LM357

LM357
LM3570
Low Noise White LED Driver System
General Description
Features
The LM3570 device provides a complete LED driver solution
for wireless handsets and other portable devices using a
display and keypad. With three constant current sources, up
to three white LEDs can be used for display lighting with
excellent current matching (0.3% typ.). The regulated 4.35V
output voltage is perfect for driving auxiliary keypad LEDs in
voltage mode.
n 2.7V to 5.5V Input Voltage
n Regulated Output Voltage (VOUT = 4.35V)
n Regulated IDx with ± 0.3% matching between constant
current outputs
n High Efficiency 3/2 Boost function
n Drives one, two, or three white LEDs with no bias
resistor losses
n Drives auxiliary keypad LEDS in voltage mode
n Up to 80mA total output current
n Active-High Enable
n Active-High PWM Control Pin for independent control of
current sources
n Very small solution size
n 1µA(max) shutdown current
n 500kHz switching frequency (typ.)
n Linear regulation generates predictable noise spectrum
n LLP-14 package: 4.0mm X 3.0mm X 0.8mm
The LM3570 utilizes a high efficiency 3/2 CMOS chargepump with a pre-regulation loop that minimizes conducted
noise on the input. It accepts an input voltage range from
2.7V to 5.5V and maintains a constant current determined by
the current through an external RSET resistor.
The device supplies up to 80mA of total load current to
accommodate any combination of up to three white LEDs,
and additional current from VOUT. The switching frequency is
set at 500kHz. (typ.) to keep the conducted noise spectrum
away from sensitive frequencies within portable RF devices.
By applying a pulse width modulated (PWM) signal to the
PWM pin, the user has the ability to independently control
the brightness of the regulated current source outputs without shutting down the regulated output voltage.
Applications
n Portable devices using white or blue LEDs with display
and backlight or frontlight
n 1-Cell LiIon battery-operated equipment including PDAs,
hand-held PCs and cellular phones
Typical Application Circuit
20085021
© 2004 National Semiconductor Corporation
DS200850
www.national.com
LM3570 Low Noise White LED Driver System
July 2004
LM3570
Connection Diagram
LLP-14 DIP Package, 4mmx3mmx0.8mm
NS Package Number SDA14A
20085002
Pin Description
Pin#
Pin Name
1
C2+
Pin Description
Connect this pin to the positive terminal of C2.
2
VOUT
Regulated Charge pump output (4.35V).
3
C1+
Connect this pin to the positive terminal of C1.
4
D3
Current source output 3. Connect directly to LED.
5
D2
Current source output 2. Connect directly to LED.
6
D1
Current source output 1. Connect directly to LED.
7
ISET
Current set input. Value of resistor tied between ISET and GND sets the Dx
output currents.
8
NC
No Connect
9
EN
Enable Input High = On, Low = Shutdown
10
PWM
Current Source Modulation pin. High = On, Low = Off. Applying a PWM signal
to this pin allows the regulated current sources to be to be modulated without
shutting down the VOUT pin and the remainder of the part.
11
VIN
Power supply voltage input.
12
C2-
Connect this pin to the negative terminal of C2.
13
GND
14
C1-
Ground connection.
Connect this pin to the negative terminal of C1.
Ordering Information
Order Number
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Package Type
Package Marking
Supplied As:
LM3570SD
SDA14A
L3570
1000 units on Tape-and-Reel
LM3570SDX
SDA14A
L3570
3500 units on Tape-and-Reel
2
Operating Ratings(Notes 1, 2)
If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required,
please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/
Distributors for availability and specifications.
VIN pin: Voltage to GND
EN, PWM: Voltage to GND
-0.3V to 6.0V
-0.3V to (VIN +
0.3V) w/ 6.0V max
Continuous Power Dissipation
(Note 3)
Internally Limited
Junction Temperature (TJ-MAX)
150oC
Storage Temperature Range
-65oC to +150o C
Maximum Lead Temperature
(Soldering, 10 sec.)
(Note 4)
ESD Rating(Note 5)
Human Body Model
Machine Model
Input Voltage Range
2.7V to 5.5V
Junction Temperature (TJ) Range
-40˚C to +105˚C
Ambient Temperature (TA) Range
(Note 6)
-40˚C to +85˚C
Thermal Properties
Juntion-to-Ambient Thermal
Resistance (θJA), LLP14 Package
(Note 7)
45˚C/W
2.0kV
200V
Electrical Characteristics(Notes 2, 8)
Limits in standard typeface and typical values apply for TJ = 25oC. Limits in boldface type apply over the operating junction
temperature range. Unless otherwise noted, specifications apply to the LM3570 typical Application Circuit (pg.1) with: VIN =
3.6V, VEN = 3.0V, VPWM = 3.0V, VDX=3.6V, RSET = 6.25kΩ, C1=C2=1.0µF, CIN=2.2µF, COUT=3.3µF(Note 9)
Symbol
IDx
Parameter
Output Current Regulation
(All Current Sources Active
Total Current = 3 x IDx)
(Note 10)
Min
Typ
Max
3.0V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V;
2.5V ≤ VDx ≤ 3.6V;
RSET = 6.25kΩ;
IVOUT = 0mA
Condition
18.4
20.0
21.6
3.0V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V;
2.5V ≤ VDx ≤ 3.8V;
RSET = 8.35kΩ;
IVOUT = 0mA
13.6
15.0
16.4
mA
4.6
V
3.0V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V;
2.5V ≤ VDx ≤ 3.9V;
RSET = 12.5kΩ;
IVOUT = 0mA
VOUT
Regulated Output Voltage
IDx-MATCH
Current Matching Between
Any Two Outputs(Note 12)
VHR
IQ
Current Source Headroom
Voltage
(Note 13)
Quiescent Supply Current
Units
10.0
3.3V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V;
0mA ≤ ITotal ≤ 80mA(Note 11)
4.1
4.3
0.3
IDx = 95% x IDx(nom.);
RSET = 6.25kΩ;
(IDx(nom.) ≈ 20mA)
500
IDx = 95% x IDx(nom.)
RSET = 8.35kΩ;
(IDx(nom.) ≈ 15mA)
375
3.0V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V;
RSET = open;
No Load Current
1.5
3.0V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V;
RSET = 6.25kΩ;
No Load Current
1.8
0.1
%
mV
2.0
mA
ISD
Shutdown Supply Current
3.0V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V;
V(EN) = 0V, V(PWM) = 0V
(Note 14)
ROUT
Charge Pump Output
Resistance
3.0V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V
4
3
1.0
µA
Ω
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LM3570
Absolute Maximum Ratings (Notes 1, 2)
LM3570
Electrical Characteristics(Notes 2, 8)
(Continued)
Limits in standard typeface and typical values apply for TJ = 25oC. Limits in boldface type apply over the operating junction
temperature range. Unless otherwise noted, specifications apply to the LM3570 typical Application Circuit (pg.1) with: VIN =
3.6V, VEN = 3.0V, VPWM = 3.0V, VDX=3.6V, RSET = 6.25kΩ, C1=C2=1.0µF, CIN=2.2µF, COUT=3.3µF(Note 9)
Symbol
Parameter
Condition
Min
Typ
VSET
ISET Pin Voltage
1.25
IDx / ISET
Output Current to Current
Set Ratio
100
fSW
Switching Frequency
(Note 15)
3.0V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V
tSTART
Start-up Time
IDx = 90% steady state
300
500
Max
Units
V
665
250
kHz
µs
EN and PWM Pin Characteristics
VEN-IL
Enable Pin Logic Low
3.0V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V
0
0.5
V
VEN-IH
Enable Pin Logic High
3.0V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V
1.0
VIN
V
VPWM-IL
PWM Pin Logic Low
3.0V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V
0
0.5
V
VPWM-IH
PWM PinLogic High
3.0V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V
1.0
VIN
V
ILEAK-EN
Enable Pin Leakage Current
(Note 14)
10
µA
ILEAK-PWM
PWM Pin Leakage Current
(Note 14)
10
µA
Note 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the component may occur. Operating Ratings are conditions under which operation of
the device is guaranteed. Operating Ratings do not imply guaranteed performance limits. For guaranteed performance limits and associated test conditions, see the
Electrical Characteristics tables.
Note 2: All voltages are with respect to the potential at the GND pin.
Note 3: Internal thermal shutdown circuitry protects the device from permanent damage. Thermal shutdown engages at TJ=150oC (typ.) and disengages at
TJ=140oC (typ.).
Note 4: For detailed soldering specifications and information, please refer to National Semiconductor Application Note 1187: Leadless Leadframe Package
(LLP).
Note 5: The Human body model is a 100pF capacitor discharged through a 1.5kΩ resistor into each pin. (MIL-STD-883 3015.7) The machine model is a 200pF
capacitor discharged directly into each pin. (EAIJ)
Note 6: In applications where high power dissipation and/or poor package thermal resistance is present, the maximum ambient temperature may have to be
derated. Maximum ambient temperature (TA-MAX) is dependent on the maximum operating junction temperature (TJ-MAX-OP = 125oC), the maximum power
dissipation of the device in the application (PD-MAX), and the junction-to ambient thermal resistance of the part/package in the application (θJA), as given by the
following equation: TA-MAX = TJ-MAX-OP – (θJA x PD-MAX).
Note 7: Junction-to-ambient thermal resistance is highly application and board-layout dependent. In applications where high maximum power dissipation exists,
special care must be paid to thermal dissipation issues in board design. For more information on these topics, please refer to Application Note 1187: Leadless
Leadframe Package (LLP) and the PCB Layout Considerations and Power Dissipation section of this datasheet.
Note 8: Min and Max limits are guaranteed by design, test, or statistical analysis. Typical (Typ) numbers are not guaranteed, but do represent the most likely norm.
Unless otherwise specified, conditions for Typ specifications are: VIN= 3.6V and TA = 25oC.
Note 9: CIN, COUT, C1, and C2 : Low-ESR Surface-Mount Ceramic Capacitors (MLCCs) used in setting electrical characteristics
Note 10: Maximum IDx=20mA
Note 11: ITOT is equal to the sum of all IDx currents and the current drawn from VOUT. Current can be drawn from any combination of VOUT and ID1, ID2, and ID3
as long as the maximum current does not exceed 80mA.
Note 12: For the group of the three outputs on a part the following are determined: the maximum output current in the group (MAX), the minimum output current
in the group (MIN), and the average output current of the group (AVG).Two matching numbers are calculated: (MAX-AVG)/AVG and (AVG-MIN)/AVG. The largest
number of the two (worst case) is considered the matching figure for the group. The matching figure for a given part is considered to be the highest matching figure.
The typical specification provided is the most likely norm of the matching figure for all parts.
Note 13: Headroom Voltage is defined as the amount of voltage required across the regulated current sources in order to guarantee the full amount of output current
is realized. VOUT – VDx = VHR. The minimum headroom required is defined as follows: VHR(min) ≥ kHR x IDx where kHR is the headroom proportionality constant
and IDx is the desired controlled diode current. The LM3570 has a kHR = 25mV/mA. For more information, please refer to the output current section of this datasheet.
Note 14: The EN and PWM pins have 300kΩ internal pull-down resistors. When the part is in shutdown, the PWM pin must be tied low to ensure lowest possible
shutdown current.
Note 15: The output switches operate at one eighth of the oscillator frequency, fOSC=8xfSW
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LM3570
Block Diagram
20085001
5
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LM3570
Typical Performance Characteristics
Unless otherwise specified: VIN = 3.6V, VPWM = 3.0V, VEN =
3.0V, VDx=3.6V, RSET = 8.35kΩ, TA = 25˚C
Output Voltage vs. Input Voltage
Output Voltage vs. Input Voltage
20085009
20085013
Output Voltage vs. Output Current
Output Voltage vs. Output Current
20085010
20085014
Diode Output Current vs. Input Voltage
Quiescent Current vs. Input Voltage
20085026
20085020
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Diode Output Current vs. LED Forward Voltage
Charge Pump Efficiency vs Input Voltage
20085019
20085011
Total Efficiency vs Input Voltage
Total Efficiency vs Diode Forward Voltage
20085015
20085016
Output Current vs RSET
Output Current vs Headroom Voltage
20085008
20085018
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LM3570
Typical Performance Characteristics Unless otherwise specified: VIN = 3.6V, VPWM = 3.0V, VEN =
3.0V, VDx=3.6V, RSET = 8.35kΩ, TA = 25˚C (Continued)
LM3570
Typical Performance Characteristics Unless otherwise specified: VIN = 3.6V, VPWM = 3.0V, VEN =
3.0V, VDx=3.6V, RSET = 8.35kΩ, TA = 25˚C (Continued)
Output Current vs Headroom Voltage
Output Current vs PWM Duty Cycle (1kHz.)
20085012
20085017
Startup Response
Line Step- Output Response
20085022
20085023
Load Step- Input and Output Response
20085024
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LM3570
Detailed Block Diagram
20085003
Circuit Description
The LM3570 is a low noise white LED driver system. The LM3570 system revolves around a highly efficient regulated three
halves CMOS charge pump producing a output voltage (VOUT) of 4.35V. For input voltages between 3.0V to 5.5V, regulation of
the output voltage is achieved through the use of a pre-regulation loop that produces a stable output voltage while also minimizing
conducted noise on the input rail. For voltages between 2.7V and 3.0V, the LM3570 behaves like an open loop 3/2 charge pump
where the output will be 1.5X the input voltage minus the losses associated with the output resistance (ROUT≈ 4Ω).
Connected to the regulated output are three internal tightly matched current sources ideal for driving white LEDs. The amount of
current driven through the LEDs is user selectable through the use of one external RSET resistor. Current matching between
adjacent outputs on the LM3570 is +/-0.3%(typ.) allowing for uniform brightness across the LEDs. The LM3570 is capable of
delivering up to 80mA of total output current. Current may be pulled out of the dedicated current outputs (IDx) or from VOUT. The
fixed output voltage rail is ideal for driving keypad LEDs in voltage mode through the use of external current limit resistors.
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LM3570
Application Information
PARALLEL Dx OUTPUTS FOR INCREASED CURRENT
CAPABILITY
PRE-REGULATION
Outputs D1 through D3 may be connected together in any
combination to drive higher currents through fewer LEDs.
For example in Figure 2, outputs D2 and D3 are connected
together to drive one LED while D1 is connected to a seperate LED.
The very low input current ripple of the LM3570, resulting
from internal pre-regulation, adds very little noise to the input
line. The core of the LM3570 is very similar to that of a basic
3/2 switched capacitor regulator: it is composed of seven
switches and two flying capacitors (external). Regulation is
achieved by modulating the on-resistance of the three
switches connected to the input pin (one switch in phase one
and two in phase two). The regulation is done before the
voltage “gain stage”, giving rise to the term "pre-regulation".
Pre-regulation eliminates most of the input current ripple that
is a typical and undesirable characteristic of many switched
capacitor converters.
TOTAL OUTPUT CURRENT CAPABILITY
The LM3570 is capable of providing a total output current of
80mA. The 80mA can be divided through any combination of
the three dedicated current outputs and/or current drawn
from the VOUT output. When pulling current from the VOUT
pin, the LM3570 will hold the output voltage at the regulated
4.35V. This pre-regulation occurs when the input voltage is
within the 3.0V to 5.5V operating range. If the input voltage is
between the 2.7V to 3.0V range, the VOUT voltage will behave in the same manner as the output of an unregulated
charge pump. During operation in this input voltage range,
the output voltage becomes directly related to the total output current drawn from the part and the output resistance
(ROUT) of the charge pump. Figure 1 displays how the
LM3570’s ROUT is modeled to solve for the VOUT voltage
VOUT = (VINx 1.5) - ( (IDx-Total+IOUT) x ROUT)
where 2.7V ≤ VIN < 3.0V and ROUT= 4Ω
20085007
FIGURE 2. One Parallel Connected and One Singular
Connected LED
With this configuration, two parallel current sources of equal
value provide current to one of the LEDs. RSET should
therefore be chosen so that the current through each output
is programmed to 50% of the desired current through the
parallel connected LED. For example, if 40mA is the desired
drive current for the parallel connected LED, RSET should be
selected so that the current through each of the outputs is
20mA. Other combinations of parallel outputs may be implemented in similar fashions, such as in Figure 3.
20085004
FIGURE 1. LM3570 Charge Pump Model
Dx OUTPUT CURRENT CAPABILITY
An external resistor, RSET, is connected to the ISET pin to set
the current to be mirrored in each of the three LED outputs.
The internal current mirror sets each LED output current with
a 100:1 ratio to the current through RSET. The current mirror
circuitry matches the current through each LED to within
0.5%. An equation for approximating the LED current is:
RSET=100 x (1.25V / IDX)
20085006
FIGURE 3. One Parallel Connected LED
Connecting outputs in parallel does not affect internal operation of the LM3570 and has no impact on the Electrical
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10
(Continued)
Characteristics and limits previously presented. The available diode output current, maximum diode voltage, and all
other specifications provided in the Electrical Characteristics
table apply to parallel output configurations, just as they do
to the standard 3-LED application circuit.
IOUT
RSET
VHEADROOM
15mA
8.35kΩ
450mV
25mA
6.25kΩ
750mV
SOFT START
Soft start is implemented internally by ramping the reference
voltage more slowly than the applied voltage. During soft
start, the current through the LED outputs and the VOUT
voltage will ramp up in proportion to the rate that the reference voltage is being ramped up.
LED HEADROOM VOLTAGE (VHR)
Three current sources are connected internally between
VOUT and D1-D3. The voltage across each current source,
(VOUT − VDX), is referred to as headroom voltage (VHR). The
current sources require a sufficient amount of headroom
voltage to be present across them in order to regulate properly. Minimum required headroom voltage is proportional to
the current flowing through the current source, as dictated by
the equation:
VHR-MIN = kHR x IDX
ENABLE / SHUTDOWN
When the voltage on the active-high-logic enable pin (EN) is
low, the LM3570 will be in shutdown. While disabled, the
LM3570 typically draws 0.1µA. When the EN pin is unconnected, the part automatically goes into shutdown due to an
internal 300kΩ pull-down resistor that is tied between EN
and GND. When the part is in shutdown, it is important to
have the PWM pin also set to ground to avoid a leakage
current resulting from an internal 300kΩ pull-down resistor
tied between the PWM pin and ground
The parameter kHR, typically 25mV/mA in the LM3570, is a
proportionality constant that represents the ON-resistance of
the internal current mirror transistors. For worst-case design
calculations, using a kHR of 30mV/mA is recommended.
(Worst-case recommendation accounts for parameter shifts
from part-to-part variation and applies over the full operating
temperature range). Figure 4 shows how output current of
the LM3570 varies with respect to headroom voltage.
PWM Pin
The PWM pin on the LM3570 is responsible for turning the
three constant current sources (D1-D3) on or off without
disabling the charge pump. This pin allows for PWM brightness control on the diode outputs without affecting whatever
load is tied to the VOUT pin. The PWM pin has an internal
300kΩ pull-down resistor that by default turns off the diode
outputs when no control signal is active.
IDx CURRENT SELECTION PROCEDURES USING THE
PWM PIN
The following procedures illustrate how to set and adjust
output current levels using the PWM pin.
Brightness Control Using PWM
1. Determine the maximum desired ILED current. Use the
IDx equation to calculate RSET
2.
20085008
FIGURE 4. ILED vs VHR
3 LEDs, VIN = 3.6V
On the flat part of the graph, the currents regulate properly
as there is sufficient headroom voltage for regulation. On the
sloping part of the graph the headroom voltage is too small,
the current sources are squeezed, and their current drive
capability is limited. Changes in headroom voltage from one
output to the next, possible with LED forward voltage mismatch, will result in different output currents and LED brightness mismatch. Thus, operating the LM3570 with insufficient
headroom voltage across the current sources should be
avoided.
CAPACITOR SELECTION
The LM3570 requires 4 external capacitors for proper operation (C1=C2=1µF, CIN = 2.2µF, COUT=3.3µF). Surface-mount
multi-layer ceramic capacitors are recommended. These capacitors are small, inexpensive and have very low equivalent
series resistance ( ≤ 10mΩ typ.). Tantalum capacitors, OSCON capacitors, and aluminum electrolytic capacitors generally are not recommended for use with the LM3570 due to
TABLE 1. IDx, RSET and VHR-MIN
kHR= 30 mV/mA (worst-case), VOUT=4.3V
IOUT
RSET
VHEADROOM
10mA
12.4kΩ
300mV
Brightness control can be implemented by pulsing a
signal at the PWM pin. LED brightness is proportional to
the duty cycle (D) of the PWM signal. For linear brightness control over the full duty cycle adjustment range,
the PWM frequency (f) should be limited to accommodate the turn-on time (TON = 100µs) of the current
sources.
D x (1/f) > TON
fMAX = DMIN ÷ TON
If the PWM frequency is much less than 100Hz, flicker
may be seen in the LEDs. For the LM3570, zero duty
cycle will turn off the LEDs and a 50% duty cycle will
result in an average ILED being half of the programmed
LED current. For example, if RSET is set to program
15mA, a 50% duty cycle will result in an average ILED of
7.5mA.
11
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LM3570
Application Information
LM3570
Application Information
PDISS=(VINx IIN) - (N(VDX x IDX) - (VOUTxIOUT))
(Continued)
Where N equals the number of active outputs, VDX is the
LED forward voltage, IDX is the current supplied to the diode
by the Dx outputs, VOUT is the LM3570 output voltage (typ. =
4.35V), and IOUT is the current draw directly from the LM370
charge pump. Power dissipation must be less than that
allowed by the package. Please refer to the Absolute Maximum Rating of the LM3570.
their high ESR, as compared to ceramic capacitors. For
most applications, ceramic capacitors with X7R or X5R temperature characteristic are preferred for use with the
LM3570. These capacitors have tight capacitance tolerance
(as good as ± 10%), and hold their value over temperature
(X7R: ± 15% over -55˚C to 125˚C; X5R: ± 15% over -55˚C to
85˚C). Capacitors with Y5V and/or Z5U temperature characteristic are generally not recommended. These types of capacitors typically have wide capacitance tolerance (+80%,
-20%), vary significantly over temperature (Y5V: +22%,
-82% over -30˚C to +85˚C range; Z5U: +22%, -56% over
+10˚C to +85˚C range), and have poor voltage coefficients.
Under some conditions, a nominal 1µF Y5V or Z5U capacitor
could have a capacitance of only 0.1µF. Such detrimental
deviation is likely to cause these Y5V and Z5U of capacitors
to fail to meet the minimum capacitance requirements of the
LM3570.
THERMAL PROTECTION
The LM3570 has internal thermal protection circuitry to disable the part if the junction temperature exceeds 150˚C. This
feature will protect the device from damage due to excessive
power dissipation. The device will recover and operate normally when the junction temperature falls below 140˚C. It is
important to have good thermal conduction with a proper
layout to reduce thermal resistance.
PCB LAYOUT CONSIDERATIONS
The LLP is a leadframe based Chip Scale Package (CSP)
with very good thermal properties. This package has an
exposed DAP (die attach pad) at the center of the package
measuring 3.0mm x 1.6mm. The main advantage of this
exposed DAP is to offer lower thermal resistance when it is
soldered to the thermal land on the PCB. For PCB layout,
National highly recommends a 1:1 ratio between the package and the PCB thermal land. To further enhance thermal
conductivity, the PCB thermal land may include vias to a
ground plane. For more detailed instructions on mounting
LLP packages, please refer to National Semiconductor Application Note AN-1187.
POWER DISSIPATION
The maximum allowable power dissipation that this package
is capable of handling can be determined as follows:
PDMax = (TJMax - TA) / θJA
Where TJMAX is the maximum junction temperature, TA is the
ambient temperature, and θJA is the junction-to-ambient
thermal resistance of the specified package. The LM3570
comes in the LLP-14 package that has a junction-to-ambient
thermal resistance (θJA) equal to 45˚C/W. This value of θJA is
highly dependant upon the layout of the PC board (See the
PCB Layout Considerations section of this datasheet for
more information). The actual power dissipated by the
LM3570 follows the equation:
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12
LM3570 Low Noise White LED Driver System
Physical Dimensions
inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted
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