Part 30 - cd3wd430.zip - Offline - Local Experience with MicroHydro Technology

Part 30 - cd3wd430.zip - Offline - Local Experience with MicroHydro Technology
iin6
BRARY
A project of Volur~teers
iti Asia
,&ocal, Experience with
HWPSSSRAT Publication
by: Uelj
Micro- Hvdro Tech,noloay
No. 11, Vol. 1
Meier
Published by:
Swiss Center for Appropriate
Varnbuelstrasse
14
CH-9000 St. Gallen
Switzerland
Paper copies
are 32 Swiss francs.
Available
from:
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Varnbuelstrasse
2.4
CH-9000 St, Gallen
Switzerland
Reproduced
Appropriate
Technology
by permission
Technology.
Technology
of the Swiss Center
for
Reproduction
of this microfiche
document in any
form is subject to the Same restrictions
as those
of the original
document.
HARNESSING
WATER FOWER ON A SMALL
SCALE
Publication No. 11, Vol. 1
Author:
Ueli Meier, St.Gall, 1981
Varnbiielstrak 14, CH-9000 St.Gallen,
Switzerland, Tel. 07 1 23 34 8I
SKAT
Schweizerische Kontaktstelle filr AngepaOte Technik am ILE,
Institut fiir Lateinamerikaforschung
und Entwicklungsrusammenarbeit an der Hochschule St.Gallen
SKAT
Centre Suisse pour la Technologie Appropri&z S 1’1LE.
Institut de Recherche SW l’Am6rique Latine et de
Cooperation au Developpement, Universit6 de Saint-Gall
SkAT
Swiss Center for Appropriate Technology at ILE,
Institute for Latin-American
Research and for Development
Co-operation, University of Saint-Gail
S KAT
Centro Suizo de Tecnologia Apropiada en el ILE,
Institute de Investigacibn sobre Amdrica Latina y
de Cooperacibn al Desarrollo. Universidad de Sankt-Gallen
Errata
PAGE
Ei
60
63
71
76
rs
99
103
105
111
112
115
11a
122
126
131
137
141
146
149
162
b
t
LINE
sheet
READS
Publ.
No. 11. Vol.
1
SHOULD READ
scarce
5b
scare
insensitive
at
unsensitive
Q = 0.15*160+Q = 0.15.160-30
footnote *
choosing
chasing
::
if
is
asynchronous
generator
inductiongencrator
Due
4j:
DU
moment of inertia
mass of intertiz.
10 t
looses
2t
loses
and keep
fig. 51 an keep
para. 2
positive
drive
10 b
postitive
drive
Shala
at
Sala
multiplied
multipled
16 t
in charge
6b
incharge
ANSALDO
ANSOLDD
5t
too high or too low
19 t
to high or to low
remain
reamin
13 t
choosing
6t
chasing
gained
12 b
made
gained
made
6,: :
us s
us t
costly
tricks
on
3t
a costly
trick
cF
(anticipating
3t
(evitating
head
heads
11 t
low labour intensive
14 t
labour extensive
were
6b
where
16 t
preceding
preceeding
12 t
of
on
which could make a
12 b
which a manufacturer
manufacturer
could make
1t
Turbomeccanica
Otisal SA have ceased to exist
means from the bottom
means from the top of the page
HARNESSIXG
WATER
Publication
POWER ON A SMALL
No. 11, Vol. I, St.Gall, 1981
LOCAL
IENCE
MICXO-HYDRO
Ueli
with
Author:
Published
by:
TECHNOLOGY
Meier,
SKAT,
the collaboration
B. Antener,
U. Meier
Photographs:
SCALE
A. Arter,
of
Jean-Max
M. Eisenring,
SKAT, Swiss Center for Appropriate
ILE, Institute
for Latin-American
Development
Cooperation,
St. Gall
Baumer,
ILE
J. Litscher,
Technology
at
Research and for
University
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Date:
Preface
In
and Acknowledgment
the
discussion
cally
a
in the
of
rural
significant
can
are
The paper
presented
field
discussed
sible
it
in
is
and different
of know-how
volumes
in
the
of the
form
is
of
less
design
which
and socially
technology
technologies
shall
construction
manuals
acceptable.
based on
and tile
approach
approaches
technological
what
rgecific
answer,
different
other
may play
quest-on
of
some specific
No doubt,
and
the
question
the
and specifi-
hydropower
is
feasible
made that
specific
small
clear,
the
give
may require
countries
that
also
to
a71 situations.
situations
Transfer
is
and
an attempt
No claim
in
developing
and economically
here
valid
What
achieve
technically
in
recognised
development.
experience.
are
situation
is widely
realistically
technologies
actual
energy
areas,
role
hydropower
the
are pos-
solutions.
be possible
in
with
the
further
same series
of
publications.
Realising
for
the
Development
on this
gies,
Cooperation
paper
on the
Nairobi
contents
are
Development
Actual
based,
has
to
(UMN).
Nepal
Shala
other
rural
the
of
been
initiated
(NIDC)
in
was
organisations
such
Aid
work
and
in
the
Engineering
Directorate
financed
the
the
work
the
with
EPFL,
Industrial
Association
United
engineering
(BEW),
Ener-
most of the
Nepal
Swiss
with
local
CEDT, ETHZ,
on which
by the
formally
Works
as ADB/N,
field,
with
hy the
has
Swiss
on New and Renewable
sponsored
and less
out
the
(DEH)
UN-conference
cooperation
carried
and Butwal
development,
Humanitarian
(SATA/HELVETAS)
t!ork
(BYS)
in
development
Corporation
Assistance
many
and
occasion
1981.
Technical
Yantra
:.c energy
importancs
the
for
Mission
firms
Balaju
cooperation
of
HTL Brugg-Windisch,
SHDB and SKAT.*
In
addition,
World
gave
mate;.ial
was used
Bank and many other
specific
permission
are
to use material
thanks
directly
or
Jean-Max
Baumer who has written
who has done all
the
ATDO, ESCAP, NEA, NRECA, OLADE, UNIDO, the
and the
sources,
Grateful
indirectly
from
acknowledged
in
typing
to
providing
the
all
Bibliographisches
from
Institut,
one of their
institutions
and individuals
and information.
chapter
on economics
Gall,
to annexe II
for abbreviations
used
who helped
Special
and to
work.
June 1981
SKAT, Swiss
Appropriate
* refer
publications.
support
St.
Mannheim,
Center for
Technology
Vreny
thanks
Knijpfler
to
-1-
HARNESSINGWATERPOWERON A SMALL SCALE
page
ABSTRAC?
1
A. INTRODUCTION
7
1. The Need to
Expand Domestic
2. Traditional
Energy
Energy
Resources
Production
in Rural
8
9
Areas
3. New Solutions
are Necessary
a) Liquid
Fuel from Biomass
b) Gaseous Fuel from Biomass
c) Direct
use of Sun and Windpower
d) Water-Power
Resources
12
B. DEVELOPMENT OF HYDROPOWERRESOURCES
1. The Unused
2. Distribution
Geographical
Hydropower
of Resource-Availability
Area
3. Characteristics
t
4. Big
a)
b)
c)
13
Potential
of Hydropower
over
14
Resources
C. SMALL HYDROPOWERIN THE RURAL
2. Rural
SITUATION
22
History
Electrification
in
Developing
Countries
25
27
31
D. A PRACTICABLE APPROACH
1. Constraints
16
17
or Small Hydro?
Big Hydropower
Small Hydropower
Summary of Conclusions
1. Past and Recent
a) Switzerland
b) China
Time and
and Problems
2. Technology
a) Water Turbines
b) Other Equipment
c) Survey and Civil
32
33
50
74
Engineering
82
E. PROJECT EXAMPLES
1. SalleriKhialsa
Micro-Hyde1
a) Scheme Details
Project,
Nepal
-II-
*
b) Power Transmission
and Use
c) Implementation
and Present
State
d) Investment
Cost
2. Bhorletar
Turbine-Irrigation
Project,
a) Organisation
and Management
b) Benefits
c) Project
Execution
d) Technical
Details
e) Investment
Cost
3. Nam Dang Hydro-Electric
a) Technical
Details
b) Investment
Cost
Project,
Nepal
Thailand
F'. ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS
1. Basic Approach
a) Cost-Benefit-Approach
for Socio-Ecorzic
Seli.:.tion
b) Constraints
on the Selection
of Energy-Sources
c) Concluding
Remarks on Decision-Criteria
2. Micro-Hydropower
a) Experience
b) Experience
c) Experience
d) Experience
with
with
with
with
and larger
Tangible
Tangible
Tangible
Intangible
3. Micro-Hydra
Plants
and other
a) General Remarks
b) Oil Fuels
c) Wood an Dung
d) Biogas
e) Liquefied
Biomass
f) Solar and Wind Power
Hydropower Plants
Internal
Costs
Internal
Benefits
External
Costs and Benefits
Costs and Benefits
Alternatives
6. ASPECTS OF TECHNOLOGYTRANSFER AND
1. Policies
and Institutions
a) Tasks and Responsibilities
b) Which Institutional
Arrangement
c) A Country
Example
d) The Need for Training
2. Finance
DISSEMINATION
is
Best?
148
-III-
ANNEXE I:
Alphabetical
Index
ANNEXE II:
Glossary
ANNEXE III:
Alphabetical
ANNEXE IV:
Alphabetical
involved
in
ANNEXE V:
Standard
of Abbreviations
Manufacturer's
List
Hydro
Energy
152
of Bibliography
157
used
159
List
of Institutions
Development
& Power Conversions
and Organisations
163
168
-l-
ABSTRACT
Introduction
Most
developing
resources
is
depend
a parallel
because
fuel
cost
cits
of
such countries
the
very
medium
scale
in
ity
is
have
tricity
in
affair
and economically
is
high,
area.
are
In
In
near
rural
tries
live,
far
high-grade
energy
as
unit
sites
tion
is
area
- often
to
of
there
and
increasing,
payment
defi-
in
over
feasible.
urban
too,
long
the
of
prevalent
reason
distances
consumers
to
to
industry.
the
existing
where
of electricof
scattered
in
often
low,
small
developing
coun-
settlements
are
requires
less
style
dwellers.
Industrial
activities
electricity
from
such
demand
large
terrainover
density
industries
small-scale
and difficult
exist.
a relatively
people
why supply
a costly
population
demand.
Thus,
elecnet-
centres
a large
city
po-
distribution
load
life
and
MW capacity)
therefore
large
simple
compared
confined
is
water
of
form
and
very
of
Some big
energy-intensive
the
is
form
quantities
demand in
represents
capita
of
in
areas
and
density
and the
portion
domestic
such a worsen-
the
hundreds
where
large-scale
generally
to
in
untapped.
consumers
a majority
per
low
the
a high
many low-demand
economically
balance
The large
possible
and cottage
is
always
transmission
to
and the
agroprocessing
of
complex
population
energy
demand
Since
are
in
energy
installations.
This
apart
grade
be found
where
few
A small
only
areas.
the
(a
countries.
most
areas,
frequently
schemes
creating
urban
fuel
development
themselves
remained
to
addition,
find
extent
electricity
thus
the
a large
require
usually
energy.
oil)
resources
such
Bringing
are
own fossil
and.economic
(mainly
that
and high
works.
These
consumption
energy
their
primary
natural
used thus,
produced
of
major
these
produced
possess
are growing.
to
of
not
and consequently
hydropower
all
is
bills
possess
that
exist
energy
same countries
situation
power,
do
on imports
imported
energy
tential
rural
situation
for
yearly
ing
large hydro
costly
transmission
between
prices
that
heavily
the
Often
hydro
potential
countries
a large
per
generating
and distribuarea,
is
not
-2-
The
consequence
supply
of
to
of
rural
these
this
unfavourable
areas
areas
has
situation
is
that
a great
so far
not
benefitted
regarding
proportion
from
electricity
of
the
the
population
amenities
of elec-
tricity.
energy
Up to and sometimes
more tnan
consumption
of
agro-waste
biomass
energy
(wood,
requirements
such
agro-processing
alone,
ventional
to
fuel
provide
least
these
8
584 kWh per
ures ,of
or
of
143
for
suitable
cooking
energy
tions
as
energy
economic
India
3!
Lastly,
equipment
or
Compared
the
for
terms,
form
thermal
households
and in
for
of
five
would
day.
Or,
for
with
- which
the
cooking
then
need
cooking
possesses
large
that
at'
alone,
1976 consumption
, one may conclude
-
for
besides
high
costs
(hot-plates,
rural
even
it
as electricity
involves
sector
mainly
in
absolute
per
speaking,
cooking.
necessary
used
in
fig-
industries
such
-
a gale
of
be unrealistic.
such
also
for
Nepal
scientifically
grade
unsuitability
energy
for
for
In
a family
and year.
kWh/c.y.
would
Moreover,
cooking
transpor-
electric
11 kWh/c.y.
development
not
quoted
capita
is
is
1000 to 4000 kWh per capita
and year in con2) If electricity
is supposed
in literature.
requirements,
kWh of
consumed
and heating
curing).
from
is
etc. 1 which
as cooking
(drying,
a requirement
of energy
90 %I'
is
practice
such
low-grade
high
generating
on
the
part
good quality
-
transportation
practical
bad
of
the
agricultural
draft
high
applica-
costs,
electric
consumer
+ pans).
electricity
This
use
thermal
pots
proposition.
to
is
includes
for
In another
also
the
net:
an
transport
tation
of people
and goods
by road,
port
excludes
perhaps
but
possibly
domain of
small hydro
ropeway
The domain
impact
2)
see
3)
Data
For
small
on development
from
full
hydropower
is
in
Energy
ESCAP,
Needs
Electric
bibliographical
can
domestic
Eiomasse 11, p 11, + Reddy,
Palmedo,
passing
through
rural
trans-
areas
and
systems.
where
1) see gate,
railways
power and river
Rural
potentially
lighting
Energy
have
and in
Centres,
Power
data
in Asia . . . 1976, p 15
see alphabetical
index,
annexe
providing
p 110 ff.
. . . p 74 ff.
I
an important
sta-
-3-
tionary
motive
wood
ing,
power
and metal
While
and weaving.
neration
mechanical
use
diesel
sets
of
of
power
the
of
small
In
regions
history
for
movers
(typically
decades.
dividual
for
engines)
and
farms
of
machinery.
in
recent
years
in the
Small
and
large
hydro
on the
one
diesel
sets,
on the
other.
such
as costly
transmissions
large
hydro,
and dependence
very
maintenance
nessing
of
itself
management,
and the
There
are
today
all
highly
ment
in
developed
has
a history
manufacturing
4)
the
Invention
P 32
hand
been
gears
and
belt
by a look
and the
of
role
electricity
fuelled
installed
over
rural
communities
more
often,
perhaps
have
found
economics,
schemes
prime
the
last
and in-
motive
it
more
mainly
power
and more
due
to
the
advantages
of
of
and the
technology
local
local
small
case
need for
Moreover;
of
highly
the
har-
nature,
implementation
mainly
hydro
turbine
highly
150 years.
1827, see also
the
based
and
on self-
resources.
hydraulic
is
in
a decentralised
possible
have evolved
in
of
utilisation,
hardware
more than
plants.
being
Modern
and the
as with
disadvantages,
issues
fuel
diesel
of
supply,
have many of the
on imported
case
the
power
and environmental
development
world.
combine
an decentralised
many thousands
of Fourneyron
oil-derivate
They do not
the
rural
of
many
mair,tain
use of natural,
fact
over
or
decentralised
making
transmission
for
hydro-resources,
to
ge-
same source
illustrated
the
have
hydropower
in
small
the
of fuel.
small
skilled
reliance
cost
for
Operators
to
rises
the
via
is
spinning
with
in Switzerland
electricity
sharp
lends
conventional
tech..ology
diesel
kinds
difficult
small hydra
system
provide
that
directly
This
fibre
time.
explained,
These
as water-pump-
concerned
be recognised
industrialisation
that
uses
textile
is
tasks
reasons
plantations
all
must
economically.
no grid
the
milling,
discussion
mechanical
during
where
the
it
early
hydropower
productive
grain
of
more
of
exists
few
much
often
diverse
working,
perform
very
at
such
electricity,
can
drives,
for
in
plants
operation
techno7r;gy
dependable.
4) Sophisticated
industrialised
Wilson,
in
Engineering
is
its
very
developdesign
countries
Heritage
and
over
Vol.
1,
-4-
the
last
efficiencies,
or
which
less
such
it
Again,
in
Small
installations
hydro
is
tal
often
cost
of
economics
to
simpler
the
unit
of
in
higher
large
As far
technology
tends
schemes where
for
which
the
economic
installed
scale
or
For
is
either
in
con-
expensive.
possible,
of
large
a much higher
without
reasons
very
more
are
technology
increase
these
1 percent
viability
have
8 significant
technology.
be
sophisticated
capacity,
conversion
as costs
to
down indiscriminately,
of
and higher
schemes where
capacity.
big
scaled
per
ac::ieve
MW of
sophisticated
is
to
makes sense
may mean several
cerned,
scaled uown
large hydra
The aim is
40 years.
the
advantage
capacity
a different
capi-
compared
approach
is
necessary.
issue of the
paper
The
prime
issue
the
development
micro-hydro
available
know-how
for
of
hydropower
the
use of
utmost
Emph:isis
is
this
local
lead
to
sory
than
a more
appropriate
required
principles
of
use
where
are
and
other
explained
the
Cross-Flow
the
is
with
scale
(e.g.
relatively
well
should
reduce
of
using
local
make
simple
construction
capital
large-scale
developed
almost
costs
as far
technology,
this
local
of
using
technology
explained.
machines,
and differences
turbine
are
the
the
art
For
of
of
for
with
of
stands
this
turbine
parts
effort
and accesproblems
of
civil
understanding
types
Also,
in
the
are described
most important
out.
Swiss
with
components,
all
better
pointed
propagated
basis
and installation
basics
the
Nepal
activities
ready-made
in planning
the
in
simultaneous
countries,
of
are
know-how,
use of
upgrading
addition,
hydraulic
of
implementation
to
down
The state
and experience
struction
aim is
(Michell-Banki),
in.
In
end
be achieved
stage.
possibilities
documented.
can
technology
how its
scaling
dissemination.
encountered,
and
Rather
type
design,
and
The
cooperation,
further
lower
and the
turbines
technical
the
can be made locally,
schemes at a later
Cross-Flow
at
available
and techniques.
may
show what
currently
materials
possible.
to
100 kW), which
use of
that
as
is
resources.
equipment
at
paper
purpose,
on the
same turbine
difference
with other
turbines
this
up to approx.
developed
larger
Cross-Flow
turbines
of
in
relation
conof
the
in current
order
to
to
see
output
-cj-.
local
potential
capacity
and
turbines,
respective
At
sight
first
the
in
all
filtration
the
over
a period
data
over
of
therefore
non-scien-
tific
approach
to
time.
for
For
It
can
necessary
The
of
infra-
surface
power
economics
water
The economics
with
sources
other
factors
with
interest
is
energy
investment
and the
high
fixed
costs
produced,
making
the
degree
interrelate
factors
briefly
how
to
and
investment
determine
others
analysed.
that
are
cases
under
in-
important
fac-
fluctuation.
discharge
good topographical
investigation
there
the
of
evaporation,
rivers,
Careful
even
deveiopment
is
risk
such
must
no choice
involved
but
should
circumstances
the
feasible.
workshops
and/or
indicators
relatively
interest
nor
estab-
a function
other
small
whereby
that
local
and
for
water
resources.
of renewable
sources
various
hydropower
of
the
operation
economic
viability.
be expressed
issue.
are
compared
to other
of
a critical
In
in
and
put.
resuit
quantity
cost
and
energies
therefore
utilisation
cost,
cannot
of
other
depreciation
plant
harnessing
in
a central
independent
of
the
tradition
are naturally
to, which
high
a local
technological
with
end-use
relatively
shown
exist,
In most
the
but
in
mountains).
and its
all
interest.
a comparison
is
not
obvi-
sites,
for
are
where
resulting
identify
area,
hydropower
Capital
is
if
mostly
resources.
It
social
are
of small-scale
conventional
Initial
metal
irrigation
can be initiated
Of prime
comparison
small
is
rain
(hills,
discharge
be shown that
of projects
structure
river
as to
speaking,
runoff
approach
implementation
existence
roughly
do not
projects.
a non-scientific
be understood.
small
resources:
of
costs
catchment
of
hydro
to
compare
most,
regions
all
ilable
question
deal
difficult
is,
the
the
topography
surface
period
all
precede
take
of
is
an extended
a great
;Ind
the
speed
to
small
a suitable
of
criterion
maps available
with
River-flow
and the
The main
answer
may prove
size
commercially-ava
developing
potential
sites.
and
for
and with
generating
alternative
tors.
a simple
it
to
are given.
countries
however,
reality,
rainfall
of
those
In
the
is
may exist
runoff,
of
lack
graphs
substantial
lish
compared
there
potential
ously
data
efficiency,
monetary
energy
factor.
plant
addition,
in
factor
social
terms
are
-6-
measures
for
development
+ dissemin.
identification
The
dissemination
of
of
the
institutions
and training
use
of
cerning
water
the
transfer
of
areas
of
financing
financing
of
the
items
financing
of
participation
plied,
or
are
the
calling
aspects
fomenting
local
of
operation
projects,
to
of
to
is
In the
it
In
solve
area
of
appears
addition,
<ymposia
common problems
financing,
of
methods
and
tariff
project
and
last
affect
sittiations
of financing.
information
not
lending
or
project
tend
least,
the
packages
local
structure
financing
to
and
flow,
policies,
the
the
financing
or regional
system
in
planning
the
but
installations
that
the
maintenance;
and
Insti-
and capacity
surveying,
components,
the
factors
Individual
know-how
missions;
Grant
are considered:
technology
hydropower
projects.
specific
maintenance
and specific
again
equipment,
transfer
problem-solving
a number
other.
for
different
of
in
of
necessary.
networks
with
levels
networks,
efforts,
manufacturing
of
all
and
is
con-
are dealt
activities.
know-how
governing
of mistakes.
individual
a number
towards
cooperatives
at
information
development
for
related
and
of 'the
information
duplication
training
operation
part
existing
of financing
training
of
of
coordinate
avoid
of
and specific
and regional
construction
project
as an essential
documentation
to
importance
construction,
technology
international
ins.titutional
The
as the
and
questions
community,
here
tutional
institutional
local
quoted.
step
such as policies
as well
stressed
On matters
first
enterprise
transfer
financing
development
authorities,
technology
and to
the
levels,
and tariffs,
planning,
help
is
the
local
manufacture,
will
technology
on different
licences
promoting
of government,
examples
that
for
involvement
and private
and
hydropower
Issues
implementation.
measures
be
apone way
diverse,
-7-
A, INTRODUCTION
7. THE NEED TD EXPAND DOMESTIC ENERGY PRODUCTION
Countries
that
energy
production
energy
(mainly
the
oil
large
depend
on
imports
due
to
the
oil).
import
bill
external
of
sharp
This
is
adds
every
energy
rise
are
(see
particularly
compelled
fig.
1)
so for
year
to
the
in
to
step
up domestic
the
cost
of
developing
problem
of
imported
countries,
financing
where
an already
deficit.
1j pr hfd
30
Fiq.
i
1:
Petroleum
Source:
Prices
World
developing
Bank
1972330
1980,
Energy
in
the
countries
01
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
1972
73
74
7s
76
77
70
79
J. OPEC government
s&s prws wcy,htcd
OPEC output.
b Deflated by manufactured
export prlccs.
Today,
energy
tion
-
ment
efforts.
land,
produced
should
labour
This
be treated
depletable
and the
is
future.
resources
possess
cheap.
no single
not
only
as
switch
Their
- in
of
for
the
priority
away from
such
or
energy
and the
potentials
is
quickly
questions
that
have
on oil.
remained
becoming
of
of
also
producdevelop-
for
energy
energy
supply
resources
can
are
inevitable.
could
development
but
conventional
is
b\
and general
energy
resources
00
factors
activities
because
dependence
that
classical
imported
technology
reduce
the
future,
a second
to
development
in
with
economic
applies
resource
necessary
considerable
importance
Now and
Conservation
are
in
and capital
domestically.
no longer
There
rank
I
of
replace
oil
in
all
new and
Many developing
unexploited
economically
viable
the
near
renewable
countries
while
now,
oil
was
but
not
all
resources
relevant
long
lend
technologies
gestation
times
environmental
A second
traditionally
supply
sumption
their
size
in
lev,els
consumed
of
in
U.S.
300
to
points
different
(wand.
growth,
where
and
(e.g.
of
satisfy
rural
kilograms
of
appropriate
and areas
people
use 90 %
- The remaining
p ple
less than 40 %. 93
7)
see
Palmedo,
are
energy
p 68
in
based
is
even
developing
on national
higher.
p XIV
to
use
and can be summarised
- 270 Million
referred
of
of
has far
environment.
equivalent
of
the
per
purposes
and data
reaching
.
con-
countries
to
amount
capita
village
Energy
according
figure
endan-
traditional
part
requirements
widely
energy
use 70 %
study
system
is
of fuel-
replaced,
in developing
vary
traditional
people
the
is
population
reference
are met with
- 160 Million
6)
The
rural
for
requirements
of
Palmedo,
coal
and diversion
consumption)
the
energy,
residues),
much an integral
subsistence
use 50 %
from
others,
biomass
agricultural
5)
increased
of the
people
cited
very
and
of
kerosene
life.
life
- 800 Mil'lion
5)
have
per
a study
of
energy
year
although
(kg
condi-
are available
only
cases.
rural
of traditional
dung,
An approximate
countries
given
supplies
more expensive
remains
A.I.D?
environments
The figures
others
on still
deforestation
village
use
seems
a few specific
centage
areas
majority
400
different
the
stage,
of
acceptability.
rural
supported
to
figure
Most of
A number
sophistication,
diminishing
aspects
the
by
This
ce/cy).
and
from
energy
only
is
exploitation.
experimental
coming
was
on other
commissioned
easy
or
political
cities,
which
change
sufficient
from
to
Population
always
consequences
tions
due
most
to
ecosystem
Any
are
research
limit
in
wood and charcoal
life.
the
simultaneously.
energy
and
in
crisis,
used
the
quick
ENERGY RESOURCES IN RURAL AREAS
energy
emerging
to
are
constraints
2. TRADITIONAL
ger
themselves
is:
Palmed0
...
traditional
in
energy
relation
to
total
resources.
energy
Pervary
in
as follows:
countries
averages,and
use around
for
rural
or
areas
the
share
-9-
Commercial
energy
used
high
such
as petrol,
port
and agricultural
duce
motive
used
typically
Attempts
been
is
to
dramatically
animal
a much
greater
costs
of
and
for
its
it
grain-
oil-derivates
goes
to
uses are
the
lighting
of motive
Very
form,
to
(kero-
power to
farms
industry.
trans-
pro-
and plansuch
often
run
all
kinds
of
and saw-mills.
todays
which
of
and individual
mechanical
for
traditional
cost
of
petroleum
suffering
based
important
cottage
products
by
are
if
i,he form
Much of
communities
pumps,
energy,
-
Other
in
petroleum
extent,
electrification
creasing
rural
undermined
and human
in
and kerosene.
industries
water
mainly
LNG, LPG)* and provision
directly
substitute
is
sector.
isolated
agro-based
power
machinery,
diesel
(kerosene,
for
small
areas
traction
electricity
tations,
rural
speed
cooking
sene lamps),
in
oil.
forms
Transport
products
a reversal
on oil-derivate
-
energy
have
and traction
by
substituted
to
had been
in
fuel
of
many
also
regions,
has
to
and
deal
rural
with
in-
supply.
3. NEW SOLUTIONS
ARE NECESSARY
Energy
problems
variable
mix
for.
There
of
is
servation,
are
scope
that
The
can
improving
of
a number
ethanol
cially
well
state
for
balance
effective
with
of
needs
of the
art
LNG
= Liquid
case
rural
lot
better
- consisting
- seems to
ecosystems
management,
devices
and
it
of the
is
major
a
be called
the
conuse
of
as more efficient
have
perhaps
of
through
and
such
new technologies
biomass
to
liquid
in
the
for
developing
established
of
carbohydrate
is
scare
emerged
worthwhile
in the
to
give
a
possibilities:
technology.
materials
Natural
Gas, LPG = Liquid
Petroleum
not
new.
It
fuel.
It
holds
The production
countries.
from
(ethyl-alcohol),
fuel
certain
types
Ethanol
is
such
*
solution
each
of
wood
Various
as a substitute
application
larly
a unique
from biomass:
World-War
distillation
the
may be enhanced
meet
fuel
and
and technologies
and charcoal-kilns.
conversion
Second
indeed,
and
summary of the
a) Liauid
for
for
energy
cooking-stoves
short
resources
reforestation
traditional
past
manifold
Gas
of
alcohol,
biomass,
cane,
during
considerable
of
produced
as sugar
was used
by
is
promise
particua commer-
fermentation
sugar
beet,
the
and
molasses
-lO-
and cassava.
with
only
tion
of
near
minor
ethanol
power
vehicles
either
can
subctitute
for
engine
modifications.
in
transport
difficult
the
to
It
could
use as a vehicle
volume
help
to reduce
alcohol,
produced
and does
fuel,
or blended
an equal
thus
Methyl
sector.
by itself
not
hold
of
the
with
petrol
consump-
from
wood,
promise
for
the
future.
economics
greatly
of
on the
efficiency
sess
of
the
derived
for
be used to
limits,
petroleum
more
The
can
Within
petrol.
is
It
alcohol
cost
of
biomass
production
prospects
alcohol
arable
production
and to
for
Great
well
but
cost.s,
the
direct
be taken
established
being
it
The biggest
is
must
very
R + D is
reduce
scale
care
not
material.
a breakthrough.
on a large
land.
are
is
done
still
to
to
early
of using
with
upset
improve
too
constraint
competition
not
and depend
food
the
to asbiomass-
production
an already
precarious
balance.
b) Gaseous fuel
Biogas,
from biomass:
a mixture
anaerobic
(in
It
wastes.
the
can
engine
be used
only.
exist
worldwide
varying
are
reduced
poorer
Although
India,
of
success.
economics
is
waste,
research
on biogas
material
from
which
a big
its
and
often
has
potential
in
use as a "free"
funds
are
required
the
prospects
no access
aquatic
weeds
feedstock
is
to
produced
to
range
(water
not
make biogas
small
operation
for
the
of
retains
of
Their
temperature
firewood.
adaptation
Millions
Nepal).
the
and human
demand for
is
soil.
from
plant
little
biogas
climates,
in
animal,
the
with
Korea,
In cold
best
of
to the
South
are
a population
there
vegetable
the
can be produced
reducing
cooking,
may be run
(China,
since
of
in
(CH4),
decomposition
and can be returned
levels
part
oxygen)
directly
Moreover,
as a fertilizer
with
of
engines
value
More
absence
combustion
Also,
55 - 65 % methane
containing
the
the'
its
plants
has met
application
25 - 35"
necessary
C. The
feedstock.
hyacinth)
and other
developed
to
any extent.
a viable
alternative
in
many more situations.
combustion
Partial
hulls,
produces
value.
It
use
in
gas
could
can
of wood or materials
a gaseous
be burned
combustion
be viable
engines,
mixture
for
such
(wood-gas,
thermal
energy
The production
much more widely
in
as straw,
producer-gas)
with
applications,
or
and use of
rural
nutshells,
areas,
both
given
bark
or rice
a low calorific
if
biogas
funds
filtered,
for
and producer
for
research
and
incentives
development,
for
experimentation
and
effective
dissemination
mechanisms.
c) Direct
Solar
use of sun and windpower
and windpower
veloping
countries.
ticularly
water
Machines
to
that
A firm
pumping
produce
Windpower
the
wind
for
the
Water
kind
properly
of existing
heating
technically,
by
and many others
hot
heat
water
use in
collectors
is
for
for
small
that
areas.
outputs
small
must be taken
machine
Par-
rural
and isolated
and care
the
to
-
Solar
for
solar
for
(up
consumto assess
has been designed
water
their
heaters
crops
in
most
Solar
ready
application.
own solar
are often
purposes.
drying
technology
widespread
manufacture
and industrial
heat
cells,
well
promise
price
remote
projects.
de-
regime.
begun
domestic
technology
for
-
Some
water
heaters
an economical
source
dryers
agriculture
that
basically
and are
already
in
a number of countries.
Photovoltaic
appear
for
energy
windpower
for
optimised
a suitable
do so.
can provide
air,
highly
and commercially
could
for
are
and to choose
have
of renewable
and effective
resource
plate
countries
exists
alternative
wind
flat
source
be an erratic
economically
developing
a simple
best
to
a third
basis
electricity
tends
regime
are
technical
is
5 kWj and may be the
ers.
of
technologies
which
suited
to
life
and
long
levels
on
falling
but
it
happen.
For
its
order
of
difficult
to
costs
it
needs
exist
low
power
electricity
for
water
of early
1981 - to
pumping
be viable
has
developing
in
countries
Solar
say when the
big
cost
only
in
locations.
water,
alternative
at
cells
are
applications
appears
they
still
breakthrough
The use of
irrigation)
no other
because
is
photovoltaic
prospects
electricity,
electricity
of
remote
where
into
kWh. Costs
good
(drinking
only
directly
operation.
$ 2 per
high
energy
in
trouble-free
s-till
relatively
solar
many applications
the
is
convert
will
where
photovoltaic
- at
prices
exists.8)
d) Water power resources:
For
many developing.
considerable
8) Material
potential.
countries,
unused
The technology
water
is
power
well
used from: World Bank, Energy in the Developing
resources
constitute
developed
and plays
Countries,
New York 1980
a very
an important
-12-
role
worldwide.
other
sources
"The
historical
tional
of flowing
sources
many countries
of
the
to
power
the
rural
The rest
countries.
a practicable
of
appears
to
suitable
sites
unequal
along
rivers
internal
and
sectors."
users
-
either
direct
or
experience
exists
harness
devoted
water
widely
applied
or often
power
conven-
systems.
field
of
through
Thus,
providing
alternative
(in
exists
to
other
and
developing
elaboration
scale
potential
-
of
and to the
on a small
mo-
electricity
a number
this
wherever
superior
the
from
to
of
growth,
and also,
a disin9; On the other hand, small
in
is
expansion
centralised
mainly
paper
the
large-scale
resource
to
be a viable
stresses
useful
this
but
size),
of
recent
approach
installation
to
planning
and non-commercial
Cons i derable
lighting.
limited
generally,
problem
stationary
to
is
energy
and,
may be a very
po,tentials
tive
face
it
water.
approach
energy
tegration
lly
Geographica
of
relation
to
and where
it
energy
sources.
B, DEVELOPMENT
OF HYDROPOWER
RESOURCES
Simple
water-wheels
some forms
steam
of
power
resource
the
the
many regions
land,
first
than
half
of
or
Zurich
installations
one
to
abundant
were
450
hydropower
nineteenth
century,
comprising
operating
HP and
also
about
the
long
before
use
of
the
40 turbines
use
this
man of
advent
of
of the
consider-
natural
energy
of the
soon
turbines.
industrialisation
entirely
year
the
emerged
by water
resources,
relieve
invention
industries
of
to
and the
with
powered
an area
by
times
The
small
America,
ent
water-wheels
developed.
The first
and North
alone,
but
and more widespread
1800's.
the
large
aI,-
in
Much later,
highly
easier
with
already
building
was
of Europe
used
labour.
of
early
a country
canton
450
art
capacities
in
been
manual
became even
turbine
the
hard
engine,
able
have
water-
after
in
In Switzerbegan
in
based
less
lSO0,
with
on hydropower.
In the
2
than 2000 km , more than
with
capacities
capacities
from
less
greater
than
in
hydro-
450 HP.")
In
later
9) Cited
years,
from:
10) Information
when
cheap
UNCNRSE Conference
from
Abteilung
oil
News
fiir'
became available
5,
worldwide,
1981
Landeshydrographie,
Berne
1914
interest
,
-13-
power
was lost
different
to
again.
sundry
a great
Governments,
institutions
still
identification
related
and
- to
does
the
of
to
extent
hydro
in
many
areas,
policy-makers,
individuals
new sites
of
and
today
funding
take
reassessment
but
and
a growing
many projects
potentials,
lending
interest.
once
and
the
situation
is
agencies
and
This
found
a number
not
of
led
-
and
feasible;
other
the
activities
development.
1. THE UNUSED HYDROPOWER
POTENTIAL
An international
worked
out,
commission
inter
alia,
established
by the
an objective
analysis
Energy
Conference
world
of the
in
hydraulic
1974,
resources.
I
M
- ITotal
Fig.
World
1
2,2OO,OOOl-%
Generating Capacity
2:
World Total
Installable
Installed
Capability
and
NRECA, Small hydroelectric
Source:
powerplants,
Washington
1980
Asia
South
America
Afh.3
North
America
U.S.S.R.
2
t
Eumpe
Ocea
The
results
17 % of
in
the
global
tential
same
studies
potential
in
amounts
these
runoff
struction
yearly
of
or
to
more
than
regions
of
planned,
2,2
production
amount
considered
is
various
of
show that
and the
mfllion
potential
electrical
MW and
of
hydropower
reasonably
developable
eight-fold).
the
world
amount
has
nearly
energy
Figure
and the
remaining.
-
at
thermal
so far
(the
amounts
plants
con-
capacity
- a theoretical
eiectrical
with
hydropo-
under
developable
factor
GWh of
around
energy
the
developed,
The total
is
theoretical
2 illustrates
a 50 % plant
10 miliion
in
developed
la
oil
energy.
as
fuel
The
would
14-
require
If
approximately
this
amounted
that
is
compared
to
around
hydropower
tries,
40 million
to
of
ing.
All
lent
per
resources
about
these
world
are
possess
countries
barrels
per
very
substantial
barrels
OF RESOURCEAVAILABILITl’
The
graphical
presentation
not
show how distribution
two main
factors
determine
amount of water
the
be made to
or
that
fall
constant.
sity,
distribution
evaporation,
ticular
rivers
and duration
a part
evaporates
from
and
of
and the
the
returns
coune.g.
magnitude
fuels
is
of
(oil,
oil
the
strikequiva-
gas and coal)
into
is
to
at
the
ground,
which
the
also
by
(in
mm/year)
are
that
the
of
it
remains
of the
inten-
of
direct
of
land
overland
the
par-
Runoff
soil.
by the
to
can
situation
area
the
site:
water
a function
atmosphere
sea
There
specific
result
- powered
the
of
topographical
a direct
capacity
in
any
Once developed,
is
2 does
time.
height
but
field-moisture
fig.
and over
vertical
dams.
hand
cycle
in
in
sun - water
were
and
it
pre-
subterranean
c
Area-wise
distribution
cation
of
of
world.
the
11) Calculated
p 17
1
12)
Data
from
13)
From
World
*
developing
barrels
potential
rainfall,
back
the
due to the
sea and moves through
thence
day,
regions
and the
other
hydrologic
the
routes.
the
the
infiltration
basin,
becomes evident
potential,
potentials
means of
of
which
OVER TIME AND GEOGRAPHICAL AREA
unit
on the
it
For
million
generating
by
flow
transpiration,
is
time
art i ficially
Water
drainage
cipates,
per
per
(head) . Head may be. natural
may be created
fairly
flow
12)
1980,
carbonic
within
the
products,
installable
continent-wise
is
pertroleum
indeed.
2,54
from
2. DISTRIBUTION
course
in
oil
consumed
11)
day.
of
day
of
electricity
of
per
60 %* of the
together
produce
of oil
consumption
almost
24 million
day, to
13)
1980.
during
the
70 million
who together
equivalent
barrels
Calculated
of
river
geographical
It
appears
at an
Bank,
from
situation
that
“oil-to-electricity’t
Grainger,
Digest
A
Energy
fig.
2
runoff
in the
of
of
regions
around
conversion
. . . p 23,
hydro
World
. . . p 63,Washington
the
efficiency
Energy
1980
in
fig.
resources
in
aequator,
of
Conference,
3 gives
the
various
Central
approx.
38 %, see
Istanbul
an indi-
1977
America
parts
and
also NRECA,
~Rcnc
-7.
( ICE -COVERED
I OCEAN
-
600 - 1000 mm
200 - 600 mm
Fiq.
3:
World
Distribution
source:
AFIBIO,
parts
of
Vol.
3,
runoffs.
Central
Asia,
runoff
in
higher
runoff,
the
prime
interest.
It
water
to
slight
the
generate
to
as
the
those
flow
Runfoff
1974:
The
large
Global
parts
context
far
of
of
short-,
is
power
below
in
hydropower
regime,
already
mentioned.
the
These
to
that
time
seasons,
suitable
America
have
(Sahel,
Sahara),
as well
areas
are
For
long-term
Generally
most
Africa
America,
pattern
i.e.
North
potential.
and
relation
weather
are
northern
average.
local
Circulation
and
North
medium-
this
FreshMater
Europe
and western
is
variations
in mm/year
northern
Asia,
In
terest
such
3-4,
Australia
America,
subject
No.
South-East
average
and
of River
little
with
variations
speaking,
of
perennial
hydropower
no in-
flow
and
are
of
availability
Such
and a multitude
or
Africa
average
of
the
and duration.
for
of
than
Arabia,
as southern
areas
determines
higher
variations
other
rivers
development.
of
are
factors
with
High
runoff
variations,
tremes
such
technical
on the
as
only
other
seasonal
constraints
hand,
make harnessing
runoff
on possible
and
floods
more‘difficult,
impose
and ex-
serious
economic
and
sites
are
utilisation.
3. CHARACTERISTICS OF HYDROPOWER
RESOURCES
Perhaps
the
alike.
most
geological
unique.
It
tential
exists.
is
generating
eration
cent
tial
that
true
the
it
considerably
liable
developing
runoff
Unlike
th.e
data
simple,
technologies
and very
equipment
kW upto
reliable.
the
operation
hundreds
Hydro
plants
through
the
uses.
of MW for
turbine,
It
is
it
conventional
with
is
impacts.
very
thermal
is
high
power
period
with
the
po-
away
from
the
were
gen-
situated
adja-
power transmission
of
hydro
poten-
630
many
no heat
a single
characteristic
in
is
that
only
new and other
well
(as e.g.
plants
develop-
possible
rewith
years).
is
is
topographi-
on hydropower
capability
hydropower
hydropower
renewable
developed,
relatively
in combustion)
rare.
is
Experience
output
ranges
energy
involved,
is
from
considera-
less
than
one
unit.
generators
available
of
again
energy
efficiencies,
in
This
power.
(although
technology
From the
plants.
where
and to some extent
a specific
power
with
a non-polluting
environmental
technology
long
non-consuming
are
installation
electricity
value
constraint
and malfunctioning
of
far
Before
economic
data
It
firm
Because
life
the
a severe
associated
associated
has a long
with
place
a very
are
with
environments.
possible
over
equipment
sources,
that
countries.
of
be harnessed
mechanical
only
together
make each
on hydropower
hydrological
detail
that
considerable.
because
obvious
long-term
predictability
accurate
ble
in
is
potential
concerned,
consumers
relying
in different
accurate
mainly
are
site,
river
must
likely
activities
no two
variables
resources
costs
generating
maps of insufficient
ment,
hydro
that
of the
are
where
all
Therefore
of
site
situations
use,
is
and volume
the
transmission
near
varies
The lack
tive
also
came into
or
regime
of
site,
to
characteristic
condition
In
was possible.
other
flow
Topography,
the
cal
particular
is
Once
at
a lower
which,however,
conversion
most
due
to
the
has
of
more than
fact
that
passed
elevation)
may have
point
cases
water
for
some nega-
view,
it
is
a
double
that
of
a volume
of
water
that
can
which
can
more
generate
The
ly
easily
of
resource
smaller
than
during
the
time
of
thermal
which
are
largely
in
the
kinetic
rotary
power
energy
needed
to
energies.
in
hydropower
to
this
!and
low
and
inflation
has not
disadvantage
variable
relatively
to outside
development
Now
many instances
unsensitive
represents
mechanical
of cheap oil.
due
plants,
distance,
into
intensity
and outweighs
costs
a vertical
caloric
capital
high
fall
be converted
electricity,
fact
this
be made to
is
probably
stable
and other
favoured
relative-
rising)
fuel
operating
costs,
factors.
4. BIG OR SMALL HYDRO?
Definition*:
There
all
is
ernment,
plants
a capacity
B
generic
term for all
ty and specific
term
B
plant
B
all
capacity
plants
considerable
argument
in
and
industry
found
more easily,
Before
an answer
teristics
with
if
is
of each
with
about
among the
a second
attempted
and at basic
from
is
1000 kW (1 MW)
plants
with 1000 kW or less capac
for the range from 501 to 1000 kW:
101 to 500 kW
a capacity
this
of 100 kW or less
question
general
question
it
of more than
is
on different
public.
asked:
worthwhi!e
differences
levels
An answer
application
looking
between
gov-
can probably
in which
at
the
in
the
context?
specific
two groups
be
charac-
of plant
size.
a) Big Hydropower
Big
hydropower
such
as roads
long
high-tersion
a great
stations
(during
of
sive
large
industry.
Big
plants
are
The
prises.
* Definitions
per
however,
giving
the
systems
individual
usually
skill
of
a nature
construction)
grid
number
are
owned
several
different
between
requires
access
and an extensive
consumers
requirements
border-line
and
that
and
in
to
by
management,
power
big
infrastructure
market,
distribution
and supplies
operated
a big
a good
resulting
system.
It
in
serves
to electricity-inten-
companies
or
administration,
ranges
call be found
in literature.
In
big and small at 1 MW seems appropriate.
state
enter-
operation
the
context
of
and
this
pa-
18-
maintenance
are
and there
in
investment
load
big
mand;
during
of
that
Transmission
cost
ergy
in
transmission
investment
in
the
losses
is
generally
lower
region
but
to
less
about
costs
are
a function
of
tion
the
From
the
technology
risks
14)
in
capacity,
a decrease
is
of
peak de-
individual
demand
uncontrollable
such
peak
as standby
industry
installa-
e.g.
studies,
are
from
a country
density
the
an average
of
is
deqree
density
longer
on a small
view,
b,jg
of
hydro
electro-mechanical
and civil
Long-term
great,
flow
the
power
construction
are
tension
length
is
this
it
With
per
capita
and low
popula-
and higher
costs.
most economic
calls
ESCAP
and energy
line
lines
equipment,
data
length
consumption
is
the
High
consumption
transmission
investment
% in
urbanization.
high
low
area,
15,7
low
countries,
of
electrified,
and
while
length,
considerably
fully
share
line
of
total
relatively
Nepal. 16)
28 % in
en-
transmission
In developing
a function
and the
population
planning
between
used,
and more than
35 % of
OECD was for
relationship
is
30 % of gen-
7,5 % of generated
same year,
within
equipment
if
of
the
in transmission.
And,
point
and may exceed
In
further
manufacturing
involved
a largely
low
probability
A problem
1975 was more than
are
concentrated
engineering
feasibility
the
maximum
considerable
unit
high
result
in
in
a direct
transmission
a b i g load,
Thus,
of
that
density
is
higher,
population
required
supply
Indonesia
per
per capita.
reduce
in
of investment
25 % in
clear
results
are
sophisticated
consumption
becomes
their
relatively
due to
and
consumers.
and distribution.
level
losses
transmission
costs
electricity
15) 1 There
and a high
where
Thisis
size,
have
increased
The OECD average
distribution.
of
is
pumped-storage.
lost
and
number
to
generation
involved.
plant
which
and distribution
cost. 14)
energy
rising
tend
be met with
of
of scale
a larger
consumers
must
cost
with
same time-interval,
and high
erating
with
numbers
demand
tions
cost
factors
the
Unit
economies
pronounced
specific
higher
of
are
considerable.
supply.
sophisticated
for
and
to
high
activities,
standards
because
a necessity
and
the
gestation
In Uganda, where most of the power is generated
at the Owen Falls and where the transmission
is very extensive,
44 % of the total operating
costs
accrue
to transmission
and distribution, see also Amann, Energy Supply and . . . p 29
system
15) From OECD, The Electricity
Supply . . . p 12, 23, the figure
Canada.
16)
Data
from
ESCAP,
Electric
Power
in Asia . . . p 15
is an average
of
all
countries
except
i
19-
periods
are
specialised
that
the
possible
large
about
the
very
where
scale,
to apply
technology
96 % in
brings
of total
case
high
to
achieve
of
hydraulic
cost
is
design
very
which
cost,
equipment
computer
technology
high
performance
turbines.
Needless
however
and highly
efficiencies
to
say,
may be justified
generally
this
because
a relatively
small
of
fraction
cost.
Big-scale
stations
hydropower
Artificial
of
is
fabrication
may reach
process
It
long.
lakes
arable
tion
of
ous
that
other
may change
land.
Positive
the
benefits
negative
effect
recreation
that
should
not
in
in
by large
crea-
Lt is
obvi-
with
tropical
storage
areas
and the
although
proportion
be neglected
spreading
sizeable
capability
camping)
rise
considerations.
inundate
controlling
do not
diseases
and
fishing,
(boating,
for
environmental
landscape
are flood
sites
of water-borne
careful
entire
an
aspects
new recreational
possibility
require
size.
areas
An-
is
the
reservoirs.
b) Small Hydropower
Small
is
hydropower,
usually
sion
is
on the
supplied
to
distribution
The
to
problems
local
Small
hydro
This
is
is
very
an argument
ment:
"Traditional
hydro
plants
oil
which
cause
of
cost.
It
factory
fore
or
the
shared,
is
more
businesses
in
place
for
a number
to
the
the
rise
the
all
operate
the
apply
equally
in
to
the
very
rising
but
for
output,
running
price
of
also
be-
the
is
a
unit
a farm,
a
and therecosts
many small
power
small
It
smaller
costs
competition
small
state-
enterprise.
to the
theories,
successfully
of
the
and
cost.
following
hydropower,
running
fixed
economic
of
units,
and
themselves
administration.
by the
large
in proportion
more
the
of
way,
high unit-specific
of
very
number
lend
and
because
of
a planned
development
forms
how capital
produced,
which
all
the
do not
against
of
the
only
operation
larger
understand
reasons,
not
costs
in
proper
against
weaken,
relative
still
its
reasoning
station,
units
of
may be put
a low-ten-
of consumption
in
operation
produced
with
stations
with
to
can
Small
severe.
in connection
Nevertheless,
and
less
mostly
consumption
mentioned
that
a power
diversify
Energy
supervision
often
gained
easy
size,
ownership,
the
common proposition
of its
cooperative
which
experience
nearby,
or
beginning
affects
to
relatively
economic
is
Because
exists
are
individual
few consumers
only.
potential
decentralisation.
hand,implies
relatively
network
possible.
and peaking
other
with
stations.
can
be
factories
the
giants
As unit
.20-
size
falls,
and
the
therefore
nance.
is
from
usually
this
bility
cost .18)
high
for
It
nature
this.
If
is
of
clear
based
works
and
intimate,
better
may be higher
are often
mainte-
than
for
a
human
costs
are
kept
local
construction
all
efforts
usually
good
as necessary"
may very
well
look
quite
schemes
are
scarce
or
disprove
this
its
be acceptably
life,
High
even the
and money-wise
down.
This
the
risks
possible
with
a high
to
little
of
"as
standards
Even the most
local
a station
and
intelligent
in
construction
anyway
local
use mainly
of
through
hydrological
dam would
smaller
all
may be established
people
a small
degree
or
shows that
- which
are
project
idiom
anyhow.
local
of
Amer-
the
Generally,
safety
rupture
makes it
techniques,
of
Latin
and carried
Experience
advice
reliable,
necessary,
adopted
maximum output
the
measurements,
none
available
fact.
in
reduction.
different.
not
feasi-
- following
needs
is
and
and performance.
as 50 % of total
at cost
and
miniaturised
some projects
things
past
con-
pre-feasibility,
as high
a way of doing
the
powerhouse
reliability
in
in
elaborate
"luxury"
and costly
that
has
carefully
operational
were running
to
hydro
be seen are
all
by detailed
for
small
oversize
"as
minimum-flow
not
an
installations
cannot
few
issue;
What can often
safety,
contrary
of
studies
- will
threaten
firm
equipment,
such
hydro
hydro
relatively
estimates
hydro.
stages
- runs
on apparent
with
work becomes more
efficiency
a large
OLADE reports
that
things
of
their
a higher
concrete,
stages.
small
small
elaborate
another
preceded
an approach
for
still
of
preparatory
consistently,
data
for
big
standard
good as possible"
The
costs
electromechanical
was sometimes
costs
in
reinforced
and planning
ica,
is
like
in
optimised
a very
All
there
this,
works
highly
with
result
labour
been treated
struction
to
operators
17)
enterprise."
Apart
of
likely
Additionally,
small
with
involvement
not
if
usually
initial
materials
labour
and
participa-
tion.
On the
equipment
reliability
ings
17)
of
- without
excerpt
18) Personal
from
side,
standards
supply
can
reducing
Water
communication
Power
of
usually
overall
OLADE
be
benefits
and Dam construction,
with
voltage
and frequency
lowered
of
-
involving
a scheme
January
79,
p 25
in
fluctuations
and of
considerable
proportion.
sav-
A decrease
in
conversion
of
reduced
to
some extent
change
efficiency
generating
for
tions
acceptable
technical
installation
with
are
(smaller
small
available
standards
in
penstock.
diameter)
between
impacts
controllable
savings,
absolute
losses
penstock.
The
works
a great
the
aim
amount
The same is
of
such
should
in
ex-
capacity,
be a fairly
that
true
considera-
generating
and equipment
could
possible
ery.
This
end of the
supply
attributed
lation
to
sc.ale
of
power
size.
Often
the
1 barrel
of oil.*
where
to
overall
650
low-cost
has an accepta-
the
to conclude
this
small
While
capacity,
features
chapter
with
the
it
of
is
big
into
electricity
is
kinds
and if
its
very
it
and
to the
other
be suited
cost
can be
in
re-
saleable
equivalent
hydropower,
is
of machin-
small
the
of 38 %
time.
At the
represents
answer
end
generation
additional,
and small
that
may well
probably
upper
to
only.
is
all
the
hydro
short
provides
a summarised
at an efficiency
the
use thinkable.
nearby
input
still
at
or
At
small
stations
stations
c) Sumnary of Conclusions
is converted
sizes
electricity
power
before.
oil
to
to operate
supplied
of
non-existent.
was a few months
hydropower
one
negligible
in a relatively
hydropower
if
are
for
time
and low-cost
electricity
salient
only
operation
small
generally
be credited
sophistication
stations.
kWh of
at
the
grid-system
system
they
power directly
all
a big
a must
into
are
not
construction
sophistication,
power
can
is
economical
into
big
Each
possible
their
use mechanical
most
looking
of
can be put
away with
energy.
After
stations
attributable
the
to
hydro
be cited
to
does
constitutes
small
capability
and schemes
characteristic
often
to
Road accessibility
scale,
A last
due
controlling
extent.
Many examples
* If
the
may be accepted
required
The result
and cost.
while
terms.
Higher
potential,
construction
because
flood
same time,
to
remains
in the
simple
considerable
reliability.
Environmental
of
losses
a cheaper
a trade-off
about
capacity
for
is
ble
brings
it
question
of
is
now
asked
-
-22-
* large
centralised
power
national
e international,
l
big corporations
staff
o depends
periods
state
term assessment
sophisticated
it
can
on potential
energy requirements
l
its
share
developable
of total
potential.
l
decentralised,
enterprises,
l
low tension
tems
l
individual,
quirements
distribution
period
o depending
on potential,
rural
life,
which
is
plied.
l
or
with
demand;
long
90 96 based
small
urban
areas
and well
paid
and construction
on the
to
a nation's
known,
reasonably
individual
industry,
sub-regional
communal ownership
administration
materials
planning
contribution
and eventually
local
cities,
highly-skilled
a sizeable
perhaps
networks
co-operative
and co-operative
gestation
make
is
small
power
rural
communities
employing
of potential,
technology
depending
commercial
potential
industry,
grid-systems
enterprises
l
o short
large-scale
and regional
or
on long
involving
demand;
with
and skills
it can make a considerable
clearly
over-proportional
to
farms
and
micro-grid
semi-skilled
sys-
labour
re-
applicable
impact on the quality
of
the amount of energy sup-
its
share of the total
known potential
is on the order of 10 %. Since very
few hydrological
data exist
for small rivers
and watersheds,
there
are good
prospects
that additional
patentials
can be identified,
particularly
in developing countries.
C, SMALL HYDROPOWER
IN THE RURALSITUATION
1. PAST AND RECENT.HISTdRY
a) Switzerland:
At the
tion
of
beginning
lived
in
Switzerland.
had a size
up
99,2
* 1,36
of
rural
the
20th
areas,
century,
small
The statjstics
of
% of
HP = 1 kW
less
the
than
total
hydropower
of
20 HP*. All
number
when still
i914
was used
show that
stations
more than
of
and made up 31,7
the
65 % of the
extensively
majority
1000 HP and less
% of
the
total
in
of
popula-
all
parts
installations
together,
hydro
made
capacity
-23-
utilised.
The average
small
of
industry,
course
tion.
mills
not
of
a station
and other
even,
Nonetheless,
fig.
size
but
enterprises.
depended
on average
Mitteilung
f.
phie,
O-20
6005
21-100
523
01-1000
214
1914
By 1928 the
450
picture
HP in
29 % of total
(or
had changed
output,
450
units
Fig.
all
generating
water-wheel)
from
served
stations
was
situa-
and hydrological
on every
6 km'.
cumlated
% of total
% of total
output
(HP)
38'425
7t4
7,7
35'049
6,8
3,2
90'507
17,s
0,s
353'360
68,3
88,3
57
to
999
6799
somewhat.
stations
capacity.
below
was- as low
HP.
In
still
96 % of
1000 HP together
range
as 18,8
517'341
100
While
In the
size
up to
HP, while
some installations,
all
as many
stations
about
average
turbine
HP in
stations
was 245,5
as
were
contributed
450 HP the
it
100
/
10 individual
turbine
were installed.
5:
Hydropower
Installations
in Switzerland
1928
HPS
size
(HP)
no of
stations
no
of
turbines
no of
waterwheels
o-449
5'785
3'086
3'590
74
195
m-m
160
865
-se
500-999
Source:
Statistik
Schweiz,
Eerne
1000
der
shows,
eration
kept
47'864
2'392'321
1928
plants
continued
a major
of
125'218
and
over
total
Small
cumulated
output
capacity
(HP)
der
Wasserkraftanlagen
be
the
most
and
001
wer
total
below
of
topographical
number of
stations
the
der
LandeshydrograBerne
Distribution
was 1 plant
HPS
size
(HP)
Hydropower
Installations
in Switzerland
1914
Abt.
on the
there
4:
Source:
was 76 HP and by far
portion
electricity
down
and
to
of
for
the
supply
6'019
small
and
power was utilised
power
technology
transmission
applied
4'146
very
right
3'590
small
enterprises.
at the
was secondary.
was simple
2'565'403
and
As fig.
generation
site.
Thus,
costs
reliable.
6
Gen-
could
The table
shows
list
stations
of
in
different
areas
stations
successive
along
Zanton
(arca)
River
4argau
total
373
stations
r3ith av.
zapacity
of 21.7
Hallwiler
I,
II
II
II
II
Direct
used
of the
the
river
installed
capacity
Aa
lx
1 x
pin factory
textile
industry
electricity
cotton
weaving
electricity
160
65
1 x
140
use = 54 % of total
named.
45
25
power
an exemplary
use of power
1 x
use = 83 % of total
with
(HP)
lx
power
country
capacity
~~
Direct
Glarus
total
99
stations
nrith
Linth
av.
capacity
sf
69 IIP
Direct
power
Zurich
total
482
stations
with av.
capacity
39,s HP
1 x
40
11
lx
15
II
lx
6
11
II
lx
20
lx
70
II
1 x
80
II
1 x
120
uee
q
64 % of
T&s
'
,,
1 x
Direct
Fig.
100
35
II
lx
a0
II
1 x
125
1 x
117
use = 94 % of
lx
70
lx
42
II
button
factory
cloth
factory
workshop
cotton
weaving
total
6:
Examples
Source:
power
spinning
works
grain mill
carpentry
grain mill
electricity
09
60
20
lx
n
"
11
mech. work nhop
grain mill
cotton
printing,
heating,
lighting
weaving
textile
factory
lighting
total
3x
2x
lx
"
),
cotton
printing,
I lighting
woodworks
of Small
adapted
from:
HP-Stations
Statistik
der
Wasserkraftanlagen
der
Schweiz
1928
(incomplete)
-25
Between
while
total
the
of
1920
ment
1935
of
many
oil
of
these
for
and
petroleum
It
it
products
products
In
had been the
was clearly
by a factor
of
19)
This
by more than 31 %.
fell
Switzerland.
importance.
areas
developments
for
cheap
and less
in
imports
expenditure
advent
less
and
rose
consequence,
sole
small
small
basis
for
hydropower
5,9
was
hydropower
industrial
that
was
develop-
made large
scale
feasible.
b) China:
The
construction
plication
sides
of
of
the
side
in
The
first
1956.
large-scale
gained
two
of
10'000
years.
having
date.
22)
an average
size
industrial
from
Capacity
meaningful
past
was given
under
ap-
25 years.
to
the
Be-
small-scale
vast
country-
40'000
which
Data
Yearbook
20)
SATA/UMN,
Report
on Study
21)
See Smil,
China's
Energy,
22)
See
p 35
of
with
Cultural
the
a further
size
generating
stations
built
2,8
in
stations
of
added
campaign
now in operation
in
the
conwere
1800 MW with
an average
1100 MW were
added with
of
new
capacity
the
the
actually
MW capacity.
350 MW were
arqund
average
total
only
stations
1973 reached
in
and power genera-
Revolution
small
1975,
small
started
30 MW. The campaign
stations
Most
1'000
control
1957 and about
the
waterworks
period
installations
of
all
from
small
1975 to
to
plants
1979,
of 85 kW.
19)
SATA/UMN,
in
the
capability
Economic
in
of
flood
of
Up to
finally,
with
range
in the
small
construction
capacity
1969.
increasing
MW,
Although
a very
dotting
many
irrigation,
during
installation.
1979,
the
- fifth
so after
stations,
In
one
Revived
more
this
new
was 6300
legs"
stations
establish
a total
momentum again
36 kW per
110 kW.21)
been
much emphasis
90'000
combining
a mere
less,
after
size
for
far
and even
built
called
character,
program
tinued,
plan
to
reaching
following
on two
resources,
campaign
one year,
in
"walking
has
20)
1979.
achieved
dictum
stations
in an estimated
An ambitious
tion,
1,ydropower
of large
resulting
a multi-purpose
the
Chinese
the development
developments
The
small
permitted
small
of
Tour
hydropower
Switzerland,
. . . p 35,
p 85 ff,
construction
falls
in
1950
Kathmandu
New York
1976
1981
China
of
large
turbines,
was extended
to
and
12 MW,
this
indicates
of
that
miniature
suitable
The
for
scattered
perspective
activities
even
some major
uneven
skill
natural
rivers
are
ers
ratio
enormous
is
and
hydraulic
equipment,
difficult
than
and might
encourage
It
is
also
trend
is
in
fish
seem to
rally
to
takes,
approach
scope
for
small
Guidelines
to
at
all
construction
Labour
and materials
See Smil,
p 72
results
achieved
hydropower
areas
the
the
the
world.
of
flow
faces
is
Flow
activities
the
Huang
hydro
civil
make this
the
but
potential
these
other
tend
natufor
need not
such
in-
activity.
and sometimes
for
the
control,
costs
a single
there
stated,
Economics
to
more
countries.
Often,
possible
this
are
Flood
construction
and
perhaps
results
resources.
generation.
is
reservoirs
in other
listed.
riv-
many rivers
As earlier
be attributed
world,
the
very
variations
in
resources
Still,
are
in
storage
aspects:
power
not
silt
hydraulic
use of
be smaller,
The
impera-
a multidiscipli-
necessarily
reduce
the
in
China
are
low
costs
and
development.
development
country;
assistance
of
small
emphasis
Financing
with
for
China
resources
flood
life
development
seems to
loca' I re-
are from this
in
populated.
The
of
than
of the
to
of
thinly
recreation
need
on
development
distribution
are
multiple
priority
China
brigades
with
- and the
such an approach,since
time.
along
relying
some other
and even
hydropower
over
production
look
one of
likely
state,
23)
on such
governing
identical
short
is
entirely
on the
of
emphasis
in
In many other
nary
parts
resources.
load
utilisation
and canals
situation
tive.
or
ponds
hydropower
higher.
be much
the
12 kW was devel oped,
23) and in smaller
making
with
to
a range
minimum discharge,
effect
higher
be better
dams,
specific
have
the
a considerable
breeding
0,6
In fact,
were
that
than
to
cases
continued.
The maximum recorded
many other
most
small
regional
regions
larger
worthwhile
irrigation,
uses
in
The
in
likely
has
with
Also,
considerable.
was 88 times
from
field
impressive.
obstacles.
Ho river
this
this
units
outputs
and labour
and concentrated
many
small
villages
in
more
very
with
mountain
- materials,
sources
of
turbine-generators
development
in
construction
is
only
in
construction
on local
done with
small
design,
is
hydropower
amounts
equipment
are exclusively
resources,
funds
of
stations
accumulated
subsidies
and
provided
training
local,
by communes
only
of
by the
operators.
minimal
quan-
-27-
tities
is
of
made locally
Plans
the
for
in
taken
65 % in
processing.
mounts
to
coal
or
less
the
it
exist
flexibility
of
is
highest
in
ard.
small
In
about
on the
communes.
such
in
on the
considerable
1100 counties
in
use
is
pumping
domestic
lighting
done with
Water
situation.
rural
areas
and
awood,
is
one example
There
local
to
pumping
in
example.
had their
prov-
as water
tariff
a second
below
by the
Power
energy.
highest
design,
stations
is mainly
use of
has the
For the
approved
16 %, while
depending
is
the
purposes
purposes
of
equipment
for
are
households
use
tariffs,
plants
with
in rural
domestic
30 % out
decisions
for
depend
hydro-electricity
1974
help,and
consumes
industrial
fixing
hydroelectric
commune level.
bigger
sector
applied
for
Even the
from
usua?ly
20 %. Cooking
Tariffs
small-scale
is
industry
cheapest,and
while
while
agricultural
than
for
levei,
Small
biogas.
far
available
Ownership
the
used.
scheme originate
county
administration.
are
24)
workshops.
is
at
cereal
by
small
waterbureau
500 kW are
about
and timber
a new hydraulic
county
ince
steel
cement,
seems to
The role
by any stand-
electricity
mainly
from
25)
stations.
2. RURAL ELECTRIFICATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
With
the
exception
countries,
the
difficult
that
to
the
widely
of
degree
find
percentage
within
Generally
speaking,
electrification
sets.
e.g.
of
two
for
of
that
grid
isolated
grid-extensions
costs
but
It
is
varies
estimates
populations
were
supply
lines
in rural
and to
systems,
combined
only
concerned.
followed
systems,
is
no doubt
facilities
have been touched
transmission
developed
there
supra-regional
approaches
of
higher
satisfactory.
supply
magnitude
from
of
from
countries
7 are
extensions
installation
with
high
in fig.
been
far
electricity
and the
namely
Problems
B. The circumstance
24) See Smil,
have
programs,
individual
Numbers
number
is
who have
differences
autogeneration,
diesel
of
people
there
small
electrification
data
area,
regional
and a relatively
rural
of
a given
out
with
of
reliable
and point
extent
China
a lesser
typically
on in chapter
with
a small
p 86
25) The total number
ists only in the
of
counties
1100 counties
is
more
referred
than
2100,
to.
See
considerable
also SATA/UMN,
hydropower
p 4,
potential
34 ff.
however
ex-
demand
and
resulting
countries,
not
of the
was for
in
many
costs
reasons
of
If
oil
in this
returns,
such
of
the
manner
the
limited
second
generation
costs
are
recent
past.
and continue
Extent of Rural Electrification,
by Selected
Region
likely
in
scope.
While
A third
approach
conversion
further
steam
engines
or
woodgas,
used
technically
200
Asia
800
is
without
difficulty,
for
future
the
standpoint
is
for
is
used
energy
is
for
not
optimum
but
low
in
promise
on the
discussed
land-use
the
danger
by
here),
planning.
exists
of
try
is
to cope with
electrifica-
45
29
46
--
18
the
is
direct
accelerated
and wood lot
for
the
with
products
engines.
in
cost.
steam used
such
as biogas
long-term
right
option
due
for
the
involved
now obtainable
of view.
constraints
exist.
depletion
of
From the
needs
forests,
management programs.
of
food
and
biogas
must
(or
not
prospects
point
to
is
future
Nevertheless,
competition
the
of
The first
the
generation
crops
through
and generation
technical
serious
in
Tunisia
Technology
high
212
I
generation
development,
from
for
competes
plants
it
increase
152
scope
environment,
this
hand,
ten-fold
19
intermediary
relatively
afforestation
other
plants,
of rural
electricity
limited
at least
and
- was chosen
70
efficiencies.
still
majority
halt.
combustion
stage
generation,
and the
accompanied
crops
pilot
expansive
the
the
extensions
combustion
perhaps
and at
power
is
internal
conversion
the
ecology
origin
or by way of
has
by
Egypt, Morocco,
Algeria,
by direct
adapted
bear
of
cooking,
not
in
very
option
recent
turbines,
mature
generally
second
or
connect
on oil-fuelled
total
Africa*
either
to
in
Rural
population
(millions)
*excluding:
more
of biomass,
in
to
of
that,
many existing
/-:::..I
Source: Estimate based on: World
Bank, Rural Electrification,
Washington 1975
fact
- autogeneration
affected
have come to an a?most
7:
is
based
seriously
operation,
the
approach
is
Region
Fig.
and
grid-system
approach
that
operation
somehow,
tion
make this
these
that
financial
an extensive
instances.
obvious
Lusts
even
population,
It
in
low
ethanol,
be subject
If
wood
of
fuel
if
it
Growing
which
to
an
This
constraint
less"
naturally
materials
ings
such
as water
and a favourable
climate
conversion
"The
into
design
manure
useful
of
of
the
entire
all
lage."
This
statement
the
importance
Another
point
grade
is
energies
chanical
are
best
combustion.
ical
limiting
severely
limit
efficiency
esses
converting
Converse'lj,
grade
is
heat
electricity,
applications
used
into
for
low
efficient
grade
and such
fact,
in
rural
must
areas
already
by Reddy,
only
1 % of
biogas,
the
vil-
optimisation
may serve
here
to
show
only
such
relatively
low-
(as
compared
to
temperatures),
as
in the
are
meSuch
cooking,
e.g.
direct
conversion
into
mechan-
can be achieved.
which
The theoretical
applies
for
all
proc-
grade
for
energy,
productive
than
the
use of
all
and motor
energy
used
drive.
is
used
and
becomes
rather
"electrified",
best
uses
electricity
exception
lighting
is
the
for
high
lighting.
If
relatively
rule:
As a matter
electricity
In
the
contributed
in-
is,
Indian
very
village
by electricity.
consum tion
is small
in absolute
terms (e.g.
30 kWh/day for a popula27 P
360).
What this
amount of energy can achieve
on the other hand, is
considerable:
2F)
power
be the
studied
pending
of
in
and the
infinite
Carnot*
applications,
to
of
to
which
law of
as. motive
limited
tirjii
cattle
context.
applying
a high
is
speaking,
the
but
article;
using
households
study
for
work.
broadly
Thus,
plant
11 m3/day
the
the
applications
by the
thermal
uses
all
with
efficiency
which
such
of
of
hold-
materials"
in his
a biogas
a surplus
corresponds
principles
given
"raw
Reddy states
"...
and "use-
on livestock
such
medium temperatures
which
the
Depending
growth,
rural
wastes
such as wood and biogas
thermal
for
The thermodynamic
power
the
fuels
produce
agricultural
over-optimistic
in
energy
used
used.
needs
perhaps
Caloric
can
are
connection
biomass-energy
which
dung,
provide
energy
- made in
this:
if
vegetation
can
cooking
or electrical
fuels
for
- is
of
apply
hyacinths
village
a specific'situation
the
not
may be considerable.
26)
that:
centres",
energy
meeting
of
energy
rural
after
of
does
It
pumps water
on pumping
Excerpt
from
Reddy,
height
The
design
for
and
of
the
irrigation
crops
grown),
of 4 to 8 hectares
substitutes
for
about
of land
(de-
1000
1 of
. . . p 121
27) See Reddy, p 111 ff.
*
Carnot-Efficiency
temperature
T2 - Tl
E ~2,
in units
of
degree
Where:
T2 = temperature
Kelvin.
of
input
heat
and
Tl = ambient or coolant
-3o-
kerosene
mill
that
would
be required
occasionall.~.
people
served
Such
for
uses
lighting
have
by much more than
the
would
per
year,
potential
to
and runs
improve
be expected
from
the
situation
a small
the
flour-
life
such a small
of
the
electricity
input.
A study
and descriptive
281
continents
different
various
that
sources
if
such
power
is
minimal
the
potential,
substantial
For
from
in
the
form
depending
at
necessary
to
with
for
will
six
be modest
villages
corroborated
is
in
to
a local
size
on
also
possible
can be met with
This
the
level,
particularly
permits
but
by
state
hydro-
can
have
resulting
in
a
by
Such
analysing
power
capacity
living
of
should
given
of
situation
-
may be proof
standards
a
rudimentary
use may be added
a procedure
the
the
development
productive
used
an installed
of
- which
efficiently
requirement
improvements
agricultural
600 kgce/cy*
if
total
basic
capacity.
of
2 % of the
energy,
situation,
station
for
here
growth,
scale,
development,
smail
then
be the
projects,
basis
28) See Howe et al.,
Energy for
= kilogram
+i+ calculation:
is
one
of
small
to
along
for
bigger
bring
the
local
scale
to
course
and its
gaining
arrive
be sub-
scope
of
developments,
countries,
energy
small
development
development
national,
grade
initially
rural
coal equivalent
per capita
per year
8 kWh
600 --•0,02
= 96 kWh/capita, year
kgce
96/8760h/0,4
load factor
= 27 W/capita
l
high
for
about
with
perhaps
developing
supplying
stations
and the
and more comprehensive,
kgce/cy
requirement
growth,
high-grade
on a large
and operating
+
energy
it
energy
subsistence
discussed
Community
gy use,
station
and is
conclusion,
grade
any existing
scope
multiplied
would
high
of
for
in detail.
approach
rate.
picture
In
a total
much refinement
development
needs
for
**
on
Subsequently,
The
needs
scope
of
nature.
jected
countries.
resulting
With
25 W/capita.
the
other
above
may be applied.
and,
energy
shows no different
approximation,
substantially
approx.
of
impact.
a first
vided
analysis
energy
at
experience
of
know-how
diversification
planning.
for
basic
demands
but
a sustained
in
executing
and skill,
of ener-
-31-
D, A PRACTICABLEAPPROACH
1. CONSTRAINTS AND PROBLEMS
A number
of
energy-related
relating
to
developing
identify
the
are
with
technology.
These
useful
,in
tool
of
hydropower
associated
have
countries,
relevance
small
cally,
issues
the
must
rural
rural
in
be overcome
of
if
to
the
areas.
development
development.
outlined
specifically
hydropower
for
been
rural
overall
A number
small
the
in
Summarised,
the
preceding
areas.
context
of
and more specifiand problems
stations,
resources
following
chapters
The aim was to
constraints
hydropower
potential
the
as with
should
points
all
become a
deserve
con-
sid&ation:
l
The lack of long-term
hydrolog i cal data has undermined
and prevented
many
ambitious
projects.
In the mid- and long-term,
theretore,
it is necessary
to
establish
a network
of gauging
stations
and other
hydrological
data collection.
For the immediate
future,
harnessing
of water
power is possible
with
relatively
simple
identification
surveys,
not based on criteria
for optimum
resource-utilisation
but on a-more modest scale of using minimum-flow
to determine
plant capacity.
.
l
The low load factor,
often
met in existing
stations
plant
utilis,ation,
is resulting
in insufficient
returns
ital.
A low load factor
may have several
reasons:
- maximum development
mand in the vicinity,
by itself.
- too
optimistic
- the lack
concerned,
of
of
the
with
assessment
associated
with
on the invested
existing
potential
regardless
the erroneous
assumption
that
of
anticipated
poor
cap-
of the energy deload would develop
load growth.
identifiying
the true
value of
and their
ability
and willingness
high-grade
to pay for
energy tc the
such services
people
l
Where the development
of all
forms of hydropower
is the responsibility
of a
single
government
agency,
small hydropower
is often
neglected
in the face of
large-scale
projects,
where often
all
manpower available
is required.
Also,
where the same procedures
in planning,
procurement
and licensing
are applied
as for big projects,
small hydro is at a disadvantage.
Administrative
efforts
required
are often
in no relation
to the size
of the project
and may lead
implementors
to keep their
hands from small scale developments.
An answer to
these
prdbiems
could' weli come about by a policy
decision
at high levels
of
specifically
tailored
for
small
for
procedures
that
provides
government,
and a separate
government
entity
that
deals
exclusively
hydro-development,
with small hydropower, but with all aspects of it.
l
The fundamental
issue
that
a small
power station
is most effctively
managed
(and perhaps
owned) by a small,
iocal
organisation,
is sometimes
forgotten.
Experience
shows that
if stations
are centrally
managed and staffed
by employees
of a central
government
agency,
such stations
tend to run up high
operating
costs
in terms of salaries,
per diem and hardship
allowances
for
operators
brought
in from outside.
The establishment
of a local
organisation
-JZ-
and the
theless,
chances
training
of its
it is a more
of success.
management and staff
promising
approach
is no doubt more difficult.
and a decisive
element
for
Nonebetter
High costs of equipment
and civil
works,
or, more generally,
the capital-intensive
nature
of hydropower
development,
has long been a major constraint.
Part of the problem
has been lower overall
costs
for other
sources
of energy, but this
applies
much less today.
However, in many situations
it is necessary not only to achieve
a better
relation
of costs compared to other energies,
but to reduce them in absolute
terms.
This is possible
to some degree by ktandardising
equipment, but the scope for
using
such standardised
equipment
remains
limited
since
no two sites
are
at cost reduction
through
indigenous
manufacture
exactly
the same. Efforts
largely
due to much lower
labour
costs.
To make this
are more promising,
standards
of design,
performance
and sometimes reliability
must be
possible,
lowered
and all
unnecessary
sophistication
avoided.
The same is true in civil
construction
work, where local
materials
and techniques
should be used to the
largest
possible
extent.
A problem
here
is that
engineers
involved
are very often
trained
abroad,
where little
of direct
relevance
to rural
situations
is taught.
Such people
are very often
unaware of local
possibilities
and skills,
a situation
that
can only be changed "on the job" in active
project
implementation
with local
participation.
It must be added here that
local
know-how in the field
of hydropower
technology
does not exist
per se in many countries,
but needs to be
built
up. This,
as substantial
experience
shows in a number of countries,
is
possible
directly
in the execution
of small projects.
l
l
2. TECHNOLOGY
A discussion
ical
as
scope
al
of
long
for
as
tial
mainly
of these
turbine
facture
power
somer years,
in
terms
of
output‘
ously
a number
of
interest
turbines,
of
other
projects,
and
adopting
countries
notably
the
conclusion
capacity
and
began
Thailand,
to
Cooperation
in
and
performance
Consequently,
ease
of
This
started
Pakistan
ini-
a more versatik
combined
on the
In the
the
situations.
concentrate
joint
manufactured
of
principle.
has
pro-
their
(BYS).
head range.
workshops
Indonesia,
Industri-
Nepal
that
that
different
Cross-Flow
the
were
to the
other
that
Shala
turbines
theoret-
developed
turbines
An assessement
to
remains
Technical
Yantra
was developed
a few
this,
Swiss
Balaju
led
is
made water
drives.
adaptability
numbers
small
direct
the
(low-head)
considerable
small
for
workshop,
turbine
a growing
technology
locally
(Michell-Banki)
with
with
of
questions
Realising
with
Propeller
of
after
was needed
a Cross-Flow
together
metal
for
machines
a workable
development
a number
installed,
met
the
a medium-sized
stage,
of
and self-reliance.
Corporation,
undertook,
venture,
and operation-specific
no approach
cost-reduction
Development
gram,
bine
implementation
manu-
turbine
manufacturing
Almost
simultane-
Cross-Flow
tur-
and Peru.
Basic
-33 principles
and
state
of
components
that
are
required
tional
the
- shall
technology
art
of
the
- as well
technology
as how it
be discussed
involved
compares
including
to
other
existing
conven-
here.
a) Water Turbines
In
water
into
mechanical
ned
to
turbines
by
rotary
kinetic
energy
motion.
As noted
head and mass flow
friction
ployed
the
of
must also
flow
in
rate.
P(kW)
Hn
For
small
=
Net head = Gross head - losses
Flow
The oldest
ference
form
of
=
Overall
efficiency
outputs
water
tional
form
the
water-wheel
vanes
round
the
periphery,
to rotate.
level
-
of
gravity
formula
liters
per
of 51 9 in
of
due
machines
em-
following:
(103W)
(ml
water
is
Q 1000 kg/ml)
=q,1*q2...*0n
here,
second
implied.
and as.3
and
first
an overall
The "rule
of thumb"
on the conservative
the
is
made of
The water
m/s2
can be simplified:
therefore
a stream
is
Watts
e 9.81
interest
the
is
losses
in m3/second
(for
turbine"
in
in kilo
Density
Q IS in
"water
power
I-J =
calculat!.on
the
determi-
= Hn*Q.ntot*S.Bl
Specific
efficiency
is
of
converted
is
head
efficiency
Output
aF,proximation,
where
thus,
is
power
power,
conversion
=
IJtot
water
theoretical
=
Q =
4
falling
available
The formula,
P
or
earlier,
and the
= Hn*Q'g*P-rltot
where:
flowing
To calculate
conduits
be considered.
of
water-wheel.
utilised
wood and
thrusts
side.
The natural
to
drive
is
provided
against
these,
it.
In
with
causing
head - difits
conven-
buckets
the
.or
wheel
-34-
The
principle
of
which
consists
phery
(fig.
on the
of
8).
by the
means of
a needle
wheel
rotates
at
denly
decreases,
flow
in
the
arrangement
the
the
wheel
the
jet
jet
needle
closed
suddenly,the
causing
harmful
the
control
of
the
used in cases
hammer"
deflector
is
large
in
linked
heads
water;
If
the
reduced
the
flow
would
the
sudden
water
to an electric
impinges
Jet
load
is
wheel
Ifig.
load
sud-
from
the
10).
This
decrease
the
be reduced
system.
by
when the
issuing
generator.
too
abrupt-
In most cases
A Pelton
wheel
30)
available.
9:
peri-
controlled
on the
jet
water
full
is
the
of
Fig.
it
load
of
are
the
a nozzle
divert
in
wheel:
most efficiently
event
of water
round
from
the
phenomena
Pelton
The speed of rotation
operates
jet).
flow
"water
where
the
the
modern
buckets
9).
of
partially
if
were
ly,
(fig.
appropriately
because
the
emerging
turbine
deflectors
has
water
velocity
of
in
spoon-shaped
motion
(the
necessary
needle
in
velocity
the
of
and the
nozzle
embodied
with
jet
is
jet
is
provided
rate
half
is
water-wheel
a wheel
and sets
determined
until
old
A high-velocity
buckets
nozzle
the
Impinging
partial
tion of
on Bucket
deflecjet
needle
re-
duces
water
flow
Fig.
Fig.
8: Pelton
10:
Wheel
Operation
of Jet
and Needle
Deflector
.*
There
are
water-wheels
impingement-type
30) Section
arrangement
on Pelton
with
working
of
on different
principles.
The
statement
abotle
applies
only
to the
water-wheel.
turbines:
From
Bibliographisches
How Things
Institut
Work,
The
Universal
AG, Mannheim
Encyclopedia
of Machines,
by
-35-
Pelton
turbines
where
the
sure.
Power
the
available
cups
range
of
(>40
flow
belong
extracted
the
rotor.
higher
output
the
rotor,
materials
Fig.
~--
the
type
high
turbine
kinetic
type
is
of view,
,turbines
can
be equipped
fig.
11).
being
jet
or
steel.
two,
casting
This
in
is
strikes
the
high
for
different
exists
one,
pres-
when it
applied
with
turbines,
atmospheric
water
adaptability
In manufacture,
brass
at
of
normally
point
free-jet)
energy
velocity
design
(see
of 2 Nozzl,n
9, :!I.
head
or more nozzles
commonly
necessitates
used
for
an appropriate
great
majority
of
turbine
difference
in
relation
bines
of
the
are
water,
ing
water
ally
curved
the
vanes
the
consumed
The guide
to
energy
The guide
direction
of
of
the
vanes
usually
vanes
are
in the
in
the
flow.
It
water
water
and other
volute,
is
undesirable
adjustable
water
Francis
flow
runner
which
the
the
enters
rate
turbine
guide
converted
into
and in
provide
the
the
load
elements
from
channel
and flows
that
the
radiwith
so arranged
motion
and is
energy
a degree
of the
give
provided
are
causing
to
surround-
runner
is
in
inlet
which
rotary
tur-
submerged
vanes,
vanes
phenomena
so as to
are
the
the
Kaplan)
decrease
The runner
The
flow
(and
completely
guide
centre.
and heads)
The significant
an annular
fixed
then
Francis
water
is
rates
turbine.
is
of
impinges.
largely
flow
that
velocity
towards
the
is
the
between
i.e.,
by eddies
variations
the
flows
which
wheel
where
water
radialflow
or
and the
then
upon
Francis
type,
latter,
and small
Pelton
enters
and
optimum
through
the
pressure
first
p 49
(large
the
to
the
runner,
the
is
reaction
The water
the
Work,
cases
employed
and both
outlet.
Pelton-Wheel
11) How Things
of
ity
to
(or
11:
Source: (Fig.
that
the
impulse
the
infrastructure
Schematic
In
of
converted
This
Pelton
for
is
group
from
From the
and head.
the
head
is
m).
industrial
to
not
losses.
of adaptabil-
turbine.
direct
the
flow
-36-
of
the
water,
charged
runner
just
through
is
shown
in
in
fig.
direction
of
entry
the
nozzle
an outlet
matically
through
as the
from
12.
fig.
the
the
Pelton
centre
The volute,
13 and the
is
of
does.
wheel
of
the
guide
turbine.
vanes
is
A typical
Francis
and runner
diversion
of
the
water
indicated
in
fig.
14,
clearly
The water
at
are
shown sche-
right-angles
which
is
to
turbine.
Fig.
12:
Francis
Fig.
--
Runner
of Flow
in Francis
Turbine
14:
design
Francis
a specific
efficiency.
housings,
designs,
Francis
manufacture,
requiring
optimum
welded
through
and
turbines,
of
idol
13:
Schematic
Cross Section
Turbine
In
its
a cross-section
watw
Fig.
dis-
Runner
or
a large
cast
turbines
design
and
in
for
housing
concrete
head range
from
at
about
are
each
much more complex
head/flow
are
usually
site,
are
than
Pelton
condition
to
obtain
on
large
units
cast,
common. With
30 m up to 700 m of
a big
variety
head can be cov-
ered.
For
very
low
heads
and high
ent
type
of
turbine,
the
the
Kaplan
in
rotation.
turbine
the
The water
flow
Kaplan
water
enters
rates
or
flows
the
- e.g.
at barrages
Propeller
through
turbine
turbine
the
laterally
in rivers
is
propeller
(fig.
usually
employed.
and sets
15),
- a differ-
is
the
In
latter
deflected
by
the
guide
these
machines
water
through
guide
vanes;
adjusted
setting
Fia.
35:
the
(fig.
Things
Work,
p
the
propeller
propeller
of the
blades
15~16)
smaller
common to
guide
in order
limited
larger
output.
reduce
either
heads
also
from
vanes
flow
also
reason,
rate
distance
then
of
the
between
the
be appropriately
corresponds
to obtain
to one particu31)
efficiency.
high
16:
of
Kaplan
is
vane adjustment
but
this
Turbine
to
about
high
therefore
are
possible
in
or runner
affects
come in a variety
1 m to
as compared
turbines
only
sophistication
turbines
to
turbines
casting
must
Propeller
units,
flow
These
Propeller
the
this
How
and Propeller
is
The
by varying
blades
For
51
in
is
load
of designs.
30 m. Under
head turbines
comparatively
welded
part
blade
adjust-
efficiency.
Their
applica-
such conditions,
is
a rela-
required
larger,
for
a given
Manufacture
construction
without
of small
the
need
for
well-known
than
the
facilities.
The concept
big
of
the
Cross-Flow
names Pelton,
named Niche11
engineer
ently,
of
propeller.
turbines.
can be controlled
(schematic)
14,
the
axial-flow
as
Each setting
16).
13,
Specially
three
to
through
Fiq.
Source:
tively
axially
referred
pitch
of the
Turbine
Kaplan
flows
turbine
the
Kaplan
tion
are
(fig.
lar
ment
and
vanes,
a Hungarian
31) Section
publishers
on Francis
turbine
Francis
and Kaplan
who obtained
professor
with
and Kaplan turbines
- although
- is
a patent
the
: From
much less
not
for
new.
it
name Donat Banki,
How Things
Work
in
It
was invented
1903.
Quite
re-invented
. . . . by arrangement
by an
independthe
with
turbine
the
-38-
again
at
the
through
a series
turbine
since
such
The
gular
the
of
are
water
flows
(refer
to
the
the
Ossberger
the
worldwide,
of
exit
on the
from
that
from
17:
Flow
in Cross-Flow
The machine
correct
Model
and the
at the
and is
probably
based
runner,
designs
runner
periphery.
size
gate
opening',
ween
blades
are
usually
With
this
smaller.
the
it
is
built
7'000
two
a very
- arranged
rotor
the
first
runner,
upon in-
strikes
stages
and
The
centre
the
when water
effective
at
shaft.
inside
twice;
working
rectan-
of
towards
place
the
provides
simple
no
moans of
Museum, Munich
fact
that
the
large
entered
the
with
a nozzle
turbine.
gap was left
runner
without
that
flow
designs
work
as impulse
does
inside
the
not
is
runner
strictly
design
was a true
between
the
nozzle
a bigger
arc of the
permitting
turbines
therefore
not
pressure,
increased,
completely
is
any static
covers
unit
flow
This
original
measure,
reduced
pressure
of
the
space
and then
as an impulse
on the
jet
These
when the
and
the
open
takes
use
A sufficiently
so that
the
jet
blades
to
periphery
entry,
Technical
classified
turbine.
this
runner.
normally
Modern
turbine
the
is
constant-pressure
conversion
The
the
Europe,
More than
water
rotor
the
crossing
runner.
discharging
Fia.
from
the
except
water
after
the
the
- perpendicular
upon
advantage
Germany.
is
through
blades
particular
known in
company who produces
Bavaria,
turbine
first
Energy
well
most of them made by Ossberger.
rotor
and then,
was quite
one single
in
twice
blading
outwards.
is
Cross-Flow
passes
the
water
upon
the
cylindrical
17),
inside
firm
of
through
fig.
pingement
blades
There
which
of
By 1920 it
publications.
characteristic
periphery
Budapest.
installed
cross-section
from
of
decades,
turbines
main
ity
univers
fill
only
the
is
to keep
with
passages
atmospheric.
small
betWith
-39-
increased
flow
a slight
pas.-.itive
Cross-Flow
than
completely
pressure;
turbines
of flow
rates
inlet
and runner
duce
the
need
for
tios
of
bending.
Fig.
18: Cross-Flow
Photo
by:
the
from
a constant
fig.
18).
0.2
shaft
in
to
4.5
at
equal
Fig.
Runner
makes
2 m to more
runner,
it
va-
by var-
possible
to
re-
considerably.
been made.
For wide
prevent
intervals
is
25ii m). A large
manufacture
have
than
diameter
This
there
machine.
less
heads up to
with
and fixtures
from
to
in
blades,
Rarotors,
the
blades
Schemat i C
19: Cross-Flow
II. Meier
A valuable
curve,
that
(x
for
the
as a reaction
a head range
turbines
jigs
welded
from
means
tooling,
width/diameter,
discs
over
width
between
now works
may be accommodated
the
supporting
passages
turbine
has supplied
ying
rotor
the
the
may be applied
100 m (Ossberger
riety
filling
feature
which
that
at
of
the
Cross-Flow
Ossberger
are
reduced
flow,
may be more
important
turbine
further
improving
efficiency
than
is
is
a higher
its
relatively
by
using
still
efficiency
a divided
quite
optimum-point
flat
high,
gate.
This
a consideration
efficiency
of other
tur-
bines.
It
is
easy
to
understand
other
types,
by looking
Fig.
20 is
a graphical
conventional
bines
is
designs.
shown
a smal' 1 turbine.
in
why Cross-Flow
at fig.
relation
are
much easier
to make than
18 and 19.
presentation
The usual
turbines
range
(dotted
of
for
line).
a general
turbine
commercially
In the
overall
application
available
picture,
range
Cross-Flow
it
is
of
tur-
clearly
-4o-
ilicat
ion
Range
&+ALL q LARGE
ICRO
Head
100
/
\
50
Co. USA
Leffel
\
\,..
Fig.
21 shows efficiencies
lation
to
bines
of
gate
opening,
(including
more
the
than
a wide
range
of
ciency
of
the
around
10 % at
reduced
cases
unit
the
flow
where
(e.g.
turbine
the
this
which
Cross-Flow
and
not
Cross-Flow
built
compared
to
conventional
has around
in Nepal
conventional
of
be smaller
Francis
turbine
achieve
or
is
over
in effiwould
condition,
5 kW*.
or
tur-
80 % for
type
around
even
Propeller)
installed
re-
efficiencies
maximum difference
turbine
to
in
optimised
same head and flow
likely
types
achieve
Cross-Flow
an imported
the
is
shown)
the
the
turbine
and highly
turbines
Given
Cross-Flow
is
kW capacity,
difference
a standardised
Conventional
point.
for
more important
The Ossberger
of,say,40
optimal
the
rate.
Cross-Flow,
output
type,
flow
units.
and
Nepal
a reduced
on turbine
large
flow,
some of
e.g.
Pelton
90 % in
70 %. On a small
gives
of
morELLEa
be
this
Depending
reversed
and
in
also
at
in
non-optimal
conditions.
For
Flow
more
specific
turbines
a range
of
* Calculation:
Cross-Flow
Tl
reference,
the
+ T3 built
standardised
application
by BYS in
convectional
Nepal
machines
range
are
of the
shown
(fig.
of
BELL. in
P = Q-H-g-2; conventional
type: 0,12*40~3.81*0,85
Nepal: 0,;2*40*9,81*0,75
= 35.3 kW
= 40 kW
two designs
22)
in
Switzerland.
of Crossrelation
Locally
to
-4190 %
80
70
I4YS
Nc.1t.1 1
Cross-Flow
80
I
40
30
PO
10
i
:
Fig.
21:
Efficiency
Curves
Source:
Adapted
built
Cross-Flow
Where
need
flow
from
0,h
of some Turbine
James
Leffel
turbines
arises,
and output.
Ii
it
In
/
I
I/
0
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,8
QIQ m8x
-- i-0,9
Types
Co.
in
is
0,2
I
-L---0.7
other
possible
Indonesia,for
developing
to
countries
extend
instance,
the
the
cover
application
output
range
a similar
range
as regards
head,
has been extended
to 400 kW.
Fig.
22:
Application
Range of Nepal
Cross-Flow
Turbines
and
Small, Conventional
Types
Source:
Adapted
from
BELL,
Switzerland
.05
.1
.5
1
5
Flow
10
20
(n&S)
1
-42-
There
are
a number
offer
equipment
Propeller
not
of
specifically
for
and Cross-Flow
shown in
the
mostly
manufacturers,
to
diagram.
outputs
Francis
in
below
For
are
though,
countries,
types
100 kM. Turbine
and Pelton.
Addresses,
industrialised
greater
given
range
clarity,
in the
who
from
these
annexe
for
are
refer-
ence.
Turbine
Tl,
fically
designed
welded
construction.
sites,
special
porters.
in
position
Fia.
manufacturing
Due to
the
by
taper
of
pins.
lack
the
motorable
be given
to
This
is
roads
of operation
to
bolted
to
of fully-
installation
on the
together
the
site
an advantage,
to repair
most
transportation
carried
also
has been speci-
at BYS, and is
are therefore
a turbine
Thus,
in Nepal
available
of
turbine
be assembled.
some years
was built
facilities
had to
parts
that
if
or replace
of
and kept
in
it
back
individual
should
one of the
become
parts.
23:
Source:
of Turbine
Tl
BYS, Nepal
inlet
(1)
to
welded
width
(3)
rotor
of
turbine
consideration
after
Schematic
five
Cross-flow
for
can readily
necessary
The
first
Individual
parts,
The
the
inch
400
consists
two plane
of
of
side
the
inlet
consists
of
pipe
of
mm diameter,
two
curved
panels
to
is
denoted
28 blade
5 mm wall
where
form
a rectangular
x in
fig.
segments
are
that
form
thickness,
they
sheets
(2)
which
welded
a logarithmical
inlet
23 and in
that
fit
in.
are
into
The
cut
spiral,
section
the
from
slots
central
table
and nozzle.
fig.
31.
standard
of
two
shaft
The
diameter
side
(3)
discs
is
also
-43-
welded
to
the
including
the
welding.
the
the
rotor
bine,
blade
and
is
be used
for
spherical
nozzle
In
is
to the
required
to
complete
the
for
stand
In all
stock
cases,
with
square
stock
inlet,
pipe
base
the
bearing
the
regulator
shaft
with
the
neatly
in-
the
closed
which
is
(8)
of
to
and fits
condition
either
and a nut
cylinder
part
self-aligning
parallel
in
hydraulic
end may
is
gate
pushrod
other
of the
as the
(5)
tur-
of
and the
within
connected
in the
handwheel
a speed
rear
to
governor.
part
(91,
all
(7).
thin
sheet,
turbine
stuffing
and rubber
The photograph
housing.
assembly
boxes
on a foundation
of
gaskets
fig.
24 shows
frame
that
also
accommodates
inlet
that
connects
alternator.
is
turbine.
and of
sides
on the
the
the
acts
a pushrod
the
of
up the
an adaptor
the
by
with
turbine
a small
connecting
the
of
two machines
the
shaft
disc
sides
of
machining
Its
both
to drive
are
accurate
(4).
the
to
panels
seal
an almost
at
operation,
side
makes
from
on one side,
used
completed
supporting
application
pulleys
Bearings
a thread
frame
with
diameter,
done after
extends
on the
connected
The latter
operated
foundation
a central
regulator
leaks
completed
two
addition,
are
is
with
parts
top.
keep
automatic
housing
flow
- requiring
(6)
for
bolted
to
the
the
provided
governor.
which
outside
is
is
U-channel
at
device
a hand,wheel
The
two
tongue
The
or,
by
with
rectangular
-
a generator
rotor
diameter,
can be provided
type,
shaft,
limits.
ends
if
the
shaft
Depending
symmetric.
double-roller
controlled
also
of
x> 220 mm. The shaft
a speed
Flow
the
of
machining
as the
is
operating
unnecessary.
side
sizes
shaft
supports
is
rotor
or,
final
as well
usually
both
belt-drive,
and
tips
for
blades,
either
rotor
discs
The drum-like
for
via
rotor
provided
This
part
circular
at the
is
cross
of
turbine
square
section
shape
at the
at one end,
other
the
to fit
end to fit
pen-
to the
to the
pen-
a drafttube
of
used.
,
Depending
on
the
setting
square
shape
is
welded
to the
foundation
To cover
the
head
also
above
tailwater
provided.
frame,
and flow
For
this,
so that
ranges
in
the
as given
an installation,
a flange
made from
drafttube
can be bolted
in
the
table
fig.
sheet
strips
is
on.
31 at
the
end of
Fig.
24:
Turbine
Tl Assemb 1Y at BYS
Photo
by:
u.
this
section,
table
in
sponding
Meier
the
turbine
fig.
25 shows
other
variable
is
the
manufactured
standard
in
sizes
dimensions.
10 different
of
x in
The diagrams
nozzle
millimeters
widths
and also
show measurements
that
x. The
correremain
constant.*
In
conclusion
it
may be noted
a non-specialised
- Turning
metal
lathe
- ,Drilling
- Milling
uorkshop.
with
machine
machine
- Acetylene
Manufacturing
trained
* A detailed
Tl
tools
height>200
a capacity
is
suitable
required
for
manufacture
are standard,
in
such as:
mm
up to 0 25 mm and boring
attachment
or shaper
torch,
plate
shear
(optional)
equipment
- a number of jigs
- general
turbine
Machine
a centre
with
cutting
- arc welding
that
and fixtures
made for
the
purpose
hand tools
can
mechanic,
construction
he carried
out
a skilled
worker
manual
of turbine
by
;! team of
trained
Tl
is
three
on the
available
job,
from
or
four,
consisting
and semi-skilled
SKAT upon
request.
of
helpers.
a
-45-
~,
Hand rqufatw IWChdnlsm r laced by hydrauk cy7 order for exce
cution with governor
-
Fig.
25:
Shaft length and
/I diameter as oer
General Dimensions
of
BYS Cross-Flow
Turbine
Tl
Source: BYS, Nepal
General dimqsions (in mm)
approx.
-wei
ht of
J tur 1.ine(k$
Table of variable dimePturbine .type I A 1 B ,
694
x 50
1 352 1 462
714
482
744
tuz I 512
Photographs
is
all
In its
outputs
of
required
generally
below
and the
to
27 show some stages
of
manufacture
at
i.60
280
310
22r)
330
245
---
BYS. Material
used
steel.
application,
incorporated
ribs).
26,
common mild
on head
is
fig.
iii
70
100
speaking,
25 kW, giving
width
decide
(such
as
of
the
whether
bigger
it
a long
rotor
or
the
(shaft
not
shaft
machine
life.
For
bending
parts
diameter,
that
is
overdesigned
clearly
higher
output
load),
engineering
give
greater
supporting
and depending
strength
disc,
for
know-how
must
strengthening
be
-46-
Fig.
Fig.
26:
Welding
Photos
of Rotor
by:
Turbine
I!.
Meier
a more
with
Engineering
Tl,
Works,
bine
manufacturers
ters
relating
sense.
type
out
(HTL)
of
an output
Brugg.
water
with
of
the
the
on the
its
design
although
Nepal
fed
frame
of
30 kW under
turbine
student
Photograph
a head of
they
are
student
fig.
work
at
tur-
technical
mat-
in
Switzerland,
a commercial
T3 was devel-
making
The test
program
installed
Swiss
the
a protoa laboratory
was carried
Engineering
prototype
in the
on
Cross-Flow
design,
the
28 shows
70 meters
in
based
BEW (Butwal
SKAT, and subsequently
possible.
thesis
two major
competitors
in
is
205 of
cooperate
of different
configuration
type
the
in through
a number of rotors
runner
of
and development
Interestingly,
of an engineering
from
design
BYS and BEW, closely
turbines,
Brugg/Windisch.
of
history:
Nepal).
Nepal,
initiative
was built
within
Butwal,
information
optimisation
recent
and also
in
to
On the
oped with
Tl Assembly Work with Rotor,
FlowRegulator
and Square Inlet
(top)
visible
Tl
T3 has
experience
27:
turbine
laboratory
College
with
at HTL
Fia.
28:
on the
T3 Prototype
Test Bed
Photo
U. Meier
by:
Lastly,
with
ardisation
ing,
the
results
and a final
several
Turbine
Tl.
test
design
turbines
is
purposes.
not
diameter
necessary
runner
be an advantage
for
high-speed
the
other
for
low-head
ly
desirable,
T3 would
pared
to
rotor
diameter.
pensated
and
the
Tl,
due to
for
limits
The
at
of
done
of
material
several
gives
it
double
more
specific
of
width
strength
the
design,
At the
therefore
in
such
applications,where
advantage
of
Nepal.
housing
applications
lower
a certain
by BYS in
200 mm and is
diameter
necessitate
its
adaptations
stand-
time
of writ-
been built.*
to make the
The smaller
hand,
were
T3 have already
T3 has a runner
It
and some minor
parts
the
for
discharge
speed runner
the
which
inlet
results
dimensions
of
turbine,
so that
the
factors
to
determining
is
width
from
general
become
may
generation.
smaller
the
transportation
as electricity
double
than
speed of Tl which
a higher
than
much smaller
is
On
usual-
as com-
the
smaller
therefore
com-
required
speed
choose
between
two designs.
The schematical
ence
as compared
* A set
request.
of
workshop
presentation
to
drawings
Tl,
of
the
except
for
T3 and other
T3 design
the
technical
flow
information
(fig.
29)
regulator
is
shows
no basic
arrangemc::t.
available
from
differFor
SKAT upon
T3,
a
Fiq.
29:
of Turbine
Schematic
Source:
Adaoted
wicket-gate
inlet.
from
desisn
(or
butterfly)
The flow
obvious
smaller
advantage
if
at
the
place
divided
of
is
simpler
are
of
course
required.
70,
approximately
on head)
strength.
2.5
160,
in
in
Bearings
220,
fig.
the
used
are
that
are bolted
to the
turbine
Fig.
30 shows
a layout
of
base
frame
gasket
-
both
and stuffing
with
box
been
For
large
widths,
of
standard
to
with
strips
the
with
jigs
an accessthe
turbine
Fabrica-
runner
blades.
and fixtures
inlet
the
is
Tl.
blades
ball-type
is
widths
of
(denoted
cover
up to 4 supportjng
self-aligning
an
a hand-hydraulic
920 mm, to
give
is
The turbine
than
for
into
no
rotor.
parts
of
This
is
manufacture.
690,
of
con-
Tl.
gate
of the
standardised
required
is
balanced,
new feature
set
520,
of
of the
sheet
390,
are
regulator
same, except
290,
22.
rotor
flow
a different
T3 has
which
the
material-intensive
and has fewer
steel
in
mass and hydraulically
regarding
the
directly
design,
'less
inspection
more compact
parts?
this
removal
a degree
mm thick
all
120,
shown
to
situated
Another
permits
essentially
Turbine
90,
the
applied.
This
is
are
welding
is
in
small
than
is
permits
and partial
make,
from
For
pending
inlet.
used
but
forces
which
sections
relatively
governor
stamped
press.
50,
of
optimised
to
two
performance,
the
also
was chosen
into
installation,
techniques
These
in
a hydraulic
in the
somewhat
tion
type
operating
top
The design
bo)
is
Arter
The wicket-gate
requires
in
A.
consequence
StrUCtiOn.
hole
T3
the
discs
the
range
(de-
necessary
with
flanges
pipe
adaptor,
housing.
turbine
rubber
T3 with:
gaskets
and bearing
block
(from
and
left
nuts/bolts
in front,
to
right,
- turbine
the
rotor,
housing
wicket-gate
with
with
Fia.
30:
Layout
Photo
of BYS Produced
by:
B.
Antener,
operating
of the
For
that
T3.
for
and bushing,
gate
operating
a comparison
view,
the
the
in
a step-up
low-speed
place,
the
and finally
mechanism
two
at
this,
the
speed
direct
specially
mechanical
range
for
been
access
front
the
is
to
and
more
in
heads
power transmission.
head
below
range
19 meters
with
of the
for
Parts
base frame.
fig.
a gain
is
gasket.
and application
in
suitable
an alternator
the
hole-lid
design
tabulated
has resulted
coupling
transmission
in
from
have
optimisation
the
are
turbines
specifications
attempt
some cases
has its
of
main
Besides
T3
BVS
lever
manual
Turbine
31.
of
It
point
may be noted
5 % efficiency
electricity
possible
covered
and for
is
for
generation
without
greater.
very
of
the
Tl
low heads,
need
still
for
Blades:
Fig.
31:
Technical
Features
of CrossFlow Turbines
Tl and T3
Compiled
Source:
from
**Discharge
limits
(l/s)
low:
high:
BYS-data
Output (kW)
Efficiency
b) Other
For
to
installations
the
tudinally.
together
used.
used.
that
*
where:
Q in
at full
See
half
second
Example:
32)
the
nearly
the
w
in
it
at:H=16m
x=rloomm
Q = 560
Pmax = 60
rl=70%
(max)
is
its
provided
thereby
ring
with
a groove
This
protrudes.
compressing
x or
bo in
the
H in
mm and
flat
circular
then
32)
seal.
is
metres
= 131 l/s
opening
Scheurer
et al.,
Small
Waler
Turbine,
p 44,
gate,
Eschborn
the
longican be
gaskets
are
developed
by
cross-section)
bolted
It
sections
method
in which
is
welded
rubber
a sealing
with
deliver
sheet
penstock
flanges,
use
- which
steel
so that
to
rubber
pipes
rolled
between
possible
section
second,
required
sealing
standard
flanges
per
made from
are
also
peilstock
the
T3 : H = 30 m, bo = 160 mm; Q = 0,15*160*30
gate
also
liters
is
(a
flange,
end
For
place.
of
Nepal,
usually
each
an o-ring
One of
of
- are
at
Alternatively,
BEW, where
in
turbine
Flanges
bolted
Q = 20
at:H=22 m
bo=690mm
Q = 480
Pmax = 70
/)=75%
equipment
turbine
water
Q = 24
1980
the
ring
to the
reported
rests,
is
so
flat
face
that
this
-!31-
kind
of
seal
Another
iq
vrry
technique
available,
is
nates
effective
that
to
should
weld
be
penstock
bolts
flanges,
and is
and
cheaper
to make than
promising
sections
where
together
gaskets,
much
flat
rubber
portable
at the
welding
site.
sets
While
naturally
depends
gaskets.
on
this
the
are
elimlskill
of
welders.
For
a safe
design
water
by
appropriate
with
the
take
the
been
satisfactory.
it
case
nearest
for
formance
of
fold
It
flanges
operating
should
stresses
tion,
bending
and
collapsing
As
stresses
combined-stress
cient
of
one at
32.
packing-type
The
section
and
type
of
overlaps
of
for
packing
* Hoop-stress
pipe inside
r.
the
formula:
radius
the
pipe
which
not
are
a pipe
may be considered
that
the
in
case
of
higher
to
than
to
For
one,
water
closure
measures
dimension
the
is
end between
two anchor
larger
in
of
diameter
(mm)
is
, where
= permissible
stress
also
very
the
per-
the
three-
with
the
such
other
elonga-
of
supports,
the
penstock.
such
additional
for
based
provide
on a
a suffi-
expansion
joints
as shown in
section
which
p = pressure
N/cm2
due to
fig.
made by making
diameter.
and in
thickness,
units
top
up by
simply
the
other
between
easy to
quite
consider
thickness
blocks)
ac%s as a seal
s = sheet
pipe
sheet
twice
not
avoiding
be taken
so that
approximately
that
provided,
joint
a
testing-
withstands
the
relatively
should
expansion
at
take
it
have
In such
is
stresses
and the
Elongation
of
and ‘bperm
of
is
and then
determining
does
notably
to;
valve
economical
degree
S = L
Xperm
described
may be subjected
weight
it
safe.
procedure
the
This
of
1,
pressure
bolted.
tests
it
than
known.
a water
such
in
less
this
is
re-
considerations
procedure
using
lids
the
with
stress
end
control
value
Results
permissible
under
calculated
If
a length
is
the
applies.
calculate
of
and gaskets.
supports.
(usually
factor
2 mm to
thickness.
to
calculation.
number
For
and for
more
a great
formula.*
leaks
strength
to
to
a welding
to
- is
sufficient
tiny
due to
is
1.5
however,
a penstock
it
usually
practice
gate
seams for
stress
a rule,
turbine
welding
noted,
that
the
hoop-stress
sheet
pressure,
be
add
penstock
checking
is
engineering
to make a pressure-test
be sound
of
of
and for
standard
pump on a section
suitable
the
to
Often,
would
it
life-time
common BYS practice
general
closure
design,
thickness
during
strength,
sudden
governor
sheet
corrosion
the
penstock
hammer - due to
If
quired
of
fits
one
inside
A stuffing-box
the
inner
in the
pipe,
p andbperm.
and
pipe
r =
mm for
-52-
ion.
may move in case of e lonqat
Fig.
32:
Expansion
Photos
Joint
by:
air
penstock
latter
is
still
used
to
to
Nepal,
so far
only
mainly
because
of
PVC = Rigid
is
in
also
Polyvinyl-Chloride,
33) See SATR/UMN, p 44 ff.
and
and
the
than
the
the
The former
water
rushes
while
the
slowly,
fig.
made and of
pipe
II? to
200 mm cost
are
limited
availability.
33)
from China.
PE = High
is
It
suitability.
installations
reported
valve.
shown in
sheet-metal
diameters
very
main
height
at
33,
welded
the
penstock
head water
admits
air
out
main
main
to
and the
valve
valve
construction,
is
being
as can
photograph.
to
a few
penstock
locally
side
costs
closed
are
may be incorporated
greater
the
is
empty
also
material
PE* pipes
pipe
valve
components
type,
compare
slightly
across
the
left-hand
and/or
*
fill
common gate
worthwhile
cement
(Thailand)
parts
of
valve
main
three
alternative
simple
inlet-pipe
the
All
be seen on the
Where
two
bypass
when
closed.
the
at Nam Dang,
stresses,
and a small
the
of
other
A vertical
level
Penstock
U. Meier
To avoid
top.
in
Density
available,
may often
much less
provided
The
Polyethylene
with
use
it
be found
than
PVC or
of
is
steel
of
course
that
PVC
pine.
PE penstocks,
locally-made
ferro-
In
Fig.
33:
Air
Inlet-Pipe,
Photos
by:
Main
- due to
able
consideration
friction
of
a generally
and costs
of
loss,
latter
that
the
flow
34 shows the
used
and the
rolled
steel
a plastic
pipe
rule.
are
head-loss
pipe
Values
has smaller
that
solution
the
pipe
meters)
for
cost
factors
relationship
(in
penstock
Thailand
is
of
must
should
is
the
It
is
head
1oss of head
d ifficult
and flow
be investigated
flow
below
rate,
section
cost
rule
often
4 m/s.
the
due to a smoother
diameter
are also
surface.
avail-
and head
applied
The diagram
of 10 m length,
pipe
to
in each case.
between
A general
be well
a QI 200 PE (plastic)
losses
pipe.
a trade-off
energy.
a pipe
the
required,
between
in
diameter
of
Power output
a loss
in
typical
the
- versus
an economic
velocity
sheet.
chasing
flolti
representing
fig.
that
water
the
on these,
the
in
applicable
Depending
is
(Nam Dang,
U. Meier
An important
state
and Bypass-Va lve
Gate Valve
given,
of pipe
made from
showing
-54-
Friction in 10 m pipe
--Fig. 34:
Typical
Head Loss in
Source:
BYS Cross-Flow
Pipe
turbine,
Adams 1974
I- O.Lrnrn
K-O.lmm
Because
its
of
use for
speed
line
shaft
give
the
again
one
belt
providing
three
a big
should
is
with
technique
and
use
of
a constant-diameter
range
transmission.
machines
and
the
of
In
the
done
using
sha."t
speed.
belts
with
a set
of
that
machine
is
tension
machines
used
is
guard-rails
shaft
correct
- are
are operated
flat
Two,
pulleys%
itself.
everywhere.
the
power
It
and without
taken.
Fig.
by flat
belts.
belts
three
one for
is
is
fairly
use,
it
step
from
each machine
problems
35 shows
turbine
to
with
pulleys
that
line
shaft
and conventional
if
is
measures
a typical
a
may be operated
efficient
safety
several
the
on the
simple
and
a step-up
may be that
more machines
a very
turbines
to provide
vee-belts
or
or
This
Cross-Flow
necessary
transmission
either
line
in
usually
of mechanical
desired
on the
is
A first
be operated.
then
it
heads,
case
runner
shaft
turbine-mill,
alignment
- such
as
where
Fig.
35:
Sundar
Bazaar
Photo
by:
With
the
U. Meier
heads
cases
for
5
a single
in
under
where
the
multiple
largest
for
than
latter
most
are
of
installations.
sprocket
and
cost-effective
required
was later
fig.
m with
speed
36).
made from
even
required
A step-up
vee-belt
somewhat
expensive.
or,
of
This
of 1500 RPM,
this
belt-manufacturer's
a two-step
all
ratio
drives.
Tl and a generator
Tl,
in
power,
a
instructions
transmission
This
alternatively,
would
may be a reason
another
step-up
or gearbox.
pieces
Nepal,
Duplex
equipment.
standard
using
it
is
25 kW. To transmit
T3-turbine
drive
drive,
over
turbine
of
no gear
on the
or
were made locally
solution
(see
9,5
with
making
In
Using
pinion
with
about
heads
transmission
simple
sophisticated
A chain
reason.
standard
required,
as a chain
alternatives.
this
using
is
lower
quite
step-up
generate
faster
such
used,
would
vee-belts,
the
for
This
For
selecting
arrangement,
The
a head of
arranqement
with
is
relatively
size
design.
be required
is
for
belt
Tl
generation
step
be needed
the
which
electricity
would
for
'Mill
Turbine-
though
Initially,
case-hardened
equipment
boxes
other
Triplex
hand,
been
used
mild
a housing
steel.
It
with
oil-bath
was wear
steel.
of
on the
costlier
so far
mainly
in
a number
has been applied
roller-chains
from
there
have
and therefore
standard
pitch,
may be considered
mild
lubrication
steel
sprocket.
a
is
-56-
Fig.
36:
20 kW Chain Drive with
Step-Up Ratio of 4,8 at
BYS Test-Site
Photo
by:
Except
and
U. Meier
in
a few
multiple-groove
relatively
care
Latin
For
turbine
the
generator.
America
it
Due to
a quite
the
ters
without
* personal
head
on the
may prove
standardised
a properly
efficient
to be the
best
solution.
and
mass-produced,
designed
vee-belt
This
and durable.
view
is
Belts
making
drive
also
them
requires
corroborated
by OLADE.*
is
At
ideal
bine,
are
addition,
quite
T3 it
making
losses
In
and is
for
drives
pulleys
cheap.
little
vee-belt
cases,
for
flat
range
losinq
order
communication
possible
a head
of
direct
with
58
m,for
the
direct
efficiency,
of
some cases
coupling
peak of
for
in
3 to
OLADE
to
to
instance,
standard
efficiency/speed
coupling
since
couple
turbine
4 %. Speed of
the
turbine
speed
directly
is
1500 RPM (4 pole)
curve
may be extended
a step-up
the
of
above
transmission
turbine
the
1500
RPM,
qenerators.
Cross-Flow
and below
would
to
also
may be increased
tur58 meincur
or de-
creased
this
to match
will
$n that
result
case
cy remains
Fiq.
in
a lower
no transmission
the
the
range
turbine
is
from
41 to
efficiency
required,
costs
78 m head.
'by
about
are
saved
As fig.
three
37 shows,
percent.
and overall
Since
efficien-
same.
37:
Turbine
Source:
1500 RPM in
T3: Efficiency/Speed
adapted
from
Diploma
work
Curve
HTL Brugg
*
-i,: * :,,, . .
) ,,,, I,, I.,
t ::’
!+k:?.!:!::*
: ”,!
I
Fiq.
38:
Discharge/Speed
Curves
. ,,:,:.,‘:‘:I
;
ili!:!I::.:l
: :I.
I
:,I
i
.,“!“:‘.
, t,
.I
:
.,, -‘f .-I
::.: ‘. : .,
H--t
-58-
The
discharge
of
water
if
speed
is
20 %. This
means
that
38 shows
about
that
be increased
creased
This,
by 20 % to
on the
for
fig.
Generators
is
of
this
variation
loop.
field
magnetic
field
the
or,
magnetic
move past
the
and
40).
In
from
the
ducing
the
of
in
ends
flux
of
the
In
the
latter
revolve
mounted
case
the
current
The relatively
magnetic
at
fig.
induction
lines
to
loop
can
be
kept
the
stator
(schematic)
of
short
distance
from
the
rotor
current
GENERATING
armatun
winding
(atotor)
is
through
the
stationary,
an iron
ring
on the
rotor
them
(fig.
taken
needed
by means of
SET
the
and
is
a very
rotating magnetic field (chongm of
magnotlc flux in tha atotor cclum
electric induction)
39:
Generator
armature
generator
of
a constant
stationary
poles
direct
Their
a periodic
in
magnetic
of
stotsonory
rotate
the
ouptput
shown
passing
inside;
Fig. 2
Alternating-Current
whereby
consists
the
de-
amount.
energy.
force
loop
p
Fig.
of
the
to
is
as a result
cause
fed
speed
curves
electrical
conductor
by
is
has to
37.
electrical
the
If
by
width
discharge
of
produced
low
field
in
1.
fig.
falls
by a much smaller
The two
arrangement
on the
coils
(rotor)
coilr
h
but
of
production
instead;
these
magnat whrl
with induction
discharge
magnetic
the
of
rotating
inlet
turbine
a loop-type
alternatively,
coils
stator.
principle
one can either
poles
this
the
the
rotated.
induction
with
of
condition,
conditions
for
The diagram
discharge
increases,
to the
affected.
1500 RPM, relative
a relative
produced
To do this,
magnetic
and
is
this
also
may be neglected.
used
on the
is
to
discharge
hand,
electricity
periodic
achieve
machines
turbine
under
purposes,
based
the
increased
38 correspond
are
operation
flow
other
partical
in diagram
through
39
direct
for
pro-
slip-rings
and carbon
which
or
copper-mesh
likewise
field,
operates
stationary
form
brushes
on
the
armature
of a two-part
(fig.
40).
Fig.
principle
In
winding).
40 shows
described
this
a smaller
above
case
the
generator
(rotating
magnet
magnetic
wheel
is
in
the
34)
T-rotor.
dirut
currant
gnetic field
Fig.
40:
Details
(internal
of a Generator
pole machine
(fig. 39 + 401, How
Things Work, p 65
Source:
thmephasm
There
are
special
generators
applications
tion
they
ators
producing
are
of
on standard)
limited
sizes
phase,
not
supplying
three
exceeding
outfwt
current
only.
(DC)
In the
(AC)
are
a voltage
phase.
these
of rural
not
discussed
very
of
Single
but
context
and are therefore
current
more often,
commonly
outputs
interest
alternating
or
direct
produce
and low
may be single
They
in
that
olirrnatingtumnt
often
200 to
phdse
12 kW and may well
are
here.
Gener-
alternators.
240 Volts
alternators
in
for
electrifica-
called
be used
used
(depending
are available
small
installa-
tions.
Three-phase
Units
in
and of
the
The
on the
34) Section
on
are
micro-range
200 to
applied.
load
alternators
240 Volts
Electricity
phases
versatile
produce
between
"four-wire-system"
three
more
a voltage
is
: From
relation
of
any phase
380 to
to
electricity
440 Volts
and neutral,depending
required
must be balanced
Generators
in
on the
within
How Things
Work
. . . . b/
between
on the
distribution
prescribed
end-use.
side
phases
standard
and
limits.
arrangement
with
the
publishers
the
-6O-
For
isolated
the
self-excited,
the
induction
through
sma 11 hydropower
stations
synchronous
3-phase
generator
batteries.
need
for
which
Du to
speed
it
in
certain
most
convenient
alternator.
requires
this,
governing
the
The
excitation
is
of
cases,
other
from
limited
machine
type
an
interest,
and
is
to
is
available
existing
is
grid
although
cheaper
use
it
than
or
has no
synchronous
alternators.
Two types
of
The
cheap.
exitation
more
is
system.
be
synchronous
provided
rotating
can
be directly
and
brushes.
difficult
to
A brushless
sophisticated
it
standing
is
the
rotor
machines
are
therefore
select
one
the
two
of
requires
to
be
piece
of
equipment
in
this,
most
the
replaced
cases
reason
to
of
without
the
select
other
slip-rings
It
technical
the
any
alternator
is
a more
repair
be re-
alternator.
is
is
criteria.
former
Should
type
current
alternators.
a slip-ring
on a slip-ring
one or the
need for
than
Yet
provided
Excitation
of
latter.
may therefore
is
basis
periodically.
to'work
and it
brushless
on the
which
excitation
alternator
shaft.
maintenance
the
type
main
called
than
easier
on the
types
less
need
type
windings
Such
brushes
quired,
to
mounted
trough
static
this
A newer
relatively
and brushes
produce
market.
directly
alternator
slip-rings
has
countries
regional
supplied
and therefore
a booster-transformer/rectifier,
developing
rectifiers
are mass produced
type
from
on the
with
where
conventional
Many bigger
available
alternators
Notwlth-
probably
its
price
and availability.
Fig.
of
poles
No
41:
Speed of Standard
Alternators
2
Speed (RPM)
at
at
50 HZ
60 HZ
3000
3600
4
1500
1800
6
1000
1200
8
750
900
10
600
720
12
500
output
UW
4
alternator
Wee
2 pole
X
"
12
I
(kg)
I
weight
a2
X
X
n
600
4 pole
04
135
X
150
C
20
X
n
Fio.
40
42:
Brushless
(2-pole
X
Leroy-Somer,
180
320
X
400
& 4-pole)
56
Source:
x
II
Alternators
165
II
France
160
X
390
X
460
X
735
X
920
-61-
There
is
number
still
poles
of
varies.
For
speed
needs
technical
to
speed
frequency,
More
be.
of
aspect
rotor,
on the
a given
lationship
fig.
another
the
poles
parameters
alternators
in
at
shown
Depending
are
number
weight
in
at:
alternators
the
a greater
is
1ooking
needs
which
higher
imply
these
that
of
to
po:;~-
an exemplary
table
be operated
:'z
and a la~;!-'a
on the
lower
the
the
re-
size;
in
fig.
41 and
42.
Lower
are
speed
obtainable
nators
are
Several
not
available
alternators
in
These
investigating.
Fig.
for
in
43.
range
up to
many manufacturers
manufacturers
low-speed
fig.
from
the
are
outputs
the
above
is
with
built
or
for
given
in
of
only,
China
without
less
while
offer
oIften,
2 po le
a large
brushes,
use with
the
produced
and
alter-
60 kW.
Republic
execution
An address
upon request
People's
specially
160 kW are
water
such
turbines
range
of
as shown in
and are
worth
annexe.
43:
Low Speed Synchronous
Alternator
Source: CMEC, Beijng,
Worldwide,
by far
1500 RPM for
usually
to
speed
this
turbines
is
in
speed
a plant
not
easily
of
that
50 HZ. These
is
typically
in
the
engine
rated
speed
80 % to
load
prime
is
case of failure,
are
for
instance
under
turbine
speed
running
types
diesel
than
off
at
- are
sets
for
speed as compared
may have
load.
switched
other
e.g.
run-away
in
100 % higher
suddenly
4 pole,
- as most
movers,
difference
a combustion
its
alternators
machines
thermal
with
than
in operation
react
available
a fundamental
40 % higher
run-away
does
most
operation
There
20 to
now in
ernor
for
sizes.
water
the
a frequency
built
small
China
a runaway
For
water
turbines,
the
rated
speed.
and the
and thus
If
speed gov-
generator
speed
go up to
sible
run-away
run-away
speed
forces
- which
on the
rotor
would
speed
tor.
The
on the
way out
permissible
runaway
is
Nepal,
most
manufacturers
often
at the
same price
When
selecting
an
standard
on the
is
safe
to
side,
not
users
C ambient
by multiplying
specific
output,
vary
with
Fig.
44:
Output
should
The
different
in
table
fig.
the
the
meet
deserve
happen-
the
alternafor
experience
such
a
of
requirements,
what
relative
humidity
elevation
the
affect
values,
rated
For
output
to
typical
To be
an alternator
above sea level
and to max.
derating
for
arrive
factors
of
maximum-output.
1000 m elevation
factors
one,
climate.
alternator
to max.
shows
attention.
(humid)
at
which
must
the
be
situation
may of
course
products.
Elevation
of machine
Derating
In
not
result
guarantee
tropical
relate
44
of
to
loop
the
is
for
Both
these
them with
stator,
lifetime
to
points
temperature.
Above
the
turbine.
concerns
data
centrifugal
machine.
suitable
point
output
the
a position
more
specify
permis-
of speed - and a coil
Even where this
the
standard
always
temperature.
applied,
be in
the
The other
manufacturer's
of
a lower
higher
ask manufacturers
two
and ambient
an installation
40'
is
be installed,
Usually,
as for
for
the
touches
shorten
that
alternator,
insulation
will
seem to
it
machine.
specifically
above
square
If
the
built
withstand
the
outwards.
bearings
s,peed
to
with
wreck
to
An alternator
be able
increase
and would
load
only
not
be deflected
be disastrous
increased
seconds.
may then
incidentally
could
ing,
within
Factors
1000
fl
factor
1500
m
m
1.
2000
lr.
2500
m
0.91
0.01
0.96
3000
m
0.83
4
Source:
Leroy-Somer,
I
Ambient
temp. 'C
France
1 factor
Electricity
tions
generators
prior
to
are
complex
procurement,
Manufacturers
are
ard
or when specifically
tant
to
could
brochures
to
specify
arrive
look
at
usually
to
all
a
relevant
satisfactory
as follows:
quite
1
f2
machines
make
ready
asked
requirements
solution.
1
that
supply
about
I45
I50
require
numerous
a suitable
type
information
the
and
A typical
155
1.07 1 0.96 1 0.93 1
that
sure
to
25
various
ask
the
and
detailed
_.
0.88
selected.
It
relevant
1
1
considera-
with
aspects.
all
0.91
is
either
I60
is
standimpor-
questions
enquiry
then,
1
-63-
3-phase
bine
0 Specifications:
Alternator
for
use with
Type:
self-excited,
synchronous,
tation
and voltage
regulation
Speed:
1500 RPM at 50 cycles
run-away
speed of 1.8
Voltage:
380/220
Ouput:
40 kW at
operation
Operating
Mounting
situation
Volts,
power
connectors
Wiring:
0 Manufacturers'information
required
on:
for
foot
4-wire
- Mounting
plan
- Derating
factors
- Execution
with
number
many potential
.gf enquiries,
considerably
but
at
delivery
least
time
mounted,
machine
or without
brushes
curve
imbalance
starting
of
in phase
loading
capacity
voltage
regulation
- Possibility
generators
of
- Maintenance
requirements
parallel
from
operation
no-load
with
to
other
period
time
& FOB 1
(CIF
it
suppliers,
initially.
splash-
with
of the
- Permissible
- Guarantee
are
temperature,
node
- Limits
full-load
there
C ambient
weight
overload
- Price
50 KVA continous
system
- Permissible
- Delivery
e.g.
applicable
- Efficiency/load
- Motor
exci-
with
a permissible
speed
and total
dimensions
- Cooling
Since
0.8
30"
- Mass of intertia
- General
(Hz)
rated
factor
horizontal
shaft,
water protection
mode:
bui' It-in
with
tur-
3 phase
1200 m elevation,
high humidity
.
hydraulic
Prices
and after-sales
is
well
worthwhile
and product
services
quality
may also
to
send aut
may differ
be important.
a
-64-
In
summary,
easy
but
the
long
at
In
run.
one
necessary
lating
point.
market
this,
it
and
material
exist
yet.
The same applies
to
large
varieties
panel
or
man is
box is
fuses,
are
for
very
on
(one
be discussed
specially
or
the
transmission
practical
written
multi-stage
and whether
depends
switching,
with
switch
are
of
but
detail
context
here.
on the
of
a very
rural
of
basic
appropriate
between
different
strictly
necessary
drop
expansive
subject.
a skilled
a frequency-meter.
not
is
remade
only
relay
Electricity
There
exist
again
Usually
voltage
applied.
is
no production
a locally
a set
on
alternators
Provided
relay,
of
and insu-
types
in
and finally
convenient
governing
available
the
right
an under-voltage/over-voltage
sufficient
literature
the
check
was
Such components
and wiring
with
tur-
Based
of
where
no problem.
to
wire
reasons.
practice.
each phase)
and distribution
in
for
for
not
is
for
on a relatively
the
countries
Assembly
as
The lack
manufacture
To find
switch
factor
kind
local
an
possibility
suppliers
instruments.
there
as a main
this
copper
were
not
as a new venture
sheets,
engineer's
job,
-
- negative.
outside
available.
his
of
is
a satisfactory
time
in those
to electrical
such
that
that
market.
for
manufacture
personnel,
and control
kW, kWh and power
permanently,
quired,
conclude
local
ampere-meters
three
Meters
to
knows
required
a volt-meter
phases,
trained
necessary
an evaluation
with
of
projects
some countries
as transformer
easily
the
according
who
Nepal,
was - at
switchgear
of
in
a new venture
and are
available
components
hardly
for
investigation
is
Local
competition
lack
be a priority
facilities
of
such
may be acceptable
not
quires
case
conclusion
the
hydro-electric
an effort
possibility
and mainly
materials,
small
and .performance.
the
The
component
small
in
and
may seem an attractive
-
done
for
task
costs
regarding
bines
need
alternators
a time-consuming
solution
in
procuring
of
and
and can
specific
Some handbooks
electrification
re-
generation,
subject
a lot
is
have
these
and
been
are
35)
commended.
35)
1. Lausselet,
Low-Tension
Installations
2. VITA, Rural Electrification
3. Jackson
E Evans in NRECA, Small Hydroelectric
index
for full
bibliographical
details)
Powerplants,
p 214
ff.
(Refer
to
alphabetical
re-
-65-
Electric
motors
and
electric
generator,
oniy
if
it
speed
at
a given
ing
the
which
in
duced.
gate
opening
switching
turn
cause
variations
keep
such
where
therefore
is
part
of
the
load
not
thus
keeping
the
total
achieved
flow-control,
where
systems
keep
turn,
results
in
ally
of
costly
If
imported
more
situation.
early
stage
procured
well
in
at
by
side.
overloading
the
speed
from
look
one
stage
for
for
phase
at
in
of
performance
financial
another
viability
were
that
there
not
properly
a 1 ready
the
turbine
is
ad-
which,
in
the
a specified
question
While
it
is
they
was a problem
balanced,
an appro-
exist
tend
to
it
was decided
load-controller
with
it
highest
one
be very
be required
While
virtu-
a non-specialised
really
mind,
unit.
range.
easy to copy
not
suppliers,
would
of
there
for
the
circuit,
limits
within
An electronic
had
any
constant.
manufacture
a 20 kl d three-phase
switch
a ballast
tolerable
in
solution.
limits.
set.
stage.
than
constant
tolerable
through
Nepal,
major
to
control,
kept
that
set
governors,
the
pro-
necessary
is
into
remains
an early
to
is
controllers
within
in
difficult
application,
When phases
the
turbines
one
within
circuit
that
flow-control
and
constant
flowing
turbine
and frequency
for
turbine
turbine-generator
the
was raised
Keeping
water
on the
of
regular
variations
To achieve
the
turbine-alternator
of
Cross-Flow
accurate
to
on the
load
through
electronic
by the
volume
complex
single-phase
figuration.
load
water
with
consumed
designs
are
rural
has to be kept
device
of
and
may be applied:
load
of
Most
workshop.
that
the
a voltage
governing
them.
called
Chang-
electricity
it
a governor.
also
speed
of the
limits,
constant
constant.
in
An
and frequency
such
kept
results
acceptable
of
the
development
dozens
within
mainly
is
and frequency
flow
on the
Both
priate
voltage
voltage
delivers
shaft
off,
frequency.
and
stable
turbine
on its
on and
power
in
A water
load
voltage
such
the
today
depending
the
the
controller,
This
In
if
two possibilities
load-control,
justed
speed..
variations
a turbine
are chiefly
hand,produces
constant
at
e.g.
and where
l
run
stable
a
require
other
load,
incorporate
l
on the
is
To
there
appliances
this
the
type
load,
a
at
an
was
performed
three-phase
aggravated
in
the
on the
conproblem
ballast
-66-
Fig.
45:
fe- Assemb ly of
Prototyp
Electron
troller
Photo
ic
II . Meier
by:
This
experience
on the
the
Load- Con-
principle
first
Technology
in
Nepal.
and to
Based
assemble
nology
for
At
efforts
locally
help
the
same
turbine
tute
of
purposes
type
Tl
the
veloped
and
water
working
in
schematical
* More
SKAT.
was
work.
the
was
Centre
for
board
-
Swiss
for
India.
shows
that
later
from
45
information
To
the
was used
Federal
simplifying
This
work
is
full
tested
device
being
Design
prototype
on
Institute
the
Electronics
including
based
successfully
full
done
Tech-
assembly
wiring
the
on the
simple
in
fig.
electronic
control
device
46
the
head
water
shows
load controller
purpose
laboratory
device
the
the
this
where
the
under
Since
really
the
water-hydraulic,
a simple,
For
in
keep
through
diagram
on
(ETHZ),
press*lre,
fluid.
a
work
installed
Zurich
continuously
resulting
on a plane
was undertaken.
Technology,
out
charged
the
Fig.
development
time,
carried
a
of
India.
at
underway
components
an expert
Bangalore,
out
now
load-controller
voltage-sensing
a prototype
are
using
of
governor
of
and
of
with
-
fuses
switches.*
flow-control
as
on
this,
a new type
was carried
(EPFL)
demonstrating
of
versus
work
Lausanne
the
and overload
development
current-sensing
it
(CEDT),
the
Research
at
BEW with
to
of
device.
of
by
led
is
Swiss
for
a proportional
of
installation,
can
from
the
there
be
developed
at
of
will
Insti-
Technology
type
was de-
was to
be used
no need
manufactured
EPFL
Federai
penstock
is,
components
Cross-Flow
Fluid
simple,
valve,
the
the
Institute
drawn
which
a full-scale
of
the
mechanical
and
is
dis-
for
a pump,
locally.
The
the
governor.
Its
become
available
through
-67-
working
principle
ple
a centrifugal
of
is
a constant-area
a variable
the
orifice
area
of
a piston
other
hand,
the
by
turbine
throttle
the
valve),
bine
the
turbine.
is
by a spring,
gate position
sponds
to
to
an4 appropriate
pilot'
a certain
load,
a certain
throttles,
pendulum
now the
flyweight
via
a lever
to
piston
pressure
connected
subjected
to
the
by speed.
of
the
can
to
the
variable
Since
turbine
create
on the
may be varied
by
(or
on
flyweight)
on speed,
is
of
if
mounted
the
on
variable
be made proportional
turbine
gate
pressure
a certain
is
area,
depending
the
with
depending
area
position
princi-
first
discharge
If
A piston,
speed
the
line,
The discharge
variable
determined
is
in
spring.
connected
the
two
The centrifugal
a pushrod
and is
of
balanced
direction.
shaft,
(or
speed
axial
and on the
a variable
the
throttle.
system
mounted
with
between
variable
moves
counterbalanced
second
line
the
the
in
Two throttles
and the
in
on a two-throttle
based
pendulum:
pressure
discharge
moving
chiefly
and countera tur-
and thus,
gate
opening
now determining
to
corre-
its
loading
condition.
1. Flyball
assembly
2. Thrattle
/ pllot
3. Lever linkage
4. Servo cylinder
Fig.
5. Turblne flow
6. Water supply
46:
3. Rotatlnu
Schematic of Generating-set
with
Mechanical
!JaterPressure
Governor
I
Source:
Meier,
Manual
for
Design
of
the
Mechanical
a Simple
(centrifugal
valve
with
closing
regulator
line with
pHaad 'a~'""'..
_-.-- - - -_-------z-c-I --
_
-
- --. ------I-Tgg--.5---
spring
(gate)
filter
masses (flvwheel
Alternator
I
pendulum)
system
‘tv--q-
.
f
etc.1
I
wc
ll!r
Governor
H = Head
0 - Flow vo!umc
pO= Pressure before thrattlc
PI= Prrssure otttr thre!!!r
Nm Turbine speed
0 I No load
F m Fuii load
If
load
weight
lower
is
switched
pushrod.
pressure
off,
This
on the
in
speed increases,which
results
turn
valve
moves the
servo-cylinder
pilot
piston.
The
in a movement
piston,
turbine
which
gate
in
of the
fly-
results
in
turn
closes
a
-68-
until
piston
turbine
force
gate
to
the
and in
happens,
and closing
closes
completely
The
system
was
After
testing
stable
enough
ter
than
The
photograph
to
and shuts
regulation
meter
Fia.
the
switching
supply
pipe,
adjusting
load
on,
the
gate
the
the
reverse
of the
tur-
down.*
speed-deviation
a maximum
Nepal
thus
it
was found
within
that
of
the
+ 5 %, a value
+ 10 %.
governor
that
was
seems bet-
fig.
47 on the
turbine
shows the
left.
left
shows the
shaft.
The connecting
to
pilot-piston
the
turbine
Connection
with
rotating
lever
with
on the
right.
the
governor
between
cylinder
unit
fly-weight
flyweight-spring
The picture
in front
and
mounted
pilot
and the
valve
is
on
on the
servoby dia-
47:
by:
* A more
quest
of
again,
50 mm PE pipe.
Prototype
Photo
balance
in most situations.
and connection
the
for
speed
the
to
designed
permit
on the
cylinder
plant
in
of
side
in
prototype
acceptable
right-hand
the
in
case
loss
the
directly
left
In
pressure
of
initially
of
are
new situation.
case
bine
spring
of Mechanical
Governor
Installed
at BYS Test-Site
U. Meier
complete description
of
this
governor
and
design
manual
is
available
from
SKAT upon
re-
-69-
There
are
and the
now two
question
swer
- as is
tems,
though
to
date.
often
governor
the
from
water
from
device
An electronic
a breakdown
it
modules
cheaper
of
technology
the
of
the
the
local
is
clearer.
umented
turbine.
ity
must
are
where
load
tion
small
still
iii
prototype
controller
the
to
purposes,though,
are possible
dynamic
possible
simple
possibility
is
to
on duty
method
is
to
an imported
would
changes
quite
the
been
be doc-
another
of
state
situation
done for
for
In
use on
design
testing-facilif
comprehen-
is to be avoided.
problem
where
on the
more easily
adapt
might
possible.
empirically,
of
changes
relatively
as soon as load
use
the
it
governors.
.though,
some sort
only
e.g.
still
to
behaviour
output,and
An' operator
This
easy
with
where two tur-
principle
has
of
and if
addition,
governor,
design
be relatively
total
in
mechanical
an
piece
personnel,
on a station
is
than
parts,
of two mechanical
actual
can be limited,
relation
In
simple r and can therefore
is
A mechanical
a sophisticated
much depends,
the
may be important
and wearing
controller
described
For
of the
on a hand-wheel,
ment readings.
The second
load
solutions
may be acceptable.
adjustments
devices
required
by far.
routine.
Refinements
other
moving
instead
a single
and maintenance
is
sys-
records
strictly
irrigation.
are fewer
hand,
Both
with
not
a prescribed
load
testing
modelling
used for
without
simple.
This
adjustments
other
both
will
is
by semi-skilled
Although
fluctuations
in
to
involved
is
The an-
performance
be attempted
industry.
design,
maz::ematical
canal
state,
could
electronic
be available.
There
are
for
Technology
For
turbine.
work in parallel,
and transferred.
of
sive
solid
electronics
Tl-turbine
the
required
use one electronic
Transfer
through
skills
according
sets
that
frequent
not
installations
water
application
situation.
no substantial
for
for
what
- is
keeping
on the
repair
and
to
bine-alternator
of
the
is
occurs,
have
head-race
much more
although
Still,
case
the
load-controller,
equipment.
plug-in
running
for
a choice
seems suitable
of
available
be used
is
stage,
governor
systems
should
when there
advantage
may require
electronic
the
case
governing
which
prototype
generation
excess
prove
the
has
cheap
as to
the
past
It
power
where
arises
The mechanical
turbine.
for
relatively
governing:
in
load
this
case
make necessary
become evident
widely
governor.
on a plant
hand-regula-
infrequent,
in
In cases
from
used on small
Usually,
these
instru-
plants.
are pro-
,70-
hibitively
in
costly
the
People's
various
types
At the
only
time
there
is
Republic
of
of
of
of
what
be of
available
The
prices
of this
agency
is
offering
such
as shown
in
fig.
available
kind
governor-manufacturing
Export
governors
were not
a governor
of
National
mechanical
firm
writing,
information
China.
oil-hydraulic,
a fraction
mav therefore
Fig.
but
but costs
from
the
48.
are reportedly
West would
cost.
This,
interest.
48:
Mechanical
Oil-Hydraulic,
Governor from PR China
Source:
Speed
CMEC Brochure
A Cross-Flow
chanical
turbine
with
governor
alternator,
with
the
terminals,
comprise
what
equipment,
necessary
for
items
set
in
discussed
governor
are
turn
bolted
is
so far,
action
is
a coupling,
alternator
called
a rural
to
bolted
and penstock,
flywheel,
and finally
All
adapter
electrification
a solid
may be considered
in
case
of
with
complete
a load
for
a part
change
the
of
does
follow
the
generating
fig.
ease of alignment
not
to
and connecting
(refer
a flow-control
a me-
flywheel
electro-mechanical
The flywheel,
foundation,
transmission,
switchboard
project
a common base-frame
onto
connecting
itself,
the
a step-up
which
49).
and the whole
has not been
governor.
instantly,
Because
but occurs
-71-
at
a definite
up or
loses
so slows
the
speed
rotating
other
down the
rate
masses
speed.
transitory
state
on the
takes
job,
while
serves
process
In the
to
of
keeping
load
together
changes,
and
to main-
deviations
within
all
speed,
trying
and gives
speed deviations
with
turbine
thereby
speed
speeds
accelerated
being
case of falling
"smooth-out"
following
Generating
Set Using
a BYS Cross-Flow
1. Turbine
in
the
the
governor
limits.
Turbine
2. Chain-Drive
3. Alternator,
is
20 kW 3 phase, 1500 RPM
easy
governor
the
the
A flywheel,
turbine
by: U. Meier
Photo
size
in
the
49:
Typical
It
change.
which
due to deceleration,
energy
immediately
to do its
load
up energy
a flywheel
during
occurs,
of speed increase.
deliver
Thus,
period
more time
Fig.
depending
masses,
rotating
tain
a transitory
speed,
of
to
understand
characteristic,
other
biggest
by the
rotating
effect
that
if
4.
the
necessary
(not
on the
incorporated
fastest
visible)
with Fly-Wheel
size
is determined
flywheel
maximum permissible
masses already
mounted
Governor
Transmission
turning
speed-deviation
in
the
shaft
set.
by the
and by the
A flywheel
available.
This
has
will
,
i
,‘
-72-
usually
mean mounting
view 3 it
is important
[email protected]
limits.
speQd.
For
As
it
all
strj
[email protected],
components,
speed
of
Other
to
rotating
betain
and wooden
sticks
strong
between
to admit
runner
sufficient
For
shutting
the
turbine
inlet,
on both
The
arrangement
to
the
of
the
system
This
inlet.
For
it
usually
while
run-away
steel
of
plates.
a flywheel
is not
parts
speed transmission
- acts
and alter-
situated
in
to keep floating
easy
spacing
slightly
the
within
diameter
moving
it
water
of rods
smaller
total
flow
is
incorporated
the
fore-
particles
cleaning,
can withstand
same time,
of
stability.
serves
entering.
so
that
A trashrack
are:
safe
up from mild
- without
turbine,
shown
(e.g.
a gate-valve
plant,
and another
simple
sides
trashrack
direction
of
at, the
is
such
removable.
pressure
even
must be small
spacing
than
must
be large
area
flush
bottom
out
canal.
A simple
work.
At
e.g.
canal
to form
electro-mechanical
the
penstock
the
if
enough
the
disenough
of
the
needed to
on the
situa-
intake,
to keep
may also
permit
to empty
the
is
same can
planks
barrier
require
is
above
canal
wooden
equipment
and will
forebay
though,
a temporary
penstock
Depending
gate
expense,
a number
the
of
near
lifting
less
in the
sediment.
may be required
stop-logs,
of the
of
valve
work and to
sto%
from entering
the
the Canal for maintenance
'lots
device
remain
withstand
a max.
was found
point
flow.
down the
with
it
masses
blades),
must
welded
design
forces
flywheel
flywheels
At the
emptY it for maintenance
tion ., another
(coarse)
chieved
the
for
from
parts
centrifugal
instance,
construction
by leaves.
floating
to
RPM,for
not
penstock
covered
due
From the
2800
to give
of the
be of
alternator.
an electronic
parts
must
tance
Because
steel-fabricated
as leaves
the
load-controller,
large
front
fu11Y
Nepal
sufficiently
baY in
It
in
existing
rid'Lbr. are
stresses
electronic
necessary.
Ctly
with
other
750 mm was determined
the
line
that
a maximum
When using
in
that
across
usually
fairly
fit
be ainto
it.
perpendicular
little
space.
AS in-
50, a 20 kW set would usually
require
less than
dicated
in the schematic
fig.
5 m* of area. A power house with a floor
area of 20 m2 could in fact accommodate
Not
in
two sets
0nlY
the
Operation,
conveniently,
turbine
e.g.
but
their
with
also
sufficient
all
efficiency
other
is
access
space
components
smaller
than
of
on all
the
sides.
system
incur
1 due to hydraulic
losses
losses,
-73-
mechanical
described
tically
Fig.
and
friction,
and
specific
to
electromagnetic
each
losses.
Based
efficiencies
situation,
the
on
and losses
technology
may realis-
be assumed as follows:
50:
Schematic
Layout of a 20 kW
tiydro-Electric
Generating
Set
Source:
BYS,
Nepal
Flmhrrl
I 600, SOIq
TA 1602 M7 2SKVA
1500 RPM l~htl!w 3ao122ov
L
l
I
Efficiencies:
- Turbine
- Step-up
transmission
- Alternator
overall
l
2000
Ovrroll width
Additional
these
in
efficiency:
0.65
to
0.75
0.94
to
0.98
0.78
to
0.92
0.48
to
0.68
losses:
occur
in
all
transmission
on the
length
meters,
they
hydraulic
conduits,
and distribution
of
transmission
may constitute
of
in
power.
the
Depending
and distribution
between
operation
10 to 25 %.
of
a governor
on conduit-length
networks
as the
main
and
and
para-
Power
available
ting-potential,
(imported)
which
the
is
therefore
turbine
would
ical
to
might
supply
expressed
user,
in
the
achieve
useful
as a percentage
from
range
36 to
an efficiency
power
amounting
of
to
of
theoretical
genera-
61 %. A highly
88 % under
a maximum of
optimised
ideal
conditions,
71 % of the
theoret-
value.
c) Survey and Civil
Engineering
In
field-surveys
the
that
context
the
ture.
of
first
problem
Instead
of
site
that
looks
tact
with
the
be
local
of
sider
is
bills.
further
not
and
it
village
of
after
people
Only
activities
should
it
would
project,
is
a question
need
a social
na-
as soon
as a
to get
leaders.
project
might
cost
them in
the
in conIt
their
during
terms
of
implications,
more detailed
should
affect
of participation
have understood
their
directly,
and community
be stressed
of
be a priority
them in terms
what
must
but
survey
hydropower
from
and also
it
a technical
elders
how a small
be expected
of
precise
identified,
detail,
would
is
a detailed
a project,
electricity
be solved
population,
in
and what
stages
doing
feasible
made clear
lives
to
site-identification,
and
all
monthly
and con-
investigation
work
be done.
an optimal
To locate
the
expected
power
In cases
of
easy
to
and
to
arrive
from
the
at
the
This
the
site
mechanical
power
since
likely
best
most
as for
instance
choice
of
site
serves
superficially
surveyed
that
is
away from
in
two
will
case
may be to
for
the
envisaged,
the
most
may
to
it
a question
is
also
be sup-
milling.
first
the
a purely
Other
best
potential
to
consumers
from
reference.
related
have to be transported
evaluate
look
the
of'grain
promising
that
potential
how easily
some goods
looks
one or
available
of
use is
site
as a basis
and the
the
sites
are
A method
parameters
visual
in-
then
sur-
in a comparison
are then
in detail.
The type
to
of
development
will
an installation
house
the
of
and, further,
how far
site,
of
vestigation.
ferred
where
accessability
approximately
veyed
requirements
and also
be developed,
plied.
site
that
built
the
range
of
be run-of-river,
normally
where
is
in
water
near
the
is
in
supplied
river
interest
bank.
the
through
and with
the
equipment
low to medium head-range,
a canal
On rivers
with
and penstock
steep
re-
e.g.
to a power
gradients,
only
a short
canal
conditions
practice
is
required
usually
permit
adopted
in
intake-structure
the
water
to
go upstream
of
from
would
give
hill
slope
towards
tour
line
one,
to
and
also
sary
slope
intake
point
is
of
canal
slope.
the
mind the
kind
Experience
of
in
by a team of
eration.
knowledge
As
a rule,
team
areas
it
may be found
head
is
then
will
is
permit
less
have
canal
possible
method
of
head up to
establishment
Also,
sonnel
who were trained
The
plant
flow
available
that
often
ture
not
the
is
produces
measurements
will
people
in
give
case
sources
the
the
energy
dry
that
suggest
other
all
season
a meaningful
year
are
on the
round
long
the
which
although
for
job
for
point.
term
nearest
are
In
Leveling
by using
of
staffs,
in
a
fig.
within
51.
an error
per-
a day or so.
desirable
minimal
a
canals,
to them.
determines
is
the
speed.
irrigation
explained
gen-
where
greater
theoretical
and
A few measurements
regarding
from
enough,
briefly
done
than
be managed by semi-skilled
that
crucial.
i n the
data
at
30 to 40 meters
easily
factor
result
variations
that
can quite
is
is
of hydropower
be built
instrument,
simple
to keep in
a survey
projects
be left
a surveying
inclusion
important
constructing
can entirely
of a few centimenters.
or local
in
head
The neces-
permit
small
may be justified
without
it
be good
lower
and a suitable
use if
a tradition
This
pdint
of
best
con-
the
alignment.
fact
should
the
and whether
to be used.
for
along
to
know nothing
is
up to a point
parallel
is
little
relation
sighted
to
of
One method
are going
will
alignment
in
that
important
components
it
a sort
horizontal
up-stream,
who otherwise
a theodolite
level.
the
in
engineering-level
that
also
is
far
structural
people
and a spirit
tape,
It
local
it
canal
surveying,
The
this
at this
further
of
is
along
of
low cost.
site,
is possible,
view
Such
only
inflow.
a line
be considered
stages
surveyors
many projects,
where
of
still
shows that
a simple
does
also
all
walk
river.
enough
line
of a canal
and equipment
accuracy
what
low
sufficient
along
point
for
During
competent
of
must
structures
Utmost
the
looked
Nepal
dams but
installation
elevation,
construction
canal
then
guarantee
in the
at relatively
a canal-intake
A team must then
from
fall
permanent
identified
a higher
whether
the
build
to
an abrupt
head when a horizontal
site.
be increased
of
river
is
development
to
previously
the
at
to
water
a sufficient
determine
could
the
the
also
better
not
is
diverts
level
that
still
a medium-head
Nepal
that
to
but
flow,
flow-
therefore
alone
because
considerable.
gauging
power.
stations,
of course
it
is
very
Many literapercipita-
A
--
tion,
size
of
with
the
this
seems
lacking
drainage
few
data
not
for
available
to
small
area
bear
and other
climatological
from
site
the
promise
streams
in
most
of
data
interest.
For
situations.
or be insufficiently
should
Data
be correlated
practical
will
purposes
definitely
be
reliable.
1. Drive
Fig.
51:
Method
without
Source:
of leveling
instrument
BYS,
Better
the
doing
site
extensively
cially
how the
considerable
that
and to
less.
are
unlikely
to
a site,
This
less
will
"their"
also
over
the.
such
it
is
relates
by flow
to
last
few
limits
less
and
question
term
is
in
to
is
a good
practice
If
the
the
couldn't
to
wishful
have been
that
failures
seriously.
develop
possible
conservatively
Spe-
case - have
from
followed
to
people
experience.
shows,
procedure
perhaps
local
refrain
it
Nepal
equipment
is
often
whether
voluminous
variations.
office,
- as is
estimate
years
the
long
The point
lowest
within
their
irrigation
a pragmatic
use of
in
spot-measurements
river.
the
if
make the
affected
flow
of
question
occur
do
work
used to gravity
Experience
investigating
be
are
theoretical
times,
present
knowledge
still
will
specialised
several
people
thinking
head
Nepal
than
visit
head.
in pegs approximately
in intervals
of the length of the
measuring rod used (e.g. 3 metres) in a straight
line,
according
to the planned course of the penstock. All pegs should stand out
of the ground in equal heights,
if possible.
2. Put on measuring rod an keep it horizontal
with the help of a
spirit
level or plastic
pipe filled
with water. Now measure the
distance
from the peg to the measuring rod vertically.
Enter values
found into the tabie. Pay attention
to signs (+ or -).
3. Measure horizontal
distance
between pegs while the measuring rod
is still
kept horizontal.
Enter values found (1,. 12, 13 . ..)
into the table.
4. Gross head H = Sum of all values H of plus sign (+) minus sum of
all values with negative
sign (-).
In
maximum
and output
assumed
flow
-77-
in
the
next
quite
simply
second
A
few years
possible
turbine
variations
of
part
the
it
year
ready
of
work
affected
medium
with
For
flow
both
with
elsewhere
'for
there
of
less
turbine
working,
opening
and near
various
with
More
value.
than
or
1 m 3/s
is
operation,
last
output.
next
travel-speed
described
of
a float
area
of
easily
briefly
at
high flow
36)
are
and relatively
al-
efficiency
at
cross-sectional
such
- ideally
the
that
weir-method
the
size
maximum plant
accurate
may
is
optimum
and the
the
unit
potential
three
even
greater
optimum,
unequal
in
the
turbine
the
possibilities
current-meters
multiplied
section,
of
be much
consumption
during
than
provide
turbine
are
Using
lower
to
the
when generating
fact
small
from
a single
Two turbines
in
where flow
the
done
described
in
52.
Besides
all
important
the
to
a damaging
to
flow,
37)
gate
is
a time
the
bigger
an approximate
a discharge
fig.
the
river
yields
at
only
at optimum
detail.
on a straight
efficiency
be
flow.
likely
available
provide,
will
initially,
If,
more power
would
1 : 2 - would
only
river
in
have
larger
is
average-discharge.
to
with
already
minimum-discharge
by low discharge.
flow
turbines
measuring
river,
low
and by using
interest
and
efficient
of
one at
occur
part-load
least
an output-ratio
points:
turbine
the minimum-flow
Since
would
badly
another
desirable
than
project-expansion
be more favourable,
period,than
is
be inappropriate.
a plant
to
a short
view,
of
by adding
certain
during
point
to
may be of considerable
are
smaller
appears
investigate
effect
know the
the
water
above
will
the
the
of
reach,
In
in
the
as far
in:
order
to
help.
It
by Gladwell
- Alward et al.,
high
to
or
of
is
it
even
flood-flow,
It
in this
is
know the-highest
be able
absence
back in history
in more detail
minimum-discharge,
and equipment.
b,ut rather
who can be of
37) For instance
danger
on structures
level.
occurrences
36) Explained
concerning
discharge-rate
this
habitants
worries
to
place
statistical
necessary
is
finally
which
the
equipment
data,
it
to question
may have
case not
possible
is
necessary
level
floor
again
Powerplants,
p 53
Measurement at Gaging Stations,
1969
Micro-Hydropower,
- Buchanan E Somers, Discharge
1979
- Mother Earth News, Cross -Flow Turbine
. . . p 2 ff.
that
safely
local
them as regards
as possible.
in NRECA, Small Hydroelectric
also
inflood
-78-
Fia.
In case of small streams or channels a temporary measuring weir can be
easily erected as indicated.
It may be made of -,trong timber or metal
sheet, with the bottom and sides of the rectangular
notch bevelled.
to a width of about 2 rma. The distance
from the bottom of the notch to
the downstream water level should be at least 75 IIIII (3 inches) and
sufficient
to allow for complete aeration.
This weir is let into the
stream and n-mde watertight
with clay or plastic
sheet so that all the
water will pass through the rectangular
notch. For accurate measurments
a stake should be driven into the stream bed about 2 metres upstream,
the top of the stake being level with the crest of the weir. The depth
of water flowing
over the weir can be obtained by measuring the height
(h) from the water surface to the top of the stake. The flow may then
be calculated
from the table below.
52:
Flow Measurement with
Rectangular
Weir
Source:
BYS,
Nepal
WEIR
MEASURING
scone
1h~C
DEPTH h
in cm
2
3
4
i
1
8
9
10
11
12
works
hydropower
project,
unique.
While
projects,
but
and what
in
fig.
to
divert
gate
off
is
53)
(3)
water
where
minimal.
the
since
still
the
needs
For
obvious
actually
needed
- usually
partial
from
the
groove? J to
inflow
amount
Lining
for
of
will
avoid
1.5
a.4
fi
9.4
28
2t
the
of
the
be site
to
reasons,
and of
maintenance.
and the
such
danger
problems
of
and it
cm
47.4
49
50.5
52.1
53.1
55.3
56.9
58.5
60.2
61.8
63.5
65.1
66.8
68.5
3:
52
53
54
5:
component
tends
of
as 5011 ows:
different
be kept
canal
.(2).
- is
may be.an
slides
in
will
give
point
unlined
unstable
the
dam (1
required
lifting
A simple
at this
canal
ef-
simple
A diversion
construction
a
to be quite
in
should
is provided
The canal
L
l/WE
to make them cost
structures
head-race
stop-logs
::.4
29.8
31.2
32.6
34
35.4
36.9
3e.3
39.e
41.3
42.0
44.3
45.9
site
specific
Y
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
same principle
semi-permanent
the
in
variable
a particular
of
DEPTH h
l/mm
if
-39
39
40
41
42
greatest
may be summarised
accommodate
seepage
15.8
17
18.1
19.4
20.6
21.9
23.1
24.4
25.7
width
(ldml
31
32
33
34
35
14.7
may be of
rive ?r into
canal
22
23
24
cm
DEPTH h
in cm
10.4
11.4
12.4
13.5
i!
4.9
2::
situation
design
safe.
18
1.9
probably
components
actual
water
or
are
structural
their
fective,
required
1.4
3.t
5.4
4.1
::
Structural
1.0
15
16
17
0.2
0.5
1
10
w
l/IOC
DEPTH h
in cln
to block
earth
terrain
canal
are
a greater
-79-
capacity.
Flow
canal,
a thin
cement
mud bricks,
sible.
but
Lining
may be a problem.
mortar.
there
with
in
a lined
Lining
can
Of much interest
is
no experience
plastic
sheets,
canal
as compared
be done with
would
cheap,
stone
be hydraulically
available-that
while
to an earth
would
has
not
met
slabs
or
stabilised
prove
with
this
pos-
success
53:
Structural
Components
Source: Adapted
from
Nepal.
Cattle
badly.
A rather
EYS,
use to
damage.
Guerrero,
This
is
Turbines
of a Small
Run-of-River
Project
Nepal
walk
interesting
used by Las Gaviotas
38)
may be higher
where erosion
with
Fig.
velocity
in
the
technique
in Colombia.
described
canals
in fig.
It
54.
. . . . VITA, Mt. Rainier
and this
is
is
would
reported
to cover
puncture
by Guerrero
canals
plastic
38)
sheets
and is also
up to prevent
them from
in
80-
Except
where
should
be included.
velocity
is
water
is
This
reduced
matter),
iment
can
be flushed
or it
can otherwise
contour
danger
of
minimise
bly,
it
(4)
situated
that
has again
the
excess
water
to
one in
the
technique.
take
style
In
care
will
all
of
with
imported
canal
of
the
penstock
along
and supports,
39)
next
Sed-
provided
the
This
considera-
such
as driving
the
inst$llation.
a sandtrap
similar
for
in
and mainte-
is
requires
a suitable
the electro-mechan-
Good foundations
here.
construction
turbine,
stone-masonry
accomodates
in opera-
to discharge
cleaning
the
needs
in air
serves
with
essential
basin
a small
necessary
drawing
(61,
which
are
component.
The penstock-inlet
forebay
which
structural
section
forebay
for
completes
and
a lined
Otherwise,
the
pit
local
in most cases.
a solid
be retained,
the
use of
- is
wire,
Complete
a method
which
river
be based
normal
the
the
powerhouse,
stones
be cut-in
and if
canal
emptying
water
of
to follow
and comprises
A gate
connects
tail-race
the
to avoid
last
head constant.
which
slope.
"shortcuts".
protection
inlet,
surface
the
permits
nature
is
be taken
has to
sand and sediment.
where
large
local.
head-race
structures
galvanized
be entirely
the
the
be acceptable
has to
of
item,
the
hydraulic
pressure
filled
(71,
The last
equipment,
to
intake,
anchor-blocks
appropriate
is
(5)
the
flow
methods.
concrete,
the
on the
excessive
slope
at
or
80 cm below
the
avoid
Where a slope
of retaining
and keeps
The penstock
nance.
front
job
to
make measures
masonry
spillway
the
and
where
discharge-sluice
should
chamber
intake
and reducing
much care
canal
the
(depending
a bottom
bio-engineering
end
60 to
A lateral
to
the
in
be submerged
ical
the
necessary.
stone
at
a trash-rack
tion.
exists,
better,
in
with
to
land-slides
near
50 cm/s.
if
manually.
with
canal
cross-section
be removed
may be important
A forebay
the
a sedimentation
particles,
of
than
periodically
excavation
or still
is
much less
out
hill
in-stakes,
It
suspended
may be a section
to
of
the
will
from
by widening
suspended
Where the
free
on gabion-technology,
39)
conditions,
See also Stern
et al.,
in Appropriate
Calculation
of Check Dams, p 55
is
foundation
gabions
that
- wire
deserves
commonly
training
and their
is
used,
and small
life
Technology,Vol.
required
or where water
mesh baskets
attention.
all
Except
material
7, No. 4, p 6 ff.
and
for
and labour
dam projects
may well-exceed
which
are
the
can
known to
60 years
Hiller,
are
El.,
under
Manual
-8l-
A long thim walled polyethylene
bag is filled
with water to form a
flexible
sausage. This is done with the plastic
already
in place in
a large enough excavation
on a bed of very lean soil and stone-cement
mixture
(about 6:l).
The pipe is then covered with the same mixture
while adding water pressure by raising
the ends of the "sausage".
The
mixture
is "vibrated"
by treading
on the pipe near the place of
filling.
After completion
of one section , and a short while of setting.
the water is drained from the pipe and the plastic
sheet pulled out
while twisting
it. An adjacent
section may then be started and an
inspection
shaft be made between two sections.
Thus, a "concrete-pipe"
is cast in place.
Fip.
54:
"In-site"
Casting
Source:
to
hydraulic
in
total
cost
reduction
in
than
any other
small
bearable
for
Pipe
local
civil
risks.
cost
is
measure.
- there
is
the
micro-range
technology
to
application
this
sense,
development,
not
will
have
of
are
a very
with
impact
front
to
hydropower
a scope
of
today
and,
are
projects
for
they
civil
en-
effective
- in
the
cost
field
and to use too
innovation.
often,
training
suitable
if
on overall
over-design,
experience
new technologies
small
share
50 % and therefore,
development
a lack
the
a greater
a tendency
of
be standardised
situations,
somewhat above
still
due
In
most
On the
concrete
the
In
engineering
single
in
and
can by definition
low-cost.
project
and
projects
experiments
and
hydropower
much cement
Small
structures
be effective
gineering
of
Conduit
Guerrero,
Appropriate
are
of Head-Race
ground,
possible
without
can
serve
up-scaling
to
where
un-
as a basis
larger
pro-
-82-
jects.
In
all
structures
and
basins,
design,
spill-ways
which
cannot
ity
ogy apply.
contact
require
be exnlained
and foundations,
Bureau
in
Some titles
the
worth
of reclamation,
the
here.
where
with
water,
knowledge
The same is
theory
basic
of
true
soil
of
for
to are from:
40)
and Mata.
intakes,
hydraulic
principles
of soil
questions
mechanics
referring
Peck*
as conduits,
such
stabil-
and foundation
Jagdish
Lal,
technol-
Grummann,
U.S.
and to
help
E, PROJECTEXAMPLES
To give
in
the
understanding
the
final
scribed
situation-specific.
different
region
involved
and are
while
projects
building
small
- have
It
are
surely
still
of
not
being
great
up institutional
in
will
a strict
similar
been,
and will
be,
possible
that
among the
functional
all
first
in
the
of the
regarding
and hopefully
terms
of
lead
cost
since
all
solutions
in
future
projects
de-
kind
the
for
and technical
economically
gaining
to
be de-
sense,
that
optimised
and individual
stations
no doubt
are
importance
that
hydropower
be noted
fully
criteria
is
should
They
solutions
and the
"typical"
there
a pilot-character.
of
Rather,
these
project
actual
circumstances.
concerned
details.
each
Still,
technology
are
of
a few
technological
into
None of them can be called
as regards
scribed
uniqueness
the
here.
under
some more insight
configuration,
very
are
-
reader
viable,
experience
and in
skills.
1. SALLERI-CHIALSA MICRO HYDEL PROJECT, NEPAL
Salleri
is
a small
Khumbu district
Tibetans
in
people
from
at
higher
wool
used
Sallerie
Chialsa
for
lively
Eastern
who settled
people
the
in
but
in
are
town
Nepal.
Nepal
derive
of
carpet
making
Refer
to
Alphabetical
Index
40)
Mata,
in
NRECA, p 145
ff.
of
the
district
there
early
livelihood
Chialsa,
has to
Bibliography,
only
is
marginal
be dyed
prior
I
of
the
Solu
inhabited
by
Uhile
the
and trade,
the
a new village,
named Chialsa.
posts,
mainly
annexe
headquarters
sixties,
in government
their
elevation
Y
Nearby
in
occupied
and the
agriculture
from
carpet
making,
agriculture
is
to
This
weaving.
because
possible.
ir;
done
The
in
-83
large
where
vats,
gy source
tice
used
for
resulted
use
of
in
this
in
of
Solu
4 km' south
of
Salleri.
Even in
almost
no bed load;
An almost
the
a rare
would
be the
the
exists,
monsoon
necessary.
exists
Another
500 kg for
large
During
feasibility
the
items
study,
lower
flow,
give
then
transmission.
would
have
include
solved
other
tial
housing,
vide
electricity
section,
have
very
with
satisfied.
third,
to
supply
the
three
Chialsa,
mountain
of this
size.
450 m length
feasibility
part.
This
be dealt
needed
it
was proved
to
and major
re-
is
the
by small
has
stage
with
the
site
of
fact
from
aircraft
The maximum load
than
of
in the
The river
12 days to reach
less
is
the
the
pos-
aircraft
50 kg and a maximum load
schemes
the
such
25
happy
with
between
,the
local
the
solution
two,
rejected
of
the
was then
worked
villages
with
to
around
the
people.
village,
firewood.
out
detai':.
electricity
of
people
of
it
did
not
and dyeing
Chialsa
area
strongly
envisaged
a
would
of Salleri
the
The project
in
viable,
and residen-
center
and instead
generated
in
scheme was to pro-
People
leaders
scheme
for
center
naturally,
with
operation
Since
A second
was
but
economically
handicraft
second
electricity,
costs
and
40 kW output.
used
dyeing
handicraft
political
in
avoid
The first
been
The
use of
but,
plus
have
easy
for
unit
this
site
excessive
e.g.
turbine
would
technically
by the
investigated:
kW output.
the
as lighting
Chialsa,
were
same site
about
of
was rejected
They
which
of
while
problem
a single
village
the
scheme,
to
been quite
another
to
benefits
it
to
lies
occurred
transportation
have been moved to
This
had
requires
several
which
would
that
investigate
site
the
for
had to be considered.
scheme in
and
in
to the
2 m3/s.
of
land-slides
5 km distant.
loads
canal
Already
1980,
only
a minimum cost
head
of
A porter
Porter
required
most difficult
problem
about
540 kg.
the
to
snow-fed
river
prac-
used daily
south-west
exceeds
a Himalayan
slope.
and otherwise
a landing-strip
is
but
season
no road.
roadhead
Chialsa
for
this
addition
point
a beautiful
minimum runoff
this
there
available
is
exception
in
A good project
Khola
The ener-
15 years,
starting
Solu
the
hours.
5C0 kg of wood were
kilometers
hill
that
because
three
The
season
area,
about
steep
In
to
Khola,
for
last
station.
a very
were
sible
hydropower
boiled
Over the
was the
along
be correct.
nearest
situation
is
the
about
intake
was realised
that
dry
of
natural
be cut
pairs
firewood.
is
cooking,
a small
the
valey
solution
deforestation
precarious
river.
to
purpose
of
steep
and water
domestic
This
construction
and
wool-dye
partial
firewood
wool-dyeing.
the
the
small
were
and
not
supported
finally
hydropower
station
with
an output
of 80 kW (electrical).
a) Scheme Details
- Installed
capacity:
(2 turbines)
(t. 1 turbine)
stage
100 kVA
2nd stage
150 kVa
- Design
1st
1st
discharge:
0.9 m3/s
stage
1.35 m3/s
2nd stage
15.5 m
- Net head:
450 m
length:
- Canal:
cross-section,
2.0 m2
trapezoidal
1 %,
gradient:
800/600
diameter:
- Penstock:
40 m
length:
sheet
- Turbines:
2, Cross-Flow
made by BYS, Nepal
- Step-up transmission:
drive
belt,
UNIROYAL
3 mm
thickness:
Tl-X400
47 kW/unit
postitive
1 : 3.75
ratio:
- Alternator:
1, 3-phase,
1500 RPM (50 Hz) self excited,
synchronous,brushless,
with 2
shaft extensions
115 kVA
3801220
voltage:
french-made:
Electronic
- Speed control:
load-controller,
EPFL
Ballast:
Hot water heater
- H.T.
transmission:
mm
Leroy
v
Somer
3-phase
7 km
length:
A.C.S.R.
voltage
section
25 mm2
6kV
,
The
layout
tural
in
35 shows the
fig.
components
proved
The canal
nature.
(31,
and incorporates
lies.
Photographs
canal
800 mm in
the
two
branches
bines
in
in
The
discharge
the
intake
gabions
and,
leads
(61,
(5)
and
(8).
in
Water
is
that
difficult
that
as the
branching
site
(1)
with
way is
of
(as
of
to
the
to
the
into
two pipes
gate
valve
discharged
and was im-
mentioned
steep
difficulties
and
(7)
of diameter
turbines
before)
side
gul-
in
canal
a spillway
penstock
each and lead
by the
struc-
a semi-permanent
cross
a trashrack
inlet
several
natural
needed
an idea
the
almost
terrain
are
give
one cast-iron
powerhouse
the
incorporates
serves
section,
incorporate
(2,4)
56 might
fig.
forebay
upper
through
aqueducts
two
construction.
of
at
The
schematically.
by an arrangement
situation
of
with
diameter
600 mm. These
to the
exits
two tur-
through
in-
SALLERD P CHIALSA
SMALL
Fiq.
HYrPEL PROJECT
55:
Situation
Source:
Plan
Litscher,
dividual
'outlets
quarter
side
mission
(10)
the
power
line.
of
Powerplant
Sma 11 Hyde1
and
Development
flows
completes
house
the
is
back
list
required
Board
to
of
to
Nepal
the
river
structures.
transport
in
the
A step-up
electricity
tail-race
(9).
transformer
via
the
A staff
(11)
out-
6 kV trans-
Fig.
56:
Construct ;i on of He Id-R ace
Canal Sal 1er i/Chia
sa,
Nepal
Photos
. 1.itscher
by:
All
hydraulic
make
later
set.
Towards
in
the
sible
conduits
were
addition
this
of
end,
power-house
another
an extra
section
above
another
branching
part.
limited
to 2 meters
Bearing
in
construction
tance.
the
great
material
to
Specific
turbine
outlet
pit
of
the
of
the
technologies
- semi-permanent
intake
has also
penstock
have
to
- other
These
house
slate
supporting
measures
made it
is
made posstage,
be exchanged
is,
of transportation,
possible
appropriate
with
extent
the
was of
to the
one
with
incidentally,
use of local
paramount
situation,
impor-
were:
gabions
and staff
roofing
quarter
structures
and retaining
walls
to
quantity
possible
been included
second
section
- canal
lining
in mud mortar
implying
a large
canal
slope for low flow-velocities
(only the most difficult
were done in stone lining
with cement mortar
pointing)
- the power
with local
will
generating
branch
will
penstock
which
another
the
each
n? /s
possible.
greatest
built
adding
For
and cost
applied,
1,35
penstock.
branch
length
problems
with
a third
to make transportation
the
of
by
existing
The
a discharge
40 kW possible,
execut?on
penstock
for
Connecting
structure.
by flanged/bolted
mind
designed
limit
were
the
done
in
section
parts
and a small
of the canal
mud mortar-stone
were done with
of
cement
masonry
gabions.
to
700 bags.
-87Costs
involved
at
305.-*
41)
are
the
still
This
site.
since
considerable,
includes
one
a transportation
bag
of
charge
cement
of
costs
NRs.
NRs.
250.-
per
(BE,
Tl)
bag.
The
generating
that
are
through
installed
under
a speed
step-up
coupling,to
a single
mission
the
equipment
used
a net head of
transmission
with
alternator,
equipment
two
comprises
a positive-drive
is
schematical
used
15.5
meters.
and
a flywheel,
a shaft
belt
locally
that
extending
made turbines
Both
turbines
shaft
needed to be imported.
layout.
80 KW INSTALLATION
‘) TIIDRINF
IlNltC
CINGI
F
AI
TFPNATnR
ZFT
POWER HOUSE FLOOR AREA : 32 mz
WEIGHT OF MACHINERY : APPROX ,2000 Kg
Fig.
Source:
*
*
‘57:
Generating
NRs.
BYS,
12.-
41) Information
Equipment
Layout
SalleriKhialsa,
Nepal
Nepal
= U.S:$
l.-
used
from
and
on both
1
Litscher,
Salleri/Chialsa
... p 3
are connected
1
semi-flexible
ends.
Fig.
The trans57 shows
-8%
The single-generator
lel
operation
40 kW each,
with
cost
the
site
the
alternator.
units.
more than
1800 m above
be capable
of
on a continuous
to
facturers
branches
import
with
factor
producing
For
to
avoid
another
had to
of
reasons
of
0.9,
of
2 generators
of
80 kW. The elevation
of
the
from
to a slip-ring
for
the
selected
80 kW (at
a minimal
alternator
since
be considered
about
an output
compared
of
of paral-
sophistication
factor,
a rating
sea level)
a brushless
250 kg lighter
in
Photograph
basis.
were
one piece
a derating
more than
way chosen
Costs
With
was necessary
is
two
(approx.
115 kVA will
0.8)
configuration
size
of
machine
of
factor
of
weight
it
a power
transportation
Europe.
The one selected
alternator
offered
by manu-
India.
fig.
looks
58,
gives
like.
an
idea
The picture
of
what
was taken
the
equipment
during
with
the
trial-assembly
in
penstock
the
yard
of BYS, Kathmandu.
Fia.
58:
Trial-Assembly
of
Generating
Equipment
for Salleri/Chialsa
at
BYS, Nepal
Photo
by:
A. Arter,
BYS
b) Power Transmission
To bring
the
electrical
quires
a high-tension
chosen
is
of
and Use
6
energy
from
transmission
kV, with
one
step-up
the
line
generation
due to
transformer
site
distances
outside
to
the
consumers
involved.
the
re-
The system
powerhouse
and
-89-
several
smaller
tension
line
step-down
is
about
every
50 meters,
cross
section.
restors,
required.
a branch
eral
main
villages
In
sets
position
to
the
north
distribution
have
which
Tic fig.
of
approximately
is
very
close
the
The line
the
two
3-phase,
equal
to
centers.
of over
H.T.
and
top-cap
of
goes straight
villages
of
380 Volt
are
transformer
Source: Meier et al.,
Project
Proposal,
Kathmandu 1976
.TRANSFORMER
SCHO,ot
SALLERI
TRANSFOR TORPHU
/
NAYA f3AiAAR
Puk~No BAZAAR
ar-
pole,
lines
are
and the
up to Chialsa
with
and Torphu.
Sev-
Chialsa
Handi-
load
by far
I’
APPROX 3300M
each
mm2
for
LOWER
I’
SET TLEdNT
t
25
in
-_
Schematic
of 2-T.
TranMssion
SallerlKhialsa,
Nepal
fJf
required
because
59:
length
lightning
H.T.
Salleri
except
of high-
meters
cable
for
UPPER
SETTLEMENT.<:
Fig.
--e
ten
fuses,
arrangement
length,
the
The 1ength
aluminium
insulators,
cross-arm
transformers.
lines
load
steel-reinforced
59 shows
connecting
the
wooden poles
some 500
6.-d a metal
of
in
local
20 km of
addition,
The diagrarrl
that
craft-center
7 km, using
and over
earthing
approximate
transformers
the
its
the
various
is
SFORMER
LLSA/HANDICRAT
*-cCENTRE
-9o-
the
largest.
In
about
all,
8000
meters
needed
for
3-phase
(4-wire
system)
meters
of
insulated
2-core
cable
consumers
are connected.
individual
The
largest
single
Chialsa
Handicraft
heating
elements
hours
daily.
lighting
For
in
an average
for
the
load
of
at least
schools,
amount
to
64 kW. Lighting,
so that
even
tory
relation
to
to promote
cl
a good losd
utilisation
since
power
and
the
triate
and Present
for
ment
small
the
of
the
hydropower
An initial
body
would
activities
of
HMG** created
hydro
survey
electric
SalleriKliialsa
would
assist
gain
in
BYS.
**
Small Hyde1 Development Board
to about
the
day,
average
an unsatisfac-
be relatively
Assistance
out
the
small
in
important
task
met with
quite
of
done the
a capable
and train
the
the
and SATA chose
SATA*
local
job with
in executing
later,
of
expa-
institution-building
made local
organisation
provided
by personnel
absence
have
named SHDB***, with
and also
Government of Nepal
have
Some time
project,
His Majesty’s
not
field.
development,
*
In
experience
this
for Technical
is
Salleri/Chialsa
SATA could
a local
power
Swiss Association
at
relevant
an agency
*
installed
every
section,
be a very
was carried
company
this
was to
future
project
the'project,
However,
therefore
2 kW each
total
only
With
State
manufacturing
The idea
will
will
phase of operation.
to.implement
this
energy
initial
experts.
so that
saleable
of
installed
for
exist.
the
as 20 %. This
use in the
turbine
possible.
dyeing
It
problems.
organisation
the
costs.
The implementation
of
a few hours
12
use but
lighting,
for
of
the
electric
and 1 to
be required
part
of
10 to
will
the
may be as low
amount
streets,
and street
250
with
electricity
consumer
about
during
40 kW, bringing
on the
factor
the
houses
4000
be equipped
and main
individual
and over
section
be required
investment
the
Implementation
a number
will
naturally,
situation
public
approximately
with
plant
overall
other
each
are
which
dyeing
no other
offices
for
to
will
initially,
households,
120 W installed
various
will
the
with
the
are
conductors
lines
lines,
be
pots
24 kW, which
to
individual
will
dyeing
amounting
rest,
distribution
single-phase
consumer
:&here
Center,
steel-reinforced
overhead
for
electricity
of
task
this
an expatriate
the
their
own personnel
Electricity
of
project,
taking
partner
engineer,
Departcare
of
to work on
assigned
-91-
to
the
execute
the
tually
cement
at the
tioned,
that
repairs
generating
as of
this
writing
solved.
may succeed
ficult
one
technical
ning,
if
start
avoided
in
evidently,
more very
is
if
Avoidance
of
paid, resulting
its
attention
in
to
pilot
station
some of
42)
has to be paid:
the
to energy
side.
list
requirements
to achieve
over-stdffing
by outside
in high operation
costs.
who
to
be
- while
- is
points
load
are
in
a dif-
plancan
be
to which,
technical
factor,
relatively
the
ano
the
problems
and also
a higher
personnel
project
used
the
to
remain
remoteness,
fully
Obtaining
more participation
of the local
people during
riod and possibly
in ownership
and administration/operation.
l
the
now,
ownership,
open questions
is
canal,
only
as regards
character,
gained
of the
progress
-that
men-
The installation
many of
useful
The need for effective
load promotion
avoiding
load peaks of short duration.
l
state
new projects,
perhaps
careful
of
season.
hydropower
example,
As earlier
section
problems
paid
experience
of
e Size of the plant
in relation
ibility
on the construction
l
the
is
reascns
executing
It
future.
of
of
one
at
site.
yet.
are
vir-
away site
but
at the
rainy
one may perhaps
for
Still,
and
last
a number
far
To cite
operational
itself,
new projects,
and the
equipment
due attention
with,
difficulties.
designing,.
the
and electrical
remark,
finally,
to
during
establish
of
to arrive
not
administration
As a concluding
design
on the most difficult
(may 19811,
and
SHDB to
logistics.
is
necessary
equipment
the
one year
project
for
inescapable
of
took
the
are
operation
staffing,
it
is
with
were
problems
project,
job
busy
Delays
was damaged by land-slides
the
and
today
the
difficult
and get
same time.
for
major
which
a very
additional
ordered
state
was
project,
caused
Salleri
of
first
all
The
It
project.
feaswhile
highly
construction
pe-
dl Investment Costs
The total
investment
including
This
H.T.
is
ficult
4 years
has
for
high
construction.
also
42) Material
used from
*
adjusted
for
u+
estimate
inflation
the
low
transmission,
relatively
canal
cost
project
tension
and due largely
Inflation
played
Krayenbrihl
is expected
a role.
For
E Ledergerber,
in the last
Construction
distribution
to
during
to reag:h NRs. 2.9 million*
high
the
transportation
construction
transportation
SHOE: Program
phase
and house
alone
Evaluation
connections.
costs
period
ard
dif-
of more than
some NRs. 400'000**
...
-92-
spent
once
more than
13 % of total
cost.
The rough
breakdown
will
is
have
been
as per fig.
construction
is
itemised
of costs,
for
finished.
the
This
various
components
amount
of the
to
system,
60:
I
I
Fia.
would
I
I
1
0 of
I tern:
U.S.
total
I
$
I
I
60:
Cost Breakdown of Salleri/
Chialsa
Project,
Nepal
25
I
60'400
I
45’900 1
19
Source:
Updated
- Litscher
from:
Supervision
Miscellaneous
E Meier
and
4
Total
9'700
100
Cost w/o H.T.
1
241’700
E L.T.
t
1’64Q.--/kW
network
Cost all
inclusive
$ 3’021.--/kW
2. BHORLETARTURBINE IRRIGATION PROJECT, NEPAL
This
project,
for
Development
of
a feasibility
Nepal
Bank,
quite
a different
projects.
package
which
It
of
(ADB/W)
nature
was financed
study
and the
As an introduction,
turbine
as compared
passages
from
located
at
jointly
the
by the
manufacturing
"standard"
to
by ADB/N on commercial
and executed
measures,
was done jointly
by the
project
company
rural
terms
Agricultural
BYS, is
electrification
as one component
local
people,
proposal
report
in
a
ADB/N and BYS.
43)
are printed
here:
The
project
Lamjung
area
district
in
separates
the
head e.g.
only
43)
AIM/N,
Lift
is
two
Western
Irrigation
The
Project
on foot
for
the
and
The Midim
Nepal.
villages.
accessible
Bhorletar
area
in
is
Development
Khola,
roughly
a 4 to
Aarikosi
walk.
panchayat
perennial
20 km from
5 hours
...
with
village
the
This,
water
nearest
for
Nepal,
in
flow,
road
is
-93-
a very
favourable
irrigation
At present
ting
access
situation.
facilities
two or more crops
has no access
is
in
these
productivity
Paddy
is
to
areas
are
the
some areas
part
under
in Karaputar
of the
land
As such,
facilities.
paddy
very
to
a major
irrigation
i.e.,
presently
and maize
limited
a year,whereas
Bhatbeshi
grown
are
the
coverage
at Bhorletar
hardly
of
permitand
a single
crop
rains.
Crop
monsoon
low.
principal
crops
in
the
area
followed
by wheat,
mustard
and potato.
An increase
provision
in
of
crop
production
irrigation
and productivity
of
supporting
and other
land
services
is
envisaged
under
the
with
proposed
the
proj-
ect.
Out
of
a total
population
households
directly
a complete
technological
farming
based
system.
Other
rated
in
credit
lighting
The first
l
the
project
Development
include:
stage
electric
.of about
phase comprises
shitar
areas.
50 hectares
This
will
involve
of
l?ft
land,
the
irrigation
25 hectares
following
to
a small
integrated
the
development,
arrangements
irrigation
the
incorpofacilities,
for
farm
nearby
cottage
pro-
bazaar
industry.
activities:
facilities
each
to
and therefore
supply
100
provide
support
agro-processing
rr..jnning
following
to
an effective
feasible
elect ricity
for
about
aims
agrimltural
and marketing
the
of
of
intensive
identified
supply
benefit
and institutional
crop-production,
power
to
The project
installation
envisages
and installation
area
fzr
distribution
project
and
are
envisages
services
and
which
project
600 people.
area
development
proposal
A second
of
Bhorletar
activities
this
500 to
package
and agri-inputs,
duce.
for
on
of
the
3000,
comprising
community
mainly
of
to cover
at Bhorletar
a command
and Bhatbe-
components:
- The water of Midim' Khola will
be diverted
to a 4000 meter long 1.2 m x 0.5
m headrace canal to channel
570 to 630 l/s flew to two sets of water turbines via a 40 cm diameter
penstock
pipe.
- Two sets of water turbines
capable
of generating
? total
of about 70 to 80
kilowatts
of power output
(35 to 40 kW output
each) will
be installed
under
Both
the
water
turbines
will
be
purely
the roof of a permanent
power-house.
which will
be used to lift
water up to
mechanical-power
generating
units,
the head of 22 meters at Bhorletar
and 42 meters at Bhatbeshitar.
-94-
The first
turbine
will
be used to drive
two units
of water pumps (1' 1/s
capacity
and consuming
about 13 kW power each) which will
lift
up about
30 l/s of water to Bhatbeshitar
area through
a conveying
canal,
to irrigate
about 25 hectares.
Similarly,
the second turbine
will
be used to drive
another
two units
of
pumps in order to supply 30 l/s flow of water to Bhorletar
to irrigate
another
25 ha of land.
The water supply pipes will
be carried
across from the
power house to the newly constructed
suspension
bridge
over Midim Khola to
a height
of 22 meters at Bhorletar
irrigation
command area.
Field channels
will'
of main supply
to
Bhatbeshitar
area.
*The
establishment
and
of
processing
'expected
unit
in
and a small
power
units
operated
*A
storage
at
site
such
struction
area.
signed
by the
management
provide
provide
area
in
huller,
within
10 kW when all
power
milling
view
a flour
the
required
through
point
and
of
the
grinding
power
house.
three
processing
for
running
either
of
The
these
the
two
drives.
having
a capacity
nearby
the
of
t:,rb?ne
and river
100 metric
and mill.
boulders
society
would
A technical
officer
with
Bank as a manager
tons
house.
will
will
be constructed
Locally
be used for
agricultural
available
most
of
ma-
the
for
operating
of
cottage
agricultural
To execute
project,
the
area.
the
During
will
Co-operative
this
period,
all
con-
be assigned
of the
will
from
will
ADB/N would
is
be done
help
would
provide
would
also
and other
credit
re-
will
also
ar-
farmers.
proposed
to
be set
by the
Bank and the
farmers
to
up in the
Board of Direc-
management
by ADB/N up to the
the
be as-
It
co-operative
be governed
the
in the
would
activities.
credit
The
Society
Society
Society
project
industries.
production
Agriculture
The cooperative
production
a Co-operative
The Co-operative
The manager
to
and established
in
society.
including
inputs,
be registered
a degree
Gf the
guidance
and Management
loan.
to
project
supplied
co-operative
marketing
of
proposed
A paddy
The mechanical
belt
a) Organisation
sion
the
be about
be directly
and operational
quirements
tors.
of
water from the
in the Bhorletar
works.
project
project
is
be installed
will
via
as stones
@A Bank-guided
range
will
shall
unit
production.
a time.
turbines
a suitable
terials
at
building
farmers
agricultural
units
of water
the
consumption
agro-processing
sets
to
oil-expeller
estimated
to convey irrigation
fields
located
both
an agro-processing
facilities
increase
are
be constructed
the farmers
build
supervi-
period
up their
of the
own
-95-
management
tion
of
the
project
project
to the
Besides
the
Board
to
farmers
Balaju
ty.
Yantra
the
as an advisory
cf
the
the
irrigation
operational
level
optimum
utilization
of
a
will
to
the
of
the
is envi saged.
committee
the
Board
on operations
consist
be elected
of
system.
BYS will
the
to the
Society
farmers.
and
manufacture
complete
system
Co-operative
and pump/turbine
Co-operative
the
fabricating
install
hand-over
re-
3 progressive
by/among
manufacturing,
and will
basin
an effective
irrigation
house
Socie-
will
and the
equitable
Their
supply
water-distribution
water.
specific
be organized,
be established.
To ensure
farmers.
of
management
be com-
farmers
under
of BYS and ADS/N.
On the
groups
the
will
for
and then
forebay
effort
supervision
will
equipment
unit
canais,
joint
to
and agro-processing
and generating
of
unit
be responsible
agro-processing
by the
groups
opera-
and effective
hand-over
implementation
The latter
leaders.
(BYS) will
turbine
technical
ers
recovered
The committee
implementation.
Sala
Construction
pleted
fully
Bank will
function
and 2 group
including
the
ensured,
is
a project
project
water
amount
of Directors,
will
installation
the
is
loan
farmers.
The committee
lating
When the
skill.
For this
water-users
function
and
distribution
of water
d To arrange
schedule worked out in consultation
purpose,
will
distribution
groups
system
would
within
the
comprising
ensure
two farm-
several
sub-
be:
of
irrigation
water
to its
members as per
with all farmers within
to
member
water
distribution
the group.
To initiate
the member farmers
to level
and improve their
land structure
and
construction
of water distribution
channels
so as to have optimum water utilization
and minimize
water losses.
l
l
To promote cooperation
and to encourage
the
a To help the
water charge
l
Co-operative
Society
realise
from the member farmers.
To settle
disputes
of irrigation
water.
e To promote
ment withfn
The main‘ canal
whereas
among members sharing
irrigation
water
farmers
for the adoption
of improved
among member farmers
other
activities
the groups.
will
sub-channels
related
be constructed
will
be
with
through
constructed
its
in
loan
the
irrigation
joint
by
instaliments
utilization
and irrigation
and distribution
'and agricultural
efforts
the
and other inputs
farming
methods.
of
participating
the
develop-
farmers
farmers
groups
them-
-96-
Proper
selves.
process!
tion
ng machinery
of the
and
operation
maintenance
and pumps etc.
Co-operative
will
aided
Society,
of
the
turbine,
be carried
by staff
out
from
main
by the
BYS where
canal,
agro-
mechanical
sec-
necessary.
b) Benefits
The project
benefits
The project
by irrigating
e
@ It will
tional
project.
.
envisaged
would benefit
50 hectares
may be summarised
as follows:
about 100 farm families
of "tar"*
areas.
provide
permanent employment
employment
to about 100 farm
of Bhorletar
for 11 persons and would generate
add?families
at the full
development
of the
It would provide
easy access to processing
of
essing
facilities
to the farmers
of Bhorletar,
other nearby villages.
. The project
will
power to render
e Provision
minimize
e The crop production
to 752 metric
tons
e
would
marketing
improve
of farm
OF Hidim Khola to generate
to adjoining
areas.
distribution
outputs.
would increase
from the existing
at the full
development
stage (5th
of
levei
year
agri-inputs,
of 456 metric
onwards).
Expected
implementation
of the project
activities
set for phase 2 would
fit
the local
community from the.proposed
supply of electric
power to
putar
Bazaar
and the extension
of irrigagon
facilities
to Bhorletar
Kainbote
areas.
So far
project
proposal
! What one may note
projects,
are the
following
the
hydropower
e
foodgrains
by providing
procBhatbesitar,
Karaputar
and
he;p to utilise
the water resource
irrigation
and processing
facilities
of storage
facilities
losses
and facilitate
and Bhatbesitar
Rather than
ria,
namely
0 The development
e.g. integrated
of hydropower
is
.rural development.
o Local participation
is in fact a decisive
has not
factor
o The project
loans from
be viable
had to
a bank.
is
different
project
is
based
only
a means to achieve
been included
as a theoretical
requirement
in the implementation
of the project.
from
of a hydropower
Q By the development
a second project
stage that
provides
not be economically
self-supporting,
= high
plateau
on other
a much broader
its
inception
in
terms
e The bank involved,
on the other
hand, realised
after
studying
uation,
what additional
inputs
would be required
from their
quently
included
these in the proposal.
* tar
from
beneKaraand
other
points:
per se, the
production.
rural
electrification
increased
agricultural
that
tons
of
qualifying
critegoal,
but
for
the local
sitside and conse-
resource
for a specific
productive
for the amenity of electric
light
but can be done as a social
measure.
use,
must
-97-
c) Project
During
Execution
project
elsewhere
execution
did
not
it
exist,
became
largely
clear
that
many of
integrated
due to the
goal
of
from
its
inception.
A farmer
naturally
through
the
means in
an area
where even
In
it
all
fails
the
when
year
due to
the
all
along;
project
lack
technical
strong.
care
of
and
one point,
all
material
parts,
the
were
the
agricultural
ments
delays
was the
project
is
production
of loan
Some remarks
on the
The original
idea
in
with
head of about
water
canal
there
are
turbine.
bring
structure
static
still
This
that
all
sometimes
who pushed
for
the
a while,
participation
without
were
water
crop
courage
Local
they
was
would
much fuss.
carried
take
Cement,
on womens'back
would
have
the
finally
a separate
fewer
pumping
the
head to
This
project
was taken
though,
in the
with
require-
may be of interest.
was to generate
water
would
scale
all
period.
studies
operate
construc-
that,for
phase
grace
pumps with
have resulted
up to Bhorletar.
Also,
on the
electri-
electricity
in a geodetic
an additional
river
bank,
civil
with
intake
to be pumped.
adopted,
water
,sedimentation
a separate
to be pumped is taken
arrangement
particles
pump water
an early
long
the
fact
on this
was anticipated
been- necessary
with
the
This
of
side.
water
suspended
pump sets
in
prefeasibility
river
due to
still
and to
and power-house
a project
configuration
turbines
for
that
a sufficiently
necessitates
to
time
to pump water
tank
with
water
did
people
irrigation
people
declared
largely
developing.
at the
configuration
race
up.
ultimate
by local
to
lost
excavation
operation;
project
53 meters
and sedimentation
In the
with
during
the
in
technical
a pumping station
engineering
pipes
on canal
first
slowly
repayment
Details
power
area
And so they
and difficulties
it
d) Technical
cal
they
occurring
and the
rainfed
local
came
the
and irrigation
were working
involved,
Today,
of
access
a single
stages
problems
transportation.
what
was the
at several
womenfolk
approach
and supported
knows
fact,
problems
site.
There
up.
though
penstock
project
parties
rain.
was understood
administrative
The men, meanwhile,
tion.
of
even
At
equipment
to the
The scheme
project.
the
as compared
supply
positive
up to
pipe
pressure.
Bhorletar
in
the
to
water
parallel
to
With this
amounts
from
forebay
the
so that
supplied
the
to the
penstock,to
arrangement,
to
head-
22 meters
the
only,
-98-
as can
be seen
relatively
long
from
the
(about
schematical
1 km) delivery
derable
friction
losses.
amounts
to
49 m as compared
only
profile
Still,
pipe
is
dynamic
the
to
61.
On the
necessary,
which
in
fig.
head with
58 m with
the
other
involves
existing
a pumping
hand,
a
con-
arrangement
station
on the
river
bank.
TUTAL
PUMPING
HEAD
FOR BHATBESITAR
42.0 M. HEAD + 3.0 M. PIPELOSSES
= 45 M.
TOTAL
PUMPING
HEAD
FOR BHORLETAR
26.4M.
HtAD+22,6M.
PIPELOSSES
= 49M.
OUTLET
LOWER
HIGHTS
BE PROVIDED
AT BHORLETAR
CANAL
WATER
FOR BHABESITAR
AT LOWER
WILL
(MAXIMUM)
IRRIGATION
‘i‘i
, PIPE FOR BHATBESITAR
IRRIGATION
CANAL
HEADRACE
CANAL
TURBINE
FOR BHORLETAR
LEVEL
+ PUMP
--_- -----_-
i
HOUSE
IRRIGATION
----
I
I
SUSPENSION
I
BRIDGE
I
I
W’
MIDIM
-
5OOm _ !_
c
Fig.
Source:
BYS,
There
Profile
power
Irrigation
that
cost
both
drive
must
and sedimentation
it
System
a loruler
in deciding
and overall
and the
in the
delivery
original
pipe,
feasible'
an advantage
technology
was a comparison
which
system
to
system-efficiency.
technically
be considered
transmission
basin
helped
considered
sophisticated
side,
ment, including
section,
cost,
were
less
siderably
On the
criteria
feasibility,
studied
nical
of Bhorletar
Nepal
were three
technical
canal
580 i”
120m
/
61:
Schematical
ties
KHOLA
of
cost
but
to
the
of
configuration,
cost
a con-
generation.
generating
a pump-house
of bringing
possibili-
involves
electricity
versus
namely:
use of a mecha-
it
of electricity
construction
and the
The two
because
as compared
adopt,
a larger
the
equip-
with
intake
head-race
pipe
across
-9s-
the
in
river,
the
final
suspension
foot-bridge
this
item
cost
showed
major
but
The mechanical
all
this
all
some elsboration:
In
system,
while
the
electrical
transmission,
is
equal,
pumped,
ciencies
water
in electric
and what
e.g.
if
the
is
input
irrigation
may be presented
Turbines,
additional
system
and divided
at
are:
energy
by the
in
is
outlet.
in
friction.
terms
head,
output
A numerical
by
all
the
will
comparison
Input
I
Comparison
be crossed
long
depending
cross
also.
electricity
in both
systems
amount of water
very
effirate
simple
of
and
gullies.
This
canal
of
on terrain.
Another
Electrical
I System
92
92
0,06
low tension
transmission
efficien-:
0,90
motor
0102
Water
made to
only,
efficiency
efficienq
dynamic
necessary,
friction
Mechanical
System
Energy
Generator
relatively
pumps.
equipment
thus
Net energy
The
and water
be mass flow
is
need
as follows:
62:
System-Efficiency
Bhorletar,
Nepal
energy
over-
systems,
in
additional
result
Parameters
--Fig.
pipe
is
an
system,
of the
both
generator,
of
the
in
Input
of
pipe.
from
the
Really
electric
In a comparison
transmission,
multipled
dynamic
to the
si :)-up
them,
showed roughly
delivery
accrue
and
efficiencies:
of
building
required
losses
system.
comparison
1' -ually
and pipe
interest
second
longer
losses
involves
motors
of
z:;!
be attached
up and comparing
of 2 as compared
perhaps
that
the
turbine
600 meters
These
mechanical
the
a more than
not be considered.
the
for
to use an existing
could
cost
was the
pumps in
components
pipe
all
advantages
surprising,
the
possible
delivery
Adding
by a factor
requires
efficiency,
was here
water
minimal.
first
with
involves
the
decisive
was better
it
To explain
not
system
that
even though
which
and at
importance,
efficiency
to
was therefore
a slight
It
configuration.
pumping
49 m
50 m
rivulet
the
Nl
lr9
made a number
At two places,
was done by coverin,g
58,4
output
400 meters
seasonal
head
92
of
different
sections
rectangular
wooden flumes
with
a broad
canal
quite
with
stone-slabs
were
bed had to
to prevent
loo-
the
bed-load
being
impression
of
lined
execution.
Fig.
63:
Canal
Photo
in
water
through
The
two
independently
intermediary
vee-belts.
the
power
each
other.
shaft
from
which
to operate
envisaged
for
2nd project
house
Fig.
64 shows the
- in local
done
in
manually
two
fig.
63 gives
and mostly
mud-mortar
in front
agro-processing
will
masonry
sets
- under
power
of the
an
in
un-
with
progress.
Tl to which
the
turbines.
20 m may be operated
by
chain-drive
4 pumps)
from
to
are driven
an
with
may be connected
turbines
machinery.
be operated
installed,
two,above
more than
totally
of type
sets
in
supplies
pumps (e.g.
stage,
turbine
head of
set
shaft
the
two turbine
branching
a net
Each
intermediary
turbine,
the
was all
comprises
under
of
A third
The photograph
Nepal
house
to either
tively.
that
a common penstock,
working
turbines,
canal.
BYS
The equipment
fed
the
at Bhorletar,
M. Eisenring,
is
in
construction
canal
Construction
by:
deposited
A 10 kW alternator,
this
construction
shaft
alterna-
of the
power
Fig.
64:
Equipment
Photos
at Bhorletar
by:
M. Eisenring
A speed
governor
is
pumps constitutes
anism
the
for
the
turbine
gate
to
to
develop
of the
Because
without
is
full
dynamic
be read
vents
any water
The pumps used
of
positive
from
pipes
hammer in the
are
of
this,
valves
are
pumping
flow.
on the
system
spiral-casing
a mech-
simple
opened
with
the
turbine
side,
the
inlet
level
run
at
of
delivery
the
reduced
thereafter
The optimal
from
with
quite
on the
Only
equipped
of water
is
uo .to the
completely.
the operation
are
it
pumps are
gauge
centrifugal
With
ollmps
head and full
a pressure
turbines
pressure
and the
because
system,
Instead,
pump inlet
opened
delivery
the
gate.
operatina . the
fill
simply
for
load.
the
To start,
fills
ficient
required
operation
a standstill.
oipe
not
a constant
manual
pumps.
at
Installation
under
is
turbine
pipe.
to operate
still
delivery
head race.
Then
speed
just
suf-
speed
increased
speed can quite
This
procedure
the
concept
pre-
developing.
type.
With
to
use
-102-
local
technology
were
made first
comparing
to the
in
imported
actual
flow/head
pumps were
imported
the
regional
march more water
due
to
better
higher
although
it
not
produce
market
with
could
matching
generally
Europe,
does
any.
By
those
of
be pumped with
of
the
latter
efficiencies.
was clear
pumps
that
ma-
with
the
Consequently,
getting
spare
parts
Costs
investment
sively,
due
costs
costs
to
eration.
It
not
but
of
power
piping,
construction
Also,
possible
is
accounted
cost
of
uation,
50
amounts
to
rigation
estimate
side,
is
as given
costs
low
of
From the
at
of
land
level
of
1979,
the
cost
systems
are not
involvement
power
of
not
and tail
2 NRs.
= U.S.$
for
overall
the
inte-
to hydropower
hydropower
gen-
develop-
seems reasonable.
components.
equipment
such
fully
of
Since
as water
the
pumps,
area
partly
include
race
l.-
it
is
basis,since
cost
of
such
water.
representative.
voluntary
expert
end use,
irrigated,
does
amount
for
ADB/N and an expatriate
of
the
of NRs. 530'000.the
Succes-
included.
here
to
are
overflow
actual
into
also
on a unit
head race
cost
due
side
$ 886.. This,however,
from
is
is
in addition
auxiliary
that
lift-irrigation
hectares
with
difficulties,
This
the
cost
this
personnel
for.
of
be NRs. 540'000.-,
technical
an amount
machinery,
relatively
supervising
been
higher
to
activities
to separate
breakdown
be noted
foreseen
otner
a rough
and milling
should
several
only
estimated
NRs. 700'000.-*.
possible
on the
65 gives
use
about
including
is
ment alone
Fig;
and not
reached
project
initially
were
inflation
finally
grated
.
that
and
from
frcm
itself
for
be more difficult.
Total
*
conditions
Nepal
pumps
overseas,
a number of enquiries
extent,
since
region,
was found
from
e) Investment
the
possible
of
it
Europe,
chines
It
the
characteristics
pumps from
would
largest
of
of
development
additionally
labour.
BYS have
interest
in the
Canal
to
existing
per
not
note
sit-
hectare
possible
ir-
-103-
Turbines
of 60 kW output under a head of
20 m incl.
penstock
IL
drive
components
Fig.
65:
Cost Breakdown
Source:
of Bhorletar
ADB/N+BYS
estimate
based
Project
Project
proposal,
on project
progress
and own
report
7100
16
4 pumping sets with
a rating
of 60 l/s
total
j
16
/
mllllng
equipment:
Rice huller,
flour
mfll,oilexpeller
I
2
I
7100
1
goo
I
1979
irrigation
pipe:
0 160 mm, HDPE 300 m,
PVC 800 m, steel
6",
30 m, incl.
installation
'
36
15900
100
Total
Total per
mechanical
0 44300
kilo Watt
power output
730
IS
3. NAM DANG HYDRD-ELECTRIC PROJECT, THAILAND
The Nam Dang project,
Division
of
the
The turbines
of
NEA's*
in
the
the
recently
Forestry
used
northern
entire
of
installation
Nam Dang is
a very
Mai.
area
and has a negligible
stock
are
and
* National
Energy
to
in
Cross-Flow
type,
Mai.
scheme
NE/) was also
situated
on the
66,
will
inhabited
right
environment,
of
Thailand
be supplying
by
basis
for
during
resettled
in the
design
the
section
workshop
planning
of
construction.
about
heart
since
technology.
by a small
m altitude,
The 100 kW power plant,
fig,
local
by the
incharge
supervision
at 1'400
using
designed
on ccntract
technicail
is
impact
a village
Administration
another
station,
The station
program.
visible
stations
hill
owned by t,xe Water Shed Management
is
and built
Chieng
remote
of Chieng
reforestation
the
and for
west
the
of
division,
city
and also
Department,
are
technical
built
it
of which
electricity
hilltribes.
120 km north-
of the
is
integrated
powerhouse
to
water
three
shed
into
and penforestry
A high-tension
104-
transmission
supply
Fig.
line
of
11 kV will
villages
to other
be necessary
for
this
purpose
and will
also
make
possible.
66:
-
and Power
Penstock
House of Nam Dang
Thailand
Project,
Photo
U. Meier
by:
There
is
power
schemes
reduces
a fundamental
Nepal,
transportation
was done
in the
in
by bulldozer
construction
a) Technical
- Installed
- Design
difference
in
and
the
in
project,
existence
of
costs
considerably.
at marginal
cost,
since
and maintenance
of a service
this
road
road.
to
most
This,
Earthwork,for
machine
for
instance,
was engaged
reforestation.
120 kVA
capacity:
130 l/s
discharge:
gross:
79 m
net:
70 m
open, trapezoidal,
cementmortar lined,
length:
1'400
diameter:
length:
m
450/200 mm
224 m
2, Cross-Flow
type
NEA design,
runner
0:
output:
hydro-
naturally,
Details
- Penstock:
- Turbines:
as compared
an access
other
- Head:
- Canal:
this
400 mm
62 kw/unit
nearby
- Step-up transmission:
chain drive
(triplex,
- Alternator:
(50 Hz),
brushless,
voltage:
5/8")
2, 3-phase,
self-excited,
italian-made:
1 :2
ratio:
1500 PRM
synchronous,
ANSOLDO
380/220
- Speed control:
Oil-pressure,
mechanical
governor,
JAHNS, AA2
(2 sets)
speed:
900 RPM
45 mkg
capacity:
- H.T.
The
transmission:
civil
engineering
material
used,
cement
V
is
situation
e.g.
easily
in
structures
mostly
18 km
voltage:
11 kV
are
cement
available
length:
of
a conventional
concrete
structures,
and transportation
SalleriKhialsa,
cement
type
is
costs
about
the
in
terms
reason
being
no problem.
Compared
seven
less
times
of
in
the
that
to
the
the
Nam
Dang project.
Fig.
67:
Intake Weir at Nam
Dang, Thailand
Photo
by:
U. Meier
The intake
river
let
is
at the
visible
crete
closed
were
built
site
of
on the
used.
conduits
with
a weir&type
a natural
right
in
The canal
made from
pool,
fig.
is
67.
fully
concrete
barrage
with
For
lined
pipe,
of
about
a box-type
this
1 meter
sedimentation
structure,
about
and comprises
to
prevent
height,across
side
several
gullies
the
tank and in200 m3 of consections
'from
with
filling
106-
those
is
sections
again
overflow
68).
sediment.
a concrete
structure,
The trashrack,
merged part
supports
wi,th
perhaps
into
two
sheet/welded
a number of anchor
of
the
is
level.
the
out
with
canal
(refer
vertically
that
are larger
power-house,
which
is
neatly,
is
fig.
above ground
than
a piece
to fig.
in the
As may be seen from
is
ends,
a perpendicular
sediment
arranged
construction,
blocks
head-race
oversized,
flushing
parts,
above the water
steel
same may be said
a bit
p for
flush-gat-
divided
and sloping
in rolled
penstock,
The
and a bottom
weir
at which
The forebay,
with
strictly
of
66,
subthe
on concrete
necessary.
architecture
in
more elaborate
than
itself.
Fig.
68:
Forebay with Spill-Way
Dang, Thailand
Photo
by:
All
civil
at Nam
U. Meier
construction
strictly
necessary,
work
done
perhaps
due to
turbines
used
the
very
pilot
somewhat
character
of
the
project
and easy
accessibility.
The two
with
Cross-Flow
a runner
diameter
of
are
actually
400 mm and a nozzle
the
width
prototypes
of
the
NEA design
of 50 mm. The material
used
-107-
for
by
the
runner
BYS in
blades
links
The
Nepal.
transmission.
is
For
optimal
as compared
steel,
turbine
speed
a chain-drive
this,
Sprocket
configuration.
Fig.
stainless
is
and pinion
of
to common mild
steel
750 RPM necessitates
used
of
Triplex,
5/8"
are made locally
from
used
a step-up
pitch
steel
and 118
plate.
69:
View of Ge!neratir
Equipment during
Trial-Run
at Nam
Dang
Photo
by:
For
U. Meier
speed
a flow-control
control,
governor,
connected
is
of
oil-pressure,
is
rather
the
costly
penstock).
As is
steel
in
the
1'500
RPM.
Fig.
70 is
part
with
ble.
The two
switched
kV.
with
belt
flyweight
usual,
country
the
and
of the
gate-operating
sets
parallel
of
into
the
installation
also
of
a common network
(refer
from
40 % of total
turbine,
are
type
shaft
and imported
requires
and a part
conventional
turbine
about
a diameter
Cross-Flow
lever,
the
near
governor
has
to
of
variety,
and constitutes
a detail
in
a flat
governor
is
used.
This
fig.
691,
This
item
to
Europe.
equipment
a flywheel
cost
that
was cast
in
speed
of
750 mm and an operating
with
one main bearing,
of the
governor
identical
in
with
the
connecting-rod
all
details
a transmission
(excl.
inlet
visi-
and will
voltage
of
be
11
-108-
Fig.
70:
Detai 1 of NEA Crossat Nam
Flow Turbine
Dang
Photo
by:
U. Meier
b) Investment
Costs
For a comparison
that
the
develop
tation
main
have
included
examples,
per
lower
costs
construction.
since
design
with
difference
on a cost
elaborate
not
of costs
other
is
unit
in
in
a higher
basis.
Further,
Thailand,
Also,
this
installations
in
the
and engineering
studies
head
which
is
construction
perhaps
case
was done by the
described,
of
Nam Dang,the
were not
should
generally
materials
compensated
Forest
it
Department
accounted
to
cheaper
to
and transpora degree
cost
by more
of earthwork
itself.
for
be noted
In all
fully.
is
three
-109-
% of total
Item:
civil
Construction
including
Penstock
52
U.S. $
.-74'000.--
7
10'000.--
24
34'000.--
Power House
F$g. 71:
Generating
Cost Breakdown of Nam
Dang Project,
Thailand
Source:
All
taining
tesy
information
Power Transformer
160 kVA
H.T.
Line
Transmission
3
4'0CO.--
14
20'000.--
per-
to Nam Dang by courof
Equipment
Total
100
l42'800.--
NEA
Cost W/o H.T.
Transmission
Cost inclusive
of H.T.
.$ l'lCiO/kW
Transmission
$ 1'420/kW
F ECONOMICCONSIDERATIONS
I*
The expert-group
renewable
know-how
on hydropower
energy-sources,
as well
rated
on here
plied
on
micro-hydro
Nairobi-Conference
hydropower
a multi-level
cost-benefit-approach
installations
installations
compared
compared
stated
that
ranks top as far
44)
This statement
economy are concerned.
using
micro-hydro
the
existing
as its
by
for
to
to alternative
larger
from
all
as accessible
will
which
be elabowill
be ap-
hydrostructures
and on
energies.
1. BASIC APPROACH
a) Cost-Benefit-Approach
When the
World
cost45!
the
to
Bank
what
appropriate
to
say
most
44)
United
45)
World
of
that
of
that
future
benefits
the
important
Rapport
Energy
in
du Groupe
the
Developing
demand should
are to
should
energetic
Technique
countries,
into
-
the
and external,
. . . p 28
p 8
the
Likewise
least
one has
calculation.
as all
and diseconomies.
internal
be met at
be considered.
be taken
infrastructures
economies
effects,
Selection
energy
what cost
many external
Nations,
Bank,
Socio-Economic
arises
kinds
expecially
of
says
question
decide
have
for
It
is
infrastructures
One way to
could
be the
get
hold
following
-llO-
system.
cost
II
Benefit
I
cost
I
I
I
tanqible
tangible
inteKF+Z!rnal
I
inte&rnal
intehrnal
External
cost
ect's
imostly
nal
economies),
of other
but
for
of the
detriment
reasons
internal
on local
engineers
uses most of the
to
three
(external
are
plant
workshops
etc.
(exter-
stratification
produced
electrical
diseconomies).
differentiate
levels
"situation"
among various
levels
suggested:
cost:
works
- Generating
linkages.-
some new sociological
advisable
the
proj-
of a micro-hydro
on civil
of others
Here,
cost-benefit-analysis.
- Civil
foster
an economic
on
operation
backward
equipment,or
perhaps
to the
operational
o tangible
- via
which
unvoluntarily
or one sawmill-owner
energy
influence
Thus the
units.
generating
would
as the
exercises
effects
cf
one grainmill-owner
is
defined
performance
construction
or mechanical
are
stimulating
exercise
the
It
and
profitability)
for
if
and benefit
creation
could
I
intangible
I
tangible
I
intangible
(dam,
canal,
equipment
powerhouse
(turbine,
etc.)
governor,
generator
etc.)
- Penstock
- Operation
and
or labour-cost
- Local
distribution
- Other
(RtD,
. tangible
maintenance
for collecting
project-design,
internal
- Mechanical
and/or
for
consumption
for
productive
- as "price
network
(also
fuel
dung for
cost if non-renewable
biogas-purposes)
energy-source,
(L-T.1
land
acquisition
etc.)
benefit:
electrical
energy-supply
(domestic)
(entrepreneurial)
per kWh" (as measure
uses
uses
of comparison
to other
energy-options)
-lll-
- Surplus
revenues
- Producers
cost
grid.
Internal
in local
.
Internal
benefit
the
units
(incl.
energy-system
The price
local
IER (internal
.
l
within
community
economic
means cost
of producing
means benefit
to
hydropower-producing
per kWh is
rate
of return)
unit
all
to be calculated
plus
some local
individuals,
unit), which
over
the
investment
households
integrated
are
life
public
of the
and economic
into the new
project
(be it economic
units
or individuals)
are
of customers
0 The surplus-revenues
obtained
because of more economic activity
as such and/or
because of productivity-effects
providing
more foodstuffs
per acre, more textiles
per day, more
cement per hour etc.
. The calculation
of the IER needs a forecast
of costs
and reventies
(those of
the hydropower-producing
unit)
which requires
a concept
about selling
prices
and tariffs.
The estimated
future
costs and revenues
(e.g.
the net balance)
must be discounted
as will
be shown later
on.
Here comes in a difficult
adjustment
problem:
the shadow-prices,
i.e.
distorted
prices,be
it to high or to low prices
for cost-components
of the hydroor of alternative
energitq
(e.g.
subsidies
for kerosene).
power-plant,
aspect of the tangible
internal
bena It remains to be said that the two-fold
efit
(consumption-aspect
and producers-revenue-aspect)
coincide
when a household or an economic unit
is supplier
and sole consumer at the same time (e.g.
a family-biogas-piant).
So the
first
of
installation,
the
chasing
l
IER);
power (incl.
tangible
the
external
- Interlocal
- Step-up
energies
and -down
national)
transformation
of energy
- Subsidies
- Need of foreign
. tangible
- Increased
external
tax
selling
price
price
increases
and their
all
of
must
of
cost
over the
energy
currency
benefit:
revenues
provides
given
to
it)
as to the
as well
revenue-increas
distribution-grids
(which
life-period
be related
~0s';:
(regionai,
- Distribution-losses
the
aggregating
a selling
energy-induced
of alternative
prices
by
determines
a cost-covering
least
ling
cost-benefit-level,
(H.T.)
ing
potent
ial.
at
pursel-
112-
- More diversified
and
energy-input
increases
regional
community
- Less subsidies
- Lowering
for
possibly
cheaper
(for
production
per hour)
alternative
of import-bill
economies
of
product-supply
scale
arise
when
to the local
and
energy-sources
(e.g.
oil)
and increasing
of import-substitution
Comnents:
* Though
this
difficult.
level
At least
the
should
is still
"tangible"
rough indications
quantifying
be possible.
problem
becomes
more
. The result
of this
level
cannot stand for itself;
it has to be superimposed
To elucidate
this:
it would make sense to
on the result
of the first
level.
accept
a negative
IER and subsidise
the hydropower
plant
with a fraction
of
the increased
tax revenues
generated
by more economic activities.
There would
still
reamin a net benefit
to the community.
intangible
l
cost
- new need
herence
(examples
arises
to
- Price-increases
- Privileges
others
for
of
- Increase
of
concentrated
1:
regulate
the
consumer
goods
electrified
of
rivers
by law
in case of monopolistic
households,
local
capital-interest
capital-allocation
- Short-term
displacement
chanical
and/or electrical
use of
workshops,
farms
and credit-shortage
on a hydroplant
human energy/work
power
in
and enforce
its
ad-
contrast
to
markets
etc.
in
as a consequence
economic
production
of
by me-
- etc.
l
intangible
benefit
(examples):
- more comfort
- educational
effects
- environmental
- recreation
- degree
(lighting),
'protection,
(in
flood
case of dam'and
of "self-reliance",
- slowing
health
down of urbanization
local
effects
(heating)
control
lake)
production
because
rural
quality
of life
- learning
process
-
and "trickle-down
effect"
of more productive
of hydropower
and the demonstration-effects
_
"fall-out"
sequence
- Prevention
- etc.
of deforestation
increases
methods
as a con-
-113-
Comments:
The larger
to assess
the powerplant
all intangible
Again,considerations
not integrated
into
Sumarising
into
the
can
only
the more difficult
effects,
internal
of this
cost-benefit-level
the net-effects
of the first
there
one may say:
is
cost-benefit-analysis.
be
assessed
an actual
in
a qualitative
may be a negative
prices
turbine,
exchange,
expensive
structured
tariffs,
etc.
problem),
when one has to
range
value
problem
will
smaller
of
plants
tangible
justify
a low
arise
where
often
connected
in
order
to
calculate
the
of
costs
and revenues
the
tion
2 lit.
a).
with
those
costs
and
this
money
more
years
are
underlying
a future
Electrification,
thirty
date
- if
this
is
accessible
cost-benefit-approaches
p 41/42;
is
including
UNIDO,
is
to
the
simple:
less
today
- would
see:
Wright,
Issue
Paper,
it
than
can only
value
be invested
Micro-Hydro
a forecast
produce
life-period
to
of
cost
(C)
p 2;
be
end of sec-
if
of today
all
future
and revenues.
or
revenue
amount today
a given
the
should
or revenues
costs
Installations,
basis
intangible
and should
of
at
with
discounting
of
be done
Che synonym
p 10
the
(refer
costs
large,
46)
cost,
later
money - be it
worth
the
this
that
IER needs
other
over
long-
on the
question
each
the
successfully
capital-interest
present
the
shows
Thus,
the
treated
Obviously
like
incentive.
how one can compare
ahead?
is
to
of
(load-factor
when calculated
investment
cost,
discounted
It.,)
related
depreciation
The question
revenues
- of
of
are
initial
running
The problem
The concept
then
rate
Fortunately
compete
earlier,
input-
more difficulties
evidence
is
The
wrong
project
self-reliance".
cost-benefit
inputs
level
overvalued
and benefits.
As mentioned
on total
reimbursed.
of
IER.
which
return
At least
with
of
benefits
a compensating
if
per kWh, or wrongly
intangible
to
and
arbitrary.
because
are quantifiable;
costs
third
is
a high-cost
and scattered,
than
this
selling-prices
empirical
the
on the
a highly
difficulties
are small
an additional
problem
project.
have
of
"local
since
and external)
are rather
some positive
or
all
perhaps
of
a bad IER with
too
loads
use
factors
development"
(internal
A further
For
of
hydropower-plants
benefits
46)
of wrong
influential
"rural
not
centralised
because
because
arise
of
because
seize
added
quantifying
and even
e.g.
possibly
cement),
But these
IER,
of
- above
way;
becomes to
should
be at least
and second level.
problem
Many factors
first-level-result
(expensive
it usually
and external.
(to)
(R)
since
interest-rate
World
Bank,
Rural
114-
(i).
t n, the
Up to
initial
amount would
have increased
according
to the
formula
on the interthat much of the IER depends
(1 + i) n. This elucidates
'tn = Cto
since
in hydropower
plants,all
costs occur today whereas the
est-rate
chosen,
revenues
are
fies
discounting
the
distributed
have
ipates,
lowers
the
venues
appear
Fig.
over
calculation
to
be
of
to
since
discounted
today-worth
to
,future
only
or even
the
their
more years.
future
present
revenues
This
which
A high
value.
a low interest-rate
revenues,
discounting
the
together
method;
simpli-
one antic-
interest-rate
makes future
re-
it
is
assumed that
all
future
reve-
at tn.
‘2,
Fig.
fifty
high at to.
72 exemplifies
nues occur
thirty
R
72:
Discounting
Alternatives
Case II
Cto
Case 1c
i
Case I shows that
day's
have
capital
to
view
the
into
future
A hydropower
plant
total
prevailing
interest
14 % p.a.,
for
plying
the
interest,
the
I)
will
he will
revenue
quickly
be
of
lower
to
fig.
since
the
future
revenue,
more capital
today
will
(loans,
country
$ 278'025.--.
hydropower
on this
plant
for
- also
a bank
earlier
the
than
so
to-
would
bank-account
illustrate
the
the
is
higher
(estimation
a
etc.)
than
$ 1'500/kW
10 years.
The
discounting
including
estimated
$ 278'025.--
Should
II),
problem.
- is
institutions.
tlO'
investor's
of
of
financial
at
the
cost
t#j be used for
capital
If
at
a life-period
or other
energy-investment.
$ 278'025.--
further
capacity
planned
through
embark
than
is
the
mentioned
the
73)'
kW installed
0'
to
low,
of
Rtn.
50
rate
value
investments
investment)
amount
into
present
comparably
(refer
investments
formula
investment
is
revenue
example
75'000.--
the
alternative
The following
($
of
investment
be put
to reach
in
t
tn
to
then
the
Apcompound
revenue
(estimation
estimated
the
of
investor
future
will
-115-
prefer
to
return
entrust
his
capital
to
a bank
or
another
institution
granting
the
of 14 %.
C.R
Fig.
73:
Investment
positive
Inv.-decision
Decisions
*4--
- -
_--
-rn$
J 75'00.-negative
decision
Inv.-
--'
I
278'025.--
-_Oestimatkon
--
-*--
y-
_ --Qestimation
--
II
t
t10
tO
needs
"investor"
The term
relevant
private
investor
. the
public
investor
choosing
A certain
complication
of
future
revenue
will
of
plant's
lifespan,
the
procedure
is
between
cost
In other
words:
at
interest
this
or,
higher
rate
return
it
should
the
costs
discount-rate
one could
invest
installations
discount-rate
than
from
the
fact
an aggregated
each year's
also
yearly,
arise
that
the
sum at the
means that
must be chosen
today's
(unless
money)
staggering
the
revenue
end
must
net balance
the
labour-intensive
installations
at
The
capital-investment
to.
(interest)
cost,
low
will
initial
: thus
allow
(again:
less
for
more
meaning
advantageous
kWh-prices
favours
capital-investment
capital
be a yearly
stems
among invest-
chasing
and revenue.
the
capital-intensive
investment-opportunities
discounting-method
Mathematically
separately
yearly
among alternative
the
rather
be discounted
low'
The discounting
thus
having
an utility-obligation,
within
the energy-supply
possibilities.
ment-alternatives
high
explanation.
in two cases:
the
0
a further
are
because
that
are
applied);
it
a
keeps down
respectively
the
labour-intensive
plant
operation.
In practice,
count
analysts
rates
prevailing
exclusively
47)
see:
electric
have tended
in
on relatively
French:
Renewable
Powerplants,
poor
to underestimate
areas.
One result
capital-intensive
Energy
p 104 f.
Systems,
p 41;
seriously
the
has been to focus
and complex energy
for
example
level
of
calculation
systems.
see
NRECA,
of disattention
47)
Small
Hydro-
-lib-
In sumnary it
is necessary
l
Determine
levels
all
l
quantify
and qualify
l
discount
the
The results
to:
pertinent
factors
these
tangible
to
costs
of different
. compare
hydropower
plants
with
the
latter
point
of
efficiency"
thermodynamics.
a distinct
tives
at
the
outset
b) Constraints
for
hydropower,
from
biogas,
stationary
cost-benefit-analyses
48)
see
Reddy:
this
Rural
energy-source
energetical
Centres,
- eliminates
considered
reasons
rather
cooling
etc.
the
"second
analysis
since
law
there
and energy-device,
many energy-alterna-
than
for
economic
power.
have to
reasons.
the
grid
with,
tasks
in
very
electricity,
a selection
into
In an outstanding
concentrate
sugar-processing,
may require
biomass,
as reproduced
pre-selection.
grainmilling,
etc.
To begin
tabulating
p !7
or
liquefied
shows this
will
Energy
task,
heating
wood,
and mobile
48)
Reddy
needs,
on economic
dyeing,
by
have to consider
of Energy-Sources
kerosene
constraints
thermodynamic
energies.
embarking
thermodynamic
water-pumping,
after
is
cooking,
energy-sources,ranging
over
cost-benefit-
and sizes
first
between
(task)
lighting,
brick-making,
energy
before
on the Selection
like
lighting,
one will
interrelationship
- when one end-use
types
alternative
however,
which
cal
three
may then be used to:
plants
End-uses
the
and revenues.
hydropower
is
into
factors
. compare
As to
be included
on the
mechaniwill
consider
temperature-grades,
analysis
fig.
different
74.
ofia
Thus the
alternative
village's
economic
options
left
-117-
Alternatives
Task
Devices
Sources
Fig.
biogas
ture
energy
heating
Selection
of Sources
Devices for Pura
gas
burner
wood/charcoal
forests
waste
solar
low-temperature heating
74:
Source:
medium-tempera-
heat
stoves
wood/charcoal
stoves
solar waste-heater/
solar dryer
and
incandescent
fluorescent
lighting
electricity
lamps
tubes
Reddy
draught animals
human labour
wind
biogas
energy forests
stationary
power
animal powered devices
pedal-powered
devices
wind mills
biogas engine
producer-gas
engine
internal
coaustion
engine
electric
motor
ethanol
eiectricity
animal powered devices
pedal-powered
devices
Internal
combustion
engine
producer-gas
engine
biogas engine
draught animals
human labour
mobile
power
ethanol
energ.y
biogas
biogas
charcoal
high-temperaturc
c) Concluding
forests
heating
furnace
furnace
Remarks on Decision-Criteria
The energetical
selection
a) will
both
limit
maining
alternatives,
(lit.
b)
and the
energy-options
the
some more
to
general
economic
a few;
criteria
to
cost-benefit-approach
narrow
might
further
(lit.
down the
be helpful.
These
reare:
of the time-dependence
of the energy-utilising
task with the
0 the matching
time-variation
- if any - of the supply of energy from the chosen source.
If matching
is bad, energy-storage
becomes necessary
which implies
new cost.
The problerr
may arise
with the variable
discharge
of rivers,
the time of surshine,
variable
wind-velocities
etc.
. the primacy
l
the
tion
local
of basic
needs
self-reliance
and system-independence
soundness; the
a the environmental
minimising
of negative
ecological
These
providing
social
participa-
and control
additional
among alternatives
criteria
arises.
primacy
impacts
may be a useful
of
renewable
guidance
energy-sources
when a non-decisive
and the
result
-118-
The following
sections
CL
by way of
full
three-level
at this
will
examples
illustrate
of
hydropower
cost-benefit
place,
some of
plants
analysis
the
criteria
of
and alternative
of
each
lit
a),
b)
and
energy-sources.
and every
option
is
A
impossible
however.
2. MICRO-HYDROPOWER
AND LARGER HYDROPOWER
PLANTS
All
figures
given
be taken
as
reasons
of
order
de-
cal
in
U.S.
1 MU) is
as too
in the
and
a cost
per
case
will
plants
differ
are
very
site-cost,
would
etc.
be academic
international
inflation-rates
to
much for
import-cost
it
a comparable
statisti-
nor rates
of exchange
and
still
to
to look
of
kW of
per
types
of
kW for
of
for
mini-hydro
One should
as too
experience
a figure
sources
at some actual
different
limit
$ 3'000
view
puts
other
$ 1'000
economic
in
goal,
close
Costs
per kW range.
villages,
OiADE5"!
fig.
to
neither
the
- 3'000
from
A series
every
hydropower
cost/revenue-years;
Internal
that
$ 2'000
and
of interest
of
state
obvious
consider
high
turbines
reasons.
from
to
this
statement
hamlets,
a number
2'000
should
this
of
pro-
per kW as the
Based on this,
European
(under
electrify
efforts
to see how far
figures,
to
made in
$ 1'000
that
projects
be made to
it
is
now
can be achieved,
manufacturers
is
shown
75,in
the output
range from 30 kW to 300 kW, and a head range from
51)
350 m.
The costs given are updated to the level
of 1980 and include
m to
complete
ding
since
A report
desirable
sary.
currencies
($)
with
equipment-cost,
foreign
Tangible
micro-industries
remain
costs,
different
Dollar
with
rough
jects.
since
reflect
Bank 49) states
The World
experience
be secured.
a) Experience
2,3
magnitude
and revaluate
basis
examples,and
labour
figures
can accurately
in
of
different
Furthermore,
to
from
generating
flywheel,
penstock).
equipment
governor,
alternator,
It
clear
becomes
low output
becomes very
costly.
49)
see
World
Bank,
the
50)
see
OLADE,
51)
From
Small
Integration
(e.g.
Energy
in
Hydropower
Developing
Stations
GmbH, Laufwasserenergie,
turbine,
step-up
valves
from
the
. . . p 34
data
and other
table
Countries,
sheets
transmission
p 46
that
where
acessories,
equipment
for
but
necesexclu-
low head and
in
Ossberger
0
(appmx.)
Cross-Flow-Turbine
Francis-Spiral-Turblnc
Ffg.
75:
Different
Source:
Hydro Generating-Equipment
Integration
GmbH,
Laufwasserenergie
The same source
states
that
in
hydro
installations
conventional
- since
struction
60 % for
purpose
low-head
lower
euqipment
installations
costs
amount
heads.
of arriving
Costs
to
This
of
have
50
% of
is
of
at a relevant
cost
ranges
the
from
sizes
referred
a relatively
total
course
magnitude
cost
40 to 50 % of total
larger
for
broadly
of total
to.
flow
This
rate
heads
above
generalised
but
cost.
cost
means that
- civil
con-
20 m, and to
it
serves
the
-120-
Based
per
75,
on fig.
kW for
heads
the
from
27 and 350 meters.
in total
for
plant
the
is
not
the
It
pricing.
by several
as costs
percent
cost
of civil
be given
share
the
an output
far
unusual
As far
different
this
is
geology,
between
to
to get
type
of
suppliers.
analysis
more difficult.
total
for
and also
on the
context
of this
also
the
reflected
equipment
and the
given,
suppliers
which
adds another
differ
variable,
no standard
obviously
Much depends
method
between
examples
same site,
will
sites.
is
that
of the
This
intakes
construction
and $ 8'750
heads
true
are concerned,
and
different
for
equipment
for
from different
Dams, canals
is
average
quotations
still
$ 3'000
it
above the
on the
$ 1'825
of head and size
trend,
construction-components
here.
of the
are
cost-function
Notwithstanding
Much depends
representative
and
clear
cheapest.
hundred
can
Thus a very
nothing
costs
m and $ 1'000
13,5
head with
making
unit
2,3
total
to
costs.
highest
calculated
applied
cost
cost
a very
on the
topography
and the
materials
used.
Of interest
in the
technology.
The examples
price
of 1980.
level
struction.
Other
transmission,
nors
are
not
used
either
from within
Comparing
l
cases
data
not
at
all
in
were found
the
from
the
be
interpreted
project
diversity.
to
the
turbine
also
of local
while
of local
at
about
design
such
and conas step-up
and penstock.
on the
bigger
are in all
the
Gover-
sets,
cases
dif-
imported;
overseas.
be the
equipment
cost
40 to 50 %.
is
costs
costs
gate-valves
to
light
absolute
the
trend
of the
a number
and
only
clearly
The influence
of variations
of head and size
cause of a high degree of flexibility
as to
tion,
which is appropriate
to the situation,
0 The average share of
than the conventional
project
Alternators
76 brings
However,
with
made locally,
plants,
as indicated.
75 and
actual
frames,
smaller
or from
now a comparison
all
are
base
.;.:lgion
fig.
shown,
components
flywheels,coupling,
solutions
enormous
In all
is
76 are
fig.
equipment
ferent
should
in
paper
truth
stands
of
facts.
for
These
reasons
of
as shown:
on price
are not pronounced
bethe chosen equipment
configura-
total
is
26,s
%, e.g.
6 Total
costs for the range
from 10 to 100 kW using local technology,
to cost per kW in fig.
75 show reversczd economies of scale,
clearly
less
compared
II
I
Sallcri/
Chialsa
Nepal
2 turbines,
15,5 m
electronic
1 alternator
speed controller,
difficult
canal
00 kW
I
2 turbine-generator
1 Mechanical
sets,
governor
no governor
2 turbine-generator
2 imported
governors
no governor,
180
30
188
*
Excluding
*
Total
+He Project
Fig.
penstock
cost
not
of
power
0
l
28
installation
station
executed,
hand alternator
existing
irrigation
canal,
no governor
660.--
work
excluding
projected
second
no canal
transmission
costs
are
updated
and distribution
to
price
level
of
1980
76:
Cost of Generating
Sources:
and
600.--
sets,
BYS,
Nepal;
Equipment
NEA,
Thailand;
Using
ITB,
Local
Cross-Flow
Turbine
Indonesia
Taking the average figure
for equipment
cost of $ 265.-/kW
and comparing
this
with the averag e of $ 890.-/kW of eight
turbines
(imported)
in fig.
75, shows
that on an average,
locally
made sets (fig.
76) cost approx.
30 % of imported
equipment
only.
(To arrive
at a more representative
average cost for imported
equjpment,
the first
three
figures
- representing
atypical
cost because of
low head/low
output
- have not been included).
Taking
amounts for total
cost
with
local
technology
can the
under "normal"
conditions.
for
both
stated
series
goal
of
of examples
$ 1'000 per
shows,
that
only
kW be approached
-lx?-
Conclusions:
. It
is
possible
technology
local
. It
is
also
to
in
counter
the rule of,traditional
the range up to 100 kW.
possible
to reduce
traditional
economies
overall
costs
latter
the
to
point
result
of
can
from
ranges
1 to
range
of
over
of
referred
size
100
be derived
hydropower
to52),
in
3 MWbecause
from
directly
an evaluation
500 kW. The study
feasible
not
evidence.
in the
kW to
latter,
from
in
technology
from over
is pos100 kW to
examples
shown but
is
Nepal,in
the
up
that
there
The first
from
2 to 30 kW* and the
is
the
of
scale
following
are
two
range
maintains
economies
1 MW,, it
the
activities
by using
considerably.
is, that
the range up to 100 kW - where local
. The result
sible
- becomes more economical
as compared to the range
1 MW.
This
of scale
economically
are pronounced.
factors
second
For the
that
make it
running
costs
un-
economical:
- too
big
for
- requires
- too
local
skilled
small
for
a remarkable
also
supply
are
presses.
These
projects
ped with
small
alternators
electricity
cludes
granted
uses,
that
extended
from
benefits
of
to
provide
upper
30
still
using
of
of
these
about
100
appropriate
very
scale.
cost-reduction
units,
exist
such
and could
lighting
kW, without
technologies,
be equip-
limited
kW (this
one can take
hydropower
jeopardising
which
plants
the
are
Nepal
and oil
therefore
420 per
economical
in
as mills
and very
previously,
marginal
for
installations
$ 250 to
As indicated
limit
kW to
domestic
cost
distribution).
the
profitably,
only'marginal
at
electricity
agro-processing
high
of
of
hydropower
operating
cost
therefore
a new dimension
to
capital
of economies
Many small
power
high
staff,
effect
introduce
electricity-supply:
mechanical
therefore
and professional
for
The same authors
village
technology,
other
also
in-
it
for
can be
intangible
locally
managea-
ble.
Similar
China.
52)
see
*
which
53)
see
cost-experience
53)
has
The cost-concept
KrayenbUhl,
Small
may be extended
SATA/UMN,
Study
Hydro
is
been
made
based
on the
Development
to
100 kW if
Tour
. . . p 58
head
with
micro-hydro
conviction
installations
that
canals,
. . . p 20 f.
is
over
20 meters
as shown
in
fig.
75
in
dams, roads
123-
etc.
can be attributed
power
can
works
implied.
in
In
Most
line
(min.
200 meters,
hydro
plants,is
cultural
to
max.
used
line
is
the
extension
practically
in
contributed
to
the
its
Another
cost-component
To conclude
briefly
consumers
be sketched:
and
generators
are
hydropower
plants,
plant
the
and
characteristics
than
in
salaries
of
on the
the
size
54)
see
Hassanaly,
Exploiting
55)
see
KrayenbUhl,
Small
Mini
Hyde1
the
111,
a lownetwork
or
from
is that
the
rather
same
grid
villages
step-down
have
transformation
envisage
local
power
can afford
must
plant.
.... p 6
p 11 f.
of
be discussed
operation-
are
a gridplant
later-on
has
to in-
energy-consumption.
later.
and maintenance-cost
characterised
by high
cost,
with
high
staff.
Maintenance
of
55)
intakes,
Experts
initial
cap-
diesel-powered
running
fuel-cost.
cost
of the
depend
removing
on this
shall
whereas
be seen as a function
(rebuilding
the
distances,
powerstation,
metering
investment,
local
site
of
of
cost
of
and agri-
the
the
and maintenance
terms
operation
the
and will
plants
low operation
cheaper
is
cost,
Hydropower
micro-
grid-system.
applied
internal
by these
remain
One must
this
of 800 meters
distribution
since
after
overhead
would
point
so that
distribution
tariff
on tangible
local
future,
a larger
of
the
a short
productive
short
distribution
thing.
development,
such
of kiloin Nepal
produced
low-tension
But the
so distant
into
much on the
ital-investment
etc.)
not
and
exist
length
pumping,
With
local
a costly
have
energy
local
of
up to a couple
plants
a grid-extension,
is
village
tegrate
depends
get
side
a maybe
the
power plant.
to
and civil
generation
Good examples
water
comes from
by a distant
electric
(380 V) were included
an average
etc.
cost
lines
micro-hydro
households,
Since
anyway, the
high-tension
extension
for
electricity
wiring.
consuming
points,with
54) The electrical
2 km).
mostly
chance
to
so that
equipment
are possible
used for
Tanzanian
sufficient.
no
on the
L-T.-lines
electricity-supply
fed
generating
low-tension
hospital-stations,
be provided
whether
It
the
machinery,
tension
the
the
anyway,
kW, are reported.
local
material
of
for
attributable
energy,
outlay.
on the
Tanzania.
distribution
must
of
cost
depending
in
costs
way,
distribution
first-level
meters,
or
extra-cost
at
this
and flood-control
of as low as $ 350 per
the
the
irrigation
be calculated
distribution
As to
to
of the
more on the
slides
problem
size
For
on canals
maintain
that
-124-
operation
kW)
are
almost
$ 25'000
unit
-
40'000
maintenance
can only
than
of
75 %) and at
high
plant
plants
by
than
micro-hydro
stations
micro-hydro
plant
too
high
to promote
A further
element
the
plant.
cording
to
the
initial
of
They
Form an economic
point
of
country's
not
ways
are
the
of
the
new plant,or,
ment of the
In most
public
schools,
see
wearing
KrayenbUhl,
proportionally
reserves
can be paid
to
investment.
and
Small
other
Hyde1
can be repaid
with
the
public
. . . . p 22
services
a
electricity
dt
a
of
the
tariff,
depreciation
depreciation,ac-
rate
price
gener-
of
4 % of
the
per
kWh in
the
problem
is
regarding
there
is
cannot
of
posed.
deprecia-
no such
be paid,
thing
then
must replace
the whole
depreciation
can be paid,
If
by step
the
financial
No one would
also
civil-work,
stand
plant
step
will
the
of
of
like
invented
are accumulated,
plant
that
running-cost
the
a serious
increasing
proper
is
rate
a firm
not
plant.
capacity
overstaff
shaping
a high
that
agencies
the
and
and maintenance
selling
parts
of the
foreign
of
A loan
a subsidy
hydropower
streets
out
plant,and
alone
depreciation
per
an availability
to
the
cost
such
is
its
evidence
depreciation
one has to take
or
internal
plant
cases
If
budget
conceivable:
ital-cost
56)
depreciate.
after
an annual
mobile
cost
a good load-factor.
plant's
determines
perpetuum
development
lation,
the
as the
seems that
a weighted
depreciation
plant,if
tendency
and maintenance
this
view
the
to obtain
of the
roughly
operation
of operation
be an adequate
calculated
to
be avoided.
rather
suggest
Usually
for
does
also
that
fosters
by simply
lifespans
US Cl
that
I
have
again
However,
It
amount
20 % (with
be covered
will
experts
etc.
As long
This
100 - 400
and maintenance
of the
reduction
56)
and
least
kW should
operation
up to
tion.
4 - 5.
easily
the
at
(between
conclude
revenues
is
use of electricity
investment.
range
factor
a problem.
different
ating-equipment
by the
prices.
solution
of
Again
size.
100 - 1'000
cannot
in order
They
electricity
is
the
rate;
with
load
averaging
capacity
operation
100 kW show a drastic
a factor
plants
Consequently,
be paid
between
hydropower
installed
rapidly
200 kW, the
higher
small
from
annum.
decrease
is
Smaller
per
costs
small-sized
for
independent
produced,
cost
cost
and maintenance
thus
the
instaltwo
diminishing
cap-
new debt-potential
for
so that
the
total
replace-
means.
be inevitable,
ever
be it
question
have
to
the
be
for
fact
private
either
depreciated
or
that
at
the
-125'
However,
public'expense.
ned by the
to
what
extent
a question
revenues,
that
costs
will
are covered,
be dealt
is entirely
with
in the
determi-
following
chap-
ter.
b) Experience
Information
"surplus
with
Tangible
thereof
will
in
designed
and
focus
and the
revenues'
"Baliguian"
Internal
a very
locally
on the
“IER”
remote
Benefits
are not
place
equipment
27 meters,
and an installed
capacity
total
of
40 % for
plying
the
$ 749
generating
a load
US-cents
factor
2.1
Philippines
per
per
sell
(Welded
of
- situation
is
Francis
an example
turbine).
in
plant
caused
distribution
cost),
which
hardly
($ 287).
Producing
of
437'500
kWh per year
per
2'800
kW capacity
4.7
- Agua Grande with
2'750
kW capacity
5.2.
30 kW capacity
5.3
itself
with
may demonstrate
a guarantee
much on the
- im-
for
which
cost
low
the
prices:
- Magat A & B with
example
a head of
hydropower
US-cents
so many variables
too
With
locally
100 kW, the
Installation
The third
of
price
is an amazingly
of close to 50 % - the selling
57)
Other
small
and micro-hydro
installations
in
kWh.
at higher
- Hasaan
whereas
at length.
Philippines,
kW (excluding
equipment
- and tariff
elaborated
in the
built
cost
prices
once more that
a low total
finally
element
investment
determine
of
the
a micro
the
capacity
and selling
economy
generating
of
equipment,
is
kWh
by no means
price.
There
a plant,that
are
relying
can be a misleading
yardstick.
The East-African
US + 13 and
power
18 in
European
electricity
to
cost
57)
cover
calculated
Loqking
1966,
mentioned
a not
producers
and depreciate
from
at
plants
data
investment
in:
cost,
Dumol,
it
so attractive
calculate
the
plant
Mini-Hydro
appears
within
Application,
that
capital
see
Integration
GmbH, Laufwasserenergie,
p 55
sold
offer
today
for.
58)
earlier,
at
rates
considering
per
kWh between
the
fact
with
a price of US d 3.5
58)
At US 4 2.0
10 years.
that
per kWh
per kWh
p 31
interest
and
depreciation
are
not
accounted
-126-
the depreciation
Back to
is
electricity
installed
kW in
(1979).
turn
small
It
60)
out
native
to
remember
standpoint.
getically
From this
angle,
and
tariff
is
not
keeping
public
that
of
unwanted
part
the
capital
a certain
moment of
amount
energy
investment
and low energy
energy
of
individual
The
90 % of total
consumption
An alternative
method
of
consumer
see
United
Nations,
60)
see
SAIA/UMN,
61)
see
Amann,
Rapport
Report
Energy
the
cost
At this
point,
from
often
of alter-
the
case
of
one should
a thermodynamic
example,
would
ener-
is
du Groupe
. . . . p 116 f.
company
the
has to
fact
has to charge
that
for
by
deliver
electrical
two services:
is
a typical
actual
supply
energy
per
period
of
tariff,
one part
For
of
for
hydropower
generation
as the
on the
to
. . . . p 19
this
assumption
the
moderate
number
is
that
metering
peak
demand.
simply
the
of .rooms
high
capacity
capacity
the
acthe
relatively
means high
requires
consumers
consumers,
with
this
induces
however
power-capacity,
the
plants
(no fuel-cost).,
tariff
correspond
Due to
be controlled
(which
by small
based
supply
can
ready
as well
is
power
equipment
cost
two-part
. . . . P 61
Supply
grid-electricity
as in
for
generated
supplier
thermal
energyiconsumption,
59)
transmission
lower
selection
production,
consumption.
charges,whereas
a domestic
per
countries
but
electricity
generation
and low running
charges.
of
an electricity
storeable,
for
unmeasurable.
sell
of US $ 5 per kWh is
developing
- if
Any electricity
utility
duty),
and for the
61)
There results
a two-part
count.
or
plants
high
kWh for
countries;
with
uses
accordingly.
at
per
plants
investment-cost
by the
in
energy-source
cooking
higher
a price
US $ 8.4
higher,
are
micro-hydro
offset
county,
industrialised
which
of
kWh-prices
even
that
hydropower
undertaking.
thus
energy
energy
high
costs
case
Xinhui
on small
said
by far
and
are
question
the
electrical
other
often
be a luxurious
shaping
in
the
Uneconomical
is
the
is
in
plants;
true
than
experience
It
stations
certainly
intangible
of
available.
larger
hydel
sources
20 years.
a lot
plant&this
59)
For
be higher
wood - have
for
is
energy
simply
small
plants.
for
is
than
larger
indicated
with
evidence
cheaper
of
over
- a country
China
- more comforting
costs
stretched
and
of
If
the
upto
too expensive.
power
or
requirements
bulbs
etc.
he
127-
possesses.
The tariff
room or
per
is
called
in
a very
electrical
the
flat-rate
the
However
of
electrical
the
the
utilised
fore
aspect
in
angle:
for
per
the
largest
to
interested
in
a consumption-inducing
also
Another,
price
the
first
- the
next
- all
additional
2'000
can also
uneven
capacity
use.
examplify:
see
will
The
China-Tour,
Report
structure
is
that
it
induces
instead
be looked
flat-
turned
off,
the
same.
consumers
to
saving
energy.
at from
another
generating
equipment
supplier
The flat-rate
of
the
cases
of
energy
L though
on,
both
and thus
rate,
at 10 US Q per
at 6 US # per
load
factor
is
tariff
is
is
therein
fact
load-improving
method
average
per
is
to
e.g.:
kWh
both
should
different
high
rated
river"
measures
the
the
tariff
use-value
power
for
is
whereas
reasons
plant
in
price
thus
larger
unit
flattening
of
out
consumers.
of the social
untility-
attached,
expressing
the users'
62) For example,
by electricity.
rendered
use-value,
tariff,
favour
be mentioned:
lower
the
an off-peak
services
. . . . p 60
kWh.
and lowers
with
use a different
a
"Mei
switched
in
when the
factor.
cost
is
The electric
load
fact
when it
should
decrease,
at a decreasing
However,
the
be
course
aspect
tariff
be combined
method
receives
machinery
62)
of
is
consumption;
of
extent.
a high
the
This
lighting
possible
units
To every
device
part
in
The method
at 8 U d per kwH
increases
appreciation
this
kWh can only
units
energy.
principle.
two
The rate
is
does
per
tariff.
1'000
a fourth
the
charge
necessary.
tariff
on as much as possible,
hydropower,
in blocks
- the
Finally,
rate
flat
This
energy
the
consumption-inducing
supply
The method
pays for
anymoiz
electric
installed.
having
not
account
capacity
of
price
into
when the
devices
case
is
installed.
take
consumer
pays
The negative
per unit
supplier:
to the
a maximum-demand equivalent
then
Metering
- also
way
energy
charged
have
rate
simple
is
device.
flat
the
an electric
r&e
applied
the
of
China
energy-input
its
productivity.
charges
the
into
workshop
To
following
further
rates:
-128-
type
-US 6 per
of consumer
- Industry
1.2
- Domestic
2.1
- Irrigation
ferently.
It
-
dustry
is
looks
in the
the
socially
tariff
helps
per
to
But
end-uses.
c) Experience
with
one looks
which
This
is
sites
of
costs,
the
most
crucial
63)
see
China-Tour,
64)
see
SATA/UMB,
precisely
in-
revenues,
and
second-most,
revenue
but
will
hardly
anything
be generated
is
in
agri-
6'500.-.
Report
Report
will
energy
the
be given
factor
in consumption
and
and the
by di fferentiating
wil 1 have
tariff
here
specifically
state
whereas
potential
problem
subsidies
of
of this
consumer
209'000
country
because
however,
main
of
Very
. . . . p 60
P 55
10 kV,
similar
transformation
. ..)
load
the
to
provide
focusing
and
on
foreign-
points
MW - 14 % of it
seems to be solved.
the
are
distances
enourmously
from
long.
the
And
of H.T.-lines.
64)
including
the
the
Costs and Benefits
an illusion
to
costs
like
costs,
all,
hydroenergy
a transmission-line
7 km length,
since
surplus
dif-
quantified.
- the
only
implied
to
partner,
and off-peaks
in
factor,
Brasilian
hydropotential
$ 5'500.-
weight
organisation.
External
further
optimism
Considering
utility
attain
generating
all
some data
are not
utilised
so are the
to
social
many things
peaks
the
producing
Tangible
at the
"global"
enabled
surplus
kWh, the
of
costs
solvent
determining
distribution
IER to the
If
(though
wanted
as
the
domestic-sector
price
H.T.-grids
puts
most
- is
the
63)
tariff
an acceptable
exchange
as the
average
external
China
place).
the
according
As to
in
electricity
most,
first
plant
industry
and pumping
Consequently,
thus
at
charged
irrigation
culture
power
by means of
therefore
for
0.6
and pumping
The "Gu Don Mountain"
kWh
the
costs
to
Chinese
are
6 kV in
indicate
budgeted
Nepal,
with
for
cost
per
km of
a H.T.-line
$ 6'250.-
of
per
km
-129-
The World
(1977) Jj5)
25 km to
to
an isolated
$ 4'000
per
$ 6'000.-
per
$ 8'430.-
per
7'000
$/km.
main grid
km.
In
is
serving
costs
generation,
grid.
The crucial
of
the
ferent
are
is
At
are too expensive
at $ 7'000.hydro
thus
either
per
is
from
nically
to run
range.
as it
into
When the
to
compared
65)
see
Meier
et
66)
see
World
Bank,
*
8.3
T.Shs.
67)
see
Hassanali,
68)
see
World
the
in
is
from
that
since
its
public
transformation
radius
if
is
the
grid,
since
its
the
load-factor
given
for
remote
from
the
are
- L.T.
internal
with
al.,
remote
are
tech-
at the most.
micro-hydro
tends
the
uplift
cost
of
of
external
Salleri/Chialsa
Rural
Electrification,
the
village
expanding
cost
of
has increased
also
micro-hydro
integrating
energy-consumption,
generation,
the
will
village
into
...
p 19
= 1 $
Bank,
Micro-
too
lines
the
networks
grid.
not
some kilometers
dif-
from
so expensive
and H.T.-lines,
nearest
of
supplies
consumers
of
of microthe
extend
- as shown earlier
small
those
utilisation
public
local
L.T.-line.
from
where .unit-cost
extravagant-to
the
was assumed
local
than
unit-cost,
utilisation,
from
grid
distance
the
approx.
- an installed
the
the
approx.
supplies
to the
higher
demands in areas
a relatively
to
78,
of
provided
plant,
supply
fig.
level
it
on the
a decreasing
in
from
is
therefore
lighting
link
the
this:
amounting
costs.
socio-economic
be
public
link
above-mentioned
- is
are much higher
depending
is
the
public
supplies
grid
is
result
a low
power
high
marginal
off
off,
comes
the
course
because
better
the
and
thus
a 33 kV line
small -hydra
the
km, to meet small
restricted
As soon
of
illustrated
situations.
for
to
of today
public
however,
costs
This
close
price
consumers
from
better
transmission
increases.
supplies
$ 100'000,
a compari son between
68)
local
point
energy-project,
it
of 33 kV as subtransmission
but
hydro
around
a subtransmission
- at costs
of 80 kW was considered,and
The capital
grid
in the
stations.
to be of medium-voltage
fixed
average
been done of
-
extending
bring
a typical
only
and micro-hydro
capacity
will
Tanzania*
valid
have
micro-hydro
1975 that
may cost
Inflation
km. 67) A rough
This
in
demand point,
66)
km.
Some analyses
For
Bank stated
Exploiting
Rural
Mini-Hydro
Electrification,
Plants
.... p 3
p 18 - 2 and the
table
in
fig.
78 of
this
report
have
the
to
main
-130-
grid.
up
Again
to
the
its
Chinese
capacity-maximum
demand by public
Fig.
have even
applied
(maximising
supplies
from
World
Bank,
Electrification,
hydra
basis
of
0
micro-
project
data
remarks
revenues
rise
into
be added
depends
production,
and possible
peak-
from Grid
Micro-Hydra
29 km
4 km
10
18
40
21
25
7
17
11
50
4
8
5
subsidies
for
plant.
be activated
in
on
kerosene
turn
But
it
of
might
country,
etc.
It
affected
by implementing
Imicro-hydro
Most
the
civil
will
for
30 - 50 % of the
counting
tendency
As to
the
of
especial?y
importing
mechanical
has been elaborated
d) Experience
As indicated
problem
employment,
will
comprehensive
the
cost.
cement
steel,
and electrical
in chapter
with
Intangible
earlier
this
be
demonstrated
description.
subsi,dies
be that
bill,
which
Product
diver-
for
Similarly,
conceivable
depreciation
increase,
build-up
on the
higher
is
subsidies
local
by the
here.
it
Whether
of
innovation-
trade-balance
could
but
of
the
substantially
be
plants.
be entrusted
total
industrial.
into
expenditures
import
generated
case to case;
as well
less
local
benefits.
be generalised
accounting,through
more
work
or
cannot
will
external
revenues
agricultural
decreases
centres,
of
surplus
at from
terms
is
tangible
the
must be looked
imported
a micro-hydro
to
be it
price
of subsidies
question
that
should
will
input
sification
the
hydra
Nepal
energy
can
small
and supplementing
Supplies
Load Factor
are calculated
Some brief
of
factor)
using
grids.
Rural
p 21,
figures
on the
the
load
by
78:
Source:
tax
the
regional
Average Costs of Different
Schemes, US $ per kWh
from
a combination,
to
local
engineering
One has of course
etc.
to
firms
safeguard
used in too elaborate
components,
what
is
thus
possible
ac-
against
construction.
by local
means
D at length.
Costs and Benefits
third-level
by
assessment
means
of
few
is
the most difficult
examples
without
one:
aiming
The
at
a
-131-
Measuring
a cost
the
which
instable
The
climatic
charge
is
interruptions
and
working
planning
with
rather
Certainly
one does
energy-source
heats
light
in
life,
the
insist
have
flies
for
irrigation
ing
and milling,
first
steps
counts
are
electrical
appliances
do not
in
fodder
towards
not
a small
for
see
Smil,
70)
see
SVMT/LAI,
the
China’s
Solar
drive
Energy,
cookers,
first
but
towards
so much
primary
oil
extraction,
external
above
"being
all
able
remote,
benefits
do
and
KrayenbUhl,
Small
A fire
fire
offers
for
power
sawing
social
70)
the
available
as grain
etc.,
- the
something"
tresh-
truly
the
. . . . p 18
What
revenues)
of
motivations,
against
im-
thrust
communities.
(surplus
Hyde1
houses
functions.
such
poor
- intangibly
a new
in
center
p 31 f.
p 14 f.,
of
the development
tasks
timber
to
the
makes suddenly
processing
- such
do not,
these
all
in
experts
one has to evaluate
electrification,
that
But
open fires
less;
for
in
some dis-
impacts
a natural
place
community
can consist
so dramatic.
appliances
substitute
modernisation
tangible
activities,
and the
69)
crushing,
sensible
only
the
of rural
and drainage,
above-mentioned
attitude
electrical
provides
stations.
of flow
not
smoke from
dis-
on minimum-flow
based
are:
and
in
is
a
incapacitate
a village.
Examples
and evenings
can be generated
of
some socio-cultural
does
water
stations,causing
harm done is
cooker
plant.
reliability
can
cost
consider
an electrical
have
of
power
China
capacity
the
occur,
and insects;
benefit-side
large
at optimum-utilisation
mornings
intangible
of
life
if
aiming
to
of
the
general
an intangible
economic
-
once
the
one
power
zones
the hydro-potential
costs
areas
small
that
capacity
mense "mobilisation-effect"
which
the
electricity.
from
the
can be
to a hydropower
In China
than
from
and when they
a house,
whereas
On the
to
also
like
inmates
also
problems
plant
are seldom
projects
supply
a power
incidents
lower
trick
tangible
year.
10 - 40 years
and subtropical
assessed
very
a dry
energy
micro-plants
than
into
in
over
a costly
plaguing
large
69)
Therefore
rapidly.
of
play
correctly
rated
periodically
quite
can
turn
is
a river
The tropical
having
lower
plants
stations
order
not
substantially
droughts
small
which
of
of
considered.
suddendly
micro-hydro
Severe
really
cost
site,will
discharge
features
intangible
the
long-term
nobody
chosen
of
very
the
the
poverty.
-132-
3. MICRO-HYDRO PLANTS AND ALTERNATIVE ENERGIES
a) General
Remarks
The following
criteria
this
sections
the
system
will
tangibles
A fist
rough
tives
be more
on costs
by,other
is
Generator
of
eclectical
than
capacity
basical
energies
approach.
installed
in
of
in fig.
relative
F2.
again
per
the
applicatian
The evaluation
and user-prices
costs
(cost-relation)
of
will
kWh, surrounded
among energy
US 1 per
local
alterna-
Power-Costs
Fuel-Costs
Investment-Costs*
range
the
Yowever,
section
using
79.
Type
- micro
ly
and intangibles.
impression
given
ive
alternat
multilevel-cost-benefit
of
concentrate
compare
US 6 per
kWh
kWh
technology
Diesel
- small,
light
oil
fuel
Steam
5,2**'
- coal-fired
- oil-fired
- wood-fired
5'000-
15'000
none
30 - 100
2O'ooo-
3O'aoa
none
100 - 300
Wind Generator**
Solar
Fig.
Photovoltaic**
79:
Comparative
Source:
*
+I+
World
including
Costs
hydropower
on a base
of
Bank,
Energy
costs
of
intermittent
investment
u+*
-
are
of
the
sources
given
plants
load
in
include
assumed
'11000
hours
Generation
from
various
Fuels
in
1980 $
. . . . p 43
transmission
energy
cost
Electricity
and distribution
requiring
storage
to
operate
per
year.
storage
to
make energy
available
on demand
at
all
per
coal-units
costs.
at
a load
factor
of
5'000
hours
year,
times;
:
-133-
*/
I
The diesel-powered
creasing
fuel-cost&thus
fired
steam
attractive
for
coal
(80
per
kWh of
for
sections
in
cost
oil-fired
out
will
of
have
only
the
seem to eliminate
individually,
b) Oil
also
%) than
following
relative
and the
falling
engine
cost
conversion
The
generator
face
hydropower
relation
deal
to
in
from
station
for
very
both
the
price
in
depend
long
run.
beside
a load
factor
on in-
The coalthis,
the
40 % higher
(57 X1. Wood, wind
and solar
reasons.
briefly
hydro-power,
engine
price-increases;
US$ stems
themselves
will
competition
to
5.2
steam
with
order
alternative
to
check
energy-sources
the
so far
outlined
situation.
fuels
From
"model-calculation"
a
other
for
diesel-electric,the
two
40 kW-plants,
cost-functions
one
hydro-electric
as shown in fig.
and the
80 have been derived.
2
‘1
Fig.
80:
Total
Operating
for 40 kW Diesel
Source:
The
Wright,
key
costs
Cost and Unit Cost
and Hydro-Electric
Micro-Hydro
suming
point.
tion-costs
and above
As to
high
investment
especially
since
because
all
of
diesel,
transmission-costs
Capacity/Utilisation
Installations
characteristics
as the
against
Power Generated
Installations
the
of
because
a diesel-set
of
fuel
are:
the
shorter
costs.
hydropower
much
can be put
operation-costs:
a three-times
variable
costs
higher
right
diesel
civil-work
in
the
as much
costs
centre
has much higher
lifespan,
The main
has twice
results
higher
of a condeprecia-
maintenance
of the
and
comparison
costs,
are:
-134-
total
operation
tion,but
costs
example
fication
from
the
supposed
to
capacity
amounts
equivalent
of
about
2,3
million
costs
fo
$ 35.-
80.5
capital
per
8,
interest
7.7
cases,
or
sized
barrel
at
of
5.3
oil
Q/kW for
the
The National
with
1'276
a total
Electricapacity
kW. The total
On average,
capacity
generating
be installed
which
would
5000 hours
per
equivalent,
yearly
fuel
would
in
addition
to
maintenance
plant
compares
power
plant
to
costs
2,4
5.2
year.
Q** per
and other
costs
q/kWh***
for
is
consume
use of
kWh,
is
1 kW installed
to
plant,
of
cost
a capacity
Excluding
thermal
of
utilisa-
as expensive.
stations
generating
Q US per
and depreciation.
10 % capacity
instructive.
thus
thermal
oil
twice
$ 533 million.
The total
of
or
also
capacity
at about
is
239 hydropower
$ 1'748.
barrels
million
is
pesos*
a medium
systems
diesel
an average
be 4 billion
to
the
Philippines
plans
71)
1987,
for
utilisation,
Administration
305 MW until
to
equal
at 40 % capacity
Another
the
are
At
amount
kWh for
in both
the
hydro-
power plants.
The advantage
required
Future
of
is
such
lower
costs
by 289 million
of fuel,amounting
as explained
in
10 % interest,
section
fuel
in today's-value
in
the
case
of
plants
price,
the
shorter
saved
over
71)
see
3umo1,
over
thermal
life
Mini
15 % on 244 million
$,
I-*+
15 % on 533
$ capital
-
Calculation:
Where:
si xth
get
equal
the
the
a true
picture.
to
of
the
today's
all
of
in
factors,
million
C+(l+O.l
C = yearly
million
fuel
costs
)*+...
at
$.
today’s-value
759 million
= today's
value
of
future
289
= today's
value
of
difference
million
= 759 million’
c+( l+O. 1 q”
fuel
cost
in
investment
of the
total
the
fuel
amount
to
investment
$
plants,
of
money - when compared
kW
$ = 470 million
the
case
fuel
to
. . . p 34 f.
)l+C+(l+O.l
$ - 289
the
for
amounts
same period.****
$ 800 per
assuming
$, expressed
increases
= 1 US $
e.g.
Thus,
money spent
hydropower
value
alternative.
305 million
possible
and other
capital
have to be discounted
a net-saving
here
initial
hydropower
onwards,
to
plant,
in
to the
amount
year
30 years
again
Application
+J+
million
will
of
over
7.5
759
5 years
a thermal
expressed
*
Pesos
to
be that
$ per year,
Not consi dering
period
Hydro
million
plant,is
of
operation
would
compared
114 f.),
From the
life
$ -
plant
(p
envisaged.
the
470 million
Fl
costs
the
$,when
to 80.5
of.money.
hydropower
thermal
a thermal
"135"
It
remains
to
tangible
be said
benefits
diesel-sets
a lot
teria
not
ranging
provide
like
that
of
inherent
from
local
unless
to
installations
It
diesel.
$ 600 to 850 per
employment
environment,
favourable,
micro-hydro
have many external
starts
kW. Hydropower
and improvement
maintenance,
there
is no water.
between
hydropower
with
the
plants
import
etc.
the
costs
in contrast
of human capital.
lifespan
and inof
will
By any cri-
hydropower
plant
is
c) Wood and Dung
Cost
comparisons
much sense.
Difficulties
countries
others
per
really
buy
the
wood at
cut
capita.
Those
wood crisis
that
company
can
of
one can
for
to
the
there
A similar
problem
their
to
cooking
this
- even
the
is
preserved
forests
of
fuelwood
if
to
of
dung
wood
and dung
tonnes/year
the
For Nepal
on the
campaign
fuel-
it
is
other
in-
supply
hand,
does
The world-
of conservation
of wood
But
as long
as wood is
the
cutting
of
1 billion
now being
of
energy
kWh were
are
0,6
All
free
wood are i,n-
energy-forests.
tons
per
up to
an alternative.
over
Up to
dung.
an example.72)
1 US B. No electric
no longer
plant
hydro-electric
price
than
as controls
some 2 million
its
less
supplies.
in developing
are - despite
hydroplants.
an immediate
with
which
from
is
people
people
burned
nitrogen
annually,
it
to
a fraction
of
better
fuel
is believed
and phosphorous.
can compete
an economically
use
731 The
economically
with
wood
a US cent
- nor
does
solution
than
hydro-
power.
In
wood,
for
The amount
neither
prices
of
The comparison,
wood simply
posed
to
at
and do not make
% is
quantities
for
price.
and as long
fires,
mean that
electric
1 kWhth
of
village.4
kWh-charges
calls
is
it
are difficult
a minority
cost,at
are few incentives
is that
and dung
because
only
Indian
get
this
planting
be equivalent
problem
than
with
user,
effective,
an
no private
rate
a massive
cost
for
acquire
compete
deforestation
and
because
who buy wood,
make much sense
wide
wood;
- much lower
dicated
not
arise
and wood/dung
overall
it
context,
are feasible
appears
could
72)
see
Reddy,
73)
see
World
only
that
The Design
Bank,
Energy
propositions
-
justify
in
this.
of
processes
most
The
. . . . p 15
. . . . p 38
in
and,
regions
latter,
which
in the
of
the
fertiliser-value
of
case of power generation
the
world
however,
have
- only
long
planned
gestation
dung
from
energyperiods,
I
-136-
and there
seems not
ison
hydropower.
with
to
be any experience
available
that
would
permit
a compar-
d) Biogas
Biogas
use
will
be evaluated
energy-source
tric-energy
For
first
costs
to hydro-electric
Source:
French,
Energy
. . . with
ments
Costs
Biogas
a typical
Cost-Base
plant
375.--
capital
6 supplements
economy
biogas
size
family
Item
of
biogas
conversion
biogas
fig.
plant
in
estimated
lifeperiod:
+I+ The plant
daily.
needs
It
new
is
labour
unload
I2
daily
of
annual
labcur
per
day
the
dung
is
needed
to
slurry.
Annual
that
much of
the
labour
is
taken
into
account.
tangible
Of gas,
five
to
six
heating.
internal
.benefits
enough
to meet the
people.
annual
production
Technical
rience
shut-downs
shows
"load-factor"
that
is
water
each;
time
labour
costs
amount
daily
basic
be used
for
to
approx.
70 f.
See
will
also
decrease
technicslly
French,
from
for
Renewable
system,
the
per
plant
but
Energy,
hardly
to
p 23.
and to
case.
of
the
production
family
cooking
of
of
and
day or 19.5
of US # 2.6
so easy
still
Indian
half
a daily
the
gas-production
not
fuels,
the
80 % for
kcal
rate'of
is
be removed
needs of an Indian
16'800
kWh at a price
must
other
members,
home lighting,
to 5'000
plant
$ 114.--
by family
energ,y
amounts
biogas
slurry
collect
and maintain
to
result
a capacity
break-downs
of
to
feed
be provided
plant
corresponds
pounds
spent
to
water,
will
the
350
formerly
Assuming
or
+*
28115
basis.
a family
57.--
12150
gather
labour
of
20 % will
The gas production
day on a calorific
and
the
fact
cost
l
cost
(15 %I
deducting
the
3
74)
of
after
Considering
The
and distribute
31,25
cost
years
that
4 hours
is
128,90
175 pounds
assumed
India
operating
investment
Total
*
elec-
81.
of plant
cost
as end-
into
Annual
total
114.--
Of
Maintenance
own adjust-
the
are shown in
feeding/removing
plant
Renewable
the
energy.
of such a plant
81:
Total Operating
of Family-Size
Plant
firstly,
steps:
and secondly,
consideration,
Operating
Fig.
two
analysed,
is compared
the
taken.
is
in
run
kWh per
74) total
of 70 %
per
kWh.
labour
and
that
costs.
in
India
Expethe
Formerly
is
used energy
said
to
here
for
tion
of
the
creased.
is
intangible
when
etc.).
reduced
there
are more
But
dung
from
3 -
plant
higher
important
than
About
second
use of the
The second
step
hydro
electricity.
shown
in
would
benefit
here
because
unit
costs
compared
cost
is
to
of
to
electrical
the
of
is
a severe
of
of
with
are 4 to 8 times
possible
to
plant
produced
annual
still
cost
be close
is
the
power
that
installations
high
costs
of
of
doubled
the
biogas
must
Biogas
properties.
cooking,
but
when it
the
be used for
biogas
it
will
operation.
(no
micro-
biogas
are
plant
considered
biogas
is
with
unit,
no economic
energy
is
an
kWh of biogas),
2'136
kWh of electric
half
($ 97.501,the
which
thermodynami-
power.
tasks
is
more
be difficult
comes to mechanical
plant
a small
were
as a rule
already
dung
Nevertheless,
100 % (7'120
those
plants.
with
been
hydro-electric
equipment
very
A larger
there
(30 %,giving
conversion
not
for
to US 4 11 per kWh of electric
biogas
for
practically
the
a
regions.
energy
plants.
that
at
by the
with
from
higher
when
one of
in dry
has
many
having
be mixed
but
state
this
required
as a basis.
large
needs daily
hydropower
electric
scale
biogas
where
is
constraint
plant
biogas,
rate
81
rate
have
of
to
into
from
the
in-
in fig.
plant
electricity-generation
experience
is
This
plant,
energy
Even if
is
activities,
operation
per
economies
that
electric
up-
utilisation
of labour
plant.
same family-size
it
quickly
rate
cattle-owners
biogas
converted
costs
limited
protcc-
costs
the
alternative
of
micro-hydro
labour
costs
of
pronounced
is
capacity
plants'
amount
-
The conclusion
match
Indian
micro-hydro
and the
would
Firstly:
accounting
increases,
when labour
to consider.
is possible),
the
not
economy
the
and the
daily
of electricity,
and
substantial
compare biogas
very
biogas
price
per year
water
taking
the
labour-extensive
of
water
82,
conversion
cally
liters
from
alternative.
power)
the
oil
be reached
50 % of
very
Projected
fig.
feasibility
the
80
than
operation
of
future
amount
85 %.
as opportunity
the
calorific
uneconomical,
differently
costs
the
a comparable
biogas
that
can thus
less
advantages
Thirdly:
valued
intangible
be seen
return
argue
by 30 % to $ 40.-
4 cows;
of
(evitating
point
Secondly:
should
the
70 % to approx.
heads of cattle.
.
is
The break-even
from
rendering
One might
work
increased
coal)
benefits
family
further
(kerosene,
thus
$ 90.-,
forests
lifted
are
cost
sources
power,
Finally,
economical
than
to compete
with
because
biogas
of the
is
very
completely
-138-
Total
annual
biogas
at a capacity
rate
5'000
production
kWhth
of 70 8
(256 days x 3 m3 x 6.5 kWh)
Fig.
Conversion
82:
into
electric
(16 % efficiency
Cost-Comparison
of Electric
Power from Biogas versus
Micro-Hydropower
Annual
costs
800 kWh,
power
75))
of electric
power
from biogas:
- cost
of biogas
- cost
of conversion
$ 126.90
production
Cost per kWh of electric
S 324.--
0 195.--
equipment*
power
m
us q! 40.--
power
w
us g! 5-10
from biogas
Cost per kWh of
electric
from micro-hyaro
* annual
operating
Annual
Investment
cost:
operation
$
33
(lifespan
6 years)
$ 400.--
$
67
(lifespan
S years)
Maintenance
$
50
$
45
Engine
$ 200.--
Generator
Capital
(1
costs
kW)
(15
%7
$ 195
total
out
of
biogas
the
advantages
oriented
possess
costs
acceptable
toward
the
very
majority
necessary
cattle.
much because
quantities
The overall
outlook
see
Smil,
76)
see
French,
China’s
Energy,
further
of
Community
of water,
skilled
biogas
therefore,
p 106
Energy,
p 29
.
power supply
when one applies
a village
of management,
for
Renewable
when electric
dwindle
the
of enormous
75)
cost-range
still
cost
since
on the
gas distribution
tecilnicians
is ,rather
The few
a development
population,
plants
is desired.
other
only
hand will
networks,
to run
bleak
few
a large
in rural
concept
people
increase
transportation
plant
etc.
electrifica-
76)
-139-
tion.
e) Liquefied
Biomass
The production
of
methanol
micro-hydropower
The
tural-gas.
equivalent,
of
because
the
experts
very
are
the
of
in
large
Brasil
trast
to the
f 1 Solar
Along
with
.77)
78)
ethanol
It
to
natural
gas feedstock
the
the
is
nowadays
at
or
forests
and na-
barrel
of
oil
and the
of
alcohol
size
in
the
about
5'000
- 6'000
is
being
which
the
food
of countries,
grain
hectars
price
of
solution
have large
from
costs
substantially
be a partial
ethanol
for
a day),
ethanol
and Mali
relevant:
suitable
which
of
most
substitute;
equivalent
For the majority
is
costly
cost-factor
the
Kenya
production.
land
oil
per
a too
oil
decisive
might
unit-cost
45.-
production
(350 barrels
reserves)
sugar
than
hydropower,
energy
solar
the
for
surplus
however
sugarcane
production,
can grow on non-agricultural
radiation
can
the
Thus,
expensive.
World
Bank,
see
Smil,
China's
energy
use of
provide
an
1970 total
to the
see
direct
The potentials
sources.
many technical
very
land
fuel-wood
MWh - is equal
78)
ern China.
it
$ 25.-
is
the
feedstock.
residual
for
biomass.
designed
good agricultural
m2 annually.
Yet
naphta,
substitute
plantain con-
land.
and Wind Power
renewable
The
are
existing
problem
needs
that
kerosene,with
large
from
tions
from
agree
of
other
(having
another
the
as potential
of
that
or
molasses
of
is
and require
$ 10 - 20 million
77)
Today, the unit
cost
annually.
than
sugarcane
from
Of more interest
plants
range
sugarcane
higher
price
here
basis
ranges
(ethyl-alcohol)
Economically,
considered
production
on the
plant.
form of ethanol
not
price
depending
though
the
end-user
production
is
solar
flux
Irregular
flow
Energy,
Developing
p 110
flow
up
solar
energy
of
radiation
to
by less
(seasonal
for
1.6
of
conversion
p 37 ff.
are
at least
generation
annually
Countries,
power
impressing,
energy
received
of
the
are
electricity
obstacles
in
sun and wind
data
two more truly
theoretically.
million
China
kcal
per
- 60 million
than
40 km2 of north-
into
electricity
and random
on Methanol
and
make
fluctua-
Ethanol
140-
tions)
and its
plication
which
unlikely
within
convert
solar
quickly,
the
still
remain
-
low-lift,
farm-irrigation,
electrification
are
the
advantage
power;
load
factor
of
small
potential,
likely
to
tion,
the
Wind energy
central
feasibility
of
With
energy
seems to
over
be
will
can play
of
development,
other
concluded
not
a very
networks
than
all
the
significant
providing
future
many cases.
problem
of
mechanical
and electrical
energy-systems
employment
of
power
for
and village
to
micro-hydro-
proportion
is
to
again.
batteries
heating,
are
desalinamore viable.
However
hydropower
the
than
capacity
the
no hydro-
The economically
considerations,
in conjunction
local
Solar
it
is
very
economic
the
solar
still
in-
installation.
role
inducing
all
are economically
tc
come down
above
there
water
order
-
storage
kW installed
these
energy
where
like
be closer
per
in
without
arises
a micro-hydro
from
solve
alternatives,
prejudicing
$ 5'000
will
compared
areas
uses
in
on the
pumping
moreover,
equipment,
seasonality
wind
It
it
solar
(batteries),
more expensive
generation
simple
storage
of
range
systems
Other
costs
price
supply
ap-
photovoltaic
equipment
water
in
commercial
from
cost-factor.
economic
pumping
of
disputably
might
village
the
the
complementary
Nonetheless,
has a marked
a cost
that
important
possibility.
with
electricity,
becomes greater,
hydro-plant.
drying
problem
option.
hydro
into
that
a wide
Electricity
forecasts
a very
photovoltaic
also
directly
of
surfacemake
century.
fact
out
become a sound
and crop
this
for
simply
of
the
published
conceal
battery-systems
small
reaching
energy
kWh. The widely
$ 2 per
rather
I
before
very
cells,
of
diffusion
a larger
that
developing
micro-hydropower
countries,
but
de-centralised
with
power
at
patterns
lower
prices
and technical
activities
type,
local
to which
that
than
without
distribution
can be linked.
G. ASPECTSOF TECHNOLOGY
TRANSFERAND DISSEMINATION
Technology
from
on
for
the
an increasing
different
scales
measures
are
* refer
annexe
to
required
IV for
development
number
of
of
small
sources*
magnitude.
from
a list
of
the
of
user's
organisations
hydropower
covering
For
is
different
effective
end
(country,
pith
activities
available
approaches,
implementation,
region),
in
this
field.
which
for
transfer
and based
a number
of
were so far
141-
very
often
lacking.
technology
sured,
has
this
been
has not
Small
hydropower
without
definite
the
That
present
is
is
so,
corroborated
around
for
a long
led
the
application
to
development
has
objectives
situation
apparently
this
but
time,
of
so far
in
even
the
mostly
on a nationwide
by the
fact
where
done
relevant
finances
technology
been
that
were
as-
on a wide
scale.
on an ad-hoc
basis,
scale.
Concluding
from analyses
of
79)
some of the ingredients
lacking
a number of regions,
are:
- Clear policies
pertaining
to water rights,
licencing
procedures,
rural
electrification
and small hydropower
in particular,
and also the use of energy
for productive
applications.
institutional
development
- A practical
hydropower
in
all
framework
geared
its aspects.
budget
allocations
development
plans.
the
magnitude
resulting
- Knowledge of the general
and specific
one hand and energy demand on the other,
- Trained
manpower,
ments in overall
to
requirements
of
of available
from above.
and formulation
All
as a result
small
resources
on
of
of
specific
preceding
requirepoints.
at
present
is
1. POLICIES AND INSTITUTIONS
Concerning
hydropower
one of central
towards
the
practice
small
of
(state)
adopted
schemes
dealing
on all
levels
is
evident.
control
perhaps
less
kWh produced
interest.
A fundamental
can
local
and
degree
of state
For
to
lowest
or
79)
possible
even
on the
refer
to:
OLAOE,
report,
Regional
Manila
1980
framework
the
is
may be considered
in
the
large
not
other
only
hand,
it
appears
may be on the
level.
level
The
it
People's
where an appropriate
SHPS Program
....
Quito
1980
needs in a wider
the
national
small
under
which
interest
drainage-area
UNIOO,
of
exists.
report,
of
A
of all.
be delegated
Republic
a time
encouraged.
is
i,n the
policy
and
at
be in
but
should
of the
a loss
No doubt,
dissemination
necessary
that
addition,
of
situation
permitted
is
danger
an open policy,
of
in
necessary.
to
scale
formulation
is
village
ones,
a monopoly
by the
once more as an example
UNIDO,
A legal
a promotive
Where,
of
on the
This
initiatives.
still
are geared
and not
continuation
and fair,
level.
restrictive
water-resource
initiative
control;
procedures
all
constraint
be effective
perhaps
quoted
individual
a very
same way as large
hydropower,
be removed
and licencing
and coordinate
the
by
common state
development
the
and
hydropower,
with
in
be to
most
with
treated
when each
it
monopoly,
are
aim should
context,
in
the
Water rights
control.
end of a state
interest
its
development,
to the
concerned,
China
may be
One may first
Kathmandu
1979
and
-142-
note
the
overall
ments
in
parallel
the
maxim of
to
large-scale
ious
the
of
responsible
to
the
task
small
is
the
The
level.
to
smallest
than
added that
tion
the
local
ning,
directly
ment
may require
would
The
in
bodies
most
without
the
Besides
of
requiring
relates
-
are
plans
is
clear
that
size,
loss
of central
An
governmental,
development,
basically
two
projects,
be it
another
81)
see
also
Report
SATA/lJMN,
hydra,
on Study
p 4 f.
tour,
on which
the
with
hydropower
copy
may be
formulapromotes
central
plan-
because
central
social
all
governstructures
development.
the
projects
on the
It
based on con-
is
different
there
important
and at what
The first
there
the
projects
For the
needs
with
is
for
80)
population,
to
(as
and thus
their
rural
that
policies,
Chinese
It
system.
and decision-making
lowest
possible
level,
of
or
source
p 35 (this
of
report
that
which
require
common to
isolated
is
available
which
- should
and for
problems
is
is
private
level
group
are a number of other
question
communal
groups
assists,
and
and province
level
communes.
while
stations
coordination.
and organisational
guidelines.
county
define
Its
of the
communes
by the
impractical
authority
the
projects."
deal
much rather
overall
institutions.
SATA/UMN,
or
and the
of
is
stations.
county
larger
the
Conservancy
isolated
at
var-
may show:
and integration
plans
countries
to
be impossible
is
of
citation
of
data-base
the
organisation
in
be it'
part
for
side,
hydropower
at
develop-
responsible
Water
planning
waterbureau
needs
other
from
small
and thus,
form
propriate
80)
the
together
of
for
is taken
county
to
Farmland
approved
level
settlements
related
legal
hydropower
There
the
following
of
year
are
province
details,
be learned
clear
agencies
which
policy
equipment
the.5
in projects
cases
to
are
on
small
implementation
interconnection
required
step
a different
point
based
individual
development
81.)
acts.
It
the
the
The communes on their
with
local
the
kW and at
initiatives.
this
of
unit),
first
sultations
in
is
and technical
Bureau
optimal
production
500
the
stresses
been the
and construction
guarantee
administrative
smaller
which
countrywide
that
On the
concerned
coordinate
planning
has
achieved.
level,
planning
to
stations,
promote
are
legs",
This
already
government
for
on two
schemes.
government
central
specific
large
dissemination
levels
"At
"walking
all
power
from
institutions
best
specific
the
rural
supply,
SKAT)
areas
or
be involved
aspect.
attention
of
ap-
electrification
or
extensions
143-
from
The
a grid-system.
power
development
which
the
basic
institutional
the
first
problem
lems
in
their
second
will
group.
with
here,
of
require
problems
concerns
organisational
structure
that
Bank gives
"Rural
Electrification".
hydro-specific
specifically
involvement,in
usually
The World
publication
been adapted
group
addition
already
exists
to
an outline
82)
of
institutional
elements
hydro-
take
Material
to
care
of
prob-
therefrom
has
added.
a) Tasks and Responsibilities
The interdependence
the
success
program's
includes
level
of
the
institutional
to
a more
other
it
is
sible
them - that
The diversity
special
the
institutional
levels
the
areas.
partly
the
Where the
exists
the
country
for
arrangements
at
allocation
the
public
coordination
between
irrigation,
agro-industries,
roads,
schools,
is
E!leCtriCity
82)
World
Bank,
Rural
to
elements
locality.
At
or
however
Analysis
in
local
of trained
inappropriate
of
terms
bad
suc-
institutions,
In discussing
of who is
electrification
levels
of
agencies,
changes
from
rural
take
in related
and health.
administration:
this
respon-
p 60 ff.
these
three
of
the
how they
are
sometimes
tasks.
levels
The table
allocated,
case to case.
sectors,
by
at
administration
nature
an active
rural
requires
namely,
local
and the
development
In addition,
and distributed
programs
between
on the
and
and other
Electrification,
the
elements.
This
At the
nationally,
may be.
tasks
a significant
generated
program
as
of responsibilities
important
investment
water,
all
and partly
sector
the
rural
executing
obviously
has
lapses
them.
or a lack
within
such that
of organisation.
with
more
such
at each of their
connected
The division
program.
in billing
program
is
any one of
the
the
the
program
in
running
program
classify
in terms
on conditions
83 lists
although
look
government,
the
rural
depends
fig.
of
the
to
is,
tasks
discredit
of
convenient
of
for
responsibility,
a careful
problem,
for
of
aspects
requires
by a failure
discredit
may eventually
the
therefore,
can
an investment
negligence
example,
faults
level
pricing-policies
of
arrangements
for
repair
central
cessful
many elements
can be undermined
of responsibility,
personnel
in
the
program,
interest
in
a need clearly
order
particularly
infrastructure
where
independent
the
to
promote
in agriculture,
projects,
country
regional
is
such
large,
utilities,
as
and
a
-144-
Main r
Pub1 ic
sector
Task
Fig.
Identification
83:
Project
formulation
Economic analysis and linkage
with
development
aims
Program directives
and
ground rules
Identifying
power requirement
Engineering
planning
Equipment
procurement
Construction
Plant operation
Typical
Tasks and Divisions
of Responsibilities
in Rural
Small Hydropower Development
Source:
Adapted
Rural
Electrification
from
World
of potential
Bank,
ansibility
of:
Executing
agency
Local
institution
X
X
X
X
l
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Maintenance
Identification
Repairs
Promoting regional
cooperation
Training
Supervieion
Accounting
Record keeping
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Billing
Consumsr relations
Load promotion and
management
Transfer of technology
and know how
Acceptance standarde for
equipment and plant
Finance
Tariffs
X
X
X
X
X
"X" in more than one column indicates
that the task
may be performed jointly,
or by any one of the inrtitutions.
*An
central
government
electrification
Another
function
ground-rules
* Rural
Electrification
for
as
REC* in
India)
between
regions,
and
(such
cooperation
standardisation,
rural
agency
may be needed
a regional
to
balance
promote
in
the
program.
for
tariff
public
the
sector
and financial
Commission
is
policies,
to
provide
the
general
aliocation
directives
of
funds,
and
and
-145-
the
criteria
al,
except
to
that
cover
the
small
hydropower
indirect
tion
be used
the
special
the
end
technical
rural
rules
sector
may also
compare
of
public
public
be to
rules
sector's
approve
select
is
tradition-
needs widening
to
particular,isolated,
involvement
are well
and conduct
to
This
and,in
and directives
technology
sector's
of
policy
primarily
knowledge
up
jointly.
of
local
and
programs
identification,
on the
much
laid.
needs
designs
performance
tests.
equipment,
to be
A specific
equipment
advice
and
local
active
load-promotion
require
considerable
based
funcof
local
This
may
on an objective
There
is
Also,
best.
The main
outlined
should
the
talented
is
executing
of
and motivated
more widely.
delegated
likely
to
to
is often
stated
need not
be true,
in
that
extent
to
the
local
one of marginality,
can
assume
hydropower
the
site
and contracting.
providing
of
personnel
of
of
carried
in which
institutional
to
the
out
local
at
all,
is
institutions
costs
of
responsibilities
It
additional
at
the
modest
small
principle
maintaining
operate
centre,
of
the
efficient
well,
that
spread
appointed
it,
personnel
of
such
stations
institutional
operation.
is
just
sometimes
advantage
revenues
hydropower
is
quite
such centrally
to
usually
arrangement
responsibilities
working
if
which
administration.
the
to
still
of
done
and construction,
training
not
areas
are
of which
station
underlying
while
in
hand,
relation
the
best
agencies.
the
, with
can,
other
operating
if
question
the
people
the
often
executing
in
thus
Is Best?
a project
On the
a small
be high
from
about
agencies
stage
is
the
neglected,
for
that
financing,
design
load-manag&nt,
to the
be delegated
operative
a task
have
are
are
executing
and therefore
procurement
sometimes
as facilities
Arrangement
debate
service,
is
and effective
answer
assessment
agencies
of
with
on tariffs,
engineering
quality
assistance
no clear
executing
jointly
projects,
potential
this
out
Questions
projects,
as well
b) Which Institutional
in the
of
institutions.
implementing
overall
although
supervision
to be worked
reality.
appropriate
importance,
in
of
formulation
decisions
needs
engaged
The responsibilities
that
the
such designs
the
and ground
electrification
ground
who are
setting
is
of
directives
the
to
an intimate
forts
the
and selection.
appraisal.
agencies
the
of
appraisal
Much of
users
Much of the
Of
project
stations.
public
manufacturers;
permit
scope
problems
only,if
of
for
said
also
the more
their
ef-
personnel
is
costs
are
a plant.
It
are high.
This
arrangement
it
In:practice,
On the
tion.
different
necessary
one hand,
Experience
suit
was taken
institutional
set-up
development.
Consequently,
who
capable
activities,
The
Agricultural
for
the
tions
onljl
major
their
field
is
institutional
very
as agro-processing
In the
other
hand,
larger
E.l),
the
section
all
the
tasks
in
the
micro-
identification
and
account
company,
are
small
level,
introduction
feasibility
hydro
nature
so that
refined
of
such in-
there
Liwas no
in the
follow-
installation-
to carry
through
proj-
check-up's
during
opera-
based on a productive
activity
of regular
(refer
also
to
is
installa-
requirements.
up specialised
whose job
installastations.
project
repayment
was further
always
in
conducted
specific
daring
of the manufac-
on existing
of
loan
to
identification,
and later
assess
the
local
point
lift-irrigation
various
but
World
still
Two government
section
Bank,
of
operations
Rural
Electrification,
the
E.21,
micro-range
specialised
agencies
respectively,
as a contractor
scale
in
manufacturer's
mini-range
working
from
them to
in the
to the
projects,
on this
used
the
site
no
of hydropower
sold
personnel
up financing
into
be
financing,
of them by now) set
executed
necessary.
company,
could
when tur-
such
and stations
owned.
of
in
Material
or
privately
case
limited
organisa-
was virtually
aspects
same time
enable
on the
inception
are
related
surveys
involvement
to
there
situation,
the
reti.srn)
(three
affiliated
that
to
traditionally
of
Projects
at
taking
area.
their
are usually
of
on the
831
and maintenance
and took
slow
Manufacturers
from
form
at the outset,
turbines
of
the
personnel,
view
in this
or
problem
Bank
basis,
authority
within
tion.
of
context:
site-identification
personnel
point
The arrangement
ects
in
of
longterm,
problem
units
well;
and cultures.
of all
few
To improve
(e.g.
ing years.
the
Development
on a sustained
cencing
the
manufacturer,
care
very
somehow tackled
lending
vestments
83)
of taking
training
tion
from
may work
in this
up by a local
company was engaged
courses
deciding
countries
interest
and installation.
licencing,
in
arrangements
different
in Nepal may be of
customers
be flexible
Example
development
turing
to
several
arrangements
c) A Country
bine
is
were set
with
on the
is
units
a third
mini-scale
usually
P 60 ff-
(e.g.
the
cannot
cope
up to handle
agency,
of
with
projects
a private
projects.
done by small
example
Site
engineering
147-
consultant
study.
firms
Detail
hydro
aided
surveys
contractors
hand,and
all
are
then
design
the
rest
local
the
with
team,
engineering
stage,
by
authorities,
done
the
is
jointly
respective
split
into
on the
other,
here,
are
followed
a feasibility
by one of
the manufacturers
government
agency.
penstock
as is
by
In the
and equipment
actual
or the
construction
execution
layout
on one
and installation
work.
The
executing
contractor,
sion
agencies
and the
manufacturers
and distribution
are
or are contracted
The several
with
and
hydraulics
technology
tion.
is
fied
cost-wise
project
opment
in the
The attitude
in
the
in
this
area
of
remarkable:
equipment
having
to
face
in which
steady
operation
while
institutions
what
has an impact
that
despite
bears
promise
to see the
on
co-operation
failure
in
competi-
for
intensi-
of a compe-
could
discredit
in the
early
phase of activities
as did
hydropower
while
plants
co-operative
to
devel-
to
the
with
in
no prior
skills
the
also
was
expe-
without
case
situation
of
site-
of competition
are evident.
several
arrangements
small-scale)
is
operated
others
are under
direct
control
often
is
is
is
equipment
develop
engineers
has led
ownership
located
local
the
are
structure
chance
finally,
in
of
Workshops
consulting
this
still
company,
are
the
improvements
(but
Micro
and reliability
got
and ownership-side
institutional
that
like
manufacturers.
mentioned,
limited
mentioned,
say
encourage
risks,
stations
agency.
This
it
performance
technological
government
to
authorities
of
undue
As previously
as a private
that
themselves,
of competition
manufacturers
market
because
manufacturing
surveys.
larger
firms.
the
hydro-
firms.
a situation
may be noted
No one would
situation,
to
in
the
future.
government
rience
of
consultant
potential
agencies
engineering
in
the
electricity-transmis-
government
today
It
or
concerned.
deliberately
On the
are
agency
while
electrical
among some of
large
requirements
relaxed
few local
performance.
the
government
by the
equipment
exists
due to
activities
titor's
of
of
as are the engineering
quality-wise
This
care
to one of the
each other,
relevant
team respectively,
taken
,manufacturers
the
the
geographically
owned
also
and
existing.
most
suitable,
close
to
is
of a central
privately,
still
except
the
One
successfully
operated
It
exist.
as
too
early
perhaps
that
hydropower
station
1?5-
under
their
control,
d) The Need for
A number
of
problems
of
operation
and it
hydro
become
more
This
is
indeed
cal
side,
an
is
be regarded
as the
pilot-projects
that
cou?d
be engaged
in
further
The multiplicator-effect
permitting
substantial
It
be noted
ferent
from
approach
is
that
projects
on the
while
in
small
On the
overstaffed,to
that
after
to big
in
project
the
Another
short
projects,
point
leve1,tern.l
to
generalists
are required.
is
and execute
in
that
could
be trained.
of
a skill-bank,
side
that
oppor-
time.
should
be dif-
a non-conventional
as far
be specialised
therefore
be trained
basis
engineering
hydro
plan
would
development,because
small
concerned.
projects
civil
have
hydropower
should
could
up.
practi-
as many training
a relatively
on the
built
paper,
new people
form
that
countries
training
personnel
could
situa-
More on the
this
give
again
initiated,
training
higher
of
projects,where
necessary
are
a stock
is
individual
Governments
this
snd workshops
cadres.
job
that
a necessity
done about
throughout
instrument.
dissemination
usually
techniques
operation,
way,
thus
oriented
working
and. plant
evident
- is
seminars
and
of know-how
is
expertise
of higher
are deliberately
In this
of
It
operators
being
level
most effective
a lack
into
interantional
out
have identified
construction,
countries.
already
situation-specific.
as possible.
should
as
As pointed
play.
highly
is
numbers
on the
execution
to
development
primarily
to plant
a lot
meaningful
hydropower
designing,
in many developing
increasing
valuable
role
planning,
translates
see that
of
more
project
important
tunities
to
very
of small
- from policy-makers
a trend
and
in
area
levels
is
for
This
stations.
encouraging
There
tion.
development
capacity
specific
on all
is
84,) on the
insufficient
in the
knowledge
at an advantage.
Training
seminars
of
and skills
are
as materials
people
assigned
one specific
and
to big
activity,
2. FINANCE
The lack
gical
of
financial
development
in
hydropower
84)
See
for
instance
means is one of
and
its
development
UNIDO,
the
dissemination
for
Kathmandu
two
1979,
principal
in
reasons:
Manila
1980,
factors
general.
First,
and
This
limiting
is
hydropower
NRECA,
Quito
1980
technolo-
particularly
is
of
true
a capital-
,149-
'intensi've
benefits
wise
which
nature,
of
hydropower
returns
are
scarce
capital,
promise
a relatively
in
part
of
should
development
Activities
that
as an investment
rather
this
funds,
and bilateral
cannot
may
construction
of
sistance
items
of
propriate
list
are
usually
Within
the
framework
to
be very
the
provision
might
the
of
design
risk.
be required
which
turer
BYS in
provided
from
general
and
consistently
the
infrastrucregular
state
agencies.
Specific
and
to hydro
topographical
training
and also
initial
contractors.
in the
charge
priorities,
The
must be regarded
hydrological
overall
in
and the
financial
as-
The first
few
of a government
these
could
should
get
addition
may result
with
around
in
part
for
in
ap-
laboratory
of
per
replacing
previous
loan.
Exactly
the
manufac-
equipment
of
limited
having
and testing
prototypes,
turbine-units
build-
without
case
turn
along
sufficient
or a soft
relatively
well
financed
production
the
for
no national
twenty
in
a grant
sources
this
are
make self-supporting
to finances
of
and could
prototypes
some equipment
be financed
items,
grants
of
few
this
since
of
form
instance,a
The result
auxiliary
the
input
year,
was
kind
re-
is by now
including
activities
in
and structural-engineering.
concept
have
the
co-operation
capacity
mechanical-
Persuading
could
where
existence,
a manufacturing
accessories
of
In addition,
a testing-facility,
was in
terms.
that
make up only
the
in financial
blue-prints,
bilateral
Nepal,
for
to,
a country
activities
a manufacturer
initial
was done
quired
If, for
which
this
regular
for
development.
donor
and
Money-
competition
other
of
manufacturers
may be in
effective.
up of capability,
to bear
future
the
allocations.
entrepreneurs
to
limited
purpose,
this
Assistance
not
side.
to
as used for
for
equipment
open
of hydro
and multilateral
this
social
likely
information-processing,
potential
budget
but
as,
Second,
by technologies
is
surveys,
to
department.
is
areas
sources
meteorological,
plants
there
be absorbed
the
long-term
include
pilot
all
be recovered
potential-assessment
service,
in
such
which
to
limits.
more on the
where
come from
the
certain
money therefore
finances
affect
are often
tend
projects,
will
beyond
situations
Commercial
development
with
and
areas
returns.
budget,
out
rural
resources
part
development
be reduced
financial
small
substantial
in
slow,
quicker
tural
cannot
to
of
on the
be included
job
in
training,
actual
financing
projects.
If
in
such
this
area
a project
would
is
of
150-
a pilot-nature
or
as a long-term
investment,
Regular
project
approach.
of
the
of
stations
form
of
the
may be
enough
in
should
the
consumers
period.
If
a high
be adapted
corresponding
of
If
external
are
extensive
themselves
benefits,
loans.
on the
that
is
justified
will
be more realistic
clear
productive
use
to
hand,
are
by its
that
of
to
be sought
interest
as
on the
power
is
small
as
nature
of
feasible,
a loan,
intangible
terms.
in the
be
depend
repay
expected
than
have
should
will
able
characteristic
often
is
in its
and repayment
will
desirable,
other
long-life
financing
who are
of flexibility
periods
It
may be considered
basis.
to the
funding
soft
it
degree
grace
external
01 loans
project.
grant-component
requires
portion
grants
a project
finally,
or long-term
the
particular
on a non-recoverable
resources,
self-reliance,
unit,
financed
with
grants
Whether
be a demonstration
to
particular
on internal
feasible.
-
in
hydropower
in
destined
financing
Loans
Depending
is
given
a long'
in monetary
social
impact
a permanent
-
it
terms
an outright
obligation
of
subsi-
dising.
Local
of
involvement
to
the
in
largest
extent
station-operation
is
small.
in
quoted
generating
here
as
established
for
value
load
of
in
than
collected
is
and is
expected
lion
$ in
Such
a tax
consumers
used
to
apt to foster
the
policy
internal
funds
by
the
amount
concerned
to
the
5.6
million
U.S.
due to
the
fact
power
to
derive
not
In-
deve 1opment
a surtax
Fund"
on electricity
plan,
$ in
has been
bills
of the
with
an installed
clients,
a monthly
agency
may be
10 percent
Electrification
government
is
be satisfactory.
Electrification
clients,with
Rural
funding
participation
to
industrial
10 kW, and by commercial
in efficient
equally.
Under this
by
advantage
of overall
hydropower
money of
consumed
local
situations
consumers.
interest
unlikely
small
be taken
component
that
A "Rural
with
to
local
is
for
example:
kWh, goes
and should
however,
different
supplied
is
if
to treat
electricity
2'500
even
An uniform
and industrial
than
desirable
This
obvious,
a practical
of
greater
more
is
Ecuador,
commercial
voiced
It
is no reason
One way of
very
possible.
many cases.
deed there
is
and management,
relatively
possible
financing
Fund.
for
project
in-
consumption
The money so
activities,
1981 and more than
7.5 mil-
1982.
seems sensible
utilise
electric
that
the
profits
industrial
from
and commercial
processing
goods,
151-
largely
consumed
contribute
in this
International
to
in
financing
in
tions
the
to
make the
the
next
be
of
implementing
power
funding
pilot-scale
it
economically
potential
sense,
and
from
private,
quired
potential
85)
Material
86)
Refer
World
no
to
is
reason
of
they
shouid
at the
top,
intend
development
this
comprising
of
small
energy
re-
hydropower
context,
so it
a number
of
preceding
in
that
85)
Individual
in
Viteri
Energy
state
number
perhaps
action
sta-
might
be
projects.
To
should
institution-building
in
NRECA,
in
the
the
development
development.
of
the
why this
is mature
that
rural
governments
of action
Bank,
the
possible,
aiding
and international
from
for
86)
areas.
Bank ranking
guide-lines,
a great
it
side
a plan
used
to
in
is
national
for
programs
in
exists,
the
the World
a package,
seems credible
there
of rural
worldwide.
policy
therefore,
be in
and
in
projects.
feasible
Where
just,
proposition
such
out
is
available
for
of
has a great
efforts
dollars
working
In conclusion,
with
an attractive
seek
it
development
few years,
formulation
fields
and
agencies,
billion
may not
necessary
areas
way to the
make several
sources
urban
situations
best
sector
alternative
should
institutions,
development
agencies.
today.
p 274 ff.
Developing
Countries,
is
p 72
not
in
and
desirable.
more than
invoke
one
substantial
and interest
Basic
hydro-
technically
and socially
and local
and available
It
of small
technology
from
re-
-152-
ANMEXEI
ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF BIBLIOGRAPHY
BYS Cross-Flow
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for
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1977
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MacKillop,
ects,
Maucor,
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Design Criteria
in NRECA, Small
of Typical
Hydroelectric
U., Lausselet,
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H.R.,
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Small
Scale
Installations,
Final
Report,
isolated
Systems,
Wirz,
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Kathmandu
Civil
Works for
Powerplants,
Wiring,
1979
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W., Salleri/Chialsa
Kathmandu
Design
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and Report,
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Kathmandu 1979
U.,
through
Hyde1 Project,
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Small
M., Les Microcentrales
ect
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A.,
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Proj-
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Micro-Hyde1
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Power Development,
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Kathmandu
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(editor),
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Turbine
Multi-Purpose
Small
and Micro
Plans,
St.
Gall
1981
for
Rural
1980
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Hydroelectric
Power Plants,
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Electric
Cooperative
Association,
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of Workshop in Quito,
Ecuador
Powerplants,
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OLAOE, (Latin-American
and Requirements
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Supply
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to 26th
Enquiries,
Energy Organisation),
Regional
for the Promotion
of Technological
Sector,
Quito
OLAOE, Requirements
Hydropower
Stations
Palmedo, P.F.,
et al.,
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for
the
in Latin
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Quito
Energy Needs,
Springfield
1978
Areas
in
Nepal,
New Yersey
1980
Small
Hydroelectric
1980, Washington
1980
Paris
1978
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of the Latin
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Implementation
Uses and Resources
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the
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of
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B.,
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der Wasserkraftanlagen
Statistisches
Stern,
of Rural
R. & Yoder,
Construction
der
der Schweiz,
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Schweizerische
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sches Institut,
Erfahrungen
mit
St. Gall 1976
lungslandern,
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January
Vol.
1979
1, VITA
1980
1975
Micro-Hydro
Installations
in
Nepal,
-157-
AWNEXEI I
GLOSSARYOF ABBREVIATIONS USED
AC:
Alternating
Current
ADB/N:
Agricultural
Development
ATDC:
Appropriate
Pakistan
Technology
BEW:
Butwal
Engineering
BYS:
Balaju
Yantra
CEDT:
Centre
for
CMEC:
China
Machinery
DC:
Direct
Current
DOE:
U.S.
Department
EAP & L:
East
African
EPFL:
Ecole
Federal
ESCAP:
Economic
and Social
kok, Thailand
ETHZ:
Eidgenossiche
Technische
Hochschule,
Federal
Institute
of Technology)
GATE:
German Appropriate
public
of Germany
Technology
GRET:
Groupe
et dIEchanges
GWh:
Giga Watthour
(see
HMG:
His Majesty's
Government
HP:
Horsepower
(see
HPS:
Hydropower
Station
H.T.:
High
HTL:
Hijhere
Hz:
Hertz
IER:
Internal
kg:
kilogram
kgce:
kilogram
coal
equivalent
(see also
Annex V)
kgce1c.y.:
kilogram
coal
equivalent
per capita
and year
km:
kilometer
kVA
kilo
Volt Ampere,
pareilt
Power)
Bank Nepal
Development
Works,
Shala
private
private
Electronics
Export
limited,
limited,
Design
Kathamndu,
Corporation,
Nepal
Nepal
Bangalore,
Beijing,
India
China
of Energy
Company,
Polytechnique
FBd?rale,
Institue
of Technoloqy
also
also
Ltd.
Lausanne,
Commission
de Recherche
for
Asia
Switzerland
and the
ZUrich,
Exchange,
(Swiss
Pacific,
Bang-
Switzerland
Eschborn,
Technologiques,
(Swiss
Federal
Paris,
Re-
France
Annex V)
of Nepal
VI
Annex
(>lOOO V)
Technische
= cycles
Butwal,
Technology,
Power and Lighting
Tension
Islamabad,
Organisation,
Lehranstalt
per
Economic
(Swiss
Engineering
College)
second
Rate of Return
= 1000 m
equivalent
to
kW at
a power
factor
of 1 (Ap-
-158-
kWh:
kilo
LDC:
Least
Developed
LNG:
Liquid
Natural
LPG:
Liquid
Petroleum
l/s:
liters
per second
L.T.:
Low Tension
m:
meter
mm:
3
m ,/c*
,I.
".
millimeter,
MW:
Mega Watts
NEA:
National
NRECA:
National
Rural
D.C., U.S.A.
NRs:
Rupees,
OECD:
Organisation
France
for
OLADE:
Organization
Organisation,
Latinoamericana
Quito,
Ecuador)
PE:
Polyethylene
PVC:
Poly
RPM:
Revolutions
SATA:
Swiss Association
for
the Swiss Government
non-profit
orqanisation,
SHDB:
Small
Hyde1 Development
Kathmandu, Nepal
SKAT:
Schweizerische
Kontaktstelle
fiir
Center for Appropriate
Technology)
TANESCO:
Tanganyika
UEB:
Uganda Electricity
UMN:
United
UNCNRSE:
United Nations Conference
on New and Renewable
(to be held August 81 in Nairobi,
Kenya)
UNESCO:
United
UNIDO:
United
Austria
U.S.
Watthour
Cubic
A.I.D.
..
United
(see
also
Annex V)
Country
as per U.N.
definition
Gas
Gas
(4000
V)
1000 mm = 1 m
meters
per second
(see also
Energy
(Unit
Administration
Electric
Co-operative
Electric
States
Watt
WMO:
World
'Washington,
$ 1
Co-operation
and Development,
de Energia
(Latin-American
Paris,
Energy
Technical
Assistance
in
Development
Co-operation
Kathmandu, Nepal
Supply
Department
of
comprising
HELVETAS, a
Electricity,
Angepasste
Technik
St. Gall,
Switzerland
Company,
(Swiss
Ltd.
to Nepal
Economic,
Industrial
Agency
for
in Technical
(see also
Board,
Nepal
and
Board
Nations
w:
Association,
NRs 12 = U.S.
Economic
Bangkok
per Minute
Nations,
Volunteers
of Thailand,
Chloride
Mission
VITA:
Mass Flow Rate)
Annex V)
Nepal-currency,
Vinyl
for
Social
and Cultural
Development
International
Assistance,
Sources
Organisation
Organisation,
Development
Mt.
Rainier,
U.S.A.
Annex V)
Meteorological
Qrganisation,
Geneva,
of Energy
Switzerland
Vienna,
-159-
'
AWNEXEI I I
ALPHABETICAL MANUFACTURER'SLIST
Balaju
Yantra
P.O.
Shala private
Box 209,
limited
Balaju
Kathmandu,
Nepal
0 General
engineering
firm
turbines
and
capacity
of max. 70 kW/unit.
Barata
related
Metalworks
Jalan
P. Tendean
Jakarta.
Indonesia
.
industry
Cross-Flow
Bell,
general
Switzerland
. Highly
firm
specialised
turbines
Francis
from
0.1
-
1 MW capacity.
Also
firm
specialising
of max. 70 kW/unit.
China National
12 Fu Xing
in
Manufacture
of newly
Francis-
developed
manufacture
the
Standardised
equipment.
Machinery
and
S-Propel-
large
units
of
manufacture
turbine
of
program
Cross-Flow
within
output
Imp & Exp Corporation
Men Wai Street
\
PR China
Exporters
of
Small
Hydro
turbines
12 to
12'000
kW of
Francis,
Pelton,
and Turgo-type.
- Alternators
upto
- Speed governors
Disag Dieselmotoren
7320 Sargans,
Manufacturer
range.
output
450 kW capacity.
range
capacity
l
upto
firm.
a standard
and related
also:
engineering
with
turbines
Kaplan
within
Works
Nepal
--Eutwal,
engineering
0 General
.
program
Cross-Flow
and Pelton.
Butwal Engineering
Beijng,
turbine
of
AG
6010 Kriens/Lucerne,
ler
manufacture
P.T.
occasionally
Maschinenfabrik
the
12-14
and
turbines
in
Standardised
equipment.
& Engineering
Kaplen
Heavy
specialising
Also
12 MW capacity
of various
types
d
and other
accessories.
AG
Switzerland
of
produce
Cross-Flow
a small
turbines
governor.
and
Pelton
turbines
in
the
small
-160-
Drees GmbH
Postfach
43
4760 Werl,
Federal
0 Manufacture
Elektro
Republic
a variety
of Germany
of Pelton
and Francis
turbines
with
upto
in the
small
range.
GmbH
St.
Gallerstrasse
27
8400 Winterthur,
Switzerland
Manufacture
l
other
small
Pelton
sets
output
England
CV21 1BD
25 kW beside
non-related
equipment.
GEC Machines
Mill
Limited
Road
Rugby,
Warwickshire,
0 Manufacturer
form
Kendal,
.
complete
electrical
generating
equipment
with
capacities
500 kW to 10 MW
approx.
Gilkes
Gilbert
of
& Gordon Ltd.
Cubria,
England
Manufacturer
of
LA9 782
Francis,
turgo
and
Pelton-turbines
with
capacity
upto
350 kW.
Also
manufacture
James Leffel
control
other
non-related
products.
Street
Springfield,
Ohio 45501
Manufacturer
a few kW upto
Jyoti
beside
& Co.
426 East
l
equipment
of
USA
a large
the
range
of Kaplan,
Francis
and Pelton
turbines
from
MW range
Limited
R.C.
Dutt
Baroda
.
390 005,
Manufacturer
program
Koessler
St.
India
of
of Gilkes,
a rang e of water
including
turbines
alternators
more or
less
and associated
according
equipment.
GmbH
Georgener
3151 St.
l
Road
Piilten,
Manufacture
Hauptstrasse
Austria
Pelton,
Francis
and Kaplan
turbines
in
t&
small
range
to
the
-161-
Leroy-Somer
Boulevard
B.P.
Marcellin
Leroy
119
16004 Agouleme
Cedex,
m Manufacturer
or
kW.
Also
Mitsubishi
a large
a
produce
installations
upto
electric
Nagasaki,
France
range
bulb
of
standard
turbine
with
alternators
built-in
from
4 kW to 1'200
alternator
for
low-head
very
low-head
34 kW output.
Corporation
Japan
. Manufacture
a very
small
bulb
turbine
with
4 kW output
for
application.
Nikki
Engineering
Corporation,
2940 Shin
Company
Yoshidamachi
Koohoku
Yokohama,
.
Japan
Have recently
started
manufacture
of Cross-Flow
turbines
upto
800 kW out-
put.
Ossberger-Turbinenfabrik
Postfach
425
8832 Weissenburg,
l
Longtime
1'000
Peltech
producer
kW per
. Manufacture
Jalan
turbines.
Have delivered
equipment
up to
Acme, Washington
small
Pelton
98220,
USA
turbine-sets.
Kom. Ud.
98
Bandung,
Indonesia
Manufacture
Tamar Designs
Deviot,
Cross-Flaw
C.V.
Supadio
l
of
of Germany
Turbines
Wickersham,
Sukaraja,
Republic
unit.
Hydraulic
5i41
Federal
Bavaria,
Cross-Flow
Ptv.
of local
design
Ltd.
Tasmania
e Manufacture
turbines
7251,
Francis,
Australia
turgo
and Pelton
turbines
upto
about
100 kW capacity.
-162-
Turbomeccanica
Diisol
SA
68rlri Taverne,
Switzerland
e Manufacture
a range
Voit
of turbines
including
all
accessories.
GmbH
Postfach
Federal
7920 Heidenheim,
, Manufacture
tdoodward Governor
Vertical
and Turbine
Controls
Division
e
Collins,
Manufacture
Francis
of Germany
turbines
50 to 2'000
kW.
Company
Engine
Ft.
Republic
Colorado,
a variety
USA
of speed governors
of high
quality.
-163-
AWIEXE IV
ALPHABETICAL LIST
AND ORGANISATIONS INVOLVED IN HYDRO DEVE:OP-
OF INSTITUTIONS
MENT
ADB/N, Agricultural
Putali
Bank
Sadak
Kathmandu,
.
Development
Local
Nepal
financing
agency
for
a large
number of
small
productive-use,
hydro-
projects.
ATDA, Appropriate
Projects
P.O.
Technology
Box 311,
Gandhi
226001,
Have taken
electricity
Bhawan
India
up integrated
47th
Technology
Street,
Islamabad,
development
projects,
based
on hydro-
Development
Organisation
F-7/1
Pakistan
. Work on more than
bines
village
plants.
ATDO, Appropriate
l-B,
Association
Division
Lucknow
l
Development
in the
twenty
output
DEH, Directorate
for
range
small
from
Development
hydra
projects
using
local
Cross-Flow
tur-
3 to 20 kW
Co-operation
and Humanitarian
Aid,
of the Swiss
Government
Eigerstrasse
73
3003 Berne,
Switzerland
a Sponsoring
agency
in Nepal
Kaliurang
Juruksari,
Yogjakarta,
.
hydro
development
activities
(among other
with
own design
P.O.
Technology
Organisation
km7,
Box 19, Bulaksumur
Indonesia
Work on village
electrification
projects
Flow turbine.
ETHZ, Institute
Sonneggstr,
l
Technical
things)
and elsewhere.
DIAN DESA, Appropriate
Jalan
for
for
Fluid-Technology
3, 8092 Zurich,
consulting
in
Switzerland
small
hydro
development.
their
of Cross-
-164-
GATE, German Appropriate
Technology
Dag Hammerskjold-Weg
6236 Eschborn,
lated
1
Federal
0 Have published
manuals.
Republic
a manual
Maintain
GRET, Groupe de Recherche
34,
of Germany
on Cross-Flow
turbine
an enquiry-service
et dIEchange
construction
and information
and other
re-
network.
Technologiques
rue Dumont-d'urville
75116 Paris,
.
Exchange
France
Have published
an introductory
an enquiry-service
manual
and information
on micro-hydro
generation.
Maintain
network.
HELVETAS
St.
Moritz
Strasse
8042 --Zurich,
o Sponsoring
15
Switzerland
and executing
agency
of
Cross-Flow
turbine
development
at
BYS
in Nepal.
ITB,
Institute
of Technology
Departemen
Jalan
l
Mesin
Ganesha
Bandung,
10
Indonesia
Have implemented
design
about
of Cross-Flow
ITDG, Intermediate
9 King
Bandung
ten
small
hydro-projects
so far,
with
small
hydro
their
own
turbine.
Technology
Development
Group
Street
London WC2E 8HN, U.K.
0 Technical
consulting
Have collaborated
ITIS,
intermediate
3rd floor
Rugby,
l
in electronic
Technology
Mayson House,
load
Industrial
Railway
activities
controller
in
projects.
development.
Services
Terrace
CV21 3HT, U.K.
Project
others).
and development
executing
agency
of
ITDG collaborating
with
BEW in
Nepal
(among
.,, _
:,
.,
1;
$8,
‘_
-165-
,,
‘,
ITINTEC, Division
Apartado
Lima,
145
Peru
0 Have
for
developed
local
Bangkok
Villa,
projects
in the
National
Ja Ela,
NRECA, National
Sri
equipment
of U.S.
local
manufacture
and
implement
range.
Cross-Flow
Research
turbines
Electric
and Development
20036,
in
small
for
local
Co-operative
Avenue,
D.C.
Assisting
Centre
manufacture.
Association
N.W.
U.S.A.
hydro
development
in
developing
countries
on behalf
A.I.D.
.Have organised
proceedings
a workshop
thereof.
OLADE, Organicacion
Casilla
119-a
Quito,
Ecuador
RCTT, Regional
Manickveen
for
Mansions,
road
Bangalore
560052,
o Are disseminating
in
Further
Quito
organising
1980 on small
workshops
are to follow
hydro
and have
published
elsewhere.
de Energia
and disseminating
Centre
49 Palace
in
Latinoamericana
Are promoting
orated
associated
Lanka
Rural
Washington,
small
for
turbines
Engineering
1800 Massachusetts
l
and
ion of Tha ilan
Cross-Flow
Have developed
l
turbines
Yose
developed
NERD-Centre,
l
Cross-Flow
5, Thailand
Have
Ekala
of
Energy Administrat
Pembultan
hydro
a range
manufacture.
NEA, National
l
de Energia
small
the Transfer
hydro
technology
in Latin
America.
of Technology
Box 115
India
small-hydro
the
technology
Kathmandu
in the
ESCAP region.
1979 workshop
on small-hydro
Have collabwith
UNIDO.
,166-
RECAST, Research
Tribhuvan
for
Science
and Technology
Campus
Kathmandu,
Are
Nepal
collaborating
as the
in
Multipurpose
the
local
Mini-Power
SATA, Swiss Association
P.O.
Applied
University
Kirtipur
l
Centre
for
development
of
improved
water-wheels
such
Unit.
Technical
Assistance
Box 113
Kathmandu,
a Is
Nepal
the
local
on small
agency
hydro
of
DEH and HELVETAS collaborating
development
(among other
SHDB, Small Hyde? Development
with
BYS and SHDB
activities).
Board
Bagh Bazaar
Kathmandu,
l
Nepal
Project
implementing
SKAT, Swiss
Center
American
for
Research
VarnbUelstrasse
9000 St.
other
with
at
Co-operation,
Development
documentation
and consulting
Development
institutions
ILE, Institute
University
for Latinof Saint-Gall
of
in
small
Cross-Flow
hydro
turbine
development
T3 in
(among
collaboration
in Switzerland.
Appropriate
Technology
Foundation
Papua New Guinea
0 Work on village
THE, Technical
Den Dolech
Postbus
electrification
University
projects
based on hydropower.
of Eindhoven
2
513
5600 MB Eindhoven,
Development
thesis
Technology,
Box 6937
Boroko
l
Department.
Switzerland
SPATF South Pacific
P.O.
Appropriate
and for
activities).
other
of HMG Electricity
14
Gall,
a Technical
agency
The Netherlands
of Cross-Flow
work on other
turbine
turbine
types
in collaboration
and load
controllers.
with
ITB,
Bandung.
Also
>;
)
-167-
;:<,
i
~7;
UMN, United
Mission
to Nepal
Thapathali
Kathmandu,
Nepal
Q Sponsoring
and other
agency
local
UNIDO, United
Nations
Are
activities
in
BEW, Butwal
Development
Organisation
Austria
and disseminating
and study
VITA, Volunteers
Rainier
Information
hensive
tour
on small
in Technical
3706 Rhode Island
l
development
1
promoting
workshop
Mt.
hydro
Box 707
1011 Vienna,
l
small
organisations.
.Lerchenfeldstrasse
P.O.
for
20822,
hydro
hydro
technology.
at Hanghzhou,
Manila
Have
organised
1980
Assistance
Ave.
Maryland,
U.S.A.
and documentation
renewable
small
energy
program.
on small
hydro
technology
within
a compre-
-168-
ANNEXEV
STANDARDENERGYCONVERSIONS
Abbre-
Unit
(Equivalent
Values Lie in Vertical
Columns)
viation
Barrels
Oil
per Day
BDOE
---
-__
mm-
m-v
.013
1
1.6
2.74
Mtce
-mm
_--
0.05
0.21
1
77.5
125
212
BOE
mm-
.0047
0.25
1
4.7
365
586
IO3
kgce
---
1
53.5
212
lo3
77.5
125
212
x103
x1o3
xlO3
18.7
1.45
2.33
3.97
x103
x106
x106
x106
8000
0.62
106=
1.7
X106
1GWH
xd
Equivalent
(a)
Metric
tons of
Coal Equivalent
(b)
Barrels
of Oil
Equivalent
__-
_--
s-m
---
(c)
Kilograms
of
Coal Equivalent
Kilocalories
per W
1000
3970
(a)
Kilowatthours
(lo3
18.7
s-s
0.28
kWh
---
-a-
---
1
8.0
428
1700
watt-hours
kcal
Kilocalories
(10'
0.24
0.25
1
860
calories)
British
Thermal
950
BTU
0.95
1
4.0
3413
,
Units
Kilojoules
(lo3
240
kJ
m-s
1
1.06
4.2
3600
joules)
Megajouler
MJ
1
0.001
0.0011 0.0042
(a)
3.6
6.9
3.65
1.45
6.9
530
860
1.45
x103
x105
x106
x106
x106
xd
x109
27.3
1.46
5.8
27.3
2.12
3.4
5.8
x103
x106
xd
x106
x1og
xlog
xloq
28.8
1.54
6.1
28.8
2.24
3.6
6.1
x103
x106
x106
x106
x109
xloq
xloq
28.8
1.54
6.1
28.8
2.24
3.6
6.1
x103
x103
x103
x106
xl06
x106
Equivalents
in other units pre shown on a per annum basis. For vample,
one
barrel
Der day of oil,
mai,ntained for a year, eauals 2.24 x 10 kilojoules.
(b) One metric ton = 1000 kilograms = 2202 pounds = 1.1 short tons.
(C) One barrel
of oil = 5.8 million
BTU.
Source:
Palnedo,
Energy
Needs . ..)
P 24
-169-
STANDARDPOWERCONVERSIONS
Abbre-
Unit
(Equivalent
Values Lie in Vertical
Columns)
viation
W
1
1000
106
log
9.81
735.5
1
4185.9
1055.1
Watt
kW
0.001
1
1000
!06
0.0090
0.736
0.001
4.19
1.06
Mega Watt
Mw
---
0.001
1
1000
---
--_
---
0.0042
0.0011
Giga Watt
GW
---
-me
0.001
1
---
em-
-mm
---
-em
Meter-kilogram
mkpls
0.102
a02
1.02
1.02
1
75
0.102
427
107.6
x105
x108
1359.6
1.36
0.0133
1
0.0014
5.69
1.43
Watt
kilo
-force
per second
Horse power
HP
0.0014
1.36
K106
Joule
kilo
per second
Calorie
per
J/s
1
1000
lo6
log
9.81
735.5
1
4185.9
1055.1
kcal/s
mm-
0.24
238.9
2.4
0.0023
0.1757
---
1
0.2521
0.0093
0.6971
0.0001
3.97
1
x105
second
British
Thermal
Unit per second
BTU/s
0.0001
0.95
947.8
9.5
x105
SKAT PUBLICATIONS
HARNESSING
WATERPOWERON A SMALLSCALE
SERIES:
Publication
Vol.
1:
Local
Experience
Vol.
2:
Construction
Manual
Vol.
3:
Illustrative
Implementation
Vol.
4:
Design
Vol.
5:
Construction
Manual
with
for
Micro-Hydro
for
ttie
for
Technology
Cross-Flow
Turbine
T 1
Activities
a Simple
Manual
No. 11
the
Mechanical
Cross-Flow
Governor
Turbine
T 3
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