SogutmaGrubu Carrier 16DEH
Product
Data
16DEH
20% Energy Saving Model, Steam-Fired,
Double Effect, Hermetic Absorption
Liquid Chiller
150 to 1650 Nominal Tons (527 to 5802 kW)
Carrier’s 16DEH steam-fired double
effect, hermetic absorption liquid
chiller provide an alternative means
of efficient, cost effective water
chilling. By utilizing high-pressure
steam, 16DEH chillers avoid highcost electricity and quality for utility
rebates and incentives as a gas
cooling product.
• no CFCs; environmentally friendly
• two-stage high efficiency design
reduces energy costs
• quiet. vibration-free operation
• few moving parts equates to high
reliability
Features/Benefits
High-pressure
steam-fired
absorption reduces energy
costs, providing economical
water chilling and/or process
cooling.
Cost-effective cooling
Alternative-energy chiller
– The 16DEH offers an alternative to
16DE
16DEH
chillers
driven
by
increasingly
expensive electrical energy. The use of
steam-powered absorption not only
eliminates demand charges and high
cost electrical usage, but also allows the
owner to take advantage of gas cooling
rebates and incentive programs offered
by many utility companies. The 16DEH
is therefore economical to own and
operate compared to other types of
chillers.
High-efficiency,
double-effect
absorption
cycle
increases
efficiency – The 16DEH design
incorporates
a
high-temperature
generator and a low-temperature
generator (double effect) that provide 2
stages of solution re-concentration and
adds a drain heat exchanger and
condensate heat exchanger to recover
Copyright 2009 Carrier China Operations
heat. The 16DEH use brazed plate heat
exchanger to get high efficiency than
16DE. As a result of this high efficiency
double-effect cycle, the 16DEH has
lower operating costs than single-effect
and common double-effect machines.
The 16DEH chiller offers typical full
load steam rates of less than 8.9 lb/hrton at standard ARI (Air Conditioning
and Refrigeration Institute) operating
conditions.
Combined use of absorption and
electric-driven chillers – Utilizing
both absorption and electric chillers in a
central plant offers the flexibility to base
load one chiller, while using the other to
handle peak load requirements. Hybrid
chiller systems have proven to be an
economical solution for many comfort
cooling
installations.
In
many
geographical areas, operating the
electric chiller as the base loaded
machine, while using the absorption
chiller during peak load conditions,
reduces or avoids electric demand
charges. Depending on utility rate
structures, the 16DEH absorption chiller
used in conjunction with an electricdriven chiller may be the most efficient
and cost-effective combination available.
Superior part-load performance –
The 16DEH’s standard concentration
control system allows stable, part-load
operation at cooling water temperatures
as low as 59 F (15 C) without the need
for a cooling tower bypass. For
maximum efficiency, a variable
frequency drive pump automatically
maintains optimum solution flow to the
high- and low-stage generators at all
operating conditions. This will result in
improved part-load efficiency and
eliminate the need for manual setup
adjustments of the solution flow.
High-efficiency condensate drain
heat exchanger saves energy –
Every 16DEH incorporates a condensate
drain heat exchanger which reduces steam
consumption, resulting in further energy
savings. Valuable energy (in the form of
heat) in the condensate leaving the
generator is transferred to the weak
lithium bromide solution as it is pumped
to the generator. This reduces the amount
of energy required to operate the chiller at
both full and part-load
Application versatility
Ideal for new or retrofit applications – From comfort cooling to
providing chilled water for process
applications, the 16DEH double-effect
high-efficiency absorption chiller offers
versatility for almost any job where highpressure steam is available as the heat
source. The 12 model sizes, spanning a
capacity range of 150 to 1650 tons,
make the 16DEH double effect, highefficiency absorption chiller the ideal
choice for comfort cooling and /or light
industrial applications.
Carrier’s computerized performance
ratings assist in the selection of the
correct size machine to meet exact job
requirements. Dependable operation, as
well as low sound and vibration levels,
ensures occupant comfort, even when
2
Table of contents
Page
Features/Benefits ………………………………………………………………..…1-8
Model Number Nomenclature………………………………………………………..2
Options and Accessories………………………………………………………… …..9
Machine Components……………………………………………………………….9
Physical Data…………………………………………………………………… 10-11
Dimensions……………………………………………………………………….…12
Performance Data………………………………………………………………..13-15
Application Data………………………………...……………………………….16-17
Controls……………….…………………………………………………………18-21
Guide Specifications…………………………………………………….……… 22-27
Model number nomenclature
16
Absorption Chiller
DEH
033
Unit Size
Direct-Fired Double Effect High COP
Location and installation savings
Ease of installation – All 16DEH units are completely
fabricated, assembled, and wired in the factory as single-piece
units. Standard shipping configuration is 1 piece. Refer to the
16DEH Standard Shipping Configuration table below.
16DEH STANDARD SHIPPING CONFIGURATION
UNIT
SIZE
015-120
1-PIECE
ASSEMBLY
2-PIECE
ASSEMBLY
X
135-165
X
TYPICAL 16DEH 1-PIECE SHIPMENT
The 16DEH015-120 machines are shipped completely
assembled as a standard feature with an option for 2-piece
shipment and the 16DEH135-165 machines are shipped by 2piece. The 2-piece is ideal for retrofit or replacement
installations where access into the equipment room may be
limited. Job-site reassembly and alignment of machines
shipped in multiple sections is simplified by pre-erecting the
machine in the factory and by incorporating weld-type
assembly flanges on all interconnecting piping.
Flanged water box nozzles – To simplify chiller
installation and field piping, all water box nozzles on the
evaporator, absorber, and condenser are factory-supplied raised
face (RF) flanges.
PD5 control features/benefits
Chilled water reset – Reset can be accomplished manually
or automatically from the building management system.
Chilled water reset saves energy when warmer chilled water
can be used.
3
Ramp loading – Ramp loading ensures a smooth pulldown
of water loop temperature and prevents a rapid increase in
steam consumption.
Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) – PD5 provides VFD
for solution pump control.
Advanced crystallization protection – Protects against
crystallization
by automatically sensing impending
abnormalities in the absorption operating cycle and taking a
series of actions to either self-correct and/or limit the chiller
from approaching the cycle crystallization line.
Absorption cycle state points – Absorption cycle status
points provide the operator with precise and dynamic cycle
operating conditions at any time during chiller operation. They
save time by eliminating the cumbersome task of taking
solution samples and calculating state points and assist in both
chiller operation and diagnostics.
Refrigerant low temperature override – The capacity
control valve position is inhibited to prevent freeze-up and
ensure continuous chiller operation.
Extensive service menu – Unauthorized access to the
service menu can be password-protected. Built-in, enhanced,
diagnostic capabilities assist in troubleshooting and
recommend proper corrective action for pre-set alarms,
resulting in more up time.
Alarm history – The last 25 alarms and/or alerts are retained
in memory with date and time stamps. Alarm histories reduce
troubleshooting time and cost.
Features/Benefits (cont)
Low maintenance
Standard features allow simple maintenance
procedures –Every 16DEH machine has numerous standard
design features that provide for convenient and simple
maintenance. Hinged waterbox cover on the absorber, and
condenser facilitate tube and waterbox inspection. In addition,
epoxy coating of the waterboxes and covers, standard on all
machines, protects against corrosion and extends machine life.
All moving parts are easily accessible for inspection or
replacement, as required.
Factory-trained
service organization – Carrier’s
extensive service organization offers trained and experienced
service technicians in every major city. In addition to routine
maintenance and repair services, Carrier also offers a wide
array of preventative maintenance, full maintenance, and/or
extended service contracts that can be custom tailored to any
level of service.
Leak-proof hermetic pumps/motors cut maintenance
costs – Carrier’s proven solution auxiliary and refrigerant
、
pumps/ motors are leak-proof, completely self-contained, and
hermetically sealed. The hermetic design eliminates the need
for a separate, complicated, and possibly leak-prone seal water
system while providing leak tightness and longer machine life.
Specially designed bearings absorb both radial and axial
thrusts to ensure correct fit at all times. There is no possibility
of external contamination since the fluid being pumped
lubricates and cools the pump and motor assemblies. In
addition, both the rotor and the stator are separated by a
stainless steel liner that protects the windings from the fluid
being pumped. As an additional safety feature, thermal
overload switches are embedded in the stator to protect against
high winding temperatures. The pumps are field serviceable.
Inspection is recommended after 5 years or 20,000 hours of
operation, whichever comes first. Pump isolation valves are
included on 16DEH machines to make field service easy, if
required.
4
VIEW OF TYPICAL HERMETIC
PUMP/MOTOR ASSEMBLIES
Reliable operation
16DEH PD5
control center continuously monitors machine operati
on, ensuring precise control –
Each Carrier 16DEH absorption chiller includes a factory mou
nted and wired microprocessor control center that is functional
ly tested prior to shipment. Continuous monitoring and control
of machine operation are performed automatically. A multilanguage display on the front of the control center identifies op
erational status and fault indication. All control center compon
ents and the assembly will meet local code of GB
and include a main board, a NRCP2 board, tow Aux. boar
ds, molded case circuit breaker, pump contactors, ambient
compensated 3-phase pump overload protection, multitap control power transformer, and all other necessary safeties
and controls.
As part of the start-up sequence, the chiller PD5 control
center initiate a self-diagnostic system check to verify that all
sensors are in range. Other standard features include a remote
start/stop switch and a key-locked control center door that
protects against unauthorized access.
16DEH PD5 CONTROL CENTER
Superior corrosion protection – Absorption chillers must
be protected from the possibility of internal corrosion that is
always present when lithium bromide solution is in contact
with internal machine surfaces. The Carrier 16DEH absorption
chiller incorporates a highly effective corrosion inhibitor to
provide an extra margin of protection against internal
corrosion. Other inhibitors may require the use of exotic tube
materials in certain heat exchangers since they are less
effective and require frequent maintenance and analysis. The
superior corrosion protection of the Carrier inhibitor allows for
the use of standard copper tubes throughout the machine
(except for the high-stage generator tubes are made of 90-10
cupronickel). This results in long machine life and dependable
operation.
5
Rugged machine construction – Every Carrier 16DEH
chiller offers numerous standard features designed to provide
reliable, trouble-free operation. The machine is fabricated to
meet stringent manufacturing and design requirements and is
Carrier-listed to ensure product safety and machine integrity.
Non-clogging, corrosion proof spray nozzles protect the
16DEH from corrosion and blockage for continuous, reliable
operation. Horizontally-positioned, 90-10 cupronickel tubes in
the high temperature generator with steam on the inside and
lithium bromide on the outside to allow the tube bundle to
expand and adjust freely when subjected to rapid temperature
changes. A heated palladium cell is provided as a optional
feature. As part of the purge system, the heated palladium cell
assists in the removal of hydrogen gas from inside the 16DEH.
This action minimizes the need for manual evacuation of the
purge storage chamber. The above standard features are
evidence of Carrier’s commitment to building a double effect
chiller able to withstand the most rigorous comfort cooling or
light industrial applications.
Condensate drain heat exchanger is factory installed
– This energy-saving feature, consisting of a shell-and-tube
heat exchanger and a float/trap assembly, is completely factory
mounted and piped. There is no need for an additional trap in
the condensate piping, thus reducing job site piping costs.
Single-point box electrical connection – Installation costs
are further reduced by eliminating field wiring between
machine components. On units shipped as a single assembly,
all unit-mounted electrical items are factory-wired to the
chiller microprocessor control center. Only a single-point
electrical connection to the machine from the building’s
electrical service is required. A multi-tap transformer, mounted
in the chiller control center, provides secondary, single-phase
power for the 16DEH controls.
Low noise and vibration allows location flexibility –
Low sound and vibration levels are characteristic of absorption
chillers, primarily due to the fact that the only rotating parts
are the refrigerant and solution pumps. The overall sound level
of a Carrier 16DEH is typically 80 dbA. This allows the
machines to be installed near occupied spaces or in areas with
strict sound requirements. Low vibration levels also make it
possible to install the chiller on upper floors without special
consideration for vibration dampening systems.
Automatic, motorless purge system extends machine
life and ensures optimum efficiency and performance
– The purge system of an absorption chiller is critical to
ensuring efficient operation and long machine life. Even when
machines are vacuum tight or properly inhibited, all absorption
chillers generate hydrogen and other noncondensable gases in
small quantities. Since these gases are present in sufficient
volume to interfere with proper machine operation, they must
be removed to protect the unit from internal corrosion, lithium
bromide solution crystallization, and/or a reduction in chiller
capacity. Carrier’s motorless purge system protects 16DEH
machines from these potential hazards by working continuously during machine operation.
Motorless purge system operation – During operation, noncondensables tend to accumulate in the absorber section,
which operates at the lowest internal pressure. A slip-stream of
lithium bromide solution from the solution pump discharge
flows through an eductor, creating a suction that draws
noncondensables from the absorber. The noncondensables are
then entrained by the solution flowing through the eductor.
The eductor discharges the solution and noncondensables into
a separator in a purge chamber, where the noncondensables are
separated from the solution. The noncondensables flow to a
storage tank, while the solution returns to the absorber sump.
Typically, most of the noncondensable gas is composed of
hydrogen, which is automatically dissipated to the atmosphere
through a heated palladium cell (when used).
As noncondensables accumulate in the external storage tank,
they are isolated from the chiller and cannot reenter the
machine (even during shutdown). These gases must
periodically be exhausted (as required) from the storage tank
by a simple procedure performed while the machine is running.
Evacuation is performed by a unit-mounted vacuum pump that
is connected to the purge evacuation valve.
Evacuation through the vacuum pump is necessary because the
palladium cell will be damaged if wetted by the lithium
bromide solution. Therefore, pressurizing the purge tank above
atmospheric pressure with lithium bromide solution is not
permitted. The unit-mounted vacuum pump can also be used
during chiller maintenance or service to remove
noncondensables directly from the machine.
TYPICAL MOTORLESS PURGE OPERATION SCHEMATIC
6
Anti-crystallization controls maintain proper solution
concentration – The 16DEH automatically limits solution
concentration in several ways to avoid both crystallization and
overdilution to provide dependable, trouble-free operation.
Crystallization of the lithium bromide solution depends on the
combination of temperature and concentration. Carrier’s
concentration control system automatically monitors the
refrigerant water level in the evaporator in conjunction with
the solution temperature returning to the absorber. Because
concentration varies with the amount of water in the lithium
bromide solution, a rising evaporator level indicates less water
in the solution and thus a higher solution concentration. When
the refrigerant in the evaporator rises to a weir level, water is
transferred from the evaporator to the absorber thus preventing
overconcentration to ensure continuous, reliable operation
even at cooling water temperature as low as 59 F (15 C).
Overdilution (and possible refrigerant pump cavitation) shall
be controlled by transferring an additional amount of
refrigerant from the condenser to the evaporator.
The 16DEH also incorporates a simple, passive method of
control to correct any crystallization that would typically start
to occur on the shell-side of the low temperature solution heat
exchanger under abnormal conditions. As the hot solution
begins to back up in the generator, as a result of any shell-side
blockage, it rises above the overflow pipe and returns directly
to the absorber. It is subsequently pumped through the tubeside (heating the shell-side) to restore proper operation.
In addition, the 16DEH automatic dilution cycle ensures
proper concentration after unit shutdown so that the unit will
not crystallize when the machine cools to ambient or machine
room temperature. The dilution cycle controls operation of the
pumps for a set period of time after shutdown to dilute the
solution to prevent an overconcentration condition.
16DEH double effect absorption cooling cycle – The
16DEH double effect absorption chiller consists of an
evaporator, absorber, condenser, high- and low-stage
generators, solution heat exchangers(BPHE), steam condensate
drain heat exchanger, refrigerant/solution/auxiliary pumps,
purge, controls and auxiliaries. Water is used as the refrigerant
in vessels maintained under low absolute pressure (vacuum).
In the cooling mode, the chiller operates on the principle that
under vacuum, water boils at a low temperature. In this case
water boils at approximately 40 F (4.4 C), thereby cooling the
chilled water circulating through the evaporator tubes. A
refrigerant pump is used to circulate the refrigerant water over
the evaporator tubes to improve heat transfer.
To make the cooling process continuous, the refrigerant
vapor must be removed as it is produced. To accomplish this,
a lithium bromide solution (which has a high affinity for
water) is used to absorb the water vapor. As this process
continues, the lithium bromide becomes diluted, reducing its
absorption capacity. A solution pump then transfers this
weak (diluted) solution to the generators where it is reconcentrated in 2 stages to boil off the previously absorbed water.
A variable frequency drive pump automatically maintains
optimum solution flow to the generators at all operating
conditions for maximum efficiency. The diluted solution is
pumped to the high-stage generator where it is heated and
reconcentrated to a medium concentration solution by the heat
from high pressure steam. The medium concentration solution
from the high-stage generator flows to the low-stage generator
where it is heated and reconcentrated to a strong solution by
the high temperature water vapor released from the solution in
the high-stage generator.
Since the low-stage generator acts as the condenser for the
high-stage generator, the heat energy first applied in the
16DEH ABSORPTION COOLING CYCLE
Diaphragm
Valve
7
Features/Benefits (cont)
high-stage generator is used again in the low-stage generator
thus reducing the heat input by approximately 45% as
compared to an absorption chiller with a single stage of
reconcentration. The water vapor released in the shell-side of
the low-stage generator, in addition to the now condensed
water vapor from the tube-side of the low-stage generator,
enters the condenser to be cooled and returned to a liquid state.
The refrigerant water then returns to the evaporator to begin a
new cycle.
To remove heat from the machine, relatively cool water
from a cooling tower or other source is first circulated through
the tubes of the absorber to remove the heat of vaporization.
The water is then circulated through the tubes of the condenser.
The strong (reconcentrated) solution from the low-stage
generator flows back to the absorber to begin a new cycle
8
. For efficiency reasons, the medium concentration solution
from the high-stage generator is passed through the hightemperature solution heat exchanger to pre-heat the weak
solution, while pre-cooling the medium concentration solution.
The strong solution from the low-stage generator is passed
through the low-temperature solution heat exchanger to precool the strong solution before being returned to the absorber.
The efficiency is further improved by use of two additional
components. One is a condensate drain heat exchanger which
transfers additional heat from the steam condensate leaving
high-stage generator to the weak solution, another is a
condensate heat exchanger which transfers additional heat
from the vapor condensate leaving low-stage generator to the
weak solution
Options and accessories
ITEM
250 psig (1724 kPa)/300 psig (2068 kPa)
Waterboxes
Special Tubing
Unit Voltage (380 or 460, or3-60/50)
Shipping Configuration (1 or 2-piece)
Isolation Package
Condenser Water Flow Switch
9
OPTION*
ACCESSORY+
X
LEGEND
*Factory installed.
+Field installed.
X
X
X
X
X
Machine components
LEGEND
1 – High-Temperature Generator
2 – Low-Temperature Generator
3 – Drain Water Outlet
4 – Drain Water Heat Exchanger
5 – Chiller Control Center
6 – Solution Heat Exchanger
9
7 – Evaporator
8 – Absorber
9 – Condenser
10 – Auxiliary Solution Pump
11 – Refrigerant Pump
12 – Solution Pump
Physical data
ENGLISH
Unit 16DEH
NOMINAL COOLING CAPACITY (ton)
RIGGING WEIGHT* (lb)
OPERATING WEIGHT (lb)
LITHIUM BROMIDE SOLUTION CHARGE (Ib)
REFRIGERANT (WATER) CHARGE (Ib)
CHILLED/HOT WATER (Evap)
Pipe Connection Size (in.)
No. Passes
COOLING WATER
Pipe Connection Size (in.)
No. Passes
Absorber
Condenser
STEAM
Pipe Connection Size (in.)
Inlet
Outlet
015
150
10406
13801
1521
562
018
180
10741
14396
1720
551
021
210
12895
17551
2138
705
024
240
13276
18080
2161
705
028
280
16759
24332
3219
1014
033
331
17641
24718
3307
970
4
3
4
3
5
3
5
3
6
2
6
2
5
5
6
6
8
8
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2.5
1
2.5
1
2.5
1
2.5
1
Unit 16DEH
NOMINAL COOLING CAPACITY (ton)
RIGGING WEIGHT* (lb)
OPERATING WEIGHT (lb)
LITHIUM BROMIDE SOLUTION CHARGE (Ib)
REFRIGERANT (WATER) CHARGE (Ib)
CHILLED/HOT WATER (Evap)
Pipe Connection Size (in.)
No. Passes
COOLING WATER
Pipe Connection Size (in.)
No. Passes
Absorber
Condenser
STEAM
Pipe Connection Size (in.)
Inlet
Outlet
036
360
18600
27650
3373
1168
040
400
19171
28461
3527
1168
045
450
21433
30692
4079
1190
050
500
22139
31662
4332
1168
060
600
34517
49520
5467
1146
066
660
36330
53239
6459
2271
6
2
6
2
8
2
8
2
8
2
8
2
8
8
10
10
12
12
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
4
1
4
1
Unit 16DEH
NOMINAL COOLING CAPACITY (ton)
RIGGING WEIGHT* (lb)
OPERATING WEIGHT (lb)
LITHIUM BROMIDE SOLUTION CHARGE (Ib)
REFRIGERANT (WATER) CHARGE (Ib)
CHILLED/HOT WATER (Evap)
Pipe Connection Size (in.)
No. Passes
COOLING WATER
Pipe Connection Size (in.)
No. Passes
Absorber
Condenser
STEAM
Pipe Connection Size (in.)
Inlet
Outlet)
080
800
45194
61288
6878
2469
100
1000
53792
72752
8245
2998
120
1200
65256
91050
9678
5137
135
1350
69004
97002
10582
5622
150
1500
78043
109130
10935
6570
165
1650
82232
115520
11839
7187
10
2
10
2
12
2
12
2
14
2
14
2
14
14
16
16
16
16
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
4
2
4
2
5
2
5
2
6
2
6
2
G1 – High-Temperature Generator
G2 – Low-Temperature Generator
*Standard shipping configuration is 1-piece for sizes 015-120 and 2-piece for sizes 135-165.
10
Physical data
SI
Unit 16DEH
NOMINAL COOLING CAPACITY (kW)
RIGGING WEIGHT* (kg)
OPERATING WEIGHT (kg)
LITHIUM BROMIDE SOLUTION CHARGE (kg)
REFRIGERANT (WATER) CHARGE (kg)
CHILLED/HOT WATER (Evap)
Pipe Connection Size (mm.)
No. Passes
COOLING WATER
Pipe Connection Size (mm.)
No. Passes
Absorber
Condenser
STEAM
Pipe Connection Size (mm.)
Inlet
Outlet
015
528
4720
6260
690
255
018
633
4872
6530
780
250
021
739
5849
7961
970
320
024
844
6022
8201
980
320
028
985
7602
11037
1460
460
033
1164
8002
11212
1500
440
100
3
100
3
125
3
125
3
150
2
150
2
125
125
150
150
200
200
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
50
25
50
25
65
25
65
25
65
25
65
25
Unit 16DEH
NOMINAL COOLING CAPACITY (kW)
RIGGING WEIGHT* (kg)
OPERATING WEIGHT (kg)
LITHIUM BROMIDE SOLUTION CHARGE (kg)
REFRIGERANT (WATER) CHARGE (kg)
CHILLED/HOT WATER (Evap)
Pipe Connection Size (mm.)
No. Passes
COOLING WATER
Pipe Connection Size (mm.)
No. Passes
Absorber
Condenser
STEAM
Pipe Connection Size (mm.)
Inlet
Outlet
036
1266
8437
12542
1530
530
040
1407
8696
12910
1600
530
045
1583
9722
13922
1850
540
050
1758
10042
14362
1965
530
060
2110
15657
22462
2480
520
066
2321
16479
24149
2930
1030
150
2
150
2
200
2
200
2
200
2
200
2
200
200
250
250
300
300
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
80
25
80
25
80
25
80
25
100
25
100
25
Unit 16DEH
NOMINAL COOLING CAPACITY (kW)
RIGGING WEIGHT* (kg)
OPERATING WEIGHT (kg)
LITHIUM BROMIDE SOLUTION CHARGE (kg)
REFRIGERANT (WATER) CHARGE (kg)
CHILLED/HOT WATER (Evap)
Pipe Connection Size (mm.)
No. Passes
COOLING WATER
Pipe Connection Size (mm.)
No. Passes
Absorber
Condenser
STEAM
Pipe Connection Size (mm.)
Inlet
Outlet
080
2814
20500
27800
3120
1120
100
3517
24400
33000
3740
1360
120
4220
29600
41300
4390
2330
135
4748
31300
44000
4800
2550
150
5275
35400
49500
4960
2980
165
5803
37300
52400
5370
3260
250
2
250
2
300
2
300
2
350
2
350
2
350
350
400
400
400
400
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
100
50
100
50
125
50
125
50
150
50
150
50
G1 – High-Temperature Generator
G2 – Low-Temperature Generator
* Standard shipping configuration is 1-piece for sizes 015-120 and 2-piece for sizes 135-165.
11
Dimensions
16DEH SIZES 015-165
DIMENSIONS (ft-in.)
066
080
100
12-2
12-4
15-10
15-9
16-0
18-6
20-2
20-6
23-10
22-5
24-1
22-9
24-4
Overall HeightC
5-1
6-9
5-7
7-7
6-3
7-10
6-6
8-8
7-1
9-3
7-10
10-2
7-10
10-2
8-6
11-2
8-6
11-2
10-8
11-11
10-8
11-11
11-10
12-8
11-10
12-8
Width D*
3-3
3-10
3-11
4-4
4-6
5-1
5-1
6
6
8-6
8-6
9-12
9-12
UNIT 16DEH
Overall LengthA
Overall Width B
015/018
021/024
028/033
036/040
045/050
060
120
135
150
165
DIMENSIONS (mm)
UNIT 16DEH
Overall LengthA
Overall Width B
Overall HeightC
Width D*
015/018
3720
1556
2057
1002
021/024
3762
1714
2310
1156
028/033
036/040
045/050
060
066
080
100
120
135
150
165
4815
1905
2381
1195
4798
1981
2630
1318
4867
2165
2820
1368
5640
2386
3102
1562
6142
2386
3102
1562
6244
2600
3400
1823
7259
2600
3400
1823
6843
3260
3640
2582
7333
3260
3640
2582
6924
3600
3850
3038
7413
3600
3850
3038
*Standard shipping configuration is 1-piece for sizes 015-120 and 2-piece
for sizes 135-165.
12
NOTES:
1. All dimensions in mm are accurate and take into account absorbercondenser crossover piping.
2. For routine maintenance, allow 3 ft (1 m) clearance on all sides and 6 in.
(150 mm) above chiller.
3. For service access, allow clearance as follows:
a. For tube removal, allow space equal to “A” dimension (length) at either
end of the chiller.
b. To open waterbox cover, allow clearance space equal to half of “D”
dimension (width) on the waterbox end of the chiller.
Performance data
ENGLISH
UNIT 16DEH
COOLING CAPACITY (ton)
CHILLED WATER
Flow Rate (gpm)
Pressure Drop (ftH2O)
COOLING WATER
Flow Rate (gpm)
Pressure Drop (ft)
STEAM CONSUMPTION
Ib/hr
Ib/hr-ton
UNIT 16DEH
COOLING CAPACITY (ton)
CHILLED WATER
Flow Rate (gpm)
Pressure Drop (ftH2O)
COOLING WATER
Flow Rate (gpm)
Pressure Drop (ftH2O)
STEAM CONSUMPTION
Ib/hr
Ib/hr-ton
UNIT 16DEH
COOLONG CAPACITY (ton)
CHILLED WATER
Flow Rate (gpm)
Pressure Drop (ftH2O)
COOLING WATER
Flow Rate (gpm)
Pressure Drop (ft)
STEAM CONSUMPTION
Ib/hr
Ib/hr-ton
015
150
018
180
021
210
024
240
028
280
033
331
399
30.8
479
33.5
559
32.2
639
32.8
746
21.7
879
22.6
577
20.7
691
23.7
805
16.7
921
18.7
1075
25.4
1266
27.4
1290
8.6
1548
8.6
1806
8.6
2064
8.6
2407
8.6
2846
8.6
036
360
040
400
045
450
050
500
060
600
066
660
957
22.3
1065
22.6
1198
22.3
1331
22.3
1598
33.5
1758
33.8
1147
29.7
1533
31.1
1726
27.4
1915
28.4
2298
34.4
2531
34.4
3095
8.6
3439
8.6
3869
8.6
4299
8.6
5159
8.6
5675
8.6
080
800
100
1000
120
1200
135
1350
150
1500
165
1650
2130
24.7
2663
42.4
3195
31.1
3595
41.1
3994
32.1
4394
41.1
3064
23.0
3834
39.7
4601
39.1
5174
51.8
5750
39.7
6323
50.4
6878
8.6
8598
8.6
10318
8.6
11607
8.6
12897
8.6
14187
8.6
LEGEND
ARI – Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute
MBh – Btu/h in thousands
Note: Ratings are based on ARI 560, latest edition, 54/44 F (2.4 gpm/ton) chilled water;
85 F (4.0 gpm/ton) cooling water; fouling factor .00025 ft2-hr-oF/Btu
for absorber and condenser, .0001 ft2-hr-oF/Btu for evaporator.
13
Performance data (cont)
SI
UNIT 16DEH
COOLONG CAPACITY (kW)
CHILLED WATER
Flow Rate (L/s)
Pressure Drop (kPa)
COOLING WATER
Flow Rate (L/s)
Pressure Drop (kPa)
STEAM CONSUMPTION
Kg/hr
Kg/hr-ton
UNIT 16DEH
COOLONG CAPACITY (kW)
CHILLED WATER
Flow Rate (L/s)
Pressure Drop (kPa)
COOLING WATER
Flow Rate (L/s)
Pressure Drop (kPa)
STEAM CONSUMPTION
Kg/hr
Kg/hr-ton
UNIT 16DEH
COOLONG CAPACITY (kW)
CHILLED WATER
Flow Rate (L/s)
Pressure Drop (kPa)
COOLING WATER
Flow Rate (L/s)
Pressure Drop (kPa)
STEAM CONSUMPTION
Kg/hr
Kg/hr-ton
015
528
018
633
021
739
024
844
028
985
033
1164
25.2
92
30.2
100
35.3
96
40.3
98
47.0
64
55.4
68
36.4
62
43.6
71
50.8
50
58.1
56
67.8
76
80.0
82
585
3.9
702
3.9
819
3.9
936
3.9
1092
3.9
1291
3.9
036
1266
040
1407
045
1582
050
1758
060
2110
066
2321
60.5
67
67.2
67
75.6
67
84.0
67
100.8
100.0
110.9
101
86.9
89
96.7
93
108.9
82
120.8
85
145.0
103
159.7
103
1404
3.9
1560
3.9
1755
3.9
1950
3.9
2340
3.9
2574
3.9
080
2814
100
3517
120
4220
135
4748
150
5275
165
5803
134.4
74
168.0
127
201.6
93
226.8
123
252.0
96
277.2
123
193.3
69
241.9
119
290.3
117
326.4
155
362.8
119
398.9
151
3120
3.9
3900
3.9
4680
3.9
5265
3.9
5850
3.9
6435
3.9
LEGEND
ARI – Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute
Note: Ratings are based on ARI 560, latest edition, 12.2/6.7 C (.043 L/s-kW) chilled
water; 29.4 C (.072 L/s-kW) cooling water; fouling factor.000044 m2-hr-oC/W for
absorber and condenser, .0000176 m2-hr-oC/W for evaporator.
14
ARI 560, latest version, defines Integrated Part Load Value
(IPLV) as a measure of part-load efficiency representing the
weighted average of overall chiller performance calculated by
the following equation:
IPLV = .01A + .42B + .45C + .12D
Where A = COP at 100%
B = COP at 75%
C = COP at 50%
D = COP at 25% or minimum load
NOTE: COP is the Coefficient of Performance
Therefore,
IPLV = .01 (1.20) + .42 (1.35) + .45 (1.45) + .12 (1.32)
= 1.39
Part-load performance
To determine part-load performance, refer to the 16DEH PartLoad Performance curve shown below. This curve depicts
Steam Consumption Ratio (SCR) versus Percent Capacity at
several cooling water temperatures and in accordance with the
ARI load line which is based on a 10 F (5.6 C) reduction in
cooling water temperature for every 25% reduction in load.
Steam requirements at part-load can be calculated with one
of the following equations:
Steam Flow (lb/hr) = Full Load Steam (lb/hr) x SCR x
% Capacity
or
Steam Flow (lb/hr) = Full Load Steam (lb/hr-ton) x SCR
x Part-Load Capacity (tons)
As shown on the part-load performance curve, the continuous
operating range for the 16DEH is approximately 25 to 100% of
full load when operated on steam, based on minimum fire
requirements of the burner. Below 25% the burner will cycle
on and off to meet the required load and water temperature.
.
16DEH PART-LOAD PERFORMANCE
STEAM CONSUMPTION RATIO
1.1
ARI
1
80 F (26.7 C)
70 F (23.9 C)
0.9
60 F (15.6 C)
0.8
0.7
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
PERCENT CAPACITY
15
70
80
90
100
Application data
Application data
Vent and drain connections
Vent and drain connections
All vents and drain connections are found on the waterbox
covers. Connection size is 3/4-in. PT.
Provide high points of the machine piping system with vents
and the low points with drains. If shut off valves are
provided in the main water pipes near the unit, a minimum
amount of the system water is lost when the heat exchangers
are drained.
It is recommended that pressure gages be provided at points
of entering and leaving water to measure pressure drop
through the heat exchanger. Gages may be installed as shown
in the table below. Pressure gages installed at the vent and
drain connections do not include nozzle pressure losses.
Use a reliable manometer to measure pressure differential
when determining water flow. Regular gages are insensitive
and do not provide accurate measurement of flow conditions.
NUMBER OF PASSES
GAGE LOCATION
1, 3
One gage in each waterbox
2, 4
Two gages in waterbox with nozzles
Range of application
The 16DEH absorption chiller is designed for standard water
chilling applications of 150 to 660 tons (528 to2321 kW) at
standard ARI rating conditions.
Rupture disk piping
The 16DEH is equipped with a rupture disk or a fusible plug
(optional) on the high-temperature generator. It is
recommended that piping from these devices be routed to
appropriate areas away from the machine in accordance with
Carrier’s written installation instructions and any local
jurisdictional requirements that may apply. One side of Ru
pture disk’s connective tube is connected with protected
recipient and another side is leaded to safe place such
as atmosphere or where there is no person. Piping should
be adequately supported and the proper fittings should be
provided to allow periodic inspection of the disk.
,
UNIT SIZE
RUPTURE DISK
CONNECTION SIZE
16DEH015-165
6 in. 300 psig RF flange
LEGEND
RF – Raised Face
MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS
ITEM
SHELL:
Evaporator
Absorber
Condenser
G1
G2
TUBESHEET:
Evaporator
Absorber
Condenser
G1
G2
WATERBOX:
Evaporator
Absorber
Condenser
G1
G2
TUBES:
Evaporator
Absorber
Condenser
G1
G2
PIPING
ASME
ASTM
G1
G2
MATERIAL
SPECIFICATIONS
Steel
Steel
Steel
Steel
Steel
Q235B
Q235B
Q235B
Q235B
Q235B
Steel
Steel
Steel
Steel
Steel
Q235B
Q235B
Q235B
20R
Q235B
Steel
Steel
Steel
Steel
Steel
Q235B
Q235B
Q235B
20R
Q235B
Copper
Copper
Copper
Steel
Copper
Steel
C1220T-1/2H
C1220T-1/2H
C1220T-1/2H
C7060T-0L
C1220T-0L
20#
LEGEND
– American Society of Mechanical Engineers
-- American Society for Testing and Materials
-- High-Temperature Generator
-- Low-Temperature Generator
Thermal insulation
Application of cold/hot surface thermal insulation should be
done after final installation at field and machine leak integrity
has been verified. Refer to Carrier certified drawings for
material specifications and recommended chiller/heater
insulation requirements.
THERMAL INSULATION SURFACE AREA REQUIREMENTS – ENGLISH (FT2)
UNIT SIZE
COLD SURFACE
HOT SURFACE
015/018
021/024
028/033
036/040
045/050
060
066
080
100
120
135
150
165
67
160
74
186
93
233
99
258
114
283
169
357
169
357
203
414
237
461
167
493
172
548
207
555
212
605
THERMAL INSULATION SURFACE AREA REQUIREMENTS – SI (m2)
UNIT SIZE
015/018
021/024
028/033
036/040
045/050
060
066
COLD SURFACE
6.2
6.9
8.6
9.2
10.6
15.7
15.7
HOT SURFACE
14.9
17.3
21.6
24.0
26.3
33.2
33.2
16
080
100
120
135
18.9
38.5
22.0
15.5
16.0
150
19.2
19.7
42.8
45.8
50.9
51.6
56.2
165
HEAT EXCHANGER STANDARD PASS AND
NOZZLE ARRANGEMENT
STANDARD WATERBOX AND CROSSOVER PIPE
CONFIGURATION
16DEH
UNIT
EVAPORATOR
ABSORBER
CONDENSER
Inlet
Outlet
Inlet
Outlet
Inlet
Outlet
CROSSOVER
PIPE
N
N
M
M
M
M
Included
015165
LEGEND
M -N --
HEAT EXCHANGER MINIMUM/MAXIMUM
FLOW RATES* -- ENGLISH (gpm)
16DEH
SIZE
015
018
021
024
028
033
036
040
045
050
060
066
080
100
120
135
150
165
1-Pass
Min
Max
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
703
2811
820
3280
904
3617
1012
4048
1096
4385
1223
4891
1466
5866
1466
5866
1970
7881
1970
7881
2696
10786
2696
10786
3338
13353
3338
13353
EVAPORATOR
2-Pass
3-Pass
Min
Max
Min
Max
253
1012 169
675
295
1181
197
787
346
1382 230
921
395
1579 263
1053
351
1406 234
937
410
1640 273
1093
452
1809 301
1206
506
2024 337
1349
548
2193 365
1462
611
2446 408
1630
733
2933
–
–
733
2933
–
–
985
3940
–
–
985
3940
–
–
1348
5393
–
–
1348
5393
–
–
1669
6677
–
–
1669
6677
–
–
4-Pass
Min Max
127
506
148
590
173
691
197
789
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
*Flow rates based on standard tubes. Minimum flow based on tube
velocity of 3 ft/sec; maximum flow based on 12 ft/sec.
16DEH
SIZE
015
018
021
024
028
033
036
040
045
050
060
066
080
100
120
135
150
165
ABSORBER-CONDENSER
2-Pass/1-Pass
Min
Max
363
1454
433
1734
536
2144
612
2448
553
2212
649
2598
665
2661
738
2950
834
3337
925
3699
1138
4554
1138
4554
1560
6241
1560
6241
1762
7047
1762
7047
2251
9005
2251
9005
*Flow rates based on standard tubes. Minimum flow based on tube
velocity of 3 ft/sec; maximum flow based on 12 ft/sec.
17
ABSORBER
Pass
Inlet
2
L
2
L
CONDENSER
Pass
Inlet
1
L
1
L
LEGEND
L -R --
Marine Waterbox
Nozzle-In-Head Waterbox
EVAPORATOR
Pass
Inlet
3
L or R
2
L or R
16DEH
UNIT
015-024
028-165
Left End Inlet
Right End Inlet
HEAT EXCHANGER MINIMUM/MAXIMUM
FLOW RATES* -- SI (L/s)
16DEH
SIZE
015
018
021
024
028
033
036
040
045
050
060
066
080
100
120
135
150
165
1-Pass
Min
Max
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
44
177
52
207
57
228
64
255
69
277
77
309
93
370
93
370
124
497
124
497
170
680
170
680
211
842
211
842
EVAPORATOR
2-Pass
3-Pass
Min
Max
Min
Max
16
64
11
43
19
74
12
50
22
87
15
58
25
100
17
66
22
89
15
59
26
103
17
69
29
114
19
76
32
128
21
85
35
138
23
92
39
154
26
103
46
185
–
–
46
185
–
–
62
249
–
–
62
249
–
–
85
340
–
–
85
340
–
–
105
421
–
–
105
421
–
–
4-Pass
Min
Max
8
32
9
37
11
44
12
50
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
*Flow rates based on standard tubes. Minimum flow based on tube
velocity of .9 m/sec; maximum flow based on 3.6 m/sec.
16DEH
SIZE
015
018
021
024
028
033
036
040
045
050
060
066
080
100
120
135
150
165
ABSORBER-CONDENSER
2-Pass/1-Pass
Min
Max
23
92
27
109
34
135
39
154
35
140
41
164
42
168
47
186
53
211
58
233
72
287
72
287
98
394
98
394
111
445
111
445
142
568
142
568
*Flow rates based on standard tubes. Minimum flow based on tube
velocity of .9 m/sec; maximum flow based on 3.6 m/sec.
Typical control sequence
NORMAL COOLING START FLOW CHART (PART 1)
Start Request
(16DE/DEH)
Startup Routine Flowchart
2008.12.18
Verify
All sensors In range
Inc Prestart satisfies
No
Sensor Fault/
Prestart Alerts
Yes
Start Chilled
Water Pump
20s
Start Water
Verify Timer
Verify Chilled
Water Flow
No
No
Water Timer (configured
In service) elapsed
Yes
Chilled Water Fault
(State 82)
Yes
Recycle Condition
(refer to 5.14)
Yes
Monitor for
Recycle Start
No
Start Cooling
Water Pump
20s
Start Water
Verify Timer
No
Verify Cooling
Water Flow
No
Water Timer (configured Yes
In service) elapsed
Cooling Water Fault
(State 83)
Power loss
Concentration
protect
Yes
Start Cooling
Tower Control
Start Sol Pump
Yes
Recycle start and
not the first startup
Power loss restart
No
Yes
Power loss restart
No
A
18
Power loss
Concentration
protect
B
NORMAL COOLING START FLOW CHART (PART 2)
Startup Routine Flowchart
6/13/2008
A
B
Start 5 min Aux
Sol Pump Timer
Start 20s Aux
Sol Pump Timer
Start 2 min
Ref Pump Timer
Aux Sol Pump
Timer elapsed?
No
Yes
Ref Pump
Timer elapsed
No
Start Aux Sol
Pump
Yes
Start 2 min
Ref Pump Timer
Start Ref Pump
Ref Pump
Timer elapsed
Machine Running
Start Ramp Loading
Yes
Aux Sol Pump
Timer elapsed?
Yes
Start Aux Sol
Pump
No
Start Ref Pump
Machine Running
Start Ramp Loading
Continue
Continue
19
No
NORMAL COOLING SHUTDOWN FLOW CHART (PART 1)
Shutdown Routine Flowchart
Stop
Request
6/13/2008
Drive Capacity
Valve to 0
Start Ref Pump
Dilution Timer
Start Sol Pump
Dilution Timer 15 min
Chilled Water
Flowcheck
Yes
No
Low Chilled Water
Temp Check
No
Yes
Sol. Pump Overload
Yes
No
Ref Pump Overload
No
Yes
D
Stop Ref Pump
Yes
G1_Sol Temp<158F
and dilution elapsed
Time<10 min
No
Ref Pump Timer
elapsed
Yes
Start 5 Min Sol
Pump Dilution Timer
Stop Ref
Pump
No
Sol Pump
Timer elapsed
Yes
Stop Solution Pump
and Aux Sol. Pump
A
20
Stop Cooling Water
Pump and Tower
Fan Control
No
NORMAL COOLING SHUTDOWN FLOW CHART (PART 2)
Shutdown Routine Flowchart
5/29/2008
D
A
Recycle Shutdown
Stop Ref Pump
No
Stop
Cooling Water Pump
and Tower Fan Control
Stop Chilled Water
Pump
Stop Sol. Pump
Shutdown Complete
Ready to Start
Start Chilled water
Timer (10 min)
Low Chilled Water
Temp
No
No
Water Pump Timer
elapsed
Yes
Stop Chilled Water
Pump
Tripout:
Safty shutdown Fault
(State? )
21
Yes
Yes
Monitor for
Recycle Start
Guide specifications
Hermetic Absorption Liquid Chiller
Size Range: 150 to 165 tons (527 to 5802 kW)
Carrier Model Numbers: 16DEH
Part 1 – General
1.01 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
Microprocessor controlled, double-effect absorption
liquid chiller utilizing hermetic refrigerant and solution
/auxiliary pumps, lithium bromide solution as the
absorbent, and water as the refrigerant. High pressure
steam shall be supplied to the high-temperature generator
as the heat source.
1.02 QUALITY ASSURANCE
A. Chiller performance shall be rated in accordance with
ARI Standard 560 (latest edition).
B. Chiller shall be manufactured in accordance with GB/T
18431-2001,which is Chinese Industrial Standard as
applicable.
C. Chiller shall be designed and constructed to meet
applicable (GB) requirements .
D. Each chiller shall undergo a series of standard factory tests
to ensure that the unit is leak tight, that all electrical
components operate as intended, and that every aspect of
the unit fabrication meets stringent quality standards in
accordance with good practice and the manufacturer’s
quality assurance requirements.
1. The shellside of each chiller shall be leak tested by
pressurizing to 11 psig (76 kPa) with nitrogen and then
checked by spraying a soap/water mixture on all welds,
tube joints, and/or gasketed joints to identify any major
leaks. Afterward, a mass spectrometer test shall be
performed by evacuating the unit to .0001mmHg
absolute, covering the machine with a vinyl tent, and
introducing helium gas under the tent. Any remaining
leaks will allow the helium to be drawn into the
shellside of the machine. The acceptable leak rate as
measured by the mass spectrometer test shall not
exceed .00001 cc/sec standard air.
2. The tubeside of the evaporator, absorber, and condenser shall be hydrostatically tested at 1.25 times
rated design pressure and held for ten minutes.
3. The refrigerant and solution/auxiliary pump/motors
shall undergo standard factory tests to ensure proper
head flow, and motor output characteristics.
4. All machine wiring shall undergo an insulation
resistance test. The chiller/heater control center and all
electrical components shall also be functionally tested
to verify continuity and proper electrical operation.
5. Final assembly inspection shall consist of verifying
that all valves, controls, instrumentation, pumps, purge
components, and all other machine components have
been properly installed on the machine.
6. Each unit shall then be checked for overall appearance
and dimensional accuracy.
7. Final inspection shall be performed on each unit to
check that painting of the unit is as specified,
nameplate data is correct, and that all accessories are
22
8. furnished as required.
1.03
DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING
A. Unit shall be stored and handled in accordance with
the manufacturer’s recommendations.
B. Normally unit shall be charged with lithium bromide
solution at field in accordance with the manufacture
written instruction. But if customer requires, unite can
be factory charged with lithium bromide solution and
performance tested before shipping as special
requirement.
C. 1-piece shipped machines shall be shipped under
vacuum on the shell side and multiple piece shipped
machines shall be pressurize with nitrogen to 5psig
(34kPa).
D. .Chiller shall be shipped with nameplates indicating
name of manufacturer, model size, serial number, and
all other pertinent machine data.
1.04WARRANTY
Carrier shall guarantee the chiller against defects in
materials or workmanship for a period of one year from
date of initial operation or 18 months from date of
shipment, whichever occurs first. Carrier shall provide
the labor to repair or replace any part found to be
defective in material or workmanship within the
warranty period.
Part 2 – Products
2.01 EQUIPMENT
A. General:
Absorption liquid chiller shall include evaporator,
absorber, condenser, high and low-temperature gen
erators, solution heat exchanger, condensate drain
heat exchanger, float trap, purging system, piping
wiring, refrigerant/solution pumps, controls, and
auxiliaries. Shipment of the machine shall be in
1 piece. Initial charge of lithium can be included
with the chiller for charging at the jobsite.
B. Operating Characteristics:
1. Chiller operation shall be characteristic of a doubleeffect absorption cycle with series solution flow.
The weak solution from the absorber shall be
entering the high-temperature generator via the low
and high-temperature solution heat exchangers. A
variable frequency drive pump shall automatically
regulate the flow of solution to the high-temperature
generator to maintain optimum flow at all operating
conditions. This shall result in improved part-load
efficiency and eliminate the need for manual set-up
adjustments of the solution flow.
2. Unit shall be capable of continuous operation from
100 to 25% capacity, with entering cooling water
temperatures as low as 59 F (15 C), without the
need for a cooling tower bypass valve. Thermostat
ON/OFF control of the cooling tower fan is
recommended when cooling water temperature falls
below 59 F (15 C).
Guide specifications (cont)
C. Heat Exchangers:
1. All heat exchangers shall be of shell and tube
construction with shells, tubesheets, tube support
sheets, and waterboxes fabricated of carbon steel.
All heat exchangers shall incorporate straight tubes.
All tubes shall be rolled into grooveless tubesheets
and expanded into tube support sheets, except for
the high and low-temperature generator tubes. High
and low-temperature tubes shall be rolled into
grooved tubesheets and expanded into tube support
sheets
2. The evaporator, absorber, and condenser waterboxes shall be designed for 150 psig (1034 kPa)
working pressure. Marian type waterboxes shall be
supplied on the evaporator a n d the absorbercondenser All waterboxes shall be provided with
vent and drain connections. RF flanges shall be
furnished on all waterbox nozzle connections.
3. The high-temperature generator shall consist of
straight tubes secured to a number of baffle plate
located between tubesheets. The high-temperature
generator waterbox shall be designed for 150 psig
(1034 kPa) working pressure. The steam inlet shall
be provided with an RF flange connection..
4. A steam condensate drain heat exchanger shall be
factory mounted and piped on the machine to
reduce steam rate by pre-heating the weak solution
while cooling the condensate for easier condensate
return handling. The steam condensate outlet
connection shall be located above grade, in
proximity to the bottom of the generator overflow
chamber, thereby permitting a greater allowable
pressure drop to be considered in the design of the
condensate return system piping before flashing
occurs.
5. A high-temperature and a low-temperature solution
heat exchanger shall be an integral part of the
machine to increase efficiency by pre-heating weak
solution on the tubeside with strong solution on the
shellside . Brazed Plate Heat Exchanger shall be
used as high efficient solution heat exchanger to
increase chiller efficiency..
6. Spray heads for the evaporator and absorber shall
be of a non-clogging design, specifically designed
for the intended duty, and shall be fabricated of a
corrosion-proof material to ensure continuous,
high-efficiency operation.
7. Heat exchanger tube material and minimum wall
thickness shall be contingent on the type of
corrosion inhibitor used in the machine. For lithium
molibdate
systems,
the
following
tube
specifications shall apply to ensure long machine
life and continuous operation:
Evaporator……………….copper, externally-finned
Absorber…
copper,
externally- corrugated for 015-066
23
externally-finned for 080-165
Condenser. ……… copper, externally-corrugated
Low-Temperature Generator………………..copper,
externally-finned
High-Temperature Generator………..…cupronickel,
externally-finned
If chiller Carrier requires the use of tube materials
other than as listed above, due to the use of a less
effective inhibitor, the chiller manufacturer shall
guarantee performance of the machine for its
design life and shall replace tubes and/or tube
bundles as necessary during this period at no
additional cost to the owner.
D. Pump/Motors:
Refrigerant and solution pump/motors shall be selfcontained, leakproof, hermetic type, with isolation val
ves, and internal seal water system to minimize air lea
kage into the machine. Lubrication and cooling shall b
e accomplished by the fluid being pumped; auxiliary w
ater piping for cooling and lubrication shall not be acc
eptable.
E. Purge System
An automatic, motorless purge system shall be
furnished to provide a continuous purging action
whenever the chiller is in operation to assure long
machine
life
and
efficient
performance.
Noncondensables shall be removed from the absorber
by a liquid eductor, which shall use flow from the
solution pump to create a suction. Noncondensables
shall be stored external to the unit and shall be
prevented from diffusing back into the machine when
the unit is not operating. A palladium cell is used as a
optional part in unit. A palladium cell shall be
provided to automatically vent hydrogen gas from the
purge tank to the atmosphere to minimize the need for
manual evacuation of the storage tank. Evacuation of
the external storage tank shall be accomplished by the
use of a unit-mounted vacuum pump to ensure that the
palladium cell is not wetted with lithium bromide
solution.
F. Controls, Safeties and Diagnostics:
1. Controls:
a. The 16DEH series chiller shall be provided
with a factory installed and wired PD5 control
system with individually replaceable modular
component construction. The system shall
include a PD5-BASE board, two PD-AUX
boards and an NRCP-BASE board, power
supply, temperature (thermistor) and pressure
(transducer) sensors, and all necessary
auxiliary devices required for proper operation.
The chiller operation system shall have the
ability to interface and communicate directly
to the building control system without the use
of additional field-installed hardware or
software. Additional hardware will be
necessary if the building control system is not
a Carrier Comfort Network (CCN). The user
interface is a touch screen. It is connected to
the main basic board and gives access to a full
array of control parameters.The PD5 shall be
configurable to display either English or SI
metric units.
b. The default standard display screen shall
simultaneously indicate the following
minimum information:
- date and time of day
- primary system status message
- entering chilled water temperature
- leaving chilled water temperature
- evaporator refrigerant temperature
- entering absorber water temperature
- leaving absorber water temperature
- leaving condenser water temperature
- strong solution temperature leaving hightemperature generator
- weak solution temperature leaving
absorber
- output signal to steam control valve
- The default screen shall be displayed if
there is no manual activity at the control
console for 15 minutes
c. PD5 Operation Button.
DESCRIPTION OF THE MAIN NAVIGATION
Removes a point from one of
the “Group Display” screens
Reduces/increases the value
Displays the previous/following
item
Displays the previous/following
page
Forces a point
Cancels the forcing of a point
Displays the value modification
dialog box for a point
Alarm indication light
Start/stop control button
AND OPERATION BUTTONS
Returns to the previous screen
d.
Network Window Function:
Each Chiller LID (Local Interface Device)
shall be capable of viewing multiple point
values and statuses from other connected on a
common network, including controller
maintenance data. The operator shall be able
to alter the remote controller’s set points or
time schedule and to force point values or
statuses that are operator forcible. The LID
shall also have access to the alarm history file
of all like controllers connected on the
network.
e.
Capacity control shall be by means of
electronically modulating the steam control
valve actuator to maintain the temperature of
the leaving chilled water. Load modulation
shall be from 100% to 25% of machine full
load under normal ARI conditions. The steam
control valve shall be precisely positioned by
a PID (Proportional Integral Derivative)
control algorithm to ensure precise control
(± .5 F [± .3 C]) of desired chilled water
temperature without hunting or overshooting
the set point.
The P D 5 control system shall include a
programmed sequence to ensure machine
Displays the default screen
(“Group Display” screen)
Displays the main screen
Displays the next screen
Displays the previous screen
Accepts the current action
Rejects the current action
Cancels the current action
Removes the data in the value
modification dialog box
Adds a point to one of the
“Group Display” screens
24
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
25
readiness prior to machine start-up. The PD5
shall automatically activate and interlock the
chilled water pump, cooling water pump,
cooling tower fan upon chiller activation.
Upon request to start the chiller, the control
system shall start the chilled water pump and
verify chilled water flow. The controller shall
then compare the entering or leaving chilled
water temperature with the chilled water set
point. If the chilled water temperature is less
than the chilled water set point, the control
system shall enter the recycle mode until a
cooling load has been established. Once a
cooling load has been established the control
system shall start the cooling water pump and
verify flow, before starting tower fan, solution
pump and refrigerant pump.
Once
the
refrigerant pump is started the control system
shall then initiate a programmed warm-up
cycle. Once the full 20 minutes of warm-up
cycle is completed, the ramp loading routine
shall be initiated.
The control system shall automatically sense
impending abnormalities in the absorption
operating cycle and take one or all of the
following actions to either self-correct and/or
limit the machine from approaching cycle
crystallization line :
- inhibit steam control valve position until
concentration drops below preset
threshold. Message will be displayed :
“run
capacity
limited,
high
concentration.”
- drive steam control valve to closed
position until concentration drops below
preset threshold
- initiate non-recycle shutdown of the
chiller if safety shutdown threshold
exceeded. Message will be displayed:
“dilution cycle shutdown, complete in *.*
min.”
A user-configurable ramp loading rate,
effective during the chilled water temperature
pulldown period, shall control the rate of
steam control valve opening to limit start-up
steam demand. The controls shall allow
configuration of the ramp loading rate in
degrees per minute of chilled water
temperature pulldown. During the ramp
loading period, a message shall be displayed
informing the operator that the chiller is
operating in ramp loading mode.
The control system shall automatically cycle
the machine to minimize energy usage
whenever the leaving chilled water
temperature is 3 F (1.7 C) below the desired
chilled water set point. The chilled water
pump shall remain on, and when the leaving
chilled water temperature rises above the set
point by a user-configured amount, the chiller
shall automatically restart. During the
shutdown period, a message shall be displayed
informing the operator a recycle is pending.
k. The control center shall allow reset of the
chilled water temperature set point based on
any one of the following criteria:
- Chilled water reset based on a remote
temperature (such as outdoor air).
- Chilled water reset based on water
temperature rise across the evaporator.
When reset is active, a message shall be
displayed indicating the type of reset in effect.
l. The control center shall limit the opening of
the steam control valve to 65% (userconfigurable) open at startup until the warmup period has been completed and ramp
loading is enabled.
m. When the stop button is pressed, or remote
contacts open the control center shall
immediately drive the steam control valve to
the closed position and initiate the normal
shutdown sequence including dilution cycle.
The display shall indicate : “dilution cycle
shutdown”
2. Safeties:
a. Unit shall automatically shutdown when any of
the following conditions occur: (Each of these
protective limits shall require manual reset and
cause an alarm message to be displayed on the
screen, informing the operator of the shutdown
cause.)
- solution pump VFD overload/high
temperature
- refrigerant pump motor overload/high
temperature
- low chilled water temperature
- low evaporator refrigerant temperature
- high-temperature generator high solution
temperature
- high-temperature generator high pressure
- high-temperature generator high solution
level
- high-temperature generator low solution
level
- loss of evaporator water flow
- loss of cooling water flow
b. The control system shall detect conditions which
approach protective limits and take selfcorrective action prior to an alarm occurring. The
system shall automatically reduce chiller
capacity when any of following parameters are
outside their normal operating range:
Guide specifications (cont)
-
low evaporator refrigerant temperature
high-temperature
generator
high
saturation temperature
- high-temperature generator high solution
temperature
- high solution concentration
During the capacity override period, a pre-alarm
(alert) message shall be displayed informing the
operator which condition is causing the capacity
override. Once the condition is again within
acceptable limits, the override condition shall
terminate and the chiller shall revert to normal
chilled water control. If during either condition
the protective limit is reached, the chiller shall
shutdown, an alarm shall be generated, and a text
message shall be displayed informing the
operator which condition caused the shutdown
and alarm.
3. Diagnostics and Service:
a. The control system shall execute a series of prestart checks whenever a start command is
received to determine if pressures, temperatures,
and timers are within prestart limits, thereby
allowing start-up to proceed. If any of the limits
are exceeded a text alert message will be
displayed informing the operator of the cause of
the pre-start alert.
b. The control system shall provide a manual test
which permits selection and test of individual
control components and inputs. The screen will
show the actual reading of each transducer and
each thermistor installed on the chiller.
The test shall automatically energize the
refrigerant pump, solution pump, tower fan relay,
alarm relay, chilled water and cooling water
pumps and chiller run relay, and the control
system shall confirm water flows have been
established and require operator confirmation
prior to proceeding to the next test.
A capacity valve actuator test shall allow the
operator to test the steam control valve position
by manually increasing, decreasing or holding in
response to the key pressed. Upon completion of
the steam control valve test the control valve
shall revert to the closed position.
A variable frequency drive test shall allow the
operator to check the VFD speed value by
manually increasing, decreasing or holding in
response to the key pressed. Upon completion of
the VFD test the VFD speed shall revert to 0.0%.
c. All sensors shall have quick disconnects to allow
replacement of the sensor without replacement of
the entire sensor wire.
4. Building Control System Interface:
The chiller control system shall have the ability to
interface and communicate directly to the building
26
control system without the use of additional field
installed hardware and software. The building control
system and the absorption chiller must be supplied by
the same manufacturer. If different building control
and chiller suppliers are chosen the chiller shall be
supplied with a dataport module which shall translate
the information in the chiller microprocessor to an
ASCII steam of data which can be read by any
manufacturer’s building management control system.
G. Electrical Requirements:
1. Power supply to the unit shall be 3-ph, 50Hz,
380V.. If need , Carrier also can meet owner’s
requirement .
2. Contractor shall supply and install the electrical
power line and all auxiliary electrical protection
devices per local code requirements and as
indicated necessary by the chiller manufacturer.
3. Contractor shall supply and install electrical wiring
and devices required to interface the chiller
controls with the building control system, if
applicable.
H. Piping Requirements:
1. Piping and instrumentation for the chilled water,
cooling water, steam, and condensate piping shall
be supplied and installed by the contractor/owner.
2. Chilled water flow switch shall be factory supplied
and factory installed in the evaporator water nozzle.
Cooling water flow switch shall be field installed or
factory installed if customer requires and supplied
by either the chiller manufacturer or the
contractor/owner.
3. Piping from the rupture disk shall be provided and
installed by the contractor/owner and piped in
accordance with the chiller manufacturer’s written
instructions.
I. Thermal Insulation:
Insulation of cold or hot surfaces shall be field
supplied and field installed on the machine. Chiller
manufacturer shall specify the recommended material
and surface area to be insulated.
J. Sound Level:
The overall sound pressure level of the chiller shall not
exceed 80 dbA when measured at standard of JB/T
4330
K. Start-up:
1. C a r r i e r shall provide a factory-trained service
representative,
employed
by
the
chiller
manufacturer, to perform and/or supervise chiller
pressure test (when required), charge chiller with
refrigerant (water) and lithium bromide solution,
place unit into operation, and calibrate all controls
in accordance with the manufacturer’s written startup, operating, and maintenance instructions.
2. After unit start-up has been performed, the same
Carrier representative shall be available for a period
of instruction (not to exceed 4 hours) to instruct the
owner’s personnel in the proper start-up, operation,
and maintenance procedures.
3. Carrier shall provide the following literature:
a. Installation, Operation and Maintenance
Instructions
b. Field Wiring Diagrams
L. Options and Accessories:
1. High-Pressure Waterboxes:
Waterboxes rated for 250 psig (1724 kPa) or 300
psig (2068 kPa) working pressure shall be furnished
when specified on the equipment schedule
2. Special Tubing:
Tubing of non-standard materials and/or wall
thickness shall be provided when specified on the
equipment schedule.
3. Shipping Configuration:
Chiller shall ship in either 1 or 2 pieces, as specified
on the equipment schedule.
4. Cooling Water Flow Switch:
A cooling water flow switch, rated for either
150 psig (1034 kPa), 250 psig (1724kPa), or 300
psig (2068 kPa) shall be field installed or factory
installed if customer requires and supplied by either
the chiller manufacturer or the contractor/owner.
5. Steam Valve (electric or pneumatic)
A steam valve shall be provided when specified on
the equipment schedule.
6. Unit Voltage
Unit shall be capable of operating on 3 phase, 50 Hz,
when specified on equipment schedule.
7. Isolation Package:
A vibration isolation package consisting of machine
soleplates and neoprene isolation pads shall be
furnished for field installation when specified on the
equipment schedule.
8. Palladium Cell:
Palladium cell is provided to automatically vent
hydrogen gas from the purge tank to the atmosphere
when specified on the equipment schedule.
27
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