Turbo Software Reference Manual

Turbo Software Reference Manual
^1 SOFTWARE REFERENCE MANUAL
^2 Turbo PMAC/PMAC2
^3 Software Reference for Turbo Family
^4 3Ax-01.937-xSxx
^5 December 19, 2012
Single Source Machine Control
Power // Flexibility // Ease of Use
21314 Lassen Street Chatsworth, CA 91311 // Tel. (818) 998-2095 Fax. (818) 998-7807 // www.deltatau.com
Copyright Information
© 2010 Delta Tau Data Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
This document is furnished for the customers of Delta Tau Data Systems, Inc. Other uses are
unauthorized without written permission of Delta Tau Data Systems, Inc. Information contained
in this manual may be updated from time-to-time due to product improvements, etc., and may not
conform in every respect to former issues.
To report errors or inconsistencies, call or email:
Delta Tau Data Systems, Inc. Technical Support
Phone: (818) 717-5656
Fax: (818) 998-7807
Email: [email protected]
Website: http://www.deltatau.com
Operating Conditions
All Delta Tau Data Systems, Inc. motion controller products, accessories, and amplifiers contain
static sensitive components that can be damaged by incorrect handling. When installing or
handling Delta Tau Data Systems, Inc. products, avoid contact with highly insulated materials.
Only qualified personnel should be allowed to handle this equipment.
In the case of industrial applications, we expect our products to be protected from hazardous or
conductive materials and/or environments that could cause harm to the controller by damaging
components or causing electrical shorts. When our products are used in an industrial
environment, install them into an industrial electrical cabinet or industrial PC to protect them
from excessive or corrosive moisture, abnormal ambient temperatures, and conductive materials.
If Delta Tau Data Systems, Inc. products are exposed to hazardous or conductive materials and/or
environments, we cannot guarantee their operation.
REVISION HISTORY
REV.
DESCRIPTION
DATE
CHG
APPVD
1
REVISION TO Ixx97 ERROR DESCRIPTION
08/29/06
CP
P. SHANTZ
2
REVISION TO IXX83 VARIABLES, P. 188
10/10/06
CP
S. SATTARI
CP
S. SATTARI
3
REV. IXX25 & IXX42 PMAC2 VARIABLES, P. 149 & 159
04/25/07
4
LOOKAHEAD WARNING TO ISX21(P.220) & \ (P.308)
05/30/07
5
REV. TO IXX02 PULSE FREQ. SETTINGS, P. 127
10/19/07
CP
C. WILSON
6
REV. TO IXX24 BIT 16 SETTINGS, P. 145
12/04/07
CP
C. WILSON M.
ESPOSITO
7
CORRECTION TO ISX99 DEFAULT SETTING, P. 227
01/04/08
CP
M. ESPOSITO
8
CORRECTED COORDINATE SYSTEM STATUS BITS FOR
“CONTINUOUS MOTION REQUEST”
M-VARIABLE DEFS., PP. 619-627, 685-692, 751-758
11/25/08
CP
R.NADDAF
9
INCORPORATED V1.941-45 FIRMWARE UPDATES
12/08/09
CP
C. WILSON
CP
B. PEDERSEN
10
CORRECTED ERRORS P. 97 AND P. 592
01/05/10
CP
S. MILICI
11
INCORPORATED V1.946-47 FIRMWARE UPDATES
ADDED TO I43 DESCRIPTION
FIXED TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
12/19/12
CW
C. WILSON
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................ 1
What is Turbo PMAC? ....................................................................................................................................... 1
What is New about Turbo PMAC? ..................................................................................................................... 1
How do I Convert a PMAC Application? ............................................................................................................ 2
How do I use this Manual? ................................................................................................................................. 2
TURBO PMAC VARIABLE AND COMMAND SUMMARY ........................................................................... 3
Notes ................................................................................................................................................................. 3
Definitions ......................................................................................................................................................... 3
On-Line Commands ........................................................................................................................................... 4
On-line Global Commands ............................................................................................................................. 4
On-line Coordinate System Commands ........................................................................................................... 7
On-line Motor Commands .............................................................................................................................. 9
Motion Program Commands............................................................................................................................. 10
PLC Program Commands ................................................................................................................................. 13
TURBO PMAC GLOBAL I-VARIABLES........................................................................................................ 15
General Global Setup I-Variables ..................................................................................................................... 15
I0 Serial Card Number ......................................................................................................................... 15
I1 Serial Port Mode.............................................................................................................................. 16
I2 Control Panel Port Activation .......................................................................................................... 16
I3 I/O Handshake Control .................................................................................................................... 17
I4 Communications Integrity Mode ...................................................................................................... 18
I5 PLC Program Control ...................................................................................................................... 19
I6 Error Reporting Mode...................................................................................................................... 19
I7 Phase Cycle Extension ..................................................................................................................... 20
I8 Real-Time Interrupt Period .............................................................................................................. 21
I9 Full/Abbreviated Listing Control ..................................................................................................... 22
I10
Servo Interrupt Time ................................................................................................................... 22
I11
Programmed Move Calculation Time........................................................................................... 23
I12
Lookahead Time Spline Enable ................................................................................................... 24
I13
Foreground In-Position Check Enable .......................................................................................... 24
I14
Temporary Buffer Save Enable .................................................................................................... 25
I15
Degree/Radian Control for User Trig Functions ........................................................................... 25
I16
Rotary Buffer Request On Point .................................................................................................. 25
I17
Rotary Buffer Request Off Point .................................................................................................. 26
I18
Fixed Buffer Full Warning Point.................................................................................................. 26
I19
Clock Source I-Variable Number (Turbo PMAC2 only) .............................................................. 26
I20
MACRO IC 0 Base Address (Turbo PMAC2 only) ...................................................................... 28
I21
MACRO IC 1 Base Address (Turbo PMAC2 only) ...................................................................... 28
I22
MACRO IC 2 Base Address (Turbo PMAC2 only) ...................................................................... 29
I23
MACRO IC 3 Base Address (Turbo PMAC2 only) ...................................................................... 30
I24
Main DPRAM Base Address ....................................................................................................... 30
I26
UMAC Electrical MACRO Enable .............................................................................................. 31
I27
Alternate TWS Input Format ....................................................................................................... 31
I28
Display Port Disable .................................................................................................................... 32
I29
Multiplexer Port Alternate Address .............................................................................................. 32
I30
Compensation Table Wrap Enable ............................................................................................... 33
I35
Brick LV & Controller E-Stop Enable.......................................................................................... 33
I36
Enable/Abort Separation Control ................................................................................................. 34
I37
Additional Wait States ................................................................................................................. 35
I38
In-Line CALL Enable.................................................................................................................. 35
I39
UBUS Accessory ID Variable Display Control ............................................................................ 36
I40
Watchdog Timer Reset Value ...................................................................................................... 37
I41
I-Variable Lockout Control.......................................................................................................... 37
Table of Contents
i
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I42
Spline/PVT Time Control Mode .................................................................................................. 38
I43
Auxiliary/Main Serial Port Parser Disable .................................................................................... 38
I44
PMAC Ladder Program Enable {Special Firmware Only} ........................................................... 39
I45
Foreground Binary Rotary Buffer Transfer Enable ....................................................................... 39
I46
P & Q-Variable Storage Location ................................................................................................ 39
I47
DPRAM Motor Data Foreground Reporting Period ...................................................................... 40
I48
DPRAM Motor Data Foreground Reporting Enable ..................................................................... 40
I49
DPRAM Background Data Reporting Enable ............................................................................... 41
I50
DPRAM Background Data Reporting Period ............................................................................... 41
I51
Compensation Table Enable ........................................................................................................ 41
I52
CPU Frequency Control .............................................................................................................. 42
I53
Auxiliary Serial Port Baud Rate Control ...................................................................................... 42
I54
Serial Port Baud Rate Control ...................................................................................................... 43
I55
DPRAM Background Variable Buffers Enable............................................................................. 43
I56
DPRAM ASCII Communications Interrupt Enable ...................................................................... 43
I57
DPRAM Motor Data Background Reporting Enable .................................................................... 44
I58
DPRAM ASCII Communications Enable..................................................................................... 44
I59
Motor/C.S. Group Select ............................................................................................................. 45
I60
Filtered Velocity Sample Time .................................................................................................... 45
I61
Filtered Velocity Shift ................................................................................................................. 46
I62
Internal Message Carriage Return Control.................................................................................... 46
I63
Control-X Echo Enable................................................................................................................ 47
I64
Internal Response Tag Enable ...................................................................................................... 47
I65
User Configuration Variable ........................................................................................................ 47
I67
Modbus TCP Buffer Start Address ............................................................................................... 48
I68
Coordinate System Activation Control ......................................................................................... 48
I69
Modbus TCP Software Control Panel Start Address ..................................................................... 49
MACRO Ring Configuration I-Variables ...................................................................................................... 50
I70
MACRO IC 0 Node Auxiliary Register Enable ............................................................................ 50
I71
MACRO IC 0 Node Protocol Type Control.................................................................................. 50
I72
MACRO IC 1 Node Auxiliary Register Enable ............................................................................ 51
I73
MACRO IC 1 Node Protocol Type Control.................................................................................. 51
I74
MACRO IC 2 Node Auxiliary Register Enable ............................................................................ 51
I75
MACRO IC 2 Node Protocol Type Control.................................................................................. 52
I76
MACRO IC 3 Node Auxiliary Register Enable ............................................................................ 52
I77
MACRO IC 3 Node Protocol Type Control.................................................................................. 53
I78
MACRO Type 1 Master/Slave Communications Timeout ............................................................ 53
I79
MACRO Type 1 Master/Master Communications Timeout .......................................................... 54
I80
MACRO Ring Check Period........................................................................................................ 54
I81
MACRO Maximum Ring Error Count ......................................................................................... 55
I82
MACRO Minimum Sync Packet Count........................................................................................ 55
I83
MACRO Parallel Ring Enable Mask ............................................................................................ 55
I84
MACRO IC # for Master Communications .................................................................................. 56
I85
MACRO Ring Order Number ...................................................................................................... 56
VME/DPRAM Setup I-Variables................................................................................................................... 57
I90
VME Address Modifier ............................................................................................................... 57
I91
VME Address Modifier Don’t Care Bits ...................................................................................... 57
I92
VME Base Address Bits A31-A24 ............................................................................................... 57
I93 VME Mailbox Base Address Bits A23-A16 ISA DPRAM Base Address Bits A23-A16 ...................... 58
I94 VME Mailbox Base Address Bits A15-A08 ISA DPRAM Base Address Bits A15-A14 & Control ..... 58
I95
VME Interrupt Level ................................................................................................................... 59
I96
VME Interrupt Vector ................................................................................................................. 59
I97
VME DPRAM Base Address Bits A23-A20 ................................................................................ 60
I98
VME DPRAM Enable ................................................................................................................. 60
I99
VME Address Width Control....................................................................................................... 60
Motor Setup I-Variables ................................................................................................................................... 61
ii
Table of Contents
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Motor Definition I-Variables ........................................................................................................................ 61
Ixx00
Motor xx Activation Control ................................................................................................... 61
Ixx01
Motor xx Commutation Enable................................................................................................ 61
Ixx02
Motor xx Command Output Address ....................................................................................... 62
Ixx03
Motor xx Position Loop Feedback Address .............................................................................. 66
Ixx04
Motor xx Velocity Loop Feedback Address ............................................................................. 67
Ixx05
Motor xx Master Position Address ........................................................................................... 68
Ixx06
Motor xx Position Following Enable and Mode ....................................................................... 68
Ixx07
Motor xx Master (Handwheel) Scale Factor ............................................................................. 69
Ixx08
Motor xx Position Scale Factor ................................................................................................ 69
Ixx09
Motor xx Velocity-Loop Scale Factor ...................................................................................... 69
Ixx10
Motor xx Power-On Servo Position Address ............................................................................ 70
Motor Safety I-Variables .............................................................................................................................. 75
Ixx11
Motor xx Fatal Following Error Limit...................................................................................... 75
Ixx12
Motor xx Warning Following Error Limit ................................................................................ 75
Ixx13
Motor xx Positive Software Position Limit .............................................................................. 76
Ixx14
Motor xx Negative Software Position Limit ............................................................................. 77
Ixx15
Motor xx Abort/Limit Deceleration Rate ................................................................................. 78
Ixx16
Motor xx Maximum Program Velocity .................................................................................... 78
Ixx17
Motor xx Maximum Program Acceleration .............................................................................. 79
Ixx19
Motor xx Maximum Jog/Home Acceleration ........................................................................... 80
Motor Motion I-Variables ............................................................................................................................ 81
Ixx20
Motor xx Jog/Home Acceleration Time ................................................................................... 81
Ixx21
Motor xx Jog/Home S-Curve Time .......................................................................................... 81
Ixx22
Motor xx Jog Speed ................................................................................................................ 82
Ixx23
Motor xx Home Speed and Direction ....................................................................................... 82
Ixx24
Motor xx Flag Mode Control ................................................................................................... 82
Ixx25
Motor xx Flag Address ............................................................................................................ 85
Ixx26
Motor xx Home Offset ............................................................................................................ 89
Ixx27
Motor xx Position Rollover Range........................................................................................... 90
Ixx28
Motor xx In-Position Band ...................................................................................................... 91
Ixx29
Motor xx Output/First Phase Offset ......................................................................................... 92
Motor xx PID Servo Setup I-Variables.......................................................................................................... 92
Ixx30
Motor xx PID Proportional Gain .............................................................................................. 92
Ixx31
Motor xx PID Derivative Gain................................................................................................. 93
Ixx32
Motor xx PID Velocity Feedforward Gain ............................................................................... 94
Ixx33
Motor xx PID Integral Gain ..................................................................................................... 94
Ixx34
Motor xx PID Integration Mode .............................................................................................. 94
Ixx35
Motor xx PID Acceleration Feedforward Gain ......................................................................... 95
Ixx36
Motor xx PID Notch Filter Coefficient N1 ............................................................................... 95
Ixx37
Motor xx PID Notch Filter Coefficient N2 ............................................................................... 95
Ixx38
Motor xx PID Notch Filter Coefficient D1 ............................................................................... 96
Ixx39
Motor xx PID Notch Filter Coefficient D2 ............................................................................... 96
Ixx40
Motor xx Net Desired Position Filter Gain ............................................................................... 96
Ixx41
Motor xx Desired Position Limit Band .................................................................................... 97
Ixx42
Motor xx Amplifier Flag Address ............................................................................................ 97
Ixx43
Motor xx Overtravel-Limit Flag Address ................................................................................. 98
Ixx44
Motor xx MACRO Slave Command Address........................................................................... 99
Motor Servo and Commutation Modifiers ................................................................................................... 101
Ixx55
Motor xx Commutation Table Address Offset ........................................................................ 101
Ixx56
Motor xx Commutation Delay Compensation ........................................................................ 102
Ixx57
Motor xx Continuous Current Limit....................................................................................... 102
Ixx58
Motor xx Integrated Current Limit ......................................................................................... 104
Ixx59
Motor xx User-Written Servo/Phase Enable ........................................................................... 105
Ixx60
Motor xx Servo Cycle Period Extension Period...................................................................... 105
Ixx61
Motor xx Current-Loop Integral Gain .................................................................................... 106
Table of Contents
iii
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Ixx62
Motor xx Current-Loop Forward-Path Proportional Gain ....................................................... 106
Ixx63
Motor xx Integration Limit .................................................................................................... 106
Ixx64
Motor xx Deadband Gain Factor ............................................................................................ 107
Ixx65
Motor xx Deadband Size ....................................................................................................... 107
Ixx66
Motor xx PWM Scale Factor ................................................................................................. 108
Ixx67
Motor xx Position Error Limit ............................................................................................... 108
Ixx68
Motor xx Friction Feedforward.............................................................................................. 108
Ixx69
Motor xx Output Command Limit ......................................................................................... 109
Motor Commutation Setup I-Variables ....................................................................................................... 111
Ixx70
Motor xx Number of Commutation Cycles (N) ...................................................................... 111
Ixx71
Motor xx Counts per N Commutation Cycles ......................................................................... 111
Ixx72
Motor xx Commutation Phase Angle ..................................................................................... 112
Ixx73
Motor xx Phase Finding Output Value ................................................................................... 113
Ixx74
Motor xx Phase Finding Time ............................................................................................... 114
Ixx75
Motor xx Phase Position Offset ............................................................................................. 114
Ixx76
Motor xx Current-Loop Back-Path Proportional Gain ............................................................ 115
Ixx77
Motor xx Magnetization Current............................................................................................ 116
Ixx78
Motor xx Slip Gain................................................................................................................ 116
Ixx79
Motor xx Second Phase Offset ............................................................................................... 117
Ixx80
Motor xx Power-Up Mode ..................................................................................................... 117
Ixx81
Motor xx Power-On Phase Position Address .......................................................................... 119
Ixx82
Motor xx Current-Loop Feedback Address ............................................................................ 124
Ixx83
Motor xx Commutation Position Address .............................................................................. 126
Ixx84 Motor xx Current-Loop Feedback Mask Word.............................................................................. 128
Further Motor I-Variables.......................................................................................................................... 129
Ixx85
Motor xx Backlash Take-up Rate........................................................................................... 129
Ixx86
Motor xx Backlash Size......................................................................................................... 129
Ixx87
Motor xx Backlash Hysteresis ............................................................................................... 129
Ixx88
Motor xx In-Position Number of Scans .................................................................................. 130
Ixx90
Motor xx Rapid Mode Speed Select ....................................................................................... 130
Ixx91
Motor xx Power-On Phase Position Format ........................................................................... 130
Ixx92
Motor xx Jog Move Calculation Time.................................................................................... 133
Ixx95
Motor xx Power-On Servo Position Format ........................................................................... 133
Ixx96
Motor xx Command Output Mode Control ............................................................................ 137
Ixx97
Motor xx Position Capture & Trigger Mode........................................................................... 137
Ixx98
Motor xx Third-Resolver Gear Ratio ..................................................................................... 138
Ixx99
Motor xx Second-Resolver Gear Ratio................................................................................... 139
Supplemental Motor Setup I-Variables ....................................................................................................... 140
Iyy00/50
Motor xx Extended Servo Algorithm Enable ..................................................................... 140
Iyy10 – Iyy39/Iyy60 – Iyy89 Motor xx Extended Servo Algorithm Gains ............................................ 141
System Configuration Reporting..................................................................................................................... 141
I4900
Servo ICs Present .................................................................................................................. 141
I4901
Servo IC Type ....................................................................................................................... 142
I4902
MACRO ICs Present ............................................................................................................. 143
I4903
MACRO IC Types ................................................................................................................ 143
I4904
Dual-Ported RAM ICs Present ............................................................................................... 144
I4908
End of Open Memory ............................................................................................................ 145
I4909
Turbo CPU ID Configuration ................................................................................................ 145
I4910 – I4925 Servo IC Card Identification ......................................................................................... 146
I4926 – I4941 MACRO IC Card Identification .................................................................................... 148
I4942 – I4949 DPRAM IC Card Identification .................................................................................... 149
I4950 – I4965 I/O IC Card Identification ............................................................................................. 150
Data Gathering I-Variables ............................................................................................................................. 151
I5000
Data Gathering Buffer Location and Mode ........................................................................... 151
I5001 – I5048 Data Gathering Source 1-48 Address ............................................................................ 151
I5049
Data Gathering Period ........................................................................................................... 152
iv
Table of Contents
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I5050
Data Gathering Selection Mask 1........................................................................................... 152
I5051
Data Gathering Selection Mask 2........................................................................................... 152
A/D Processing Table I-Variables................................................................................................................... 153
I5060
A/D Processing Ring Size ..................................................................................................... 153
I5061-I5076 A/D Ring Slot Pointers ................................................................................................... 154
I5080
A/D Ring Convert Enable ..................................................................................................... 155
I5081-I5096 A/D Ring Convert Codes ................................................................................................ 155
Coordinate System I-Variables ....................................................................................................................... 156
Isx11
Coordinate System ‘x’ User Countdown Timer 1 ................................................................... 157
Isx12
Coordinate System x User Countdown Timer 2...................................................................... 157
Isx13
Coordinate System x Segmentation Time............................................................................... 158
Isx14
Coordinate System ‘x’ End-of-Move Anticipation Time ........................................................ 159
Isx15
Coordinate System ‘x’ Segmentation Override....................................................................... 159
Isx16
Coordinate System ‘x’ Segmentation Override Slew .............................................................. 160
Isx20
Coordinate System x Lookahead Length ................................................................................ 161
Isx21
Coordinate System x Lookahead State Control....................................................................... 162
Isx50
Coordinate System x Kinematic Calculations Enable ............................................................. 162
Isx53
Coordinate System x Step Mode Control ............................................................................... 163
Isx78
Coordinate System ‘x’ Maximum Circle Acceleration............................................................ 163
Isx79
Coordinate System ‘x’ Rapid Move Mode Control ................................................................. 164
Isx81
Coordinate System ‘x’ Blend Disable In-Position Time-Out................................................... 165
Isx82
Coordinate System ‘x’ Blend Disable Dwell Time ................................................................. 165
Isx83
Coordinate System ‘x’ Corner Blend Break Point .................................................................. 166
Isx84
Coordinate System ‘x’ Outside Corner Stop Point Control ..................................................... 167
Isx85
Coordinate System ‘x’ Corner Dwell Break Point .................................................................. 167
Isx86
Coordinate System x Alternate Feedrate ................................................................................ 168
Isx87
Coordinate System x Default Program Acceleration Time ...................................................... 169
Isx88
Coordinate System x Default Program S-Curve Time............................................................. 169
Isx89
Coordinate System x Default Program Feedrate/Move Time .................................................. 170
Isx90
Coordinate System x Feedrate Time Units ............................................................................. 170
Isx91
Coordinate System x Default Working Program Number ....................................................... 170
Isx92
Coordinate System ‘x’ Move Blend Disable........................................................................... 171
Isx93
Coordinate System x Time Base Control Address .................................................................. 171
Isx94
Coordinate System x Time Base Slew Rate ............................................................................ 172
Isx95
Coordinate System x Feed Hold Slew Rate ............................................................................ 172
Isx96
Coordinate System x Circle Error Limit ................................................................................. 172
Isx97
Coordinate System x Minimum Arc Length ........................................................................... 173
Isx98
Coordinate System x Maximum Feedrate............................................................................... 174
Isx99
Coordinate System x Cutter-Comp Outside Corner Break Point ............................................. 174
Turbo PMAC2 MACRO IC I-Variables .......................................................................................................... 175
I6800/I6850/I6900/I6950 MACRO IC MaxPhase/PWM Frequency Control ........................................ 175
I6801/I6851/I6901/I6951 MACRO IC Phase Clock Frequency Control ............................................... 177
I6802/I6852/I6902/I6952 MACRO IC Servo Clock Frequency Control ............................................... 177
I6803/I6853/I6903/I6953 MACRO IC Hardware Clock Control .......................................................... 179
I6804/I6854/I6904/I6954 MACRO IC PWM Deadtime / PFM Pulse Width Control ............................ 181
I6805/I6855/I6905/I6955 MACRO IC DAC Strobe Word ................................................................... 181
I6806/I6856/I6906/I6956 MACRO IC ADC Strobe Word ................................................................... 182
I6807/I6857/I6907/I6957 MACRO IC Clock Direction Control ........................................................... 182
Channel-Specific MACRO IC I-variables.................................................................................................... 183
I68n0/I69n0 MACRO IC Channel n* Encoder/Timer Decode Control ................................................. 184
I68n1/I69n1 MACRO IC Channel n* Position Compare Channel Select .............................................. 185
I68n2/I69n2 MACRO IC Encoder n* Capture Control ........................................................................ 185
I68n3/I69n3 MACRO IC Channel n* Capture Flag Select Control....................................................... 186
I68n4/I69n4 MACRO IC Channel n* Encoder Gated Index Select....................................................... 187
I68n5/I69n5 MACRO IC Channel n* Encoder Index Gate State/Demux Control ................................. 188
I68n6/I69n6 MACRO IC Channel n* Output Mode Select .................................................................. 189
Table of Contents
v
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I68n7/I69n7 MACRO IC Channel n* Output Invert Control ................................................................ 189
I68n8/I69n8 MACRO IC Channel n* PFM Direction Signal Invert Control ......................................... 190
I68n9/I69n9 Reserved for Future Use .................................................................................................. 190
MACRO IC Ring Setup I-variables ............................................................................................................. 191
I6840/I6890/I6940/I6990 MACRO IC Ring Configuration/Status........................................................ 191
I6841/I6891/I6941/I6991 MACRO IC Node Activate Control ............................................................. 192
Servo IC I-Variables....................................................................................................................................... 193
PMAC2-Style Multi-Channel Servo IC I-Variables ..................................................................................... 194
I7m00
Servo IC m MaxPhase/PWM Frequency Control .................................................................. 194
I7m01
Servo IC m Phase Clock Frequency Control ......................................................................... 196
I7m02
Servo IC m Servo Clock Frequency Control ......................................................................... 196
I7m03
Servo IC m Hardware Clock Control .................................................................................... 198
I7m04
Servo IC m PWM Deadtime / PFM Pulse Width Control ...................................................... 199
I7m05
Servo IC m DAC Strobe Word ............................................................................................. 200
I7m06
Servo IC m ADC Strobe Word ............................................................................................. 200
I7m07
Servo IC m Phase/Servo Clock Direction .............................................................................. 201
PMAC2-Style Channel-Specific Servo IC I-Variables.................................................................................. 202
I7mn0
Servo IC m Channel n Encoder/Timer Decode Control ......................................................... 202
I7mn1
Servo IC m Channel n Position Compare Channel Select ...................................................... 203
I7mn2
Servo IC m Channel n Capture Control ................................................................................. 203
I7mn3
Servo IC m Channel n Capture Flag Select Control ............................................................... 204
I7mn4
Servo IC m Channel n Encoder Gated Index Select ............................................................... 204
I7mn5
Servo IC m Channel n Encoder Index Gate State/Demux Control .......................................... 205
I7mn6
Servo IC m Channel n Output Mode Select ........................................................................... 206
I7mn7
Servo IC m Channel n Output Invert Control ........................................................................ 206
I7mn8
Servo IC m Channel n PFM Direction Signal Invert Control ................................................. 207
I7mn9
Servo IC m Channel n Hardware-1/T Control ....................................................................... 207
PMAC-Style Servo IC Setup I-Variables ..................................................................................................... 208
I7mn0
Servo IC m Channel n Encoder/Timer Decode Control ......................................................... 208
I7mn1
Servo IC m Channel n Encoder Filter Disable ....................................................................... 209
I7mn2
Servo IC m Channel n Capture Control ................................................................................. 209
I7mn3
Servo IC m Channel n Capture Flag Select Control ............................................................... 210
Conversion Table I-Variables..................................................................................................................... 211
I8000 - I8191 Conversion Table Setup Lines ....................................................................................... 211
TURBO PMAC ON-LINE COMMAND SPECIFICATION .......................................................................... 236
<CONTROL-A>.................................................................................................................................... 236
<CONTROL-B> .................................................................................................................................... 236
<CONTROL-C> .................................................................................................................................... 237
<CONTROL-D>.................................................................................................................................... 237
<CONTROL-E> .................................................................................................................................... 238
<CONTROL-F> .................................................................................................................................... 238
<CONTROL-G>.................................................................................................................................... 239
<CONTROL-H>.................................................................................................................................... 239
<CONTROL-I> ..................................................................................................................................... 239
<CONTROL-K>.................................................................................................................................... 240
<CONTROL-M> ................................................................................................................................... 240
<CONTROL-N>.................................................................................................................................... 241
<CONTROL-O>.................................................................................................................................... 241
<CONTROL-P> .................................................................................................................................... 242
<CONTROL-Q>.................................................................................................................................... 242
<CONTROL-R> .................................................................................................................................... 243
<CONTROL-S> .................................................................................................................................... 243
<CONTROL-T> .................................................................................................................................... 244
<CONTROL-V>.................................................................................................................................... 244
<CONTROL-X>.................................................................................................................................... 244
vi
Table of Contents
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
!{axis}{constant}[{axis}{constant}…] .................................................................................................. 245
@ .......................................................................................................................................................... 246
@{card} ................................................................................................................................................ 246
# ............................................................................................................................................................ 247
#{constant}............................................................................................................................................ 248
#{constant}-> ........................................................................................................................................ 248
#{constant}->0 ...................................................................................................................................... 249
#{constant}->{axis definition}............................................................................................................... 249
#{constant}->I ....................................................................................................................................... 251
## .......................................................................................................................................................... 251
##{constant}.......................................................................................................................................... 252
$ ............................................................................................................................................................ 252
$$ .......................................................................................................................................................... 253
$$$ ........................................................................................................................................................ 254
$$$*** .................................................................................................................................................. 255
$$* ........................................................................................................................................................ 255
$* .......................................................................................................................................................... 255
%........................................................................................................................................................... 256
%{constant} .......................................................................................................................................... 257
& ........................................................................................................................................................... 258
&{constant}........................................................................................................................................... 258
\ ............................................................................................................................................................. 259
<............................................................................................................................................................ 260
>............................................................................................................................................................ 260
/ ............................................................................................................................................................. 261
? ............................................................................................................................................................ 261
?? .......................................................................................................................................................... 265
??? ......................................................................................................................................................... 270
A ........................................................................................................................................................... 273
ABR[{constant}] ................................................................................................................................... 273
ABS ...................................................................................................................................................... 274
{axis}={constant}.................................................................................................................................. 275
B{constant} ........................................................................................................................................... 276
CHECKSUM ......................................................................................................................................... 276
CID ....................................................................................................................................................... 277
CLEAR ................................................................................................................................................. 277
CLEAR ALL ......................................................................................................................................... 278
CLEAR ALL PLCS ............................................................................................................................... 278
CLOSE .................................................................................................................................................. 278
CLOSE ALL ......................................................................................................................................... 279
CLRF .................................................................................................................................................... 280
{constant} ............................................................................................................................................. 280
CPU ...................................................................................................................................................... 281
DATE.................................................................................................................................................... 282
DEFINE BLCOMP ................................................................................................................................ 282
DEFINE CCBUF ................................................................................................................................... 283
DEFINE COMP (one-dimensional) ........................................................................................................ 284
DEFINE COMP (two-dimensional)........................................................................................................ 285
DEFINE GATHER ................................................................................................................................ 288
DEFINE LOOKAHEAD........................................................................................................................ 289
DEFINE ROTARY ................................................................................................................................ 291
DEFINE TBUF ...................................................................................................................................... 291
DEFINE TCOMP .................................................................................................................................. 292
DEFINE UBUFFER [modified description] ....................................................................................... 293
DELETE ALL ....................................................................................................................................... 294
DELETE ALL TEMPS .......................................................................................................................... 294
Table of Contents
vii
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
DELETE BLCOMP ............................................................................................................................... 295
DELETE CCUBUF ............................................................................................................................... 295
DELETE COMP.................................................................................................................................... 296
DELETE LOOKAHEAD ....................................................................................................................... 296
DELETE GATHER ............................................................................................................................... 297
DELETE PLCC ..................................................................................................................................... 297
DELETE ROTARY ............................................................................................................................... 298
DELETE TBUF ..................................................................................................................................... 298
DELETE TCOMP ................................................................................................................................. 299
DISABLE PLC ...................................................................................................................................... 299
DISABLE PLCC ................................................................................................................................... 300
E ........................................................................................................................................................... 300
EAVERSION ........................................................................................................................................ 301
ENABLE PLC ....................................................................................................................................... 301
ENABLE PLCC .................................................................................................................................... 302
ENDGATHER....................................................................................................................................... 302
F............................................................................................................................................................ 303
FRAX .................................................................................................................................................... 303
FREAD ................................................................................................................................................. 304
FSAVE .................................................................................................................................................. 305
FSAVECLEAR ..................................................................................................................................... 305
GATHER .............................................................................................................................................. 306
H ........................................................................................................................................................... 306
HOME................................................................................................................................................... 307
HOMEZ ................................................................................................................................................ 308
I{constant} ............................................................................................................................................ 308
I{data}={expression}............................................................................................................................. 309
I{constant}=* ........................................................................................................................................ 310
I{constant}[email protected]{constant} ..................................................................................................................... 311
IDC ....................................................................................................................................................... 311
IDNUMBER.......................................................................................................................................... 312
INC ....................................................................................................................................................... 312
J! ........................................................................................................................................................... 313
J+ .......................................................................................................................................................... 313
J- ........................................................................................................................................................... 314
J/ ........................................................................................................................................................... 314
J:{constant} ........................................................................................................................................... 315
J:* ......................................................................................................................................................... 315
J= .......................................................................................................................................................... 316
J={constant} .......................................................................................................................................... 316
J=* ........................................................................................................................................................ 317
J=={constant}........................................................................................................................................ 318
J^{constant} .......................................................................................................................................... 318
J^*......................................................................................................................................................... 319
{jog command}^{constant} ................................................................................................................... 319
K ........................................................................................................................................................... 320
LEARN ................................................................................................................................................. 321
LIST ...................................................................................................................................................... 322
LIST BLCOMP ..................................................................................................................................... 323
LIST BLCOMP DEF ............................................................................................................................. 323
LIST COMP .......................................................................................................................................... 323
LIST COMP DEF .................................................................................................................................. 324
LIST FORWARD .................................................................................................................................. 324
LIST GATHER ..................................................................................................................................... 325
LIST INVERSE ..................................................................................................................................... 326
LIST LDS.............................................................................................................................................. 326
viii
Table of Contents
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
LIST LINK ............................................................................................................................................ 326
LIST PC ................................................................................................................................................ 327
LIST PE ................................................................................................................................................ 327
LIST PLC .............................................................................................................................................. 328
LIST PROGRAM .................................................................................................................................. 329
LIST ROTARY ..................................................................................................................................... 330
LIST TCOMP........................................................................................................................................ 331
LIST TCOMP DEF................................................................................................................................ 331
LOCK{constant},P{constant} ................................................................................................................ 331
M{constant} .......................................................................................................................................... 332
M{data}={expression} .......................................................................................................................... 333
M{constant}-> ....................................................................................................................................... 334
M{constant}->* ..................................................................................................................................... 334
M{constant}->D:{address} .................................................................................................................... 335
M{constant}->DP:{address} .................................................................................................................. 335
M{constant}->F:{address}..................................................................................................................... 336
M{constant}->L:{address} .................................................................................................................... 337
M{constant}->TWB:{address} .............................................................................................................. 337
M{constant}->TWD:{address} .............................................................................................................. 338
M{constant}->TWR:{address} .............................................................................................................. 339
M{constant}->TWS:{address}............................................................................................................... 340
M{constant}->X/Y:{address} ................................................................................................................ 341
MACROASCII{master #}
[replaced] ................................................................................................ 342
MACROAUX{node #},M{slave var}={constant} .................................................................................. 342
MACROAUX{node #},{param #}={constant}....................................................................................... 343
MACROAUXREAD ............................................................................................................................. 344
MACROAUXWRITE ............................................................................................................................ 344
MACROMST{master#},{master variable} ............................................................................................. 345
MACROMST{master#},{master variable}={constant} .......................................................................... 346
MACROMSTASCII{master #}.............................................................................................................. 347
MACROMSTREAD .............................................................................................................................. 348
MACROMSTWRITE ............................................................................................................................ 349
MACROSLV{command} {node#} ........................................................................................................ 350
MACROSLV{node#},{slave variable} .................................................................................................. 351
MACROSLV{node#},{slave variable}={constant} ................................................................................ 352
MACROSLVREAD .............................................................................................................................. 353
MACROSLVWRITE ............................................................................................................................. 354
MACROSTASCII {station #} ................................................................................................................ 355
MACROSTASCIIFREQ ........................................................................................................................ 356
MACROSTASCIIFREQ={constant} ..................................................................................................... 356
MACROSTASCIIFREQ=* .................................................................................................................... 356
MFLUSH .............................................................................................................................................. 356
MOVETIME ......................................................................................................................................... 357
NOFRAX .............................................................................................................................................. 357
NORMAL ............................................................................................................................................. 357
O{constant}........................................................................................................................................... 358
OPEN BINARY ROTARY .................................................................................................................... 359
OPEN FORWARD ................................................................................................................................ 359
OPEN INVERSE ................................................................................................................................... 360
OPEN PLC ............................................................................................................................................ 361
OPEN PROGRAM ................................................................................................................................ 361
OPEN ROTARY ................................................................................................................................... 362
P............................................................................................................................................................ 363
P{constant} ........................................................................................................................................... 363
P{data}={expression}............................................................................................................................ 364
PASSWORD={string}........................................................................................................................... 365
Table of Contents
ix
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
PAUSE PLC .......................................................................................................................................... 366
PC ......................................................................................................................................................... 367
PE ......................................................................................................................................................... 367
PMATCH .............................................................................................................................................. 368
PR ......................................................................................................................................................... 368
Q ........................................................................................................................................................... 369
Q{constant}........................................................................................................................................... 370
Q{data}={expression} ........................................................................................................................... 370
R ........................................................................................................................................................... 372
R[H]{address} ....................................................................................................................................... 372
RESUME PLC ...................................................................................................................................... 373
S............................................................................................................................................................ 374
SAVE .................................................................................................................................................... 375
SETPHASE ........................................................................................................................................... 376
SID........................................................................................................................................................ 376
SIZE ...................................................................................................................................................... 377
STN....................................................................................................................................................... 377
STN={constant} .................................................................................................................................... 377
TIME .................................................................................................................................................... 378
TIME={time} ........................................................................................................................................ 378
TODAY ................................................................................................................................................ 379
TODAY={date} .................................................................................................................................... 379
TYPE .................................................................................................................................................... 380
UNDEFINE ........................................................................................................................................... 381
UNDEFINE ALL .................................................................................................................................. 381
UNLOCK{constant}.............................................................................................................................. 382
UPDATE ............................................................................................................................................... 382
V ........................................................................................................................................................... 382
VERSION ............................................................................................................................................. 383
VID ....................................................................................................................................................... 383
W{address} ........................................................................................................................................... 383
Z ........................................................................................................................................................... 384
TURBO PMAC PROGRAM COMMAND SPECIFICATION....................................................................... 385
{axis}{data}[{axis}{data}…] ................................................................................................................ 385
{axis}{data}:{data} [{axis}{data}:{data}…] ......................................................................................... 385
{axis}{data}^{data}[{axis}{data}^{data}...].......................................................................................... 386
{axis}{data}[{axis}{data}…] {vector}{data} [{vector}{data}…] .......................................................... 387
A{data} ................................................................................................................................................. 389
ABS ...................................................................................................................................................... 389
ADDRESS ............................................................................................................................................ 390
ADDRESS#P{constant} ........................................................................................................................ 390
ADDRESS&P{constant} ....................................................................................................................... 391
ADIS{constant}..................................................................................................................................... 392
AND ({condition}) ................................................................................................................................ 392
AROT{constant} ................................................................................................................................... 393
B{data} ................................................................................................................................................. 394
BLOCKSTART ..................................................................................................................................... 394
BLOCKSTOP ........................................................................................................................................ 395
C{data} ................................................................................................................................................. 395
CALL .................................................................................................................................................... 395
CC0 ....................................................................................................................................................... 397
CC1 ....................................................................................................................................................... 397
CC2 ....................................................................................................................................................... 398
CC3 ....................................................................................................................................................... 398
CC4 ....................................................................................................................................................... 398
x
Table of Contents
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
CCR{data} ............................................................................................................................................ 399
CIRCLE1 .............................................................................................................................................. 399
CIRCLE2 .............................................................................................................................................. 400
COMMANDx"{command}" .................................................................................................................. 401
COMMANDx^{letter} .......................................................................................................................... 403
CREAD ................................................................................................................................................. 404
D{data} ................................................................................................................................................. 405
DELAY{data} ....................................................................................................................................... 405
DISABLE PLC {constant}[,{constant}...] .............................................................................................. 406
DISABLE PLCC {constant}[,{constant}...]............................................................................................ 407
DISPLAY [{constant}] "{message}"...................................................................................................... 407
DISPLAY ... {variable} ......................................................................................................................... 408
DWELL ................................................................................................................................................ 408
ELSE ..................................................................................................................................................... 409
ENABLE PLC ....................................................................................................................................... 410
ENABLE PLCC .................................................................................................................................... 411
ENDIF................................................................................................................................................... 412
ENDWHILE .......................................................................................................................................... 412
F{data}.................................................................................................................................................. 413
FRAX .................................................................................................................................................... 414
G{data} ................................................................................................................................................. 415
GOSUB ................................................................................................................................................. 416
GOTO ................................................................................................................................................... 416
HOME................................................................................................................................................... 417
HOMEZ ................................................................................................................................................ 418
I{data}................................................................................................................................................... 419
I{data}={expression}............................................................................................................................. 419
IDIS{constant} ...................................................................................................................................... 420
IF ({condition}) ..................................................................................................................................... 420
INC ....................................................................................................................................................... 421
IROT{constant}..................................................................................................................................... 422
J{data} .................................................................................................................................................. 423
K{data} ................................................................................................................................................. 423
LINEAR ................................................................................................................................................ 424
LOCK{constant},P{constant} ................................................................................................................ 424
M{data} ................................................................................................................................................ 425
M{data}={expression} .......................................................................................................................... 425
M{data}=={expression} ........................................................................................................................ 426
M{data}&={expression}........................................................................................................................ 427
M{data}|={expression}.......................................................................................................................... 427
M{data}^={expression}......................................................................................................................... 428
MACROAUXREAD ............................................................................................................................. 429
MACROAUXWRITE ............................................................................................................................ 430
MACROMSTREAD .............................................................................................................................. 430
MACROMSTWRITE ............................................................................................................................ 431
MACROSLVREAD .............................................................................................................................. 432
MACROSLVWRITE ............................................................................................................................. 434
N{constant}........................................................................................................................................... 435
NOFRAX .............................................................................................................................................. 435
NORMAL ............................................................................................................................................. 435
NX{data} .............................................................................................................................................. 436
NY{data} .............................................................................................................................................. 437
NZ{data}............................................................................................................................................... 437
O{constant}........................................................................................................................................... 438
OR({condition}) .................................................................................................................................... 439
P{data}={expression}............................................................................................................................ 439
Table of Contents
xi
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
PAUSE PLC .......................................................................................................................................... 440
PRELUDE ............................................................................................................................................. 441
PSET ..................................................................................................................................................... 442
PVT{data}............................................................................................................................................. 443
Q{data}={expression} ........................................................................................................................... 443
R{data} ................................................................................................................................................. 444
RAPID .................................................................................................................................................. 445
READ ................................................................................................................................................... 446
RESUME PLC ...................................................................................................................................... 447
RETURN............................................................................................................................................... 448
S{data}.................................................................................................................................................. 448
SENDx .................................................................................................................................................. 449
SENDx^{letter}..................................................................................................................................... 450
SETPHASE ........................................................................................................................................... 451
SPLINE1 ............................................................................................................................................... 452
SPLINE2 ............................................................................................................................................... 453
STOP .................................................................................................................................................... 453
T{data} ................................................................................................................................................. 453
TA{data}............................................................................................................................................... 454
TINIT .................................................................................................................................................... 455
TM{data} .............................................................................................................................................. 455
TR{data} ............................................................................................................................................... 456
TS{data} ............................................................................................................................................... 457
TSELECT{constant} ............................................................................................................................. 458
TX{data}............................................................................................................................................... 458
TY{data}............................................................................................................................................... 459
TZ{data} ............................................................................................................................................... 459
U{data} ................................................................................................................................................. 460
UNLOCK{constant}.............................................................................................................................. 460
V{data} ................................................................................................................................................. 461
W{data} ................................................................................................................................................ 461
WAIT .................................................................................................................................................... 462
WHILE({condition}) ............................................................................................................................. 462
X{data} ................................................................................................................................................. 464
Y{data} ................................................................................................................................................. 464
Z{data} ................................................................................................................................................. 465
TURBO PMAC MATHEMATICAL FEATURES .......................................................................................... 466
Mathematical Operators ................................................................................................................................. 466
+............................................................................................................................................................ 466
- ............................................................................................................................................................ 466
* ............................................................................................................................................................ 466
/ ............................................................................................................................................................. 466
%........................................................................................................................................................... 467
& ........................................................................................................................................................... 468
| ............................................................................................................................................................. 468
^ ............................................................................................................................................................ 469
Mathematical Functions ................................................................................................................................. 469
ABS ...................................................................................................................................................... 469
ACOS.................................................................................................................................................... 469
ASIN ..................................................................................................................................................... 470
ATAN ................................................................................................................................................... 470
ATAN2 ................................................................................................................................................. 471
COS ...................................................................................................................................................... 472
EXP....................................................................................................................................................... 472
INT ....................................................................................................................................................... 472
xii
Table of Contents
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
LN ......................................................................................................................................................... 473
SIN........................................................................................................................................................ 473
SQRT .................................................................................................................................................... 474
TAN ...................................................................................................................................................... 474
TURBO PMAC MEMORY AND I/O MAP .................................................................................................... 476
Program (Machine Code) Memory ................................................................................................................. 476
Global Servo Registers ................................................................................................................................... 476
Temporary Stack Registers ............................................................................................................................. 478
Motor Registers.............................................................................................................................................. 478
Global Registers ............................................................................................................................................. 484
Communication Buffers ................................................................................................................................. 485
Coordinate System Registers .......................................................................................................................... 485
Program and Buffer Pointers .......................................................................................................................... 489
Processed A/D Registers ................................................................................................................................ 490
Additional Coordinate System Registers ......................................................................................................... 490
MACRO Ring Status Registers....................................................................................................................... 490
MACRO Flag Registers ................................................................................................................................. 491
Encoder Conversion Table Registers .............................................................................................................. 492
Buffer Pointers ............................................................................................................................................... 492
Commutation Sine Table ................................................................................................................................ 492
User Variable Registers .................................................................................................................................. 492
User Program and Buffer Storage ................................................................................................................... 492
Battery-Backed RAM Registers (Option 16x required).................................................................................... 493
Dual Ported RAM Registers (Option 2x required) ........................................................................................... 493
DPRAM Control Panel............................................................................................................................... 493
DPRAM Control Panel Registers................................................................................................................ 494
Motor Data Reporting Buffer Control (used if I48=1 or I57=1) .................................................................. 495
Motor Data Reporting Buffer (Used if I48 = 1 or I57 = 1) .......................................................................... 496
Background Data Reporting Buffer Control (used if I49 = 1 or I57 = 1) ..................................................... 499
Global Background Data Reporting Buffer (used if I49 = 1) ....................................................................... 499
Coordinate System Background Data Reporting Buffer ............................................................................... 500
(used if I49 = 1) ......................................................................................................................................... 500
DPRAM ASCII Buffers (used if I58 = 1) ..................................................................................................... 505
Background Variable Read and Write Buffer Control (used if I55 = 1) ....................................................... 505
Binary Rotary Program Buffer Control (used after OPEN BIN ROT) .......................................................... 506
Data Gathering Control (used if I5000 = 2 or 3) ........................................................................................ 506
Variable-Sized Buffers/Open-Use Space ..................................................................................................... 506
VME Bus/DPRAM Interface Registers ........................................................................................................... 506
Turbo PMAC2 I/O Control Registers.............................................................................................................. 507
PMAC-Style Servo ASIC Registers ................................................................................................................ 509
PMAC2-Style Servo ASIC Registers .............................................................................................................. 513
Turbo PMAC2 MACRO and I/O ASIC Registers ........................................................................................... 523
I/O Control and Data Registers (MACRO IC 0 only) .................................................................................. 523
MACRO Ring Control Registers ................................................................................................................. 526
Supplemental Servo Channel Registers (MACRO IC 0 only) ....................................................................... 527
Turbo PMAC2 MACRO Node Registers...................................................................................................... 530
Turbo PMAC I/O Registers ............................................................................................................................ 532
Turbo PMAC2 Option 12 A/D Register .......................................................................................................... 534
3U Turbo PMAC2 Stack I/O Registers ........................................................................................................... 534
JEXP Expansion Port I/O Registers ................................................................................................................ 536
UMAC UBUS Expansion Port I/O Registers .................................................................................................. 536
TURBO PMAC SUGGESTED M-VARIABLE DEFINITIONS..................................................................... 538
TURBO PMAC2 SUGGESTED M-VARIABLE DEFINITIONS ................................................................... 590
UMAC TURBO SUGGESTED M-VARIABLE DEFINITIONS .................................................................... 656
Table of Contents
xiii
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
CHANGE SUMMARY: PMAC TO TURBO PMAC ..................................................................................... 722
Overview Feature Comparison ....................................................................................................................... 722
I-Variable Changes......................................................................................................................................... 723
I-Variable Changes (continued) ...................................................................................................................... 724
DPRAM Function Changes ............................................................................................................................ 724
Compensation Table Changes......................................................................................................................... 724
Commutation Changes ................................................................................................................................... 725
Overtravel Limit Changes............................................................................................................................... 725
Cutter Radius Compensation Changes ............................................................................................................ 725
Communications Changes .............................................................................................................................. 725
Memory and I/O Map Changes ....................................................................................................................... 726
Jumper Changes ............................................................................................................................................. 727
On-line Command Changes ............................................................................................................................ 727
Program Command Changes .......................................................................................................................... 728
Encoder Conversion Table Changes................................................................................................................ 728
FIRMWARE UPDATE LISTING ................................................................................................................... 729
V1.933 Updates (July 1999) ........................................................................................................................... 729
V1.934 Updates (September 1999) ................................................................................................................. 729
V1.935 Updates (February 2000) .................................................................................................................... 731
V1.936 Updates (April 2000) ......................................................................................................................... 731
V1.937 Updates (November, 2000)................................................................................................................. 732
V1.938 Updates (June, 2001).......................................................................................................................... 734
V1.939 Updates (March, 2002)....................................................................................................................... 734
V1.940 Updates (June, 2003).......................................................................................................................... 735
V1.941 Updates (September 2005) ................................................................................................................. 736
V1.942 Updates (October 2005) ..................................................................................................................... 737
V1.943 Updates (January 2007) ...................................................................................................................... 738
V1.944 Updates (January 2008) ...................................................................................................................... 738
V1.945 Updates (June 2008)........................................................................................................................... 738
V1.946 Updates (Dec 2008, Geo Brick only) .................................................................................................. 739
V1.947 Updates (May 2010)........................................................................................................................... 739
xiv
Table of Contents
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
INTRODUCTION
What is Turbo PMAC?
The Turbo PMAC is the newest addition to the renowned PMAC family of motion controllers. The
Turbo refers to a new high-performance CPU section that can be used with existing PMAC or PMAC2
interface circuitry to turbo-charge the application.
The Turbo PMAC is currently available in six versions:
 Turbo PMAC PC:
PMAC servo interface circuitry, PC (ISA) bus interface
 Turbo PMAC VME
PMAC servo interface circuitry, VME bus interface
 Turbo PMAC2 PC
PMAC2 servo interface circuitry, PC (ISA) bus interface
 Turbo PMAC2 VME
PMAC2 servo interface circuitry, VME bus interface
 Turbo PMAC2 PC Ultralite
MACRO servo interface circuitry, PC(ISA) bus interface
 Turbo PMAC2 3U (UMAC Turbo and 3U Turbo Stack)
PMAC2 servo interface circuitry, PC/104 bus interface
Each of these versions has its own Hardware Reference manual.
More versions will be available in the near future.
What is New about Turbo PMAC?
The Turbo PMAC uses the increased speed and memory of the newest generation of digital signal
processing (DSP) ICs to enhance the capabilities of the PMAC family. The Turbo PMAC has the
software capability to control 32 axes in 16 independent coordinate systems, up from eight axes in eight
coordinate systems for the standard PMAC.
Many users will find the Turbo PMAC a very powerful and cost-effective solution when controlling large
numbers of axes. Remember that a PMAC board itself has at most eight servo interface channels; the
actual control of more than eight physical axes will require the use of either Acc-24 family axis expansion
boards, or remote interface circuitry on the MACRO ring.
The extra software axis capability can be useful for virtual axes which do not require (full) physical
hardware interface circuitry. Virtual axes have many important uses, including:
 Phantom coordinate systems in tool tip coordinates for inverse kinematics
 Virtual masters to replace mechanical line-shaft masters
 Redundant axes for error checking and recovery purposes
 Cascaded servo loops for hybrid control techniques (e.g. force and position)
Many other users will find the Turbo PMAC valuable even if less than eight axes are used, just because of
the additional computational speed. The DSP of the base version of the Turbo PMAC runs at 80 MHz,
but because operations on internal registers (about half of all operations) run in one clock cycle instead of
the two clock cycles required for the standard PMAC, performance is equivalent to that of a 120 MHz
standard PMAC.
The additional memory addressing capability of the Turbo PMAC permits the use of more axes and
coordinate systems, and more features for it. It also supports more variables, and (optionally) much larger
user buffer spaces.
Introduction
1
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
With the additional speed and memory, new features are possible on the Turbo PMAC. The most
important of these are:
 Multi-block lookahead for acceleration control
 Built-in inverse-kinematic and forward-kinematic capability
 Three-dimensional cutter-radius compensation
 Altered destination of moves on the fly
 Simultaneous communications over multiple ports
 Individual custom commutation sine tables for each motor
 Individual selection by motor of PID or extended servo algorithm
 Significantly enlarged synchronous M-variable buffer
 2 dedicated user servo-rate timers per coordinate system
 Trajectory reversal capability
How do I Convert a PMAC Application?
Converting a PMAC application to run on the Turbo PMAC will involve some change in the setup, but
virtually no change in the applications programs, except as desired to take advantage of new Turbo
features.
The key setup differences are the new I-variable numbering scheme and the new memory and I/O map,
which affects the M-variable definitions. Most I-variables, particularly the motor I-variables, have not
changed. Other I-variables have been moved in banks to new numbers, in what most users will consider a
logical fashion.
The memory and I/O map is completely changed. This software reference manual contains a detailed
memory and I/O map, plus an extensive list of suggested M-variables for both PMAC and PMAC2
versions of the Turbo PMAC.
How do I use this Manual?
The Turbo PMAC Software Reference manual provides detailed information on all of the variables,
commands, and registers of the Turbo PMAC family. Variables and registers are presented in numerical
order; commands are presented in alphabetical order.
This manual is designed to be used in conjunction with the User Manual for the entire PMAC/PMAC2
family of controllers, which explains the features and capabilities of the board in conceptual fashion. The
User’s Manual was written before the introduction of the Turbo PMAC boards, so it does not recognize
some specifics of the Turbo PMACs. Chapter 2 of this manual presents the differences between Turbo
and non-Turbo boards in tabular form for easy reference; Chapter 3 describes the significant new features
of Turbo PMACs.
The hardware reference manuals for each particular version of the Turbo PMAC describe the hardware
configuration, jumpers, and pinouts for the particular boards.
2
Introduction
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
TURBO PMAC VARIABLE AND COMMAND SUMMARY
Notes







PMAC syntax is not case sensitive.
Spaces are not important in PMAC syntax, except where noted
{} -- item in {} can be replaced by anything fitting definition
[] -- item in [] is optional to syntax
[{item}...] -- indicates previous item may be repeated in syntax
[..{item}] -- the periods are to be included in the syntax to specify a range
() -- parentheses are to be included in syntax as they appear
Definitions



















constant -- numerically specified non-changing value
variable -- entity that holds a changeable value
I-variable -- variable of fixed meaning for card setup and personality (1 of 8192)
P-variable -- global variable for programming use (1 of 8192)
Q-variable -- local variable (in coordinate system) for programming use (1 of 8192)
M-variable -- variable assigned to memory location for user use (1 of 8192)
pre-defined variable -- mnemonic that has fixed meaning in card
function -- SIN, COS,TAN,ASIN,ACOS,ATAN,ATAN2,LN,EXP,SQRT,ABS,INT
operator -- for arithmetic or bit-by-bit logical combination of two values: +, -, *, /, % (mod), &
(and), | (or), ^ (xor)
expression -- grouping of constants, variables, functions, and operators
data -- constant without parentheses, or expression with parentheses
comparator -- evaluates relationship between two values: =, !=, >, !>, <, !<, ~, !~
condition -- evaluates as true or false based on comparators
simple condition -- {expression} {comparator} {expression}
compound condition -- logical combination of simple conditions
motor -- element of control for hardware setup; specified by number
coordinate system -- collections of motors working synchronously
axis -- element of a coordinate system; specified by letter chosen from X, Y, Z, A, B, C, U, V, W
buffer -- space in user memory for program or list; contains up to 256 motion programs and 32 PLC
blocks
Turbo PMAC Command Summary
3
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
On-Line Commands
(Executed immediately upon receipt by PMAC)
On-line Global Commands
Addressing Mode Commands
@n – Address card n (n is hex digit 0 to f); serial host only
@ – Report currently addressed card to host; serial host only
#n – Make motor n currently addressed motor
# – Report currently addressed motor number to host
##n – Select motor group of 8 for multi-motor responses
## - Report selected motor group of 8
&n – Make coordinate system n the currently addressed coordinate system
& – Report currently addressed coordinate system to host
Communications Control-Characters
<CTRL-H> – Erase last character from host (backspace)
<CTRL-I> – Repeat last command from host (tab)
<CTRL-M> – End of command line (carriage return)
<CTRL-N> – Report checksum of current command line
<CTRL-T> – End MACRO ASCII pass through mode
<CTRL-X> – Abort current PMAC command and response strings
General Global Commands
$$$ – Reset entire card, restoring saved values
$$$*** – Reset and re-initialize entire card, using factory default values.
LOCK{constant},P{constant} – Check/set process locking bit
PASSWORD={string} – Set/confirm password for PROG1000-32767, PLC0-15
SAVE – Copy active memory into non-volatile flash memory
SETPHASE{constant}[,{constant}…] – Set commutation phase position for specified motors
TIME={time} – Set time in active memory
TODAY={date} – Set date in active memory
UNLOCK{constant} – Clear process locking bit
UPDATE – Copy date and time into optional non-volatile clock/calendar
UNDEFINE ALL – Erase definition of all coordinate systems
Global Action Commands
<CTRL-A>
<CTRL-D>
<CTRL-K>
<CTRL-O>
<CTRL-Q>
<CTRL-R>
<CTRL-S>
4
– Abort all motion programs and moves
– Disable all PLC and PLCC programs
– Kill outputs for all motors
– Do feed hold on all coordinate systems
– Quit all programs at end of calculated moves
– Run working programs in all coordinate systems
– Step working programs in all coordinate systems
Turbo PMAC Command Summary
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Global Status Commands
<CTRL-B> – Report 8 motor status words to host
<CTRL-C> – Report all coordinate system status words to host
<CTRL-F> – Report 8 motor following errors (unscaled)
<CTRL-G> – Report global status words in binary form
<CTRL-P> – Report 8 motor positions (unscaled)
<CTRL-V> – Report 8 filtered motor velocities (unscaled)
??? – Report global status words in hex ASCII
CID – Report card ID (part) number
CPU – Report model of CPU used
DATE – Report release date of firmware version used
IDNUMBER – Report Option 18 electronic identification number
LIST – Report contents of open program buffer
LIST PROGRAM {constant} – Report contents of specified motion program
LIST PLC {constant} – Report contents of specified PLC program
SID – Report Option 18 electronic identification number
SIZE – Report size of open memory in words
STN – Report MACRO-ring station-order number
TIME – Report present time
TODAY – Report present date
TYPE – Report type of PMAC
VERSION – Report firmware revision level
VID – Report vendor ID number
Register Access Commands
R{address}[,{constant}] – Report contents of specified memory word address [or specified
range of addresses] in decimal
RH{address}[,{constant}] – Report contents of specified memory word address [or specified
range of addresses] in hex
W{address},{constant}[,{constant}..] – Write value to specified memory word address
[or values to range]
PLC Control Commands
ENABLE PLC{constant}[,{constant}...] – Enable operation of specified interpreted PLC
program[s], starting at top of scan
DISABLE PLC{constant}[,{constant}...] – Disable operation of specified interpreted PLC
program[s]
PAUSE PLC{constant}[,{constant}...] – Suspend operation of specified interpreted PLC
program[s]
RESUME PLC{constant}[,{constant}...] – Enable operation of specified interpreted PLC
program[s], starting at paused point
ENABLE PLCC{constant}[,{constant}...] – Disable operation of specified compiled PLC
program[s]
DISABLE PLCC{constant}[,{constant}...] –- Disable operation of specified compiled PLC
program[s]
Turbo PMAC Command Summary
5
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Global Variable Commands
{constant} – Equivalent to P0={constant} if no unfilled table; otherwise value entered into table
I{data}={expression} – Assign expression value to specified I-variable
I{constant}..{constant}={constant} – Assign constant value to specified range of Ivariables
I{constant}[..{constant}]=* – Set specified I-variable[s] to default[s]
I{constant}[email protected]{constant}] – Set specified I-variable to address of another I-variable
I{constant}[..{constant}] – Report I-variable values to host
P{data}={expression} – Assign expression value to specified P-variable
P{constant}..{constant}={constant} – Assign constant value to specified range of Pvariables
P{constant}[..{constant}] – Report P-variable values to host
M{data}={expression} – Assign expression value to specified M-variable
M{constant}..{constant}={constant} – Assign constant value to specified range of Mvariables
M{constant}->{definition} – Define M-variable as specified
M{constant}->* – Erase M-variable definition; usable as non-pointer variable
M{constant}[..{constant}] – Report M-variable values to host
M{constant}[..{constant}]-> – Report M-variable definitions to host
Buffer Control Commands
OPEN PROG{constant} – Open specified motion program buffer for entering/editing
OPEN ROT – Open all defined rotary program buffers for ASCII entry
OPEN BIN ROT – Open all defined rotary program buffers for binary entry
OPEN PLC{constant} – Open specified PLC program buffer for entry
CLOSE – Close buffer currently opened on this port
CLOSE ALL – Close buffer currently opened on any port
CLEAR – Erase contents of opened buffer
CLEAR ALL – Erase all motion and uncompiled PLC program buffers
CLEAR ALL PLCS – Erase all uncompiled PLC program buffers
DEFINE GATHER [{constant}] – Set up a data-gathering buffer using all open memory [or of
specified size]
DELETE GATHER – Erase the data gathering buffer
GATHER [TRIGGER] – Start data gathering [on external trigger]
ENDGATHER – Stop data gathering
DELETE PLCC{constant} – Erase specified compiled PLC program
DEFINE TBUF{constant} – Set up specified number of axis transformation matrices
DELETE TBUF – Erase all axis transformation matrices
DEFINE UBUFFER{constant} – Set up a user buffer of specified number of words
DELETE ALL – Erase all DEFINEd buffers
DELETE ALL TEMP – Erase all DEFINEd buffers with temporary contents
6
Turbo PMAC Command Summary
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
MACRO Ring Commands
MACROASCII{master#} – Put this PMAC port in pass-through mode so communications are passed
through MACRO to specified other master
MACROAUX{node#},{param#} – Report MACRO Type 0 auxiliary parameter value from slave node
MACROAUX{node#},{param#}={constant} – Set MACRO Type 0 auxiliary parameter value in
slave node
MACROAUXREAD{node#},{param#},{variable} – Copy MACRO Type 0 auxiliary parameter
value from slave node to PMAC variable
MACROAUXWRITE{node#},{param#},{variable} – Copy from PMAC variable to MACRO
Type 0 auxiliary parameter value in slave node
MACROMST{master#},{master variable} – Report variable value from remote MACRO
master through Type 1 MACRO protocol
MACROMST{master#},{master variable}={constant} – Set variable value on remote
MACRO master through Type 1 MACRO protocol
MACROMSTASCII{master #} – Put this ring-controller Turbo PMAC in pass-through mode to other
master on ring
MACROMSTREAD{master#},{master variable},{ring-master variable} – Copy
variable value from remote MACRO master into own variable through Type 1 MACRO
protocol
MACROMSTWRITE{master#},{master variable},{ring-master variable} – Copy
variable value to remote MACRO master from own variable through Type 1 MACRO
protocol
MACROSLAVE{command},{node#} – Send command to slave node with Type 1 protocol
MACROSLAVE{node#},{slave variable} – Report slave node variable value with Type 1
MACRO protocol
MACROSLAVE{node#},{slave variable}={constant} – Set slave node variable value with
Type 1 MACRO protocol
MACROSLVREAD{node#},{slave variable},{PMAC variable} – Copy from slave node
variable to PMAC variable with Type 1 MACRO protocol
MACROSLVWRITE{node#},{slave variable},{PMAC variable} – Copy PMAC variable
to slave node variable with Type 1 MACRO protocol
MACROSTASCII{station #} – Put this ring-controller Turbo PMAC in pass-through mode to other
station on ring
STN={constant} – Set MACRO-ring station-order number
On-line Coordinate System Commands
(These act immediately on currently addressed coordinate system)
Axis Definition Commands
#n->[{constant}]{axis}[+{constant}] – Define axis in terms of motor #, scale factor, and
offset
Examples: #1->X
#4->2000A+500
#n->[{constant}]{axis}[+[{constant}]{axis}[+[{constant}]{axis}]]
[+{constant}] – Define 2 or 3 axes in terms of motor #, scale factors, and offset.
Valid only within XYZ or UVW groupings.
Examples:
#1->8660X-5000Y
#2->5000X+8660Y+5000
#n->I[+{constant}] – Assign motor as inverse kinematic axis
Turbo PMAC Command Summary
7
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
#n-> – Report axis definition of motor n in this C. S.
#n->0 – Erase axis definition of motor n in this C. S.
UNDEFINE – Erase definition of all axes in this C. S.
General Coordinate-System Commands
%{constant} – specify feedrate override value
$$ – Establish phase reference (if necessary) and close loop for all motors in C.S.
$$* – Read absolute position value for all motors in C.S.
Coordinate-System Reporting Commands
?? – Report coordinate system status in hex ASCII form
% – report current feedrate override value to host
LIST PC – Report next line to be calculated in motion program
LIST PE – Report executing motion line in motion program
LIST ROTARY – Report contents of coordinate system’s rotary motion program buffer
MOVETIME – Report time left in presently executing move
PC – Report address of next line to be calculated in motion program
PE – Report address of executing motion line in motion program
PR – Report number of lines still to be calculated in rotary buffer
Program Control Commands
/ - Stop execution at end of currently executing move
\ - Execute quickest stop in lookahead that does not violate constraints
R – Run current program
S – Do one step of current program
B[{constant}] – Set program counter to specified location
H – Feed hold for coordinate system
A – Abort present program or move starting immediately
ABR[{constant}] – Abort present program and restart or start another program
Q – Halt program; stop moves at end of last calculated program command
MFLUSH – Erase contents of synchronous M-variable stack without executing
Coordinate-System Variable Commands
Q{data}={expression} – Assign expression value to specified Q-variable
Q{constant}..{constant}={constant} – Assign constant value to specified range of Qvariables
Q{constant}[..{constant}] – Report Q-variable values to host
Axis Attribute Commands
{axis}={expression} – Change value of commanded axis position
Z -- Make present commanded position of all axes in coordinate system equal to zero
INC [({axis}[,{axis}...])] – Make all [or specified] axes do their moves incrementally
ABS [({axis}[,{axis}...])] – Make all [or specified] axes do their moves absolute
FRAX ({axis}[,{axis}...]) – Make specified axes to be used in vector feedrate calculations
NOFRAX – Remove all axes from list of vector feedrate axes
PMATCH – Re-match coordinate system axis positions to motor commanded positions (used in case axis
definition or motor position changed since last axis move)
8
Turbo PMAC Command Summary
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Buffer Control Commands
DEFINE ROT {constant} – Establish rotary motion program buffer of specified word size for the
addressed coordinate system
DELETE ROT – Erase rotary motion program buffer for addressed coordinate system
DEFINE LOOKAHEAD {constant},{constant} – Establish lookahead buffer for the addressed
coordinate system with the specified number of motion segments and synchronous Mvariable assignments
DELETE LOOKAHEAD – Erase lookahead buffer for addressed coordinate system
DEFINE CCBUFFER – Establish extended cutter-compensation block buffer
DELETE CCBUFFER – Erase extended cutter-compensation block buffer
LEARN – Read present commanded positions and add as axis commands to open program buffer
OPEN FORWARD – Open forward-kinematic program buffer for entry
OPEN INVERSE – Open inverse-kinematic program buffer for entry
On-line Motor Commands
(These act immediately on the currently addressed motor. Except for the reporting commands, these
commands are rejected if the motor is in a coordinate system that is currently running a motion program.)
General Motor Commands
$ – Establish phase reference (if necessary) and close loop for motor
$* – Read absolute position for motor
HOME – Perform homing search move for motor
HOMEZ – Set present commanded position for motor to zero
K – Kill output for motor
O{constant} – Set open-loop servo output of specified magnitude
Jogging Commands
J+ – Jog motor indefinitely in positive direction
J- – Jog motor indefinitely in negative direction
J/ – Stop jogging motor; also restore to position control
J= – Jog motor to last pre-jog or pre-handwheel position
J={constant} – Jog motor to specified position
J=* – variable jog-to-position
J:{constant} – Jog motor specified distance from current commanded position
J:* – Variable incremental jog from current commanded position
J^{constant} – Jog motor specified distance from current actual position
J^* – Variable incremental jog from current actual position
{jog command}^{constant} – Jog until trigger, final value specifies distance from trigger position
to stop
Motor Reporting Commands
P – Report position of motor
V – Report velocity of motor
F – Report following error of motor
? – Report status words for motor in hex ASCII form
LIST BLCOMP – Report contents of backlash compensation table for motor
LIST BLCOMP DEF – Report definition of backlash compensation table for motor
LIST COMP – Report contents of position compensation table for motor
LIST COMP DEF – Report definition of position compensation table for motor
Turbo PMAC Command Summary
9
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
LIST TCOMP – Report contents of torque compensation table for motor
LIST TCOMP DEF – Report definition of torque compensation table for motor
Buffer Control Commands
DEFINE BLCOMP {entries},{count length} – Establish backlash compensation table for
motor; to be filled by specified number of values
DELETE BLCOMP – Erase backlash compensation table for motor
DEFINE COMP {entries},[#{source},[#{target},]],{count length} – Establish
leadscrew compensation table for motor; to be filled by specified number of values
DEFINE COMP {rows}.{columns}, [#{source1}, [#{source2},
[#{target},]]],{count length1},{count length2} – Establish twodimensional leadscrew compensation table for motor; to be filled by specified number of
values
DELETE COMP – Erase leadscrew compensation table for motor
DEFINE TCOMP {entries},{count length} – Establish torque compensation table for motor;
to be filled by specified number of values
DELETE TCOMP – Erase torque compensation table for motor
Motion Program Commands
Move Commands
{axis}{data}[{axis}{data}] – Simple position movement statement; can be used in LINEAR,
RAPID, or SPLINE modes
Example: X1000 Y(P1) Z(P2*P3)
{axis}{data}:{data}[{axis}{data}:{data}...] – Position/velocity move statement; to
be used only in PVT mode
Example: X5000:750 Y3500:(P3) A(P5+P6):100
{axis}{data}^{data}[{axis}{data}^{data}...] – Move-until-trigger statement, to be
used only in RAPID mode
{axis}{data}[{axis}{data}...][{vector}{data}...] – Arc move statement; to be used
only in CIRCLE mode; vector is to circle center
Example: X2000 Y3000 Z1000 I500 J300 K500
{axis}{data}[{axis}{data}...] R{data} -- Arc move statement; to be used only in
CIRCLE mode; R-value is radius magnitude
Example: X2000 Y3000 Z1000 R500
DWELL{data} – Zero-distance statement; fixed time base
DELAY{data} – Zero-distance; variable time base
HOME{constant}[,{constant}...] – Homing search move statement for specified motors
HOMEZ{constant}[,{constant}...] – Zero-move homing statement for specified motors
Move Mode Commands
LINEAR – Set blended linear interpolation move mode
RAPID – Set minimum-time point-to-point move mode
CIRCLE1 – Set clockwise circular interpolation move mode
CIRCLE2 – Set counterclockwise circular interpolation move mode
PVT{data} – Set position/velocity/time move mode (parabolic velocity profiles)
SPLINE1 – Set uniform cubic spline move mode
SPLINE2 – Set non-uniform cubic spline move mode
CC0 – Set cutter radius compensation off
10
Turbo PMAC Command Summary
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
CC1 – Set 2D cutter radius compensation on left
CC2 – Set 2D cutter radius compensation right
CC3 – Turn on 3D cutter radius compensation
Axis Attribute Commands
ABS [({axis}[,{axis},...])] – Set absolute move mode for all [or specified] axes
INC [({axis}[,{axis},...])] – Set incremental move mode for all [or specified] axes
FRAX ({axis}[,{axis}...]) – Set specified axes as vector feedrate axes
NOFRAX – Remove all axes from list of vector feedrate axes
NORMAL{vector}{data}[{vector}{data}...] – Specify normal vector to plane for circular
moves and cutter compensation
PSET{axis}{data}[{axis}{data}...] – Assign new values to present axis positions
CCR{data} – Specify 2D/3D cutter radius compensation value (modal)
TR{data} – Specify tool-shaft radius for 3D compensation
TSEL{data} – Select specified axis transformation matrix
TINIT – Initialize selected axis transformation matrix as identity matrix
ADIS{data} – Set displacement vector of selected matrix to values starting with specified Q-variable
IDIS{data} – Increment displacement vector of selected matrix to values starting with specified Qvariable
AROT{data} – Set rotation/scaling portion of selected matrix to values starting with specified Qvariable
IROT{data} – Incrementally change rotation/scaling portion of selected matrix by multiplying it with
values starting with specified Q-variable
SETPHASE{constant}[,{constant}…] – Set commutation phase position value for specified
motors
Move Attribute Commands
TM{data} – Specify move time (modal)
F{data} – Specify move speed (modal)
TA{data} – Specify move acceleration time (modal)
TS{data} – Specify acceleration S-curve time (modal)
NX{data} – Specify surface-normal vector X-component for 3D comp
NY{data} – Specify surface-normal vector Y-component for 3D comp
NZ{data} – Specify surface-normal vector Z-component for 3D comp
TX{data} – Specify tool-orientation vector X-component for 3D comp
TY{data} – Specify tool-orientation vector Y-component for 3D comp
TZ{data} – Specify tool-orientation vector Z-component for 3D comp
Variable Assignment Commands
I{data}={expression} – Assign expression value to specified I-variable
P{data}={expression} – Assign expression value to specified P-variable
Q{data}={expression} – Assign expression value to specified Q-variable
M{data}={expression} – Assign expression value to specified M-variable
M{data}=={expression} – Assign expression synchronous with start of next move
M{data}&={expression} – ‘AND’ M-variable with expression synchronous with start of next move
M{data}|={expression} – ‘OR’ M-variables with expression synchronous with start of next
move
M{data}^={expression} – ‘XOR’ M-variables with expression synchronous with start of next
move
Turbo PMAC Command Summary
11
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Program Logic Control
N{constant} – Line label
O{constant} – Line label, alternate entry form
GOTO{data} – Jump to specified line label; no return
GOSUB{data}[{letter}{axis}...] – Jump to specified line label [with arguments] and return
CALL{data}[.{data}][{letter}{axis}...] – Jump to specified program [and label] [with
arguments] and return.
RETURN –- Return program operation to most recent GOSUB or CALL
READ ({letter} [,{letter}...]) – Read argument into subroutine/subprogram from calling
line
G{data} – Gnn[.mmm] interpreted as CALL 1000.nnmmm (PROG 1000 provides subroutines for
desired G-Code actions)
M{data} – Mnn[.mmm] interpreted as CALL 1001.nnmmm (PROG 1001 provides subroutines for
desired M-Code actions)
T{data} – Tnn[.mmm] interpreted as CALL 1002.nnmmm (PROG 1002 provides subroutines for
desired T-Code actions.)
D{data} – Dnn[.mmm] interpreted as CALL 1003.nnmmm (PROG 1003 provides subroutines for
desired D-Code actions.)
S{data} – Set Q127 to value of {data} (spindle command)
PRELUDE1{call command} – Enable modal execution of call command before subsequent moves
PRELUDE0 – Disable modal PRELUDE calls
IF ({condition}){action} – Conditionally execute single-line action
IF ({condition}) – Conditionally execute following statements
ELSE {action} – Execute single-line action on previous false condition
ELSE –- Execute following statements on previous false IF condition
ENDIF – Mark end of conditionally executed branch statements
WHILE ({condition}){action} – Do single-line action as long as condition true
WHILE ({condition}) – Execute following statements as long as condition true
ENDWHILE – Mark end of conditionally executed loop statements
BLOCKSTART – So all commands until BLOCKSTOP to execute on Step
BLOCKSTOP – End of “single-step” statements starting on BLOCKSTART
STOP – Halt program execution, ready to resume
WAIT – Use with WHILE to halt execution while condition true
LOCK{constant},P{constant} – Check/set process-locking bit
UNLOCK{constant} – Clear process-locking bit
Miscellaneous Commands
COMMAND"{command}" – Issue text command, no response
COMMAND^{letter} – Issue control character command, no response
COMMANDS"{command}" – Issue text command, respond to main serial port
COMMANDS^{letter} – Issue control character command, respond to main serial port
COMMANDP"{command}" – Issue text command, respond to parallel bus port
COMMANDP^{letter} – Issue control character command, respond to parallel bus port
COMMANDR"{command}" – Issue text command, respond to DPRAM ASCII port
COMMANDR^{letter} – Issue control character command, respond to DPRAM ASCII port
COMMANDA"{command}" – Issue text command, respond to auxiliary serial port
COMMANDA^{letter} – Issue control character command, respond to auxiliary serial port
SENDS"{message}" – Transmit message over main serial interface
12
Turbo PMAC Command Summary
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
SENDP"{message}" – Transmit message over parallel bus interface
SENDR"{message}" – Transmit message over DPRAM ASCII interface
SENDA"{message}" – Transmit message over auxiliary serial interface
DISPLAY [{constant}] "{message}" – Send message to LCD display [starting at specified
location]
DISPLAY {constant}, {constant}.{constant}, {variable} –- Send variable value to
LCD using specified location and format
ENABLE PLC{constant}[,{constant}...] – Enable operation of specified interpreted PLC
program[s], starting at top of program
DISABLE PLC{constant}[,{constant}...] – Disable operation of specified interpreted PLC
program[s]
PAUSE PLC{constant}[,{constant}...] – Suspend operation of specified interpreted PLC
program[s]
RESUME PLC{constant}[,{constant}...] – Enable operation of specified interpreted PLC
program[s], starting at paused point
ENABLE PLCC{constant}[,{constant}...] – Enable operation of specified compiled PLC
program[s]
DISABLE PLCC{constant}[,{constant}...] – Disable operation of specified compiled PLC
program[s]
PLC Program Commands
Conditions
IF ({condition}) – Conditionally execute following statements
WHILE ({condition}) – Execute following statements as long as condition true
AND ({condition}) – Forms compound condition with IF or WHILE
OR ({condition}) – Forms compound condition with IF or WHILE
ELSE – Execute following statements on previous false IF condition
ENDIF – Mark end of conditionally executed branch statements
ENDWHILE – Mark end of conditionally executed loop statements
Variable Value Assignment
I{data}={expression}
P{data}={expression}
Q{data}={expression}
M{data}={expression}
– assigns expression value to specified I-variable
– assigns expression value to specified P-variable
– assigns expression value to specified Q-variable
– assigns expression value to specified M-variable
Command Issuance
ADDRESS#n&n – Modally address specified motor and/or coordinate system
ADDRESS#Pn – Modally address motor specified in P-variable
ADDRESS&Pn – Modally address coordinate system specified in P-variable
COMMAND"{command}" – Issue text command, no response
COMMAND^{letter} – Issue control character command, no response
COMMANDS"{command}" – Issue text command, respond to main serial port
COMMANDS^{letter} – Issue control character command, respond to main serial port
COMMANDP"{command}" – Issue text command, respond to parallel bus port
COMMANDP^{letter} – Issue control character command, respond to parallel bus port
COMMANDR"{command}" – Issue text command, respond to DPRAM ASCII port
COMMANDR^{letter} – Issue control character command, respond to DPRAM ASCII port
Turbo PMAC Command Summary
13
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
COMMANDA"{command}" – Issue text command, respond to auxiliary serial port
COMMANDA^{letter} – Issue control character command, respond to auxiliary serial port
Message Transmission and Display
SENDS"{message}" – Transmit message over main serial interface
SENDP"{message}" – Transmit message over parallel bus interface
SENDR"{message}" – Transmit message over DPRAM ASCII interface
SENDA"{message}" – Transmit message over auxiliary serial interface
DISPLAY [{constant}] "{message}" – Send message to LCD display [starting at specified
location]
DISPLAY {constant}, {constant}.{constant}, {variable} –- Send variable value to
LCD using specified location and format
PLC Operational Control Commands
ENABLE PLC{constant}[,{constant}...] – Enable operation of specified interpreted PLC
program[s], starting at top of program
DISABLE PLC{constant}[,{constant}...] – Disable operation of specified interpreted PLC
program[s]
PAUSE PLC{constant}[,{constant}...] – Suspend operation of specified interpreted PLC
program[s]
RESUME PLC{constant}[,{constant}...] – Enable operation of specified interpreted PLC
program[s], starting at paused point
ENABLE PLCC{constant}[,{constant}...] – Enable operation of specified compiled PLC
program[s]
DISABLE PLCC{constant}[,{constant}...] – Disable operation of specified compiled PLC
program[s]
MACRO Ring Commands
MACROAUXREAD{node#},{param#},{variable} – Copy MACRO Type 0 auxiliary parameter
value from slave node to PMAC variable
MACROAUXWRITE{node#},{param#},{variable} – Copy from PMAC variable to MACRO
Type 0 auxiliary parameter value in slave node
MACROMSTREAD{master#},{master variable},{ring-master variable} – Copy
variable value from remote MACRO master into own variable through Type 1 MACRO
protocol
MACROMSTWRITE{master#},{master variable},{ring-master variable} – Copy
variable value to remote MACRO master from own variable through Type 1 MACRO
protocol
MACROSLVREAD{node#},{slave variable},{PMAC variable} – Copy from slave node
variable to PMAC variable with Type 1 MACRO protocol
MACROSLVWRITE{node#},{slave variable},{PMAC variable} – Copy PMAC variable
to slave node variable with Type 1 MACRO protocol
14
Turbo PMAC Command Summary
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
TURBO PMAC GLOBAL I-VARIABLES
General Global Setup I-Variables
I0
Serial Card Number
Range:
$0 to $F (0 to 15)
Units:
None
Default:
$0
I0 controls the Turbo PMAC card number for software addressing purposes on a multi-drop serial
communications cable. If I1 is set to 2 or 3, the Turbo PMAC must be addressed with the @n command,
where n matches the value of I0 on the board, before it will respond. If the Turbo PMAC receives the @n
command, where n does not match I0 on the board, it will stop responding to commands on the serial
port. No two boards on the same serial cable may have the same value of I0.
If the @@ command is sent over the serial port, all boards on the cable will respond to action commands.
However, only the board with I0 set to 0 will respond to the host with handshake characters (no data
responses are permitted in this mode). All boards on the cable will respond to control-character action
commands such as <CTRL-R>, regardless of the current addressing.
Note:
RS-422 serial interfaces must be used on all Turbo PMAC boards for multi-drop
serial communications; this will not work with RS-232 interfaces. If the RS-422
interface is not present as a standard feature on the PMAC2 board, the Option 9L
serial converter module must be purchased. It is possible to use an RS-232
interface on the host computer, connected to the RS-422 ports on the Turbo PMAC
boards.
Typically, multiple Turbo PMAC boards on the same serial cable will share servo and phase clock signals
over the serial port cable for tight synchronization. If the servo and phase clock lines are connected
between multiple Turbo PMACs, only one of the Turbo PMAC boards can be set up to output these
clocks (E40-E43 ON for Turbo PMAC; E1 jumper OFF for Turbo PMAC2). All of the other boards in
the chain must be set up to input these clocks (any of E40-E43 OFF for Turbo PMAC; E1 jumper ON for
Turbo PMAC2).
Note:
Any Turbo PMAC board set up to input these clocks is expecting its Servo and
Phase clock signals externally from a Card 0. If it does not receive these clock
signals, the watchdog timer will immediately shut down the board and the red LED
will light.
If the Turbo PMAC is set to receive external Servo and Phase clock signals for synchronization purposes,
but is not using multi-drop serial communications, I0 does not need to be changed from 0.
To set up a board to communicate as Card 1 to Card 15 on a multi-drop serial cable, first communicate
with the board as Card 0. Set I0 to specify the card number (software address) that the board will have on
the multi-drop cable. Also, set I1 to 2 to enable the serial software addressing. Store these values to the
non-volatile flash memory with the SAVE command. Then turn off power; if the board is to input its
clocks, remove any jumper E40-E43 (Turbo PMAC) or put a jumper on E1 (Turbo PMAC2), connect the
multi-drop cable, and restore power to the system.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
15
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I1
Serial Port Mode
Range:
0 to 3
Units:
None
Default:
0
I1 controls two aspects of how Turbo PMAC uses its main serial port. The first aspect is whether PMAC
uses the CS (CTS) handshake line to decide if it can send a character out the serial port. The second
aspect is whether PMAC will require software card addressing, permitting multiple cards to be daisychained on a single serial line.
There are four possible values of I1, covering all the possible combinations:
Setting
0
1
2
3
Meaning
CS handshake used; no software card address required
CS handshake not used; no software card address required
CS handshake used; software card address required
CS handshake not used; software card address required
When CS handshaking is used (I1 is 0 or 2), Turbo PMAC waits for the CS line to go true before it will
send a character. This is the normal setting for real serial communications to a host; it allows the host to
hold off Turbo PMAC messages until it is ready.
When CS handshaking is not used (I1 is 1 or 3), Turbo PMAC disregards the state of the CS input and
always sends the character immediately. This mode permits Turbo PMAC to “output” messages, values,
and acknowledgments over the serial port even when there is nothing connected, which can be valuable in
stand-alone and PLC-based applications where there are SENDS and CMDS statements in the program.
If these strings cannot be sent out the serial port, they can back up, stopping program execution.
When software addressing is not used (I1 is 0 or 1), Turbo PMAC assumes that it is the only card on the
serial line, so it always acts on received commands, sending responses back over the line as appropriate.
When software addressing is used (I1 is 2 or 3), Turbo PMAC assumes that there are other cards on the
line, so it requires that it be addressed (with the @{card} command) before it responds to commands.
The {card} number in the command must match the card number set up with variable I0.
I2
Control Panel Port Activation
Range:
0 to 3
Units:
None
Default:
0
I2 allows the enabling and disabling of the control panel discrete inputs on the JPAN connector, should
this connector exist. I2=0 enables these control panel functions; I2=1 disables them. When disabled,
these inputs can be used as general purpose I/O. The reset, handwheel, and wiper inputs on the JPAN
connector are not affected by I2.
On a Turbo PMAC board, when I2=0, the IPOS, EROR and F1ER status lines to JPAN and the
Programmable Interrupt Controller (PIC), and the BREQ status line to the PIC, reflect the hardwareselected coordinate system (by BCD-coded lines FPDn/ on JPAN); when I2=1, they reflect the softwareaddressed coordinate system (&n). (On a Turbo PMAC2, the lines to the PIC always reflect the softwareaddressed coordinate system.)
When I2=3, discrete inputs on a JPAN connector are disabled, and the dual-ported RAM control panel
functions are enabled. Refer to the descriptions of DPRAM functions for more detail.
16
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I3
I/O Handshake Control
Range:
0 to 3
Units:
None
Default:
1
I3 controls what characters, if any, are used by Turbo PMAC to delimit a transmitted line, and whether
PMAC issues an acknowledgment (handshake) of a command.
Note:
With communications checksum enabled (I4=1), checksum bytes are added after
the handshake character bytes.
Valid values of I3 and the modes they represent are:
0: Turbo PMAC does not acknowledge receipt of a valid command. It returns a <BELL> character on
receipt of an invalid command. Messages are sent without beginning or terminating <LF> (line feed);
simply as DATA <CR> (carriage return).
1. Turbo PMAC acknowledges receipt of a valid <CR>-terminated command with a <LF>; of an invalid
command with a <BELL> character. Messages are sent as <LF> DATA <CR> [ <LF> DATA
<CR> ... ] <LF>. (The final <LF> is the acknowledgment of the host command; it does not
get sent with a message initiated from a PMAC program [SEND or CMD]). This setting is good for
communicating with dumb terminal display programs.
2. Turbo PMAC acknowledges receipt of a valid <CR>-terminated command with an <ACK>; of an
invalid command with a <BELL> character. Messages are sent as DATA <CR> [ DATA <CR>
... ] <ACK>. (The final <ACK> is the acknowledgment of the host command; it does not get
sent with a message initiated from a PMAC program [SEND or CMD]). This is probably the best
setting for fast communications with a host program without terminal display.
3. Turbo PMAC acknowledges receipt of a valid <CR>-terminated command with an <ACK>; of an
invalid command with a <BELL> character. Messages are sent as <LF> DATA <CR> [ <LF>
DATA <CR> ... ] <ACK>. (The final <ACK> is the acknowledgment of the host command; it
does not get sent with a message initiated from a PMAC program [SEND or CMD]).
Note:
I3 does not affect how DPRAM ASCII communications are performed.
Examples:
With I3=0:
#1J+<CR> ........
..........................
UUU<CR> ..........
<BELL>.............
P1..3<CR> ......
25<CR>50<CR>75<CR>
; Valid command not requiring data response
; No acknowledging character
; Invalid command
; PMAC reports error
; Valid command requiring data response
; PMAC responds with requested data
With I3=1:
#1J+<CR> ........
; Valid command not requiring data response
<LF> .................
; Acknowledging character
UUU<CR> ..........
; Invalid command
<BELL>.............
; PMAC reports error
P1..3<CR> ......
; Valid command requiring data response
<LF>25<CR><LF>50<CR><LF>75<CR><LF>
; PMAC responds with requested data
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
17
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
With I3=2:
#1J+<CR> ........
<ACK>.......
UUU<CR> ..........
<BELL>.............
P1..3<CR> ......
25<CR>50<CR>75<CR><ACK>
; Valid command not requiring data response
; Acknowledging character
; Invalid command
; PMAC reports error
; Valid command requiring data response
; PMAC responds with requested data
With I3=3:
#1J+<CR> ........
; Valid command not requiring data response
<ACK> ...............
; Acknowledging character
UUU<CR> ..........
; Invalid command
<BELL>.............
; PMAC reports error
P1..3<CR> ......
; Valid command requiring data response
<LF>25<CR><LF>50<CR><LF>75<CR><ACK>
..........................
; PMAC responds with requested data
I4
Communications Integrity Mode
Range:
0 to 3
Units:
None
Default:
1
This parameter permits Turbo PMAC to compute checksums of the communications bytes (characters)
sent either way between the host and Turbo PMAC, and also controls how Turbo PMAC reacts to serial
character errors (parity and framing), if found. Parity checking is only available on Turbo PMAC boards;
it is enabled only if jumper E49 is OFF.
The possible settings of I4 are:
Setting
0
1
2
3
Meaning
Checksum disabled, serial errors reported immediately
Checksum enabled, serial errors reported immediately
Checksum disabled, serial errors reported at end of line
Checksum enabled, serial errors reported at end of line
Communications Checksum: With I4=1 or 3, Turbo PMAC computes the checksum for
communications in either direction and sends the checksum to the host. It is up to the host to do the
comparison between PMAC's checksum and the checksum it computed itself. Turbo PMAC does not do
this comparison. The host should never send a checksum byte to Turbo PMAC.
Host-to-Turbo-PMAC Checksum: Turbo PMAC will compute the checksum of a communications line
sent from the host to Turbo PMAC. The checksum does not include any control characters sent (not even
the final Carriage-Return). The checksum is sent to the host immediately following the acknowledging
handshake character (<LF> or <ACK>), if any. Note that this acknowledging and handshake comes after
any data response to the command (and its checksum!). If Turbo PMAC detects an error in the line
through its normal syntax checking, it will respond with the <BELL> character, but will not follow this
with a checksum byte.
Note:
The on-line command <CTRL-N> can be used to verify the checksum of a
command line before the <CR> has been sent. The use of <CTRL-N> does not
affect how I4 causes Turbo PMAC to report a checksum after the <CR> has been
sent.
18
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Turbo-PMAC-to-Host Checksum: Turbo PMAC will compute the checksum of any communications
line it sends to the host. This checksum includes control characters sent with the line, including the final
<carriage-return>. The checksum is sent immediately following this <carriage-return>.
On a multiple-line response, one checksum is sent for each line. Note that this checksum is sent before
the checksum of the command line that caused the response.
For more details on checksum, refer to the Writing a Host Communications Program section of the
manual.
Serial character errors: If Turbo PMAC detects a serial character error, it will set a flag so that the
entire command line will be rejected as having a syntax error after the <CR> is sent. With I4=0 or 1, it
will also send a <BELL> character to the host immediately on detecting the character error. Note that this
mode will catch a character error on the <CR> as well, whereas in the I4=2 or 3 mode, the host would
have to catch an error on the <CR> character by the fact that Turbo PMAC would not respond (because it
never saw a <CR>).
I5
PLC Program Control
Range:
0 to 3
Units:
None
Default:
1
I5 controls which PLC programs may be enabled. There are two types of PLC programs: the foreground
programs (PLC 0 and PLCC 0), which operate at the end of servo interrupt calculations, with a repetition
rate determined by I8 (PLC 0 and PLCC 0 should be used only for time-critical tasks and should be
short); and the background programs (PLC 1 to PLC 31, PLCC 1 to PLCC 31) which cycle repeatedly in
background as time allows. I5 controls these as follows:
Setting
0
1
2
3
Meaning
Foreground PLCs off; background PLCs off
Foreground PLCs on; background PLCs off
Foreground PLCs off; background PLCs on
Foreground PLCs on; background PLCs on
Note that an individual PLC program still needs to be enabled to run -- a proper value of I5 merely
permits it to be run. Any PLC program that exists at power-up or reset is enabled automatically (even if
the saved value of I5 does not permit it to run immediately); also, the ENABLE PLC n or ENABLE
PLCC n command enables the specified programs. A PLC program is disabled either by the DISABLE
PLC n or DISABLE PLCC n command, or by the OPEN PLC n command. A CLOSE command
does not re-enable the PLC program automatically – it must be done explicitly.
I6
Error Reporting Mode
Range:
0 to 3
Units:
None
Default:
1
I6 controls how Turbo PMAC reports errors in command lines. When I6 is set to 0 or 2, PMAC reports
any error only with a <BELL> character. When I6 is 0, the <BELL> character is given for invalid
commands issued both from the host and from Turbo PMAC programs (using CMD”{command}”).
When I6 is 2, the <BELL> character is given only for invalid commands from the host; there is no response
to invalid commands issued from Turbo PMAC programs. (In no mode is there a response to valid
commands issued from PMAC programs.)
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
19
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
When I6 is set to 1 or 3, an error number message can be reported along with the <BELL> character. The
message comes in the form of ERRnnn<CR>, where nnn represents the three-digit error number. If I3 is
set to 1 or 3, there is a <LF> character in front of the message.
When I6 is set to 1, the form of the error message is <BELL>{error message}. This setting is the
best for interfacing with host-computer driver routines. When I6 is set to 3, the form of the error message
is <BELL><CR>{error message}. This setting is appropriate for use with the PMAC Executive
Program in terminal mode.
Currently, the following error messages can be reported:
Error
Problem
ERR001
Command not allowed during program execution
ERR002
ERR003
ERR004
ERR005
ERR006
Password error
Data error or unrecognized command
Illegal character: bad value (>127 ASCII) or serial
parity/framing error
Command not allowed unless buffer is open
No room in buffer for command
ERR007
ERR008
Buffer already in use
MACRO auxiliary communications error
ERR009
ERR010
ERR011
ERR012
ERR013
Program structural error (e.g. ENDIF without IF)
Both overtravel limits set for a motor in the C. S.
Previous move not completed
A motor in the coordinate system is open-loop
A motor in the coordinate system is not activated
ERR014
ERR015
No motors in the coordinate system
Not pointing to valid program buffer
ERR016
Running improperly structured program (e.g.
missing ENDWHILE)
Trying to resume after H or Q with motors out of
stopped position
Attempt to perform phase reference during move,
move during phase reference., or enabling with
phase clock error.
Illegal position-change command while moves
stored in CCBUFFER
ERR017
ERR018
ERR019
I7
Solution
(should halt program execution before issuing
command)
(should enter the proper password)
(should correct syntax of command)
(should correct the character and or check for
noise on the serial cable)
(should open a buffer first)
(should allow more room for buffer -DELETE or CLEAR other buffers)
(should CLOSE currently open buffer first)
(should check MACRO ring hardware and
software setup)
(should correct structure of program)
(should correct or disable limits)
(should Abort it or allow it to complete)
(should close the loop on the motor)
(should set Ix00 to 1 or remove motor from
C.S.)
(should define at least one motor in C.S.)
(should use B command first, or clear out
scrambled buffers)
(should correct structure of program)
(should use J= to return motor[s] to stopped
position)
(should finish move before phase reference,
finish phase reference before move, or fix
phase clock source problem)
(should pass through section of Program
requiring storage of moves in CCBUFFER, or
abort)
Phase Cycle Extension
Range:
0 to 15
Units:
Phase Clock Cycles
Default:
0
I7 permits the extension of the software phase update period to multiple Phase clock interrupt periods.
The software phase update algorithms, which do the commutation and current loop calculations for
motors, are executed every (I7+1) Phase clock cycles. In other words, the phase update cycle is extended
by I7 phase clock cycles.
20
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The hardware Phase clock period (frequency) is controlled by jumpers E98 and E29-E33 on a Turbo
PMAC, variables I7000 and I7001 on a Turbo PMAC2 that is not Ultralite, or variables I6800 and I6801
on a Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite.
Most Turbo PMAC users will leave I7 at the default value of 0, so that phase update algorithms are
executed every phase clock cycle. There are two reasons to extend the phase update cycle by setting I7
greater than 0.
First, if the Turbo PMAC is doing direct PWM control of motors over the MACRO ring, it is advisable to
set I7 to 1 so that the MACRO ring, which operates on the hardware phase clock, cycles twice per
software phase cycle. This will eliminate one phase cycle delay in the closing of the current loops, which
permits higher gains and higher performance. For example, the hardware phase clock could be set to 18
kHz, but with I7=1, the current loop would be closed at a reasonable 9 kHz.
Second, if many multiplexed A/D converters from the on-board Option 12, or Acc-36 boards, are used for
servo feedback, I7 can be set greater than zero to ensure that each A/D converter is processed once per
servo cycle. One pair of multiplexed ADCs is processed each hardware phase clock cycle.
For example, if 8 pairs of multiplexed ADCs needed to be processed each 440 sec (2.25 kHz) servo
cycle, and the software phase update were desired to be at 220 sec (4.5 kHz), the phase clock update
would be set to 18 kHz (18/8 = 2.25) to get through all 8 ADC pairs each servo cycle, I7 would be set to 3
(18/[3+1] = 4.5) to get the software phase update at 4.5 kHz, and the servo cycle clock divider would be
set to divide-by-8 (E3-E6 on Turbo PMAC, I7002=7 on non-Ultralite Turbo PMAC2, I6802=7 on Turbo
PMAC2 Ultralite).
There must be an integer number of software phase updates in a Servo clock period. For example if the
Servo clock frequency is ¼ the Phase clock frequency (I7002 or I6802 = 3), the legitimate values of I7 are
0, which provides 4 software phase updates per servo clock period; 1, which provides 2 updates per
period; and 3, which provides 1 update per period. Note that this rule means that the software phase
update period must never be longer than the servo clock period.
I8
Real-Time Interrupt Period
Range:
0 to 255
Units:
Servo Clock Cycles
Default:
2
I8 controls how often certain time-critical tasks, such as PLC 0, PLCC 0, and checking for motion
program move planning, are performed. These tasks are performed every (I8+1) servo cycles, at a
priority level called the “real-time interrupt” (RTI). A value of 2 means that these tasks are performed
after every third servo interrupt, 3 means every fourth interrupt, and so on. The vast majority of users can
leave this at the default value. In some advanced applications that push PMAC's speed capabilities,
tradeoffs between performance of these tasks and the calculation time they take may have to be evaluated
in setting this parameter.
Turbo PMAC cannot compute more than one programmed move block, or more than one internal move
segment if the coordinate system is in segmentation mode (Isx13 > 0), per real-time interrupt. If very
high programmed move block rates (small move times), or very high segmentation rates (small
segmentation times) are desired, it is best to make I8 as small as possible (preferably 0). This will ensure
that the calculations are done every move or segment, and that they are started as early as possible in the
move or segment to maximize the likelihood of completing the calculations in time.
If move or segment calculations are not completed in time, Turbo PMAC will abort the program
automatically with a run-time error.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
21
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Note:
A large PLC 0 with a small value of I8 can cause severe problems, because Turbo
PMAC will attempt to execute the PLC program every I8 cycle. This can starve
background tasks, including communications, background PLCs, and even
updating of the watchdog timer, for time, leading to erratic performance or
possibly even shutdown.
In multiple-card Turbo PMAC applications where it is very important that motion programs on the two
cards start as closely together as possible, I8 should be set to 0. In this case, no PLC 0 should be running
when the cards are awaiting a Run command. At other times, I8 may be set greater than 0 and PLC 0 reenabled.
I9
Full/Abbreviated Listing Control
Range:
0 to 3
Units:
None
Default:
2
I9 controls how Turbo PMAC reports program listings and variable values. I9 is a 2-bit value. Bit 0
whether short-form or long-form reporting is used; bit 1 controls whether address I-variable values are
reported in decimal or hexadecimal form. The following table summarizes:
Setting
0
1
2
3
Meaning
Short form, decimal address I-variable return
Long form, decimal address I-variable return
Short form, hex address I-variable return
Long form, hex address I-variable return
When this parameter is 0 or 2 (bit 0 = 0), programs are sent back in abbreviated form for maximum
compactness, and when I-variable values or M-variable definitions are requested, only the values or
definitions are returned, not the full statements. When this parameter is 1 or 3 (bit 0 = 1), programs are
sent back in full form for maximum readability. Also, I-variable values and M-variable definitions are
returned as full command statements, which is useful for archiving and later downloading.
When this parameter is 0 or 1 (bit 1 = 0), I-variable values that specify PMAC addresses are returned in
decimal form. When it is 2 or 3 (bit 1 = 1), these values are returned in hexadecimal form (with the '$'
prefix). Any I-variable values cdan be sent to PMAC either in hex or decimal, regardless of the I9 setting.
This does not affect how I-variable assignment statements inside Turbo PMAC motion and PLC
programs are reported when the program is listed.
I10
Servo Interrupt Time
Range:
Units:
Default:
0 to 8,388,607
1 / 8,388,608 msec
3,713,707 [Turbo PMAC: 442.71 sec]
3,713,991 [Turbo PMAC2: 442.74 sec]
This parameter tells Turbo PMAC how much time there is between servo interrupts (which is controlled
by hardware circuitry), so that the interpolation software knows how much time to increment each servo
interrupt.
The fundamental equation for I10 is:
I 10 
22
8 ,388 ,608
 8 ,388 ,608 * ServoTime( m sec)
ServoFrequency ( kHz )
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
On Turbo PMAC, the servo interrupt time is determined by the settings of hardware jumpers E98, E29E33, and E3-E6. The proper value of I10 can be determined from the settings of these jumpers by the
formula:
I 10  232,107 * E 98 JumperFact or * PhaseJumperFactor * ServoJumperFactor
where the factors can be taken from the following:
1-2
1
E98 Setting
E98JumperFactor
E29
16
Phase Jumper ON
Phase Jumper Factor
E30
8
2-3
2
E31
4
E32
2
E33
1
ServoJumperFactor  1  E 3  ( 2 * E 4 )  ( 4 * E 5 )  ( 8 * E6 )
in which En = 0 if the jumper is ON, and En = 1 if the jumper is OFF.
On Turbo PMAC2, the servo interrupt time is determined on PMAC2 Ultralite boards by MACRO IC 0 Ivariables I6800, I6801, and I6802; on non-Ultralite boards by Servo IC 0 I-variables I7000, I7001, and
I7002; on UMAC Turbo systems by Servo IC m I-variables I7m00, I7m01, and I7m02, or MACRO IC 0
I-variables I6800, I6801, or I6802. The proper setting of I10 can be determined from Servo IC variables
by the formula:
I 10 
640
2* I7 m00  3I7 m01  1I7 m02  1
9
The proper setting of I10 can be determined from MACRO IC 0 variables by the formula:
I 10 
640
2* I 6800  3I 6801  1I 6802  1
9
When changing I10, a %100 command must be issued, or the value saved and the controller reset, before
the new value of I10 will take effect.
I10 is used to provide the delta-time value in the position update calculations, scaled such that 2 23 –
8,388,608 – means one millisecond. Delta-time in these equations is I10*(%value/100). The % (feedrate
override) value can be controlled in any of several ways: with the on-line ‘%’ command, with a direct
write to the command ‘%’ register, with an analog voltage input, or with a digital input frequency. The
default % value is 100, and many applications can always leave it at 100.
I11
Programmed Move Calculation Time
Range:
0 to 8,388,607
Units:
msec
Default:
0
I11 controls the delay from when the run signal is taken (or the move sent if executing immediately) and
when the first programmed move starts. If several Turbo PMACs need to be run synchronously, I11
should be set the same on all of the cards. If I11 is set to zero, the first programmed move starts as soon
as the calculation is complete.
This calculation time delay is also used after any break in the continuous motion of a motion program: a
DWELL, a PSET, a WAIT, or each move if Ix92=1 (a DELAY is technically a zero-distance move, and so
does not constitute a break).
The actual delay time varies with the time base (e.g. at a value of 50, the actual delay time will be twice
the number defined here), which keeps it as a fixed distance of the master in an external time base
application. If it is desired to have the slave coordinate system start up immediately with the master, I11
should be set to zero, and the program commanded to run before the master starts to move.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
23
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Note:
If I11 is greater than zero, defining a definite time for calculations, and Turbo
PMAC cannot complete the calculations for the first move of a sequence by the
end of the I11 time, Turbo PMAC will terminate the running of the program with a
run-time error.
I12
Lookahead Time Spline Enable
Range:
0-1
Units:
none
Default:
0
I12 permits the enabling of a new lookahead technique called time splining. If I12 is set to 1, all coordinate
systems that are executing lookahead will use this technique. If I12 is set to 0, none of them will.
Time splining permits smoother transitions from one vector velocity to another during lookahead when
there is little or no change in direction. As long as the commanded vector velocity going into lookahead
does not change by more than a factor of two in a single Isx13 segment, the velocity change will be made
without any velocity undershoot.
Without this technique, large changes in vector velocity that have to be extended by lookahead can cause
significant velocity undershoot.
Setting I12 to 1 adds a small but potentially significant computational load to the lookahead calculations.
I13
Foreground In-Position Check Enable
Range:
0-1
Units:
none
Default:
0
I13 controls whether the activated motors on Turbo PMAC check for in-position as a foreground servointerrupt task or not. If I13 is set to the default value of 0, in-position checking is done as a lower-priority
background task only. If I13 is set to 1, a basic in-position check operation is done for all active motors
every servo interrupt as well.
The foreground in-position check function is intended for very rapid move-and-settle applications for
which the background check is too slow. Enabling this function permits the fastest possible assessment of
whether a motor is in position.
For the foreground check to consider a motor to be in position, the following four conditions must all be
met:
1. The motor must be in closed-loop control;
2. The desired velocity must be zero;
3. The magnitude of the following error must be less than the motor’s Ixx28 parameter;
4. The move timer for the motor must not be active.
Note:
Unlike the background in-position check, there is no capability in the foreground
check to require these conditions be true for Ixx88+1 consecutive scans.
If the foreground check decides that the motor is in position, it sets bit 13 of the motor status word
(Y:$0000C0 for Motor 1) to 1; if it decides that the motor is “not in position”, it sets this bit to 0. This
foreground status bit is distinct from the background motor status bit at bit 0 of the same word. The
coordinate system’s in-position status bit, which is the logical OR of the background motor in-position
bits for all of the motors in the coordinate system, is not affected by the foreground in-position check.
Setting I13 to 1 to enable the foreground in-position check adds about 5% to the required time of the
servo-interrupt tasks for each active motor.
24
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I14
Temporary Buffer Save Enable
Range:
0–1
Units:
none
Default:
0
I14 controls whether the structure of the “temporary” buffers on Turbo PMAC can be retained through a
board power-down or reset. The temporary buffers are those where the information in the buffer is never
retained through a power-down or reset. These buffers are:
 The rotary motion program buffer (ROTARY) for each coordinate system
 The segment lookahead buffer (LOOKAHEAD) for each coordinate system
 The extended cutter radius compensation block buffer (CRCOMP) for each coordinate system
If I14 is set to 0 when a SAVE command is issued, the structure for these buffers is not stored to nonvolatile flash memory, and so will not be present after the next power-down or board reset. In this case,
any of these buffers to be used must be re-defined after each power-down or reset (e.g. DEFINE
ROTARY, DEFINE LOOKAHEAD).
If I14 is set to 1 when a SAVE command is issued, the structure for these buffers is stored to non-volatile
flash memory, although the contents of these buffers are not stored. In this case, any of these buffers that
existed at the time of the SAVE command will be present after the next power-down or reset, and so do not
need to be re-defined. However, these buffers will always be empty after a board power-down or reset.
The structure for the temporary data-gathering buffer is not retained through a power down or reset,
regardless of the setting of I14.
I15
Degree/Radian Control for User Trig Functions
Range:
0 to 1
Units:
None
Default:
0 (degrees)
I15 controls whether the angle values for trigonometric functions in user programs (motion and PLC) and
on-line commands are expressed in degrees (I15=0) or radians (I15=1).
I16
Rotary Buffer Request On Point
Range:
0 to 8,388,607
Units:
Program lines
Default:
5
I16 controls the point at which an executing rotary program will signal that it is ready to take more
command lines (BREQ line taken high, coordinate system Rotary Buffer Full status bit taken low). This
occurs when the executing point in the program has caught up to within fewer lines behind the last line
sent to Turbo PMAC than the value in this parameter. This can be detected as an interrupt to the host or
be checked by the host on a polled basis.
Note:
On Turbo PMAC, the BREQ line to the interrupt controller reflects the status of
the hardware-selected coordinate system (by JPAN pins FPDn/) if the controlpanel inputs are enabled (I2=0); it represents the status of the software-hostaddressed coordinate system if the control-panel inputs are disabled (I2=1). In
virtually all applications using this feature, the user will want to set I2 to 1 so the
BREQ line reflects the status of the coordinate system to which he is currently
talking. On Turbo PMAC2, the BREQ line always reflects the status of the
software-host-addressed coordinate system.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
25
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I17
Rotary Buffer Request Off Point
Range:
0 to 8,388,607
Units:
Program lines
Default:
10
This parameter controls how many lines ahead of the executing line the host can provide a PMAC rotary
motion program buffer before it signals that it is not ready for more lines (BREQ line held low,
coordinate system status bit Rotary Buffer Full becomes 1). This status information can be detected
either by polling ?? or PR, by using the interrupt line to the host, or by polling the status register of the
interrupt controller.
If a program line is sent to the rotary buffer, the BREQ line will be taken low (at least momentarily). If
there are still fewer than I17 number of lines in the buffer ahead of the executing line, the BREQ line will
be taken high again (giving the ability to generate an interrupt) and the Rotary Buffer Full status bit will
stay 0. If there are greater than or equal to I17 lines in the buffer ahead of the executing line, the BREQ
line will be left low, and the Rotary Buffer Full status bit will become 1. Normally at this point, the host
will stop sending program lines (although this is not required) and wait for program execution to catch up
to within I16 lines and take BREQ high again.
Note:
On Turbo PMAC, the BREQ line to the interrupt controller reflects the status of
the hardware-selected coordinate system (by JPAN pins FPDn/) if the controlpanel inputs are enabled (I2=0); it represents the status of the software-hostaddressed coordinate system if the control-panel inputs are disabled (I2=1). In
virtually all applications using this feature, the user will want to set I2 to 1 so the
BREQ line reflects the status of the coordinate system to which he is currently
talking. On Turbo PMAC2, the BREQ line always reflects the status of the
software-host-addressed coordinate system.
I18
Fixed Buffer Full Warning Point
Range:
0 to 8,388,607
Units:
Long memory words
Default:
10
I18 sets the level of open memory below which BREQ (Buffer Request) will not go true (global status bit
Fixed Buffer Full will become 0) during the entry of a fixed (non-rotary) buffer.
Every time a command line is downloaded to an open fixed buffer (PROG or PLC), the BREQ line will
be taken low (at least momentarily). If there are more than I18 words of open memory left, the BREQ
line will be taken high again (giving the ability to generate an interrupt), and Fixed Buffer Full will stay at
0. If there are I18 words or less, the BREQ line will be left low, and Fixed Buffer Full will become 1.
The number of available words of memory can be found using the SIZE command.
I19
Range:
Units:
Default:
26
Clock Source I-Variable Number
(Turbo PMAC2 only)
6807, 6857 … 7907, 7957
I-variable number
7007 (non-Ultralite Turbo PMAC2)
6807 (Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite)
Configuration-dependent (Turbo PMAC2-3U)
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I19 contains the number of the servo/phase clock-direction I-variable whose value is set by default to 0,
indicating that the matching Servo IC or MACRO IC is the source of the servo and phase clock signals
for the Turbo PMAC2 system. This I-variable for all other Servo ICs and MACRO ICs in the system is
set to 3, indicating that these ICs will use servo and phase clock signals from a source external to them.
The clock-direction I-variables for MACRO ICs 0, 1, 2, and 3 are I6807, I6857, I6907, and I6957,
respectively. The clock direction I-variables for Servo ICs m and m* (m = 0 to 9) are I7m07 and I7m57,
respectively.
Note:
Only in 3U-format Turbo PMAC2 systems (UMAC Turbo and 3U Turbo Stack)
can the clock signals come from ICs on accessory boards. In other Turbo PMAC2
systems, the clock signals must come from an IC on the base PMAC board, or be
brought in through the serial port.
During system re-initialization (reset with E3 jumper ON, or $$$*** command), then Turbo PMAC2 first
determines the “default” value of I19 by searching for the presence of all possible Servo and MACRO ICs,
and assigning the clock source to the first IC it finds in the following list:
1.
Servo IC 0
(On-board or 3U Stack)
(I19=7007)
2.
MACRO IC 0 (On-board or Acc-5E)
(I19=6807)
3.
Servo IC 1
(On-board or 3U Stack)
(I19=7107)
4.
Servo IC 2
(Acc-24E2, 51E)
(I19=7207)
…
11.
Servo IC 9
(Acc-24E2, 51E)
(I19=7907)
12.
Servo IC 2*
(Acc-24E2, 51E)
(I19=7257)
…
19.
Servo IC 9*
(Acc-24E2, 51E)
(I19=7957)
20.
MACRO IC 1 (On-board or Acc-5E)
(I19=6857)
21.
MACRO IC 2 (On-board or Acc-5E)
(I19=6907)
21.
MACRO IC 3 (On-board or Acc-5E)
(I19=6957)
(MACRO ICs must be DSPGATE2 ICs to be used as a clock source.)
If the E1 external-clock-source jumper is ON during re-initialization, I19 is set to 0, indicating that no
Servo IC or MACRO IC will be the source of the system clocks.
If one of the clock-direction I-variables is commanded to be set to its default value (e.g. I7007=*),
Turbo PMAC2 looks to I19 to decide whether this variable will be set to 0 or not.
In 3U-format Turbo PMAC2 systems, I19 also operates at the system’s power-up/reset. At this time, the
saved value of I19 determines which single one of the Servo-IC or MACRO-IC clock-direction Ivariables is set to 0 at reset to provide the system with that ICs servo and phase clock signals.
The clock-direction I-variables for all of the other Servo ICs and MACRO ICs are set to 3 at reset to tell
them to input the servo and phase clock signals, regardless of the saved values for these I-variables. (On
other Turbo PMAC2 boards, the saved values of the clock-direction I-variables are used.) If the Servo IC
or MACRO IC thus selected is not present, the watchdog timer will trip immediately.
In 3U-format Turbo PMAC2 systems, if the saved value of I19 is 0, the clock-direction I-variables for all
Servo ICs (I7m07) and MACRO ICs (I6807 etc.) is not automatically set on power-up/reset based on the
setting of I19. The saved values of these variables are used instead. If all of these values are 3, an external
clock signal can be used. To do this, jumper(s) E1 must be ON to admit externally generated servo and
phase clocks on the serial port.
On Turbo PMAC boards, the Servo and Phase clock signals are generated in the same discrete logic (or
come in from an external source), so I19 is not needed to control which ASIC provides the clock signals.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
27
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I20
MACRO IC 0 Base Address
(Turbo PMAC2 only)
Range:
$0, $078400 - $07B700
Units:
Turbo PMAC2 Addresses
Default:
Auto-detected
I20 sets the base address of the first MACRO IC (called MACRO IC 0) in the Turbo PMAC2 system,
normally the one with the lowest base address. A setting of 0 for I20 tells the Turbo PMAC2 CPU that no
MACRO IC 0 is present, and none of the firmware’s automatic functions for that IC will be active.
On re-initialization – either on resetting with the E3 re-initialization jumper ON or on issuing the
$$$*** command, Turbo PMAC2 will auto-detect which MACRO ICs are present, and set I20 to the
base address of the MACRO IC with the lowest base address. Turbo PMAC2 will also do this when
commanded to set I20 to its default value (I20=*). If no MACRO ICs are found, I20 will be set to 0
instead.
If automatic use of the multiplexer port or the display port is desired, I20 must be set to the base address
of the DSPGATE2 IC serving as MACRO IC that is connected to this port. In UMAC Turbo systems it is
possible to have multiple multiplexer and display ports, but only those ports connected to the single IC
selected by I20 support the automatic firmware functions for those ports. In other Turbo PMAC2
systems, the on-board multiplexer and display ports using the MACRO IC at $078400 are always used,
regardless of the setting of I20.
I-variables I6800 – I6849 reference registers in MACRO IC 0, whose addresses are relative to the address
contained in I20. These addresses are established at power-up/reset. If the value of I20 is incorrect at
power-up/reset, these I-variables will not work. It is possible to set the value of I20 directly, saving the
value and resetting the card, but users are strongly encouraged just to let Turbo PMAC2 set I20 itself by
re-initialization or default setting, and to treat I20 as a status variable. If I20 is set to 0, these variables
will always return a value of 0.
A Turbo PMAC2 will look to find MACRO nodes 0 – 15 in MACRO IC 0, referenced to the address
contained in I20. These addresses are established at power-up/reset. If the value of I20 is incorrect at
power-up/reset, these MACRO nodes will not be accessed.
UMAC versions of the Turbo PMAC2 have the addressing capability for up to 16 MACRO ICs, but only
the 4 MACRO ICs referenced by I20 – I23 can have I-variable support. Master-to-master MACRO
communications can only be done on MACRO IC 0, referenced by I20, when I84=0.
For a Turbo PMAC2 that is not Ultralite or UMAC, the only valid MACRO IC 0 base address is
$078400. For a Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite, the valid base addresses are $078400, $079400, $07A400, and
$07B400. For a UMAC Turbo system, the valid base addresses can be expressed as $07xy00, where x
can be 8, 9, A, or B, and ‘y’ can be ‘4’, ‘5’, ‘6’, or ‘7’.
If the configuration of the MACRO ICs in a modular Turbo PMAC system, such as a UMAC Turbo rack,
is changed, the values of I20 – I23 will need to be changed.
See Also:
I-Variables I21, I22, I23, I24, I4902 – I4903, I4926 – I4941, I6800 – I6999.
I21
MACRO IC 1 Base Address
(Turbo PMAC2 only)
Range:
$0, $078400 - $07B700
Units:
Turbo PMAC Addresses
Default:
Auto-detected
I21 sets the base address of the second MACRO IC (called MACRO IC 1) in the Turbo PMAC2 system,
normally the one with the second-lowest base address. A setting of 0 for I21 tells the Turbo PMAC2
CPU that no MACRO IC 1 is present, and none of the firmware’s automatic functions for that IC will be
active.
28
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
On re-initialization – either on resetting with the E3 re-initialization jumper ON or on issuing the
$$$*** command, Turbo PMAC2 will auto-detect which MACRO ICs are present, and set I21 to the
base address of the MACRO IC with the second-lowest base address. Turbo PMAC2 will also do this
when commanded to set I21 to its default value (I21=*). If less than two MACRO ICs are found, I21
will be set to 0 instead.
I-variables I6850 – I6899 reference registers in MACRO IC 1, whose addresses are relative to the address
contained in I21. These addresses are established at power-up/reset. If the value of I21 is incorrect at
power-up/reset, these I-variables will not work. It is possible to set the value of I21 directly, saving the
value and resetting the card, but users are strongly encouraged just to let Turbo PMAC2 set I21 itself by
re-initialization or default setting, and to treat I21 as a status variable. If I21 is set to 0, these variables
will always return a value of 0.
A Turbo PMAC2 will look to find MACRO nodes 16 – 23 in MACRO IC 1, referenced to the address
contained in I21. These addresses are established at power-up/reset. If the value of I21 is incorrect at
power-up/reset, these MACRO nodes will not be accessed.
UMAC versions of the Turbo PMAC2 have the addressing capability for up to 16 MACRO ICs, but only
the 4 MACRO ICs referenced by I20 – I23 can have I-variable support. Master-to-master MACRO
communications can only be done on MACRO IC 1, referenced by I21, when I84=1.
For a Turbo PMAC2 that is not Ultralite or UMAC, the only valid MACRO IC base address is $78400.
For a Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite, the valid base addresses are $78400, $79400, $7A400, and $7B400. For a
UMAC Turbo system, the valid base addresses can be expressed as $7xy00, where x can be 8, 9, A, or B,
and ‘y’ can be ‘4’, ‘5’, ‘6’, or ‘7’.
If the configuration of the MACRO ICs in a modular Turbo PMAC system, such as a UMAC Turbo rack,
is changed, the values of I20 – I23 will need to be changed.
See Also:
I-Variables I20, I22, I23, I24, I4902 – I4903, I4926 – I4941, I6800 – I6999.
I22
MACRO IC 2 Base Address
(Turbo PMAC2 only)
Range:
$0, $078400 - $07B700
Units:
Turbo PMAC Addresses
Default:
Auto-detected
I22 sets the base address of the third MACRO IC (called “MACRO IC 2”) in the Turbo PMAC2 system,
normally the one with the third-lowest base address. On re-initialization – either on resetting with the E3
re-initialization jumper ON or on issuing the $$$*** command, Turbo PMAC2 will auto-detect which
MACRO ICs are present, and set I22 to the base address of the MACRO IC with the third-lowest base
address. Turbo PMAC2 will also do this when commanded to set I22 to its default value (I22=*). If
less than three MACRO ICs are found, I22 will be set to 0 instead.
I-variables I6900 – I6949 reference registers in MACRO IC 2, whose addresses are relative to the address
contained in I22. These addresses are established at power-up/reset. If the value of I22 is incorrect at
power-up/reset, these I-variables will not work. It is possible to set the value of I22 directly, saving the
value and resetting the card, but users are strongly encouraged just to let Turbo PMAC2 set I22 itself by
re-initialization or default setting, and to treat I22 as a status variable. If I22 is set to 0, these variables
will always return a value of 0.
A Turbo PMAC2 will look to find MACRO nodes 32 – 47 in MACRO IC 2, referenced to the address
contained in I22. These addresses are established at power-up/reset. If the value of I22 is incorrect at
power-up/reset, these MACRO nodes will not be accessed.
UMAC versions of the Turbo PMAC2 have the addressing capability for up to 16 MACRO ICs, but only
the 4 MACRO ICs referenced by I20 – I23 can have I-variable support. Master-to-master MACRO
communications can only be done on MACRO IC 2, referenced by I22, when I84=2.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
29
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
For a Turbo PMAC2 that is not Ultralite or UMAC, the only valid MACRO IC base address is $78400.
For a Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite, the valid base addresses are $78400, $79400, $7A400, and $7B400. For a
UMAC Turbo system, the valid base addresses can be expressed as $7xy00, where x can be 8, 9, A, or B,
and ‘y’ can be ‘4’, ‘5’, ‘6’, or ‘7’.
If the configuration of the MACRO ICs in a modular Turbo PMAC system, such as a UMAC Turbo rack,
is changed, the values of I20 – I23 will need to be changed.
See Also:
I-Variables I20, I21, I23, I24, I4902 – I4903, I4926 – I4941, I6800 – I6999.
I23
MACRO IC 3 Base Address
(Turbo PMAC2 only)
Range:
$0, $078400 - $07B700
Units:
Turbo PMAC Addresses
Default:
Auto-detected
I23 sets the base address of the fourth MACRO IC (called MACRO IC 3) in the Turbo PMAC2 system,
normally the one with the fourth-lowest base address. On re-initialization – either on resetting with the
E3 re-initialization jumper ON or on issuing the $$$*** command, Turbo PMAC2 will auto-detect
which MACRO ICs are present, and set I23 to the base address of the MACRO IC with the fourth-lowest
base address. Turbo PMAC2 will also do this when commanded to set I23 to its default value (I23=*).
If less than four MACRO ICs are found, I23 will be set to 0 instead.
I-variables I6950 – I6999 reference registers in MACRO IC 3, whose addresses are relative to the address
contained in I23. These addresses are established at power-up/reset. If the value of I23 is incorrect at
power-up/reset, these I-variables will not work. It is possible to set the value of I23 directly, saving the
value and resetting the card, but users are strongly encouraged just to let Turbo PMAC2 set I23 itself by
re-initialization or default setting, and to treat I23 as a status variable. If I23 is set to 0, these variables
will always return a value of 0.
A Turbo PMAC2 will look to find MACRO nodes 48 – 63 in MACRO IC 3, referenced to the address
contained in I23. These addresses are established at power-up/reset. If the value of I23 is incorrect at
power-up/reset, these MACRO nodes will not be accessed.
UMAC versions of the Turbo PMAC2 have the addressing capability for up to 16 MACRO ICs, but only
the 4 MACRO ICs referenced by I20 – I23 can have I-variable support. Master-to-master MACRO
communications can only be done on MACRO IC 3, referenced by I23, when I84=3.
For a Turbo PMAC2 that is not Ultralite or UMAC, the only valid MACRO IC base address is $78400.
For a Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite, the valid base addresses are $78400, $79400, $7A400, and $7B400. For a
UMAC Turbo system, the valid base addresses can be expressed as $7xy00, where x can be 8, 9, A, or B,
and ‘y’ can be ‘4’, ‘5’, ‘6’, or ‘7’.
If the configuration of the MACRO ICs in a modular Turbo PMAC system, such as a UMAC Turbo rack,
is changed, the values of I20 – I23 will need to be changed.
See Also:
I-Variables I20, I21, I22, I24, I4902 – I4903, I4926 – I4941, I6800 – I6999.
I24
Main DPRAM Base Address
Range:
$0, $060000 - $077000
Units:
Turbo PMAC Addresses
Default:
Auto-detected
I24 sets the base address of the dual-ported RAM IC in the Turbo PMAC system that is used for the
automatic DPRAM communications functions.
30
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
On re-initialization – either on resetting with the E3 re-initialization jumper ON or on issuing the
$$$*** command, Turbo PMAC will auto-detect which DPRAM ICs are present, and set I24 to the base
address of the DPRAM IC with the lowest base address. If no DPRAM ICs are found, I24 will be set to 0
instead.
The automatic DPRAM communications functions reference registers in a DPRAM IC, whose addresses
are relative to the address contained in I24. These addresses are established at power-up/reset. If the
value of I24 is incorrect at power-up/reset, these functions will not work. To select a new DPRAM IC
that the CPU will use for the automatic DPRAM IC functions, it is necessary to change I24, issue the
SAVE command, and reset the Turbo PMAC.
If the saved value of I24 is 0 at power-up/reset, the DPRAM addresses will be set up for a DPRAM base
address of $060000.
The following are Turbo PMAC addresses where DPRAM ICs can be found:
Address
Location
$060000
Main board or CPU board
$064000
UMAC-CPCI bridge board*
$06C000
UBUS DPRAM board w/ SW=0000
$06D000
UBUS DPRAM board w/ SW=0100
$06E000
UBUS DPRAM board w/ SW=1000
*Not auto-detected on re-initialization.
Address
Location
$06F000
$074000
$075000
$076000
$077000
UBUS DPRAM board w/ SW=1100
UBUS DPRAM board w/ SW=0010
UBUS DPRAM board w/ SW=0110
UBUS DPRAM board w/ SW=1010
UBUS DPRAM board w/ SW=1110
See Also:
Dual-Ported RAM Communications
I-Variables I47 – I50, I55 – I58, I4904, I4942 – I4949
I26
UMAC Electrical MACRO Enable
Range:
0 – $F (0 – 15)
Units:
none
Default:
0
I26 controls whether the MACRO ICs on UMAC ACC-5E boards are configured for optical-fiber
MACRO transceivers or RJ-45 electrical MACRO transceivers. I26 is a 4-bit value, with each bit
corresponding to one of the four MACRO ICs whose addresses are specified by I20 – I23. If the bit is set
to the default value of 0, that MACRO IC is configured for a fiber transceiver. If the bit is 1, that
MACRO IC is configured for an RJ-45 electrical transceiver.
Bit “n” of I26 controls the configuration of the MACRO IC addressed by variable I2n, which is called
MACRO IC “n” (e.g. bit 0 controls the IC of I20, MACRO IC 0). If fewer than 4 MACRO ICs are
present, the settings of bits of I26 corresponding to “missing” MACRO ICs are not important.
I26 is used only on power-up/reset, so to change the effect of I26, the user must change the value, issue a
SAVE command, and reset or cycle power on the UMAC.
Examples:
I26=$0
; All MACRO ICs use fiber
I26=$F
; All MACRO ICs use RJ-45
I26=$3
; MACRO ICs 0 & 1 use RJ-45, MACRO ICs 2 & 3 use fiber
I27
Alternate TWS Input Format
Range:
0–1
Units:
none
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
31
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Default:
0
I27 controls how the Turbo PMAC interprets incoming data on a TWS-format M-variable read from an
ACC-34 or similar serial-interface I/O board. If I27 is set to the default value of 0, PMAC expects the
serial input data on the DAT0 signal line. If I27 is set to 1, PMAC expects the serial input data on the
DAT7 signal line.
The DAT7 line is separated more from the output clock line on the same cable; the use of DAT7 by
setting I27 to 1 and making the appropriate jumper setting on the I/O board makes it possible to use a
longer cable without too much coupling interference between signals.
On the ACC-34AA, jumper E23 must be connect pins 1 and 2 to support the default setting of I27 = 0; it
must connect pins 2 and 3 to support the setting of I27 = 1. On the ACC-76 and ACC-77 “P-Brain”
boards, jumper E1 should be ON to support the default setting of I27 = 0; jumper E8 should be ON to
support the setting of I27 = 1. Older boards of this class do not support settings of I27 = 1.
I28
Display Port Disable
Range:
0–1
Units:
none
Default:
0
I28 permits the user to disable the automatic update of 80-character displays on the the JDISP port. If I28
is set to the default value of 0, the Turbo PMAC will write an ASCII character value to the 8 data lines
(DISP0 – DISP7) of the JDISP port every real-time interrupt, and index a pointer to the next character in
Turbo PMAC’s 80-character buffer in RAM.
If I28 is set to 1, this automatic functionality is disabled, permitting general-purpose use of the 8 I/O lines
on the port. On many hardware versions of the Turbo PMAC, the buffer IC for this port can only support
outputs, but on some it is possible to reverse the direction of these lines to input as well.
I28 is only used at power-on/reset, so to make a change in the functionality of the display port, it is
necessary to change the value of I28, store the value in non-volatile flash memory with the SAVE
command, and reset the Turbo PMAC.
I29
Multiplexer Port Alternate Address
Range:
$0, $078400 - $07B7FF
Units:
Turbo PMAC addresses
Default:
0
I29 permits the user to select an alternate address for the automatic functions of the “JTHW” multiplexer
port, such as TWS, TWR, and TWD-format M-variables. If I29 is set to the default value of 0, the Turbo
PMAC will use the standard multiplexer-port register at address Y:$078402 for these functions.
If I29 is set to a non-zero value, Turbo PMAC will use the Y-register at the address specified by the value
for these functions. There are several possible uses for this functionality.
In the Turbo PMAC2-Eth Ultralite and Turbo PMAC2-RTEX controllers, the multiplexer port uses the Yregister at $078400, so I29 should be set to this value to use the automatic functions on this port.
If an ACC-2P is installed on a Turbo PMAC2A-Eth Lite (“Clipper”) board, and it is desired to use the
automatic functions on the multiplexer port of the ACC-2P instead of that of the Clipper itself, I29 should
be set to $078502.
If multiple ACC-5E boards are installed in a UMAC Turbo system, and it is desired to use the automatic
functions on the multiplexer port of one of the secondary boards not at the standard base address, I29
32
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
should be set to a value 2 greater than the base address of that board (e.g. $078502, $078602, or
$078702).
I29 is only used at power-on/reset, so to make a change in the functionality of the display port, it is
necessary to change the value of I29, store the value in non-volatile flash memory with the SAVE
command, and reset the Turbo PMAC.
I30
Compensation Table Wrap Enable
Range:
0-1
Units:
none
Default:
0
I30 controls whether the compensation tables entered into Turbo PMAC will automatically wrap or not.
This affects position (leadscrew), backlash, and torque compensation tables. If I30 is set to 0, when a
table is downloaded to PMAC, the compensation correction at motor position 0 is always set to 0. In this
case, if smooth rollover of the table is desired, the last entry of the table must explicitly be set to 0.
If I30 is set to 1, the last entry of the table also becomes the correction at motor position 0, automatically
yielding a smooth rollover of the table, and permitting non-zero corrections at the rollover point.
I30 affects table values only as they are being downloaded to Turbo PMAC; it does not affect the values
of tables already in Turbo PMAC’s memory.
I35
Brick LV & Controller E-Stop Enable
Range:
0 .. 1
Units:
none
Default:
0
I35 permits the user to enable a fail-safe “E-stop” input on the Geo Brick LV controller/amplifier and on
the Brick Controller. If I35 is set to 1, system wiring must be drawing sufficient current through the Estop input (in the “ABORT+” pin and out the “ABORT-” pin) on the front panel to close the normallyopen E-stop relay, permitting motion. This is typically done by applying 24VDC across the circuit.
When sufficient current is passing through the relay to close the contactor, bit 5 of Y:$070801 will be
read as 1 by the processor. In this case, normal operation of all motors in the system is permitted.
When there is not sufficient current through the relay, the contactor opens, and bit 5 of Y:$070801 will be
read as 0 by the processor. When this occurs, the processor executes an “abort all” command, the
equivalent of receiving a <CTRL-A> command with I36 = 1. This will bring any enabled motor to a
closed-loop zero-velocity state, but will not enable any disabled motor. No motion can be commanded of
any motor as long as the relay contactor is closed and the bit value is 1. Note that the setting of I36 affects
the action of received <CTRL-A> commands, but it does not affect the action of this E-stop input.
This is a software-controlled stop function, and may not qualify as an emergency-stop circuit in
jurisdictions that require a “software-free” and/or “silicon-free” circuit. In those applications, the bus
supply power should be disconnected from the drives for an emergency stop.
In other Turbo PMAC hardware implementations, I35 should be set to 0, because there is no physical
input at this address, and the value of the bit read by the processor is indeterminate.
Note: This E-stop function is automatically enabled on the higher-voltage Geo Brick controller/amplifier,
which uses its own firmware variant. The Geo Brick does not use I35.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
33
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I36
Enable/Abort Separation Control
Range:
0–1
Units:
none
Default:
0
I36 controls whether the abort commands in Turbo PMAC can also enable disabled motors, or whether
separate enable commands are required. If I36 is at the default value of 0, the abort commands
(coordinate-system-specific A and global <CTRL-A>) will enable a disabled motor, bringing it to a
closed-loop zero-velocity state. If I36 is set to 1, these commands will have no effect on a disabled
motor. In this case, separate commands (coordinate-system-specific E and global <CTRL-E>) will be
required to enable disabled motors.
Setting I36 to 1 permits simpler logic in implementing an emergency stop routine using the A or <CTRLA> commands, since the routine will not have to worry about the disabled-motor case.
Note that if the motor is a synchronous (zero-slip – Ixx78 = 0) motor commutated by Turbo PMAC
(Ixx01 bit 0 = 1), a phase referencing is required after power-up/reset before the motor can be enabled.
This is done automatically on power-up/reset if Ixx80 for the motor is set to 1 or 3, or subsequently with
the motor-specific $ command, or the coordinate-system-specific $$ command. These enabling
commands do not cause a phase referencing to be performed.
The following table shows the action of each of these commands with I36 = 0:
Command
Starting State:
Starting State:
Starting State:
Disabled
Open-Loop Enabled
Closed-Loop Enabled
A
Enable, close loop at
present position
Close loop at present
position
Decelerate to stop using
Ixx15
<CTRL-A>
Enable, close loop at
present position
Close loop at present
position
Decelerate to stop using
Ixx15
E
Enable, close loop at
present position
Close loop at present
position
(no action)
<CTRL-E>
Enable, close loop at
present position
Close loop at present
position
(no action)
The following table shows the action of each of these commands with I36 = 1:
Command
Starting State:
Starting State:
Starting State:
Disabled
Open-Loop Enabled
Closed-Loop Enabled
A
(no action)
Close loop at present
position
Decelerate to stop using
Ixx15
<CTRL-A>
(no action)
Close loop at present
position
Decelerate to stop using
Ixx15
E
Enable, close loop at
present position
Close loop at present
position
(no action)
<CTRL-E>
Enable, close loop at
present position
Close loop at present
position
(no action)
34
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I37
Additional Wait States
Range:
$000000 - $032403
Units:
Instruction cycle wait states (by bit)
Default:
$000000
I37 controls the number of wait states added to the factory default values when the Turbo PMAC
processor accesses external memory or memory-mapped I/O devices. Wait states are the number of
instruction cycles the processor idles when reading from or writing to a register of memory or I/O. On
power-up/reset, Turbo PMAC sets the number of wait states automatically based on the programmed
CPU frequency as set by I52. Under certain circumstances, particularly in accessing third-party devices,
more robust operation may be obtained by increasing the number of wait states from the factory default
values (at the cost of slightly slower operation).
I37 is divided into four parts, each controlling the wait states for a different area of the memory and I/O
map. Bits 0 and 1 control the number of added wait states for I/O devices (such as ASICs and A/D
converters; dual-ported RAM also counts as an I/O device) mapped into Y-registers. Bits 16 and 17
control the number of added wait states for I/O devices mapped into X-registers. With two bits each, up
to three wait states can be added to these accesses; generally, these are both set to the same value.
Bit 10 of I37 controls the number of added wait states for P (program, or machine-code) memory register
access. Bit 13 controls the number of added wait states for X and Y (data) memory register access. As
single-bit values, they can add only one wait state to these memory accesses. Generally, these are both
set to the same value.
I37 is used at power-up/reset only, so to change the number of I/O wait states, change the value of I37,
issue a SAVE command, and reset the Turbo PMAC. At power-up/reset, Turbo PMAC automatically
adds the value of I37 to the value from its internal look-up table to set the number of I/O wait states. The
resulting number of wait states for different areas of the memory and I/O map is in internal CPU register
X:$FFFFFB.
Examples:
I37=$020002
I37=$002400
I37=$032403
I38
; Add 2 wait states to X and Y I/O access.
; Add 1 wait state to X/Y and P memory access
; Add 3 wait states for I/O, 1 for memory
In-Line CALL Enable
Range:
0–1
Units:
none
Default:
0
I38 controls the timing of the execution of a CALL command that follows motion commands on the same
program line. Normally, as soon as the program counter jumps to a new program line, as it does on a
subprogram call, program calculations are suspended until the start of execution of a new move.
If I38 is set to 1, the jump to the subprogram does not cause suspension of program calculation. This
permits some further calculations to be completed immediately following the calculation of programmed
motion. Setting I38 to 1 permits the proper use of a CREAD (coordinate read) command in a called
subroutine to store the just-computed axis move endpoints with synchronous M-variable assignments, so
that they are easily available when the move is actually being executed, facilitating calculation of data
such as “distance to go”.
All calculations to be completed immediately following the calculation of programmed motion must be
on the first line of the subroutine. A jump to a new line in the subroutine will suspend motion program
calculations.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
35
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
If I38 is set to the default value of 0, the jump to the subprogram causes suspension of program
calculation until the start of execution of a new move.
I39
UBUS Accessory ID Variable Display Control
Range:
0–5
Units:
none
Default:
0
I39 controls which portions of the identification variables I4909 – I4999, which provide information
about accessory boards on UMAC’s “UBUS” backplane expansion port, are reported. These variables are
36-bit variables in total, with 4 parts:
1. Vendor ID (Bits 0 – 7)
2. Options Installed (Bits 8 – 17)
3. Revision Number (Bits 18 – 21)
4. Card ID [Part #] (Bits 22 – 35)
The following list shows the possible values of I39, and which parts of these ID variables are reported for
each value:
 I39 = 0:
Vendor ID, Options Installed, Revision Number, Card ID (36 bits)
 I39 = 1:
Vendor ID only (8 bits)
 I39 = 2:
Options Installed only (10 bits)
 I39 = 3:
Revision number only (4 bits)
 I39 = 4:
Card ID only (14 bits)
 I39 = 5:
Base Address of Card (19 bits)
Note:
The base address of the card reported with I39 = 5 is not part of the card
identification variable, but it is still very useful in determining the configuration of
the system.
The value of I39 is not saved, and I39 is set to 0 automatically on power-up/reset.
Example:
I39=1
I4910
1
I39=2
I4910
3
I39=3
I4910
2
I39=4
I4910
3397
I39=5
I4910
$78200
I39=0
I4910
14248575745
; Report Vendor ID only
; Query first axis card vendor ID
; (Delta Tau is Vendor ID #1)
; Report Options Installed only
; Query first axis card options installed
; First 2 options installed (bits 0 and 1 set)
; Report revision number only
; Query first axis card revision number
; Revision 2 (-102 board)
; Report Card ID (part number) only
; Query first axis card part number
; Card ID 3397 (Delta Tau part # 603397: Acc-24E2)
; Report base address only
; Query first axis card base address
; Base address $78200
; Report all of ID variable
; Query first axis card full ID variable
; Full ID variable for card
See Also:
I-Variables I4909 – I4999
36
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I40
Watchdog Timer Reset Value
Range:
0 – 65,535
Units:
servo cycles
Default:
0 (sets 4095)
I40 controls the value to which the watchdog timer’s counter is reset each background cycle. Each servo
interrupt cycle, Turbo PMAC decrements this counter by 1 automatically, and if the counter becomes less
than 0, the real-time interrupt task will no longer strobe the watchdog circuit, permitting it to trip and shut
down the card. Therefore, one background cycle must execute every I40 servo cycles, or the board will
shut down.
I40 permits the user to optimize the sensitivity of the watchdog timer for a particular application.
Register X:$25 contains the lowest value that the counter has reached before being reset since the last
power-on/reset.
For purposes of backward compatibility, if I40 is set to 0, Turbo PMAC will reset the watchdog timer
counter to 4095 each background cycle.
I41
I-Variable Lockout Control
Range:
$0 – $F (0 – 15)
Units:
none
Default:
0
I41 permits the user to lock out changes to any of several sets of I-variables in Turbo PMAC. I41 is a 4bit value, and each bit independently controls access to a set of I-variables. If the bit of I41 is set to 1, the
corresponding I-variables cannot be changed with an {I-variable}={value} command. The
purpose of I41 is to prevent inadvertent changes to certain I-variable values.
The following table shows the I-variable set that each bit of I41 controls.
I41 Bit #
Bit value
I-Variable Range
0
1
2
3
1
2
4
8
I100 – I4899
I5100 – I6699
I6800 – I7999
I8000 – I8191
I-Variable Function
Motor Setup
Coordinate System Setup
MACRO/Servo IC Setup
Conversion Table Setup
If there is an attempt to execute a command to set an I-variable value, either an on-line command or a
buffered program command, while the controlling bit is set to 1, the command is ignored (no error is
generated).
I41 does not prevent changes to an I-variable by means of an M-variable assignment or a direct memory
write command.
Care must be taken in downloading a complete set of I-variables with I41 at a non-zero value. Because
I41 is typically set before any of the variables it controls, if it has a non-zero value in this list, some of the
subsequent variables will not get set.
The restore function of the PEWIN32 Executive Program for 32-bit Windows operating systems Versions
2.30(?) and newer (September 1999 and later) automatically handle this situation, setting I21 to 0 at the
beginning of a download, then setting the file’s I41 value at the end of the download. Older versions of
the Executive will not perform a proper “restore” function with a non-zero value of I41.
If a Servo or MACRO IC is not present in the Turbo PMAC system, Turbo PMAC cannot set a value for
any of the setup I-variables for that IC, regardless of the setting of I41.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
37
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I42
Spline/PVT Time Control Mode
Range:
0–1
Units:
none
Default:
0
I42 controls whether TM or TA is used to define the time for SPLINE and PVT-mode moves. For PVTmode moves, the PVT{data} command can be used to set the move time regardless of the setting of I42.
If I42 is set to 0, the TM{data} command must be used to define the time for SPLINE-mode moves, and
can be used to define the time for PVT-mode moves, once a PVT{data} command has been used to
establish that move mode.
If I42 is set to 1, the TA{data} command must be used to define the time for SPLINE-mode moves, and
can be used to define the time for PVT-mode moves, once a PVT{data} command has been used to
establish that move mode.
In both modes, the time has units of milliseconds, with a range of 0 – 4095.9998 milliseconds, and a
resolution of ¼-microsecond.
See Also:
Spline Moves, PVT Moves
Program commands PVT{data}, TA{data}, TM{data}
I43
Auxiliary/Main Serial Port Parser Disable
Range:
0–3
Units:
none
Default:
0
I43 controls whether Turbo PMAC firmware automatically parses the data received on the main serial
port and/or the Option 9T auxiliary serial port as commands or not. I43 is a 2-bit value; bit 0 controls the
auxiliary serial port, and bit 1 controls the main serial port. If the bit of I43 is set to the default value of 0,
Turbo PMAC automatically tries to interpret the data received on the port as Turbo PMAC commands.
However, if the bit of I43 is set to 1, it will not try to interpret this data as commands, permitting the
user’s application software to interpret this data as required for the application.
With the parser for the port disabled, the CMDA (for the auxiliary serial port) or the CMDS (for the main
serial port) statement for issuing commands as if they came from the port cannot be used. However, the
SENDS or SENDA statement for sending messages out the port can still be used with the parser for the
port disabled.
The following table shows the possible values of I43 and their effects:
I43
Main Serial Port Parser
Auxiliary Serial Port Parser
0
Enabled
Enabled
1
Enabled
Disabled
2
Disabled
Enabled
3
Disabled
Disabled
This ability to disable the automatic command parser permits the auxiliary port to be interfaced to other
devices such as vision systems, which send out data on their serial ports, and not have the Turbo PMAC
38
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
try to interpret this data as commands. The user can then interpret the input string in application software
using M-variable pointers, typically with indirect addressing techniques.
Serial Port
Command Queue
Command Pointer
Response Queue
Response
Pointer
Auxiliary
X:$001C00 …
X:$000034
$001CFF
Main
X:$003600 …
Y:$001C00 …
Response
Transmit Flag
Y:$000034
Y:$30,11
X:$FFFFE1
X:$FFFFE0,23
$001CFF
X:$FFFFE6
$0036FF
Y:$003600 …
$0036FF
Only the low byte (bits 0 – 7) of each word in the command and response queues is used. The command
pointer contains the location of the next character to be input to the Turbo PMAC. The response pointer
does not need to be used if responses are issued using the SENDA or SENDS commands; only if responses
are “manually” placed in the response queue. If assembling responses manually on the main serial port,
the response must start at Y:$003600, the number of bytes to output must be placed in X:$FFFFE1, and
bit 23 of X:$FFFFE0 must be set to 1 to enable the output . On the auxiliary serial port, the response must
start at Y:$001C00, and bit 23 of the last character to be sent has to be set to 1. Setting bit 11 of Y:$30 to
1 initiates the transmission of data.
I44
PMAC Ladder Program Enable {Special Firmware Only}
Range:
0-1
Units:
none
Default:
0
I44 controls whether the “PMAC Ladder” graphical PLC programs that can be used with optional
firmware are running or not. If I44 is set to 1, any PMAC ladder programs that have been downloaded
into Turbo PMAC program memory are active. If I44 is set to 0, these programs will not execute, even if
they are present.
If the firmware does not support these PMAC Ladder PLC programs, I44 cannot be changed from 0.
I45
Foreground Binary Rotary Buffer Transfer Enable
Range:
0-1
Units:
none
Default:
0
I45 controls whether the transfer of binary rotary buffer commands from dual-ported RAM to internal
memory is done as a background task or as a foreground task. If I45 is set to the default value of 0 when
the OPEN BIN ROT command is given, Turbo PMAC checks the DPRAM binary rotary buffer once per
background cycle (if the binary buffer is open) and copies commands received in the last cycle to the
buffer in internal memory. If I45 is set to 1 when the OPEN BIN ROT command is given, Turbo PMAC
checks the DPRAM buffer every real-time interrupt (every I8+1 servo cycles) instead.
Setting I45 to 1 permits a quicker and more predictable reaction to the receipt of binary rotary buffer
commands from the host computer.
I46
Range:
Units:
Default:
P & Q-Variable Storage Location
0 to 3
None
0
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
39
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I46 controls the memory locations that Turbo PMAC uses to store the P and Q-Variables. For each type
of variable, there is a choice between the main flash-backed memory and the optional supplemental
battery-backed memory. Option 16 must be purchased in order to be able to select the battery-backed
memory storage.
I46 can take four values: 0, 1, 2, and 3. The meaning of each is:
 I46=0:
P-Variables in flash-backed RAM;
Q-Variables in flash-backed RAM
 I46=1:
P-Variables in battery-backed RAM;
Q-Variables in flash-backed RAM
 I46=2:
P-Variables in flash-backed RAM;
Q-Variables in battery-backed RAM
 I46=3:
P-Variables in battery-backed RAM;
Q-Variables in battery-backed RAM
For variables stored in flash-backed RAM, values must be copied to flash memory with the SAVE
command in order to be retained through a power-down or reset. The SAVE command operation can take
up to 10 seconds. On power-up/reset, Turbo PMAC automatically copies the last saved values for the P
and Q-variables from flash memory to the flash-backed locations in main RAM memory.
For variables stored in battery-backed RAM, values are automatically retained in the RAM by the battery
voltage. No SAVE operation is required. These values are not affected by a SAVE command or a powerup/reset.
Access to battery-backed RAM is significantly slower than access to flash-backed RAM, because either
read or write access to the battery-backed RAM requires two wait cycles of nine instruction cycles each,
but read or write access to the flash-backed RAM requires two wait cycles of only one instruction cycle
each.
Storing P and/or Q-variables in battery-backed RAM frees up flash-backed memory for user program and
buffer storage. Storing either P or Q-variables alone in battery-backed RAM allots 8K additional words
for user storage, on top of the standard 26K words (212K with the optional expanded user memory), for a
total of 34K words (optionally 220K); storing both P and Q-variables in battery backed RAM allots 16K
additional words, for a total of 42K words (optionally 228K).
A change in the value of I46 takes effect only at power-up/reset. Therefore, to change the location where
P and/or Q-variables are stored, the value of I46 must be changed, the SAVE command must be issued,
and then the board must be reset. If the new value of I46 would move the P and/or Q-variables from
battery-backed to flash-backed RAM, the SAVE operation copies the variable values from battery-backed
RAM into flash memory so that present values are not lost. At the reset, these values are copied from
flash memory to flash-backed RAM.
I47
DPRAM Motor Data Foreground Reporting Period
Range:
0 to 255
Units:
Servo Cycles
Default:
0
I47 specifies the period, in servo cycles, that Turbo PMAC will copy data from servo control registers
into fixed registers in DPRAM for easy access by the host computer, if this function has been enabled by
setting I48 to 1. The data is reported for those motors specified by a mask word in DPRAM.
If I47 is set to 0, the reporting is on demand. In this mode, Turbo PMAC will check every servo cycle to
see if the host computer has set the request bit in DPRAM, signaling that it has read the previous cycle’s
data. Turbo PMAC will copy the latest data into DPRAM only if this bit is set, and it will clear the bit.
I48
Range:
Units:
Default:
40
DPRAM Motor Data Foreground Reporting Enable
0 to 1
None
0
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I48 enables or disables the dual-ported RAM (DPRAM) motor data reporting function as a foreground
task at the servo interrupt priority level. When I48=1, Turbo PMAC copies key data from the motor
control registers to fixed registers in the DPRAM every I47 servo cycles (or on demand if I47=0) for easy
access by the host computer. The data is reported for those motors specified by a mask word in DPRAM.
Reporting this data as a high-priority foreground task permits a reliable high-frequency transfer of motor
data to the host, but it can have a significant impact on the capabilities of lower priority tasks, such as
motion program trajectory calculations, and PLCs.
When I48=0, the DPRAM motor data reporting function in foreground is disabled.
If I57 is set to 1 to enable DPRAM reporting of the motor registers as a background task, Turbo PMAC
automatically sets I48 to 0 to disable the foreground reporting.
Refer to the description of DPRAM functions for more information.
I49
DPRAM Background Data Reporting Enable
Range:
0 to 1
Units:
None
Default:
0
I49 enables or disables the dual-ported RAM (DPRAM) background data reporting function. When
I49=1, PMAC copies key data from coordinate-system and global data registers to fixed registers in the
DPRAM approximately every I50 servo cycles (or on demand if I50=0) for easy access by the host
computer. The data for coordinate systems up to the number specified by a designated register in
DPRAM are reported.
When I49=0, the DPRAM background data reporting function is disabled.
Refer to the description of DPRAM functions for more information.
I50
DPRAM Background Data Reporting Period
Range:
0 to 255
Units:
Servo Cycles
Default:
0
I50 specifies the minimum period, in servo cycles, that Turbo PMAC will copy data from coordinatesystem and global data registers into fixed registers in DPRAM for easy access by the host computer, if
this function has been enabled by setting I49 to 1. In addition, if I57 is set to 1, I50 specifies the
minimum period that Turbo PMAC will copy motor data registers into DPRAM. If I49 and/or I57, and
I50 are greater than 0, then each background cycle, Turbo PMAC will check to see if at least I50 servo
cycles have elapsed since the last reporting; if this is so, it will copy the current data into DPRAM. The
data for coordinate systems up to the number specified by a designate register in DPRAM are reported.
If I50 is set to 0, the reporting is on demand. In this mode, Turbo PMAC will check every background
cycle to see if the host computer has set the request bit in DPRAM, signaling that it has read the previous
cycle’s data. Turbo PMAC will copy the latest data into DPRAM only if this bit is set, and it will clear
the bit.
I51
Compensation Table Enable
Range:
0 to 1
Units:
None
Default:
0 (disabled)
I51 the enabling and disabling of all of the compensation tables for all motors on Turbo PMAC:
leadscrew compensation tables, backlash compensation tables, and torque compensation tables. When
I51 is 0, all tables are disabled and there is no correction performed. When I51 is 1, all tables are enabled
and corrections are performed as specified in the tables.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
41
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The constant backlash as controlled by Ixx85 and Ixx86 is not affected by the setting of I51.
I52
CPU Frequency Control
Range:
0 to 31
Units:
Multiplication factor
Default:
7 (80 MHz)
I52 controls the operational clock frequency of the Turbo PMAC’s CPU by controlling the multiplication
factor of the phase-locked loop (PLL) inside the CPU. The PLL circuit multiplies the input 10 MHz
(actually 9.83 MHz) clock frequency by a factor of (I52 + 1) to create the clock frequency for the CPU.
Formally, this is expressed in the equation:
CPU Frequency (MHz) = 10 * (I52 + 1)
I52 should usually be set to create the highest CPU frequency for which the CPU is rated. For the
standard 80 MHz CPU, it should be set to 7.
Note:
It may be possible to operate a CPU at a frequency higher than its rated frequency,
particularly at low ambient temperatures. However, safe operation cannot be
guaranteed under these conditions, and any such operation is done entirely at the
user’s own risk.
I52 is actually used at power-on/reset only, so to make a change in the CPU frequency with I52, change
the value of I52, store this new value to non-volatile flash memory with the SAVE command, and reset
the card with the $$$ command.
If too high a value of I52 has been set, the watchdog timer on the Turbo PMAC will likely trip
immediately after reset due to CPU operational failure. If this happens, the Turbo PMAC must be reinitialized, using E51 on a Turbo PMAC, or E3 on a Turbo PMAC2.
I53
Auxiliary Serial Port Baud Rate Control
Range:
0 to 15
Units:
None
Default:
0 (disabled)
I53 controls the baud rate for communications on the Option 9T auxiliary serial port. Turbo PMAC uses
I53 only at power-up/reset to set up the frequency of the clocking circuit for the auxiliary serial port. To
change the baud rate, it is necessary to change the value of I53, store this value to non-volatile flash
memory with the SAVE command, and reset the card. At this time, Turbo PMAC will establish the new
baud rate.
The possible settings of I53 and the baud rates they define are:
I53
Baud Rate
I53
Baud Rate
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Disabled
600
1200
1800
2400
3600
4800
7200
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
9600
14,400
19,200
28,800
38,400
57,600
76,800
115,200
If the optional auxiliary serial port is not present on a Turbo PMAC, or if it is not being used, it is best to
set I53 to 0 to disable the port, so that the computational overhead will not continually checking the port.
42
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Baud rates set by odd values of I53 are not exact unless the CPU is running at an exact multiple of 30
MHz (I52 = 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23). For most of these baud rates, the errors are small enough not to
matter. However, for 115,200 baud, the CPU must be running at an exact multiple of 30 MHz to
establish serial communications.
If the host computer baud rate cannot be made to match the Turbo PMAC’s baud rate, the Turbo PMAC’s
baud rate must be changed through another communications port.
I54
Serial Port Baud Rate Control
Range:
0 to 15
Units:
None
Default:
12 (38400 baud)
I54 controls the baud rate for communications on the main serial port. Turbo PMAC uses I54 only at
power-up/reset to set up the frequency of the clocking circuit for the serial port. To change the baud rate,
it is necessary to change the value of I54, store this value to non-volatile flash memory with the SAVE
command, and reset the card. At this time, Turbo PMAC will establish the new baud rate.
The possible settings of I54 and the baud rates they define are:
I54
Baud Rate
I54
Baud Rate
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
600
900
1200
1800
2400
3600
4800
7200
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
9600
14,400
19,200
28,800
38,400
57,600
76,800
115,200
Baud rates set by odd values of I54 are not exact unless the CPU is running at an exact multiple of 30
MHz (I52 = 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23). For most of these baud rates, the errors are small enough not to
matter. However, for 115,200 baud, the CPU must be running at an exact multiple of 30 MHz to establish
serial communications.
If the host computer baud rate cannot be made to match the Turbo PMAC’s baud rate, either the Turbo
PMAC's baud rate must be changed through the bus communications port, or the Turbo PMAC must be
re-initialized by resetting or powering up with the E51 jumper ON for Turbo PMAC, or the E3 jumper
ON for Turbo PMAC2. This forces the Turbo PMAC to the default baud rate of 38,400.
I55
DPRAM Background Variable Buffers Enable
Range:
0 to 1
Units:
None
Default:
0 (disabled)
I55 enables or disables the dual-ported RAM (DPRAM) background variable read and write buffer
function. When I55 is 0, this function is disabled. When I55 is 1, this function is enabled. When
enabled, the user can specify up to 128 Turbo PMAC registers to be copied into DPRAM each
background cycle to be read by the host (background variable read) and up to 128 Turbo PMAC registers
to be copied each background cycle from values written into the DPRAM by the host (background
variable write).
I56
Range:
Units:
DPRAM ASCII Communications Interrupt Enable
0 to 1
None
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
43
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Default:
0 (disabled)
This parameter controls the interrupt feature for the dual-ported RAM (DPRAM) ASCII communications
function enabled by I58=1. When I56=1, PMAC will generate an interrupt to the host computer each
time it loads a line into the DPRAM ASCII buffer for the host to read. When I56=0, it will not generate
this interrupt.
For the Turbo PMAC PC, the interrupt line used is the EQU4 interrupt. For this to reach the host, jumper
E55 must be ON, and jumpers, E54, E56, and E57 must be OFF. When using this feature, do not use the
EQU4 line for any other purpose, including position compare.
For the Turbo PMAC2 PC the interrupt line used is the EQU1 interrupt. When using this feature, do not
use the EQU1 line for any other purpose, including position compare.
For the VME-bus versions of Turbo PMAC (Turbo PMAC VME, Turbo PMAC2 VME and Turbo
PMAC2 VME Ultralite), the interrupt line used is the normal communications interrupt (the only interrupt
available). This line -- IRQn on the VME bus, is determined by the VME setup variable I95. The
interrupt vector provided to the host is one greater than the value in VME setup variable I96. For
example, if I96 is set to the default value of $A1, this interrupt will provide an interrupt vector of $A2.
For the Turbo PMAC2 PC Ultralite, this feature is not presently supported with the standard hardware.
I57
DPRAM Motor Data Background Reporting Enable
Range:
0 to 1
Units:
None
Default:
0
I57 enables or disables the dual-ported RAM (DPRAM) motor data reporting as a background function.
When I57=1, Turbo PMAC copies key data from internal motor system and global data registers to fixed
registers in the DPRAM as a background task approximately every I50 servo cycles (or on demand if
I50=0) for easy access by the host computer. The data is reported for those motors specified by a mask
word in DPRAM at Turbo PMAC address $06001C.
If I57 is set to 1, then Turbo PMAC automatically sets I48 to 0, disabling the foreground reporting of the
same data.
When I57=0, the DPRAM background motor data reporting function is disabled. In this setting, I48 can
be set to 1 to enable foreground reporting of the motor data.
For most purposes, background reporting of the motor data will provide the data at a high enough rate,
and it will not degrade the performance of motion programs. Only if the data is required at a guaranteed
high frequency should the foreground reporting be used.
Refer to the description of DPRAM functions for more information.
I58
DPRAM ASCII Communications Enable
Range:
Units:
Default:
0 to 1
None
0 (disabled) if no DPRAM present
1 (enabled) if DPRAM present
I58 enables or disables the dual-ported RAM (DPRAM) ASCII communications function. When I58=1,
this function is enabled and the host computer can send ASCII command lines to the Turbo PMAC
through the DPRAM and receive ASCII responses from Turbo PMAC through the DPRAM. When
I58=0, this function is disabled.
At power-up/reset, if Turbo PMAC finds a DPRAM IC present in the system, I58 is automatically set to
1, immediately enabling this communications. If no DPRAM IC is found in the system at this time, I58 is
automatically set to 0.
44
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I3 does not affect the handshaking characters used in DPRAM ASCII communications.
If I56 is also equal to 1, PMAC will provide an interrupt to the host computer when it provides a response
string.
I59
Motor/C.S. Group Select
Range:
0–3
Units:
none
Default:
0
I59 controls which group of eight motors and eight coordinate systems can be selected by the FPDn
inputs on the Turbo PMAC control panel port. The possible values of I59 and the motors and coordinate
systems they select are:
 I59 = 0:
Motors 1 – 8;
C.S. 1 – 8
 I59 = 1:
Motors 9 – 16;
C.S. 9 – 16
 I59 = 2:
Motors 17 – 24;
C.S. 1 – 8
 I59 = 3:
Motors 25 – 32;
C.S. 9 – 16
The value of I59 can be set from the control panel of a Turbo PMAC. If none of the FPDn lines are
pulled low (selecting Motor/C.S. 0), then pulling any of four input lines low will cause the value of I59 to
be set:
 HOME/:
I59 = 0
 PREJOG/:
I59 = 1
 START/:
I59 = 2
 STEP/:
I59 = 3
Note:
In Turbo PMAC firmware versions 1.934 and older, I59 also controlled which
group of eight motors’ data was supplied in response to the on-line commands
<CTRL-B>, <CTRL-P>, <CTRL-V>, and <CTRL-F>, when issued from any
port. Starting in firmware version V1.935, each port can select a different group of
eight motors for these commands, as set by the most recent ## command sent over
that port.
See Also:
On-line commands <CTRL-B>, <CTRL-F>, <CTRL-P>, <CTRL-V>, ##{constant}
I60
Filtered Velocity Sample Time
Range:
0 to 15
Units:
Servo Cycles - 1
Default:
15
I60 controls the frequency at which actual positions for each motor are placed into the 16-slot rotary
velocity calculation buffer for the motor. Every (I60+1) servo cycles, PMAC compares the actual
position for each active motor to the actual position from 16 * (I60+1) servo cycles before to compute a
filtered velocity for reporting purposes (with the V and <CTRL-V> commands), then overwrites that old
value in the 16-slot buffer.
I60 must be set equal to a value 2n-1 (0, 1, 3, 7, or 15) for proper operation. At the default value of 15,
Turbo PMAC stores a position value every 16 servo cycles and computes the velocity by comparing to
the position stored 256 servo cycles before. I61 must be set in the appropriate relationship to I60 in order
for the filtered velocity value to be scaled properly.
See Also:
I-variables I61, Ix09
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
45
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
On-line commands <CTRL-V>, V
Suggested M-variables Mxx74
Memory registers D:$0000EF, etc.
I61
Filtered Velocity Shift
Range:
0 to 255
Units:
Bits
Default:
8
I61 controls the scaling of reported filtered velocity values for all motors in a Turbo PMAC. It does this
by telling the filtered velocity calculation routines how many bits to shift the difference between the latest
position stored in the buffer, and the position stored 16*(I60+1) servo cycles before.
To make the filtered velocity report as counts per servo cycle with the V and <CTRL-V> commands, and
store as 1 / (Ix09*32) counts per servo cycle, I61 should be set according to the following formula:
I 61  log 2 I 60  1  4
The following table shows the typical relationship between I60 and I61:
I60
I60+1
log2(I60+1)
I61
0
1
3
7
15
1
2
4
8
16
0
1
2
3
4
4
5
6
7
8
See Also:
I-variables I60, Ix09
On-line commands <CTRL-V>, V
Suggested M-variables Mxx74
Memory registers D:$0000EF, etc.
I62
Internal Message Carriage Return Control
Range:
0 to 1
Units:
None
Default:
1
I62 permits the user to control whether internally generated messages sent from Turbo PMAC to the host
computer are terminated with the carriage return (<CR>) character or not. It affects only those messages
generated by a CMDx and SENDx statements (where x represents the port) in a PMAC motion or PLC
program. The ability to suppress the <CR> provides more flexibility in controlling the format display of a
terminal window or printer.
If I62 is set to the default value of 0, these messages are terminated with a <CR>. If I62 is set to 1, the
<CR> is suppressed. With I62 set to 1, if it desired for a Turbo PMAC program to cause a <CR> to be
sent, the SEND^M command must be used (the carriage return character is <CTRL-M>).
Note:
Do not set I62 to 1 if using dual-ported RAM ASCII communications (I58=1).
Example:
With program code:
I62=1
SENDS “THE VALUE OF P1 IS “
CMDS “P1”
SENDS^M ..........
46
; Suppress <CR> on SEND
; String sent with no <CR>
; Response string follows on same line, no <CR>
; Send a <CR>
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
PMAC responds with:
THE VALUE OF P1 IS 42<CR>
I63
Control-X Echo Enable
Range:
0–1
Units:
None
Default:
1
I63 permits the PMAC to echo the <CONTROL-X> character back to the host computer when it is
received. If I63 is set to 1, PMAC will send a <CONTROL-X> character (ASCII value 24 decimal) back
to the host computer when it receives a <CONTROL-X> character.
If I63 is set to 0, PMAC will send nothing back to the host computer when it receives a <CONTROL-X>
character. This is equivalent to the action of older versions of PMAC firmware without an I63 variable.
The host computer can use the <CONTROL-X> character to clear out PMAC’s communications buffers
and make sure that no unintended responses are received for the next command. However, without an
acknowledgement that the buffers have been cleared, the host computer has to add a safe delay to ensure
that the operation has been done before the next command can be issued.
Setting I63 to 1 permits a more efficient clearing of the buffer, because the response character lets the
host computer know when the next command can safely be sent.
Versions of the Pcomm 32 communications library 2.21 and higher (March 1999 and newer) can take
advantage of this feature for more efficient communications. I63 should be set to 0 when using older
versions of Pcomm 32.
I64
Internal Response Tag Enable
Range:
0–1
Units:
None
Default:
0
I64 permits PMAC to tag ASCII text lines that it sends to the host computer as a result of internal
commands, so these can easily be distinguished from responses to host commands.
If I64 is set to 1, a line of text sent to the host computer as a result of an internal SEND or CMD statement
is preceded by a <CONTROL-B> (start-transmission) character. In the case of an error report, the
<CONTROL-B> character replaces the leading <CONTROL-G> (“bell”) character. The text line is always
terminated by a <CR> (carriage return) character, regardless of the setting of I62.
If I64 is set to 0, a text line sent in response to an internal PMAC command is not preceded by any special
character. Reported errors are preceded by the <CONTROL-G> (bell) character. This is equivalent to the
action of older versions of PMAC firmware, before I64 was implemented.
Regardless of the setting of I64, if I6 = 2, errors on internal commands are not reported to the host
computer.
Example:
With I64=0, lines sent from PMAC are:
Motion Stopped on Limit<CR>
<BELL>ERR003<CR>
With I64=1, the same lines from PMAC are:
<CTRL-B>Motion Stopped on Limit<CR>
<CTRL-B>ERR003<CR>
I65
User Configuration Variable
Range:
0 – 16,777,215
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
47
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Units:
none
Default:
0
I65 is a variable that has no automatic function in Turbo PMAC. Because its factory default value is 0,
setting it to a non-zero value as part of the downloaded configuration file provides an easy way of later
verifying that the configuration has been loaded in a particular card.
Since this variable has no automatic function, how this variable is utilized (if it is utilized at all) is
completely up to the user. The same value may be downloaded to every controller, just for later
verification of the presence of the download. Alternately, it may be used to identify different optional
configurations, or as an electronic serial number.
I67
Modbus TCP Buffer Start Address
Range:
$0 – $03FFFF
Units:
Turbo PMAC addresses
Default:
0
I67 enables the Modbus TCP interface in Turbo PMAC software and reports the starting address of the
256-word Modbus buffer in Turbo PMAC memory. To enable the Modbus TCP interface on the Turbo
PMAC’s Ethernet port, the following conditions must apply:
1. The Ethernet physical interface must be present
2. The Modbus TCP firmware for the Ethernet processor must be installed
3. V1.941 or newer Turbo PMAC firmware must be installed
4. A user buffer of 256 or more words must have been defined with the DEFINE UBUFFER
command
5. I67 must be set to a value greater than 0.
The user can set I67 to any value greater than 0 to enable the Modbus TCP buffer. When this is done,
PMAC will automatically set I67 to the address of the start of the 256-word Modbus buffer. In the
standard Turbo PMAC CPU/memory configuration (Option 5C0), this address will be $010700, so the
buffer will occupy the addresses $010700 - $0107FF.
A SAVE command must be issued with I67 at a non-zero value in order for the Modbus TCP buffer to be
active after subsequent power-up or reset operations.
I68
Coordinate System Activation Control
Range:
0 - 15
Units:
None
Default:
15
I68 controls which coordinate systems are activated on a Turbo PMAC. A coordinate system must be
activated in order for it to be addressed and accept commands, to have its automatic user countdown
timers (Isx11 and Isx12) enabled (even if used by some other function), and for it to have some of the
Synchronous M-variable Assignment stack assigned to it.
I68 can take values from 0 to 15. The highest numbered coordinate system that is activated is Coordinate
System (I68 + 1). In other words, a given value of I68 activates Coordinate System 1 through Coordinate
System (I68 + 1).
48
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The Synchronous M-Variable Stack allocation is binary; it can only be split by powers of 2. The stack
allocation per coordinate system is detailed in the following table:
I68
Value
0
1
2-3
4-7
8 - 15
Highest
Numbered
Coordinate
System Activated
C.S. 1
C.S. 2
C.S. 3 - 4
C.S. 5 - 8
C.S. 9 - 16
Sync. M-Var.
Stack per C.S.
Max. Sync M-Var.
Assignments per
move, no cutter comp
Max. Sync M-Var.
Assignments per
move, cutter comp on
256 words
128 words
64 words
32 words
16 words
63
31
15
7
3
42
20
10
4
2
The default I68 value of 15 (all coordinate systems activated) will always work, even if fewer coordinate
systems are actually being used. Lowering I68 from this default if fewer coordinate systems will be used
brings two advantages. First, there is a slight improvement in computational efficiency because deactivated coordinate systems do not have to be checked periodically.
Second, each remaining active coordinate system has a bigger piece of the synchronous M-variable
assignment stack, so more synchronous M-variable assignments can be executed per move. Each
synchronous M-variable assignment requires two words of the stack; one additional word is required per
move. The above table lists how many synchronous M-variables assignments can be performed per move
in each active coordinate system.
If the special lookahead function is enabled, synchronous M-variable assignments made during lookahead
are stored in the area reserved in the lookahead buffer, and the number of assignments that can be
buffered is limited by the space reserved with the DEFINE LOOKAHEAD command.
I68 is actually used at power-on/reset only, so to make a change in the number of activated coordinate
systems, change the value of I68, store this new value to non-volatile flash memory with the SAVE
command, and reset the card with the $$$ command.
I69
Modbus TCP Software Control Panel Start Address
Range:
$0 – $03FFFF
Units:
Turbo PMAC addresses
Default:
0
I69 enables and specifies the address of the start of the Modbus TCP software control panel in Turbo
PMAC. I69 permits a software control panel to be commanded over the Modbus TCP link, typically from
a PLC, using part of the user buffer created with the DEFINE UBUFFER command and reserved for
Modbus TCP use with I67. If I69 is set to a value greater than 0, this software control panel is enabled.
Typically, I69 is set to a value 112 ($70) greater than the value of I67, so this control panel starts at an
address 112 higher than the beginning of the entire Modbus TCP buffer in an unused configuration
portion of the buffer. For example, if the beginning of the Modbus buffer were at $010700, I69 could be
set to $010770.
The software control panel occupies 16 long words of Turbo PMAC memory. The structure functions of
the Modbus panel are equivalent to those for the DPRAM software control panel, which are documented
in the Memory and I/O Map chapter of the Software Reference Manual at their default addresses of
$060000 - $06000F.
The operation of the Modbus control panel is independent of that for the DPRAM control panel (which is
controlled by I2). One, neither, or both of these control panels may be active at one time.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
49
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
MACRO Ring Configuration I-Variables
I70
MACRO IC 0 Node Auxiliary Register Enable
Range:
0 .. $FFFF (0 .. 65,535)
Units:
none
Default:
0
I70 controls which nodes of MACRO IC 0 for which Turbo PMAC performs automatic copying into and
out of the auxiliary registers. Enabling this function for a node is required to use the auxiliary register as
the flag register for a motor.
I70 is a 16-bit variable. Bits 0 to 15 control the enabling of this copying function for MACRO nodes 0 to
15, respectively. A bit value of 1 means the copying function is enabled; a bit value of 0 means the
copying function is disabled.
If the copying function is enabled for Node n (where n = 0 to F hex or 0 to 15 decimal), during each
background “housekeeping” software cycle, PMAC copies the contents of Y:$000344n to the Node n
auxiliary write register, and copies the contents of the Node n auxiliary read register into X:$00344n.
The copying function enabled by I70 permits the use of the auxiliary registers for command and status
flags plus Type 0 auxiliary read and write functions in PLC programs and on-line commands.
For each node whose auxiliary functions are enabled by I70, I71 must correctly specify for the node
whether the Type 0 or Type 1 MACRO protocol is used.
If a value of I78 greater than 0 has been saved into PMAC’s non-volatile memory to enable Type 1
MACRO master/slave auxiliary communications with Node 15, then at subsequent power-up/resets, bit
15 of I70 is automatically forced to 0 by PMAC firmware, regardless of the value saved for I70. This
reserves Node 15 for the Type 1 master/slave auxiliary communications alone.
If a value of I79 greater than 0 has been saved into PMAC’s non-volatile memory to enable Type 1
MACRO master/master auxiliary communications with Node 14, then at subsequent power-up/resets, bit
14 of I70 is automatically forced to 0 by PMAC firmware, regardless of the value saved for I70. This
reserves Node 14 for the Type 1 master/master auxiliary communications alone.
I71
MACRO IC 0 Node Protocol Type Control
Range:
0 .. $FFFF (0 .. 65,535)
Units:
none
Default:
0
I71 controls for each node (0 - 15) on MACRO IC 0 whether the matching slave node is expected to be
another Turbo PMAC or a slave-only “MACRO Station” for purposes of the protocol of exchanging noncyclic information. I71 is a 16-bit value; each bit 0 – 15 controls the protocol type for the MACRO node
of the same number. A value of 0 in the bit selects the “Turbo PMAC” protocol for the matching
MACRO node (using MX commands); a value of 1 in the bit selects the Type 1 protocol for the node
(using MS commands). The selection of the proper protocol is essential for the correct operation of
homing-search moves and other “move-until-trigger” functions, which require an MS or MX command to
obtain the trigger-captured position across the ring.
“MACRO Stations” include UMAC MACRO racks with 8 or 16-axis CPUs, Geo MACRO drives,
MACRO Peripheral modules, and 3rd-party MACRO devices. To use a Turbo PMAC as a slave on a
MACRO ring, V1.945 or newer firmware is required.
Prior to V1.945 firmware, a value of 0 in a bit selected the now-obsolete “Type 0” slave-only protocol for
the matching node.
50
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I72
MACRO IC 1 Node Auxiliary Register Enable
Range:
0 .. $FFFF (0 .. 65,535)
Units:
none
Default:
0
I72 controls which nodes of MACRO IC 1 for which Turbo PMAC performs automatic copying into and
out of the auxiliary registers. Enabling this function for a node is required to use the auxiliary register as
the flag register for a motor.
Note:
MACRO IC 1 can be present only on Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite boards with Option
1U1 ordered, or on a 3U Turbo PMAC2 with some configurations of its Acc-5E.
I72 is a 16-bit variable. Bits 0 to 15 control the enabling of this copying function for MACRO nodes 0 to
15, respectively. A bit value of 1 means the copying function is enabled; a bit value of 0 means the
copying function is disabled.
If the copying function is enabled for Node n (where n = 0 to F hex or 0 to 15 decimal), during each
background “housekeeping” software cycle, PMAC copies the contents of Y:$000345n to the Node n
auxiliary write register, and copies the contents of the Node n auxiliary read register into X:$00345n.
The copying function enabled by I72 permits the use of the auxiliary registers for command and status
flags plus Type 0 auxiliary read and write functions in PLC programs and on-line commands.
For each node whose auxiliary functions are enabled by I72, I73 must correctly specify for the node
whether the Type 0 or Type 1 MACRO protocol is used.
If a value of I78 greater than 0 has been saved into PMAC’s non-volatile memory to enable Type 1
MACRO auxiliary communications with Node 15, then at subsequent power-up/resets, bit 15 of I72 is
automatically forced to 0 by PMAC firmware, regardless of the value saved for I72. This reserves Node
15 for the Type 1 auxiliary communications alone.
I73
MACRO IC 1 Node Protocol Type Control
Range:
0 .. $FFFF (0 .. 65,535)
Units:
none
Default:
0
I73 controls for each node (0 - 15) on MACRO IC 1 whether the matching slave node is expected to be
another Turbo PMAC or a slave-only “MACRO Station” for purposes of the protocol of exchanging noncyclic information. I73 is a 16-bit value; each bit 0 – 15 controls the protocol type for the MACRO node
of the same number. A value of 0 in the bit selects the “Turbo PMAC” protocol for the matching
MACRO node (using MX commands); a value of 1 in the bit selects the Type 1 protocol for the node
(using MS commands). The selection of the proper protocol is essential for the correct operation of
homing-search moves and other “move-until-trigger” functions, which require an MS or MX command to
obtain the trigger-captured position across the ring.
“MACRO Stations” include UMAC MACRO racks with 8 or 16-axis CPUs, Geo MACRO drives,
MACRO Peripheral modules, and 3rd-party MACRO devices. To use a Turbo PMAC as a slave on a
MACRO ring, V1.945 or newer firmware is required.
Prior to V1.945 firmware, a value of 0 in a bit selected the now-obsolete “Type 0” slave-only protocol for
the matching node.
I74
Range:
MACRO IC 2 Node Auxiliary Register Enable
0 .. $FFFF (0 .. 65,535)
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
51
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Units:
none
Default:
0
I74 controls which nodes of MACRO IC 2 for which Turbo PMAC performs automatic copying into and
out of the auxiliary registers. Enabling this function for a node is required to use the auxiliary register as
the flag register for a motor.
Note:
MACRO IC 2 can only be present on Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite boards with Option
1U2 ordered, or on a 3U Turbo PMAC2 with some configurations of its Acc-5E.
I74 is a 16-bit variable. Bits 0 to 15 control the enabling of this copying function for MACRO nodes 0 to
15, respectively. A bit value of 1 means the copying function is enabled; a bit value of 0 means the
copying function is disabled.
If the copying function is enabled for Node n (where n = 0 to F hex or 0 to 15 decimal), during each
background “housekeeping” software cycle, PMAC copies the contents of Y:$000346n to the Node n
auxiliary write register, and copies the contents of the Node n auxiliary read register into X:$00346n.
The copying function enabled by I74 permits the use of the auxiliary registers for command and status
flags plus Type 0 auxiliary read and write functions in PLC programs and on-line commands.
For each node whose auxiliary functions are enabled by I74, I75 must correctly specify for the node
whether the Type 0 or Type 1 MACRO protocol is used.
If a value of I78 greater than 0 has been saved into PMAC’s non-volatile memory to enable Type 1
MACRO auxiliary communications with Node 15, then at subsequent power-up/resets, bit 15 of I74 is
automatically forced to 0 by PMAC firmware, regardless of the value saved for I74. This reserves Node
15 for the Type 1 auxiliary communications alone.
I75
MACRO IC 2 Node Protocol Type Control
Range:
0 .. $FFFF (0 .. 65,535)
Units:
none
Default:
0
I75 controls for each node (0 - 15) on MACRO IC 2 whether the matching slave node is expected to be
another Turbo PMAC or a slave-only “MACRO Station” for purposes of the protocol of exchanging noncyclic information. I75 is a 16-bit value; each bit 0 – 15 controls the protocol type for the MACRO node
of the same number. A value of 0 in the bit selects the “Turbo PMAC” protocol for the matching
MACRO node (using MX commands); a value of 1 in the bit selects the Type 1 protocol for the node
(using MS commands). The selection of the proper protocol is essential for the correct operation of
homing-search moves and other “move-until-trigger” functions, which require an MS or MX command to
obtain the trigger-captured position across the ring.
“MACRO Stations” include UMAC MACRO racks with 8 or 16-axis CPUs, Geo MACRO drives,
MACRO Peripheral modules, and 3rd-party MACRO devices. To use a Turbo PMAC as a slave on a
MACRO ring, V1.945 or newer firmware is required.
Prior to V1.945 firmware, a value of 0 in a bit selected the now-obsolete “Type 0” slave-only protocol for
the matching node.
I76
Range:
Units:
Default:
52
MACRO IC 3 Node Auxiliary Register Enable
0 .. $FFFF (0 .. 65,535)
none
0
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I76 controls which nodes of MACRO IC 3 for which Turbo PMAC performs automatic copying into and
out of the auxiliary registers. Enabling this function for a node is required to use the auxiliary register as
the flag register for a motor.
Note:
MACRO IC 3 can only be present on Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite boards with Option
1U3 ordered, or on a 3U Turbo PMAC2 with some configurations of its Acc-5E.
I76 is a 16-bit variable. Bits 0 to 15 control the enabling of this copying function for MACRO nodes 0 to
15, respectively. A bit value of 1 means the copying function is enabled; a bit value of 0 means the
copying function is disabled.
If the copying function is enabled for Node n (where n = 0 to F hex or 0 to 15 decimal), during each
background housekeeping software cycle, PMAC copies the contents of Y:$000347n to the Node n
auxiliary write register, and copies the contents of the Node n auxiliary read register into X:$00347n.
The copying function enabled by I76 permits the use of the auxiliary registers for command and status
flags plus Type 0 auxiliary read and write functions in PLC programs and on-line commands.
For each node whose auxiliary functions are enabled by I76, I77 must correctly specify for the node
whether the Type 0 or Type 1 MACRO protocol is used.
If a value of I78 greater than 0 has been saved into PMAC’s non-volatile memory to enable Type 1
MACRO auxiliary communications with Node 15, then at subsequent power-up/resets, bit 15 of I76 is
automatically forced to 0 by PMAC firmware, regardless of the value saved for I76. This reserves Node
15 for the Type 1 auxiliary communications alone.
I77
MACRO IC 3 Node Protocol Type Control
Range:
0 .. $FFFF (0 .. 65,535)
Units:
none
Default:
0
I77 controls for each node (0 - 15) on MACRO IC 3 whether the matching slave node is expected to be
another Turbo PMAC or a slave-only “MACRO Station” for purposes of the protocol of exchanging noncyclic information. I77 is a 16-bit value; each bit 0 – 15 controls the protocol type for the MACRO node
of the same number. A value of 0 in the bit selects the “Turbo PMAC” protocol for the matching
MACRO node (using MX commands); a value of 1 in the bit selects the Type 1 protocol for the node
(using MS commands). The selection of the proper protocol is essential for the correct operation of
homing-search moves and other “move-until-trigger” functions, which require an MS or MX command to
obtain the trigger-captured position across the ring.
“MACRO Stations” include UMAC MACRO racks with 8 or 16-axis CPUs, Geo MACRO drives,
MACRO Peripheral modules, and 3rd-party MACRO devices. To use a Turbo PMAC as a slave on a
MACRO ring, V1.945 or newer firmware is required.
Prior to V1.945 firmware, a value of 0 in a bit selected the now-obsolete “Type 0” slave-only protocol for
the matching node.
I78
MACRO Type 1 Master/Slave Communications Timeout
Range:
0 .. 255
Units:
Servo Cycles
Default:
0
I78 permits the enabling of MACRO Type 1 master-slave auxiliary communications using Node 15,
which are executed with the MS, MSR, and MSW commands. If I78 is set to 0, these communications are
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
53
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
disabled. If I78 is set to a value greater than 0, these communications are enabled, and the value of I78
sets the “timeout” value for the auxiliary response, in Turbo PMAC servo cycles.
If Turbo PMAC has not received a response to the MACRO auxiliary communications command within
I78 servo cycles, it will stop waiting and register a “MACRO Auxiliary Communications Error”, setting
Bit 5 of global status register X:$000006. A value of 32 for I78 is suggested.
Bit 15 of I70, I72, I74, and I76 must be set to 0 to disable Node 15’s Type 0 (node-specific) auxiliary
communications for each MACRO IC if I78 is greater than 0. If a value of I78 greater than 0 has been
saved into PMAC’s non-volatile memory, then at subsequent power-up/resets, bit 15 of I70, I72, I74, and
I76 are automatically forced to 0 by PMAC firmware, regardless of the value saved for I70.
This function is controlled by I1003 on non-Turbo PMACs.
I79
MACRO Type 1 Master/Master Communications Timeout
Range:
0 .. 255
Units:
Servo Cycles
Default:
0
I79 permits the enabling of MACRO Type 1 master-to-master auxiliary communications using Node 14,
which are executed with the MM, MMR, and MMW commands. If I79 is set to 0, these communications are
disabled. If I79 is set to a value greater than 0, these communications are enabled, and the value of I79
sets the timeout value for the auxiliary response, in Turbo PMAC servo cycles.
If Turbo PMAC has not received a response to the MACRO auxiliary communications command within
I79 servo cycles, it will stop waiting and register a MACRO Auxiliary Communications Error, setting Bit
5 of global status register X:$000006. A value of 32 for I79 is suggested.
Bit 14 of I70 must be set to 0 to disable Node 14’s Type 0 (node-specific) auxiliary communications if
I79 is greater than 0. If a value of I79 greater than 0 has been saved into PMAC’s non-volatile memory,
then at subsequent power-up/resets, bit 14 of I70 is automatically forced to 0 by PMAC firmware,
regardless of the value saved for I70.
Certain master-to-master communications registers are only set up at the Turbo PMAC power-up/reset, so
before master-to-master communications can be performed, a non-zero value of I79 must be stored in
flash memory with the SAVE command, and the board must be reset.
I80
MACRO Ring Check Period
Range:
0 .. 255
Units:
servo cycles
Default:
0
I80 determines the period for Turbo PMAC to evaluate whether there has been a MACRO ring failure. If I80
is greater than 0, Turbo PMAC must receive the sync node packet (as specified by I6841) at least I82 times
within I80 servo cycles. It also must detect less than I81 ring errors (byte violation error, packet parity error,
packet overflow error, or packet underflow error) in this same period, and find no errors for at least one of its
checks during the period. If either of these conditions is not met, Turbo PMAC will assume it is a ring fault,
and will disable all motors.
If I80 is 0, Turbo PMAC does not perform these checks, even if MACRO is active.
A ring check period of about 20 milliseconds is recommended in a typical MACRO application. I80 can
be set as function of the desired period according to the formula:
I80 = Desired ring check period (msec) * Servo update frequency (kHz)
If I80 is greater than 0, activating this check function, bits 16 to 19 of I6841 (Sync Packet Number) must
specify the number of a packet that is regularly being received by this card. Otherwise, Turbo PMAC will
54
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
immediately detect a ring fault. Typically, Packet 15 ($F) is used as the sync packet, and it is always sent
because bit 15 of I6841 is set to 1 to activate the node to send the packet around the ring every cycle.
When a ring fault is detected, Turbo PMAC sets bit 4 of global status word X:$000006 to 1. It disables
all motors using the MACRO ring, and attempts to notify all of its MACRO slave stations that a ring fault
has occurred.
Turbo PMAC performs this check each real-time interrupt (every I8+1 servo cycles), so it will perform
I80 / (I8 + 1) checks during the check period. This value must be greater than I82, or ring failures will be
detected because not enough checks were done to detect the required number of sync packets received.
This function is controlled by I1001 on non-Turbo PMACs.
I81
MACRO Maximum Ring Error Count
Range:
0 .. 255
Units:
Detected ring errors
Default:
2
I81 sets the maximum number of MACRO ring communications errors that can be detected in one ring
check period before a MACRO communications fault is declared. The ring check period is set at I80
servo cycles; if I80 is 0, this checking is not performed.
There are four types of ring communications errors that can be detected: byte violation errors, packet
parity errors, packet overflow errors, and packet underflow errors. If any one of these is detected during a
check, this counts as a ring error towards the I81 counts.
Turbo PMAC performs the check every real-time interrupt (every I8+1 servo cycles), so it will perform
I80 / (I8 + 1) checks during the check period. If I81 or more ring errors are detected during this period, a
ring fault is declared, and the ring is shut down. Regardless of the setting of I81, if a ring error is detected
on every check during the period, a ring fault is declared.
This function is controlled by I1004 on non-Turbo PMACs.
I82
MACRO Minimum Sync Packet Count
Range:
0 .. 255
Units:
Detected sync packets
Default:
2
I82 sets the minimum number of MACRO sync packets that must be received in one ring check period for
Turbo PMAC to conclude that the ring is operating properly. The ring check period is set at I80 servo
cycles; if I80 is 0, this checking is not performed.
The number of the sync packet is determined by bits 16 – 19 of I6841. Usually Packet 15 is used as the
sync packet, and its transmission around the ring is enabled by setting bit 15 of I6841 to 1, activating
Node 15. If the sync packet is defined as a packet that is not regularly transmitted around the ring, this
check will shut down the ring immediately.
If fewer than I82 sync packets are detected during any ring check period of I80 servo cycles, Turbo
PMAC will shut down operation of the ring, declaring a ring fault. Turbo PMAC performs the check
during the real-time interrupt (every I8+1 servo cycles), so it will perform I80 / (I8 + 1) checks during the
check period. If I82 is set to a value greater than I80 / (I8 +1), Turbo PMAC will find a ring fault
immediately.
This function is controlled by I1005 on non-Turbo PMACs.
I83
Range:
Units:
MACRO Parallel Ring Enable Mask
0 – 15
none
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
55
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Default:
0
I83 specifies which MACRO ICs on Turbo PMAC2 control their own independent rings so independent
checking of ring communications using variables I80 to I82 is done using registers in that MACRO IC.
I83 is a 4-bit value. Bit n of I83 corresponds to MACRO IC n. If bit n is set to 1, ring checking is
performed using registers in MACRO IC n. If bit n is set to 0, no ring checking is performed using
registers in MACRO IC n. (However, if all bits are 0, checking can still be done on MACRO IC 0; see
below.)
I80 must be set greater than 0 to specify a ring-check period and activate any ring checking. If I80 is set
greater than 0, ring checking is done automatically on MACRO IC 0, so bit 0 if I83 is not used. However,
if multiple rings are used, it is recommended that Bit 0 be set to 1 for clarity’s sake.
Presently, only the UMAC configuration of the Turbo PMAC2 supports multiple rings (through multiple
Acc-5E boards). All other versions of Turbo PMAC2 can only support a single ring and do ring checking
on MACRO IC 0. For these boards, I83 can be left at the default value of 0.
If multiple MACRO ICs share a common ring, the lowest-numbered MACRO IC on the ring should be
used for ring checking. For example, if MACRO ICs 0 and 1 share one ring, and MACRO ICs 2 and 3
share another, bits 0 and 2 of I83 should be set to 1, yielding a value of 5.
I-variables I20 – I23 specify the base addresses of MACRO ICs 0 – 3, respectively. These must be set
correctly in order for the ring-checking function on these ICs to work properly.
The following table shows which MACRO rings are enabled by the I83 bits.
I83 Bit #,
MACRO IC #
Bit Value
I-Variable for
IC Address
0
1
2
3
1
2
4
8
I20
I21
I22
I23
See Also:
I-Variables I20 – I23, I80 – I82
I84
MACRO IC # for Master Communications
Range:
0–3
Units:
MACRO IC #
Default:
0
I84 specifies which MACRO IC on the Turbo PMAC2 is used for “MACRO Master” communications
with the MACROMSTASCII, MACROSTASCII, MACROMSTREAD, and MACROMSTWRITE commands.
I84 can take a value from 0 to 3. The value of I84 specifies that the MACRO IC of that number will be
used. Variables I20 – I23 specify the base addresses of MACRO ICs 0 – 3, respectively.
Note:
The UMAC Turbo firmware will support up to four parallel MACRO Rings and, if
desired up to sixteen by changing I20 – I23 before initiating communication over
the MACRO Ring. Each parallel MACRO Ring will be a Ring Controller with the
MACRO IC tied to I20 being the source of the Phase and Servo clock.
See Also:
I-variables I20 – I23
Commands MACROMASTASCII, MACROSTASCII, MACROMSTREAD, MACROMSTWRITE
I85
Range:
56
MACRO Ring Order Number
0 – 254
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Units:
none
Default:
0
I85 is used to store the order of the Turbo PMAC2 in the MACRO ring. The first device (Turbo PMAC2,
MACRO Station, or other device) “downstream” in the ring from the ring controller is 1, the next is 2,
and so on. If I85 is 0, the Turbo PMAC2 has not been assigned an order in the ring yet.
If I85 has a value from 1 to 254, the Turbo PMAC2 will respond when the {constant} in the
MACROSTASCII{constant} command matches the value of I85. The first device in the ring with I85
= 0 will respond to the MACROSTASCII255 command.
Note:
For the ring controller, I85 should remain at 0, even though it has no effect on the
ordered ring communications.
The STN command will return the value of I85.
See Also:
Commands MACROSTASCII, STN
VME/DPRAM Setup I-Variables
I90
VME Address Modifier
Range:
$00 - $FF
Units:
None
Default:
$39
I90 controls which address modifier value Turbo PMAC will respond to when sent by the VME bus host.
I90 takes one of three valid values in normal use, depending on the address bus width used:
 I90 = $29: 16-bit addressing
 I90 = $39: 24-bit addressing
 I90 = $09: 32-bit addressing
I90 is actually used at power-on/reset only, so to set or change the VME address modifier, change the
value of I90, store this new value to non-volatile flash memory with the SAVE command, and reset the
card with the $$$ command. The active register into which the value of I90 is copied at power-on/reset
is X:$070006 bits 0 – 7. It is permissible to write to this register directly (suggested M-variable M90) to
change the active setup without a SAVE and reset.
I91
VME Address Modifier Don’t Care Bits
Range:
$00 - $FF
Units:
None
Default:
$04
I91 controls which bits of the I90 VME address modifier are “don’t care” bits. I91 is set to $04 in all
normal use, which permits both “non-privileged” and “supervisory” data access by the VME host.
I91 is actually used at power-on/reset only, so to set or change the VME address modifier don’t care bits,
change the value of I91, store this new value to non-volatile flash memory with the SAVE command, and
reset the card with the $$$ command. The active register into which the value of I91 is copied at poweron/reset is X:$070007 bits 0 – 7. It is permissible to write to this register directly (suggested M-variable
M91) to change the active setup without a SAVE and reset.
I92
Range:
Units:
VME Base Address Bits A31-A24
$00 - $FF
None
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
57
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Default:
$FF
I92 controls bits A31 through A24 of the VME bus base address of Turbo PMAC, both for the mailbox
registers, and the dual-ported RAM. It is only used if 32-bit addressing has been selected with I90 and
I99.
I92 is actually used at power-on/reset only, so to set or change bits 16-23 of the VME bus base address,
change the value of I92, store this new value to non-volatile flash memory with the SAVE command, and
reset the card with the $$$ command. The active register into which the value of I92 is copied at poweron/reset is X:$070008 bits 0 – 7. It is permissible to write to this register directly (suggested M-variable
M92) to change the active setup without a SAVE and reset.
I93 VME Mailbox Base Address Bits A23-A16 ISA DPRAM Base Address Bits A23A16
Range:
$00 - $FF
Units:
None
Default:
$7F (VME); $0D (ISA)
On VME bus systems, I93 controls bits A23 through A16 of the VME bus base address of the mailbox
registers for Turbo PMAC. Bit 7 of I93 corresponds to A23 of the base address, and bit 0 of I93
corresponds to A16. I93 is only used on VME systems if 24-bit or 32-bit addressing has been selected
with I90 and I99.
On ISA bus systems (PC, PC Ultralite, 3U Turbo with PC/104), I93 controls bits A23 through A16 of the
ISA bus base address of the DPRAM. Bit 7 of I93 corresponds to A23 of the base address, and bit 0 of
I93 corresponds to A16. A23 through A20 are only used on ISA bus systems if bit 2 of I94 is set to 1,
enabling 24-bit addressing.
Note:
When DPRAM is used on the PCI bus, Universal Serial Bus (USB), or Ethernet,
the host address is set by a “plug-and-play” process, and I93 is not used.
I93 is actually used at power-on/reset only, so to set or change the base address, change the value of I93,
store this new value to non-volatile flash memory with the SAVE command, and reset the card with the
$$$ command. The active register into which the value of I93 is copied at power-on/reset is X:$070009
bits 0 – 7. It is permissible to write to this register directly (suggested M-variable M93) to change the
active setup without a SAVE and reset.
I94 VME Mailbox Base Address Bits A15-A08 ISA DPRAM Base Address Bits A15A14 & Control
Range:
$00 - $FF
Units:
None
Default:
$A0 (VME); $45 (ISA)
On VME bus systems, I94 controls bits A15 through A08 of the VME bus base address of the mailbox
registers of Turbo PMAC. Bit 7 of I93 corresponds to A23 of the base address, and bit 0 of I93
corresponds to A16. I94 is used whether 16-bit, 24-bit, or 32-bit addressing has been selected with I90
and I99.
On ISA bus systems (PC, PC Ultralite, 3U Turbo with PC/104), I94 controls the enable state and
addressing mode of the DPRAM. If the DPRAM is to appear as a 16k block of memory on the ISA bus,
it also sets bits A15 and A14 of the ISA bus base address.
The first hex digit of I94 contains bits 4 – 7. When the DPRAM is addressed as a 16k x 8 block of
memory on the ISA bus, bit 7 of I94 corresponds to A15, and bit 6 of I94 corresponds to A14. Bits 5 and
58
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
4 must be set to 0. When the extended 32k x 8 DPRAM is addressed as a 64k x 8 block of memory on
the ISA bus, bits 7 through 4 of I94 must all be set to 0.
The second hex digit of I94 contains bits 0 – 3. These are individual control bits. Bits 0 and 2 control the
addressing mode and block size. Bits 1 and 3 control the bank selection if the large DPRAM is addressed
as a small block of memory. Usually, these should be set to 0 in the I-variable. The commonly used
settings of the second hex digit of I94 are:
 0: DPRAM not enabled
 1: 20-bit addressing (below 1M), 16k x 8 address block
 4: 24-bit addressing (above or below 1M), 64k x 8 address block
 5: 24-bit addressing (above or below 1M), 16k x 8 address block
Note:
When DPRAM is used on the PCI bus, Universal Serial Bus (USB), or Ethernet,
the host address is set by a “plug-and-play” process, and I94 is not used.
Actually I94 is used at power-on/reset only, so to set or change, and keep, these settings, change the value
of I94, store this new value to non-volatile flash memory with the SAVE command, and reset the card
with the $$$ command. The active register into which the value of I94 is copied at power-on/reset is
X:$07000A bits 0 – 7. It is permissible to write to this register directly (suggested M-variable M94) to
change the active setup without a SAVE and reset.
If the large (32k x 16) DPRAM is addressed through a small (16k x 8) address block, it is necessary to
change the bank select bits (bits 1 and 3) of the active register to access all of the DPRAM from the PC.
This is best done through the active control register at X:$07000A using suggested M-variable M94. The
bit settings are:
 Bit 1 = 0, Bit 3 = 0: Bank 0 (PMAC addresses $060000 - $060FFF)
 Bit 1 = 1, Bit 3 = 0: Bank 1 (PMAC addresses $061000 - $061FFF)
 Bit 1 = 0, Bit 3 = 1: Bank 2 (PMAC addresses $062000 - $062FFF)
 Bit 1 = 1, Bit 3 = 1: Bank 3 (PMAC addresses $063000 - $063FFF)
I95
VME Interrupt Level
Range:
$01 - $07
Units:
None
Default:
$02
I95 controls which interrupt level (1 to 7) Turbo PMAC will assert on the VME bus. Multiple boards on
the same VME bus may assert the same interrupt level if each one has a unique set of interrupt vectors as
set by I96.
I95 is actually used at power-on/reset only, so to set or change the VME interrupt level, change the value
of I95, store this new value to non-volatile flash memory with the SAVE command, and reset the card
with the $$$ command. The active register into which the value of I95 is copied at power-on/reset is
X:$07000B bits 0 – 7. It is permissible to write to this register directly (suggested M-variable M95) to
change the active setup without a SAVE and reset.
I96
VME Interrupt Vector
Range:
$00 - $FF
Units:
None
Default:
$A1
I96 controls which interrupt vectors will be provided when Turbo PMAC asserts a VME bus interrupt. If
Turbo PMAC asserts the interrupt to signify that it has read a set of mailbox registers and is ready to
accept another set, the interrupt vector value will be equal to (I96-1). If Turbo PMAC asserts the interrupt
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
59
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
to signify that it has written to a set of mailbox registers and is ready for the host computer to read these,
the interrupt vector value will be equal to I96. If Turbo PMAC asserts the interrupt to signify that it has
put a line of text in the DPRAM ASCII response buffer and is ready for the host computer to read this, the
interrupt vector value will be equal to (I96+1).
If there are multiple Turbo PMAC boards asserting the same interrupt level in the VME bus as set by I95,
they each must assert a unique, non-overlapping set of interrupt vectors.
I96 is actually used at power-on/reset only, so to set or change the VME interrupt vector, change the value
of I96, store this new value to non-volatile flash memory with the SAVE command, and reset the card
with the $$$ command. The active register into which the value of I96 is copied at power-on/reset is
X:$07000C bits 0 – 7. It is permissible to write to this register directly (suggested M-variable M96) to
change the active setup without a SAVE and reset.
I97
VME DPRAM Base Address Bits A23-A20
Range:
$00 - $FF
Units:
None
Default:
$00
I97 controls bits A23 through A20 of the VME bus base address of the dual-ported RAM of Turbo
PMAC. Bit 3 of I93 corresponds to A20 of the base address, and bit 0 of I93 corresponds to A16. I97 is
only used if 24-bit or 32-bit addressing has been selected with I90 and I99.
Bits A19 through A14 of the DPRAM VME base address must be set by the host computer after every
power-on/reset by writing a byte over the bus to the “page select” register in the Turbo PMAC’s VME
mailbox IC at the mailbox base address + $0121. This must be done even with the single-page 8k x 16
standard DPRAM option. With the extended DPRAM option, the host computer must write to the page
select register every time a new page is accessed.
Actually I97 is used at power-on/reset only, so to set or change bits 8 to 15 of the VME bus DPRAM base
address, change the value of I97, store this new value to non-volatile flash memory with the SAVE
command, and reset the card with the $$$ command. The active register into which the value of I97 is
copied at power-on/reset is X:$07000D bits 0 – 7. It is permissible to write to this register directly
(suggested M-variable M97) to change the active setup without a SAVE and reset.
I98
VME DPRAM Enable
Range:
$00 - $FF
Units:
None
Default:
$60
I98 controls whether VME access to the DPRAM IC on the Turbo PMAC is enabled or not. It should be
set to $60 if DPRAM is not present to disable access; it should be set to $E0 if DPRAM is present to
enable access.
Actually I98 is used at power-on/reset only, so to set or change the DPRAM enabling, change the value of
I98, store this new value to non-volatile flash memory with the SAVE command, and reset the card with
the $$$ command. The active register into which the value of I98 is copied at power-on/reset is
X:$07000E bits 0 – 7. It is permissible to write to this register directly (suggested M-variable M98) to
change the active setup without a SAVE and reset.
I99
Range:
Units:
Default:
60
VME Address Width Control
$00 - $FF
None
$10
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I99 controls the VME bus address width, with or without DPRAM. It should take one of six values in
normal use:
 I99 = $00: 32-bit addressing, no DPRAM
 I99 = $10: 24-bit addressing, no DPRAM
 I99 = $30: 16-bit addressing, no DPRAM
 I99 = $80: 32-bit addressing, with DPRAM
 I99 = $90: 24-bit addressing, with DPRAM
 I99 = $B0: 16-bit addressing, with DPRAM
Actually I99 is used at power-on/reset only, so to set or change the VME bus address width, change the
value of I99, store this new value to non-volatile flash memory with the SAVE command, and reset the
card with the $$$ command.
The active register into which the value of I99 is copied at power-on/reset is X:$07000F bits 0 – 7. It is
permissible to write to this register directly (suggested M-variable M99) to change the active setup
without a SAVE and reset.
Motor Setup I-Variables
Motor Definition I-Variables
Ixx00 Motor xx Activation Control
Range:
0-1
Units:
none
Default:
I100 = 1, I200 .. I3200 = 0
Ixx00 determines whether Motor xx is de-activated (Ixx00 = 0) or activated (Ixx00 = 1). If activated,
position monitoring, servo, and trajectory calculations are performed for the motor. An activated motor
may be enabled – either in open or closed loop – or disabled (killed), depending on commands or events.
If Ixx00 is 0, no calculations are performed for Motor xx, not even position monitoring, so a position
query command would not reflect position changes. Any Turbo PMAC motor not used in an application
should be de-activated, so Turbo PMAC does not waste time doing calculations for that motor. The fewer
motors that are activated, the faster the servo-update time will be.
Do not try to de-activate an active and enabled motor by setting Ixx00 to 0. The motor outputs would be
left enabled with the last command level on them.
Ixx01 Motor xx Commutation Enable
Range:
0-3
Units:
none
Default:
0
Ixx01 determines whether Turbo PMAC will perform the commutation calculations for Motor xx and
controls whether X or Y registers are accessed for the motor. If Ixx01 is set to 0 or 2, Turbo PMAC
performs no commutation calculations for this motor, and the single command output from the
position/velocity-loop servo is output to the register specified by Ixx02. If Ixx01 is 0, this register is a Yregister; if Ixx01 is 2, this register is an X-register.
If Ixx01 is set to 1 or 3, Turbo PMAC performs the commutation calculations for the motor, and the
output from the position/velocity-loop servo is an input to the commutation algorithm. Commutation
position feedback is read from the register specified by Ixx83. If Ixx01 is 1, this register is an X-register;
if Ixx01 is 3, this register is a Y-register. Typically, X-registers are used for commutation feedback
directly on the Turbo PMAC; Typically, Y-registers are used for commutation feedback through the
MACRO ring.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
61
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
If Ixx01 is set to 1 or 3, Ixx70 through Ixx84 must be set to perform the commutation as desired. If Ixx82
is set to 0, Turbo PMAC will not perform current-loop calculations, and it outputs two phase-current
commands. If Ixx82 is set greater than zero, then the Turbo PMAC performs current-loop calculations as
well as commutation, and it outputs three phase-voltage commands.
Summarizing the values of Ixx01, and their effect:
 Ixx01 = 0: No Turbo PMAC commutation, command output to Y-register
 Ixx01 = 1: Turbo PMAC commutation, commutation feedback from X-register
(used for commutating with PMAC encoder register feedback)
 Ixx01 = 2: No Turbo PMAC commutation, command output to X-register
 Ixx01 = 3: Turbo PMAC commutation, commutation feedback from Y-register
(used for commutating with feedback from MACRO ring)
Ixx02 Motor xx Command Output Address
Range:
$000000 - $FFFFFF
Units:
Turbo PMAC Addresses
Turbo PMAC Ixx02 Defaults
Ixx02
Value
Register
Ixx02
Value
Register
I102
I202
I302
I402
I502
I602
I702
I802
I902
I1002
I1102
I1202
I1302
I1402
I1502
I1602
$078003
$078002
$07800B
$07800A
$078103
$078102
$07810B
$07810A
$078203
$078202
$07820B
$07820A
$078303
$078302
$07830B
$07830A
PMAC DAC1
PMAC DAC2
PMAC DAC3
PMAC DAC4
PMAC DAC5
PMAC DAC6
PMAC DAC7
PMAC DAC8
First Acc-24P/V DAC1
First Acc-24P/V DAC2
First Acc-24P/V DAC3
First Acc-24P/V DAC4
First Acc-24P/V DAC5
First Acc-24P/V DAC6
First Acc-24P/V DAC7
First Acc-24P/V DAC8
I1702
I1802
I1902
I2002
I2102
I2202
I2302
I2402
I2502
I2602
I2702
I2802
I2902
I3002
I3102
I3202
$079203
$079202
$07920B
$07920A
$079303
$079302
$07930B
$07930A
$07A203
$07A202
$07A20B
$07A20A
$07A303
$07A302
$07A30B
$07A30A
Second Acc-24P/V DAC1
Second Acc-24P/V DAC2
Second Acc-24P/V DAC3
Second Acc-24P/V DAC4
Second Acc-24P/V DAC5
Second Acc-24P/V DAC6
Second Acc-24P/V DAC7
Second Acc-24P/V DAC8
Third Acc-24P/V DAC1
Third Acc-24P/V DAC2
Third Acc-24P/V DAC3
Third Acc-24P/V DAC4
Third Acc-24P/V DAC5
Third Acc-24P/V DAC6
Third Acc-24P/V DAC7
Third Acc-24P/V DAC8
Turbo PMAC2 Ixx02 Defaults
Ixx02
Value
Register
Ixx02
Value
Register
I102
I202
I302
I402
I502
I602
I702
I802
I902
I1002
I1102
I1202
I1302
I1402
I1502
I1602
$078002
$07800A
$078012
$07801A
$078102
$07810A
$078112
$07811A
$078202
$07820A
$078212
$07821A
$078302
$07830A
$078312
$07831A
PMAC2 DAC/PWM1A
PMAC2 DAC/PWM2A
PMAC2 DAC/PWM3A
PMAC2 DAC/PWM4A
PMAC2 DAC/PWM5A
PMAC2 DAC/PWM6A
PMAC2 DAC/PWM7A
PMAC2 DAC/PWM8A
First Acc-24P/V2 DAC/PWM1A
First Acc-24P/V2 DAC/PWM2A
First Acc-24P/V2 DAC/PWM3A
First Acc-24P/V2 DAC/PWM4A
First Acc-24P/V2 DAC/PWM5A
First Acc-24P/V2 DAC/PWM6A
First Acc-24P/V2 DAC/PWM7A
First Acc-24P/V2 DAC/PWM8A
I1702
I1802
I1902
I2002
I2102
I2202
I2302
I2402
I2502
I2602
I2702
I2802
I2902
I3002
I3102
I3202
$079202
$07920A
$079212
$07921A
$079302
$07930A
$079312
$07931A
$07A202
$07A20A
$07A212
$07A21A
$07A302
$07A30A
$07A312
$07A31A
Second Acc-24P/V2 DAC/PWM1A
Second Acc-24P/V2 DAC/PWM2A
Second Acc-24P/V2 DAC/PWM3A
Second Acc-24P/V2 DAC/PWM4A
Second Acc-24P/V2 DAC/PWM5A
Second Acc-24P/V2 DAC/PWM6A
Second Acc-24P/V2 DAC/PWM7A
Second Acc-24P/V2 DAC/PWM8A
Third Acc-24P/V2 DAC/PWM1A
Third Acc-24P/V2 DAC/PWM2A
Third Acc-24P/V2 DAC/PWM3A
Third Acc-24P/V2 DAC/PWM4A
Third Acc-24P/V2 DAC/PWM5A
Third Acc-24P/V2 DAC/PWM6A
Third Acc-24P/V2 DAC/PWM7A
Third Acc-24P/V2 DAC/PWM8A
Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite Ixx02 Defaults
62
Ixx02
Value
Register
Ixx02
Value
Register
I102
$078420
MACRO IC 0 Node 0 Reg. 0
I1702
$07A420
MACRO IC 2 Node 0 Reg. 0
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I202
I302
I402
I502
I602
I702
I802
$078424
$078428
$07842C
$078430
$078434
$078438
$07843C
MACRO IC 0 Node 1 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 0 Node 4 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 0 Node 5 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 0 Node 8 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 0 Node 9 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 0 Node 12 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 0 Node 13 Reg. 0
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
I1802
I1902
I2002
I2102
I2202
I2302
I2402
$07A424
$07A428
$07A42C
$07A430
$07A434
$07A438
$07A43C
MACRO IC 2 Node 1 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 2 Node 4 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 2 Node 5 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 2 Node 8 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 2 Node 9 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 2 Node 12 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 2 Node 13 Reg. 0
63
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite Ixx02 Defaults (Continued)
Ixx02
Value
Register
Ixx02
Value
Register
I902
I1002
I1102
I1202
I1302
I1402
I1502
I1602
$079420
$079424
$079428
$07942C
$079430
$079434
$079438
$07943C
MACRO IC 1 Node 0 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 1 Node 1 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 1 Node 4 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 1 Node 5 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 1 Node 8 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 1 Node 9 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 1 Node 12 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 1 Node 13 Reg. 0
I2502
I2602
I2702
I2802
I2902
I3002
I3102
I3202
$07B420
$07B424
$07B428
$07B42C
$07B430
$07B434
$07B438
$07B43C
MACRO IC 3 Node 0 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 3 Node 1 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 3 Node 4 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 3 Node 5 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 3 Node 8 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 3 Node 9 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 3 Node 12 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 3 Node 13 Reg. 0
UMAC Turbo Ixx02 Defaults
Ixx02
Value
Register
Ixx02
Value
Register
I102
I202
I302
I402
I502
I602
I702
I802
I902
I1002
I1102
I1202
I1302
I1402
I1502
I1602
$078202
$07820A
$078212
$07821A
$078302
$07830A
$078312
$07831A
$079202
$07920A
$079212
$07921A
$079302
$07930A
$079312
$07931A
First Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM1A
First Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM2A
First Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM3A
First Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM4A
Second Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM1A
Second Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM2A
Second Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM3A
Second Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM4A
Third Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM1A
Third Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM2A
Third Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM3A
Third Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM4A
Fourth Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM1A
Fourth Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM2A
Fourth Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM3A
Fourth Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM4A
I1702
I1802
I1902
I2002
I2102
I2202
I2302
I2402
I2502
I2602
I2702
I2802
I2902
I3002
I3102
I3202
$07A202
$07A20A
$07A212
$07A21A
$07A302
$07A30A
$07A312
$07A31A
$07B202
$07B20A
$07B212
$07B21A
$07B302
$07B30A
$07B312
$07B31A
Fifth Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM1A
Fifth Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM2A
Fifth Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM3A
Fifth Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM4A
Sixth Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM1A
Sixth Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM2A
Sixth Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM3A
Sixth Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM4A
Seventh Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM1A
Seventh Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM2A
Seventh Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM3A
Seventh Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM4A
Eighth Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM1A
Eighth Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM2A
Eighth Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM3A
Eighth Acc-24E2x DAC/PWM4A
Ixx02 tells Motor xx which register or registers to which it writes its command output values. It contains
the address of this register or the first (lowest addresses) of these multiple registers. This determines
which output lines transmit the command output signals.
No Commutation: If Turbo PMAC is not commutating Motor xx (Ixx01=0 or 2), only one command
output value is calculated, which is written to the register at the address specified in Ixx02. If Ixx01 is set
to 0, this register is a Y-register; if Ixx01 is set to 2, this register is an X-register. Almost all output
registers on PMAC are Y-registers; the only common use of X-register outputs is in the Type 0 MACRO
protocol.
On Turbo PMAC boards, if Ixx01 is set to 0 or 2 and Ixx96 is set to 1, then only the magnitude of the
command is written to the register specified by Ixx02; the sign of the command is written to bit 14 of the
flag register specified by Ixx25, which is usually the AENA/DIR output. If this sign-and-magnitude
mode is used, bit 16 of Ixx24 should be set to 1 so this bit is not used for the amplifier-enable function.
Sign-and-magnitude mode does not work with PMAC2-style Servo ICs.
The default values listed above are usually suitable for commanding single analog outputs (velocity or
torque mode) when the Turbo PMAC is not commutating the motor.
Commutation, No Current Loop: If Turbo PMAC is commutating Motor xx (Ixx01=1 or 3), but not
closing its current loop (Ixx82=0), two command output values are calculated, which are written to the Yregister at the address specified in Ixx02, plus the Y-register at the next higher address.
The default values listed above are usually suitable for commanding analog output pairs when the Turbo
PMAC is commutating the motor, but not closing the current loop.
Commutation and Current Loop: If Turbo PMAC is commutating Motor xx (Ixx01=1 or 3) and
closing its current loop (Ixx82>0), three command output values are calculated, which are written to the
Y-register at the address specified in Ixx02, plus the Y-registers at the next two higher addresses.
64
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The default values listed above are usually suitable for commanding three-phase PWM sets when the
Turbo PMAC is commutating the motor, and closing the current loop.
Pulse Frequency Output: One common application type for which the default value of Ixx02 cannot be
used is the direct pulse-and-direction output for stepper motor drives (Turbo PMAC2 only). This mode
uses the ‘C’ output register alone for each channel, and I7mn6 for Servo IC m Channel n must be set to 2
or 3 to get pulse frequency output. In this case, the following values should be used:
Turbo PMAC2 Ixx02 Pulse Frequency Output Settings
Servo
IC #
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Chan. 1
Chan. 2
Chan. 3
Chan. 4
Notes
$078004
$078104
$078204
$078304
$079204
$079304
$07A204
$07A304
$07B204
$07B304
$07800C
$07810C
$07820C
$07830C
$07920C
$07930C
$07A20C
$07A30C
$07B20C
$07B30C
$078014
$078114
$078214
$078314
$079214
$079314
$07A214
$07A314
$07B214
$07B314
$07801C
$07811C
$07821C
$07831C
$07921C
$07931C
$07A21C
$07A31C
$07B21C
$07B31C
First IC on board PMAC2, 3U stack
Second IC on board PMAC2, 3U stack
First Acc-24E2x, first IC on first Acc-24P/V2
Second Acc-24E2x, second IC on first Acc-24P/V2
Third Acc-24E2x, first IC on second Acc-24P/V2
Fourth Acc-24E2x, second IC on second Acc-24P/V2
Fifth Acc-24E2x, first IC on third Acc-24P/V2
Sixth Acc-24E2x, second IC on third Acc-24P/V2
Seventh Acc-24E2x, first IC on fourth Acc-24P/V2
Eighth Acc-24E2x, second IC on fourth Acc-24P/V2
MACRO Type 1 Command Outputs: To write command outputs to MACRO registers for Type 1
MACRO devices such as the Delta Tau MACRO Station, the values of Ixx02 shown above as defaults for
the Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite can be used.
MACRO Type 0 Command Outputs: To write single velocity or torque command outputs to MACRO
registers for Type 0 MACRO drives such as the Performance Controls FLX Drive and the Kollmorgen
FAST Drive, the values of Ixx02 in the following table should be used. Each value can select two
registers (e.g. for Node 0 and Node 2). To select the lower-numbered node’s register, which is a Yregister in Turbo PMAC, Ixx01 should be set to 0; to select the higher-numbered node’s register, which is
a Y-register, Ixx01 should be set to 2.
Ixx02 for Type 0 MACRO Commands
Ixx02
Value
Register
Ixx02
Value
Register
I102
I202
I302
I402
I502
I602
I702
I802
I902
I1002
I1102
I1202
I1302
I1402
I1502
I1602
$078423
$078427
$07842B
$07842F
$078433
$078437
$07843B
$07843F
$079423
$079427
$07942B
$07942F
$079433
$079437
$07943B
$07943F
MACRO IC 0 Node 0/2 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 0 Node 1/3 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 0 Node 4/6 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 0 Node 5/7 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 0 Node 8/10 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 0 Node 9/11 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 0 Node 12/14 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 0 Node 13/15 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 1 Node 0/2 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 1 Node 1/3 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 1 Node 4/6 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 1 Node 5/7 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 1 Node 8/10 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 1 Node 9/11 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 1 Node 12/14 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 1 Node 13/15 Reg. 3
I1702
I1802
I1902
I2002
I2102
I2202
I2302
I2402
I2502
I2602
I2702
I2802
I2902
I3002
I3102
I3202
$07A423
$07A427
$07A42B
$07A42F
$07A433
$07A437
$07A43B
$07A43F
$07B423
$07B427
$07B42B
$07B42F
$07B433
$07B437
$07B43B
$07B43F
MACRO IC 2 Node 0/2 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 2 Node 1/3 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 2 Node 4/6 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 2 Node 5/7 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 2 Node 8/10 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 2 Node 9/11 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 2 Node 12/14 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 2 Node 13/15 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 3 Node 0/2 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 3 Node 1/3 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 3 Node 4/6 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 3 Node 5/7 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 3 Node 8/10 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 3 Node 9/11 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 3 Node 12/14 Reg. 3
MACRO IC 3 Node 13/15 Reg. 3
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
65
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Ixx03 Motor xx Position Loop Feedback Address
Range:
$000000 - $FFFFFF
Units:
Turbo PMAC Addresses
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Ixx03 Defaults
Ixx03
Value
Register
I103
I203
I303
I403
I503
I603
I703
I803
I903
I1003
I1103
I1203
I1303
I1403
I1503
I1603
$003501
$003502
$003503
$003504
$003505
$003506
$003507
$003508
$003509
$00350A
$00350B
$00350C
$00350D
$00350E
$00350F
$003510
Conversion Table Line 0
Conversion Table Line 1
Conversion Table Line 2
Conversion Table Line 3
Conversion Table Line 4
Conversion Table Line 5
Conversion Table Line 6
Conversion Table Line 7
Conversion Table Line 8
Conversion Table Line 9
Conversion Table Line 10
Conversion Table Line 11
Conversion Table Line 12
Conversion Table Line 13
Conversion Table Line 14
Conversion Table Line 15
Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite Ixx03 Defaults
Ixx03
Value
Register
I103
I203
I303
I403
I503
I603
I703
I803
I903
I1003
I1103
I1203
I1303
I1403
I1503
I1603
$003502
$003504
$003506
$003508
$00350A
$00350C
$00350E
$003510
$003512
$003514
$003516
$003518
$00351A
$00351C
$00351E
$003520
Conversion Table Line 1
Conversion Table Line 3
Conversion Table Line 5
Conversion Table Line 7
Conversion Table Line 9
Conversion Table Line 11
Conversion Table Line 13
Conversion Table Line 15
Conversion Table Line 17
Conversion Table Line 19
Conversion Table Line 21
Conversion Table Line 23
Conversion Table Line 25
Conversion Table Line 27
Conversion Table Line 29
Conversion Table Line 31
Ixx03
I1703
I1803
I1903
I2003
I2103
I2203
I2303
I2403
I2503
I2603
I2703
I2803
I2903
I3003
I3103
I3203
Value
$003511
$003512
$003513
$003514
$003515
$003516
$003517
$003518
$003519
$00351A
$00351B
$00351C
$00351D
$00351E
$00351F
$003520
Ixx03
Value
I1703
I1803
I1903
I2003
I2103
I2203
I2303
I2403
I2503
I2603
I2703
I2803
I2903
I3003
I3103
I3203
$003522
$003524
$003526
$003528
$00352A
$00352C
$00352E
$003530
$003532
$003534
$003536
$003538
$00353A
$00353C
$00353E
$003540
Register
Conversion Table Line 16
Conversion Table Line 17
Conversion Table Line 18
Conversion Table Line 19
Conversion Table Line 20
Conversion Table Line 21
Conversion Table Line 22
Conversion Table Line 23
Conversion Table Line 24
Conversion Table Line 25
Conversion Table Line 26
Conversion Table Line 27
Conversion Table Line 28
Conversion Table Line 29
Conversion Table Line 30
Conversion Table Line 31
Register
Conversion Table Line 33
Conversion Table Line 35
Conversion Table Line 37
Conversion Table Line 39
Conversion Table Line 41
Conversion Table Line 43
Conversion Table Line 45
Conversion Table Line 47
Conversion Table Line 49
Conversion Table Line 51
Conversion Table Line 53
Conversion Table Line 55
Conversion Table Line 57
Conversion Table Line 59
Conversion Table Line 61
Conversion Table Line 63
Ixx03 tells the Turbo PMAC where to look for its position feedback value to close the position loop for
Motor xx. It contains the address of the register where the motor will read its position feedback value.
Usually this is a result register in the “Encoder Conversion Table”, where raw feedback values have been
pre-processed at the beginning of each servo cycle. Feedback data is expected in units of 1/32 count (5
bits of fractional data). The result registers in the Encoder Conversion Table are located at addresses
X:$003501 to X:$0035C0, corresponding to table setup I-variables I8000 to I8191, respectively.
For a control loop with dual feedback, motor and load, use Ixx03 to point to the encoder on the load, and
Ixx04 to point to the encoder on the motor.
66
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Note:
To use Turbo PMAC’s hardware position-capture feature for homing search moves
or other types of automatic move-until-trigger (Ixx97=0), the encoder channel
number addressed by Ixx03 through the Encoder Conversion Table must match the
channel number of the flags addressed by Ixx25.
Ixx04 Motor xx Velocity Loop Feedback Address
Range:
$000000 - $FFFFFF
Units:
Turbo PMAC Addresses
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Ixx04 Defaults
Ixx04
I104
I204
I304
I404
I504
I604
I704
I804
I904
I1004
I1104
I1204
I1304
I1404
I1504
I1604
Value
$003501
$003502
$003503
$003504
$003505
$003506
$003507
$003508
$003509
$00350A
$00350B
$00350C
$00350D
$00350E
$00350F
$003510
Register
Conversion Table Line 0
Conversion Table Line 1
Conversion Table Line 2
Conversion Table Line 3
Conversion Table Line 4
Conversion Table Line 5
Conversion Table Line 6
Conversion Table Line 7
Conversion Table Line 8
Conversion Table Line 9
Conversion Table Line 10
Conversion Table Line 11
Conversion Table Line 12
Conversion Table Line 13
Conversion Table Line 14
Conversion Table Line 15
Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite Ixx04 Defaults
Ixx04
Value
Register
I104
I204
I304
I404
I504
I604
I704
I804
I904
I1004
I1104
I1204
I1304
I1404
I1504
I1604
$003502
$003504
$003506
$003508
$00350A
$00350C
$00350E
$003510
$003512
$003514
$003516
$003518
$00351A
$00351C
$00351E
$003520
Conversion Table Line 1
Conversion Table Line 3
Conversion Table Line 5
Conversion Table Line 7
Conversion Table Line 9
Conversion Table Line 11
Conversion Table Line 13
Conversion Table Line 15
Conversion Table Line 17
Conversion Table Line 19
Conversion Table Line 21
Conversion Table Line 23
Conversion Table Line 25
Conversion Table Line 27
Conversion Table Line 29
Conversion Table Line 31
Ixx04
I1704
I1804
I1904
I2004
I2104
I2204
I2304
I2404
I2504
I2604
I2704
I2804
I2904
I3004
I3104
I3204
Ixx04
I1704
I1804
I1904
I2004
I2104
I2204
I2304
I2404
I2504
I2604
I2704
I2804
I2904
I3004
I3104
I3204
Value
$003511
$003512
$003513
$003514
$003515
$003516
$003517
$003518
$003519
$00351A
$00351B
$00351C
$00351D
$00351E
$00351F
$003520
Value
$003522
$003524
$003526
$003528
$00352A
$00352C
$00352E
$003530
$003532
$003534
$003536
$003538
$00353A
$00353C
$00353E
$003540
Register
Conversion Table Line 16
Conversion Table Line 17
Conversion Table Line 18
Conversion Table Line 19
Conversion Table Line 20
Conversion Table Line 21
Conversion Table Line 22
Conversion Table Line 23
Conversion Table Line 24
Conversion Table Line 25
Conversion Table Line 26
Conversion Table Line 27
Conversion Table Line 28
Conversion Table Line 29
Conversion Table Line 30
Conversion Table Line 31
Register
Conversion Table Line 33
Conversion Table Line 35
Conversion Table Line 37
Conversion Table Line 39
Conversion Table Line 41
Conversion Table Line 43
Conversion Table Line 45
Conversion Table Line 47
Conversion Table Line 49
Conversion Table Line 51
Conversion Table Line 53
Conversion Table Line 55
Conversion Table Line 57
Conversion Table Line 59
Conversion Table Line 61
Conversion Table Line 63
Ixx04 tells the Turbo PMAC where to look for its position feedback value to close the velocity loop for
Motor xx. It contains the address of the register where the motor will read its position feedback value.
Usually this is a result register in the “Encoder Conversion Table”, where raw feedback values have been
pre-processed at the beginning of each servo cycle. Feedback data is expected in units of 1/32 count (5
bits of fractional data). The result registers in the Encoder Conversion Table are located at addresses
X:$003501 to X:$0035C0, corresponding to table setup I-variables I8000 to I8191, respectively.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
67
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
For a control-loop with only a single feedback device – the usual case – Ixx03 and Ixx04 will have the
same value, so the same register is used for both position and velocity loops. For a control loop with dual
feedback, motor and load, use Ixx03 to point to the encoder on the load for the position loop, and Ixx04 to
point to the encoder on the motor for the velocity loop. If the velocity loop uses feedback with different
resolution from the position loop, the Ixx09 velocity-loop scale factor should be different from the Ixx08
position-loop scale factor.
Ixx05 Motor xx Master Position Address
Range:
Units:
Default:
$000000 - $FFFFFF
Turbo PMAC ‘X’ Addresses
$0035C0 (end of conversion table)
WARNING:
Never use the same register for master position and feedback position for the same
motor. A dangerous runaway condition may result.
Ixx05 specifies the address of the register for master position information of Motor xx for the position
following, or electronic gearing, function. Typically, this is a register in the encoder conversion table
(addresses $003501 to $0035C0), where processed input position data resides.
The position following function is only enabled if Ixx06 is set to 1 or 3.
Ixx06 Motor xx Position Following Enable and Mode
Range:
0-3
Units:
none
Default:
0
Ixx06 controls the position following function for Motor xx. It determines whether following is enabled
or disabled, and whether the following function is in normal mode or offset (superimpose) mode.
Normal Mode: In normal following mode, motor position changes due to following are reported when
the motor position is queried, and subsequent programmed moves for the motor cancel out the position
changes due to the following function.
Offset Mode: In offset following mode, motor position changes due to following are not reported when
the motor position is queried (the position reference is effectively offset for the motor), and subsequent
programmed moves are added on top of the position changes due to the following function. This permits
the superimposition of programmed and following moves in offset mode.
Ixx06 is a two-bit value. Bit 0 controls the enabling of the following function (0 = disabled, 1 = enabled).
Bit 1 controls the following mode (0 = normal mode, 1 = offset mode). This yields four possible values
for Ixx06:
 Ixx06 = 0: Following disabled, normal mode
 Ixx06 = 1: Following enabled, normal mode
 Ixx06 = 2: Following disabled, offset mode
 Ixx06 = 3: Following enabled, offset mode
Note:
The following mode can be important even when following is disabled, because it
affects how subsequent programmed moves are calculated. If the following mode
is ever changed, a PMATCH position-matching command must be executed before
the next programmed move is calculated. Otherwise, that move will use the wrong
value for its starting position, and a potentially dangerous jump will occur.
(PMATCH is automatically executed on an R (run) or S (step) command.)
68
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Ixx07 Motor xx Master (Handwheel) Scale Factor
Range:
-8,388,608 - 8,388,607
Units:
none
Default:
96
Ixx07 controls with what scaling the master (handwheel) register gets multiplied when extended into the
full-length register. In combination with Ixx08, it controls the following ratio of Motor xx for position
following (electronic gearing) according to the equation:
MotorPosition 
Ixx07
MasterPosition
Ixx08
For this position-following function, Ixx07 and Ixx08 can be thought of as the number of teeth on
meshing gears in a mechanical coupling.
Ixx07 may be changed on the fly to permit real-time changing of the following ratio, but Ixx08 may not.
Ixx08 should therefore be set to a large enough value to get the required fineness of ratio changes.
Ixx08 Motor xx Position Scale Factor
Range:
0 - 8,388,607
Units:
none
Default:
96
Ixx08 specifies the multiplication scale factor for the internal position registers for Motor xx. Source
position registers are multiplied by Ixx08 as the get extended into the full-length motor position registers.
For most purposes, this is transparent to the user and Ixx08 does not need to be changed from the default.
There are two reasons that the user might want to change this from the default value. First, because it is
involved in the gear ratio of the position following function -- the ratio is Ixx07/Ixx08 – the value of
Ixx08 might be changed (usually raised) to get a more precise ratio.
The second reason to change this parameter (usually lowering it) is to prevent internal saturation at very
high gains or count rates (velocity). PMAC's filter will saturate when the velocity in counts/sec
multiplied by Ixx08 exceeds 768M (805,306,368), or 256M (268,435,456) in PVT mode. This only
happens in very rare applications -- the count rate must exceed 8.3 million counts per second (2.8 million
in PVT mode) before the default value of Ixx08 gives a problem.
Note:
When changing this parameter, make sure the motor is killed (disabled).
Otherwise, a sudden jump will occur, because the internal position registers will
have changed. This means that this parameter should not be changed in the middle
of an application. If a real-time change in the position-following gear ratio is
desired, Ixx07 should be changed.
In most practical cases, Ixx08 should not be set above 1000 because higher values can make the servo
filter saturate too easily. If Ixx08 is changed, Ixx30 should be changed inversely to keep the same servo
performance (e.g. if Ixx08 is doubled, Ixx30 should be halved).
Ixx09 Motor xx Velocity-Loop Scale Factor
Range:
0 - 8,388,607
Units:
none
Default:
96
Ixx09 specifies the multiplication scale factor for the internal actual velocity registers for Motor xx.
Source position registers for the velocity loop are multiplied by Ixx09 before they are compared and used
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
69
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
in the velocity loop. For most purposes, this is transparent to the user and Ixx09 does not need to be
changed from the default.
This parameter should not be changed in the middle of an application, because it scales many internal
values. If the same sensor is used to close both the position and velocity loops (Ixx03=Ixx04), Ixx09
should be set equal to Ixx08.
If different sensors are used, Ixx09 should be set such that the ratio of Ixx09 to Ixx08 is inversely
proportional to the ratio of the velocity sensor resolution (at the load) to the position sensor resolution. If
the value computed this way for Ixx09 does not come to an integer, use the nearest integer value.
Example:
If a 5000 line/inch (20,000 cts/in) linear encoder is used for position feedback, and a 500 line/rev (2000
cts/rev) rotary encoder is used for velocity loop feedback, and there is a 5-pitch screw, the effective
resolution of the velocity encoder is 10,000 cts/in (2000*5), half of the position sensor resolution, so
Ixx09 should be set to twice Ixx08.
Ixx10 Motor xx Power-On Servo Position Address
Range:
$000000 - $FFFFFF
Units:
Turbo PMAC or Multiplexer Port Addresses
Default:
$0
Ixx10 controls whether Turbo PMAC reads an absolute position sensor for Motor xx on power-up/reset
and/or with the $* or $$* commands. If an absolute position read is to be done, Ixx10 specifies what
register is read for that absolute position data. Ixx95 specifies how the data in this register is interpreted.
If Ixx10 is set to 0, no absolute power-on/reset position read is performed. The power-on/reset position is
considered to be zero, even if an absolute sensor reporting a non-zero value is used. Ixx10 should be set
to 0 when an incremental position sensor is used; a homing search move is typically then executed to
establish a position reference.
If Ixx10 is set to a non-zero value, an absolute position read is performed for Motor xx at power-on/reset,
from the register whose location is specified in Ixx10 (unless Bit 2 of Ixx80 is set to 1). This is either the
address of a Turbo PMAC register, the multiplexed data address on the Multiplexer Port, or the number of
the MACRO node on the Turbo PMAC, depending on the setting of Ixx95. The motor’s position is set to
the value read from the sensor location the Ixx26 home offset value.
Ixx10 is used only on power-on/reset, when the $* command is issued for the motor, or when the $$*
command is issued for the coordinate system containing the motor. To get a new value of Ixx10 to take
effect, either the $* or $$* command must be issued, or the value must be stored to non-volatile flash
memory with the SAVE command, and the board must be reset.
Note:
Variable Ixx81 (with Ixx91) performs the same power-on position read function
for the phasing (commutation) algorithm.
R/D Converter Read: If Ixx95 is set to a value from $000000 to $070000, or from $800000 to $870000,
the address specified in Ixx10 is a Multiplexer Port address. Turbo PMAC will read the absolute position
from an Acc-8D Opt 7 Resolver-to-Digital Converter board at that port address, as set by DIP switches on
the board. Ixx95 specifies which R/D converter at that address is read, and whether it is treated as a
signed or unsigned value.
If Ixx99 is greater than 0, the next R/D converter at that port address is also read as a second geared-down
resolver, with Ixx99 setting the gear ratio. If Ixx98 is also greater than 0, the next R/D converter past that
one at the same port address is read as a third geared-down resolver, with Ixx98 setting the gear ratio.
In this mode, bits 1 through 7 of Ixx10 match the settings of DIP-switches SW1-2 through SW1-8,
respectively, on the Acc-8D Opt 7 R/D Converter board. A Closed (ON) switch represents a 0 value; an
70
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Open (OFF) switch represents a 1 value. Bit 0 and bits 9 through 23 of Ixx10 are always set to 0 in this
mode; bit 8 is only set to 1 if all other bits are 0.
The following table shows the common Multiplexer Port addresses that can be used. Note that address 0
uses an Ixx10 value of $000100, because Ixx10=0 disables the absolute position read function.
Ixx10 for Acc-8D Option 7 Resolver/Digital Converter
(Ixx95=$000000 - $070000, $800000 - $870000) Addresses are Multiplexer Port Addresses
Board
Mux.
Addr.
0
8
16
24
32
40
48
56
Ixx10
$000100
$000008
$000010
$000018
$000020
$000028
$000030
$000038
Board
Mux.
Addr.
64
72
80
88
96
104
112
120
Ixx10
$000040
$000048
$000050
$000058
$000060
$000068
$000070
$000078
Board
Mux.
Addr.
128
136
144
152
160
168
176
184
Ixx10
$000080
$000088
$000090
$000098
$0000A0
$0000A8
$0000B0
$0000B8
Board
Mux.
Addr.
192
200
208
216
224
232
240
248
Ixx10
$0000C0
$0000C8
$0000D0
$0000D8
$0000E0
$0000E8
$0000F0
$0000F8
Parallel Word Read: If Ixx95 is set to a value from $080000 to $300000, from $480000 to $700000,
from $880000 to $B00000, or from $C80000 to $F00000, the address specified in Ixx10 is a Turbo
PMAC memory-I/O address, and Turbo PMAC will read the parallel word at that address. The least
significant bit (count) is expected at bit 0 of the address. The bit width (8 to 48 bits), the format (signed
or unsigned), and the register type (X or Y) are determined by Ixx95.
The common sources for this type of read are Acc-14 parallel I/O expansion boards, and the MLDT timer
registers. The following tables show the settings of Ixx10 for these devices.
Ixx10 Values for Acc-14D/V Registers
(Ixx95=$080000 to $300000 [unsigned], $880000 to $B00000 [signed])
Register
First Acc-14D/V Port A
First Acc-14D/V Port B
Second Acc-14D/V Port A
Second Acc-14D/V Port B
Third Acc-14D/V Port A
Third Acc-14D/V Port B
Acc-14
Select
Jumper
E12
E12
E13
E13
E14
E14
Ixx10
Register
$078A00
$078A01
$078B00
$078B01
$078C00
$078C01
Fourth Acc-14D/V Port A
Fourth Acc-14D/V Port B
Fifth Acc-14D/V Port A
Fifth Acc-14D/V Port B
Sixth Acc-14D/V Port A
Sixth Acc-14D/V Port B
Acc-14
Select
Jumper
E15
E15
E16
E16
E17
E17
Ixx10
$078D00
$078D01
$078E00
$078E01
$078F00
$078F01
Ixx10 for PMAC2-Style MLDT Timer Registers (Ixx95=$180000)
Servo
IC #
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Chan. 1
Chan. 2
Chan. 3
Chan. 4
Notes
$078000
$078100
$078200
$078300
$079200
$079300
$07A200
$07A300
$07B200
$07B300
$078008
$078108
$078208
$078308
$079208
$079308
$07A208
$07A308
$07B208
$07B308
$078010
$078010
$078210
$078310
$079210
$079310
$07A210
$07A310
$07B210
$07B310
$078018
$078018
$078218
$078318
$079218
$079318
$07A218
$07A318
$07B218
$07B318
First IC on board PMAC2, 3U stack
Second IC on board PMAC2, 3U stack
First Acc-24E2x, first IC on first Acc-24P/V2
Second Acc-24E2x, second IC on first Acc-24P/V2
Third Acc-24E2x, first IC on second Acc-24P/V2
Fourth Acc-24E2x, second IC on second Acc-24P/V2
Fifth Acc-24E2x, first IC on third Acc-24P/V2
Sixth Acc-24E2x, second IC on third Acc-24P/V2
Seventh Acc-24E2x, first IC on fourth Acc-24P/V2
Eighth Acc-24E2x, second IC on fourth Acc-24P/V2
It can also be used for registers in the 3U-format Acc-3E1 (for 3U Turbo Stack systems) and Acc-14E
(for UMAC Turbo systems) boards. In this case, the last hex digit of Ixx95 must be set to a non-zero
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
71
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
value to specify the byte-wide bus of these boards. The following tables show Ixx10 values for these
boards.
Ixx10 Values for Acc-3E1 Registers in 3U Turbo Stack Systems
(Ixx95=$08000x to $30000x [unsigned], $88000x to $B0000x [signed])
Acc-3E1 Address Jumper
Ixx10 Value
E1
$07880x
E2
$07890x
E3
$078A0x
E4
$078B0x
Ixx10 Values for Acc-14E Registers in UMAC Turbo Systems
(Ixx95=$08000x to $30000x [unsigned], $88000x to $B0000x [signed])
DIP-Switch
Setting
SW1-3 ON (0)
SW1-4 ON (0)
SW1-3 OFF (1)
SW1-4 ON (0)
SW1-3 ON (0)
SW1-4 OFF (1)
SW1-3 OFF (1)
SW1-4 OFF (1)
SW1-1 ON (0)
SW1-2 ON (0)
$078C0x
SW1-1 OFF (1)
SW1-2 ON (0)
$078D0x
SW1-1 ON (0)
SW1-2 OFF (1)
$078E0x
SW1-1 OFF (1)
SW1-2 OFF (1)
$078F0x
$079C0x
$079D0x
$079E0x
$079F0x
$07AC0x
$07AD0x
$07AE0x
$07AF0x
$07BC0x
$07BD0x
$07BE0x
$07BF0x
SW1-5 & 6 must be ON (0). ON means CLOSED; OFF means OPEN.
The final digit, represented by an x in both of these tables, can take a value of 0 to 5, depending on which
I/O point on the board is used for the least significant bit (LSB):
Ixx10 Last Hex
Digit x
x=0
x=1
x=2
x=3
x=4
x=5
Pin Used for LSB
Pin Used for LSB
Pin Used for LSB
I/O00-07
I/O08-15
I/O16-23
I/O24-31
I/O32-39
I/O40-47
I/O48-55
I/O56-63
I/O64-71
I/O72-79
I/O80-87
I/O88-95
I/O96-103
I/O104-111
I/O112-119
I/O120-127
I/O128-135
I/O136-143
Acc-28 A/D Converter Read: If Ixx95 is set to $310000 or $B10000, the address specified by Ixx10 is a
Turbo PMAC ‘Y’ memory-I/O address, and Turbo PMAC will read the data in the high 16 bits of that
address as the absolute position (the LSB – one count – is in bit 8). This format is intended for the Acc28A and Acc-28B A/D converters.
The following table shows the settings of Ixx10 for these registers.
Ixx10 Values for PMAC-Style ADC Registers
(Ixx95=$B10000 for Acc-28A, Ixx95=$310000 for Acc-28B)
72
Register
PMAC
ADC1
ADC2
ADC3
ADC4
ADC5
ADC6
ADC7
ADC8
$078006
$078007
$07800E
$07800F
$078106
$078107
$07810E
$07810F
First
Acc-24P/V
$078206
$078207
$07820E
$07820F
$078306
$078307
$07830E
$07830F
Second
Acc-24P/V
$079206
$079207
$07920E
$07920F
$079306
$079307
$07930E
$07930F
Third
Acc-24P/V
$07A206
$07A207
$07A20E
$07A20F
$07A306
$07A307
$07A30E
$07A30F
Fourth
Acc-24P/V
$07B206
$07B207
$07B20E
$07B20F
$07B306
$07B307
$07B30E
$07B30F
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Ixx10 Values for PMAC2-Style ADC Registers using Acc-28B
(Ixx95=$B10000)
Register
PMAC2
ADC 1A
ADC 1B
ADC 2A
ADC 2B
ADC 3A
ADC 3B
ADC 4A
ADC 4B
ADC 5A
ADC 5B
ADC 6A
ADC 6B
ADC 7A
ADC 7B
ADC 8A
ADC 8B
$078005
$078006
$07800D
$07800E
$078015
$078016
$07801D
$07801E
$078105
$078106
$07810D
$07810E
$078115
$078116
$07811D
$07811E
First
Acc-24x2
$078205
$078206
$07820D
$07820E
$078215
$078216
$07821D
$07821E
$078305
$078306
$07830D
$07830E
$078315
$078316
$07831D
$07831E
Second
Acc-24x2
$079205
$079206
$07920D
$07920E
$079215
$079216
$07921D
$07921E
$079305
$079306
$07930D
$07930E
$079315
$079316
$07931D
$07931E
Third
Acc-24x2
$07A205
$07A206
$07A20D
$07A20E
$07A215
$07A216
$07A21D
$07A21E
$07A305
$07A306
$07A30D
$07A30E
$07A315
$07A316
$07A31D
$07A31E
Fourth
Acc-24x2
$07B205
$07B206
$07B20D
$07B20E
$07B215
$07B216
$07B21D
$07B21E
$07B305
$07B306
$07B30D
$07B30E
$07B315
$07B316
$07B31D
$07B31E
Ixx10 Values for Acc-28E Registers in UMAC Turbo Systems
(Ixx95=$B10000)
DIP-Switch
SW1-1 ON (0)
SW1-1 OFF (1)
SW1-1 ON (0)
Setting
SW1-2 ON (0)
SW1-2 ON (0)
SW1-2 OFF (1)
SW1-3 ON (0)
$078C0x
$078D0x
$078E0x
SW1-4 ON (0)
SW1-3 OFF (1)
$079C0x
$079D0x
$079E0x
SW1-4 ON (0)
SW1-3 ON (0)
$07AC0x
$07AD0x
$07AE0x
SW1-4 OFF (1)
SW1-3 OFF (1)
$07BC0x
$07BD0x
$07BE0x
SW1-4 OFF (1)
SW1-5 and 6 must be ON (0). ON means CLOSED; OFF means OPEN.
SW1-1 OFF (1)
SW1-2 OFF (1)
$078F0x
$079F0x
$07AF0x
$07BF0x
The final digit, represented by an x in both of these tables, can take a value of 0 to 3, depending on which
ADC channel on the Acc-28E is used (x = Channel - 1).
Sanyo Absolute Encoder Read: If Ixx95 is set to $320000 or $B20000, the address specified in Ixx10 is
a Turbo PMAC memory-I/O address, and Turbo PMAC will read the absolute position from an Acc-49
Sanyo Absolute Encoder Converter board at that address. Ixx95 specifies whether this position is treated
as a signed or unsigned value.
The following table shows the possible settings of Ixx10 for Acc-49 Sanyo Absolute Encoder Converter
boards.
Ixx10 Values for Acc-49 Sanyo Absolute Encoder Converter (Ixx95=$320000, $B20000)
Addresses are Turbo PMAC Memory-I/O Addresses
Enc. # on
Board
Enc. 1
Enc. 2
Ixx10 for
E1 ON
$078A00
$078A04
Ixx10 for
E2 ON
$078B00
$078B04
Ixx10 for
E3 ON
$078C00
$078C04
Enc. # on
Board
Enc. 3
Enc. 4
Ixx10 for
E4 ON
$078D00
$078D04
Ixx10 for
E5 ON
$078E00
$078E04
Ixx10 for
E6 ON
$078F00
$078F04
Yaskawa Absolute Encoder Read: If Ixx95 is set to $710000 or $F10000, the address specified in
Ixx10 is a Multiplexer Port address, and Turbo PMAC will read the absolute position from an Acc-8D
Opt 9 Yaskawa Absolute Encoder Converter board at that port address, as set by DIP switches on the
board. Ixx95 specifies whether it is treated as a signed or unsigned value.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
73
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
In this mode, bits 3 through 7 of Ixx10 match the settings of DIP switches SW1-1 through SW1-5,
respectively, of the Acc-8D Option 9 Yaskawa converter board.
A Closed switch represents a bit value of 0; an OPEN switch represents a bit value of 1. Bits 0 through 2,
and bits 8 though 23, of Ixx10 are always set to 0 in this mode.
The following table shows the Multiplexer Port addresses that can be used and the matching values of
Ixx10. Note that address 0 uses an Ixx10 value of $000100, because Ixx10=0 disables the absolute
position read function.
Ixx10 for Acc-8D Option 9 Yaskawa Absolute Encoder (Ixx95=$710000, $F10000)
Addresses are Multiplexer Port Addresses
Board
Mux.
Addr.
0
8
16
24
32
40
48
56
64
72
80
88
96
104
112
120
Ixx10 for
Enc. 1
Ixx10 for
Enc. 2
Ixx10 for
Enc. 3
Ixx10 for
Enc. 4
$000100
$000008
$000010
$000018
$000020
$000028
$000030
$000038
$000040
$000048
$000050
$000058
$000060
$000068
$000070
$000078
$000002
$00000A
$000012
$00001A
$000022
$00002A
$000032
$00003A
$000042
$00004A
$000052
$00005A
$000062
$00006A
$000072
$00007A
$000004
$00000C
$000014
$00001C
$000024
$00002C
$000034
$00003C
$000044
$00004C
$000054
$00005C
$000064
$00006C
$000074
$00007C
$000006
$00000E
$000016
$00001E
$000026
$00002E
$000036
$00003E
$000046
$00004E
$000056
$00005E
$000066
$00006E
$000076
$00007E
Board
Mux.
Addr.
128
136
144
152
160
168
176
184
192
200
208
216
224
232
240
248
Ixx10 for
Enc. 1
Ixx10 for
Enc. 2
Ixx10 for
Enc. 3
Ixx10 for
Enc. 4
$000080
$000088
$000090
$000098
$0000A0
$0000A8
$0000B0
$0000B8
$0000C0
$0000C8
$0000D0
$0000D8
$0000E0
$0000E8
$0000F0
$0000F8
$000082
$00008A
$000092
$00009A
$0000A2
$0000AA
$0000B2
$0000BA
$0000C2
$0000CA
$0000D2
$0000DA
$0000E2
$0000EA
$0000F2
$0000FA
$000084
$00008C
$000094
$00009C
$0000A4
$0000AC
$0000B4
$0000BC
$0000C4
$0000CC
$0000D4
$0000DC
$0000E4
$0000EC
$0000F4
$0000FC
$000086
$00008E
$000096
$00009E
$0000A6
$0000AE
$0000B6
$0000BE
$0000C6
$0000CE
$0000D6
$0000DE
$0000E6
$0000EE
$0000F6
$0000FE
MACRO Absolute Position Read: If Ixx95 contains a value from $720000 to $740000, or from
$F20000 to $F40000, the value specified in Ixx10 is a MACRO node number, and Turbo PMAC will
obtain the absolute power-on position through the MACRO ring. Ixx95 specifies what type of position
data is used, and whether it is treated as a signed or unsigned value.
The MACRO node number is specified in the last two hex digits of Ixx10. The second-to-last digit
specifies the MACRO IC number 0 to 3 (1, 2, and 3 exist only on Ultralite versions of the Turbo PMAC2,
or a UMAC Turbo with Acc-5E). Note that the MACRO IC number on the Turbo PMAC does not
necessarily match the ring master number for that IC, although it often will. The last digit specifies the
MACRO node number 0 to 15 (0 to F hex) in that IC. This function is only supported in nodes 0, 1, 4, 5,
8, 9, 12 (C), and 13 (D).
The following table shows the required values of Ixx10 for all of the MACRO nodes that can be used.
Note that MACRO IC 0 Node 0 uses an Ixx10 value of $000100, because Ixx10=0 disables the absolute
position read function.
Ixx10 for MACRO Absolute Position Reads
(Ixx95=$720000 - $740000, $F20000 - $F40000)
Addresses are MACRO Node Numbers
MACRO
Node Number
0
1
4
5
8
9
74
Ixx10 for
MACRO IC 0
$000100
$000001
$000004
$000005
$000008
$000009
Ixx10 for
MACRO IC 1
$000010
$000011
$000014
$000015
$000018
$000019
Ixx10 for
MACRO IC 2
$000020
$000021
$000024
$000025
$000028
$000029
Ixx10 for
MACRO IC 3
$000030
$000031
$000034
$000035
$000038
$000039
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
12
13
$00000C
$00000D
$00001C
$00001D
$00002C
$00002D
$00003C
$00003D
If obtaining the absolute position through a Delta Tau MACRO Station or equivalent, MACRO Station
setup variable MI11x for the matching node must be set properly to obtain the type of information
desired.
Motor Safety I-Variables
Ixx11 Motor xx Fatal Following Error Limit
Range:
0 - 8,388,607
Units:
1/16 count
Default:
32,000 (2000 counts)
Ixx11 sets the magnitude of the following error for Motor xx at which operation will shut down. When
the magnitude of the following error exceeds Ixx11, Motor xx is disabled (killed). If the motor’s
coordinate system is executing a program at the time, the program is aborted. It is optional whether other
PMAC motors are disabled when this motor exceeds its following error limit; bits 21 and 22 of Ixx24
control what happens to the other motor (the default is that all PMAC motors are disabled).
A status bit for the motor, and one for the coordinate system (if the motor is in one) are set. On Turbo
PMAC, if this coordinate system is hardware-selected on JPAN (with I2=0), or software-addressed by the
host (with I2=1), the ERLD/ output on JPAN is turned on. On ISA bus cards, the following error input to
the interrupt controller is triggered.
Setting Ixx11 to zero disables the fatal-following error limit for the motor. This may be desirable during
initial development work, but it is strongly discouraged in an actual application. A fatal following error
limit is a very important protection against various types of faults, such as loss of feedback, that cannot be
detected directly, and that can cause severe damage to people and equipment.
Note:
The units of Ixx11 are 1/16 of a count. Therefore, this parameter must hold a value
16 times larger than the number of counts at which the limit will occur. For
example, if the limit is to be 1000 counts, Ixx11 should be set to 16,000.
Ixx12 Motor xx Warning Following Error Limit
Range:
0 - 8,388,607
Units:
1/16 count
Default:
16,000 (1000 counts)
Ixx12 sets the magnitude of the following error for Motor xx at which a warning flag goes true. If this
limit is exceeded, status bits are set for the motor and the motor's coordinate system (if any). The
coordinate system status bit is the logical OR of the status bits of all the motors in the coordinate system.
Setting this parameter to zero disables the warning following error limit function. If this parameter is set
greater than the Ixx11 fatal following error limit, the warning status bit will never go true, because the
fatal limit will disable the motor first.
If bit 1 of Ixx97 is set to 1, the motor can be triggered for homing search moves, jog-until-trigger moves,
and motion program move-until-trigger moves when the following error exceeds Ixx12. This is known as
torque-mode triggering, because the trigger will occur at a torque level corresponding to the Ixx12 limit.
Bit 0 of Ixx97 should also be set to 1 to enable software position capture, making the value of Ixx97 equal
to 3 in this mode.
At any given time, one coordinate system's status bit can be output to several places; which system
depends on what coordinate system is hardware-selected on the panel input port if I2=0, or what
coordinate system is software-addressed from the host (&n) if I2=1.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
75
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The outputs that work in this way are F1LD/ (pin 23 on connector J2 on Turbo PMAC only), F1ER (line
IR3 into the programmable interrupt controller (PIC) on Turbo PMAC PC) and, if E28 connects pins 1
and 2, FEFCO/ (on the JMACH1 connector on Turbo PMAC only).
Note:
The units of Ixx12 are 1/16 of a count. Therefore, this parameter must hold a value
16 times larger than the number of counts at which the limit will occur. For
example, if the limit is to be 1000 counts, Ixx12 should be set to 16,000.
Ixx13 Motor xx Positive Software Position Limit
Range:
-235 - +235
Units:
counts
Default:
0 (disabled)
Ixx13 sets the maximum permitted positive position value for Motor xx. It can work in two slightly
different ways.
1. Actual position limit: Turbo PMAC’s housekeeping functions repeatedly compare the actual position
of Motor xx to Ixx13. If the motor is closed-loop, and the actual position is greater in an absolute sense
(not magnitude) than Ixx13, Turbo PMAC automatically issues an Abort command, which causes this
motor to start decelerating to a stop at the rate set by Ixx15. If other motors are in coordinated motion,
they are also brought to a stop at their own Ixx15 rate.
Note:
In this mode, the deceleration starts after the limit has been reached, so the motion
will end outside the limit.
If the motor is in open-loop enabled mode (from an O-command) when it exceeds the Ixx13 limit, it will
be aborted (closed-loop stop). If the limit has already been exceeded, no open-loop commands are
accepted for this motor, regardless of polarity.
While the Ixx13 limit is exceeded, Turbo PMAC will allow no more positive-direction commands,
whether from a programmed move, a jog command, or from the position-following function. However, it
will allow negative-direction commands of any of these types, permitting a controlled exit from the limit.
2. Desired position limit: If bit 15 of Ixx24 is set to 1, enabling desired position limit checking, Turbo
PMAC will compared the desired motor target as calculated by the motion program position – either end
of programmed move, or end of intermediate segment – to the limit. If this target position is not
calculated within the special lookahead buffer, when this position is greater in an absolute sense (not
magnitude) than Ixx13, Turbo PMAC automatically issues an Abort command, which causes this motor
to start decelerating to a stop at the rate set by Ixx15. If other motors are in coordinated motion, they are
also brought to a stop at their own Ixx15 rate.
If this target position is calculated within the special lookahead buffer, when this position is greater in an
absolute sense (not magnitude) than [Ixx13-Ixx41], Turbo PMAC modifies this position to [Ixx13-Ixx41].
Depending on the setting of bit 14 of Ixx24, it either brings the program to a controlled stop at this point
(bit 14=0) or continues the program with the motor position saturated to this value (bit 14=1).
If stopped at the limit in lookahead, reversal along the path is possible. Commands for forward execution
into the limit will execute one segment at a time in a point-to-point fashion. If the software limit is
extended, normal program execution may be resumed. Because program execution is technically only
suspended when stopped at the limit in this mode, an Abort command must be issued before another
program can be run.
Lookahead is active for LINEAR and CIRCLE mode moves, provided that the lookahead buffer is
defined, and with Isx13 and Isx20 set to values greater than 0.
76
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
If Ixx13 is set to 0, there is no positive software limit (if 0 should be the limit, use 1). This limit is
automatically de-activated during homing-search moves, until the home trigger is found. It is active
during the post-trigger move.
Ixx13 is referenced to the most recent power-up zero position or homing-move zero position. The
physical position at which this limit occurs is not affected by axis-offset commands (e.g. PSET,
{axis}=), although these commands will change the reported position value at which the limit occurs.
Note:
It is possible to set this parameter outside the range +235 (+64 billion) if a couple of
special things are done. First, the Ixx08 scale factor for the motor must be reduced
to give the motor the range to use this position (motor range is +242/Ixx08).
Second, the variable value must be calculated inside Turbo PMAC, because the
command parser cannot accept constants outside the range +2 35 (e.g. to set I113 to
100 billion, use I113=1000000000*100).
Ixx14 Motor xx Negative Software Position Limit
Range:
-235 - +235
Units:
counts
Default:
0 (disabled)
Ixx14 sets the maximum permitted positive position value for Motor xx. It can work in two slightly
different ways.
1. Actual position limit: Turbo PMAC’s “housekeeping” functions repeatedly compare the actual
position of Motor xx to Ixx14. If the motor is closed-loop, and the actual position is less in an absolute
sense (not magnitude) than Ixx14, Turbo PMAC issues an Abort command automatically, which causes
this motor to start decelerating to a stop at the rate set by Ixx15. If other motors are in coordinated
motion, they are also brought to a stop at their own Ixx15 rate.
Note:
In this mode, the deceleration starts after the limit has been reached, so the motion
will end outside the limit.
If the motor is in open-loop enabled mode (from an O-command) when it exceeds the Ixx13 limit, it will
be aborted (closed-loop stop). If the limit has already been exceeded, no open-loop commands are
accepted for this motor, regardless of polarity.
While the Ixx14 limit is exceeded, Turbo PMAC will allow no more negative-direction commands,
whether from a programmed move, a jog command, or from the position-following function. However, it
will allow positive-direction commands of any of these types, permitting a controlled exit from the limit.
2. Desired position limit: If bit 15 of Ixx24 is set to 1, enabling desired position limit checking, Turbo
PMAC will compared the desired motor target as calculated by the motion program position – either end
of programmed move, or end of intermediate segment – to the limit. If this target position is not
calculated within the special lookahead buffer, when this position is less in an absolute sense (not
magnitude) than Ixx14, Turbo PMAC automatically issues an Abort command, which causes this motor
to start decelerating to a stop at the rate set by Ixx15. If other motors are in coordinated motion, they are
also brought to a stop at their own Ixx15 rate.
If this target position is calculated within the special lookahead buffer, when this position is less in an
absolute sense (not magnitude) than [Ixx14+Ixx41], Turbo PMAC modifies this position to
[Ixx14+Ixx41]. Depending on the setting of bit 14 of Ixx24, it either brings the program to a controlled
stop at this point (bit 14=0) or continues the program with the motor position saturated to this value (bit
14=1). If stopped at the limit in lookahead, reversal along the path is possible. Commands for forward
execution will execute one segment at a time in a point-to-point fashion.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
77
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Lookahead is active for LINEAR and CIRCLE mode moves, provided that the lookahead buffer is
defined, and with Isx13 and Isx20 set to values greater than 0.
If Ixx14 is set to 0, there is no positive software limit (if 0 should be a limit, use 1). This limit is
automatically de-activated during homing-search moves, until the home trigger is found. It is active
during the post-trigger move.
Ixx14 is referenced to the most recent power-up zero position or homing-move zero position. The
physical position at which this limit occurs is not affected by axis-offset commands (e.g. PSET,
{axis}=), although these commands will change the reported position value at which the limit occurs.
Note:
It is possible to set this parameter outside the range +235 (+64 billion) if a couple of
special things are done. First, the Ixx08 scale factor for the motor must be reduced
to give the motor the range to use this position (motor range is +242/Ixx08).
Second, the variable value must be calculated inside Turbo PMAC, because the
command parser cannot accept constants outside the range +2 35 (e.g. to set I114 to
-100 billion, use I114=-1000000000*100).
Ixx15 Motor xx Abort/Limit Deceleration Rate
Range:
Units:
Default:
Positive Floating-Point
counts / msec2
0.25
CAUTION:
Do not set this parameter to zero, or the motor will continue indefinitely after an
abort or limit.
Ixx15 sets the rate of deceleration that Motor xx will use if it exceeds a hardware or software limit, or has
its motion aborted by command (A or <CONTROL-A>). This value should usually be set to a value
near the maximum physical capability of the motor. It is not a good idea to set this value past the
capability of the motor, because doing so increases the likelihood of exceeding the following error limit,
which stops the braking action, and could allow the axis to coast into a hard stop.
Example:
Suppose the motor had 125 encoder lines (500 counts) per millimeter, and it should decelerate at 4000
2
2
2
2
2
mm/sec . Set Ixx15 to 4000 mm/sec * 500 cts/mm * sec /1,000,000 msec = 2.0 cts/msec .
Ixx16 Motor xx Maximum Program Velocity
Range:
Positive Floating-Point
Units:
counts / msec
Default:
32.0
Ixx16 sets a limit to the magnitude of the commanded velocity for certain programmed moves in certain
modes on Turbo PMAC.
1. Non-segmented LINEAR mode moves: If the Isx13 segmentation time parameter for the coordinate
system containing Motor xx is set to 0, which takes the coordinate system out of segmentation mode, then
Ixx16 serves as the maximum velocity for Motor xx in LINEAR-mode moves in the coordinate system. If
a LINEAR move command in a motion program requests a higher velocity magnitude of this motor, all
motors in the coordinate system are slowed down proportionately so that the motor will not exceed this
parameter, yet the path will not be changed.
If Isx13 is set to 0, CIRCLE mode moves and cutter radius compensation can not be performed.
78
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
2. Segmented LINEAR and CIRCLE mode moves with lookahead: If the Isx13 segmentation time
parameter for the coordinate system containing Motor xx is set greater than 0, put the coordinate system
in segmentation mode and the special multi-block lookahead function is active (lookahead buffer defined
and Isx20 greater than 0). Then Ixx16 serves as the maximum velocity for Motor xx in all segments of
LINEAR and CIRCLE mode moves in the coordinate system. If a segment of one of these programmed
moves requests a higher velocity magnitude of this motor, all motors in the coordinate system are slowed
down proportionately so that the motor will not exceed this parameter, yet the path will not be changed.
Note:
Ixx16 is not used for segmented LINEAR and CIRCLE mode moves when the
special lookahead buffer is not active.
3. RAPID mode moves: Ixx16 also sets the speed of a programmed RAPID mode move for the motor,
provided that variable Ixx90 is set to 1 (if Ixx90 is set to 0, jog speed parameter Ixx22 is used instead).
This happens regardless of the setting of Isx13.
The Ixx16 velocity limit calculations assume that the coordinate system is operating at the %100 override
value (real-time). The true velocity will vary proportionately with the override value.
Ixx17 Motor xx Maximum Program Acceleration
Range:
Positive Floating-Point
Units:
counts / msec2
Default:
0.5
Ixx17 sets a limit to the magnitude of the commanded acceleration for certain programmed moves in
certain modes on Turbo PMAC.
1. Non-segmented LINEAR mode moves: If the Isx13 segmentation time parameter for the coordinate
system containing Motor xx is set to 0, which takes the coordinate system out of segmentation mode, then
Ixx17 serves as the maximum acceleration for Motor xx in LINEAR-mode moves in the coordinate
system. If a LINEAR move command in a motion program requests a higher acceleration magnitude of
this motor given its TA and TS time settings, the acceleration time for all motors in the coordinate system
is extended so that the motor will not exceed this parameter, yet full coordination is maintained.
If Isx13 is set to 0, CIRCLE mode moves and cutter radius compensation can not be performed.
In this mode, Turbo PMAC cannot extend the acceleration time to a greater value than the incoming move
time, because to go further would require re-calculating already executed moves. If observing
acceleration limits (especially for deceleration) requires acceleration or deceleration over multiple
programmed moves, the Ixx17 limit in this mode cannot guarantee that the limits will be observed.
Special lookahead is required for this capability.
In this mode, the Ixx17 acceleration limit can lower the speed of short programmed moves, even if they
are intended to be blended together at high speed. The algorithm limits the speed of each move so that it
can decelerate to a stop within that move. Without special lookahead, it cannot assume that it will blend
at full speed into another move.
2. Segmented LINEAR and CIRCLE mode moves with lookahead: If the Isx13 segmentation time
parameter for the coordinate system containing Motor xx is set greater than 0, put the coordinate system
in segmentation mode and the special multi-block lookahead function is active (lookahead buffer defined
and Isx20 greater than 0). Then Ixx17 serves as the maximum acceleration for Motor xx in all segments
of LINEAR and CIRCLE mode moves in the coordinate system. If a segment of one of these
programmed moves requests a higher acceleration magnitude of this motor, the segment time for all
motors in the coordinate system is extended so that the motor will not exceed this parameter, yet full
coordination is maintained.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
79
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Furthermore, the Turbo PMAC will work back through already calculated, but not yet executed,
segments, to make sure the change in this segment does not cause violations in any of those segments.
Note:
Ixx17 is not used for segmented LINEAR and CIRCLE mode moves when the
special lookahead buffer is not active.
The Ixx17 acceleration limit calculations assume that the coordinate system is operating at the %100
override value (real-time). The true acceleration will vary proportionately with the square of the override
value.
The use of the Ixx17 limit permits the setting of very small TA and/or TS values (Ixx87 and Ixx88 by
default). Do not set both of these values to 0, or a division-by-zero calculation error could occur. It is
advised that the TA time is set no smaller the minimum programmed move block time that should occur.
Example:
Given axis definitions of #1->10000X, #2->10000Y, Isx13=0 and Ixx17 for each motor of 0.25, and
the following motion program segment:
INC F10 TA200 TS0
X20
Y20
The rate of acceleration from the program at the corner for motor #2 (X) is ((0-10)units/sec * 10000
cts/unit * sec/1000msec) / 200 msec = -0.5 cts/msec2. The acceleration of motor #2 (Y) is +0.5 cts/msec2.
Since this is twice the limit, the acceleration will be slowed so that it takes 400 msec.
With the same setup parameters and the following program segment:
INC F10 TA200 TS0
X20 Y20
X-20 Y20
The rate of acceleration from the program at the corner for motor #1 (X) is ((-7.07-7.07)units/sec * 10000
cts/unit * sec/1000msec) / 200 msec = -0.707 cts/msec2. The acceleration of motor #2 (Y) is 0.0. Since
motor #1 exceeds its limit, the acceleration time will be lengthened to 200 * 0.707/0.25 = 707 msec.
Note:
In the second case, the acceleration time is made longer (the corner is made larger)
for what is an identically shaped corner (90o). In a contouring XY application, this
parameter should not be relied upon to produce consistently sized corners without
the special lookahead algorithm.
Ixx19 Motor xx Maximum Jog/Home Acceleration
Range:
Positive Floating-Point
Units:
counts / msec2
Default:
0.15625
Ixx19 sets a limit to the commanded acceleration magnitude for jog and home moves, and for RAPIDmode programmed moves, of Motor xx. If the acceleration times in force at the time (Ixx20 and Ixx21)
request a higher rate of acceleration, this rate of acceleration will be used instead. The calculation does
not take into account any feedrate override (%value other than 100).
Since jogging moves are usually not coordinated between motors, many people prefer to specify jog
acceleration by rate, not time. To do this, simply set Ixx20 and Ixx21 low enough that the Ixx19 limit is
always used. Do not set both Ixx20 and Ixx21 to 0, or a division-by-zero error will result in the move
calculations, possibly causing erratic operations. The minimum acceleration time settings that should be
used are Ixx20=1 and Ixx21=0.
80
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The default limit of 0.015625 counts/msec2 is quite low and will probably limit acceleration to a lower
value than is desired in most systems; most users will eventually raise this limit. This low default was
used for safety reasons.
Example:
With Ixx20 (acceleration time) at 100 msec, Ixx21 (S-curve time) at 0, and Ixx22 (jog speed) at 50
counts/msec, a jog command from stop would request an acceleration of (50 cts/msec) / 100 msec, or 0.5
cts/msec2. If Ixx19 were set to 0.25, the acceleration would be done in 200 msec, not 100 msec.
With the same parameters in force, an on-the-fly reversal from positive to negative jog would request an
acceleration of (50-(-50) cts/msec) / 100 msec, or 1.0 cts/msec2. The limit would extend this acceleration
period by a factor of 4, to 400 msec.
Motor Motion I-Variables
Ixx20 Motor xx Jog/Home Acceleration Time
Range:
0 - 8,388,607
Units:
msec
Default:
0 (so Ixx21 controls)
Ixx20 establishes the time spent in acceleration in a jogging, homing, or programmed RAPID-mode move
(starting, stopping, and changing speeds). However, if Ixx21 (jog/home S-curve time) is greater than half
this parameter, the total time spent in acceleration will be 2 times Ixx21. Therefore, if Ixx20 is set to 0,
Ixx21 alone controls the acceleration time in “pure” S-curve form. In addition, if the maximum
acceleration rate set by these times exceeds what is permitted for the motor (Ixx19), the time will be
increased so that Ixx19 is not exceeded.
Note:
Do not set both Ixx20 and Ixx21 to 0 simultaneously, even if relying on Ixx19 to
limit the acceleration, or a division-by-zero error will occur in the jog move
calculations, possibly resulting in erratic motion.
A change in this parameter will not take effect until the next move command. For instance, if a different
deceleration time is wanted from the acceleration time in a jog move, specify the acceleration time,
command the jog, change the deceleration time, then command the jog move again (e.g. J=), or at least
the end of the jog (J/).
Ixx21 Motor xx Jog/Home S-Curve Time
Range:
0 - 8,388,607
Units:
msec
Default:
50
Ixx21 establishes the time spent in each half of the S for S-curve acceleration in a jogging, homing, or
RAPID-mode move (starting, stopping, and changing speeds). If this parameter is more than half of
Ixx20, the total acceleration time will be 2 times Ixx21, and the acceleration time will be pure S-curve (no
constant acceleration portion). If the maximum acceleration rate set by Ixx20 and Ixx21 exceeds what is
permitted for the motor (Ixx19), the time will be increased so that Ixx19 is not exceeded.
Note:
Do not set both Ixx20 and Ixx21 to 0 simultaneously, even if relying on Ixx19 to
limit the acceleration, or a division-by-zero error will occur in the jog move
calculations, possibly resulting in erratic motion.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
81
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
A change in this parameter will not take effect until the next move command. For instance, to have a
different deceleration time from acceleration time in a jog move, specify the acceleration time, command
the jog, change the deceleration time, then command the jog move again (e.g. J=), or at least the end of
the jog (J/).
Ixx22 Motor xx Jog Speed
Range:
Positive Floating Point
Units:
counts / msec
Default:
32.0
Ixx22 establishes the commanded speed of a jog move, or a programmed RAPID-mode move (if
Ixx90=0) for Motor xx. Direction of the jog move is controlled by the jog command.
A change in this parameter will not take effect until the next move command. For instance, to change the
jog speed on the fly, start the jog move, change this parameter, then issue a new jog command.
Ixx23 Motor xx Home Speed and Direction
Range:
Floating Point
Units:
counts / msec
Default:
32.0
Ixx23 establishes the commanded speed and direction of a homing-search move for Motor xx. Changing
the sign reverses the direction of the homing move -- a negative value specifies a home search in the
negative direction; a positive value specifies the positive direction.
Ixx24 Motor xx Flag Mode Control
Range:
Units:
Default:
$000000 - $FFFFFF
none
$000000 (Turbo PMAC boards)
$000001 (non-Ultralite Turbo PMAC2 boards)
$840001 (Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite boards)
Ixx24 specifies how the flag information in the registers specified by Ixx25, Ixx42, and Ixx43 is used.
Ixx24 is a set of 24 individual control bits – bits 0 to 23. Currently bits 0 and 11 to 23 are used.
Note:
It is easier to specify this parameter in hexadecimal form. With I9 at 2 or 3, the
value of this variable will be reported back to the host in hexadecimal form.
Bit 0: Flag Register Type Bit: If bit 0 is set to zero, the Turbo PMAC expects the flag registers to be in
the format of a PMAC-style Servo IC. Bit 0 should be set to 0 for any flags on-board a Turbo PMAC, an
Acc-24P, or an ACC24V.
If bit 0 is set to one, the Turbo PMAC expects the flag registers to be in the format of a PMAC2-style
Servo IC. Bit 0 should be set to 1 for any flag register on-board a Turbo PMAC2, an Acc-24P2, an Acc24V2, an Acc-24E2, or coming from a MACRO Station.
If multiple flag registers are specified by non-zero settings of Ixx42 and/or Ixx43, all registers must be of
the same format.
Bit 8: Kill on Hardware Limit Bit: If bit 8 is set to 0, the Turbo PMAC will always “abort” the motor
(controlled deceleration to closed-loop, zero-velocity, enabled state) on hitting a hardware overtravel limit
switch. If bit 8 is set to 1, the Turbo PMAC will instead “kill” the motor (immediate open-loop, zerooutput, disabled state) on hitting a hardware limit if (a) the software overtravel limit capability in that
direction is enabled (Ixx13 or Ixx14 != 0), and (b) the software overtravel limit in that direction has not
already been exceeded. Other motors are killed or aborted as determined by bits 21 and 22 of Ixx24, just
82
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
as for an amplifier fault or fatal following-error trip. If either of these conditions is not true with bit 8 set
to 1, the motor will still be aborted on hitting a hardware limit function.
The “kill on hardware limit” function permits the software limits (set inside the hardware limits) to be
used to catch controlled moves past the limits in a manner that is easily recoverable, and the hardware
limits to catch uncontrolled moves past the limits due to feedback problems.
Bit 10: Third-Harmonic Injection Control Bit: If bit 10 is set to zero when the motor is controlled in
direct-PWM mode, a third-harmonic component is added to the commutation output waveforms. For
three-phase motors, this increases the operating range of the motors. If bit is set to one when the motor is
controlled in direct-PWM mode, no third-harmonic component is added. This is appropriate for the
control of two-phase motors, such as most stepper motors, for which the addition of a third-harmonic
component would add significant torque ripple without increasing operating range.
Bit 11: Capture with High-Resolution Feedback Bit: If bit 11 is set to zero when hardware position
capture is used in a triggered move such as a homing-search move, the captured data (whether wholecount only or including sub-count data) is processed to match servo feedback of normal resolution (five
bits of fractional count data per hardware whole count). This setting is appropriate for digital quadrature
feedback or for low-resolution interpolation of a sinusoidal encoder.
If bit 11 (value $800, or 2,048) is set to one when hardware position capture is used in a triggered move,
the captured data (whether whole-count only or including sub-count data) is processed to match servo
feedback of high resolution (10 bits of fractional count data per hardware whole count). This setting is
appropriate for high-resolution interpolation of a sinusoidal encoder through an Acc-51x interpolator.
Bit 12: Sub-Count Capture Enable Bit: If bit 12 is set to zero when hardware position capture is used
in a triggered move such as a homing-search move, only the whole-count captured position register is
used to establish the trigger position. This setting must be used with PMAC-style Servo ICs, and with
PMAC2-style Servo ICs older than Revision D (Revision D ICs started shipping in early 2002).
If bit 12 (value $1000, or 4,096) is set to one when hardware position capture is used in a triggered move,
both the whole-count captured position register and the estimated sub-count position register are used to
establish the trigger position. A PMAC2-style Servo IC of Revision “D” or newer must be used for this
mode, and I7mn9 for the channel used must be set to 1 to enable the hardware sub-count estimation. This
setting is typically used for registration or probing triggered moves with interpolated sinusoidal encoder
feedback. (Even with interpolated sinusoidal encoder feedback, homing search moves will probably be
done without sub-count captured data, to force a home position referenced to one of the four zerocrossing positions of the sine/cosine signals.)
Bit 13 Error Saturation Control Bit: If bit 13 is set to zero, when the motor’s following error exceeds
the Ixx67 position-error limit, the error is simply truncated by the limit parameter.
If bit 13 (value $2000, or 8,192) is set to 1, when the motor’s following error exceeds the Ixx67 positionerror limit, the excess is put in the “master position” register for the motor, so it is eventually recoverable.
Bit 14: Continue on Desired Position Limit Bit: If bit 14 is set to zero when desired position limits are
enabled (bit 15=1), and desired position within the lookahead buffer exceeds a position limit, Turbo
PMAC will stop execution of the program at the point where the motor reaches the limit.
If bit 14 (value $4000, or 16,384) is set to one when desired position limits are enabled (bit 15=1) (e.g.
I224=$C000) and desired position within the lookahead buffer exceeds a position limit, Turbo PMAC
will continue execution of the program past the point where the motor reaches the limit, but will not let
the desired motor position exceed the limit.
Bit 15: Desired Position Limit Enable Bit: If bit 15 is set to zero, Turbo PMAC does not check to see
whether the desired position for this motor exceeds software overtravel limits.
If bit 15 (value $8000, or 32,768) is set to one (e.g. I324=$8001), Turbo PMAC will check desired
position values for this motor against the software overtravel limits as set by Ixx13, Ixx14, and Ixx41.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
83
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
If inside the special lookahead buffer, Turbo PMAC will either come to a controlled stop along the path at
the point where the desired position reaches the limit, or continue the program with desired position
saturated at the limit, depending on the setting of bit 14. If not inside the special lookahead buffer, Turbo
PMAC will issue an Abort command when it sees that the desired position has exceeded a position limit.
Bit 16: Amplifier Enable Use Bit: With bit 16 equal to zero – the normal case – the AENAn output is
used as an amplifier-enable line: off when the motor is “killed”, on when it is enabled.
If bit 16 (value $10000, or 65,536) is set to one (e.g. I1924=$10001), this output is not used as an
amplifier-enable line. On PMAC-style channels, it could then be used as a direction output for magnitude
and direction command format if Ixx96 is set to 1. In addition, by assigning an M-variable to the AENAn
output bit, general-purpose use of this output is possible on either Turbo PMAC or PMAC2 if this bit is
set.
Bit 17: Overtravel Limit Use Bit: With bit 17 equal to zero – the normal case – the two hardware
overtravel limit inputs must read 0 (drawing current) to permit commanded motion in the appropriate
direction. If there are not actual (normally closed or normally conducting) limit switches, the inputs must
be hardwired to ground.
If bit 17 (value $20000, or 131,072) is set to one (e.g. I1924=$20000), Motor xx does not use these inputs
as overtravel limits. This can be done temporarily, as when using a limit as a homing flag. If the
hardware overtravel limit function is not used at all, these inputs can be used as general-purpose inputs by
assigning M-variables to them.
Bits 18 and 19: MACRO Node Use Bits: Bits 18 (value $40000, or 262,144) and 19 (value ($80000, or
524,288) of Ixx24 specify what flag information is connected directly to Turbo PMAC hardware
channels, and what information comes through the MACRO ring into a MACRO auxiliary register. The
following table shows the possible settings of these two bits and what they specify:
Bit 19
0
0
1
1
Bit 18
0
1
0
1
Capture Flags
Direct
Thru MACRO
Direct
Thru MACRO
Amp Flags
Direct
Thru MACRO
Thru MACRO
Direct
Limit Flags
(don’t care)
(don’t care)
(don’t care)
(don’t care)
If the amplifier flags are connected through the MACRO ring, bit 23 of Ixx24 must be set to 1 to
designate a high-true amplifier fault, which is the MACRO standard. When using a MACRO auxiliary
register for the flags, Ixx25, Ixx42, or Ixx43 should contain the address of a holding register in RAM, not
the actual MACRO register. Refer to the descriptions of those variables for a list of the holding register
addresses. Turbo PMAC firmware automatically copies between the holding registers and the MACRO
registers as enabled by I70, I72, I74 and I76, for MACRO ICs 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. I71, I73, I75,
and I77 must be set properly to determine whether the Type 0 or Type 1 MACRO protocol is being used
on the particular node (all Delta Tau products use Type 1).
Bit 20: Amplifier Fault Use Bit: If bit 20 of Ixx24 is 0, the amplifier-fault input function through the
FAULTn input is enabled. If bit 20 (value $100000, or 1,048,576) is 1 (e.g. I1924=$100000), this
function is disabled. General-purpose use of this input is then possible by assigning an M-variable to the
input.
Bits 21 & 22: Action-on-Fault Bits: Bits 21 (value $200000, or 2,097,152) and 22 (value $400000, or
4,194,304) of Ixx24 control what action is taken on an amplifier fault for the motor, or on exceeding the
fatal following error limit (as set by Ixx11) for the motor:
84
Bit 22
Bit 21
Function
Bit 22=0
Bit 22=0
Bit 22=1
Bit 22=1
Bit 21=0:
Bit 21=1:
Bit 21=0:
Bit 21=1:
Kill all PMAC motors
Kill all motors in same coordinate system
Kill only this motor
(Reserved for future use)
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Regardless of the setting of these bits, a program running in the coordinate system of the offending motor
will be halted on an amplifier fault or the exceeding of a fatal following error.
Bit 23: Amplifier-Fault Polarity Bit: Bit 23 (value $800000, or 8,388,608) of Ixx24 controls the
polarity of the amplifier-fault input. A zero in this bit specifies that a zero read in the fault bit means a
fault; a one in this bit specifies that a one read in the fault bit means a fault. The actual state of the input
circuitry for a fault depends on the actual interface circuitry used. If a Delta Tau-provided optically
isolated fault interface is used, when the fault driver from the amplifier is drawing current through the
isolator, either sinking or sourcing, the fault bit will read as zero; when it is not drawing current through
the isolator, the fault bit will read as one.
In both the standard direct-PWM interface and the standard MACRO interface, bit 23 should be set to
one, to specify that a one in the fault bit means a fault. (The actual polarity of the signal into the remote
MACRO Station is programmable at the station).
Bit 23 is only used if bit 20 of Ixx24 is set to 0, telling Turbo PMAC to use the amplifier fault input.
Ixx25 Motor xx Flag Address
Range:
$000000 - $FFFFFF
Units:
Turbo PMAC Addresses
Default:
Turbo PMAC Ixx25 Defaults
Ixx25
I125
I225
I325
I425
I525
I625
I725
I825
I925
I1025
I1125
I1225
I1325
I1425
I1525
I1625
Value
$078000
$078004
$078008
$07800C
$078100
$078104
$078108
$07810C
$078200
$078204
$078208
$07820C
$078300
$078304
$078308
$07830C
Register
PMAC Flag Set 1
PMAC Flag Set 2
PMAC Flag Set 3
PMAC Flag Set 4
PMAC Flag Set 5
PMAC Flag Set 6
PMAC Flag Set 7
PMAC Flag Set 8
First Acc-24P/V Flag Set 1
First Acc-24P/V Flag Set 2
First Acc-24P/V Flag Set 3
First Acc-24P/V Flag Set 4
First Acc-24P/V Flag Set 5
First Acc-24P/V Flag Set 6
First Acc-24P/V Flag Set 7
First Acc-24P/V Flag Set 8
Ixx25
I1725
I1825
I1925
I2025
I2125
I2225
I2325
I2425
I2525
I2625
I2725
I2825
I2925
I3025
I3125
I3225
Register
Value
$079200
$079204
$079208
$07920C
$079300
$079304
$079308
$07930C
$07A200
$07A204
$07A208
$07A20C
$07A300
$07A304
$07A308
$07A30C
nd
2 Acc-24P/V Flag Set 1
2nd Acc-24P/V Flag Set 2
2nd Acc-24P/V Flag Set 3
2nd Acc-24P/V Flag Set 4
2nd Acc-24P/V Flag Set 5
2nd Acc-24P/V Flag Set 6
2nd Acc-24P/V Flag Set 7
2nd Acc-24P/V Flag Set 8
3rd Acc-24P/V Flag Set 1
3rd Acc-24P/V Flag Set 2
3rd Acc-24P/V Flag Set 3
3rd Acc-24P/V Flag Set 4
3rd Acc-24P/V Flag Set 5
3rd Acc-24P/V Flag Set 6
3rd Acc-24P/V Flag Set 7
3rd Acc-24P/V Flag Set 8
Turbo PMAC2 Ixx25 Defaults
Ixx25
Value
Register
Ixx25
Value
Register
I125
I225
I325
I425
I525
I625
I725
I825
I925
I1025
I1125
I1225
I1325
I1425
I1525
$078000
$078008
$078010
$078018
$078100
$078108
$078110
$078118
$078200
$078208
$078210
$078218
$078300
$078308
$078310
PMAC2 Flag Set 1
PMAC2 Flag Set 2
PMAC2 Flag Set 3
PMAC2 Flag Set 4
PMAC2 Flag Set 5
PMAC2 Flag Set 6
PMAC2 Flag Set 7
PMAC2 Flag Set 8
First Acc-24P/V2 Flag Set 1
First Acc-24P/V2 Flag Set 2
First Acc-24P/V2 Flag Set 3
First Acc-24P/V2 Flag Set 4
First Acc-24P/V2 Flag Set 5
First Acc-24P/V2 Flag Set 6
First Acc-24P/V2 Flag Set 7
I1725
I1825
I1925
I2025
I2125
I2225
I2325
I2425
I2525
I2625
I2725
I2825
I2925
I3025
I3125
$079200
$079208
$079210
$079218
$079300
$079308
$079310
$079318
$07A200
$07A208
$07A210
$07A218
$07A300
$07A308
$07A310
Second Acc-24P/V2 Flag Set 1
Second Acc-24P/V2 Flag Set 2
Second Acc-24P/V2 Flag Set 3
Second Acc-24P/V2 Flag Set 4
Second Acc-24P/V2 Flag Set 5
Second Acc-24P/V2 Flag Set 6
Second Acc-24P/V2 Flag Set 7
Second Acc-24P/V2 Flag Set 8
Third Acc-24P/V2 Flag Set 1
Third Acc-24P/V2 Flag Set 2
Third Acc-24P/V2 Flag Set 3
Third Acc-24P/V2 Flag Set 4
Third Acc-24P/V2 Flag Set 5
Third Acc-24P/V2 Flag Set 6
Third Acc-24P/V2 Flag Set 7
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
85
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I1625
86
$078318
First Acc-24P/V2 Flag Set 8
I3225
$07A318
Third Acc-24P/V2 Flag Set 8
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite Ixx25 Defaults
Ixx25
Value
Register
Ixx25
Value
Register
I125
I225
I325
I425
I525
I625
I725
I825
I925
I1025
I1125
I1225
I1325
I1425
I1525
I1625
$003440
$003441
$003444
$003445
$003448
$003449
$00344C
$00344D
$003450
$003451
$003454
$003455
$003458
$003459
$00345C
$00345D
MACRO Flag Register Set 0
MACRO Flag Register Set 1
MACRO Flag Register Set 4
MACRO Flag Register Set 5
MACRO Flag Register Set 8
MACRO Flag Register Set 9
MACRO Flag Register Set 12
MACRO Flag Register Set 13
MACRO Flag Register Set 16
MACRO Flag Register Set 17
MACRO Flag Register Set 20
MACRO Flag Register Set 21
MACRO Flag Register Set 24
MACRO Flag Register Set 25
MACRO Flag Register Set 28
MACRO Flag Register Set 29
I1725
I1825
I1925
I2025
I2125
I2225
I2325
I2425
I2525
I2625
I2725
I2825
I2925
I3025
I3125
I3225
$003460
$003461
$003464
$003465
$003468
$003469
$00346C
$00346D
$003470
$003471
$003474
$003475
$003478
$003479
$00347C
$00347D
MACRO Flag Register Set 32
MACRO Flag Register Set 33
MACRO Flag Register Set 36
MACRO Flag Register Set 37
MACRO Flag Register Set 40
MACRO Flag Register Set 41
MACRO Flag Register Set 44
MACRO Flag Register Set 45
MACRO Flag Register Set 48
MACRO Flag Register Set 49
MACRO Flag Register Set 52
MACRO Flag Register Set 53
MACRO Flag Register Set 56
MACRO Flag Register Set 57
MACRO Flag Register Set 60
MACRO Flag Register Set 61
UMAC Turbo Ixx25 Defaults
Ixx25
Value
Register
Ixx25
Value
Register
I102
I202
I302
I402
I502
I602
I702
I802
I902
I1002
I1102
I1202
I1302
I1402
I1502
I1602
$078200
$078208
$078210
$078218
$078300
$078308
$078310
$078318
$079200
$079208
$079210
$079218
$079300
$079308
$079310
$079318
First Acc-24E2x (IC 2) Flag Set 1
First Acc-24E2x (IC 2) Flag Set 2
First Acc-24E2x (IC 2) Flag Set 3
First Acc-24E2x (IC 2) Flag Set 4
Second Acc-24E2x (IC 3) Flag Set 1
Second Acc-24E2x (IC 3) Flag Set 2
Second Acc-24E2x (IC 3) Flag Set 3
Second Acc-24E2x (IC 3) Flag Set 4
Third Acc-24E2x (IC 4) Flag Set 1
Third Acc-24E2x (IC 4) Flag Set 2
Third Acc-24E2x (IC 4) Flag Set 3
Third Acc-24E2x (IC 4) Flag Set 4
Fourth Acc-24E2x (IC 5) Flag Set 1
Fourth Acc-24E2x (IC 5) Flag Set 2
Fourth Acc-24E2x (IC 5) Flag Set 3
Fourth Acc-24E2x (IC 5) Flag Set 4
I1702
I1802
I1902
I2002
I2102
I2202
I2302
I2402
I2502
I2602
I2702
I2802
I2902
I3002
I3102
I3202
$07A200
$07A208
$07A210
$07A218
$07A300
$07A308
$07A310
$07A318
$07B200
$07B208
$07B210
$07B218
$07B300
$07B308
$07B310
$07B318
Fifth Acc-24E2x (IC 6) Flag Set 1
Fifth Acc-24E2x (IC 6) Flag Set 2
Fifth Acc-24E2x (IC 6) Flag Set 3
Fifth Acc-24E2x (IC 6) Flag Set 4
Sixth Acc-24E2x (IC 7) Flag Set 1
Sixth Acc-24E2x (IC 7) Flag Set 2
Sixth Acc-24E2x (IC 7) Flag Set 3
Sixth Acc-24E2x (IC 7) Flag Set 4
Seventh Acc-24E2x (IC 8) Flag Set 1
Seventh Acc-24E2x (IC 8) Flag Set 2
Seventh Acc-24E2x (IC 8) Flag Set 3
Seventh Acc-24E2x (IC 8) Flag Set 4
Eighth Acc-24E2x (IC 9) Flag Set 1
Eighth Acc-24E2x (IC 9) Flag Set 2
Eighth Acc-24E2x (IC 9) Flag Set 3
Eighth Acc-24E2x (IC 9) Flag Set 4
Ixx25 tells Turbo PMAC what registers it will access for its position-capture flags, and possibly its
overtravel-limit input flags and amplifier enable/fault flags, for Motor xx. If Ixx42 is set to 0, Ixx25
specifies the address of the amplifier flags; if Ixx42 is set to a non-zero value, Ixx42 specifies the address
of the amplifier flags. If Ixx43 is set to 0, Ixx25 specifies the address of the overtravel limit flags; if
Ixx43 if set to a non-zero value, Ixx43 specifies the address of the overtravel limit flags. Variable Ixx24
tells which of the flags from the specified registers are to be used, and how they are to be used.
The addresses for the standard flag registers are given in the default table, above. The following tables
show settings by register if changing from the default.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
87
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Ixx25 Addresses for PMAC-Style Servo ICs
Servo
IC #
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Chan. 1
Chan. 2
Chan. 3
Chan. 4
$078004
$078008
$07800C
$078100
$078104
$078108
$07810C
$078200
$078204
$078208
$07820C
$078300
$078304
$078308
$07830C
$079200
$079204
$079208
$07920C
$079300
$079304
$079308
$07930C
$07A200 $07A204 $07A208
$07A20C
$07A300 $07A304 $07A308
$07A30C
$07B200 $07B204
$07B208
$07B20C
$07B300 $07B304
$07B308
$07B30C
Bit 0 of Ixx24 must be set to 0 to use PMAC-style Servo ICs.
$078000
Notes
First IC on board PMAC
Second IC on board PMAC
First IC on first Acc-24P/V
Second IC on first Acc-24P/V
First IC on second Acc-24P/V
Second IC on second Acc-24P/V
First IC on third Acc-24P/V
Second IC on third Acc-24P/V
First IC on 4th Acc-24P/V
Second IC on 4th Acc-24P/V
Ixx25 Addresses for PMAC2-Style Servo ICs
Servo
IC #
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Chan. 1
Chan. 2
Chan. 3
Chan. 4
Notes
$078000
$078008
$078010
$078018
First IC on board PMAC2, 3U stack
$078100
$078108
$078110
$078118
Second IC on board PMAC2, 3U stack
$078200
$078208
$078210
$078218
First Acc-24E2x, first IC on first Acc-24P/V2
$078300
$078308
$078310
$078318
Second Acc-24E2x, second IC on first Acc-24P/V2
$079200
$079208
$079210
$079218
Third Acc-24E2x, first IC on second Acc-24P/V2
$079300
$079308
$079310
$079318
Fourth Acc-24E2x, second IC on second Acc-24P/V2
$07A200 $07A208
$07A210
$07A218
Fifth Acc-24E2x, first IC on third Acc-24P/V2
$07A300 $07A308
$07A310
$07A318
Sixth Acc-24E2x, second IC on third Acc-24P/V2
$07B200 $07B208
$07B210
$07B218
Seventh Acc-24E2x, first IC on fourth Acc-24P/V2
$07B300 $07B308
$07B310
$07B318
Eighth Acc-24E2x, second IC on fourth Acc-24P/V2
Bit 0 of Ixx24 must be set to 1 to use PMAC2-style Servo ICs.
Ixx25 Addresses for MACRO Flag Holding Registers
IC
MACRO MACRO MACRO MACRO
Notes
Node #
IC 1
IC 2
IC 3
IC 4
$003440
$003450
$003460
$003470
MACRO Flag Register Sets 0, 16, 32, 48
0
$003441
$003451
$003461
$003471
MACRO Flag Register Sets 1, 17, 33, 49
1
$003444
$003454
$003464
$003474
MACRO Flag Register Sets 4, 20, 36, 52
4
$003445
$003455
$003465
$003475
MACRO Flag Register Sets 5, 21, 37, 53
5
$003448
$003458
$003468
$003478
MACRO Flag Register Sets 8, 24, 40, 56
8
$003449
$003459
$003469
$003479
MACRO Flag Register Sets 9, 25, 41, 57
9
$00344C
$00345C
$00346C
$00347C
MACRO Flag Register Sets 12, 28, 44, 60
12
$00344D
$00345D
$00346D
$00347D
MACRO Flag Register Sets 13, 29, 45, 61
13
Bit 0 of Ixx24 must be set to 1 to use MACRO flag holding registers
Bits 18 and 19 of Ixx24 specify what flag information comes directly into Turbo PMAC and what comes
through the MACRO ring. The following table explains the possible settings:
Bit 19
0
0
1
1
Bit 18
0
1
0
1
Capture Flags
Direct
Thru MACRO
Direct
Thru MACRO
Amp Flags
Direct
Thru MACRO
Thru MACRO
Direct
Limit Flags
(don’t care)
(don’t care)
(don’t care)
(don’t care)
Typically, the position-capture flags will be on the same hardware channel as the position feedback
encoder for the motor. To use the hardware-captured position for a Turbo PMAC triggered-move
function such as a homing search move, Ixx25 must specify flags of the same hardware channel as the
position feedback encoder specified with Ixx03 through the encoder conversion table, whether digital
quadrature feedback, or interpolated sinusoidal feedback.
88
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
In the case of sinusoidal-encoder feedback through an Acc-51x high-resolution interpolator, if hardware
position-capture capability is desired, the position-capture flags will be specified as being on the Acc-51x
using Ixx25 and the amplifier flags will be specified as being on the output channel using Ixx42; the
overtravel-limit flags will probably be specified as being on the same channel as the outputs, using Ixx43.
For the position-capture function, variables I7mn2 and I7mn3 for Servo IC m Channel n of the channel
selected (or node-specific variables MI912 and MI913 on a MACRO Station) specify which edges of
which signals for the channel will cause the position-capture trigger.
The overtravel-limit inputs specified by Ixx25 or Ixx43 must read as 0 in order for Motor xx to be able to
command movement in the direction of the limit unless bit 17 of Ixx24 is set to 1 to disable their action.
With Delta Tau interface circuitry with optical isolation on the flags, this means that the switches must be
drawing current through the opto-isolators, whether sinking or sourcing.
Whether the address of the amplifier flags is specified with Ixx25 or Ixx42, the polarity of the amplifierfault input is determined by bit 23 of Ixx24 and the polarity of the amplifier-enable output must be
determined with the hardware interface.
Ixx26 Motor xx Home Offset
Range:
-8,388,608 - 8,388,607
Units:
1/16 count
Default:
0
Ixx26 specifies the difference between the zero position of sensors for the motor and the motor’s own
zero “home” position. For a motor that establishes its position reference with a homing search move, this
is the difference between the home trigger position and the motor zero position. For a motor that
establishes its position reference with an absolute position read (Ixx10 > 0), this is the difference between
the absolute sensor’s zero position and the motor zero position.
In a homing search move, Ixx26 specifies the distance between the actual position at which the home
trigger is found, and the commanded end of the post-trigger move, where the motor will come to a stop.
The commanded end position of the post-trigger move is considered motor position zero. (It is possible
to use other offsets to create a different axis position zero for programming purposes.)
A difference between the trigger position and the motor zero position is particularly useful when using an
overtravel limit as a home flag (offsetting out of the limit before re-enabling the limit input as a limit). If
Ixx26 is large enough (greater than 1/2 times home speed times acceleration time), it permits a homing
search move without any reversal of direction.
In an absolute position read done on board reset, the $* command, or the $$* command, Ixx26 specifies
the difference between the position read from the sensor as specified by Ixx10 and Ixx95, and the actual
motor position set as a result of this read. Ixx26 is subtracted from the sensor position to calculate motor
position. This offset is particularly useful when the absolute sensor’s zero position is outside the range of
travel for the motor, as with an MLDT sensor.
Note:
The units of this parameter are 1/16 of a count, so the value should be 16 times the
number of counts between the trigger position and the home zero position.
Example:
To change the motor zero position to 500 counts in the negative direction from the home trigger position,
set Ixx26 to -500 * 16 = -8000.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
89
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Ixx27 Motor xx Position Rollover Range
Range:
-235 - +235
Units:
counts
Default:
0
Ixx27 permits either of two position rollover modes on a Turbo PMAC rotary axis assigned to Motor xx
by telling Turbo PMAC how many encoder counts are in one revolution of the rotary axis. This lets
Turbo PMAC handle rollover properly. If Ixx27 is set to the default value of 0, no rollover mode is
active, and the axis is treated as a linear axis.
If Ixx27 is greater than zero, and Motor xx is assigned to a rotary axis (A, B, or C), the standard rollover
mode is active. With standard rollover active, for a programmed axis move in absolute (ABS) mode, the
motor will take the shortest path around the circular range defined by Ixx27 to get to the destination point.
No absolute-mode move will be longer than half of a revolution (Ixx27/2) with standard rollover.
If Ixx27 is set to a negative number, an alternate rollover mode for the rotary axis assigned to the motor is
activated that uses the sign of the commanded destination in absolute mode to specify the direction of
motion to that destination. In this mode, all moves are less than one revolution (with the size of the
revolution specified by the magnitude of Ixx27), but can be greater than one-half revolution. This mode
also does not affect the action of incremental-mode moves.
The sign of the commanded absolute destination in this mode is also part of the destination value.
Therefore, a command of A-90 in this mode is a command to go to -90 degrees (= +270 degrees) in the
negative direction. For commands to move in the positive direction, the + sign is not required, but it is
permitted (e.g. to command a move to 90 degrees in the positive direction, either A90 or A+90 can be
used).
PMAC cannot store the difference between a +0 and a –0 destination command, so a command with a
tiny non-zero magnitude for the end position must be used (e.g. A+0.0000001 and A-0.0000001).
This increment can be small enough not to have any effect on the final destination.
If the distance of the move commanded in alternate rollover mode is less than the size of the in-position
band defined for the motor with Ixx28, no move will be executed. This means that the minimum distance
for a move in this mode is Ixx28, and the maximum distance is 360 degrees minus Ixx28.
If using commands from a similar mode in which only the magnitude, and not the sign, of the value
specifies the destination position, then the destination values for negative-direction moves must be
modified so that the magnitude is 360 degrees minus the magnitude in the other mode. For example, if
the command were C-120, specifying a move to (+)120 degrees in the negative direction, the command
would have to be modified for PMAC to C-240, which specifies a move to -240 degrees (= +120 degrees)
in the negative direction. Commands for positive-direction moves do not have to be modified.
Axis moves in incremental (INC) mode are not affected by either rollover mode. Rollover should not be
attempted for axes other than A, B, or C. Jog moves are not affected by rollover. Reported motor
position is not affected by rollover. (To obtain motor position information rolled over to within one
motor revolution, use the modulo (remainder) operator, either in PMAC or in the host computer: e.g.
P4=(M462/(I408*32))%I427).
Note:
It is possible to set this parameter outside the range -235 to +235 (+64 billion) if a
couple of special things are done. First, the Ixx08 scale factor for the motor must
be reduced to give the motor the range to use this position (motor range is
+242/Ixx08). Second, the variable value must be calculated inside Turbo PMAC,
because the command parser cannot accept constants outside the range +235 (e.g. to
set I127 to 100 billion, use I127=1000000000*100).
90
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Example:
Motor #4 drives a rotary table with 36,000 counts per revolution. It is defined to the A-axis with #4>100A (A is in units of degrees). I427 is set to 36000. With motor #4 at zero counts (A-axis at zero
degrees), an A270 move in a program is executed in Absolute mode. Instead of moving the motor from 0
to 27,000 counts, which it would have done with I427=0, PMAC moves the motor from 0 to -9,000
counts, or -90 degrees, which is equivalent to +270 degrees on the rotary table.
Ixx28 Motor xx In-Position Band
Range:
0 - 8,388,607
Units:
1/16 count
Default:
160 (10 counts)
Ixx28 specifies the magnitude of the maximum following error at which Motor xx will be considered “in
position” when not performing a move.
Several things happen when the motor is “in-position”. First, a status bit in the motor status word (bit 0
of Y:$0000C0 for Motor 1) is set. Second, if all other motors in the same coordinate system are also “inposition”, a status bit in the coordinate system status word (bit 17 of Y:$00203F for C.S. 1) is set.
Third, for the hardware-selected (FPD0/-FPD3/) coordinate system – if I2=0 (Turbo PMAC only) – or for
the software addressed (&n) coordinate system – if I2=1 – outputs to the control panel port (Turbo PMAC
only) and to the interrupt controller are set.
Technically, five conditions must be met for a motor to be considered “in-position”:
1. The motor must be in closed-loop control;
2. The desired velocity must be zero;
3. The magnitude of the following error must be less than this parameter;
4. The move timer must not be active;
5. The above four conditions must all be true for (Ixx88+1) consecutive scans.
The over timer is active (the motor running a program/definite-time move status bit is 1) during any
programmed or non-programmed move, including DWELLs and DELAYs in a program – to have this bit
come true during a program, do an indefinite wait between some moves by keeping the program trapped
in a WHILE loop that has no moves or DWELLs.
To have a status bit indicating whether the magnitude of the following error is above or below a threshold
(condition 3 only), use the warning following error status bit with Ixx12 as the threshold.
If global variable I13 is set to 1, Turbo PMAC also performs an in-position check every servo cycle as
part of the foreground tasks. In this check, it only evaluates the first four conditions listed above. This
task controls a separate motor status bit: foreground in-position (bit 13 of Y:$0000C0 for Motor 1). This
function can be used when the background in-position check is not fast enough.
Note:
The units of this parameter are 1/16 of a count, so the value should be 16 times the
number of counts in the in-position band.
Example:
The following motion program segment shows how the in-position function could be used in a program to
set an output after coming in-position at a programmed point. M140 represents Motor 1’s in-position
status bit (see suggested M-variable definitions).
X10
DWELL0
WHILE (M140=0) WAIT
M1=1
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
; Commanded move
; Stop lookahead in motion programs
; Loop while not in position
; Set output
91
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Ixx29 Motor xx Output/First Phase Offset
Range:
-32,768 - 32,767
Units:
16-bit DAC/ADC bit equivalent
Default:
0
Ixx29 serves as an output or feedback offset for Motor xx; its exact use depends on the mode of operation
as described below. In any of the modes, it effectively serves as the digital equivalent of an offset pot.
Mode 1: When Turbo PMAC is not commutating Motor xx (Ixx01 Bit 0 = 0), Ixx29 serves as the offset
for the single command output value, usually a DAC command. Ixx29 is added to the output command
value before it is written to the command output register.
Mode 2: When Turbo PMAC (PMAC-style Servo ICs only) is not commutating Motor xx (Ixx01 Bit 0 =
0) but is in sign-and-magnitude output mode (Ixx96 = 1), Ixx29 is the offset of the command output value
before the absolute value is taken (Ixx79 is the offset after the absolute value is taken). Ixx29 is typically
left at zero in this mode, because it cannot compensate for real circuitry offsets.
Mode 3: When Turbo PMAC is commutating Motor xx (Ixx01 Bit 0 = 1) but not closing the current loop
(Ixx82 = 0), Ixx29 serves as the offset for the first of two phase command output values (Phase A), for the
address specified by Ixx02; Ixx79 serves the same purpose for the second phase (Phase B). Ixx29 is
added to the output command value before it is written to the command output register.
When commutating from a PMAC-style Servo IC, Phase A is output on the higher-numbered of the two
DACs (e.g. DAC2); Phase B on the lower-numbered (e.g. DAC1). When commutating from a PMAC2style Servo IC, Phase A is output on the A-channel DAC (e.g. DAC1A), Phase B on the B-channel DAC
(e.g. DAC1B).
As an output command offset, Ixx29 is always in units of a 16-bit register, even if the actual output device
is of a different resolution. For example, if a value of 60 had to be written into an 18-bit DAC to create a
true zero command, this would be equivalent to a value of 60/4=15 in a 16-bit DAC, so Ixx29 would be
set to 15 to cancel the offset.
Mode 4: When Turbo PMAC is commutating (Ixx01 Bit 0 = 1) and closing the current loop for Motor xx
(Ixx82 > 0), Ixx29 serves as an offset that is added to the phase current reading from the ADC for the first
phase (Phase A), at the address specified by Ixx82 minus 1. Ixx79 performs the same function for the
second phase. The sum of the ADC reading and Ixx29 is used in the digital current loop algorithms.
As an input feedback offset, Ixx29 is always in units of a 16-bit ADC, even if the actual ADC is of a
different resolution. For example, if a 12-bit ADC reported a value of -5 when no current was flowing in
the phase, this would be equivalent to a value of -5*16=-80 in a 16-bit ADC, so Ixx29 would be set to 80
to compensate for this offset.
Motor xx PID Servo Setup I-Variables
Note:
PID Servo Gains Ixx30 – Ixx40 are only used if supplementary motor I-variable
Iyy00/Iyy50 is set to its default value of 0. If Iyy00/Iyy50 is set to 1, the Extended
Servo Algorithm gains in Iyy10-39/Iyy60-89 are used instead.
Ixx30 Motor xx PID Proportional Gain
Range:
Units:
Default:
-8,388,608 - 8,388,607
(Ixx08/219) 16-bit output bits / count
2000
WARNING:
Changing the sign of Ixx30 on a motor that has been closing a stable servo loop
will cause an unstable servo loop, leading to a probable runaway condition.
92
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Ixx30 provides a control output proportional to the position error (commanded position minus actual
position) of Motor xx. It acts effectively as an electronic spring. The higher Ixx30 is, the stiffer the
“spring” is. Too low a value will result in sluggish performance. Too high a value can cause a “buzz”
from constant over-reaction to errors.
If Ixx30 is set to a negative value, this has the effect of inverting the command output polarity for motors
not commutated by PMAC, when compared to a positive value of the same magnitude. This can
eliminate the need to exchange wires to get the desired polarity. On a motor that is commutated by
o
PMAC, changing the sign of Ixx30 has the effect of changing the commutation phase angle by 180 .
Negative values of Ixx30 currently cannot be used with the auto tuning programs in the PMAC Executive
program.
This parameter is usually set initially using the Tuning utility in the PMAC Executive Program. It may be
changed on the fly at any time to create types of adaptive control.
Note:
The default value of 2000 for this parameter is exceedingly “weak” for most
systems (all but the highest resolution velocity-loop systems), causing sluggish
motion and/or following error failure. Most users will immediately want to raise
this parameter significantly even before starting serious tuning.
If the servo update time is changed, Ixx30 will have the same effect for the same numerical value.
However, smaller update times (faster update rates) should permit higher values of Ixx30 (stiffer systems)
without instability problems.
Ixx30 is not used if Iyy00/50 for the motor has been set to 1 to enable the Extended Servo Algorithm
(ESA) for the motor.
Ixx31 Motor xx PID Derivative Gain
Range:
-8,388,608 - 8,388,607
Units:
(Ixx30*Ixx09)/226 16-bit output bits / (counts/servo update)
Default:
1280
Ixx31 subtracts an amount from the control output proportional to the measured velocity of Motor xx. It
acts effectively as an electronic damper. The higher Ixx31 is, the heavier the damping effect is.
If the motor is driving a properly tuned velocity-loop amplifier, the amplifier will provide sufficient
damping, and Ixx31 should be set to zero. If the motor is driving a current-loop (torque) amplifier, or if
PMAC is commutating the motor, the amplifier will provide no damping, and Ixx31 must be greater than
zero to provide damping for stability.
On a typical system with a current-loop amplifier and PMAC's default servo update time (~440 sec), an
Ixx31 value of 2000 to 3000 will provide a critically damped step response.
If the servo update time is changed, Ixx31 must be changed proportionately in the opposite direction to
keep the same damping effect. For instance, if the servo update time is cut in half, from 440 sec to 220
sec, Ixx31 must be doubled to keep the same effect.
This parameter is usually set initially using the Tuning utility in the PMAC Executive Program. It may be
changed on the fly at any time to create types of adaptive control.
Ixx31 is not used if Iyy00/50 for the motor has been set to 1 to enable the Extended Servo Algorithm
(ESA) for the motor.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
93
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Ixx32 Motor xx PID Velocity Feedforward Gain
Range:
-8,388,608 - 8,388,607
Units:
(Ixx30*Ixx08)/226 16-bit output bits / (counts/servo update)
Default:
1280
Ixx32 adds an amount to the control output proportional to the desired velocity of Motor xx. It is
intended to reduce tracking error due to the damping introduced by Ixx31, analog tachometer feedback, or
physical damping effects.
If the motor is driving a current-loop (torque) amplifier, Ixx32 will usually be equal to (or slightly greater
than) Ixx31 to minimize tracking error. If the motor is driving a velocity-loop amplifier, Ixx32 will
typically be substantially greater than Ixx31 to minimize tracking error.
If the servo update time is changed, Ixx32 must be changed proportionately in the opposite direction to
keep the same effect. For instance, if the servo update time is cut in half, from 440 sec to 220 sec,
Ixx32 must be doubled to keep the same effect.
This parameter is usually set initially using the Tuning utility in the PMAC Executive Program. It may be
changed on the fly at any time to create types of adaptive control.
Ixx32 is not used if Iyy00/50 for the motor has been set to 1 to enable the Extended Servo Algorithm
(ESA) for the motor.
Ixx33 Motor xx PID Integral Gain
Range:
0 - 8,388,607
Units: (Ixx30*Ixx08)/242 16-bit output bits / (counts*servo update)
Default:
1280
Ixx33 adds an amount to the control output proportional to the time integral of the position error for
Motor xx. The magnitude of this integrated error is limited by Ixx63. With Ixx63 at a value of zero, the
contribution of the integrator to the output is zero, regardless of the value of Ixx33.
No further errors are added to the integrator if the output saturates (if output equals Ixx69), and, if
Ixx34=1, when a move is being commanded (when desired velocity is not zero). In both of these cases,
the contribution of the integrator to the output remains constant.
If the servo update time is changed, Ixx33 must be changed proportionately in the same direction to keep
the same effect. For instance, if the servo update time is cut in half, from 440 sec to 220 sec, Ixx33
must be cut in half to keep the same effect.
This parameter is usually set initially using the Tuning utility in the PMAC Executive Program. It may be
changed on the fly at any time to create types of adaptive control.
Ixx33 is not used if Iyy00/50 for the motor has been set to 1 to enable the Extended Servo Algorithm
(ESA) for the motor.
Ixx34 Motor xx PID Integration Mode
Range:
0-1
Units:
none
Default:
1
Ixx34 controls when the position-error integrator is turned on. If it is 1, position error integration is
performed only when Motor xx is not commanding a move (when desired velocity is zero). If it is 0,
position error integration is performed all the time.
If Ixx34 is 1, it is the input to the integrator that is turned off during a commanded move, which means
the output control effort of the integrator is kept constant during this period (but is generally not zero).
This same action takes place whenever the total control output saturates at the Ixx69 value.
94
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
This parameter is usually set initially using the Tuning utility in the PMAC Executive Program. When
performing the feedforward tuning part of that utility, it is important to set Ixx34 to 1 so the dynamic
behavior of the system may be observed without integrator action. Ixx34 may be changed on the fly at
any time to create types of adaptive control.
Ixx34 is not used if Iyy00/50 for the motor has been set to 1 to enable the Extended Servo Algorithm
(ESA) for the motor.
Ixx35 Motor xx PID Acceleration Feedforward Gain
Range:
-8,388,608 - 8,388,607
Units:
(Ixx30*Ixx08)/226 16-bit output bits / (counts/servo update2)
Default:
0
Ixx35 adds an amount to the control output proportional to the desired acceleration for Motor xx. It is
intended to reduce tracking error due to inertial lag.
If the servo update time is changed, Ixx35 must be changed by the inverse square to keep the same effect.
For instance, if the servo update time is cut in half, from 440 sec to 220 sec, Ixx35 must be quadrupled
to keep the same effect.
This parameter is usually set initially using the Tuning utility in the PMAC Executive Program. It may be
changed on the fly at any time to create types of adaptive control.
Ixx35 is not used if Iyy00/50 for the motor has been set to 1 to enable the Extended Servo Algorithm
(ESA) for the motor.
Ixx36 Motor xx PID Notch Filter Coefficient N1
Range:
-2.0 - 2.0
Units:
none (unit-less z-transform coefficient)
Default:
0.0
Ixx36, along with Ixx37-Ixx39, is part of the second-order notch filter for Motor xx, whose main purpose
is to damp out a resonant mode in the motor/load dynamics. This filter can also be used as a low-pass
filter and a velocity-loop integrator. This parameter can be set according to instructions in the Servo
Loop Features section of the manual.
The notch filter parameters Ixx36-Ixx39 are 24-bit variables, with 1 sign bit, 1 integer bit, and 22
fractional bits, providing a range of -2.0 to +2.0.
The equation for the notch filter is:
F( z ) 
1  N 1z 1  N 2 z 2
1  D1z 1  D2 z 2
This parameter is usually set initially using the Tuning utility in the PMAC Executive Program. It may be
changed on the fly at any time to create types of adaptive control.
Ixx36 is not used if Iyy00/50 for the motor has been set to 1 to enable the Extended Servo Algorithm
(ESA) for the motor.
Ixx37 Motor xx PID Notch Filter Coefficient N2
Range:
-2.0 - 2.0
Units:
none (unit-less z-transform coefficient)
Default:
0.0
Ixx37 is part of the notch filter for Motor xx. See Ixx36 and the Servo Loop Features section of the
manual for details.
Usually, this parameter is set initially using the Tuning utility in the PMAC Executive Program. It may
be changed on the fly at any time to create types of adaptive control.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
95
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Ixx37 is not used if Iyy00/50 for the motor has been set to 1 to enable the Extended Servo Algorithm
(ESA) for the motor.
Ixx38 Motor xx PID Notch Filter Coefficient D1
Range:
-2.0 - 2.0
Units:
none (unit-less z-transform coefficient)
Default:
0.0
Ixx38 is part of the “notch filter” for Motor xx. See Ixx36 and the Servo Loop Features section of the
manual for details.
Usually, this parameter is set initially using the Tuning utility in the PMAC Executive Program. It may
be changed on the fly at any time to create types of adaptive control.
Ixx38 is not used if Iyy00/50 for the motor has been set to 1 to enable the Extended Servo Algorithm
(ESA) for the motor.
Ixx39 Motor xx PID Notch Filter Coefficient D2
Range:
-2.0 - 2.0
Units:
none (unit-less z-transform coefficient)
Default:
0.0
Ixx39 is part of the notch filter for Motor xx. See Ixx36 and the Servo Loop Features section of the
manual for details.
Usually, this parameter is set initially using the Tuning utility in the PMAC Executive Program. It may
be changed on the fly at any time to create types of adaptive control.
Ixx39 is not used if Iyy00/50 for the motor has been set to 1 to enable the Extended Servo Algorithm
(ESA) for the motor.
Ixx40 Motor xx Net Desired Position Filter Gain
Range:
0.0 – 0.999999
Units:
none
Default:
0.0
Ixx40 permits the introduction of a first-order low-pass filter on the net desired position for Motor xx.
This can be useful to smooth motion that comes from a “rough” source, such as master following from a
noisy sensor, or quantization error in very closely spaced programmed points that are commonly found in
lookahead applications.
If Ixx40 is set to its default value of 0.0, this filter function is disabled. If Ixx40 is set to any value greater
than 0.0, the filter is enabled.
Ixx40 can be expressed in terms of the filter time constant by the following equation:
where Tf is the filter time constant, and Ts is the servo update time.
Ixx 40 
Tf
Ts  T f
The filter time constant can be expressed in terms of Ixx40 by the following equation:
Tf 
Ixx40 * Ts
1  Ixx40
Filter time constants can range from a fraction of a servo cycle (when Ixx40 ~ 0) to infinite (when Ixx40
~ 1). As with any low-pass filter, there is a fundamental trade-off between smoothness and delay.
Generally, when the filter is used, filter time constants of a few milliseconds are set. In an application
where multiple motors are executing a path, the same time constant should be used for all of the motors.
96
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Example:
To set a filter time constant of 2 msec on a system with the default servo update time of 442 sec, Ixx40
can be computed as:
Ixx40 
2
 0.819
0.442  2
Ixx41 Motor xx Desired Position Limit Band
Range:
0 – 8,388,607
Units:
counts
Default:
0
Ixx41 specifies the difference between the software position limits using desired position at lookahead
time and those using actual position at move execution time.
Turbo PMAC will check the motor desired position at lookahead time if bit 15 of Ixx24 is set to 1. If the
lookahead desired position is greater than (Ixx13-Ixx41), or less than (Ixx14+Ixx41), Turbo PMAC will
limit the desired position at this value, and either stop the program on the path at this point or continue the
program while saturating the motor position at this value, depending on the setting of bit 14 of Ixx24.
Turbo PMAC also checks the motor actual position at move execution time. If the actual position is
greater than Ixx13, or less than Ixx14, Turbo PMAC issues an Abort command, bringing the motors to a
stop, but not along the path. This checking is done even if Turbo PMAC is already stopping on the path
because lookahead desired position was exceeded.
The purpose of Ixx41 is to permit the lookahead desired position limit to operate, stopping or limiting the
program in a recoverable fashion, without also tripping the actual position limit and creating an
unrecoverable stop. If the two limits are the same, a slight overshoot during the deceleration for desired
position limit would trip the actual position limit. Ixx41 should be set slightly greater than the magnitude
of the largest following error expected when decelerating at the Ixx17 maximum deceleration rate.
Ixx42 Motor xx Amplifier Flag Address
Range:
$000000 - $FFFFFF
Units:
Turbo PMAC Addresses
Default:
$0
Ixx42, if set to a non-zero value, specifies the address of the amplifier-enable output flag and amplifierfault input flag, independently of position-capture flags and overtravel-limit flags, for Motor xx. If Ixx42
is set to 0, Ixx25 specifies the address of the amplifier flags as well as the position-capture flags, and
possibly the overtravel-limit flags, for Motor xx. This maintains backward compatibility with older
firmware revisions in which Ixx42 was not implemented.
Whether the address of the amplifier flags is specified with Ixx25 or Ixx42, the polarity of the amplifierfault input is determined by bit 23 of Ixx24 and the polarity of the amplifier-enable output must be
determined with the hardware interface.
If amplifier flags are specified separately using Ixx42, they must use the same type of ICs as does Ixx25,
those specified by bit 0 of Ixx24.
Bits 18 and 19 of Ixx24 specify whether the amplifier flags and the capture flags are connected directly to
Turbo PMAC circuitry, or interface to it through the MACRO ring as shown in the following table:
Bit 19
0
0
1
1
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Bit 18
0
1
0
1
Capture Flags
Direct
Thru MACRO
Direct
Thru MACRO
Amp Flags
Direct
Thru MACRO
Thru MACRO
Direct
97
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The following tables show the standard addresses that can be used for Ixx42.
Ixx42 Addresses for PMAC-Style Servo ICs
Servo IC #
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Chan. 1
$078000
$078100
$078200
$078300
$079200
$079300
$07A200
$07A300
$07B200
$07B300
Chan. 2
Chan. 3
Chan. 4
Notes
$078004
$078104
$078204
$078304
$079204
$079304
$07A204
$07A304
$07B204
$07B304
$078008
$078108
$078208
$078308
$079208
$079308
$07A208
$07A308
$07B208
$07B308
$07800C
$07810C
$07820C
$07830C
$07920C
$07930C
$07A20C
$07A30C
$07B20C
$07B30C
First IC on board PMAC
Second IC on board PMAC
First IC on first Acc-24P/V
Second IC on first Acc-24P/V
First IC on second Acc-24P/V
Second IC on second Acc-24P/V
First IC on third Acc-24P/V
Second IC on third Acc-24P/V
First IC on fourth Acc-24P/V
Second IC on fourth Acc-24P/V
Bit 0 of Ixx24 must be set to 0 to use PMAC-style Servo ICs.
Ixx42 Addresses for PMAC2-Style Servo ICs
Servo IC #
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Chan. 1
Chan. 2
Chan. 3
Chan. 4
Notes
$078000
$078100
$078200
$078300
$079200
$079300
$07A200
$07A300
$07B200
$07B300
$078008
$078108
$078208
$078308
$079208
$079308
$07A208
$07A308
$07B208
$07B308
$078010
$078110
$078210
$078310
$079210
$079310
$07A210
$07A310
$07B210
$07B310
$078018
$078118
$078218
$078318
$079218
$079318
$07A218
$07A318
$07B218
$07B318
First IC on board PMAC2, 3U stack
Second IC on board PMAC2, 3U stack
First Acc-24E2x, first IC on first Acc-24P/V2
Second Acc-24E2x, second IC on first Acc-24P/V2
Third Acc-24E2x, first IC on second Acc-24P/V2
Fourth Acc-24E2x, second IC on second Acc-24P/V2
Fifth Acc-24E2x, first IC on third Acc-24P/V2
Sixth Acc-24E2x, second IC on third Acc-24P/V2
Seventh Acc-24E2x, first IC on fourth Acc-24P/V2
Eighth Acc-24E2x, second IC on fourth Acc-24P/V2
Bit 0 of Ixx24 must be set to 1 to use PMAC2-style Servo ICs.
Ixx42 Addresses for MACRO Flag Holding Registers
IC Node
#
0
1
4
5
8
9
12
13
MACRO
IC 1
MACRO
IC 2
MACRO
IC 3
MACRO
IC 4
Notes
$003440
$003441
$003444
$003445
$003448
$003449
$00344C
$00344D
$003450
$003451
$003454
$003455
$003458
$003459
$00345C
$00345D
$003460
$003461
$003464
$003465
$003468
$003469
$00346C
$00346D
$003470
$003471
$003474
$003475
$003478
$003479
$00347C
$00347D
MACRO Flag Register Sets 0, 16, 32, 48
MACRO Flag Register Sets 1, 17, 33, 49
MACRO Flag Register Sets 4, 20, 36, 52
MACRO Flag Register Sets 5, 21, 37, 53
MACRO Flag Register Sets 8, 24, 40, 56
MACRO Flag Register Sets 9, 25, 41, 57
MACRO Flag Register Sets 12, 28, 44, 60
MACRO Flag Register Sets 13, 29, 45, 61
Bit 0 of Ixx24 must be set to 1 to use MACRO flag holding registers.
Ixx43 Motor xx Overtravel-Limit Flag Address
Range:
$000000 - $FFFFFF
Units:
Turbo PMAC Addresses
Default:
$0
Ixx43, if set to a non-zero value, specifies the address of the overtravel-limit input flags, independently of
position-capture flags and amplifier flags, for Motor xx. If Ixx43 is set to 0, Ixx25 specifies the address
of the overtravel-limit flags as well as the position-capture flags, and possibly the amplifier flags, for
Motor xx. This maintains backward compatibility with older firmware revisions in which Ixx43 was not
implemented.
98
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
If overtravel limit flags are specified separately using Ixx43, they must use the same type of ICs as Ixx25,
as specified by bit 0 of Ixx24.
The following tables show the standard addresses that can be used for Ixx43.
Ixx43 Addresses for PMAC-Style Servo ICs
Servo IC #
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Chan. 1
$078000
$078100
$078200
$078300
$079200
$079300
$07A200
$07A300
$07B200
$07B300
Chan. 2
Chan. 3
Chan. 4
Notes
$078004
$078104
$078204
$078304
$079204
$079304
$07A204
$07A304
$07B204
$07B304
$078008
$078108
$078208
$078308
$079208
$079308
$07A208
$07A308
$07B208
$07B308
$07800C
$07810C
$07820C
$07830C
$07920C
$07930C
$07A20C
$07A30C
$07B20C
$07B30C
First IC on board PMAC
Second IC on board PMAC
First IC on first Acc-24P/V
Second IC on first Acc-24P/V
First IC on second Acc-24P/V
Second IC on second Acc-24P/V
First IC on third Acc-24P/V
Second IC on third Acc-24P/V
First IC on fourth Acc-24P/V
Second IC on fourth Acc-24P/V
Bit 0 of Ixx24 must be set to 0 to use PMAC-style Servo ICs.
Ixx43 Addresses for PMAC2-Style Servo ICs
Servo
IC #
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Chan. 1
Chan. 2
Chan. 3
Chan. 4
Notes
$078000
$078100
$078200
$078300
$079200
$079300
$07A200
$07A300
$07B200
$07B300
$078008
$078108
$078208
$078308
$079208
$079308
$07A208
$07A308
$07B208
$07B308
$078010
$078110
$078210
$078310
$079210
$079310
$07A210
$07A310
$07B210
$07B310
$078018
$078118
$078218
$078318
$079218
$079318
$07A218
$07A318
$07B218
$07B318
First IC on board PMAC2, 3U stack
Second IC on board PMAC2, 3U stack
First Acc-24E2x, first IC first Acc-24P/V2
Second Acc-24E2x, second IC on first Acc-24P/V2
Third Acc-24E2x, first IC on second Acc-24P/V2
Fourth Acc-24E2x, second IC on second Acc-24P/V2
Fifth Acc-24E2x, first IC on third Acc-24P/V2
Sixth Acc-24E2x, second IC on third Acc-24P/V2
Seventh Acc-24E2x, first IC on fourth Acc-24P/V2
Eighth Acc-24E2x, second IC on fourth Acc-24P/V2
Bit 0 of Ixx24 must be set to 1 to use PMAC2style Servo ICs.
Ixx43 Addresses for MACRO Flag Holding Registers
IC
Node #
0
1
4
5
8
9
12
13
MACRO
IC 1
MACRO
IC 2
MACRO
IC 3
MACRO
IC 4
Notes
$003440
$003441
$003444
$003445
$003448
$003449
$00344C
$00344D
$003450
$003451
$003454
$003455
$003458
$003459
$00345C
$00345D
$003460
$003461
$003464
$003465
$003468
$003469
$00346C
$00346D
$003470
$003471
$003474
$003475
$003478
$003479
$00347C
$00347D
MACRO Flag Register Sets 0, 16, 32, 48
MACRO Flag Register Sets 1, 17, 33, 49
MACRO Flag Register Sets 4, 20, 36, 52
MACRO Flag Register Sets 5, 21, 37, 53
MACRO Flag Register Sets 8, 24, 40, 56
MACRO Flag Register Sets 9, 25, 41, 57
MACRO Flag Register Sets 12, 28, 44, 60
MACRO Flag Register Sets 13, 29, 45, 61
Bit 0 of Ixx24 must be set to 1 to use MACRO flag holding registers.
Ixx44 Motor xx MACRO Slave Command Address
Range:
$0, $078400 - $3787FF
Units:
Modified Turbo PMAC Addresses
Default:
$0
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
99
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Ixx44 permits Motor xx to act as a slave motor on a MACRO ring, specifies the address of the register
where the MACRO data is to be exchanged, and what type of command (position, servo output, phase
command) is accepted.
If Ixx44 is set to its default value of 0, the motor will not respond to MACRO commands.
If Ixx44 is set to a non-zero value, bits 0 – 19 of Ixx44 specify the address of the “flag register” (Register
3) of the MACRO node from which the motor will accept its commands and return its feedback (for
method digits $0 and $1), or the base register (Register 0) of the node (for method digit $2).
Bits 20 – 23 of Ixx44, which form the first hex digit, specify the type of command to be accepted from the
specified MACRO node. If this digit is $0, the motor treats the command data as phase commands
(usually “direct PWM”) and simply outputs these to three registers starting at the address specified by
Ixx02.
If this digit is $1, the motor treats the command data as servo-output commands (usually torque).
If this digit is $2, the motor treats the command data as position commands. Note that Turbo PMAC as a
master does not support sending position commands over MACRO, so the MACRO master in this case
would have to be something other than a Turbo PMAC.
With MACRO ICs in the standard addresses, the following table shows the appropriate settings for Ixx44
for accepting direct-output or servo-output commands. The “n” in the first hex digit of Ixx44 represents
the command type.
Ixx44
MACRO IC and Node
Ixx44
MACRO IC and Node
$n78423
MACRO IC 0 Node 0
$n7A423
MACRO IC 2 Node 0
$n78427
MACRO IC 0 Node 1
$n7A427
MACRO IC 2 Node 1
$n7842B
MACRO IC 0 Node 4
$n7A42B
MACRO IC 2 Node 4
$n7842F
MACRO IC 0 Node 5
$n7A42F
MACRO IC 2 Node 5
$n78433
MACRO IC 0 Node 8
$n7A433
MACRO IC 2 Node 8
$n78437
MACRO IC 0 Node 9
$n7A437
MACRO IC 2 Node 9
$n7843B
MACRO IC 0 Node 12
$n7A43B
MACRO IC 2 Node 12
$n7843F
MACRO IC 0 Node 13
$n7A43F
MACRO IC 2 Node 13
$n79423
MACRO IC 1 Node 0
$n7B423
MACRO IC 3 Node 0
$n79427
MACRO IC 1 Node 1
$n7B427
MACRO IC 3 Node 1
$n7942B
MACRO IC 1 Node 4
$n7B42B
MACRO IC 3 Node 4
$n7942F
MACRO IC 1 Node 5
$n7B42F
MACRO IC 3 Node 5
$n79433
MACRO IC 1 Node 8
$n7B433
MACRO IC 3 Node 8
$n79437
MACRO IC 1 Node 9
$n7B437
MACRO IC 3 Node 9
$n7943B
MACRO IC 1 Node 12
$n7B43B
MACRO IC 3 Node 12
$n7943F
MACRO IC 1 Node 13
$n7B43F
MACRO IC 3 Node 13
With MACRO ICs in the standard addresses, the following table shows the appropriate settings for Ixx44
for accepting commanded position.
100
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Ixx44
MACRO IC and Node
Ixx44
MACRO IC and Node
$278420
MACRO IC 0 Node 0
$27A420
MACRO IC 2 Node 0
$278424
MACRO IC 0 Node 1
$27A424
MACRO IC 2 Node 1
$278428
MACRO IC 0 Node 4
$27A428
MACRO IC 2 Node 4
$27842C
MACRO IC 0 Node 5
$27A42C
MACRO IC 2 Node 5
$278430
MACRO IC 0 Node 8
$27A430
MACRO IC 2 Node 8
$278434
MACRO IC 0 Node 9
$27A434
MACRO IC 2 Node 9
$278438
MACRO IC 0 Node 12
$27A438
MACRO IC 2 Node 12
$27843C
MACRO IC 0 Node 13
$27A43C
MACRO IC 2 Node 13
$279420
MACRO IC 1 Node 0
$27B420
MACRO IC 3 Node 0
$279424
MACRO IC 1 Node 1
$27B424
MACRO IC 3 Node 1
$279428
MACRO IC 1 Node 4
$27B428
MACRO IC 3 Node 4
$27942C
MACRO IC 1 Node 5
$27B42C
MACRO IC 3 Node 5
$279430
MACRO IC 1 Node 8
$27B430
MACRO IC 3 Node 8
$279434
MACRO IC 1 Node 9
$27B434
MACRO IC 3 Node 9
$279438
MACRO IC 1 Node 12
$27B438
MACRO IC 3 Node 12
$27943C
MACRO IC 1 Node 13
$27B43C
MACRO IC 3 Node 13
Motor Servo and Commutation Modifiers
Ixx55 Motor xx Commutation Table Address Offset
Range:
$000000 - $FFFFFF
Units:
Turbo PMAC Address Offsets from $003800
Default:
$0
Ixx55 permits the user to create and use a custom commutation table for Motor xx in Turbo PMAC,
instead of using the default commutation sine/cosine table. Ixx55 contains the offset from the start of the
default table at address $003800 to the start of the user’s custom table.
Custom tables are usually located in the UBUFFER at the end of flash-backed memory ($0107FF for
standard data memory configuration, $03FFFFF for the extended data memory configuration).
Alternately, they can be located in the optional battery-backed memory ($050000 - $053FFF for the basic
option, $050000 - $05FFFF for the extended option), but access is significantly slower to the batterybacked memory.
Custom tables must occupy 2048 consecutive double words of memory, covering the 360 degrees of the
commutation cycle. The first register (lowest-numbered address) is the entry for 0 degrees. The address
of this register must be divisible by $800, which means that the last three hex digits of this address must
be $000 or $800, and the last three hex digits of Ix55 must be $800 or $000. The signed 24-bit X
registers contain cosine-type values multiplied by 223; the signed 24-bit Y-registers contain sine-type
values multiplied by 223.
Examples:
The custom commutation table for Motor 1 is located in the UBUFFER from $00F800 to $00FFFF. I155
should be set to $00F800 - $003800 = $00C000.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
101
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The custom commutation table for Motor 12 is located in battery-backed RAM from $052000 to
$0527FF. I1255 should be set to $052000 - $003800 = $048800.
Ixx56 Motor xx Commutation Delay Compensation
Range:
0.0 – 1.0
Units:
(Ixx09*32/2048) commutation cycles/(counts/servo update)
Default:
0
Ixx56 permits the Turbo PMAC to compensate lags in the electrical circuits of the motor phases, and/or
for calculation delays in the commutation of Motor xx, therefore improving high-velocity performance.
The compensation is simply Ixx56 multiplied by the motor velocity.
Ixx56 is only used if Turbo PMAC is commutating Motor xx (Ixx01=1). It should be only be used for the
commutation of synchronous motors (Ixx78=0) such as permanent magnet brushless motors. Ixx56
should be set to 0 for asynchronous motors (Ixx78>0) such as AC induction motors.
If Turbo PMAC is commutating Motor xx, but not closing the current loop (Ixx82=0), Ixx56 can improve
performance typically starting at a few thousand RPM, because it compensates for inductive lags in the
motor windings. If Turbo PMAC is also closing the current loop for Motor xx (Ixx82>0; Turbo PMAC2
only), the DC field-frame current loop closure compensates for inductive lags, and only small calculation
delays need to be compensated; these are usually not significant until well over 10,000 rpm.
This parameter is best set experimentally by running the motor at high speeds, and finding the setting that
minimizes the current draw of the motor.
Example
On a 4-pole motor with a 512-line encoder and “times-4” decode, it is desired to have an advance of 5
degrees (electrical) at a motor speed of 30,000 rpm. The Ixx56 advance gain converts from speed,
expressed in (1/[Ixx08*32]) counts per servo cycle, to advance, expressed in (1/2048) commutation
cycles.
First convert our speed to these units:
30,000
rev min
sec
2048cts 96 * 321 /[ Ixx08 * 32]cts
*
*
*
*
min 60 sec 2260 servocycles
rev
ct
 1,391,616
1 /[ Ixx08 * 32]cts
servocycle
Next, convert our desired advance to these units:
5o e *
2048(1 / 2048commcycle )
 28.44(1 / 2048commcycle )
360 o e
Finally, compute Ixx56 as the ratio of advance to speed:
Ixx56 
28.44
 0.0000204
1,391,616
Ixx57 Motor xx Continuous Current Limit
Range:
-32,768 – 32,767
Units:
16-bit DAC/ADC bit equivalent
Default:
0
Ixx57 sets the magnitude of the maximum continuous current limit for Turbo PMAC’s integrated current
limiting function, when that function is active (Ixx58 must be greater than 0 for the integrated current
102
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
limit to be active). If Turbo PMAC is closing a digital current loop for the motor, it uses actual current
measurements for this function; otherwise, it uses commanded current values. If the magnitude of the
actual or commanded current level from Turbo PMAC is above the magnitude of Ixx57 for a significant
period of time, as set by Ixx58, Turbo PMAC will trip this motor on an integrated-current amplifier fault
condition.
The integrated current limit can either be an I2T (“I-squared-T”) limit, or an |I|T (I-T) limit. If Ixx57 is set
to a positive value, Turbo PMAC performs I2T limiting, squaring the value of current before integrating
and comparing to Ixx58. If Ixx57 is set to a negative value, Turbo PMAC performs |I|T limiting, just
taking the absolute value of the current before integrating and comparing to Ixx58.
I2T limiting is best used if the system device with the shortest thermal time constant is resistive (and so
has I2R heating), as in motor windings and MOSFET drivers. |I|T limiting is best used if the system
device with the shortest thermal time constant has a fixed voltage drop (and so has IV heating), as in
IGBT drivers.
Ixx57 is in units of a 16-bit DAC or ADC (maximum possible value of 32,767), even if the actual output
or input device has a different resolution. Typically, Ixx57 will be set to between 1/3 and 1/2 of the Ixx69
(instantaneous) output limit. Consult the amplifier and motor documentation for their specifications on
instantaneous and continuous current limits.
Technically, Ixx57 is the continuous limit of the vector sum of the quadrature and direct currents. The
quadrature (torque-producing) current is the output of the position/velocity-loop servo. The direct
(magnetization) current is set by Ixx77.
In sine-wave output mode (Ixx01 bit 0 = 1, Ixx82 = 0), typically, amplifier gains are given in amperes of
phase current per volt of PMAC output, but motor and typically amplifier limits are given in RMS
amperage values. In this case, it is important to realize that peak phase current values are 2 (1.414)
times greater than the RMS values.
In direct-PWM mode (Ixx01 bit 0 = 1, Ixx82 > 0) of 3-phase motors (Ixx72 = 683 or 1365), the
corresponding top values of the sinusoidal phase-current ADC readings will be 1/cos(30o), or 1.15, times
greater than the vector sum of quadrature and direct current. Therefore, once the top values have been
established in the A/D converters the phase currents on a continuous basis, this value should be multiplied
by cos(30o), or 0.866, to get the value for Ixx57. Remember that if current limits are given as RMS
values, multiply these by 2 (1.414) to get peak phase current values.
Examples:
1. Turbo PMAC Motor 1 is driving a torque-mode DC brush-motor amplifier that has a gain of 3
amps/volt with a single analog output voltage. The amplifier has a continuous current rating of 10
amps; the motor has a continuous current rating of 12 amps.
 PMAC’s maximum output of 32,768, or 10 volts, corresponds to 30 amps.
 The amplifier has the lower continuous current rating, so we use its limit of 10 amps.
 I157 is set to 32,768 * 10 / 30 = 10,589.
2. Motor 3 is driving a self-commutating brushless-motor amplifier in current (torque) mode with a
single analog output. The amplifier has a gain of 5 amps (RMS)/volt and an continuous current limit
of 20 amps (RMS). The motor has a continuous current limit of 25 amps (RMS).
 PMAC’s maximum output of 32,768, or 10V, corresponds to 50 amps (RMS).
 The amplifier has the lower continuous current rating, so we use its limit of 20 amps (RMS).
 I357 is set to 32,768 * 20/50 = 13,107.
3. Turbo PMAC Motor 4 is driving a sine-wave mode amplifier that has a gain for each phase input of 5
amps/volt. The amplifier has a continuous rating of 20 amps (RMS); the motor has a continuous
rating of 22 amps (RMS).
 PMAC’s maximum output of 32,768, or 10 volts, corresponds to 50 amps peak in a phase.
 The amplifier has the lower continuous current rating, so we use its limit of 20 amps (RMS).
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
103
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference


20 amps (RMS) corresponds to peak phase currents of 20*1.414 = 28.28 amps.
I457 is set to 32,768 * 28.28 / 50 = 18,534.
4. Turbo PMAC Motor 6 is driving a direct-PWM power block amplifier for an AC motor. The A/D
converters in the amplifier are scaled so that a maximum reading corresponds to 50 amps of current in
the phase. The amplifier has a continuous current rating of 20 amps (RMS), and the motor has a
continuous rating of 15 amps (RMS).
 PMAC’s maximum ADC phase reading of 32,768 corresponds to 50 amps.
 The motor has the lower continuous current rating, so we use its limit of 15 amps (RMS).
 15 amps (RMS) corresponds to peak phase currents of 15*1.414 = 21.21 amps.
 21.21 amps corresponds to an ADC reading of 32,768 * 21.21/50 = 13,900.
 I657 should be set to 13,900 * 0.866 = 12,037.
See Also:
Integrated Current Protection (Making an Application Safe)
I-Variables Ixx58, Ixx69
Ixx58 Motor xx Integrated Current Limit
Range:
0 - 8,388,607
230 (DAC bits)2  servo cycles
{Bits of a 16-bit DAC/ADC}
Default:
0
Ixx58 sets the maximum integrated current limit for Turbo PMAC’s I 2T or |I|T integrated current limiting
function. If Ixx58 is 0, the I 2T limiting function is disabled. If Ixx58 is greater than 0, Turbo PMAC will
compare the time-integrated difference between the commanded or actual current and the Ixx57
continuous current limit to Ixx58. If Ixx57 is greater than 0, Turbo PMAC uses the squares of these
current values for I2T limiting; if Ixx57 is less than 0, Turbo PMAC uses the absolute value of these
current values for |I|T limiting. If the integrated value exceeds the limit set by Ixx58, then Turbo PMAC
faults the motor just as it would for receiving an amplifier fault signal, setting both the amplifier-fault and
the integrated-current-fault motor status bits.
Typically, the Ixx58 limit is set by taking the relationship between the instantaneous current limit (Ixx69
on Turbo PMAC, in units of a 16-bit DAC), the magnetization current (commanded by Ixx77; typically 0
except for vector control of induction motors) and the continuous current limit (|Ixx57| on Turbo PMAC,
in units of a 16-bit DAC) and multiplying by the time permitted at the instantaneous limit.
When using I2T limiting (Ixx57 > 0), the formula is:
Units:
Ixx58 
Ixx69 2  Ixx77 2  Ixx57 2
 ServoUpdateRate ( Hz )  PermittedT ime(sec)
32768 2
When using |I|T limiting (Ixx57 < 0), the formula is:
Ixx 58 
Ixx69
2
 Ixx77
2
 Ixx 57
 ServoUpdateRate ( Hz )  PermittedT ime(sec)
32768
Refer to the Making the Application Safe section in the User manual for a more detailed explanation of
I2T and |I|T protection.
Example:
For I2T limiting, with the instantaneous current limit Ixx69 at 32,767, the magnetization current Ixx77 at
0, the continuous current limit Ixx57 at 10,589 (1/3 of max), the time permitted with maximum current at
1 minute, and the servo update rate at the default of 2.25 kHz, Ixx58 would be set as
Ixx 58  ( 1.0
104
2
 0.0
2
2
 0.33 )  2250  60  120000
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
For |I|T limiting, with the instantaneous current limit Ixx69 at 24,576, the magnetization current Ixx77 at
0, the continuous current limit at 8192 (Ixx57 = -8192), the time permitted with maximum current at 3
seconds, and the servo update rate at 4 kHz, Ixx58 would be set as:
Ixx 58  ( 0.75
2
 0.0
2
 0.25 )  4000  3  6000
Ixx59 Motor xx User-Written Servo/Phase Enable
Range:
0-3
Units:
none
Default:
0
Ixx59 controls whether the built-in servo and commutation routines, or user-written servo and
commutation routines, are used for Motor xx. The following table shows the possible values of Ixx59 and
their effects:
Ixx59
0
1
2
3
Servo Algorithm
Built-in (PID or ESA)
User-written
Built-in (PID or ESA)
User-written
Commutation Algorithm
Built-in
Built-in
User-written
User-written
Any user-written servo or commutation (phase) algorithms will have been coded and cross-assembled in a
host computer, and downloaded into PMAC’s program memory. These algorithms are retained by the
battery on battery-backed RAM versions, or saved into flash memory on flash-backed versions.
Ixx00 must be 1 in order for the user-written servo to execute. Ixx01 must be 1 or 3 in order for the userwritten commutation to execute. The servo algorithm can be changed immediately between the built-in
algorithm and a user-written algorithm by changing Ixx59. PMAC only selects the phasing algorithm to
be used at power-on reset, so in order to change the commutation algorithm, Ixx59 must be changed, this
new value stored to non-volatile memory with the SAVE command, and the board reset.
It is possible to use the user-written algorithms for purposes other than servo or commutation, making
them essentially very fast and efficient PLC programs. This is very useful for fast, position-based
outputs. Simply load the code, activate an extra “motor” with Ixx00 and/or Ixx01, and set Ixx59 for this
pseudo-motor to use this algorithm.
Ixx60 Motor xx Servo Cycle Period Extension Period
Range:
0 - 255
Units:
Servo Interrupt Periods
Default:
0
Ixx60 permits an extension of the servo update time for Motor xx beyond a single servo interrupt period.
The servo loop will be closed every (Ixx60 + 1) servo interrupts. With the default value of zero, the loop
will be closed every servo interrupt. An extended servo update time can be useful for motors with slow
dynamics, and/or limited feedback resolution. It can also be useful if the control loop is used for a slow
process-control function.
On Turbo PMAC boards, the servo interrupt period is controlled by hardware settings (jumpers E3-E6,
E29-E33, and E98). On Turbo PMAC2 boards, it is controlled by I-variables (I7000, I7001, and I7002 for
non-Ultralite boards; I6800, I6801, and I6802 for Ultralite boards).
Other update times, including trajectory update and phase update, are not affected by Ixx60. I10 does not
need to be changed with Ixx60.
The filtered motor velocity values reported with the V and <CTRL-V> commands are not affected by
Ixx60. They still will report in counts per servo interrupt. However, the raw actual velocity register will
store velocity in terms of counts per servo loop closure.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
105
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Ixx61 Motor xx Current-Loop Integral Gain
Range:
0.0 - 1.0 (24-bit resolution)
Units:
Output = 8 * Ixx61 * Sum [i=0 to n] (Icmd[i]-Iact[i])
Default:
0
Ixx61 is the integral gain term of the digital current loops, multiplying the difference between the
commanded and actual current levels and adding the result into a running integrator that adds into the
command output. It is only used if Ixx82>0 to activate digital current loop execution.
Ixx61 can be used with either Ixx62 forward-path proportional gain, or Ixx76 back-path proportional gain.
If used with Ixx62, the value can be quite low, because Ixx62 provides the quick response, and Ixx61 just
needs to correct for biases. If used with Ixx76, Ixx61 is the only gain that responds directly to command
changes, and it must be significantly higher to respond quickly.
Ixx61 is typically set using the current loop auto-tuner or interactive tuner in the Turbo PMAC Executive
or Setup program. Typical values of Ixx61 are near 0.02.
Digital current loop closure on the Turbo PMAC requires a set of three consecutive command output
registers. Generally, this requires writing to either a PMAC2-style Servo IC or a MACRO IC.
Ixx61 is only used if Ixx82>0 to activate digital current-loop execution.
Ixx62 Motor xx Current-Loop Forward-Path Proportional Gain
Range:
0.0 - 2.0 (24-bit resolution)
Units:
Output = 4 * Ixx62 * (Icmd - Iact)
Default:
0
Ixx62 is the proportional gain term of the digital current loops that is in the “forward path” of the loop,
multiplying the difference between the commanded and actual current levels. Either Ixx62 or Ixx76 (back
path proportional gain) must be used to close the current loop. Generally, only one of these proportional
gain terms is used, although both can be. Ixx62 is only used if Ixx82>0 to activate digital current loop
execution.
Ixx62 can provide more responsiveness to command changes from the position/velocity loop servo, and
therefore a higher current loop bandwidth, than Ixx76. However, if the command value is very noisy,
which can be the case with a low-resolution position sensor, using Ixx76 instead can provide better
filtering of the noise.
Typically, Ixx62 is set using the current loop auto-tuner or interactive tuner in the Turbo PMAC
Executive or Setup program. Typical values of Ixx62, when used, are around 0.9.
Digital current loop closure on the Turbo PMAC requires a set of three consecutive command output
registers. Generally, this requires writing to either a PMAC2-style Servo IC or a MACRO IC.
Ixx62 is only used if Ixx82>0 to activate digital current-loop execution.
Ixx63 Motor xx Integration Limit
Range:
-8,388,608 - 8,388,607
Units:
(Ixx33 / 219) counts * servo cycles
Default:
4,194,304
Ixx63 limits the magnitude of the integrated position error (the output of the integrator) for the PID servo
algorithm, which can be useful for anti-windup protection, when the servo loop output saturates. The
default value of Ixx63 provides essentially no limitation. (The integral gain Ixx33 controls how fast the
error is integrated.)
A value of zero in Ixx63 forces a zero output of the integrator, effectively disabling the integration
function in the PID filter. This can be useful during periods when applying a constant force and are
106
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
expecting a steady-state position error. (In contrast, setting Ixx33 to 0 prevents further inputs to the
integrator, but maintains the output.)
The Ixx63 integration limit can also be used to create a fault condition for the motor. If Ixx63 is set to a
negative number, then PMAC will also check as part of its following error safety check whether the
magnitude of integrated following error has saturated at the magnitude of Ixx63. With Ixx63 negative, if
the integrator has saturated, PMAC will trip (kill) the motor with a following error fault. Both the normal
fatal following error motor status bit and the integrated following error status bit are set when this fault
occurs. If Ixx63 is 0 or positive, the motor cannot trip on integrated following error fault.
To set Ixx63 to a value such that the integrator saturates at the same point that its contribution to the
command output causes saturation at the Ixx69 level, use the following formula:
 Ixx69  2 23 

Ixx63  
 Ixx08  Ixx30 
To cause trips, the magnitude of Ixx63 must be set to less than this value due to other potential
contributions to the output. Remember that the integrator stops increasing when the output saturates at
Ixx69.
Ixx63 is not used if the Extended Servo Algorithm for Motor xx is being executed (Iyy00=1).
Ixx64 Motor xx Deadband Gain Factor
Range:
-32,768 - 32,767
Units:
none
Default:
0 (no gain adjustment)
Ixx64 is part of the PMAC feature known as deadband compensation, which can be used to create or
cancel deadband. It controls the effective gain within the deadband zone (see Ixx65). When the
magnitude of the following error is less than the value of Ixx65, the proportional gain (Ixx30) is
multiplied by (Ixx64+16)/16. At a value of -16, Ixx64 provides true deadband.
Values between -16 and 0 yield reduced gain within the deadband. Ixx64 = 0 disables any deadband
effect.
Values of Ixx64 greater than 0 yield increased gain within the deadband; a value of 16 provides double
gain in the deadband. A small band of increased gain can be used to reduce errors while holding position,
without as much of a threat to make the system unstable. It is also useful in compensating for physical
deadband in the system.
Note:
Values of Ixx64 less than -16 will cause negative gain inside the deadband, making
it impossible for the system to settle inside the band. These settings have no
known useful function.
Outside the deadband, gain asymptotically approaches Ixx30 as the following error increases.
Ixx64 is not used if the Extended Servo Algorithm for Motor xx is being executed (Iyy00/50=1).
Ixx65 Motor xx Deadband Size
Range:
-32,768 - 32,767
Units:
1/16 count
Default:
0
Ixx65 defines the size of the position error band, measured from zero error, within which there will be
changed or no control effort, for the PMAC feature known as deadband compensation. Ixx64 controls the
effective gain relative to Ix30 within the deadband.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
107
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Note:
The units of this parameter are 1/16 of a count, so the value should be 16 times the
number of counts in the deadband. For example, if modified gain is desired in the
range of +/-5 counts of following error, Ixx65 should be set to 80.
Ixx65 is not used if the Extended Servo Algorithm for Motor xx is being executed (Iyy00/50=1).
Ixx66 Motor xx PWM Scale Factor
Range:
0 - 32,767
Units:
PWM_CLK cycles
Default:
6527
Ixx66 multiplies the output of the digital current loops for Motor x (which are values between -1.0 and
1.0) before they are written to the PWM output registers. As such, it determines the maximum value that
can be written to the PWM output register. Ixx66 is only used if Ixx82>0 to activate digital current loop
execution.
The PWM output value for each phase is compared digitally to the PWM up-down counter, which
increments or decrements once per PWM_CLK cycle to determine whether the outputs are on or off. The
limits of the up-down counter are set by the PWM maximum count variable, I7m00 for Servo IC m on
PMAC, and MI900, MI906, or MI992 on the MACRO Station.
With many power-block amplifiers, Ixx66 is set to about 10% above the PWM maximum count value.
This permits a full-on command of the phase for a substantial fraction of the commutation cycle,
providing maximum possible utilization of the power devices at maximum command. If Ixx66 is set to a
smaller value than PWM maximum count, it serves as a voltage limit for the motor (Vmax = VDC *
Ixx66 / PWM_Max_Count). Some amplifiers require that the PWM command never turn fully on or off;
in these amplifiers Ixx66 is usually set to about 95% of the PWM maximum count value. Note that Ixx69
serves as the current limit.
Digital current loop closure on the Turbo PMAC requires a set of three consecutive command output
registers. Generally, this requires writing to either a PMAC2-style Servo IC or a MACRO IC.
Ixx67 Motor xx Position Error Limit
Range:
0 – 8,388,607
Units:
1/16 count
Default:
4,194,304 (= 262,144 counts)
Ixx67 defines the biggest position error that will be allowed into the servo filter. This is intended to keep
extreme conditions from upsetting the stability of the filter. However, if it is set too low, it can limit the
response of the system to legitimate commands (this situation can particularly be noticed on very fine
resolution systems).
If pure velocity control is desired for the motor, Ixx67 can be set to 0, effectively disabling the position
loop.
This parameter is not to be confused with Ixx11 or Ixx12, the following error limit parameters. Those
parameters take action outside the servo loop based on the real (before limiting) following error.
Note:
The units of this parameter are 1/16 of a count, so the value should be 16 times the
number of counts in the limit.
Ixx67 is not used if the Extended Servo Algorithm for Motor xx is being executed (Iyy00=1).
Ixx68 Motor xx Friction Feedforward
Range:
108
0 .. 32,767
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Units:
16-bit DAC bits
Default:
0
Ixx68 adds a bias term to the servo loop output of Motor xx that is proportional to the sign of the
commanded velocity. That is, if the commanded velocity is positive, Ixx68 is added to the output. If the
commanded velocity is negative, Ixx68 is subtracted from the output. If the commanded velocity is zero,
no value is added to or subtracted from the output.
This parameter is intended primarily to help overcome errors due to mechanical friction. It can be
thought of as a friction feedforward term. Because it is a feedforward term that does not utilize any
feedback information, it has no direct effect on system stability. It can be used to correct the error
resulting from friction, especially on turnaround, without the time constant and potential stability
problems of integral gain.
Ixx68 is used with both the PID servo algorithm executed if Iyy00=0, and the Extended Servo Algorithm
executed if Iyy00=1. If Turbo PMAC is commutating this motor, the Ixx68 bias is applied before the
commutation algorithm and so will affect the magnitude of both analog outputs.
Note:
This direction-sensitive bias term is independent of the constant bias introduced by
Ixx29 and/or Ixx79.
Example:
For a control loop with +10V analog output, starting with a motor at rest, if Ixx68 = 1600, then as soon as
a commanded move in the positive direction is started, a value of +1600 (~0.5V) is added to the servo
loop output. As soon as the commanded velocity goes negative, a value of -1600 is added to the output.
When the commanded velocity becomes zero again, no bias is added to the servo output because of this
term.
Ixx69 Motor xx Output Command Limit
Range:
0 .. 32,767 (0 to 10V or equivalent)
Units:
16-bit DAC bits
Default:
20,480 (6.25V or equivalent)
Ixx69 defines the magnitude of the largest output that can be sent from Turbo PMAC’s PID
position/velocity servo loop. If the servo loop computes a larger value, Turbo PMAC clips it to this
value. When the PID output has saturated at the Ixx69 limit, the integrated error value will not increase,
providing anti-windup protection.
For the Extended Servo Algorithm (ESA) that is enabled if Iyy00/50 for the motor is set to 1, Ixx69 is
used to multiply a normalized command (-1.0 <= Normalized Command < +1.0) before outputting it or
using it for commutation. As such, it acts as both a scale factor and an output command limit for the
ESA.
Ixx69 is always in units of a 16-bit DAC, even if the actual output device is of a different resolution, or
the command value is used for Turbo PMAC’s own internal current loop commands.
If using differential analog outputs (DAC+ and DAC-), the voltage between the two outputs is twice the
voltage between an output and AGND, so the Ixx69 value should be set to half of what it would be for a
single-ended analog output.
This parameter provides a torque (current) limit in systems with current-loop amplifiers, or when using
Turbo PMAC’s internal commutation; it provides a velocity limit with velocity-mode amplifiers. Note
that if this limit kicks in for any amount of time, the following error will start increasing.
Use when Commutating: When Turbo PMAC is commutating Motor xx, Ixx69 corresponds to peak
values of the sinusoidal phase currents. Motor and amplifier current limits are usually given as RMS
values. Peak phase values are 2, or 1.414, times greater than RMS values. For instance if an amplifier
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
109
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
has a 10 amp (RMS) instantaneous current limit, the instantaneous limit for the peak of the phase currents
is 14.14 amps.
Use with Magnetization Current: When commutating (Ixx01 bit 0 = 1), Ixx69 is technically the limit
of only the quadrature, or torque-producing, current. Ixx77 sets the magnitude of the direct, or
magnetization current, and the total current limit is the vector sum of these two variables. If the Ixx77
magnetization current for the motor is set to a value other than 0, Ixx69 should be set such that:
Ixx69 2  Ixx77 2  I max  32,767
Use in Direct-PWM Mode: When commutating (Ixx01 bit 0 = 1) and closing the current loop (Ixx82 >
0) of a 3-phase motor (Ixx72 = 683 or 1365), it is important to understand the relationship between the
quadrature current limited by Ixx69 and the phase currents measured by the A/D converters. This
difference is due to the nature of the conversion between direct and quadrature current components, which
are 90o apart, and the phase currents, which are 120o apart. This difference introduces a factor of cos(30 o)
into the calculations.
For a given level of DC quadrature current with zero direct (magnetization) current, the peak value of AC
sinusoidal current measured in the phases will be 1/cos(30 o), or 1.15 times, greater. When quadrature
current is commanded at its limit of Ixx69, the peak phase currents can be 15% higher that this value. For
instance, with Ixx69 at 10,000, and Ixx77 at 0, the A/D converters can provide readings (normalized to
16-bit resolution) up to 11,547.
With non-zero direct current, the peak value of AC sinusoidal current measured in the phases will be 1.15
times greater than the vector sum of the direct and quadrature currents. Therefore, in order not to saturate
the current in the phases, Ixx69 should be set such that:
 
2
2
o
Ixx69  Ixx77  I max cos 30  32 ,767 * 0.866  28 ,377
Examples:
1. Motor 1 is driving a velocity-mode amplifier with differential analog inputs that are limited to +/-10V
between the inputs. This means that the PMAC outputs should each be limited to +/-5V with respect to
the AGND reference. I169 should therefore be limited to 32,768/2 = 16,384.
2. Motor 3 is driving a DC brush motor amplifier in current (torque) mode with an analog output. The
amplifier has a gain of 2 amps/volt and an instantaneous current limit of 20 amps. The motor has an
instantaneous current limit of 15 amps.
 PMAC’s maximum output of 32,768, or 10 volts, corresponds to 20 amps.
 The motor has the lower instantaneous current rating, so we use its limit of 15 amps.
 I369 is set to 32,768 * 15/20 = 24,576.
3. Motor 5 is driving a self-commutating brushless-motor amplifier in current (torque) mode with a
single analog output. The amplifier has a gain of 5 amps(RMS)/volt and an instantaneous current
limit of 50 amps (RMS). The motor has an instantaneous current limit of 60 amps (RMS).
 PMAC’s maximum output of 32,768, or 10 volts, corresponds to 50 amps (RMS).
 The amplifier has the lower instantaneous current rating, so we use its limit of 50 amps (RMS).
 I569 is set to 32,768 * 50/50 = 32,767 (note that the maximum permitted value is 32,767).
4. Motor 7 is driving a sine-wave amplifier for a brushless servo motor with two analog outputs. The
Ixx77 magnetization current limit is set to 0. The amplifier has a gain on each phase of 4 amps/volt.
The amplifier has an instantaneous current limit of 25 amps (RMS). The motor has an instantaneous
current limit of 30 amps (RMS).
 PMAC’s maximum output of 32,768, or 10 volts, corresponds to 40 amps peak in the phase.
 The amplifier has the lower instantaneous current rating, so we use its limit of 25 amps (RMS).
 25 amps (RMS) corresponds to peak phase currents of 25*1.414 = 35.35 amps.
 I769 is set to 32,768 * 35.35/40 = 28,958.
110
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
5. Motor 9 is driving a direct-PWM power-block amplifier and an AC induction motor. The Ixx77
magnetization current parameter is set to 3000. The A/D converters in the amplifier are scaled so that
a maximum reading corresponds to 100 amps of current in the phase. The amplifier has an
instantaneous current limit of 60 amps (RMS), and the motor has an instantaneous current limit of 75
amps (RMS).
 PMAC’s maximum ADC phase reading of 32,768 corresponds to 100 amps in the phase.
 The amplifier has the lower instantaneous current rating, so we use its limit of 60 amps (RMS).
 60 amps (RMS) corresponds to peak phase currents of 60*1.414 = 84.84 amps.
 84.84 amps corresponds to an ADC reading of 32,768 * 84.84/100 = 27,800.
 The vector sum of Ixx69 and Ixx77 should equal 27,800 * 0.866 = 24,075.
 I969 should be set to sqrt(24,0752-3,0002) = 23,887.
Motor Commutation Setup I-Variables
Ixx70 Motor xx Number of Commutation Cycles (N)
Range:
0 – 255
Units:
Commutation Cycles
Default:
1
For a PMAC-commutated motor (Ixx01=1), Ixx70 is used in combination with Ixx71 to define the size of
the commutation cycle, as Ixx71/Ixx70 counts. Usually, Ixx70 is set to one, and Ixx71 represents the
number of counts in a single commutation cycle. However, many people will use Ixx70 to represent the
number of commutation cycles (pole pairs) per mechanical revolution, and Ixx71 to represent the counts
per mechanical revolution. Ixx70 needs to be set greater than one if the number of counts in a single
cycle is not an integer.
A commutation cycle, or electrical cycle, consists of two poles (one pole pair) of a multiphase motor.
Setting Ixx70 to 0 effectively defeats the creation of the AC commutation cycle. This setting can be
useful when doing direct PWM control of DC brush motors which requires the use of the Turbo PMAC
commutation algorithms, but cannot use an AC output.
Example:
A 6-pole brushless motor has three commutation cycles per mechanical revolution. If a feedback device
with 4096 counts per mechanical revolution (a number not divisible by three) is used, Ixx70 should be set
to 3, and Ixx71 to 4096.
See Also:
I-variables Ixx01, Ixx71-Ixx83
Setting Up PMAC Commutation
Ixx71 Motor xx Counts per N Commutation Cycles
Range:
0 – 16,777,215
Units:
counts
Default:
1000
For a Turbo PMAC-commutated motor, this parameter defines the size of a commutation cycle in
conjunction with Ixx70 (counts/cycle = Ixx71/Ixx70). The meaning of a count used in this parameter is
defined by the encoder-decode variable I7mn0 for the commutation feedback device. If a times-4 decode
is used, a count is one-fourth of an encoder line.
When the commutation position feedback is received over the MACRO ring, the units of the feedback are
typically 1/32 of a count, so Ixx71 should be in units of 1/32 count in this case.
A commutation cycle, or electrical cycle, consists of two poles (one pole pair) of a multiphase motor.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
111
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Note:
In firmware revisions V1.938 and older, the maximum value of Ixx71 was
8,388,607.
Examples:
1. A four-pole brushless motor with a 1000-line-per-revolution encoder and “times-4” decode has 2
commutation cycles per revolution and 4000 counts per revolution. Therefore, either Ixx70=2 and
Ixx71=4000 could be used, or Ixx70=1 and Ixx71=2000.
2. A linear motor has a 60.96-mm (2.4-inch) electrical cycle. An encoder with a 40 micron pitch is
wired directly into PMAC and “times-4” decode is used. Ixx70 can be set to 1 and Ixx71 can be
calculated as:
Ixx71  60.96
mm
line
counts
counts
*
*4
 6096
cycle 0.04 mm
line
cycle
3. An 8-pole brushless motor has an 8192-line encoder that is wired into a Compact MACRO Station
with “times-4” decode. The position data is sent back to PMAC in the MACRO “Type 1” protocol,
with units of 1/32 count. If Ixx70 is set to 4 (for 4 electrical cycles per revolution), Ixx71 can be
calculated as:
Ixx71  8192
lines
rev
*
rev
4  cycles
*4
counts
* 32
line
( 1 / 32count )
count
 262 ,144
( 1 / 32count )
line
See Also:
I-variables Ixx01, Ixx70, Ixx72-Ixx83
Setting Up Turbo PMAC Commutation
Ixx72 Motor xx Commutation Phase Angle
Range:
0 – 2047
Units:
360/2048 elec. deg. (1/2048 commutation cycle)
Default:
1365 (= -120oe or 240oe)
For a Turbo PMAC-commutated motor, Ixx72 sets the angular distance between the phases of a
multiphase motor. The units of Ixx72 are 1/2048 of an electrical cycle. The usual values to be used are:
3-phase:
683 or 1365 (+/- 120oe)
2- or 4-phase: 512 or 1536 (+/- 90oe)
For a given number of phases, the proper choice of the two possible values is determined by the polarity
match between the output commands and the feedback, as detailed below. Typically, the choice is made
automatically by the Turbo Setup expert-system program on the PC.
Ixx72 is used slightly differently depending on whether Turbo PMAC is performing current-loop
calculations as well as commutation. Both cases are explained below:
1. Turbo PMAC performing commutation, but not current loop: When Turbo PMAC is not
performing digital current loop closure for Motor xx (Ixx82=0), the output direction sense determined
by this parameter and the motor and amplifier phase wiring must match the feedback direction sense
as determined by the encoder-decode variable I7mn0 and the encoder wiring. If the direction senses
do not match, proper commutation and servo control will be impossible; the motor will lock into a
given position.
For these systems, changing between the two values for a given number of phases has the same effect
as exchanging motor leads, which changes the motor's direction of rotation for a given sign of a
PMAC2 torque command.
Refer to the section Setting up Turbo PMAC Commutation for tests to determine the proper Ixx72
setting. For systems without Turbo PMAC digital current loop closure, once this
112
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
commutation/feedback polarity has been properly matched, the servo/feedback polarity will
automatically be properly matched.
2. Turbo PMAC performing commutation and current loop: When Turbo PMAC (PMAC2-style
interface only) is performing digital current loop closure for Motor xx (Ixx82 > 0), the output
direction sense determined by this parameter must match the polarity of the phase current sensors and
the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) circuitry that brings this data into Turbo PMAC. It is
independent of motor or amplifier phase wiring, encoder wiring, and Turbo PMAC encoder-decode
direction sense.
WARNING:
Do not attempt to close the digital current loops on Turbo PMAC (O commands or
closing the position loop) until sure of the proper sense of the Ixx72 setting. An
Ixx72 setting of the wrong sense will cause positive feedback in the current loop,
leading to saturation of the PMAC outputs and possible damage to the motor and
or amplifier.
For systems with a Turbo PMAC digital current loop, if the phase-current ADC registers report a positive
value for current flowing into the phase (i.e. the PWM voltage command value and the current feedback
value have the same sign), Ixx72 must be set to a value greater than 1024 (usually 1365 for a 3-phase
motor or 1536 for a 2- or 4-phase motor).
If the phase-current ADC registers report a positive value for current flowing out of the phase (i.e. the
PWM voltage command value and the current feedback value have opposite signs), Ixx72 must be set to a
value less than 1024 (usually 683 for a 3-phase motor, or 512 for a 2- or 4-phase motor).
For systems with Turbo PMAC digital current loop closure, the commutation/feedback polarity match is
independent of the servo/feedback polarity. Once Ixx72 has been set for proper commutation/feedback
polarity, the proper position-loop servo/feedback polarity must still be established.
Ixx73 Motor xx Phase Finding Output Value
Range:
Units:
Default:
-32,768 – 32,767
bits of 16-bit DAC
0
WARNING:
An unreliable phasing search method can lead to a runaway condition. Test the
phasing search method carefully to make sure it works properly under all
conceivable conditions. Make sure the Ix11 fatal following error limit is active
and as tight as possible so the motor will be killed quickly in the event of a serious
phasing search error.
Ixx73 defines the magnitude of the open-loop output to be used if a power-on phasing search is done for a
Turbo PMAC-commutated motor (Ixx01 bit 0 = 1). A phasing search is required for a synchronous motor
(Ixx78=0) such as a permanent-magnet brushless motor with no absolute position sensor (Ixx81=0). The
phasing search is done automatically as part of the power-on phasing search if Ixx80 is 1 or 3; if Ixx80 is
0 or 2, the on-line $ or $$ command must be used must be used to initiate the phasing search.
Ixx73 is in units of a 16-bit DAC, so that 32,767 represents full current command to the phases, even if a
different output device and/or different resolution is used.
If Ixx80 is 0 or 1, the “two-guess” phasing search is used, and Ixx73 controls the “vector” magnitude of
the open-loop output that is distributed among the phases according to the guessed phasing angle.
If Ixx80 is 2 or 3, the “stepper-motor” phasing search is used, and Ixx73 controls the magnitude of current
forced into individual phases to lock the motor to a position like a stepper motor. In this method, if the
Turbo PMAC is not performing current loop closure for the motor (Ixx82=0) and Ixx72 > 1024, then
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
113
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Ixx73 should be set to a negative number of the desired magnitude. In all other cases it should be set to a
positive number. If the sign of Ixx73 is wrong for a setup, the motor will run away when the loop is
closed.
A negative value of Ixx73 must be used for sinewave-output commutation (Ixx82 = 0) with Ixx72 > 1024
and the stepper-motor phase search method (Ixx80 bit 0 = 1).
Typically, values of magnitude 2000 to 6000 are used for Ixx73 in either method.
See Also:
Power-Up Phasing Search (Setting Up PMAC Commutation)
I-Variables Ixx01, Ixx74, Ixx78, Ixx80, Ixx81
Ixx74 Motor xx Phase Finding Time
Range:
Units:
Default:
0 – 255
Servo Interrupt Cycles (for Ixx80 = 0 or 1)
or
Servo Interrupt Cycles * 256 (for Ixx80 = 2 or 3)
0
WARNING
An unreliable phasing search method can lead to a runaway condition. Test the
phasing search method carefully to make sure it works properly under all
conceivable conditions. Make sure the Ixx11 fatal following error limit is active
and as tight as possible so the motor will be killed quickly in the event of a serious
phasing search error.
Ixx74 defines the time that an open-loop output is to be used if a power-on phasing search is done for a
PMAC-commutated motor (Ixx01 bit 0 = 1). A phasing search is required for a synchronous motor
(Ixx78=0) such as a permanent-magnet brushless motor with no absolute position sensor (Ixx81=0). The
phasing search is done automatically as part of the power-on phasing search if bit 0 of Ixx80 is 1; if bit 0
of Ixx80 is 0, the on-line $ or $$ command must be used must be used to initiate the phasing search.
If Ixx74 is set to 0, no phasing search move will be done, even if one is requested and required. In this
case, the “phase reference error” motor status bit will stay set, preventing the servo loop from closing.
If bit 1 of Ixx80 is 0 (Ixx80 = 0 or 1), the two-guess phasing search is used; Ixx74 has units of servo
cycles and controls the time for the open-loop command at each “guess” of the phase angle. Typical
values are three to ten servo cycles; a value of 5 is a good starting point.
If bit 1 of Ixx80 is 1 (Ixx80 = 2 or 3), the stepper-motor phasing search is used; Ixx74 has units of (servo
cycles*256) and controls the time current is forced into each phase and Turbo PMAC waits for the motor
to settle into the step position. With the default servo cycle rate of 2.25 kHz, each unit of Ixx74
represents about 0.1 seconds in this mode; typical values are 10 to 20.
See Also:
Power-Up Phasing Search (Setting Up PMAC Commutation)
I-Variables Ixx01, Ixx73, Ixx78, Ixx80, Ixx81
Ixx75 Motor xx Phase Position Offset
Range:
0 – Ixx71 (up to 16,777,215)
Units:
Counts * Ixx70
Default:
0
Ixx75 tells Turbo PMAC the distance between the zero position of an absolute sensor used for power-on
phase position (specified by Ixx81 and Ixx91) and the zero position of Turbo PMAC's commutation
cycle.
114
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
It is used to reference the phasing algorithm for a PMAC-commutated motor with an absolute sensor
(Ixx81 > 0). If Ixx80 bit 0 is 1 (Ixx80 = 1 or 3), this is done automatically during the power-up/reset
cycle. It will also be done in response to a $ on-line command to the motor, or a $$ on-line command to
the coordinate system containing the motor.
Ixx75 is also used by the SETPHASE command (on-line, motion-program, or PLC-program). When the
SETPHASE command is given, the value of Ixx75 is immediately copied directly into the motor’s phase
position register. Typically, this operation is used to correct the phasing, usually at the encoder index
pulse, after an initial rough phasing (e.g. from Hall commutation sensors).
The proper value for this parameter can be found with a simple procedure that should be done with an
unloaded motor, after satisfactory operation has been achieved using a power-on phasing search.
 Define an M-variable to the absolute sensor if using one.
 Define an M-variable to the internal phase position register. Mxx71 is the suggested M-variable.
 Give the motor an O0 command.

Put a bias (a magnitude of 2000 is usually good) on the A phase (higher-numbered DAC of a pair for
Turbo PMAC) by setting Ixx29; use a positive bias if Ixx82>0 for digital current loop closure or if
Ixx82=0 and Ixx72>1024 (e.g. 1365 or 1536); use a negative bias if Ixx82=0 and Ixx72<1024 (e.g.
683 or 512).
 Also, put a bias in the opposite direction of the same magnitude on the B phase by setting Ixx79. The
motor should lock in on a position like a stepper motor.
 Now remove the A-phase bias by setting Ixx29 back to zero, or at least to the value found to force
zero current in the phase, and the motor should lock in on another position. This position is the zero
position of the phasing cycle.
 If there is an absolute sensor, after sure that the motor has settled, read the position of the absolute
sensor by querying its M-variable value. Then:
 Take the negative of this value, multiply it by Ixx70, and put the resulting value in Ixx75.
 Now, with Ixx79 returned to zero or the proper bias, and Ixx81 pointing to the absolute sensor, give
the motor a $ command. The motor should be properly phased.
 If doing this to use the SETPHASE command at a known position such as the index, set the internal
phase position register to 0 with Mxx71. Then:
 Return Ixx79 to zero or the proper bias, and close the loop with a J/ command.
 Now move to the reference position (e.g. do a homing search move with the index pulse as the
trigger) and make sure it is settled there with minimal following error (some integral gain should be
used).
 Read the value of Mxx71 at this point and set Ixx75 to this value.
 Remember to save these variable values before doing a full reset on the card.
See Also
I-variables Ixx01, Ixx70 – Ixx74, Ixx76 – Ixx83
Setting Up Turbo PMAC Commutation
Ixx76 Motor xx Current-Loop Back-Path Proportional Gain
Range:
0.0 – 2.0 (24-bit resolution)
Units:
PWMout = -4 * Ixx62 * (Iact)
Default:
0.0
Ixx76 is the proportional gain term of the digital current loop that is in the back path of the loop,
multiplying the actual current level, and subtracting the result from the command output. Either Ixx76 or
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
115
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Ixx62 (forward path proportional gain) must be used to close the current loop. Generally, only one of
these proportional gain terms is used, although both can be.
If Ixx76 is used as the only proportional gain term, only the Ixx61 integral gain term reacts directly to
command changes. The act of integration acts as a low-pass filter on the command, which eliminates a
lot of noise, but lowers the responsiveness to real changes. Generally, Ixx76 is only used when the
command value from the position/velocity loop servo have high noise levels (usually due to low position
resolution), and the actual current measurements have low noise levels.
Ixx76 is typically set using the current loop auto-tuner or interactive tuner in the Turbo PMAC Executive
Program. Typical values of Ixx76, when used, are around 0.9.
Digital current loop closure on the Turbo PMAC requires a set of three consecutive command output
registers. Generally, this requires writing to either a PMAC2-style Servo IC or a MACRO IC.
Ixx76 is only used if Ixx82>0 to activate digital current loop execution.
Ixx77 Motor xx Magnetization Current
Range:
-32,768 – 32,767
Units:
Bits of a 16-bit DAC
Default:
0
This parameter is used in induction motors to provide a stator current component parallel to the estimated
rotor magnetic field (the “direct” current -- the control loop determines the magnitude of the “quadrature”
current perpendicular to this component). This should generally be set to zero for non-induction motors,
unless advanced “field weakening” algorithms are desired.
The proper value for an induction motor is system dependent, but 2500 is a good starting value for most
motors. Refer to the Setting up Commutation section of the manual for instructions in optimizing the
setting of this parameter. The Turbo Setup expert-system program for PCs is typically used to set the
proper value of Ixx77 for induction motors.
If Ixx77 is set to a non-zero value, Ixx69 should be reduced from what it would be with Ixx77 set to 0.
The effective current limit is:
I max 
2
2
Ixx69  Ixx77
See Also:
Setting Induction Motor Parameters (Setting Up PMAC Commutation)
I-variables Ixx01, Ixx70-Ixx72, Ixx78
Ixx78 Motor xx Slip Gain
Range:
0.0 – 1.0 (24-bit resolution)
Units:
none (ratio of times)
Default:
0.0
Ixx78 controls the relationship between the torque command and the slip frequency of magnetic field on
the rotor of an AC asynchronous (induction) motor. While it is usually set experimentally, it can be
calculated as the ratio between the phase update period and the rotor (not stator) L/R electrical time
constant.
Turbo PMAC computes the slip frequency each phase update by multiplying the torque command from
the position/velocity-loop servo (or O-command magnitude) by Ixx78 and dividing by the magnetization
current value controlled by Ixx77.
Ixx78 is typically set through use of the Turbo Setup expert-system program running on PCs. This
program excites the motor and analyzes its response to derive an optimum Ixx78 value.
Ixx78 can also be set experimentally by giving the motor an O-command and watching the velocity
response, probably with the data-gathering feature. As the velocity saturates because the back EMF
116
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
reaches the supply voltage, the velocity should fall back about 5% to reach a steady-state value. If it falls
back more than this, the slip time constant is too high; if it falls back less than this, or not at all, the slip
time constant is too low.
0.00015 is a typical value of Ixx78 for a standard induction motor at a phase update rate of about 9 kHz.
Ixx78 is only active if Ixx01 is set to 1 to specify Turbo PMAC commutation of Motor xx. It should be
set to 0 for AC synchronous motors such as permanent-magnet brushless motors and switched (variable)
reluctance motors.
Ixx79 Motor xx Second Phase Offset
Range:
-32,768 – 32,767
Units:
16-bit DAC/ADC bit equivalent
Default:
0
Ixx79 serves as an output or feedback offset for Motor xx; its exact use depends on the mode of operation
as described below:
Mode 1: When Turbo PMAC is not commutating Motor xx (Ixx01 bit 0 = 0), Ixx79 is not used. Ixx29 is
the offset for this mode.
Mode 2: When Turbo PMAC is not commutating Motor xx (Ixx01 bit 0 = 0) but is in sign-andmagnitude output mode (Ixx96 = 1 – PMAC-style outputs only), Ixx79 is the offset of the command
output value after the absolute value is taken (Ixx29 is the offset before the absolute value is taken).
Typically, Ixx79 is used in this mode to compensate for analog offsets in interface circuitry, either in
DACs or in voltage-to-frequency converters.
Mode 3: When Turbo PMAC is commutating Motor xx (Ixx01 bit 0 = 1) but not closing the current loop
(Ixx82 = 0), Ixx79 serves as the offset for the second of two phase command output values (Phase B), for
the address specified by Ixx02 plus 1; Ixx29 serves the same purpose for the first phase. Ixx79 is added
to the output command value before it is written to the command output register.
When commutating from a PMAC-style Servo IC, Phase A is output on the higher-numbered of the two
DACs (e.g. DAC2) and Phase B on the lower-numbered (e.g. DAC1). When commutating from a
PMAC2-style Servo IC, Phase A is output on the A-channel DAC (e.g. DAC1A), Phase B on the Bchannel DAC (e.g. DAC1B).
As an output command offset, Ixx79 is always in units of a 16-bit register, even if the actual output device
is of a different resolution. For example, if a value of 60 had to be written into an 18-bit DAC to create a
true zero command, this would be equivalent to a value of 60/4=15 in a 16-bit DAC, so Ixx79 would be
set to 15 to cancel the offset.
Mode 4: When Turbo PMAC is commutating (Ixx01 bit 0 = 1) and closing the current loop for Motor xx
(Ixx82 > 0), Ixx79 serves as an offset that is added to the phase current reading from the ADC for the
second phase (Phase B), at the address specified by Ixx82. Ixx29 performs the same function for the first
phase. The sum of the ADC reading and Ixx79 is used in the digital current loop algorithms.
As an input feedback offset, Ixx79 is always in units of a 16-bit ADC, even if the actual ADC is of a
different resolution. For example, if a 12-bit ADC reported a value of -5 when no current was flowing in
the phase, this would be equivalent to a value of -5*16=-80 in a 16-bit ADC, so Ixx79 would be set to 80
to compensate for this offset.
Ixx80 Motor xx Power-Up Mode
Range:
Units:
Default:
0–7
none
0
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
117
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Ixx80 controls the power-up mode, including the phasing search method (if used), for Motor xx. It
consists of three independent control bits, each determining one aspect of the state of the motor at powerup or full board reset:
 Bit 0 controls whether the motor is enabled at power-up/reset or not. If bit 0 is set to 0, the motor is
left in the killed (disabled) state at power-up/reset, and a command must be issued to the motor to
enable it. If bit 0 is set to 1, the motor is enabled at power-up/reset automatically, and if a phasing
search move is required to establish the commutation position reference, this is automatically done.
 Bit 1 controls what type of phasing search move is performed, if one is required (Ixx01 bit 0 = 1,
Ixx78 = 0, Ixx74 > 0), either during power-up/reset, or on a subsequent $ motor reset command. If
bit 1 is 0 and a phasing search move is required, Turbo PMAC will use the two-guess phasing search
method. If bit 1 is 1 and a phasing search move is required, Turbo PMAC will use the stepper-motor
phasing search method. The state of bit 1 does not matter unless a phasing search move is to be done.
 Bit 2 controls whether an absolute position read for the motor is done at power-up/reset or not, if one
is required (Ixx10 > 0). If bit 2 is set to 0 and an absolute position read is specified, this read
operation will be performed automatically at the board power-up/reset. If bit 2 is set to 1 and an
absolute position read is specified, this read operation will not be done automatically at powerup/reset, and the $* or $$* command must be issued to perform the absolute position read. The state
of bit 2 does not matter unless an absolute position read is to be done.
The possible values of Ixx80 and the function of each are described in the following table:
Ixx80
Absolute Position Read
at Power-up/Reset?
Phasing Search
Method
Power-up/Reset
Enable State
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
Two-Guess
Two-Guess
Stepper-Motor
Stepper-Motor
Two-Guess
Two-Guess
Stepper-Motor
Stepper-Motor
Disabled
Enabled
Disabled
Enabled
Disabled
Enabled
Disabled
Enabled
Power-up/reset enable state: If the motor is not automatically enabled at power-up/reset, a command
must be used subsequently to enable the motor. If Turbo PMAC is commutating the motor (Ixx01 bit 0 =
1) and it is a synchronous motor (Ixx78 = 0), a phase reference must be established with the $ or $$
command as part of the enabling process. The motor cannot be enabled before a successful phase
reference is established, because the motor “phase reference error” status bit that is automatically set on
power-up/reset will not have been cleared.
If the motor is either not commutated by Turbo PMAC (Ixx01 bit 0 =0) or it is not a synchronous motor
(Ixx78 > 0), a simple enabling command can be used. The J/ command enables a single motor; the A
command enables all of the motors in a coordinate system; the <CTRL-A> command enables all of the
motors on Turbo PMAC.
The phase reference, whether executed at power-up/reset or on the $ command, can be done either by
reading an absolute position sensor (Ixx81 > 0) or by a phasing search move (Ixx74 > 0) if only an
incremental sensor is used.
WARNING:
An unreliable phasing search method can lead to a runaway condition. Test the
phasing search method carefully to make sure it works properly under all
conceivable conditions. Make sure the Ixx11 fatal following error limit is active
and as tight as possible so the motor will be killed quickly in the event of a serious
phasing search error.
118
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Phasing search move method: The two-guess phasing search is very quick and requires little
movement, but can be adversely affected if there are significant external loads such as friction and
gravity. The stepper-motor phasing search takes more time and causes more movement, but it is more
reliable in the presence of significant external loads.
Absolute motor position read: If Ixx10 is set to 0, the position reference for a motor comes from a
homing search move. If Ixx10 is greater than 0, the position reference comes from reading an absolute
position sensor at the address specified by Ixx10 and with the format specified by Ixx95. In this case,
Ixx80 bit 2 specifies whether this read is done automatically at power-up/reset.
If the absolute position read is not done automatically at power-up/reset, the motor position will be set to
0 at this time. This does not prevent full operation of the motor. The $* or $$* command must be used
later to read the sensor and establish absolute position. Even if the absolute position is read automatically
at power-up/reset, it may be read again later with the $* or $$* command.
See Also:
Power-Up Phasing Search (Setting Up PMAC Commutation)
On-line commands $, $$, $* $$*, $$$
I-Variables Ixx01, Ixx73, Ixx74, Ixx78, Ixx81
Ixx81 Motor xx Power-On Phase Position Address
Range:
Units:
Default:
$000000 - $FFFFFF
Turbo PMAC or multiplexer-port addresses
0
WARNING:
An unreliable phasing reference method can lead to a runaway condition. Test the
phasing reference method carefully to make sure it works properly under all
conceivable conditions. Make sure the Ixx11 fatal following error limit is active
and as tight as possible so the motor will be killed quickly in the event of a serious
phasing search error.
Ixx81 tells Turbo PMAC what address to read for absolute power-on phase-position information for
Motor xx, if such information is present. This can be a different address from that of the ongoing phase
position information, which is specified by Ixx83, but it must have the same resolution and direction
sense. Ixx81 is set to zero if no special power-on phase position reading is desired, as is the case for an
incremental encoder.
If Ixx81 is set to zero, a power-on phasing search routine is required for synchronous fixed-field brushless
motors (permanent magnet, and switched reluctance); those that have a slip gain (Ixx78) of zero. Turbo
PMAC’s automatic phasing search routines based on Ixx73 and Ixx74 can be used, or a custom power-on
PLC routine can be written.
Note:
Ixx81 is used for PMAC’s commutation algorithms alone, to locate position within
one electrical cycle of the motor. It is not used for any servo loop position
information, even for power-up. Ixx10 and Ixx95 are used for that purpose.
Ixx91 tells how the data at the address specified by Ixx81 is to be interpreted. It also determines whether
the location specified by Ixx81 is a multiplexer (thumbwheel) port address, an address in Turbo PMAC’s
own memory and I/O space, or a MACRO node number.
Note:
It is easier to specify this parameter in hexadecimal form ($ prefix). If I9 is set to 2
or 3, the value of this variable will be reported back to the host in hexadecimal
form.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
119
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
R/D Converter Read: If Ixx91 contains a value from $000000 to $070000, Ixx81 contains the
multiplexer port address of an Acc-8D Option 7 R/D-converter board. The value of Ixx81 matches the
base address of the board (0 to 248 decimal, $0 to $F8 hex) on the port as set by its DIP switches. If the
base address is 0, Ixx81 should be set to $100, because a value of 0 in Ixx81 disables the absolute read.
The following table lists the possible values of Ixx81 in this mode.
Ixx81 for Acc-8D Option 7 Resolver/Digital Converter
(Ixx91=$000000 - $070000)
Addresses are Multiplexer Port Addresses
Board
Mux.
Addr.
Ixx81
Board
Mux.
Addr.
Ixx81
Board
Mux.
Addr.
Ixx81
Board
Mux.
Addr.
Ixx81
0
8
16
24
32
40
48
56
$000100
$000008
$000010
$000018
$000020
$000028
$000030
$000038
64
72
80
88
96
104
112
120
$000040
$000048
$000050
$000058
$000060
$000068
$000070
$000078
128
136
144
152
160
168
176
184
$000080
$000088
$000090
$000098
$0000A0
$0000A8
$0000B0
$0000B8
192
200
208
216
224
232
240
248
$0000C0
$0000C8
$0000D0
$0000D8
$0000E0
$0000E8
$0000F0
$0000F8
Parallel Data Read: If Ixx91 contains a value from $080000 to $180000 or from $480000 to $580000,
Ixx81 specifies the address of a Turbo PMAC memory or I/O register where it will read the power-on
phase position. Bits 16 to 21 of Ixx91, which can take a value of $08 to $18 (8 to 24) in this mode,
specify the number of bits, starting at bit 0, of the register to be read for the absolute position.
Bit 22 of Ixx91 controls whether the address specified in Ixx81 is an X-register or a Y-register. If bit 22
of Ixx91 is set to 0, it is a Y-register. If bit 22 of Ixx91 is set to 1, it is an X-register.
There are four common sources of parallel data for absolute power-on phase position read. The first
source is an Acc-14D/V parallel I/O board. Acc-14D/V boards map into Y-registers, so bit 22 of Ixx91 is
set to 0. The settings of Ixx81 for each port of each possible Acc-14DV board are shown in the following
table:
Ixx81 Values for Acc-14D/V Registers
(Ixx91=$080000 to $18000)
Register
Ixx81
Register
Ixx81
First Acc-14D/V Port A
First Acc-14D/V Port B
Second Acc-14D/V Port A
Second Acc-14D/V Port B
Third Acc-14D/V Port A
Third Acc-14D/V Port B
$078A00
$078A01
$078B00
$078B01
$078C00
$078C01
Fourth Acc-14D/V Port A
Fourth Acc-14D/V Port B
Fifth Acc-14D/V Port A
Fifth Acc-14D/V Port B
Sixth Acc-14D/V Port A
Sixth Acc-14D/V Port B
$078D00
$078D01
$078E00
$078E01
$078F00
$078F01
The second common source of parallel data for an absolute power-on phase position read is the encoder
counter phase position register when an Acc-8D Option 9 Yaskawa Absolute Encoder converter board is
used. This board synthesizes quadrature signals into the Turbo PMAC at power-on until the power-on
position within one revolution is reached, so the value of the encoder counter can simply be read.
Encoder phase position counters map into X-registers, so bit 22 of Ixx91 is set to 1. The settings of Ixx81
for typical encoder registers on Turbo PMAC and PMAC2 boards are shown in the following tables:
120
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Turbo PMAC Ixx81 Encoder Register Settings
(Ixx91=$480000 - $580000)
Encoder
Register
Channel #
PMAC
First
Acc-24P/V
Second
Acc-24P/V
Third
Acc-24P/V
Fourth
Acc-24P/V
Channel 1
Channel 3
Channel 5
Channel 7
$078001
$078009
$078101
$078109
$078201
$078209
$078301
$078309
$079201
$079209
$079301
$079309
$07A201
$07A209
$07A301
$07A309
$07B201
$07B209
$07B301
$07B309
Turbo PMAC2 Ixx81 Typical Encoder Register Settings
(Ix91=$480000 - $580000)
Servo
IC #
Chan. 1
Chan. 2
Chan. 3
Chan. 4
Notes
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
$078001
$078101
$078201
$078301
$079201
$079301
$07A201
$07A301
$07B201
$07B301
$078009
$078109
$078209
$078309
$079209
$079309
$07A209
$07A309
$07B209
$07B309
$078011
$078011
$078211
$078311
$079211
$079311
$07A211
$07A311
$07B211
$07B311
$078019
$078019
$078219
$078319
$079219
$079319
$07A219
$07A319
$07B219
$07B319
First IC on board PMAC2, 3U stack
Second IC on board PMAC2, 3U stack
First Acc-24E2x, first IC on first Acc-24P/V2
Second Acc-24E2x, second IC on first Acc-24P/V2
Third Acc-24E2x, first IC on second Acc-24P/V2
Fourth Acc-24E2x, second IC on second Acc-24P/V2
Fifth Acc-24E2x, first IC on third Acc-24P/V2
Sixth Acc-24E2x, second IC on third Acc-24P/V2
Seventh Acc-24E2x, first IC on fourth Acc-24P/V2
Eighth Acc-24E2x, second IC on fourth Acc-24P/V2
The third common source of parallel data for power-on phasing is the Acc-49 Sanyo Absolute Encoder
Converter Board. The Acc-49 maps into Turbo PMAC’s expansion port, at the addresses shown in the
following table.
Ixx81 Values for Acc-49 Sanyo Absolute Encoder Converter (Ixx91=$0D0000)
Addresses are Turbo PMAC Memory-I/O Addresses
Enc. # on
Board
Ixx10 for
E1 ON
Ixx10 for
E2 ON
Ixx10 for
E3 ON
Enc. # on
Board
Ixx10 for
E4 ON
Ixx10 for
E5 ON
Ixx10 for
E6 ON
Enc. 1
Enc. 2
$078A00
$078A04
$078B00
$078B04
$078C00
$078C04
Enc. 3
Enc. 4
$078D00
$078D04
$078E00
$078E04
$078F00
$078F04
The fourth common source is a register in the 3U-format Acc-3E1 (for 3U Turbo Stack systems) or Acc14E (for UMAC Turbo systems) board. In this case, the last hex digit of Ixx91 must be set to a non-zero
value to specify the byte-wide bus of these boards. The following tables show Ixx81 values for these
boards.
Ixx81 Values for Acc-3E1 Registers in 3U Turbo Stack Systems
(Ixx91=$08000x to $18000x [unsigned], $88000x to $98000x [signed])
Acc-3E1 Address Jumper
E1
E2
E3
E4
Ixx81 Value
$07880x
$07890x
$078A0x
$078B0x
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
121
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Ixx81 Values for Acc-14E Registers in UMAC Turbo Systems
(Ixx91=$08000x to $18000x [unsigned], $88000x to $98000x [signed])
DIP-Switch
Setting
SW1-1 ON (0)
SW1-2 ON (0)
SW1-1 OFF (1)
SW1-2 ON (0)
SW1-1 ON (0)
SW1-2 OFF (1)
SW1-1 OFF (1)
SW1-2 OFF (1)
SW1-3 ON (0)
$078C0x
$078D0x
$078E0x
SW1-4 ON (0)
SW1-3 OFF (1)
$079C0x
$079D0x
$079E0x
SW1-4 ON (0)
SW1-3 ON (0)
$07AC0x
$07AD0x
$07AE0x
SW1-4 OFF (1)
SW1-3 OFF (1)
$07BC0x
$07BD0x
$07BE0x
SW1-4 OFF (1)
SW1-5 and 6 must be ON (0). ON means CLOSED; OFF means OPEN.
$078F0x
$079F0x
$07AF0x
$07BF0x
The final digit, represented by an x in both of these tables, can take a value of 0 to 5, depending on which
I/O point on the board is used for the least significant bit (LSB):
Ixx10 Last Hex Digit x
Pin Used for LSB
Pin Used for LSB
Pin Used for LSB
x=0
x=1
x=2
x=3
x=4
x=5
I/O00-07
I/O08-15
I/O16-23
I/O24-31
I/O32-39
I/O40-47
I/O48-55
I/O56-63
I/O64-71
I/O72-79
I/O80-87
I/O88-95
I/O96-103
I/O104-111
I/O112-119
I/O120-127
I/O128-135
I/O136-143
Hall Sensor Read: If Ixx91 contains a value from $800000 to $FF0000, Ixx81 specifies the address of a
Turbo PMAC X-memory or I/O register where it will read the power-on phase position in bits 20, 21, and
22 of the register. It is expecting these three bits to be encoded as U, V, and W hall sensors with 120 oe
spacing. Typically, Ixx81 will contain the address of a flag register of a Servo IC.
Note:
Hall-style commutation sensors give only an approximate phase position, with a
+/-30oe error. Generally, it is necessary to correct the phase position value at a
known position such as the encoder’s index pulse, either using the SETPHASE
command or by writing directly into the phase position register (suggested Mvariable Mxx71).
If the flag register is in a PMAC-style Servo IC, the flags used are HMFLn, +LIMn, and -LIMn. Usually,
the flag register is for the “spare” (even-numbered) set of flags corresponding to the second DAC output
used for the commutation. The following table shows the values of Ixx81 used here.
Turbo PMAC Ixx81 Typical Hall Phasing Settings
(Ixx91=$800000 - $FF0000)
Hall Flag
Channel #
PMAC
First
Acc-24P/V
Second
Acc-24P/V
Third
Acc-24P/V
Fourth
Acc-24P/V
Channel 2
Channel 4
Channel 6
Channel 8
$078004
$07800C
$078104
$07810C
$078204
$07820C
$078304
$07830C
$079204
$07920C
$079304
$07930C
$07A204
$07A20C
$07A304
$07A30C
$07B204
$07B20C
$07B304
$07B30C
If the flag register is in a PMAC2-style Servo IC, the flags used are CHUn, CHVn, and CHWn. Usually
the flag register is the same register as used for the main flags as specified by Ixx25.
122
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The following table shows the values of Ixx81 used here.
Turbo PMAC2 Ixx81 Typical Hall Phasing Settings
(Ix91=$800000 - $FF0000)
Servo
IC #
Chan. 1
Chan. 2
Chan. 3
Chan. 4
Notes
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
$078000
$078100
$078200
$078300
$079200
$079300
$07A200
$07A300
$07B200
$07B300
$078008
$078108
$078208
$078308
$079208
$079308
$07A208
$07A308
$07B208
$07B308
$078010
$078010
$078210
$078310
$079210
$079310
$07A210
$07A310
$07B210
$07B310
$078018
$078018
$078218
$078318
$079218
$079318
$07A218
$07A318
$07B218
$07B318
First IC on board PMAC2, 3U stack
Second IC on board PMAC2, 3U stack
First Acc-24E2x, first IC on first Acc-24P/V2
Second Acc-24E2x, second IC on first Acc-24P/V2
Third Acc-24E2x, first IC on second Acc-24P/V2
Fourth Acc-24E2x, second IC on second Acc-24P/V2
Fifth Acc-24E2x, first IC on third Acc-24P/V2
Sixth Acc-24E2x, second IC on third Acc-24P/V2
Seventh Acc-24E2x, first IC on fourth Acc-24P/V2
Eighth Acc-24E2x, second IC on fourth Acc-24P/V2
If the flag register is obtained through the MACRO ring, Ixx81 will contain the address of a MACRO
auxiliary image register in RAM. The following table shows the typical values of Ixx81 used here.
Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite Ixx81 Typical Hall Phasing Settings
(Ixx91=$800000 - $FF0000)
Ixx81
Value
Register
Ixx81
Value
I181
I281
I381
I481
I581
I681
I781
I881
I981
I1081
I1181
I1281
I1381
I1481
I1581
I1681
$003440
$003441
$003444
$003445
$003448
$003449
$00344C
$00344D
$003450
$003451
$003454
$003455
$003458
$003459
$00345C
$00345D
MACRO Flag Register Set 0
MACRO Flag Register Set 1
MACRO Flag Register Set 4
MACRO Flag Register Set 5
MACRO Flag Register Set 8
MACRO Flag Register Set 9
MACRO Flag Register Set 12
MACRO Flag Register Set 13
MACRO Flag Register Set 16
MACRO Flag Register Set 17
MACRO Flag Register Set 20
MACRO Flag Register Set 21
MACRO Flag Register Set 24
MACRO Flag Register Set 25
MACRO Flag Register Set 28
MACRO Flag Register Set 29
I1781
I1881
I1981
I2081
I2181
I2281
I2381
I2481
I2581
I2681
I2781
I2881
I2981
I3081
I3181
I3281
$003460
$003461
$003464
$003465
$003468
$003469
$00346C
$00346D
$003470
$003471
$003474
$003475
$003478
$003479
$00347C
$00347D
Register
MACRO Flag Register Set 32
MACRO Flag Register Set 33
MACRO Flag Register Set 36
MACRO Flag Register Set 37
MACRO Flag Register Set 40
MACRO Flag Register Set 41
MACRO Flag Register Set 44
MACRO Flag Register Set 45
MACRO Flag Register Set 48
MACRO Flag Register Set 49
MACRO Flag Register Set 52
MACRO Flag Register Set 53
MACRO Flag Register Set 56
MACRO Flag Register Set 57
MACRO Flag Register Set 60
MACRO Flag Register Set 61
Because phase position needs only to be known within a single revolution, any geared-down secondary
absolute sensors are not relevant for this purpose. They may still be used for power-on position
information for the servo loop, with Ixx10, Ixx99, and Ixx98
In general, the zero position of the absolute sensor will not be the same as the zero position of the
commutation cycle. Parameter Ixx75 is used to hold the offset between these two reference positions.
MACRO Absolute Position Read: If Ixx91 contains a value from $720000 to $740000, the value
specified in Ixx81 is a MACRO node number, and Turbo PMAC will obtain the absolute power-on
position through the MACRO ring. Ixx91 specifies what type of position data is used.
The MACRO node number is specified in the last two hex digits of Ixx81. The second-to-last digit
specifies the MACRO IC number 0 to 3 (1, 2, and 3 exist only on Ultralite versions of the Turbo PMAC2,
or on UMAC Turbo systems with Acc-5E).
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
123
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Note that the MACRO IC number on the Turbo PMAC does not necessarily match the ring master
number for that IC, although it often will. The last digit specifies the MACRO node number 0 to 15 (0 to
F hex) in that IC. This function is only supported in nodes 0, 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 12 (C), and 13 (D).
The following table shows the required values of Ixx81 for all of the MACRO nodes that can be used.
Note that MACRO IC 0 Node 0 uses an Ixx81 value of $000100, because Ixx81=0 disables the absolute
position read function.
Ixx81 for MACRO Absolute Position Reads
(Ixx91=$720000 - $740000)
Addresses are MACRO Node Numbers
MACRO Node
Number
Ixx81 for
MACRO IC 0
Ixx81 for
MACRO IC 1
Ixx81 for
MACRO IC 2
Ixx81 for
MACRO IC 3
0
1
4
5
8
9
12
13
$000100
$000001
$000004
$000005
$000008
$000009
$00000C
$00000D
$000010
$000011
$000014
$000015
$000018
$000019
$00001C
$00001D
$000020
$000021
$000024
$000025
$000028
$000029
$00002C
$00002D
$000030
$000031
$000034
$000035
$000038
$000039
$00003C
$00003D
If obtaining the absolute position through a Delta Tau MACRO Station or equivalent, MACRO Station
setup variable MI11x for the matching node must be set properly to obtain the type of information
desired.
Ixx82 Motor xx Current-Loop Feedback Address
Range:
$000000 – $FFFFFF
Units:
Turbo PMAC Y-addresses
Default:
$0
Ixx82 tells Turbo PMAC which addresses to read to get its current feedback values for Motor xx if Turbo
PMAC is closing the current loop for this motor. Turbo PMAC must be performing the commutation for
the motor (Ixx01=1) if it is to close the current loop as well.
A zero value for Ixx82 tells PMAC not to close the current loop for this motor. In this case, PMAC
outputs either one velocity or torque command value (Ixx01 bit 0 = 0), or two phase-current command
values (Ixx01 bit 0 = 1), usually represented as analog voltages.
A non-zero value for Ixx82 automatically triggers current loop execution in the phase interrupt using the
current values found in the registers specified by Ixx82. Typically, these registers are analog-to-digital
converter (ADC) registers in a PMAC2-style Servo IC, or MACRO feedback registers containing copies
of ADC registers in a MACRO Station.
Digital current loop closure on the Turbo PMAC requires a set of three consecutive command output
registers. Generally, this requires writing to either a PMAC2-style Servo IC or a MACRO IC.
When Ixx01 is set to 1, Turbo PMAC performs the phase commutation for this motor, computing two
phase current commands based on the position/velocity servo command and the magnetization current
value. If Ixx82>0, these commands are compared to the two actual current values read from the address
specified by Ixx82, and the next lower address. It executes a PI filter on the current loops and outputs
three voltage command values to the address specified by Ixx02 and the next two higher addresses.
Typically, these are the PWM commands for the three half-bridges of a brushless motor power stage.
124
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
When the digital current loop is used for drives connected directly to the Turbo PMAC2, the typical
values for Ixx82 are:
Turbo PMAC2 Ixx82 Typical Settings
Ixx82
Value
Register
Ixx82
Value
Register
I182
I282
I382
I482
I582
I682
I782
I882
I982
I1082
I1182
I1282
I1382
I1482
I1582
I1682
$078006
$07800E
$078016
$07801E
$078106
$07810E
$078116
$07811E
$078206
$07820E
$078216
$07821E
$078306
$07830E
$078316
$07831E
PMAC2 ADC1B
PMAC2 ADC2B
PMAC2 ADC3B
PMAC2 ADC4B
PMAC2 ADC5B
PMAC2 ADC6B
PMAC2 ADC7B
PMAC2 ADC8B
First Acc-24x2 ADC1B
First Acc-24x2 ADC2B
First Acc-24x2 ADC3B
First Acc-24x2 ADC4B
First Acc-24x2 ADC5B
First Acc-24x2 ADC6B
First Acc-24x2 ADC7B
First Acc-24x2 ADC8B
I1782
I1882
I1982
I2082
I2182
I2282
I2382
I2482
I2582
I2682
I2782
I2882
I2982
I3082
I3182
I3282
$079206
$07920E
$079216
$07921E
$079306
$07930E
$079316
$07931E
$07A206
$07A20E
$07A216
$07A21E
$07A306
$07A30E
$07A316
$07A31E
Second Acc-24x2 ADC1B
Second Acc-24x2 ADC2B
Second Acc-24x2 ADC3B
Second Acc-24x2 ADC4B
Second Acc-24x2 ADC5B
Second Acc-24x2 ADC6B
Second Acc-24x2 ADC7B
Second Acc-24x2 ADC8B
Third Acc-24x2 ADC1B
Third Acc-24x2 ADC2B
Third Acc-24x2 ADC3B
Third Acc-24x2 ADC4B
Third Acc-24x2 ADC5B
Third Acc-24x2 ADC6B
Third Acc-24x2 ADC7B
Third Acc-24x2 ADC8B
When the digital current loop is used for drives connected to the Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite through a
MACRO station, the typical values for Ixx82 are:
Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite Ixx82 Typical Settings
Ixx82
Value
Register
Ixx82
Value
Register
I182
I282
I382
I482
I582
I682
I782
I882
I982
I1082
I1182
I1282
I1382
I1482
I1582
I1682
$078422
$078426
$07842A
$07842E
$078432
$078436
$07843A
$07843E
$079422
$079426
$07942A
$07942E
$079432
$079436
$07943A
$07943E
MACRO IC 0 Node 0 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 0 Node 1 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 0 Node 4 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 0 Node 5 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 0 Node 8 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 0 Node 9 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 0 Node 12 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 0 Node 13 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 1 Node 0 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 1 Node 1 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 1 Node 4 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 1 Node 5 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 1 Node 8 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 1 Node 9 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 1 Node 12 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 1 Node 13 Reg. 2
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
I1782
I1882
I1982
I2082
I2182
I2282
I2382
I2482
I2582
I2682
I2782
I2882
I2982
I3082
I3182
I3282
$07A422
$07A426
$07A42A
$07A42E
$07A432
$07A436
$07A43A
$07A43E
$07B422
$07B426
$07B42A
$07B42E
$07B432
$07B436
$07B43A
$07B43E
MACRO IC 2 Node 0 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 2 Node 1 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 2 Node 4 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 2 Node 5 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 2 Node 8 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 2 Node 9 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 2 Node 12 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 2 Node 13 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 3 Node 0 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 3 Node 1 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 3 Node 4 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 3 Node 5 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 3 Node 8 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 3 Node 9 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 3 Node 12 Reg. 2
MACRO IC 3 Node 13 Reg. 2
125
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
UMAC Turbo Ixx82 Typical Settings
Ixx82
Value
Register
I182
I282
I382
I482
I582
I682
I782
I882
I982
I1082
I1182
I1282
I1382
I1482
I1582
I1682
$078206
$07820E
$078216
$07821E
$078306
$07830E
$078316
$07831E
$079206
$07920E
$079216
$07921E
$079306
$07930E
$079316
$07931E
First Acc-24E2 ADC1B
First Acc-24E2 ADC2B
First Acc-24E2 ADC3B
First Acc-24E2 ADC4B
Second Acc-24E2 ADC1B
Second Acc-24E2 ADC2B
Second Acc-24E2 ADC3B
Second Acc-24E2 ADC4B
Third Acc-24E2 ADC1B
Third Acc-24E2 ADC2B
Third Acc-24E2 ADC3B
Third Acc-24E2 ADC4B
Fourth Acc-24E2 ADC1B
Fourth Acc-24E2 ADC2B
Fourth Acc-24E2 ADC3B
Fourth Acc-24E2 ADC4B
Ixx82
Value
Register
I1782
I1882
I1982
I2082
I2182
I2282
I2382
I2482
I2582
I2682
I2782
I2882
I2982
I3082
I3182
I3282
$07A206
$07A20E
$07A216
$07A21E
$07A306
$07A30E
$07A316
$07A31E
$07B206
$07B20E
$07B216
$07B21E
$07B306
$07B30E
$07B316
$07B31E
Fifth Acc-24E2 ADC1B
Fifth Acc-24E2 ADC2B
Fifth Acc-24E2 ADC3B
Fifth Acc-24E2 ADC4B
Sixth Acc-24E2 ADC1B
Sixth Acc-24E2 ADC2B
Sixth Acc-24E2 ADC3B
Sixth Acc-24E2 ADC4B
Seventh Acc-24E2 ADC1B
Seventh Acc-24E2 ADC2B
Seventh Acc-24E2 ADC3B
Seventh Acc-24E2 ADC4B
Eighth Acc-24E2 ADC1B
Eighth Acc-24E2 ADC2B
Eighth Acc-24E2 ADC3B
Eighth Acc-24E2 ADC4B
If Ixx82>0, the following variables must be set properly for correct operation of the digital current loop:
 Ixx61: Current-Loop Integral Gain
 Ixx62: Current-Loop Forward-Path Proportional Gain
 Ixx66: PWM Scale Factor
 Ixx72: Commutation Phase Angle
 Ixx76: Current-Loop Back-Path Proportional Gain
 Ixx84: Current-Loop Feedback Mask Word
Ixx83 Motor xx Commutation Position Address
Range:
$000000 - $FFFFFF
Units:
Turbo PMAC addresses
Default values:
Turbo PMAC Ixx83 Defaults
Ixx83
Value
Register
I183
I283
I383
I483
I583
I683
I783
I883
I983
I1083
I1183
I1283
I1383
I1483
I1583
I1683
126
$078001
$078005
$078009
$07800D
$078101
$078105
$078109
$07810D
$078201
$078205
$078209
$07820D
$078301
$078305
$078309
$07830D
PMAC Encoder 1
PMAC Encoder 2
PMAC Encoder 3
PMAC Encoder 4
PMAC Encoder 5
PMAC Encoder 6
PMAC Encoder 7
PMAC Encoder 8
First Acc-24P/V Encoder 1
First Acc-24P/V Encoder 2
First Acc-24P/V Encoder 3
First Acc-24P/V Encoder 4
First Acc-24P/V Encoder 5
First Acc-24P/V Encoder 6
First Acc-24P/V Encoder 7
First Acc-24P/V Encoder 8
Ixx83
Value
Register
I1783
I1883
I1983
I2083
I2183
I2283
I2383
I2483
I2583
I2683
I2783
I2883
I2983
I3083
I3183
I3283
$079201
$079205
$079209
$07920D
$079301
$079305
$079309
$07930D
$07A201
$07A205
$07A209
$07A20D
$07A301
$07A305
$07A309
$07A30D
Second Acc-24P/V Encoder 1
Second Acc-24P/V Encoder 2
Second Acc-24P/V Encoder 3
Second Acc-24P/V Encoder 4
Second Acc-24P/V Encoder 5
Second Acc-24P/V Encoder 6
Second Acc-24P/V Encoder 7
Second Acc-24P/V Encoder 8
Third Acc-24P/V Encoder 1
Third Acc-24P/V Encoder 2
Third Acc-24P/V Encoder 3
Third Acc-24P/V Encoder 4
Third Acc-24P/V Encoder 5
Third Acc-24P/V Encoder 6
Third Acc-24P/V Encoder 7
Third Acc-24P/V Encoder 8
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Turbo PMAC2 (Non-Ultralite) Ixx83 Defaults
Ixx83
Value
Register
I183
I283
I383
I483
I583
I683
I783
I883
I983
I1083
I1183
I1283
I1383
I1483
I1583
I1683
$078001
$078009
$078011
$078019
$078101
$078109
$078111
$078119
$078201
$078209
$078211
$078219
$078301
$078309
$078311
$078319
PMAC2 Encoder 1
PMAC2 Encoder 2
PMAC2 Encoder 3
PMAC2 Encoder 4
PMAC2 Encoder 5
PMAC2 Encoder 6
PMAC2 Encoder 7
PMAC2 Encoder 8
First Acc-24P/V2 Encoder 1
First Acc-24P/V2 Encoder 2
First Acc-24P/V2 Encoder 3
First Acc-24P/V2 Encoder 4
First Acc-24P/V2 Encoder 5
First Acc-24P/V2 Encoder 6
First Acc-24P/V2 Encoder 7
First Acc-24P/V2 Encoder 8
Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite Ixx83 Defaults
Ixx83
Value
Register
I183
I283
I383
I483
I583
I683
I783
I883
I983
I1083
I1183
I1283
I1383
I1483
I1583
I1683
$078420
$078424
$078428
$07842C
$078430
$078434
$078438
$07843C
$079420
$079424
$079428
$07942C
$079430
$079434
$079438
$07943C
MACRO IC 0 Node 0 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 0 Node 1 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 0 Node 4 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 0 Node 5 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 0 Node 8 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 0 Node 9 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 0 Node 12 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 0 Node 13 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 1 Node 0 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 1 Node 1 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 1 Node 4 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 1 Node 5 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 1 Node 8 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 1 Node 9 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 1 Node 12 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 1 Node 13 Reg. 0
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Ixx83
Value
Register
I1783
I1883
I1983
I2083
I2183
I2283
I2383
I2483
I2583
I2683
I2783
I2883
I2983
I3083
I3183
I3283
$079201
$079209
$079211
$079219
$079301
$079309
$079311
$079319
$07A201
$07A209
$07A211
$07A219
$07A301
$07A309
$07A311
$07A319
Second Acc-24P/V2 Encoder 1
Second Acc-24P/V2 Encoder 2
Second Acc-24P/V2 Encoder 3
Second Acc-24P/V2 Encoder 4
Second Acc-24P/V2 Encoder 5
Second Acc-24P/V2 Encoder 6
Second Acc-24P/V2 Encoder 7
Second Acc-24P/V2 Encoder 8
Third Acc-24P/V2 Encoder 1
Third Acc-24P/V2 Encoder 2
Third Acc-24P/V2 Encoder 3
Third Acc-24P/V2 Encoder 4
Third Acc-24P/V2 Encoder 5
Third Acc-24P/V2 Encoder 6
Third Acc-24P/V2 Encoder 7
Third Acc-24P/V2 Encoder 8
Ixx83
Value
Register
I1783
I1883
I1983
I2083
I2183
I2283
I2383
I2483
I2583
I2683
I2783
I2883
I2983
I3083
I3183
I3283
$07A420
$07A424
$07A428
$07A42C
$07A430
$07A434
$07A438
$07A43C
$07B420
$07B424
$07B428
$07B42C
$07B430
$07B434
$07B438
$07B43C
MACRO IC 2 Node 0 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 2 Node 1 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 2 Node 4 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 2 Node 5 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 2 Node 8 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 2 Node 9 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 2 Node 12 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 2 Node 13 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 3 Node 0 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 3 Node 1 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 3 Node 4 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 3 Node 5 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 3 Node 8 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 3 Node 9 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 3 Node 12 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 3 Node 13 Reg. 0
127
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
UMAC Turbo Ixx83 Defaults
Ixx83
Value
I183
I283
I383
I483
I583
I683
I783
I883
I983
I1083
I1183
I1283
I1383
I1483
I1583
I1683
$078201
$078209
$078211
$078219
$078301
$078309
$078311
$078319
$079201
$079209
$079211
$079219
$079301
$079309
$079311
$079319
Register
Ixx83
Value
Register
First Acc-24E2 Encoder 1
First Acc-24E2 Encoder 2
First Acc-24E2 Encoder 3
First Acc-24E2 Encoder 4
Second Acc-24E2 Encoder 1
Second Acc-24E2 Encoder 2
Second Acc-24E2 Encoder 3
Second Acc-24E2 Encoder 4
Third Acc-24E2 Encoder 1
Third Acc-24E2 Encoder 2
Third Acc-24E2 Encoder 3
Third Acc-24E2 Encoder 4
Fourth Acc-24E2 Encoder 1
Fourth Acc-24E2 Encoder 2
Fourth Acc-24E2 Encoder 3
Fourth Acc-24E2 Encoder 4
I1783
I1883
I1983
I2083
I2183
I2283
I2383
I2483
I2583
I2683
I2783
I2883
I2983
I3083
I3183
I3283
$07A201
$07A209
$07A211
$07A219
$07A301
$07A309
$07A311
$07A319
$07B201
$07B209
$07B211
$07B219
$07B301
$07B309
$07B311
$07B319
Fifth Acc-24E2 Encoder 1
Fifth Acc-24E2 Encoder 2
Fifth Acc-24E2 Encoder 3
Fifth Acc-24E2 Encoder 4
Sixth Acc-24E2 Encoder 1
Sixth Acc-24E2 Encoder 2
Sixth Acc-24E2 Encoder 3
Sixth Acc-24E2 Encoder 4
Seventh Acc-24E2 Encoder 1
Seventh Acc-24E2 Encoder 2
Seventh Acc-24E2 Encoder 3
Seventh Acc-24E2 Encoder 4
Eighth Acc-24E2 Encoder 1
Eighth Acc-24E2 Encoder 2
Eighth Acc-24E2 Encoder 3
Eighth Acc-24E2 Encoder 4
For a motor commutated by Turbo PMAC (Ixx01 = 1 or 3), Ixx83 tells Turbo PMAC where to read its
commutation (phasing) position information for Motor xx every commutation cycle. This can be a
different address from that used for power-on/reset phasing position, which is determined by Ixx81. If
Turbo PMAC is not commutating Motor xx (Ixx01 = 0 or 2), Ixx83 is not used.
Ixx83 contains the address of the register to be read. If Ixx01 bit 1 is set to 0 (Ixx01 = 1), the register is
the X-register at that address. If Ixx01 bit 1 is set to 1 (Ixx01 = 3), the register is the Y-register at that
address.
For Turbo PMAC boards with on-board encoder circuitry, typically Ixx83 contains the address of the
phase position encoder register for encoder x; this is the default. Since these registers have X addresses,
Ixx01 is set to 1.
For Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite boards, Ixx83 typically contains the address of a MACRO node’s position
feedback register; this is the default. Since PMAC2 can only commutate over MACRO using nodes with
Y addresses, Ixx01 is set to 3 in these cases.
Ixx84 Motor xx Current-Loop Feedback Mask Word
Range:
$000000 - $FFFFFF
Units:
Bit mask
Default:
$FFF000 (12-bit ADCs)
Ixx84 tells Turbo PMAC what bits of the 24-bit current feedback words to use as actual the actual current
value in the current loop equations. It is used only if Ixx82>0, enabling current loop closure in Motor xx
of the Turbo PMAC.
Turbo PMAC supports interface to serial analog-to-digital converters of many resolutions through a
PMAC2-style DSPGATE1 Servo IC, either on the PMAC, on an Acc-24 axis expansion board, or at a
remote MACRO node. The data is received in 18-bit shift registers in the ASIC, which are read as the
high end of a 24-bit word, with the number left-justified to the most significant bit.
Ixx84 specifies a 24-bit mask word that is combined with the feedback word through a logical AND
operation to produce the value that is used in the current loop equations. There should be a 1 in every bit
that is used, and a 0 in every bit that is not. Since the data is left justified, Ixx84 should start with 1s and
end with 0s. Usually Ixx84 is represented as a hexadecimal number, with four bits per digit, and a total of
six digits
128
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Some amplifiers will transmit status and fault information on the end of the serial data stream for the
ADC, and it is important to mask out these values from the current loop equations.
Examples:
For a 10-bit ADC: Ixx84=$FFC000
For a 12-bit ADC: Ixx84=$FFF000
For a 16-bit ADC: Ixx84=$FFFF00
Further Motor I-Variables
Ixx85 Motor xx Backlash Take-up Rate
Range:
0 - 8,388,607
Units:
1/16 count / background cycle
Default:
0
Ixx85 determines how fast backlash is taken up on direction reversal. The size of the backlash is
determined by Ixx86, and possibly by the backlash compensation table for the motor. Turbo PMAC will
take up the backlash at the Ixx85 rate whenever the commanded or Master Handwheel position for the
motor reverses by more than the amount set by Ixx87 the backlash hysteresis parameter. If Ixx85 is zero,
backlash is effectively disabled. Usually, Ixx85 is set interactively and experimentally to as high a value
as possible without creating dynamic problems.
Ixx86 Motor xx Backlash Size
Range:
0 - 8,388,607
Units:
1/16 count
Default:
0
Ixx86 allows PMAC to compensate for backlash in the motor's coupling by adding or subtracting
(depending on the new direction) the amount specified in the parameter to the commanded position on
direction reversals (this offset will not appear when position is queried or displayed). A value of zero
means no backlash. The rate at which this backlash is added or subtracted (taken up) is determined by
Ixx85.
Variable Ixx87, Backlash Hysteresis, determines the amount of reversal in desired position that is
required before backlash will start to be introduced or removed.
If backlash tables are used, Ixx86 represents the backlash at motor zero position; values in the table
should represent the difference between the backlash at a given position and Ixx86.
Note:
The units of this parameter are 1/16 of a count so the value should be 16 times the
number of counts of backlash compensation desired.
Example:
If there is a backlash on reversal of motor direction of 7.5 encoder counts, set Ixx86 to 7.5 * 16 = 120.
Ixx87 Motor xx Backlash Hysteresis
Range:
0 - 8,388,607
Units:
1/16 count
Default:
64 (= 4 counts)
Ixx87 controls the size of the direction reversal in motor commanded position that must occur on Motor
xx before Turbo PMAC starts to add the programmed backlash (Ixx86) in the direction of motion. The
purpose of this variable is to allow the customer to ensure that a very small direction reversal (e.g. from
the dithering of a master encoder) does not cause the backlash to kick in. Ixx87 thus provides a hysteresis
in the backlash function.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
129
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The units of Ixx87 are 1/16 of a count. Therefore, this parameter must hold a value 16 times larger than
the number of counts reversal at which backlash is introduced. For example, if backlash is to be
introduced after five counts of reversal, Ixx87 should be set to 80.
Example:
With a system in which one count of the master encoder creates 10 counts of movement in the slave
motor, it is desired that a single count reversal of the master not trigger backlash reversal. Therefore, the
backlash hysteresis is set to 15 counts, and Ixx87 is set to 15*16=240.
Ixx88 Motor xx In-Position Number of Scans
Range:
0 - 255
Units:
Background computation cycles (minus one)
Default:
0
Ixx88 permits the user to define the number of consecutive scans that Turbo PMAC Motor xx must
satisfy all in-position conditions before the motor in-position status bit is set true. This permits the user to
ensure that the motor is truly settled in the end position before executing the next operation, on or off
Turbo PMAC. The number of consecutive scans required is equal to Ixx88 + 1.
Turbo PMAC scans for the in-position condition of each active motor during the housekeeping part of
every background cycle, which occurs between each scan of each enabled background PLC (PLC 1-31).
All motors in a coordinate system must have true in-position bits for the coordinate-system in-position bit
to be set true.
In non-Turbo PMACs, this function is controlled by global I-variable I7.
Ixx90 Motor xx Rapid Mode Speed Select
Range:
0-1
Units:
None
Default:
1
Ixx90 determines which variable is used for the speed of a RAPID mode move. When Ixx90 is set to 0,
the jog speed parameter Ixx22 is used. When Ixx90 is set to the default of 1, the maximum program
speed parameter Ixx16 is used. Regardless of the setting of Ixx90, the jog acceleration parameters Ixx19 Ixx21 control the acceleration and deceleration of a RAPID mode move.
In non-Turbo PMACs, this function is controlled by global I-variable I50.
Ixx91 Motor xx Power-On Phase Position Format
Range:
$000000 - $FFFFFF
Units:
None
Default:
0
Ixx91 specifies how the power-on phase-position data, if any, for Motor xx is interpreted. Ixx81 specifies
the address of the register containing this position data; Ixx91 controls how that data is read. This permits
the use of a wide variety of absolute position sensors with the Turbo PMAC.
Ixx91 is used only on power-on/reset or on the $ or $$ on-line reset commands. To get a new value of
Ixx91 to take effect, the $ or $$ command must be issued, or the value of Ixx91 must be stored to nonvolatile flash memory with the SAVE command, and the board must be reset.
Ixx91 is a 24-bit value; currently only bits 16-23, which comprise the first two of six hex digits, are used.
Ixx91 is only used if Ixx81 is set to a non-zero value.
130
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The possible values of Ixx91 and the position sources they specify are summarized in the following table:
Ixx91 Value Range
Absolute Position Source
Ixx81 Address Type
$000000 - $070000
$080000 - $180000
$480000 - $580000
$730000
$740000
$800000 - $FF0000
Acc-8D Opt 7 R/D Converter
Parallel Data Y-Register
Parallel Data X-Register
MACRO Station R/D Converter
MACRO Station Parallel Read
Hall Sensor Read
Multiplexer Port
Turbo PMAC Memory-I/O
Turbo PMAC Memory-I/O
MACRO Node Number
MACRO Node Number
Turbo PMAC Memory-I/O
R/D Converter: If Ixx91 contains a value from $000000 to $070000, Motor xx will expect its absolute
power-on phase position from an Acc-8D Option 7 R/D converter board. Ixx81 should contain the
address of the board on the multiplexer port, as set by the DIP switches on the board.
The second hex digit of Ixx91, which can take a value from 0 to 7 in this mode, specifies the number of
the individual R/D converter at that multiplexer port address. This is a function of the DIP switch setting
on the board and the location of the converter on the board, as specified in the following table:
Ixx91 Value
Acc-8D Opt. 7
SW1-1 Setting
# of R/D Converter
on Acc-8D Opt. 7
$000000
$010000
$020000
$030000
$040000
$050000
$060000
$070000
CLOSED (0)
CLOSED (0)
CLOSED (0)
CLOSED (0)
OPEN (1)
OPEN (1)
OPEN (1)
OPEN (1)
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
Parallel Data Read: If Ixx91 contains a value from $08000n to $18000n, or from $48000n to $58000n,
Motor xx will do a parallel data read of the Turbo PMAC memory or I/O register at the address specified
by Ixx81.
In this mode, bits 16 to 21 specify the number of bits to be read. If the last hex digit of Ixx91 is 0,
consecutive bits will be read from the address specified by Ixx81, with the least significant bit read from
bit 0. This format is used for registers and I/O devices with 24-bit interfaces.
If the last hex digit of Ixx91 is 4, 5, or 6, data will be read in byte-wide pieces, with the least significant
byte at the address specified in Ixx81, the next byte at one address higher, and the next byte (if used) at
one more address higher. This format is intended for getting parallel data from the Acc-3E 3U-format
stack I/O board or the Acc-14E 3U-format pack (UMAC) I/O board, which have byte-wide interfaces.
For this format, the last hex digit of Ixx91 determines which byte of the 24-bit word is used, according to
the following table:
Ixx91 Last Digit
Byte
Bits
4
5
6
Low
Middle
High
0–7
8 – 15
16 – 23
In this mode, bit 22 of Ixx91 specifies whether a Y-register is to be read, or an X-register. A value of 0 in
this bit, yielding Ixx91 values from $080000 to $180000, specifies a Y-register; a value of 1, yielding
Ixx91 values from $480000 to $580000, specifies an X-register.
For the Acc-8D Option 9 Yaskawa Absolute Encoder Converter, Turbo PMAC’s 24-bit encoder phase
position register, an X-register, is read, so Ixx91 is set to $580000 ($180000 + $400000).
For the Acc-49 Sanyo Absolute Encoder Converter, the encoder provides a 13-bit value within one motor
revolution, and the data is read from a Y-register, so Ixx91 is set to $0D0000.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
131
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Example: If Ixx81=$078D01 and Ixx91=$140000, Turbo PMAC would read 20 bits (bits 0 – 19) from
Y:$078D01.
Example: If Ixx81=$078C00 and Ixx91=$100004, Turbo PMAC would read 16 bits, with the low eight
bits from the low byte of Y:$078C00, and the high eight bits from the low byte of Y:$078C01.
Example: If Ixx81=$079E03 and Ixx91=$120005, Turbo PMAC would read 18 bits, with the low eight
bits from the middle byte of Y:$079E03, and the next eight bits from the middle byte of Y:$079E04, and
the high 2 bits from the first 2 bits of the middle byte of Y:$079E05.
MACRO R/D Read: If Ixx91 contains a value of $730000, Motor xx will read the absolute phase
position from an Acc-8D Option 7 Resolver-to-Digital Converter through a MACRO Station or
compatible device.
In this mode, Ixx81 specifies the MACRO node number. MACRO Station setup variable MI11x for the
matching node must be set to read the R/D converter.
MACRO Parallel Read: If Ixx91 contains a value of $740000, Motor xx will read the absolute phase
position from a parallel data source through a MACRO Station or compatible device.
In this mode, Ixx81 specifies the MACRO node number. MACRO Station setup variable MI11x for the
matching node must be set to read the parallel data source.
Hall Sensor Read: If Ixx91 contains a value from $800000 to $FF0000 (bit 23 set to 1), Motor xx will
read bits 20 through 22 of the Turbo PMAC memory or I/O register at the address specified by Ixx81. It
will expect these three bits to be encoded as the U, V, and W hall-effect commutation signals with 120oe
spacing for the absolute power-on phase position. In this mode, the address specified in Ixx81 is usually
that of a flag register.
Note:
Hall-style commutation sensors give only an approximate phase position, with a
+/-30oe error. Generally, it is necessary to correct the phase position value at a
known position such as the encoder’s index pulse, either using the SETPHASE
command or by writing directly into the phase position register (suggested Mvariable Mxx71).
If the flag register is in a PMAC-style Servo IC, the flag inputs for bits 20, 21, and 22, representing W, V,
and U, are +LIMn, -LIMn, and HMFLn, respectively. In a typical application, Ixx81 specifies that these
inputs be used from the “spare” flag register matching the second DAC channel used for commutation.
If the flag register is in a PMAC2-style Servo IC, the input flags for bits 20, 21, and 22, representing W,
V, and U, are CHWn, CHVn, and CHUn, respectively. In a typical application, these inputs are used
from the same flag register addressed by Ixx25 for the main flags.
In this mode, bit 22 of Ixx91 allows for reversal of the sense of the hall-effect sensors. If W (bit 20 of the
register; HMFLn or CHWn) leads V (bit 21; -LIMn or CHVn), and V leads U (bit 22; +LIMn or CHUn)
as the commutation cycle counts up, then bit 22 of Ixx91 should be set to 0. If U leads V and V leads W
as the commutation cycle counts up, then bit 22 of Ixx91 should be set to 1.
In this mode, bits 16 to 21 of Ixx91 together form an offset value from 0 to 63 representing the difference
between PMAC’s commutation cycle zero and the hall-effect sensor zero position, which is defined as the
transition of the V signal when U is low. This offset has units of 1/64 of a commutation cycle, or 5.625 oe.
Typically, one of the transitions will be at PMAC’s commutation zero point, so the desired offset values
will be 0o, 60o, 120o, 180o, 240o, and 300o, approximated by values of 0, 11($0B), 21($15), 32($20),
43($2B), and 53($35).
This operation can handle hall-effect sensors separated by 120oe. The following table gives the Ixx91
settings for bits 16 to 23 for all of the common cases of hall-effect settings as they relate to the PMAC
commutation cycle.
132
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Ixx91 Values for UVW Hall States (120oe Spacing)
0 to 60 deg
60 to 120deg
120 to 180 deg
180 to -120 deg
-120 to -60 deg
-60 to 0 deg
Ixx91
011
001
101
100
110
010
001
011
010
110
100
101
010
011
001
101
100
110
101
001
011
010
110
100
110
010
011
001
101
100
100
101
001
011
010
110
100
110
010
011
001
101
110
100
101
001
011
010
101
100
110
010
011
001
010
110
100
101
001
011
001
101
100
110
010
011
011
010
110
100
101
001
$800000
$8B0000
$950000
$A00000
$AB0000
$B50000
$C00000
$CB0000
$D50000
$E00000
$EB0000
$F50000
Ixx92 Motor xx Jog Move Calculation Time
Range:
1 - 8,388,607
Units:
msec
Default:
10
Ixx92 controls how much time is allotted to calculate an on-line jog move, a homing search move, or a
motion-program RAPID-mode move for Motor xx. It also determines the delay in the trajectory’s
reaction to an altered destination or the trigger condition in any type of move-until-trigger: a homing
search move, an on-line jog-until-trigger, or a motion-program RAPID-mode move-until-trigger. If the
motor is sitting still at the beginning of this time, it will continue to sit for this time. If it is executing a
trajectory, it will continue on the present trajectory for this time before changing to the trajectory of the
new command or post-trigger move.
This parameter should rarely need to be changed from the default of 10 msec. It should not be set to 0 for
any reason, or PMAC will not be able to perform any of these types of moves. The minimum practical
value for this parameter is 2 or 3.
In non-Turbo PMACs, this function is controlled by global I-variable I12.
Ixx95 Motor xx Power-On Servo Position Format
Range:
$000000 - $FFFFFF
Units:
none
Default:
$000000
Ixx95 specifies how the absolute power-on servo-position data, if any, for Motor xx is interpreted. Ixx10
specifies the address of the register containing this position data; Ixx95 controls how that data is read.
This permits the use of a wide variety of absolute position sensors with the Turbo PMAC.
Ixx95 is used only on power-on/reset or on the $* or $$* command. To get a new value of Ixx95 to take
effect, either the $* or $$* command must be issued, or the value must be stored to non-volatile flash
memory with the SAVE command, and the board must be reset.
Ixx95 is a 24-bit value; currently bits 16-23, which comprise the first two of six hex digits, are used.
Ixx95 is only used if Ixx10 is set to a non-zero value.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
133
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The possible values of Ixx95 and the absolute position feedback devices they reference are summarized in
the following table:
Ixx95 Value Range
Absolute Position Source
Ixx10 Address Type
Format
$000000 - $070000
$080000 - $300000
$310000
$320000
$480000 - $700000
$710000
$720000
$730000
$740000
$800000 - $870000
$880000 - $B00000
$B10000
$B20000
$C80000 - $F00000
$F10000
$F20000
$F30000
$F40000
Acc-8D Opt 7 R/D Converter
Parallel Data Y-Register
Acc-28 A/D Converter
Acc-49 Sanyo Abs. Encoder
Parallel Data X-Register
Acc-8D Opt 9 Yaskawa Abs. Enc.
MACRO Station Yaskawa Abs. Enc.
MACRO Station R/D Converter
MACRO Station Parallel Read
Acc-8D Opt 7 R/D Converter
Parallel Data Y-Register
Acc-28 A/D Converter
Acc-49 Sanyo Abs. Encoder
Parallel Data X-Register
Acc-8D Opt 9 Yaskawa Abs. Enc.
MACRO Station Yaskawa Abs. Enc.
MACRO Station R/D Converter
MACRO Station Parallel Read
Multiplexer Port
Turbo PMAC Memory-I/O
Turbo PMAC Memory-I/O
Turbo PMAC Memory-I/O
Turbo PMAC Memory-I/O
Multiplexer Port
MACRO Node Number
MACRO Node Number
MACRO Node Number
Multiplexer Port
Turbo PMAC Memory-I/O
Turbo PMAC Memory-I/O
Turbo PMAC Memory-I/O
Turbo PMAC Memory-I/O
Multiplexer Port
MACRO Node Number
MACRO Node Number
MACRO Node Number
Unsigned
Unsigned
Unsigned
Unsigned
Unsigned
Unsigned
Unsigned
Unsigned
Unsigned
Signed
Signed
Signed
Signed
Signed
Signed
Signed
Signed
Signed
The following section provides details for each type of position feedback.
R/D Converter: If Ixx95 contains a value from $000000 to $070000, or from $800000 to $870000,
Motor xx will expect its absolute power-on position from an Acc-8D Option 7 R/D converter board.
Ixx10 should contain the address of the board on the multiplexer port, as set by the DIP switches on the
board.
The first hex digit of Ixx95, which can take a value of 0 or 8 in this mode, specifies whether the position
is interpreted as an unsigned value (first digit = 0) or as a signed value (first digit = 8).
The second hex digit of Ixx95, which can take a value from 0 to 7 in this mode, specifies the number of
the individual R/D converter at that multiplexer port address.
The following table shows the Ixx95 values for this mode and the R/D converter each specifies at the
Ixx10 address:
Ixx95 Value for
Unsigned Position
Ixx95 Value for
Signed Position
Acc-8D Opt. 7
SW1-1 Setting
# of R/D Converter
on Acc-8D Opt. 7
$000000
$010000
$020000
$030000
$040000
$050000
$060000
$070000
$800000
$810000
$820000
$830000
$840000
$850000
$860000
$870000
CLOSED (0)
CLOSED (0)
CLOSED (0)
CLOSED (0)
OPEN (1)
OPEN (1)
OPEN (1)
OPEN (1)
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
If Ixx99 is set greater than 0, the next higher numbered R/D converter at the same multiplexer port
address is also read and treated as a geared-down resolver, with Ixx99 specifying the gear ratio. Ixx98 is
also set greater than 0, the following R/D converter at the same multiplexer port address is read and
treated as a third resolver geared down from the second, with Ixx98 specifying that gear ratio.
134
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Parallel Data Read: If Ixx95 contains a value from $080000 to $300000, from $480000 to $700000,
from $880000 to $B00000, or from $C80000 to $F00000, Motor xx will do a parallel data read of the
Turbo PMAC memory or I/O register at the address specified by Ixx10. It expects to find the least
significant bit of the feedback in Bit 0 of this register.
In this mode, bits 16 to 21 specify the number of bits to be read. If the last hex digit of Ixx95 is 0,
consecutive bits will be read from the address specified by Ixx81, with the least significant bit read from
bit 0. If the number of bits is greater than 24, the high bits are read from the register at the next highernumbered address. This format is used for registers and I/O devices with 24-bit interfaces.
If the last hex digit of Ixx95 is 4, 5, or 6, data will be read in byte-wide pieces, with the least significant
byte at the address specified in Ixx81, the next byte at one address higher, and so on, up to a possible 6
consecutive addresses. This format is intended for getting parallel data from the Acc-3E 3U-format stack
I/O board or the Acc-14E 3U-format pack (UMAC) I/O board, which have byte-wide interfaces. For this
format, the last hex digit of Ixx95 determines which byte of the 24-bit word is used, according to the
following table:
Ixx95 Last Digit
Byte
Bits
4
5
6
Low
Middle
High
0–7
8 – 15
16 – 23
In this mode, bits 16 to 21 of Ixx95 specify the number of bits to be read, starting with bit 0 at the
specified address. In this mode, they can take a value from $08 to $30 (8 to 48). If the number of bits is
greater than 24, the high bits are read from the register at the next higher-numbered address.
In this mode, bit 22 of Ixx95 specifies whether a Y-register is to be read, or an X-register. A value of 0 in
this bit specifies a Y-register; a value of 1 specifies an X-register. Almost all common sources of
absolute position information are located in Y-registers, so this digit is usually 0.
In this mode, bit 23 of Ixx95 specifies whether the position is interpreted as an unsigned or a signed
value. If the bit is set to 0, it is interpreted as an unsigned value, if the bit is 1, it is interpreted as a signed
value.
Combining these components, Ixx95 values in this mode can be summarized as:
 $08000n - $30000n:
Parallel Y-register read, unsigned value, 8 to 48 bits
 $48000n - $70000n:
Parallel X-register read, unsigned value, 8 to 48 bits
 $88000n - $B0000n:
Parallel Y-register read, signed value, 8 to 48 bits
 $C8000n - $F0000n:
Parallel X-register read, signed value, 8 to 48 bits
Example: If Ixx10=$078D00 and Ixx95=$200000, Turbo PMAC would read 32 bits, the low 24 bits
from Y:$078D00, and the high eight bits from the low eight bits of Y:$078D01.
Example: If Ixx10=$078C00 and Ixx95=$100004, Turbo PMAC would read 16 bits, with the low 8 bits
from the low byte of Y:$078C00, and the high eight bits from the low byte of Y:$078C01.
Example: If Ixx10=$079E03 and Ixx95=$120005, Turbo PMAC would read 18 bits, with the low eight
bits from the middle byte of Y:$079E03, and the next 8 bits from the middle byte of Y:$079E04, and the
high two bits from the first 2 bits of the middle byte of Y:$079E05.
Example: If Ixx10=$078000 and Ixx95=$540000, Turbo PMAC would read 20 bits from X:$078000
(timer register for Channel 1). This type of setting is used for MLDT feedback.
Acc-28 A/D Converter Read: If Ixx95 is set to $310000 or $B10000, Motor xx will expect its power-on
position in the upper 16 bits of the Turbo PMAC Y-memory or I/O register specified by Ixx10. This
format is intended for Acc-28 A/D converters.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
135
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Bit 23 of Ixx95 specifies whether the position is interpreted as an unsigned or a signed value. If the bit is
set to 0, it is interpreted as an unsigned value, if the bit is 1, it is interpreted as a signed value. Because
Acc-28A produces signed values, Ixx95 should be set to $B10000 when using Acc-28A. Acc-28B
produces unsigned values, so Ixx95 should be set to $310000 when using Acc-28B.
Sanyo Absolute Encoder Read: If Ixx95 is set to $320000 or $B20000, Motor xx will expect its poweron position from the Acc-49 Sanyo Absolute Encoder converter board at the Turbo PMAC address
specified by Ixx10.
The first hex digit of Ixx95, which can take a value of 3 or B in this mode, specifies whether the position
is interpreted as an unsigned value (first digit = 0) or as a signed value (first digit = 8). Set Ixx95 to
$320000 for unsigned, or to $B20000 for signed.
Yaskawa Absolute Encoder Read: If Ixx95 is set to $710000 or $F10000, Motor xx will expect its
power-on position from the Yaskawa Absolute Encoder converter board at the multiplexer port address
specified by Ixx10.
The first hex digit of Ixx95, which can take a value of 7 or F in this mode, specifies whether the position
is interpreted as an unsigned value (first digit = 0) or as a signed value (first digit = 8). Set Ixx95 to
$710000 for unsigned, or to $F10000 for signed.
In this mode, Ixx99 specifies the number of bits per revolution for a single turn of the Yaskawa absolute
encoder. It must be set greater than 0 to use the multi-turn absolute capability of this encoder.
MACRO Station Yaskawa Absolute Encoder Read: If Ixx95 is set to $720000 or $F20000, Motor xx
will expect its power-on position from a Yaskawa Absolute Encoder through a MACRO Station. In this
mode, Ixx10 specifies the MACRO node number at which the position value will be read by Turbo
PMAC itself. Set-up variable MI11x for the MACRO Station tells the Station how to read the Yaskawa
Encoder converter connected to its own multiplexer port or serial port.
The first hex digit of Ixx95, which can take a value of 7 or F in this mode, specifies whether the position
is interpreted as an unsigned value (first digit = 0) or as a signed value (first digit = 8). Set Ixx95 to
$720000 for unsigned, or to $F20000 for signed.
In this mode, Ixx99 specifies the number of bits per revolution for a single turn of the Yaskawa absolute
encoder. It must be set greater than 0 to use the multi-turn absolute capability of this encoder.
MACRO Station R/D Converter Read: If Ixx95 is set to $730000 or $F30000, Motor xx will expect its
power-on position from an R/D converter through a MACRO Station or compatible device. In this mode,
Ixx10 specifies the MACRO node number at which Turbo PMAC will read the position value itself. Setup variable MI11x for the matching node on the MACRO Station tells the Station how to read the R/D
converter connected to its own multiplexer port.
The first hex digit of Ixx95, which can take a value of 7 or F in this mode, specifies whether the position
is interpreted as an unsigned value (first digit = 0) or as a signed value (first digit = 8). Set Ixx95 to
$730000 for unsigned, or to $F30000 for signed.
If Ixx99 is set greater than 0, the next higher numbered R/D converter at the same multiplexer port
address is also read and treated as a geared-down resolver, with Ixx99 specifying the gear ratio. Ixx98 is
also set greater than 0, the following R/D converter at the same multiplexer port address is read and
treated as a third resolver geared down from the second, with Ixx98 specifying that gear ratio.
MACRO Station Parallel Data Read: If Ixx95 is set to $740000 or $F40000, Motor xx will expect its
power-on position from a parallel data source through a MACRO Station or compatible device. In this
mode, Ixx10 specifies the MACRO node number at which Turbo PMAC will read the position value
itself. Set-up variable MI11x for the matching node on the MACRO Station tells the Station how to read
the parallel data source connected to it.
The first hex digit of Ixx95, which can take a value of 7 or F in this mode, specifies whether the position
is interpreted as an unsigned value (first digit = 0) or as a signed value (first digit = 8). Set Ixx95 to
$740000 for unsigned, or to $F40000 for signed.
136
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
In non-Turbo PMACs, bits 16-23 of Ix10 control this function.
Ixx96 Motor xx Command Output Mode Control
Range:
0-3
Units:
none
Default:
0
Ixx96 controls aspects of how Turbo PMAC writes to the command output register(s) specified in Ixx02.
Ixx96 is a two-bit value; bit 0 controls either the bipolar/unipolar nature of the output, whether the
commutation algorithm is closed-loop or open-loop, or whether the current-loop algorithm is for a
brushless or brush motor (dependent on the settings of Ixx01 and Ixx82); bit 1 controls whether the
integrator of the PID position/velocity servo algorithm is in the position loop or the velocity loop.
If bit 0 of Ixx01 is set to 0 (no Turbo PMAC commutation for Motor xx), and bit 0 of Ixx96 is set to 0, the
single command value from the Turbo PMAC servo is written to the register specified by Ixx02 as a
signed (bipolar) value.
For PMAC(1)-style Servo ICs only, if bit 0 of Ixx01 is set to 0 and bit 0 of Ixx96 is set to 1, then the
command output value is the absolute value (magnitude) of what the servo calculates, and the sign
(direction) is output on the AENAn/DIRn line of the set of flags addressed by Ixx25 (polarity determined
by jumper E17 or E17x). In this case, bit 16 of Ixx24 should also be set to 1 to disable the amplifierenable function for that line. For PMAC2-style Servo ICs, this sign-and-magnitude mode is not
supported.
If bit 0 of Ixx01 is set to 1 (Turbo PMAC commutation enabled for Motor xx), Ixx82 is set to 0 (Turbo
PMAC current loop disabled for Motor xx), and bit 0 of Ixx96 is set to 0, Turbo PMAC will perform the
normal closed-loop commutation for Motor xx. If bit 0 of Ixx01 is set to 1, Ixx82 is set to 0, and bit 0 of
Ixx96 is set to 1, then Turbo PMAC’s commutation performs the special “direct microstepping”
algorithm. In this algorithm, the magnitude of the command from the servo does not affect the magnitude
of the phase command outputs; it simply controls their frequency.
If bit 0 of Ixx01 is set to 1 (Turbo PMAC commutation enabled for Motor xx), Ixx82 is set to a value
greater than 0 (Turbo PMAC current loop enabled for Motor xx), and bit 0 of Ixx96 is set to 0, Turbo
PMAC will perform the normal direct-PWM control with both direct and quadrature current loops closed,
for a 3-phase motor. If bit 0 of Ixx01 is set to 1, Ixx82 is set to a value greater than 0, and bit 0 of Ixx96
is set to 1, Turbo PMAC will perform direct-PWM control for a brush motor, truly closing only the
quadrature current loop, and repeatedly zeroing the direct current-loop registers.
In non-Turbo PMACs, this function is controlled by bit 16 of Ix02.
If bit 1 of Ixx96 is at the default value of 0 (making Ixx96 equal to 0 or 1), the integrator of the PID
position/velocity servo loop is in the position loop, acting on the position following error. This setting
generally provides better tracking control, but worse disturbance rejection. If bit 1 of Ixx96 is 1 (making
Ixx96 equal to 2 or 3), the integrator is inside the velocity loop, acting on the velocity error. This setting
generally provides better disturbance rejection, but worse tracking control.
In revisions V1.940 and older of Turbo PMAC firmware, Ixx96 was a one-bit value, only including the
function of bit 0.
Ixx97 Motor xx Position Capture & Trigger Mode
Range:
Units:
Default:
0-3
none
0
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
137
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Ixx97 controls the triggering function and the position capture function for triggered moves on Motor xx.
These triggered moves include homing search moves, on-line jog-until-trigger moves, and motion
program RAPID-mode move-until-trigger. Ixx97 is a 2-bit value: bit 0 controls the how the capture of the
trigger position is done (the post-trigger move is relative to the trigger position), and bit 1 specifies what
the trigger condition is.
Hardware Capture: If Ixx97 is set to 0 or 2 (bit 0 = 0), Turbo PMAC will use the hardware-captured
position in the Servo IC as the trigger position. This is the “flag-capture” register associated with the flag
set used for the motor, as specified for Ixx25. In order for this to work properly, the position-loop
feedback for Motor xx, as specified by Ixx03, and the conversion table, must be received through the
encoder counter of the same hardware interface channel as used for the flag set (e.g. if flag set 2 is used,
encoder 2 must be used for position-loop feedback). The advantage of the hardware position capture is
that it is immediate, and accurate to the exact count at any speed.
Software Capture: If Ixx97 is set to 1 or 3 (bit 0 = 1), Turbo PMAC will use a software-captured
position for the trigger position. In this case, Turbo PMAC uses the register whose address is specified
by Ixx03, usually a register in the encoder conversion table, for the trigger position. The advantage of
software capture is that it can be used with any type of feedback, or when the position encoder channel is
not the same as the flag channel. The disadvantage is that the software capture can have up to 1
background cycle delay (typically 2-3 msec), which limits the accuracy of the capture.
Input Trigger: If Ixx97 is set to 0 or 1, (bit 1 = 0), Turbo PMAC will use the input capture trigger flag
in the Servo IC flag register addressed by Ixx25 as the trigger for the move. This input trigger is created
by an edge of the index input and a flag input for the channel as specified by I7mn2 and I7mn3 for the
selected Channel n of Servo IC m, or if a MACRO flag register is selected by Ixx25 with bit 18 of Ixx25
set to 1, the input trigger condition is set by MI-variables on the MACRO station.
Error Trigger: If Ixx97 is set to 2 or 3, (bit 1 = 1), Turbo PMAC will use the warning following error
status bit in the motor status word as the trigger for the move. When this bit changes from 0 to 1 because
the magnitude of the following error for the motor has exceeded the warning limit in Ixx12, Turbo PMAC
will consider this the trigger condition for the triggered move. Because there is nothing in this mode that
can create a hardware capture, only software capture should be used with error trigger (Ixx97 = 3).
Summarizing the values of Ixx97, and their effect:
 Ixx97 = 0: Input trigger, hardware position capture
 Ixx97 = 1: Input trigger, software position capture
 Ixx97 = 2: Error trigger, hardware position capture (not useful!)
 Ixx97 = 3: Error trigger, software position capture
In non-Turbo PMACs, this function is controlled by bits 16 and 17 of Ix03.
Ixx98 Motor xx Third-Resolver Gear Ratio
Range:
0 - 4095
Units:
Second-resolver turns per third resolver turn
Default:
0
Ixx98 tells Turbo PMAC the gear ratio between the second (medium) and third (coarse) resolvers for a
triple-resolver setup for Motor xx. It is expressed as the number of turns (electrical cycles) the second
resolver makes in one full turn (electrical cycle) of the third resolver.
This parameter is used only during Turbo PMAC’s power-up/reset cycle to establish absolute power-on
servo position. Therefore, the parameter must be set, the value stored in non-volatile flash memory with
the SAVE command, and the card reset before it takes effect.
If there is no geared third resolver on Motor xx, or if absolute power-on position is not desired, Ixx98
should be set to zero. If either Ixx10 (for the primary resolver) or Ixx99 (for the secondary resolver) is set
to zero, Ixx98 is not used.
138
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The third resolver must be connected to the next higher numbered R/D converter at the same multiplexer
address than the second resolver, which must be connected to the next higher numbered converter at the
same multiplexer address than the primary resolver. There can be up to eight R/D converters on two Acc8D Option 7 boards at one multiplexer address.
In non-Turbo PMACs, this function is controlled by I-variable I8x.
Example:
Motor 3 has a triple resolver, with each resolver geared down by a ratio of 16:1 from the resolver before
it. The fine resolver is connected to R/D converter 4 at multiplexer address 0 (the first R/D converter on
the second Acc-8D Option 7 at address 0). The medium resolver is connected to R/D converter 5 at this
address, and the coarse resolver is connected to R/D converter 6. The following I-variable values should
be used:
I310=$000100 ..
; The $000100 specifies multiplexer address 0
I395=$040000 ..
; the 4 in the high eight bits of Ixx95
.........................
; specifies R/D converter 4 at this address.
I399=16............
; Specifies 16:1 ratio between medium and fine
I398=16............
; Specifies 16:1 ratio between coarse and medium
Ixx99 Motor xx Second-Resolver Gear Ratio
Range:
0 - 4095
Units:
Primary resolver turns per second-resolver turn
Default:
0
Ixx99 tells PMAC the gear ratio between the first (fine, or primary) and second (coarse or medium)
resolvers for a double- or triple-resolver setup for Motor xx. It is expressed as the number of turns
(electrical cycles) the first resolver makes in one full turn (electrical cycle) of the second resolver.
This parameter is used only during Turbo PMAC's power-up/reset cycle to establish absolute power-on
servo position. Therefore, the parameter must be set, the value stored in non-volatile flash memory with
the SAVE command, and the card reset before it takes effect.
If there is no geared second resolver on Motor xx, or if absolute power-on position is not desired, Ixx99
should be set to zero. If Ixx10 (for the primary resolver) is set to zero, Ixx99 is not used. In a tripleresolver system, Ixx99 must be set greater than zero in order for Ixx88 (third-resolver gear ratio) to be
used.
The second resolver must be connected to the next higher numbered R/D converter at the same
multiplexer address than the first resolver. If there is a third resolver, it must be connected to the next
higher numbered converter at the same multiplexer address than the second resolver. There can be up to
eight R/D converters on two Acc-8D Option 7 boards at one multiplexer address.
If Ixx10 is set up for an Acc-8D Option 9 Yaskawa encoder converter, Ixx99 represents the counts per
revolution (including x2 or x4 quadrature decode, if used) of the encoder; effectively it is the “gear ratio”
between the encoder and the revolution counter.
In non-Turbo PMACs, this function is controlled by I-variable I9x.
Example:
Motor 1 has a double resolver with the fine resolver connected to the R/D converter at location 2 on an
Acc-8D Option 7 board set to multiplexer address 4, and the coarse resolver, geared down at a 36:1 ratio
from the fine resolver, connected to the R/D converter at location 3 on the same board. The following Ivariable settings should be used:
I110=$000004 ..
; Value of $0004 specifies multiplexer address 4
I118=$020000 ..
; $02 in high 8 bits of I118
.........................
; specifies R/D at location 2 of this address
I199=36............
; Specify 36 turns of fine resolver per turn of
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
139
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
.........................
.........................
I198=0 .............
; coarse resolver; R/D must be at location 3
; of multiplexer address 4
; No third resolver
Supplemental Motor Setup I-Variables
Iyy00 – Iyy49/Iyy50 – Iyy99
Supplemental Motor I-Variables
yy = 33 – 48
Motor Number xx = 2 * (yy - 32) - 1 for Iyy00 – Iyy49 (odd-numbered motors)
Motor Number xx = 2 * (yy - 32)
for Iyy50 – Iyy99 (even-numbered motors)
Motor
#
Supplemental
I-Variables
Motor
#
Supplemental
I-Variables
Motor
#
Supplemental
I-Variables
Motor
#
Supplemental
I-Variables
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
I3300 - I3349
I3350 - I3399
I3400 - I3449
I3450 - I3499
I3500 - I3549
I3550 - I3599
I3600 - I3649
I3650 - I3699
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
I3700 - I3749
I3750 - I3799
I3800 - I3849
I3850 - I3899
I3900 - I3949
I3950 - I3999
I4000 - I4049
I4050 - I4099
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
I4100 - I4149
I4150 - I4199
I4200 - I4249
I4250 - I4299
I4300 - I4349
I4350 - I4399
I4400 - I4449
I4450 - I4499
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
I4500 - I4549
I4550 - I4599
I4600 - I4649
I4650 - I4699
I4700 - I4749
I4750 - I4799
I4800 - I4849
I4850 - I4899
Iyy00/50
Motor xx Extended Servo Algorithm Enable
Range:
0-1
Units:
none
Default:
0
Iyy00 or Iyy50 controls whether the matching Motor xx uses the PID servo algorithm or the Extended
Servo Algorithm (ESA). If Iyy00/50 is set to the default value of 0, Motor xx uses the PID servo
algorithm, whose gains are determined by Ixx30-39 and Ixx63-69. If Iyy00/50 is set to 1, Motor xx uses
the ESA, whose gains are determined by Iyy10/60 to Iyy39/89.
The motor should be killed when changing which servo algorithm is used by changing Iyy00/50. The
loop should not be closed again until the gain variables for the selected servo algorithm are set up
properly.
The following servo control I-variables are only used if Iyy00/50 is set to 0:
Ixx30-39, Ixx63-65, Ixx67
The following servo control I-variables are only used if Iyy00/50 is set to 1:
Iyy10-39 / Iyy60 – 89
Note:
These I-variables are disabled if Iyy00/50 for the motor is set to 0. No value can
be written to them, and if queried, they will report a value of 0.
The following servo control I-variables are used regardless of the setting of Iyy00/50:
Ixx59, Ixx60, Ixx68, Ixx69
140
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Iyy10 – Iyy39/Iyy60 – Iyy89
Motor xx Extended Servo Algorithm Gains
Iyy10 through Iyy39 (for odd-numbered motors), and Iyy60 through Iyy89 (for even-numbered motors)
are the gains for the Extended Servo Algorithm (ESA). The following table lists the function of each
variable; refer to the User Manual for a detailed description and diagram of the algorithm structure.
I-Var. for
OddNumbered
Motors
I-Var. for
EvenNumbered
Motors
Gain
Name
Range
I-Var. for
OddNumbered
Motors
I-Var. for
EvenNumbered
Motors
Gain
Name
Range
Iyy10
Iyy11
Iyy12
Iyy13
Iyy14
Iyy15
Iyy16
Iyy17
Iyy18
Iyy19
Iyy20
Iyy21
Iyy22
Iyy23
Iyy24
Iyy60
Iyy61
Iyy62
Iyy63
Iyy64
Iyy65
Iyy66
Iyy67
Iyy68
Iyy69
Iyy70
Iyy71
Iyy72
Iyy73
Iyy74
s0
s1
f0
f1
h0
h1
r1
r2
r3
r4
t0
t1
t2
t3
t4
-1.0Var+1.0
-1.0Var+1.0
-1.0Var+1.0
-1.0Var+1.0
-1.0Var+1.0
-1.0Var+1.0
-1.0Var+1.0
-1.0Var+1.0
-1.0Var+1.0
-1.0Var+1.0
-1.0Var+1.0
-1.0Var+1.0
-1.0Var+1.0
-1.0Var+1.0
-1.0Var+1.0
Iyy25
Iyy26
Iyy27
Iyy28
Iyy29
Iyy30
Iyy31
Iyy32
Iyy33
Iyy34
Iyy35
Iyy36
Iyy37
Iyy38
Iyy39
Iyy75
Iyy76
Iyy77
Iyy78
Iyy79
Iyy80
Iyy81
Iyy82
Iyy83
Iyy84
Iyy85
Iyy86
Iyy87
Iyy88
Iyy89
TS
L1
L2
L3
k0
k1
k2
k3
KS
d1
d2
g0
g1
g2
GS
-223Var223
-1.0Var+1.0
-1.0Var+1.0
-1.0Var+1.0
-1.0Var+1.0
-1.0Var+1.0
-1.0Var+1.0
-1.0Var+1.0
-223Var223
-1.0Var+1.0
-1.0Var+1.0
-1.0Var+1.0
-1.0Var+1.0
-1.0Var+1.0
-223Var223
Usually, the ESA gains that these I-variables represent are set using the Auto-tuning function of the Servo
Evaluation Package (SEP).
Note:
These I-variables are disabled if Iyy00/50 for the motor is set to 0. No value can
be written to them, and if queried, they will report a value of 0.
System Configuration Reporting
I4900 Servo ICs Present
Range:
$000000 – $0FFFFF
Units:
none (individual bits)
Default:
-I4900 is a read-only status I-variable that reports which Servo ICs are present in a Turbo PMAC system.
It is provided for user setup and diagnostic purposes only. On power-up/reset, Turbo PMAC queries for
the presence of each possible Servo IC automatically and reports what it has found in I4900. It also
enables the set-up I-variables for each IC that it has found.
I4900 is a 20-bit value with each individual bit representing each possible Servo IC that could be present
in the system. The bit is set to 0 if the IC is not present; it is set to 1 if the IC is present.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
141
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The following table shows the Servo IC each bit of I4900 represents:
I4900 Bit #
Bit Value
Servo IC #
Ident I-var
I-vars
Location
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
$1
$2
$4
$8
$10
$20
$40
$80
$100
$200
$400
$800
$1000
$2000
$4000
$8000
$10000
$20000
$40000
$80000
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0*
1*
2*
3*
4*
5*
6*
7*
8*
9*
x
x
I4910
I4911
I4914
I4915
I4918
I4919
I4922
I4923
x
x
I4912
I4913
I4916
I4917
I4920
I4921
I4924
I4925
I7000 – I7049
I7100 – I7149
I7200 – I7249
I7300 – I7349
I7400 – I7449
I7500 – I7549
I7600 – I7649
I7700 – I7749
I7800 – I7849
I7900 – I7949
I7050 – I7099
I7150 – I7199
I7250 – I7299
I7350 – I7399
I7450 – I7499
I7550 – I7599
I7650 – I7699
I7750 – I7799
I7850 – I7899
I7950 – I7999
On-board or stack
On-board or stack
Exp. port accessory
Exp. port accessory
Exp. port accessory
Exp. port accessory
Exp. port accessory
Exp. port accessory
Exp. port accessory
Exp. port accessory
(none)
(none)
Exp. port accessory
Exp. port accessory
Exp. port accessory
Exp. port accessory
Exp. port accessory
Exp. port accessory
Exp. port accessory
Exp. port accessory
Note:
In firmware versions older than 1.936, bits 20 through 23 of I4900 reported the
presence of the four possible MACRO ICs. With versions 1.936 and newer, there
is support for more than four MACRO ICs, and their presence is reported in I4902.
I4901 Servo IC Type
Range:
$000000 – $0FFFFF
Units:
none (individual bits)
Default:
-I4901 is a read-only status I-variable that reports which types of Servo ICs are present in a Turbo PMAC
system. It is provided for user setup and diagnostic purposes only. On power-up/reset, Turbo PMAC
queries for the presence and type of each possible Servo IC automatically and reports the types it has
found in I4901. It also enables the appropriate group set-up I-variables for each IC found, depending on
the type.
I4901 is a 20-bit value with each individual bit representing each possible Servo that could be present in
the system. The table shown in the I4900 description, above, lists which IC is represented by each bit.
A bit of I4901 is set to 0 if a Type 0 PMAC-style DSPGATE Servo IC is found at the appropriate address
slot, or if no Servo IC is found there. The bit is set to 1 if a Type 1 PMAC2-style DSPGATE1 Servo IC
is found there.
142
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I4902 MACRO ICs Present
Range:
$000000 – $0FFFF
Units:
none (individual bits)
Default:
-I4902 is a read-only status I-variable that reports which MACRO ICs are present in a Turbo PMAC
system. It is provided for user setup and diagnostic purposes only. On power-up/reset, Turbo PMAC
queries for the presence of each possible MACRO IC automatically and reports what it has found in
I4902.
I4902 is a 16-bit value with each individual bit representing each possible MACRO IC that could be
present in the system. (Only a UMAC system can have more than four MACRO ICs present.) The bit is
set to 0 if the IC is not present; it is set to 1 if the IC is present.
The following table shows the MACRO IC each bit of I4902 represents:
I4902
Bit #
Bit
Value
Base
Address
Ident
I-var
I4902
Bit #
Bit
Value
Base
Address
Ident
I-var
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
$1
$2
$4
$8
$10
$20
$40
$80
$078400
$079400
$07A400
$07B400
$078500
$079500
$07A500
$07B500
I4926
I4927
I4928
I4929
I4930
I4931
I4932
I4933
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
$100
$200
$400
$800
$1000
$2000
$4000
$8000
$078600
$079600
$07A600
$07B600
$078700
$079700
$07A700
$07B700
I4934
I4935
I4936
I4937
I4938
I4939
I4940
I4941
Which of these ICs is assigned as MACRO IC 0, 1, 2, and 3 for firmware support issues is dependent on
the settings of I20, I21, I22, and I23, respectively.
Note:
In firmware versions older than 1.936, bits 20 through 23 of I4900 reported the
presence of the four possible MACRO ICs. With versions 1.936 and newer, there
is support for more than four MACRO ICs, and their presence is reported in I4902.
I4903 MACRO IC Types
Range:
$000000 – $00FFFF
Units:
none (individual bits)
Default:
-I4903 is a read-only status I-variable that reports which types of MACRO ICs are present in a Turbo
PMAC system. It is provided for user setup and diagnostic purposes only. On power-up/reset, Turbo
PMAC queries for the presence and type of each possible MACRO IC automatically and reports the types
it has found in I4903.
I4903 is a 16-bit value with each individual bit representing each possible Servo that could be present in
the system. The table shown in the I4902 description, above, lists which IC is represented by each bit.
A bit of I4903 is set to 1 if a DSPGATE2 MACRO IC is found at the appropriate address slot. The bit is
set to 0 if a MACROGATE MACRO IC is found there, or if no MACRO IC is found there.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
143
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I4904 Dual-Ported RAM ICs Present
Range:
$000000 – $FF8000
Units:
none (individual bits)
Default:
-I4904 is a read-only status I-variable that reports which dual-ported RAM ICs are present in a Turbo
PMAC system. It is provided for user setup and diagnostic purposes only. On power-up/reset, Turbo
PMAC automatically queries for the presence of each possible DPRAM IC and reports what it has found
in I4904.
I4904 is a 24-bit value with the nine high bits currently used. Each individual bit used represents each
possible DPRAM IC that could be present in the system. The bit is set to 0 if the IC is not present; it is
set to 1 if the IC is present.
UMAC accessory boards with DPRAM, such as the Acc-54E UBUS/Ethernet board, provide
identification information in variables I4942 – I4949, depending on their base address.
The following table shows the DPRAM IC each bit of I4904 represents, and the matching identification Ivariable:
I4904
Bit Value
Base
Ident
Bit #
Address
I-var
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
$8000
$10000
$20000
$40000
$80000
$100000
$200000
$400000
$800000
$060000
$06C000
$074000
$06D000
$075000
$06E000
$076000
$06F000
$077000
None
I4942
I4943
I4944
I4945
I4946
I4947
I4948
I4949
I24 contains the address of the DPRAM IC that is to be used for the automatic communications functions.
The value of I24 at power-up/reset sets the pointers for these automatic communications functions.
I4904 also contains information about the flash memory (this information is contained in I4909 as well).
Bits 0 – 2 of I4904, which contain a value from 0 to 7, report which type of flash-memory IC is present in
the system. Since bit 3 is not used, these bits form the last hex digit of I4909. The following list shows
what each value of this digit means:
 0: Unknown flash IC (cannot save)
 1: Intel 28F004S3 512k x 8 flash IC
 2: Intel 28F008S3 1M x 8 flash IC (Opt 5x0)
 3: Intel 28F016S3 2M x 8 flash IC (Opt 5x1,2)
 4: Intel 28F160S3 2M x 8 flash IC (Opt 5x1,2)
 5: Intel 28F320S3 4M x 8 flash IC (Opt 5x3)
 6: Intel 28F320J5 4M x 8 flash IC (Opt 5x3)
 7: Intel 28F640J5 8M x 8 flash IC
144
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
In addition, I4904 contains the status of the eight locking bits that an application can use with the LOCK
and UNLOCK commands to make sure that tasks of different priorities do not overwrite each other. The
following table shows how the eight locking bits are stored. Each bit is a 0 if unlocked; it is a 1 if locked.
I4904 Bit #
Bit Value
Locking Bit #
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
$10
$20
$40
$80
$100
$200
$400
$800
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
I4908 End of Open Memory
Range:
$006000 – $040000
Units:
none (individual bits)
Default:
-I4908 is a read-only status I-variable that reports the end of the open active memory that can be used for
most programs and buffers. It returns the address of the register one number higher than the last register
than can be used for these programs and buffers.
The value returned for I4908 is a function of two things: the size of the user data memory, and the
declared size of the UBUFFER user buffer. If no UBUFFER has been declared, I4908 will return
$010800 for the standard user data memory (Option 5x0 or 5x2). Starting in V1.937, Turbo PMACs with
the extended user data memory (Option 5x1 or 5x3) by default have a 65,536-word ($10000) UBUFFER
declared, occupying addresses $030000 - $03FFFF. In these systems, I4908 will return a value of
$030000. It is possible to declare a smaller or non-existent UBUFFER in these systems with an explicit
DEFINE UBUFFER command. With no UBUFFER, a Turbo PMAC with the extended user data
memory option will report an I4908 value of $040000.
If a UBUFFER has been declared, the value returned for I4908 will be reduced by an amount equivalent
to the size of the UBUFFER.
Example:
$$$***
I4908
$010800
DEF UBUF 512
I4908
$010600
; Re-initialize card, clearing all buffers
; Request value of I4908
; Value for standard data memory, no UBUFFER
; Reserve 512 ($200) words for user buffer
; Request value of I4908
; Value reduced by 512 ($200)
I4909 Turbo CPU ID Configuration
Range:
$000000000 – $FFFFFFFFF
Units:
none (individual bits)
Default:
-I4909 is a read-only status I-variable that reports configuration information for the Turbo PMAC CPU
section. I4909 is a 36-bit value that contains vendor ID, option data, CPU type, and card ID. All of it is
reported if I39 is set to 0; individual parts are reported if I39>0.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
145
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The following table shows what each part of I4909 returns and what each part means.
I4909 Bit #s
Bit Values
0 – 7 (I39=0)
0 – 7 (I39=1)
8 (I39=0)
0 (I39=2)
9 (I39=0)
1 (I39=2)
10,11 (I39=0)
2,3 (I39=2)
$FF (I39=0)
$FF (I39=1)
$100 (I39=0)
$1 (I39=2)
$200 (I39=0)
$2 (I39=2)
$C00 (I39=0)
$C (I39=2)
12,13 (I39=0)
4,5 (I39=2)
$3000 (I39=0)
$30 (I39=2)
14,15,16 (I39=0)
6,7,8 (I39=2)
$1C000 (I39=0)
$1C0 (I39=2)
17 (I39=0)
9 (I39=2)
18 – 21 (I39=0)
0 – 3 (I39=3)
$20000 (I39=0)
$200 (I39=2)
$3C0000 (I39=0)
$F (I39=3)
22 – 35 (I39=0)
0 – 13 (I39=4)
$FFFC00000 (I39=0)
$3FFF (I39=4)
I4910 – I4925
Meaning
=1: Vendor is Delta Tau
=0: Standard (128k x 24) user data memory (Opt 5x0,2)
=1: Extended (512k x 24) user data memory (Opt 5x1,3)
=0: Standard (128k x 24) program memory (Opt 5x0,1)
=1: Extended (512k x 24) program memory (Opt 5x2,3)
=0: No dual-ported RAM
=1: 8k x 16 dual-ported RAM (Opt 2x)
=3: 32k x 16 dual-ported RAM (Opt 2x)
=0: No battery-backed RAM
=1: 32k x 24 battery-backed RAM (Opt 16A)
=3: 128k x 24 battery-backed RAM (Opt 16B)
=0: Unknown flash IC (cannot save)
=1: Intel 28F004S3 512k x 8 flash IC
=2: Intel 28F008S3 1M x 8 flash IC (Opt 5x0)
=3: Intel 28F016S3 2M x 8 flash IC (Opt 5x1,2)
=4: Intel 28F160S3 2M x 8 flash IC (Opt 5x1,2)
=5: Intel 28F320S3 4M x 8 flash IC (Opt 5x3)
=6: Intel 28F320J5 4M x 8 flash IC (Opt 5x3)
=7: Intel 28F640J5 8M x 8 flash IC
=0: Aux. RS232 not present or not active
=1: Aux. RS232 present (Opt 9T) and active (I53>0)
=0: DSP56303 CPU
=1: DSP56309 CPU
>1: (Reserved)
(Last 4 digits of card part number)
Servo IC Card Identification
Range:
$000000000 – $FFFFFFFFF
Units:
none (individual bits)
Default:
-I4910 – I4925 are read-only status I-variables that report configuration information for UMAC accessory
boards that contain Servo ICs, such as the Acc-24E2 family and the Acc-51E.
146
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The following table shows which variable corresponds to which card:
Ident
I-var
Servo
IC #
I4900
Bit #
Board DIP Switch
4,3,2,1 Setting1
Board Base
Address
Board Setup
I-variables
Board Ident.
Info Address2
I4910
2
2
0000 (0)
$078200
I7200 – I7249
$078F08
I4911
3
3
0001 (1)
$078300
I7300 – I7349
$078F0C
I4912
2*
12
0010 (2)
$078220
I7250 – I7299
$078F28
I4913
3*
13
0011 (3)
$078320
I7350 – I7399
$078F2C
I4914
4
4
0100 (4)
$079200
I7400 – I7449
$079F08
I4915
5
5
0101 (5)
$079300
I7500 – I7549
$079F0C
I4916
4*
14
0110 (6)
$079220
I7450 – I7499
$079F28
I4917
5*
15
0111 (7)
$079320
I7550 – I7599
$079F2C
I4918
6
6
1000 (8)
$07A200
I7600 – I7649
$07AF08
I4919
7
7
1001 (9)
$07A300
I7700 – I7749
$07AF0C
I4920
6*
16
1010 (10)
$07A220
I7650 – I7699
$07AF28
I4921
7*
17
1011 (11)
$07A320
I7750 – I7799
$07AF2C
I4922
8
8
1100 (12)
$07B200
I7800 – I7849
$07BF08
I4923
9
9
1101 (13)
$07B300
I7900 – I7949
$07BF0C
I4924
8*
18
1110 (14)
$07B220
I7850 – I7899
$07BF28
I4925
9*
19
1111 (15)
$07B320
I7950 – I7999
$07BF2C
Notes:
1. Board DIP-switches SW1-1 to SW1-4 are currently used to set the addresses of the boards on the UBUS
backplane. A 0 is ON (Closed); a 1 is OFF (Open). The E1 jumper on the back of the Acc-Ux UBUS
backplane board must be ON to use the DIP-switch addressing. SW1-5 and SW1-6 must be ON (Closed).
2. For diagnostic purposes only. The four Y registers starting at this address contain the information used to
assemble this I-variable.
I4910 to I4925 have multiple fields of information, which can be reported individually or in groups,
depending on the setting of I39. The following table shows what each field reports.





Information
Reported when:
Bits when I39=0
Bits when I39>0
Vendor ID
Options
Revision #
Card ID
Base Address
I39 = 0 or 1
I39 = 0 or 2
I39 = 0 or 3
I39 = 0 or 4
I39 = 5
0–7
8 – 17
18 – 21
22 – 35
--
0–7
0–9
0–3
0 – 13
0 - 18
The Vendor ID field is an 8-bit value that reports the manufacturer of the board. Delta Tau boards
report a value of 1 in this field.
Typically, the Options field is a 10-bit field that is used as a set of individual bits to report which
options are present on the board. The meaning of each bit is board-dependent.
The Revision Number field is a 4-bit value that represents the design revision (0 to 15) of the board.
For Delta Tau boards, this value matches the x in the –10x part number suffix for the board.
The Card ID field is a 14-bit value that represents the part number of the board. For Delta Tau
boards, this value matches the xxxx in the 60xxxx (decimal) main part number for the board.
The Base Address field is a 19-bit value that represents the starting address of the board in the Turbo
PMAC’s address space.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
147
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I4926 – I4941
MACRO IC Card Identification
Range:
$000000000 – $FFFFFFFFF
Units:
none (individual bits)
Default:
-I4926 – I4941 are read-only status I-variables that report configuration information for UMAC accessory
boards that contain MACRO ICs, such as the Acc-5E. Which of these ICs is assigned as MACRO IC 0,
1, 2, or 3 for firmware support issues is dependent on the settings of I20, I21, I22, and I23, respectively.
The following table shows which variable corresponds to which card:
Ident I-var
I4902 Bit #
Board DIP Switch
4,3,2,1 Setting1
Board Base
Address
Board Ident. Info
Address2
I4926
0
0000 (0)
$078400
$078F10
I4927
1
0001 (1)
$079400
$079F10
I4928
2
0010 (2)
$07A400
$07AF10
I4929
3
0011 (3)
$07B400
$07BF10
I4930
4
0100 (4)
$078500
$078F14
I4931
5
0101 (5)
$079500
$079F14
I4932
6
0110 (6)
$07A500
$07AF14
I4933
7
0111 (7)
$07B500
$07BF14
I4934
8
1000 (8)
$078600
$078F18
I4935
9
1001 (9)
$079600
$079F18
I4936
10
1010 (10)
$07A600
$07AF18
I4937
11
1011 (11)
$07B600
$07BF18
I4938
12
1100 (12)
$078700
$078F1C
I4939
13
1101 (13)
$079700
$079F1C
I4940
14
1110 (14)
$07A700
$07AF1C
I4941
15
1111 (15)
$07B700
$07BF1C
Notes:
1. Board DIP-switches SW1-1 to SW1-4 are currently used to set the addresses of the boards
on the UBUS backplane. A 0 is ON (Closed); a 1 is OFF (Open). The E1 jumper on the
back of the Acc-Ux UBUS backplane board must be ON to use the DIP-switch addressing.
SW1-5 and SW1-6 must be ON (Closed).
2. For diagnostic purposes only. The four Y registers starting at this address contain the
information used to assemble this I-variable.
I4926 to I4941 have multiple fields of information, which can be reported individually or in groups,
depending on the setting of I39. The following table shows what each field reports.




148
Information
Reported when:
Bits when I39=0
Bits when I39>0
Vendor ID
Options
Revision #
Card ID
Base Address
I39 = 0 or 1
I39 = 0 or 2
I39 = 0 or 3
I39 = 0 or 4
I39 = 5
0–7
8 – 17
18 – 21
22 – 35
--
0–7
0–9
0–3
0 – 13
0 - 18
The Vendor ID field is an 8-bit value that reports the manufacturer of the board. Delta Tau boards
report a value of 1 in this field.
Typically, the Options field is a 10-bit field that is used as a set of individual bits to report which
options are present on the board. The meaning of each bit is board-dependent.
The Revision Number field is a 4-bit value that represents the design revision (0 to 15) of the board.
For Delta Tau boards, this value matches the x in the –10x part number suffix for the board.
The Card ID field is a 14-bit value that represents the part number of the board. For Delta Tau
boards, this value matches the xxxx in the 60xxxx (decimal) main part number for the board.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference

The Base Address field is a 19-bit value that represents the starting address of the board in the Turbo
PMAC’s address space.
I4942 – I4949
DPRAM IC Card Identification
Range:
$000000000 – $FFFFFFFFF
Units:
none (individual bits)
Default:
-I4942 – I4949 are read-only status I-variables that report configuration information for UMAC accessory
boards that contain DPRAM ICs, such as the Acc-54E. The following table shows which variable
corresponds to which card:
Ident I-var
I4904
Bit #
Board DIP Switch
4,3,2,1 Setting1
Board Base
Address
Board Ident.
Info Address2
I4942
16
0000 (0) or 0001 (1)
$06C000
$078F20
I4943
17
0010 (2) or 0011 (3)
$074000
$078F24
I4944
18
0100 (4) or 0101 (5)
$06D000
$079F20
I4945
19
0110 (6) or 0011 (7)
$075000
$079F24
I4946
20
1000 (8) or 1001 (9)
$06E000
$07AF20
I4947
21
1010 (10) or 1011 (11)
$076000
$07AF24
I4948
22
1100 (12) or 1101 (13)
$06F000
$07BF20
I4949
23
1110 (14) or 1011 (15)
$077000
$07BF24
Notes:
1. Board DIP-switches SW1-1 to SW1-4 are currently used to set the addresses of the boards on the
UBUS backplane. A 0 is ON (Closed); a 1 is OFF (Open). The E1 jumper on the back of the AccUx UBUS backplane board must be ON to use the DIP-switch addressing. SW1-5 and SW1-6 must
be ON (Closed).
2. For diagnostic purposes only. The four Y registers starting at this address contain the information
used to assemble this I-variable.
I4942 to I4949 have multiple fields of information, which can be reported individually or in groups,
depending on the setting of I39. The following table shows what each field reports.





Information
Reported when:
Bits when
I39=0
Bits when
I39>0
Vendor ID
Options
Revision #
Card ID
Base Address
I39 = 0 or 1
I39 = 0 or 2
I39 = 0 or 3
I39 = 0 or 4
I39 = 5
0–7
8 – 17
18 – 21
22 – 35
--
0–7
0–9
0–3
0 – 13
0 - 18
The Vendor ID field is an 8-bit value that reports the manufacturer of the board. Delta Tau boards
report a value of 1 in this field.
The Options field is a 10-bit field that is typically used as a set of individual bits to report which
options are present on the board. The meaning of each bit is board-dependent.
The Revision Number field is a 4-bit value that represents the design revision (0 to 15) of the board.
For Delta Tau boards, this value matches the x in the –10x part number suffix for the board.
The Card ID field is a 14-bit value that represents the part number of the board. For Delta Tau
boards, this value matches the xxxx in the 60xxxx (decimal) main part number for the board.
The Base Address field is a 19-bit value that represents the starting address of the board in the Turbo
PMAC’s address space.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
149
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I4950 – I4965
I/O IC Card Identification
Range:
$000000000 – $FFFFFFFFF
Units:
none (individual bits)
Default:
-I4950 – I4965 are read-only status I-variables that report configuration information for UMAC accessory
boards that contain I/O ICs, such as the Acc-14E, 65E, 66E, and 67E digital I/O boards. The following
table shows which variable corresponds to which card:
Ident I-var
Board DIP Switch
4,3,2,1 Setting1
Board Base Address
Board Ident. Info Address2
I4950
0000 (0)
$078C00
$078F30
I4951
0001 (1)
$078D00
$078F34
I4952
0010 (2)
$078E00
$078F38
I4953
0011 (3)
$078F00
$078F3C
I4954
0100 (4)
$079C00
$079F30
I4955
0101 (5)
$079D00
$079F34
I4956
0110 (6)
$079E00
$079F38
I4957
0111 (7)
$079F00
$079F3C
I4958
1000 (8)
$07AC00
$07AF30
I4959
1001 (9)
$07AD00
$07AF34
I4960
1010 (10)
$07AE00
$07AF38
I4961
1011 (11)
$07AF00
$07AF3C
I4962
1100 (12)
$07BC00
$07BF30
I4963
1101 (13)
$07BD00
$07BF34
I4964
1110 (14)
$07BE00
$07BF38
I4965
1111 (15)
$07BF00
$07BF3C
Notes:
1. Currently, board DIP-switches SW1-1 to SW1-4 are used to set the addresses of the boards on the
UBUS backplane. A 0 is ON (Closed); a 1 is OFF (Open). The E1 jumper on the back of the
Acc-Ux UBUS backplane board must be ON to use the DIP-switch addressing. SW1-5 and SW16 must be ON (Closed).
2. For diagnostic purposes only. The four Y registers starting at this address contain the information
used to assemble this I-variable.
Note:
The Acc-9E, 10E, 11E and 12E I/O boards do not report identification information
for this variable.
I4950 to I4965 have multiple fields of information, which can be reported individually or in groups,
depending on the setting of I39. The following table shows what each field reports.



150
Information
Reported when:
Bits when I39=0
Bits when I39>0
Vendor ID
Options
Revision #
Card ID
Base Address
I39 = 0 or 1
I39 = 0 or 2
I39 = 0 or 3
I39 = 0 or 4
I39 = 5
0–7
8 – 17
18 – 21
22 – 35
--
0–7
0–9
0–3
0 – 13
0 - 18
The Vendor ID field is an 8-bit value that reports the manufacturer of the board. Delta Tau boards
report a value of 1 in this field.
The Options field is a 10-bit field that is typically used as a set of individual bits to report which
options are present on the board. The meaning of each bit is board-dependent.
The Revision Number field is a 4-bit value that represents the design revision (0 to 15) of the board.
For Delta Tau boards, this value matches the x in the –10x part number suffix for the board.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference


The Card ID field is a 14-bit value that represents the part number of the board. For Delta Tau
boards, this value matches the xxxx in the 60xxxx (decimal) main part number for the board.
The Base Address field is a 19-bit value that represents the starting address of the board in the Turbo
PMAC’s address space.
Data Gathering I-Variables
I5000
Data Gathering Buffer Location and Mode
Range:
0-3
Units:
none
Default:
0
I5000 controls where the data gathering buffer will be located when it is defined, and whether it will wrap
around when it is filled. It can take the following values:
 0: Locate buffer in regular RAM. Do not permit wrap-around (stop gathering when end of buffer is
reached). This setting must be used for Turbo PMAC Executive program data gathering and tuning
routines.
 1: Locate buffer in regular RAM. Permit wrap-around upon reaching end of buffer.
Note:
Wrap-around feature is not supported by Turbo PMAC Executive program data
gathering and tuning routines.


2: Locate buffer in dual-ported RAM (Turbo PMAC Option 2 required). Do not permit wrap-around.
3: Locate buffer in dual-ported RAM (Turbo PMAC Option 2 required). Permit wrap-around upon
reaching end of buffer (usual mode for dual-ported RAM).
Note:
Normally, this parameter is set automatically by the PMAC Executive Program’s
gathering and tuning routines.
I5001 – I5048
Data Gathering Source 1-48 Address
Range:
$000000 - $C7FFFF
Units:
Modified Turbo PMAC Addresses
Default:
$000000
I5001 through I5048 specify the addresses of the 48 possible sources to be read by the data gathering
function. I50nn specifies the address of source number nn.
These variables are 24-bit values, usually represented by six hexadecimal digits. The last five digits (bits
0 to 19; bit 19 must be 0) represent the numerical address of the register.
The first hex digit controls which part of the address to read. It can take one of four possible values:
 $0: Y-register only (24 bits)
 $4: X-register only (24 bits)
 $8: X/Y double register (48 bits), Executive program interprets as integer
 $C: X/Y double register (48 bits), Executive program interprets as floating-point
The address specified by one of these variables is only gathered if the I5050 or I5051 selection mask
enables the gathering of that particular source.
Note:
Normally, these parameters are set automatically by the PMAC Executive
Program’s gathering and tuning routines.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
151
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I5049 Data Gathering Period
Range:
0 - 8,388,607
Units:
Servo Cycles
Default:
1
I5049 controls how often data is logged from source addresses when data gathering is enabled, in units of
servo interrupt cycles. If I5049 is set to 0, data is logged only once per data gathering command (singleshot mode).
Note:
Normally, this parameter is set automatically by the PMAC Executive Program’s
gathering and tuning routines.
I5050 Data Gathering Selection Mask 1
Range:
$000000 - $FFFFFF
Units:
Individual Bits
Default:
$000000
I5050 controls which of the 24 potential data sources specified by I5001 to I5024 will be gathered when
data gathering is performed. It is a 24-bit value and each bit controls one potential data source. A 1 in the
I5050 bit enables the gathering of the data source; a 0 in the I5050 bit disables the gathering of the data
source.
The following table shows the relationship between bits of I5050 and the data gathering source address Ivariables:
Bit #
Value
I-Variable Enabled
Bit #
Value
I-Variable Enabled
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
$1
$2
$4
$8
$10
$20
$40
$80
$100
$200
$400
$800
I5001
I5002
I5003
I5004
I5005
I5006
I5007
I5008
I5009
I5010
I5011
I5012
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
$1000
$2000
$4000
$8000
$10000
$20000
$40000
$80000
$100000
$200000
$400000
$800000
I5013
I5014
I5015
I5016
I5017
I5018
I5019
I5020
I5021
I5022
I5023
I5024
Note:
Normally, this parameter is set automatically by the PMAC Executive Program’s
gathering and tuning routines.
I5051 Data Gathering Selection Mask 2
Range:
$000000 - $FFFFFF
Units:
Individual Bits
Default:
$000000
I5051 controls which of the 24 potential data sources specified by I5025 to I5048 will be gathered when
data gathering is performed. It is a 24-bit value and each bit controls one potential data source. A 1 in the
I5051 bit enables the gathering of the data source; a 0 in the I5051 bit disables the gathering of the data
source.
152
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The following table shows the relationship between bits of I5051 and the data gathering source address Ivariables:
Bit #
Value
I-Variable Enabled
Bit #
Value
I-Variable Enabled
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
$1
$2
$4
$8
$10
$20
$40
$80
$100
$200
$400
$800
I5025
I5026
I5027
I5028
I5029
I5030
I5031
I5032
I5033
I5034
I5035
I5036
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
$1000
$2000
$4000
$8000
$10000
$20000
$40000
$80000
$100000
$200000
$400000
$800000
I5037
I5038
I5039
I5040
I5041
I5042
I5043
I5044
I5045
I5046
I5047
I5048
Note:
Normally, this parameter is set automatically by the PMAC Executive Program’s
gathering and tuning routines.
A/D Processing Table I-Variables
I5060 A/D Processing Ring Size
Range:
0 - 16
Units:
Number of A/D Pairs
Default:
0
I5060 controls the number of pairs of multiplexed A/D converters, either from on-board Option 12 ADCs,
or off-board Acc-36 ADCs, that are processed and de-multiplexed into individual registers. If I5060 is set
to 0, none of these A/D converters is processed automatically.
If I5060 is set to a value greater than 0, it specifies the number of pairs of ADCs in the automatic
processing ring. Each phase clock cycle, one pair is processed, and the values copied into image registers
in RAM.
Global I-variable I7 permits most phasing tasks, such as motor commutation and digital current loop
closure, to skip some phase clock cycles. This A/D de-multiplexing occurs every phase clock cycle,
regardless of the setting of I7. This permits the de-multiplexing to occur at a very high frequency with
out overloading Turbo PMAC with phase calculations.
For each pair enabled, one of the A/D ring slot pointer I-variables I5061-I5076 and one of the A/D ring
convert code I-variables I5081-I5096 must be set properly. If I5060 is set to 1, then I5061 and I5081
must be set properly; if I5060 is set to 2, then I5061, I5062, I5081, and I5082 must be set properly.
I5060 is actually used at power-on/reset only, so to make a change in the A/D de-multiplexing ring size,
including activating or de-activating the function, change the value of I5060, store this new value to nonvolatile flash memory with the SAVE command, and reset the card with the $$$ command.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
153
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I5061-I5076 A/D Ring Slot Pointers
Range:
$000000 - $7FFFFF
Units:
Turbo PMAC Addresses
Default:
$0 (specifies address $078800)
I5061 through I5076 control which of the multiplexed A/D converters are read in the A/D ring table, as
enabled by I5060. These I-variables contain the Turbo PMAC addresses where these ADCs can reside.
If the A/D converters are in the on-board Option 12 or 12A (Turbo PMAC2 only), or if they are in the
Acc-1E or 6E 3U stack board, they reside at address $078800, and the I-variable pointing to them can be
set either to $0 or to $078800. If they are in the on-board Option 12 or 12A on a Turbo PMAC PCI, they
reside at address $078808.
The following table shows the proper value of I5061-I5076 for A/D converters on Acc-36P and 36V
accessory boards:
ADC
Location
Board #
Jumper
ON
Board
Letter
Jumper ON
I5061 –
I5076
Address
ADC
Location
Board #
Jumper
ON
Board
Letter
Jumper ON
I5061 –
I5076
Address
Acc-36 #1A
Acc-36 #1B
Acc-36 #1C
Acc-36 #1D
Acc-36 #2A
Acc-36 #2B
Acc-36 #2C
Acc-36 #2D
Acc-36 #3A
Acc-36 #3B
Acc-36 #3C
Acc-36 #3D
E1
E1
E1
E1
E2
E2
E2
E2
E3
E3
E3
E3
E7
E8
E9
E10
E7
E8
E9
E10
E7
E8
E9
E10
$078A00
$078A02
$078A04
$078A06
$078B00
$078B02
$078B04
$078B06
$078C00
$078C02
$078C04
$078C06
Acc-36 #4A
Acc-36 #4B
Acc-36 #4C
Acc-36 #4D
Acc-36 #5A
Acc-36 #5B
Acc-36 #5C
Acc-36 #5D
Acc-36 #6A
Acc-36 #6B
Acc-36 #6C
Acc-36 #6D
E4
E4
E4
E4
E5
E5
E5
E5
E6
E6
E6
E6
E7
E8
E9
E10
E7
E8
E9
E10
E7
E8
E9
E10
$078D00
$078D02
$078D04
$078D06
$078E00
$078E02
$078E04
$078E06
$078F00
$078F02
$078F04
$078F06
The following table shows the values for A/D converters on UMAC Acc-36E and Acc-59E boards, based
on the settings of the address DIP switches SW1-n on those boards:
SW1-1
SW1-2
SW1-3
SW1-4
I5061-I5076 Address
ON
ON
ON
ON
$078C00
OFF
ON
ON
ON
$078D00
ON
OFF
ON
ON
$078E00
OFF
OFF
ON
ON
$078F00
ON
ON
OFF
ON
$079C00
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
$079D00
ON
OFF
OFF
ON
$079E00
OFF
OFF
OFF
ON
$079F00
ON
ON
ON
OFF
$07AC00
OFF
ON
ON
OFF
$07AD00
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
$07AE00
OFF
OFF
ON
OFF
$07AF00
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
$07BC00
OFF
ON
OFF
OFF
$07BD00
ON
OFF
OFF
OFF
$07BE00
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
$07BF00
Note: SW1-5 and SW1-6 must be ON to enable this addressing.
154
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Each variable I5061 – I5076 is matched with the I-variable numbered 20 higher (e.g. I5081 for I5061) to
specify which channel of the muxed A/D-converter is to be used, and how that channel is to be read. Up
to 8 of these I-variable pairs must be used to read all 8 channels of a muxed A/D converter – the eight
variables in the I5061 – I5076 range will all contain the same address.
The results of the A/D tables are placed in registers at addresses Y:$003400 to Y:$00341F, using bits 12
to 23 of these registers. The value of the A/D converter found in the low 12 bits of the source register is
placed in the register with the even-numbered address; the value of the A/D converter found in the high
12 bits of the source register is placed in the register with the odd-numbered address. The following table
shows the matching between the A/D pointer I-variables and the addresses of the result registers.
I-Variable
Result Address
for Low ADC
Result Address
for High ADC
I-Variable
Result Address
for Low ADC
Result Address
for High ADC
I5061
I5062
I5063
I5064
I5065
I5066
I5067
I5068
Y:$003400
Y:$003402
Y:$003404
Y:$003406
Y:$003408
Y:$00340A
Y:$00340C
Y:$00340E
Y:$003401
Y:$003403
Y:$003405
Y:$003407
Y:$003409
Y:$00340B
Y:$00340D
Y:$00340F
I5069
I5070
I5071
I5072
I5073
I5074
I5075
I5076
Y:$003410
Y:$003412
Y:$003414
Y:$003416
Y:$003418
Y:$00341A
Y:$00341C
Y:$00341E
Y:$003411
Y:$003413
Y:$003415
Y:$003417
Y:$003419
Y:$00341B
Y:$00341D
Y:$00341F
I5061 – I5076 are used at power-on/reset only, so to make a change in the A/D de-multiplexing sources,
change the values of I5061 – I5076, store these new values to non-volatile flash memory with the SAVE
command, and reset the card with the $$$ command.
I5080
A/D Ring Convert Enable
Range:
0-1
Units:
none
Default:
1
I5080 controls whether the A/D-converter demultiplexing algorithm specified by I5060 – I5076 and
I5081 – I5096 is enabled or not. If I5080 is set to 1, the algorithm is enabled; if I5080 is set to 0, the
algorithm is disabled.
If the saved value of I5060 is greater than 0, specifying that some demultiplexing is to be done, then
I5080 is automatically set to 1 on power-up/reset, so the algorithms are automatically running. By
subsequently setting I5080 to 0, the user can suspend the execution of these algorithms, to be resumed by
setting I5080 back to 1. If the saved value of I5060 is 0, then I5080 is automatically set to 0 on powerup/reset.
I5081-I5096 A/D Ring Convert Codes
Range:
$000000 - $00F00F
Units:
None
Default:
$000000
I5081 through I5096 contain the convert codes written to the multiplexed A/D converters that are read in
the A/D ring table, as enabled by I5060. The convert codes control which of the multiplexed ADCs at the
address is to be read, and the range of the analog input for that ADC. The ADCs can be on-board the
Turbo PMAC with Option 12 and 12A, or off-board with an Acc-36P/V. The Turbo PMAC address of
the ADC to be read is set by the I-variable number 20 less (e.g. I5061 determines the address of the ADC
whose convert code is set by I5081). The number of ADC converters in the ring is determined by I5060.
I5081-I5096 are 24-bit values, represented by 6 hexadecimal digits. Legitimate values are of the format
$00m00n, where m and n can take any hex value from 0 through F.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
155
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
For the on-board Option 12 & 12A ADCs on a Turbo PMAC2, the m value determines which of the
inputs ANAI08 to ANAI15 that come with Option 12A is to be read, and how it is to be converted,
according to the following formulas:
; 0 to +5V unipolar input
m  ANAI #8
; -2.5V to +2.5V bipolar input
m  ANAI #
For the on-board Option 12 & 12A ADCs on a Turbo PMAC2, the n value determines which of the inputs
ANAI00 to ANAI07 that come with Option 12A is to be read, and how it is to be converted, according to
the following formulas:
; 0V to +5V unipolar input
n  ANAI #
; -2.5V to +2.5V bipolar input
n  ANAI #8
For example, to read ANAI02 from Option 12 and ANAI10 from Option 12A, both as +/-2.5V inputs,
into the first slot in the ring, m would be set to A (10) and n would be set to A (10), so I5081 would be set
to $00A00A.
For the off-board Acc-36P/V ADCs, the m value is always 0, and the n value determines which pair of
ADCs is to be read, and how they are to be converted, according to the following formulas:
n  ADC#1, ADC# 9 ; 0 to +10V (between + and -) unipolar inputs
; -5V to +5V (between + and -) bipolar inputs
n  ADC#7 , ADC#1
For example, to read ADC3 and ADC11 of an Acc-36 as 0-10V inputs into the second slot in the ring, n
would be set to 2, so I5082 would be set to $000002.
I5081 – I5096 are actually used at power-on/reset only, so to make a change in the A/D de-multiplexing
codes, change the values of I5081 – I5096, store these new values to non-volatile flash memory with the
SAVE command, and reset the card with the $$$ command.
Coordinate System I-Variables
I-Variables in the I5100s through the I6600s control the setup of the 16 possible coordinate systems on a
Turbo PMAC, Coordinate System 1 through Coordinate System 16. Each group of 100 I-variables is
reserved for a specific coordinate system: the I5100s for C.S. 1, the I5200s for C.S. 2, and so on, to the
I6600s for C.S. 16. The following table lists the I-variables used for each coordinate system:
C.S. #
I-Variables
C.S. #
I-Variables
C.S. #
I-Variables
C.S. #
I-Variables
1
2
3
4
I5100-5199
I5200-5299
I5300-5399
I5400-5499
5
6
7
8
I5500-5599
I5600-5699
I5700-5799
I5800-5899
9
10
11
12
I5900-5999
I6000-6099
I6100-6199
I6200-6299
13
14
15
16
I6300-6399
I6400-6499
I6500-6599
I6600-6699
In the generic description of these I-variables, the thousands digit is represented by the letter s, and the
hundreds digit by the letter x; for example, Isx11. s and x can take the following values:
s is equal to 5 for Coordinate Systems 1 – 9;
s is equal to 6 for Coordinate Systems 10 – 16;
x is equal to the coordinate system number for Coordinate Systems 1 – 9;
x is equal to the (coordinate system number minus 10) for Coordinate Systems 10 – 16.
The descriptions of the variables refer to “Coordinate System x generically, even though the coordinate
system number is equal to (x + 10) for Coordinate Systems 10 – 16.
156
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Isx11 Coordinate System ‘x’ User Countdown Timer 1
Range:
-8,388,608 - 8,388,607
Units:
servo cycles
Default:
0
Isx11 provides an automatic countdown timer for user convenience. If Coordinate System ‘x’ is activated
by I68, Isx11 will count down one unit per servo cycle. The user may write to this variable at any time,
and it will count down from that value. Typically user software will then wait until the variable is less
than another value, usually zero. The software accessing Isx11 does not have to be associated with
Coordinate System ‘x’.
Isx11 is a signed 24-bit variable, providing a range of -223 (-8,388,608) to +223-1 (8,388,607). If active, it
counts down continually until it reaches its maximum negative value of -8,388,608. It will not roll over.
Most people will just use the positive range, writing a number representing the number of servo cycles for
the period to the variable, then waiting for it to count down past 0.
If Isx14 is set to a non-zero value when the MOVETIME command is issued to this coordinate system,
Isx11 will automatically be written to with a value of the number of servo cycles equal to the time left in
the commanded move minus Isx14 milliseconds. This lets the user easily monitor Isx11 to find out when
the move is Isx14 milliseconds from the end.
The following code shows how Isx11 could be used in a PLC to turn on an output for a fixed period of
time.
M1=1
I5111=2259
WHILE (I5111>0)
ENDWHILE
M1=0
; Set the output
; Set the timer to 1 second (2259 servo cycles)
; Wait for timer to count down
; Clear the output
Isx12 Coordinate System x User Countdown Timer 2
Range: -8,388,608 - 8,388,607
Units: servo cycles
Default:
0
Isx12 provides an automatic countdown timer for user convenience. If Coordinate System x is activated
by I68, Isx12 will count down one unit per servo cycle. The user may write to this variable at any time,
and it will count down from that value. Typically, user software will then wait until the variable is less
than another value, usually zero. The software accessing Isx12 does not have to be associated with
Coordinate System x.
Isx12 is a signed 24-bit variable, providing a range of -223 (-8,388,608) to +223-1 (8,388,607). If active, it
counts down continually until it reaches its maximum negative value of -8,388,608. It will not roll over.
Most will just use the positive range, writing a number representing the number of servo cycles for the
period to the variable, then waiting for it to count down past 0.
The following code shows how Isx12 could be used in a PLC to turn on an output for a fixed period of time.
M1=1
I5112=2259
WHILE (I5112>0)
ENDWHILE
M1=0
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
; Set the output
; Set the timer to 1 second (2259 servo cycles)
; Wait for timer to count down
; Clear the output
157
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Isx13 Coordinate System x Segmentation Time
Range:
0 - 255
Units:
msec
Default:
0
Isx13 controls whether Coordinate System x is in segmentation mode or not, and if it is, what the
segmentation time is in units of milliseconds.
If Isx13 is greater than zero, Coordinate System x is in segmentation mode, and all LINEAR and CIRCLE
mode trajectories are created by computing intermediate segment points with a coarse interpolation
algorithm every Isx13 milliseconds, then executing a fine interpolation using a cubic spline algorithm
every servo cycle.
While it is possible to execute programmed moves (blocks) of a shorter time than the Isx13 segmentation
time, the segmentation algorithm will automatically skip over these blocks, effectively performing a
smoothing function over multiple blocks.
This coarse/fine interpolation method activated by putting the coordinate system into segmentation mode
is required for the coordinate system to be able to use any of the following features:
 Circular interpolation
 Cutter radius compensation
 ‘/’ Program stop command
 ‘\’ Quick-stop command
 Rotary buffer blend-on-the-fly
 Multi-block lookahead
 Inverse kinematics
If none of these features is required in the coordinate system, usually it is best to leave Isx13 at the default
value of 0 to free up calculation time for other tasks. If Isx13 is 0, CIRCLE mode moves are executed as
LINEAR moves, cutter radius compensation is not performed, ‘/’ commands are executed as Q quit
commands, ‘\’ commands are executed as ‘H’ feed-hold commands.
Typical values of Isx13 for segmentation mode are 5 to 20 msec. The smaller the value, the tighter the fit
to the true curve, but the more computation is required for the moves, and the less is available for
background tasks. If Isx13 is set too low, Turbo PMAC will not be able to do all of its move calculations
in the time allotted, and it will stop the motion program with a run-time error.
The formula for the interpolation error introduced on a curved path by the segmentation mode is:
E
V 2T 2
6R
where V is the velocity, T is the segmentation time, and R is the local radius, all expressed in consistent
units. On a straight-line path, R is infinite, making the error equal to 0. If the velocity is expressed as a
feedrate F, in units per minute, the formula is:
E
 units 2
F 2 
 min 2
 
min 2
 * 
  60 ,000 2 m sec 2
6 Runits 

 * Isx132 m sec 2




F 2 Isx13 2
2.16  10 10 R
On non-Turbo PMACs, this function is controlled by global I-variable I13.
Example:
At a feedrate of 5000 mm/min (200 in/min), and a radius of 50 mm (2 in), a value of Isx13 of 10 msec
produces an interpolation error of 2.3 m (0.00009 in).
158
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Isx14 Coordinate System ‘x’ End-of-Move Anticipation Time
Range:
(floating-point)
Units:
milliseconds
Default:
0.0 (disabled)
Isx14, if set to a non-zero value, defines the time in relative to the end of a commanded move at which a
dedicated timer will reach zero. This can be used to trigger events in anticipation of the end of the move,
as in the case of firing a punch. If Isx14 is negative, the timer will reach zero before the end of the
commanded move; if Isx14 is positive, the timer will reach zero after the end of the commanded move.
If Isx14 is set to a non-zero value when the on-line command MOVETIME is issued to this coordinate
system, when Turbo PMAC calculates the time left in the commanded move (in milliseconds at 100%)
for response, it will then convert this to true time using the present % override value in force at this time,
add Isx14 to this “true-time” value, convert the sum to servo cycles using the % value, and place this
value in the Isx11 countdown timer for the coordinate system. This timer will then automatically
decrement each subsequent servo cycle, and therefore reach a value of 0 at a time Isx14 milliseconds
before the end of the commanded move (presuming the % value does not change in the meantime).
Note that the MOVETIME command can be issued from a PLC program, and if it is issued through a
CMD"" statement rather than a CMDx"" statement, no actual response string is sent to any port.
If Isx14 is set to 0.0, these additional calculations will not be performed when the MOVETIME command
is issued.
It is the user’s responsibility to avoid any conflicts with other possible uses of the Isx11 timer.
The following PLC code shows how this feature might be used to trigger an action 20 milliseconds before
the end of a commanded move.
I5114=-20
I5111=8000000
CMD"&1MOVETIME"
WHILE (I5111>0)
ENDWHILE
M1=1
;
;
;
;
20msec before end
Set to large value
Trigger calculation action
Wait for timer to count down
; Trigger action
Isx15 Coordinate System ‘x’ Segmentation Override
Range:
-1.0 – 0.9999999
Units:
0 – 200%
Default:
0.0
Isx15 permits a “feedrate override” of segmented moves (LINEAR and CIRCLE mode moves with Isx13
> 0) in Coordinate System ‘x’. The override percentage can be expressed as:
Override(%) = (Isx15 + 1.0) * 100%
At the default value for Isx15 of 0.0, the override value is 100%, so trajectories are calculated at their
programmed speed. At the minimum value for Isx15 of -1.0, the override value is 0%, and the trajectory
is “frozen” so no motion of the segmented move will occur. At the maximum value for Isx15 of
0.9999999, the override value is essentially 200%, so trajectories will be calculated at twice their
programmed speed.
To calculate the value of Isx15 required for a given override value, the following equation can be used:
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
159
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Isx15 = [Override(%) / 100%] – 1.0
The effect of override control with Isx15 is similar to that of override control with Turbo PMAC’s timebase control (%) feature, but there are several important differences.
First, because the segmentation override control occurs before the lookahead buffer, the acceleration
control of the lookahead buffer is independent of the segmentation override value. If the programmed
acceleration times are kept small, acceleration rates are essentially unaffected by the segmentation
override value. By contrast, the time-base control occurs after the lookahead acceleration control, so
override control with the time-base feature will always affect acceleration as well as velocity.
Second, because the trajectories calculated with the segmentation override are (typically) passed through
the lookahead buffer, changes in the segmentation override value are delayed in execution by the length
of the lookahead buffer. Changes in override through time-base control are instantaneous.
Third, time-base control can be used to provide complete synchronization to a master encoder, but
segmentation override cannot.
The user may write to Isx15 at any time, and it will immediately affect segmentation calculations. As
noted above, the effect on actual motion is delayed by the length of the lookahead buffer. The rate of
change in the active override value is limited by the Isx16 override slew rate parameter. Global variable
I12 should be set to 1 to enable “time splining” in lookahead for smooth transitions, and whatever
algorithm is setting Isx15 should ensure that no instantaneous change in resulting velocity of greater than
2-to-1 magnitude results.
If the user attempts to write a value greater than 0.9999999 to Isx15, it will saturate at 0.9999999. If the
user attempts to write a value less than -1.0 to Isx15, it will saturate at -1.0.
The value of Isx15 at power-up/reset is always 0.0, representing 100% override. The user cannot save the
present value of Isx15 to non-volatile flash memory.
Isx16 Coordinate System ‘x’ Segmentation Override Slew
Range:
0 – 0.9999999
Units:
Change in Isx15 per segment
Default:
0.0
Isx16 controls the rate of change of the segmentation override value commanded by Isx15 for Coordinate
System ‘x’. When the user changes the Isx15 command value, Turbo PMAC will change the actual
override value by the magnitude of Isx16 each motion segment until the new value of Isx15 is reached.
When used with the special lookahead buffer active, the user should set Isx15 so that there cannot be an
instantaneous change in segment velocity of greater than 2-to-1 magnitude (of non-zero velocities)
between adjacent segments, before lookahead. This will permit the “time-spline” algorithm in lookahead
enabled with I12 = 1 to generate smooth acceleration trajectories.
If Isx16 is set to 0.0 when Isx15 is changed, there is no slew rate control in the segmentation override, and
override will immediately change to the new value of Isx15 in the next segment calculated.
Example:
For a change in override of 100% (e.g. Isx15 changing from 0.0 to -1.0) in 1.0 seconds with a 5
millisecond segmentation time (Isx13 = 5), we would want the effective value of the override parameter
to change by 0.005 each segment, so Isx16 should be set to 0.005.
160
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Isx20 Coordinate System x Lookahead Length
Range:
0 – 65,535
Units:
Isx13 segmentation periods
Default:
0
Isx20 controls the enabling of the lookahead buffering function for Coordinate System x, and if enabled,
determines how far ahead the buffer will look ahead.
If Isx20 is set to 0 (the default), the buffered lookahead function is not used, even if a lookahead buffer
has been defined.
If Isx20 is set to 1, points are stored in the lookahead buffer as they are calculated, but no lookahead
velocity or acceleration-limiting calculations are done. The stored points can then be used to back up
along the path as necessary.
If Isx20 is set to a value greater than 1, PMAC will look Isx20 segments ahead on LINEAR and CIRCLE
mode moves, provided that the coordinate system is in segmentation mode (Isx13 > 0) and a lookahead
buffer has been defined. The lookahead algorithm can extend the time for each segment in the buffer as
needed to keep velocities under the Ixx16 limits and the accelerations under the Ixx17 limits.
For proper lookahead control, Isx20 must be set to a value large enough so that PMAC looks ahead far
enough that it can create a controlled stop from the maximum speed within the acceleration limit. This
required stopping time for a motor could be expressed as:
StopTime 
Vmax Ixx16

Amax Ixx17
All motors in the coordinate system should be evaluated to see which motor has the longest stopping
time. This motor’s stopping time will be used to compute Isx20.
The average speed during this stopping time is Vmax/2, so as the moves enter the lookahead algorithm at
Vmax (the worst case), the required time to look ahead is StopTime/2. Therefore, the required number of
segments always corrected in the lookahead buffer can be expressed as:
SegmentsAh ead 
StopTime( m sec) / 2
SegTime( m sec/ seg )
Ixx16

2 * Ixx17 * Isx13
Because Turbo PMAC does not completely correct the lookahead buffer as each segment is added, the
lookahead distance specified by Isx20 must be slightly larger than this. The formula for the minimum
value of Isx20 that guarantees sufficient lookahead for the stopping distance is:
Isx20 
4
* SegmentsAh ead
3
If a fractional value results, round up to the next integer. A value of Isx20 less than this amount will not
result in velocity or acceleration limits being violated; however, the algorithm will not permit maximum
velocity to be reached, even if programmed.
Isx20 should not be set greater than the number of segments reserved in the DEFINE LOOKAHEAD
command. If the lookahead algorithm runs out of buffer space, Turbo PMAC will automatically reduce
Isx20 to reflect the amount of space that is available
Example:
The axes in a system have a maximum speed of 24,000 mm/min, or 400 mm/sec (900 in/min or 15
in/sec). They have a maximum acceleration of 0.1g or 1000 mm/sec2 (40 in/sec2), and a count resolution
of 1m. A maximum block rate of 200 blocks/sec is desired, so Isx13 is set to 5 msec. The parameters
can be computed as:
 Ixx16 = 400 mm/sec * 0.001 sec/msec * 1000 cts/mm = 400 cts/msec
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
161
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference


Ixx17 = 1000 mm/sec2 * 0.0012 sec2/msec2 * 1000 cts/mm = 1.0 cts/msec2
Isx20 = [4/3] * [400 cts/msec / (2 * 1.0 cts/msec 2 *5 msec/seg)] = 54 segments
Isx21 Coordinate System x Lookahead State Control
Range:
0 – 15
Units:
none
Default:
0
Isx21 permits direct control of the state of lookahead execution, without going through Turbo PMAC’s
background command interpreter. This is useful for applications such as wire EDM, which can require
very quick stops and reversals.
 Setting Isx21 to 4 is the equivalent of issuing the \ quick-stop command.
 Setting Isx21 to 6 is the equivalent of resuming forward motion with the > resume forward command.
 Setting Isx21 to 7 is the equivalent of issuing the < back-up command.
 Setting Isx21 to 14 requests execution of a single segment in the forward direction.
 Setting Isx21 to 15 requests execution of a single segment in the reverse direction.
If monitoring Isx21 at other times, notice that the 4’s bit is cleared after the command has been processed.
Therefore, the following values will show:
 Isx21 = 0 when stopped with a quick-stop command.
 Isx21 = 2 when running forward in lookahead.
 Isx21 = 3 when running reversed in lookahead.
 Isx21 = 10 when has executed a single forward segment in lookahead.
 Isx21 = 11 when has executed a single reverse segment in lookahead.
Note:
The use of DWELL, WHILE({condition})WAIT, and a violation of the doublejump-back rule momentarily switches PMAC out of lookahead mode. Therefore,
these constructs should not be used in programs and sub-programs when Isx21 will
be used to control their lookahead state.
Note:
In preliminary versions of the Turbo PMAC firmware, Isx21 served a different
function. That variable value is now a constant value (3) set by the firmware.
Isx50 Coordinate System x Kinematic Calculations Enable
Range:
0–1
Units:
none
Default:
0
Isx50 controls whether the special forward-kinematic and inverse-kinematic program buffers for
Coordinate System x are used to relate the motor and axis positions for the coordinate system.
If Isx50 is set to 0 (the default), Turbo PMAC will use the relationships set up in the axis-definition
statements for the coordinate system to compute the relationship between motor positions and axis
positions. The inverse of the axis-definition equations is used to compute the starting axis positions on an
R (run), S (step), or PMATCH command. The axis-definition equations are used to convert programmed
axis positions to motor positions each programmed move or move segment. Even if the forwardkinematic and inverse-kinematic programs have been loaded for the coordinate system, they will not be
used.
If Isx50 is set to 1, Turbo PMAC will use the relationships set up in the special kinematic program buffers
to compute the relationship between motor positions and axis positions. The forward-kinematic program
162
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
is used to compute the starting axis positions on an R (run), S (step), or PMATCH command. The inversekinematic program is used to convert programmed axis positions to motor positions each programmed
move or move segment for each motor defined as an inverse-kinematic axis (#xx->I). Motors in the
coordinate system not defined as inverse-kinematic axes still use axis-definition equations to convert
programmed axis positions to motor positions.
Isx53 Coordinate System x Step Mode Control
Range:
0-1
Units:
none
Default:
0
Isx53 controls the action of a Step s command in Coordinate System x. At the default Isx53 value of 0, a
Step command causes program execution through the next move, DELAY, or DWELL command in the
motion program, even if this takes multiple program lines.
When Isx53 is set to 1, a Step command causes execution of only a single program line, even if there is
no move, DELAY, or DWELL command on that line. If there is more than one DWELL or DELAY
command, a single Step command will only execute one of the DWELL or DELAY commands.
Regardless of the setting of Isx53, if program execution on a Step command encounters a BLOCKSTART
statement in the program, execution will continue until a BLOCKSTOP statement is encountered.
On non-Turbo PMACs, this function is controlled by global I-variable I53.
Isx78 Coordinate System ‘x’ Maximum Circle Acceleration
Range:
Non-negative floating-point
Units:
(user position units) / (Isx90 feedrate time units) 2
Default:
0 (disabled)
Isx78, if set to a positive value, specifies the maximum centripetal acceleration that Turbo PMAC will
permit for a feedrate-specified (F) CIRCLE-mode move in Coordinate System ‘x’. If the move as
programmed would yield a higher centripetal acceleration, Turbo PMAC will automatically lower the
programmed speed for the move so that the Isx78 limit is not exceeded. The centripetal acceleration is
expressed as:
V2
A
R
This limitation is done at the initial move calculation time, so it is not required to use the special
lookahead buffer in conjunction with Isx78. It still may be desirable to use the special lookahead buffer,
especially to manage the tangential acceleration into and out of a reduced-speed arc move.
The most important difference between limiting centripetal acceleration with Isx78 and limiting it with
the individual motor Ixx17 acceleration limits has to do with the exact path generated. Turbo PMAC’s
circular interpolation algorithms introduce a radial error term that can be described by:
E
V 2T 2
6R
where V is the speed along the arc determined by the motion program (possibly limited by Isx78), T is the
Isx13 segmentation time, and R is the radius of the arc. If Isx78 is used to limit the speed of the arc, this
error will be reduced. However, if the special lookahead is used to limit the speed, the error will be as
large as if the arc move were run at full speed.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
163
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Isx98 is expressed in the user length units for the linear axes (usually millimeters or inches) divided by
the square of the user “feedrate time units” set by Isx90 for the coordinate system (usually seconds or
minutes).
Example 1:
You want to limit the centripetal acceleration to 1.0g with Isx78. Your length units are millimeters, and
your time units are seconds. Isx78 can be calculated as follows:
m
s 2 * 1000 mm  9800 mm 
 2 
g
m
 s 
9.8
Isx78  1.0 g *
Example 2:
You want to limit your circular interpolation calculation errors to 0.001 inches. Your length units are
inches, your time units are minutes, and your Isx13 segmentation time is 10 milliseconds. Isx78 can be
calculated as follows:
Isx 78 
V 2 6 E 6 * 0.001in 60 2 s 2
 in 
 2 
*
 216000 
2 2
2
2 
R T
0.01 s
min
 min 
Example 3:
Your system is capable of 10 m/s2 acceleration (about 1g). Your length units are millimeters, your time
units are minutes, and your Isx13 segmentation time is 2 milliseconds. Isx78 can be calculated as
follows:
Isx 78  10
m 1000 mm 3600 s 2
 mm 
*
*
 36,000,000
2
2
2 
m
s
min
 min 
At this setting, your maximum circular interpolation calculation errors can be computed as:
E
V 2T 2
T 2 36,000,000 mm
min 2
2 2
 Isx78 *

*
0
.
002
s
*
 0.0067 mm
6R
6
6
min 2
60 2 s 2
Isx79 Coordinate System ‘x’ Rapid Move Mode Control
Range:
0 .. 1
Units:
none
Default:
0
Isx79 controls how Turbo PMAC computes the speed of “shorter” axes in a multi-axis RAPID-mode
move. If Isx79 is set to the default value of 0, Turbo PMAC will compute the ratio of move distance to
rapid-speed (Ixx16 or Ixx22, depending on the setting of Ixx90) for each motor in the move. Only the
motor with highest distance/speed ratio will actually be commanded at its specified speed. The
commanded speeds for other motors will be lessened so that they have the same ratio of distance to speed,
yielding the same move time for all motors (before acceleration and deceleration are added). This makes
the move path in a Cartesian system at least approximately linear (and truly linear if the acceleration and
deceleration times set by Ixx19 – Ixx21 are the same).
164
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
If Isx79 is set to 1, all motors involved in the multi-axis move will be commanded to move at their
specified speed. This means that motors with lower distance/speed ratios will finish sooner than those
with higher ratios, and the path in a Cartesian system will not be linear in the general case.
In both cases, each motor involved in the multi-axis move will use its own acceleration parameters Ixx19
– Ixx21 to calculate its acceleration and deceleration profile.
Isx81 Coordinate System ‘x’ Blend Disable In-Position Time-Out
Range:
0 .. 8,388,607
Units:
real-time interrupt periods
Default:
0 (disabled)
Isx81, if set to a positive value, specifies that when blending is disabled between programmed moves,
Turbo PMAC will determine that all axes in the coordinate system will be “in-position” before starting
execution of the next move in the motion program. In this case, the value of Isx81 specifies the “timeout” value for the in-position check, expressed in real-time interrupt periods (I8+1 servo cycles). If all
axes in the coordinate system are not in-position within this time from the end of the incoming
commanded move, the program will be stopped with a run-time error.
If Isx81 is set to 0, Turbo PMAC merely brings the commanded trajectory to a momentary stop before
starting the next move in the cases where blending is disabled; it does not verify that any of the actual
positions have reached this point. (This setting is fully compatible with firmware versions from before
Isx81 was implemented.)
The in-position check as specified by Isx81 is performed after programmed moves that are never blended
(RAPID-mode moves, programmed homing-search moves), or after moves that can be blended, but for
which blending has been disabled by the clearing of the coordinate system “continuous motion request”
status/control bit (directly or from Isx92), or because the corner is sharper than the angle specified by
Isx83.
The in-position check enabled by Isx81 is the “background” check function that uses the Ixx28 inposition band for each motor, and the Ixx88 number of scans for each motor. When all axes in the
coordinate system have been verified to be “in position”, the coordinate-system “in-position” status bit is
set. After the in-position check, a dwell of the time specified by Isx82 is inserted before execution of the
next programmed move is started.
Isx82 Coordinate System ‘x’ Blend Disable Dwell Time
Range:
0 .. 8,388,607
Units:
real-time interrupt periods
Default:
0
Isx82 specifies the dwell time that is automatically inserted between programmed moves when blending
is disabled. This dwell time is inserted after programmed moves that are never blended (RAPID-mode
moves, programmed homing-search moves), or after moves that can be blended, but for which blending
has been disabled by the clearing of the coordinate system “continuous motion request” status/control bit
(directly or from Isx92), or because the corner is sharper than the angles specified by Isx83 and Isx85. (If
the angle is sharper than that specified by Isx83 but not sharper than that specified by Isx85, blending will
be disabled at the corner, but no dwell will be added.) The units of this dwell are in real-time interrupt
periods (I8+1 servo cycles), not milliseconds as in a directly programmed dwell.
If Isx81 is 0, this dwell time is inserted immediately after the end of commanded execution of the
previous move. If Isx81 is greater than 0, this dwell time is inserted after all axes in the coordinate
system have been verified to be “in position”.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
165
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
During this automatically inserted dwell time (if greater than 0), a coordinate-system “dwell-in-progress”
status bit (Y:$002x40 bit 5, distinct from the motor “dwell-in-progress” status bits from a directly
programmed dwell) will be set.
Isx83 Coordinate System ‘x’ Corner Blend Break Point
Range:
-1.0 .. 0.9999 (floating-point)
Units:
cosine
Default:
0.0 (disabled)
Isx83, if set to a non-zero value, controls the threshold in Coordinate System ‘x’ between corner angles
for which LINEAR and CIRCLE-mode moves are directly blended together, and those for which the axes
are stopped in between the incoming and outgoing moves for the corner. Isx83 is only used if the
“continuous motion request” (CMR) coordinate-system status/control bit is set to 1 permit blending. (This
can be set by Isx92=0 at the beginning of a motion program, or can be set directly afterwards.) If the
CMR bit is 0 (usually from Isx92=1), no blending occurs between any moves, and Isx83 is not used.
If Isx83 is set to 0.0, no decision on blending is made based on corner angle. In this case, the decision on
blending is made by the “continuous motion request” coordinate-system status/control bit. (If a threshold
corner angle of 90o is desired – for which the Isx83 would be 0.0 – Isx83 should be set to a value that is
not exactly 0.0, for example to 0.00001).
Isx83 is expressed as the cosine of the change in directed angle between the incoming and outgoing
moves. (The change in directed angle is equal to 180o minus the included angle of the corner.) As such,
it can take a value between -1.0 and +1.0. If the two moves have the same directed angle at the move
boundary (i.e. they are moving in the same direction), the change in directed angle is 0, and the cosine is
1.0. As the change in directed angle increases, the corner gets sharper, and the cosine of the change in
directed angle decreases. For a total reversal, the change in directed angle is 180o, and the cosine is -1.0.
The change in directed angle is evaluated in the plane defined by the NORMAL command (default is the
XY-plane); if the corner also involves axis movement perpendicular to this plane, it is the projection of
movement into this plane that matters.
If the cosine of the change in directed angle at a corner is less than Isx83 (a large change in directed
angle; a sharp corner), Turbo PMAC will automatically disable blending between the two moves, and
bring the commanded trajectory to a stop at the end of the incoming move. If Isx81 is greater than 0,
Turbo PMAC then verifies that all motors in the coordinate system are “in position”. Next, if the cosine
of this angle is also less than Isx85, a dwell of Isx82 real-time interrupt periods is executed. Finally, the
outgoing move is automatically executed. From the time the incoming commanded move begins, through
any in-position settling and added dwell, until the commanded outgoing move starts, the coordinatesystem status bit “sharp corner stop” (Y:$002x40 bit 6) will be set.
If the cosine of the change in directed angle at a corner is greater than Isx83 (a small change in directed
angle; a gradual corner), Turbo PMAC will directly blend the incoming and outgoing moves with its
normal blending algorithms.
The operation of Isx83 is independent of the operation of the similar function of Isx99, which controls for
outside corners in 2D cutter-radius compensation whether an arc move will be added based on the change
in directed angle. Isx83 works regardless of whether cutter-radius compensation is active or not, or
whether the corner is an inside or outside corner when cutter-radius compensation is active. If this is an
outside compensated corner with an added arc, the corner angle is considered to be 0 degrees, and so the
corner would always be blended.
166
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Example
If it is desired that motion in Coordinate System 1 be stopped if the change in directed angle is greater
than 30o (included angle less than 150o), then I5183 should be set to 0.866, because cos
 = cos 30o = 0.866.
Isx84 Coordinate System ‘x’ Outside Corner Stop Point Control
Range:
0 .. 1
Units:
none
Default:
0
Isx84 controls where the programmed movement stops when blending is disabled due to a corner sharper
than the Isx83 threshold on an outside corner in 2D cutter-radius compensation with an added arc at the
corner. If Isx84 is 0, the programmed movement will stop at the end of the added arc; if Isx84 is 1, the
programmed movement will stop at the beginning of the added arc.
If blending is disabled due to single-step operation (S), program termination (Q or /), or continuousmotion-request bit cleared (usually from Isx92=1), programmed movement will always stop at the end of
the added arc, regardless of the setting of Isx92=1.
Isx85 Coordinate System ‘x’ Corner Dwell Break Point
Range:
-1.0 .. 0.9999 (floating-point)
Units:
cosine
Default:
0.0 (disabled)
Isx85, if set to a non-zero value, controls the threshold in Coordinate System ‘x’ between corner angles
for which LINEAR and CIRCLE-mode moves are made without an automatically intervening dwell, and
those for which a dwell of Isx82 real-time-interrupt periods is automatically added. Isx85 is only used if
the “continuous motion request” (CMR) coordinate-system status/control bit is set to 1 permit blending.
(This can be set by Isx92=0 at the beginning of a motion program, or can be set directly afterwards.) If
the CMR bit is 0 (usually from Isx92=1), no blending occurs between any moves, and Isx85 is not used.
The corner angle is only evaluated against Isx85 if the blending at the corner has been disabled due to the
action of Isx83. This means that Isx85 must be set to a value less than Isx83 if it is to have any effect.
If Isx85 is set to 0.0, no dwell is ever automatically added. (If a threshold corner angle of 90 o is desired –
for which the Isx85 would be 0.0 – Isx85 should be set to a value that is not exactly 0.0, for example to
0.00001).
Isx85 is expressed as the cosine of the change in directed angle between the incoming and outgoing
moves. (The change in directed angle is equal to 180o minus the included angle of the corner.) As such,
it can take a value between -1.0 and +1.0. If the two moves have the same directed angle at the move
boundary (i.e. they are moving in the same direction), the change in directed angle is 0, and the cosine is
1.0. As the change in directed angle increases, the corner gets sharper, and the cosine of the change in
directed angle decreases. For a total reversal, the change in directed angle is 180 o, and the cosine is -1.0.
The change in directed angle is evaluated in the plane defined by the NORMAL command (default is the
XY-plane); if the corner also involves axis movement perpendicular to this plane, it is the projection of
movement into this plane that matters.
If the cosine of the change in directed angle at a corner is less than Isx85 (a large change in directed
angle; a sharp corner), Turbo PMAC will automatically add a dwell of Isx82 real-time-interrupt periods
before the outgoing move is started. From the time the incoming commanded move begins, through any
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
167
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
in-position settling and added dwell, until the commanded outgoing move starts, the coordinate-system
status bit “sharp corner stop” (Y:$002x40 bit 6) will be set.
If the cosine of the change in directed angle at a corner is greater than Isx85 (a small change in directed
angle; a gradual corner), Turbo PMAC will not automatically add a dwell.
The operation of Isx85 is independent of the operation of the similar function of Isx99, which controls for
outside corners in 2D cutter-radius compensation whether an arc move will be added based on the change
in directed angle. Isx85 works regardless of whether cutter-radius compensation is active or not, or
whether the corner is an inside or outside corner when cutter-radius compensation is active. If this is an
outside-compensated corner with an added arc, the corner angle is based on the moves without the added
arc (i.e. the uncompensated moves).
Example
If it is desired that motion in Coordinate System 1 be stopped if the change in directed angle is greater
than 45o (included angle less than 135 o), then I5185 should be set to 0.707, because cos
 = cos 45o = 0.707.
Isx86 Coordinate System x Alternate Feedrate
Range:
positive floating point
Units:
(user position units) / (Isx90 feedrate time units)
Default:
1000.0
Isx86 can control the speed of motion for a feedrate-specified move when the motion of non-feedrate axes
is predominant. Feedrate, or vector-feedrate axes are those specified by the FRAX command; X, Y, and Z
are the feedrate axes by default.
If Isx86 is greater than 0, PMAC compares the move time for the vector feedrate axes, computed as the
vector distance of the feedrate axes divided by the specified feedrate (the F value in the program or Ix89),
to the move time for the non-feedrate axes, computed as the longest distance for these axes divided by
Isx86. It then uses the longer of these two times as the move time for all axes, feedrate and non-feedrate.
If Isx86 is 0, and PMAC sees a feedrate-specified move in which the vector distance is zero (i.e. no
motion of the vector feedrate axes), PMAC computes the move time as the longest distance of the nonfeedrate axes on the line divided by the program feedrate.
Isx86 has two main uses. First, it automatically controls the motion of non-feedrate axes when they are
commanded alone on a line in feedrate mode. Typically, these are rotary axes in a combined linear/rotary
system where only the linear axes are vector feedrate axes.
Second, it permits a fast dry-run mode in which the programmed feedrates are ignored. If no axes in the
coordinate system are vector feedrate axes (implemented with the NOFRAX command), then Isx86 will be
used for all moves, regardless of the F values in the program.
Example:
I5190=1000
I5186=5
INC
X20 F10
X10 C20
C20
; Speeds are specified as per-second
; Alternate feedrate of 5 user units per second
; Moves specified by distance
; Move time = 20 units / 10 (units/sec) = 2 sec
; Move time = 10 units / 10 (units/sec) = 1 sec
; Move time = 20 units / 5 (units/sec) = 4 sec
See Also:
I-variables Isx89, Isx98
On-line commands FRAX, NOFRAX
Motion program commands F, FRAX, NOFRAX
168
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Isx87 Coordinate System x Default Program Acceleration Time
Range:
0 - 8,388,607
Units:
msec
Default:
0 (so Isx88 controls)
Isx87 sets the default time for commanded acceleration for programmed blended LINEAR and CIRCLE
mode moves in Coordinate System x. If global variable I42 is set to 1, it also sets the default time for
PVT and SPLINE mode moves. The first use of a TA statement in a program overrides this value.
Note:
Even though this parameter makes is possible not to specify acceleration time in
the motion program, use TA in the program and do not rely on this parameter,
unless keeping to a syntax standard that does not support this (e.g. RS-274 GCodes ). Specifying acceleration time in the program along with speed and move
modes makes it much easier for later debugging.
If the specified S-curve time (see Isx88, below) is greater than half the specified acceleration time, the
time used for commanded acceleration in blended moves will be twice the specified S-curve time.
The acceleration time is also the minimum time for a blended move; if the distance on a feedratespecified (F) move is so short that the calculated move time is less than the acceleration time, or the time
of a time-specified (TM) move is less than the acceleration time, the move will be done in the
acceleration time instead. This will slow down the move. If the acceleration time is 0 because both TA
and TS are set to 0, the minimum move time is 0.5 msec.
Note:
The acceleration time will be extended automatically when any motor in the
coordinate system is asked to exceed its maximum acceleration rate (Ixx17) for a
programmed LINEAR-mode move with Isx13=0 (no move segmentation).
When polled, Isx87 will report the value from the most recently executed TA command in that coordinate
system.
Isx88 Coordinate System x Default Program S-Curve Time
Range:
0 - 8,388,607
Units:
msec
Default:
50
Isx88 sets the default time in each half of the S in S-curve acceleration for programmed blended LINEAR
and CIRCLE mode moves in coordinate system x. It does not affect SPLINE, PVT, or RAPID mode
moves. The first use of a TS statement in a program overrides this value.
Note:
Even though this parameter makes is possible not to specify acceleration time in
the motion program, use TS in the program and do not rely on this parameter,
unless keeping to a syntax standard that does not support this (e.g. RS-274 GCodes). Specifying acceleration time in the program along with speed and move
modes makes it much easier for later debugging.
If Isx88 is zero, the acceleration is constant throughout the Isx87 time and the velocity profile is
trapezoidal.
If Isx88 is greater than zero, the acceleration will start at zero and linearly increase through Isx88 time,
then stay constant (for time TC) until Isx87-Isx88 time, and linearly decrease to zero at Isx87 time (that is
Isx87=2*Isx88 - TC).
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
169
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
If Isx88 is equal to Isx87/2, the entire acceleration will be spec in S-curve form (Isx88 values greater than
Isx87/2 override the Isx87 value; total acceleration time will be 2*Isx88).
Note:
The acceleration time will be extended automatically when any motor in the
coordinate system is asked to exceed its maximum acceleration rate (Ixx17) for a
programmed LINEAR-mode move with Isx13=0 (no move segmentation).
When polled, Isx88 will report the value from the most recently executed TS command in that coordinate
system.
Isx89 Coordinate System x Default Program Feedrate/Move Time
Range:
positive floating point
Units:
(user position units) / (Isx90 feedrate time units) or msec
Default:
1000.0
Isx89 sets the default feedrate (commanded speed) for programmed LINEAR and CIRCLE mode moves
in coordinate system x. The first use of an F or TM statement in a motion program overrides this value.
The velocity units are determined by the position and time units, as defined by axis definition statements
and Isx89. After power-up/reset, the coordinate system is in feedrate mode, not move-time mode.
Note:
Do not rely on this parameter but declare the feedrate in the program. This will
keep the move parameters with the move commands, lessening the chances of
future errors, and making debugging easier.
When polled, Isx89 will report the value from the most recently executed F or TM command in that
coordinate system.
Isx90 Coordinate System x Feedrate Time Units
Range:
positive floating point
Units:
msec
Default:
1000.0
Isx90 defines the time units used in commanded velocities (feedrates) in motion programs executed by
Coordinate System x. Velocity units are comprised of length or angle units divided by time units. The
length/angle units are determined in the axis definition statements for the coordinate system.
Isx90 sets the time units. Isx90 itself has units of milliseconds, so if Isx90 is 60,000, the time units are
60,000 milliseconds, or minutes. The default value of Ix90 is 1000 msec, specifying velocity time units
of seconds.
This affects two types of motion program values: F values (feedrate) for LINEAR- and CIRCLE-mode
moves; and the velocities in the actual move commands for PVT-mode moves.
Isx91 Coordinate System x Default Working Program Number
Range:
0 - 32,767
Units:
Motion Program Numbers
Default:
0
Isx91 tells Turbo PMAC which motion program to run in Coordinate System x when commanded to run
from the control-panel input (START/ or STEP/ line taken low, or its equivalent in DPRAM). It performs
the same function for a hardware run command as the B command does for a software run command (R).
It is intended primarily for stand-alone Turbo PMAC applications. The first use of a B command from a
host computer for this coordinate system overrides this parameter.
170
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Isx92 Coordinate System ‘x’ Move Blend Disable
Range:
0 .. 1
Units:
none
Default:
0
Isx92 controls whether programmed moves for Coordinate System ‘x’ are automatically blended or not.
If Isx92 is set to 0, programmed moves that can be blended together – LINEAR, SPLINE, and CIRCLEmode – are blended together with no intervening stop, unless Isx83 is set to 1 non-zero value and the
corner formed at the juncture of LINEAR and/or CIRCLE-mode moves is sharper than the Isx83
threshold. Upcoming moves are calculated during the current moves.
If Isx92 is set to 1, even moves that can be blended together are not blended. The commanded trajectory
is brought to a stop at the end of each programmed move. If Isx81 is greater than 0, Turbo PMAC then
verifies that all motors in the coordinate system are “in position”. Next, a dwell of Isx82 real-time
interrupt periods is executed. After the dwell, the next move is calculated and executed.
Isx92 is only evaluated when the R or S command is given to start program execution. It is used to set the
coordinate system’s “continuous motion request” (CMR) status/control bit, which is checked each time a
blending decision is to be made. (If Isx92 is 1, the CMR bit is set to 0; if Isx92 is 0, the CMR bit is set to
1.) To change the mode of operation while the program is running, the CMR bit must be changed directly
using an M-variable. Msx84 is the suggested M-variable for this bit for Coordinate System ‘x’ (M5184>X:$002040,4 for C.S. 1).
Isx93 Coordinate System x Time Base Control Address
Range:
Units:
Default:
$000000 - $FFFFFF
Turbo PMAC X-Addresses
I-Var.
Default
Register
I-Var.
Default
Register
I5193
I5293
I5393
I5493
I5593
I5693
I5793
I5893
$002000
$002100
$002200
$002300
$002400
$002500
$002600
$002700
C.S.1 ‘%’ Cmd. Reg.
C.S.2 ‘%’ Cmd. Reg.
C.S.1 ‘%’ Cmd. Reg.
C.S.2 ‘%’ Cmd. Reg.
C.S.5 ‘%’ Cmd. Reg.
C.S.6 ‘%’ Cmd. Reg.
C.S.7 ‘%’ Cmd. Reg.
C.S.8 ‘%’ Cmd. Reg.
I5993
I6093
I6193
I6293
I6393
I6493
I6593
I6693
$002800
$002900
$002A00
$002B00
$002C00
$002D00
$002E00
$002F00
C.S.9 ‘%’ Cmd. Reg.
C.S.10 ‘%’ Cmd. Reg.
C.S.11 ‘%’ Cmd. Reg.
C.S.12 ‘%’ Cmd. Reg.
C.S.13 ‘%’ Cmd. Reg.
C.S.14 ‘%’ Cmd. Reg.
C.S.15 ‘%’ Cmd. Reg.
C.S.16 ‘%’ Cmd. Reg.
Isx93 tells Coordinate System x where to look for its time base control (feedrate override) information by
specifying the address of the register that will be used. The default value of this parameter for each
coordinate system (see above) specifies the register that responds to on-line % commands. If the time
base is left alone, or is under host or programmatic control, this parameter should be left at the default.
Alternatively, if the time base is controlled externally from a frequency or voltage, usually the register
containing the time-base information will be in the conversion table (which starts at address $003500).
If another register is to be used for the time base, it must have the units of I10 so that 8,388,608 (2 23)
indicates 1 msec between servo interrupts. See the instructions for using an external time base, under
Synchronizing PMAC to External Events.
Note:
Isx93 contains the address of the register that holds the time-base value (it is a
pointer to that register). Isx93 does not contain the time-base value itself.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
171
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Isx94 Coordinate System x Time Base Slew Rate
Range:
0 - 8,388,607
Units:
2-23msec / servo cycle
Default:
1644
Isx94 controls the rate of change of the time base for Coordinate System x. It effectively works in two
slightly different ways, depending on the source of the time base information. If the source of the time
base is the % command register, then Isx94 defines the rate at which the % (actual time base) value will
slew to a newly commanded value. If the rate is too high, and the % value is changed while axes in the
coordinate system are moving, there will be a virtual step change in velocity. For this type of application,
Isx94 is set relatively low (often 1000 to 5000) to provide smooth changes.
Note:
The default Isx94 value of 1644, when used on a card set up with the default servo
cycle time of 442 sec, provides a transition time between %0 and %100 of one
second.
If there is a hardware source (as defined by Isx93), the commanded time-base value changes every servo
cycle, and typically the rate of change of the commanded value is limited by hardware considerations
(e.g. inertia). In this case, Isx94 effectively defines the maximum rate at which the % value can slew to
the new hardware-determined value and the actual rate of change is determined by the hardware. To keep
synchronous to a hardware input frequency, as in a position-lock cam, Isx94 should be set high enough
that the limit is never activated. However, following motion can be smoothed significantly with a lower
limit if total synchronicity is not required.
Isx95 Coordinate System x Feed Hold Slew Rate
Range:
0 - 8,388,607
Units:
2-23msec / servo cycle
Default:
1644
Isx95 controls the rate at which the axes of Coordinate System x stop if a feed hold command (H) is given,
and the rate at which they start up again on a succeeding run command (R or S). A feed hold command is
equivalent to a %0 command except that it uses Isx95 for its slew rate instead of Isx94. Having separate
slew parameters for normal time-base control and for feed hold commands allows both responsive ongoing
time-base control (Isx94 relatively high) and well-controlled holds (Isx95 relatively low).
Note:
The default Isx95 value of 1644, when used on a card set up with the default servo
cycle time of 442 sec, provides a transition time between %100 and %0 (feed
hold) of one second.
Isx96 Coordinate System x Circle Error Limit
Range:
Positive floating-point
Units:
User length units
Default:
0 (function disabled)
In a circular arc move, a move distance that is more than twice the specified radius will cause a
computation error because a proper path cannot be found. Sometimes, due to round-off errors, a distance
slightly larger than twice the radius is given (for a half-circle move), and it is desired that this not create
an error condition.
172
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Isx96 allows the user to set an error limit on the amount the move distance is greater than twice the
radius. If the move distance is greater than 2R, but by less than this limit, the move is done in a spiral
fashion to the endpoint, and no error condition is generated. If the distance error is greater than this limit,
the program will stop at the beginning of the move. Turbo PMAC will set this coordinate system’s circle
radius error status bit.
If Isx96 is set to 0, the error generation is disabled and any move distance greater than 2R is done in a
spiral fashion to the endpoint.
Example:
Given the program segment:
INC CIRCLE1 F2
X7.072 Y7.072 R5
2
2
Technically no circular arc path can be found, because the distance is SQRT(7.072 +7.072 ) = 10.003,
which is greater than twice the radius of 5. However, as long as Isx96 is greater than 0.003, PMAC will
create a near-circular path to the end point.
Isx97 Coordinate System x Minimum Arc Length
Range:
Non-negative floating-point
Units:
Semi-circles ( radians; 180 degrees)
Default:
0 (sets 2-20)
Isx97 sets the threshold between a short arc and a full circle for CIRCLE mode moves in Turbo PMAC’s
Coordinate System x. Isx97 is expressed as an angle, with units that represent a fraction of a half-circle.
It represents the smallest angle that can be covered by a programmed arc move.
Any programmed CIRCLE-mode move with an IJK-vector representation of the center that covers an
angle smaller than Isx97 is executed as a full circle plus the programmed angle change. Any such move
which covers an angle greater than Isx97 is executed as an arc smaller than a full circle.
The purpose of Isx97 is to support the circle programming standard that permits a full-circle move to be
commanded simply by making the end point equal to the starting point (0-degree arc), yet allow for
round-off errors.
Most users will be able to leave Isx97 at the default value of one-millionth of a semi-circle. This was
formerly the fixed threshold value. However, some users may want to enlarge the threshold to
compensate for round-off errors, particularly when using cutter-radius compensation in conjunction with
full-circle moves. Remember that no arc covering an angle less than Isx97 can be executed.
If a full-circle move is commanded with cutter compensation on, and the blending from the previous
move or into the next move creates a compensated outside corner without adding an arc (see Isx99),
PMAC will extend the compensated move past a full circle. If Isx97 is too small, it may execute this as a
very short arc, appearing to miss the move completely. Isx97 may have to be increased from its effective
default value to cover this case.
For backward compatibility reasons, if Isx97 is set to 0, a threshold value of 2 -20 (about one-millionth) of
a semi-circle will be used.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
173
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Isx98 Coordinate System x Maximum Feedrate
Range:
Non-negative floating-point
Units:
(user position units) / (Isx90 feedrate time units)
Default:
1000.0
Isx98 permits a maximum feedrate to be set for a coordinate system, preventing a program from
accidentally exceeding a specified value. If Isx98 is greater than 0.0, Turbo PMAC will compare each
commanded vector feedrate value from an F command in a motion program to Ix98. If the commanded
feedrate is greater than Isx98, it will use Isx98 instead. This variable permits the system integrator to
place a limit on the speed that a part programmer can command.
Other possible sources of commanded feedrate values, such as Isx86, Isx89, and TM commands, are not
checked against Isx98.
This check of commanded feedrate against Isx98 is done at the programmed move block calculation time,
before any lookahead calculations are done. Lookahead calculations compare individual motor velocities
against Ixx16 limits; they do not check vector velocities.
If Isx98 is set to 0.0, Turbo PMAC will not check the programmed feedrate value against a limit.
See Also:
I-variables Isx86, Isx89
On-line command FRAX
Motion program commands F, FRAX, TM
Isx99 Coordinate System x Cutter-Comp Outside Corner Break Point
Range:
-1.0 - 0.9999
Units:
cosine
Default:
0.9998 (cos 1o)
Isx99 controls the threshold in Coordinate System x between outside corner angles for which an extra arc
move is added in cutter compensation, and those for which the incoming and outgoing moves are directly
blended together.
Isx99 is expressed as the cosine of the change in directed angle between the incoming and outgoing
moves. As such, it can take a value between -1.0 and +1.0. If the two moves have the same directed
angle at the move boundary (i.e. they are moving in the same direction), the change in directed angle is 0,
and the cosine is 1.0.
As the change in directed angle increases, the corner gets sharper, and the cosine of the change in directed
o
angle decreases. For a total reversal, the change in directed angle is 180 , and the cosine is -1.0.
If the cosine of the change in directed angle of an outside corner is less than Isx99 (a large change in
directed angle; a sharp corner), PMAC will add an arc move automatically with a radius equal to the
cutter radius to join the incoming and outgoing moves. This prevents the cutter from moving too far out
when going around the outside of a sharp corner.
If the cosine of the change in directed angle of an outside corner is greater than Isx99 (a small change in
directed angle; a gradual corner), PMAC will directly blend the incoming and outgoing moves with its
normal blending algorithms. This can provide increased speed on small angle changes, because an extra
segment of minimum TA or 2*TS time is not added.
Isx99 does not affect the behavior at inside corners, where the incoming and outgoing moves are always
blended directly together, regardless of the change in directed angle.
Example:
If it is desired that an arc only be added if the change in directed angle is greater than 45o, then Isx99
should be set to 0.707, because cos  = cos 45o = 0.707
174
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Turbo PMAC2 MACRO IC I-Variables
I-Variables numbered in the I6800s and I6900s control hardware aspects of the MACRO ICs 0 to 3 of a
Turbo PMAC2. These ICs control the operation of the MACRO ring on all PMAC2 boards. MACRO IC
0, a DSPGATE2 IC, also controls operation of the general-purpose I/O and two supplemental servo
channels. On the Ultralite versions of the Turbo PMAC2, this IC also controls the frequency of the clock
signals on the board, because the DSPGATE1 Servo ICs are not present.
A UMAC Turbo system may have up to 16 MACRO ICs present, but only four of these can be supported
by automatic firmware functions at any given time.
Starting in V1.936 firmware, I20 through I23 must contain the base addresses of MACRO ICs 0 through
3, respectively. If these are not set correctly, the automatic firmware functions associated with these ICs,
including the I-variables I6800 – I6999, will not function.
Configuration status variable I4902 tells where MACRO ICs are present; I4903 tells whether these ICs
are MACROGATE ICs or DSPGATE2 ICs. Some functions and there supporting I-variables are
available only on DSPGATE2 ICs.
The numbering scheme for the MACRO IC I-Variables is as follows:
 MACRO IC 0:
I6800 – I6849
 MACRO IC 1:
I6850 – I6899
 MACRO IC 2
I6900 – I6949
 MACRO IC 3
I6590 – I6999
Only the Ultralite and 3U versions of the Turbo PMAC2 may contain MACRO ICs 1, 2, and 3, and these
ICs are optional. MACRO ICs 1, 2, and 3 are MACROGATE ICs that only have the MACRO ring
functionality.
I6800/I6850/I6900/I6950
MACRO IC MaxPhase/PWM Frequency Control
Range:
Units:
0 - 32767
MaxPhase Frequency = 117,964.8 kHz / [2*I6800+3]
PWM Frequency = 117,964.8 kHz / [4*I6800+6]
Default:
6527
MaxPhase Frequency = 117,964.8 / 13,057 = 9.0346 kHz
PWM Frequency = 117,964.8 / 26,114 = 4.5173 kHz
I6800, I6850, I6900, and I6950 control the internal MaxPhase clock frequency, and the PWM frequency
for the two machine interface channels (if present), on MACRO ICs 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The
internally generated Phase and Servo clocks on a MACRO IC are derived from the MaxPhase clock.
If the IC is used to generate the Phase and Servo clocks for the PMAC system (as set by I6807 etc.), this
variable is part of the control for the frequency of these clocks.
On a Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite board, MACRO IC 0 provides the Phase and Servo clock signals for the
entire board, so I6800 is used to derive the Phase clock and Servo clock frequencies for the board, along
with I6801 and I6802. (On Turbo PMAC2 boards that are not Ultralite, typically this function is
controlled by I7000, I7001, and I7002, because Servo IC 0 usually controls the board clock frequencies
on these boards.) In a UMAC Turbo system, the MACRO IC on an Acc-5E board can be used to control
these clocks.
MACROGATE ICs, commonly used as MACRO ICs 1, 2, and 3, generate no PWM signals and no Servo
clock signal. Therefore, they cannot be used as the source of the system Phase and Servo clocks, and the
only purpose of this variable is for control of the internal Phase clock signal.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
175
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I6800 (etc.) controls these frequencies by setting the limits of the PWM up-down counter, which
increments and decrements at the PWMCLK frequency of 117,964.8 kHz (117.9648 MHz). The PWM
frequency of MACRO IC 0 determines the frequency of the two single-phase PWM outputs on the JHW
“Handwheel” connector.
The actual phase clock frequency is divided down from the maximum phase clock according to the setting
of I6801 (etc.). On the falling edge of the phase clock, PMAC2 samples any serial analog-to-digital
converters connected to its MACRO ICs (as for phase current measurement), and interrupts the processor
to start any necessary phase commutation and digital current-loop algorithms. Even if phasing and
current-loop algorithms are not used, the MaxPhase and Phase Clock frequencies are important because
the servo clock is derived from the phase clock.
The PWM frequency determines the actual switching frequency of amplifiers connected to any of four
machine interface channels with the direct PWM command. It is important only if the direct PWM
command signal format is used.
The maximum value that can be written into a PWM command register without full saturation is I6800+1
on the positive end, and -I6800-2 on the negative end.
If the MACRO IC is not used to generate the system clocks, this variable for the IC is generally set to the
same value as the comparable variable on the Servo IC (I7000, etc.) or MACRO IC (I6800, etc.) that is
used. The only time a different setting should be used is if it is desired that a different PWM frequency be
generated on the two channels (“DSPGATE2” ICs only) from that of the variable controlling the system
clocks. Certain different frequencies are possible, but they are restricted to the cases where:
2 * PWMFreq ( kHz )
 { Integer }
PhaseFreq
This will keep the PWM hardware on channels 1* and 2* in synchronization with the software algorithms
driven by the system’s Phase clock. For example if the system Phase clock frequency is 10 kHz, the
PWM frequency for channels from a different IC can be 5, 10, 15, 20, (etc.) kHz.
To set I6800 (etc.) for a desired PWM frequency, the following formula can be used:
I 6800 
117 ,964.8( kHz )
 1 (rounded down)
4 * PWM _ Freq( kHz )
To set I6800 (etc.) for a desired “maximum phase” clock frequency, the following formula can be used:
I 6800 
117 ,964.8( kHz )
 1 (rounded down)
2 * MaxPhaseFr eq( kHz )
Example:
To set a PWM frequency of 10 kHz and therefore a MaxPhase clock frequency of 20 kHz:
I6800 = (117,964.8 kHz / [4*10 kHz]) - 1 = 2948
To set a PWM frequency of 7.5 kHz and therefore a MaxPhase clock frequency of 15 kHz:
I6800 = (117,964.8 kHz / [4*7.5 kHz]) - 1 = 3931
See Also:
I7, I10, I67, I6801, I6802, I7000, I7001, I7002
176
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I6801/I6851/I6901/I6951
MACRO IC Phase Clock Frequency Control
Range:
0 - 15
Units:
none
Default:
0
I6801, I6851, I6901, and I6951, in conjunction with I6800, I6850, I6900, and I6950, determine the
frequency of the Phase clock generated inside MACRO ICs 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. However, the
internal clocks on the IC are only used if the clock-direction control I-variable on the IC (I6807 I6857,
I6907, or I6957) is set to 0, specifying that this IC uses its own internal clocks. If this is the case, the IC
outputs the clock signals, and these variables determine the phase clock frequency for the entire PMAC2
system.
On a Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite board, MACRO IC 0 typically provides the Phase clock signal for the entire
board, so that usually I6800 and I6801 control the Ultralite Phase clock frequency.
Specifically, I6801 (etc.) controls how many times the internally generated Phase clock frequency is
divided down from the MaxPhase clock, whose frequency is set by I6800 (etc.). The Phase clock
frequency is equal to the MaxPhase clock frequency divided by (I6801+1). I6801 has a range of 0 to 15,
so the frequency division can be by a factor of 1 to 16. The equation for I6801 is:
I 6801 
MaxPhaseFr eq( kHz )
1
PhaseFreq ( kHz )
The ratio of MaxPhase frequency to Phase Clock frequency must be an integer.
The main software tasks performed on the Phase clock interrupt – commutation and current-loop closure
– are executed every (I7 + 1) Phase clock cycles. With I7 at the default value of 0, they are executed
every cycle. In MACRO systems where the Turbo PMAC is closing the current loo, it can be useful to
send MACRO data twice per phase software update by setting I7 to 1.
Note:
If the phase clock frequency is set too high, lower priority tasks such as
communications can be starved for time. If the background tasks are completely
starved, the watchdog timer will trip, shutting down the board. If a normal reset of
the board does not re-establish a state where the watchdog timer has not tripped
and communications works well, it will be necessary to re-initialize the board by
powering up with the E3 re-initialization jumper on. This restores default settings,
so communication is possible, and the Phase clock frequency can be set to a
supportable value.
I6802/I6852/I6902/I6952
Range:
Units:
Default:
MACRO IC Servo Clock Frequency Control
0 - 15
Servo Clock Frequency = Phase Clock Frequency / (I6802+1)
3
Servo Clock Frequency = 9.0346 kHz / (3+1) = 2.2587 kHz
(with default values of I6800 and I6801 [etc.])
Note:
This I-variable is only active if the MACRO IC is present, and is a DSPGATE2 IC.
The presence and type of MACRO ICs are reported in I4902 and I4903.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
177
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I6802, I6852, I6902, and I6952, in conjunction with I6800 and I6801 (etc.), determine the frequency of
the Servo clock generated inside MACRO ICs 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. However, the internal clocks
on the IC are used only if the clock-direction control I-variable on the IC (I6807 I6857, I6907, or I6957)
is set to 0, specifying that this IC uses its own internal clocks. If this is the case, the IC outputs the clock
signals, and these variables determine the phase clock frequency for the entire PMAC2 system.
Typically, on a Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite board, MACRO IC 0 provides the Servo clock signal for the
entire board, so that I6800, I6801, and I6802 control the Ultralite Servo clock frequency.
Specifically, I6802 controls how many times the Servo clock frequency is divided down from the Phase
clock, whose frequency is set by I6801 and I6800. The Servo clock frequency is equal to the Phase clock
frequency divided by (I6802+1). I6802 has a range of 0 to 15, so the frequency division can be by a
factor of 1 to 16. The equation for I6802 is:
I 6802 
PhaseFreq ( kHz )
1
ServoFreq( kHz )
The ratio of Phase Clock frequency to Servo Clock frequency must be an integer.
For execution of trajectories at the proper speed, I10 must be set properly to tell the trajectory generation
software what the Servo clock cycle time is. The formula for I10 is:
I 10 
8 ,388 ,608
ServoFreq( kHz )
In terms of the variables that determine the Servo clock frequency on a Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite board, the
formula for I10 is:
I 10 
640
2* I 6800  3I 6801  1I 6802  1
9
At the default servo clock frequency, I10 should be set to 3,713,992 in order that Turbo PMAC2’s
interpolation routines use the proper servo update time.
Note:
If the servo clock frequency is set too high, lower priority tasks such as
communications can be starved for time. If the background tasks are completely
starved, the watchdog timer will trip, shutting down the board. If a normal reset of
the board does not re-establish a state where the watchdog timer has not tripped
and communications works well, it will be necessary to re-initialize the board by
powering up with the E3 re-initialization jumper on. This restores default settings,
so communication is possible, and the Servo clock frequency can be set to a
supportable value.
Example:
With a 6.67 kHz Phase Clock frequency established by I6800 and I6801, and a desired 3.33 kHz Servo
Clock frequency:
I6802 = (6.67 / 3.33) - 1 = 2 - 1 = 1
See Also:
I10, I19, I6800, I6801, I7000, I7001, I7002
178
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I6803/I6853/I6903/I6953
Range:
Units:
Default:
MACRO IC Hardware Clock Control
0 - 4095
Individual Clock Dividers
I6803 = Encoder SCLK Divider
+ 8 * PFM_CLK Divider
+ 64 * DAC_CLK Divider
+ 512 * ADC_CLK Divider
where:
Encoder SCLK Frequency = 39.3216 MHz / (2 ^ Encoder SCLK Divider)
PFM_CLK Frequency = 39.3216 MHz / (2 ^ PFM_CLK Divider)
DAC_CLK Frequency = 39.3216 MHz / (2 ^ DAC_CLK Divider)
ADC_CLK Frequency = 39.3216 MHz / (2 ^ ADC_CLK Divider)
2258 = 2 + (8 * 2) + (64 * 3) + (512 * 4)
Encoder SCLK Frequency = 39.3216 MHz / (2 ^ 2) = 9.8304 MHz
PFM_CLK Frequency = 39.3216 MHz / (2 ^ 2) = 9.8304 MHz
DAC_CLK Frequency = 39.3216 MHz / (2 ^ 3) = 4.9152 MHz
ADC_CLK Frequency = 39.3216 MHz / (2 ^ 4) = 2.4576 MHz
Note:
This I-variable is active only if the MACRO IC is present, and is a DSPGATE2 IC.
The presence and type of MACRO ICs are reported in I4902 and I4903.
I6803, I6853, I6903, and I6953 control the frequency of four hardware clock signals -- SCLK,
PFM_CLK, DAC_CLK, and ADC_CLK -- for the two supplemental machine interface channels of
MACRO ICs 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively, provided they are DSPGATE2 ICs. These are 12-bit variables
consisting of four independent 3-bit controls, one for each of the clocks. Each of these clock frequencies
N
can be divided down from a starting 39.3216 MHz frequency by powers of 2, 2 , from 1 to 128 times
(N=0 to 7). This means that the possible frequency settings for each of these clocks are:
Frequency
Divide by
Divider N in 1/2
39.3216 MHz
19.6608 MHz
9.8304 MHz
4.9152 MHz
2.4576 MHz
1.2288 MHz
614.4 kHz
307.2 kHz
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
128
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
N
Very few Turbo PMAC2 users will be required to change the setting of these variables from their default
values.
Note:
In firmware versions V1.933 and older, bit m of I67 must be set to 1 in order to be
able to access this variable on MACRO IC m. In V1.934 and V1.935, Turbo
PMAC automatically enables this variable for any IC present at power-up/reset. In
V1.936 and newer, I2m must contain the base address of MACRO IC m in order to
access this variable on the IC.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
179
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
SCLK: The encoder sample clock signal SCLK controls how often the MACRO IC’s digital hardware
looks at the encoder and flag inputs. The MACRO IC can take at most one count per SCLK cycle, so the
SCLK frequency is the absolute maximum encoder count frequency. SCLK also controls the signal
propagation through the digital delay filters for the encoders and flags; the lower the SCLK frequency, the
greater the noise pulse that can be filtered out. The SCLK frequency should optimally be set to the lowest
value that can accept encoder counts at the maximum possible rate.
PFM_CLK: The pulse-frequency-modulation clock PFM_CLK controls the PFM circuitry that is
commonly used for stepper drives. The maximum pulse frequency possible is 1/4 of the PFM_CLK
frequency. The PFM_CLK frequency should optimally be set to the lowest value that can generate pulses
at the maximum frequency required.
DAC_CLK: The DAC_CLK controls the serial data frequency into D/A converters. If these converters
are on Delta Tau-provided accessories, the DAC_CLK setting should be left at the default value.
ADC_CLK: The ADC_CLK controls the serial data frequency from A/D converters. If these converters
are on Delta Tau-provided accessories, the ADC_CLK setting should be left at the default value.
Note:
By default, the DAC and ADC circuits of a MACRO IC are not used on a Turbo
PMAC2. The DAC and ADC lines are the alternate uses of pins on the
Multiplexer and I/O ports, respectively.
To determine the clock frequencies set by a given value of I6803 (etc.), use the following procedure:
1. Divide I6803 by 512 and round down to the nearest integer. This value N1 is the ADC_CLK divider.
2. Multiply N1 by 512 and subtract the product from I6803 to get I6803'. Divide I6803' by 64 and
round down to the nearest integer. This value N2 is the DAC_CLK divider.
3. Multiply N2 by 64 and subtract the product from I6803' to get I6803''. Divide I6803'' by 8 and round
down to the nearest integer. This value N3 is the PFM_CLK divider.
4. Multiply N3 by 8 and subtract the product from I6803''. The resulting value N4 is the SCLK divider.
Examples:
The maximum encoder count frequency in the application is 800 kHz, so the 1.2288 MHz SCLK
frequency is chosen. A pulse train up to 500 kHz needs to be generated, so the 2.4576 MHz PFM_CLK
frequency is chosen. The default serial DACs and ADCs provided by Delta Tau are used, so the default
DAC_CLK frequency of 4.9152 MHz and the default ADC_CLK frequency of 2.4576 MHz are chosen.
From the table:
SCLK Divider N: 5
PFM_CLK Divider N: 4
DAC_CLK Divider N: 3
ADC_CLK Divider N: 4
I6803 = 5 + (8 * 4) + (64 * 3) + (512 * 4) = 5 + 32 + 192 + 2048 = 2277
I6803 has been set to 3429. What clock frequencies does this set?
N1 = INT (3429/512) = 6
ADC_CLK = 611.44 kHz
I6803' = 3429 - (512*6) = 357
N2 = INT (357/64) = 5
DAC_CLK = 1.2288 MHz
I6803'' = 357 - (64*5) = 37
N3 = INT (37/8) = 4
PFM_CLK = 2.4576 MHz
N4 = 37 - (8*4) = 5
SCLK = 1.2288 MHz
See Also:
I-variables I7m03, I7m53
180
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I6804/I6854/I6904/I6954
Range:
Units:
Default:
MACRO IC PWM Deadtime / PFM Pulse Width Control
0 - 255
16*PWM_CLK cycles / PFM_CLK cycles
PWM Deadtime = [16 / PWM_CLK (MHz)] * I6804 = 0.135 usec * I6804
PFM Pulse Width = [1 / PFM_CLK (MHz)] * I6804
= PFM_CLK_period (usec) * I6804
15
PWM Deadtime = 0.135 usec * 15 = 2.03 sec
PFM Pulse Width = [1 / 9.8304 MHz] * 15 = 1.526 sec (with default I6803)
Note:
This I-variable is only active if the MACRO IC is present, and a DSPGATE2 IC.
The presence and type of MACRO ICs are reported in I4902 and I4903.
I6804, I6854, I6904, and I6954 control the deadtime period between top and bottom on-times in
PMAC2's automatic PWM generation for the two supplemental machine interface channels of MACRO
ICs 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively, provided they are DSPGATE2 ICs. In conjunction with I6803 I6853,
I6903, and I6953, they also control the pulse width for PMAC2’s automatic pulse-frequency modulation
generation for the two machine interface channels on the DSPGATE2 MACRO IC.
The PWM deadtime, which is the delay between the top signal turning off and the bottom signal turning
on, and vice versa, is specified in units of 16 PWM_CLK cycles. This means that the deadtime can be
specified in increments of 0.135 sec. The equation for I6804 (etc.) as a function of PWM deadtime is:
DeadTime(  sec)
I 6804 
0.135  sec
The PFM pulse width is specified in PFM_CLK cycles, as defined by I6803 (etc.). The equation for
I6804 (etc.) as a function of PFM pulse width and PFM_CLK frequency is:
I 6804  PFM _ CLK _ Freq( MHz )* PFM _ Pulse _ Width(  sec)
In PFM pulse generation, the minimum off time between pulses is equal to the pulse width. This means
that the maximum PFM output frequency is
PFM _ Max _ Freq( MHz ) 
PFM _ CLK _ Freq( MHz )
2 * I 6804
Examples:
A PWM deadtime of approximately 1 microsecond is desired:
I6804  1 sec / 0.135 sec  7
With a 2.4576 MHz PFM_CLK frequency, a pulse width of 0.4 sec is desired:
I6804  2.4576 MHz * 0.4 sec  1
See Also:
I-variables I6803 (etc.), I7m03, I7m04
I6805/I6855/I6905/I6955
Range:
Units:
Default:
MACRO IC DAC Strobe Word
$000000 - $FFFFFF
Serial Data Stream (MSB first, starting on rising edge of phase clock)
$7FFFC0 (for 18-bit DACs)
Note:
This I-variable is active only if the MACRO IC is present, and is a DSPGATE2 IC.
The presence and type of MACRO ICs are reported in I4902 and I4903.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
181
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I6805, I6855, I6905, and I6955 control the DAC strobe signal for the two supplemental machine interface
channels of MACRO ICs 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively, provided they are DSPGATE2 ICs.
The 24-bit word set by this variable for the IC is shifted out serially on the DAC_STROB lines, MSB
first, one bit per DAC_CLK cycle starting on the rising edge of the phase clock. The value in the LSB is
held until the next phase clock cycle.
For typical n-bit DACs, the strobe line is held high for n-1 clock cycles. Therefore, the common settings
of this variable are:
 18-bit DACs: $7FFFC0 (high for 17 clock cycles)
 16-bit DACs: $7FFF00 (high for 15 clock cycles)
 12-bit DACs: $7FF000 (high for 11 clock cycles)
Note:
By default, the DAC circuitry of a MACRO IC is not used on a Turbo PMAC2.
The DAC lines are the alternate use of lines on the I/O port.
I6806/I6856/I6906/I6956
Range:
Units:
Default:
MACRO IC ADC Strobe Word
$000000 - $FFFFFF
Serial Data Stream (MSB first, starting on rising edge of phase clock)
$FFFFFE
Note:
This I-variable is only active if the MACRO IC is present, and is a DSPGATE2 IC.
The presence and type of MACRO ICs are reported in I4902 and I4903.
I6806, I6856, I6906, and I6956 control the ADC strobe signal for the two supplemental machine interface
channels of MACRO ICs 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively, provided they are DSPGATE2 ICs. The 24-bit
word set by this variable for the IC is shifted out serially on the ADC_STROB lines, MSB first, one bit
per DAC_CLK cycle starting on the rising edge of the phase clock. The value in the LSB is held until the
next phase clock cycle.
The first 1 creates a rising edge on the ADC_STROB output that is used as a start-convert signal. Some
A/D converters just need this rising edge for the conversion; others need the signal to stay high all of the
way through the conversion. The LSB of I6806 should always be set to 0 so that a rising edge is created
on the next cycle. The default I6806 value of $FFFFFE is suitable for virtually all A/D converters.
The A/D converters used on matching Delta Tau products just need the rising edge at the start of a
conversion cycle; this permits intermediate bits in the data stream to be used as special control bits. Delta
Tau’s Acc-8T Supplemental Flag Multiplexer Board uses these bits to control the multiplexing; Delta
Tau’s Acc-8K1 Fanuc C/S-Series PWM Interface Board uses these bits to control the magnetic contactors
on the drives.
Note:
By default, the ADC circuitry on a MACRO IC is not used on a Turbo PMAC2.
The ADC lines are the alternate use of pins on the Multiplexer port.
I6807/I6857/I6907/I6957
MACRO IC Clock Direction Control
Range:
0 – 3 (DSPGATE2 IC); 0 – 1 (MACROGATE IC)
Units:
none
Default:
System dependent
I6807, I6857, I6907, and I6957 control whether MACRO ICs 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively, use their own
internally generated servo and phase clock signals, or whether they use servo and phase clock signals
from a source external to them (usually MACRO IC 0 or Servo IC 0).
182
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
In any Turbo PMAC2 system, there must be only one source of servo and phase clock signals for the
system – either one of the Servo ICs or MACRO ICs, or a source external to the system. Only in a 3Uformat Turbo PMAC2 system (UMAC Turbo or 3U Turbo Stack) can the system clock signals come from
an accessory board. In all other Turbo PMAC2 systems, the system clock signals must come from and IC
on the base PMAC2 boards, or be brought from an external source through the serial port.
These variables are 2-bit values on DSPGATE2 MACRO ICs, but only 1-bit values on MACROGATE
MACRO ICs. Bit 0 is set to 0 for the IC to use its own Phase clock signal and output it; it is set to 1 to use
an externally input Phase clock signal. Bit 1 (DSPGATE2 only) is set to 1 for the IC to use its own Servo
clock signal and output it; it is set to 1 to use an externally input Servo clock signal. This yields four
possible values for I6807 (etc.):
 I6807 = 0: Internal Phase clock; internal Servo clock
 I6807 = 1: External Phase clock; internal Servo clock
 I6807 = 2: Internal Phase clock; external Servo clock
 I6807 = 3: External Phase clock; external Servo clock
In all normal use, I6807 (etc.) is either set to 0 (on at most one IC) or 3 (on all the other ICs – 1 on
MACROGATE ICs).
In typical use of the Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite, MACRO IC 0, whose Phase clock frequency is controlled
by I6800 and I6801, will generate the Phase clock signal for the entire board, so I6807 is set to 0, and
I6857, I6907, and I6957 should all be set to 1.
Note:
A MACROGATE MACRO IC cannot generate a servo clock signal internally.
Therefore, it cannot be used to provide the system clocks for the Turbo PMAC2
system.
During re-initialization, Turbo PMAC2 determines which IC it will use as the source of its system Phase
and Servo clock signals, setting I19 to the number of the clock-direction I-variable whose IC is selected as
the source. This clock-direction I-variable is then automatically set to 0; all other clock-direction Ivariables are set to 1 or 3. Most users will never change these settings.
When a clock-direction I-variable is commanded to its default value (e.g. I6857=*), Turbo PMAC2
looks to the value of I19 to determine whether this I-variable is set to 0 or 3 (0 or 1 on a MACROGATE
IC).
On the reset of a 3U-format Turbo PMAC2 system (UMAC Turbo or 3U Turbo Stack), the values set for
these I-variables are determined by the saved value of I19, and not by the saved values of these Ivariables themselves. On these systems, to change which IC is the source of the system clocks, change
the value of I19, save this setting, and reset the card.
To change which IC is the source of the system clocks in other Turbo PMAC2 systems, it is best to
change both clock-direction I-variables on a single command line (e.g. I6807=1 I7007=0), then
SAVE these new settings.
If all of the Servo ICs and MACRO ICs in a Turbo PMAC2 system have been set up for external phase
and servo clocks, but these clock signals are not provided, the Turbo PMAC2 will trip its watchdog timer
immediately.
Channel-Specific MACRO IC I-variables
(For MACRO IC Channel n*, where n* = 1 to 2)
I-Variables in the I6810s, I6820s, I6910s, and I6920s control the hardware aspects of the MACRO IC
DSPGATE2 ASIC that provides the machine interface for supplemental channels 1 and 2. Note that few
of these functions are used on the Turbo PMAC2s. By default, only the two encoder inputs and the two
C-channel PWM/PFM outputs are used. These I-variables are not active if the MACRO IC is not present,
or is a MACROGATE IC.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
183
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I68n0/I69n0 MACRO IC Channel n* Encoder/Timer Decode Control
Range:
Units:
Default:
0 - 15
None
7
Note:
This I-variable is only active if the MACRO IC is present, and is a DSPGATE2 IC.
The presence and type of MACRO ICs are reported in I4902 and I4903.
I68n0 and I69n0 control how the encoder input signal for Channel n* (n* = 1 to 2) on a DSPGATE2
MACRO IC is decoded into counts. For MACRO ICs 0 and 2, n = n*; for MACRO ICs 1 and 3, n = n* +
5 (i.e. I6810 controls MACRO IC 0 Channel 1; I6970 controls MACRO IC 3 Channel 2). As such, this
defines the sign and magnitude of a count. The following settings may be used to decode an input signal.
 I68n0/I69n0 = 0:
Pulse and direction CW
 I68n0/I69n0 = 1:
x1 quadrature decode CW
 I68n0/I69n0 = 2:
x2 quadrature decode CW
 I68n0/I69n0 = 3:
x4 quadrature decode CW
 I68n0/I69n0 = 4:
Pulse and direction CCW
 I68n0/I69n0 = 5:
x1 quadrature decode CCW
 I68n0/I69n0 = 6:
x2 quadrature decode CCW
 I68n0/I69n0 = 7:
x4 quadrature decode CCW
 I68n0/I69n0 = 8:
Internal pulse and direction
 I68n0/I69n0 = 9:
Not used
 I68n0/I69n0 = 10: Not used
 I68n0/I69n0 = 11: x6 hall format decode CW*
 I68n0/I69n0 = 12: MLDT pulse timer control
(internal pulse resets timer; external pulse latches timer)
 I68n0/I69n0 = 13: Not used
 I68n0/I69n0 = 14: Not used
 I68n0/I69n0 = 15: x6 hall format decode CCW*
*requires version B or newer of the DSPGATE2 MACRO IC.
In any of the quadrature decode modes, the MACRO IC is expecting two input waveforms on CHAn and
CHBn, each with approximately 50% duty cycle, and approximately one-quarter of a cycle out of phase
with each other. Times-one (x1) decode provides one count per cycle; x2 provides two counts per cycle;
and x4 provides four counts per cycle. The vast majority of users select x4 decode to get maximum
resolution.
The clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise (CCW) options simply control which direction counts up. If
the wrong direction sense is received, simply change to the other option (e.g. from 7 to 3 or vice versa).
WARNING
Changing the direction sense of the decode for the feedback encoder of a motor
that is operating properly will result in unstable positive feedback and a dangerous
runaway condition in the absence of other changes. The output polarity must be
changed as well to re-establish polarity match for stable negative feedback.
In the pulse-and-direction decode modes, the MACRO IC is expecting the pulse train on CHAn, and the
direction (sign) signal on CHBn. If the signal is unidirectional, the CHBn line can be allowed to pull up
to a high state, or it can be hardwired to a high or low state.
184
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
If I68n0/I69n0 is set to 8, the decoder inputs the pulse and direction signal generated by Channel n's pulse
frequency modulator (PFM) output circuitry. This permits the PMAC2 to create a phantom closed loop
when driving an open-loop stepper system. No jumpers or cables are needed to do this; the connection is
entirely within the MACRO IC. The counter polarity automatically matches the PFM output polarity.
If I68n0/I69n0 is set to 11 or 15, Channel n is expecting three Hall-sensor format inputs on CHAn, CHBn,
and CHCn, each with approximately 50% duty cycle, and approximately one-third (120oe) of a cycle out
of phase with each other. The decode circuitry will generate one count on each edge of each signal,
yielding six counts per signal cycle (x6 decode). The difference between 11 and 15 is which direction of
signal causes the counter to count up.
If I68n0/I69n0 is set to 12, the timer circuitry is set up to read magnetostrictive linear displacement
transducers (MLDTs) such as TemposonicsTM. In this mode, the timer is cleared when the PFM circuitry
sends out the excitation pulse to the sensor on PULSEn, and it is latched into the memory-mapped
register when the excitation pulse is received on CHAn.
I68n1/I69n1 MACRO IC Channel n* Position Compare Channel Select
Range:
Units:
Default:
0-1
None
0
Note:
This I-variable is active only if the MACRO IC is present, and is a DSPGATE2 IC.
The presence and type of MACRO ICs are reported in I4902 and I4903.
I68n1 and I69n1 control which channel’s encoder counter is tied to the position compare circuitry for
Channel n* (n* = 1 to 2) on a “DSPGATE2” MACRO IC is decoded into counts. For MACRO ICs 0 and
2, n = n*; for MACRO ICs 1 and 3, n = n* + 5 (i.e. I6811 controls MACRO IC 0 Channel 1; I6971
controls MACRO IC 3 Channel 2). They have the following possible settings:
 I68n1/I69n1 = 0: Use Channel n* encoder counter for position compare function
 I68n1/I69n1 = 1: Use Channel 1* encoder counter on IC for position compare function
When I68n1/I69n1 is set to 0, Channel n*’s position compare registers tied to the channel’s own encoder
counter, and the position compare signal appears only on the EQU output for that channel.
When I68n1/I69n1 is set to 1, the channel's position compare register is tied to the first encoder counter
on the MACRO IC, and the position compare signal appears both on Channel n*’s EQU output, and
combined into the EQU output for Channel 1* on the MACRO IC (EQU1* on the board); executed as a
logical OR.
I68n1 for the first channel performs no effective function, so is always 1. It cannot be set to 0.
Note:
By default, the position compare circuitry on a MACRO IC is not used on Turbo
PMAC2 boards. The compare outputs are the alternate use of lines on the
Multiplexer port.
I68n2/I69n2 MACRO IC Encoder n* Capture Control
Range:
Units:
Default:
0 - 15
none
1
Note:
This I-variable is only active if the MACRO IC is present, and is a DSPGATE2 IC.
The presence and type of MACRO ICs are reported in I4902 and I4903.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
185
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I68n2 and I69n2 determine which input signal or combination of signals, and which polarity, for Channel
n* (n* = 1 to 2) on a DSPGATE2 MACRO IC triggers a hardware position capture of the counter for
Encoder n*. For MACRO ICs 0 and 2, n = n*; for MACRO ICs 1 and 3, n = n* + 5 (i.e. I6812 controls
MACRO IC 0 Channel 1; I6972 controls MACRO IC 3 Channel 2). If a flag input (home, limit, or user)
is used, I68n3/I69n3 determines which flag. Proper setup of this variable is essential for a successful
homing search move or other move-until-trigger for the Motor xx using Channel n* for its position-loop
feedback and flags if the super-accurate hardware position capture function is used. If Ixx97 is at its
default value of 0 to select hardware capture and trigger, this variable must be set up properly.
The following settings of I68n2 may be used:
 I68n2 = 0: Continuous capture
 I68n2 = 1: Capture on Index (CHCn) high
 I68n2 = 2: Capture on Flag n high
 I68n2 = 3: Capture on (Index high AND Flag n high)
 I68n2 = 4: Continuous capture
 I68n2 = 5: Capture on Index (CHCn) low
 I68n2 = 6: Capture on Flag n high
 I68n2 = 7: Capture on (Index low AND Flag n high)
 I68n2 = 8: Continuous capture
 I68n2 = 9: Capture on Index (CHCn) high
 I68n2 = 10: Capture on Flag n low
 I68n2 = 11: Capture on (Index high AND Flag n low)
 I68n2 = 12: Continuous capture
 I68n2 = 13: Capture on Index (CHCn) low
 I68n2 = 14: Capture on Flag n low
 I68n2 = 15: Capture on (Index low and Flag n low)
Only flags and index inputs of the same channel number as the encoder may be used for hardware capture
of that encoder’s position. This means that to use the hardware capture feature for the homing search
move, Ixx25 must use flags of the same channel number as the encoder that Ixx03 uses for position-loop
feedback.
The trigger is armed when the position capture register is read. After this, as soon as the MACRO IC
hardware sees that the specified input lines are in the specified states, the trigger will occur -- it is leveltriggered, not edge-triggered.
Note:
By default, the index-channel and flag inputs of a MACRO IC are not used on a
Turbo PMAC2. The index inputs and flag inputs are alternate uses of pins on the
Multiplexer and I/O ports, respectively.
I68n3/I69n3 MACRO IC Channel n* Capture Flag Select Control
Range:
Units:
Default:
0-3
none
0
Note:
This I-variable is active only if the MACRO IC is present, and is a DSPGATE2 IC.
The presence and type of MACRO ICs are reported in I4902 and I4903.
186
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I68n3 and I69n3 determine which of the Flag inputs will be used for hardware position capture (if one is
used) of the encoder counter of Channel n* (n* = 1 to 2) on a DSPGATE2 MACRO IC. For MACRO
ICs 0 and 2, n = n*; for MACRO ICs 1 and 3, n = n* + 5 (i.e. I6813 controls MACRO IC 0 Channel 1;
I6973 controls MACRO IC 3 Channel 2). I68n2/I69n2 determines whether a flag is used and which
polarity of the flag will cause the trigger. The possible values of I68n3/I69n3 and the flag each selects is:
 I68n3/I69n3 = 0: HOMEn (Home Flag n)
 I68n3/I69n3 = 1: PLIMn (Positive End Limit Flag n)
 I68n3/I69n3 = 2: MLIMn (Negative End Limit Flag n)
 I68n3/I69n3 = 3: USERn (User Flag n)
I68n3/I69n3 is typically set to 0 for homing search moves in order to use the home flag for the channel.
Typically, it is set to 3 afterwards to select the User flag if other uses of the hardware position capture
function are desired, such as for probing and registration. To capture on the PLIMn or MLIMn overtravel
limit flags, disable their normal functions with Ixx25 or use a channel n where none of the flags is used
for the normal axis functions.
Note:
By default, the flag inputs of MACRO IC 0 are not used on a Turbo PMAC2.
I68n4/I69n4 MACRO IC Channel n* Encoder Gated Index Select
Range:
Units:
Default:
0-1
none
0
Note:
This I-variable is only active if the MACRO IC is present, and is a DSPGATE2 IC.
The presence and type of MACRO ICs are reported in I4902 and I4903.
I68n4 and I69n4 control whether the raw encoder index channel input or a version of the input gated by
the AB-quadrature state is used for position capture of the encoder counter of Channel n* (n* = 1 to 2) on
a DSPGATE2 MACRO IC. For MACRO ICs 0 and 2, n = n*; for MACRO ICs 1 and 3, n = n* + 5 (i.e.
I6814 controls MACRO IC 0 Channel 1; I6974 controls MACRO IC 3 Channel 2). They have the
following possible settings:
 I68n4/I69n4 = 0: Use ungated index for encoder position capture
 I68n4/I69n4 = 1: Use index gated by quadrature channels for position capture
When I68n4/I69n4 is set to 0, the encoder index channel input (CHCn) is passed directly into the position
capture circuitry.
When I68n4/I69n4 is set to 1, the encoder index channel input (CHCn) is logically combined with (gated
by) the quadrature signals of Encoder n before going to the position capture circuitry. The intent is to get
a gated index signal exactly one quadrature state wide. This provides a more accurate and repeatable
capture, and makes the use of the capture function to confirm the proper number of counts per revolution
very straightforward.
In order for the gated index capture to work reliably, the index pulse must reliably span one, but only one,
high-high or low-low AB quadrature state of the encoder. I68n5/I69n5 allows the selection of which of
these two possibilities is used.
Note:
If I68n4/I69n4 is set to 1, but I68n2/I69n2 bit 0 is set to 0, so the index is not used
in the position capture, then the encoder position is captured on the first edge of
any of the U, V, or W flag inputs for the channel. In this case, bits 0, 1, and 2 of
the channel status word tell what hall-state edge caused the capture.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
187
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Note:
By default, the index channels of a DSPGATE2 MACRO IC are not used on a
Turbo PMAC2. The index inputs are the “alternate” uses of pins on the
multiplexer port.
I68n5/I69n5 MACRO IC Channel n* Encoder Index Gate State/Demux Control
Range:
Units:
Default:
0-3
none
0
Note:
This I-variable is active only if the MACRO IC is present, and is a DSPGATE2 IC.
The presence and type of MACRO ICs are reported in I4902 and I4903.
I68n5 and I69n5 are 2-bit variables that control two functions for the index channel of the encoder.
When using the gated index feature of Channel n* of a DSPGATE2 MACRO IC for more accurate
position capture (I68n4/I69n4 = 1), bit 0 of I68n5 and I69n5 controls whether the raw index-channel
signal for Encoder n* (n* = 1 to 2) on the MACRO IC is passed through to the position capture signal
only on the high-high quadrature state (bit 0 = 0), or only on the low-low quadrature state (bit 0 = 1). For
MACRO ICs 0 and 2, n = n*; for MACRO ICs 1 and 3, n = n* + 5 (i.e. I6815 controls MACRO IC 0
Channel 1; I6975 controls MACRO IC 3 Channel 2).
Bit 1 of I68n5 and I69n5 controls whether the Servo IC de-multiplexes the index pulse and the three hallstyle commutation states from the third channel based on the quadrature state, as with Yaskawa
incremental encoders. If bit 1 is set to 0, this de-multiplexing function is not performed, and the signal on
the C channel of the encoder is used as the index only. If bit 1 is set to 1, the Servo IC breaks out the
third-channel signal into four separate values, one for each of the four possible AB-quadrature states. The
de-multiplexed hall commutation states can be used to provide power-on phase position using Ixx81 and
Ixx91.
Note:
Immediately after power-up, the Yaskawa encoder cycles its AB outputs forward
and back automatically through a full quadrature cycle to ensure that all of the hall
commutation states are available to the controller before any movement is started.
However, if the encoder is powered up at the same time as the Turbo PMAC, this
will happen before the Servo IC is ready to accept these signals. Bit 2 of the
channel’s status word, Invalid De-multiplex will be set to 1 if the Servo IC has not
seen all of these states when it was ready for them. To use this feature, it is
recommended that the power to the encoder be provided through a softwarecontrolled relay to ensure that valid readings of all states have been read before
using these signals for power-on phasing.
I68n5 and I69n5 have the following possible settings:
 I68n5/I69n5 = 0: Gate index with high-high quadrature state (GI = A and B and C), no demux
 I68n5/I69n5 = 1: Gate index with low-low quadrature state (GI = A/ and B/ and C), no demux
 I68n5/I69n5 = 2 or 3: De-multiplex hall and index from third channel, gating irrelevant
Note:
By default, the index channels of a DSPGATE2 MACRO IC are not used on a
Turbo PMAC2. The index inputs are the alternate uses of pins on the multiplexer
port.
188
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I68n6/I69n6 MACRO IC Channel n* Output Mode Select
Range:
Units:
Default:
0-3
none
0
Note:
This I-variable is active only if the MACRO IC is present, and is a DSPGATE2 IC.
The presence and type of MACRO ICs are reported in I4902 and I4903.
I68n6 and I69n6 control what output formats are used on the command output signal lines for machine
interface channel n* (n* = 1 to 2) on a DSPGATE2 MACRO IC. For MACRO ICs 0 and 2, n = n*; for
MACRO ICs 1 and 3, n = n* + 5 (i.e. I6816 controls MACRO IC 0 Channel 1; I6976 controls MACRO
IC 3 Channel 2). They have the following possible settings:
 I68n6/I69n6 = 0: Outputs A and B are PWM; Output C is PWM
 I68n6/I69n6 = 1: Outputs A and B are DAC; Output C is PWM
 I68n6/I69n6 = 2: Outputs A and B are PWM; Output C is PFM
 I68n6/I69n6 = 3: Outputs A and B are DAC; Output C is PFM
If a three-phase direct PWM command format is desired, I68n6/I69n6 should be set to 0. If signal outputs
for (external) digital-to-analog converters are desired, I68n6/I69n6 should be set to 1 or 3. In this case,
the C output can be used as a supplemental (non-servo) output in either PWM or PFM form. For
example, it can be used to excite an MLDT sensor (e.g. Temposonics TM) in PFM form.
Note:
By default, only the C outputs (PWM or PFM) of MACRO IC 0 are used on a
Turbo PMAC2. The A and B outputs are the alternate use of pins on the I/O port.
I68n7/I69n7 MACRO IC Channel n* Output Invert Control
Range:
Units:
Default:
0-3
none
0
Note:
This I-variable is active only if the MACRO IC is present, and is a DSPGATE2 IC.
The presence and type of MACRO ICs are reported in I4902 and I4903.
I68n7 and I69n7 control the high/low polarity of the command output signals for machine interface
channel n* (n* = 1 to 2) on a “DSPGATE2” MACRO IC. For MACRO ICs 0 and 2, n = n*; for MACRO
ICs 1 and 3, n = n* + 5 (i.e. I6817 controls MACRO IC 0 Channel 1; I6977 controls MACRO IC 3
Channel 2). They have the following possible settings:
 I68n7/I69n7 = 0: Do not invert Outputs A and B; Do not invert Output C
 I68n7/I69n7 = 1: Invert Outputs A and B; Do not invert Output C
 I68n7/I69n7 = 2: Do not invert Outputs A and B; Invert Output C
 I68n7/I69n7 = 3: Invert Outputs A and B; Invert Output C
The default non-inverted outputs are high true. For PWM signals on Outputs A, B, and C, this means that
the transistor-on signal is high. Delta Tau PWM-input amplifiers, and most other PWM-input amplifiers,
expect this non-inverted output format. For such a 3-phase motor drive, I68n7 should be set to 0.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
189
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Note:
If the high/low polarity of the PWM signals is wrong for a particular amplifier,
what was intended to be deadtime between top and bottom on-states as set by
I6804 becomes overlap. If the amplifier input circuitry does not lock this out
properly, this causes an effective momentary short circuit between bus power and
ground. This would destroy the power transistors very quickly.
For PFM signals on Output C, non-inverted means that the pulse-on signal is high (direction polarity is
controlled by I68n8). During a change of direction, the direction bit will change synchronously with the
leading edge of the pulse, which in the non-inverted form is the rising edge. If the drive requires a set-up
time on the direction line before the rising edge of the pulse, the pulse output can be inverted so that the
rising edge is the trailing edge, and the pulse width (established by I6804) is the set-up time.
For DAC signals on Outputs A and B, non-inverted means that a 1 value to the DAC is high. DACs used
on Delta Tau accessory boards, as well as all other known DACs always expect non-inverted inputs, so
I68n7 should always be set to 0 or 2 when using DACs on Channel n.
Note:
Changing the high/low polarity of the digital data to the DACs has the effect of
inverting the voltage sense of the DACs’ analog outputs. This changes the polarity
match between output and feedback. If the feedback loop had been stable with
negative feedback, this change would create destabilizing positive feedback,
resulting in a dangerous runaway condition that would only be stopped when the
motor exceeded Ixx11 fatal following error
Note:
By default, only the C outputs (PWM or PFM) of MACRO IC 0 are used on a
Turbo PMAC2. The A and B outputs are the alternate use of pins on the I/O port.
I68n8/I69n8 MACRO IC Channel n* PFM Direction Signal Invert Control
Range:
Units:
Default:
0-1
none
0
Note:
This I-variable is only active if the MACRO IC is present, and is a “DSPGATE2”
IC. The presence and type of MACRO ICs are reported in I4902 and I4903.
I68n8 and I69n8 control the polarity of the direction output signal in the pulse-and-direction format for
machine interface channel n* (n* = 1 to 2) on a “DSPGATE2” MACRO IC. For MACRO ICs 0 and 2, n
= n*; for MACRO ICs 1 and 3, n = n* + 5 (i.e. I6818 controls MACRO IC 0 Channel 1; I6978 controls
MACRO IC 3 Channel 2). They have the following possible settings:
 I68n8/I69n8 = 0: Do not invert direction signal (+ = low; - = high)
 I68n8/I69n8 = 1: Invert direction signal (- = low; + = high)
If I68n8/I69n8 is set to the default value of 0, a positive direction command provides a low output; if
I68n8/I69n8 is set to 1, a positive direction command provides a high output.
I68n9/I69n9 Reserved for Future Use
190
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
MACRO IC Ring Setup I-variables
I6840/I6890/I6940/I6990
MACRO IC Ring Configuration/Status
Range:
$0000 - $FFFF (0 - 65,535)
Units:
none
Default:
0
I6840, I6890, I6940, and I6990 contain configuration and status bits for MACRO ring operation of
MACRO ICs 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively, on the Turbo PMAC2.
There are 11 configuration bits and 5 status bits, as follows:
Bit #
Value
Type
Function
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
1($1)
2($2)
4($4)
8($8)
16($10)
32($20)
64($40)
128($80)
256($100)
512($200)
1024($400)
2048($800)
4096($1000)
8192($2000)
16384($4000)
32768($8000)
Status
Status
Status
Status
Config
Config
Status
Config
Config
Config
Config
Config
Config
Config
Config
Config
Data Overrun Error (cleared when read)
Byte Violation Error (cleared when read)
Packet Parity Error (cleared when read)
Packet Underrun Error (cleared when read)
Master Station Enable
Synchronizing Master Station Enable
Sync Node Packet Received (cleared when read)
Sync Node Phase Lock Enable
Node 8 Master Address Check Disable
Node 9 Master Address Check Disable
Node 10 Master Address Check Disable
Node 11 Master Address Check Disable
Node 12 Master Address Check Disable
Node 13 Master Address Check Disable
Node 14 Master Address Check Disable
Node 15 Master Address Check Disable
In most applications, the only important configuration bits are bits 4, 5, and 7. In every MACRO ring,
there must be one and only one synchronizing master station (each MACRO IC counts as a separate
station; only one MACRO IC on any card in the ring can be a synchronizing master station). For this
MACRO IC, bits 4 and 5 should be set (1), but bit 7 should be clear (0). On a Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite,
this should be MACRO IC 0, for which I6840 should be set to $30, or $xx30 if any of the high bits are to
be set.
If there are more than one MACRO ICs acting as masters on the ring, the others should not be
synchronizing masters, but they should be set up as masters and enable sync node phase lock to stay
synchronized with the synchronizing master. For these MACRO ICs, bit 4 should be set (1), bit 5 should
be clear (0), and bit 7 should be set (1), so I6890/I6940/I6990 should be set to $90, or $xx90 if any of the
high bits are to be set.
Bits 8-15 can be set individually to disable the master address check for their corresponding node
numbers. This capability is for multi-master broadcast and synchronization. If the master address check
is disabled, only the slave node number part of the packet address must match for a packet to be latched
in. In this way, the synchronizing master can send the same data packet to multiple other master and
slave stations. This common packet can be used to keep multiple stations synchronized using the sync
lock function enabled with bit 7 of I6890/I6940/I6990; the packet number is specified in
I6891/I6941/I6991 (packet 15 is suggested for this purpose).
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
191
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I6841/I6891/I6941/I6991
MACRO IC Node Activate Control
Range:
$000000 to $FFFFFF (0 to 8,388,607)
Units:
none
Default:
$0 (all nodes de-activated)
I6841, I6891, I6941, and I6991 control which of the 16 MACRO nodes on MACRO ICs 0, 1, 2, and 3,
respectively, are activated. They also control the master station number of the IC, and the node number
of the packet that creates a synchronization signal. The bits of these I-variables are arranged as follows:
Bit #
Value
Type
Function
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16-19
20-23
1($1)
2($2)
4($4)
8($8)
16($10)
32($20)
64($40)
128($80)
256($100)
512($200)
1024($400)
2048($800)
4096($1000)
8192($2000)
16384($4000)
32768($8000)
$X0000
$X00000
Config
Config
Config
Config
Config
Config
Config
Config
Config
Config
Config
Config
Config
Config
Config
Config
Config
Config
Node 0 Activate
Node 1 Activate
Node 2 Activate
Node 3 Activate
Node 4 Activate
Node 5 Activate
Node 6 Activate
Node 7 Activate
Node 8 Activate
Node 9 Activate
Node 10 Activate
Node 11 Activate
Node 12 Activate
Node 13 Activate
Node 14 Activate
Node 15 Activate
Packet Sync Node Slave Address (X=0-F)
Master Station Number (X=0-F)
Bits 0 to 15 are individual control bits for the matching node number 0 to 15. If the bit is set to 1, the
node is activated; if the bit is set to 0, the node is de-activated.
Note:
If the use of an activated node n includes auxiliary register functions, including
servo flags, bit n of I72 (IC 1), I74 (IC 2), or I76 (IC 3) must also be set to 1, and
bit n of I73 (IC 1), I75 (IC 2), or I77 (IC 3) must be set properly to 0 or 1 to define
Type 0 or Type 1 auxiliary register functions, respectively.
If MACRO IC m is a master station (likely) as determined by I6840/I6890/I6940/I6990, it will send out a
packet for each activated node every ring cycle (every phase cycle). When it receives a packet for an
activated node, it will latch in that packet and not pass anything on.
If MACRO IC m is a slave station (unlikely but possible) as determined by I6840/I6890/I6940/I6990,
when it receives a packet for an activated node, it will latch in the contents of that packet into its read
registers for that node address, and automatically substitute the contents of its write registers into the
packet.
If a node is disabled, the PMAC2, whether master or slave, will still latch in the contents of a packet it
receives, but it will also pass on the packet unchanged. This feature is useful particularly for the MACRO
broadcast feature, in which multiple stations need to receive the same packet.
192
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Bits 16-19 together specify the slave number part of the packet address (0-15) that will cause a sync lock
pulse on the card, if this function is enabled by I6890/I6940/I6990. This function is useful for a PMAC2
that is a slave or non-synchronizing master on the ring, to keep it locked to the synchronizing master. If
the master address check for this node is disabled with I6890/I6940/I6990, only the slave number must
match to create the sync lock pulse. If the master address check is left enabled, the master number part of
the packet address must match the master number for the card, as set in bits 20-23 of I6891/I6941/I6991.
If this card is the synchronizing master, this function is not enabled, so the value of these bits does not
matter; they can be left at the default of 0.
Bits 20-23 specify the master number for the MACRO IC (0-15). Each MACRO IC on a ring must have
a separate master number, even multiple MACRO ICs on the same Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite. The number
must be specified whether the card is used as a master or a slave.
Hex ($)
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bit
Slave node Enables
Sync node Address (0-15)
Master Address (0-15)
If I78 is set greater than 0 to enable Type 1 master-to-slave auxiliary communications, then bit 15 of
I6891/I6941/I6991 is set to 1 automatically by the firmware at power-up/reset, regardless of the saved
value of I6891/I6941/I6991.
Examples:
Master number 0; Sync node address 0
Activated nodes 0-5; De-activated nodes 6-15:
I6891 =0000 0000 0000 0000 0011 1111 (binary) = $00003F
Master number 1; Sync node address 15 ($F)
Activated nodes 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12; other nodes de-activated:
I6941 = 0001 1111 0001 0101 0101 0101 (binary) = $1F1555
Servo IC I-Variables
I-variables in the range I7000 to I7999 control the hardware setup of the Servo ICs in a Turbo PMAC
system.
There can be up to 10 Servo ICs in a Turbo PMAC system: Servo IC 0 to Servo IC 9; in the I-variable
numbering scheme, the Servo IC number determines the 100’s digit of the I-variable number, represented
by the letter m to refer to any IC generally (e.g. I7m00). Servo ICs 0 and 1 are on board the Turbo PMAC
itself, or on piggyback boards in the 3U Turbo Stack; Servo ICs 2 through 9 are off-board; on Acc-24 or
similar boards with their own Servo ICs.
Servo ICs can be either PMAC-style (DSPGATE) or PMAC2-style (DSPGATE1). The meaning of a
particular I-variable number can differ depending on which type of IC is used. The off-board ICs do not
have to be of the same type as the on-board ICs.
In firmware versions V1.933 and older, the user had tell Turbo PMAC which off-board Servo ICs were
present with I65, and which type they were with I66. In V1.934 and newer, Turbo PMAC automatically
detects the presence and type of all Servo ICs present at each power-up/reset, enables the I-variables for
those present, and selects the I-variables for type of each IC.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
193
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Each Servo IC has four channels of servo interface circuitry, numbered IC channels 1 to 4. In the Ivariable numbering scheme, the IC channel number determines the 10’s digit of the I-variable number,
represented by the letter ‘n’ to refer to any channel generally (e.g. I7mn3).
For even-numbered Servo ICs 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8, the channel numbers 1 – 4 on the IC match the channel
numbers 1 – 4 on the board. For odd-numbered Servo ICs 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9, which require the presence of
Option 1 on the board, the IC channel numbers 1 – 4 correspond to board channel numbers 5 – 8,
respectively.
The following table shows key data about each potential Servo IC in the system:
Servo
IC #
Board
Board
Channel #s
I-Variables
Base
Address
Default
Assignment
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Turbo PMAC
Turbo PMAC
First Acc-24
First Acc-24
Second Acc-24
Second Acc-24
Third Acc-24
Third Acc-24
Fourth Acc-24
Fourth Acc-24
1–4
5–8
1–4
5–8
1–4
5–8
1–4
5–8
1–4
5–8
I7000 – I7049
I7100 – I7149
I7200 – I7249
I7300 – I7349
I7400 – I7449
I7500 – I7549
I7600 – I7649
I7700 – I7749
I7800 – I7849
I7900 – I7949
$078000
$078100
$078200
$078300
$079200
$079300
$07A200
$07A300
$07B200
$07B300
Motors 1-4
Motors 5-8
Motors 9-12
Motors 13-16
Motors 17-20
Motors 21-24
Motors 25-28
Motors 29-32
none
none
Note:
Some new accessory boards for the UMAC 3U-format Turbo PMAC employ
alternate addressing of Servo ICs, labeled Servo ICs 2* through 9*. Servo IC m*
is controlled by I-variables numbered 50 higher than Servo IC m,(e.g. I7250 –
I7299 for Servo IC 2*) and is addressed $20 higher (e.g. $078220 for Servo IC
2*).
PMAC2-Style Multi-Channel Servo IC I-Variables
I-variables in the range I7m00 to I7m09 control global and multi-channel aspects of the hardware setup
using the first “DSPGATE1” Servo IC on the Turbo PMAC2. On Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite boards, there
are no DSPGATE1 Servo ICs on board, so these functions are implemented in the DSPGATE2 ASIC,
which is controlled by variables in the I6800s.
I7m00
Servo IC m MaxPhase/PWM Frequency Control
Range:
Units:
0 - 32767
MaxPhase Frequency = 117,964.8 kHz / [2*I7m00+3]
PWM Frequency = 117,964.8 kHz / [4*I7m00+6]
Default:
6527
MaxPhase Frequency = 117,964.8 / 13057 = 9.0346 kHz
PWM Frequency = 117,964.8 / 26114 = 4.5173 kHz
I7m00 controls the internal MaxPhase clock frequency, and the PWM frequency for the four machine
interface channels, on PMAC2-style Servo IC m (m = 0 to 9). The internally generated Phase and Servo
clocks on Servo IC m are derived from the MaxPhase clock.
If the Servo IC is used to generate the Phase and Servo clocks for the PMAC system (as set by I19 and
the I7m07 variables), this variable is part of the control for the frequency of these system clocks.
194
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
On Turbo PMAC2 boards that are not Ultralite, Servo IC 0 typically provides the Phase and Servo clock
signals for the entire board (I7007 = 0), so I7000 is used to derive the Phase clock and Servo clock
frequencies for the board, along with I7001 and I7002. (On Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite boards, this function
is controlled by I6800, I6801, and I6802, because MACRO IC 0 controls the board clock frequencies on
these boards.)
I7m00 controls these frequencies by setting the limits of the PWM up-down counter, which increments
and decrements at the PWMCLK frequency of 117,964.8 kHz (117.9648 MHz).
The actual Phase clock frequency is divided down from the maximum phase clock according to the
setting of I7001. On the falling edge of the phase clock, PMAC2 samples any serial analog-to-digital
converters connected to its Servo ICs (as for phase current measurement), and interrupts the processor to
start any necessary phase commutation and digital current-loop algorithms. Even if phasing and currentloop algorithms are not used, the MaxPhase and Phase Clock frequencies are important because the servo
clock is derived from the phase clock.
The PWM frequency determines the actual switching frequency of amplifiers connected to any of four
machine interface channels with the direct PWM command. It is only important if the direct PWM
command signal format is used.
The maximum value that can be written into the PWM command register without full saturation is
I7m00+1 on the positive end, and –I7m00-2 on the negative end. Generally, the “PWM scale factor”
Ixx66 for Motor, which determines the maximum PWM command magnitude, is set to I7m00 + 10%.
Generally I7m00 for Servo IC m that is not controlling the system Phase clock frequency is set to the
same value as I7000 or I6800, which controls the board’s Phase clock frequency (with I7001 or I6801). If
a different PWM frequency is desired for the PWM outputs on Servo IC m, I7m00 should be set so that:
2 * PWMFreq ( kHz )
 { Integer }
PhaseFreq
This will keep the PWM hardware on these channels in synchronization with the software algorithms
driven by the system Phase clock.. For example, if the phase frequency is 10 kHz, the PWM frequency
for channels 5 to 8 can be 5, 10, 15, 20, (etc.) kHz.
To set I7m00 for a desired PWM frequency, the following formula can be used:
I 7 m00 
117 ,964.8( kHz )
 1 (rounded down)
4 * PWM _ Freq( kHz )
To set I7000 for a desired “maximum phase” clock frequency, the following formula can be used:
I 7000 
117 ,964.8( kHz )
 1 (rounded down)
2 * MaxPhaseFr eq( kHz )
For accessory boards in which alternate addressing of the Servo IC is used (labeled Servo IC m*), this
function is controlled by I7m50, not I7m00.
Example:
To set a PWM frequency of 10 kHz and therefore a MaxPhase clock frequency of 20 kHz:
I7000 = (117,964.8 kHz / [4*10 kHz]) - 1 = 2948
To set a PWM frequency of 7.5 kHz and therefore a MaxPhase clock frequency of 15 kHz:
I7000 = (117,964.8 kHz / [4*7.5 kHz]) - 1 = 3931
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
195
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I7m01
Servo IC m Phase Clock Frequency Control
Range:
Units:
Default:
0 - 15
Phase Clock Frequency = MaxPhase Frequency / (I7m01+1)
0
Phase Clock Frequency = 9.0346 kHz / 1 = 9.0346 kHz
(with default value of I7m00)
I7m01, in conjunction with I7m00, determines the frequency of the Phase clock generated inside each
PMAC2-style Servo IC m. However, only the Servo IC told to use and output its own Phase clock with
I7m07, typically Servo IC 0 uses the Phase clock signal it generates. This means that I7001, in
conjunction with I7000, typically controls the Phase clock frequency for the entire Turbo PMAC2 system.
(For Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite boards, I6801 and I6800 control this.) Each cycle of the Phase clock, motor
phase commutation and digital current-loop algorithms are performed for specified motors.
Specifically, I7m01 controls how many times the Phase clock frequency is divided down from the
maximum phase clock, whose frequency is set by I7m00. The Phase clock frequency is equal to the
maximum phase clock frequency divided by (I7m01+1). I7m01 has a range of 0 to 15, so the frequency
division can be by a factor of 1 to 16. The equation for I7m01 is:
I 7 m01 
MaxPhaseFr eq( kHz )
1
PhaseFreq ( kHz )
The ratio of MaxPhase Freq. to Phase Clock Freq. must be an integer.
Note:
If the phase clock frequency is set too high, lower priority tasks such as
communications can be starved for time. If the background tasks are completely
starved, the watchdog timer will trip, shutting down the board. If a normal reset of
the board does not re-establish a state where the watchdog timer has not tripped
and communications works well, it will be necessary to re-initialize the board by
powering up with the E3 re-initialization jumper on. This restores default settings,
so communication is possible, and I6000 and I6001 can be set to supportable
values.
For accessory boards in which alternate addressing of the Servo IC is used (labeled Servo IC m*), this
function is controlled by I7m51, not I7m01.
Example:
With a 20 kHz MaxPhase Clock frequency established by I7000, and a desired 6.67 kHz PHASE clock
frequency, the ratio between MaxPhase and Phase is 3:
I7001 = (20 / 6.67) - 1 = 3 -1 = 2
See Also: I19, I7m00, I7m02, I7m07, I6800, I6801, I6802, I6807
I7m02
Servo IC m Servo Clock Frequency Control
Range:
Units:
Default:
0 - 15
Servo Clock Frequency = Phase Clock Frequency / (I7m02+1)
3
Servo Clock Frequency = 9.0346 kHz / (3+1) = 2.2587 kHz
(with default values of I7m00 and I7m01)
I7m02, in conjunction with I7m01 and I7m00, determines the frequency of the Servo clock generated
inside each PMAC2-style Servo IC. However, only the Servo IC told to use and output its own Servo
clock with I7m07, typically Servo IC 0, uses the Servo clock signal it generates.
196
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
This means that I7002, in conjunction with I7001 and I7000, controls the Servo clock frequency for the
entire Turbo PMAC2 system. (For Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite boards, I6802, I6801 and I6800 control this.)
Each cycle of the Servo clock, Turbo PMAC2 updates the commanded position for each activated motor,
and executes the servo algorithm to compute the command to the amplifier or the commutation algorithm.
Specifically, I7m02 controls how many times the Servo clock frequency is divided down from the Phase
clock, whose frequency is set by I7m01 and I7m00. The Servo clock frequency is equal to the Phase
clock frequency divided by (I7m02+1). I7m02 has a range of 0 to 15, so the frequency division can be by
a factor of 1 to 16. The equation for I7m02 is:
I 7 m02 
PhaseFreq ( kHz )
1
ServoFreq( kHz )
The ratio of Phase Clock frequency to Servo Clock frequency must be an integer.
For execution of trajectories at the proper speed, I10 must be set properly to tell the trajectory generation
software what the Servo clock cycle time is. The formula for I10 is:
I 10 
8 ,388 ,608
ServoFreq( kHz )
In terms of the variables that determine the Servo clock frequency on a (non-Ultralite) Turbo PMAC2
board, the formula for I10 is:
I 10 
640
9
2 * I 7000  3I 7001  1I 7002  1
At the default servo clock frequency, I10 should be set to 3,713,992 in order that Turbo PMAC2’s
interpolation routines use the proper servo update time.
Note:
If the servo clock frequency is set too high, lower priority tasks such as
communications can be starved for time. If the background tasks are completely
starved, the watchdog timer will trip, shutting down the board. If a normal reset of
the board does not re-establish a state where the watchdog timer has not tripped
and communications works well, it will be necessary to re-initialize the board by
powering up with the E3 re-initialization jumper on. This restores default settings,
so communication is possible, and I7000, I7001, and I7002 can be set to
supportable values.
For accessory boards in which alternate addressing of the Servo IC is used (labeled Servo IC m*), this
function is controlled by I7m52, not I7m02.
Example:
With a 6.67 kHz Phase Clock frequency established by I7000 and I7001, and a desired 3.33 kHz Servo
Clock frequency:
I7002 = (6.67 / 3.33) - 1 = 2 - 1 = 1
See Also: I10, I19, I7m00, I7m01, I7m07, I6800, I6801, I6802, I6807
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
197
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
I7m03
Servo IC m Hardware Clock Control
Range:
Units:
0 - 4095
Individual Clock Dividers
I7m03 = Encoder SCLK Divider
+ 8 * PFM_CLK Divider
+ 64 * DAC_CLK Divider
+ 512 * ADC_CLK Divider
where:
Encoder SCLK Frequency = 39.3216 MHz / (2 ^ Encoder SCLK Divider)
PFM_CLK Frequency = 39.3216 MHz / (2 ^ PFM_CLK Divider)
DAC_CLK Frequency = 39.3216 MHz / (2 ^ DAC_CLK Divider)
ADC_CLK Frequency = 39.3216 MHz / (2 ^ ADC_CLK Divider)
Default:
2258 = 2 + (8 * 2) + (64 * 3) + (512 * 4)
Encoder SCLK Frequency = 39.3216 MHz / (2 ^ 2) = 9.8304 MHz
PFM_CLK Frequency = 39.3216 MHz / (2 ^ 2) = 9.8304 MHz
DAC_CLK Frequency = 39.3216 MHz / (2 ^ 3) = 4.9152 MHz
ADC_CLK Frequency = 39.3216 MHz / (2 ^ 4) = 2.4576 MHz
I7m03 controls the frequency of four hardware clock frequencies – SCLK, PFM_CLK, DAC_CLK, and
ADC_CLK – for the four machine interface channels on PMAC2-Style Servo IC m. It is a 12-bit variable
consisting of four independent 3-bit controls, one for each of the clocks. Each of these clock frequencies
can be divided down from a starting 39.3216 MHz frequency by powers of 2, 2 N, from 1 to 128 times
(N=0 to 7). This means that the possible frequency settings for each of these clocks are:
Frequency
Divide by
Divider N in 1/2N
39.3216 MHz
19.6608 MHz
9.8304 MHz
4.9152 MHz
2.4576 MHz
1.2288 MHz
614.4 kHz
307.2 kHz
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
128
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Very few Turbo PMAC2 users will be required to change the setting of I7m03 from the default value.
SCLK: The encoder sample clock signal SCLK controls how often Servo IC m’s digital hardware looks
at the encoder and flag inputs. The Servo IC can take at most one count per SCLK cycle, so the SCLK
frequency is the absolute maximum encoder count frequency. SCLK also controls the signal propagation
through the digital delay filters for the encoders and flags; the lower the SCLK frequency, the greater the
noise pulse that can be filtered out. The SCLK frequency should optimally be set to the lowest value that
can accept encoder counts at the maximum possible rate.
PFM_CLK: The pulse-frequency-modulation clock PFM_CLK controls the PFM circuitry that is
commonly used for stepper drives. The maximum pulse frequency possible is 1/4 of the PFM_CLK
frequency. The PFM_CLK frequency should optimally be set to the lowest value that can generate pulses
at the maximum frequency required.
DAC_CLK: The DAC_CLK controls the serial data frequency into D/A converters. If these converters
are on Delta Tau-provided accessories, the DAC_CLK setting should be left at the default value.
ADC_CLK: The ADC_CLK controls the serial data frequency from A/D converters. If these converters
are on Delta Tau-provided accessories, the ADC_CLK setting should be left at the default value.
198
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
To determine the clock frequencies set by a given value of I7m03, use the following procedure:
1. Divide I7m03 by 512 and round down to the nearest integer. This value N1 is the ADC_CLK divider.
2. Multiply N1 by 512 and subtract the product from I7m03 to get I7m03'. Divide I7m03' by 64 and
round down to the nearest integer. This value N2 is the DAC_CLK divider.
3. Multiply N2 by 64 and subtract the product from I7m03' to get I7m03''. Divide I7m03'' by 8 and
round down to the nearest integer. This value N3 is the PFM_CLK divider.
4. Multiply N3 by 8 and subtract the product from I7m03''. The resulting value N4 is the SCLK divider.
For accessory boards in which alternate addressing of the Servo IC is used (labeled Servo IC m*), this
function is controlled by I7m53, not I7m03.
Examples:
The maximum encoder count frequency in the application is 800 kHz, so the 1.2288 MHz SCLK
frequency is chosen. A pulse train up to 500 kHz needs to be generated, so the 2.4576 MHz PFM_CLK
frequency is chosen. The default serial DACs and ADCs provided by Delta Tau are used, so the default
DAC_CLK frequency of 4.9152 MHz and the default ADC_CLK frequency of 2.4576 MHz are chosen.
From the table:
SCLK Divider N: 5
PFM_CLK Divider N: 4
DAC_CLK Divider N: 3
ADC_CLK Divider N: 4
I7m03 = 5 + (8 * 4) + (64 * 3) + (512 * 4) = 5 + 32 + 192 + 2048 = 2277
I7m03 has been set to 3429. What clock frequencies does this set?
N1 = INT (3429/512) = 6
ADC_CLK = 611.44 kHz
I7m03' = 3429 - (512*6) = 357
N2 = INT (357/64) = 5
DAC_CLK = 1.2288 MHz
I7m03'' = 357 - (64*5) = 37
N3 = INT (37/8) = 4
PFM_CLK = 2.4576 MHz
N4 = 37 - (8*4) = 5
SCLK = 1.2288 MHz
See Also: I6803
I7m04
Servo IC m PWM Deadtime / PFM Pulse Width Control
Range:
Units:
0 - 255
16*PWM_CLK cycles / PFM_CLK cycles
PWM Deadtime = [16 / PWM_CLK (MHz)] * I7m04 = 0.135 usec * I7m04
PFM Pulse Width = [1 / PFM_CLK (MHz)] * I7m04
= PFM_CLK_period (usec) * I7m04
Default:
15
PWM Deadtime = 0.135 usec * 15 = 2.03 usec
PFM Pulse Width = [1 / 9.8304 MHz] * 15 = 1.526 usec (with default I7m03)
I7m04 controls the deadtime period between top and bottom on-times in the automatic PWM generation
for machine interface channels on PMAC2-style Servo IC m (m = 0 to 9). In conjunction with I7m03, it
also controls the pulse width for PMAC2's automatic pulse-frequency modulation generation for the
machine interface channels on Servo IC m.
The PWM deadtime, which is the delay between the top signal turning off and the bottom signal turning
on and vice versa, is specified in units of 16 PWM_CLK cycles. This means that the deadtime can be
specified in increments of 0.135 sec. The equation for I7m04 as a function of PWM deadtime is:
I 7 m04 
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
DeadTime(  sec)
0.135  sec
199
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The PFM pulse width is specified in PFM_CLK cycles, as defined by I7m03. The equation for I7m04 as
a function of PFM pulse width and PFM_CLK frequency is:
I 7 m04  PFM _ CLK _ Freq( MHz ) * PFM _ Pulse _ Width(  sec)
In PFM pulse generation, the minimum off time between pulses is equal to the pulse width. This means
that the maximum PFM output frequency is
PFM _ Max _ Freq( MHz ) 
PFM _ CLK _ Freq( MHz )
2 * I 7 m04
For accessory boards in which alternate addressing of the Servo IC is used (labeled Servo IC m*), this
function is controlled by I7m54, not I7m04.
Examples:
A PWM deadtime of approximately 1 microsecond is desired:
I7m04  1 sec / 0.135 sec  7
With a 2.4576 MHz PFM_CLK frequency, a pulse width of 0.4 usec is desired:
I7m04  2.4576 MHz * 0.4 usec  1
See Also: I7m03, I6804
I7m05
Servo IC m DAC Strobe Word
Range:
$000000 - $FFFFFF
Units:
Serial Data Stream (MSB first, starting on rising edge of phase clock)
Default:
$7FFFC0
I7m05 controls the DAC strobe signal for machine interface channels on Servo IC m. The 24-bit word set
by I7m05 is shifted out serially on the DAC_STROB lines, MSB first, one bit per DAC_CLK cycle
starting on the rising edge of the phase clock. The value in the LSB is held until the next phase clock
cycle.
For a typical n-bit DAC, the strobe line is held high for n-1 clock cycles. Therefore, the common settings
of this variable are:
 18-bit DACs: $7FFFC0 (high for 17 clock cycles)
 16-bit DACs: $7FFF00 (high for 15 clock cycles)
 12-bit DACs: $7FF000 (high for 11 clock cycles)
The default I7m05 value of $7FFFC0 is suitable for the 18-bit DACs on the Acc-8E Analog Interface
Board. I7m05 should not be changed from the default unless different DACs are used.
For accessory boards in which alternate addressing of the Servo IC is used (labeled Servo IC m*), this
function is controlled by I7m55, not I7m05.
I7m06
Servo IC m ADC Strobe Word
Range:
$000000 - $FFFFFF
Units:
Serial Data Stream (MSB first, starting on rising edge of phase clock)
Default:
$FFFFFE
I7m06 controls the ADC strobe signal for machine interface channels on Servo IC m. The 24-bit word set
by I7m06 is shifted out serially on the ADC_STROB lines, MSB first, one bit per ADC_CLK cycle starting
on the rising edge of the phase clock. The value in the LSB is held until the next phase clock cycle.
200
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The first 1 creates a rising edge on the ADC_STROB output that is typically used as a start-convert
signal. Some A/D converters just need this rising edge for the conversion; others need the signal to stay
high all of the way through the conversion. The LSB of I7m06 should always be set to 0 so that a rising
edge is created on the next cycle. The default I7m06 value of $FFFFFE is suitable for virtually all A/D
converters.
The A/D converters used on matching Delta Tau products just need the rising edge at the start of a
conversion cycle; this permits intermediate bits in the data stream to be used as special control bits. Delta
Tau’s Acc-8T Supplemental Flag Multiplexer Board uses these bits to control the multiplexing; Delta
Tau’s Acc-8K1 Fanuc C/S-Series PWM Interface Board uses these bits to control the magnetic contactors
on the drives.
For accessory boards in which alternate addressing of the Servo IC is used (labeled Servo IC m*), this
function is controlled by I7m56, not I7m06.
I7m07
Servo IC m Phase/Servo Clock Direction
Range:
Units:
Default:
0-3
None
I7007 = 0 (non-Ultralite); = 3 (Ultralite)
I7107 – I7907 = 3
I7m07 controls whether Servo IC m uses its own internally generated Phase and Servo clock signals as
controlled by I7m00, I7m01, and I7m02, or whether it uses Phase and Servo clock signals from an outside
source.
In any Turbo PMAC2 system, there must be either one and only one source of servo and phase clock
signals for the system – one of the Servo ICs or MACRO ICs, or a source external to the system. Only in
a 3U-format Turbo PMAC2 system (UMAC Turbo or 3U Turbo Stack) can the system clock signals
come from an accessory board. In all other Turbo PMAC2 systems, the system clock signals must come
from and IC on the base PMAC2 boards, or be brought from an external source through the serial port.
I7m07 is a 2-bit value. Bit 0 is set to 0 for the IC to use its own Phase clock signal and output it; it is set
to 1 to use an externally input Phase clock signal. Bit 1 is set to 1 for the IC to use its own Servo clock
signal and output it; it is set to 1 to use an externally input Servo clock signal. This yields four possible
values for I7m07:
 I7m07 = 0: Internal Phase clock; internal Servo clock
 I7m07 = 1: External Phase clock; internal Servo clock
 I7m07 = 2: Internal Phase clock; external Servo clock
 I7m07 = 3: External Phase clock; external Servo clock
In all normal use, I7m07 is either set to 0 (on at most one IC) or 3 (on all the other ICs).
In general, Servo IC 0 or MACRO IC 0 (on an Ultralite board that has no Servo ICs) will be used to
generate Phase and Servo clock signals for the entire PMAC systems, so I7007 is set to 0 (or I6807 on an
Ultralite board), and I7107 through I7907 are set to 3.
During re-initialization, Turbo PMAC2 determines which IC it will use as the source of its system Phase
and Servo clock signals, setting I19 to the number of the clock-direction I-variable whose IC is selected as
the source. This clock-direction I-variable is then automatically set to 0; all other clock-direction Ivariables are set to 1 or 3. Most users will never change these settings.
When a clock-direction I-variable is commanded to its default value (e.g. I7207=*), Turbo PMAC2
looks to the value of I19 to determine whether this I-variable is set to 0 or 3.
On the reset of a 3U-format Turbo PMAC2 system (UMAC Turbo or 3U Turbo Stack), the values set for
these I-variables are determined by the saved value of I19, and not by the saved values of these Ivariables themselves. On these systems, to change which IC is the source of the system clocks, change
the value of I19, save this setting, and reset the card.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
201
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
In other Turbo PMAC2 systems, to change which IC is the source of the system clocks, it is best to
change both clock-direction I-variables on a single command line (e.g. I6807=1 I7007=0), then
SAVE these new settings.
If all of the Servo and MACRO ICs in a Turbo PMAC2 system have been set up for external Phase and
Servo clocks, but these clock signals are not provided, the Turbo PMAC2 will immediately trip its
watchdog timer.
For accessory boards in which alternate addressing of the Servo IC is used (labeled Servo IC m*), this
function is controlled by I7m57, not I7m07.
PMAC2-Style Channel-Specific Servo IC I-Variables
(For Servo IC m Channel n, where m = 0 to 9, and n = 1 to 4)
I7mn0
Servo IC m Channel n Encoder/Timer Decode Control
Range:
0 - 15
Units:
None
Default:
7
I7mn0 controls how the input signal for Encoder n on a PMAC2-style Servo IC m is decoded into counts.
As such, this defines the sign and magnitude of a count. The following settings may be used to decode an
input signal.
 I7mn0 = 0:
Pulse and direction CW
 I7mn0 = 1:
x1 quadrature decode CW
 I7mn0 = 2:
x2 quadrature decode CW
 I7mn0 = 3:
x4 quadrature decode CW
 I7mn0 = 4:
Pulse and direction CCW
 I7mn0 = 5:
x1 quadrature decode CCW
 I7mn0 = 6:
x2 quadrature decode CCW
 I7mn0 = 7:
x4 quadrature decode CCW
 I7mn0 = 8:
Internal pulse and direction
 I7mn0 = 9:
Not used
 I7mn0 = 10:
Not used
 I7mn0 = 11:
x6 hall-format decode CW*
 I7mn0 = 12:
MLDT pulse timer control
(internal pulse resets timer; external pulse latches timer)
 I7mn0 = 13:
Not used
 I7mn0 = 14:
Not used
 I7mn0 = 15:
x6 hall-format decode CCW*
*requires version B or newer of the DSPGATE1 Servo IC.
In any of the quadrature decode modes, the Servo IC is expecting two input waveforms on CHAn and
CHBn, each with approximately 50% duty cycle, and approximately one-quarter of a cycle out of phase
with each other. Times-one (x1) decode provides one count per cycle; x2 provides two counts per cycle;
and x4 provides four counts per cycle. The vast majority of users select x4 decode to get maximum
resolution.
The clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise (CCW) options simply control which direction counts up. If
the wrong direction sense is received, simply change to the other option (e.g. from 7 to 3 or vice versa).
WARNING:
Changing the direction sense of the decode for the feedback encoder of a motor
that is operating properly will result in unstable positive feedback and a dangerous
runaway condition in the absence of other changes. The output polarity must be
changed as well to re-establish polarity match for stable negative feedback.
202
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
In the pulse-and-direction decode modes, the Servo IC is expecting the pulse train on CHAn, and the
direction (sign) signal on CHBn. If the signal is unidirectional, the CHBn line can be allowed to pull up
to a high state, or it can be hardwired to a high or low state.
If I7mn0 is set to 8, the decoder inputs the pulse and direction signal generated by Channel n's pulse
frequency modulator (PFM) output circuitry. This permits the PMAC2 to create a phantom closed loop
when driving an open-loop stepper system. No jumpers or cables are needed to do this; the connection is
entirely within the Servo IC. The counter polarity automatically matches the PFM output polarity.
If I7mn0 is set to 11 or 15, Channel n is expecting three Hall-sensor format inputs on CHAn, CHBn, and
CHCn, each with approximately 50% duty cycle, and approximately one-third (120oe) of a cycle out of
phase with each other. The decode circuitry will generate one count on each edge of each signal, yielding
6 counts per signal cycle (x6 decode). The difference between 11 and 15 is which direction of signal
causes the counter to count up.
If I7mn0 is set to 12, the timer circuitry is set up to read magnetostrictive linear displacement transducers
(MLDTs) such as TemposonicsTM. In this mode, the timer is cleared when the PFM circuitry sends out
the excitation pulse to the sensor on PULSEn, and it is latched into the memory-mapped register when the
excitation pulse is received on CHAn.
I7mn1
Servo IC m Channel n Position Compare Channel Select
Range:
0-1
Units:
None
Default:
0
I7mn1 controls which channel’s encoder counter is tied to the position compare circuitry for Channel n on
a PMAC2-style Servo IC m. It has the following possible settings:
 I7mn1 = 0: Use Channel n encoder counter for position compare function
 I7mn1 = 1: Use Channel 1 encoder counter on IC for position compare function
When I7mn1 is set to 0, Channel n’s position compare registers are tied to the channel's own encoder
counter, and the position compare signal appears only on the EQU output for that channel.
When I7mn1 is set to 1, the channel's position compare register is tied to the first encoder counter on the
Servo IC, and the position compare signal appears both on Channel n’s EQU output, and combined into
the EQU output for Channel 1 on the Servo IC (EQU1 or EQU5 on the board); executed as a logical
AND.
I7m11 performs no effective function, so is always 1. It cannot be set to 0.
I7mn2
Servo IC m Channel n Capture Control
Range:
0 - 15
Units:
none
Default:
1
I7mn2 determines which input signal or combination of signals for Channel n of a PMAC2-style Servo IC
m, and which polarity, triggers a hardware position capture of the counter for Encoder n. If a flag input
(home, limit, or user) is used, I7mn3 determines which flag. Proper setup of this variable is essential for a
successful homing search move or other move-until-trigger for the Motor xx using Channel n for its
position-loop feedback and flags if the super-accurate hardware position capture function is used. If
Ixx97 is at its default value of 0 to select hardware capture and trigger, this variable must be set up
properly.
The following settings of I7mn2 may be used:
 I7mn2 = 0:
Immediate capture
 I7mn2 = 1:
Capture on Index (CHCn) high
 I7mn2 = 2:
Capture on Flag n high
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
203
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference













I7mn2 = 3:
Capture on (Index high AND Flag n high)
I7mn2 = 4:
Immediate capture
I7mn2 = 5:
Capture on Index (CHCn) low
I7mn2 = 6:
Capture on Flag n high
I7mn2 = 7:
Capture on (Index low AND Flag n high)
I7mn2 = 8:
Immediate capture
I7mn2 = 9:
Capture on Index (CHCn) high
I7mn2 = 10:
Capture on Flag n low
I7mn2 = 11:
Capture on (Index high AND Flag n low)
I7mn2 = 12:
Immediate capture
I7mn2 = 13:
Capture on Index (CHCn) low
I7mn2 = 14:
Capture on Flag n low
I7mn2 = 15:
Capture on (Index low AND Flag n low)
Only flags and index inputs of the same channel number as the encoder may be used for hardware capture
of that encoder’s position. This means that to use the hardware capture feature for the homing search
move, Ixx25 must use flags of the same channel number as the encoder that Ixx03 uses for position-loop
feedback.
The trigger is armed when the position capture register is read. After this, as soon as the Servo IC
hardware sees that the specified input lines are in the specified states, the trigger will occur – it is leveltriggered, not edge-triggered.
I7mn3
Servo IC m Channel n Capture Flag Select Control
Range:
0-3
Units:
none
Default:
0
I7mn3 determines which of the Flag inputs will be used for hardware position capture (if one is used) of
the encoder counter of Channel n on a PMAC2-style Servo IC m. I7mn2 determines whether a flag is
used and which polarity of the flag will cause the trigger. The possible values of I7mn3 and the flag each
selects is:
 I7mn3 = 0: HOMEn (Home Flag n)
 I7mn3 = 1: PLIMn (Positive End Limit Flag n)
 I7mn3 = 2: MLIMn (Negative End Limit Flag n)
 I7mn3 = 3: USERn (User Flag n)
Typically, I7mn3 is set to 0 for homing search moves in order to use the home flag for the channel. It is
typically set to 3 afterwards to select the User flag if other uses of the hardware position capture function
are desired, such as for probing and registration. To capture on the PLIMn or MLIMn overtravel limit
flags, disable their normal functions with Ixx24 or use a channel n where none of the flags is used for the
normal axis functions.
I7mn4
Servo IC m Channel n Encoder Gated Index Select
Range:
0-1
Units:
none
Default:
0
I7mn4 controls whether the raw encoder index channel input or a version of the input gated by the ABquadrature state is used for position capture of Encoder n on a PMAC2-style Servo IC m. It has the
following possible settings:
 I7mn4 = 0: Use ungated index for encoder position capture
 I7mn4 = 1: Use index gated by quadrature channels for position capture
204
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
When I7mn4 is set to 0, the encoder index channel input (CHCn) is passed directly into the position
capture circuitry.
When I7mn4 is set to 1, the encoder index channel input (CHCn) is logically combined with (gated by)
the quadrature signals of Encoder n before going to the position capture circuitry. The intent is to get a
gated index signal exactly one quadrature state wide. This provides a more accurate and repeatable
capture, and makes the use of the capture function to confirm the proper number of counts per revolution
very straightforward.
In order for the gated index capture to work reliably, the index pulse must reliably span one, but only one,
high-high or low-low AB quadrature state of the encoder. I7mn5 allows the selection of which of these
two possibilities is used.
Note:
If I7mn4 is set to 1, but I7mn2 bit 0 is set to 0, so the index is not used in the
position capture, then the encoder position is captured on the first edge of any of
the U, V, or W flag inputs for the channel. In this case, bits 0, 1, and 2 of the
channel status word tell what hall-state edge caused the capture.
I7mn5
Servo IC m Channel n Encoder Index Gate State/Demux Control
Range:
0-3
Units:
none
Default:
0
I7mn5 is a 2-bit variable that controls two functions for the index channel of the encoder.
When using the gated index feature of a PMAC2-style Servo IC for more accurate position capture
(I7mn4=1), bit 0 of I7mn5 specifies whether the raw index-channel signal fed into Encoder n of Servo IC
m is passed through to the position capture signal only on the high-high quadrature state (bit 0 = 0), or
only on the low-low quadrature state (bit 0 = 1).
Bit 1 of I7mn5 controls whether the Servo IC de-multiplexes the index pulse and the three hall-style
commutation states from the third channel based on the quadrature state, as with Yaskawa incremental
encoders. If bit 1 is set to 0, this de-multiplexing function is not performed, and the signal on the C
channel of the encoder is used as the index only. If bit 1 is set to 1, the Servo IC breaks out the thirdchannel signal into four separate values, one for each of the four possible AB-quadrature states. The demultiplexed hall commutation states can be used to provide power-on phase position using Ixx81 and
Ixx91.
The following table shows what hall or index state is broken out for each of the four quadrature states:
A
1
1
0
0
B
1
0
0
1
C
Z
U
V
W
Note:
The B revision or newer of the DSPGATE1 Servo IC is required to support this
hall de-multiplexing feature.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
205
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Note:
Immediately after power-up, the Yaskawa encoder automatically cycles its AB
outputs forward and back through a full quadrature cycle to ensure that all of the
hall commutation states are available to the controller before any movement is
started. However, if the encoder is powered up at the same time as the Turbo
PMAC, this will happen before the Servo IC is ready to accept these signals. Bit 2
of the channel’s status word, Invalid De-multiplex, will be set to 1 if the Servo IC
has not seen all of these states when it was ready for them. To use this feature, it is
recommended that the power to the encoder be provided through a softwarecontrolled relay to ensure that valid readings of all states have been read before
using these signals for power-on phasing.
I7mn5 has the following possible settings:
 I7mn5 = 0: Gate index with high-high quadrature state (GI = A and B and C), no demux
 I7mn5 = 1: Gate index with low-low quadrature state (GI = A/ and B/ and C), no demux
 I7mn5 = 2 or 3: De-multiplex hall and index from third channel, gating irrelevant
I7mn6
Servo IC m Channel n Output Mode Select
Range:
0-3
Units:
none
Default:
0
I7mn6 controls what output formats are used on the command output signal lines for machine interface
channel n of a PMAC2-style Servo IC m. It has the following possible settings:
 I7mn6 = 0: Outputs A and B are PWM; Output C is PWM
 I7mn6 = 1: Outputs A and B are DAC; Output C is PWM
 I7mn6 = 2: Outputs A and B are PWM; Output C is PFM
 I7mn6 = 3: Outputs A and B are DAC; Output C is PFM
If a three-phase direct PWM command format is desired, I7mn6 should be set to 0. If signal outputs for
(external) digital-to-analog converters are desired, I7mn6 should be set to 1 or 3. In this case, the C
output can be used as a supplemental (non-servo) output in either PWM or PFM form. For example, it
can be used to excite an MLDT sensor (e.g. Temposonics ™) in PFM form.
I7mn7
Servo IC m Channel n Output Invert Control
Range:
0-3
Units:
none
Default:
0
I7mn7 controls the high/low polarity of the command output signals for Channel n on a PMAC2-style
Servo IC m. It has the following possible settings:
 I7mn7 = 0: Do not invert Outputs A and B; Do not invert Output C
 I7mn7 = 1: Invert Outputs A and B; Do not invert Output C
 I7mn7 = 2: Do not invert Outputs A and B; Invert Output C
 I7mn7 = 3: Invert Outputs A and B; Invert Output C
The default non-inverted outputs are high true. For PWM signals on Outputs A, B, and C, this means that
the transistor-on signal is high. Delta Tau PWM-input amplifiers, and most other PWM-input amplifiers,
expect this non-inverted output format. For such a 3-phase motor drive, I7mn7 should be set to 0.
206
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Note:
If the high/low polarity of the PWM signals is wrong for a particular amplifier,
what was intended to be deadtime between top and bottom on states, as set by
I6m04 becomes overlap. If the amplifier-input circuitry does not lock this out
properly, this causes an effective momentary short circuit between bus power and
ground. This would destroy the power transistors very quickly.
For PFM signals on Output C, non-inverted means that the pulse-on signal is high (direction polarity is
controlled by I7mn8). During a change of direction, the direction bit will change synchronously with the
leading edge of the pulse, which in the non-inverted form is the rising edge. If the drive requires a set-up
time on the direction line before the rising edge of the pulse, the pulse output can be inverted so that the
rising edge is the trailing edge, and the pulse width (established by I6m04) is the set-up time.
For DAC signals on Outputs A and B, non-inverted means that a 1 value to the DAC is high. DACs used
on Delta Tau accessory boards, as well as all other known DACs always expect non-inverted inputs, so
I6mn7 should always be set to 0 or 2 when using DACs on Channel n.
Note:
Changing the high/low polarity of the digital data to the DACs has the effect of
inverting the voltage sense of the DACs’ analog outputs. This changes the polarity
match between output and feedback. If the feedback loop had been stable with
negative feedback, this change would create destabilizing positive feedback,
resulting in a dangerous runaway condition that would only be stopped when the
motor exceeded Ixx11 fatal following error
I7mn8
Servo IC m Channel n PFM Direction Signal Invert Control
Range:
0-1
Units:
none
Default:
0
I7mn8 controls the polarity of the direction output signal in the pulse-and-direction format for Channel n
of a PMAC2-style Servo IC m. It is only active if I7mn6 has been set to 2 or 3 to use Output C as a
pulse-frequency-modulated (PFM) output. It has the following possible settings:
 I7mn8 = 0: Do not invert direction signal (+ = low; - = high)
 I7mn8 = 1: Invert direction signal (- = low; + = high)
If I7mn8 is set to the default value of 0, a positive direction command provides a low output; if I7mn8 is
set to 1, a positive direction command provides a high output.
I7mn9
Servo IC m Channel n Hardware-1/T Control
Range:
0–1
Units:
none
Default:
0
I7mn9 controls whether the hardware-1/T functionality is enabled for Channel n of a PMAC2-style Servo
IC m. If I7mn9 is set to the default value of 0, the hardware-1/T functionality is disabled, permitting the
use of the software-1/T position extension that is calculated by default with encoder conversion method
$0. If I7mn9 is set to 1, the hardware-1/T functionality is enabled (if present on the IC), and the software1/T cannot be used.
The hardware-1/T functionality is present only on Revision D and newer of the PMAC2-style
DSPGATE1 IC, released at the beginning of the year 2002. Setting I7mn9 to 1 on an older revision IC
does nothing – software-1/T functions can still be used. However, it is strongly recommended that I7mn9
be left at 0 in this case, to prevent possible problems when copying a configuration to newer hardware.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
207
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
When the hardware-1/T functionality is enabled, the IC computes a new fractional-count position estimate
based on timers every SCLK (encoder sample clock) cycle. This permits the fractional count data to be
used for hardware capture and compare functions, enhancing their resolution. The sub-count positioncapture data can be used automatically in Turbo PMAC triggered-move functions if bit 12 of Ixx24 is set
to 1. This is particularly useful when the IC is used on an Acc-51 high-resolution analog-encoder
interpolator board. However, it replaces the timer registers at the first two “Y” addresses for the channel
with fractional count position data, so the traditional software-1/T method of the conversion table cannot
work if this is enabled.
If the hardware-1/T functionality is enabled and to be able to use 1/T interpolation in the servo loop, use
the hardware-1/T extension method ($C method digit with the mode switch bit set to 1) in the encoder
conversion table.
PMAC-Style Servo IC Setup I-Variables
I7mn0
Servo IC m Channel n Encoder/Timer Decode Control
Range:
0 - 15
Units:
None
Default:
7
I7mn0 controls how the input signal for Encoder n on PMAC-style Servo IC m is decoded into counts.
As such, this defines the sign and magnitude of a count. The following settings may be used to decode an
input signal.
 I7mn0 = 0: Pulse and direction CW
 I7mn0 = 1: x1 quadrature decode CW
 I7mn0 = 2: x2 quadrature decode CW
 I7mn0 = 3: x4 quadrature decode CW
 I7mn0 = 4: Pulse and direction CCW
 I7mn0 = 5: x1 quadrature decode CCW
 I7mn0 = 6: x2 quadrature decode CCW
 I7mn0 = 7: x4 quadrature decode CCW
In any of the quadrature decode modes, PMAC is expecting two input waveforms on CHAn and CHBn,
each with approximately 50% duty cycle, and approximately one-quarter of a cycle out of phase with
each other. Times-one (x1) decode provides one count per cycle; x2 provides two counts per cycle; and
x4 provides four counts per cycle. The vast majority of users select x4 decode to get maximum
resolution.
The clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise (CCW) options simply control which direction counts up. If
the wrong direction sense is received, simply change to the other option (e.g. from 7 to 3 or vice versa).
WARNING:
Changing the direction sense of the encoder decode for a motor that is servoing
properly will result in unstable positive feedback and a dangerous runaway
condition in the absence of other changes (for motors not commutated by PMAC
from the same encoder). The output polarity must be changed as well to reestablish polarity match for stable negative feedback.
In the pulse-and-direction decode modes, PMAC is expecting the pulse train on CHAn, and the direction
(sign) signal on CHBn. If the signal is unidirectional, the CHBn input can be tied high (to +5V) or low
(to GND), or, if set up by E18-E21, E24-E27 for single-ended (non-differential) input, left to float high.
Any spare encoder counters may be used as fast and accurate timers by setting this parameter in the 8 to
15 range. In this range, any input signal is ignored.
208
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The following settings may be used in timer mode:
 I7mn0 = 8:
Timer counting up at SCLK/10
 I7mn0 = 9:
Timer counting up at SCLK/10
 I7mn0 = 10:
Timer counting up at SCLK/5
 I7mn0 = 11:
Timer counting up at SCLK/2.5
 I7mn0 = 12:
Timer counting down at SCLK/10
 I7mn0 = 13:
Timer counting down at SCLK/10
 I7mn0 = 14:
Timer counting down at SCLK/5
 I7mn0 = 15:
Timer counting down at SCLK/2.5
These timers are useful particularly when the related capture and compare registers are utilized for precise
event marking and control, including triggered time base. The SLCK frequency is determined by the
crystal clock frequency and E34-E38.
I7mn1
Servo IC m Channel n Encoder Filter Disable
Range:
0-1
Units:
None
Default:
0
I7mn1 controls whether the Encoder n on PMAC-style Servo IC m enables or disables its digital delay
filter. The possible settings of I7mn1 are:
 I7mn1 = 0: Encoder n digital delay filter enabled
 I7mn1 = 1: Encoder n digital delay filter disabled (bypassed)
The filter is a 3-stage digital delay filter with best-2-of-3 voting to help suppress noise spikes on the input
lines. It does introduce a small delay into the signal, which can be unacceptable if the motor is using
interpolated sub-count parallel data input, because of loss of synchronization between the quadrature and
parallel data signals.
Generally, the only people to disable this filter are those using the special interpolated parallel data
format. These people should disable the filters both on the encoder for their quadrature signals and the
encoder matching their parallel data input.
The sampling frequency for the filter is that of the SCLK signal, which is set by the master clock
frequency and jumpers E34-E38. The higher the frequency of SCLK, the higher the possible count rate,
but the narrower the pulse that can be filtered out. SCLK should be set to allow the maximum expected
encoder frequency, but no faster, in order to provide the maximum noise protection.
I7mn2
Servo IC m Channel n Capture Control
Range:
0 - 15
Units:
none
Default:
1
I7mn2 determines which input signal or combination of signals for PMAC-style Servo IC m Channel n,
and which polarity, triggers a hardware position capture of the counter for Encoder n. If a flag input
(home, limit, or user) is used, I7mn3 determines which flag. Proper setup of this variable is essential for a
successful homing search move or other move-until-trigger for the Motor xx using Channel n for its
position-loop feedback and flags if the super-accurate hardware position capture function is used. If
Ixx97 is at its default value of 0 to select hardware capture and trigger, this variable must be set up
properly.
The following settings of I7mn2 may be used:
 I7mn2 = 0:
Software control – armed
 I7mn2 = 1:
Capture on Index (CHCn) high
 I7mn2 = 2:
Capture on Flag n high
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
209
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference













I7mn2 = 3:
Capture on (Index high AND Flag n high)
I7mn2 = 4:
Software control – triggered
I7mn2 = 5:
Capture on Index (CHCn) low
I7mn2 = 6:
Capture on Flag n high
I7mn2 = 7:
Capture on (Index low AND Flag n high)
I7mn2 = 8:
Software control – armed
I7mn2 = 9:
Capture on Index (CHCn) high
I7mn2 = 10:
Capture on Flag n low
I7mn2 = 11:
Capture on (Index high AND Flag n low)
I7mn2 = 12:
Software control – triggered
I7mn2 = 13:
Capture on Index (CHCn) low
I7mn2 = 14:
Capture on Flag n low
I7mn2 = 15:
Capture on (Index low AND Flag n low)
Only flags and index inputs of the same channel number as the encoder may be used for hardware capture
of that encoder’s position. This means that to use the hardware capture feature for the homing search
move, Ixx25 must use flags of the same channel number as the encoder that Ixx03 uses for position-loop
feedback.
The trigger is armed when the position capture register is read. After this, as soon as the Servo IC
hardware sees that the specified input lines change into the specified states, the trigger will occur -- it is
edge-triggered, not level-triggered.
Note:
Several of these values are redundant. To do a software-controlled position
capture, preset this parameter to 0 or 8; when the parameter is then changed to 4 or
12, the capture is triggered (this is not of much practical use, but can be valuable
for testing the capture function).
I7mn3
Servo IC m Channel n Capture Flag Select Control
Range:
0-3
Units:
none
Default:
0
I7mn3 determines which of the Flag inputs will be used for hardware position capture (if one is used) of
the encoder counter of Channel n on PMAC-style Servo IC m. I7mn2 determines whether a flag is used
and which polarity of the flag will cause the trigger. The possible values of I7mn3 and the flag each
selects is:
 I7mn3 = 0: HMFLn (Home Flag n)
 I7mn3 = 1: -LIMn (Positive End Limit Flag n)
 I7mn3 = 2: +LIMn (Negative End Limit Flag n)
 I7mn3 = 3: FAULTn (Amplifier Fault Flag n)
Typically, I7mn3 is set to 0 for homing search moves in order to use the home flag for the channel. To
capture on the -LIMn or +LIMn overtravel limit flags or the FAULTn amplifier fault flag, disable their
normal functions with Ixx25 or use a channel n where none of the flags is used for the normal axis
functions.
Note:
The direction sense of the limit inputs is the opposite of what many people
consider intuitive. That is, the +LIMn input, when taken high (opened), stops
commanded motion in the negative direction; the -LIMn input, when taken high,
stops commanded motion in the positive direction. It is important to confirm the
direction sense of the limit inputs in actual operation.
210
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Conversion Table I-Variables
I8000 - I8191 Conversion Table Setup Lines
Range:
$000000 - $FFFFFF
Units:
Modified Turbo PMAC Addresses
Defaults:
Turbo PMAC Defaults
I-Var.
Setting
Meaning
I8000
$078000
I8001
$078004
I8002
$078008
I8003
$07800C
Note: I8008 - I8191 = 0
I-Var.
Setting
Meaning
1/T Extension of Encoder 1
1/T Extension of Encoder 2
1/T Extension of Encoder 3
1/T Extension of Encoder 4
I8004
I8005
I8006
I8007
$078100
$078104
$078108
$07810C
1/T Extension of Encoder 5
1/T Extension of Encoder 6
1/T Extension of Encoder 7
1/T Extension of Encoder 8
Meaning
I-Var.
Setting
Meaning
1/T Extension of Encoder 1
1/T Extension of Encoder 2
1/T Extension of Encoder 3
1/T Extension of Encoder 4
I8004
I8005
I8006
I8007
$078100
$078108
$078110
$078118
1/T Extension of Encoder 5
1/T Extension of Encoder 6
1/T Extension of Encoder 7
1/T Extension of Encoder 8
Turbo PMAC2 Defaults
I-Var.
Setting
I8000
$078000
I8001
$078008
I8002
$078010
I8003
$078018
Note: I8008 - I8191 = 0
Turbo PMAC2 Ultralite Defaults
I-Var.
Setting
Meaning
I8000
$2F8420 MACRO Node 0 Reg. 0 Read
I8001
$018000 24 bits, bit 0 LSB
I8002
$2F8424 MACRO Node 1 Reg. 0 Read
I8003
$018000 24 bits, bit 0 LSB
I8004
$2F8428 MACRO Node 4 Reg. 0 Read
I8005
$018000 24 bits, bit 0 LSB
I8006
$2F842C MACRO Node 5 Reg. 0 Read
I8007
$018000 24 bits, bit 0 LSB
Note: I8016 - I8191 = 0
I-Var.
Setting
I8008
I8009
I8010
I8011
I8012
I8013
I8014
I8015
$2F8430
$018000
$2F8434
$018000
$2F8438
$018000
$2F843C
$018000
Meaning
MACRO Node 8 Reg. 0 Read
24 bits, bit 0 LSB
MACRO Node 9 Reg. 0 Read
24 bits, bit 0 LSB
MACRO Node 12 Reg. 0 Read
24 bits, bit 0 LSB
MACRO Node 13 Reg. 0 Read
24 bits, bit 0 LSB
I8000 to I8191 form the 192 setup lines of the Turbo PMAC’s Encoder Conversion Table (ECT). The
main purpose of the ECT is to provide a pre-processing of feedback and master data to prepare it for use
by the servo loop. It can also be used to execute certain simple calculations at the servo update
frequency.
Each I-variable occupies a fixed register in the Turbo PMAC’s memory map. The register addresses are
important, because the results of the ECT are accessed by address.
The ECT has two halves: setup and results. The setup half resides in Turbo PMAC’s Y-memory, and can
be accessed through these 192 I-variables. The result half resides in Turbo PMAC’s X-memory. Each of
the 192 I-variables has a matching result X-register at the same numerical address. If the entry consists of
more than one line, the last line has the final result; any previous lines contain intermediate results.
The entries in the ECT are usually set up through the table’s configuration menu in the PMAC Executive
program.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
211
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The following table shows the address of each ECT I-variable.
I-Variable
Address
I-Variable
Address
I-Variable
Address
I-Variable
Address
I8000
I8001
I8002
I8003
I8004
I8005
I8006
I8007
I8008
I8009
I8010
I8011
I8012
I8013
I8014
I8015
I8016
I8017
I8018
I8019
I8020
I8021
I8022
I8023
I8024
I8025
I8026
I8027
I8028
I8029
I8030
I8031
I8032
I8033
I8034
I8035
I8036
I8037
I8038
I8039
I8040
I8041
I8042
I8043
I8044
I8045
I8046
I8047
$003501
$003502
$003503
$003504
$003505
$003506
$003507
$003508
$003509
$00350A
$00350B
$00350C
$00350D
$00350E
$00350F
$003510
$003511
$003512
$003513
$003514
$003515
$003516
$003517
$003518
$003519
$00351A
$00351B
$00351C
$00351D
$00351E
$00351F
$003520
$003521
$003522
$003523
$003524
$003525
$003526
$003527
$003528
$003529
$00352A
$00352B
$00352C
$00352D
$00352E
$00352F
$003530
I8048
I8049
I8050
I8051
I8052
I8053
I8054
I8055
I8056
I8057
I8058
I8059
I8060
I8061
I8062
I8063
I8064
I8065
I8066
I8067
I8068
I8069
I8070
I8071
I8072
I8073
I8074
I8075
I8076
I8077
I8078
I8079
I8080
I8081
I8082
I8083
I8084
I8085
I8086
I8087
I8088
I8089
I8090
I8091
I8092
I8093
I8094
I8095
$003531
$003532
$003533
$003534
$003535
$003536
$003537
$003538
$003539
$00353A
$00353B
$00353C
$00353D
$00353E
$00353F
$003540
$003541
$003542
$003543
$003544
$003545
$003546
$003547
$003548
$003549
$00354A
$00354B
$00354C
$00354D
$00354E
$00354F
$003550
$003551
$003552
$003553
$003554
$003555
$003556
$003557
$003558
$003559
$00355A
$00355B
$00355C
$00355D
$00355E
$00355F
$003560
I8096
I8097
I8098
I8099
I8100
I8101
I8102
I8103
I8104
I8105
I8106
I8107
I8108
I8109
I8110
I8111
I8112
I8113
I8114
I8115
I8116
I8117
I8118
I8119
I8120
I8121
I8122
I8123
I8124
I8125
I8126
I8127
I8128
I8129
I8130
I8131
I8132
I8133
I8134
I8135
I8136
I8137
I8138
I8139
I8140
I8141
I8142
I8143
$003561
$003562
$003563
$003564
$003565
$003566
$003567
$003568
$003569
$00356A
$00356B
$00356C
$00356D
$00356E
$00356F
$003570
$003571
$003572
$003573
$003574
$003575
$003576
$003577
$003578
$003579
$00357A
$00357B
$00357C
$00357D
$00357E
$00357F
$003580
$003581
$003582
$003583
$003584
$003585
$003586
$003587
$003588
$003589
$00358A
$00358B
$00358C
$00358D
$00358E
$00358F
$003590
I8144
I8145
I8146
I8147
I8148
I8149
I8150
I8151
I8152
I8153
I8154
I8155
I8156
I8157
I8158
I8159
I8160
I8161
I8162
I8163
I8164
I8165
I8166
I8167
I8168
I8169
I8170
I8171
I8172
I8173
I8174
I8175
I8176
I8177
I8178
I8179
I8180
I8181
I8182
I8183
I8184
I8185
I8186
I8187
I8188
I8189
I8190
I8191
$003591
$003592
$003593
$003594
$003595
$003596
$003597
$003598
$003599
$00359A
$00359B
$00359C
$00359D
$00359E
$00359F
$0035A0
$0035A1
$0035A2
$0035A3
$0035A4
$0035A5
$0035A6
$0035A7
$0035A8
$0035A9
$0035AA
$0035AB
$0035AC
$0035AD
$0035AE
$0035AF
$0035B0
$0035B1
$0035B2
$0035B3
$0035B4
$0035B5
$0035B6
$0035B7
$0035B8
$0035B9
$0035BA
$0035BB
$0035BC
$0035BD
$0035BE
$0035BF
$0035C0
212
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Table Structure: The ECT consists of a series of entries, with each entry creating one processed
(converted) feedback value. An entry in the ECT can have 1, 2, or 3 lines, with each line containing a 24bit setup word (I-variable) in Y-memory, and a 24-bit result register in X-memory. Therefore, each entry
contains 1, 2, or 3 of these 24-bit I-variables. The final result is always in the X-memory register
matching the last I-variable in the entry.
The variables that commonly contain the address of the last line of the entry are Ixx03 Motor xx PositionLoop Feedback Address, Ixx04 Motor xx Velocity-Loop Feedback Address, Ixx05 Motor xx Master
Position Address and Isx93 Coordinate System x Time-Base Address.
The addresses for these variables can be specified directly using the above table (e.g. I103=$3501) or
by reference to the table I-variable with the special on-line command I{constant}[email protected]{constant},
which sets the first I-variable to the address of the second (e.g. [email protected]).
Entry First Line: The first line’s setup register (I-variable) in each entry consists of a source address in
the low 19 bits (bits 0 – 18), which contains the Turbo PMAC address of the raw data to be processed, a
possible mode switch in bit 19 and a method value in the high 4 bits (first hex digit), which specifies how
this data is to be processed. If the first line (I-variable) in the entry is $000000, this signifies the end of
the active table, regardless of what subsequent entries in the table (higher numbered I-variables) contain.
Entry Additional Lines: Depending on the method, one or two additional lines (I-variables) may be
required in the entry to provide further instructions on processing.
The following table summarizes the content of entries in the Encoder Conversion Table:
Method
Digit
# of
lines
Process Defined
Mode Switch
1st Additional Line
2nd Additional
Line
$0
1
1/T Extension of
Incremental Encoder
None
-
-
$1
1
ACC-28 style A/D
converter (high 16 bits,
no rollover)
0 = signed data
-
-
Width/Offset
Word
-
Width/Offset
Word
Max Change per
Cycle
$2
$3
2
3
1 = unsigned data
Parallel Y-word data, no
filtering
0 = normal shift
Parallel Y-word data,
with filtering
0 = normal shift
1 = unshifted
1 = unshifted
$4
2
“Time Base” scaled
digital differentiation
None
Time Base Scale
Factor
-
$5
2
Integrated ACC-28 style
A/D converter
0 = signed data
Input Bias
-
Width/Offset
Word
-
Width/Offset
Word
Max Change per
Cycle
-
-
Time Base Scale
Factor
-
$6
$7
$8
$9
2
3
1
2
1 = unsigned data
Parallel Y/X-word data,
no filtering
0 = normal shift
Parallel Y/X-word data,
with filtering
0 = normal shift
Parallel Extension of
Incremental Encoder
0 = PMAC(1) IC
Triggered Time Base,
frozen
0 = PMAC(1) IC
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
1 = unshifted
1 = unshifted
1 = PMAC2 IC
1 = PMAC2 IC
213
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
$A
$B
$C
$D
2
2
1
3/5
Triggered Time Base,
running
0 = PMAC(1) IC
Triggered Time Base,
armed
0 = PMAC(1) IC
Incremental Encoder, no
or HW 1/T extension
0 = No Extension
Low-pass filter of parallel
data
0 = Exponential
filter
1 = PMAC2 IC
1 = PMAC2 IC
Time Base Scale
Factor
-
Time Base Scale
Factor
-
-
-
Max Change per
Cycle
Filter Gain
(Inverse Time
Constant);
1= HW 1/T Ext
1 = Tracking
Filter
(5) Integral Gain
$E
1
Sum or difference of
entries
None
-
-
$F
-
(Extended entry – type
determined by 1st digit of
2nd line)
-
-
-
$F/$0
3
High-Resolution
Interpolator Feedback
0 = PMAC(1) IC
$0 Method digit
& Address of 1st
A/D converter
A/D Bias Term
1 = PMAC2 IC
$F/$1
5
High-Resolution
Interpolator Diagnostic
-
-
Active A/D Bias
Term
$F/$2
2
Byte-wide parallel Yword data, no filtering
0 = normal shift
$2 and
Width/Offset
Word
-
Byte-wide parallel Yword data, with filtering
0 = normal shift
$3 and
Width/Offset
Word
Max Change per
Cycle
Resolver Conversion
0 = CW
$F/$3
$F$4
3
3
1 = unshifted
1 = unshifted
A/D Bias Term
1 = CCW
Incremental Encoder Entries ($0, $8, $C): These three conversion table methods utilize the
incremental encoder registers in the Servo ICs. Each method provides a processed result with the units of
(1/32) count – the low five bits of the result are fractional data.
Software 1/T Extension: With the $0 method, the fractional data is computed by dividing the Time Since
Last Count register by the Time Between Last 2 Counts register. This technique is known as 1/T
extension and is the default and most commonly used method. It can be used with a digital incremental
encoder connected directly to the Turbo PMAC, through either PMAC-style or PMAC2-style Servo ICs.
Note:
1/T extension with eight bits of fractional resolution (units of 1/256 count) can be
gotten using the intermediate result value of the triggered time-base conversion in
running mode. This intermediate result is in the first line of the entry. If used for
position data, one true count of the position is considered by Turbo PMAC
software to be eight counts.
Parallel Extension: With the $8 method, the fractional data is computed by reading the five inputs at bits
19-23 either of the specified address (USERn, Wn, Vn, Un, and Tn flag inputs, respectively) if the mode
214
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
switch bit of the setup I-variable is set to 1 for PMAC2-style Servo ICs, or of the specified address plus
four (CHC[n+1], HMFL[n+1], +LIM[n+1], -LIM[n+1], FAULT[n+1]) if the mode switch bit of the setup
I-variable is set to 0 for PMAC-style Servo ICs. This technique is known as “parallel extension”, and can
be used with an analog incremental encoder processed through an Acc-8D Option 8 Analog Encoder
Interpolator board or its equivalent.
No Extension: In the $C method with the mode switch bit set to 0, the fractional data is always set to
zero, which means there is no extension of the incremental encoder count. This setting is used mainly to
verify the effect of one of the two extension methods. It is also recommended when feeding back the
pulse-and-direction outputs for stepper drives.
Hardware 1/T Extension: In the $C method with the mode switch bit set to 1, the fractional data is read
from a special timer-based register in the Servo IC that has already computed the fractional-count data in
hardware. This feature is supported only in the D-revision or newer (first shipments around the beginning
of 2002) of the PMAC2-style DSPGATE1 Servo ICs. The alternate timer registers for the encoder
channel must be selected by setting I7mn9 for the channel to 1.
Using this mode, permits timer-based sub-count capture and compare features to be used on this encoder
channel.
With any of these three conversion methods, the source address in the low 19 bits (bits 0 - 18) is that of
the starting register of the machine interface channel.
The first table below shows the entries for PMAC-style encoder channels. The ‘m’ in the first hex digit
(bits 20 - 23) represents the conversion method ($0, $8, or $C). For the PMAC-style channels, the bit 19
mode switch is always 0, so the second hex digit is always ‘7’ for the hardware registers.
Entries for PMAC-Style Servo ICs
Servo Chan. 1
Chan. 2
Chan. 3
Chan. 4
Notes
IC #
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
$m78000
$m78100
$m78200
$m78300
$m79200
$m79300
$m7A200
$m7A300
$m7B200
$m7B300
$m78004
$m78104
$m78204
$m78304
$m79204
$m79304
$m7A204
$m7A304
$m7B204
$m7B304
$m78008
$m78108
$m78208
$m78308
$m79208
$m79308
$m7A208
$m7A308
$m7B208
$m7B308
$m7800C
$m7810C
$m7820C
$m7830C
$m7920C
$m7930C
$m7A20C
$m7A30C
$m7B20C
$m7B30C
First IC on board PMAC
Second IC on board PMAC
First IC on first Acc-24P/V
Second IC on first Acc-24P/V
First IC on second Acc-24P/V
Second IC on second Acc-24P/V
First IC on third Acc-24P/V
Second IC on third Acc-24P/V
First IC on fourth Acc-24P/V
Second IC on fourth Acc-24P/V
The next table shows the entry values for PMAC2-style encoder channels. The m in the first hex digit
(bits 20 – 23) represents the conversion method ($0, $8, or $C). The n in the second hex digit (bits 16 –
19) contains the bit 19 mode switch and the start of the source address. For methods $0 (software 1/T
extension) and $C (no extension), the bit 19 mode switch is 0, making the second hex digit 7. For method
$8 (parallel extension) or for method $C for hardware 1/T extension, the bit 19 mode switch is 1,
changing the second hex digit from 7 to F.
Entries for PMAC2-Style Servo ICs
Servo
Chan. 1 Chan. 2 Chan. 3 Chan. 4
Notes
IC #
0
1
2
3
4
5
$mn8000
$mn8100
$mn8200
$mn8300
$mn9200
$mn9300
$mn8008
$mn8108
$mn8208
$mn8308
$mn9208
$mn9308
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
$mn8010
$mn8010
$mn8210
$mn8310
$mn9210
$mn9310
$mn8018
$mn8018
$mn8218
$mn8318
$mn9218
$mn9318
First IC on board PMAC2, 3U stack
Second IC on board PMAC2, 3U stack
First Acc-24E2x, first IC on first Acc-24P/V2
Second Acc-24E2x, second IC on first Acc-24P/V2
Third Acc-24E2x, first IC on second Acc-24P/V2
Fourth Acc-24E2x, second IC on second Acc-24P/V2
215
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
6
7
8
9
$mnA200
$mnA300
$mnB200
$mnB300
$mnA208
$mnA308
$mnB208
$mnB308
$mnA210
$mnA310
$mnB210
$mnB310
$mnA218
$mnA318
$mnB218
$mnB318
Fifth Acc-24E2x, first IC on third Acc-24P/V2
Sixth Acc-24E2x, second IC on third Acc-24P/V2
Seventh Acc-24E2x, first IC on fourth Acc-24P/V2
Eighth Acc-24E2x, second IC on fourth Acc-24P/V2
Entries for PMAC2 MACRO IC 0:
Handwheel Channel #
Channel 1
Channel 2
PMAC2
$mn8410
$mn8418
These are single-line entries in the table, so the next line (I-Variable) is the start of the next entry.
Acc-28 Style A/D Entries ($1, $5): The A/D feedback entries read from the high 16 bits of the specified
address and shift the data right three bits so that the least significant bit of the processed result in bit 5.
Unlike the parallel feedback methods, this method will not roll over and extend the result.
The $1 method processes the information directly, essentially a copying with shift. The $5 integrates the
input value as it copies and shifts it. That is, it reads the input value, shifts it right three bits, adds the bias
term in the second line, and adds this value to the previous processed result.
If the bit 19 mode switch of the entry is 0, the 16-bit source value is treated as a signed quantity; this
should be used for the Acc-28A. If bit 19 of the entry is 1, the 16-bit value is treated as an unsigned
quantity; this should be used for the Acc-28B or the Acc-28E.
The first two tables show the entry values that should be used for Acc-28 boards interfaced to PMACstyle Servo ICs. The m in the first hex digit refers to the method digit – $1 for un-integrated; $5 for
integrated. Note that setting the bit 19 mode switch bit to 1 for the Acc-28B changes the second hex digit
from 7 to F.
Entries for PMAC-Style Servo ICs using Acc-28A
Servo Chan. 1 Chan. 2
Chan. 3
Chan. 4
IC #
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
$m78006
$m78106
$m78206
$m78306
$m79206
$m79306
$m7A206
$m7A306
$m7B206
$m7B306
$m78007
$m78107
$m78207
$m78307
$m79207
$m79307
$m7A207
$m7A307
$m7B207
$m7B307
$m7800E
$m7810E
$m7820E
$m7830E
$m7920E
$m7930E
$m7A20E
$m7A30E
$m7B20E
$m7B30E
$m7800F
$m7810F
$m7820F
$m7830F
$m7920F
$m7930F
$m7A20F
$m7A30F
$m7B20F
$m7B30F
Entries for PMAC-Style Servo ICs using Acc-28B
Servo
Chan. 1
Chan. 2
Chan. 3
Chan. 4
IC #
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
216
$mF8006
$mF8106
$mF8206
$mF8306
$mF9206
$mF9306
$mFA206
$mFA306
$mFB206
$mFB306
$mF8007
$mF8107
$mF8207
$mF8307
$mF9207
$mF9307
$mFA207
$mFA307
$mFB207
$mFB307
$mF800E
$mF810E
$mF820E
$mF830E
$mF920E
$mF930E
$mFA20E
$mFA30E
$mFB20E
$mFB30E
$mF800F
$mF810F
$mF820F
$mF830F
$mF920F
$mF930F
$mFA20F
$mFA30F
$mFB20F
$mFB30F
Notes
First IC on board PMAC
Second IC on board PMAC
First IC on first Acc-24P/V
Second IC on first Acc-24P/V
First IC on second Acc-24P/V
Second IC on second Acc-24P/V
First IC on third Acc-24P/V
Second IC on third Acc-24P/V
First IC on fourth Acc-24P/V
Second IC on fourth Acc-24P/V
Notes
First IC on board PMAC
Second IC on board PMAC
First IC on first Acc-24P/V
Second IC on first Acc-24P/V
First IC on second Acc-24P/V
Second IC on second Acc-24P/V
First IC on third Acc-24P/V
Second IC on third Acc-24P/V
First IC on fourth Acc-24P/V
Second IC on fourth Acc-24P/V
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The next table shows the entry values that should be used for Acc-28B boards interfaced to PMAC2-style
Servo ICs (Acc-28A is not compatible with these ICs). The ‘m’ in the first hex digit refers to the method
digit – $1 for un-integrated; $5 for integrated. Note that setting the bit 19 mode switch bit to 1 for the
Acc-28B changes the second hex digit from 7 to F.
Entries for PMAC2-Style ADC Registers Using Acc-28B
Register
PMAC2
First
Second
Third
Fourth
Acc-24P/V2 Acc-24P/V2 Acc-24P/V2 Acc-24P/V2
ADC 1A
ADC 1B
ADC 2A
ADC 2B
ADC 3A
ADC 3B
ADC 4A
ADC 4B
ADC 5A
ADC 5B
ADC 6A
ADC 6B
ADC 7A
ADC 7B
ADC 8A
ADC 8B
$mF8005
$mF8006
$mF800D
$mF800E
$mF8015
$mF8016
$mF801D
$mF801E
$mF8105
$mF8106
$mF810D
$mF810E
$mF8115
$mF8116
$mF811D
$mF811E
$mF8205
$mF8206
$mF820D
$mF820E
$mF8215
$mF8216
$mF821D
$mF821E
$mF8305
$mF8306
$mF830D
$mF830E
$mF8315
$mF8316
$mF831D
$mF831E
$mF9205
$mF9206
$mF920D
$mF920E
$mF9215
$mF9216
$mF921D
$mF921E
$mF9305
$mF9306
$mF930D
$mF930E
$mF9315
$mF9316
$mF931D
$mF931E
$mFA205
$mFA206
$mFA20D
$mFA20E
$mFA215
$mFA216
$mFA21D
$mFA21E
$mFA305
$mFA306
$mFA30D
$mFA30E
$mFA315
$mFA316
$mFA31D
$mFA31E
$mFB205
$mFB206
$mFB20D
$mFB20E
$mFB215
$mFB216
$mFB21D
$mFB21E
$mFB305
$mFB306
$mFB30D
$mFB30E
$mFB315
$mFB316
$mFB31D
$mFB31E
The next table shows the entry values that should be used for Acc-28E boards in a UMAC Turbo system.
The m in the first hex digit refers to the method digit – $1 for un-integrated; $5 for integrated. Note that
setting the bit 19 mode switch bit to 1 for the Acc-28E changes the second hex digit from 7 to F.
Entries for UMAC Acc-28E ADCs
I/O IC # SW1-1 SW1-2 SW1-3 SW1-4 Chan. 1
Chan. 2
Chan. 3
Chan. 4
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
OFF
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
ON
ON
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
ON
ON
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
ON
ON
ON
ON
ON
ON
ON
ON
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
OFF
$mF8C00
$mF8D00
$mF8E00
$mF8F00
$mF9C00
$mF9D00
$mF9E00
$mF9F00
$mFAC00
$mFAD00
$mFAE00
$mFAF00
$mFBC00
$mFBD00
$mFBE00
$mFBE00
$mF8C01
$mF8D01
$mF8E01
$mF8F01
$mF9C01
$mF9D01
$mF9E01
$mF9F01
$mFAC01
$mFAD01
$mFAE01
$mFAF01
$mFBC01
$mFBD01
$mFBE01
$mFBE01
$mF8C02
$mF8D02
$mF8E02
$mF8F02
$mF9C02
$mF9D02
$mF9E02
$mF9F02
$mFAC02
$mFAD02
$mFAE02
$mFAF02
$mFBC02
$mFBD02
$mFBE02
$mFBE00
$mF8C03
$mF8D03
$mF8E03
$mF8F03
$mF9C03
$mF9D03
$mF9E03
$mF9F03
$mFAC03
$mFAD03
$mFAE03
$mFAF03
$mFBC03
$mFBD03
$mFBE03
$mFBE03
Integration Bias: The $5 integrated format requires a second line to specify the bias of the A/D converter.
This bias term is a signed quantity (even for an unsigned A/D converter), with units of 1/256 of the LSB
of the 16-bit A/D converter. This value is subtracted from the reading of the ADC before the integration
occurs.
For example, if there were an offset in a 16-bit ADC of +5 LSBs, this term would be set to 1280. If no
bias is desired, a zero value should be entered here. If the conversion is unsigned, the result after the bias
is not permitted to be less than zero. This term permits reasonable integration, even with an analog offset.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
217
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Parallel Feedback Entries ($2, $3, $6, $7): The parallel feedback entries read a word from the address
specified in the low 19 bits (bits 0 to 18) of the first line. The four methods in this class are:
 $2: Y-word parallel, no filtering (2-line entry)
 $3: Y-word parallel, with filtering (3-line entry)
 $6: Y/X-word parallel, no filtering (2-line entry)
 $7: Y/X-word parallel, with filtering (3-line entry)
The Bit-19 mode switch in the first line controls whether the least significant bit (LSB) of the source
register is placed in Bit 5 of the result register (normal shift), providing the standard 5 bits of (non-existent)
fraction, or the LSB is placed in Bit 0 of the result register (unshifted), creating no fractional bits.
Normally, the Bit-19 mode switch is set to 0 to place the source LSB in Bit 5 of the result register. Bit 19
is set to 1 to place to source LSB in Bit 0 of the result register for one of three reasons:
 The data already comes with five bits of fraction, as from a Compact MACRO Station.
 The normal shift limits the maximum velocity too much (Vmax<218 LSBs per servo cycle)
 The normal shift limits the position range too much (Range<+247/Ix08/32 LSBs)
Unless this is done because the data already contains fractional information, the unshifted conversion will
mean that the motor position loop will consider 1 LSB of the source to be 1/32 of a count, instead of 1
count.
Width/Offset Word: The second setup line (I-variable) of a parallel read entry contains the width of the
data to be read, and the location of the LSB. This 24-bit value, usually represented as 6 hexadecimal digits,
is split evenly into two halves, each of 3 hex digits. The first half represents the width of the parallel data in
bits, and can range from $001 (1 bit wide – not of much practical use) to $018 (24 bits wide).
The second half of the line contains the bit location of the LSB of the data in the source word, and can
range from $000 (Bit 0 of the Y-word at the source address is the LSB), through $017 (Bit 23 of the Yword at the source address), and $018 (Bit 24, which is Bit 0 of the next word, is the LSB) to $02F (Bit
47, which is Bit 23 of the next word, is the LSB).
If the LSB bit location exceeds 23, or the sum of the LSB bit location and the bit width exceeds 24, the
source data extends into the next word. If the method character is $2 or $3, the next word is the Y-word
at the source address + 1. If the method character is $6 or $7, the next word is the X-word at the source
address.
For example, to use 20 bits starting at bit 0 (bits 0 – 19) of the Y-word of the source address, this word
would be set to $014000. To use all 24 bits of the X-word of the source address, this word would be set
to $018018. To use 24 bits starting at bit 12 of the specified address (with the highest 12 bits coming
from the X-word or the next higher Y-address, this word would be set to $01800C.
Maximum Change Word: If the method character for a parallel read is $3 or $7, specifying filtered
parallel read, there is a third setup line (I-variable) for the entry. This third line contains the maximum
change in the source data in a single cycle that will be reflected in the processed result, expressed in LSBs
per servo cycle. The filtering that this creates provides an important protection against noise and
misreading of data. This number is effectively a velocity value, and should be set slightly greater than the
maximum true velocity ever expected.
Acc-14: The Accessory 14 family of boards is often used to bring parallel data feedback to the Turbo
PMAC, such as that from parallel absolute encoders, and from interferometers. The following table
shows the first line of the entries for Acc-14D/V boards connected to a Turbo PMAC controller over a
JEXP expansion port cable:
Entries for Acc-14D/V Registers
Register
First Line Value
Register
First Line Value
First Acc-14D/V Port A
First Acc-14D/V Port B
Second Acc-14D/V Port A
218
$m78A00
$m78A01
$m78B00
Fourth Acc-14D/V Port A
Fourth Acc-14D/V Port B
Fifth Acc-14D/V Port A
$m78D00
$m78D01
$m78E00
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Second Acc-14D/V Port B
Third Acc-14D/V Port A
Third Acc-14D/V Port B
$m78B01
$m78C00
$m78C01
Fifth Acc-14D/V Port B
Sixth Acc-14D/V Port A
Sixth Acc-14D/V Port B
$m78E01
$m78F00
$m78F01
MACRO Position Feedback: When position feedback is received through the MACRO ring, the
MACRO input registers are treated as parallel-data feedback. The following table shows the first line of
the entries for MACRO position feedback registers.
Entries for Type 1 MACRO Position Feedback Registers
Register
First Line Value
Register
First Line Value
MACRO IC 0 Node 0 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 0 Node 1 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 0 Node 4 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 0 Node 5 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 0 Node 8 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 0 Node 9 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 0 Node 12 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 0 Node 13 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 1 Node 0 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 1 Node 1 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 1 Node 4 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 1 Node 5 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 1 Node 8 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 1 Node 9 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 1 Node 12 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 1 Node 13 Reg. 0
$2F8420
$2F8424
$2F8428
$2F842C
$2F8430
$2F8434
$2F8438
$2F843C
$2F9420
$2F9424
$2F9428
$2F942C
$2F9430
$2F9434
$2F9438
$2F943C
MACRO IC 2 Node 0 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 2 Node 1 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 2 Node 4 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 2 Node 5 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 2 Node 8 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 2 Node 9 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 2 Node 12 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 2 Node 13 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 3 Node 0 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 3 Node 1 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 3 Node 4 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 3 Node 5 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 3 Node 8 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 3 Node 9 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 3 Node 12 Reg. 0
MACRO IC 3 Node 13 Reg. 0
$2FA420
$2FA424
$2FA428
$2FA42C
$2FA430
$2FA434
$2FA438
$2FA43C
$2FB420
$2FB424
$2FB428
$2FB42C
$2FB430
$2FB434
$2FB438
$2FB43C
Note that the bit-19 mode switch has been set to 1 so that the data out of the MACRO node is not shifted.
This changes the second hex digit from 7 to F. Type 1 MACRO feedback comes with fractional count
information in the low five bits, so it does not need to be shifted.
The second line of an entry for MACRO feedback should be $018000 to specify the use of 24 bits ($018)
starting at bit 0 ($000).
When performing commutation of motors over the MACRO ring, it is advisable to get servo position
feedback data not directly from the MACRO ring registers, as shown above, but from the motor’s
previous phase position register instead. This is where the commutation algorithm has stored the position
it read from the ring (with Ixx83) for use in its next cycle.
Using this register prevents the possibility of jitter if the conversion table execution can be pushed too late
in the cycle. The following table shows the first line of the conversion table entry for each motor’s
previous phase position register:
Entries for Turbo PMAC Previous Phase Position Registers
Motor # First Line Motor # First Line Motor # First Line Motor # First Line
Value
Value
Value
Value
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
$2800B2
$280132
$2801B2
$280232
$2802B2
$280332
$2803B2
$280432
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
$2804B2
$280532
$2805B2
$280632
$2806B2
$280732
$2807B2
$280832
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
$2808B2
$280932
$2809B2
$280A32
$280AB2
$280B32
$280BB2
$280C32
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
$280CB2
$280D32
$280DB2
$280E32
$280EB2
$280F32
$280FB2
$281032
219
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Note:
The bit 19 mode switch has been set to 1 so that the data out of the previous phase
position register from the MACRO ring is not shifted. This changes the second
hex digit from 0 to 8. Type 1 MACRO feedback comes with fractional count
information in the low five bits, so it does not need to be shifted.
The second line of an entry for previous phase position feedback should be $018000 to specify the use of
24 bits ($018) starting at bit 0 ($000).
MLDT Feedback: PMAC2-style Servo ICs have the ability to interface directly to magnetostrictive linear
displacement transducers (MLDTs), outputting the excitation pulse, receiving the echo pulse, and
measuring the time between the two. This time is directly proportional to the distance. For this feedback
the time between last two counts register is used like an absolute encoder. The following table shows the
first line of the parallel feedback entry for each channel’s timer register:
Entries for PMAC2-Style MLDT Timer Registers
Servo Chan. 1 Chan. 2 Chan. 3 Chan. 4
Notes
IC #
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
$378000
$378100
$378200
$378300
$379200
$379300
$37A200
$37A300
$37B200
$37B300
$378008
$378108
$378208
$378308
$379208
$379308
$37A208
$37A308
$37B208
$37B308
$378010
$378010
$378210
$378310
$379210
$379310
$37A210
$37A310
$37B210
$37B310
$378018
$378018
$378218
$378318
$379218
$379318
$37A218
$37A318
$37B218
$37B318
First IC on board PMAC2, 3U stack
Second IC on board PMAC2, 3U stack
First Acc-24E2x, first IC on first Acc-24P/V2
Second Acc-24E2x, second IC on first Acc-24P/V2
Third Acc-24E2x, first IC on second Acc-24P/V2
Fourth Acc-24E2x, second IC on second Acc-24P/V2
Fifth Acc-24E2x, first IC on third Acc-24P/V2
Sixth Acc-24E2x, second IC on third Acc-24P/V2
Seventh Acc-24E2x, first IC on fourth Acc-24P/V2
Eighth Acc-24E2x, second IC on fourth Acc-24P/V2
The second line in an MLDT entry should be $013000 to specify the use of 19 bits ($013) starting at bit 0
($000).
The third line in an MLDT entry should contain a number slightly greater than the maximum velocity
ever expected, expressed as timer increments per servo cycle. An increment of the 120 MHz timer
represents about 0.024mm (0.0009 in) on a typical MLDT device. This value represents the maximum
change in position reading that will be passed through the conversion table in a single servo cycle, and it
provides an important protection against missing or spurious echo pulses.
Time-Base Entries ($4, $9, $A, $B): A time-base entry performs a scaled digital differentiation of the
value in the source register. It is most often used to perform electronic cam functions, slaving a motion
sequence to the frequency of a master encoder. There are two types of time-base entries: “untriggered”
and triggered. An untriggered time base does not provide a specific starting point in the master source
data. A triggered time base starts the differentiation upon receipt of a hardware trigger on the master
encoder’s channel, referenced to the position captured by that trigger. This can be used to create an
absolute synchronization between the master position and the slave trajectory.
Time-base entries are two-line entries. The first setup line (I-variable) contains the method digit and the
address of the source-data register. The second setup line (I-variable) contains the time-base scale factor.
The first result line contains the intermediate result value of the source data, saved for the next cycle to be
able to compute the differentiation. The second result line contains the final result, which is the
differentiated value. Most commonly this result is used as the time-base source for a coordinate system,
so Isx93 for the coordinate system points to this second line.
Untriggered Time Base ($4): In an untriggered time-base entry, the first setup line (I-variable) contains a
4 in the method digit (bits 20 – 23) and the address of the source register in bits 0 – 18. The source
register is usually the result register of an incremental encoder entry (e.g. 1/T) higher in the table
(addresses $3501 to $35C0). Refer to the table above, which lists the addresses of each line in the
220
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
encoder conversion table. For example, to use the result of the fourth line of the conversion table as a
source, this I-variable would be $403504.
The second setup line (I-variable) is the “time-base scale factor” which multiplies the differentiated
source value. The final result value equals 2 * Time-Base-Scale-Factor * (New Source Value - Old
Source Value).
Typically, New Source Value and Old Source Value (stored from the previous servo cycle) are in units of
1/32 of a count, the usual scaling of a 1/T encoder conversion result.
When this time base entry is used to calculate a frequency-based time base for a coordinate system, the
TBSF should be set to 217/Real-Time Input Frequency (131,072/RTIF), where the Real-Time Input
Frequency (RTIF) in counts per millisecond, is the frequency at which motion trajectories using this time
base will execute at the programmed speed or in the programmed time. The motion sequence to be slaved
to this frequency should be written assuming that the master is always generating this real-time input
frequency (so always moving at the real-time speed). The true speed of trajectories using this time base
will vary proportionately with the actual input frequency.
Example:
The application requires the use of Encoder 4 on board a Turbo PMAC2 as an untriggered time-base
master for Coordinate System 1. The real-time input frequency is selected as 256 counts/msec. The
conversion table starts with eight single-line entries in I8000 – I8007, with the 4th line (I8003) doing a 1/T
conversion of Encoder 4.
Setup On-line Commands
I8003=$078018
I8008=$403504
I8009=512
[email protected]
; 1/T conversion of Encoder 4
; Unriggered time base from 1/T encoder
; TBSF=131072/256
; C.S.1 use I8009 result for time base
Triggered Time Base ($9, $A, $B): A triggered time-base entry is like a regular untriggered time-base
entry, except that it is easy to freeze the time base, then start it exactly on receipt of a trigger that captures
the starting master position or time.
In a triggered time-base entry, the first setup line (I-variable) contains a 9 A or B in the method digit (bits
20 – 23), depending on its present state. It contains the address of the source register in bits 0 – 18. The
source register for triggered time base must be the starting (X) address for one of the machine interface
channels of a Servo IC. The bit 19 mode switch must be set to 0 if a PMAC-style Servo IC (DSPGATE)
is addressed; it must be set to 1 if a PMAC2-style Servo or MACRO IC (DSPGATE1 or DSPGATE2) is
addressed. Note that setting bit 19 to 1 changes the second hex digit of the I-variable from 7 to F.
The second setup line (I-variable) is the time-base scale factor which multiplies the differentiated source
value. The final result value (when running) equals 512 * Time-Base-Scale-Factor * (New Source Count
- Old Source Count). New Source Count and Old Source Count are the values of the addressed encoder
counter, in counts.
When this time-base entry is used to calculate a frequency-based time base for a coordinate system, the
TBSF should be set to 214/Real-Time Input Frequency (16,384/RTIF), where the Real-Time Input
Frequency (RTIF) in counts per millisecond, is the frequency at which motion trajectories using this time
base will execute at the programmed speed or in the programmed time. (Note that the TBSF is 1/8 of the
value for an untriggered time base, because the triggered time base creates an extra 3 bits [8x] of
fractional information with its 1/T extension.) The motion sequence to be slaved to this frequency should
be written assuming that the master is always generating this real-time input frequency (so always moving
at the real-time speed). The true speed of trajectories using this time base will vary proportionately with
the actual input frequency.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
221
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
A triggered time-base entry in Turbo PMAC automatically computes the 1/T count extension of the input
frequency itself before the differentiation. It computes this to 1/256 of a count. This is compared to the
1/32 of a count that the separate 1/T encoder extension uses.
The extra fractional information can reduce the quantization noise created by the differentiation and
provide smoother operation under external time base.
Note:
The intermediate result in the first line of a triggered time-base entry contains the
undifferentiated 1/T extension of the source encoder position, in units of 1/256 of a
count. This value can be used as feedback data or master position data, with more
resolution than the standard 1/T extension.
In use, the method digit (comprising bits 20-23 of the first line) is changed as needed by setting of the Ivariable. Triggered time base has three states, frozen, armed, and running, all of which must be used to
utilize the triggering feature.
First, the method digit is set to $9 (e.g. I8010=$978008) before the calculations of the triggered move are
started, to freeze the time base (and therefore the motion) while the move calculations are done. This is
typically done in the user’s motion program. When this entry is in the frozen state, the table reads the
channel’s capture position register each servo cycle to ensure the triggering logic is reset for the next
capture. The final result of the entry is always 0 when frozen.
Note:
In a Turbo PMAC application with a light computational load, it is possible that
the entry will not be in the frozen state during a servo interrupt, and the table will
not get a chance to reset the trigger logic. Therefore, it is advisable to reset the
triggering logic explicitly in the user program with a dummy read of the channel’s
captured position register, which is the X-register with an address 3 greater than
the address specified in the entry (e.g. X:$07800B if the entry specifies $078008).
The suggested M-variable for the captured position register is Mxx03.
Next, the method digit is set to $B (e.g. I8010=$B78008) after the calculations of the triggered move are
finished, to arm the time base for the trigger. Typically, this is done in a PLC program that looks to see if
the entry is frozen and changes it to the armed state. The final result of the entry is always 0 when armed.
In the armed state, the Table checks every servo cycle for the channel’s trigger bit to be set. When the
Table sees the trigger (the capture trigger for the machine interface channel as defined by I7mn2 and
I7mn3 for Servo IC m Channel n, or by I68n2 and I68n3 for MACRO IC 0 Channel n), it sets the method
digit to $A for running time base automatically. It uses the position captured by the trigger as the starting
position (time zero) for the running time base. (Those using this method for the reduced quantization
noise may simply leave the method digit at $A.)
The following tables show the possible first-line entries for triggered time base (running mode):
222
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Triggered Time-Base Entries for PMAC-Style Servo ICs (Running State)
Servo Chan. 1
Chan. 2
Chan. 3
Chan. 4
IC #
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
$A78000
$A78100
$A78200
$A78300
$A79200
$A79300
$A7A200
$A7A300
$A7B200
$A7B300
$A78004
$A78104
$A78204
$A78304
$A79204
$A79304
$A7A204
$A7A304
$A7B204
$A7B304
$A78008
$A78108
$A78208
$A78308
$A79208
$A79308
$A7A208
$A7A308
$A7B208
$A7B308
$A7800C
$A7810C
$A7820C
$A7830C
$A7920C
$A7930C
$A7A20C
$A7A30C
$A7B20C
$A7B30C
First IC on board PMAC
Second IC on board PMAC
First IC on first Acc-24P/V
Second IC on first Acc-24P/V
First IC on second Acc-24P/V
Second IC on second Acc-24P/V
First IC on third Acc-24P/V
Second IC on third Acc-24P/V
First IC on fourth Acc-24P/V
Second IC on fourth Acc-24P/V
Triggered Time-Base Entries for PMAC2-Style Servo ICs (Running State)
Servo Chan. 1 Chan. 2 Chan. 3 Chan. 4
IC #
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
$AF8000
$AF8100
$AF8200
$AF8300
$AF9200
$AF9300
$AFA200
$AFA300
$AFB200
$AFB300
$AF8008
$AF8108
$AF8208
$AF8308
$AF9208
$AF9308
$AFA208
$AFA308
$AFB208
$AFB308
$AF8010
$AF8010
$AF8210
$AF8310
$AF9210
$AF9310
$AFA210
$AFA310
$AFB210
$AFB310
$AF8018
$AF8018
$AF8218
$AF8318
$AF9218
$AF9318
$AFA218
$AFA318
$AFB218
$AFB318
Notes
First IC on board PMAC2, 3U stack
Second IC on board PMAC2, 3U stack
First Acc-24E2x, first IC on first Acc-24P/V2
Second Acc-24E2x, second IC on first Acc-24P/V2
Third Acc-24E2x, first IC on second Acc-24P/V2
Fourth Acc-24E2x, second IC on second Acc-24P/V2
Fifth Acc-24E2x, first IC on third Acc-24P/V2
Sixth Acc-24E2x, second IC on third Acc-24P/V2
Seventh Acc-24E2x, first IC on fourth Acc-24P/V2
Eighth Acc-24E2x, second IC on fourth Acc-24P/V2
Entries for PMAC2 MACRO IC 0
Handwheel Channel #
Channel 1
Channel 2
Notes
PMAC2
$AF8410
$AF8418
Example:
The application requires the use of Encoder 4 on board a Turbo PMAC2 as a triggered time base master
for coordinate system 1. It is to be triggered by the rising edge of its index channel. The real-time input
frequency is selected as 256 counts/msec. The conversion table starts with 8 single-line entries in I8000 –
I8007.
Setup On-line Command
I8008=$AF8018
I8009=64
I7042=1
[email protected]
M403->X:$07801B,0,24,S
; Triggered time base from PMAC2 channel 4
; TBSF=16384/256
; Servo IC 0 Channel 4 trigger on rising index
; C.S.1 use I8009 result for time base
; Channels’ captured position register
Motion Program Segment
DWELL 0
I8008=$9F8018
P403=M403
X10
; Stop any lookahead
; Freeze the time base
; Dummy read to ensure capture logic reset
; Calculate first move
PLC Program Segment
IF (I8008=$9F8018)
I8008=$BF8018
ENDIF
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
; If frozen
; Then arm
223
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Low-Pass Filter Entries ($D): The $D entry is used to create one of two types of low-pass filters on a
word of input data to provide smoothing of noisy measurements. The two types of filter are distinguished
by bit 19 of the first setup line of the entry. If the bit-19 mode-switch bit is 0, typically making the
second hex digit $0, the filter is a simple exponential filter. If the bit-19 mode-switch bit is 1, typically
making the second hex digit $8, the filter is a more sophisticated tracking filter that includes an integrator
to eliminate steady-state errors.
The simpler exponential filter, which is a three-line entry in the table, is suitable for the smoothing of
noisy master data used for electronic gearing (position following) or electronic cams (external time base).
However, it will produce lags even in the steady state (e.g. at constant velocity), so it is usually not
suitable for smoothing servo feedback data because of the delays it introduces.
The more complex tracking filter, which is a five-line entry in the table, is suitable for smoothing either
master data or feedback data, because its integrator eliminates steady-state errors. Still, its filtering can
introduce delays in responding to dynamic changes (e.g. accelerations), so it needs to be set up carefully.
This software tracking filter is dynamically equivalent to the hardware tracking filters common in
resolver-to-digital converter ICs. It is commonly used to smooth the results of direct conversion of
sinusoidal encoders.
Warning: Attempting to enter a tracking filter into a Turbo PMAC with firmware that does not support it
(V1.940 or older) will result in disturbing or disabling any subsequent entries in the table as well as the
filter entry.
Exponential Filter ($Dxxxxx, bit 19 = 0)
The equation of the exponential filter executed every servo cycle n is:
If [In(n) - In(n-1)] > Max_change, In(n) = In(n-1) + Max_change
If [In(n) - In(n-1)] < -Max_change, In(n) = In(n-1) - Max_change
Out(n) = Out(n-1) + (K/223)*[In(n)-Out(n-1)]
In, Out, and K are all signed 24-bit numbers (range -8,388,608 to 8,388,607). The difference [In(n)Out(n-1)] is truncated to 24 bits to handle rollover properly.
The time constant of the filter, in servo cycles, is (2 23/K)-1. The lower the value of K, the longer the time
constant.
No shifting action is performed. Any operations such as 1/T interpolation should have been done on the
data already, so the source register for this filter is typically the result register of the previous operation in
the conversion table.
Method/Address Word: The first setup line (I-variable) of an exponential filter entry contains a ‘D’ in the
first hex digit (bits 20 – 23), a ‘0’ in bit 19, and the address of the source X-register in bits 0 – 18. If it is
desired to execute an exponential filter on the contents of a Y-register, the contents of the Y-register must
first be copied to an X-register in the conversion table with a “parallel” entry ($2) higher in the table. The
source addresses for exponential filter entries are almost always from the conversion table itself
(X:$003501 – X:$0035BC). Since bits 16 – 18 of conversion table registers are 0, this makes the entire
second hex digit of this line ‘0’. For example, to perform an exponential filter on the result of the fourth
line of the table, the first setup line of the filter entry would be $D03504.
Maximum Change Word: The second setup line (I-variable) of an exponential filter entry contains the
value “max change” that limits how much the entry can change in one servo cycle. The units of this entry
are whatever the units of the input register are, typically 1/32 of a count. For example, to limit the change
224
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
in one servo cycle to 64 counts with an input register in units of 1/32 count, this third line would be 64*32
= 2048.
Filter Gain Word: The third setup line (I-variable) of an exponential filter entry contains the filter gain
value K, which sets a filter time constant Tf of (223/K)-1 servo cycles. Therefore, the gain value K can be
set as 223/(Tf+1). For example, to set a filter time constant of 7 servo cycles, the filter gain word would be
8,388,608/(7+1) = 1,048,576.
Result Word: The output value of the exponential filter is placed in the X register of the third line of the
conversion table entry. An operation that uses this value should address this third register; for example
Ixx05 for position following, or the source address for a time-base conversion-table entry (to keep
position lock in time base, this filter must be executed before the time-base differentiation, not afterward).
Tracking Filter ($Dxxxxx, bit 19 = 1)
For the tracking filter, the equation of the filter every servo cycle n is:
If [In(n) - In(n-1)] > Max_change, In(n) = In(n-1) + Max_change
If [In(n) - In(n-1)] < -Max_change, In(n) = In(n-1) - Max_change
Err(n) = In(n) – Out(n-1)
Temp1 = (Kp/223) * Err(n)
Int(n) = Int(n-1) + (Ki/223) * Err(n)
Out(n) = Out(n-1) + Temp1 + Int(n)
In, Out, Kp and Ki are all signed 24-bit numbers (range -8,388,608 to 8,388,607). The difference [In(n)Out(n-1)] is truncated to 24 bits to handle rollover properly.
The time constant of the filter, in servo cycles, is (223/Kp)-1. The lower the value of Kp, the longer the
time constant.
No shifting action is performed. Any operations such as 1/T interpolation should have been done on the
data already, so the source register for this filter is typically the result register of the previous operation in
the conversion table.
Method/Address Word: The first setup line (I-variable) of a tracking filter entry contains a ‘D’ in the first
hex digit (bits 20 – 23), a 1 in the bit-19 mode-switch bit, and the address of the source X-register in bits
0 – 18. If it is desired to execute a tracking filter on the contents of a Y-register, the contents of the Yregister must first be copied to an X-register in the conversion table with a “parallel” entry ($2) higher in
the table. The source addresses for tracking filter entries are almost always from the conversion table
itself (X:$003501 – X:$0035BC). Since bits 16 – 18 of conversion table registers are 0, this makes the
entire second hex digit of this line ‘8’. For example, to perform an tracking filter on the result of the
fourth line of the table, the first setup line of the filter entry would be $D83504.
Maximum Change Word: The second setup line (I-variable) of a tracking filter entry contains the value
“max change” that limits how much the entry can change in one servo cycle. The units of this entry are
whatever the units of the input register are, typically 1/32 of a count. For example, to limit the change in
one servo cycle to 64 counts with an input register in units of 1/32 count, this third line would be 64*32 =
2048.
Filter Proportional Gain Word: The third setup line (I-variable) of a tracking filter entry contains the
filter proportional gain value Kp, which sets a filter time constant Tf of (223/Kp)-1 servo cycles. Therefore,
the proportional gain value Kp can be set as 223/(Tf+1). For example, to set a filter time constant of 7
servo cycles, the filter proportional gain word would be 8,388,608/(7+1) = 1,048,576.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
225
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Reserved Setup Word: The fourth setup line (I-variable) of a tracking filter entry is reserved for future use.
It is not presently used, and can be set to 0.
Filter Integral Gain Word: The fifth setup line (I-variable) of a tracking filter entry contains the filter
integral gain value Ki, which determines how quickly the integrated error contributes to the filter output.
Each servo cycle, the amount (Ki/223) * Err(n) is added to the integrator and to the filter output.
Result Word: The output value of the tracking filter is placed in the X-register of the fifth line of the
conversion table entry. An operation that uses this value should address this fifth register; for example
Ixx03 for position-loop feedback, or the source address for a time-base conversion-table entry (to keep
position lock in time base, this filter must be executed before the time-base differentiation, not afterward).
Addition/Subtraction of Entries ($E): The $E entry is used to add the results of two other entries in the
Table, possibly after negating one or both of them (which can effectively create subtraction), with the
option of integrating the sum. It is a single-line entry.
Control Digit: The second hex digit of the I-variable consists of four independent control bits (bits 19-16)
and determines whether the result is integrated or not, whether a second source entry is used or not, and
whether each of the source entries is negated before addition or not.
If the bit 19 mode switch bit is 0, which makes the second hex digit 0, the values in the two specified
entries are simply added. If the mode switch bit 19 is 1, the sum of the two entries.
If bit 18 is set to 1, the second entry to be added (as specified by bits 8-15) is not used. This permits easy
negation (change in sign) of a single entry. If bit 18 is set to 0, the second entry is used.
If bit 17 is set to 1, the second entry to be added (as specified by bits 8-15) is negated before the addition,
which means that it is effectively subtracted from the first entry. If bit 17 is not set to 1, the second entry
to be added is not negated.
If bit 16 is set to 1, the first entry to be added (as specified by bits 0-7) is negated before the addition,
which means that it is effectively subtracted. If bit 16 is not set to 1, the first entry to be added is not
negated.
Second Source Offset: Bits 8-15, which form the third and fourth hex digits of the entry, specify the
offset from the beginning of the table to the second entry to be used used, as an unsigned 8-bit quantity.
The value in these digits should equal the number of the I-variable matching the second entry minus 8000.
First Source Offset: Bits 0-7, which form the fifth and sixth hex digits of the entry, specify the address
offset from the beginning of the table to the first entry to be used, as an unsigned 8-bit quantity. The
value in these digits should equal the number of the I-variable matching the first entry minus 8000.
Examples:
To add the results of the first two lines in the table, from I8000 and I8001, the I-variable would be
$E00100. The E specifies addition, the 0 specifies no integration, using the second source, and no
negation of either source. The 01 specifies the second line of the table (matching I8001) as the second
source, and the final 00 specifies the first line of the table (matching I8000) as the first source.
To subtract the result of the second line (from I8001) of the table from that of the first line (from I8000),
the I-variable would be $E20100. The E specifies addition, the 2 (0010 binary) specifies no integration,
using the second source, negating the second source, but not the first source. The 01 specifies the second
line of the table (matching I8001) as the second source, and the final ‘00’ specifies the first line of the
table (matching I8000) as the first source.
To invert the 20th line of the table (from I8019), the I-variable would be $E50013. The E specifies
addition, the 5 (0101 binary) specifies no integration, not using the second source, and negating the first
source. The 00 is not important, because the second source is not used. The 13 (19 decimal) specifies the
result matching I8019 as the first source.
226
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Extended Entries ($F): Encoder conversion table entries in which the first hex digit of the first line is
$F are extended entries. In these entries, the actual method is dependent on the first digit of the second
line. Extended entries are a minimum of two lines.
High-Resolution Interpolator Entries ($F/$0): An ECT entry in which the first hex digit of the first line
is $F and the first hex digit of the second line is $0 processes the result of a high-resolution interpolator
for analog “sine-wave” encoders, such as the ACC-51. This entry, when used with a high-resolution
interpolator, produces a value with 4096 states per line. The entry must read both an encoder channel for
the whole number of lines of the encoder, and a pair of A/D converters to determine the location within
the line, mathematically combining the values to produce a single position value.
Encoder Channel Address: The first line of the three-line entry contains $F in the first hex digit and the
base address of the encoder channel to be read in the low 19 bits (bits 0 to 18). If the bit-19 mode switch
of the line is set to 0, Turbo PMAC expects a PMAC(1)-style Servo IC on the interpolator, as in the ACC51P. If the bit-19 mode switch bit is set to1, Turbo PMAC expects a PMAC2-style Servo IC on the
interpolator, as in the ACC-51E, 51C, and 51P2.
The following table shows the possible entries when PMAC(1)-style Servo ICs are used, as in the ACC51P.
High-Res Interpolator Entry First Lines for PMAC(1)-Style Servo ICs
Servo IC #
Channel 1
Channel 2
Channel 3
Channel 4
2
$F78200
$F78204
$F78208
$F7820C
3
$F78300
$F78304
$F78308
$F7830C
4
$F79200
$F79204
$F79208
$F7920C
5
$F79300
$F79304
$F79308
$F7930C
6
$F7A200
$F7A204
$F7A208
$F7A20C
7
$F7A300
$F7A304
$F7A308
$F7A30C
8
$F7B200
$F7B204
$F7B208
$F7B20C
9
$F7B300
$F7B304
$F7B308
$F7B30C
The following table shows the possible entries when PMAC2-style Servo ICs are used, as in the ACC51E, 51C, or 51P2:
High-Res Interpolator Entry First Lines for PMAC2-Style Servo ICs
Servo IC #
Channel 1
Channel 2
Channel 3
Channel 4
2
$FF8200
$FF8208
$FF8210
$FF8218
3
$FF8300
$FF8308
$FF8310
$FF8318
4
$FF9200
$FF9208
$FF9210
$FF9218
5
$FF9300
$FF9308
$FF9310
$FF9318
6
$FFA200
$FFA208
$FFA210
$FFA218
7
$FFA300
$FFA308
$FFA310
$FFA318
8
$FFB200
$FFB208
$FFB210
$FFB218
9
$FFB300
$FFB308
$FFB310
$FFB318
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
227
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Note that by setting the bit-19 mode switch to 1, the second hex digit changes from “7” to “F”.
A/D Converter Address: The second setup line (I-variable) of the entry contains $0 in the first hex digit
and the base address of the first of two A/D converters to be read in the low 19 bits (bits 0 to 18). The
second A/D converter will be read at the next higher address. The following table shows the possible
entries when the ACC-51P, with PMAC(1) style Servo ICs, is used:
High-Res Interpolator Entry Second Lines for PMAC(1)-Style Servo ICs
Servo IC #
Channel 1
Channel 2
Channel 3
Channel 4
2
$078202
$078206
$07820A
$07820E
3
$078302
$078306
$07830A
$07830E
4
$079202
$079206
$07920A
$07920E
5
$079302
$079306
$07930A
$07930E
6
$07A202
$07A206
$07A20A
$07A20E
7
$07A302
$07A306
$07A30A
$07A30E
8
$07B202
$07B206
$07B20A
$07B20E
9
$07B302
$07B306
$07B30A
$07B30E
The following table shows the possible entries when PMAC2-style Servo ICs are used, as in the ACC51E, 51C, or 51P2:
High-Res Interpolator Entry Second Lines for PMAC2-Style Servo ICs
Servo IC #
Channel 1
Channel 2
Channel 3
Channel 4
2
$078205
$07820D
$078215
$07821D
3
$078305
$07830D
$078315
$07831D
4
$079205
$07920D
$079215
$07921D
5
$079305
$07930D
$079315
$07931D
6
$07A205
$07A20D
$07A215
$07A21D
7
$07A305
$07A30D
$07A315
$07A31D
8
$07B205
$07B20D
$07B215
$07B21D
9
$07B305
$07B30D
$07B315
$07B31D
Sine/Cosine Bias Word: The third setup line (I-variable) in a high-resolution sinusoidal-encoder
conversion feedback entry contains bias-correction terms for the sine and cosine ADC values. The high
twelve bits (the first three hex digits) contain the bias-correction term for the sine input; the low twelve
bits (the last three hex digits) contain the bias-correction term for the cosine input. Each 12-bit section
should be treated as a signed 12-bit value (so if the most significant of the 12 bits is a 1, the bias value is
negative).
228
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Each 12-bit bias-correction term should contain the value opposite that which the high 12 bits of the
matching A/D converter report when they should ideally report zero. In action, the bias term will be
added to the high 12 bits of the corresponding ADC reading before subsequent calculations are done.
For example, if the bias-correction word were set to $004FFA, the sine bias correction would be +4 LSBs
of a 12-bit ADC, and the cosine bias correction would be -6 LSBs ($FFA = -6) of a 12-bit ADC. In use, 4
12-bit LSBs would be added to the sine reading, and 6 12-bit LSBs would be subtracted from the cosine
reading each cycle before further processing.
In most cases, the bias-correction word will be determined automatically by a high-resolution
“diagnostic” entry (format $F/$1) in the conversion table. The result of that diagnostic entry, containing
both bias corrections, can simply be copied into this setup word.
Note: In firmware revisions 1.940 and older, the bias word contained a single 24-bit bias term that was
added to both the sine and the cosine terms.
Conversion Result: The result of the conversion is placed in the X-register of the third line of the entry.
Careful attention must be paid to the scaling of this 24-bit result. The least significant bit (Bit 0) of the
result represents 1/4096 of a line of the sine/cosine encoder.
When Turbo PMAC software reads this data for servo use with Ixx03, Ixx04, Ixx05, or Isx93, it expects
to find data in units of 1/32 of a “count”. Therefore, PMAC software regards this format as producing
128 “counts” per line. (The fact that the hardware counter used produces 4 counts per line is not relevant
to the actual use of this format; this fact would only be used when reading the actual hardware counter for
commutation or debugging purposes.)
Example: This format is used to interpolate a linear scale with a 40-micron pitch (40m/line), producing a
resolution of about 10 nanometers (40,000/4096), used as position feedback for a motor. PMAC
considers a “count” to be 1/128 of a line, yielding a count length of 40/128 = 0.3125 m. To set user
units of millimeters for the axis, the axis scale factor would be:
AxisScaleFactor 
1mm
1000 m
count
counts
*
*
 3200
UserUnit
mm
0.3125 m
UserUnit
High-Resolution Interpolation Diagnostic Entry ($F/$1): An ECT entry in which the first hex digit of
the first line is $F and the first hex digit of the second line is $1 produces either vector magnitude or
analog-input bias terms for the sine and cosine inputs of a sinusoidal encoder or resolver. This is a fiveline entry. These result values can be used to verify proper setup and interface of the encoder and to
optimize the accuracy of the conversion during initial setup, and/or to check for loss of the encoder during
the actual application. Bit 0 of the second setup line determines whether the result produced is the sum of
the squares of the two analog inputs (bit 0 = 0) or the bias terms for the analog inputs (bit 0 = 1).
Method/Address Setup Word: The first setup line (I-variable) of the five-line entry contains $F in the first
hex digit, and the address of the first of the two A/D converters in the low 19 bits (bits 0 – 18). The
second A/D converter will be read at the next higher address.
The following table shows the possible entries when the ACC-51P, with PMAC(1) style Servo ICs, is
used:
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
229
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
High-Res Interpolator Diagnostic Entry First Lines for PMAC(1)-Style Servo ICs
Servo IC #
Channel 1
Channel 2
Channel 3
Channel 4
2
$F78202
$F78206
$F7820A
$F7820E
3
$F78302
$F78306
$F7830A
$F7830E
4
$F79202
$F79206
$F7920A
$F7920E
5
$F79302
$F79306
$F7930A
$F7930E
6
$F7A202
$F7A206
$F7A20A
$F7A20E
7
$F7A302
$F7A306
$F7A30A
$F7A30E
8
$F7B202
$F7B206
$F7B20A
$F7B20E
9
$F7B302
$F7B306
$F7B30A
$F7B30E
The following table shows the possible entries when PMAC2-style Servo ICs are used, as in the ACC51E, 51C, or 51P2:
High-Res Interpolator Diagnostic Entry First Lines for PMAC2-Style Servo ICs
Servo IC #
Channel 1
Channel 2
Channel 3
Channel 4
2
$F78205
$F7820D
$F78215
$F7821D
3
$F78305
$F7830D
$F78315
$F7831D
4
$F79205
$F7920D
$F79215
$F7921D
5
$F79305
$F7930D
$F79315
$F7931D
6
$F7A205
$F7A20D
$F7A215
$F7A21D
7
$F7A305
$F7A30D
$F7A315
$F7A31D
8
$F7B205
$F7B20D
$F7B215
$F7B21D
9
$F7B305
$F7B30D
$F7B315
$F7B31D
Diagnostic Mode Setup Word: The second setup line (I-variable) of the five-line entry contains $1 in the
first hex digit and $0000 in the second through fifth hex digits. Bits 0 and 1 in the sixth hex digit control
the diagnostic mode (bits 2 and 3 should be left at 0). If bit 0 is set to 0 (making the word $100000), the
entry computes the sum of squares of the sine and cosine ADCs, permitting monitoring of the vector
magnitude of the inputs.
If bit 0 is set to 1, the entry computes the bias in the sine and cosine terms as the negative of average of
the maximum positive and maximum negative values found for each term. Each cycle it checks the
present readings against the logged maximum and minimum values, changing these values if necessary,
then computing the averages and the resulting bias word. If bit 1 is set to 0, the maximum and minimum
values are cleared. This setting (second setup word set to $100001) is used to start a test to determine the
bias compensation word. As soon as Turbo PMAC starts accumulating maximum and minimum values
(the next servo cycle), bit 1 is set to 1, making this second setup word equal to $100003. If you want to
start a new test, for example after a circuit adjustment, you must set bit 1 to 0 again by setting this setup
word back to $100001.
230
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Active Bias Correction Setup Word: The third setup line (I-variable) of the five-line entry contains the
sine and cosine bias terms that are used in the sum-of-squares calculations. Two signed 12-bit bias terms
are combined in a 24-bit word. The sine bias-correction term is in the high 12 bits (bits 12 – 23); the
cosine bias-correction term is in the low 12 bits (bits 0 – 11). These terms match the high 12 bits from the
corresponding A/D converters. This word does not necessarily match the bias “result” term derived from
using this entry to determine a suggested bias correction, or the bias correction used in the “feedback”
table entry for the encoder or resolver.
Reserved Setup Words: The fourth and fifth setup lines of this entry type are reserved for future use, and
should be left at 0.
Result Word (Sum of Squares): When bit 0 of the second setup line is 0, the final (fifth) result word
contains the sum of squares of the biased sine and cosine measurements for the most recent servo cycle.
Result = (SineADC + SineBias)2 + (Cosine ADC + CosineBias)2
The values SineADC and CosineADC are read from the A/D converters at the address specified in the first
setup line. The values SineBias and CosineBias are read from the third setup line.
To understand the scaling of the result word, it is best to think of all four of the values as being
normalized, that is, having a valid range of -1.0 to +1.0. With small bias terms, the sum of squares result
would have a possible normalized value of 0.0 to +2.0. When read as an unsigned integer, this register
has a range of 0 to 16,777,215 ($FFFFFFF), corresponding to a normalized range of 0.0 to 2.0.
When the encoder and interpolator circuitry, or the resolver and excitation circuitry, are working properly,
the sum of squares should have a normalized value of +0.25 to +0.9999 (2,097,152 to 8,388,607, or
$200000 to $7FFFFF). If the resulting normalized value is greater than or equal to +1.0 (8,388,608, or
$800000), meaning that the most significant bit (bit 23) is set to 1, at any point in the cycle, this indicates
that saturation has occurred in at least one of the readings due to either too large a signal or a significant
bias. This should be corrected before using this sensor in actual operation.
If the result has a normalized value of less than +0.25 (2,097,152, or $200000), meaning that bits 23, 22,
and 21 are all 0, at low sensor frequencies, the signals are too small to get full resolution from the result,
and this should be corrected before using this sensor in actual operation. Many sinusoidal encoders do
have a reduction in signal magnitude of up to one-half at their highest frequencies, reducing the
magnitude of this square term by three-quarters, and this is acceptable.
It is possible to monitor this term in the actual application to check for loss of the encoder. If the inputs
are no longer driven externally, for example because the cable has come undone, the positive and negative
input pair to the ADC will pull to substantially the same voltage, and the output of the ADC will be a very
small number, resulting in a small magnitude of the sum of squares in at least part of the cycle. (If both
signals cease to be driven externally, the sum of squares will be small over the entire cycle). The high
four bits (bits 20 – 23) of the sum-of-squares result can be monitored, and if the four-bit value goes to 0, it
can be concluded that the encoder has been “lost”, and the motor should be “killed”.
Ideally, the magnitude of the sum-of-squares result should be constant throughout the sine/cosine cycle, at
least at constant frequency. If there is significant variation, this is an indication of signal imperfection. In
most cases, the most important imperfection is a DC bias on the sine and/or cosine signals. This entry can
be used in its alternate format to determine the optimal bias correction. Once that bias correction has
been determined (the result word in that format), it can be copied into the active correction setup word for
the diagnostic entry, and the entry put back into sum-of-squares mode, as an important verification that a
good bias correction has been determined.
A/D Bias Result Word: When bit 0 of the second setup line is 1, the final (fifth) result word contains the
suggested bias correction word containing the bias correction terms for the sine and cosine terms. This
24-bit value, containing two signed 12-bit correction terms, can be copied into the third setup word for the
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
231
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
interpolator diagnostic entry for confirmation of its effect, and to the third line of the interpolator
feedback entry, or the resolver feedback entry, for actual use. The sine bias-correction term is in the high
12 bits (bits 12 – 23); the cosine bias-correction term is in the low 12 bits (bits 0 – 11).
In this mode, the encoder should be moved for several seconds (motion by hand is OK) to ensure good
sampling of maximums and minimums of both waveforms and accurate bias-correction terms. It is
probably best to do this test with the amplifier disabled to prevent the possibility of noise distorting the
maximum and minimum readings.
Byte-Wide Parallel Feedback Entries ($F/$2, $F/$3): An ECT entry in which the first hex digit of the
first line is $F and the first hex digit of the second line is $2 or $3 processes the result of a parallel data
feedback source whose data is in byte-wide pieces in consecutive Y-words. This is used to process
feedback from 3U-format parallel-data I/O boards: the Acc-3E in stack form, and the Acc-14E in pack
(UMAC) form.
Address Word: The first setup line (I-variable) of the entry contains $F in the first hex digit (bits 20-23).
The bit-19 mode-switch bit in the first line controls whether the least significant bit (LSB) of the source
register is placed in bit 5 of the result register (normal shift), providing the standard 5 bits of (non-existent)
fraction, or the LSB is placed in Bit 0 of the result register (unshifted), creating no fractional bits.
Normally, the Bit-19 mode switch is set to 0 to place the source LSB in Bit 5 of the result register. Bit 19
is set to 1 to place to source LSB in Bit 0 of the result register for one of three reasons:
 The data already comes with five bits of fraction, as from a Compact MACRO Station.
 The normal shift limits the maximum velocity too much (Vmax<218 LSBs per servo cycle)
 The normal shift limits the position range too much (Range<+247/Ix08/32 LSBs)
Unless this is done because the data already contains fractional information, the unshifted conversion will
mean that the motor position loop will consider one LSB of the source to be 1/32 of a count, instead of one
count.
Bits 0 to 18 of the first line contain the base address of the parallel data to be read. This is the address of
the least significant byte in the parallel feedback word. The following table shows the possible entries
when an Acc-3E stack I/O board is used:
Entry First Lines for Acc-3E 3U-Stack I/O Boards
E1
E2
E3
E4
Acc-3E Address Jumper
$F7880x
$F7890x
$F78A0x
$F78B0x
First-Line Value
The following table shows the possible entries when the Acc-14E UMAC I/O board is used:
Entry First Lines for Acc-14E UMAC I/O Boards
DIP-Switch
SW1-1 ON (0) SW1-1 OFF (1)
SW1-1 ON (0)
SW1-1 OFF (1)
Setting
SW1-2 ON (0)
SW1-2 ON (0)
SW1-2 OFF (1) SW1-2 OFF (1)
SW1-3 ON (0)
$F78C0x
$F78D0x
SW1-4 ON (0)
SW1-3 OFF (1)
$F79C0x
$F79D0x
SW1-4 ON (0)
SW1-3 ON (0)
$F7AC0x
$F7AD0x
SW1-4 OFF (1)
SW1-3 OFF (1)
$F7BC0x
$F7BD0x
SW1-4 OFF (1)
A switch that is ON is CLOSED; a switch that is OFF is OPEN.
$F78E0x
$F78F0x
$F79E0x
$F79F0x
$F7AE0x
$F7AF0x
$F7BE0x
$F7BF0x
In both of these tables, the second digit should be changed from a 7 to an F if bit 19 is set to 1 to disable
the data shift.
232
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The final digit, represented by an x in both of these tables, can take a value of 0 to 5, depending on which
I/O point on the board is used for the LSB:
 x=0:
I/O00-07
I/O48-55
I/O96-103
 x=1:
I/O08-15
I/O56-63
I/O104-111
 x=2:
I/O16-23
I/O64-71
I/O112-119
 x=3:
I/O24-31
I/O72-79
I/O120-127
 x=4:
I/O32-39
I/O80-87
I/O128-135
 x=5:
I/O40-47
I/O88-95
I/O136-143
Width/Offset Word: The second setup line (I-variable) of this parallel read entry contains information
about what data is to be read starting at the base address. This 24-bit value, usually represented as 6
hexadecimal digits, is split into four parts, as shown in the following table.
Hex Digit
Contents
1
2 or 3
2
3
Bit Width
4
Byte
5
6
LSB Location
The first hex digit contains a 2 or a 3. If it has a 2, there is no filtering of the data, and the entry is a 2-line
entry. If it has a 3, the input data is filtered to protect against noise or data corruption, and the entry is a
3-line entry, with the third line controlling the filtering.
The second and third digits represent the width of the parallel data in bits, and can range from $01 (1 bit
wide – not of much practical use) to $18 (24 bits wide). If the value of these digits is from $01 to $08,
only the base address in the first line is used. If the value of these digits is from $09 to $10 (16), the base
address and the next higher-numbered address are used. If the value of these digits is from $11 to $18 (17
to 24), three addresses starting at the base address are used.
The fourth digit represents which byte of the source words is used. It has three valid values:
 0: Low byte (bits 0 – 7)
 1: Middle byte (bits 8 – 15)
 2: High byte (bits 16 – 23)
The fifth and sixth digits contain the bit location of the LSB of the data in the source word at the base
address, and can range from $00 (Bit 0 of the source address is the LSB), through $07 (Bit 7 of the source
address is the LSB). To calculate this value, divide the number of the I/O point used for the LSB by 8
and use the remainder here. For example, if I/O19 is used for the LSB, the remainder of 19/16 is 3.
Maximum Change Word: If the method character for a parallel read is $3 or $7, specifying filtered
parallel read, there is a third setup line (I-variable) for the entry. This third line contains the maximum
change in the source data in a single cycle that will be reflected in the processed result, expressed in LSBs
per servo cycle. The filtering that this creates provides an important protection against noise and
misreading of data. This number is effectively a velocity value, and should be set slightly greater than the
maximum true velocity ever expected.
Resolver Conversion Entry ($F/$4): An ECT entry in which the first hex digit of the first line is $F and
the first hex digit of the second line is $4 converts the result of a pair of resolver sine/cosine A/D
converters (ADCs) to a resolver angle value with 14-bit resolution.
The $E entry converts the sine and cosine resolver feedback values processed through the Geo PMAC’s
A/D converter (ADC) registers to a 14-bit resolver angle value.
Method/Address Word: The first setup line of a resolver conversion entry contains $F in the first hex digit
and the Y-address of the first ADC register to be read in the low 19 bits (bits 0 – 18). The next ADC
register is read at the next higher Y-address. If bit 19 of the line is set to 0, the conversion creates a
“clockwise” rotation sense. If bit 19 of the line is set to 1, the conversion creates a “counter-clockwise”
rotation sense.
For example, if the first ADC register is at Y:$078C00, the first line would be set to $F78C00 for a
clockwise rotation sense, or to $FF8C00 for a counterclockwise rotation sense.
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
233
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Excitation Address Setup Word: The second setup line in a resolver conversion entry contains $4 in the
first hex digit, and the Y-address of the excitation value register in the low 19 bits (bits 0 – 18), used to
correlate the excitation and the feedback values. Multiple resolver channels can use the same excitation
register. For example, if the excitation address is at Y:$078C10, the second setup line would be set to
$478C10
Sine/Cosine Bias Setup Word: The third setup line in a resolver conversion entry contains bias-correction
terms for the sine and cosine ADC values. The high twelve bits (the first three hex digits) contain the
bias-correction term for the sine input; the low twelve bits (the last three hex digits) contain the biascorrection term for the cosine input. Each 12-bit section should be treated as a signed 12-bit value (so if
the most significant of the 12 bits is a 1, the bias value is negative).
Each 12-bit bias-correction term should contain the value opposite that which the high 12 bits of the
matching A/D converter report when they should ideally report zero. In action, the bias term will be
added to the high 12 bits of the corresponding ADC reading before subsequent calculations are done.
In most cases, the bias-correction word will be determined automatically by a high-resolution
“diagnostic” entry (format $F/$1) in the conversion table. The result of that diagnostic entry, containing
both bias corrections, can simply be copied into this setup word.
For example, if the bias-correction word were set to $004FFA, the sine bias correction would be +4 LSBs
of a 12-bit ADC, and the cosine bias correction would be -6 LSBs ($FFA = -6) of a 12-bit ADC. In use, 4
12-bit LSBs would be added to the sine reading, and 6 12-bit LSBs would be subtracted from the cosine
reading each cycle before further processing.
In most cases, the bias-correction word will be determined automatically by an analog “diagnostic” entry
in the conversion table (method $F/$1). The result of that diagnostic entry, containing both bias
corrections, can simply be copied into this setup word.
Result Word: The output value of the resolver conversion is placed in the 24-bit X-register of the third
line of the conversion table entry. The values in bits 5 – 16 of the result word contain the high 12 bits of
the calculated arctangent of the bias-corrected sine and cosine values from the resolver. Because PMAC
software considers the value in bit 5 to be a “count” for its scaling purposes, this conversion returns
resolver position values of a 12-bit conversion (4096 “counts” per cycle of the resolver).
However, because the conversion uses dual 14-bit converters and the arctangent calculations are valid to
15 bits, the result contains additional resolution in bits 0 – 4 that PMAC software considers to have
“fractional”, but still real, count resolution. If the electromagnetic noise levels are low and the signals use
near the full scale of the ADCs, a repeatable 14-bit resolution (16,384 states per cycle of the resolver) can
be achieved.
Bits 17 – 23 of the result contain cycle data from software extension of the result to multiple resolver
cycles. If the result is then used for feedback or master data, it will be further extended in the motor
algorithms.
This resolver conversion is a direct, and not a tracking, conversion. As such, it is more dynamically
responsive, but also more susceptible to measurement noise. If a more noise-immune result is desired, at
the cost of some dynamic responsiveness (but still no steady-state tracking errors), a digital tracking filter
can be implemented on this result with another conversion table entry (format $D8). The result of that
filter entry can then be used as the feedback or master data.
234
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Turbo PMAC Global I-Variables
235
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
TURBO PMAC ON-LINE COMMAND SPECIFICATION
<CONTROL-A>
Function:
Abort all programs and moves
Scope:
Global
Syntax:
ASCII value 1D, $01
This command causes all closed-loop motors in Turbo PMAC to begin immediately to decelerate to a
stop, aborting any currently running motion programs. It also brings any open-loop enabled motors to an
enabled zero-velocity closed-loop state at the present position. If global I-variable I36 is set to 0, it will
also enable any disabled motors, bringing them to a zero-velocity closed-loop state at the present position.
However if I36 is set to 1, it will have no effect on disabled motors; the <CTRL-E> command should be
used for these instead.
Each closed-loop motor will decelerate from its present command velocity to zero velocity at a rate
defined by its own motor I-variable Ixx15. Note that a multi-axis system may not stay on its programmed
path during this deceleration. If the time-base (override) value used by a motor is exactly 0% when the
<CTRL-A> command is given, the motor will abort at the present position even if the command velocity
is not zero; otherwise a ramp-down trajectory will be computed using Ixx15 and executed using the
override value.
A <CTRL-A> stop to a program is not meant to be recovered from gracefully, because the axes will in
general not stop at a programmed point. An on-line J= command may be issued to each motor to cause it
to move to the end point that was programmed when the abort occurred. Then the program(s) can be
resumed with an R (run) or <CTRL-R> command.
To stop a motion sequence in a manner that can be recovered from easily, use instead the Quit (Q or
<CTRL-Q>), the Hold (H or <CTRL-O>), the Quick Stop (\) or the Halt (/) commands.
When Turbo PMAC is set up to power on with all motors killed (Ixx80 = 0) and with I36 set to 0, this
command can be used to enable all of the motors (provided that they are not synchronous motors
commutated by Turbo PMAC – in that case, the motors should be enabled with the $ or $$ phasereferencing command).
For multiple cards on a single serial daisy-chain, this command affects all cards on the chain, regardless
of the current software addressing.
See Also
Stop Commands (Making Your Application Safe)
On-line commands A, E, <CTRL-E> $, $$, /, \, J=, H, <CTRL-O>, Q, <CTRL-Q>
I-variables I36, Ixx15, Ixx80.
<CONTROL-B>
Function
Scope
Syntax
Report status word for eight motors.
Global
ASCII Value 2D; $02
This command causes Turbo PMAC to report the status words for 8 selected motors to the host in
hexadecimal ASCII form, 12 characters per motor starting with the lowest-numbered of the selected
236
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
motors, with the characters for each motor separated by spaces. The characters reported for each motor
are the same as if the ? command had been issued for that motor.
The set of eight motors whose data is reported is selected by the most recent ##{constant} value for
this port:
 ##0:
Motors 1 – 8 (default)
 ##1:
Motors 9 – 16
 ##2:
Motors 17 – 24
 ##3:
Motors 25 – 32
The detailed meanings of the individual status bits are shown under the ? command description.
For multiple cards on a single serial daisy-chain, this command affects only the card currently addressed
in software (@n).
Example:
<CTRL-B>
812000804001 812000804001 812000A04001 812000B04001 050000000000 050000000000
050000000000 050000000000<CR>
See Also:
On-line commands <CTRL-C>, <CTRL-G>, ##, ##{constant}, ?, @n
Memory-map registers X:$0000B0, X:$000130, etc., Y:$0000C0, Y:$000140, etc.;
Suggested M-Variable definitions Mxx30-Mxx45.
<CONTROL-C>
Function:
Report all coordinate system status words
Scope:
Global
Syntax:
ASCII Value 3D, $03
This command causes Turbo PMAC to report the status words for all 16 of the coordinate systems to the
host in hexadecimal ASCII form, 12 characters per coordinate system starting with coordinate system 1,
with the characters for each coordinate system separated by spaces. The characters reported for each
coordinate system are the same as the first twelve characters reported if the ?? command had been issued
for that coordinate system.
The detailed meanings of the individual status bits are shown under the ?? command description.
For multiple cards on a single serial daisy-chain, this command affects only the card currently addressed
in software (by the @n command).
Example:
<CTRL-C>
A80020020000 A80020020000 A80020020000 A80020020000 A80020000000 A80020000000
A80020000000 A80020000000 A80020020000 A80020020000 A80020020000 A80020020000
A80020000000 A80020000000 A80020000000 A80020000000<CR>
See Also:
On-line commands <CTRL-B>, <CTRL-G>, ??;
Memory-map registers X:$002040, X:$0020C0, etc., Y:$00203F, Y:$0020BF, etc.;
Suggested M-variable definitions Msx80-Msx90.
<CONTROL-D>
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Disable all PLC programs.
Global
ASCII Value 4D; $04
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
237
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
This command causes all PLC programs to be disabled (i.e. stop executing). This is the equivalent of
DISABLE PLC 0..31 and DISABLE PLCC 0..31. It is especially useful if a CMD or SEND
statement in a PLC has run amok.
For multiple cards on a single serial daisy-chain, this command affects all cards on the chain, regardless
of the current software addressing.
Example:
TRIGGER FOUND
TRIGTRIGER FOTRIGGER FOUND
TRTRIGTRIGGER FOUND
(Out-of-control SEND message from PLC)
<CTRL-D> ........
(Command to disable the PLCs)
..........................
(No more messages; can now edit PLC)
See Also:
On-line commands DISABLE PLC, ENABLE PLC, DISABLE PLCC, ENABLE PLCC, OPEN PLC
Program commands DISABLE PLC, ENABLE PLC, DISABLE PLCC, ENABLE PLCC, COMMAND,
SEND
<CONTROL-E>
Function:
Enable disabled motors
Scope:
Global
Syntax:
ASCII value 5D,$05
This command enables all of the disabled motors on the Turbo PMAC, closing the position loop at the
present actual position. If a motor is open-loop enabled, it closes the position loop at the present actual
position. It has no effect on closed-loop enabled motors.
If I36 is set to 1, the <CTRL-A> (abort all) command does not enable disabled motors, so the <CTRL-E>
command is used for enabling all motors together. If I36 is set to 0, either the <CTRL-A> or <CTRL-E>
command could be used.
Note that if the motor is a synchronous (zero-slip – Ixx78 = 0) motor commutated by Turbo PMAC
(Ixx01 bit 0 = 1), a phase referencing is required after power-up/reset before the motor can be enabled.
This is done automatically on power-up/reset if Ixx80 for the motor is set to 1 or 3, or subsequently with
the motor-specific $ command, or the coordinate-system-specific $$ command. The <CTRL-E>
command does not cause a phase referencing to be performed on any motor.
The coordinate-system-specific E command performs the comparable action for just the motors of the
addressed coordinate system.
See Also
On-line commands A, <CTRL-A> E, $, $$
I-variables I36, Ixx80.
<CONTROL-F>
Function:
Report following errors for 8 motors.
Scope:
Global.
Syntax:
ASCII Value 6D; $06
This command causes Turbo PMAC to report the following errors of a set of 8 motors to the host. The
errors are reported in an ASCII string, each error scaled in counts, rounded to the nearest tenth of a count.
A space character is returned between the reported errors for each motor.
238
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The set of eight motors whose data is reported is selected by the most recent ##{constant} value for
this port:
 ##0:
Motors 1 – 8 (default)
 ##1:
Motors 9 – 16
 ##2:
Motors 17 – 24
 ##3:
Motors 25 – 32
Refer to the on-line F command for more detail as to how the following error is calculated.
For multiple cards on a single serial daisy-chain, this command affects only the card currently addressed
in software (by the @n command).
Example:
<CTRL-F>
0.5 7.2 -38.3 1.7 0 0 0 0<CR>
See Also:
I-variables Ixx11, Ixx12
On-line commands ##, ##{constant}, F, <CTRL-P>, <CTRL-V>
<CONTROL-G>
Function:
Report global status word.
Scope:
Global
Syntax:
ASCII Value 7D; $07
This command causes Turbo PMAC to report the global status words to the host in hexadecimal ASCII
form, using 12 characters. The characters sent are the same as if the ??? command had been sent,
although no command acknowledgement character (<ACK> or <LF>, depending on I3) is sent at the end
of the response.
The detailed meanings of the individual status bits are shown under the ??? command description.
For multiple cards on a single serial daisy-chain, this command affects only the card currently addressed
in software (by the @n command).
Example:
<CTRL-G>
003000400000<CR>
See Also:
On-line commands <CTRL-B>, <CTRL-C>, ???
Memory-map registers X:$000006, Y:$000006.
<CONTROL-H>
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Erase last character.
Port specific
ASCII Value 8D;
$08 (<BACKSPACE>).
This character, usually entered by typing the <BACKSPACE> key when talking to Turbo PMAC in
terminal mode, causes the most recently entered character in Turbo PMAC's command-line-receive buffer
for this port to be erased.
See Also:
Talking to Turbo PMAC
On-line command <CTRL-O> (Feed Hold All)
<CONTROL-I>
Function:
Repeat last command line.
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
239
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Scope:
Port specific
Syntax:
ASCII Value 9D; $09 (<TAB>).
This character, sometimes entered by typing the <TAB> key, causes the most recently sent alphanumeric
command line to Turbo PMAC on this port to be re-commanded. It provides a convenient way to quicken
a repetitive task, particularly when working interactively with Turbo PMAC in terminal mode. Other
control-character commands cannot be repeated with this command.
Note:
Most versions of the PMAC Executive Program trap a <CTRL-I> or <TAB> for
their own purposes, and do not send it on to Turbo PMAC, even when in terminal
mode.
Example:
This example shows how the tab key can be used to look for some event:
PC<CR>
P1:10<CR>
<TAB>
P1:10<CR>
<TAB>
P1:10<CR>
<TAB>
P1:11<CR>
See Also:
On-line command <CONTROL-Y>.
<CONTROL-K>
Function:
Kill all motors.
Scope:
Global
Syntax:
ASCII Value 11D; $0B
This command kills all motor outputs by opening the servo loop, commanding zero output, and taking the
amplifier enable signal (AENAn) false (polarity is determined by jumper E17x on Turbo PMAC boards)
for all motors on the card. If any motion programs are running, they will be aborted automatically.
(For the motor-specific K (kill) command, if the motor is in a coordinate system that is executing a motion
program, the program execution must be stopped with either an A (abort) or Q (quit) command before
Turbo PMAC will accept the K command.)
For multiple cards on a single serial daisy-chain, this command affects all cards on the chain, regardless
of the current software addressing.
See Also:
On-line commands K, A, <CONTROL-A>.
<CONTROL-M>
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Enter command line.
Port specific
ASCII Value 13D;
$0D (<CR>)
This character, commonly known as <CR> (carriage return), causes the alphanumeric characters in the
Turbo PMAC's command-line-receive buffer for this port to be interpreted and acted upon. (Controlcharacter commands do not require a <CR> character to execute.)
Note that for multiple Turbo PMACs daisy-chained together on a serial interface, this will act on all cards
simultaneously, not just the software-addressed card. For simultaneous action on multiple cards, it is best
to load up the command-line-receive buffers on all cards before issuing the <CR> character.
240
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Example:
#1J+<CR>
P1<CR>
@0&[email protected]&1B7R<CR>
..........................
..........................
See Also:
(This causes card 0 on the serial daisychain to
have its CS 1 execute PROG 1 and card 1 to
have its CS 1 execute PROG 7 simultaneously.)
Talking to Turbo PMAC
<CONTROL-N>
Function:
Report command line checksum.
Scope:
Port specific
Syntax:
ASCII Value 14D; $0E
This character causes Turbo PMAC to calculate and report the checksum of the alphanumeric characters
of the present command line (i.e. since the most recent carriage-return character) for this port.
As typically used, the host computer would send the entire command line up to, but not including, the
carriage return. It would then send the <CTRL-N> character, and Turbo PMAC would return the
checksum value. If this value agreed with the host's internally calculated checksum value, the host would
then send the <CR> and Turbo PMAC would execute the command line. If the values did not agree, the
host would send a <CTRL-X> command to erase the command line, then resend the line, repeating the
process.
Note:
The PMAC Executive Program terminal mode will not display the checksum
values resulting from a <CTRL-N> command.
Example:
With I4=1 and I3=2:
Host sends: ......... J+<CTRL-N>
Turbo PMAC sends:
<117dec>
Host sends: ......... <CR>
Turbo PMAC sends:
<ACK><117dec>
Host sends: ......... J/<CTRL-N>
Turbo PMAC sends:
<122dec>
Host sends: ......... <CTRL-X>
.......................... J/<CTRL-N>
Turbo PMAC sends:
<121dec>
Host sends: ......... <CR>
Turbo PMAC sends:
<ACK><121dec>
(117=74[J] + 43[+]; correct)
(handshake & checksum again)
(122 != 74[J] +47[/]; incorrect)
(Erase the incorrect command)
(Send the command again)
(121 = 74[J] + 47[/]; correct)
(handshake & checksum again)
See Also:
Communications Checksum (Writing a Host Communications Program)
I-variables I3, I4
On-line commands <CTRL-M> (<CR>), <CTRL-X>
<CONTROL-O>
Function:
Feed hold on all coordinate systems.
Scope:
Global
Syntax:
ASCII Value 15D; $0F
This command causes all coordinate systems in Turbo PMAC to undergo a feed hold. It is equivalent to
issuing the H command to each coordinate system. Refer to the H command specification for more detail
on the action.
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
241
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
A feed hold is much like a %0 command where the coordinate system is brought to a stop without
deviating from the path it was following, even around curves. However, with a feed hold, the coordinate
system slows down at a slew rate determined by Isx95, and can be started up again with an R
(run)command. The system then speeds up at the rate determined by Isx95, until it reaches the desired %
value (from internal or external timebase). From then on, any timebase changes occur at a rate
determined by Isx94.
For multiple cards on a single serial daisy-chain, this command affects all cards on the chain, regardless
of the current software addressing.
See Also:
Resetting Turbo PMAC (Talking to Turbo PMAC)
I-variables Isx94, Isx95
On-line commands <CTRL-H> (backspace) H (feedhold), R (run), % (feedrate override).
<CONTROL-P>
Function:
Report positions for eight motors.
Scope:
Global
Syntax:
ASCII Value 16D; $10
This command causes the positions of a selected eight motors to be reported to the host. The positions
are reported as a decimal ASCII string, scaled in counts, rounded to the nearest 1/32 of a count, with a
space character in between each motor’s position.
The set of eight motors whose data is reported is selected by the most recent ##{constant} value for
this port:
 ##0:
Motors 1 – 8 (default)
 ##1:
Motors 9 – 16
 ##2:
Motors 17 – 24
 ##3:
Motors 25 – 32
The position window in the Turbo PMAC Executive program works by repeatedly sending the <CTRLP> command and rearranging the response into the window.
Turbo PMAC reports the value of the actual position register plus the position bias register plus the
compensation correction register, and if bit 1 of Ixx06 is 1 (handwheel offset mode), minus the master
position register.
For multiple cards on a single serial daisy-chain, this command affects only the card currently addressed
in software (by the @n command).
Example:
<CTRL-P>
9999.5 10001.2 5.7 -2.1 0 0 0 0<CR>
See Also:
On-line commands ##, ##{constant}, P, <CTRL-V>, <CTRL-F>.
<CONTROL-Q>
Function:
Quit all executing motion programs.
Scope:
Global
Syntax:
ASCII Value 17D; $11
This command causes any and all motion programs running in any coordinate system to stop executing
either at the end of the currently executing move, or after the moves that have already been calculated are
finished, depending on the mode. It is equivalent to issuing the Q command to all coordinate systems.
Refer to the Q command description for more details.
242
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Program execution may be resumed from this point with the R (run) or S (step) commands.
For multiple cards on a single serial daisy-chain, this command affects all cards on the chain, regardless
of the current software addressing.
See Also:
On-line commands <CTRL-A>, <CTRL-K>, <CTRL-O>, <CTRL-R>, <CTRL-S>, Q
Motion-program command STOP.
<CONTROL-R>
Function:
Begin execution of motion programs in all coordinate systems.
Scope:
Global
Syntax:
ASCII Value 18D; $12
This command is the equivalent of issuing the R (run) command to all coordinate systems in Turbo
PMAC. Each active coordinate system (i.e. one that has at least one motor assigned to it) that is to run a
program must already be pointing to a motion program (initially this is done with a B{prog num}
command).
For multiple cards on a single serial daisy-chain, this command affects all cards on the chain, regardless
of the current software addressing.
Example:
&1B1&2B500<CR>
<CTRL-R>
See Also:
Executing a Motion Program (Writing and Executing Motion Programs)
Resetting Turbo PMAC (Talking to Turbo PMAC)
On-line commands R, B{constant}
<CONTROL-S>
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Step working motion programs in all coordinate systems.
Global
ASCII Value 19D; $13
This command is the equivalent of issuing an S (step) command to all of the coordinate systems in Turbo
PMAC.
Each active coordinate system (i.e. one that has at least one motor assigned to it) that is to run a program
must already be pointing to a motion program (initially this is done with a B{prog num} command).
A program that is not running will execute all lines down to and including the next motion command
(move or dwell), or if it encounters a BLOCKSTART command first, all lines down to and including the
next BLOCKSTOP command.
If a program is already running in continuous execution mode (from an R (run) command), an S
command will put the program in single-step mode, stopping execution after the next motion command).
In this situation, it has exactly the same effect as a Q (quit) command.
For multiple cards on a single serial daisy chain, this command affects all cards on the chain, regardless of
the current software addressing.
See Also:
On-line commands <CTRL-A>, <CTRL-O>, <CTRL-Q>, <CTRL-R>, A, H, O, Q, R, S;
Motion-program commands BLOCKSTART, BLOCKSTOP, STOP.
Control-panel port (JPAN) input STEP/.
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
243
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
<CONTROL-T>
Function:
Cancel MACRO pass-through mode
Scope:
Global
Syntax:
ASCII Value 20D; $14
This command causes Turbo PMAC to cancel the MACRO pass-through mode it had been put in with the
MACROMSTASCII or the MACROSTASCII command on this port. In the MACRO pass-through mode,
any command received on the port is passed on to another master on the ring through the MACRO link,
the response is received over the ring from the other master, and this response is reported back to the host
over this port.
The <CONTROL-T> command ends this mode, and resumes normal communications over this port.
Subsequent commands on the port are acted on by this Turbo PMAC, and responses go directly over the
communications port to the host computer.
If I63 is set to its default value of 0, Turbo PMAC sends no acknowledgment that it has finished its action
on the <CTRL-T> command. If I63 is set to 1, Turbo PMAC acknowledges that it has finished its action
by returning a <CTRL-X> character back to the host.
If the port that receives the <CONTROL-T> command is not currently in the MACRO pass-through
mode, Turbo PMAC will take no action on receipt of the command.
See Also:
MACRO Master-to-Master Communications
On-line command MACROMSTASCII, MACROSTASCII
<CONTROL-V>
Function:
Report velocity for eight motors.
Scope:
Global
Syntax:
ASCII Value 22D; $16
This command causes Turbo PMAC to report the velocities of a selected set of eight motors to the host.
Typically, the velocity units are scaled in encoder counts per servo cycle, rounded to the nearest tenth.
The velocity window in the Turbo PMAC Executive program works by repeatedly issuing the <CTRLV> command and displaying the response on the screen.
To scale these values into counts/msec, multiply the response by 8,388,608/I10 (servo cycles/msec).
The set of eight motors whose data is reported is selected by the most recent ##{constant} value for
this port:
 ##0:
Motors 1 – 8 (default)
 ##1:
Motors 9 – 16
 ##2:
Motors 17 – 24
 ##3:
Motors 25 – 32
This command returns filtered velocity values, with the filter time constant controlled by global variables
I60 and I61. It does not report the raw velocity register calculated by the servo loop each servo cycle.
For multiple cards on a single serial daisy chain, this command affects only the card currently addressed
in software (@n).
See Also:
I-variables I10, I59 I60, I61 Ixx60
On-line commands <CTRL-B>, <CTRL-F>, <CTRL-P>, ##, ##{constant}, V
<CONTROL-X>
Function:
244
Cancel in-process communications.
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Scope:
Port-specific
Syntax:
ASCII Value 24D; $18
This command causes the Turbo PMAC to stop sending any messages that it had started to send, even
multi-line messages, on the port over which this command is sent. This also causes Turbo PMAC to
empty the port’s command queue from the host, so it will erase any partially sent commands.
It can be useful to send this before sending a query command for which an exact response format is
expected, if not sure what Turbo PMAC has been doing before, because it makes sure nothing else comes
through before the expected response. As such, it is often the first character sent to Turbo PMAC from
the host when trying to establish initial communications.
If I63 is set to its default value of 0, Turbo PMAC sends no acknowledgment that it has finished its action
on the <CTRL-X> command. If I63 is set to 1, Turbo PMAC acknowledges that it has finished its action
by echoing the <CTRL-X> character back to the host.
This can result in more efficient communications, and is supported in PCOMM32 communications
routines in V2.21 and newer (March 1999 and later).
Note:
This command empties the command queue in Turbo PMAC RAM, but it cannot
erase the 1 or 2 characters already in the response port. A robust algorithm for
clearing responses would include two-character read commands that can time-out
if necessary.
For multiple cards on a single serial daisy chain, this command affects all cards on the chain, regardless of
the current software addressing.
See Also:
I-variable I63
On-line command <CTRL-H>
!{axis}{constant}[{axis}{constant}…]
Function:
Alter destination of RAPID move
Scope:
Coordinate-system specific
Syntax:
!{axis}{constant}[{axis}{constant}…]
where:
 {axis} is the letter specifying which axis (X, Y, Z, A, B, C, U, V, W);
 {constant} is a numerical value representing the end position;
 [{axis}{constant}…] is the optional specification of simultaneous movement for more axes.
or
!{axis}Q{constant}[{axis}Q{constant}…]
where:
 {axis} is the letter specifying which axis (X, Y, Z, A, B, C, U, V, W);
 {constant} is a numerical value representing the number or the Q-variable whose value specifies
the end position;
 [{axis}Q{constant}…] is the optional specification of simultaneous movement for more axes.
This command creates a RAPID-mode move of the specified axis or axes to the specified destinations. If
another RAPID-mode move of an axis is in progress, that move is broken into and the motion of the axes
is blended into the move to this new destination, effectively altering the destination of the move in
progress.
Each axis destination can be specified either directly as a numerical constant (e.g. !X63.72), or
indirectly by specifying the Q-variable whose value represents the axis destination (e.g. !XQ15).
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
245
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
In either case, the destination value for each axis is in the scaled engineering units for the axis. The
destination value always represents the end position for the axis, relative to program zero, even if the axis
is currently in incremental mode. Execution of this command does not change the mode of the axis. The
order in which the axes are specified in this command does not matter.
If a programmed move of a mode other than RAPID is in progress when this command is sent, this
command will be rejected with an error.
If no move is in progress when this command is sent, this command will simply execute a RAPID-mode
move to the specified destination. In this case, before starting the move, Turbo PMAC will execute the
PMATCH position-matching function automatically to make sure motor and axis positions are properly
linked in order for the move to execute properly.
Examples:
!X5
!X23.762 Y-345.124
!A-90.2 B37.3
!XQ152 YQ154
!XQ30 Y37.936
See Also:
Altered Destination Moves
RAPID-Mode Moves
I-Variables Ixx16, Ixx19, Ixx20, Ixx21, Ixx22, Ixx90, Ixx92
@
Function:
Report currently addressed card on serial daisy-chain
Scope:
Global
Syntax:
@
This command causes the addressed Turbo PMAC on a serial daisy-chain to report its number to the host.
The number is set by variable I0 on the board, and can range from 0 to 15. If all cards are addressed, card
@0 will return an @ character.
I1 must be set to 2 or 3 for this command to be accepted. Otherwise, ERR003 is reported.
Example:
@
4
; Ask Turbo PMAC chain which card is addressed
; Turbo PMAC @4 reports that it is addressed
See Also:
Addressing Commands (Talking to Turbo PMAC)
Multiple-Card Applications (Synchronizing Turbo PMAC to External Events)
I-variables I0, I1
On-line commands #, #{constant}, &, &{constant}, @{constant}
@{card}
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Address a card on the serial daisychain.
Global
@{card}
where:
 {card} is a hexadecimal digit (0 to 9, A to F), representing the number of the card on the serial
daisychain to be addressed; or the @ character, denoting that all cards are to be addressed
simultaneously.
This command makes the Turbo PMAC board specified by {card} the addressed board on the serial
daisychain. (the one on which subsequent commands will act). The number for each board is set by
246
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
variable I0 on the board. The addressing is modal, so all further commands will affect this board until a
different board is addressed. At power-up/reset, Board @0 is addressed.
I1 must be set to 2 or 3 for this command to be accepted. Otherwise, ERR003 is reported.
To address all cards simultaneously, use the @@ command. Query commands (those requiring a data
response) will be rejected in this mode.
It is best to send a <CR> carriage return character immediately after the @{card} command before any
other command is sent, to give the card that had been addressed time to tri-state its serial port outputs so
that it will not interfere with the response of the newly addressed card.
This command should only be used when multiple Turbo PMAC cards are connected on a single serial
cable. In this case, I-variable I1 should be set to 2 or 3 on all boards.
Example:
[email protected]
@0#1J+
@5P20
@@R
; This sequence can be used the first time talking to
multiple cards on a chain to put them in the proper configuration.
; Jog motor 1 of Card 0.
; Request the value of P20 on card @5
; All cards, addressed C.S. run active program
See Also:
Addressing Commands (Talking to Turbo PMAC)
Multiple-Card Applications (Synchronizing Turbo PMAC to External Events)
I-variables I0, I1
On-line commands #, &, &{constant}, @
#
Function:
Report port’s currently addressed motor
Scope:
Port specific
Syntax:
#
This command causes Turbo PMAC to return the number of the motor currently addressed for the
communications port over which this command is sent.
This is the motor that will act on subsequent motor-specific commands sent over this port until a different
motor is addressed with a #{constant} command.
Other communications ports may be addressing different motors at the same time, as set by
#{constant} commands sent over those ports. In addition, each background PLC program can
individually modally address a motor using the ADDRESS statement for subsequent COMMAND
statements, and the hardware control panel on a Turbo PMAC can separately select a motor for its
hardware inputs.
Note:
In firmware versions 1.934 and older, all communications ports addressed the
same motor, so a #{constant} command sent over any port set the addressed
motor for all ports.
Example:
#
2
; Ask Turbo PMAC which motor is addressed
; Turbo PMAC reports that motor 2 is addressed
See Also:
Control-Panel Port Inputs (Connecting Turbo PMAC to the Machine)
On-line commands #{constant}, &, &{constant}, @{constant}
Program commands ADDRESS, COMMAND
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
247
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
#{constant}
Function:
Select port’s addressed motor
Scope:
Port specific
Syntax:
#{constant}
where:
 {constant} is an integer from 1 to 32, representing the number of the motor to be addressed
This command makes the motor specified by {constant} the addressed motor for the communications
port over which this command is sent. This is the motor that will act on subsequent motor-specific
commands sent over this port until a different motor is addressed with another #{constant}
command.
Other communications ports may be addressing different motors at the same time, as set by
#{constant} commands sent over those ports. In addition, each background PLC program can
individually modally address a motor using the ADDRESS statement for subsequent COMMAND
statements, and the hardware control panel on a Turbo PMAC can separately select a motor for its
hardware inputs.
Note:
In firmware versions 1.934 and older, all communications ports addressed the
same motor, so a #{constant} command sent over any port set the addressed
motor for all ports.
Example:
#1J+
J#2J+
J/
; Command Motor 1 to jog positive
; Command Motor 1 to jog negative
; Command Motor 2 to jog positive
; Command Motor 2 to stop jogging
See Also:
Control-Panel Port Inputs (Connecting Turbo PMAC to the Machine)
Addressing commands (Talking to Turbo PMAC)
Program commands COMMAND, ADDRESS
On-line commands #, &, &{constant}, @{constant}
#{constant}->
Function:
Report the specified motor's coordinate system axis definition.
Scope:
Coordinate-system specific
Syntax:
#{constant}->
where:
 {constant} is an integer from 1 to 32 representing the number of the motor whose axis definition
is requested
Note:
No spaces are allowed in this command.
This command causes Turbo PMAC to report the current axis definition of the specified motor in the
currently addressed coordinate system. If the motor has not been defined to an axis in the currently
addressed system, Turbo PMAC will return a 0 (even if the motor has been assigned to an axis in another
coordinate system). A motor can have an axis definition in only one coordinate system at a time.
Example:
&1
248
; Address Coordinate System 1
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
#1->
10000X
&2
#1->
0
; Request Motor 1 axis definition in C.S. 1
; Turbo PMAC responds with axis definition
; Address Coordinate System 2
; Request Motor 1 axis definition in C.S. 2
; Turbo PMAC shows no definition in this C.S.
See Also:
Axes, Coordinate Systems (Setting Up a Coordinate System)
On-line commands #{constant}->0, #{constant}->{axis definition}, UNDEFINE,
UNDEFINE ALL.
#{constant}->0
Function:
Clear axis definition for specified motor.
Scope:
Coordinate-system specific
Syntax:
#{constant}->0
where:
 {constant} is an integer from 1 to 32 representing the number of the motor whose axis definition
is to be cleared
Note:
No spaces are allowed in this command.
This command clears the axis definition for the specified motor if the motor has been defined to an axis in
the currently addressed coordinate system. If the motor is defined to an axis in another coordinate
system, this command will not be effective. This allows the motor to be redefined to another axis in this
coordinate system or a different coordinate system.
Compare this command to UNDEFINE, which erases all the axis definitions in the addressed coordinate
system, and to UNDEFINE ALL, which erases all the axis definitions in all coordinate systems.
Example:
This example shows how the command can be used to move a motor from one coordinate system to
another:
&1
#4->
5000A
#4->0
&2
#4->5000A
; Address C.S. 1
; Request definition of #4
; Turbo PMAC responds
; Clear definition
; Address C.S. 2
; Make new definition in C.S. 2
See Also:
Axes, Coordinate Systems (Setting Up a Coordinate System)
On-line commands UNDEFINE, UNDEFINE ALL, #{constant}->{axis definition}.
#{constant}->{axis definition}
Function:
Assign an axis definition for the specified motor.
Scope:
Coordinate-system specific
Syntax:
#{constant}->{axis definition}
where:
 {constant} is an integer from 1 to 32 representing the number of the motor whose axis definition
is to be made;
 {axis definition} consists of 1 to 3 sets of [{scale factor}]{axis}, separated by the
+ character, in which:
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
249
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference



the optional {scale factor} is a floating-point constant representing the number of motor
counts per axis unit (engineering unit); if none is specified, Turbo PMAC assumes a value of 1.0;
{axis} is a letter (X, Y, Z, A, B, C, U, V, W) representing the axis to which the motor is to be
matched;
[+{offset}] (optional) is a floating-point constant representing the difference between axis
zero position and motor zero (home) position, in motor counts; if none is specified, Turbo PMAC
assumes a value of 0.0
Note:
No space is allowed between the motor number and the arrow double character, or
between the scale factor and the axis letter.
This command assigns the specified motor to a set of axes in the addressed coordinate system. It also
defines the scaling and starting offset for the axis or axes.
In the vast majority of cases, there is a one-to-one matching between Turbo PMAC motors and axes, so
this axis definition statement only uses one axis name for the motor.
A scale factor is typically used with the axis character, so that axis moves can be specified in standard
units (e.g. millimeters, inches, degrees). This number is what defines what the user units will be for the
axis. If no scale factor is specified, a user unit for the axis is one motor count.
Occasionally an offset parameter is used to allow the axis zero position to be different from the motor
home position. (This is the starting offset; it can later be changed in several ways, including the PSET,
{axis}=, ADIS, and IDIS commands).
If the specified motor is currently assigned to an axis in a different coordinate system, Turbo PMAC will
reject this command (reporting an ERR003 if I6=1 or 3). If the specified motor is currently assigned to an
axis in the addressed coordinate system, the old definition will be overwritten by this new one.
To undo a motor's axis definition, address the coordinate system in which it has been defined, and use the
command #{constant}->0. To clear all of the axis definitions within a coordinate system, address
the coordinate system and use the UNDEFINE command. To clear all axis definitions in all coordinate
systems, use UNDEFINE ALL.
For more sophisticated systems, two or three cartesian axes may be defined as a linear combination of the
same number of motors. This allows coordinate system rotations and orthogonality corrections, among
other things. One to three axes may be specified (if only one, it amounts to the simpler definition above).
All axes specified in one definition must be from the same triplet set of cartesian axes: XYZ or UVW. If
this multi-axis definition is used, a command to move an axis will result in multiple motors moving.
Example:
#1->X
#4->2000 A
#9->3333.333Z-666.667
; User units = counts
; 2000 counts/user unit
; Non-integers OK
#3->Y
#2->Y
; 2 motors may be assigned to the same axis;
; both motors move when a Y move is given
#1->8660X-5000Y
#2->5000X+8660Y
#3->2000Z-6000
;This provides a 30o rotation of X and Y...
;with 10000 cts/unit -- this rotation does
;not involve Z, but it could have
This example corrects for a Y axis 1 arc minute out of square:
#5->100000X
#6->-29.1X+100000Y
;100000 cts/in
;sin and cos of 1/60
See Also:
Axes, Coordinate Systems (Setting Up a Coordinate System)
On-line commands #{constant}->, #{constant}->0, UNDEFINE, UNDEFINE ALL.
250
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
#{constant}->I
Function:
Assign inverse-kinematic definition for specified motor
Scope:
Coordinate-system specific
Syntax:
#{constant}->I[+{offset}]
where:
 {constant} is an integer from 1 to 32 representing the number of the motor whose axis definition
is to be made;
 [+{offset}] (optional) is a floating-point constant representing the difference between axis zero
position and motor zero (home) position, in motor counts; if none is specified, Turbo PMAC assumes
a value of 0.0
Note:
No space is allowed between the motor number and the “arrow” double character.
This command assigns the specified motor to an inverse-kinematic axis in the addressed coordinate
system. It also defines the offset for the axis. A motor assigned in this way must get its commanded
positions each programmed move or segment from the inverse-kinematic program for the coordinate
system. This program, created with an OPEN INVERSE command, is executed automatically each
programmed move or segment if Isx50 for the coordinate system is set to 1.
At the end of each execution of the inverse-kinematic program for the coordinate system, Turbo PMAC
expects to find the motor position calculated by the program for each Motor xx in the coordinate system
defined as an inverse-kinematic axis in variable Pxx (e.g. P13 for Motor 13).
See Also:
Inverse Kinematics
I-variable Isx50
On-line commands OPEN FORWARD, OPEN INVERSE
##
Function:
Report port’s motor group
Scope:
Port specific
Syntax:
##
This command causes Turbo PMAC to return the number of the motor group currently selected on this
port for on-line commands <CTRL-B>, <CTRL-F>, <CTRL-P>, and <CTRL-V>. This value can be set
for the port by the ##{constant} command, and defaults to 0 on power-up/reset. Each
communications port can have a different value.
Note:
This is not related to the individual motor addressed with the # command, and
reported with the #{constant} command
The possible values returned and the motors they represent are:
 0: Motors 1 – 8
 1: Motors 9 – 16
 2: Motors 17 – 24
 3: Motors 25 – 32
Note:
In Turbo PMAC firmware versions 1.934 and older, this function was controlled
commonly for all ports by global I-variable I59.
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
251
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
See Also:
I-variable I59
On-line commands <CTRL-B>, <CTRL-F>, <CTRL-P>, <CTRL-V>, ##{constant}
##{constant}
Function:
Select port’s motor group
Scope:
Port specific
Syntax:
##{constant}
where:
 {constant} is an integer from 0 to 3 representing the motor group
This command selects the group of eight motors whose data will be supplied in response to subsequent
<CTRL-B> (report motor status words), <CTRL-F> (report motor following errors), <CTRL-P> (report
motor positions), and <CTRL-V> (report motor velocities) commands issued on this same port. It does
not affect the behavior of these commands issued on any other port.
Note:
This is not related to the individual motor addressed with the # command, and
reported with the #{constant} command
The possible versions of the ##{constant} command and the motors they select are:
 ##0:
Motors 1 – 8
 ##1:
Motors 9 – 16
 ##2:
Motors 17 – 24
 ##3:
Motors 25 – 32
Note:
In Turbo PMAC firmware versions 1.934 and older, this function was controlled
commonly for all ports by global I-variable I59.
See Also:
I-variable I59
On-line commands <CTRL-B>, <CTRL-F>, <CTRL-P>, <CTRL-V>, ##
$
Function:
Establish phase reference for motor
Scope:
Motor specific
Syntax:
$
This command causes Turbo PMAC to attempt to establish the phase reference and close the servo loop
for a PMAC-commutated (Ixx01 bit 0 = 1) synchronous (Ixx78 = 0) motor. On other types of motors,
where there is no need to establish a phase reference, the $ command will simply close the servo loop for
the motor (a J/ command is also suitable for these motors).
The phase reference for a synchronous PMAC-commutated can be established either by a phasing search
move if Ixx74 > 0, or by an absolute position read if Ixx81 > 0. If both of these variables are set to 0,
Turbo PMAC will set the phase reference error status bit for the motor on a $ command, leaving the
motor in the “killed” state, and not permitting the servo loop to be closed until the error status bit is
cleared.
If Ixx80 bit 0 is saved as 0, no phase reference is performed automatically at power-up or reset of the full
board, and the phase reference error bit is set, prohibiting the closing of the servo loop. A subsequent $
command, successfully executed, is required to establish the phase reference for synchronous, PMACcommutated motor.
252
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
If Ixx80 bit 0 is saved as 1, the phase reference operation is performed automatically at power-up or reset
of the full board. In this case it is possible, but not required, to re-establish the phase reference with a
subsequent $ command.
A phasing search move checks for any of the following error conditions both before and after the search:
 Hardware overtravel limits
 Amplifier fault
 I2T overcurrent fault
 Fatal following error fault
 Integrated following error fault
If any of these error conditions is present, the phase reference is considered to have failed and the phase
reference error status bit is set. Also, if no movement is detected during the search, the error bit is set
An absolute phase position read checks for any of the above fault conditions shortly after the read. If any
of these is found, the read is presumed to have failed and the error bit is set. Also, if an illegal value is
read from the sensor (e.g. all 3 hall sensors at 0 or 1), the error bit is set.
If the $ command is issued while the motor is executing a move, the command will be rejected, with
Turbo PMAC reporting ERR018 if I6 is set to 1 or 3.
If another command to move the motor is issued while the phase reference is still in progress, that
command will be rejected, with Turbo PMAC reporting ERR018 if I6 is set to 1 or 3. The phase
reference in progress status bit is set to 1 while the reference is being done.
Example:
I180
0
$$$
#1$
; Request value of #1 power-on mode variable
; Turbo PMAC responds with 0 powers on unphased and killed
; Reset card; motor is left in killed state
; Initialize motor, phasing and reading as necessary
See Also:
Absolute Sensors (Setting Up a Motor)
Power-on Phasing (Setting Up Turbo PMAC Commutation)
I-variables Ixx10, Ixx73, Ixx74, Ixx75, Ixx80, Ixx81
On-line commands $*, $$, $$*, $$$, J/
$$
Function:
Establish phase reference for motors in coordinate system
Scope:
Coordinate system specific
Syntax:
$$
This command causes Turbo PMAC to attempt to establish the phase references and close the servo loops
for all of the motors in the addressed coordinate system.
For PMAC-commutated (Ixx01 bit 0 = 1) synchronous (Ixx78 = 0) motors, a phasing search move (Ixx74
> 0) or absolute phase position read (Ixx81 > 0) is performed, and the servo loop is closed. For other
types of motors, where there is no need to establish a phase reference, the $$ command will simply close
the servo loop for the motor.
The action of the $$ command is equivalent to that of the $ command issued to each motor in the coordinate
system. For details on the action performed, refer to the specification of the $ command.
If the $$ command is issued while any motor is executing a move, the command will be rejected, with
Turbo PMAC reporting ERR018 if I6 is set to 1 or 3.
If another command to move a motor is issued while the phase reference for that motor is still in progress,
that command will be rejected, with Turbo PMAC reporting ERR018 if I6 is set to 1 or 3. The phase
reference in progress status bit for the motor is set to 1 while the reference is being done.
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
253
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Example:
I180
0
I280
0
$$$
M100=1 M200=1
&1$$
; Request value of #1 power-on mode variable
; Turbo PMAC responds with 0
; Request value of #2 power-on mode variable
; Turbo PMAC responds with 0 powers on unphased and killed
; Reset card; motors are left in killed state
; Manually supply power to drives
; Initialize motors, phasing and reading as necessary
See Also:
Absolute Sensors (Setting Up a Motor)
Power-on Phasing (Setting Up Turbo PMAC Commutation)
I-variables Ixx10, Ixx73, Ixx74, Ixx75, Ixx80, Ixx81
On-line commands $, $*, $$*, $$$, J/
$$$
Function:
Full card reset.
Scope:
Global
Syntax:
$$$
This command causes Turbo PMAC to do a full card reset. The effect of $$$ is equivalent to that of
cycling power on Turbo PMAC, or taking the INIT/ line low, then high.
With the re-initialization jumper (E51 on a Turbo PMAC, E3 on a Turbo PMAC2) OFF, this command
does a standard reset of the Turbo PMAC. Turbo PMAC copies the contents of the flash memory into
active main memory during a normal reset cycle, overwriting any current contents. This means that
anything changed in Turbo PMAC's active main memory that was not saved to flash memory will be lost.
Contents of the Option 16 supplemental battery-backed parameter memory are not changed by the $$$
command.
With the re-initialization jumper ON, this command does a reset and re-initialization of the Turbo PMAC.
Instead of copying the last saved I-variable values from flash memory into active memory, Turbo PMAC
copies the factory default I-variable values into active memory.
Note:
Because this command immediately causes Turbo PMAC to enter its power-up/rest
cycle, there is no acknowledging character (<ACK> or <LF>) returned to the host.
Example:
I130=60000
SAVE
I130=80000
$$$
I130
60000
$$$
I130
2000
; Change #1 proportional gain
; Copy active memory to non-volatile flash memory
; Change gain again
; Reset card
; Request value of parameter
; Turbo PMAC reports current value, which is saved value (Put E51 {E3} on)
; Reset card
; Request value of parameter
; Turbo PMAC reports current value, which is default
See Also:
Resetting Turbo PMAC (Talking to Turbo PMAC)
Control-Panel Port INIT/ Input (Connecting Turbo PMAC to the Machine)
On-line command $$$***
I-variables I5, Ixx80
JPAN Connector Pin 15
254
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Jumpers E3, E51.
$$$***
Function:
Scope:
Global card reset and reinitialization.
Global
Syntax:
$$$***
This command performs a full reset of the card and re-initializes the memory. All programs and other
buffers are erased in active memory. All I-variables are returned to their factory defaults. (Previously
SAVEd states for these programs, buffers, and variables are still held in flash memory, and can be brought
into active memory with a subsequent $$$command). The $$$*** command will also recalculate the
firmware checksum reference value and eliminate any password that might have been entered.
M-variable definitions, P-variable values, Q-variable values, and axis definitions are not affected by this
command. They can be cleared by separate commands (e.g. M0..8191->*, P0..8191=0,
Q0..8191=0, UNDEFINE ALL).
This command is particularly useful if the program buffers have become corrupted. It clears the buffers
and buffer pointers so the files can be re-sent to Turbo PMAC. Regular backup of parameters and
programs to the disk of a host computer is strongly encouraged so this type of recovery is possible. The
PMAC Executive program has Save Full Turbo PMAC Configuration and Restore Full Turbo PMAC
Configuration functions to make this process easy.
Example:
I130=60000
SAVE
$$$***
I130
2000
$$$
I130
60000
; Set #1 proportional gain
; Save to non-volatile memory
; Reset and re-initialize card
; Request value of I130
; Turbo PMAC reports current value, which is default
; Normal reset of card
; Request value of I130
; Turbo PMAC reports last saved value
See Also:
On-line command $$$, PASSWORD={string};
Jumper E3 (PMAC2), E51 (PMAC)
PMAC Executive Program Save/Restore Full Configuration.
$$*
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Read motor absolute positions
Coordinate system specific
$$*
The $$* command causes PMAC to perform a read of the absolute positions for all motors in the
addressed coordinate system that require an absolute position read (Ixx10 > 0), as defined by Ixx10 and
Ixx95 for the motor. This command performs the same actions in reading the absolute position data that
are normally performed during the board’s power-up/reset cycle if Ixx80 bit 2 is set to the default of 0.
The action of this command is equivalent to that of a motor-specific $* command to each motor in the
coordinate system. Refer to the $* command description for the exact actions of this command.
$*
Function:
Scope:
Read motor absolute position
Motor specific
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
255
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Syntax:
$*
The $* command causes PMAC to perform a read of the absolute position for the addressed motor, as
defined by Ixx10 and Ixx95 for the motor. It performs the same actions that are normally performed
during the board’s power-up/reset cycle.
The $* command performs the following actions on the addressed motor:
 The motor is killed (servo loop open, zero command, amplifier disabled).
 If the motor is set up for local hardware encoder position capture by input flags, with bit 0 of Ixx97
set to 0 to specify hardware capture, and bit 18 of Ixx24 set to 0 to specify local, not MACRO, flag
operation (these are default values), the hardware encoder counter for the same channel as the flag
register specified by Ixx25 is set to 0 (e.g. if Ixx25 specifies flags from channel 3, then encoder
counter 3 is cleared).
 The motor home complete status bit is cleared.
 The motor position bias register, which contains the difference between motor and axis zero
positions, is set to 0.
 If Ixx10 for the motor is greater than 0, specifying an absolute position read, the sensor is read as
specified by Ixx10 and Ixx95 to set the motor actual position. The actual position value is set to the
sum of the sensor value and the Ixx26 “home offset” parameter. Unless the read is determined to be
unsuccessful, the motor “home complete” status bit is set to 1.
 If Ixx10 for the motor is set to 0, specifying no absolute position read, the motor actual position
register is set to 0.
 Because the motor is killed the actual position value is automatically copied into the command
position register for the motor.
 There are several things to note with regard to this command:
 The motor is left in the killed state at the end of execution of this command. To enable the motor, a $
command should be used if this is a PMAC-commutated motor and a phase reference must be
established; otherwise a J/, A, or <CTRL-A> command should be used to enable the motor and close
the loop.
 If bit 2 of Ixx80 is set to 1, PMAC will not attempt an absolute position read at the board poweron/reset; in this case, the $* command must be used to establish the absolute sensor. If bit 2 of Ixx80
is set to 0 (the default), PMAC will attempt an absolute position read at the board power-on/reset.
 With Ixx10 set to 0, the action of $* is very similar to that of the HOMEZ command. There are a few
significant differences, however:

$* always kills the motor; HOMEZ leaves the servo in its existing state.

$* sets the present actual position to be zero; HOMEZ sets the present commanded position to be
zero.

$* zeros the hardware encoder counter in most cases; HOMEZ does not change the hardware
encoder counter.

All of the motors in a single coordinate system that require an absolute position read can be
commanded at once with the coordinate-system specific $$* command.
See Also:
I-variables Ixx03, Ixx10, Ixx24, Ixx25, Ixx80, Ixx81
On-line commands $, $$$, $$*, HOMEZ
%
Function:
Scope:
256
Report the addressed coordinate system's feedrate override value.
Coordinate-system specific
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Syntax:
%
This command causes Turbo PMAC to report the present feedrate-override (time-base) value for the
currently addressed coordinate system. A value of 100 indicates "'real time"'; i.e. move speeds and times
occur as specified.
Turbo PMAC will report the value in response to this command, regardless of the source of the value
(even if the source is not the %{constant} command).
Example:
%
100
H
%
0
; Request feedrate-override value
; Turbo PMAC responds: 100 means real time
; Command a feed hold
; Request feedrate-override value
; Turbo PMAC responds: 0 means all movement frozen
See Also:
Time-Base Control (Synchronizing Turbo PMAC to External Events)
I-Variables I10, Isx93, Isx94, Isx95
On-line commands %{constant}, H
%{constant}
Function:
Set the addressed coordinate system's feedrate override value.
Scope:
Coordinate-system specific
Syntax:
%{constant}
where:
 {constant} is a non-negative floating point value specifying the desired feedrate override (timebase) value (100 represents real-time)
This command specifies the feedrate override value for the currently addressed coordinate system. The
rate of change to this newly specified value is determined by coordinate system I-variable Isx94.
I-variable Isx93 for this coordinate system must be set to its default value (which tells to coordinate
system to take its time-base value from the % -command register) in order for this command to have any
effect.
23
The maximum % value that Turbo PMAC can implement is equal to (2 /I10)*100 or the (servo update
rate in kHz)*100. If a value greater than this is specified, Turbo PMAC will saturate at this value instead.
To control the time base based on a variable value, assign an M-variable (suggested Msx97) to the
commanded time base register (X:$002000, X:$002100, etc.), then assign a variable value to the Mvariable. The value assigned here should be equal to the desired % value times (I10/100).
Example:
%0
%33.333
%100
%500
%
225.88230574
M5197->X:$002000,24,S
M5197=P1*I10/100
; Command value of 0, stopping motion
; Command 1/3 of real-time speed
; Command real-time speed
; Command too high a value
; Request current value
; Turbo PMAC responds; this is max allowed value
; Assign variable to C.S. 1 % command reg.
; Equivalent to &1%(P1)
See Also:
Time-Base Control (Synchronizing Turbo PMAC to External Events)
I-Variables I10, Isx93, Isx94, Isx95
On-line commands %, H
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
257
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Memory map registers X:$002000, X:$002100, etc.
&
Function:
Report port’s currently addressed coordinate system.
Scope:
Port specific
Syntax:
&
This command causes Turbo PMAC to return the number of the coordinate system currently addressed
for the communications port over which this command is sent. This is the coordinate system that will act
on subsequent coordinate-system-specific commands sent over this port until a different coordinate
system is addressed with an &{constant} command.
Other communications ports may be addressing different coordinate systems at the same time, as set by
&{constant} commands sent over those ports. In addition, each background PLC program can
individually modally address a coordinate system using the ADDRESS statement for subsequent
COMMAND statements, and the hardware control panel on a Turbo PMAC can separately select a
coordinate system for its hardware inputs.
Note:
In firmware versions 1.934 and older, all communications ports addressed the
same coordinate system, so an &{constant} command sent over any port set
the addressed coordinate system for all ports.
Example:
&
4
; Ask Turbo PMAC which C.S. is addressed
; Turbo PMAC reports that C.S. 4 is addressed
See Also:
I-variable I2
On-line commands #, #{constant},&{constant};
Program commands ADDRESS, COMMAND;
&{constant}
Function:
Select port’s addressed coordinate system.
Scope:
Port specific
Syntax:
&{constant}
where:
 {constant} is an integer from 1 to 16, representing the number of the coordinate system to be
addressed on this port
This command makes the coordinate system specified by {constant} the addressed coordinate system
for the communications port over which this command is sent. This is the coordinate system that will act
on subsequent coordinate-system -specific commands sent over this port until a different coordinate
system is addressed with another &{constant} command.
Other communications ports may be addressing different coordinate systems at the same time, as set by
&{constant} commands sent over those ports. In addition, each background PLC program can
individually modally address a coordinate system using the ADDRESS statement for subsequent
COMMAND statements, and the hardware control panel on a Turbo PMAC can separately select a
coordinate system for its hardware inputs.
258
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Note:
In firmware versions 1.934 and older, all communications ports addressed the
same coordinate system, so an &{constant} command sent over any port set
the addressed coordinate system for all ports.
Example:
&1B4R
Q
&3B6R
A
; C.S.1 point to Beginning of Prog 4 and Run
; C.S.1 Quit running program
; C.S.3 point to Beginning of Prog 5 and Run
; C.S.3 Abort program
See Also:
I-variable I2
On-line commands #, #{constant}, &
Program commands ADDRESS, COMMAND
\
Function:
Quick Stop in Lookahead / Feed Hold
Scope:
Coordinate-system specific
Syntax:
\
This command causes the Turbo PMAC to calculate and execute the quickest stop within the lookahead
buffer for the addressed coordinate system that does not violate acceleration constraints for any motor
within the coordinate system. Motion will continue to a controlled stop along the programmed path, but
the stop will not necessarily be at a programmed point.
The \ quick-stop command is generally the best command to stop motion interactively within lookahead.
Its function is much like that of a traditional feed-hold command, but unlike the regular H feed-hold
command in Turbo PMAC, it is guaranteed to observe constraints.
Note:
The use of DWELL, WHILE({condition})WAIT, and a violation of the doublejump-back rule momentarily switches PMAC out of lookahead mode. Therefore,
these constructs should not be used in programs and sub-programs when the \
quick-stop command will be used to control their lookahead state.
Once stopped, several options are possible:
 Jog axes away with any of the jogging commands. The on-line jog commands can be used to jog any
of the motors in the coordinate system away from the stopped point. However, before execution of
the programmed path can be resumed, all motors must be returned to the original stopping point with
the J= command.

Start reverse execution along the path with the < command.

Resume forward execution with the >, R, or S command.
 End program execution with the A command.
This same functionality can be obtained from within a Turbo PMAC program by setting Isx21 to 4, which
executes more quickly than CMD “&n\”.
If the \ command is given to a coordinate system that is not currently executing moves within the
lookahead buffer, Turbo PMAC will execute the H feed-hold command instead.
See Also:
I-variables Isx13, Isx20, Isx21
On-line commands <, >, /, A, H, J=, R, S
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
259
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
<
Function:
Back up through Lookahead Buffer
Scope:
Coordinate-system specific
Syntax:
<
This command causes the Turbo PMAC to start reverse execution in the lookahead buffer for the
addressed coordinate system. If the program is currently executing in the forward direction, it will be
brought to a quick stop (the equivalent of the \ command) first.
Execution proceeds backward through points buffered in the lookahead buffer, observing velocity and
acceleration constraints just as in the forward direction. This execution continues until one of the
following occurs:
 Reverse execution reaches the beginning of the lookahead buffer – the oldest stored point still
remaining in the lookahead buffer – and it comes to a controlled stop at this point, observing
acceleration limits in decelerating to a stop.
 The \ quick-stop command is given, which causes Turbo PMAC to come to the quickest possible
stop in the lookahead buffer.
 The > resume-forward, R run, or S step command is given, which causes Turbo PMAC to resume
normal forward execution of the program, adding to the lookahead buffer as necessary.
 An error condition occurs, or a non-recoverable stopping command is given.
If any motor has been jogged away from the quick-stop point, and not returned with a J= command,
Turbo PMAC will reject the < back-up command, reporting ERR017 if I6 is set to 1 or 3.
This same functionality can be obtained from within a Turbo PMAC program by setting Isx21 to 7, which
executes more quickly than CMD “&n<”.
If the coordinate system is not currently in the middle of a lookahead sequence, Turbo PMAC will treat
this command as an H feed-hold command.
See Also:
I-variables Isx13, Isx20, Isx21
On-line commands \, >, /, A, H, J=, R, S
>
Function:
Resume Forward Execution in Lookahead Buffer
Scope:
Coordinate-system specific
Syntax:
>
This command causes the Turbo PMAC to resume forward execution in the lookahead buffer for the
addressed coordinate system. Typically, it is used to resume normal operation after a \ quick-stop
command, or a < back-up command. If the program is currently executing in the backward direction, it
will be brought to a quick stop (the equivalent of the \ command) first.
If previous forward execution had been in continuous mode (started with the R command), the >
command will resume it in continuous mode. If previous forward execution had been in single-step mode
(started with the S command), the > command will resume it in single-step mode.
The R and S commands can also be used to resume forward execution, but they may change the
continuous/single-step mode.
Deceleration from a backward move (if any) and acceleration in the forward direction observe the Ixx17
acceleration limits.
260
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
If any motor has been jogged away from the quick-stop point, and not returned with a J= command,
Turbo PMAC will reject the > resume command, reporting ERR017 if I6 is set to 1 or 3.
This same functionality can be obtained from within a Turbo PMAC program by setting Isx21 to 6, which
executes more quickly than CMD “&n>”.
If the coordinate system is not currently in the middle of a lookahead sequence, Turbo PMAC will treat
this command as an R run command.
See Also:
I-variables Isx13, Isx20, Isx21
On-line commands \, <, /, A, H, J=, R, S
/
Function:
Halt Motion at End of Block
Scope:
Coordinate-system specific
Syntax:
/
This command causes PMAC to halt the execution of the motion program running in the currently
addressed coordinate system at the end of the currently executing move, provided the coordinate system is
in segmentation mode (Isx13 > 0). If the coordinate system is not in segmentation mode (Isx13 = 0), the
/ end-block command has the same effect as the Q or S command. It will halt execution at the end of the
latest calculated move, which can be 1 or 2 moves past the currently executing move.
If the coordinate system is currently executing moves with the special lookahead function, motion will stop
at the end of the move currently being added to the lookahead buffer. This is not necessarily the move that
is currently executing from the lookahead buffer, and there can be a significant delay before motion is
halted. Acceleration limits will be observed while ramping down to a stop at the programmed point.
Once halted at the end of the move, program execution can be resumed with the R run or S single-step
command. In the meantime, the individual motors may be jogged way from this point, but they must all
be returned to this point using the J= command before program execution may be resumed.
An attempt to resume program execution from a different point will result in an error (ERR017 reported if
I6 = 1 or 3). If resumption of this program from this point is not desired, the A (abort) command should
be issued before other programs are run.
See Also:
I-variables Isx13, Isx20, Isx21
On-line commands \, <, >, A, H, J=, R, S
?
Function:
Report motor status words
Scope:
Motor specific
Syntax:
?
This command causes Turbo PMAC to report the motor status bits as an ASCII hexadecimal word.
Turbo PMAC returns twelve characters, representing two status words. Each character represents four
status bits. The first character represents Bits 20-23 of the first word; the second shows Bits 16-19; and
so on, to the sixth character representing Bits 0-3. The seventh character represents Bits 20-23 of the
second word; the twelfth character represents Bits 0-3.
If the Turbo PMAC is in bootstrap mode (suitable for the downloading of new firmware) instead of the
normal operational mode, its response to this command will simply be BOOTSTRAP PROM.
The value of a bit is 1 when the condition is true; 0 when it is false. The meaning of the individual bits is:
First Word Returned (X:$0000B0, X:$000130, etc.):
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
261
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
First character returned:
Bit 23 Motor Activated: This bit is 1 when Ixx00 is 1 and the motor calculations are active; it is 0 when
Ixx00 is 0 and motor calculations are deactivated.
Bit 22 Negative End Limit Set: This bit is 1 when motor actual position is less than the software
negative position limit (Ixx14), or when the hardware limit on this end (+LIMn on Turbo PMAC – note.)
has been tripped; it is 0 otherwise. If the motor is deactivated (bit 23 of the first motor status word set to
zero) or killed (bit 19 of the first motor status word set to zero), this bit is not updated.
Bit 21 Positive End Limit Set: This bit is 1 when motor actual position is greater than the software
positive position limit (Ixx13), or when the hardware limit on this end (-LIMn -- note!) has been tripped;
it is 0 otherwise. If the motor is deactivated (bit 23 of the first motor status word set to zero) or killed (bit
14 of the second motor status word set to zero), this bit is not updated.
Bit 20 Extended Servo Algorithm Enabled: This bit is 1 when Iyy00/Iyy50 for the motor is set to 1 and
the extended servo algorithm for the motor is selected. It is 0 when Iyy00/Iyy50 is 0 and the PID servo
algorithm is selected.
Second character returned:
Bit 19 Amplifier Enabled: This bit is 1 when the outputs for this motor's amplifier are enabled, either in
open loop or closed-loop mode (refer to Open-Loop Mode status bit to distinguish between the two
cases). It is 0 when the outputs are disabled (killed).
Bit 18 Open Loop Mode: This bit is 1 when the servo loop for the motor is open, either with outputs
enabled or disabled (killed). (Refer to Amplifier Enabled status bit to distinguish between the two cases.)
It is 0 when the servo loop is closed (under position control, always with outputs enabled).
Bit 17 Move Timer Active: This bit is 1 when the motor is executing any move with a predefined endpoint and end-time. This includes any motion program move dwell or delay, any jog-to-position move,
and the portion of a homing search move after the trigger has been found. It is 0 otherwise. It changes
from 1 to 0 when execution of the commanded move finishes.
Bit 16 Integration Mode: This bit is 1 when Ixx34 is 1 and the servo loop integrator is only active when
desired velocity is zero. It is 0 when Ixx34 is 0 and the servo loop integrator is always active.
Third character returned:
Bit 15 Dwell in Progress: This bit is 1 when the motor's coordinate system is executing a DWELL
instruction. It is 0 otherwise.
Bit 14 Data Block Error: This bit is 1 when move execution has been aborted because the data for the
next move section was not ready in time. This is due to insufficient calculation time. It is 0 otherwise. It
changes from 1 to 0 when another move sequence is started. This is related to the Run Time Error
Coordinate System status bit.
Bit 13 Desired Velocity Zero: This bit is 1 if the motor is in closed-loop control and the commanded
velocity is zero (i.e. it is trying to hold position). It is zero either if the motor is in closed-loop mode with
non-zero commanded velocity, or if it is in open-loop mode.
Bit 12 Abort Deceleration: This bit is 1 if the motor is decelerating due to an Abort command, or due to
hitting hardware or software position (overtravel) limits. It is 0 otherwise. It changes from 1 to 0 when
the commanded deceleration to zero velocity finishes.
Fourth character returned:
Bit 11 Block Request: This bit is 1 when the motor has just entered a new move section, and is
requesting that the upcoming section be calculated. It is 0 otherwise. It is primarily for internal use.
Bit 10 Home Search in Progress: This bit is set to 1 when the motor is in a move searching for a
trigger: a homing search move, a jog-until trigger, or a motion program move-until-trigger. It becomes 1
as soon as the calculations for the move have started, and becomes zero again as soon as the trigger has
been found, or if the move is stopped by some other means. This is not a good bit to observe to see if the
full move is complete, because it will be 0 during the post-trigger portion of the move. Use the Home
Complete and Desired Velocity Zero bits instead.
262
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Bit 9 User-Written Phase Enable: This bit is 1 when Ixx59 bit 1 for the motor is set to 1 and the motor
executes the user-written phase routine instead of the normal phase routine. It is 0 when Ixx59 bit 1 is 0
and the motor executes the normal phase routine.
Bit 8 User-Written Servo Enable: This bit is 1 when Ixx59 bit 0 for the motor is set to 1 and the motor
executes the user-written servo routine instead of the normal servo routine. It is 0 when Ixx59 bit 0 is 0
and the motor executes the normal servo routine.
Fifth character returned:
Bit 7 Alternate Source/Destination: This bit is 1 when Ixx01 bit 1 is 1 and an alternate source or
destination for the motor algorithms is used. If Ixx01 bit 0 is 0, this means that the motor writes its
command to an X-register instead of the standard Y-register. If Ixx01 bit 0 is 1, this means that the motor
reads its commutation feedback from a Y-register instead of the standard X-register. This bit is 0 when
Ixx01 bit 1 is 0, and the standard source or destination is used for the motor.
Bit 6 Phased Motor: This bit is 1 when Ixx01 bit 0 is 1 and this motor is being commutated by Turbo
PMAC; it is 0 when Ixx01 bit 0 is 0 and this motor is not being commutated by Turbo PMAC.
Bit 5 Following Offset Mode: This bit is 1 when Ixx06 bit 1 is 1 and position following is executed in
“offset mode”, in which the motor’s programming reference position moves with the following. This bit
is 0 when Ixx06 bit 1 is 0 and position following is executed in “normal mode”, in which the motor’s
programming reference does not move with the following.
Bit 4 Following Enabled: This bit is 1 when Ixx06 bit 0 is 1 and position following for this axis is
enabled; it is 0 when Ixx06 bit 0is 0 and position following is disabled.
Sixth character returned:
Bit 3 Error Trigger: This bit is 1 when Ixx97 bit 1 is set to 1 and the motor’s triggered moves trigger
on the warning following error limit being exceeded. Itis 0 when Ixx97 bit 1 is set to 0 and the motor’s
triggered moves trigger on a specified input flag state.
Bit 2 Software Position Capture: This bit is 1 when Ixx97 bit 0 is set to 1 and the motor’s triggered
moves use a software-captured position as the reference for the post-trigger move. It is 0 when Ixx97 bit
0 is set to 0 and the motor’s triggered moves use the hardware-captured counter position as the reference
for the post-trigger move.
Bit 1 Integrator in Velocity Loop: This bit is 1 when bit 1 of Ixx96 is set to 1 and the PID integrator is
inside the velocity loop, acting on the velocity error. This bit is 0 when bit 1 of Ixx96 is 0 and the PID
integrator is in the position loop, acting on the position error. (In firmware revisions V1.940 and older,
this status bit was bit 0 of Ixx96.)
Bit 0 Alternate Command-Output Mode: This bit is 1 when bit 0 of Ixx96 is set to 1 and the motor’s
commands are output in the alternate mode. If Ixx01 bit 0 is 1, this means that open-loop directmicrostepping commutation is performed instead of the normal closed-loop commutation. If Ixx01 bit 0 is
0, this means that the motor’s non-commutated output is formatted as a sign-and-magnitude signal pair,
instead of a single bipolar signal output. This bit is 0 when bit 0 of Ixx96 is set to 0 and the motor’s
commands are output in the standard mode. (In firmware revisions V1.940 and older, this status bit was
the Ixx90 rapid speed control.)
Second Word Returned (Y:$0000C0, Y:$000140, etc.):
Seventh character returned:
Bits 20-23 (C.S. - 1) Number: These three bits together hold a value equal to the (Coordinate System
number minus one) to which the motor is assigned. Bit 23 is the MSB, and bit 20 is the LSB. For
instance, if the motor is assigned to an axis in C. S. 6, these bits would hold a value of 5: bit 23 = 0, bit 22
= 1, bit 21 = 0, and bit 20 = 1.
Eighth character returned:
Bits 16-19
Coordinate Definition: These four bits tell what axis or axes this motor has been
assigned to in an axis definition statement. The following values are currently used:
0:
No definition
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
263
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
1:
Assigned to A-axis
2:
Assigned to B-axis
3:
Assigned to C-axis
4:
Assigned to UVW axes
7:
Assigned to XYZ axes
Ninth Character Returned:
Bit 15 Assigned to C.S.: This bit is 1 when the motor has been assigned to an axis in any coordinate
system through an axis definition statement. It is 0 when the motor is not assigned to an axis in any
coordinate system.
Bit 14 (Reserved for future use)
Bit 13 Foreground In-Position: This bit is 1 when the foreground in-position checking is enabled with
I13=1 and when four conditions are satisfied: the loop is closed, the desired velocity zero bit is 1 (which
requires closed-loop control and no commanded move); the program timer is off (not currently executing
any move, DWELL, or DELAY), and the magnitude of the following error is smaller than Ixx28. It is 0
otherwise.
Bit 12 Stopped on Desired Position Limit: This bit is 1 if the motor has stopped because the desired
position has exceeded the software overtravel limit parameters (Ixx24 bit 15 must be 1 to enable this
function). It is 0 otherwise.
Tenth Character Returned:
Bit 11 Stopped on Position Limit: This bit is 1 if this motor has stopped because of either a software or
a hardware position (overtravel) limit, even if the condition that caused the stop has gone away. It is 0 at
all other times, even when into a limit but moving out of it.
Bit 10 Home Complete: This bit, set to 0 on power-up or reset, becomes 1 when the homing move
successfully locates the home trigger. Usually, at this point in time the motor is decelerating to a stop or
moving to an offset from the trigger determined by Ixx26. If a second homing move is done, this bit is set
to 0 at the beginning of the move, and only becomes 1 again if that homing move successfully locates the
home trigger. Use the Desired Velocity Zero bit and/or the In Position bit to monitor for the end of motor
motion.
Bit 9 Phasing Search/Read Active: This bit is set to 1 if the phasing search move or phasing absolute
position read is currently ongoing for the motor. It is set to 0 otherwise.
Bit 8 Phasing Reference Error: This bit is set to 1 on power-up/reset for a PMAC-commutated (Ixx01
bit 0 = 1) synchronous motor. It is also set to 1 at the beginning of a phasing search move or phasing
absolute position read for such a motor. It is set to 0 on the successful completion of a phasing search
move or phasing absolute position read. If this bit is 1, the position/velocity servo loop cannot be closed
for this motor.
This bit is set to 1 if the phasing search move for a Turbo PMAC-commutated motor has failed due to
amplifier fault, overtravel limit, or lack of detected motion. It is set to 0 if the phasing search move did
not fail by any of these conditions (not an absolute guarantee of a successful phasing search).
Eleventh Character Returned:
Bit 7 Trigger Move: This bit is set to 1 at the beginning of a jog-until-trigger or motion program moveuntil-trigger. It is set to 0 on finding the trigger (at the beginning of the post-trigger move section), but
remains at 1 if the move ends with no trigger found. This bit is useful to determine whether the move was
successful in finding the trigger.
Bit 6 Integrated Fatal Following Error: This bit is 1 if this motor has been disabled due to an
integrated following error fault, as set by Ixx11 and Ixx63. The fatal following error bit (bit 2) will also
be set in this case. Bit 6 is zero at all other times, becoming 0 again when the motor is re-enabled.
Bit 5 I2T Amplifier Fault Error: This bit is 1 if this motor has been disabled by an integrated current
fault. The amplifier fault bit (bit 3) will also be set in this case. Bit 5 is 0 at all other times, becoming 0
again when the motor is re-enabled.
264
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Bit 4 Backlash Direction Flag: This bit is 1 if backlash has been activated in the negative direction. It
is 0 otherwise.
Twelfth Character Returned:
Bit 3 Amplifier Fault Error: This bit is 1 if this motor has been disabled because of an amplifier fault
signal, even if the amplifier fault signal has gone away, or if this motor has been disabled due to an I2T
integrated current fault (in which case bit 5 is also set). It is 0 at all other times, becoming 0 again when
the motor is re-enabled.
Bit 2 Fatal Following Error: This bit is 1 if this motor has been disabled because it exceeded its fatal
following error limit (Ixx11) or because it exceeded its integrated following error limit (Ixx63; in which
case bit 6 is also set). It is 0 at all other times, becoming 0 again when the motor is re-enabled.
Bit 1 Warning Following Error: This bit is 1 if the following error for the motor exceeds its warning
following error limit (Ixx12). It stays at 1 if the motor is killed due to fatal following error. It is 0 at all
other times, changing from 1 to 0 when the motor's following error reduces to under the limit, or if killed,
is re-enabled.
Bit 0 In Position: This bit is 1 when five conditions are satisfied: the loop is closed, the desired
velocity zero bit is 1 (which requires closed-loop control and no commanded move); the program timer is
off (not currently executing any move, DWELL, or DELAY), the magnitude of the following error is
smaller than Ixx28 and the first four conditions have been satisfied for (Ixx88+1) consecutive scans.
Example:
#1?
81200001C401
; Request status of Motor 1
; PMAC responds with 12 hex digits representing 48 bits
; The following bits are true (all others are false):
; Word 1 Bit 23: Motor Activated
; Bit 16: Integration Mode
; Bit 13: Desired Velocity Zero
; Word 2 (Bits 20-23 all 0 – assigned to C.S.1)
; (Bits 16-19 form 1 – assigned to A-axis)
; Bit 15: Assigned to Coordinate System
; Bit 14: Amplifier Enabled
; Bit 10: Home Complete
; Bit 0: In Position
See Also:
On-line commands <CTRL-B>, ??, ???
Memory-map registers X:$0000B0, X:$000130, etc., Y:$0000C0, Y:$000140, etc.;
Suggested M-Variable definitions Mxx30-Mxx45.
??
Function:
Report the status words of the addressed coordinate system.
Scope:
Coordinate-system specific
Syntax:
??
This command causes Turbo PMAC to report status bits of the addressed coordinate system as an ASCII
hexadecimal word. Turbo PMAC returns eighteen characters, representing three 24-bit status words.
Each character represents four status bits. The first character represents bits 20-23 of the first word; the
second shows bits 16-19; and so on, to the sixth character representing bits 0-3. The seventh character
represents bits 20-23 of the second word; the twelfth character represents bits 0-3.
If the Turbo PMAC is in bootstrap mode (suitable for the downloading of new firmware) instead of the
normal operational mode, its response to this command will simply be BOOTSTRAP PROM.
The value of a bit is 1 when the condition is true; 0 when it is false. The meanings of the individual bits are:
First Word Returned (X:$002040, X:$0020C0, etc.)
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
265
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
First character returned:
Bit 23 Z-Axis Used in Feedrate Calculations: This bit is 1 if this axis is used in the vector feedrate
calculations for F-based moves in the coordinate system; it is 0 if this axis is not used. See the FRAX
command.
Bit 22 Z-Axis Incremental Mode: This bit is 1 if this axis is in incremental mode -- moves specified by
distance from the last programmed point. It is 0 if this axis is in absolute mode -- moves specified by end
position, not distance. See the INC and ABS commands.
Bit 21 Y-Axis Used in Feedrate Calculations: (See bit 23 description.)
Bit 20 Y-Axis Incremental Mode: (See bit 22 description.)
Second character returned:
Bit 19 X-Axis Used in Feedrate Calculations: (See bit 23 description.)
Bit 18 X-Axis Incremental Mode: (See bit 22 description.)
Bit 17 W-Axis Used in Feedrate Calculations: (See bit 23 description.)
Bit 16 W-Axis Incremental Mode: (See bit 22 description.)
Third character returned:
Bit 15 V-Axis Used in Feedrate Calculations: (See bit 23 description.)
Bit 14 V-Axis Incremental Mode: (See bit 22 description.)
Bit 13 U-Axis Used in Feedrate Calculations: (See bit 23 description.)
Bit 12 U-Axis Incremental Mode: (See bit 22 description.)
Fourth character returned:
Bit 11 C-Axis Used in Feedrate Calculations: (See bit 23 description.)
Bit 10 C-Axis Incremental Mode: (See bit 22 description.)
Bit 9 B-Axis Used in Feedrate Calculations: (See bit 23 description.)
Bit 8 B-Axis Incremental Mode: (See bit 22 description.)
Fifth character returned:
Bit 7 A-Axis Used in Feedrate Calculations: (See bit 23 description.)
Bit 6 A-Axis Incremental Mode: (See bit 22 description.)
Bit 5 Radius Vector Incremental Mode: This bit is 1 if circle move radius vectors are specified
incrementally (i.e. from the move start point to the arc center). It is 0 if circle move radius vectors are
specified absolutely (i.e. from the XYZ origin to the arc center). See the INC(R) and ABS(R)
commands.
Bit 4 Continuous Motion Request: This bit is 1 if the coordinate system has requested of it a
continuous set of moves (e.g. with an R command). It is 0 if this is not the case (e.g. not running
program, Isx92=1, or running under an S command).
Sixth character returned:
Bit 3 Move-Specified-by-Time Mode: This bit is 1 if programmed moves in this coordinate system are
currently specified by time (TM or TA), and the move speed is derived. It is 0 if programmed moves in
this coordinate system are currently specified by feedrate (speed; F) and the move time is derived.
Bit 2 Continuous Motion Mode: This bit is 1 if the coordinate system is in a sequence of moves that it
is blending together without stops in between. It is 0 if it is not currently in such a sequence, for whatever
reason.
Bit 1 Single-Step Mode: This bit is 1 if the motion program currently executing in this coordinate
system has been told to step one move or block of moves, or if it has been given a Q (Quit) command. It
is 0 if the motion program is executing a program by a R (run) command, or if it is not executing a motion
program at all.
Bit 0 Running Program: This bit is 1 if the coordinate system is currently executing a motion
program. It is 0 if the C.S. is not currently executing a motion program. Note that it becomes 0 as soon
as it has calculated the last move and reached the final RETURN statement in the program, even if the
266
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
motors are still executing the last move or two that have been calculated. Compare to the motor Running
Program status bit.
Second Word Returned (Y:$00203F, Y:$0020BF, etc.)
Seventh character returned:
Bit 23 Lookahead in Progress: This bit is 1 when the coordinate system is actively computing and/or
executing a move sequence using the multi-block lookahead function. It is 0 otherwise.
Bit 22 Run-Time Error: This bit is 1 when the coordinate system has stopped a motion program due to
an error encountered while executing the program (e.g. jump to non-existent label, insufficient calculation
time, etc.) It is 0 otherwise. The run-time error code word (Y:$002x14) shows the cause of a run-time
error.
Bit 21 Move In Stack: (For internal use)
Bit 20 Amplifier Fault Error: This bit is 1 when any motor in the coordinate system has been killed due
to receiving an amplifier fault signal. It is 0 at other times, changing from 1 to 0 when the offending
motor is re-enabled.
Eighth character returned:
Bit 19 Fatal Following Error: This bit is 1 when any motor in the coordinate system has been killed
due to exceeding its fatal following error limit (Ixx11). It is 0 at other times. The change from 1 to 0
occurs when the offending motor is re-enabled.
Bit 18 Warning Following Error: This bit is 1 when any motor in the coordinate system has exceeded
its warning following error limit (Ixx12). It stays at 1 if a motor has been killed due to fatal following
error limit. It is 0 at all other times. The change from 1 to 0 occurs when the offending motor's following
error is reduced to under the limit, or if killed on fatal following error as well, when it is re-enabled.
Bit 17 In Position: This bit is 1 when all motors in the coordinate system are in position. Five
conditions must apply for all of these motors for this to be true:, the loops must be closed, the desired
velocity must be zero for all motors, the coordinate system cannot be in any timed move (even zero
distance) or DWELL, all motors must have a following error smaller than their respective Ixx28 in-position
bands, and the above conditions must have been satisfied for (Ixx88+1) consecutive scans.
Bit 16 Rotary Buffer Request: This bit is 1 when a rotary buffer exists for the coordinate system and
enough program lines have been sent to it so that the buffer contains at least I17 lines ahead of what has
been calculated. Once this bit has been set to 1 it will not be set to 0 until there are less than I16 program
lines ahead of what has been calculated. The PR command may be used to find the current number of
program lines ahead of what has been calculated.
Ninth character returned:
Bit 15 Delayed Calculation Flag: (for internal use)
Bit 14 End of Block Stop: This bit is 1 when a motion program running in the currently addressed
Coordinate System is stopped using the ' / ' command from a segmented move (Linear or Circular mode
with Isx13 > 0).
Bit 13 Synchronous M-variable One-Shot: (for internal use)
Bit 12 Dwell Move Buffered: (for internal use)
Tenth character returned:
Bit 11 Cutter Comp Outside Corner: This bit is 1 when the coordinate system is executing an added
outside corner move with cutter compensation on. It is 0 otherwise.
Bit 10 Cutter Comp Move Stop Request: This bit is 1 when the coordinate system is executing moves
with cutter compensation enabled, and has been asked to stop move execution. This is primarily for
internal use.
Bit 9 Cutter Comp Move Buffered: This bit is 1 when the coordinate system is executing moves with
cutter compensation enabled, and the next move has been calculated and buffered. This is primarily for
internal use.
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
267
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Bit 8 Cutter Comp Move Executing: This bit is 1 when the coordinate system is executing a move
with cutter compensation on. It is 0 otherwise.
Eleventh character returned:
Bit 7 Segmented Move in Progress: This bit is 1 when the coordinate system is executing motion
program moves in segmentation mode (Isx13>0). It is 0 otherwise. This is primarily for internal use.
Bit 6 Segmented Move Acceleration: This bit is 1 when the coordinate system is executing motion
program moves in segmentation mode (Isx13>0) and accelerating from a stop. It is 0 otherwise. This is
primarily for internal use.
Bit 5 Segmented Move Stop Request: This bit is 1 when the coordinate system is executing motion
program move in segmentation mode (Isx13>0) and it is decelerating to a stop. It is 0 otherwise. This is
primarily for internal use.
Bit 4 PVT/SPLINE Move Mode: This bit is 1 if this coordinate system is in either PVT move mode or
SPLINE move mode. (If bit 0 of this word is 0, this means PVT mode; if bit 0 is 1, this means SPLINE
mode.) This bit is 0 if the coordinate system is in a different move mode (LINEAR, CIRCLE, or
RAPID). See the table below.
Twelfth character returned:
Bit 3 2D Cutter Comp Left/3D Cutter Comp On: With bit 2 equal to 1, this bit is 1 if the coordinate
system has 2D cutter compensation on, compensating to the left when looking in the direction of motion.
It is 0 if 2D compensation is to the right. With bit 2 equal to 0, this bit is 1 if the coordinate system has
3D cutter compensation on. It is 0 if no cutter compensation is on.
Bit 2 2D Cutter Comp On: This bit is 1 if the coordinate system has 2D cutter compensation on. It is
0 if 2D cutter compensation is off (but 3D cutter compensation may be on if bit 3 is 1).
Bit 1 CCW Circle\Rapid Mode: When bit 0 is 1 and bit 4 is 0, this bit is set to 0 if the coordinate
system is in CIRCLE1 (clockwise arc) move mode and 1 if the coordinate system is in CIRCLE2
(counterclockwise arc) move mode. If both bits 0 and 4 are 0, this bit is set to 1 if the coordinate system
is in RAPID move mode. Otherwise this bit is 0. See the table below.
Bit 0 CIRCLE/SPLINE Move Mode: This bit is 1 if the coordinate system is in either CIRCLE or
SPLINE move mode. (If bit 4 of this word is 0, this means CIRCLE mode; if bit 4 is 1, this means
SPLINE mode.) This bit is 0 if the coordinate system is in a different move mode (LINEAR, PVT, or
RAPID.). See the table below.
The states of bits 4, 1, and 0 in the different move modes are summarized in the following table:
Mode
Bit 4
Bit 1
Bit 0
LINEAR
RAPID
SPLINE
CIRCLE1
CIRCLE2
PVT
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
Third Word Returned (Y:$002040, Y:$0020C0, etc.)
Thirteenth character returned:
Bit 23 Lookahead Buffer Wrap: This bit is 1 when the lookahead buffer for the coordinate system is
active and has “wrapped around” since the beginning of the current continuous motion sequence, meaning
that retrace back to the beginning of the sequence is no longer possible. It is 0 otherwise.
Bit 22 Lookahead Lookback Active: (For internal use)
Bit 21 Lookahead Buffer End: (For internal use)
Bit 20 Lookahead Synchronous M-variable: (For internal use)
Fourteenth character returned:
268
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Bit 19 Lookahead Synchronous M-variable Overflow: This bit is 1 if the program has attempted to put
more synchronous M-variable assignments into the lookahead buffer than the buffer has room for. If this
bit is set, one or more synchronous M-variable assignments have failed to execute or will fail to execute.
Bit 18 Lookahead Buffer Direction: This bit is 1 if the lookahead buffer is executing in the reverse
direction, or has executed a quick stop from the reverse direction. It is 0 if the lookahead buffer is
executing in the forward direction, has executed a quick stop for the forward direction, or is not executing.
Bit 17 Lookahead Buffer Stop: This bit is 1 if the lookahead buffer execution is stopping due to a
quick-stop command or request. It is 0 otherwise.
Bit 16 Lookahead Buffer Change: This bit is 1 if the lookahead buffer is currently changing state
between forward and reverse direction, or between executing and stopped. It is 0 otherwise.
Fifteenth character returned:
Bit 15 Lookahead Buffer Last Segment: This bit is 1 if the lookahead buffer is currently executing the
last segment before the end of a sequence. It is 0 otherwise.
Bit 14 Lookahead Buffer Recalculate: This bit is 1 if the lookahead buffer is recalculating segments
already in the buffer due to a change in the state of the buffer. It is 0 otherwise.
Bit 13 Lookahead Buffer Flush: This bit is 1 if the lookahead buffer is executing segments but not
adding any new segments. It is 0 otherwise.
Bit 12 Lookahead Buffer Last Move: This bit is 1 if the last programmed move in the buffer has
reached speed. It is 0 otherwise.
Sixteenth character returned:
(Bits 8 – 11 form variable Isx21.)
Bit 11 Lookahead Buffer Single-Segment Request: This bit can be set to 1 by the user as part of a
request to change the state of the lookahead buffer. It should be set to 1 to request the buffer to move
only a single segment from a stopped state (in either direction). It should be set to 0 otherwise. Turbo
PMAC leaves this bit in the state of the last request, even after the request has been processed.
Bit 10 Lookahead Buffer Change Request: This bit can be set to 1 by the user to request a change in
the state of the lookahead buffer. It remains at 1 until the Turbo PMAC processes the change, at which
time Turbo PMAC changes it to 0.
Bit 9 Lookahead Buffer Movement Request: This bit can be set by the user as part of a request to
change the state of the lookahead buffer. It should be set to 1 to request the buffer to operate (in either the
forward or reverse direction); it should be set to 0 to request the buffer to execute a quick stop. Turbo
PMAC leaves this bit in the state of the last request, even after the request has been processed.
Bit 8 Lookahead Buffer Direction Request: This bit can be set by the user as part of a request to
change the state of the lookahead buffer. It should be set to 1 to request operation in the reverse direction;
it should be set to 0 to request operation in the forward direction. Its state does not matter in a request to
execute a quick stop. Turbo PMAC leaves this bit in the state of the last request, even after the request
has been processed.
Seventeenth character returned:
Bits 4 – 7
(Reserved for future use)
Eighteenth character returned:
Bit 3 Radius Error: This bit is 1 when a motion program has been stopped because it was asked to do
an arc move whose distance was more than twice the radius (by an amount greater than Ixx96).
Bit 2 Program Resume Error: This bit is 1 when the user has tried to resume program operation after
a feed-hold or quick-stop, but one or more of the motors in the coordinate system are not at the location of
the feed-hold or quick-stop. It is 0 otherwise.
Bit 1 Desired Position Limit Stop: This bit is 1 if the motion program in the coordinate system has
stopped due to the desired position of a motor exceeding a limit.
Bit 0 In-Program PMATCH: This bit is 1 if Turbo PMAC is executing the PMATCH function
automatically, as at the end of a move-until-trigger. It is 0 otherwise. This bit is primarily for internal use.
Example:
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
269
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
??
A8002A020010000000
; Request coordinate system status words
; Turbo PMAC responds; the following bits are true:
; Word 1 Bit 23: Z-axis used in feedrate calcs
; Bit 21: Y-axis used in feedrate calcs
; Bit 19: X-axis used in feedrate calcs
; Bit 5: Radius vector incremental mode
; Bit 3: Move specified by time
; Bit 1: Single-step mode
; Word 2 Bit 17: In-position
; Bit 4: PVT/Spline mode
; Word 3 no bits set – no lookahead active
See Also:
On-line commands <CONTROL-C>, ?, ???
Memory-map registers X/Y:$002040, X/Y:$0020C0, etc., Y:$00203F, Y:$0020BF, etc.;
Suggested M-variable definitions Msx80-Msx90.
???
Function:
Report global status words
Scope:
Global
Syntax:
???
This command causes Turbo PMAC to return the global status bits in ASCII hexadecimal form. Turbo
PMAC returns twelve characters, representing two status words. Each character represents four status
bits. The first character represents Bits 20-23 of the first word, the second shows Bits 16-19; and so on,
to the sixth character representing Bits 0-3. The seventh character represents Bits 20-23 of the second
word; the twelfth character represents Bits 0-3 of the second word.
If the Turbo PMAC is in “bootstrap mode” (suitable for the downloading of new firmware) instead of the
normal operational mode, its response to this command will simply be BOOTSTRAP PROM.
A bit has a value of 1 when the condition is true; 0 when false. The meaning of the individual status bits is:
First Word Returned (X:$000006):
First character returned:
Bit 23 (Reserved for future use)
Bit 22 Real-Time Interrupt Re-entry: This bit is 1 if a real-time interrupt task has taken long enough so
that it was still executing when the next real-time interrupt came (I8+1 servo cycles later). It stays at 1
until the card is reset, or until this bit is manually changed to 0. If motion program calculations cause this
it is not a serious problem. If PLC 0 causes this (no motion programs running) it could be serious.
Bit 21 CPU Type Bit 1: This bit is 1 if the Turbo PMAC has an Option 5Ex DSP56311 or an Option
5Fx DSP56321 processor. It is 0 if it has an Option 5Cx DSP56303 or an Option 5Dx DSP56309
processor. In both cases, bit 21 in the second word returned (Y:$000006) distinguishes between
processor types.
Bit 20 Servo Error: This bit is 1 if Turbo PMAC could not properly complete its servo routines. This is
a serious error condition. It is 0 if the servo operations have been completing properly.
Second character returned:
Bit 19 Data Gathering Function On: This bit is 1 when the data gathering function is active; it is 0
when the function is not active.
Bit 18 (Reserved for future use)
Bit 17 Data Gather to Start on Trigger: This bit is 1 when the data gathering function is set up to start
on the rising edge of Machine Input 2. It is 0 otherwise. It changes from 1 to 0 as soon as the gathering
function actually starts.
Bit 16 Servo Request: (Internal use).
270
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Third character returned:
Bit 15 Watchdog Timer: (Internal use)
Bit 14 Leadscrew Compensation On: This bit is 1 if leadscrew compensation is currently active in
Turbo PMAC. It is 0 if the compensation is not active.
Bit 13 Any Memory Checksum Error: This bit is 1 if a checksum error has been detected for either the
Turbo PMAC firmware or the user program buffer space. Bit 12 of this word distinguishes between the
two cases.
Bit 12 PROM Checksum Active: This bit is 1 if Turbo PMAC is currently evaluating a firmware
checksum (Bit 13 = 0), or has found a firmware checksum error (Bit 13 = 1). It is 0 if Turbo PMAC is
evaluating a user program checksum (Bit 13 = 0), or has found a user program checksum error (Bit 13 = 1).
Fourth character returned:
Bit 11 DPRAM Error: This bit is 1 if Turbo PMAC detected an error in its automatic DPRAM check
function at power-up/reset due to missing or defective DPRAM. It is 0 otherwise.
Bit 10 Flash Error: This bit is 1 if Turbo PMAC detected a checksum error in reading saved data from
the flash memory on board reset. It is 0 otherwise.
Bit 9 Real-Time Interrupt Warning: This bit is 1 if a real-time interrupt task (motion program or PLC
0) has taken more than one interrupt period – a possible sign of CPU loading problems. It is 0 otherwise.
Bit 8 Illegal L-Variable Definition: This bit is 1 if a compiled PLC has failed because it used an Lvariable pointer that accessed an illegal M-variable definition. It is 0 otherwise.
Fifth character returned:
Bit 7 Configuration Error: This bit is 1 if the Turbo PMAC detects a change in the configuration of
Servo and MACRO ICs since the last re-initialization, or if the MACRO ring reports a conflict in the
node configuration (multiple active nodes at the same ring address). It is 0 otherwise. If this bit is set to 1,
no motors can be enabled.
Bit 6 TWS Variable Parity Error: This bit is 1 if the most recent TWS-format M-variable read or
write operation with a device supporting parity had a parity error; it is 0 if the operation with such a
device had no parity error. The bit status is indeterminate if the operation was with a device that does not
support parity.
Bit 5 MACRO Auxiliary Communications Error: This bit is 1 if the most recent MACRO auxiliary
read or write command has failed. It is set to 0 at the beginning of each MACRO auxiliary read or write
command.
Bit 4 MACRO Ring Check Error: This bit is 1 if the MACRO ring check function is enabled (I80 > 0)
and Turbo PMAC has either detected at least I81 ring communication errors in an I80-servo-cycle period,
or has failed to detect the receipt of I82 ring sync packets.
Sixth character returned:
Bit 3 Phase Clock Missing: This bit is set to 1 if the CPU received no hardware-generated phase clock
from a source external to it (Servo IC, MACRO IC, or through serial port). If this bit is set, no motor may
be enabled (starting in V1.940). This bit is 0 otherwise.
Bit 2
(Reserved for future use)
Bit 1 All Cards Addressed: This bit is set to 1 if all cards on a serial daisychain have been addressed
simultaneously with the @@ command. It is 0 otherwise.
Bit 0 This Card Addressed: This bit is set to 1 if this card is on a serial daisychain and has been
addressed with the @n command. It is 0 otherwise.
Second Word Returned (Y:$000006)
Seventh character returned:
Bit 23 Turbo Ultralite: This bit is 1 if Turbo PMAC has detected that it is an Ultralite PMAC2 with no
Servo ICs on board. It is 0 if Turbo PMAC has detected that it has Servo ICs on board.
Bit 22 Turbo VME: This bit is 1 if Turbo PMAC has detected that it has a VME bus interface on board.
It is 0 otherwise.
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
271
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Bit 21 CPU Type Bit 0: This bit is 1 if the Turbo PMAC has an Option 5Dx DSP56309 or an Option 5Fx
DSP56321 processor. It is 0 if it has an Option 5Cx DSP56303 or an Option 5Dx DSP56311 processor. In
both cases, bit 21 in the first word returned (X:$000006) distinguishes between processor types.
Bit 20 Binary Rotary Buffers Open: This bit is 1 if the rotary motion program buffers on Turbo PMAC
are open for binary-format entry through the DPRAM. It is 0 otherwise.
Eighth character returned:
Bit 19 Motion Buffer Open: This bit is 1 if any motion program buffer (PROG or ROT) is open for
entry. It is 0 if none of these buffers is open.
Bit 18 ASCII Rotary Buffer Open: This bit is 1 if the rotary motion program buffers on Turbo PMAC
are open for ASCII-format entry. It is 0 otherwise.
Bit 17 PLC Buffer Open: This bit is 1 if a PLC program buffer is open for entry. It is 0 if none of these
buffers is open.
Bit 16 UMAC System: This bit is 1 if the Turbo PMAC is a 3U Turbo system (UMAC or Stack). It is 0
otherwise.
Ninth character returned:
Bits 14-15
Kinematics Active: (For internal use)
Bit 13 Ring-Master-to-Master Communications: (For internal use)
Bit 12 Master-to-Ring-Master Communications: (For internal use)
Tenth character returned:
Bit 11 Fixed Buffer Full: This bit is 1 when no fixed motion (PROG) or PLC buffers are open, or
when one is open but there are less than I18 words available. It is 0 when one of these buffers is open and
there are more than I18 words available.
Bit 10 MACRO Ring Check Active: This bit is 1 when the Turbo PMAC is performing a diagnostic test
of the MACRO ring. It is 0 otherwise.
Bit 9 MACRO Ring Active: This bit is 1 when the MACRO ring is actively transmitting data. It is 0
otherwise (when the ring is faulted).
Bit 8 Modbus Active: This bit is 1 when the Modbus Ethernet interface is active. It is 0 otherwise.
Eleventh character returned:
Bit 7 Bad FSAVE Flash Sector: This bit is 1 when the Turbo PMAC has detected a bad sector in flash
memory when attempting an FSAVE fast parameter save. It is 0 otherwise.
Bit 6 Clearing FSAVE Flash Sector: This bit is 1 when the Turbo PMAC is clearing a sector in flash
memory as part of an FSAVE fast parameter save. It is 0 otherwise.
Bit 5 Ring Break Message Received: This bit is 1 when the Turbo PMAC has received a message from
the MACRO ring that there is a ring break somewhere on the network. It is 0 otherwise.
Bit 4 Ring Break Detected: This bit is 1 when the Turbo PMAC has detected a break on the MACRO
ring coming into it. It is 0 otherwise.
Twelfth character returned:
Bit 3 Ring Sync Packet Fault: This bit is 1 when the Turbo PMAC has not received the expected
“sync packet” over the MACRO ring. It is 0 otherwise.
Bit 2 (Reserved for future use)
Bit 1 (Reserved for future use)
Bit 0 Abort Input: (Geo Brick amplifier only) This bit is 1 when the Turbo PMAC has received a
hardware “abort” command input. It is 0 otherwise.
Example:
???
003000400000
272
; Ask Turbo PMAC for global status words
; Turbo PMAC returns the global status words
; First word bit 13 (Any checksum error) is true;
; First word bit 12 (PROM checksum error) is true;
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
; Second word bit 23 (for internal use) is true;
; All other bits are false
See Also:
On-line commands ?, ??, <CTRL-G>
Memory-map registers X:$000006, Y:$000006.
A
Function:
Abort all programs and moves in currently addressed coordinate system
Scope:
Coordinate-system specific
Syntax:
A
This command causes all closed-loop motors defined in the addressed coordinate system to begin
immediately to decelerate to a stop, aborting the currently running motion program (if any). It also brings
any open-loop enabled motors in the coordinate system to an enabled zero-velocity closed-loop state at
the present position. If global I-variable I36 is set to 0, it will also enable any disabled motors in the
coordinate system, bringing them to a zero-velocity closed-loop state at the present position. However if
I36 is set to 1, it will have no effect on disabled motors; the E command should be used for these instead.
Each closed-loop motor in the coordinate system will decelerate from its present command velocity to
zero velocity at a rate defined by its own motor I-variable Ixx15. Note that a multi-axis system may not
stay on its programmed path during this deceleration. If the time-base (override) value for the coordinate
system is exactly 0% when the A command is given, the motor will abort at the present position even if
the command velocity is not zero; otherwise a ramp-down trajectory will be computed using Ixx15 and
executed using the override value.
An A (abort) stop to a program is not meant to be recovered from gracefully, because the axes will in
general not stop at a programmed point. An on-line J= command may be issued to each motor to cause it
to move to the end point that was programmed when the abort occurred. Then the program(s) can be
resumed with an R (run) command.
To stop a motion sequence in a manner that can be recovered from easily, use instead the Quit (Q or
<CTRL-Q>), the Hold (H or <CTRL-O>), the Quick Stop (\) or the Halt (/) commands.
Example
B1R..................
A ......................
#1J=#2J= ......
R ......................
; Start Motion Program 1
; Abort the program
; Jog motors to original move-end position
; Resume program with next move
See Also
Stop Commands (Making Your Application Safe)
Control-Panel Port STOP/ Input (Connecting Turbo PMAC to the Machine)
I-variables I36, Ixx15, Ixx80
On-line commands <CTRL-A>, <CTRL-E>, E, H, J/, K, Q
JPAN connector pin 10
ABR[{constant}]
Function:
Scope:
Abort currently running motion program and start another
Coordinate-system specific
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
273
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Syntax:
ABR[{constant}]
where:
 {constant} is a numerical value whose integer part specifies the number of the program to be run,
and whose fractional part (if any) specifies the line label of that program where execution is to begin.
The ABR command permits a very quick end to the execution of one motion program and starting (or
restarting) of another (or the same) motion program. It performs the following tasks for the addressed
coordinate system, all in a unitary command:
 It immediately stops execution of the currently running motion program in the addressed coordinate
system.
 It brings the commanded trajectories of all motors in the coordinate system to stop at the rate set by
Ixx15 for each motor.
 It points the coordinate system’s program counter to a specific location in that program or another
program. If stopping and resuming the rotary motion program buffer, it immediately clears the rotary
buffer of unexecuted lines.
 As soon as the commanded trajectories of all motors in the coordinate system have stopped, it will
start execution of the newly addressed program (which could be the same program.
It is essentially a combination of the existing A (abort), B (point to beginning of program), and R (run)
commands. By combining these into a single command, all three actions are executed in a single
command cycle, speeding the transition.
If the ABR command is given without a numerical argument, Turbo PMAC will restart the presently
executing program at the top. If an ABR0 command is given, Turbo PMAC will end execution of the
currently executing program – if it is currently executing the rotary program buffer, clear the rotary buffer
– and point to the top of the rotary program buffer.
If an ABR{constant} command is given with a non-zero constant value, Turbo PMAC will start
execution of the program number specified by the integer part of the constant (valid values 1 – 32,767)
and at the numeric line label whose value is equal to the fractional part times 100,000 (10 5). If no
fractional part is specified, execution will start at the top of this program.
Examples:
ABR0
ABR20
ABR44.37
; Stop execution of rotary buffer, clear, and restart at top
; Stop execution and start at top of program 20
; Stop execution and start at N37000 of program 44
ABS
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Select absolute position mode for axes in addressed coordinate system.
Coordinate-system specific
ABS
ABS ({axis}[,{axis}...])
where:
 {axis} is a letter (X, Y, Z, A, B, C, U, V, W) representing the axis to be specified, or the character
R to specify radial vector mode
No spaces are permitted in this command.
This command, without any arguments, causes all subsequent positions for all axes in the coordinate
system in motion commands to be treated as absolute positions (this is the default condition). An ABS
command with arguments causes the specified axes to be in absolute mode, and all others to remain
unchanged.
274
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
If R is specified as one of the 'axes', the I, J, and K terms of the circular move radius vector specification
will be specified in absolute form (i.e. as a vector from the origin, not from the move start point). An
ABS command without any arguments does not affect this vector specification. The default radial vector
specification is incremental.
If a motion program buffer is open when this command is sent to Turbo PMAC, the command will be
entered into the buffer for later execution.
Example:
ABS(X,Y)
ABS
ABS(R)
; X and Y made absolute – other axes and radial vector left unchanged
; All axes made absolute – radial vector left unchanged
; Radial vector made absolute – all axes left unchanged
See Also:
Circular Moves (Writing and Executing Motion Programs)
On-line command INC
Program commands ABS, INC
{axis}={constant}
Function:
Re-define the specified axis position.
Scope:
Coordinate-system specific
Syntax:
{axis}={constant}
where:
 {axis} is a letter from the set (X, Y, Z, U, V, W, A, B, C) specifying the axis whose present
position is to be re-named;
 {constant} is a floating-point value representing the new name value for the axis' present position
This command re-defines the current axis position to be the value specified in {constant}, in user
units (as defined by the scale factor in the axis definition). It can be used to relocate the origin of the
coordinate system. This does not cause the specified axis to move; it simply assigns a new value to the
position..
Internally, a position bias register is written to which creates this new position offset. PSET is the
equivalent motion program command.
Example:
X=0
Z=5000
; Call axis X's current position zero
; Re-define axis Z's position as 5000
See Also:
Axes, Coordinate Systems (Setting Up a Coordinate System)
On-line command Z
Program commands PSET, ADIS, IDIS.
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
275
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
B{constant}
Function:
Point the addressed coordinate system to a motion program.
Scope:
Coordinate-system specific
Syntax:
B{constant}
where:
{constant} is a floating point value from 0.0 to 32767.99999 representing the program and location to
point the coordinate system to; with the integer part representing the program number, and the fractional
part multiplied by 100,000 representing the line label (zero fractional part means the top of the program).
This command causes Turbo PMAC to set the program counter of the addressed coordinate system to the
specified motion program and location. It is usually used to set the program counter to the Beginning of a
motion program. The next R or S command will start execution at this point.
If {constant} is an integer, the program counter will point to the beginning of the program whose
number matches {constant}. Fixed motion program buffers (PROG) can have numbers from 1 to
32,767. The rotary motion program carries program number 0 for the purpose of this command.
If {constant} is not an integer, the fractional part of the number represents the line label (N or O) in
the program to which to point. The fractional value multiplied by 100,000 determines the number of the
line label to which to point (it fills the fraction to 5 decimal places with zeros).
Note:
If a motion program buffer (including ROTARY) is open when this command is
sent to Turbo PMAC, the command is entered into the buffer for later execution, to
be interpreted as a B-axis move command.
Example:
B7
B0
B12.6
B3.025R
;points to the top of PROG 7
;points to the top of the rotary buffer
;points to label N60000 of PROG 12
;points to label N2500 of PROG 3 and runs
See Also:
On-line commands DEFINE ROT, R, S
Program commands B{data}, N{constant}, O{constant}.
CHECKSUM
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Report the firmware checksum value.
Global
CHECKSUM
CHKS
This command causes Turbo PMAC to report the reference checksum value of the firmware revision that
it is using. The value is reported as a hexadecimal ASCII string. This value was computed during the
compilation of the firmware. It is mainly used for troubleshooting purposes.
The comparative checksum value that Turbo PMAC is continually computing by scanning the firmware
in active memory is stored in X:$001080. As long as there is no checksum error, this comparative value
is continually changing as PMAC continues its calculations. However, if during any pass of the
checksum calculations, if the final comparative checksum value does not agree with the reference value,
the calculations stop, and the final erroneous value is held in X:$001080.
Example:
CHECKSUM
9FA263
276
; Request firmware reference checksum value
; Turbo PMAC returns hex value
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
See Also:
On-line commands DATE, VERSION
CID
Function:
Report card ID or part number.
Scope:
Global
Syntax:
CID
This command causes Turbo PMAC to return the card’s part number. This can be used to confirm
exactly which type of Turbo PMAC is being used.
The currently existing types of Turbo PMAC and the values they return for CID are:
 Turbo PMAC PC:
602191
 Turbo PMAC VME:
602199
 Turbo PMAC2 PC:
602404
 Turbo PMAC2 VME:
602413
 Turbo PMAC2 PC Ultralite: 603182
 Turbo PMA2 PCI:
603367
 3U Turbo PMAC2:
603382
See Also:
I-Variable I4909
On-line commands CPU, TYPE, VERSION, VID
CLEAR
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Erase currently opened buffer.
Port specific
CLEAR
CLR
This command empties the program buffer (PROGRAM, PLC, ROTARY) that is currently opened on the
port over which the command is given. If used to empty an open rotary motion program buffer, it only
affects the buffer for the addressed coordinate system on that port.
If there is no open program buffer, or if the program buffer that is open was opened from another
communications port, the CLEAR command will be rejected with an error, reporting ERR007 if I6=1 or 3.
Note:
Prior to V1.936 firmware, an open buffer could be accessed from any port, and the
CLEAR command could be used on one port to empty a buffer that had been
opened on another port. Starting in V1.936, a CLEAR command could only be
used to empty a buffer opened from the same port.
Typically, as a buffer file is created in the host computer, start with the OPEN {buffer} and CLEAR
commands (even though these lines are technically not part of the buffer), and follow with the actual
contents. This will allow easy edit of the buffers from the host and repeated downloading of the buffers,
erasing the old buffer’s contents in the process.
Example:
OPEN PROG 1
CLEAR
F1000
X2500
CLOSE
OPEN PLC 3 CLEAR CLOSE
; Open motion program buffer 1
; Clear out this buffer
; Program really starts here!
;...and ends on this line!
; This closes the program buffer
; This erases PLC 3
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
277
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
See Also:
Program Buffers (Talking to Turbo PMAC)
On-line commands OPEN, CLOSE, DELETE.
CLEAR ALL
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Erase all fixed motion, kinematic, and uncompiled PLC programs
Global
CLEAR ALL
CLR ALL
This command causes Turbo PMAC to erase all fixed (not rotary) motion program buffers (PROGRAM),
all forward-kinematic program buffers (FORWARD), all inverse-kinematic program buffers (INVERSE),
and all uncompiled PLC program buffers (PLC) in the Turbo PMAC buffer space.
This command does not affect rotary motion program buffers (ROTARY), compiled PLC program buffers
(PLCC), or any non-program buffers, such as compensation tables and lookahead buffers.
See Also:
On-line commands CLEAR, CLEAR ALL PLCS, OPEN, DELETE ALL, DELETE ALL TEMP
CLEAR ALL PLCS
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Erase all uncompiled PLC programs
Global
CLEAR ALL PLCS
CLR ALL PLCS
This command causes Turbo PMAC to erase all uncompiled PLC program buffers (PLC) in the Turbo
PMAC buffer space.
This command does not affect fixed motion program buffers (PROGRAM), forward-kinematic program
buffers (FORWARD), inverse-kinematic program buffers (INVERSE), rotary motion program buffers
(ROTARY), compiled PLC program buffers (PLCC), or any non-program buffers, such as compensation
tables and lookahead buffers.
See Also:
On-line commands CLEAR, CLEAR ALL, OPEN, DELETE ALL, DELETE ALL TEMP
CLOSE
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Close the currently opened buffer.
Global
CLOSE
CLS
This command closes the program buffer (PROGRAM, PLC, ROTARY, BINARY ROTARY) that is
currently opened on the port over which the command is given. When Turbo PMAC receives a CLOSE
command, it automatically appends a RETURN statement to the end of the open program buffer. If used
to close open rotary motion program buffers, it closes the rotary program buffers for all coordinate
systems simultaneously.
If there is no open program buffer, or if the program buffer that is open was opened from another
communications port, the CLOSE command will be accepted, but no action will occur.
278
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Note:
Prior to V1.936 firmware, an open buffer could be accessed from any port, and the
CLOSE command could be used on one port to close a buffer that had been opened
on another port. Starting in V1.936, if a CLOSE command could only be used to
close a buffer opened from the same port.
The CLOSE command should be used immediately after the entry of a motion, PLC, rotary, etc. buffer. If
the buffer is left open, subsequent statements that are intended as on-line commands (e.g. P1=0) will get
entered into the buffer instead. It is good practice to have CLOSE at the beginning and end of any file to
be downloaded to Turbo PMAC.
If the program buffer closed by the CLOSE command is improperly structured, structured (e.g. no ENDIF
or ENDWHILE to match an IF or WHILE), Turbo PMAC will report an error to the CLOSE command,
returning ERR009 if I6 is 1 or 3. However, the buffer will still be closed.
Example:
CLOSE
OPEN PROG 1
CLEAR
F1000
X2500
CLOSE
LIST PROG 1
F1000
X2500
RETURN
; This makes sure all buffers are closed
; Open motion program buffer 1
; Clear out this buffer
; Program actually starts here!...
;...and ends on this line!
; This closes the program buffer
; Request listing of closed program
; Turbo PMAC starts listing
; This was appended by the CLOSE command
See Also:
Program Buffers (Talking to Turbo PMAC)
On-line commands OPEN, CLEAR, <CTRL-L>, <CTRL-U>
CLOSE ALL
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Close the currently opened buffer on any port
Global
CLOSE ALL
CLS ALL
This command closes the program buffer (PROGRAM, PLC, ROTARY) that is currently opened,
regardless of the port over which the buffer was opened. When Turbo PMAC receives a CLOSE ALL
command, it automatically appends a RETURN statement to the end of the open program buffer (except
for rotary motion program buffers).
Note:
The similar CLOSE command can only affect a buffer that was opened on the same
port as which the CLOSE command is sent.
See Also:
On-line commands OPEN{buffer}, CLOSE
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
279
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
CLRF
Function:
Clear faults on MACRO ring
Scope:
Global
Syntax:
CLRF
The CLRF command causes Turbo PMAC to send a command over the MACRO ring to clear any faults
on slave MACRO devices. The command is sent as a ring broadcast over Node 14 to all stations on the
MACRO ring. It is the “global” equivalent of the station-specific MS CLRFn command. It should only be
sent by the synchronizing master on the ring.
All stations receiving the command will clear any fault bits present and reset ring error counters to zero. If
a slave station had turned itself into a master to notify the synchronizing master of a ring break, it will
turn itself back into a slave. The Turbo PMAC sending the command will clear its own global “ring fault”
status bit and reset its ring-error counter (at Y:$343B) to zero.
Of course, if the underlying condition that caused the original fault is still present, fault bits can
immediately be set back to 1 and error counters incremented from zero.
{constant}
Function:
Assign value to variable P0, or to table entry.
Scope:
Global
Syntax:
{constant}
where:
 {constant} is a floating-point value
This command is the equivalent of P0={constant}. That is, a value entered by itself on a command
line will be assigned to P-variable P0. This allows simple operator entry of numeric values through a
dumb terminal interface. Where the value goes is hidden from the operator; the Turbo PMAC user
program must take P0 and use it as appropriate.
Note:
If a compensation table on Turbo PMAC (BLCOMP, COMP, or TCOMP) has been
defined but not filled, a constant value will be entered into this table, not into P0.
Example:
In a motion program:
P0=-1
; Set P0 to an illegal value
SEND"Enter number of parts in run:"
; Prompt operator at dumb terminal
; Operator simply needs to type in number
WHILE (P0<1) DWELL10
; Hold until get legal response
P1=0
; Initialize part counter
WHILE (P0<P1)
; Loop once per part
P1=P1+1
...
P0=1
; Temporary value for P0
#1DEFINE COMP 5,2000
; Set up 5-entry table
32 48 –96 64 0 –1
; Firt 5 numbers into table; sixth into P0
P0
; Query P0 value
-1
; Turbo PMAC responds
See Also:
280
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
On-line commands DEFINE BLCOMP, DEFINE COMP, DEFINE TCOMP,
P{constant}={expression}
CPU
Function:
Report the Turbo PMAC CPU type.
Scope:
Global
Syntax:
CPU
This command causes Turbo PMAC to report the part number of the CPU used on the board. It is mainly
used for troubleshooting purposes.
Example:
CPU
56303
; Request the CPU part number
; Turbo PMAC responds
See Also:
On-line commands TODAY, VERSION, TYPE
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
281
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
DATE
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Report the firmware release date.
Global
DATE
DAT
This command causes Turbo PMAC to report the release date of the firmware revision that it is using.
The date is reported in the North American format:
{mm}/{dd}/{yyyy}
where:
 {mm} is the 2-digit representation of the month
 {dd} is the 2-digit representation of the day of the month
 {yyyy} is the 4-digit representation of the year
The 4-digit representation of the year eliminates possible Year 2000 problems in user code processing the
date information.
The DATE command is not to be confused with the TODAY command, which causes Turbo PMAC to
report the current date.
Example:
DATE
07/17/1998
; Request the firmware release date
; Turbo PMAC reports the firmware release date
See Also:
On-line commands CPU, TODAY, VERSION, TYPE
DEFINE BLCOMP
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Define backlash compensation table
Motor specific
DEFINE BLCOMP {entries},{count length}
DEF BLCOMP {entries},{count length}
where:
 {entries} is a positive integer constant representing the number of values in the table;
 {count length} is a positive integer representing the span of the table in encoder counts of the
motor.
This command establishes a backlash compensation table for the addressed motor. The next
{entries} constants sent to Turbo PMAC will be placed into this table. The last item on the command
line {count length}, specifies the span of the backlash table in encoder counts of the motor. In use,
if the motor position goes outside of the range 0 to count-length, the position is rolled over to within this
range before the compensation is computed. The spacing between entries in the table is {count
length} divided by {entries}.
On succeeding lines will be given the actual entries of the table as constants separated by spaces and or
carriage return characters. The units of these entries are 1/16 count, and the entries must be integer
values. The first entry is the correction at one spacing from the motor zero position (as determined by the
most recent home search move or power-up/reset), the second entry is the correction two spacings away,
and so on. The correction from the table at motor zero position is zero by definition.
282
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The correction is the amount subtracted (added in the negative direction) from the nominal commanded
position when the motor is moving in the negative direction to get the corrected position. The correction
from the backlash table is added to the Ixx86 constant backlash parameter before adjusting the motor
position. Corrections from any leadscrew compensation tables that have this motor as the target motor
are always active in both directions.
The last entry in the table represents the correction at {count length} distance from the motor’s zero
position. Since the table has the capability to roll over, this entry also represents the correction at the
motor’s zero position. If it is set to a non-zero value, the correction at zero will also be zero.
Note:
Turbo PMAC will reject this command, reporting an ERR003 if I6=1 or 3, if any
BLCOMP buffer exists for a lower numbered motor, or if any TBUF, ROTARY,
LOOKAHEAD or GATHER buffer exists. Any of these buffers must be deleted
first. BLCOMP buffers must be defined from high-numbered motor to lownumbered motor, and deleted from low-numbered motor to high-numbered motor.
I51 must be set to 1 to enable the table.
Example:
#32 DEFINE BLCOMP 100, 100000
See Also:
Backlash Compensation (Setting Up a Motor)
Leadscrew Compensation (Setting Up a Motor)
I-variables Ixx85, Ixx86, Ixx87
On-line commands DEFINE COMP, DELETE BLCOMP
DEFINE CCBUF
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Define extended cutter-compensation buffer
Coordinate-system specific
DEFINE CCBUF {constant}
DEF CCBUF {constant}
where:
 {constant} is a positive integer constant representing the size of the buffer in programmed moves
This command establishes an extended cutter-radius compensation move buffer for the addressed
coordinate system. This buffer is required only if it is desired to maintain the compensation through one
or more moves perpendicular to the plane of compensation (e.g. Z-axis moves during XY-plane
compensation). The {constant} value in the command specifies the number of moves that can be
stored in this extended buffer. This number must be at least as large as the number of consecutive
perpendicular moves that may be executed between two moves with a component in the plane of
compensation.
Once this buffer is defined, its use is automatic and invisible to the user. If the number of consecutive
moves perpendicular to the plane of compensation exceeds this buffer size, Turbo PMAC will assume that
the incoming and outgoing moves to this point in the plane of compensation form an outside corner. If it
turns out that they form an inside corner, there will be an overcut, or gouge.
The CCBUF is a temporary buffer. Its contents are never held through a board reset or power cycling. Its
structure is only retained through a board reset or power cycling if the latest SAVE command was issued
with the buffer defined and with I14 = 1.
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
283
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Turbo PMAC will reject this command, reporting an ERR003 if I6 = 1 or 3, if any CCBUFFER exists for
a lower-numbered coordinate system, or if any LOOKAHEAD or GATHER buffer exists on the board.
Any of these buffers must be deleted first. CCBUFFERs must be defined from high-numbered coordinate
system to low-numbered coordinate system.
Example:
DEFINE CCBUF 5
See Also:
Cutter Radius Compensation
On-line command DELETE CCBUF
Program commands CC0, CC1, CC2, CCR
DEFINE COMP (one-dimensional)
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Define Leadscrew Compensation Table
Motor specific
DEFINE COMP {entries}, [#{source}[D],[#{target},]] {count
length}
where:
 {entries} is a positive integer constant representing the number of numbers in the table;
 {source} (optional) is a constant from 1 to 32 representing the motor whose position controls
which entries in the table are used for the active correction; if none is specified, Turbo PMAC
assumes the source is the addressed motor; if a D is specified after the source motor number, the
desired position of the motor is used to calculate the correction; otherwise the actual position is used;
 {target} (optional) is a constant from 1 to 32 representing the motor that receives the correction; if
none is specified, Turbo PMAC assumes the target is the addressed motor;
 {count length} is a positive integer representing the span of the table in encoder counts of the
source motor
This command establishes a leadscrew compensation table assigned to the addressed motor. The next
{entries} constants sent to Turbo PMAC will be placed into this table. Once defined the tables are
enabled and disabled with the variable I51.
The table belongs to the currently addressed motor, and unless otherwise specified in the command line, it
will use the addressed motor both for source position data and as the target for its corrections. Each
motor can only have one table that "belongs" to it (for a total of 32 tables in one Turbo PMAC), but it can
act as a source or a target for multiple motors.
Note:
Turbo PMAC will reject this command, reporting an ERR003 if I6=1 or 3, if any
COMP buffer exists for a lower numbered motor, or if any TCOMP, BLCOMP,
TBUF, ROTARY, LOOKAHEAD, or GATHER buffer exists. Any of these
buffers must be deleted first. COMP buffers must be defined from high-numbered
motor to low-numbered motor, and deleted from low-numbered motor to highnumbered motor.
It is possible to directly specify a source motor (with #{source}), or source and target motors (with
#{source},#{target}), in this command. Either or both of them may be different from the motor
to which the table "belongs". (In other words, just because a table belongs to a motor does not necessarily
mean that it affects or is affected by that motor’s position.)
284
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The table can operate as a function of either the desired (commanded) or actual position of the source
motor. If a D is entered immediately after the source motor number (which must be explicitly declared
here), the table operates as a function of the desired position of the source motor; if no D is entered, the
table operates as a function of the actual position of the source motor.
The last item on the command line, {count length}, specifies the span of the compensation table in
encoder counts of the source motor. In use, if the source motor position goes outside of the range 0 to
count-length, the source position is rolled over to within this range before the correction is computed.
The spacing between entries in the table is {count length} divided by {entries}.
On succeeding lines will be given the actual entries of the table. The units of these entries are 1/16 count,
and the entries must be integer values. The first entry is the correction at one spacing from the motor zero
position (as determined by the most recent home search move or power-up/reset), the second entry is the
correction two spacings away, and so on. The correction is the amount added to the nominal position to
get the corrected position. The correction at the zero position is zero by definition.
The last entry in the table represents the correction at {count length} distance from the motor’s zero
position. Since the table has the capability to roll over, this entry also represents the correction at the
motor’s zero position. If it is set to a non-zero value, the correction at zero will also be non-zero.
Example:
#1 DEFINE COMP 4,2000
ERR003
DELETE GATHER
DELETE ROTARY
#8DEFINE COMP 500,20000
#7DEFINE COMP 256,#3D,32768
#6 DEFINE COMP 400,#5,#4,40000
#5 DEFINE COMP 200,#1D,#1,30000
I51=1
; Create table for motor 1
; Turbo PMAC rejects this command
; Clear other buffers to allow loading
; Uses motor 8 as source and target, 500 entries,
; spacing of 40 counts
; Belongs to motor 7, uses #3 desired position as
; source, #7 as target, 256 entries, spacing of 128 counts
; Belongs to motor 6, uses #5 as source, #4 as target,
; 400 entries, spacing of 100 counts
; Belongs to motor 5, uses #1 desired position as
; source and target, 200 entries, spacing of 150 count
; Enable compensation tables
See Also:
Leadscrew compensation (Setting Up a Motor)
I-variable I51
On-line commands {constant}, LIST COMP, LIST COMP DEF, DELETE COMP, DELETE
GATHER, DELETE ROTARY, SIZE
DEFINE COMP (two-dimensional)
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Define two-dimensional position compensation table
Motor-specific
DEFINE COMP {Rows}.{Columns}, #{RowMotor}[D],
[#{ColumnMotor}[D], [#{TargetMotor}]],
{RowSpan},{ColumnSpan}
DEF COMP...
where:
 {Rows} is a positive integer constant representing the number of rows in the table, where each row
represents a fixed location of the second (column) source motor;
 {Columns} is a positive integer constant representing the number of columns in the table, where
each column represents a fixed location of the first (row) source motor;
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
285
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference

{RowMotor} is an integer constant from 1 to 32 representing the number of the first source motor;
defaults to addressed motor; if a D is specified after the source motor number, the desired position of
the motor is used to calculate the correction; otherwise the actual position is used;
 {ColumnMotor} is an integer constant from 1 to 32 representing the number of the second source
motor; if a D is specified after the source motor number, the desired position of the motor is used to
calculate the correction; otherwise the actual position is used;
 {TargetMotor} is an integer constant from 1 to 32 representing the number of the target motor;
defaults to addressed motor;
 {RowSpan} is the span of the table, in counts, along the first (row) source motor’s travel;
 {ColumnSpan} is the span of the table, in counts, along the second (column) source motor’s travel.
This command establishes a two-dimensional position compensation table assigned to the addressed
motor. The next (Rows+1)*(Columns+1)-1 constants sent to Turbo PMAC will be placed into this table.
This type of table is usually used to correct a motor position (X, Y, or Z-axis) as a function of the planar
position of two motors (e.g. X and Y axes). Once defined, the tables are enabled and disabled with the
variable I51.
The table belongs to the currently addressed motor, and unless otherwise specified in the command line, it
will use the addressed motor both as the first-motor source position data and as the target for its
corrections. Each motor can only have one table that belongs to it (for a total of 32 tables in one PMAC),
but it can act as a source and/or a target for multiple tables.
Note:
PMAC will reject this command, reporting an ERR003 if I6=1 or 3, if any COMP
buffer exists for a lower numbered motor, or if any TCOMP, BLCOMP, TBUF,
ROTARY, or GATHER buffer exists. Any of these buffers must be deleted first.
COMP buffers must be defined from high-numbered motor to low-numbered
motor, and deleted from low-numbered motor to high-numbered motor.
The first source motor must be specified in the command line with #{RowMotor}. The second source
motor may be specified in the command line with #{ColumnMotor}; if it is not specified, Turbo
PMAC assumes that the second source motor is the currently addressed motor. The target motor may be
specified with #{TargetMotor}; if it is not specified, Turbo PMAC assumes that the target motor is
the currently addressed motor.
In other words, if only one motor is specified in the command line, it is the first (row) source motor, and
the second (column) source and target motors default to the addressed motor. If two motors are specified
in the command line, the first one specified is the first (row) source motor, the second is the second
(column) source motor, and the target motor defaults to the addressed motor. If three motors are
specified, the first is the first (row) source motor, the second is the second (column) source motor, and the
third is the target motor. None of these motors is required to be the addressed motor.
It is strongly recommended that both source motors and the target motor is specified in this command to
prevent possible confusion.
The table can operate as a function of either the desired (commanded) or actual position of the source
motors. If a D is entered immediately after the source motor number (which must be explicitly declared
here), the table operates as a function of the desired position of the source motor; if no D is entered, the
table operates as a function of the actual position of the source motor. If the target motor is also one of
the source motors, it is recommended that desired position be used, especially in high-gain systems, to
prevent interaction with the servo dynamics.
286
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The last two items on the command line, {RowSpan} and {ColumnSpan}, specify the span of the
compensation table for the two source motors, row and column respectively, expressed in encoder counts
of those motors. In use, if the source motor position goes outside of the range 0 to {Span}, the source
position is rolled over to within this range along this axis before the correction is computed.
The count spacing between columns in the table is {RowSpan} divided by {Columns}. The count
spacing between rows in the table is {ColumnSpan} divided by {Rows}. Note carefully the
interaction between the row parameters and the column parameters.
On succeeding command lines will be given the actual correction entries of the table, given as integer
numerical constants in text form. The units of these entries are 1/16 count, and the entries must be integer
values. The first entry is the correction at one column spacing from the zero position of the RowMotor,
and the zero position of the ColumnMotor. The second entry is the correction at two column spacings
from the zero position of the RowMotor, and the zero position of the ColumnMotor, and so on. Entry
number Columns is the correction at RowSpan counts of the RowMotor, and at the zero position of the
ColumnMotor (this entry should be zero to use the table along the edge, to match the implied zero
correction at the origin). These entries should be considered as constituting Row 0 of the table.
The next entry (entry Columns+1, the first entry of Row 1) is the correction at the zero position of the
RowMotor, and one row spacing of the ColumnMotor. The following entry is the correction at one
column spacing of the RowMotor and one row spacing of the ColumnMotor. The entry after this is
the correction at two column spacing of the RowMotor and one row spacings of the ColumnMotor.,
and so on. The last entry of Row 1 (entry 2*Columns+1) is the correction at one row spacing of the
RowMotor, and RowSpan counts of the ColumnMotor.
Subsequent rows are added in this fashion, with the corrections of the entries for Row n being at n row
spacings from the zero position of the ColumnMotor. The last row (row Rows) contains corrections at
ColumnSpan counts of the ColumnMotor.
The size of the table is limited only by available data buffer space in Turbo PMAC’s memory.
The following chart shows the order of entries into a 2D table with r rows and c columns, covering a span
along the row motor of RowSpan, and along the column motor of ColSpan:
Column Motor
Position v
Row Motor
Position >
Row 0
Row 1
Row 2
(Row i)
Row r
0
ColSpan/r
2*ColSpan/r
ColSpan
Col 0
Col 1
Col 2
0
RowSpan/c
2*RowSpan/c
[0]
Ec+1
E2c+2
…
Erc+r
E1
Ec+2
E2c+3
…
Erc+r+1
E2
Ec+3
E2c+4
…
Erc+r+2
(Col j)
Col c
RowSpan
…
…
…
(Eic+I+j)
Ec
E2c+1
E3c+2
…
Erc+r+c
There are several important details to note in the entry of a 2D table:
 The number of rows and number of columns is separated by a period, not a comma.
 The correction to the target motor at the zero position of both source motors is zero by definition.
This is an implied entry at the beginning of the table (shown by [0] in the above chart); it should not
be explicitly entered.
 Consecutive entries in the table are in the same row (except at row’s end) separated by one column
spacing of the position of the first source (row) motor.
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
287
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference

Both Row 0 and Row r must be entered into the table, so effectively (r+1) rows are being entered. If
there is any possibility that it may go beyond an edge of the table, matching entries of Row 0 and
Row r should have the same value to prevent a discontinuity in the correction. Row r in the table
may simply be an added row beyond the real range of concern used just to prevent possible
discontinuities at the edges of he real range of concern.
 Both Column 0 and Column c must be entered into the table, so effectively (c+1) columns are being
entered. If there is any possibility that it may go beyond an edge of the table, matching entries of
Column 0 and Column c should have the same value to prevent a discontinuity in the correction.
Column c in the table may simply be an added column beyond the real range of concern used just to
prevent possible discontinuities at the edges of the real range of concern.
 Because the outside rows and outside columns must match each other to prevent edge discontinuities,
the three explicitly entered corner corrections must be zero to match the implicit zero correction at the
first corner of the table.
Examples:
#1 DEFINE COMP 40.30,#1,#2,#3,300000,400000
; Create table belonging to Motor 1
ERR007
; Turbo PMAC rejects this command
DELETE GATHER
; Clear other buffers to allow loading
&1 DELETE ROTARY
&2 DELETE ROTARY
#2 DELETE COMP
#3 DELETE COMP
#4 DEFINE COMP 30.40,#1,#2,#3,400000,300000
; Create same table, now belonging to Motor 4; #1 & #2 are sources, #3
; is target; 30 rows x 40 columns, spacing of 10,000 counts
(1270 entries)
; (30+1)*(40+1)-1 entries of constants
#3 DEFINE COMP 25.20,#2,#3,#1,200000,250000
; Create table belonging to Motor 3; #2 and #3 are sources, #1 is target;
; 25 rows x 20 columns, spacing of 10,000 counts
(545 entries)
;(25+1)*(20+1)-1 entries of constants
#2 DEFINE COMP 10.10,#1,#4,10000,20000
; Create table belonging to Motor 2; #1 and #4 are sources, #2 (default)
; is target; 10 rows x10 columns, spacing of 1000 cts between columns;
; spacing of 2000 cts between rows;
(120 entries)
; (10+1)*(10+1)-1 entries of constants
#1 DEFINE COMP 12.10,#4,1280,1200
; Create table belonging to Motor 1; #4 and #1 (default) are sources, #1
; (default) is target;12 rows x 10 columns; spacing of 128 cts between;
; columns spacing of 100 cts between rows
(142 entries)
; (12+1)*(10+1)-1 entries of constants
I51=1
; Enable compensation tables
DEFINE GATHER
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Create a data gathering buffer.
Global
DEFINE GATHER [{constant}]
DEF GAT [{constant}]
where:
 {constant} is a positive integer representing the number of words of memory to be reserved for
the buffer
288
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
This command reserves space in Turbo PMAC’s memory or in DPRAM depending upon the setting of
I5000 for the data gathering buffer and prepares it for collecting data at the beginning of the buffer. If a
data gathering buffer already exists, its contents are not erased but the Data Gather Buffer Storage address
(Y:$003120) is reinitialized to the Data Gather Buffer Start address (X:$003120) and the LIST
GATHER command will no longer function. Data collection will again start at the beginning of the buffer
when the command GATHER is issued.
If Data Gathering is in progress (an ENDGATHER command has not been issued and the gather buffer has
not been filled up) Turbo PMAC will report an error on receipt of this command.
The optional {constant} specifies the number of long words to be reserved for the data gathering
buffer, leaving the remainder of Turbo PMAC's memory available for other buffers such as motion and
PLC programs. If {constant} is not specified, all of Turbo PMAC's unused buffer memory is
reserved for data gathering. Until this buffer is deleted (with the DELETE GATHER command), no new
motion or PLC programs may be entered into Turbo PMAC.
Note:
If I5000 = 2 or 3 the {size} requested in the DEFINE GATHER {size}
command refers to a DPRAM long word (32-bits). If the {size} is smaller than
required to hold an even multiple of the requested data, the actual data storage will
go beyond the requested {size} to the next higher multiple of memory words
required to hold the data. For example, if gathering one 24-bit value and one 48bit value, 3 DPRAM long words of memory is needed. If the {size} specified is
4000 words (not a multiple of 3), the actual storage size will be 4002 words (the
next higher multiple of 3).
The number of long words of unused buffer memory can be found by issuing the SIZE command.
Example:
DEFINE GATHER
DEFINE GATHER 1000
See Also:
I-variables I5000 – I5051
On-line commands GATHER, DELETE GATHER, <CTRL-G>, SIZE
DEFINE LOOKAHEAD
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Create a lookahead buffer
Coordinate-system specific
DEFINE LOOKAHEAD {constant},{constant}
DEF LOOK {constant},{constant}
where:
 the first {constant} is a positive integer representing the number of move segments that can be
stored in the buffer;
 the second {constant} is a positive integer representing the number of synchronous M-variable
assignments that can be stored in the buffer
This command establishes a lookahead buffer for the addressed coordinate system. It reserves memory to
buffer both motion equations and synchronous M-variable output commands for the lookahead function.
Segment Buffer Size: The first constant value in the command determines the number of motion
segments that can be stored in the lookahead buffer. Each motion segment takes Isx13 milliseconds at the
motion program speeds and acceleration times (the velocity and acceleration limits may extend these
times). However, it is variable Isx20 for the coordinate system that determines how many motion
segments the coordinate system will actually look ahead in operation.
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
289
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
The lookahead buffer should be sized large enough to store all of the lookahead segments calculated,
which means that this constant value must be greater than or equal to Isx20. If backup capability is
desired, the buffer must be sized to be large enough to contain the desired lookahead distance plus the
desired backup distance.
The method for calculating the number of segments that must be stored ahead is explained in the Isx20
specification and in the Turbo PMAC User manual section on Lookahead. The fundamental equation is:
Isx20 
4
1
 Ixx16 
* max
 * 2 * Isx13
3
Ixx
17

 xx
If backup capability is desired, the buffer must be able to store an additional number of segments for the
entire distance to be covered in reversal. This number of segments can be calculated as:
BackSegments 
BackupDist units * 1000( m sec/ sec)
Vmax units / sec  * SegTime( m sec/ seg )
The total number of segments to reserve for the buffer is simply the sum of the forward and back
segments wishing to be able to hold:
TotalSegments  Isx20  BackSegments
Memory Requirements: For each segment Turbo PMAC is told to reserve space for in the lookahead
buffer, Turbo PMAC will reserve (2x+4) 48-bit words of memory from the main buffer memory space,
where x is the number of motors in the coordinate system at the time that the buffer is defined. For
example, if there are 5 motors in the coordinate system, a command to reserve space for 50 segments will
reserve 50*(2*5 + 4) = 700 words of memory. If a motor is added to the coordinate system, or removed
from it, after the lookahead buffer has been defined, the lookahead buffer should be re-defined.
Output Buffer Size: The second constant value in the command determines the number of synchronous
M-variable assignments that can be stored in the lookahead buffer. Because these are evaluated at
lookahead time, but not actually implemented until move execution time, they must be buffered. This
section of the buffer must be large enough to store all of the assignments that could be made in the
lookahead distance. Synchronous M-variable assignments are not made during backup, so there is no
need to reserve memory to store assignments for the backup distance as well as the lookahead distance.
Memory Requirements: For each synchronous M-variable assignment Turbo PMAC is told to reserve
space for in the lookahead buffer, Turbo PMAC will reserve two 48-bit words of memory.
There are no performance penalties for making the lookahead buffer larger than required, but this does
limit the amount of Turbo PMAC memory free for other features.
A lookahead buffer is never retained through a power-down or board reset, so this command must be
issued after every power-up/reset if the lookahead function is to be used.
Note:
Turbo PMAC will reject the DEFINE LOOKAHEAD command, reporting an
ERR003 if I6=1 or 3, if any LOOKAHEAD buffer exists for a lower-numbered
coordinate system, or if a GATHER buffer exists. LOOKAHEAD buffers must be
defined from high-numbered coordinate system to low-numbered coordinate
system, and deleted from low-numbered coordinate system to high-numbered
coordinate system.
Example:
DELETE GATHER
&2DEFINE LOOKAHEAD 1000,200
&1DEFINE LOOKAHEAD 1500,20
290
; Ensure open memory
; Create buffer for C.S. 2
; Create buffer for C.S. 1
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
DEFINE ROTARY
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Define a rotary motion program buffer
Coordinate-system specific
DEFINE ROTARY{constant}
DEF ROT{constant}
where:
 {constant} is a positive integer representing the number of long words of memory to be reserved
for the buffer
This command causes Turbo PMAC to create a rotary motion program buffer for the addressed
coordinate system, allocating the specified number of long words of memory. Rotary buffers permit the
downloading of program lines during the execution of the program.
The buffer should be large enough to allow it to hold safely the number of lines anticipated to be
downloaded to Turbo PMAC ahead of the executing point. Each long word of memory can hold one subblock of a motion program (i.e. X1000 Y1000 is considered as two sub-blocks). The allocated memory
for this coordinate system’s rotary buffer remains resident until the buffer is deleted with DELETE ROT.
Note:
Turbo PMAC will reject this command, reporting an ERR003 if I6=1 or 3, if any
ROTARY buffer exists for a lower numbered coordinate system, or if a
LOOKAHEAD or GATHER buffer exists. Any of these buffers must be deleted
first. ROTARY buffers must be defined from high-numbered coordinate system to
low-numbered coordinate system, and deleted from low-numbered coordinate
system to high-numbered coordinate system.
Example:
DELETE GATHER
&2DEFINE ROT 100
&1DEFINE ROT 100
&1B0 &2B0
OPEN ROT
...
; Ensure open memory
; Create buffer for C.S. 2
; Create buffer for C.S. 1
; Point to these buffers
; Open these buffers for entry
; enter program lines here
See Also:
Rotary Program Buffers (Writing and Executing Motion Programs)
On-line commands OPEN ROTARY, DELETE ROTARY, DELETE GATHER
DEFINE TBUF
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Create a buffer for axis transformation matrices.
Global
DEFINE TBUF {constant}
DEF TBUF {constant}
where:
 {constant} is a positive integer representing the number of transformation matrices to create
This command reserves space in Turbo PMAC’s memory for one or more axis transformation matrices.
These matrices can be used for real-time translation, rotation, scaling, and mirroring of the X, Y, and Z
axes of any coordinate system. A coordinate system selects which matrix to use with the TSELn
command, where n is an integer from 1 to the number of matrices created here.
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
291
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Note:
Turbo PMAC will reject this command, reporting an ERR003 if I6=1 or 3, if any
LOOKAHEAD, ROTARY,or GATHER buffer exists. Any of these buffers must
be deleted first.
The number of long words of unused buffer memory can be found by issuing the SIZE command. Each
defined matrix takes 21 words of memory.
Example:
DELETE GATHER
DEF TBUF 1
DEFINE TBUF 8
See Also:
Axis Transformation Matrices (Writing and Executing Motion Programs)
On-line commands DELETE TBUF, DELETE GATHER, SIZE.
Program commands TSEL, ADIS, AROT, IDIS, IROT, TINIT
DEFINE TCOMP
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Define torque compensation table
Motor specific
DEFINE TCOMP {entries},{count length}
DEF TCOMP {entries},{count length}
where:
 {entries} is a positive integer constant representing the number of values in the table;
 {count length} is a positive integer representing the span of the table in encoder counts of the
motor.
This command establishes a torque compensation table for the addressed motor. The next {entries}
constants sent to Turbo PMAC will be placed into this table. The last item on the command line {count
length}, specifies the span of the torque compensation table in encoder counts of the motor. In use, if
the motor position goes outside of the range 0 to count-length, the position is rolled over to within this
range before the compensation is computed. The spacing between entries in the table is {count
length} divided by {entries}.
On succeeding lines will be given the actual entries of the table as constants separated by spaces and or
carriage return characters. The units of these entries are bits of a 24-bit output (regardless of the actual
output device resolution), and the entries must be integer values. The first entry is the correction at one
spacing from the motor zero position (as determined by the most recent home search move or powerup/reset), the second entry is the correction two spacings away, and so on. Turbo PMAC computes
corrections for positions between the table entries by a first-order interpolation between adjacent entries.
The correction from the table at motor zero position is zero by definition.
The correction is the magnitude added to Turbo PMAC’s servo loop output at that position. If Turbo
PMAC’s command is positive, a positive value from the table will increase the magnitude of the output; a
negative value will decrease the magnitude of the output. If Turbo PMAC’s command is negative, a
positive value from the table will increase the magnitude of the output in the negative direction; a
negative value will decrease the magnitude of the output.
The last entry in the table represents the correction at {count length} distance from the motor’s zero
position. Since the table has the capability to roll over, this entry also represents the correction at the
motor’s zero position. If it is set to a non-zero value, the correction at zero will also be zero.
292
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Note:
Turbo PMAC will reject this command, reporting an ERR003 if I6=1 or 3, if any
TCOMP buffer exists for a lower numbered motor, or if any BLCOMP, TBUF,
LOOKAHEAD, ROTARY, or GATHER buffer exists. Any of these buffers must
be deleted first. TCOMP buffers must be defined from high-numbered motor to
low-numbered motor, and deleted from low-numbered motor to high-numbered
motor.
I51 must be set to 1 to enable the table.
See Also:
Torque Compensation (Setting Up a Motor)
I-variables I51
On-line command DELETE TCOMP
DEFINE UBUFFER
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
[modified description]
Create a buffer for user variable use.
Global
DEFINE UBUFFER {constant}
DEF UBUF {constant}
where:
 {constant} is a positive integer representing the number of 48-bit words of Turbo PMAC memory
to reserve for this purpose
This command reserves space in Turbo PMAC’s memory for the user’s discretionary use. This memory
space will be untouched by any Turbo PMAC automatic functions. User access to this buffer is through
M-variables, or possibly through on-line W (write) and R (read) commands.
The buffer starts at Turbo PMAC data memory end address ($0107FF for the standard data memory, and
$03FFFF for the extended data memory) and continues back toward the beginning of memory ($000000)
for the number of long (48-bit) words specified by {constant}. This memory space can be subdivided
any way the user sees fit. These registers are backed up by the flash memory, so the values in the buffer
at the last SAVE command will be copied from the flash memory into the buffer at power-up or reset.
All other buffers except for fixed motion programs (PROG) and PLC programs must be deleted before
Turbo PMAC will accept this command. There can be no rotary motion program, leadscrew
compensation table, transformation matrix, data gathering or lookahead buffers in Turbo PMAC memory
(any buffer created with a DEFINE command) for this command to be accepted. It is usually best to
reinitialize the card with a $$$*** command, or erase all defined buffers with the DELETE ALL
command, before sending the DEFINE UBUFFER command
The address of the end of unreserved memory is held in register X:$0031B2. If no UBUFFER is defined,
this register will hold a value of $010800 for the standard data memory configuration, or $040000 for the
extended data memory configuration. (Starting with V1.937 firmware, a Turbo PMAC with the extended
data memory configuration will at re-initialization have a UBUFFER of 65,536 words defined, causing
this register to hold a value of $030000.) Immediately after the user buffer has successfully been defined,
this register will hold the address of the start of the buffer (the end of the user buffer is always at the end
of data memory).
To free up this memory for other uses, the DEFINE UBUFFER 0 command should be used (there is no
DELETE UBUFFER command). It may be more convenient simply to re-initialize the board with a
$$$*** command.
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
293
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Example:
RHX:$0031B2
00FC99
$$$***
RHX:$0031B2
010800
DEFINE UBUFFER 2048
RHX:$0031B2
010000
M1000->D:$010000
M1010->Y:$010020,12,1
M1023->X:$0107FF,24,S
; Look for end of unreserved memory
; Reply indicates some reserved
; Re-initialize card to clear memory
; Check end of unreserved memory
; Reply indicates none reserved
; Reserve memory for buffer
; Check for beginning of buffer
; Reply confirms 2048 words reserved
; Define M-variable to first word
; Define M-variable to a middle word
; Define M-variable to last word
See Also:
User Buffer, M-Variables (Computational Features)
I-variable I4908
On-line commands $$$***, R[H]{address}, W{address}
DELETE ALL
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Erase all defined permanent and temporary buffers
Global
DELETE ALL
DEL ALL
This command causes Turbo PMAC to erase all buffers created with a DEFINE command, permanent
(fixed) and temporary, in Turbo PMAC’s memory space. These include:
 User buffer (UBUFFER)
 Leadscrew compensation tables (COMP)
 Torque compensation tables (TCOMP)
 Backlash compensation tables (BLCOMP)
 Transformation matrix buffers (TBUF)
 Rotary motion program buffers (ROTARY)
 Segment lookahead buffers (LOOKAHEAD)
 Extended cutter-radius compensation buffers (CCBUF)
 Data gathering buffer (GATHER)
See Also:
On-line commands CLEAR, CLEAR ALL, CLEAR ALL PLCS, OPEN, DELETE ALL TEMP
DELETE ALL TEMPS
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Erase all defined temporary buffers
Global
DELETE ALL TEMPS
DEL ALL TEMP
This command causes Turbo PMAC to erase all temporary buffers created with a DEFINE command in
Turbo PMAC’s memory space.
Temporary buffers are those whose contents are not kept through a power-down or reset, even if the
structures for the buffers are (when I14=1). These include:
 Rotary motion program buffers (ROTARY)
 Segment lookahead buffers (LOOKAHEAD)
 Extended cutter-radius compensation buffers (CCBUFFER)
294
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference

Data gathering buffer (GATHER)
This command does not affect permanent buffers created with a DEFINE command. It also does not
affect fixed (not rotary) motion program buffers (PROGRAM), forward-kinematic program buffers
(FORWARD), inverse-kinematic program buffers (INVERSE), uncompiled PLC program buffers (PLC), or
compiled PLC program buffers (PLCC).
See Also:
I-variable I14
On-line commands CLEAR, CLEAR ALL, CLEAR ALL PLCS, OPEN, DELETE ALL
DELETE BLCOMP
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Erase backlash compensation table
Motor specific
DELETE BLCOMP
DEL BLCOMP
This command causes Turbo PMAC to erase the compensation table for the addressed motor, freeing that
memory for other use.
Note:
Turbo PMAC will reject this command, reporting an ERR003 if I6=1 or 3, if any
BLCOMP buffer exists for a lower numbered motor, or if any TBUF, ROTARY,
or GATHER buffer exists. Any of these buffers must be deleted first. BLCOMP
buffers must be defined from high-numbered motor to low-numbered motor, and
deleted from low-numbered motor to high-numbered motor.
Example:
#2 DEL BLCOMP
ERR003
#1 DEL BLCOMP
#2 DEL BLCOMP
; Erase table belonging to Motor 2
; Turbo PMAC rejects this command
; Erase table belonging to Motor 1
; Erase table belonging to Motor 2
See Also:
Backlash Compensation (Setting Up a Motor)
I-variables Ixx87, Ixx85, Ixx86
On-line command DEFINE BLCOMP
DELETE CCUBUF
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Erase extended cutter-compensation buffer
Motor specific
DELETE CCBUF
DEL CCBUF
This command causes Turbo PMAC to erase the extended cutter-radius compensation move buffer for the
addressed coordinate system, freeing that memory for other use.
Turbo PMAC will reject this command, reporting an ERR003 if I6 = 1 or 3, if any CCBUF exists for a
lower-numbered coordinate system, or if any LOOKAHEAD or GATHER buffer exists on the board.
Any of these buffers must be deleted first. CCBUFs must be deleted from low-numbered coordinate
system to high-numbered coordinate system.
See Also:
Cutter Radius Compensation
On-line command DEFINE CCBUF
Program commands CC0, CC1, CC2, CCR
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
295
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
DELETE COMP
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Erase leadscrew compensation table
Motor specific
DELETE COMP
DEL COMP
This command causes Turbo PMAC to erase the compensation table belonging to the addressed motor,
freeing that memory for other use.
Note:
Turbo PMAC will reject this command, reporting an ERR003 if I6=1 or 3, if any
COMP buffer exists for a lower numbered motor, or if any TCOMP, BLCOMP,
TBUF, ROTARY, or GATHER buffer exists. Any of these buffers must be
deleted first. COMP buffers must be defined from high-numbered motor to lownumbered motor, and deleted from low-numbered motor to high-numbered motor.
Remember that a compensation table belonging to a motor does not necessarily affect that motor or is not
necessarily affected by that motor. The command LIST COMP DEF will tell which motors it affects
and is affected by.
Example:
#2DEL COMP....
ERR003.............
#1 DELETE COMP
#2 DELETE COMP
; Erase table belonging to Motor 2
; Turbo PMAC rejects this command
; Erase table belonging to Motor 1
; Erase table belonging to Motor 2
See Also:
Leadscrew compensation (Setting Up a Motor)
I-variable I51
On-line commands {constant}, LIST COMP, LIST COMP DEF, DEFINE COMP
DELETE LOOKAHEAD
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Erase the lookahead buffer.
Coordinate-system specific
DELETE LOOKAHEAD
DEL LOOK
This command causes Turbo PMAC to erase the lookahead buffer for the addressed coordinate system,
freeing that memory for other use.
Note:
Turbo PMAC will reject this command, reporting an ERR003 if I6=1 or 3, if any
LOOKAHEAD buffer exists for a lower numbered coordinate system, or if any
ROTARY or GATHER buffer exists. Any of these buffers must be deleted first.
LOOKAHEAD buffers must be defined from high-numbered coordinate system to
low-numbered coordinate system, and deleted from low-numbered coordinate
system to high-numbered coordinate system.
Lookahead buffers are not maintained through a power-down or board reset, even if a SAVE command
has been done while the buffers exist. Therefore a board reset will automatically delete all lookahead
buffers.
296
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
DELETE GATHER
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Erase the data gather buffer.
Global
DELETE GATHER
DEL GAT
This command causes the data gathering buffer to be erased. The memory that was reserved is now deallocated and is available for other buffers (motion programs, PLC programs, compensation tables, etc.).
If Data Gathering is in progress (an ENDGATHER command has not been issued and the gather buffer has
not been filled up) Turbo PMAC will report an error on receipt of this command.
Turbo PMAC's Executive Program automatically inserts this command at the top of a file when it uploads
a buffer from Turbo PMAC into its editor, so the next download will not be hampered by an existing
gather buffer. It is strongly recommended that this command be used as well when a program file is
created in the editor (see Examples below).
Note:
When the executive program's data gathering function operates, it automatically
reserves the entire open buffer space for gathered data. When this has happened,
no additional programs or program lines may be entered into Turbo PMAC's buffer
space until the DELETE GATHER command has freed this memory.
Example:
CLOSE
DELETE GATHER
OPEN PROG 50
CLEAR
...
; Make sure no buffers are open
; Free memory
; Open new buffer for entry
; Erase contents of buffer
; Enter new contents here
See Also:
Buffered Commands (Talking to Turbo PMAC)
On-line commands GATHER, DEFINE GATHER, SIZE
DELETE PLCC
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Erase specified compiled PLC program
Global
DELETE PLCC {constant}
DEL PLCC {constant}
where:
 {constant} is an integer from 0 to 31, representing the program number
This command causes Turbo PMAC to erase the specified compiled PLC program. Remember that
because all of the compiled PLC programs must be downloaded to Turbo PMAC together, the only way
to restore this PLC is to download the entire set of compiled PLCs.
Only one PLCC program can be deleted in one command. Ranges and lists of PLCC program numbers
are not permitted in this command.
To perform the same function for an uncompiled PLC program, the command sequence would be OPEN
PLC n CLEAR CLOSE.
Example:
DELETE PLCC 5
DEL PLCC 0....
; Erase compiled PLC program 5
; Erase compiled PLC program 0
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
297
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
See Also:
Compiled PLCs (Writing a PLC Program)
I-variable I5
On-line commands DISABLE PLCC, ENABLE PLCC, CLEAR
DELETE ROTARY
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Delete rotary motion program buffer of addressed coordinate system
Coordinate-system specific
DELETE ROTARY
DEL ROT
This command causes Turbo PMAC to erase the rotary buffer for the currently addressed coordinate
system and frees the memory that had been allocated for it.
Note:
Turbo PMAC will reject this command, reporting an ERR003 if I6=1 or 3, if the
ROTARY buffer for this coordinate system is open or executing, or if any
ROTARY buffer exists for a lower numbered coordinate system, or if a GATHER
buffer exists. Any of these buffers must be deleted first. ROTARY buffers must
be defined from high-numbered coordinate system to low-numbered coordinate
system, and deleted from low-numbered motor to high-numbered motor.
Example:
&2 DELETE ROTARY
ERR003.............
............
&1 DELETE ROTARY
&2 DELETE ROTARY
; Try to erase C.S. 2’s rotary buffer
; Turbo PMAC rejects this; C.S. 1 still has
; a rotary buffer
; Erase C.S. 1's rotary buffer
; Erase C.S. 2's rotary buffer; OK now
See Also:
Rotary Program Buffers (Writing and Executing Motion Programs)
On-line commands DEFINE ROTARY, OPEN ROTARY.
DELETE TBUF
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Delete buffer for axis transformation matrices.
Global
DELETE TBUF
DEL TBUF
This command frees up the space in Turbo PMAC's memory that was used for axis transformation
matrices. These matrices can be used for real-time translation, rotation, scaling, and mirroring of the X,
Y, and Z axes of any coordinate system.
Note:
Turbo PMAC will reject this command, reporting an ERR007 if I6=1 or 3, if any
ROTARYor GATHER buffer exists. Any of these buffers must be deleted first.
Example:
DEL TBUF
DELETE TBUF
See Also:
Axis Transformation Matrices (Writing and Executing Motion Programs)
On-line commands DEFINE TBUF
Program commands TSEL, ADIS, AROT, IDIS, IROT, TINIT
298
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
DELETE TCOMP
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Erase torque compensation table
Motor specific
DELETE TCOMP
DEL TCOMP
This command causes Turbo PMAC to erase the torque compensation table for the addressed motor,
freeing that memory for other use.
Note:
Turbo PMAC will reject this command, reporting an ERR003 if I6=1 or 3, if any
TCOMP buffer exists for a lower numbered motor, or if any BLCOMP, TBUF,
ROTARY, or GATHER buffer exists. Any of these buffers must be deleted first.
TCOMP buffers must be defined from high-numbered motor to low-numbered
motor, and deleted from low-numbered motor to high-numbered motor.
Example:
#2 DEL TCOMP
ERR003
#1 DEL TCOMP
#2 DEL TCOMP
; Erase table belonging to Motor 2
; Turbo PMAC rejects this command
; Erase table belonging to Motor 1
; Erase table belonging to Motor 2
See Also:
Torque Compensation (Setting Up a Motor)
I-variables I51
On-line command DEFINE TCOMP
DISABLE PLC
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Disable specified PLC programs.
Global
DISABLE PLC {constant}[,{constant}]
DIS PLC {constant}[,{constant}]
DISABLE PLC {constant}..{constant}
DIS PLC {constant}..{constant}
where
 {constant} is an integer from 0 to 31, representing the program number
This command causes Turbo PMAC to disable (stop executing) the specified uncompiled PLC program
or programs. Execution can subsequently be resumed at the top of the program with the ENABLE PLC
command. If it is desired to restart execution at the stopped point, execution should be stopped with the
PAUSE PLC command, and restarted with the RESUME PLC command
The on-line DISABLE PLC command can only suspend execution of a PLC program at the end of a
scan, which is either the end of the program, or after an ENDWHILE statement in the program. PLC
programs are specified by number, and may be specified in a command singularly, in a list (separated by
commas), or in a range of consecutively numbered programs. PLC programs can be re-enabled by using
the ENABLE PLC command. If a motion or PLC program buffer is open when this command is sent to
Turbo PMAC, the command will be entered into that buffer for later execution.
Example:
DISABLE
DIS PLC
DIS PLC
DISABLE
PLC 1
5
3,4,7
PLC 0..31
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
299
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
See Also:
I-variable I5
On-line commands ENABLE PLC, OPEN PLC, DISABLE PLCC, ENABLE PLCC, <CONTROL-D>.
Program commands DISABLE PLC, ENABLE PLC, DISABLE PLCC, ENABLE PLCC
DISABLE PLCC
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Disable compiled PLC programs.
Global
DISABLE PLCC {constant}[,{constant}]
DIS PLCC {constant}[,{constant}]
PLCC {constant}..{constant}
DIS PLCC {constant}..{constant}
where:
 {constant} is an integer from 0 to 31, representing the compiled PLC program number
This command causes Turbo PMAC to disable (stop executing) the specified compiled PLC program or
programs. Compiled PLC programs are specified by number, and may be specified in a command
singularly, in a list (separated by commas), or in a range of consecutively numbered programs. PLC
programs can be re-enabled by using the ENABLE PLCC command.
If a motion or PLC program buffer is open when this command is sent to Turbo PMAC, the command
will be entered into that buffer for later execution.
Example:
DISABLE PLCC 1
DIS PLCC 5
DIS PLCC 3,4,7
DISABLE PLCC 0..31
See Also:
I-variable I5
On-line commands DISABLE PLC, ENABLE PLC, ENABLE PLCC, OPEN PLC, <CONTROL-D>.
Program commands DISABLE PLC, DISABLE PLCC, ENABLE PLC, ENABLE PLCC
E
Function:
Enable disabled motors
Scope:
Coordinate-system specific
Syntax:
E
This command enables the disabled motors of the addressed coordinate system, closing the position loop
at the present actual position. If a motor in the coordinate system is open-loop enabled, it closes the
position loop at the present actual position. It has no effect on closed-loop enabled motors.
If I36 is set to 1, the A (abort) command does not enable disabled motors, so the E command is used for
enabling the motors of a coordinate system. If I36 is set to 0, either the A or E command could be used.
Note that if the motor is a synchronous (zero-slip – Ixx78 = 0) motor commutated by Turbo PMAC
(Ixx01 bit 0 = 1), a phase referencing is required after power-up/reset before the motor can be enabled.
This is done automatically on power-up/reset if Ixx80 for the motor is set to 1 or 3, or subsequently with
the motor-specific $ command, or the coordinate-system-specific $$ command. The E command does
not cause a phase referencing to be performed on any motor.
The global <CTRL-E> command performs the comparable action for all of the motors on Turbo PMAC.
300
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
See Also
On-line commands A, <CTRL-A> <CTRL-E>, $, $$
I-variables I36, Ixx80.
EAVERSION
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Report firmware version information
Global
EAVERSION
EAVER
This command causes Turbo PMAC to report information about the firmware version it is using. Turbo
PMAC responds with seven decimal digits.
The first four digits represent the firmware version number, without the decimal point (e.g. 1934 for
version 1.934).
The fifth digit is 0 for a released firmware version. If it has a value ‘n’ greater than 0, it is reporting the
‘nth’ test (pre-release) revision of this numerical firmware version.
The sixth digit is reserved for future use. It presently always reports a 0.
The seventh digit is a 0 for a Turbo PMAC1; it is a 1 for a Turbo PMAC2.
Example:
EAVERSION
1934201
; Ask Turbo PMAC for firmware version
; Turbo PMAC responds Version 1.934 2nd test revision
; Turbo PMAC2 firmware
See Also:
Resetting Turbo PMAC (Talking to Turbo PMAC)
On-line command DATE, VERSION, TYPE
ENABLE PLC
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Enable specified PLC programs.
Global
ENABLE PLC {constant}[,{constant}]
ENA PLC {constant}[,{constant}]
ENABLE PLC {constant}..{constant}
ENA PLC {constant}..{constant}
where:
 {constant} is an integer from 0 to 31, representing the program number
This command causes Turbo PMAC to enable (start executing) the specified uncompiled PLC program or
programs at the top of the program. Execution of the PLC program may have been stopped with the
DISABLE PLC, PAUSE PLC, or OPEN PLC command.
If a motion or PLC program buffer is open when this command is sent to Turbo PMAC, the command
will be entered into that buffer for later execution.
I-variable I5 must be in the proper state to allow the PLC programs specified in this command to execute.
Note:
This command must be used to start operation of a PLC program after it has been
entered or edited, because the OPEN PLC command disables the program
automatically and CLOSE does not re-enable it.
Example:
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
301
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
ENABLE PLC 1
ENA PLC 2,7
ENABLE PLC 3,21
ENABLE PLC 0..31
This example shows the sequence of commands to download a very simple PLC program and have it
enabled on the download automatically:
OPEN PLC 7 CLEAR
P1=P1+1
CLOSE
ENABLE PLC 7
See Also:
I-variable I5
On-line commands ENABLE PLC, OPEN PLC, <CONTROL-D>.
Program commands DISABLE PLC, ENABLE PLC
ENABLE PLCC
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Enable specified compiled PLC programs.
Global
ENABLE PLCC {constant}[,{constant}]
ENA PLCC {constant}[,{constant}]
PLCC {constant}..{constant}
ENA PLCC {constant}..{constant}
where:
 {constant} is an integer from 0 to 31, representing the program number
This command causes Turbo PMAC to enable (start executing) the specified compiled PLC program or
programs. Compiled PLC programs are specified by number, and may be used singularly in this
command, in a list (separated by commas), or in a range of consecutively numbered programs.
If a motion or PLC program buffer is open when this command is sent to Turbo PMAC, the command
will be entered into that buffer for later execution.
I-variable I5 must be in the proper state to allow the compiled PLC programs specified in this command
to execute.
Example:
ENABLE PLCC 1
ENA PLCC 2,7
ENABLE PLCC 3,21
ENABLE PLCC 0..31
See Also:
I-variable I5
On-line commands DISABLE PLC, DISABLE PLCC, ENABLE PLC, OPEN PLC, <CONTROL-D>.
Program commands DISABLE PLC, DISABLE PLCC, ENABLE PLC, ENABLE PLCC
ENDGATHER
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Stop data gathering.
Global
ENDGATHER
ENDG
This command causes data gathering to cease. Data gathering may start up again (without overwriting
old data) with another GATHER command.
302
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
Usually, this command is used in conjunction with the data gathering and plotting functions of the Turbo
PMAC Executive Program.
If a motion or PLC program buffer is open when this command is sent to Turbo PMAC, the command
will be entered into that buffer for later execution.
Examples:
GAT B1R
ENDG
OPEN PROG2 CLEAR
X10
DWELL1000
CMD"GATHER"
X20
DWELL50
CMD"ENDG"
CLOSE
; Start gathering and run program 1
; Stop gathering -- give this command when moves of interest are done
; Program issues start command here
; Move of interest
; Program issues stop command here
See Also:
Data Gathering Function (Analysis Features)
I-variables I5000 – I5051
On-line commands DEFINE GATHER, GATHER, LIST GATHER, DELETE GATHER
Gathering and Plotting (Turbo PMAC Executive Program Manual)
F
Function:
Report motor following error
Scope:
Motor specific
Syntax:
F
This command causes Turbo PMAC to report the present motor following error (in counts, rounded to the
nearest tenth of a count) for the addressed motor to the host. Following error is the difference between
motor desired and measured position at any instant. When the motor is open-loop (killed or enabled),
following error does not exist and Turbo PMAC reports a value of 0.
Example:
F
12
#3F
-6.7
; Ask for following error of addressed motor
; Turbo PMAC responds
; Ask for following error of Motor 3
; Turbo PMAC responds
See Also:
Following Error (Servo Features)
I-variables Ixx11, Ixx12, Ixx67
On-line commands <CTRL-F>, P, V
Suggested M-variable definitions Mxx61, Mxx62
Memory map registers D:$0000DB, D:$00015B, etc.
FRAX
Function:
Scope:
Syntax:
Specify the coordinate system's feedrate axes.
Coordinate-system specific
FRAX
FRAX({axis}[,{axis}...])
where:
 {axis} (optional) is a character (X, Y, Z, A, B, C, U, V, W) specifying which axis is to be used in
the vector feedrate calculations
Turbo PMAC On-Line Command Specification
303
Turbo PMAC/PMAC2 Software Reference
No spaces are permitted in this command.
This command specifies which axes are to be involved in the vector-feedrate (velocity) calculations for
upcoming feedrate-specified (F) moves. Turbo PMAC calculates the time for these moves as the vector
distance (square root of the sum of the squares of the axis distances) of all the feedrate axes divided by the
feedrate. Any non-feedrate axes commanded on the same line will complete in the same amount of time,
moving at whatever speed is necessary to cover the distance in that time.
Vector feedrate has obvious geometrical meaning only in a Cartesian system, for which it results in
constant tool speed regardless of direction, but it is possible to specify for non-Cartesian systems, and for
more than three axes.
Note:
If the move time as calculated for the vector-feedrate axes is less than the time
computed as the distance of any non-feedrate axis commanded on the line divided
by the Isx86 alternate feedrate parameter, this longer time will be used for all axes
instead.
If a motion program buffer is open when this command is sent to Turbo PMAC, it will be entered into the
buffer for later execution.
For instance, in a Cartesian XYZ system, if using FRAX(X,Y), all of the feedrate-specified moves will
be at the specified vector feedrate in the XY-plane, but not necessarily in XYZ-space. If using
FRAX(X,Y,Z) or FRAX, feedrate-specified moves will be at the specified vector feedrate in XYZ-space.
Default feedrate axes for a coordinate system are X, Y, and Z.
Example:
FRAX
FRAX(X,Y)
FRAX(X,Y,Z)
; Make all axes feedrate axes
; Make X and Y axes only the feedrate axes
; Make X, Y, and Z axes only the feedrate axes
See Also:
Feedrate-Specified Moves (Writing and Executing Motion Programs)
Program commands F{data}, FRAX.
FREAD
Function:
Read of parameters stored with FSAVE
Scope:
Global
Syntax:
FREAD
The FREAD command causes Turbo PMAC to copy the last values of P8107 – P8191 stored to a special
sector of non-volatile flash memory with a FSAVE command back into the variables in active RAM.
Values stored f