Air Unit manual

Air Unit manual
VPN-35391AU
January 2005 Rev-0
Price $30.00
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Note:
Information in this manual is for general purposes only, therefore contents
may differ from one unit to another.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
WARRANTY ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5
DOMESTIC TERMS and CONDITIONS ........................................................................................................................... 6
EXPORT TERMS and CONDITIONS ................................................................................................................................ 8
VILTER AIR UNITS .......................................................................................................................................................... 10
RECEIVING ...................................................................................................................................................................... 10
RIGGING AND HANDLING ............................................................................................................................................ 10
OPERATION ...................................................................................................................................................................... 10
FOUNDATION AND HANGER SUPPORTS .................................................................................................................... 11
AIR UNIT LOCATION ....................................................................................................................................................... 11
PIPING AND CONNECTIONS ......................................................................................................................................... 11
VALVES AND ACCESSORIES ......................................................................................................................................... 11
SAFETY DEVICES ............................................................................................................................................................ 11
INSTALLATION ................................................................................................................................................................. 11
SYSTEM EVACUATION ................................................................................................................................................... 11
BASIC WIRING DIAGRAM.............................................................................................................................................. 11
INSPECTION ...................................................................................................................................................................... 11
TYPICAL AIR UNIT MOTOR WIRING .......................................................................................................................... 12
TYPICAL AIR UNIT MOTOR WIRING .......................................................................................................................... 13
MAINTENANCE ...............................................................................................................................................................
MOTOR MAINTENANCE .............................................................................................................................................
FLUSHING THE DRAIN PAN .......................................................................................................................................
STORAGE OF EQUIPMENT .........................................................................................................................................
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REPLACEMENT PARTS LIST ......................................................................................................................................... 16
VENDOR SECTION .........................................................................................................................................................
Sporlan ...............................................................................................................................................................................
Hansen ................................................................................................................................................................................
Leeson .................................................................................................................................................................................
Baldor .................................................................................................................................................................................
Lincoln ...............................................................................................................................................................................
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Warranty
Warranty for Air Units Manufactured by Vilter Manufacturing Corporation.
Seller warrants air units manufactured by it and supplied hereunder to be free from defects in materials and
workmanship for a period of eighteen (18) months from the date of shipment or twelve (12) months from the
date of installation which ever occurs first. The seller extends to a period of five (5) years from the date of
shipment its warranty on hot dipped galvanized coils against rust through. If within such period any such
product shall be proved to Seller’s satisfaction to be defective, such product shall be repaired or replaced at
Seller’s option. Such repair or replacement shall be Seller’s sole obligation and Buyer’s exclusive remedy
hereunder and shall be conditioned upon Seller’s receiving written notice of any alleged defect within ten
(10) days after its discovery and, at Seller’s option, return of such parts to Seller, F.O.B., freight prepaid to
Seller’s factory. Expenses incurred by Buyer in repairing or replacing any defective product or any lost
refrigerant will not be allowed except by written permission of Seller. This warranty is only applicable to
products properly maintained and used according to Seller’s instructions. This warranty does not apply to
normal wear and tear, or damage caused by corrosion, misuse, overloading, neglect, improper operation,
accident or alteration, as determined by Seller. Products supplied by seller hereunder which are manufactured by someone else are not warranted by Seller in any way, but Seller agrees to assign to Buyer any
warranty rights in such products that the Seller may have from the original manufacturer. Labor and expenses for repair are not covered by warranty.
THE WARRANTY CONTAINED IN THIS SECTION IS EXCLUSIVE AND IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER
REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES (EXCEPT OF TITLE), EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AND
SELLER EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS AND EXCLUDES ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR IMPLIED WARRANTY OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
Any description of the product, whether in writing or made orally by Seller or Seller’s agents, specifications, samples, models, bulletins, drawings, diagrams, engineering sheets or similar materials used in
connection with Buyer’s order are for the sole purpose of identifying the products and shall not be
construed as an express warranty. Any suggestions by Seller or Seller’s agents regarding use, application or suitability of the products shall not be construed as an express warranty unless confirmed to be
such in writing by Seller.
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DOMESTIC TERMS and
CONDITIONS
Exclusivity. Seller’s acceptance of Buyer’s order is expressly conditional upon Buyer’s agreement to these terms and
conditions. All inconsistent or additional terms, modifications, or changes are deemed material, are expressly rejected, and do not form a part of this Agreement unless Seller agrees to such terms in writing.
Home Office Approval. Buyer understands that no agent of Seller is authorized to execute this Agreement or bind
Seller unless this Agreement and any purported change are signed by a home office Officer of Seller.
Prices and Payments. Prices are exclusive of taxes and may be modified at any time prior to Seller receiving Buyer’s
binding order. Upon acceptance, prices are firm for only three months and subject to reasonable escalation. Unless
agreed otherwise in writing, all payments are due in full within 30 days of Seller shipping the products or providing
the services. All overdue amounts will incur finances charge of the lesser of (a) 1 ½ % per month and (b) the
maximum allowed by law.
Security Agreement. This Agreement shall be considered a security agreement to the maximum extent allowed by
law. Seller shall have, retain, and possess a security interest in all products sold to Buyer until Seller is paid in full.
Buyer grants to Seller a power of attorney to complete, sign on Buyer’s behalf, and file all forms reasonably necessary
to perfect Seller’s security interest. If Buyer defaults, or Seller deems itself insecure of receiving payment, the full
unpaid balance shall become immediately due and payable at the option of the Seller, and Seller may retake possession of the products without Court order.
Delivery. Seller shall not be liable for delivery delays beyond its control, including delays caused by its suppliers. All
delivery dates and rates of production statements are merely good faith estimates. Unless otherwise stated on Seller’s
Order Acknowledgment, all shipments are F.O.B. Seller’s factory. Seller reserves the rights to make installment
deliveries.
Warranties. Seller warrants the products it manufactures to be free from defects in material and workmanship for a
period of eighteen (18) months from the date of shipment from Seller’s manufacturing plant or twelve (12) months
from date of installation at the initial end users location, whichever occurs first. In addition, Seller provides the
following extended warranties: (a) three (3) years from the date of shipment on single screw compressor internal
rotating parts, (b) two (2) years from the date of shipment on reciprocating compressors and single screw and reciprocating compressor parts, and (c) two (2) years on all other parts on a single screw compressor unit. Such warranties
do not apply to ordinary wear and tear. Seller does not warrant that the product complies with any particular law or
regulation not explicitly set forth in the specifications, and Buyer is responsible for ensuring that the product contains
all features necessary to safely perform in Buyer’s and its customer’s plants and operations. Buyer must notify Seller
of any warranty claim within ten (10) days after such claim arises, otherwise Buyer waives all rights to such claim.
Products supplied by Seller which are manufactured by others are not warranted by Seller, but rather Seller merely
passes through the manufacturer’s warranty to Buyer. SELLER EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Unless otherwise agreed in writing, Buyer’s
sole remedy for breach of warranty is, at Seller’s option, the repair of the defect, the correction of the service, or the
providing a replacement part FOB Seller’s office. Seller will not be responsible for costs of dismantling, lost refrigerant, reassembling, or transporting the product. Further, Seller will not be liable for any other direct, indirect,
consequential, incidental, or special damages arising out of a breach of warranty. THESE WARRANTY REMEDIES ARE EXCLUSIVE, AND ALL OTHER WARRANTY REMEDIES ARE EXCLUDED. Products or
parts for which a warranty claim is made are to be returned transportation prepaid to Seller’s factory. Any improper
use, corrosion, neglect, accident, operation beyond rated capacity, substitution of parts not approved by Seller, or any
alteration or repair by others which, in Seller’s judgment, adversely affects the Product, shall void all warranties and
warranty obligations. Further, Seller shall not be liable under the above warranties should Buyer be in default of its
payment obligations to Seller under this Agreement or any credit agreement.
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DOMESTIC TERMS and
CONDITIONS
Changes, Cancellations, and Returns. Buyer will pay reasonable charges and all associated costs and damages
arising from canceling or changing this Agreement. No returns shall be allowed other than with Seller’s express
permission, and such returns shall include a reasonable restocking charge to the extent permitted by law.
Resellers and Distributors. Should Buyer resell the product to a third party, then Buyer agrees to provide a copy of
these Terms and Conditions to such third party prior to the sale, and obtain such third party’s agreement to be
bound by the relevant provisions including, but not limited to, the Warranties Section and the Limitation of
Liability Section. Buyer agrees to indemnify Seller against any and all claims, damages, or liability (including
reasonable attorney fees) arising from Buyer’s breach of the obligations set forth in this Section.
Proprietary Rights. All designs and information provided by Seller remain its property, and Buyer shall honor all
proprietary legends.
Limitation of Liability. The Seller’s price is based on the enforceability of this limitation of liability, and the Buyer
understands that the price would be substantially higher without this limitation. SELLER SHALL HAVE NO
LIABILITY TO BUYER FOR LOST PROFITS OR FOR SPECIAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, EXEMPLARY
OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES OF ANY KIND, WHETHER ARISING IN CONTRACT, TORT, PRODUCT
LIABILITY OR OTHERWISE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POTENTIAL DAMAGES IN ADVANCE.
IN NO EVENT SHALL SELLER BE LIABLE TO BUYER FOR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER IN
EXCESS OF THE CONTRACT PRICE. IN THE EVENT THAT ANY WARRANTY OR WARRANTY
REMEDY FAILS OF ITS ESSENTIAL PURPOSE, OR IS HELD TO BE INVALID OR UNENFORCEABLE FOR ANY REASON, IN CONSIDERATION OF THE OTHER PROVISIONS OF THIS AGREEMENT, THE PARTIES AGREE THAT ALL LIABILITY LIMITATIONS WILL NEVERTHELESS REMAIN IN EFFECT.
Governing Law. This Agreement shall be governed by the internal laws of the State of Wisconsin, without resort
to conflicts of law analysis.
Attorney fees, Collection Costs, and Indemnification. Buyer agrees to defend and indemnify Seller against any
claims, damages, or liability (including attorney fees) arising out of Buyer’s violation of any law or breach of its
obligations under this Agreement including, but not limited to, personal injury, death, or property damage. In
addition, Buyer shall reimburse Seller all reasonable attorney fees and collection costs incurred by Seller to enforce
its rights against Buyer under this Agreement.
Manuals and Brochures. Buyer shall communicate to Seller any special needs, pictorials, labels, warning signs,
instructions, or language required for the manuals and brochures used for the products. Buyer agrees to pay a
reasonable surcharge for additional manuals, special manuals, and brochures.
Severability. Any legally unenforceable provision may be severed from this Agreement, and the remaining terms
and conditions will be enforced as a whole as if such provision had not be inserted herein.
Waiver, Entire Agreement. No waiver by either party of a right under this Agreement shall waive any other rights.
These terms and conditions and any other writing signed by Seller constitute the entire agreement, and may not be
modified other than in writing signed by Seller.
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EXPORT TERMS and
CONDITIONS
Exclusivity. Seller’s acceptance of Buyer’s order is expressly conditional upon Buyer’s agreement to these terms and
conditions. All inconsistent or additional terms, modifications, or changes are deemed material, are expressly rejected,
and do not form a part of this Agreement unless Seller agrees to such terms in writing.
Home Office Approval. Buyer understands that no agent of Seller is authorized to execute this Agreement or bind
Seller unless this Agreement and any purported change are signed by a home office Officer of Seller.
Prices and Payments. Prices are exclusive of taxes and may be modified at any time prior to Seller receiving Buyer’s
binding order. Upon acceptance, prices are firm for only three months and subject to reasonable escalation. Unless
agreed otherwise in writing, all payments are due in full upon receipt of order or Vilter’s receipt of an acceptable letter
of credit. All overdue amounts will incur finances charge of the lesser of (a) 1 ½ % per month and (b) the maximum
allowed by law.
Export Transactions. If the products provided under this Agreement are to be shipped or used outside of the United
States, then the following terms apply unless otherwise agreed by Seller in writing: (1) Buyer shall be responsible for
all export and import scheduling and financial arrangements, (2) Buyer shall be responsible for compliance with all
export and import laws and shall comply, and shall cause its agents to comply, with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act,
(3) the United Nations Convention on the International Sale of Goods shall not apply or govern the transaction, (4)
Buyer accepts all responsibility for the products complying with any non-United States based laws, regulations, and
other legal requirements, and (5) Seller shall be entitled to condition any shipment upon Buyer obtaining an acceptable
Letter of Credit in Seller’s favor confirmed at a United States based bank of Seller’s choosing.
Delivery. Seller shall not be liable for delivery delays beyond its control, including delays caused by its suppliers. All
delivery dates and rates of production statements are merely good faith estimates. Unless otherwise stated on Seller’s
Order Acknowledgment, all shipments are F.O.B. Seller’s factory. Seller reserves the rights to make installment
deliveries.
Warranties. Seller warrants the products it manufactures to be free from defects in material and workmanship for a
period of eighteen (18) months from the date of shipment from Seller’s manufacturing plant or twelve (12) months
from date of installation at the initial end users location, whichever occurs first. In addition, Seller provides the
following extended warranties: (a) three (3) years from the date of shipment on single screw compressor internal
rotating parts, (b) two (2) years from the date of shipment on reciprocating compressors and single screw and reciprocating compressor parts, and (c) two (2) years on all other parts on a single screw compressor unit. Such warranties do
not apply to ordinary wear and tear. Seller does not warrant that the product complies with any particular law or
regulation not explicitly set forth in the specifications, and Buyer is responsible for ensuring that the product contains
all features necessary to safely perform in Buyer’s and its customer’s plants and operations. Buyer must notify Seller
of any warranty claim within ten (10) days after such claim arises, otherwise Buyer waives all rights to such claim.
Products supplied by Seller which are manufactured by others are not warranted by Seller, but rather Seller merely
passes through the manufacturer’s warranty to Buyer. SELLER EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Unless otherwise agreed in writing, Buyer’s
sole remedy for breach of warranty is, at Seller’s option, the repair of the defect, the correction of the service, or the
providing a replacement part FOB Seller’s office. Seller will not be responsible for costs of dismantling, lost refrigerant, reassembling, or transporting the product. Further, Seller will not be liable for any other direct, indirect, consequential, incidental, or special damages arising out of a breach of warranty. THESE WARRANTY REMEDIES
ARE EXCLUSIVE, AND ALL OTHER WARRANTY REMEDIES ARE EXCLUDED.
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EXPORT TERMS and
CONDITIONS
Products or parts for which a warranty claim is made are to be returned transportation prepaid to Seller’s factory.
Any improper use, corrosion, neglect, accident, operation beyond rated capacity, substitution of parts not approved
by Seller, or any alteration or repair by others which, in Seller’s judgment, adversely affects the Product, shall void
all warranties and warranty obligations. Further, Seller shall not be liable under the above warranties should Buyer
be in default of its payment obligations to Seller under this Agreement or any credit agreement.
Changes, Cancellations, and Returns. Buyer will pay reasonable charges and all associated costs and damages
arising from canceling or changing this Agreement. No returns shall be allowed other than with Seller’s express
permission, and such returns shall include a reasonable restocking charge to the extent permitted by law.
Proprietary Rights. All designs and information provided by Seller remain its property, and Buyer shall honor all
proprietary legends.
Limitation of Liability. The Seller’s price is based on the enforceability of this limitation of liability, and the Buyer
understands that the price would be substantially higher without this limitation. SELLER SHALL HAVE NO
LIABILITY TO BUYER FOR LOST PROFITS OR FOR SPECIAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, EXEMPLARY
OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES OF ANY KIND, WHETHER ARISING IN CONTRACT, TORT, PRODUCT
LIABILITY OR OTHERWISE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POTENTIAL DAMAGES IN ADVANCE.
IN NO EVENT SHALL SELLER BE LIABLE TO BUYER FOR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER IN
EXCESS OF THE CONTRACT PRICE. IN THE EVENT THAT ANY WARRANTY OR WARRANTY
REMEDY FAILS OF ITS ESSENTIAL PURPOSE, OR IS HELD TO BE INVALID OR UNENFORCEABLE
FOR ANY REASON, IN CONSIDERATION OF THE OTHER PROVISIONS OF THIS AGREEMENT,
THE PARTIES AGREE THAT ALL LIABILITY LIMITATIONS WILL NEVERTHELESS REMAIN IN
EFFECT.
Governing Law and Dispute Resolution. This Agreement shall be governed by the internal laws of the State of
Wisconsin, U.S.A. without resort to conflicts of law analysis. The parties agree the State courts located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.A. shall have exclusive venue for any dispute concerning the enforceability, interpretation, or
termination of this Agreement, and agree to bring any such action in this venue. The parties further agree to
personal jurisdiction in such courts for any such dispute.
Attorney fees, Collection Costs, and Indemnification. Buyer agrees to defend and indemnify Seller against any
claims, damages, or liability (including attorney fees) arising out of Buyer’s violation of any law or breach of its
obligations under this Agreement including, but not limited to, personal injury, death, or property damage. In
addition, Buyer shall reimburse Seller all reasonable attorney fees and collection costs incurred by Seller to enforce
its rights against Buyer under this Agreement.
Manuals and Brochures. Buyer shall communicate to Seller any special needs, pictorials, labels, warning signs,
instructions, or language required for the manuals and brochures used for the products. Buyer agrees to pay a
reasonable surcharge for additional manuals, special manuals, and brochures.
Severability. Any legally unenforceable provision may be severed from this Agreement, and the remaining terms
and conditions will be enforced as a whole as if such provision had not be inserted herein.
Waiver, Entire Agreement. No waiver by either party of a right under this Agreement shall waive any other rights.
These terms and conditions and any other writing signed by Seller constitute the entire agreement, and may not be
modified other than in writing signed by Seller.
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Operation
VILTER AIR UNITS
OVERHEAD LIFTING: Lifting by eyebolts using
a spreader bar.
VILTER Air Units are manufactured using the highest quality materials and workmanship. The hot dip
galvanized steel coils and framework provide excellent durability and corrosion resistance for most environments.
VILTER Air Units are designed for a wide variety of
applications. They can be circuited for all common
refrigerants using direct expansion, liquid recirculated, or flooded feed. The defrost methods, if required, can be air, hot gas, water or electric depending on the plant configuration and application.
RECEIVING
When receiving Air Units, all packages and crates
should be checked against the bill of lading. If any
components are missing or damaged, have the freight
agent make the proper notations on the freight bill,
and enter a claim to recover the loss. Also take pictures of the damage to help identify the condition of
the unit when received.
RIGGING AND HANDLING
FORK TRUCK LIFTING: Lift by lifting channels
or skid provided.
VILTER Air Units are shipped completely assembled
and mounted on wooden skids or shipping legs. The
services of a qualified rigger should be obtained to
lift and position the Air Unit. They have the required
equipment and know-how to do the job properly.
The Air Units are designed to be lifted using either a
fork-truck or crane. For fork-truck lifting, the removable cross channels or the wooden runners that
are mounted between the Air Unit legs should be used.
Fork extensions may be required to span the distance
between front and back legs. Overhead cranes can
utilize the ceiling mounting channels for lifting. A
spreader bar is recommended. The channels located
1” from each end should be used for lifting.
FORK LIFT
FORKS
DO NOT ATTEMPT TO LIFT BY THE DRAIN
PAN. DAMAGE WILL RESULT ! !
See following illustrations for handling procedures:
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Installation
FOUNDATION AND HANGER SUPPORTS
SYSTEM EVACUATION
Floors, stands, and ceiling supports must be adequately designed for supporting the weight of the
Air Units.
As any refrigeration system will operate best when
only refrigerant is present in the system, steps must
be taken to remove all air, water vapor and all other
non-condensibles from it before charging it with refrigerant. If air, non-condensibles, or water vapor
are left in the system, various operating difficulties
may be encountered. The moisture will react with
the oil in the system forming sludge, which can clog
passageways and lead to lubrication problems. Air
and non-condensibles will tend to lodge in the condenser, decreasing the space for condensing liquid
and cause the head pressure to rise. A combination
of moisture and refrigerant, along with any free oxygen in the system, can cause formation of acids or
other corrosive compounds which could corrode the
internal parts of the system. For these reasons, it is
imperative that as much of the aforementioned foreign materials be removed from the system as possible before it is placed into operation.
The Air Units can be designed to be either ceiling
hung or mounted on a support stand. The top channels can be used for ceiling suspension and the mounting legs are to be used for floor or stand mounting.
The Air Units must be secured in position using safe
and acceptable methods.
AIR UNIT LOCATION
Be sure there is sufficient free and unobstructed space
around the Air Unit for proper servicing. Make certain there is free and unobstructed airflow to the
evaporator’s air inlet.
PIPING AND CONNECTIONS
Follow industrial refrigeration piping procedures to
install and pipe the Air Unit. Refer to ANSI/ASHRAE
handbooks.
VALVES AND ACCESSORIES
For units that have factory mounted valves or other
accessories, servicing information is provided in the
Vendor section of this manual.
Although not provided with the Air Units, all industrial refrigeration systems should have adequate filters and strainers. For start up, the use of additional
filter bags in the strainers are a must. See the Vendor sections for an example of suitable suction, liquid and hot gas line strainers.
BASIC WIRING DIAGRAM
The wiring diagram shown is suitable for most installations. Refer to Drawings on the following two
pages. (pages 12 & 13)
INSPECTION
Prior to start up, the following services must be performed:
Inspect general condition of unit.
Inspect fans, motors, bearings, drives, locking collars, and belts for condition and alignment.
Check fans.
SAFETY DEVICES
Safety devices installed in plants vary according to
the requirements of the local ordinances. See ANSI/
ASHRAE standard 15. In case any doubt exists on
this point, check local codes on the subject before
installation is initiated. Make all arrangements for
installation of electric power and inspection services
by the local authorities so all this work will be performed, inspected, and passed in ample time to prevent any delay in starting up the plant for operation.
Proper start-up procedures and scheduled periodic
maintenance will prolong the life of the equipment
and ensure trouble-free performance.
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Typical Air Unit Motor Wiring
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Typical Air Unit Motor Wiring
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Maintenance
FLUSHING THE DRAIN PAN
MAINTENANCE
VILTER Air Units contain few moving parts and are
nearly maintenance free. Periodic cleaning of the coil
maintains cooling efficiency.
The drain pan should be flushed out to remove accumulated dirt and impurities once a month, or as conditions require.
STORAGE OF EQUIPMENT
PERIODIC MAINTENANCE
FANS
It is highly recommended that a regular schedule of
periodic maintenance be established and strictly adhered to. Following is a list of major check points
and the approximate frequency of attention. However, the intervals are subject to adjustment as they
are minimums and if operating conditions are severe,
the frequency should be increased.
Once every month:
1.Check bearings (on summer operating jobs, repeat
same at start and end of the season) and lubricate if
necessary.
2.Clean and flush the drain pan.
3.Clean strainer (if atmosphere is extremely dusty,
weekly cleaning may be necessary).
4.Check fan blades overall condition. Clean if necessary.
5.Check over the unit carefully and if any other work
is necessary, complete at once.
Once every year:
If a fan is not installed immediately upon receipt, it
is the responsibility of the purchaser/user to see that
proper procedures are followed to minimize deterioration which may result from idle storage. These
simple steps should be adhered to in order to protect
the equipment.
1.Machined parts that are exposed to the elements
should be covered with a protective coating of grease
(Chesterton Heavy Duty Rustguard #740, Sprayon
#322, or equivalent).
2.For fans equipped with access panels, vane section
access panels, or core end covers, these can be removed to gain adequate access to the interior. These
panels/covers should be reattached for storage, but
fastened with a minimum of assembly hardware to
facilitate access. The remaining hardware should be
bagged and attached to the fan to prevent loss of these
items, along with a tag indicating that all hardware
should be reinstalled prior to putting the fan into service.
3.Equipment must be protected from construction
debris. Ideally, equipment should be stored in a dry,
well-sheltered, vibration-free location.
1.Repeat monthly procedure.
2.Check fan shaft locking collar on the bearings.
MOTOR MAINTENANCE
When lubricating the motors of the Air Unit, follow
the recommendations of the motor manufacturer. This
data is provided on the following pages. Keep in
mind that more motor damage has been caused by
over greasing than by not greasing often enough.
Motors smaller than 1½ hp generally have sealed
bearings. The motor data provided must be looked
over by the customer to determine if this applies to
this particular unit.
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4.Each impeller blade should be numbered in sequence with a marker.
5.A plastic cover should be spread over the equipment.
FAN BEARINGS
Since bearings tend to “breathe” on equipment stored
in areas with other than a constant temperature, moisture will condense internally. It becomes necessary
to keep the bearings completely full of grease and
periodically rotated to make certain that all internal
parts are coated with grease. Even a full bearing will
eventually pick up moisture and therefore, must be
periodically purged with new grease.
MOTORS
Grease should be purged from bearings to remove
condensed moisture, and fan wheel rotated by hand
every thirty (30) days. This practice should be done
more often if weather is severe or if there is a wide
variation in temperature.
CAUTION IN PURGING:
THE FAN SHOULD BE ROTATED WHILE
GREASING, AND HIGH PRESSURE PNEUMATIC GREASERS SHOULD BE AVOIDED.
SEE SECTION ON LUBRICATION INSTRUCTIONS FOR FAN BALL BEARINGS.
For rotating, follow the procedure listed below:
The blade marked number 1 should be rotated to top
center. The blade number and date should be recorded
in a log book which is to be stored in a protective
pouch attached to the fan.
During storage, the fan impeller should be rotated by
hand at least ten (10) revolutions every thirty (30)
days to circulate the lubricant in the bearings in the
motor or on the fan shaft. After the tenth revolution,
stop with a blade at top center which is not the same
one as listed for the previous date in the log book.
Fans which are V-belt driven should be prepared for
storage as follows. Carefully remove the belts, coil
them (without kinks) in matched sets, and place them
in a heavy carton. Mark carton with fan identification and store carton in a dry, well-ventilated area.
Belts must not be left exposed to sunlight or subjected
to storage ambient conditions exceeding 85°F / 70%
relative humidity. Belts which show signs of deterioration should be replaced prior to start-up. Before
reinstalling belts, review section on belt tension.
Motors must be stored under cover in a clean, dry,
vibration-free location. Remove sufficient packaging material to allow circulation of air around motor.
Maintain the temperature of the windings a few degrees above that of the surrounding air to protect
against condensation. If the motor is equipped with
internal heaters, the heaters should be energized
throughout the storage period to prevent this condensation. If the motor does not have internal heaters,
this can be accomplished using any other safe, reliable method of heating. Measure and record monthly
the ambient air temperature and winding temperature.
In the event the motor is not equipped with internal
heaters and space heating equipment is unavailable,
wrap the motor as tightly as possible with heavy-duty
polyethylene. Enclose bags of desiccant (such as
Silicagel) with the motor to minimize moisture problems. Check the desiccant regularly and replace it
periodically as dictated by climate requirements.
To prevent rusting of bearing parts, the rotor must be
rotated at regular intervals (30 days) to assure these
parts are well covered with oil or grease.
Prior to energizing the motor, it is to be inspected
and meggered by a motor manufacturer’s field service engineer. The charges for this service to the customer will be in accordance with manufacturer’s published service rates in effect at the time of inspection.
In addition, it is strongly recommended the motor
manufacturer be contacted for specific long term storage instructions.
NOTE:
Procedures for storage of aerovent equipment as outlined above are intended as a general guide only.
Storage conditions will vary depending on the location. Common sense and practical experience
should determine to what extent the above procedures will be followed.
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Replacement Parts
REPLACEMENT PARTS LIST
Following is a list of items that, over time, may require replacement. Contact VILTER MANUFACTURING CORPORATION for current price confirmation before placing an order. Please have the unit
serial identification number on hand when placing
an order for parts. Other replacement parts may be
supplied as required. Consult home office for further
information.
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Fan Motor
Propeller Fan
Fan Guard
Pan Coil Defrost Check Valve (if applicable)
Drain Pan (if applicable)
Drain Pan Coil (if applicable)
Louvers (if applicable)
Long throw Adapters (if applicable)
Vendor Section
Sporlan
Hansen
Leeson
Baldor
Lincoln
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October 2003 / BULLETIN 10-11
Thermostatic
Expansion Valves
Installation, Field Service, and Assembly
See Bulletin 20-10 for application and selection information on
refrigerant distributors.
Table of Contents
Installation
Valve Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Solder Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Bulb Location and Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
External Equalizer Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Driers, Strainers, and Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Test Pressures and Dehydration Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Expansion Valve Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
How to Determine Superheat Correctly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
How to Change the Superheat Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Field Servicing
Complaint:
A - Valve does not feed enough refrigerant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
B - Valve feeds too much refrigerant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
C - Valve feeds too much refrigerant at start-up only . . . . . . . . . 8
D - Valve doesn't feed properly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
E - System hunts or cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
F - System won't perform properly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Field Assembly Instructions
. . . . . . . 10
Installation
For peak performance, it is important to select a Sporlan
Thermostatic Expansion Valve (TEV) with correct capacity, selective
charge, external or internal equalizer, etc. See Bulletins 10-9 and 10-10
for complete application information. Equally important is the proper
installation, which can determine the success or failure of the entire
system.
Valve Location
TEVs may be mounted in any position, but they should be installed
as close to the evaporator as possible. If a refrigerant distributor is
used with the expansion valve, best performance is obtained if the
distributor is mounted directly to the valve outlet. If the distributor
cannot be mounted directly to the valve outlet, the distance between
the valve outlet and distributor should not exceed 24 inches or refrigerant distribution problems may occur. Also, the tube connecting the
valve outlet and distributor can be sized smaller to maintain refrigerant velocity and better distribution. Elbows located between the
expansion valve and distributor will hinder proper distribution and
therefore, are not recommended.
Best distribution is usually obtained if the expansion valve feeds
vertically up or down into the distributor. System manufacturers,
however, have successfully applied distributors in other orientations.
While not always convenient or possible, valve Types BI, F, FB, and
O are easier to service if mounted in a vertical and upright position.
If mounted in a horizontal position, the internal parts must be
carefully reassembled to prevent damage to them. Also, some consideration should be taken in mounting larger sized expansion valves.
They must be adequately supported since system vibration and the
weight of the valve may cause valve connections to fracture.
If a hand valve is located on the outlet side of the TEV it should have
a full sized port. No restrictions should appear between the TEV and
the evaporator, except a refrigerant distributor if one is used.
Sporlan TEVs having Selective Charges C, Z, L, or X may be
installed and operated in most locations. The amount of thermostatic
charge and the bulb size are such that the bulb retains control despite
a colder valve body or diaphragm case. The exception is when the
element is subjected to sub-zero temperatures for extended periods of
time during an off-cycle. In this case, start-up may be prolonged until
the bulb and element are warmed sufficiently to open the valve.
To minimize the possibility of charge migration, the Sporlan MOP
type charges (CP series, ZP series, and VGA) should be installed so
the diaphragm case is warmer than the bulb. Special non-condensable
charges without MOP and double diaphragm hydraulic elements with
MOP are available for system manufacturers to overcome this
potential problem.
Occasionally, TEVs are located in corrosive atmospheric conditions
that can damage the valve and/or the element assembly. Due to this
possibility, the valve must be protected with appropriate materials to
prevent premature failure. Consult specialists in protective coatings.
Precautions:
When the evaporator and TEV are located above the
receiver, there is a static pressure loss in the liquid line. This is due
to the weight of the column of liquid refrigerant, and this weight may
be interpreted in terms of pressure loss in pounds per square inch as
shown in Table 3, Bulletin 10-9. If the vertical lift is great enough,
vapor or flash gas will form in the liquid line causing a serious
reduction in the capacity of the TEV.
When an appreciable vertical lift is unavoidable, precautions should
be taken to prevent the accompanying pressure loss from producing
liquid line vapor. This can be accomplished by providing enough
subcooling to the liquid refrigerant, either in the condenser or after
the liquid leaves the receiver. Subcooling is determined by
subtracting the actual liquid temperature from the condensing
temperature (corresponding to the condensing pressure). A
subcooling calculation example is provided in the "subcooling"
section of Bulletin 10-9.
© Copyright 2003 by Sporlan Valve Company, Washington, Missouri
Bulletin 10-11, October 2003 Supersedes Bulletin 10-11, September 1996 and all prior publications.
Page 2 / BULLETIN 10-11
Liquid subcooling is provided by the following
methods:
1. In the condenser
2. Suction – liquid heat exchanger
3. Special devices
Method 1 – will provide sufficient subcooling for the simple shortcoupled system that has only moderate liquid line pressure drop.
Method 2 – will usually not provide more than 20°F subcooling on
air conditioning systems operating at normal head pressures. The
amount of subcooling will depend on the design and size of the heat
exchanger and on the operating suction and discharge pressures.
Method 3 – may be used to provide considerable subcooling
required for systems with excessive vertical lift. The following
special devices are the most commonly used methods:
■
Receiver
■
Water coils in heat exchange relationship with the liquid line.
Separate refrigeration system.
Special heat exchanger which uses a portion of the refrigerant to
cool the main body of liquid. See Figure 1.
Main Liquid Line
■
Figure 2
Solder Techniques
It is not necessary to disassemble solder type valves when soldering
to the connecting lines. Any of the commonly used types of solders,
e.g., 95-5, Sil-Fos, Easy-Flo, Phos-Copper, Stay Brite 8 or equivalents may be used for copper to copper connections. When soldering
a brass refrigerant distributor to the valve, appropriate solders for
these connections, such as 95-5, Easy-Flo, Stay Brite 8 or equivalents
must be used. It is important however, regardless of the solder used,
to direct the flame away from the valve body and avoid excessive
heat on the diaphragm, Figure 2. As an extra precaution, a wet cloth
may be wrapped around the body and element during the soldering
operation.
This precaution will prevent overheating the valve body which could
damage the superheat spring and result in flood back problems. In
addition, the Type O, EBF/SBF, and EBS valve contain synthetic
parts which can be damaged due to overheating, resulting in poor
valve performance.
Bulb Location and Installation
Insulation
Main Suction Line
To Compressor
Figure 1
Ordinarily the conventional suction-liquid heat exchanger is installed
near the evaporator, where the suction vapor is the coldest, to recondense any vapor in the liquid line. When the primary purpose of
the heat exchanger is to prevent the formation of flash gas – particularly on systems that have a long liquid line or excessive vertical lift
– install the heat exchanger near the receiver before the vertical
lift occurs. (This also applies to the special devices described in
Method 3). Because vapor in the liquid line considerably increases
friction losses, the total pressure drop available across the expansion
device on these types of systems is reduced. Also, the suction line and
liquid line should be carefully insulated to minimize heat gain if
subcooled below ambient temperature.
Important
Preventing the formation of vapor in liquid lines having high pressure
losses does not eliminate the requirement that an adequate pressure
drop must be available across the TEV. The capacity tables show
valve capacities at pressure drops lower than normal. For TEV
application data and capacities at pressure drops below those listed,
consult Sporlan Valve Company.
The location and installation of the bulb is extremely important to the
proper performance of the system and care should be taken with its
final location.
Accepted principles of good suction line piping should be followed
to provide a bulb location that will give the best possible valve
control. When system manufacturers have piping recommendations
that differ from the general industry recommendations and Sporlan’s
suggestions shown in this section, those recommendations should be
used. When specific recommendations are not available, the suggestions below should be used.
The bulb should be attached to a horizontal suction line at the
evaporator outlet (See Figures 3, 4, and 5) If the bulb cannot be
located in that manner, it may be located on a descending vertical
line only (as shown in Figure 5 for “pumpdown control”). The bulb
should never be located in a trap or downstream of a trap in the
suction line. Liquid refrigerant or mixture of liquid refrigerant and oil
boiling out of the trap will falsely influence the temperature of the
bulb and result in poor valve control.
On suction lines 7/8” OD and larger, the surface temperature may
vary slightly around the circumference of the line. On these lines, it
is generally recommended that the bulb be installed at 4 or 8 o’clock
on the side of the horizontal line, and parallel with respect to the
direction of flow. On smaller lines the bulb may be mounted at any
point around the circumference, however locating the bulb on the
bottom of the line is not recommended as an oil-refrigerant mixture
is generally present at that point. Certain conditions peculiar to a
particular system may require a different bulb location than normally
BULLETIN 10-11 / Page 3
Compressor
ABOVE
Evaporator
Liquid and oil drains
away from bulb...
Short as possible to minimize amount of oil.
Figure 3
recommended. In these cases the proper bulb location may be
determined by trial.
insures individual control for each valve without the influence of
refrigerant and oil flow from other evaporators.
For recommended suction line piping when the compressor is located
below the evaporator see Figure 5. The vertical riser extending to the
height of the evaporator prevents refrigerant from draining by gravity
into the compressor during the off-cycle. When a pumpdown control
is used the suction line may turn immediately down without a trap.
On commercial and low temperature applications requiring
Sporlan Selective Charges C, Z, or X the bulb should be clamped on
the suction line at a point where the bulb temperature will be the same
as the evaporator temperature during the off-cycle. This will insure
tight closing of the valve when the compressor stops. If bulb insulation is used on lines operating below 32°F, use non-water absorbing
insulation to prevent water from freezing around the bulb.
On brine tanks and water coolers, the bulb should be below the liquid
surface where it will be at the same temperature as the evaporator
during the off-cycle. When locating the bulb in a brine tank, paint it
and the capillary tubing with pitch or other corrosion resistant paint.
If, for practical reasons, the bulb must be located where its temperature will be higher than the evaporator during the off-cycle, a
solenoid valve must be used ahead of the TEV.
For satisfactory expansion valve control, good thermal contact
between the bulb and suction line is essential. The bulb should be
securely fastened with two bulb straps, supplied with each expansion
valve, to a clean straight section of the suction line.
Compressor BELOW
Evaporator
Recommended suction line piping usually includes a horizontal line
leaving the evaporator to which the TEV bulb is attached. This line is
pitched slightly downward, and when a vertical riser follows, a short
trap is placed immediately ahead of the vertical line, see Figure 3.
The trap will collect any liquid refrigerant or oil passing through the
suction line and prevent it from influencing the bulb temperature.
Without
Pumpdown
On multiple evaporator installations the piping should be
arranged so that the flow from any valve cannot affect the bulb of
another. Approved piping practices including the proper use of traps
Multiple Evaporators
Pumpdown
Control
Above and Below Main Suction Line
Figure 5
Flow from upper valve cannot
affect bulb. . . . line free draining.
Inverted trap to
avoid oil draining
into idle evaporator.
Free draining.
Figure 4
On air conditioning applications having TEVs equipped with
VCP100 or VGA elements, the bulb may be located inside or outside
the cooled space or duct. The valve body should not be located in the
air stream leaving the evaporator. Avoid locating the bulb in the
return air stream unless it is well insulated.
External Equalizer Connection
For a complete explanation of when an externally equalized valve
should be used, refer to "equalization method," Bulletin 10-9. Valves
supplied with an external equalizer will not operate unless this
connection is made.
The equalizer connection should be made at a point that will most
accurately reflect the pressure existing in the suction line at the bulb
location. See Figure 6. Generally, the connection is immediately
downstream of the bulb. However, equipment manufacturers
sometimes locate them in return bends or suction headers that are
Page 4 / BULLETIN 10-11
External Equalizer
Connection
Test Pressures and Dehydration
Temperatures
Inert dry gases such as nitrogen, helium or CO2 are often
used for leak detection.
CAUTION: Inert gases must be added to the system
carefully through a pressure regulator. Unregulated gas
pressure can seriously damage the system and endanger
human life. Never use oxygen or explosive gases.
It must be connected - NEVER CAPPED!
Must be free of crimps, solder, etc.
Figure 6
compatible with their specific design requirements. The difference
between the pressure at the equalizer connection and the suction
pressure at the bulb location should not exceed reasonable pressure
drop values. The values shown in Table 1 of Bulletin 10-9 can be
used as a guide in determining the value.
If any evaporator pressure or temperature control valves are located
in the suction line at or near the evaporator outlet, the equalizer must
be connected on the evaporator side of these valves.
Driers, Strainers, and Accessories
Most Sporlan TEVs are equipped with built-in screens of varying
mesh sizes depending on the valve size and type. These strainers are
effective only in removing particles of scale, solder, etc. which could
obstruct the closure of the pin and seat.
Excessive test pressures can shorten the life of the TEV diaphragm.
Table 1 lists the maximum pressure that can safely be applied with
the expansion valve connected to the evaporator. These maximum
pressures are well above the minimum field leak test pressures for
low sides, listed by the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 15-2001 or latest
revision.
The external equalizer line should be disconnected if there is any
possibility of exceeding the recommended maximum pressures
listed below.
If elevated temperatures are used to assist in dehydrating the system,
the TEV should not be exposed to temperatures exceeding those
shown in Table 2.
Table 2 refers to the maximum dehydration temperatures when the
bulb and valve body are subjected to the same temperature. On L, C,
Z, and X charges, 250°F maximum valve body temperature is
permissible if the bulb temperature does not exceed those
shown in the table.
Table 1
Maximum Low Side Test Pressures
Valve Type
psig
(B)I, X, NI, F, FB, (E)BF/SBF, RI, G, EG, C, S, EBS, Small O
450
D, P, H, Large O
425
A, M, V, W
400
Table 2
Maximum Dehydration Temperatures – Degrees F
Figure 7
Moisture and smaller particles of foreign materials are equally
harmful to the system and must be removed for peak system performance. Field experience has proven that, without a doubt, most
expansion valve failures are due to the presence of dirt, sludge, and
moisture in the system. Furthermore, the performance and life of
other system components are also seriously affected by these foreign
materials. The Sporlan Catch-All Filter-Drier® removes dirt,
moisture, acids, and sludge, and insures the circulation of clean, dry
refrigerant through the system at all times.
For all refrigeration and air conditioning applications we recommend
that a Sporlan Catch-All Filter-Drier be installed in the liquid line
ahead of the TEV. See Bulletin 40-10 for complete Catch-All FilterDrier specifications.
Further system protection is easily and inexpensively provided with
the installation of a Sporlan See-All®. The See-All is a combination
liquid and moisture indicator that visually indicates if there is a
shortage of refrigerant in the liquid line, or if the moisture content of
the refrigerant is at a dangerous level. See Bulletin 70-10 for
complete See-All specifications.
Refrigerant
Thermostatic Charge
L
C
Z
12, 134a
190
190
250
22
160
160
185
404A, 502, 507
150
150
170
717 (Ammonia)
150
190
235
X
VGA P Type, ZP Series
---
210
250
250
-----
---
---
Expansion Valve Adjustment
Each Sporlan TEV is thoroughly tested and set at the factory before
shipment. This factory superheat setting will be correct and no
further adjustment is required for the majority of applications.
However, there are many factors which can affect the performance of
a TEV. These factors are independently variable and all of them
cannot be compensated for in the design of a valve. When the
application or operating conditions require a different valve setting
due to one or more of the factors listed below, the valve may be
adjusted to obtain the required operating superheat. Therefore, an
adjusting stem is provided on all standard valves. The valve should
be set with the system as near as possible to design conditions.
BULLETIN 10-11 / Page 5
Factors which affect valve performance and may make it necessary
to adjust the valve are:
the estimated pressure drop will equal the approximate
suction line pressure at the bulb.
1. Low temperature difference (TDs) between the refrigerant and
the air
3. Convert the pressure obtained in 2a or 2b above to saturated
evaporator temperature by using a temperature-pressure chart.
2. TEV bulb location
4. Subtract the two temperatures obtained in 1 and 3 – the difference is superheat.
3. Balance between compressor and evaporator
4. Ratio of load to TEV capacity
5. Condenser capacity
6. Operation of several fixtures on multiple installation
7. Seasonal variation in head pressure caused by extreme changes in
ambient air temperature.
Note: Valve Types F, (E)BF/SBF, Q, A, M, V, K, and W have nonrising adjusting stems and a change in adjustment does not change
the stem position.
When setting valves on multi-evaporator refrigeration systems with
pressure or temperature sensitive evaporator control valves, the
following procedure is recommended:
1. Evaporator Pressure Regulating Valve (ORI Type): the ORI valve
is set first at the minimum load condition. Then, if necessary, the
expansion valve is adjusted to the desired superheat setting while
under the normal operating load condition.
2. Temperature Sensitive Evaporator Regulating Valves (CDS
Type): The CDS valve is forced into a fully open position first.
Then the expansion valve is adjusted to the desired superheat
setting at full load condition. Finally, the controller for the CDS
is set to the desired temperature. Contact Sporlan Valve
Company, or the case manufacturer, for additional details on
setting the CDS controller.
Figure 8 illustrates a typical example of superheat measurement on
an air conditioning system using Refrigerant 22. The temperature of
the suction line at the bulb location is read at 52°F. The suction
pressure at the compressor is 66 psig and the estimated suction line
pressure drop is 2 psi …66 psig + 2 psig = 68 psig at the bulb, which
is equivalent to a 40°F saturation temperature. (Use dew point
temperature for refrigerant blends.) 40°F subtracted from 52°F =
12°F superheat.
Note: Refrigerated case manufacturers frequently use a “temperature difference” method to approximate superheat. This procedure
consists of measuring the temperature of a location on the evaporator
which is representative of saturated vapor temperature; and, then
subtracting that temperature from the outlet evaporator temperature
which is measured at the bulb location.
While this method of reading “superheat” is acceptable on those
manufacturer’s cases where the pressure drop through the evaporator
is low, Sporlan does not recommend the “temperature difference”
method for other types of systems.
What's Your
Superheat?
When the adjustment is completed on the TEV, always tighten the
adjusting stem packing nut and replace the seal cap tightly.
Many expansion valves are made non-adjustable for use on
Original Equipment Manufacturer’s units, particularly those valves
used on residential air conditioning and heat pump systems. These
valves are set at a superheat predetermined by the manufacturer’s
laboratory tests and cannot be adjusted in the field.
Temperature
here reads
52°
40°
12°
OBTAIN SUCTION PRESSURE
68 PSIG (at bulb)
SUPERHEAT
Some non-adjustable models are modifications of standard
adjustable type valves. This is done by using a solid bottom cap
instead of one equipped with an adjusting stem and seal cap. These
valves can be identified by an N preceding the standard valve designation. Adjustable bottom cap assemblies are available for converting
most non-adjustable valves to the adjustable type. However, this is
rarely required. If symptoms indicate that a valve adjustment is
needed, carefully check the other possible causes of incorrect
superheat, pages 6 through 10, before attempting an adjustment.
How to Determine Superheat
Correctly
1. Measure the temperature of the suction line at the bulb location.
2. Obtain the suction pressure that exists in the suction line at the
bulb location by either of the following methods:
a. If the valve is externally equalized, a gauge in the external
equalizer line will indicate the desired pressure directly and
accurately.
b. Read the gauge pressure at the suction valve of the
compressor. To the pressure add the estimated pressure drop
through the suction line between bulb location and
compressor suction valve. The sum of the gauge reading and
Figure 8
How to Change the Superheat
Setting
Note: There are some valve bodies (G, EG, C, S, EBS
and EMC) that have a packing nut around the adjustment stem. It may be necessary to loosen the packing
nut slightly to turn the adjusting stem. Do not forget
to retighten the nut after the superheat is set.
To reduce the superheat, turn the adjusting stem counterclockwise. To increase the superheat, turn the adjusting stem
clockwise. When adjusting the valve, make no more than one turn
of the stem at a time and observe the change in superheat closely to
prevent over-shooting the desired setting. As much as 30 minutes
may be required for the new balance to take place after an adjustment is made.
Page 6 / BULLETIN 10-11
If in doubt about the correct superheat setting for a particular system,
consult the equipment manufacturer. As a general rule, the proper
superheat setting will depend on the amount of temperature difference (TD) between refrigerant temperature and the temperature of the
air or other substance being cooled. Where high TD’s exist, such as
on air conditioning applications, the superheat setting can be made as
high as 15°F without noticeable loss in evaporator capacity. Where
low TD’s exist, such as in low temperature blower coil applications,
a superheat setting of 10°F or below is usually recommended for
maximum evaporator capacity. It is these applications that the TEV
will more than likely need to be adjusted.
For the correct valve setting on factory built equipment, manufacturers’ recommendations should be followed. Some manufacturers
specify the superheat directly; others may recommend valve adjustment to a given suction pressure at certain operating conditions, or
until a certain frost line is observed. Such recommendations, however
they are stated, represent the results of extensive laboratory testing to
determine the best possible operation.
Field Servicing
The TEV is erroneously considered by some to be a mysterious and
complex device. As a result, many valves are needlessly replaced
when the cause of the system malfunction is not immediately
recognized.
Actually the TEV performs only one very simple function – it keeps
the evaporator supplied with enough refrigerant to satisfy
all load conditions. It is not a temperature control, suction
pressure control, a control to vary the compressor’s running time, or
a humidity control.
How effective the valve performs is easily determined by measuring
the superheat as outlined in Figure 8. Observing the frost on the
suction line, or considering only the suction pressure may be
misleading. Checking the superheat is the first step in a
simple and systematic analysis of TEV performance.
■
■
If not enough refrigerant is being fed to the evaporator—
the superheat will be high.
If too much refrigerant is being fed to the evaporator —
the superheat will be low.
Although these symptoms may be attributed to improper TEV
control, more frequently the origin of the trouble lies elsewhere.
Note: TEVs with permanent bleed ports (BP) or Rapid Pressure
Balancer (RPB) construction are applied on many air conditioning
and refrigeration systems by original equipment manufacturers. Each
application is tested and approved by the manufacturer. The primary
function of these devices is to equalize high-to-low side pressures
during the off cycle on systems equipped with low starting torque
compressors.
However, some BP type valves are applied to allow small amounts of
liquid refrigerant to pass for compressor motor cooling. The specific
function of the feature on a given unit must be determined from the
system manufacturer. Once that is determined, it is easier to
troubleshoot the system.
The primary cause of difficulty with either the BP or RPB feature is
dirt and other foreign materials that restrict or plug them. And if the
system purpose intended for either feature is not being satisfied, the
valve probably needs cleaning or replacing.
As stated in Bulletin 10-9, the RPB type valve is not to be applied on
systems using high starting torque compressors or “hard-start”
electrical components, on outdoor coils of heat pumps, or on any
refrigeration system, and it should not be used to replace BP type
valves that are applied on those types of systems. On systems other
than those described above, the RPB type valve can replace the BP
type valve when necessary. Usually it is advisable to replace a valve
with one of the same specification unless advised differently. Consult
with the system manufacturer for assistance.
Complaint "A"
“Valve does not feed enough refrigerant.”
SYMPTOMS:
■ Load temperature (air or water leaving
evaporator) too high.
■ Superheat too high.
■ Suction pressure lower than normal with
compressor unloaders locked out or hot gas
bypass shut off.*
THE CAUSE MAY BE:
1. Moisture — Water or a mixture of water and oil frozen in the
valve port or working parts of the valve will prevent proper
operation. This is a common source of trouble on expansion
valves. Since the valve is the first cold spot in the system,
moisture will freeze and block the valve open, closed, or any
position in between. If the valve is frozen in the intermediate
position so that flow is restricted, the superheat will be high.
Remedy — Install a Sporlan Catch-All Filter-Drier in the
liquid line for removal of moisture from the refrigerant and oil.
See Bulletin 40-10.
To determine a safe level of moisture in the system, install a
Sporlan See•All Moisture and Liquid Indicator. See Bulletin
70-10.
Excessive moisture has a damaging effect on all
system components regardless of the evaporating
temperature. Moisture must be removed for troublefree performance.
2. Dirt or foreign material — Contaminants such as copper
oxide scale, metal chips, oil breakdown sludge, etc. will restrict
the flow of refrigerant when it collects in strainers or other liquid
line accessories. This produces a shortage of refrigerant at the
TEV port. Conventional strainers frequently allow the material
to pass through the screen and obstruct the flow at the valve
port. If a See•All is installed downstream of the restriction,
bubbles will be visible. This should not be confused, however,
with a refrigerant shortage or excessive liquid line pressure loss
which are also indicated by bubbles in the See•All.
Remedy — Locate and remove the foreign material creating
the restriction. Install a Sporlan Catch-All Filter-Drier to
provide effective filtration of the refrigerant. See Bulletin 40-10.
* When system has some form of capacity reduction — cylinder unloaders or hot gas bypass, a low suction pressure will not exist. Therefore, when checking TEV
performance, a better analysis is possible when these devices are locked out or shut off so the suction pressure will respond to variations in load or valve feed.
BULLETIN 10-11 / Page 7
3. Wax — Certain systems are contaminated with small amounts
of wax which will precipitate at low temperatures in systems
with Refrigerants 22 or 502. Since the TEV represents the first
cold point in the refrigeration cycle, wax is most likely to form
at the valve port.
It is sometimes difficult to observe the wax in a valve because it
may exist in solid form only at very low temperatures. By the
time the valve has been taken apart, the temperature has
increased enough to cause the wax to melt and thus become
difficult to detect. When wax is suspected, it can usually be
detected on the pin and seat by packing the valve in dry ice
while disassembling.
Remedy — Clean the valve with solvent before reassembling
the valve. The Sporlan HH style Catch-All Filter-Driers have a
special activated charcoal desiccant that is designed to remove
wax in the liquid line before it causes trouble. Therefore, to
prevent wax problems, use these HH style driers (e.g., C-415S-HH) on all low temperature systems using Refrigerants 22 or
502.
4. Refrigerant shortage — See•All or sight glass in the
liquid line will show bubbles when the system is short of refrigerant charge. Before adding more refrigerant however, be sure
the bubbles are not produced by other causes (See Paragraphs
A-2 and A-5).
A lack of refrigerant charge may also be detected by a hissing
sound at the TEV. Some systems not equipped with a liquid line
sight glass will have test cocks or other devices for checking the
refrigerant level in the receiver.
Remedy — Add enough refrigerant to obtain desired result.
5. Gas in the liquid line — As explained in Paragraphs A-2
and A-4, liquid line vapor can be produced by a partially
plugged strainer or drier and by a shortage of refrigerant charge.
In addition, gas in the liquid line can be caused by air or other
non-condensable gases in the system or by excessive pressure
losses in the liquid line as a result of:
■
■
Long or undersized line.
Liquid line vertical lift.
Remedy — Verify the correct liquid line size for the equivalent length and system tonnage. Consult liquid line sizing data
published in many manufacturers’ catalogs and in textbooks. If
undersized, repipe with the correct size.
Determine amount of vertical lift, and obtain the resulting
pressure loss from Table 3, Bulletin 10-9. Using the subcooling
calculation example provided in the "subcooling" section of
Bulletin 10-9, find required subcooling necessary to prevent
gasification with the existing pressure losses. Provide the
necessary subcooling by using one of the methods described on
Page 1.
6. Misapplication of internally equalized valve or
incorrect location of external equalizer — If the
pressure drop through the evaporator exceeds the predetermined
values shown in Table 1, Bulletin 10-9, an externally equalized
valve must be used. When an externally equalized valve is used,
the equalizer connection should be made at a point in the suction
line that will reflect the pressure existing in the line at the bulb
location.
7. Insufficient pressure drop across valve — One of the
factors that influence expansion valve capacity is the pressure
drop that exists between the inlet and outlet. Anything
contributing to a reduction in this pressure drop will reduce valve
capacity. Abnormally low condensing pressures, excessive liquid
line pressure losses (even with adequate subcooling), undersized
distributor nozzle or distributor tubes may also be responsible for
a very low net pressure drop across the valve port.
Remedy — Remove source of pressure loss, or install valve
with adequate capacity at the reduced pressure drop. If inlet
pressure to valve is low due to low condensing pressure, raise
pressure.
If the refrigerant distributor nozzle is undersized replace with
correct size. See Bulletin 20-10.
8. Dead thermostatic element or wrong thermostatic charge — If the element has partially or completely
lost its thermostatic charge, the valve will be unable to feed
sufficient refrigerant or will remain closed. A wrong charge may
cause insufficient feed also.
Remedy — Replace the element if it is dead. If charge is
incorrect, replace with proper selective charge. See Bulletin 10-9.
9. Charge migration (CP series, ZP series, and VGA
charges only) — In order for valves with these charges to
maintain control at the bulb, the bulb must be kept at a lower
temperature than the element (diaphragm case). If the thermostatic charge does migrate to the element because of a lower
element temperature, the valve will throttle.
Detection — Warm the element with a cloth saturated with
hot water. If this produces more refrigerant feed and reduces the
superheat to normal, charge migration is responsible for the
starved evaporator.
Causes —
Insufficient pressure drop between the valve outlet and bulb
location, possibly due to an oversized distributor nozzle or no
nozzle at all.
■ Excessive pushrod leakage, which allows the leaking refrigerant to cool the diaphragm case before passing into the
equalizer line. This is a rare occurrence and should be
carefully checked before arriving at this conclusion.
■ Cold location of TEV, or condensate drippage on the
diaphragm case.
■
Remedies —
■ Install distributor nozzle correctly sized in accordance with
nozzle sizing procedure given in Sporlan Bulletin 20-10.
■ On valves with packed pushrod construction, remove element
and tighten the pushrod packing nuts.
■ Relocate the TEV away from cold outlet air, or condensate
drippage.
10. Undersized valve
Remedy — Install valve sized in accordance with procedure
given in Bulletin 10-9, or Bulletin 10-10.
11. High Superheat adjustment
Remedy — Turn the adjusting stem counter clockwise until
the correct superheat is indicated.
Remedy — Replace internally equalized valve with one
having an external equalizer.
12. Feed-back from another valve — Review instructions
for Bulb Location and Installation, Page 2.
If external equalizer is installed incorrectly, change to correct
location. See Page 3.
Remedy — Check the bulb temperature and calculate the
superheat. If superheat is normal but too little refrigerant is
Page 8 / BULLETIN 10-11
flowing through the evaporator, check the piping for possible
refrigerant flow from another evaporator affecting the bulb. Repipe if necessary. See Figure 4.
Disassemble the valve to be certain that dirt or foreign material
is not responsible (see B-2). If the pin and seat are worn or
damaged and an internal parts kit is available, replace the parts.
When parts are not available, the valve must be replaced.
13. High pressure drop through evaporator
Remedy — Check the pressure at the evaporator inlet and
outlet with gauges. If pressure difference is greater than the
values shown in Table 1, Bulletin 10-9, use an externally
equalized valve.
4. Oversized valve — Check valve ratings considering all the
factors which affect its capacity. See Page 16, Bulletin 10-9, or
Page 3, Bulletin 10-10.
14. Restricted, plugged, or capped external equalizer —
If the pressure under the diaphragm builds up due to pushrod
leakage and cannot escape through the external equalizer line,
the valve will remain closed.
5. Incorrect bulb installation — The bulb should be securely
fastened to a straight, clean, section of the suction line using two
bulb straps for good thermal contact. Also, the temperature of the
bulb should not be influenced by ambient temperature — an
external heat source such as a steam pipe or heating coil.
Remedy — Check the external equalizer line to be sure it is
open or not capped.
Complaint "B"
“Valve feeds too much refrigerant.”
SYMPTOMS:
■ Liquid returns to compressor.
■ Superheat is low.
■ Suction pressure is normal or higher than
normal.
THE CAUSE MAY BE:
1. Moisture — Water or a mixture of water and oil frozen in the
valve port or working parts of the valve will prevent proper
operation. This is the most common source of trouble on TEVs.
Since the valve is the first cold spot in the system, moisture will
freeze and block the valve open, closed, or any position in
between. If the valve is held in the open position by ice, liquid
flood-back will occur.
Remedy — Install a Sporlan Catch-All Filter-Drier in the
liquid line for removal of moisture from the refrigerant and oil.
See Bulletin 40-10.
For additional protection, install a Sporlan See•All Moisture and
Liquid Indicator for a positive indication of when a safe
moisture level is reached. See Bulletin 70-10.
2. Dirt or foreign material — Contaminants such as copper
oxide scale, metal chips, oil breakdown sludge, etc. may pass
through ordinary strainers and lodge at the TEV port and prevent
the valve from closing.
Remedy — Disassemble the valve and remove all foreign
material from the internal parts. Install a Sporlan Catch-All
Filter-Drier in the liquid line. The Catch-All filters out the
smallest particles of foreign material that might interfere with
the operation of any system component.
3. Expansion valve seat leak — When the valve port does
not seat tightly, refrigerant will pass through during the off-cycle
and fill the evaporator with refrigerant. If the seat leak is severe,
the valve will feed too much refrigerant during the operating
cycle as well. (Not applicable to valves with permanent bleed
ports or RPB feature.)
Remedy — If the valve seat is leaking, a gurgling or hissing
sound can usually be heard during the off-cycle. Also, a sight
glass or See•All in the liquid line may indicate continued refrigerant flow for a long period after the compressor has stopped.
Make certain however, that the bubbles are not the result of
back-flow through a vertical liquid line.
Remedy — Install correctly sized valve.
Remedy — Install bulb correctly. See Bulb Location and
Installation, Page 2.
6. Low superheat adjustment
Remedy — Turn the adjusting stem clockwise until the correct
superheat is indicated. See Page 4.
7. Incorrect thermostatic charge
Remedy — Select and install the correct selective charge. See
Bulletin 10-9.
8. Incorrectly located external equalizer
Remedy — Relocate external equalizer or the connection
between evaporator and any other temperature or pressure
sensitive evaporator control valve near bulb location. See Page
3 for recommendations.
9. Inefficient compressor — If the compressor is inefficient
or for some other reason lacks capacity, the suction pressure will
operate higher than normal. This may or may not be accompanied by low superheats.
Remedy — Consult with compressor manufacturer.
Complaint "C"
“Valve feeds too much refrigerant at start-up only.”
SYMPTOMS:
■ Liquid returns to compressor.
■ No superheat.
■ Suction pressure higher than normal.
THE CAUSE MAY BE:
1. Refrigerant drainage — Drainage of refrigerant from the
evaporator (during the off-cycle) when installed at a higher level
than the compressor.
Remedy — Install a trap-riser to top of evaporator or use
pump-down control. See Figure 5.
2. Compressor or suction line in cold location —
During the period when the system is not in operation, liquid
refrigerant will condense at the coldest point in the system. Liquid
will condense in the compressor or suction line, if they are located
in an ambient temperature below that of the evaporator during the
off-cycle. Upon re-starting, this liquid will slug the compressor.
Remedy — Keep compressor or suction line warm during the
off-cycle. Some compressors are equipped with crankcase heaters
BULLETIN 10-11 / Page 9
for this purpose. Another corrective measure is to install a suction
line solenoid valve that is de-energized during the off-cycle.
3. Restricted or plugged external equalizer — A
momentary flood can occur when the load increases suddenly,
such as at start-up because the higher suction pressure cannot
reach the underside of the diaphragm and help close the valve.
If the pressure under the diaphragm increases due to any
pressure leakage around the pushrods, the valve will eventually
throttle.
Remedy — Remove the restriction or plugged portion of the
external equalizer.
4. Liquid line solenoid valve seat leak or interrupted
pumpdown — Liquid refrigerant can continue to feed the
TEV and/or remain in evaporator upon shut-down causing
flood-back to the compressor upon start-up.
Remedy — Disassemble and clean solenoid valve and/or
replace damaged internal parts if seat leakage is the problem. If
the pumpdown cycle isn’t completed before the compressor
cycles off, or the thermostat calls for cooling and reopens the
liquid line solenoid before the evaporator has been properly
evacuated, check the low pressure cut-off setting or the
electrical controls for possible causes.
Complaint "D"
“Valve doesn't feed properly.”
SYMPTOMS:
■ Poor system performance.
■ Superheat normal or lower than normal.
■ Suction pressure lower than normal with
compressor unloaders locked out or hot gas
bypass shut off.*
THE CAUSE MAY BE:
1. Unequal circuit loading (Multi-circuit evaporators
and parallel evaporators connected to a single
refrigerant distributor) — When each circuit is not
subjected to the same heat load, the lightly loaded circuits will
allow unevaporated refrigerant or low temperature vapor to
enter the suction line and throttle the valve. This will cause
normally loaded circuits to be deprived of their share of
refrigerant. The net result is a loss of refrigerated evaporator
surface.
Remedy — Make necessary modifications which will allow
each evaporator circuit to receive the same percentage of the
total load. See Bulletin 20-10 for application information on
multi-circuit evaporators using a refrigerant distributor.
3. Low load— Low evaporator load may be caused by insufficient air over the coil as a result of an undersized blower, dirty
air filters, or an obstruction in the air stream. In addition, frost
formation on the coil or low entering air temperatures will
reduce the evaporator load.
Remedy — Correct the condition responsible.
4. Flow from one coil affecting TEV bulb of another
(Multiple evaporator systems only) — The temperature of the bulb may be falsely influenced by flow from another
evaporator usually because of incorrect piping.
Remedy — Correct the piping. See Figure 4, Page 3.
5. Improper compressor-evaporator balance — If the
compressor is too large for the load and evaporator capacity, the
low suction pressure which results will cause poor system
performance.
Remedy — Consult with the manufacturer or consulting
engineer, or the ASHRAE Handbook on component balancing.
If necessary, change or correct the improperly sized component.
Hot gas bypass may be used to balance properly.
6. Evaporator oil-logged — Poor heat transfer occurs and
unpredictable performance takes place. If erratic performance is
observed over a period of time, and other causes are omitted
from consideration, review the amount of oil in the system.
Turbulent compressor oil level with little or no return to the
compressor sump indicates oil problems.
Remedy — Remove excessive oil from evaporator and
connecting piping. Many times the evaporator temperature will
be too low for the oil to be removed. Therefore, the system must
be allowed to warm sufficiently to get cold oil to drain. Analyze
system components for possible causes of oil problem before
restarting the system. Consult with the compressor manufacturer
for specific details on their compressor.
Complaint "E"
“System hunts or cycles.”
SYMPTOMS:
■ Suction pressure fluctuates*
■ Superheat fluctuates.
■ Valve does not feed enough, and then too much
refrigerant.
2. Poor refrigerant distribution (Multi-circuit evaporators and parallel evaporators connected to a single
refrigerant distributor) — If the refrigerant distribution is
faulty, the circuits receiving the largest portion of refrigerant
will have the controlling influence on the TEV. The result is the
same as in paragraph 1 above.
THE CAUSE MAY BE:
1. System characteristics — Certain design characteristics of
the system may have an effect on the system’s tendency to hunt
or cycle. As an example, after the valve admits refrigerant to the
evaporator inlet, there is a time delay before the bulb senses the
effect at the evaporator outlet. This time delay is dependent on
evaporator length, tube size, and load. Generally, there is more
likelihood for hunting to occur when this time interval is long.
Other influencing factors are circuit arrangement, load per
circuit, and temperature difference.
Remedy — Correct refrigerant distribution. See Bulletin 20-10
for complete information on Refrigerant Distributors.
Remedy — When hunting is moderate particularly with no
floodback, the effect on the system is insignificant and correc-
* When system has some form of capacity reduction — cylinder unloaders or hot gas bypass, a low suction pressure will not exist. Therefore, when checking TEV
performance, a better analysis is possible when these devices are locked out or shut off so the suction pressure will respond to variations in load or valve feed.
Page 10 / BULLETIN 10-11
tions are not necessary. If hunting is severe with floodback to
the compressor, check the possible remedies shown in
paragraphs below.
2. Valve size — An over-sized valve usually aggravates hunting.
Carefully check the valve rating considering all the factors
affecting its capacity. See Bulletin 10-9, or Bulletin 10-10.
Remedy — Replace valve with one correctly sized. On
multiple circuit evaporators using a refrigerant distributor, the
capacity of the valve can be reduced, within certain limits, by
installing a smaller distributor nozzle. See Bulletin 20-10.
3. Bulb location — If the bulb is located in a suction line trap,
its temperature will be affected by liquid oil and refrigerant
alternately collecting and evaporating at this point. This
condition frequently results in severe hunting.
Remedy — As a temporary measure relocate the bulb away
from the trap, and any turbulent areas created by elbows, tees,
etc. Also remove the bulb from the air stream or insulate. Repipe if necessary. Sometimes another position around the
circumference of the suction line will minimize hunting. Follow
the Bulb Location and Installation instructions given on Page 2
for the best TEV control.
4. Refrigerant and load distribution — In addition to the
effects of poor distribution explained in paragraphs D-1 and D2, hunting also frequently results. This is caused by liquid
refrigerant from the overfed circuits occasionally reaching the
bulb of the valve.
Remedy — Correct the faulty distribution.
5. Superheat adjustment — All Sporlan TEVs are preset at
the factory to give the best performance on the average system.
A valve should not be adjusted unnecessarily, but occasionally
another setting may prove to be better.
5. System is hunting or cycling. See Section E on Page 9.
6. The TEV has been physically abused in an effort
to make the valve work properly. This is usually the
result of a mistaken analysis. It is frequently assumed that if a
valve does not feed properly, it is stuck (either opened or
closed). Beating the valve body with a hammer will only distort
the body and make it impossible for the valve to work once the
real cause is determined.
If a valve “sticks,” it is usually due to moisture freezing in the
port, dirt and other foreign material restricting or plugging the
internal parts, wax forming on the internal parts at low temperatures, or the valve has been physically abused so it cannot
function.
Remedy — Inspect the valve and its internal parts, including
the inlet strainer. If plugged or restricted in any way, clean the
parts thoroughly, oil the parts with a good grade of refrigerant
oil, and reassemble the parts. Complete details on this subject
are found on Pages 10 through 12.
If the valve is beyond normal cleaning processes, or if it is
physically damaged in any way, replace the valve with its proper
replacement model.
Field Assembly
Instructions
Sporlan valves my be opened easily for inspection.
Thermostatic
Element
Remedy — Turn the adjusting stem clockwise a turn at a time.
If the hunting stops or is reduced, turn the adjusting stem
counter clockwise a turn at a time to obtain the lowest superheat
with stable operation.
6. Moisture — As ice forms in a TEV from excessive moisture,
a very erratic hunt may result.
Pushrods
Inlet
Outlet
Remedy — Remove the moisture with the installation of a
Sporlan Catch-All Filter-Drier. A safe moisture level can be
determined by installing a Sporlan See•All.
Body
Seat
Complaint "F"
Pin Carrier
“System won't perform properly.”
SYMPTOM:
■ Cannot get valve to react or regulate at all.
Spring
Spring Guide
THE CAUSE MAY BE:
1. No refrigerant being fed to evaporator. See Section
A on Pages 6 & 7.
2. Too much refrigerant being fed to evaporator. See
Section B on Page 8.
Bottom Cap
Assembly
Adjusting Stem
Seal Cap
3. Too much refrigerant being fed to evaporator at
start-up only. See Section C on Page 8.
4. Refrigerant control is erratic. See Section D on Page 9.
Figure 9
BULLETIN 10-11 / Page 11
Note: These Field Assembly Instructions apply in part to all Sporlan
TEVs. See Figure 9 for an “exploded” view of those models that can
be completely disassembled. When a TEV is to be disassembled for
inspection and cleaning, or for replacement of the thermostatic
element or the internal parts, the following information should be
reviewed for assistance.
Types F dated approximately C84 or earlier and Types I, BI, NI, RI,
FB manufactured prior to 1994 do not have replaceable elements nor
internal parts kits, but can be disassembled for inspection and
cleaning. Type F dated D84 or later, Type S valves dated B69 or later,
Type C valves dated C70 or later, and ALL Type G, X, (E)BF/SBF
and EBS valves employ packless pushrod construction and internal
parts are NOT available for use with them. However, their elements
can be replaced and they can be disassembled for inspection and
cleaning. Due to the single pushrod construction of the Type
(E)BF/SBF and EBS valves, only the bottom cap assembly, pin
guide, and superheat spring may be removed for inspection and
cleaning.
Early production of the Type F valve with the replaceable element
requires a 15/16" thin jaw, open end type element wrench such as a
Bonney 1230. Subsequent production of the Type F valve and all
Types (E)BF/SBF, I, BI, NI, RI, and FB valves require a 1" thin jaw,
open end type element wrench such as the one available from
Sporlan wholesalers. An open end wrench is necessary because of
limited space between the body and element of these valves.
Precautions must be taken in removing the KT-43 element (F) so the
element, body, or connections are not damaged by the wrenches.
While standard open end or adjustable wrenches fit the other element
sizes, the thin jaw type wrenches are also available for the other
element sizes: Bonney 1236 (1-1/8") for KT-53 elements, Bonney
1240 (1-1/4") for KT-83 elements, Bonney 1248 for KT-33 elements,
and Bonney 1252 for KT-63 and 7 elements.
Replaceable elements and internal parts kits are available for current
valves with packed pushrod construction:
Types P, H, M, D, and A.
Replaceable elements for Types O, V, W, and U are also available.
However, special field assembly instructions are included with their
internal parts kits.
Assembling Instructions
The following steps are necessary in properly disassembling,
inspecting, cleaning, and reassembling a TEV whether the valve is in
or out of the refrigerant piping.
1. Before disassembling the valve, be sure the refrigerant pressure
in the system has been reduced to a safe level (0 psig).
2. Remove the seal cap and turn the adjustment stem counterclockwise to relieve the spring force. Count and record the
number of turns so adjustment can be returned to its original
position.
3. Using appropriate wrenches or a vise to properly support the
valve body, remove the element (if a replaceable type), the
bottom cap assembly, and the internal parts. (Only remove the
bottom cap, pin guide, and superheat spring on Type (E)BF/SBF
and EBS valves. DO NOT remove the single pushrod from
these valves.)
Caution: Regardless of whether the valve is in the system or
in a vise, care must be taken to prevent distorting the body by
exerting too much pressure in tightening the element or in
clamping the body in the vise. Also, do not use a wrench on the
outer welded edge of the element.
4. Inspect parts, element, and body for any foreign materials or
physical damage.
5. On valves with replaceable elements and/or internal parts,
replace any items that appear damaged.
6. Clean all parts with solvent, preferably by applying and then
blowing off with clean dry compressed air.
RIGHT
WRONG
Figure 10
7. To reassemble valves with replaceable seats, screw seat into
body with a fairly light pressure since it does not require a heavy
pressure to make this small knife-edge joint.
Caution: Be sure hexagon corners of seat do not protrude into
pushrod holes (see Figure 10).
For valves that do not have replaceable elements or for Type O
valves, place the pushrod(s) into the body now.
8. Next, slip the pin and carrier (which have been pressed
together at the factory) into the body and tap the pin into the
seat to form a true seating surface. It is generally advisable,
before tapping these parts together, to check the concentricity
of both the pin and seat by engaging the parts by pressing them
lightly together with one finger and noting that there is no
tendency to stick together. This should be repeated several
times after rotating the pin carrier a quarter of a turn. In
assembling valves with port sizes of 1/4" and larger which use
the flat disc instead of the tapered pin, DO NOT TAP THE
DISC AGAINST THE SEAT.
9. Now place the spring guide stamping (when used), and spring,
in the pin carrier, place the lower spring guide on the opposite
end of the spring and screw the bottom cap in place. (Replace
the pin guide, spring, and bottom cap assembly together on Type
(E)BF/SBF and EBS valves.) After screwing bottom cap
assembly in place, carefully tighten, preferable with two 10"
wrenches, to seal the metal-to-metal knife edge joint. The
sealing surfaces should be free of any foreign material or nicks
that might prevent a leak-tight joint.
10. On valves with replaceable elements (except Types O,
(E)BF/SBF and EBS), place the pushrods into the body and
open the valve several times by pressing down on the pins with
a flat metal surface. This will help seat the pin properly.
11. Check the height of the pushrod(s) above the element sealing
surface with the pushrod gauge (see Figure 11). The gauge is
supplied with internal parts kits or can be obtained at no charge
Page 12 / BULLETIN 10-11
Table 3
Valve TypeQ
Current
AA(E), LMC-AA(E)
DA(E), LMC-DA(E)
PFE or HFE-11/2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 12
PVE or HVE-21/2, 51/2, 7, 11,
16, 20
PDE or HDE-5, 8, 14
PRE or HRE-11/2, 4, 61/2, 9, 12
--OFE-23, 32, 40
OVE-40, 55, 70
ODE-28, 40, 50
ORE-30, 35, 45
All F ModelsW except
FF(E)-1/8, FV(E)-1/4,
FD(E)-1/8, FR(E)-1/8
All G Models except
GF(E)-1/8, GV(E)-1/4,
GR(E)-1/8
All X Models
MFE-5, 71/2, 11, 13, 15, 20
MVE-8, 12, 18, 21, 26, 34
MDE-6, 9, 13, 15, 18, 25
MRE-9, 15, 20, 25
KFE or VFE-45, KVE or VVE-70
KDE or VDE-55, KRE or VRE-50
MFE-25
MVE-42
MDE-30
MRE-30
KFE or VFE-35, 55
KVE or VVE-52, 100
KDE or VDE-40, 65
KRE or VRE-38, 70
WFE-80, 110
WVE-135, 180
WDE-95, 130
WRE-100, 130
CF(E) or SF(E)-1/4, 1/2, 1, 11/2,
2, 21/2, 3
CV(E) or SV(E)-1/2, 1, 11/2,
2, 3, 4, 5
CD(E) or SD(E)-1/4, 1/2, 1, 11/2,
2, 21/2, 3, 31/2
CR(E) or SR(E)-1/4, 1/2, 1, 11/2,
2, 3, 4
CFE-5, SFE-5, 6
CVE-8, SVE-8, 10
CDE-6, SDE-6, 7
CRE-6, SRE-6, 7
OFE-6, 9, 12
OVE-10, 15, 20
ODE-7, 11, 14
ORE-6, 9, 12
OFE-16, OVE-30
ODE-20, ORE-21E
Printed in U.S. of A.
Obsolete
----PFE or HFE-6, 71/2, 10, 11
PVE or HVE-2, 5, 8, 10, 12,
15, 17, 18
PDE or HDE-6, 71/2, 9, 12, 13
PRE or HRE-6, 71/2, 11, 13
UFE-12, 17
UVE-22, 30
UDE-15, 21
URE-16, 22
UFE-23
UVE-40
UDE-28
URE-30
--All small K models
--MFE-12, 17
MVE-30
MDE-14, 20
Gauge
Number
1
2
3
R and T Models
with 83 elements
---
---
The appropriate gauge numbers for the various TEV’s are given
in Table 3.
Caution: If the element-to-body joint utilizes a gasket, the
gasket must be removed before checking pushrod height.
If the pushrod(s) are too long, they must be carefully ground off
to the proper length. Clean the pushrod(s) of all dirt and
grindings and place them into the body.
3A
Pushrod(s) should just
clear here.
4
Gauge
5
Pushrod(s)
Check Height
of Pushrod(s)
with Gauge
Valve
6
--MFE-22
MVE-40
MDE-26
--VFE-50
VVE-90
VDE-42, 60
--WFE-75, 100
--WDE-90, 120
---
upon request. (Since the internal parts of the Type (E)BF/SBF
and EBS valves cannot be replaced, it is not necessary to check
the pushrod height of these valves.)
Figure 11
12. Element Replacement — If the element is damaged or has
lost its thermostatic charge, replace it with the same type.
6A
7
8
8A
8B
To properly replace the element without damaging the element
or the valve body on valves which utilize a gasketed joint, be
sure only one gasket is used before assembling the element. In
assembling gasketed elements held in place by two cap screws,
be sure to pull up the cap screws evenly.
On valves which utilize the threaded type of element with metalto-metal knife edge joints, always use an appropriate wrench
(10") on the wrench flats. DO NOT use a wrench on the outer
welded edge of the element. The sealing surfaces should be free
of any foreign materials or nicks that might prevent a leak-tight
joint. A few drops of refrigerant oil on the element threads will
facilitate easy assembling and removal.
13. Return the superheat spring adjustment to its original position.
Replace the seal cap tightly.
Q Type F (internally and externally equalized) valves dated D84 or later,
Type S valves dated B69 or later, Type C valves dated C70 or later, and
all Type G (externally equalized only) and X valves have packless
pushrod construction and internal parts kits are not available for use
with them.
W Applies only to Type F valves with a replaceable element.
E Formerly used the KT-33-8 element and gauge number 33-8 (redesignated 8B). The KT-33-8 element has been replaced by the KT-83.
1003
Bulletin C401d
March, 2002
HANSEN TECHNOLOGIES
CORPORATION
Specifications, Applications,
Service Instructions & Parts
HCK4 IN-LINE
CHECK VALVES
5
/ 8" thru 4" PORT
(16 thru 100 mm)
Flanged
/ 8" thru 4"
FPT, SW, WN, ODS
for refrigerants
3
HCK4-4 Check Valve
INTRODUCTION
KEY FEATURES
The HCK4 series of dependable, compact, rugged
in-line check valves (disc type non-return valves) is
ideally suited for refrigerant flow control applications.
Valves open wide for flow in the arrow direction on
the valve body.
Valves close quickly and
reliably when flow reversals occur.
Plated bodies and stainless steel seat discs and
springs enable them to withstand expected
industrial refrigeration conditions. Furthermore, these
check valves can be mounted in any position, closecoupled to other valves, and use same flanges as
Parker R/S, Frick, and Henry.
ADVANTAGES
These compact check valves offer reliable operation
regardless of position. Corrosion resistant stainless
steel seat disc. Metal-to-metal seats facilitate durable,
tight closing of valves.
APPLICATIONS
These in-line check valves are designed to provide
refrigerant flow control to hot gas lines, liquid lines,
compressor discharge lines, suction lines, and hot
gas heated drain pans.
These valves are not recommended for use with
pulsating loads such as low speed compressor
discharge and screw compressor side port
applications. For applications such as these, use
Hansen HCK1 piston type check valves.
ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Mounts in any position
Less than 1 PSID wide opening pressure
Can be close-coupled
Low bubble leakage tolerance
For Ammonia, R22, R134a, and other approved
refrigerants
Dimensionally replaces R/S CK4A-2, -3, -4, -8, & -1
U.L. Listed
MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS
INSTALLATION
Body:
5 / 8 " thru 1¼": Steel, ASTM A108, zinc chromate
plated
1½" thru 4": Ductile iron, ASTM A536, zinc
chromate plated
Seat Disc: Stainless steel
Seat Cartridge:
5 / 8 " thru 1¼": Stainless steel, ASTM A582
1½" thru 4": Steel, ASTM A108, zinc chromate
plated
Spring: Stainless steel
Safe Working Pressure: 400 PSIG (27 bar)
Operating Temperature: -60F to 240F (-50 to 115°C)
Valve may be located in any position. Arrow on
valve body should match direction of flow. Secure
valve with gaskets between flanges and tighten
bolts evenly. Do not use this valve or any component
to align pipes or tighten gap between flanges.
Do not install on inlet side of solenoid valves or
control valves with electric shut-off or shut-off valves
unless a relief valve is used from therein between
piping. Do not install on inlet side of outlet pressure
regulators where liquid may become trapped.
Instead, check valves should be located on outlet
side of these valves. Check valves can be closecoupled to other matching solenoid valves, pressure
regulators, or strainers by using a Male Adapter
Ring and longer bolts supplied when so specified
on order.
INSTALLATION DIMENSIONS
D = Socket Weld Depth
J = Weld Neck
K = ODS Solder
%*.&/4*0/ )$, )$, )$, )$, )$, )$, )$, )$,
/ "
-&55&3 1035
Ñ1035 1035 ž1035 ¡1035 1035 ¡1035 1035
5 8
)$,
1035
2.50"
(64 mm)
3.19"
(81 mm)
3.50"
(89 mm)
0.38"
(10 mm)
1.03"
(26 mm)
1.50"
(38 mm)
1.56"
(40 mm)
3.25"
(83 mm)
4.50"
(114 mm)
4.50"
(114 mm)
0.50"
(13 mm)
1.22"
(31 mm)
2.37"
(60 mm)
2.50"
(64 mm)
3.25"
(83 mm)
4.50"
(114 mm)
4.50"
(114 mm)
0.50"
(13 mm)
1.22"
(31 mm)
2.37"
(60 mm)
2.50"
(64 mm)
3.25"
(83 mm)
4.50"
(114 mm)
4.50"
(114 mm)
0.50"
(13 mm)
1.22"
(31 mm)
2.37"
(60 mm)
2.50"
(64 mm)
5.06"
(129 mm)
4.56"
(116 mm)
6.38"
(162 mm)
0.75"
(19 mm)
2.56"
(65 mm)
3.62"
(92 mm)
4.56"
(116 mm)
5.06"
(129 mm)
4.56"
(116 mm)
6.38"
(162 mm)
0.75"
(19 mm)
2.56"
(65 mm)
3.62"
(92 mm)
4.56"
(116 mm)
6.06"
(154 mm)
6.00"
(152 mm)
7.50"
(191 mm)
1.00"
(25 mm)
2.92"
(74 mm)
4.84"
(123 mm)
6.00"
(152 mm)
6.06"
(154 mm)
6.00"
(152 mm)
7.50"
(191 mm)
1.00"
(25 mm)
2.92"
(74 mm)
4.84"
(123 mm)
6.00"
(152 mm)
6.39"
(162 mm)
7.13"
(181 mm)
8.00"
(203 mm)
1.00"
(25 mm)
3.50"
(89 mm)
6.06"
(154 mm)
7.13"
(181 mm)
2.19"
(56 mm)
3.12"
(79 mm)
3.12"
(79 mm)
3.12"
(79 mm)
3.06"
(78 mm)
3.06"
(78 mm)
4.00"
(102 mm)
4.12"
(105 mm)
5.00"
(127 mm)
3.26"
(83 mm)
0.33"
(8 mm)
4"
(102 mm)
0.49"
(12 mm)
4"
(102 mm)
0.59"
(15 mm)
4"
(102 mm)
0.62"
(16 mm)
6.06"
(154 mm)
0.71"
(18 mm)
6.06"
(154 mm)
0.87"
(22 mm)
7.06"
(179 mm)
0.96"
(24 mm)
7.06"
(179 mm)
1.08"
(27 mm)
9.89"
(251 mm)
1.40"
(36 mm)
Valve Cv (Kv)
5.8 (5)
8.2 (7)
11.7 (10)
14.0 (12)
39 (33)
50 (43)
74 (63)
93 (80)
210 (180)
Pipe Size
½", ¾"
¾"
1"
1¼"
1½"
2"
2½"
3"
4"
A
B
C
D
E=
F
G
H
J
K
*Dimensionally replaces R/S check valve models CK4A-2, -3, -4, -8, and -1. = "E" dimension is check valve body outside
edge to outside edge. Flange groove depth: nominal 0.12" each of two; gasket thickness: nominal 0.06" each of two.
2
PARTS LIST
HCK4-2
*5&.
(2-BOLT)
HCK4-2
%&4$3*15*0/
25:
1"35/0
1
1
1
1
2
1
72-0069
72-0070
72-0068
72-0071
70-0065
72-0067
2
2
2
70-0225
70-0055
FACTORY
(2-BOLT)
7BMWF"TTFNCMZ,JU
Above Kit Consists of:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Seat Disc
Closing Spring
Seat Cartridge
Seat Cartridge O-ring
Flange Gasket
Body, HCK4-2
Bolt ( 7/ 16" - 14 x 3.25")
Nut (7/ 16 " - 14)
Flange (FPT, SW, WN, ODS)
HCK4-3, -4, -5
*5&.
Socket weld shown. FPT, weld neck, ODS: available.
(2-BOLT)
%&4$3*15*0/
25:
1"35/0
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
72-0006
70-0204
72-0002
72-0003
70-0132
72-0004
72-0008
72-0001
2
2
2
72-0005
70-0136
FACTORY
7BMWF"TTFNCMZ,JU
Above Kit Consists of:
1
2
3
4
5
6a
6b
6c
7
8
9
Seat Disc
Closing Spring
Seat Cartridge
Seat Cartridge O-ring
Flange Gasket
Body, HCK4-3
Body, HCK4-4
Body, HCK4-5
Bolt ( 5/ 8" -11 x 4")
Nut ( 5/ 8" -11)
Flange (FPT, SW, WN, ODS)
HCK4-7, -8, -9, -0, -1
*5&.
1a
1b
1c
2a
2b
2c
3a
3b
3c
3d
4a
4b
4c
5a
5b
5c
5d
6a
6b
6c
6d
6e
7a
7b
7c
8a
8b
8c
9
HCK4-3, -4, -5
(2-BOLT)
(4-BOLT)
%&4$3*15*0/
Seat Disc 1½", 2"
Seat Disc 2½", 3"
Seat Disc 4"
Closing Spring 1½", 2"
Closing Spring 2½", 3"
Closing Spring 4"
Seat Cartridge 1½", 2"
Seat Cartridge 2½"
Seat Cartridge 3"
Seat Cartridge 4"
Seat Cartridge O-ring 1½", 2"
Seat Cartridge O-ring 2½", 3"
Seat Cartridge O-ring 4"
Flange Gasket 1½", 2"
Flange Gasket 2½"
Flange Gasket 3"
Flange Gasket 4"
Body, HCK4-7
Body, HCK4-8
Body, HCK4-9
Body, HCK4-0
Body, HCK4-1
Bolt, HCK4-7, -8 (5/8" - 11 x 6")
Bolt, HCK4-9, -0 (¾" - 10 x 7")
Bolt, HCK4-1 ( 7/ 8" - 9 x 7.5")
Nut, HCK4-7, -8 ( 5/ 8" - 11)
Nut, HCK4-9, -0 (¾" - 10)
Nut, HCK4-1 (7/ 8" - 9)
Flange (FPT, SW, WN, ODS)
25:
1"35/0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
72-0016
72-0034
72-0053
72-0021
72-0032
72-0048
72-0020
72-0029
72-0028
72-0047
72-0017
72-0027
72-0049
75-0138
75-0125
75-0137
75-0253
72-0042
72-0019
72-0025
72-0026
72-0046
70-0268
72-0033
72-0051
70-0136
75-0210
75-0280
FACTORY
Socket weld shown. FPT, weld neck, ODS: available.
HCK4-7, -8, -9, -0, -1
(4-BOLT)
Socket weld shown. Weld neck, ODS: available.
3
OPERATION
WARRANTY
HCK4 check valves are normally closed valves. As
inlet pressure increases, it overcomes the closing
spring force. As the seat disc is pushed back and
away from the seat cartridge, flow through the valve
occurs. The valve will remain open until the inlet
pressure drops below the closing spring force or
there is a flow reversal, at which time the seat disc
will close against the seat cartridge, preventing
reverse flow.
Hansen valves are guaranteed against defective
materials or workmanship for one year F.O.B. our
plant. No consequential damages or field labor is
included.
ORDERING INFORMATION,
HCK4 CHECK VALVES
5:1&
SIZING
Check valves are normally selected on the basis of
line size. However, for gas flow applications at low
load conditions, a minimum of 1 psid across the
valve is essential. This will maintain valve at full
open position. Valve Cv (Kv) is listed in the
installation dimension table on page 2. Factory valve
sizing assistance is available.
SERVICE AND MAINTENANCE
These valves are a reliable part of a refrigeration
system. However, if valve does not appear to be
operating satisfactorily, isolate it from the refrigeration
system. Remove all refrigerant from associated piping
and valves. Follow the guidelines in the caution
section. Loosen each flange nut on the check valve.
Break each flange gasket seal. Carefully loosen
flange bolts one at a time, being cautious to avoid
any refrigerant which still may be present. Remove
check valve from flanges and inspect. Lapped seating
surfaces should be smooth and free of pits or
scratches.
To confirm valve operation, move seat disc with
eraser end of pencil. Movement should be free from
friction. If not, disassemble and visually inspect for
dirt in valve or burrs on seat disc. Clean or replace
parts as necessary. Valve discs and seats can be
restored by lapping on a flat plate.
HCK4-2*
HCK4-3*
1035
4*;&
NN
5 8
'-"/(&$0//&$5*0/
45:-&4*;&4
'15488/
0%4
45%
"-40
45%
/"
(16)
½"
¾"
(20)
¾"
/ ", ¾"
5 8
1", 1¼"
7 8
3 8
/ "
/ "
HCK4-4*
1"
(25)
1"
¾", 1¼"
1 1/ 8"
HCK4-5
1¼"
(32)
1¼"
¾", 1"
1 3/ 8"
HCK4-7
1½"
(40)
1½"
2"
1 5/ 8"
HCK4-8*
2"
(50)
2"
1½"
2 1/ 8"
HCK4-9
2½"
(65)
2½"
3"
2 5/ 8"
HCK4-0
3"
(80)
3"
--
3 1/ 8"
HCK4-1*
4"
(100)
4"
--
4 1/ 8"
* Replaces R/S CK4A-2, CK4A-3, CK4A-4, CK4A-8, & CK4A-1.
HCK4-2 close-couples to HS6 & HS8 Solenoid Valves.
HCK4-3, -4, & -5 close-couples to HS7 Solenoid Valve.
FPT available only 3/ 8" to 1¼".
TO ORDER: Specify valve type, connection style and
size, and close-coupling information if needed.
TYPICAL SPECIFICATIONS
"Refrigeration in-line check valves shall have steel
or ductile iron bodies, stainless steel seat discs,
stainless steel closing springs, and be suitable for
a safe working pressure of 400 PSIG, as manufactured
by Hansen Technologies Corporation type HCK4 or
approved equal."
Typical close-coupling to solenoid valve.
Reassemble valve and insert between flanges.
Replace and tighten bolts and nuts evenly. Carefully
check for leaks before returning to service.
CAUTION
Hansen check valves are only for refrigeration
systems. These instructions and related safety
precautions must be completely read and understood
before selecting, using, or servicing these valves.
Only knowledgeable, trained refrigeration mechanics
should install, operate, or service these valves. Stated
temperature and pressure limits should not be
exceeded. Valves should not be removed unless
system has been evacuated to zero pressure. See
also Safety Precautions in current List Price Bulletin
and Safety Precautions Sheet supplied with product.
Escaping refrigerant might cause personal injury,
particularly to the eyes and lungs.
ISO 9002
Hansen Technologies Corp.
Burr Ridge, IL Cert. # 000472
Orlando, FL Cert. # 001523
HANSEN TECHNOLOGIES
CORPORATION
6827 High Grove Boulevard
Burr Ridge, Illinois 60527 U.S.A.
Telephone: (708) 325-1565 FAX: (708) 325-1572
Toll-free: 1-800-426-7368
© 1995 Hansen Technologies Corporation
Printed in U.S.A.
Lubrication Instructions
For Ball Bearing Motors
Lubrication
This motor is supplied with pre-lubrication ball bearings. No lubrication required before start up.
Relubrication Intervals
The following intervals are suggested as a guide:
SUGGESTED RELUBRICATION INTERVALS
HOURS OF SERVICE PER YEAR
5,000
Continuous Normal Applications
Season Service Motor
Idle 6 Months or More
Continuous High Ambients
Dirty or Moist Locations
High Vibrations
Where Shaft End is Hot (Pumps-Fans)
H.P. RANGE
Sub Fractional to 7 1/2
10 to 40
50-200
Sub Fractional to 7 1/2
10 to 40
50 to 200
All
Sub Fractional to 40
50 to 200
RELUBE INTERVAL
5 Years
3 Years
1 Year
2 Years
1 Year
9 Months
1 Year
(Beginning of Season)
6 Months
3 Months
Lubrication
Use high quality ball bearing lubricant. Use consistency of lubricant suitable for class of insulation stamped on
nameplate as follows:
LUBRICATION CONSISTENCY
INSULATION
CLASS
CONSISTENCY
TYPE
Medium
Polyurea
B&F
F&H
TYPICAL
LUBRICATION
FRAME
TYPE
Shell Dolium R
and/or
Chevron SR1 2
Sub Fractional
to 447T
All
Procedure
If motor is equipped with Alemite fitting, clean tip of fitting and apply grease gun. Use 1 to 2 full strokes on
motors in NEMA 215T frame and smaller. Use 2 to 3 strokes on NEMA 254T thru NEMA 365 T frame. Use 3
to 4 strokes on NEMA 404T frames and larger. On motors having drain plugs, remove drain plug and operate
motor for 20 minutes before replacing drain plug.
On motors equipped with slotted head grease screw, remove screw and apply grease tube to hole. Insert 2 to
3 inch length of grease string into each hole on motors in NEMA 215T frame and smaller. Insert 3 to 5 inch
length on larger motors. For motors having drain plug and operate motor for 20 minutes before replacing drain
plug.
CAUTION: Keep lubricant clean. Lubricate motors at standstill. remove and replace drain plugs at standstill. Do
not mix petroleum lubricant and silicone lubricant in motor bearings.
300-088.02
Installation Maintenance Instructions
AC Induction Motors
Installation
After unpacking, check for damage. Be sure that shaft rotates freely. Before making electrical power connections,
check for proper grounding of motor and application. All electrical contacts and connections must be properly
insulated and enclosed. Couplings, belts, chains or other mounted devices must be in proper alignment, balance
and secure to insure safe motor operation.
Electrical Wiring
Prior to connecting to the power line, check nameplate for proper voltage and rotation connection. This motor
should be installed in compliance with the National Electrical Code and any other applicable codes. Voltage at
motor not to exceed + or -10% of nameplate. Authorized person should make all electrical connections.
Mounting
This motor should be securely mounted to the application. Sufficient ventilation area should be provided to
insure proper operation.
RECOMMENDED COPPER WIRE & TRANSFORMER SIZE
SINGLE PHASE MOTORS - 230 VOLTS
H.P.
TRANSFORMER
KVA
100
1 1/2
2
3
5
7 1/2
3
3
5
7 1/2
10
10
10
8
6
6
DISTANCE - MOTOR TO TRANSF. IN FT.
150
200
300
8
8
8
4
4
8
8
6
4
3
6
6
4
2
1
500
4
4
2
0
0
THREE PHASE MOTORS - 230 & 460 VOLTS
H.P.
1 1/2
1 1/2
2
2
3
3
5
5
7 1/2
7 1/2
10
10
15
15
20
20
25
25
30
30
40
40
50
50
60
60
75
75
VOLTS
230
460
230
460
230
460
230
460
230
460
230
460
230
460
230
460
230
460
230
460
230
460
230
460
230
460
230
460
TRANSFORMER
KVA
3
3
3
3
5
5
7
1/2
7 1/2
10
10
15
15
20
20
Consult
Local
Power
Company
DISTANCE - MOTOR TO TRANSF. IN
100
150
200
300
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
10
12
12
12
12
12
10
10
8
12
12
12
12
10
8
8
6
12
12
12
10
8
6
6
4
12
12
12
10
6
4
4
4
12
12
12
10
4
4
4
2
12
10
10
8
4
2
2
1
10
8
8
6
2
2
2
0
8
8
6
6
2
1
1
00
8
6
6
4
1
0
00
0000
6
6
4
2
1
0
00
0000
4
4
2
2
1
00
000
250
4
2
2
0
0
000
0000
300
4
2
0
00
FT.
500
10
12
8
12
6
10
4
8
2
8
1
8
0
6
000
4
000
4
0000
2
300
0
300
0
500
00
500
000
Motor Trouble-Shooting Chart
Caution:
1. Disconnect power to the motor before performing service or maintenance.
2. Discharge all capacitors before servicing motor.
3. Always keep hands and clothing away from moving parts.
4. Be sure required safety guards are in place before starting equipment.
Problem:
Like Causes:
What To Do:
Motor fails to start upon
initial installation.
Motor is miswired.
Verify motor is wired correctly.
Motor damaged and rotor is striking stator.
May be able to reassemble; otherwise, motor should be replaced.
Fan guard bent and contacting fan.
Replace fan guard.
Motor has been running, then
fails to start.
Motor runs but dies down.
Motor takes too long to accelerate.
Fuse or circuit breaker tripped.
Replace fuse or reset the breaker.
Stator is shorted or went to ground. Motor
will make a humming noise and the circuit
breaker or fuse will trip.
Disassemble motor and inspect windings and internal connections.
A blown stator will show a burn mark. Motor must be replaced or
the stator rewound.
Motor overloaded or load jammed.
Inspect to see that the load is free. Verify amp draw of motor
versus nameplate rating.
Capacitor (on single phase motor) may have
failed.
First discharge capacitor. To check capacitor, set volt-ohm meter to
RX100 scale and touch its probes to capacitor terminals. If capacitor
is OK, needle will jump to zero ohms, and drift back to high. Steady
zero ohms indicates a short circuit; steady high ohms indicates
an open circuit.
Starting switch has failed.
Disassemble motor and inspect both the centrifugal and stationary
switches. The weights of the centrifugal switch should move in and
out freely. Make sure that the switch is not loose on the shaft.
Inspect contacts and connections on the stationary switch.
Replace switch if the contacts are burned or pitted.
Voltage drop.
If voltage is less than 10% of the motor’s rating contact power
company or check if some other equipment is taking power away
from the motor.
Load increased.
Verify the load has not changed. Verify equipment hasn’t got tighter. If
fan application verify the air flow hasn’t changed.
Defective capacitor
Test capacitor per previous instructions.
Faulty stationary switch.
Inspect switch contacts and connections. Verify that switch reeds
have some spring in them.
Bad bearings.
Noisy or rough feeling bearings should be replaced.
Voltage too low.
Make sure that the voltage is within 10% of the motor’s nameplate rating. If not, contact power company or check if some other
equipment is taking power away from the motor.
Motor runs in the wrong direction.
Incorrect wiring.
Rewire motor according to wiring schematic provided.
Motor overload protector continually
trips.
Load too high.
Verify that the load is not jammed. If motor is a replacement,
verify that the rating is the same as the old motor. If previous
motor was a special design, a stock motor may not be able to
duplicate the performance. Remove the load from the motor and
inspect the amp draw of the motor unloaded. It should be less
than the full load rating stamped on the nameplate.
Ambient temperature too high.
Verify that the motor is getting enough air for proper cooling. Most
motors are designed to run in an ambient temperature of less than
40°C. (Note: A properly operating motor may be hot to the touch.)
Protector may be defective.
Replace the motor’s protector with a new one of the same rating.
Winding shorted or grounded.
Inspect stator for defects, or loose or cut wires that may cause it
to go to ground.
Motor Trouble-Shooting Chart
10/13/00 (continued)
Problem:
Like Causes:
What To Do:
Motor vibrates.
Motor misaligned to load.
Realign load.
Load out of balance.
(Direct drive application.)
Remove motor from load and inspect motor by itself. Verify that
motor shaft is not bent. Rule of thumb is .001" runout per every
inch of shaft length.
Motor bearings defective.
Test motor by itself. If bearings are bad, you will hear noise or
feel roughness. Replace bearings. Add oil if a sleeve of bearing.
Add grease if bearings have grease fittings.
Rotor out of balance.
Inspect motor by itself with no load attached. If it feels rough and
vibrates but the bearings are good, it may be that the rotor was
improperly balanced at the factory. Rotor must be replaced or
rebalanced.
Motor may have too much endplay.
With the motor disconnected from power turned shaft. It should
move but with some resistance. If the shaft moves in and out too
freely, this may indicate a preload problem and the bearings may
need additional shimming.
Winding may be defective.
Test winding for shorted or open circuits. The amps may also be
high. Replace motor or have stator rewound.
Load to motor may be excessive or
unbalanced.
Besides checking load, also inspect drive belt tension to ensure it’s
not too tight may be too high. An unbalanced load will also cause the
bearings to fail.
High ambient temperature.
If the motor is used in a high ambient, a different type of bearing
grease may be required. You may need to consult the factory or
a bearing distributor.
The motor, at start up, makes a
loud rubbing or grinding noise.
Rotor may be striking stator.
Ensure that motor was not damaged in shipment. Frame damage
may not be repairable. If you cannot see physical damage,
inspect the motor’s rotor and stator for strike marks. If signs of
rubbing are present, the motor should be replaced. Sometimes
simply disassembling and reassembling motor eliminates rubbing.
Endbells are also sometimes knocked out of alignment during
transportation.
Start capacitors continuously fail.
The motor is not coming up to speed quickly
enough.
Motor may not be sized properly. Verify how long the motor takes
to come up to speed, Most single phase capacitor start motors
should come up to speed within three seconds. Otherwise the
capacitors may fail.
The motor is being cycled too frequently.
Verify duty cycle. Capacitor manufacturers recommend no more
than 20, three-second starts per hour. Install capacitor with higher
voltage rating, or add bleed resistor to the capacitor.
Voltage to motor is too low.
Verify that voltage to the motor is within 10% of the nameplate
value. If the motor is rated 208-230V, the deviation must be
calculated from 230V.
Starting switch may be defective, preventing
the motor from coming out of start winding.
Replace switch.
Ambient temperature too high.
Verify that ambient does not exceed motor’s nameplate value.
Possible power surge to motor, caused by
lightning strike or other high transient voltage.
If a common problem, install surge protector.
Bearings continuously fail.
Run capacitor fail.
Bulletin 2400
10/00
DC Motor Trouble-Shooting Chart
Caution:
1. Disconnect power to the motor before performing service or maintenance.
2. Discharge all capacitors before servicing motor.
3. Always keep hands and clothing away from moving parts.
4. Be sure required safety guards are in place before starting equipment.
Problem:
Like Causes:
What To Do:
Motor fails to start upon
initial installation.
Motor is miswired.
Verify that the motor is wired correctly.
No output power from controller.
Measure voltage coming from the controller.
Motor damaged and the fan guard
is contacting the cooling fan.
Replace fan guard.
Motor is damaged and the armature is
rubbing against the magnets.
Disassemble motor and see if the armature can be realigned by
reassembly. Motor may have to be replaced.
Fuse or circuit breaker is tripped.
Replace the fuse or reset the breaker.
Armature is shorted or went to ground.
Motor may make a humming noise and
the circuit breaker or fuse will trip.
Disassemble motor and inspect the armature for a burnt coil. Inspect
the commutator for burnt bars. If this condition exists, the motor
needs to be replaced. To test, set your OHM meter to the RX1 scale,
touch probes to bars 180 degrees apart all around the commutator.
The reading should be equal.
The brushes may be worn down too far and
no longer make contract with the commutator.
Inspect the brushes to make sure that they are still making contact
with the commutator. Refer to manufacturer’s recommended brush
length chart.
Controller may be defective.
Verify voltage is coming out of the controller.
Load had increased.
Verify the load has not changed. Measure the amp draw of motor
against the full load amp rating of the motor. If the amp draw is
higher then rating, motor is undersized for application.
Motor controller not properly set.
Check controller manual for adjustments. The torque and/or IR
compensation settings may need adjustment.
Motor may have an open connection.
Inspect the armature for an open connection.
Brushes may not be seated properly or
worn beyond their useful length.
Verify that the brushes are properly seated and measure their
length against the recommended brush length chart.
Motor controller not properly set.
The accel trim pot of the controller should be adjusted.
Brushes are worn.
Verify brush length.
Bearings may be defective.
Inspect bearings for proper service. Noisy or rough bearings
should be replaced.
Motor runs in the wrong direction.
Incorrect wiring.
Interchange the two motor leads.
Motor runs ok but has a clicking
noise.
Suspect a burr on the commutator.
Stone the armature commutator with a commutator stone to
remove burr.
Motor has been running, then
fails to start.
Motor runs but loses power.
Motor takes too long to accelerate.
Bulletin 2400DC
10/00
Instruction Manual IM
Standard Motors 566-A
Carefully read and fully understand this Owner’s Manual prior to
installation, operation and maintenance of your motor.
1. SAFETY DEPENDS ON YOU
Lincoln Electric motors are designed and manufactured with safety in
mind. However, your overall safety can be increased by properly
installing, operating and maintaining the motor. Read and observe all
instructions, warnings and specific safety precautions included in this
manual and THINK BEFORE YOU ACT!
5. INSTALLATION
For maximum motor life, locate the motor in a clean, dry, well ventilated
place easily accessible for inspecting, cleaning and lubricating. The
temperature of the surrounding air should not exceed 104°F (40°C)
except for motors with nameplates indicating a higher allowable maximum
ambient temperature.
WARNING
MOVING PARTS can injure.
2. RECEIVING AND INSPECTION
●
Check packing list and inspect motor to make certain no damage has
occurred in shipment. Claims for any damage done in shipment must be
made by the purchaser against the transportation company.
●
BEFORE starting motor, be sure shaft key
is captive.
Consider application and provide guarding
to protect personnel.
Turn the motor shaft by hand to be certain that it rotates freely. Be careful
not to cut yourself on the shaft keyway; it is razor sharp!
Check the nameplate for conformance with power supply and control
equipment requirements.
5.1 INSTALLATION – MECHANICAL
Base
FALLING EQUIPMENT can injure.
Mount the motor on a firm foundation or base sufficiently rigid to prevent
excessive vibration. On foot-mounted motors, use appropriately sized
bolts through all four mounting holes. For frames which have six or eight
mounting holes, use the two closest the drive shaft and two on the end
opposite the drive shaft (one on each side of the frame). If necessary,
properly shim the motor to prevent undue stress on the motor frame and
to precision align the unit.
●
Position
3. HANDLING
WARNING
●
Lift only with equipment of adequate
lifting capacity.
If so equipped, use lift ring(s) on the
motor to lift ONLY the motor and
accessories mounted by Lincoln Electric.
Standard motors may be mounted in any position. The radial and thrust
load capacity of the motor’s bearing system provides for this feature.
Drains
In case of assemblies on a common base, the motor lift ring(s) CANNOT
be used to lift the assembly and base but, rather, the assembly should be
lifted by a sling around the base or by other lifting means provided on the
base. In all cases, care should be taken to assure lifting in the direction
intended in the design of the lifting means. Likewise, precautions should
be taken to prevent hazardous overloads due to deceleration, acceleration
or shock forces.
4. STORAGE
Motor stock areas should be clean, dry, vibration free and have a
relatively constant ambient temperature. For added bearing protection
while the motor is in storage, turn the motor shaft every six months.
A motor stored on equipment and component equipment prior to
installation should be kept dry and protected from the weather. If the
equipment is exposed to the atmosphere, cover the motor with a
waterproof cover. Motors should be stored in the horizontal position
with drains operable and positioned in the lowest point. CAUTION: Do
not completely surround the motor with the protective covering. The
bottom area should be open at all times.
Windings should be checked with a megohm-meter (Megger) at the
time equipment is put in storage. Upon removal from storage, the
resistance reading must not have dropped more than 50% from the
initial reading. Any drop below this point necessitates electrical or
mechanical drying. Note the sensitivity of properly connected megohmmeters can deliver erroneous values. Be sure to carefully follow the
megohm-meter’s operating instructions when making measurements.
All external motor parts subject to corrosion, such as the shaft and
other machined surfaces, must be protected by applying a corrosionresistant coating.
All motors have drain holes located in the end brackets. As standard,
drains are in place for the horizontal with feet down mounting position.
Other positions may require either rotation of the end brackets or drilling
additional holes to attain proper drainage. Be sure existing drain or vent
holes do not permit contaminant entry when motor is mounted in the
other positions.
Additional drain holes exist near the bearing cartridge in both end
brackets of 284T thru 449T steel frame motors. The drain holes are
closed with a plastic plug. When the motor is vertically mounted, the plug
located in the lower end bracket must be removed. To access the plug
on blower end, simply remove the shroud; on some models, it is also
necessary to take off the blower.
Drive – Power Transmission
The pulley, sprocket, or gear used in the drive should be located on the
shaft as close to the shaft shoulder as possible. Do not drive the unit on
the shaft as this will damage the bearings. Coat the shaft lightly with
heavy oil before installing pulley.
Belt Drive: Align the pulleys so that the belt(s) will run true. Consult the
belt manufacturer’s catalog for recommended tension. Properly tension
the belt; excessive tension will cause premature bearing failure. If
possible, the lower side of the belt should be the driving side. On multiple
belt installations be sure all belts are matched for length.
Chain Drive: Mount the sprocket on the shaft as close to the shaft
shoulder as possible. Align the sprockets so that the chain will run true.
Avoid excessive chain tension.
Gear Drive and Direct Connection: Accurate alignment is essential.
Secure the motor and driven unit rigidly to the base. Shims may be
needed to achieve proper alignment.
Excessive motor vibration may result if the full length of the motor
shaft key is not completely engaged by the coupling or sheave. For
these situations, adjustment of the key length is required.
Connection Diagram 1
Single Voltage, 6 Leads
Part Winding Start Connection
5.2 INSTALLATION – ELECTRICAL
L2
L1
WARNING
ELECTRIC SHOCK can kill.
●
●
●
1 /2 PART WINDING
STARTER
L1 L2 L3
L2 L3
L1
●
Disconnect input power supply before
installing or servicing motor.
●
Motor lead connections can short and
cause damage or injury if not well
secured and insulated.
Use washers, lock washers and the largest bolt size
which will pass through the motor lead terminals in
making connections.
Insulate the connection, equal to or better than the
insulation on the supply conductors.
Properly ground the motor — see GROUNDING.
L3
1
2
3
7
8
9
T-1
T- 2
T-3
T-7
T-8
T-9
Connection Diagram 2
Single Voltage, 6 Leads
Y Start Connection
L2
L1
Y
Check power supply to make certain that voltage, frequency and current
carrying capacity are in accordance with the motor nameplate.
Proper branch circuit supply to a motor should include a disconnect
switch, short circuit current fuse or breaker protection, motor starter
(controller) and correctly sized thermal elements or overload relay
protection.
L3
STARTER
L2 L3
L1
L2
L3
1
2
3
4
T-1
T- 2
T-3
T-4
L1
5
6
T-5 T-6
Connection Diagram 3
Short circuit current fuses or breakers are for the protection of the branch
circuit. Starter or motor controller overload relays are for the protection
of the motor.
Single Voltage, 12 Leads
Y Start Connection
Each of these should be properly sized and installed per the National
Electrical Code and local codes.
L2
L1
Y
Properly ground the motor – See GROUNDING.
Terminal Box
Remove the appropriate knockout. For terminal boxes without a
knockout, either a threaded power-conduit entry hole is provided or the
installer is responsible for supplying a correctly sized hole.
STARTER
L1
L2
L3
L2
L3
L1
1
2
3
4
5
6
T-4
T-5
T-6
T- 2 T-3
T-1
T-9 T-10 T-11 T-12
T-8
T-7
The majority of terminal boxes can be rotated in place to allow power
lead entry from the 3, 6, 9 or 12 o’clock direction.
L3
Connection Diagram 4
Motor Connection
All single speed and two-speed Lincoln motors are capable of acrossthe-line or autotransformer starting. Reference the lead connection
diagram located on the nameplate or inside of the terminal box cover.
Single Voltage, 12 Leads
Part Winding Start Connection
Number
of Rated
Voltages
Lead
Numbers
YDS
PWS
3
Single
1-3
No
No
6
Single
1-3, 7-9
No
Yes
Single
1-6
Yes
No
Dual
1-6
Yes
9
Dual
1-9
No
No
12
Single
1-12
Yes
Yes
Dual
1-12
(1)
Yes
L3
1/2 PART WINDING
STARTER
L2 L3 L1 L2 L3
L1
Number
of Motor
Leads
L2
L1
Single speed motors have reduced voltage start capability per the
following chart.
1
2
3
7
8
9
T-1
T- 2
T-3
T-7
T-8
T-9
T-6
T-4
T-5
T-12 T-10 T-11
Connection Diagram 5
Dual Voltage, 12 Leads
Y Start Connection
No
LOW VOLTAGE LINE
L2
L1
No(2)
Y
(1) YDS capability on lower voltage only.
(2) PWS capability on lower voltage only, 1200 RPM, 324T-365T steel frame
motors with Model Number efficiency letter of “S” or “H”.
Contact Motor Customer Service at 1-800-668-6748 (phone),
1-888-536-6867 (fax) or [email protected] (e-mail) for a copy
of across-the-line and other reduced voltage start connection diagrams.
L2
L1
STARTER
Y
L3
STARTER
L3 L2 L3
L1
L1
L2
L3
L2
L3
L1
L1
L2
1
2
3
4
5
6
1
2
3
T-1
T- 2
T-3
T-4
T-5
T-6
T-1
T- 2
T-3
T-10 T-11 T-12
T-4
T-7
T-5
T-8
T-7
–2–
HIGH VOLTAGE LINE
L3
T-8
T-9
T-10 T-11 T-12
4
5
T-6
6
T-9
Space Heater (option)
Leads for space heaters are identified as H1 and H2. Heater voltage
and watts are marked on the motor nameplate and should be checked
prior to connection to power source.
Thermostat (option)
Leads for thermostats (normally closed, automatic reset contacts) are
identified as P1 and P2. Connect these to a relay or signaling device.
Motor line current cannot be handled by the thermostat.
After checking that the shaft key is secure, operate the motor free of load
and check the direction of rotation. If the motor rotates in the wrong
direction, interchange any two supply leads.
Couple the motor to its load and operate it for a minimum of one hour.
During this period, check for any unusual noise or thermal conditions.
Check the actual operating current to be sure that the nameplate current
times service factor is not exceeded for steady continuous loads.
7. MAINTENANCE
Table 1 — Thermostat Contact Ratings
Voltage (60 Hz)
110V
220V
Max. Cont. Current (amps)
3.0
1.5
Min. Cont. Current (amps)
0.2
0.1
WARNING
ELECTRIC SHOCK can kill.
Thermistor (option)
●
Internal parts of the motor may be at line
potential even when it is not rotating.
●
Disconnect all input power to the drive and
motor before performing any maintenance.
Leads for thermistors are identified as P3 and P4. Thermistors require
connection to Texas Instruments ® Control Module Model 32AA or its
equivalent for proper operation. This item may be purchased from
Lincoln Electric.
Lincoln Electric motors have been designed and manufactured with long
motor life expectancy and trouble-free operation in mind.
Brake (option)
Carefully read and fully understand the instructions supplied by the
brake manufacturer (see inside of brake housing or separately enclosed
sheet). Contact the brake manufacturer for additional information.
Periodically inspect the motor for excessive dirt, friction or vibration.
Dust may be blown from an inaccessible location using compressed
air. Keep the ventilation openings clear to allow free passage of air.
Make sure the drain holes in the motors are kept open and the shaft
slinger is positioned against the end bracket. Grease or oil can be
wiped by using a petroleum solvent .
GROUNDING
Overheating of the bearings caused by excessive friction is usually
caused by one of the following factors:
WARNING
1.
2.
3.
4.
ELECTRIC SHOCK can kill.
●
Connect the motor frame to a good earth
ground per the National Electrical Code
and local codes to limit the potential
to ground in the event of contact
between live electrical parts and the
metal exterior.
Bent shaft.
Excessive belt tension.
Excessive end or side thrust from the gearing, flexible coupling, etc.
Poor alignment.
Damaging vibrations can be caused by loose motor mountings, motor
misalignment resulting from the settling or distortion of the foundation,
or it may be transmitted from the driven machine. Vibration may also
be caused by excessive belt or chain tension.
BEARING SYSTEM
Lincoln motors may be electrically connected to earth ground using a
terminal box mounting screw or a separate grounding screw when
provided. Both are accessible inside the mounted terminal box.
When a bronze mounting screw is supplied, always use it as the
grounding point. In making the ground connection, the installer
should make certain that there is a good electrical connection
between the grounding lead and the motor.
Lubrication instructions and/or grease specifications provided on
the motor supersede the following information.
6. OPERATION
Three phase squirrel cage induction motors will operate successfully, but
not necessarily in accordance with nameplate ratings, at voltages 10
percent above or below nameplated value at the design frequency.
WARNING
MOVING PARTS can injure.
●
●
●
In general, the motor’s bearing system has sufficient grease to last
indefinitely under normal service conditions. For severe or extreme service
conditions, it is advisable to add one-quarter ounce of grease to each
bearing per the schedule listed in Table 2. Use a good quality, moistureresistant, polyurea-based grease such as Chevron SRI #2. Lithium
based greases are not compatible with polyurea-based greases; mixing
the two types may result in the loss of lubrication.
Motors designed for low ambient applications have bearings with special
low temperature grease. Use Beacon 325 lithium based grease or
equivalent per the appropriate interval in Table 2.
Before starting the motor, remove all
unused shaft keys and loose rotating
parts to prevent them from flying off and
causing bodily injury.
Keep away from moving parts.
Motors designed for high ambient applications have bearings with special
high temperature grease. Use Dow Corning DC44 silicone grease or
equivalent per the interval in Table 2 under “Extreme”.
Severe Service: Operating horizontally, 24 hours per day, vibration,
dirty, dusty, high humidity, weather exposure, or ambient temperatures
from 104-130°F (40-55°C).
ELECTRIC SHOCK can kill.
●
Lincoln motors have a high quality, premium design bearing system.
Bearing sizes and enclosures are identified on most motor nameplates.
The majority are double-shielded, deep-groove ball bearings. Doublesealed ball bearings are used on some motors in frames 56 and 143T
thru 145T. A drive-end cylindrical roller bearing is standard on Crusher
Duty motors, frames 405T and larger.
Do not operate with covers removed.
Do not touch electrically live parts.
Extreme Service: Operating vertically, heavy vibration or shock, heavy
duty cycle, very dirty or ambient temperatures from 130-150°F (55-65°C).
–3–
Table 2 : Bearing Lubrication Intervals
9. WARRANTY
Service Conditions
Motor
Syn Speed
Motor
Horsepower
Severe
Extreme
BALL BEARINGS
1800 RPM
and slower
above
1800 RPM
The Lincoln Electric Company, the Seller, warrants all new standard
motors and accessories thereof against defects in workmanship and
material provided the equipment has been properly cared for and
operated under normal conditions. All warranty periods begin on the
date of shipment to the original purchaser. Warranty periods for low
voltage (< 600 V) motors are defined in the following chart. The
warranty period for medium voltage (> 600 V) motors is one year on
sine-wave power. Contact Lincoln for warranty period on PWM power.
1/4 to 7-1/2 HP
2 years
6 months
10 to 40 HP
1 year
3 months
50 HP and up
6 months
3 months
Model Number
Prefix
all sizes
3 months
3 months
AA, AF, AN
CF, SD
ROLLER BEARINGS
all speeds
all sizes
3 months
When adding lubricant, keep all dirt out of the area. Wipe the fitting
completely clean and use clean grease dispensing equipment. More
bearing failures are caused by dirt introduced during greasing than from
insufficient grease.
If the motor is equipped with a relief port or tube, make certain it is open
and free of caked or hardened grease. Before replacing relief plugs,
allow excess grease or pressure to vent by running the motor for several
minutes after lubrication.
CAUTION
●
●
Frame
Sizes
S, P, B
143T-286T
5 Yrs
2 Yrs*
#
M
143T-215T
2 Yrs
1 Yr
#
143T-449T
5 Yrs
2 Yrs*
#
182U-449U
5 Yrs
2 Yrs*
#
DO NOT OVER GREASE.
PARTS
All parts should be ordered from Authorized Motor Warranty Stations.
Call your Lincoln Electric Sales Office for location and phone number. A
“Service Directory” listing all Authorized Motor Warranty Stations
geographically is available; request Bulletin SD-6. These shops stock
GENUINE Lincoln Electric replacement parts and have factory trained
personnel to service your motor.
8. WHO TO CALL
For the location and phone number of the Lincoln Electric District Sales
and Technical Support Office nearest you, check your local Yellow
Pages or call 1-800-MOTOR-4-U (1-800-668-6748) or visit our web site
at www.lincolnelectric.com/motors.
E, H, P, B
H, P
M504-689
1 Yr
MD, SE
S
284T-445T
5 Yrs
1 Yr
#
RC, RJ, SC
H
56-145T
5 Yrs
2 Yrs*
#
RD, RF
S
56-56H
5 Yrs
2 Yrs*
#
REW, SEW
S
56-256T
1 Yr
1 Yr
#
S, H, P, B
143T-449T
5 Yrs
2 Yrs*
#
Field Kits and Accessories
*
Contact
Lincoln #
C5, C6
SD, SF
LUBRICANT SHOULD BE ADDED AT A STEADY
MODERATE PRESSURE. IF ADDED UNDER HEAVY
PRESSURE BEARING SHIELD(S) MAY COLLAPSE.
Warranty Period
Sine-Wave
PWM
Power
Power
Efficiency
Code(s)
3 months
CF, CN, CS, CP
5 Yrs
Applies to motors with a service factor of 1.15 or higher. Motors
with a 1.0 service factor have a 1 year warranty on PWM power.
If the Buyer gives the Seller written notice of any defects in equipment
within any period of the warranty and the Seller’s inspection confirms
the existence of such defects, then the Seller shall correct the defect
or defects at its option, either by repair or replacement F.O.B. its own
factory or other place as designated by the Seller. The remedy provided the Buyer herein for breach of Seller’s warranty shall be exclusive.
No expense, liability or responsibility will be assumed by the Seller for
repairs made outside of the Seller’s factory without written authority
from the Seller.
The Seller shall not be liable for any consequential damages in case of
any failure to meet the conditions of any warranty. The liability of the
Seller arising out of the supplying of said equipment or its use by the
Buyer, whether on warranties or otherwise, shall not in any case
exceed the cost of correcting defects in the equipment in accordance
with the above guarantee. Upon the expiration of any period of
warranty, all such liability shall terminate.
The foregoing guarantees and remedies are exclusive and except as
above set forth there are no guarantees or warranties with respect to
accessories or equipment, either expressed or arising by option of law
or trade usage or otherwise implied, including with limitation the warranty
of merchantability, all such warranties being waived by the Buyer.
THE
LINCOLN ELECTRIC
COMPANY
CLEVELAND, OHIO 44117-2525 U.S.A.
For more information call:
1-800-MOTOR-4-U
IM566-A
December 1998
#
#
#
#
# - indicates change since last printing.
AC & DC Motor Installation – Maintenance Instructions
These instructions are intended to complement (not replace) the information in MN400
Installation and Operation manual for Integral Horsepower AC Induction Motors ODP, TEFC,
Explosion Proof" and MN605 Installation and Operation manual for Integral Horsepower DC
Motors".
Handling
The weight of the motor and shipping container will vary. Use correct material handling equipĆ
ment to avoid injury.
Use caution when removing the motor from its packaging. Sharp corners may exist on motor
shaft, motor key, sheet metal and other surfaces.
Receiving
Inspect the motor for damage before accepting it. The Motor shaft should rotate freely with no
rubs. Report any damage immediately to the commercial carrier that delivered your motor.
Safety Notice
Only qualified personnel trained in the safe installation and operation of this equipment should
install this motor. When improperly installed or used, rotating equipment can cause serious or
fatal injury. Equipment must be installed in accordance with the National Electrical Code (NEC),
local codes and NEMA MG2 Safety Standards for Construction and Guide for Selection,
Installation and Use of Electric Motors and Generators. Observe the following guidelines:
1.
When eyebolts are provided, they must be fully tightened and are intended to lift the motor
and its included accessories only.
2.
Ground the motor according to NEC and local codes.
3.
Provide a permanent guard to prevent accidental contact of body parts or clothing with
rotating or moving parts or burns if motor is hot.
4.
Shaft key must be secured before starting motor.
5.
Do not apply power to the motor until the motor is securely mounted by its mounting holes.
6.
This motor must only be connected to the proper line voltage, line frequency and load size.
7.
Motors are not to be used for load holding or restraining unless a properly sized brake is
installed. If a motor mounted brake is installed, provide proper safeguards for personnel
in case of brake failure.
8.
Disconnect all power services, stop the motor and allow it to cool before servicing.
9.
For single phase motors, discharge the start and/or run capacitors before servicing.
10. Do not by-pass or render inoperative any safety device.
11. DC series wound motors must be protected from sudden loss of load causing overspeed
damage. DC shunt wound motors must be protected from loss of field voltage which can
result in damage.
12. When using AC motors with frequency inverters, be certain that the motors Maximum
Speed Rating is not exceeded.
13. Mounting bolts should be high tensile steel. Be sure to use a suitable locking device on
each bolt (spring washer or thread lock compound).
Guarding
After motor installation is complete, a guard of suitable dimensions
must be constructed and installed around the motor/gearmotor.
This guard must prevent personnel from coming in contact with
any moving parts of the motor or drive assembly but must allow
sufficient cooling air to pass over the motor.
If a motor mounted brake is installed, provide proper safeguards
for personnel in case of brake failure.
Brush inspection plates and electrical connection cover plates or
lids, must be installed before operating the motor.
When this motor is installed according to these instructions, it complies with the EEC Machinery
Directive. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) requirements for CE compliance are met when
the incoming power is purely sinusoidal. For other power source types, refer to MN1383
Recommended Practices for Installation for EC Directive 89/336/EEC Relating to EMC".
Motor Enclosure
ODP, Open drip proof motors are intended for use in clean, dry locations with adequate supply
of cooling air. These motors should not be used in the presence of flammable or combustible
materials. Open motors can emit flame and/or molten metal in the event of insulation failure.
TEFC, totally enclosed motors are intended for use where moisture, dirt and/or corrosive
materials are present in indoor and outdoor locations.
Explosion proof motors, as indicated by the Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. label are intended
for use in hazardous areas as specified by the NEC.
Mounting
Foot mounted machines should be mounted to a rigid foundation to prevent excessive
vibration. Shims may be used if location is uneven.
Flange mounted machines should be properly seated and aligned. Note: If improper rotation
direction is detrimental to the load, check rotation direction prior to coupling the load to the motor
shaft.
For V-belt drive, mount the sheave pulley close to the motor housing. Allow clearance for end
to end movement of the motor shaft. Do not overtighten belts as this may cause premature
bearing failure or shaft breakage.
Direct coupled machines should be carefully aligned and the shaft should rotate freely without
binding.
Wiring
Connect the motor as shown in the connection diagram. If this motor is installed as part of a
motor control drive system, connect and protect the motor according to the control
manufacturers diagrams. The wiring, fusing and grounding must comply with the National
Electrical Code and local codes. When the motor is connected to the load for proper direction
of rotation and started, it should start quickly and run smoothly. If not, stop the motor
immediately and determine the cause. Possible causes are: low voltage at the motor, motor
connections are not correct or the load is too heavy. Check the motor current after a few minutes
of operation and compare the measured current with the nameplate rating.
Adjustment
The neutral is adjustable on some DC motors. AC motors have no adjustable parts.
Noise
For specific sound power or pressure level information, contact your local Baldor representative.
Vibration
This motor is balanced to NEMA MG1, Part 7 standard.
Brushes (DC Motors)
Periodically, the brushes should be inspected and all brush dust blown out of the motor. If a brush
is worn 1/2″ (from length specified in renewal parts data), replace the brushes. If the commutator
is worn or rough, the armature should be removed. The commutator should be turned in a lathe,
the mica recut and the commutator polished. Reassemble and seat the new brushes using a
brush seating stone. Be sure the rocker arm is set on the neutral mark.
Lubrication
This is a ball or roller bearing motor. The bearings have been lubricated at the factory. Motors
that do not have regrease capability are factory lubricated for the normal life of the bearings.
Lubricant
Baldor motors are pregreased, normally with Polyrex EM (Exxon Mobil). If other greases are
preferred, check with a local Baldor Service Center for recommendations.
Relubrication Intervals (For motors with regrease capability)
New motors that have been stored for a year or more should be relubricated. Lubrication is also
recommended at these intervals:
Table 1 Relubrication Interval
Rated Speed (RPM)
NEMA (IEC)
3600
1800
1200
900
Frame Size
Up to 210 incl. (132)
5500Hrs. 12000Hrs. 18000Hrs. 22000Hrs.
Over 210 to 280 incl. (180)
3600Hrs.
9500Hrs.
15000Hrs. 18000Hrs.
Over 280 to 360 incl. (225)
*2200Hrs.
7400Hrs.
12000Hrs. 15000Hrs.
Over 360 to 5000 incl.(300)
*2200Hrs.
3500Hrs.
7400Hrs.
10500Hrs.
* Lubrication interval for 6313 or 6314 bearings that are used in 360 through 5000 frame, 2 pole
motors. If roller bearings are used, bearings must be lubricated more frequently, divide the
relubrication interval by 2.
Table 2 Service Conditions
Severity of Service
Standard
Severe
Extreme
Low Temperature
Ambient Temperature
Maximum
40° C
Atmospheric
Contamination
Clean, Little Corrosion
50° C
>50° C* or
Class H Insulation
<-30° C **
Moderate dirt, Corrosion
Severe dirt, Abrasive
dust, Corrosion
*
Special high temperature grease is recommended.
**
Special low temperature grease is recommended.
Type of Bearing
Deep Groove Ball
Bearing
Ball Thrust, Roller
All Bearings
Table 3 Lubrication Interval Multiplier
Severity of Service
Standard
Severe
Extreme
Low Temperature
Multiplier
1.0
0.5
0.1
1.0
Table 4 Amount of Grease to Add
Frame Size NEMA
(IEC)
Bearing Description (Largest bearing in each frame size)
Volume of grease
Weight of
OD
Width
to add
Bearing
grease to add
D mm B mm
inches3
teaspoon
ounce (gram)
6307
80
21
0.30 (8.4)
0.6
2.0
6311
120
29
0.61 (17.4)
1.2
3.9
Up to 210 incl. (132)
Over 210 to 280 incl.
(180)
Over 280 to 360 incl.
6313
(225)
Over 360 to 5000
NU322
incl.(300)
Weight in grams = 0.005 DB
140
33
0.81 (23.1)
1.5
5.2
240
50
2.12 (60.0)
4.1
13.4
Procedure
Clean the grease fitting (or area around grease hole, if equipped with slotted grease screws).
If motor has a purge plug, remove it. Motors can be regreased while stopped (at less than 80°C)
or running.
Apply grease gun to fitting (or grease hole). Too much grease or injecting grease too quickly can
cause premature bearing failure. Slowly apply the recommended amount of grease, taking 1
minute or so to apply. Operate motor for 20 minutes, reinstall purge plug if previously removed.
Caution: Keep grease clean. Mixing dissimilar grease is not recommended.
Sample Relubrication Determination
This sample determination is based on a NEMA 286T (IEC 180) motor operating at 1750 RPM
driving an exhaust fan in an ambient of 43°C atmosphere that is moderately corrosive.
1.
Table 1 list 9500 hours for standard conditions.
2.
Table 2 classifies severity of service as Severe".
3.
Table 3 lists a multiplier value of 0.5 for Severe conditions.
4.
Table 4 shows that 1.2 in3 or 3.9 teaspoon of grease is to be added.
Note:
Smaller bearings in size category may require reduced amounts of grease.
22
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