 expressed in kilograms of oil
equivalent per euro of industrial value added (kgoe/€2013) at 2013 money value. Over the period, industrial energy
consumption increased by 33% while value added increased by 208%, resulting in a reduction in intensity of 57%. In
other words to generate a euro of value added in 2014, it took less than half of the amount of energy it took in 1990.
It should be noted that a downward trend in energy intensity signifies an increase in energy productivity.
Value-added output from industry grew by 7% in 2014 relative to 2013 and compares with the 5.2% increase in the
economy overall. Energy use in industry increased by 3.1% resulting in a 3.7% improvement in energy productivity
in industry.
Figure 43 Industry Energy Intensity
0.14
0.12
0.1
kgoe/€2011
0.08
0.06
0.02
0
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
Industry Energy Intensity
As mentioned in Section 2.6, energy intensity in this form is a limited indicator and variation may be the result of
many factors such as structural changes, fuel mix, volume and other changes. To eliminate the effects of structural
changes an index of energy intensity at constant structure46 is also shown, in Figure 44.
This indicator measures the impact of structural changes in industry by comparing the variations of the actual
intensity with that of a fictitious or notional intensity at constant structure (using 1995 structure as a reference).
It can be seen that structural changes have had a significant effect but other factors are also responsible for the
improvement in energy productivity.
The dark green line in Figure 44 is the trend in energy intensity in industry. Over the period 1995 – 2014, the intensity
of industry fell by 36% (2.3% per annum). Between 1995 and 2003 there was an improvement of 33% (5.0% per
annum) before a slight deterioration between 2003 and 2007 of 0.7% (0.01% per annum). After 2007, there has been
an overall improvement in the industry energy intensity of 3.6% (0.8% per annum).
The light green line represents the evolution of industrial energy intensity had the structure of industry not changed
over time. If the structural change in industry had not occurred, the intensity would have deteriorated by 19%
(0.9% per annum) between 1995 and 2014. There was a return to an energy efficiency improvement in the notional
intensity at constant structure between 2004 and 2007 of 6.1% (2.1% per annum) before the impact of the economic
downturn in 2008, which led to a deterioration in the notional efficiency of industry at constant structure of 28%
(3.9% per annum) between 2007 and 2014.
46 This section draws on methodology developed under the ODYSSEE project. See Bosseboeuf D. et al (1999), Energy Efficiency Indicators – The European
Experience and Bosseboeuf D. et al (2005), Energy Efficiency Monitoring in the EU-15, both published by ADEME and the European Commission. http://www.
odyssee-indicators.org/
4 Sectoral Indicators
0.04
54
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
These structural changes were brought about by global economic influences and Irish industrial policy. Over the
period, industrial policy concentrated on moving the sector up the value chain to manufacture high value goods
such as pharmaceuticals, electronics and value-added foodstuffs. This resulted in increased economic efficiencies,
contributing to the further reduction in intensity shown in Figure 44.
Figure 44 Index of Energy Intensity of Industry 1995 – 2014
140
120
Index 1995 = 100
100
80
60
40
20
0
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Energy Intensity at Constant Structure
To further remove non-efficiency effects from the energy intensity at constant structure an ODEX indicator for
industry in Ireland has been constructed for the period 1995 – 2014, shown in Figure 45. Again here, as with intensity,
a downward trend signifies improvement, this time in efficiency. The index decreased from 100 in 1995 to 51.1
in 2007, a 49% (5.4% per annum) improvement in energy efficiency over the period. The index then increased (a
deterioration in efficiency), reaching 56.5 in 2011. Between 2011 and 2014 the efficiency improved by 2.8% with the
index reaching 54.2 in 2014.
Figure 45 Industry ODEX 1995 – 2014
100
90
80
70
Index 1995 = 100
4 Sectoral Indicators
Energy Intensity - Actual
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
The ODEX indicator is based on production indices for all of the industry sub-sectors relative to that in the base year
(in this case 1995). It is important to note that, for some sub-sectors, the trends also include some non-technical
changes, especially in the chemical industry as a result of the shift to light chemicals. Data for this sector are currently
not available at a sufficiently disaggregated level.
55
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
4.2Transport
Transport energy use peaked in 2007 at 5,715 ktoe and fell each year thereafter until 2013. As the economy started
to expand again transport energy use grew in 2013 and 2014, by 4.2% and 4.0% respectively, to 4,522 ktoe. As
shown in Figure 46 transport energy in 2014 was 21% below the peak in 2007, back to 2003 levels.
Figure 46 Transport Final Energy Use by Fuel47
6
5
Mtoe
4
3
2
1
1992
Petrol
1994
LPG
1996
Diesel
1998
2000
Electricity
2002
2004
2006
Kerosene
2008
Fuel Oil
2010
2012
2014
Renewables
The growth rates for the different transport fuels over the period are shown in Table 21. In 2014, petrol and electricity
were the only fuels to experience falling use with drops of 5.3% and 6.6% respectively. Liquefied Petroleum Gas
(LPG) experienced the largest growth in 2014, growing by 62% (but from a very small base) and reaching just 2.6 ktoe.
Renewables in the form of biofuels also had strong growth, increasing by 13.6% to 116 ktoe. Diesel consumption
grew by 6.4% during 2014 to 2,519 ktoe and was the most dominant fuel used, accounting for 56% of all energy use
in transport.
Over the period 1990 – 2014, the biggest shift in the transport market has been from petrol to diesel. While
consumption of both fuels increased, consumption of diesel increased by 273% compared with just 20% increase
for petrol and diesel’s overall market share grew from 33% in 1990 to 56% in 2014.
Table 21 Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of Final Consumption in Transport
Growth %
Average annual growth rates %
1990 – 2014 ‘90 – ‘14 ‘00 – ‘05 ‘05 – ‘10 ‘10 – ‘14
Fossil Fuels (Total)
118.2
3.3
4.4
-2.4
-0.6
Total Oil
118.2
3.3
4.4
-2.4
-0.6
Petrol
20.3
0.8
2.8
-4.1
-6.4
Diesel
273.5
5.6
5.1
-1.2
3.0
Jet Kerosene
100.0
2.9
6.4
-1.7
-1.3
LPG
-69.7
-4.8
-14.1
-12.8
42.3
Natural Gas
Renewables
142.8
5.8
Combustible Fuels (Total)
124.0
3.4
4.4
-2.0
-0.4
Electricity
144.1
3.8
17.8
-5.0
-3.8
Total
124.0
3.4
4.4
-2.0
-0.4
2014
3.8
3.8
-5.3
6.4
10.8
61.8
13.6
4.0
-6.6
4.0
Quantity (ktoe)
1990
2014
2,017
4,402
2,017
4,402
942
1,134
674
2,519
374
748
7
2
0.02
116
2,017
4,519
1
3
2,019
4,522
Shares %
1990
2014
99.9
97.4
99.9
97.4
46.7
25.1
33.4
55.7
18.5
16.5
0.3
0.0
0.001
0.0
2.6
99.9
99.9
0.1
0.1
As would be expected, the growth rates and shares of the energy-related CO2 emissions from the different transport
fuels, which are provided in Table 22, very closely match the changes in transport fuel consumption. Between 2007
47 This is based on data of fuel sales in Ireland rather than fuels consumed in Ireland. The effect of cross border trade (fuel tourism) or smuggling is not taken
into account in the figures presented here. SEAI’s report, Energy in Transport (2014), presents estimates of fuel tourism and these are shown in Figure 58 in
the transport report.
4 Sectoral Indicators
0
1990
56
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
and 2012, the primary energy-related CO2 emissions fell by 28%. Transport emissions began to rise again in 2013 for
the first time since 2007, increasing by 3.9%. Emissions increased in 2014, again by 3.9% to 13.3 MtCO2.
In the following sections, the reasons for the recent reductions in transport fuel consumption and related CO2
emissions are examined.
Table 22 Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in Transport
Growth %
Average annual growth rates %
1990 – 2014 ‘90 – ‘14 ‘00 – ‘05 ‘05 – ‘10 ‘10 – ‘14
2014
Total Oil Products
120.5
3.3
4.4
-2.4
-0.5
3.9
Petrol
20.3
0.8
2.8
-4.1
-6.4
-5.3
Diesel
273.5
5.6
5.1
-1.2
3.0
6.4
Jet Kerosene
100.0
2.9
6.4
-1.7
-1.3
10.8
LPG
-69.7
-4.8
-14.1
-12.8
42.3
61.8
Electricity
24.3
0.9
13.3
-8.4
-7.3
-8.6
Total
120.2
3.3
4.4
-2.4
-0.5
3.9
Quantity (kt)
1990
2014
6,029
13,291
2,761
3,320
2,070
7,729
1,118
2,236
19
6
14
18
6,043
13,309
Shares %
1990
2014
99.8
99.9
45.7
24.9
34.2
58.1
18.5
16.8
0.3
0.0
0.2
0.1
4.2.1 Transport Energy Demand by Mode
4 Sectoral Indicators
Fuel consumption in transport is closely aligned to the mode of transport used: jet kerosene is used for air transport,
fuel oil for shipping and electricity is currently consumed by the Dublin Area Rapid Transport (DART) system and,
since 2004, by Luas. LPG is almost exclusively used for road transport, as is petrol. The bulk of petrol consumption
for road transport can be assumed to be for private car use although there are a significant number of petroldriven taxis in operation. Diesel consumption is used for navigation, rail and road purposes, including: freight
transportation, public transport in buses and taxis, private car transport and other applications in agricultural,
construction and other machines.
SEAI’s report Energy in Transport48 presents an estimation of the energy use in transport by different modes. The
contribution from each mode of transport to energy demand is shown in Figure 47 and detailed in Table 23. In 2014,
a new category of Light Goods Vehicle (LGV) was added. This was been made possible from the analysis of the fuel
efficiency of LGVs and the assessment of annual mileage estimated from the Commercial Vehicle Roadworthiness
Test data from the Road Safety Authority (RSA). Energy use identified under the LGV category was previously
included in the Unspecified category.
Table 23 Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of Transport Final Energy Demand by Mode, 1990 – 2014
Growth %
Mode
Road Freight
Light Goods Vehicle (LGV)
Average annual growth rates %
1990 - ‘14 ‘90 – ‘14
79.5
2.5
Quantity (ktoe)
Shares %
‘00 – ‘05
‘05 – ‘10
‘10 – ‘14
2014
1990
2014
1990
2014
6.6
-9.2
-2.5
6.9
346
621
17.1
13.7
-
-
-
-
-4.5
-4.9
-
303
-
6.7
Private Car
129.1
3.5
3.8
1.6
1.0
0.4
926
2,122
45.9
46.9
Public Passenger (road)
192.3
4.6
12.7
1.0
-1.8
3.8
52
153
2.6
3.4
Rail
-14.0
-0.6
1.2
-0.6
-3.1
-8.1
45
38
2.2
0.9
Aviation
99.7
2.9
6.4
-1.7
-1.3
10.8
375
749
18.6
16.6
-
-
-7.3
-8.6
0.6
40.3
0
321
0.0
7.1
Fuel Tourism
Navigation
901.2
10.1
16.0
5.4
3.0
25.2
7
72
0.4
1.6
Unspecified
-47.0
-2.6
16.1
-23.1
1.9
-22.5
267
142
13
3.1
Total
124.0
3.4
4.4
-2.0
-0.4
4.0
2,019
4,522
Combined petrol and diesel fuel tourism is also included in Figure 47. Only fuel tourism out of the Republic of Ireland
(ROI) is included in this graph (i.e. fuel which is purchased in ROI but consumed elsewhere). Before 1995 the trend
was negative, meaning fuel was purchased outside and consumed within the State.
48 Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (2014), Energy in Transport – 2014 Report, http://www.seai.ie/energy-data-portal/
57
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
Figure 47 Transport Energy Demand by Mode 1990 – 2014
6
5
Mtoe
4
3
2
1
0
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
Private car
HGV
Aviation
Public Passenger
2002
Rail
2004
2006
2008
2010
Fuel Tourism
Navigation
LGV
2012
2014
Unspecified
Road transport accounted for 71% of transport TFC in 2014 (78% if unspecified and fuel tourism are included as road
transport). SEAI estimates that private car transport was responsible for 2,122 ktoe of TFC in 2014. This represents
66% of road transport energy use and 47% of all transport energy use. Figure 47 also illustrates the relative weighting
of private car transport compared to road passenger services (bus) and rail travel.
HGVs experienced an increase in energy use in 2014 of 6.9% while LGV energy use fell by 4.9%. Energy use by private
cars, accounting for 47% of transport energy, increased by 0.4% and public passenger (road) consumption increased
by 3.8%.
4.2.2 Private Car Transport
In 2014, the number of vehicles on Irish roads exceeded 2.5 million for the first time (2,515,322), of which 77% were
private cars. The number of private cars peaked in 2008 at 1,923,471 and numbers fell in three of the following
five years. In 2014 the number of licensed private cars on the road increased by 1.8% to a new peak of 1,943,868
exceeding the 2008 numbers by 1.1%.
4 Sectoral Indicators
As shown in Table 23 in the period 1990 – 2014 the TFC of the transport sector increased 124%, from 2,019 to 4,522
ktoe. Looking at Figure 47 there is a clear divide to be seen in consumption trends pre- and post-2007, due in large
part to the economic downturn that began in 2008. Between 1990 and 2007 final energy consumption in transport
increased 183% to 5,715 ktoe, while between 2007 and 2014 consumption fell by 21%. Heavy Goods Vehicle (HGV)
road freight in particular has been affected by both the economic boom and the recession, experiencing both the
greatest increase in the period 1990 – 2007 (231% from 346 to 1,145 ktoe) and the greatest contraction in the period
2007 – 2014 (46% from 1,145 to 621 ktoe).
58
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Figure 48 Private Cars per 1,000 of Population
600
500
Private Cars Per 1,000 Population:
EU 27 Average (2010) = 477
Germany (2013)
= 538
France (2013)
= 490
Belgium (2013)
= 490
Denmark (2010)
= 389
Netherlands (2013)
= 471
UK (2013)
= 442
Source: Eurostat and DG TREN
Cars Per 1,000
400
312
335
324 327
300
227
249
237 242
349
364
275
262
Private Cars Per 1,000 of Adults:
EU 27 Average (2007) = 551
EU 15 Average (2007) = 592
UK (2013)
= 541
France (2013)
= 604
Germany (2013)
= 609
Source: Based on Eurostat Data
459
382
292
403
310
417
323
436 445
339 348
469
479
379
360 370
494
391
507
402
528
420
541
539 539
529 521 525 524 533
430 429
420 411 413 411 416 422
200
100
0
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
Ireland cars per 1,000 Population
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
Ireland cars per 1,000 Adults
Source: Based on Vehicle Registration Unit and CSO data
The car density in 2014 (as shown in Figure 48) was 422 cars per 1,000 of population, up slightly on the 2013 figure of
416. This is compared to an EU-27 average of 477 in 2010 and a UK average of 442 in 2013.
4 Sectoral Indicators
4.2.3Key Policy Measures Affecting Private Car CO2 Emissions
A new system of assessing private cars for Vehicle Registration Tax (VRT) and Annual Motor Tax (AMT) came into
effect from July 2008 for vehicles purchased in 2008 or later. The system moved away from assessing vehicles based
on engine size to one that is based solely on the CO2 emissions per kilometre. Seven tax bands were originally used
for the assessment with the bands corresponding to the EU labelling system. The range of bands was extended in
January 2013 and now includes twelve categories. The new bands are shown in Table 24.
Table 24 CO2­based Vehicle Registration and Road Tax Bands
Band
CO2 Emissions (g CO2/km)
Band A0
zero to 1
Band A1
greater than 1 and less than or equal to 80
Band A2
greater than 80 and less than or equal to 100
Band A3
greater than 100 and less than or equal to 110
Band A4
greater than 110 and less than or equal to 120
Band B1
greater than 120 and less than or equal to 130
Band B2
greater than 130 and less than or equal to 140
Band C
greater than 140 and less than or equal to 155
Band D
greater than 155 and less than or equal to 170
Band E
greater than 170 and less than or equal to 190
Band F
greater than 190 and less than or equal to 225
Band G
greater than 225
Prior to 2007 the European Commission had a strategy based on three pillars for reducing CO2 emissions from cars.
The three pillars were:
•• Voluntary commitments from car manufacturers to cut emissions;
•• Improvements in consumer information;
•• Promotion of fuel-efficient vehicles by means of fiscal measures.
It was recognised in 2007 that the objective of achieving average new car emissions of 130 g CO2/km by 2012, as
59
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
agreed with European, Japanese and Korean car manufacturers, would not be met without additional measures.
This failure is reflected in Ireland in Figure 50, which shows that between 2000 and 2007 there was virtually no
reduction in the average emissions of new cars. As already discussed, fiscal measures in the form of the VRT and
AMT changes came into effect in 2008 which resulted in an almost immediate reduction in the average new car
emissions in Ireland.
Legislation on CO2 from passenger cars was officially published in June 2009 in the form of Regulation 443/2009/EC
setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars.
The Regulation sets the average CO2 emissions for new passenger cars below 130 g CO2/km by 2015, by means
of improvement in vehicle motor technology. A further 10 g CO2/km reduction is to be obtained by using other
technical improvements. The other technical improvements49 are expected to come from:
•• Setting minimum efficiency requirements for air-conditioning systems;
•• Compulsory fitting of accurate tyre pressure monitoring systems;
•• Setting maximum tyre rolling resistance limits in the EU for tyres fitted on passenger cars;
•• The use of gear shift indicators, taking into account the extent to which such devices are used by consumers in
real driving conditions;
•• Increased use of biofuels maximising environmental performance.
From 2020 onwards, the Regulation sets a target of 95 g CO2/km as average emissions for the new car fleet, which
would mean that the average new passenger car would be in band A2.
4.2.4 CO2 Emissions of New Private Cars
Figure 49 and Table 25 show the shares of new car sales50 between 2000 and October 2015 classified by emissions
label band. Between 2000 and 2005 the share of label bands A and B was on average 11%. For the first half of 2008,
before the new taxes came into effect, the share of these two bands was 25%. Upon introduction the taxes had an
immediate effect: for the second half of 2008 the share of the A and B bands rose to 50%. Conversely, the combined
share of bands E, F and G fell from 28% in early 2008 to 13% after the change.
4 Sectoral Indicators
Figure 49 Shares of New Private Cars in each Emissions Band 2000 – 2014 (+2015 to October)
Shares of new private cars in each emissions label band
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
2000
A (<=120)
2001
2002
B (121-140)
2003
2004
2005
C (141-155)
2006
2007
D (156-170)
2008
2009
E (171-190)
2010
2011
2012
F (191-225)
2013
2014
G (>225)
2015
Jan-Oct
n/a
Source: Based on Vehicle Registration Unit data
This was a significant shift in purchasing patterns towards lower-emissions vehicles in such a short time period,
though it was tempered by the fact that the motor industry experienced a severe downturn during 2008/2009.
49 Commission of the European Communities (2007), Results of the review of the Community Strategy to reduce CO2 emissions from passenger cars and lightcommercial vehicles. COM(2007) 19 final.
50 Licensed as private cars.
60
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Despite the reduction in the number of vehicles sold, the combined effect of the EU legislation obligating
manufacturers to reduce average fleet emissions and the changes to the Irish taxation system for private cars has
been to continue to steadily drive down the average new car fleet emissions year on year since 2008. In 2010 a
further incentive towards the purchase of A and B band vehicles came in the form of a government scrappage
scheme which applied if a car of 10 years or older was being scrapped and the new car being purchased was in
emissions band A or B. This scheme ran until June 2011 but with reduced relief from January 2011.
In 2014 the share of A and B cars was 94.6% and for the first ten months of 2015 it was 95.4%. The largest increase in
share was in the A label band, which rose from just 1.5% in 2007 to 68% of the new private cars sold in 2014. Data
for 2015 (up to October) show that this trend has continued with A vehicles making up 72% or almost three quarters
of all new registrations. The share of high emitting cars in label bands E, F and G only amounted to 1.5% of new cars
sold during 2014 and to 1.0% of new cars for the first ten months of 2015, in the latter case just 1,182 cars out of a
total of 118,389.
Table 25 Shares of New Private Cars in each Emissions Band, 2000, 2005 – 2014 (+2015 to October)
CO2 band
2000
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015 to
Sept
A
0.0%
0.9%
1.8%
1.5%
3.8%
12.7%
35.1%
42.5%
53.8%
61.3%
67.8%
71.7%
B
11.3%
11.4%
20.3%
16.3%
26.8%
44.1%
45.2%
47.8%
38.2%
32.2%
26.8%
23.7%
C
25.6%
23.2%
18.8%
23.4%
19.3%
19.5%
10.1%
5.0%
4.0%
3.7%
3.0%
2.6%
D
32.4%
27.6%
30.2%
24.7%
25.0%
13.1%
6.2%
2.6%
1.9%
0.9%
0.8%
1.0%
E
17.5%
25.1%
19.3%
21.6%
15.9%
6.8%
2.0%
1.0%
1.0%
0.8%
0.4%
0.6%
F
9.5%
7.5%
7.2%
8.4%
6.4%
1.8%
0.6%
0.6%
1.0%
1.0%
0.9%
0.4%
G
3.7%
4.2%
2.3%
4.2%
2.8%
0.4%
0.3%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.1%
0.0%
All new cars have associated fuel consumption and CO2 emissions figures measured under test conditions. Figure
50 shows the change in the weighted average specific CO2 emissions of new cars between 2000 and 2014, with an
estimate for 2015. Between 2000 and 2007 the average CO2 emissions for all cars was approximately 166 g CO2/km
which is within band D. Following the change to CO2 taxation in July 2008 the weighted average emissions went
from 161 g CO2/km, for the first six months of 2008, to 147 g CO2/km for the second half of the year (8.7% reduction).
Through the combined effects of the taxation change and the obligation on manufacturers to reduce overall fleet
emissions, the average emissions of the new car fleet continued to drop, reaching 117.5 g CO2/km in 2014 which
is within band A4. This was 29% below the level in 2007. It is estimated that the average emissions of new cars
purchased in 2015 is 116 g CO2/km, which also falls within the A4 band.
Figure 50 Specific CO2 Emissions of New Cars, 2000 – 2014 (2015 estimated)
180
170
166.1
167.7 167.2 166.7 167.9
166.1
161.7
164.0
158.2
160
150
144.0
g CO2/km
4 Sectoral Indicators
Source: Based on Vehicle Registration Unit data
140
132.8
128.0
130
125.1
120.9
120
117.5 116.2
110
100
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Source: Based on Vehicle Registration Unit and VCA data
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
61
Data presented in this report on the carbon emissions ratings of new cars are based on the results of a standardised
laboratory test procedure based on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The difference between the test
emissions and the emissions actually produced in real world driving conditions is referred to as the on-road factor.
A number of recent reports by the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) have highlighted data from
a number of sources which suggest that the on-road factor has increased dramatically in recent years and that the
real world fuel consumption and carbon emissions of new vehicles is now significantly greater than reported test
values51.
Figure 51 shows the position of Ireland in relation to its EU partners in terms of new car emissions. In 2013, the
average CO2 emissions from new cars in Ireland were 5% below the EU average and ranked seventh lowest out of
the 27 countries. EU Regulation 443/2009/EC has set a target for all passenger cars to have average emissions below
130 g CO2/km by 2015. Ireland is one of 10 EU countries already below the target.
Figure 51 Specific CO2 Emissions of New Cars: International Comparison – 201352
Average CO2 Emissions - g CO2/km (2013)
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
Source: European Environment Agency
In 2014, 38% of the stock of private cars had been purchased in 2008 or later. This means that a significant portion
of the stock of cars on the road is more efficient than the older cohort.
4.2.5Energy Efficiency of New Private Cars
The first SEAI transport report53 presented a method for measuring the specific fuel consumption by calculating the
overall efficiency of new cars entering the fleet. The analysis is updated here with more recent data. All new cars
have associated fuel consumption figures54 (measured under test conditions), quoted for urban, extra-urban and
combined driving.55 An average specific fuel consumption figure for new cars entering the national fleet may be
calculated by weighting the test values by the sales figures for each individual model.
The weighted average of the fuel consumption of new cars first registered in the years 2000 – 2014 was calculated
by SEAI using an extract from the Vehicle Registration Unit’s national database, and data on the fuel consumption
of individual models. The results of this analysis are shown in Figure 52 . Further detailed results of this and other
analyses were presented in SEAI’s Energy in Transport – 2014 Report.
51 For more information see www.theicct.org.
52European Environment Agency (2014), Monitoring CO2 emissions from passenger cars and vans in 2013, http://www.eea.europa.eu//publications/
monitoring-co2-emissions-from-passenger
53 Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (2003), Energy and CO2 Efficiency in Transport – analysis of new car registrations in year 2000, www.seai.ie
54 Fuel consumption and CO2 emissions data were sourced from the Vehicle Certification Agency. The database can be downloaded at http://www.dft.gov.
uk/vca/fcb/new-car-fuel-consump.asp
55 Details for the methodology for the test cycles can be found in Section 4 of the following paper:
O’Gallachoir, B., & Howley, M. (2004, July). Proceedings of the International Conference on Vehicles Alternative Fuel Systems and Environmental Protection (VAFSEP
2004). In Changing fleet structure versus improved engine performance - energy and CO2 efficiency of new cars entering the Irish fleet. Dublin.
4 Sectoral Indicators
0
62
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Figure 52 Weighted Average Specific Fuel Consumption of New Cars 2000 – 2014
8
litres/100km
7
6
6.91
6.19
6.99
6.99
7.01
7.01
7.02
6.77
6.28
6.12
6.22
6.36 6.32
6.41
6.82
6.68
6.28
6.33
5.77
5.87
5.49
5.35
5.29
5
5.19 5.15
5.02
4.89
4.76
4.64
4.57
4
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Petrol
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Diesel
Source: Based on Vehicle Registration Unit and VCA data
4 Sectoral Indicators
Over the period examined, for new petrol cars, the lowest fuel efficiency was recorded in 2005 (7.02 litres/100km).
Since 2005 there has been a 27% improvement in the fuel efficiency of new petrol cars, to 5.15 litres/100 km. For
new diesel cars, the lowest fuel efficiency was recorded in 2006 (6.41 litres/100km). Since 2006 there has been a 29%
improvement in the fuel efficiency of new diesel cars, to 4.57 litres/100 km.
Generally, until 2005 the decrease in fuel efficiency suggests that the purchasing trend towards large cars over the
period outweighed any of the efficiency benefits of engine improvements. This changed during 2008 following the
introduction of policy measures aimed at improving the CO2 emissions of new cars. Since CO2 emissions are very
closely linked to fuel efficiency, such policy measures have had a direct and corresponding effect on fuel efficiency.
4.2.6 Private Car Average Annual Mileage
SEAI’s report Energy in Transport – 2007 Report56 first profiled private car average annual mileage. A refining and
updating of the results has since taken place and the revised figures are presented here. These are based on the
analysis of 14.1 million National Car Test (NCT) results.
Average mileage for all private cars increased by 2.2% (0.2% per annum on average) over the period 2000 – 2014.
Petrol car annual mileage fell by 11% (0.8% per annum) while diesel car average mileage fell by 6.2% (0.5% per
annum). Many households now own two cars. This will typically increase the transport energy usage per household
but will also reduce the per car average mileage.
Figure 53 shows the total kilometres driven by private cars in Ireland each year from 2000 to 2014, based on an
analysis of NCT data. Overall, the total number of kilometres travelled has increased which in turn has led to
increased private car fuel consumption, as detailed in Section 4.2.1. Total mileage by all private cars increased by
52% over the period 2000 – 2014.
Overall travel in petrol cars has been falling since 2007, reducing by 29% between 2007 and 2014, while travel by
diesel cars increased by 130% over the same period. Indeed the rate of increase of overall travel by diesel cars
increased after 2007 to 13% per annum, compared with 9% per annum between 2000 and 2007. In 2000, 81% of
total private car mileage was fuelled by petrol and 19% by diesel. In 2014, petrol accounted for 48% and diesel
for 52%. Between 2000 and 2014 the total mileage by petrol cars fell by 10.8% while total mileage for diesel cars
increased by 318%. This reduction in travel by petrol vehicles and increase in travel by diesel vehicles is due to the
changing ownership patterns since the changes in the VRT and Annual Road Tax were introduced in 2008.57
56 Sustainable Energy Ireland (2009), Energy in Transport – 2009 Report, www.seai.ie/statistics
57 A note of caution: as the mileages are based on NCT tests and new cars are only first tested when they are four years old there is an inherent lag in the
recording of the changing average mileage patterns in this data.
63
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
Figure 53 Total Private Car Annual Mileage 2000 – 2014
40
35
Total annual kilometres (billions)
30
25
23.0
25.1
24.2
20
18.7
20.3
19.7
28.2
26.8
25.8
20.9
29.8
22.3
21.4
22.9
31.3
23.4
32.1
23.0
31.6
21.7
31.3
20.2
32.4
33.1
19.4
18.4
15
10
5
6.9
4.4
4.5
4.8
5.0
5.3
5.9
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
7.9
9.1
9.9
2008
2009
11.1
13.0
14.7
34.1 34.9
17.7
18.3
16.4
16.6
0
2006
2007
Petrol and Diesel Combined
2010
Private Petrol Cars
2011
2012
2013
2014
Private Diesel Cars
Source: Based on NCT Data
As discussed in Section 4.2.1 HGV freight transport was responsible for the largest share of the decrease in transport
sector energy demand in the period 2007 – 2014. This was primarily the result of reduced activity in the sector.
Three metrics which measure activity in the road freight sector are tonne-kilometres, vehicle kilometres and tonnes
carried. Figure 54 and Table 26 present data on these three metrics, along with GDP as an index with respect to 1991.
The data are taken from the CSO’s Road Freight Survey for 1991 to 2014 which considers vehicles taxed as goods
vehicles, vehicles weighing over two tonnes unladen and those which are actually used as goods vehicles, rather
than for service type work, for example.
Figure 54 Road Freight Activity 1991 – 2014
400
350
Index 1991 = 100
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
1991
1993
1995
1997
Vehicle Kilometres
Source: CSO
1999
2001
Tonnes Carried
2003
2005
GDP
2007
2009
2011
Tonne Kilometres
2013
4 Sectoral Indicators
4.2.7 Heavy Goods Vehicle Activity
64
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Table 26 Road Freight Activity 1991 – 2014
Growth
%
Average annual growth rates %
Quantity
‘91 – ‘14
‘00 – ‘05
’05 –’10
‘10 – ‘14
2014
1991
2007
2014
Mega-Tonne Kilometres
90.2
7.8
-9.3
-2.7
6.9
5,138
18,707
9,772
Kilo-Tonnes Carried
40.4
8.8
-15.5
-2.8
3.4
80,137
299,307
112,499
Mega-Vehicle Kilometres
61.2
7.7
-8.8
-2.7
3.6
811
2,332
1,307
GDP (million € @2013 prices)
178.3
5.3
0.8
1.4
5.2
64,475
185,768
188,778
Source: CSO
It can be seen that all metrics increased significantly after the data set began in 1991, until 2007. Tonne-kilometres
increased by 264% (8.4% per annum) over the period 1991 – 2007, vehicle kilometres increased by 188% (6.8% per
annum) and total tonnes carried increased by 273% (8.6% per annum). Also included are data for GDP58 which
increased by 204% between 1991 and 2007. It should be noted that both tonne-kilometres and tonnes carried
increased significantly more than GDP in this period.
Between 2007 and 2009 GDP fell, but has since returned to growth and in 2014 was 1.6% above 2007 levels. In
that time period the overall tonnes carried fell sharply back to 1997 levels, a fall of 64% (15.5% per annum). Tonnekilometres fell by 48% (8.9% per annum) and vehicle kilometres travelled fell by 44% (7.9% per annum). Again it
should be noted that all three transport metrics contracted much more severely than GDP after the economic crisis
of 2008.
Figure 55 Absolute Change in Road Freight Activity by Main Type of Work Done 1990 – 2014
1990 – 2007
2007 – 2014
4,000
Change in Million tonne kilometres
4 Sectoral Indicators
It is important to understand why freight has been so responsive to economic drivers in the past so as to be able to
estimate how it will respond to potential future economic trends, particularly whether the dramatic rise in tonnekilometres transported and the corresponding increase in energy demand experienced in the period 1990 – 2007
is likely to be repeated should there be a return to significant economic growth. To do this it is useful to analyse
in more detail which sectors of the economy contributed to the changes in tonne-kilometres transported in the
period 1990 – 2014. The CSO provides data on HGV activity classed by main the type of work done. To highlight
which categories contributed most in absolute terms to both the increase in activity between 1990 and 2007 and
the contraction from 2007 to 2014, these data are shown in Figure 55.
3,000
2,000
1,000
0
-1,000
-2,000
-3,000
-4,000
Delivery of goods to road works or building sites
Other work
Delivery of materials and fuels to factories
Carriage of agri-products
Import and export
Delivery of goods to retail outlets
Delivery of goods to wholesalers
Source: CSO
The category ‘Delivery of goods to road works or building sites’ experienced the largest absolute increase (3,545
Mtkm) and the second largest percentage increase (521%) between 1990 and 2007 and subsequently experienced
both the largest absolute decrease (3,251 Mtkm) and the largest percentage decrease (77%) between 2007 and
2014. Of the total increase in freight transport activity from 1990 to 2007 (13,578 Mtkm) ‘Delivery of goods to road
58 Constant prices chain-linked to 2013.
65
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
works and building sites’ was responsible for 26%, the highest share, while of the total reduction in activity from
2007 to 2014 (8,934 Mtkm) it was responsible for 36%, again the largest share.
The next biggest contributor to both the rise and fall of transport activity was ‘Import and export’ which between
1990 and 2007 accounted for 3,104 Mtkm (23%) of the total increase, and between 2007 and 2014 accounted for
2,339 Mtkm (26%) of the total reduction.
4.2.8 Transport Sector Energy Efficiency
Two ODEX indicators examine efficiency for the transport sector as a whole in Figure 56. Note that air transport is
not included as per the EU Directive 2006/32/EC.
Figure 56 Transport ODEX 1995 – 2014
110
100
Index 1990 - 100
90
80
70
50
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Transport
Transport (Technical)
The transport observed ODEX fell by 6.5%59 (0.4% per annum) over the period 1995 – 2014 while the technical ODEX
decreased by 13% (0.8% per annum).
59 22% improvement in transport sector energy efficiency
4 Sectoral Indicators
60
66
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
4.3Residential
Residential final energy use grew by 12.4% (0.5% per annum) over the period 1990 – 2014 to a figure of 2,539 ktoe
in absolute terms. Corrected for weather the growth was 8.8%. During this time the number of households60 in the
State increased by 65% from approximately 1.0 million to 1.68 million61. Residential energy use fell by 8.1% in 2014
relative to 2013. 2014 was milder than 2013 in terms of degree days (12.5% less degree days62). When corrections for
weather effects63 are taken into account the decrease in energy use was 1.5% in 2014 relative to 2013 (see Table 27).
Figure 57 Residential Final Energy Use by Fuel
3.5
3
2.5
Mtoe
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
1990
1992
4 Sectoral Indicators
Coal
1994
Peat
1996
1998
Oil
2000
Natural Gas
2002
2004
2006
Renewables
2008
NR(W)
2010
2012
2014
Electricity
Figure 57 shows significant changes in the mix of fuels that have been consumed in the residential sector over the
period. This can largely be explained by the move away from the use of open fires and solid fuel fired back-boiler
heating systems that were popular in the 1970s and 1980s. New houses built in the 1990s predominantly had oil or
gas fired central heating, or in some cases electric storage heating, and there has also been a trend since the late
1980s to convert existing back-boiler systems to either oil or gas.
Central heating systems are generally more energy efficient than individual room heating appliances, so for a given
level of space heating less energy would be expected to be used. On the other hand, a considerable increase in the
level of comfort, in the form of higher temperatures and a move towards whole house heating, is often associated
with the introduction of central heating. The use of timer controls may be more convenient, particularly with oil and
gas fired systems, which may result in greater usage.
The revisions of building regulations also had an impact on residential final energy use. Revisions were introduced
in 1992, 2002, May 2006, July 2008 and December 2011, all of which had the effect of significantly improving the
insulation, heating system and overall energy performance requirements of the new housing stock.
The increase in electricity usage in households may in part be explained by an increase in the use of domestic
appliances: washing machines, driers, dishwashers, microwave ovens, computers, televisions, games consoles, etc.
As can be seen from Figure 57, oil is the dominant fuel in the residential sector, more than doubled its share from
17% in 1990 to 39% in 2010, but falling back to 34% in 2014. Electricity is the second most dominant energy form
in the sector at 26%. Natural gas is the third fuel of choice, at 21% share. The renewables share of final energy used
directly in households in 2014 was 2.6%.
The growth rates, quantities and shares are shown in Table 27.
60
61
62
63
Defined as the number of private households in permanent housing units.
Based on Central Statistics Office (2012), Census 2011 Profile 4 – The Roof over our Heads.
See Glossary for definition of ‘degree days’.
Annual variations in weather affect the space heating requirements of occupied buildings. Weather correction involves adjusting the energy used for
space heating by benchmarking the weather in a particular year with that of a long-term average measured in terms of number of degree days. It is
assumed that 65% of fuels and 10% of electricity use in households is used for space heating.
67
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
Table 27 Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of Final Consumption in Residential Sector
Fossil Fuels (Total)
Coal
Peat
Briquettes
Oil
Gas
Renewables
Combustible Fuels (Total)
Electricity
Total
Total Climate Corrected
Growth %
Average annual growth rates %
1990 – 2014 ‘90 – ‘14 ‘00 – ‘05 ‘05 – ‘10 ‘10 – ‘14
-2.5
-0.1
3.2
1.8
-7.6
-65.0
-4.3
-3.0
0.7
-3.7
-72.4
-5.2
-1.8
-1.5
-5.8
-53.4
-3.1
-5.5
-0.5
-4.8
120.1
3.3
4.6
2.0
-9.2
356.8
6.5
6.7
3.2
-6.8
45.0
1.6
5.6
19.0
4.6
-3.4
-0.1
3.2
1.9
-7.5
86.0
2.6
3.3
2.6
-2.6
12.4
0.5
3.3
2.2
-6.1
8.8
0.4
3.9
-0.8
-2.6
2014
-10.1
-19.8
-8.2
-19.9
-6.5
-11.6
1.2
-10.0
-3.1
-8.1
-1.5
Quantity (ktoe)
1990
2014
1,857
1,812
626
219
725
200
155
72
389
857
117
536
45
65
1,902
1,838
356
663
2,258
2,539
2,378
2,586
Shares %
1990 2014
82.2
71.4
27.7
8.6
32.1
7.9
6.9
2.8
17.2
33.8
5.2
21.1
2.0
2.6
84.2
72.4
15.8
26.1
The salient trends in energy use in the residential sector are as follows:
•• 2014 was milder than 2013, which saw energy use fall by 8.1%. Allowing for weather corrections the fall in energy
use was 1.5%. There was some anecdotal evidence from suppliers of a certain amount of stockpiling of coal by
householders ahead of the introduction of the carbon tax on solid fuels in May 2013. As these stocks were used
during 2014 part of the reduction in household energy use may be accounted for by this.
•• Direct renewables usage in households was the only energy source that increased in 2014, growing by 1.2% to 65
ktoe, and its share increased to 2.6% from 2.3% in 2013.
•• Oil usage increased by 120% over the period 1990 – 2014 to 857 ktoe and its share in the residential sector grew
from 17% to 34%. There was a 6.5% fall in oil consumption in households in 2014.
•• Electricity consumption fell by 3.1% in 2014 to 663 ktoe (7,709 GWh) and its share of residential final consumption
was 26%.
•• Coal usage increased by 13% in 2013 to 273 ktoe and its share increased by one percentage point to 9.9%. Some
of this increase is thought to be due to the extended cold spell during the first half of the year which continued
until May. During this time, oil and gas prices were high and there may have been some fuel switching to coal and
other solid fuels purchased on a week-to-week basis to supplement central heating systems. Also as mentioned
above, this increase may have been in part due to a certain amount of stockpiling by householders ahead of
the introduction of the carbon tax on solid fuels. There is anecdotal evidence of this from suppliers who report
higher than usual sales during the first half of 2013 combined with lower than usual sales in the second half of the
year and indeed into 2014. The almost 20% reduction in coal use in 2014 would appear confirm the stockpiling
assumption.
•• Peat usage fell by 8.2% in 2014 while peat briquette usage decreased by 19.9% Total peat consumption was 200
ktoe in 2014. The peat and briquette share in household energy was 10.7% in 2014.
•• Overall fossil fuel use in households fell by 10.1% to 1,812 ktoe in 2014 and accounted for 71% of household
energy use. This fall is in line with the 12% reduction in heating degree days – i.e. approximately 12% milder.
In 2014 residential sector energy-related CO2 emissions (including upstream electricity emissions) were 9,103 kt CO2,
representing 25% of the total energy-related CO2 emissions. The residential sector total was the second largest after
transport (37%). Excluding upstream electricity emissions, direct CO2 emissions from the household sector were
5,586 kt and were 10.3% lower in 2014 compared with 2013.
Over the period 1990 – 2014 energy-related CO2 emissions64 from the residential sector fell by 15.4% (0.7% on
average per annum) while those in transport and industry rose, respectively, by 120% (3.3% per annum) and 0.7%
(0.03% per annum), while services fell by 1.3% (0.1% per annum). If upstream emissions associated with electricity
use are excluded, the CO2 emissions from direct fossil fuel use in the residential sector fell by 20.1% compared with
1990, while over the same period the number of households increased by 66%.
The residential sector is examined in more detail with respect to energy-related CO2 emissions in Figure 58 and the
relatively constant or flat overall trend can be seen. While final energy use in the sector increased by 12.4% over
the period, its energy-related CO2 emissions fell by 15.4%, illustrating the effect of the changing fuel mix on energyrelated emissions.
64 Energy-related emissions detailed are not corrected for weather.
4 Sectoral Indicators
•• Natural gas usage fell by 11.6% in 2014 to 536 ktoe and accounted for 21% of residential energy use.
68
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Figure 58 Residential Energy-Related CO2 by Fuel
12
10
MtCO2
8
6
4
2
0
1990
1992
Coal
1994
Peat
1996
1998
Oil
2000
2002
Natural Gas
2004
2006
2008
Renewables
2010
NR(W)
2012
2014
Electricity
4 Sectoral Indicators
Table 28 Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in Residential Sector
Growth %
Average annual growth rates %
1990 – 2014 ‘90 – ‘14 ‘00 – ‘05 ‘05 – ‘10 ‘10 – ‘14
Coal
-64.5
-4.2
-2.9
0.6
-3.6
Peat
-72.6
-5.3
-1.7
-1.5
-5.8
Briquettes
-53.4
-3.1
-5.5
-0.5
-4.8
Oil
118.7
3.3
4.5
1.8
-9.3
Gas
374.2
6.7
6.7
3.3
-6.8
Renewables
Combustible Fuels (Total)
-20.8
-1.0
2.5
1.4
-7.4
Electricity
-5.3
-0.2
-0.6
-1.0
-6.1
Total
-15.4
-0.7
1.2
0.5
-6.9
2014
-19.7
-8.0
-19.9
-6.6
-11.6
-10.3
-5.1
-8.4
Quantity (kt CO2)
1990
2014
2,483
882
3,123
855
642
299
1,175
2,570
270
1,279
7,052
5,586
3,713
3,517
10,764 9,103
Shares %
1990 2014
23.1
9.7
29.0
9.4
6.0
3.3
10.9
28.2
2.5
14.1
0.0
0.0
65.5
61.4
34.5
38.6
4.3.1 Unit Consumption of the Residential Sector
The unit consumption of the residential sector is typically defined in terms of the energy consumed per dwelling.
Figure 59 shows the trend in unit consumption per dwelling, which decreased by 32% during the period 1990 – 2014.
While overall unit energy use per dwelling has decreased by 32% since 1990, Figure 59 also shows an increasing
trend in electricity consumption per dwelling. This has increased by 11.7% since 1990. The increasing penetration
of household electrical appliances such as washing machines, dishwashers, clothes driers, computers, multiple
televisions and set top boxes as well as convenience appliances is believed to have contributed to this increase. In
contrast, fossil fuel consumption per dwelling has decreased by 41% over the period.
In 2014 the average dwelling consumed a total of 17,927 kWh of energy based on climate corrected data, 2.2% below
the 2013 level. This comprised 13,318 kWh (74%) of direct fuels and (4,610 kWh) of electricity.
Figure 59 also shows overall unit energy use per dwelling, corrected for climate variations. Looking at this in
conjunction with Table 31, it can be seen that the decrease in climate corrected energy use per dwelling over the
period was 35% while the uncorrected energy use decrease was 32%. Most of the improvement in climate corrected
per unit use occurred during the early 1990s and again from 2006 onwards. There are a number of potential
influencing factors driving this significant reduction. These include:
•• Improvements to part L of the building regulations governing conservation of energy in dwellings;
69
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
•• various government schemes to support and incentivise the retrofit of existing dwellings with energy saving
measures such as wall and roof insulation, including the Better Energy Homes scheme, the Warmer Homes
scheme and the Home Energy Savings Scheme, Better Energy Communities:
•• The economic crisis resulting in behavioural changes in order to reduce energy costs and heating bills. Reduced
income together with rising energy costs is likely to have resulted in increased fuel poverty over the time period.
Figure 59 Unit Consumption of Energy per Dwelling (permanently occupied)
30,000
25,000
kWh/Dwelling per annum
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
0
1990
1992
Total
1994
1996
1998
2000
Total (climate corrected)
2002
2004
Electricity
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
Fossil Fuel Energy
One reason for the slowing trend in the late 1990s may be the trend towards larger houses as shown in Table 29 and
Figure 60. Larger houses have more surface area, consume more energy and have greater heat losses than smaller
ones in absolute terms. Table 29 shows that the fastest rate of growth in the floor area of new houses and flats
occurred in the 2005 – 2010 period.
Table 29 Growth Rates in Residential Floor Areas per New Dwelling65
New Houses
New Flats
Growth %
1990 – 2014
46.8
37.7
1990 – ‘14
1.6
1.3
1990 – ‘95
-0.1
0.3
Average annual growth rates %
1995 – ‘00 2000 – ‘05 2005 – ‘10
2.0
0.9
5.1
3.1
0.5
3.1
2010 – ‘14
-0.1
-0.7
2014
-1.9
-9.0
Average floor areas of new houses grew from 130 square metres in 1990 to 207 square metres in 2012 (an increase
of 59%). The average declined slightly in the early 1990s and then grew at a rate of 2% per annum in the latter half
of the decade. Average floor areas of new houses decreased by 7.7% between 2012 and 2014. Average floor areas
of new flats showed strong growth over the period 1990 – 2014, from 64 square metres to 89 square metres (38%).
The average floor area of flats decreased by 9% in 2014 relative to 2013.
The ratio of new houses to new flats built in 1990 was approximately 25 to 1 whereas in 2014 it was approximately
8 to 1.
The 2006 Census66 notes that in 1991, 6.5% of the housing stock consisted of apartments or flats whereas in 2011 the
share was 10%.
65 Note that the figures used in Table 29 and Figure 60 are for the average floor area of new houses that were granted planning permission. It is not known if
all those granted permission were actually built but the figures provide a plausible proxy for the trend in new house size.
66 CSO (2007), 2006 Census of Population – Volume 6 – Housing.
4 Sectoral Indicators
Source: Based on SEAI, CSO and Met Éireann data
70
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Figure 60 Floor Areas of New Houses and New Flats
Average Floor Area Granted Planning Permission (m2)
220
200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
Average Floor Area Per New House
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
Average Floor Area Per New Flat
Source: CSO
4 Sectoral Indicators
While the data above only refer to new dwellings it is also possible to estimate the trend in the stock67 as a whole
using the CSO dataset and a model of the stock of dwellings derived using, inter alia, data from DEHLG studies in the
mid-1990s68. Data from this model is updated incrementally, using planning permission data and estimates of the
number of permanently occupied dwellings. The results are presented in Figure 61. Table 30 summarises the growth
rates during the period. Over the period 1990 – 2014 the estimated average floor area of the stock of dwellings types
increased from 98 square metres in 1990 to 113 square metres in 2014.
Table 30 Growth in Average Floor Area – Housing Stock
Average Floor Area
Growth %
1990 – 2014
1990 – ‘14
1990 – ‘95
15.6
0.6
0.3
Average annual growth rates %
1995– ‘00 2000 – ‘05 2005 – ‘10
0.6
0.7
0.9
2010 – ‘14
2014
0.6
0.4
Average floor area has increased steadily over the period as larger dwellings are added to the stock. Growth of 0.4%
was recorded in 2014. The increasing trend in floor area has been offset somewhat by the growing number of flats.
However, overall the dominant driving force is the number and size of large one off or non-estate dwellings that
have been built in recent years. In 2014, the average floor area of non-estate houses granted permission was 245
square metres, compared to 143 square metres for houses in estates and 88 square metres for flats69.
In 2007, 52% of the number of units granted planning permission were estate dwellings, 22% non-estate and 26%
were apartments. In 2014 these ratios were 48%, 42% and 11% respectively. This explains why there was an increase
in the average floor area in 2014 as there were a big percentage of non-estate units which tend to be large in size.
The evidence suggests that there has been a trend towards larger dwellings (although estate house floor area
has remained stable since 2008). Taken in isolation, this should have had a significant impact on the amount of
energy demanded in the residential sector as bigger dwellings tend to have a larger demand for heating due to
their greater wall surface area and therefore higher heat loss. This has been offset somewhat by the increasing
insulation standards promoted through iterations of the building regulations. Other variables such as the changing
fuel mix, more efficient heating systems, falling occupancy levels and the declining average number of persons per
household have also had an impact.
67 This section draws on data first presented in a separate SEAI report entitled Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions in the Residential Sector 1990 to 2004.
The report is available at www.seai.ie. Methodology was revised for this publication.
68 Kevin O’Rourke (2005), Personal Communication.
69 CSO (2015), Planning Permissions – Quarter 2 2015. Available at www.cso.ie
71
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
Figure 61 Average Floor Area of the Housing Stock 1990 – 2014
Average Floor Area of Stock of Houses (m2)
120
115
110
105
100
95
90
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
Table 31 Growth Rates and Quantities of Residential Unit Energy Consumption and Unit CO2 Emissions
2014
-8.7
-10.3
-3.7
Quantity (kWh)
1990
2014
26,068
17,604
21,956
13,011
4,112
4,593
Quantity (kWh)
Total Energy Climate Corrected
Fuel Energy Climate Corrected
-34.7
-42.8
-1.8
-2.3
0.9
1.0
-3.3
-4.1
-3.6
-3.9
-2.2
-2.1
27,443
23,295
17,927
13,318
Electrical Energy Climate Corrected
11.1
0.4
0.5
-0.6
-2.8
-2.4
4,148
4,610
Unit Energy-Related CO2 Emissions
Quantity (t)
Total Energy CO2
-49.2
-2.8
-1.7
-2.1
-7.8
-9.0
10.7
5.4
Fuel CO2
-52.4
-3.0
-0.4
-1.1
-8.3
-10.9
7.0
3.3
Electricity CO2
-43.1
-2.3
-3.4
-3.6
-7.1
-5.7
3.7
2.1
Examining Table 31 and Figure 62 over the period 1990 – 2014, the emissions of energy-related CO2 per dwelling
fell by 49% while the reduction for unit energy use was 32%. The unit fuel CO2 emission levels fell by 52% over
the period as a result of consumers switching away from coal and peat to lower CO2 emitting fuels such as gas, oil
and renewables. However, the downward trend was reversed in 2008, 2010 and 2013 when the energy use per
household increased by 6.6%, 3.7% and 2.0% respectively. Total unit energy-related CO2 emissions in 2014 fell by
9%. Emissions from direct fuel use in households fell by 10.9% in 2014 as a result of reduced coal, peat, oil and gas
consumption.
Emissions associated with the use of electricity per dwelling fell by 43% over the period, despite the 12% increase
in electricity consumption per dwelling. This is as a result of the reduced carbon intensity of electricity generation.
This is particularly the case since 2002 when high efficiency Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) plants were brought
online and because of the growing contribution of renewables in electricity generation. The increasing use of
electrical appliances will, however, have offset some of the gains.
In 2014 the average dwelling was responsible for emitting 5.4 tonnes of energy-related CO2. A total of 3.3 tonnes CO2
(61%) came from direct fuel use in the home and the remainder indirectly from electricity use. Overall emissions per
dwelling have fallen by 49% since 1990 and 35% since 2005.
4 Sectoral Indicators
Growth %
Average annual growth rates %
Unit Energy Consumption
1990 – 2014 ‘90 – ‘14 ‘00 – ‘05 ‘05 – ‘10 ‘10 – ‘14
Total Energy
-32.5
-1.6
0.3
-0.5
-7.1
Fuel Energy
-40.7
-2.2
0.3
-0.6
-8.2
Electrical Energy
11.7
0.5
0.4
0.0
-3.5
Unit Energy Consumption Climate Corrected
72
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Figure 62 Unit Energy-Related CO2 Emissions per Dwelling
12
t CO2/Dwelling per annum
10
8
6
4
2
0
1990
1992
1994
1996
CO₂ Emissions per Dwelling (Total)
1998
2000
2002
2004
CO₂ Emissions per Dwelling (Fossil Fuels)
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
CO₂ Emissions per Dwelling (Electricity)
4 Sectoral Indicators
4.3.2 Residential Sector Energy Efficiency
Two ODEX indicators are shown in Figure 63 for the household sector. The observed energy efficiency index is
calculated based on actual energy consumption, whereas the technical energy efficiency index is calculated using
theoretical consumption figures based on building regulations. Both indices are corrected for climatic variations;
however, as a result of the methodology, there may be over-correction in mild years. This may be seen, for example,
in 1998. Both indices are calculated as a three-year moving average in order to avoid these short-term fluctuations
due to imperfect climate correction.
The observed ODEX decreased by 39% over the period (2.6% per annum), indicating an improvement in energy
efficiency. As the ODEX is a ‘top-down’ energy efficiency indicator it provides a measurement for gross energy
efficiency savings in the residential sector but cannot be linked directly to specific energy efficiency measures or
programmes. The technical ODEX decreased by 39% (2.5% per annum). It can be seen that the observed ODEX is
approaching the technical ODEX, indicating an overall energy efficiency improvement, but energy efficiency gains
can be negated by rebound effects. Rebound effects are where there is increased energy usage through higher
comfort levels, the move towards whole house heating, larger dwellings, use of power showers, etc.
73
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
Figure 63 Household ODEX 1995 – 2014
100
80
70
60
50
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Households Observed ODEX
Households Technical ODEX
4 Sectoral Indicators
Index 1995 = 100
90
74
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
4.4 Commercial and Public Services
Final energy use in the commercial and public services sector grew by 29% (1.1% per annum) over the period 1990
– 2014, to a figure of 1,251 ktoe. Growth was 24% if weather corrected energy use is considered. During this period
the value added generated by the sector grew by 170% while the numbers employed increased by 126%.
Figure 64 Commercial and Public Services Final Energy Use by Fuel
2
1.8
1.6
1.4
Mtoe
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
1990
1992
4 Sectoral Indicators
Coal
1994
Peat
1996
Oil
1998
2000
2002
Natural Gas
2004
2006
Renewables
2008
NR(W)
2010
2012
2014
Electricity
Figure 64 shows the changes in the fuel mix in the services sector over the period. One interesting feature is the
small range of fuels utilised in this sector – essentially oil, gas and electricity accounting for 96% of the energy
use. Oil and gas are used predominantly for space heating, but also for water heating, cooking and, in some subsectors, laundry. Gas consumption increased by 327% since 1990, to 401 ktoe although this was from a low base.
Electricity is used in buildings for heating, air conditioning, water heating, lighting, information and communication
technologies. Electricity in services is also used for public lighting and water and sanitation services.
Electricity consumption in services increased by 130% (3.5% per annum) between 1990 and 2014, to 554 ktoe
(6,442 GWh) and has a higher share at 44% than any other individual fuel in services, up from 25% in 1990. This
growth is fuelled by the changing structure of this sector and the general increase in the use of information and
communication technology (ICT) and air conditioning.
Growth rates, quantities and shares are shown in Table 32.
Table 32 Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of Final Consumption in the Commercial and Public Services Sector
Fossil Fuels (Total)
Coal
Oil
Natural Gas
Renewables
Combustible Fuels (Total)
Electricity
Total
Total Climate Corrected
Growth %
Average annual growth rates %
1990 – 2014 ‘90 – ‘14 ‘00 – ‘05 ‘05 – ‘10 ‘10 – ‘14
-10.8
-0.5
0.1
-0.1
-5.9
-58.4
-3.6
-0.9
-5.1
-10.6
326.9
6.2
0.4
8.1
-2.3
142.8
39.6
19.6
-6.2
-0.3
0.2
0.2
-5.2
130.4
3.5
8.7
-3.3
-2.6
28.6
1.1
3.6
-1.3
-4.0
24.1
0.9
4.2
-3.9
-0.7
2014
-8.1
-17.1
-1.4
14.1
-7.3
1.1
-3.6
3.0
Quantity (ktoe)
1990
2014
732
653
1
605
252
94
401
44
732
686
240
554
972
1,251
1,025
1,272
Shares %
1990 2014
75.3
52.2
0.1
0.0
62.3
20.1
9.7
32.1
3.5
75.3
54.9
24.7
44.3
The key trends are as follows:
•• Final energy use grew by 29% over the period 1990 – 2014 (1.1% per annum). The increase was 24% when
corrected for weather. Overall energy use in this sector fell by 3.6% in 2014, however, on a weather corrected
basis it increased by 3%.
75
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
•• Oil, gas and electricity make up 96% of the energy consumed in the services sector. The contributions from coal
and peat were small in the early 1990s and are now negligible.
•• Electricity became the dominant ‘fuel’ in this sector in 2005. Consumption of electricity increased by 130% over
the period 1990 – 2014 and its share went from 25% to 44%. Electricity consumption in services increased by
1.1% in 2014 to 554 ktoe.
•• Oil consumption fell by 17% in 2014 to 252 ktoe. The share of oil in the sector’s final consumption fell from almost
62% in 1990 to 20% in 2014.
•• Natural gas consumption decreased by 1.4% in 2014 to 401 ktoe. Its share grew from 9.7% in 1990 to 32% in 2014.
•• Overall fossil fuel use in services fell by 8.1% in 2014 to 653 ktoe.
•• Renewable energy use in services increased by 14% in 2014 to 44 ktoe. The share of renewables in services was
3.5% in 2014.
Figure 65 shows the primary energy-related CO2 emissions of the services sector, distinguishing between the on-site
CO2 emissions associated with direct fuel use and the upstream emissions associated with electricity consumption.
Emissions from non-electrical energy fell by 22% over the period and the emissions associated with electricity
consumption increased by 17%. In 2014 the non-electricity emissions decreased by 9.1% and the electricity
associated emissions in services fell by 1%. Overall energy-related CO2 emissions in this sector fell by 4.1% in 2014
to 4.7 Mt CO2.
In the services sector, the share of emissions associated with electricity demand in 2014 was 63%. In 1990 the split
between electricity and thermal fuels (oil and gas) emssions was closer to half and half (53% electricity and 47%
fuels).
Figure 65 Commercial and Public Services Sector CO2 Emissions by Fuel
9
8
7
4 Sectoral Indicators
6
MtCO2
5
4
3
2
1
0
1990
1992
Coal
1994
1996
Peat
1998
Oil
2000
2002
Natural Gas
2004
2006
Renewables
2008
2010
NR(W)
2012
2014
Electricity
Table 33 Growth Rates, Quantities and Shares of CO2 Emissions in Commercial and Public Services
Combustible Fuels
Electricity
Total
Growth %
Average annual growth rates %
1990 – 2014 ‘90 – ‘14 ‘00 – ‘05 ‘05 – ‘10 ‘10 – ‘14
-22.3
-1.0
0.3
-1.1
-6.5
17.3
0.7
4.5
-6.7
-6.2
-1.3
-0.1
3.1
-4.8
-6.3
2014
-9.1
-1.0
-4.1
Quantity (kt)
1990
2014
2,225
1,729
2,505
2,940
4,730
4,669
Shares %
1990
2014
47.0
37.0
53.0
63.0
4.4.1 Energy Intensity of the Commercial and Public Services Sector
The energy intensity of the services sector is generally measured with respect to the value added generated by
services activities. As shown in Figure 66, this intensity is much flatter than that of industry, although has been
showing a declining trend since 1994. The overall energy intensity of the services sector was 52% lower in 2014
76
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
than it was in 1990, principally because of the rapid growth in the value added in the sector. There was a general
downward trend in services energy intensity since the early 1990s with exceptions in some years mostly due to
colder weather in those years. Energy intensity in services fell by 7.7% in 2014.
Electricity intensity increased by 59% up to 2003 and has been falling since then, with the exception of 2008. In
2014 electricity intensity decreased by 3.2% compared with 2013, was 43% below the peak in 2003 and 15% below
the 1990 level.
Figure 66 Energy Intensity of Commercial and Public Services Sector
0.3
0.25
Intensity kWh/€2011
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2002
2004
2006
Fuel Intensity
2008
2010
2012
2014
Electricity Intensity
Two other measures in this sector are energy use per unit of floor area and per employee. The consumption of oil
and gas is mainly for heating purposes and is related to the floor area heated, not directly related to the number of
people occupying a building at a given time. Due to an absence of data on floor area in the services sector it is not
currently possible to calculate the consumption per unit of floor area.
Figure 67 Unit Consumption of Energy and Electricity per Employee in the Commercial and Public Services Sector
20,000
18,000
16,000
14,000
kWh/employee
4 Sectoral Indicators
Total Intensity
2000
12,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000
0
1990
1992
Total kWh/emp
1994
1996
1998
2000
Total (climate corrected)
2002
2004
2006
Fuel kWh/emp
2008
2010
2012
Electricity kWh/emp
2014
77
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
Unit consumption of electricity per employee is used as an indicator of energy use in the services sector because,
in the main, there is a correlation between electricity use and the number of employees. In Figure 67 it can be seen
that unit consumption of electricity rose steadily after 1990. By 2003 it was 58% higher than in 1990 but by 2014 it
had fallen back to 1.9% above 1990 levels. Electricity use per employee decreased by 0.5% in 2014.
Fuel consumption per employee fell in 2014, by 8.5%, and stood at 58% below 1990 levels. If corrections are made
for the effects of weather then the fuel consumption per employee increased by 0.6% in 2014 when compared with
2013.
Table 34 Growth Rates and Quantities of Unit Consumption per Employee in Commercial and Public Services
Total kWh/employee
Fuel kWh/employee
Electricity kWh/employee
Climate Corrected (cc)
Total kWh/employee (cc)
Fuel kWh/employee (cc)
Electricity kWh/employee (cc)
Growth %
Average annual growth rates %
1990 – 2014 1990 – ‘14 ‘00 – ‘05 ‘05 – ‘10 ‘10 – ‘14
-43.1
-2.3
-0.5
-2.8
-4.5
-57.9
-3.5
-3.8
-1.2
-5.5
1.9
0.1
4.3
-4.8
-3.2
-45.1
-59.5
0.8
-2.5
-3.7
0.0
0.1
-3.0
4.6
-5.4
-5.0
-5.9
2014
-5.1
-8.5
-0.5
-1.2
-0.8
-1.7
1.3
0.6
2.3
Quantity (kWh)
1990
2014
17,582
10,005
13,235
5,575
4,347
4,430
18,533
14,108
4,425
10,178
5,717
4,461
As a result of the heterogeneous nature of the services sector it is difficult to assess the amount of energy that
is consumed. Energy statistics relating to fuel consumption for the services sector in Ireland are calculated as a
residual. This approach is unsatisfactory, not least because the energy use in the sector is affected by uncertainties
in all other sectors. As a result, there is only limited information available to policymakers with which to formulate
and target energy efficiency policies and measures for the sector.
4.4.2 Public Sector Developments
The public sector consists of approximately 4,400 separate public bodies, of which about 4,000 are individual
schools. The other 400 comprise, inter alia, government departments, non-commercial state bodies, state-owned
companies and local authorities. Each ‘public body’ is a stand-alone organisation and can range in size from very
small (e.g. a small rural school or a five-person agency) to very large (the HSE, An Garda Síochána). The vast majority
of energy is consumed by the ~100 or so largest organisations.
Public services70 energy consumption comprises two main classes of energy consumer:
•• Public sector buildings (offices, hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, schools, prisons, barracks, Garda stations, etc.),
which primarily consume electricity, natural gas and oil-based fuels in addition to smaller amounts of renewable
and solid fuels.
•• Public sector utilities, which primarily consume electricity, e.g. waste water treatment plants, water treatment
facilities, pumping stations, street lighting (~400,000 units).
The Third National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP) and the European Union (Energy Efficiency) Regulations (SI
426 of 2014) set out several obligations on public bodies with respect to their ‘exemplary role’ for energy efficiency.
The NEEAP sets a 33% efficiency target for the sector by 2020, equivalent to 279 ktoe.
Since 1st January 2011, public sector bodies have been required to report to Government annually on their energy
usage and the actions they have taken to reduce consumption. The SEAI and the Department of Communications
Energy and Natural Resources (DCENR) have recently developed an energy monitoring and reporting system71 to
satisfy the reporting requirements of both SI 426 of 2014 and the NEEAP. Since 2013, all public sector organisations
have been obliged to use this system to report their annual energy consumption to SEAI. The system includes
a national public sector energy database, which includes all public sector electricity and natural gas meter
numbers. Over time, the monitoring and reporting system will build a comprehensive bottom-up picture of energy
consumption in the sector through the population of the national public sector energy database.
70 In addition, the energy consumed by public bodies also includes some consumption counted in the transport sector in the National Energy Balance, e.g.
public transport fleets (rail, bus, etc.) as well as other transport fleets operated by public bodies; e.g. ambulances, local authority vehicles, Garda fleet,
Defence Forces’ vehicles, etc.
71 Additional information on this system is available from www.seai.ie/Your_Business/Public_Sector/Reporting/
4 Sectoral Indicators
The increasing number of energy suppliers in the liberalised market makes this task all the more difficult. Thus, the
current data does not allow for ODEX indicators to be formulated. Work is ongoing, however, within the ODYSSEE
project to address this situation and new data will become available in the near future from a joint CSO/SEAI survey
on Business Energy Use should enable deeper analysis of the service sector energy use.
78
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
4 Sectoral Indicators
In 2014 SEAI published the Annual Report 2014 on Public Sector Energy Efficiency Performance72. It noted that 238 public
sector bodies completed reports on energy and these represented 85% of total public sector energy consumption.
The total energy consumption in 2013 of these bodies was 8,495 GWh (primary energy), which consisted of 4,595
GWh of electricity, 1,976 GWh of thermal energy and 1,923 GWh of transport energy. The report also noted that
these bodies had achieved annual primary energy savings of 1,343 GWH or a 14% improvement on business as
usual, yielding a cost saving of €74 million. The public sector has a target of 33% energy efficiency improvement
by 2020.
72Available from http://www.seai.ie/Publications/Your_Business_Publications/Public_Sector/Annual-Report-2014-on-Public-Sector-Energy-EfficiencyPerformance-.pdf
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
79
5 Energy Statistics Revisions and Corrections
Some changes, revisions and corrections to the historic energy balance data were implemented during 2015. The
most significant of these were:
•• Natural gas production and stock changes have been revised to reflect a more accurate source of this data;
•• Natural gas use in LGVs is included from 2014;
•• Tallow use in biomass has been revised from 2011 as this had previously been over estimated;
•• Solar PV is now included from 2009;
•• Own use and distribution losses have been updated to reflect calorific values sourced from audited ETS data;
•• Road freight has been revised and now uses the latest koe/tkm as per the EU-27 based on ODYSSEE data;
•• Estimates of private car use have been updated from 2005 based on updated and improved methodology;
•• Fuel tourism has been revised to reflect the latest data from the Department of the Environment, Community
and Local Government;
•• Fisheries is now estimated and included from 1990 to 2002.
Energy balance data analysed in this report were frozen on 12th October 2015. Balance data are updated whenever
more accurate information is known. To obtain the most up-to-date balance figures, visit the statistics publications
section of the SEAI website (www.seai.ie/Energy-Data-Portal/Energy%20Data%20Publications/). A new Data Portal
on this website links to interactive energy statistics, forecasts and other data developed by SEAI.
5 Revisions & Corrections
An energy data service is also available at http://www.cso.ie/px/pxeirestat/pssn/sei/Database/SEI/Energy%20
Balance%20Statistics/Energy%20Balance%20Statistics.asp. This service is hosted by the Central Statistics Office
with data provided by SEAI.
80
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Glossary of Terms
Carbon Dioxide (CO2): A compound of carbon and oxygen formed when carbon is burned. Carbon dioxide is one
of the main greenhouse gases. Units used in this report are t CO2 – tonnes of CO2, kt CO2 – kilo-tonnes of CO2 (103
tonnes) and Mt CO2 – mega-tonnes of CO2 (106 tonnes).
Carbon Intensity (kg CO­2/kWh): This is the amount of carbon dioxide that will be released per kWh of energy of a
given fuel. For most fossil fuels the value of this is almost constant, but in the case of electricity it will depend on the
fuel mix used to generate the electricity and also on the efficiency of the technology employed. Renewable sources
of electricity generation, such as hydro and wind, have zero carbon intensity.
Weather Correction: Annual variations in weather affect the space heating requirements of occupied buildings.
Weather correction involves adjusting the energy used for space heating by benchmarking the climate in a particular
year with that of a long-term average measured in terms of number of degree days.
Combined Heat and Power Plants: Combined heat and power (CHP) refers to plants which are designed to
produce both heat and electricity. CHP plants may be autoproducer (generating for own use only) or third-party
owned selling electricity and heat on site as well as exporting electricity to the grid.
Energy Intensity: The amount of energy used per unit of activity. Examples of activity used in this report are gross
domestic product (GDP), value added, number of households, employees, etc. Where possible, the monetary values
used are in constant prices.
Gross and Net Calorific Value (GCV and NCV): The gross calorific value (GCV) gives the maximum theoretical heat
release during combustion, including the heat of condensation of the water vapour produced during combustion.
This water is produced by the combustion of the hydrogen in the fuel with oxygen to give H2O (water). The net
calorific value (NCV) excludes this heat of condensation because it cannot be recovered in conventional boilers. For
natural gas, the difference between GCV and NCV is about 10%, for oil it is approximately 5%.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP): The gross domestic product (GDP) represents the total output of the economy
over a period.
Gross Final Consumption (GFC): Directive 2008/28/EC defines Gross Final Consumption (GFC) of energy as
the energy commodities delivered for energy purposes to industry, transport, households, services, agriculture,
forestry and fisheries, including the consumption of electricity and heat by the energy branch for electricity and
heat production, and including losses of electricity and heat in distribution.
Gross Electrical Consumption: Gross electricity production is measured at the terminals of all alternator sets in a
station; it therefore includes the energy taken by station auxiliaries and losses in transformers that are considered
integral parts of the station. The difference between gross and net production is the amount of own use of electricity
in the generation plants.
Glossary
Heating Degree Days: ‘Degree Days’ is the measure or index used to take account of the severity of the weather
when looking at energy use in terms of heating (or cooling) ‘load’ on a building. A degree day is an expression of
how cold (or warm) it is outside, relative to a day on which little or no heating (or cooling) would be required. It is
thus a measure of cumulative temperature deficit (or surplus) of the outdoor temperature relative to a neutral target
temperature (base temperature) at which no heating or cooling would be required.
Nominal and Real Values: Nominal value refers to the current value expressed in money terms in a given year,
whereas real value adjusts nominal value to remove effects of price changes and inflation to give the constant value
over time indexed to a reference year.
Structural Effect: As it affects energy intensity, structural change is a change in the shares of activity accounted
for by the energy consuming sub-sectors within a sector. For instance, in industry the structural effect caused by
the change in emphasis of individual sub-sectors such as pharmaceuticals, electronics, textiles, steel, etc in their
contribution to gross domestic product.
Total Final Consumption (TFC): This is the energy used by the final consuming sectors of industry, transport,
residential, agriculture and services. It excludes the energy sector: electricity generation, oil refining, etc.
Total Primary Energy Requirement (TPER): This is the total requirement for all uses of energy, including energy
used to transform one energy form to another (e.g. burning fossil fuel to generate electricity) and energy used by
the final consumer.
Value Added: Value added is an economic measure of output. The value added of industry, for instance, is the
additional value created by the production process through the application of labour and capital. It is defined as
the value of industry’s output of goods and services less the value of the intermediate consumptions of goods (raw
materials, fuel, etc.) and services.
81
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
Energy Conversion Factors
To:
From:
toe
MWh
GJ
toe
MWh
GJ
1
0.086
0.02388
11.63
1
0.2778
41.868
3.6
1
Multiply by
Energy Units
joule (J): Joule is the international (S.I.) unit of energy.
kilowatt hour (kWh): The conventional unit of energy that electricity is measured by and charged for commercially.
tonne of oil equivalent (toe): This is a conventional standardised unit of energy and is defined on the basis of a
tonne of oil having a net calorific value of 41686 kJ/kg. A related unit is the kilogram of oil equivalent (kgoe), where
1 kgoe = 10-3 toe.
Decimal Prefixes
101
102
103
106
109
1012
1015
1018
deci (d)
centi (c)
milli (m)
micro (µ)
nano (n)
pico (p)
femto (f )
atto (a)
10-1
10-2
10-3
10-6
10-9
10-12
10-15
10-18
Conversion Factors
deca (da)
hecto (h)
kilo (k)
mega (M)
giga (G)
tera (T)
peta (P)
exa (E)
82
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Calorific Values
Fuel
Crude Oil
Gasoline (petrol)
Kerosene
Jet Kerosene
Gasoil / Diesel
Residual Fuel Oil (heavy oil)
Milled Peat
Sod Peat
Peat Briquettes
Coal
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
Petroleum Coke
Net Calorific Value toe/t
1.0226
1.0650
1.0556
1.0533
1.0344
0.9849
0.1860
0.3130
0.4430
0.6650
1.1263
0.7663
Net Calorific Value MJ/t
42,814
44,589
44,196
44,100
43,308
41,236
7,787
13,105
18,548
27,842
47,156
32,084
Conversion Factor
86 toe/GWh
Conversion Factor
3.6 TJ/GWh
Electricity
Emission Factors
t CO2/TJ
(NCV)
g CO2/kWh
(NCV)
Motor Spirit (Gasoline)
70.0
251.9
Jet Kerosene
71.4
257.0
Other Kerosene
71.4
257.0
Gas/Diesel Oil
73.3
263.9
Residual Oil
76.0
273.6
LPG
63.7
229.3
Naphta
73.3
264.0
Petroleum Coke
92.9
334.5
Liquid Fuels
Solid Fuels and Derivatives
Coal
94.6
340. 6
Milled Peat
116.7
420.0
Sod Peat
104.0
374.4
Peat Briquettes
98.9
355.9
56.9
204.7
126.8
456.6
Gas
Conversion Factors
Natural Gas
Electricity
(2014)
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
83
Sources
Applus+ (National Car Test)
Central Statistics Office
Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources
Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government
Department of Transport
EirGrid
Environmental Protection Agency
ESB Networks
European Commission DG TREN
EU-funded ODYSSEE Project
Eurostat
International Energy Agency
Met Éireann
Revenue Commissioners
Sources
Vehicle Registration Unit
84
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
References
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Bosseboeuf D. et al (2005), Energy Efficiency Monitoring in the EU-15, Paris: ADEME. Available from: www.ODYSSEEindicators.org
Bosseboeuf D., Lapillonne Dr B., Eichhammer W. and Landwehr M. (1999), Energy Efficiency Indicators – The European
Experience, Paris: ADEME.
Bosseboeuf D., Lapillonne Dr B., Desbrosses N., (2007), Top Down Evaluative Methods for Monitoring Energy Savings, La
Colle-sur-Loup: EMEEES European Expert Group Meeting.
Central Statistics Office (2007), Census 2006 Volume 6 – Housing, http://www.cso.ie/en/census/census2006reports/
census2006volume6-housing/
Central Statistics Office (2012), Census 2011 Profile 4 The Roof over our Heads - Housing in Ireland, http://www.cso.ie/en/
census/census2011reports/census2011preliminaryreport/
Central Statistics Office (2015), Planning Permissions Quarter 2 2015, http://www.cso.ie/en/releasesandpublications/
er/pp/planningpermissionsquarter22015/
Central Statistics Office (2015), National Income and Expenditure – Annual Results for 2014, http://www.cso.ie/en/
releasesandpublications/er/nie/nationalincomeandexpenditureannualresults2014/
Commission for Energy Regulation (Nov. 2013), Generation System Performance Report: Quarter 4, 2013, http://www.
cer.ie/GetAttachment.aspx?id=e97cb148-0276-4d82-85d6-be505429599e
Commission of the European Communities (1997), A Community Strategy to Promote Combined Heat and Power and
to Dismantle Barriers to its Development, http://europa.eu.int/comm/energy/demand/legislation/heat_power_
en.htm
Commission of the European Communities (1997), COM(97)599 Energy for the Future: Renewable Sources of Energy –
White Paper for a Community Strategy and Action Plan, http://europa.eu/documents/comm/white_papers/pdf/
com97_599_en.pdf
Commission of the European Communities (1998), COM(98)353 Climate Change – Towards an EU Post-Kyoto Strategy,
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:51998DC0353&from=EN
Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources and Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (2006),
Bioenergy in Ireland, http://www.seai.ie/
Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources (2007), Energy White Paper 2007 – Delivering a
Sustainable Energy Future for Ireland, http://www.dcmnr.gov.ie/NR/rdonlyres/54C78A1E-4E96-4E28-A77A3226220DF2FC/27356/EnergyWhitePaper12March2007.pdf
Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources (2011), Biofuel Obligation Scheme. http://www.dcenr.
gov.ie/Energy/Sustainable+and+Renewable+Energy+Division/Biofuels/
Di Cosmo V. and Malaguzzi Valeri L. (October 2014), ESRI Working Paper No. 493 – The Effect of Wind on Electricity CO2
Emissions: The Case of Ireland, Dublin: ESRI.
Duffy P., Hanley E., Hyde B., O’Brien P., Ponzi J., Cotter E., and Black K., (2014), Ireland National Inventory Report 2014,
http://coe.epa.ie/ghg/nirdownloads.php
EirGrid (2011), All Island Generation Capacity Statement 2014 – 2023, http://www.eirgridgroup.com/site-files/library/
EirGrid/Generation%20Capacity%20Statement%202014.pdf
European Environment Agency (2014), Monitoring CO2 emissions from passenger cars and vans in 2013, http://www.
eea.europa.eu//publications/monitoring-co2-emissions-from-passenger
References
European Union (2003), Directive 2003/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of
the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?u
ri=OJ:L:2003:123:0042:0046:EN:PDF
European Union (2003), Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a scheme
for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community and amending Council Directive 96/61/
EC, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32003L0087&from=EN
ENERGY IN IRELAND 1990 – 2014 (2015 REPORT)
85
European Union (2004), Directive 2004/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of
cogeneration based on useful heat demand in the internal energy market and amending Directive 92/42/EEC,
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/2004/l_052/l_05220040221en00500060.pdf
European Union (2006), Directive 2006/32/EC energy end-use efficiency and energy services, http://eur-lex.europa.
eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:114:0064:0064:EN:PDF
European Union (2007), Decision 2007/394/EC methodology to be applied for the collection of gas and electricity
prices charged to industrial end-users, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2007:148:0
011:0016:EN:PDF
European Union (2009), Decision No 406/2009/EC on the effort of Member States to reduce their greenhouse gas
emissions to meet the Community’s greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments up to 2020, http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2009:140:0016:0062:EN:PDF
European Union (2009), Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, http://
eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2009:140:0016:0062:EN:PDF
Eurostat (2015), Energy, transport and environment indicators – 2014 Edition, http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/
products-pocketbooks/-/KS-DK-14-001
International Energy Agency (2015), Energy Balances of OECD Countries 2015 Edition, Paris: IEA.
ICF Consulting and Byrne Ó Cléirigh (2004), Determining the share of national greenhouse gas emissions for emissions
trading in Ireland, Dublin: Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government http://www.environ.ie/
en/Environment/Atmosphere/PublicationsDocuments/FileDownLoad,1290,en.pdf
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nora.ie/regulationslegislation/biofuels-obligation-scheme.152.html
OECD / IEA / Eurostat (2005 edition), Energy Statistics Manual, Paris: OECD/International Energy Agency.
O’Rourke, Kevin (2005), Model of the Housing Stock. Personal Communication with Energy Policy Statistical Support
Unit.
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seai.ie/statistics
Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (2007), Energy in Industry – 2007 Report, http://www.seai.ie/statistics
Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (2009), Energy Efficiency in Ireland – 2009 Report, www.seai.ie/statistics
Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (2011), Energy Forecasts for Ireland for 2020 – 2011 Report, http://www.seai.ie/
Publications/Statistics_Publications/Energy_Forecasts_for_Ireland/Energy_Forecasts_for_Ireland_for_2020_2011_Report.pdf
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Publications/Statistics_Publications/Energy_Security_in_Ireland/
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seai.ie/Publications/Statistics_Publications/CHP-in-Ireland/
Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (2014), Energy in Transport – 2014 Report, http://www.seai.ie/statistics
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seai.ie/Publications/Statistics_Publications/Renewable_Energy_in_Ireland/Renewable-Energy-in-Ireland2013-Update.pdf
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– December) 2014, http://www.seai.ie/Publications/Statistics_Publications/Electricity_and_Gas_Prices/PriceDirective-2nd-Semester-2014.pdf
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References
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Bulletin of Vehicle and Driver Statistics.
86
ENERGY POLICY STATISTICAL SUPPORT UNIT
Energy Balance 2014
Balance
kilo tonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe)
Indigenous Production
Imports
Exports
Mar. Bunkers
Stock Change
Primary Energy Supply (incl. non-energy)
Primary Energy Requirement (excl. non-energy)
Transformation Input
Public Thermal Power Plants
Combined Heat and Power Plants
Pumped Storage Consumption
Briquetting Plants
Oil Refineries and other energy sector
Transformation Output
Public Thermal Power Plants
Combined Heat and Power Plants – Electricity
Combined Heat and Power Plants – Heat
Pumped Storage Generation
Briquetting Plants
Oil Refineries
Exchanges and Transfers
Electricity
Heat
Other
Own Use and Distribution Losses
Available Final Energy Consumption
Non-Energy Consumption
Final non-Energy Consumption
Total Final Energy Consumption
Industry
Non-energy mining
Food, beverages and tobacco
Textiles and textile products
Wood and wood products
Pulp, paper, publishing and printing
Chemicals and man-made fibres
Rubber and plastic products
Other non-metallic mineral products
Basic metals and fabricated metal products
Machinery and equipment n.e.c.
Electrical and optical equipment
Transport equipment manufacture
Other manufacturing
Transport
Road Freight
Light Goods Vehicles (LGV)
Road Private Car
Public Passenger Services
Rail
Domestic Aviation
International Aviation
Fuel Tourism
Navigation
Unspecified
Residential
Commercial/Public Services
Commercial Services
Public Services
Agricultural
Fisheries
Statistical Difference
Coal
1,226
10
46
1,262
1,262
942
942
17
17
338
326
107
21
86
219
12
Peat
971
2
-201
768
768
668
542
8
119
92
92
13
179
201
1
1
200
-22
Oil
0
7,912
1,406
134
80
6,453
6,249
2,874
55
5
2,814
2,871
2,871
-19
-19
71
6,359
203
203
6,165
471
30
117
2
2
3
24
9
159
45
5
38
4
34
4,402
598
293
2,060
148
35
4
745
310
72
137
857
252
162
90
158
24
-8
Natural Gas
123
3,590
0
8
3,721
3,721
2,017
1,714
258
45
0
0
64
1,640
0
0
1,632
695
11
94
1
2
3
58
4
15
383
5
111
2
6
0
0
536
401
176
225
0
8
Renewables Non-Renew/Waste Electricity
891
63
133
245
0
61
0
-3
1,021
63
185
1,021
63
185
128
25
58
120
25
8
43
15
46
6
1,760
42
6
1,558
4
178
24
-503
503
-503
503
0
0
262
390
38
2,128
0
0
0
396
38
2,076
171
38
808
0
58
35
172
0
10
108
35
0
19
0
147
0
35
28
38
51
0
64
0
21
0
100
0
17
0
78
116
3
22
11
62
5
0
3
0
0
11
0
5
65
663
44
554
39
397
5
157
0
48
0
-5
52
Total
2,048
13,106
1,478
134
-69
13,473
13,270
6,712
3,397
280
43
119
2,874
4,775
1,558
178
0
24
92
2,871
-2
0
0
-2
410
11,072
203
203
10,833
2,292
99
440
14
147
24
230
48
378
492
30
248
23
118
4,522
621
303
2,122
153
38
4
745
321
72
142
2,539
1,251
773
478
206
24
36
Note: This is the short version of the energy balance. A more detailed expanded balance showing detailed sub-fuel
data is available on the SEAI website at http://www.seai.ie/statistics
Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland
Energy Policy Statistical Support Unit
Building 2100
Cork Airport Business Park
Co. Cork
Ireland
t +353 1 808 2100
f +353 21 240 7987
[email protected]
wwww.seai.ie
Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland
Wilton Park House
Wilton Place
Dublin 2
Ireland
t +353 1 808 2100
f +353 1 808 2002
einfo[email protected]
wwww.seai.ie
@seai_ie
The Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland is partly financed by Ireland’s EU Structural Funds Programme
co-funded by the Irish Government and the European Union
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