Immunology Research Review

Immunology Research Review
Immunology Research Review
An Overview of Recent Immunology Research Publications Featuring Illumina® Technology
CONTENTS
4Introduction
6
Adaptive immunity
Repertoire Sequencing of Lymphocyte Receptors
Single-Cell Repertoire Sequencing
13
Lymphocyte Development
T Cell Development
B Cell Development
18
Innate Immunity
20 Cancer and the Immune Response
21
Microbiota and the Immune System
24 Major Histocompatibility Complex
Phase-Defined HLA Sequencing
29 Self vs Non-Self Antigen Discrimination
Tolerance
Autoimmunity
Solid Organ Transplantation
36 Infectious Diseases and Vaccines
Viral Infections
Vaccine Development
41Techniques
miRNA and noncoding RNAs
ChIP-Seq
46Biblography
This document highlights recent publications that demonstrate the use of Illumina technologies in immunology research.
To learn more about the platforms and assays cited, visit www.illumina.com.
An Overview of Publications Featuring Illumina® Technology
3 INTRODUCTION
Immunology is the field of study concerned with the recognition and disposal of
foreign or “non-self” material that enters the body. This material is usually in the
1.
Neller M. A., Burrows J. M., Rist M. J., Miles
J. J. and Burrows S. R. (2013) High frequency
of herpesvirus-specific clonotypes in the
human T cell repertoire can remain stable over
decades with minimal turnover. J Virol 87:
697-700
2.
Haen S. P. and Rammensee H. G. (2013) The
repertoire of human tumor-associated epitopes--identification and selection of antigens
and their application in clinical trials. Curr Opin
Immunol 25: 277-283
3.
Meyer E. H., Hsu A. R., Liliental J., Lohr A.,
Florek M., et al. (2013) A distinct evolution
of the T-cell repertoire categorizes treatment
refractory gastrointestinal acute graft-versushost disease. Blood 121: 4955-4962
4.
The Cost Burden of Autoimmune Disease: The
Latest Front in the War on Healthcare Spending. 1–14 (www.diabetesed.net/page/_files/
autoimmune-diseases.pdf)
5.
Woodsworth D. J., Castellarin M. and Holt
R. A. (2013) Sequence analysis of T-cell
repertoires in health and disease. Genome
Med 5: 98
6.
Robins H. (2013) Immunosequencing: applications of immune repertoire deep sequencing.
Curr Opin Immunol 25: 646-652
7.
Warren E. H., Matsen F. A. t. and Chou J.
(2013) High-throughput sequencing of B- and
T-lymphocyte antigen receptors in hematology.
Blood 122: 19-22
8.
Eapen M., Rubinstein P., Zhang M. J., Stevens
C., Kurtzberg J., et al. (2007) Outcomes of
transplantation of unrelated donor umbilical
cord blood and bone marrow in children with
acute leukaemia: a comparison study. Lancet
369: 1947-1954
9.
Marks C. (1983) Immunobiological determinants in organ transplantation. Ann R Coll Surg
Engl 65: 139-144
form of life-threatening infectious microorganisms1 or cancer2 but sometimes,
unfortunately, in the shape of life-saving graft transplantation.3 The body can also
be tricked into mobilizing the immune response against itself, to create autoimmune
diseases. The NIH estimates that approximately 23.5 million Americans suffer from
autoimmune disease and that the prevalence is rising.4 Recent progress in the
treatment of autoimmune diseases amply illustrates the impact that advancements in
immunology are having on human health and disease.
Next-generation sequencing technology is proving to be a powerful tool to map
the vast repertoire of immune cells that are capable of recognizing the seemingly
boundless array of targets.5 Repertoire sequencing has enabled researchers
to identify unique receptor variants found in individuals with susceptibility to
hematological malignancies, autoimmune diseases, and allergen response.6 This
approach is rapidly gaining the attention of translational scientists who seek to
improve patient care. Hematologists have led the repertoire sequencing effort and
have demonstrated the reliability, cost-effectiveness, and medical value of repertoire
sequencing in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.7
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a locus that encodes a highly
variable repertoire of cell surface proteins that present foreign antigens to T-cells.
The encoded repertory of cell-surface molecules enables immune recognition
and clearance of foreign agents. Genes within this locus are routinely assessed in
matching patients and donors for solid organ transplantation8 and hematopoietic
stem cell transplantation.9 By comparing variants of these genes between healthy
and affected individuals, researchers are now able to elucidate the root causes of
disease susceptibility (i.e. hematological, autoimmune, allergies, hypersensitivities,
chronic inflammation, infectious diseases).10
The development of Illumina’s next generation sequencing provides the quality,
throughput and read lengths required by the research community to map the human
immune response at high resolution. The emergence of new approaches such as
phase-defined sequencing and single-cell sequencing can be expected to accelerate
this knowledge base.
4
Immunology Research Review
10. De Santis D., Dinauer D., Duke J., Erlich H.
A., Holcomb C. L., et al. (2013) 16(th) IHIW :
review of HLA typing by NGS. Int J Immunogenet 40: 72-76
MHC
•
•
•
•
•
Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation
Solid Organ Transplantation
Autoimmune Diseases
Infectious Diseases
Drug Hypersensitivity
Repertoire
Sequencing
Microbiota
and
Immune
Response
miRNA
and
noncoding
RNA
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Hematological Malignancies
Vaccine Development
Autoimmune Diseases
Cancer
•
•
•
•
Autoimmune Diseases
Cancer
Cardiovascular Diseases
Infectious Diseases
Infectious Diseases
Autoimmune Diseases
Immune Development
Cancer
Next-generation sequencing has enabled researchers to make a significant impact in these applications
(shown in blue). The list on the far right represents a subset of the human health and disease issues that can
be addressed with these applications.
Reviews
Georgiou G., Ippolito G. C., Beausang J., Busse C. E., Wardemann H., et al. (2014) The promise and
challenge of high-throughput sequencing of the antibody repertoire. Nat Biotechnol 32: 158-168
Ansel K. M. (2013) RNA regulation of the immune system. Immunol Rev 253: 5-11
Bronevetsky Y. and Ansel K. M. (2013) Regulation of miRNA biogenesis and turnover in the immune system.
Immunol Rev 253: 304-316
De Santis D., Dinauer D., Duke J., Erlich H. A., Holcomb C. L., et al. (2013) 16(th) IHIW : review of HLA typing
by NGS. Int J Immunogenet 40: 72-76
Finn J. A. and Crowe J. E., Jr. (2013) Impact of new sequencing technologies on studies of the human B cell
repertoire. Curr Opin Immunol 25: 613-618
Robins H. (2013) Immunosequencing: applications of immune repertoire deep sequencing. Curr Opin
Immunol 25: 646-652
Shay T. and Kang J. (2013) Immunological Genome Project and systems immunology. Trends Immunol 34:
602-609
Warren E. H., Matsen F. A. t. and Chou J. (2013) High-throughput sequencing of B- and T-lymphocyte antigen
receptors in hematology. Blood 122: 19-22
Woodsworth D. J., Castellarin M. and Holt R. A. (2013) Sequence analysis of T-cell repertoires in health and
disease. Genome Med 5: 98
An Overview of Publications Featuring Illumina® Technology
5 ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
Repertoire Sequencing of Lymphocyte Receptors
The B and T-cell lymphocytes constitute the adaptive branch of the immune system,
which is capable of identifying a vast range of antigens. This diverse repertoire of
recognition elements is created through unique arrangements of immunoglobulin
molecules on B-cell and T-cell receptors. Successful recognition of antigens triggers
both an effector immune response as well as a memory response. An effector
response includes CD8+ T-cells that eliminate cells with foreign antigens and CD4+
T-cells that differentiate into several different kinds of effector cells, including those
that can further activate macrophages, cytotoxic T-cells, and B cells.11,12 The B-cell
effector response involves plasma cells that secrete antibodies capable of neutralizing
or eliminating a foreign agent.13 The memory response occurs when B and T-cells
are activated by exposure to a foreign antigen.14 Activation of these cells results in
proliferation and preservation of the specific antigen receptor, such that secondary
exposure to the foreign agent results in a robust immune response.15
In comparison to somatic cells, B and T-cell lymphocytes are unique in that their
development and maturation are determined by DNA sequences that are not
encoded in the germline. Instead, during the maturation process, these cells undergo
rearrangement of the variable (V), diversity (D) and joining (J) gene segments in order
to create a unique sequence that can encode an exclusive receptor structure in the
heavy immunoglobulin chain of B cells, the β chain of αβ T-cell receptors, and the
δ chain of γδ T-cell receptors.
CDR3β
Vβ
Jβ
antigenpresenting
cell (APC)
MHC
Cβ
Antigen
T-Cell
Jα
Cα
Vα
T-cell receptor-antigen-peptide-MHC interaction and T-cell receptor (TCR) gene recombination. (a) The
antigen-presenting cell presents the peptide antigen bound to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).
The TCR (orange) binds to both the antigen and MHC. If the binding avidity is sufficiently high the T-cell is
activated. The complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) domain is shown in purple.16
6
Immunology Research Review
11. Litman G. W., Rast J. P. and Fugmann S.
D. (2010) The origins of vertebrate adaptive
immunity. Nat Rev Immunol 10: 543-553
12. Zhou L., Chong M. M. and Littman D. R.
(2009) Plasticity of CD4+ T cell lineage differentiation. Immunity 30: 646-655
13. Lund F. E. and Randall T. D. (2010) Effector
and regulatory B cells: modulators of CD4+ T
cell immunity. Nat Rev Immunol 10: 236-247
14. Tokoyoda K., Hauser A. E., Nakayama T. and
Radbruch A. (2010) Organization of immunological memory by bone marrow stroma. Nat
Rev Immunol 10: 193-200
15. Ahmed R. and Gray D. (1996) Immunological
memory and protective immunity: understanding their relation. Science 272: 54-60
16. Woodsworth D. J., Castellarin M. and Holt
R. A. (2013) Sequence analysis of T-cell
repertoires in health and disease. Genome
Med 5: 98
CDR3β
17. Georgiou G., Ippolito G. C., Beausang J.,
Busse C. E., Wardemann H., et al. (2014) The
promise and challenge of high-throughput
sequencing of the antibody repertoire. Nat
Biotechnol 32: 158-168
Vβ54 Dβ1 Jβ7 Cβ1
~500 bp
~620 kb
Vβ1
Vβ54
Dβ1 Jβ1-6
Cβ1
Dβ2 Jβ7-13
Cβ2
Simplified representation of TCR-β VDJ gene recombination resulting in TCR diversity. The TCR-β locus
is located on chromosome 7 and is approximately 620 kb in length. Initially one of the two D regions is joined
with one of 13 J regions (both randomly selected), followed by joining of the DJ region to one of more than
50 V regions (also randomly selected), yielding a final VDJ region that is approximately 500 bps in length.
The mechanism by which gene segments are joined also introduces bp variability, which together with the
combinatorial selection of these segments results in TCR diversity. A completely analogous process occurs
for the TCR α chain, without the D gene segment included.
VDJ rearrangement in a B–cell generates the variable heavy chain of the
immunoglobulin molecule. This immunoglobulin molecule is expressed on
the surface of B cells and can also be freely secreted as an antibody.
Chromosome 14
14q32
VH
DH
JH
CH
VDJ assembly
Class switch
1
VH
2
JH
DH
3
12
VL
4
JL
3
R
CD
CH
CL
CH2
CH3
B-Cell
The primary antibody heavy chain repertoire is created predominantly by the somatic recombination of
variable (V), diversity (D) and joining (J) gene segments. Nontemplated nucleotides (indicated in red) can
also be added. The antigen-binding site of a heavy chain is formed by the juxtaposition of the hypervariable
complementarity-determining regions (CDR-H1, H2 and H3) and the framework 3 region (FR3). After
productive IgH rearrangement, recombination of the light chain (IgL) ensues, and the heterodimeric pairing of
H and L chains forms the complete antibody of the IgM isotype that is expressed on the surface of a newly
formed immature B cell.17
An Overview of Publications Featuring Illumina® Technology
7 In addition to the aforementioned combinatorial diversity, made possible by the
rearrangement of V, D, and J gene segments, splice variants contribute to this
diversity via template-independent insertion and deletion of nucleotides at the V-D,
D-J, and V-J splice junctions.18 The size of the repertoire is further increased in B-cell
receptors by somatic hypermutations (SHM) of B-cell receptor genes during affinity
maturation after initial antigen encounter.
This combinatorial mechanism has the potential to generate more than 10
18
unique T-cell receptors in humans and a much more diverse B-cell repertoire.19,20
The entire human VDJ region is has been estimated to range from
300 to 400 nucleotides in length, which makes read length a critical parameter in
high-throughput sequencing.21,22,26
Complementarity determining regions (CDRs) are regions within antibodies or T cell
receptors that complement an antigen’s shape. Of the three complementaritydetermining regions, CDR3 is the most variable locus and the most critical
determinant of antigenic specificity.23-26 The CDR3 region in the majority of rearranged
functional TCR β and immunoglobulin heavy chains has a length ranging from 6621,27
to 9022 bps. Therefore, a sequencing depth of 1 x 109 successfully characterizes the
entire B and T-cell repertoire.
28
Repertoire sequencing has applications in characterizing reconstitution of B and
T-cell repertoires after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, tracking lymphocytes
in hematological malignancies, assessing vaccine efficacy, identifying lymphocyte
repertoire variants associated with autoimmune diseases, and in identifying
lymphocyte receptor variants in cancers such as colorectal cancer.29, 30
18. Martinez N. M. and Lynch K. W. (2013) Control
of alternative splicing in immune responses:
many regulators, many predictions, much still
to learn. Immunol Rev 253: 216-236
19. Vahedi G., Takahashi H., Nakayamada S., Sun
H. W., Sartorelli V., et al. (2012) STATs Shape
the Active Enhancer Landscape of T Cell
Populations. Cell 151: 981-993
20. Venturi V., Price D. A., Douek D. C. and
Davenport M. P. (2008) The molecular basis
for public T-cell responses? Nat Rev Immunol
8: 231-238
21. Rocha P. P., Micsinai M., Kim J. R., Hewitt S.
L., Souza P. P., et al. (2012) Close proximity
to Igh is a contributing factor to AID-mediated
translocations. Mol Cell 47: 873-885
22. Benichou J., Ben-Hamo R., Louzoun Y. and
Efroni S. (2012) Rep-Seq: uncovering the immunological repertoire through next-generation
sequencing. Immunology 135: 183-191
23. Warren R. L., Freeman J. D., Zeng T., Choe
G., Munro S., et al. (2011) Exhaustive T-cell
repertoire sequencing of human peripheral
blood samples reveals signatures of antigen
selection and a directly measured repertoire
size of at least 1 million clonotypes. Genome
Res 21: 790-797
24. Robins H. S., Campregher P. V., Srivastava
S. K., Wacher A., Turtle C. J., et al. (2009)
Comprehensive assessment of T-cell receptor
beta-chain diversity in alphabeta T cells. Blood
114: 4099-4107
25. Robins H. S., Srivastava S. K., Campregher
P. V., Turtle C. J., Andriesen J., et al. (2010)
Overlap and effective size of the human CD8+
T cell receptor repertoire. Sci Transl Med 2:
47ra64
26. Wang C., Sanders C. M., Yang Q., Schroeder
H. W., Jr., Wang E., et al. (2010) High throughput sequencing reveals a complex pattern of
dynamic interrelationships among human T
cell subsets. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:
1518-1523
27. Larimore K., McCormick M. W., Robins H. S.
and Greenberg P. D. (2012) Shaping of human
germline IgH repertoires revealed by deep
sequencing. J Immunol 189: 3221-3230
28. Warren E. H., Matsen F. A. t. and Chou J.
(2013) High-throughput sequencing of B- and
T-lymphocyte antigen receptors in hematology.
Blood 122: 19-22
29. Benichou J., Ben-Hamo R., Louzoun Y. and
Efroni S. (2012) Rep-Seq: uncovering the immunological repertoire through next-generation
sequencing. Immunology 135: 183-191
30. Sherwood A. M., Emerson R. O., Scherer
D., Habermann N., Buck K., et al. (2013)
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in colorectal
tumors display a diversity of T cell receptor sequences that differ from the T cells in adjacent
mucosal tissue. Cancer Immunol Immunother
62: 1453-1461
8
Immunology Research Review
Reviews
Georgiou G., Ippolito G. C., Beausang J., Busse C. E., Wardemann H., et al. (2014) The promise and
challenge of high-throughput sequencing of the antibody repertoire.
Nat Biotechnol 32: 158-168
Finn J. A. and Crowe J. E., Jr. (2013) Impact of new sequencing technologies on studies of the human B cell
repertoire. Curr Opin Immunol 25: 613-618
Robins H. (2013) Immunosequencing: applications of immune repertoire deep sequencing. Curr Opin
Immunol 25: 646-652
Warren E. H., Matsen F. A. t. and Chou J. (2013) High-throughput sequencing of B- and T-lymphocyte antigen
receptors in hematology. Blood 122: 19-22
Woodsworth D. J., Castellarin M. and Holt R. A. (2013) Sequence analysis of T-cell repertoires in health and
disease. Genome Med 5: 98
Benichou J., Ben-Hamo R., Louzoun Y. and Efroni S. (2012) Rep-Seq: uncovering the immunological
repertoire through next-generation sequencing. Immunology 135: 183-191
References
Emerson R., Sherwood A., Desmarais C., Malhotra S., Phippard D., et al. (2013) Estimating the ratio of
CD4+ to CD8+ T cells using high-throughput sequence data. J Immunol Methods 391: 14-21
The authors identify sequence features in the variable CDR3 region of the rearranged T cell receptor gene
that distinguish CD4+ from CD8+ T cells. These features include variable gene usage and CDR3 region
length. They estimate that as few as 1000 T cell receptor sequences are needed to accurately estimate the
proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.
Illumina Technology: HiSeq 2000
Putintseva E. V., Britanova O. V., Staroverov D. B., Merzlyak E. M., Turchaninova M. A., et al. (2013)
Mother and child T cell receptor repertoires: deep profiling study. Front Immunol 4: 463
The authors performed comparative analysis of these TCR repertoires of 3 mothers and 6 children. Thymic
selection shapes the initial output of the TCR recombination machinery in both related and unrelated pairs,
with minor effect from inherited differences. TCR profiling using characteristic TCR beta CDR3 variants as
clonal identifiers also showed that mature T cells, transferred across the placenta during pregnancy, can
expand and persist as functional microchimeric clones in their new host.
Illumina Technology: HiSeq 2000
Medvedovic J., Ebert A., Tagoh H., Tamir I. M., Schwickert T. A., et al. (2013) Flexible long-range loops in the VH
gene region of the Igh locus facilitate the generation of a diverse antibody repertoire. Immunity 39: 229-244
Meier J., Roberts C., Avent K., Hazlett A., Berrie J., et al. (2013) Fractal organization of the human T cell
repertoire in health and after stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 19: 366-377
Genolet R., Stevenson B. J., Farinelli L., Osteras M. and Luescher I. F. (2012) Highly diverse TCRalpha chain
repertoire of pre-immune CD8(+) T cells reveals new insights in gene recombination. EMBO J 31: 1666-1678
Larimore K., McCormick M. W., Robins H. S. and Greenberg P. D. (2012) Shaping of human germline IgH
repertoires revealed by deep sequencing. J Immunol 189: 3221-3230
Wu D., Sherwood A., Fromm J. R., Winter S. S., Dunsmore K. P., et al. (2012) High-throughput sequencing
detects minimal residual disease in acute T lymphoblastic leukemia. Sci Transl Med 4: 134ra163v
An Overview of Publications Featuring Illumina® Technology
9 Notes on Experimental Design
The primary challenges in CDR3 sequencing are the accumulation of PCR errors,
sequencing errors, and ratio bias. These factors can result in the generation of false
TCR diversity (artificial diversity) with the resultant inability to interpret sequence
information accurately. For example, generating more sequencing reads may result in
the expansion of erroneous sequence variants with one, two, or more mismatches.
These amplified errors may be interpreted as evidence for sequence diversity.31,32
To address artificial diversity, previous studies suggest withdrawal of the lowabundance CDR3 variants that differ from the high-abundance variants by a single
nucleotide mismatch or blind elimination of low-abundance sequence variants that
comprise a total of 4% of all sequencing reads. It has been shown that this approach
can result in up to 50% loss of sequencing reads and an even greater loss on nonIllumina platforms.33
To eliminate PCR and sequencing errors the following recommendations have been
made in the literature.34
• From each sequencing read the CDR3 is extracted by aligning each sequence
to the set of genomic VDJ segments from the IMGT/GENE-DB database. Lowquality nucleotides for VDJ segments are treated as allowable mismatches.
• Mapping low-quality reads. High-quality sequences at each nucleotide position
within CDR3 form “core clonotypes.” These are merged with low-quality
sequencing reads that have ≤3 low-quality nucleotides.
• Correcting PCR errors. Given that TCRs do not undergo somatic hypermutation,
nucleotide mismatches with the VD, or J segments of CDR3 can only arise from
PCR and sequencing errors. Low-abundant core clonotypes are merged with the
more abundant (at least 5-fold more abundant) core clonotypes that differ by no
more than 3 nucleotides.
mRNA is the preferable starting material for TCR profiling.35
• T-cell contains multiple copies of RNA molecules that encode beta and alpha
chains. These copies widen the bottleneck between the sampled T cells and the
final TCR amplicon.
• Given that genomic DNA requires that the entire sample be amplified to compute
TCR repertoire, this becomes technically challenging when studying sizable
populations of T-cells, which would require unreasonably large aliquot volumes.
10
Immunology Research Review
31. Warren R. L., Freeman J. D., Zeng T., Choe
G., Munro S., et al. (2011) Exhaustive T-cell
repertoire sequencing of human peripheral
blood samples reveals signatures of antigen
selection and a directly measured repertoire
size of at least 1 million clonotypes. Genome
Res 21: 790-797
32. Nguyen P., Ma J., Pei D., Obert C., Cheng C.,
et al. (2011) Identification of errors introduced
during high throughput sequencing of the T
cell receptor repertoire. BMC Genomics 12:
106
33. Bolotin D. A., Mamedov I. Z., Britanova O.
V., Zvyagin I. V., Shagin D., et al. (2012) Next
generation sequencing for TCR repertoire profiling: platform-specific features and correction
algorithms. Eur J Immunol 42: 3073-3083
34. Bolotin D. A., Mamedov I. Z., Britanova O.
V., Zvyagin I. V., Shagin D., et al. (2012) Next
generation sequencing for TCR repertoire profiling: platform-specific features and correction
algorithms. Eur J Immunol 42: 3073-3083
35. Bolotin D. A., Mamedov I. Z., Britanova O.
V., Zvyagin I. V., Shagin D., et al. (2012) Next
generation sequencing for TCR repertoire profiling: platform-specific features and correction
algorithms. Eur J Immunol 42: 3073-3083
Single-Cell Repertoire Sequencing
Analysis of the immunoglobulin variable region and T-cell receptor repertoires is of
fundamental importance for our understanding of adaptive immunity in health and
disease.36 However, the vast majority of repertoire studies yield data on only one of
the two chains of immune receptors and thus cannot provide information about the
36. Miles J. J., Douek D. C. and Price D. A.
(2011) Bias in the alphabeta T-cell repertoire:
implications for disease pathogenesis and
vaccination. Immunol Cell Biol 89: 375-387
identity of native receptor pairs encoded by single B or T-cell lymphocytes.37,38
37. Wu X., Zhou T., Zhu J., Zhang B., Georgiev I.,
et al. (2011) Focused evolution of HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies revealed by structures and
deep sequencing. Science 333: 1593-1602
Phage and yeast display technologies,39-41 although efficient for isolation of antigen-
38. Fischer N. (2011) Sequencing antibody repertoires: the next generation. MAbs 3: 17-20
specific antibodies, rely on random pairing and do not provide information on the
native pairs of chains. Methods which involve growing cultures of lymphocyte
clones,42 or sorting of narrow antigen-specific populations of T cells43 or B cells44 are
limited by the number of clones that can be identified, as well as by the complexity of
biological samples.
New approaches to this problem take advantage of the sensitivity of next-generation
sequencing to sequence single cells and identify multiple native TCR chain pairs in a
single experiment.45
39. Bowley D. R., Jones T. M., Burton D. R. and
Lerner R. A. (2009) Libraries against libraries
for combinatorial selection of replicating
antigen-antibody pairs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S
A 106: 1380-1385
40. Marks J. D., Hoogenboom H. R., Bonnert T.
P., McCafferty J., Griffiths A. D., et al. (1991)
By-passing immunization. Human antibodies
from V-gene libraries displayed on phage. J
Mol Biol 222: 581-597
41. Hoogenboom H. R., Griffiths A. D., Johnson
K. S., Chiswell D. J., Hudson P., et al. (1991)
Multi-subunit proteins on the surface of filamentous phage: methodologies for displaying
antibody (Fab) heavy and light chains. Nucleic
Acids Res 19: 4133-4137
42. Lagerkvist A. C., Furebring C. and Borrebaeck C. A. (1995) Single, antigen-specific B
cells used to generate Fab fragments using
CD40-mediated amplification or direct PCR
cloning. Biotechniques 18: 862-869
43. Trautmann L., Rimbert M., Echasserieau K.,
Saulquin X., Neveu B., et al. (2005) Selection
of T cell clones expressing high-affinity public
TCRs within Human cytomegalovirus-specific CD8 T cell responses. J Immunol 175:
6123-6132
44. Franz B., May K. F., Jr., Dranoff G. and
Wucherpfennig K. (2011) Ex vivo characterization and isolation of rare memory B cells with
antigen tetramers. Blood 118: 348-357
45. Turchaninova M. A., Britanova O. V., Bolotin D.
A., Shugay M., Putintseva E. V., et al. (2013)
Pairing of T-cell receptor chains via emulsion
PCR. Eur J Immunol 43: 2507-2515
An Overview of Publications Featuring Illumina® Technology
11 TCR Chain
Paring
TCRα mRNA
TCRβ mRNA
Oil emulsion
AA(A)n
AA(A)n
CDR3
Identify T-cell Receptor
(TCR) alpha–beta chain
pairing in single cells
TCRα
TCRα
TCRβ
TCRβ
Reverse
transcription
Amplification
TCRα
TCRβ
Overlap extension
TCRα
Blocker
primers
TCRβ
Nested PCR amplification
CDR3α
PCR supression of
non-fused molecules
CDR3β
DNA
Cell-based emulsion RT-PCR technique for identifying TCR alpha–beta chain pairing. Released TCR alpha and beta mRNAs are reverse-transcribed, amplified, and
overlap extended within each droplet. Products are extracted from the emulsion and fused molecules of interest are selectively amplified. Non-fused molecules are
suppressed with blocking primers.46
References
Dekosky B. J., Ippolito G. C., Deschner R. P., Lavinder J. J., Wi ne Y., et al. (2013) High-throughput
sequencing of the paired human immunoglobulin heavy and light chain repertoire. Nat Biotechnol 31:
166-169
Previously VH:VL pairing in B-cell repertoire diversity was lost during lysis of B-cell populations. Here the
authors employed a method of single-cell mRNA capture, reverse transcription and amplification by emulsion
VH:VL linkage RT PCR of these pairings. The linked pairings were sequenced to identify unique antibody
clonotypes in healthy peripheral blood IgG+ B-cells, peripheral antigen-specific plasmablasts isolated after
tetanus toxoid immunization, and memory B-cell responses following influenza vaccination.
Illumina Technology: MiSeq 2 x 250 bp
Han A., Newell E. W., Glanville J., Fernandez-Becker N., Khosla C., et al. (2013) Dietary gluten triggers
concomitant activation of CD4+ and CD8+ alphabeta T cells and gammadelta T cells in celiac disease.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110: 13073-13078
Celiac disease is an intestinal autoimmune disease caused by dietary gluten and gluten-specific CD4+ T-cell
responses. Gluten exposure also induces the appearance of activated, gut-homing CD8+ αβ and γδ T cells
in peripheral blood. Single-cell T-cell receptor sequence analysis indicates that both of these cell populations
have highly focused Tcell receptor repertoires. Such a focused repertoire usually indicates that the induction is
driven by an antigen.
Illumina Technology: MiSeq paired-end sequencing
Turchaninova M. A., Britanova O. V., Bolotin D. A., Shugay M., Putintseva E. V., et al. (2013) Pairing of
T-cell receptor chains via emulsion PCR. Eur J Immunol 43: 2507-2515
The authors propose a single cell-based method to identify native pairs of alpha-beta T cell receptor (TCR)
CDR3 chains within emulsion droplets by employing reverse-transcription of alpha and beta chain mRNA,
PCR amplification, and subsequent fusion via overlap-extension. This PCR suppression technique resolves
the issue of random overlap-extension of gene pairs that may create a high level of noise after the emulsion
stage. The authors propose that this methodology can be applied to the identification of native pairs of
variable heavy-light antibody chains.
Illumina Technology: MiSeq 2 x 150 bp
12
Immunology Research Review
46. Turchaninova M. A., Britanova O. V., Bolotin D.
A., Shugay M., Putintseva E. V., et al. (2013)
Pairing of T-cell receptor chains via emulsion
PCR. Eur J Immunol 43: 2507-2515
LYMPHOCYTE DEVELOPMENT
T Cell Development
Multipotent or lymphoid-biased precursors enter the T cell developmental pathway
in response to signals from the thymic microenvironment.47 Studies have shown
that Notch, which has been classically associated with embryonic cell development,
is an important trigger in T-cell lineage commitment. Notch signaling in the thymus
causes hematopoietic precursors to commit to the T cell fate, mobilizes a T-cell
gene expression program that prepares the cells for T-cell antigen receptor (TCR),
TCR-based repertoire selection, and ultimately, prepares them for functional roles as
immune effectors.48
Many questions remain regarding the molecular mechanisms of this commitment.
For example, precursors entering the thymus display regulatory genes that are
either expressed or inducible, however upon commitment these genes are not only
repressed but also irreversibly silenced.49
47. Petrie H. T. and Zuniga-Pflucker J. C. (2007)
Zoned out: functional mapping of stromal
signaling microenvironments in the thymus.
Annu Rev Immunol 25: 649-679
48. Zhang J. A., Mortazavi A., Williams B. A., Wold
B. J. and Rothenberg E. V. (2012) Dynamic
Transformations of Genome-wide Epigenetic
Marking and Transcriptional Control Establish
T Cell Identity. Cell 149: 467-482
49. Vigano M. A., Ivanek R., Balwierz P., Berninger
P., van Nimwegen E., et al. (2013) An epigenetic profile of early T-cell development from
multipotent progenitors to committed T-cell
descendants. Eur J Immunol
50. Rothenberg E. V., Moore J. E. and Yui M. A.
(2008) Launching the T-cell-lineage
developmental programme.
Nat Rev Immunol 8: 9-21
Other questions relate to multiple regulatory requirements for successful deployment
of the T-cell program. For example, there is a need to elucidate the functional role of
additional transcription factors, including E2A, and HEB, TCF-1 and LEF-1, GATA-3,
Myb, Runx1, Ikaros, and Gfi1.50
Reviews
Martinez N. M. and Lynch K. W. (2013) Control of alternative splicing in immune responses: many regulators,
many predictions, much still to learn. Immunol Rev 253: 216-236
Pagani M., Rossetti G., Panzeri I., de Candia P., Bonnal R. J., et al. (2013) Role of microRNAs and long-noncoding RNAs in CD4(+) T-cell differentiation. Immunol Rev 253: 82-96
Rothenberg E. V. (2012) Transcriptional drivers of the T-cell lineage program. Curr Opin Immunol 24: 132-138
Beneficial
mutations
Plasma cell
Deleterious
mutations
Mature
naive B-cell
Antigen
stimulation
Apoptosis
Clonal expansion and
somatic mutations
Selection and class
switching
Memory B-cell
Differentiation
An Overview of Publications Featuring Illumina® Technology
13 References
Vigano M. A., Ivanek R., Balwierz P., Berninger P., van Nimwegen E., et al. (2013) An epigenetic
profile of early T-cell development from multipotent progenitors to committed T-cell descendants.
Eur J Immunol
In this study the authors analyzed and compared the gene expression profiles and the genome-wide histone
modification marks H3K4me3 (H3 lysine 4 trimethylation) and H3K27me3 (H3 lysine 27 trimethylation) in
T-cells cells at various stages of development. They observed global changes of gene expression and the
epigenetic profile for H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 at promoters.
Illumina Technology: Genome Analyzer for ChIP-Seq analysis
Vahedi G., Takahashi H., Nakayamada S., Sun H. W., Sartorelli V., et al. (2012) STATs Shape the Active
Enhancer Landscape of T Cell Populations. Cell 151: 981-993
The authors mapped the activity of enhancer signatures using H3K4me1-high and p300-high regions in
T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells to interrogate active enhancer repertoires. They used RNA-Seq transcriptome
profiling in T helper cells to identify the top 100 differentially expressed genes in each subset and did a
comparative study between wild-type and STAT-deficient cells to asses STAT-dependency of positively
regulated genes. They also used ChIP-Seq to demonstrate that STAT-deficient cells fail to fully recover the
chromatin signature of STAT-dependent enhancers. Collectively, these findings suggest that STAT proteins
play both a direct and indirect role in molding specialized enhancer architecture.
Illumina Technology: Genome AnalyzerIIx for ChIP-Seq and HiSeq 2000 for RNA-Seq for 100 cycles
(single read). RNA-Seq libraries were prepared using TruSeq sample prep kit
Zhang J. A., Mortazavi A., Williams B. A., Wold B. J. and Rothenberg E. V. (2012) Dynamic
Transformations of Genome-wide Epigenetic Marking and Transcriptional Control Establish T Cell
Identity. Cell 149: 467-482
Notch pathway signaling prompts hematopoietic precursors to become committed to the T cell fate and
prepares cells for TCR expression and TCR-based repertoire selection. The authors employed RNA-Seq and
ChIP-Seq to identify the dynamic transformations in transcription and epigenetic marking that occur across
the genome through five stages of T cell differentiation that span lineage commitment (FLDN1, FLDN2a,
FLDN2b, ThyDN3, and ThyDP cells). They reported that the major genome-wide transcriptomic changes
leading to T lineage identity occur during transition to the DN2b or DN3; thus, during commitment and
β-selection stages. The authors also used ChIP-Seq to enrich DNA associated with three H3 modifications:
H3K(9, 14)Ac, H3K4me2, and H3K27me3. They employed these histone-marking patterns on potential cisregulatory elements to in vivo tracking data of GATA-3 and PU.1 (transcription factors with complementary
roles in early T cell development) and demonstrated the functional relevance of these transcription factors at
potential sites for different developmental cell subsets.
Illumina Technology: Genome Analyzer for RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq
Malinge S., Thiollier C., Chlon T. M., Doré L. C., Diebold L., et al. (2013) Ikaros inhibits megakaryopoiesis
through functional interaction with GATA-1 and NOTCH signaling. Blood 121: 2440-2451
Genolet R., Stevenson B. J., Farinelli L., Osteras M. and Luescher I. F. (2012) Highly diverse TCRalpha chain
repertoire of pre-immune CD8(+) T cells reveals new insights in gene recombination. EMBO J 31: 1666-1678
14
Immunology Research Review
B Cell Development
When mature B cells encounter an antigen they undergo a programmed DNA
recombination event known as class switch recombination (CSR), which alters the
effector function of the antibody molecule. During class switching, one constant
region gene (typically Cμ) is replaced with another (either Cγ3, Cγ1, Cγ2b, Cγ2a, Cε,
or Cα) via the introduction of double strand breaks (DSBs) and subsequent deletion
of intervening sequences.51-53
In B lymphocytes, V(D)J recombination, class switch recombination (CSR) and
somatic hypermutation (SHM) produce obligate single and double-strand DNA
break intermediates that can become substrates for translocations.54,55 These
rearrangements could trigger cancer development.56 This is supported by the
observation that genetic ablation of the enzymes that create DNA lesions during V(D)
J recombination (RAGs) or CSR and SHM (AID) has a significant protective effect on
B-cell transformation.50,57
Nuclear architecture is another potential contributor to the incidence of chromosomal
translocations.59 Spatial organization of the genome is compartmentalized into
chromosome territories as well as transcriptionally active and silent sub nuclear
environments.60-63 These compartments are believed to impact the frequency with
which genes from different chromosomes interact and recombine.64
51. Benichou J., Ben-Hamo R., Louzoun Y. and
Efroni S. (2012) Rep-Seq: uncovering the immunological repertoire through next-generation
sequencing. Immunology 135: 183-191
52. Rocha P. P., Micsinai M., Kim J. R., Hewitt S.
L., Souza P. P., et al. (2012) Close proximity
to Igh is a contributing factor to AID-mediated
translocations. Mol Cell 47: 873-885
53. Larimore K., McCormick M. W., Robins H. S.
and Greenberg P. D. (2012) Shaping of human
germline IgH repertoires revealed by deep
sequencing. J Immunol 189: 3221-3230
54. Nussenzweig A. and Nussenzweig M. C.
(2010) Origin of chromosomal translocations in
lymphoid cancer. Cell 141: 27-38
55. Tsai A. G., Lu H., Raghavan S. C., Muschen M., Hsieh C. L., et al. (2008) Human
chromosomal translocations at CpG sites and
a theoretical basis for their lineage and stage
specificity. Cell 135: 1130-1142
56. Mitelman F., Johansson B. and Mertens F.
(2007) The impact of translocations and gene
fusions on cancer causation. Nat Rev Cancer
7: 233-245
57. Zhang Y., Gostissa M., Hildebrand D. G.,
Becker M. S., Boboila C., et al. (2010) The role
of mechanistic factors in promoting chromosomal translocations found in lymphoid and
other cancers. Adv Immunol 106: 93-133
58. Klein I. A., Resch W., Jankovic M., Oliveira T.,
Yamane A., et al. (2011) Translocation-capture
sequencing reveals the extent and nature of
chromosomal rearrangements in B lymphocytes. Cell 147: 95-106
59. Hakim O., Resch W., Yamane A., Klein I.,
Kieffer-Kwon K. R., et al. (2012) DNA damage
defines sites of recurrent chromosomal translocations in B lymphocytes. Nature 484: 69-74
60. Cremer T. and Cremer M. (2010) Chromosome
territories. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2:
a003889
61. Lieberman-Aiden E., van Berkum N. L.,
Williams L., Imakaev M., Ragoczy T., et al.
(2009) Comprehensive mapping of long-range
interactions reveals folding principles of the
human genome. Science 326: 289-293
62. Hakim O., Sung M. H. and Hager G. L. (2010)
3D shortcuts to gene regulation. Curr Opin Cell
Biol 22: 305-313
63. Chakalova L. and Fraser P. (2010) Organization
of transcription. Cold Spring Harb Perspect
Biol 2: a000729
64. Klein I. A., Resch W., Jankovic M., Oliveira T.,
Yamane A., et al. (2011) Translocation-capture
sequencing reveals the extent and nature of
chromosomal rearrangements in B lymphocytes. Cell 147: 95-106
An Overview of Publications Featuring Illumina® Technology
15 I-SceI site
+AID
A
Genomic DNA
-AID
A
Infect I-Sel
Sonicate
blunt A-tail
A
A
Ligate linkers
Cut I-Scel
Purification
Semi-nested
PCR Linker
cleavage
DNA
Translocation-capture sequencing (TC-Seq) is a method developed to study chromosomal rearrangements and translocations. In this method, cells are infected
with retrovirus expressing l-Scel sites in cells with and without activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA or AID) protein. Genomic DNA from cells is sonicated,
linker-ligated, purified, and amplified via semi-nested LM-PCR. The linker is then cleaved and the DNA is sequenced. Any AID-dependent chromosomal rearrangement
will be amplified by LM-PCR, while AID-independent translocations will be discarded.
Reviews
Robbiani D. F. and Nussenzweig M. C. (2013) Chromosome translocation, B cell lymphoma, and activationinduced cytidine deaminase. Annu Rev Pathol 8: 79-103
References
Holwerda S. J., van de Werken H. J., Ribeiro de Almeida C., Bergen I. M., de Bruijn M. J., et al. (2013)
Allelic exclusion of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus is independent of its nuclear localization in
mature B cells. Nucleic Acids Res 41: 6905-6916
Chromatin conformation is one of many mechanisms for regulating gene expression. In developing B cells,
the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus undergoes a scheduled genomic rearrangement of the V, D, and
J gene segments. In this study, an allele-specific chromosome conformation capture sequencing technique
(4C-Seq) was applied to unambiguously follow the individual IgH alleles in mature B lymphocytes. The authors
found that IgH adopts a lymphoid-specific nuclear location, and in mature B cells the distal VH regions of both
IgH alleles position themselves away from active chromatin.
Illumina Technology: Genome AnalyzerIIx , HiSeq 2000
Hakim O., Resch W., Yamane A., Klein I., Kieffer-Kwon K. R., et al. (2012) DNA damage defines sites of
recurrent chromosomal translocations in B lymphocytes. Nature 484: 69-74
The authors performed chromosome conformation capture experiments followed by deep sequencing
(4C-seq) to identify genomic regions that are in close spatial proximity to Igh and Myc, which are actively
transcribed and targeted by AID. By comparing the chromosome conformation capture-on-chip (4C-seq)
profiles to genome-wide epigenetic, transcription and TC-seq data sets, they concluded that Igh and Myc loci
in AID-deficient peripheral B cells are more closely associated with epigenetically accessible genomic sites.
They also employed a form of ChIP-Seq, termed RPA-seq, to measure the recruitment of replication protein
A (RPA) in activated B cells. They used RPA recruitment as a proxy for AID-mediated DNA damage and
demonstrated that the frequency of DNA damage directly accounts for the rate of translocation.
Illumina Technology: Genome AnalyzerIIx for paired-end 4C-seq and ChIP-Seq
Rocha P. P., Micsinai M., Kim J. R., Hewitt S. L., Souza P. P., et al. (2012) Close proximity to Igh is a
contributing factor to AID-mediated translocations. Mol Cell 47: 873-885
Approximately 95% of lymphomas are of B cell origin and many of these are attributed to aberrant
rearrangements generated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mediated breaks outside of the
Igh locus. The authors used chromosome conformation capture-on-chip with massively parallel sequencing
(4C-seq) to show that loci that have a significant interaction with Igh are specifically enriched for RNA Pol II,
Spt5, H3K4me3, and AID. They employed a domain-centric approach for analyzing the 4C-seq data and
found that chromosomal regions, which contact Igh at significant frequency, contain the vast majority (90%)
of known sites identified as hotspot AID target genes. This study provides insight into the role of nuclear
organization in AID targeting and the maintenance of genomic stability.
Illumina Technology: Genome AnalyzerIIx for single-read 72-cycle run for 4C-seq and Illumina HiSeq 2000
to resequence a Cγ1 library
Chaumeil J., Micsinai M., Ntziachristos P., Roth D. B., Aifantis I., et al. (2013) The RAG2 C-terminus and ATM
protect genome integrity by controlling antigen receptor gene cleavage. Nat Commun 4: 2231
Jankovic M., Feldhahn N., Oliveira T. Y., Silva I. T., Kieffer-Kwon K. R., et al. (2013) 53BP1 alters the
landscape of DNA rearrangements and suppresses AID-induced B cell lymphoma. Mol Cell 49: 623-631
16
Immunology Research Review
Medvedovic J., Ebert A., Tagoh H., Tamir I. M., Schwickert T. A., et al. (2013) Flexible long-range loops in the VH
gene region of the Igh locus facilitate the generation of a diverse antibody repertoire. Immunity 39: 229-244
65. Noordermeer D., Branco M. R., Splinter E.,
Klous P., van Ijcken W., et al. (2008) Transcription and chromatin organization of a housekeeping gene cluster containing an integrated
beta-globin locus control region. PLoS Genet
4: e1000016
Yamane A., Robbiani D. F., Resch W., Bothmer A., Nakahashi H., et al. (2013) RPA Accumulation during Class
Switch Recombination Represents 5’-3’ DNA-End Resection during the S-G2/M Phase of the Cell Cycle. Cell
Rep 3: 138-147
Hakim O., Resch W., Yamane A., Klein I., Kieffer-Kwon K. R., et al. (2012) DNA damage defines sites of
recurrent chromosomal translocations in B lymphocytes. Nature 484: 69-74
66. Montavon T., Soshnikova N., Mascrez B.,
Joye E., Thevenet L., et al. (2011) A regulatory
archipelago controls Hox genes transcription in
digits. Cell 147: 1132-11453
Kovalchuk A. L., Ansarah-Sobrinho C., Hakim O., Resch W., Tolarova H., et al. (2012) Mouse model of
endemic Burkitt translocations reveals the long-range boundaries of Ig-mediated oncogene deregulation. Proc
Natl Acad Sci U S A 109: 10972-10977
67. Zhao Z., Tavoosidana G., Sjolinder M., Gondor
A., Mariano P., et al. (2006) Circular chromosome conformation capture (4C) uncovers
extensive networks of epigenetically regulated
intra- and interchromosomal interactions. Nat
Genet 38: 1341-1347
Rocha P. P., Micsinai M., Kim J. R., Hewitt S. L., Souza P. P., et al. (2012) Close proximity to Igh is a
contributing factor to AID-mediated translocations. Mol Cell 47: 873-885
68. Sajan S. A. and Hawkins R. D. (2012) Methods
for identifying higher-order chromatin structure.
Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 13: 59-826
Notes on experimental design
4C-seq is the preferred chromosomal conformation capture technique when analyzing
the DNA contact profile of individual genomic sites. This assay has been particularly
useful for investigating the associations of specific genes with long-range regulatory
elements.65,66 (See Chromatin Structure and Rearrangement for more details).
4C is currently limited to the assessment of long-range contacts with larger regions
elsewhere on the chromosome (in cis) or on other chromosomes (in trans). For
example, local interactions (<50 kb distance) between a gene and its enhancer are
not readily detected. Most 4C strategies use restriction enzymes with a 6-nucleotide
recognition sequence, which cut once every few kilobases. This creates fragments
that are much larger than the average regulatory sequences, which are no larger than
several hundred bps. Increased resolution may depend on the use of more selective
restriction enzymes that can generate shorter fragments, which can enable detection
of de novo local regulatory interactions.
4-C
Crosslink proteins and DNA
Sample fragmentation
Ligation
Restriction digest
Self-circularization
and Reverse PCR
DNA
Circular chromatin conformation capture (4-C)67, allows the unbiased detection of all genomic regions that interact with a particular region of interest.68 In this
method, DNA-protein complexes are crosslinked using formaldehyde. The sample is fragmented, and the DNA is ligated and digested. The resulting DNA fragments
self-circularize, followed by reverse PCR and sequencing. Deep sequencing provides base-pair resolution of ligated fragments.
An Overview of Publications Featuring Illumina® Technology
17 INNATE IMMUNITY
Innate immunity is the frontline of host defense. It prompts the rapid and local
response against pathogens and is also important for the symbiotic partnership
between the host and its microbiota. The innate immune system and adaptive
immunity comprise the binary-classification of the immune response. Historically the
distinction between these two branches of immunity relied on the consensus that
innate immunity is nonspecific and lacks memory whereas the adaptive immunity is
characterized by specific antigen recognition and subsequent memory response.
However, new evidence that demonstrates innate immune features of B cells and
T cells and adaptive immune properties of natural killer (NK) cells are now blurring this
conventional binary-classification.69
Innate immunity involves the coordinated action of families of receptors, known
as pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) or microbial sensors that respond to
a wide range of microorganisms through the detection of specific conserved
microbial patterns or molecules.70-73 This innate immune response is activated by
specialized sets of receptors found on macrophages, mast cells, dendritic cells,
natural killer cells, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These receptors include the
membrane-bound Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs),
and the cytosolic RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), NOD-like receptors (NLRs) and other
DNA sensors.74-78 Furthermore, complement recognition molecules are circulating
proteins that constitute the humoral (free in serum and body fluids) arm of innate
immunity.79 Following ligand binding, receptors induce the activation of distinct
signaling pathways that involve effector molecules, such as interferons (IFNs) or
70. Takeuchi O. and Akira S. (2010) Pattern
recognition receptors and inflammation. Cell
140: 805-820
71. Bae J., Ricciardi C. J., Esposito D.,
Komarnytsky S., Hu P., et al. (2014) Activation
of Pattern Recognition Receptors in Brown
Adipocytes Induce Inflammation and Suppress Uncoupling Protein 1 Expression and
Mitochondrial Respiration. Am J Physiol Cell
Physiol
72. Walsh D., McCarthy J., O’Driscoll C. and
Melgar S. (2013) Pattern recognition receptors--molecular orchestrators of inflammation
in inflammatory bowel disease. Cytokine
Growth Factor Rev 24: 91-104
73. Fukata M. and Arditi M. (2013) The role of
pattern recognition receptors in intestinal
inflammation. Mucosal Immunol 6: 451-463
74. Kawai T. and Akira S. (2011) Toll-like receptors
and their crosstalk with other innate receptors
in infection and immunity. Immunity 34: 637650
75. Maekawa T., Kufer T. A. and Schulze-Lefert
P. (2011) NLR functions in plant and animal
immune systems: so far and yet so close. Nat
Immunol 12: 817-826
76. Loo Y. M. and Gale M., Jr. (2011) Immune
signaling by RIG-I-like receptors. Immunity 34:
680-692
77. Schroder K. and Tschopp J. (2010) The inflammasomes. Cell 140: 821-832
danger signals.
78. Sancho D. and Reis e Sousa C. (2012)
Signaling by myeloid C-type lectin receptors in
immunity and homeostasis. Annu Rev Immunol 30: 491-529
Reviews
79. Bottazzi B., Doni A., Garlanda C. and Mantovani A. (2010) An integrated view of humoral
innate immunity: pentraxins as a paradigm.
Annu Rev Immunol 28: 157-183
antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are required for the eradication of pathogens or
Quintana-Murci L. and Clark A. G. (2013) Population genetic tools for dissecting innate immunity in humans.
Nat Rev Immunol 13: 280-293
18
69. Lanier L. L. (2013) Shades of grey--the blurring
view of innate and adaptive immunity. Nat Rev
Immunol 13: 73-74
Immunology Research Review
References
Shalek A. K., Satija R., Adiconis X., Gertner R. S., Gaublomme J. T., et al. (2013) Single-cell
transcriptomics reveals bimodality in expression and splicing in immune cells. Nature 498: 236-240
The authors employed single-cell RNA sequencing to investigate heterogeneity in the response of mouse
bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) to lipopolysaccharides. Maturation of BMDCs can occur as
a response to pathogen-derived ligands, such as lipopolysaccharides, which results in co-expression of
defense cytokines. Here the authors identified a cluster of 137 highly variable, yet co-regulated, antiviral
response genes. 100 out of the clusters’ genes were bimodally expressed across single cells despite being
strongly expressed at the population level. The authors stimulated and profiled BMDCs from interferon
receptor knockout (Ifnr -/-) mice and discovered markedly reduced expression in these cells for both Stat2
and Irf7, as well other measured genes in the cluster. They concluded that interferon signaling is required for
the induction of Stat2 and Irf7, which subsequently act to induce variable antiviral cluster genes.
Illumina Technology: HiSeq 2000 for single-cell RNA-Seq with average depth of 27 million read pairs
Cho P., Gelinas L., Corbett N. P., Tebbutt S. J., Turvey S. E., et al. (2013) Association of common singlenucleotide polymorphisms in innate immune genes with differences in TLR-induced cytokine production in
neonates. Genes Immun 14: 199-211
Kemp C., Mueller S., Goto A., Barbier V., Paro S., et al. (2013) Broad RNA interference-mediated antiviral
immunity and virus-specific inducible responses in Drosophila. J Immunol 190: 650-658
Lutay N., Ambite I., Gronberg Hernandez J., Rydstrom G., Ragnarsdottir B., et al. (2013) Bacterial control of
host gene expression through RNA polymerase II. J Clin Invest 123: 2366-2379
Mikacenic C., Reiner A. P., Holden T. D., Nickerson D. A. and Wurfel M. M. (2013) Variation in the TLR10/
TLR1/TLR6 locus is the major genetic determinant of interindividual difference in TLR1/2-mediated responses.
Genes Immun 14: 52-57
Seed K. D., Lazinski D. W., Calderwood S. B. and Camilli A. (2013) A bacteriophage encodes its own
CRISPR/Cas adaptive response to evade host innate immunity. Nature 494: 489-491
Wei Y., Chen R., Dimicoli S., Bueso-Ramos C., Neuberg D., et al. (2013) Global H3K4me3 genome mapping
reveals alterations of innate immunity signaling and overexpression of JMJD3 in human myelodysplastic
syndrome CD34+ cells. Leukemia 27: 2177-2186
Wie S. H., Du P., Luong T. Q., Rought S. E., Beliakova-Bethell N., et al. (2013) HIV Downregulates InterferonStimulated Genes in Primary Macrophages. J Interferon Cytokine Res 33: 90-95
Tsoi L. C., Spain S. L., Knight J., Ellinghaus E., Stuart P. E., et al. (2012) Identification of 15 new psoriasis
susceptibility loci highlights the role of innate immunity. Nat Genet 44: 1341-1348
Yang G., Yang L., Zhao Z., Wang J. and Zhang X. (2012) Signature miRNAs Involved in the Innate Immunity of
Invertebrates. PLoS ONE 7: e39015
An Overview of Publications Featuring Illumina® Technology
19 CANCER AND THE IMMUNE RESPONSE
The development from a normal hematopoietic cell to a cancerous cell involves a
multistep process of clonal evolution driven by a series of somatic mutations. These
mutations progressively transform the cell from normal growth to a precancerous
state and finally a cancerous state, where all checkpoints designed to regulate cell
growth have been surmounted.
Induction of malignant transformations appears to involve at least two distinct
phases: initiation and promotion. Initiation involves changes in the genome but does
not, in itself, lead to malignant transformation. Malignant transformation requires a
secondary step, termed promotion. Promotion can occur during the aggressive cell
division that follows the initiation phase, and results from the accumulation of new
DNA alterations, typically affecting proto-oncogenes, tumor-suppressor genes or
apoptotic genes, that result in unregulated cellular growth.
The ability of next-generation sequencing to detect mutations in rare clonal types,
or cells, through deep sequencing makes it possible to study the role of immune
effector functions in the pathogenesis of hematological malignancies. A notable
example has been the influx of reports that implicate autoreactive T-cell clones in
the pathogenesis of clonal stem cell disorders such as myelodysplastic syndromes
(MDS) and aplastic anemia (AA).80 These studies have been supported by the
widely consolidated understanding that impairment of anti-tumor immunity, which is
physiologically mediated by T-cells, can predispose the development of hematological
malignancies. Collectively these T-cell repertoire studies and new reports that
implicate immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangements in clonal evolution of acute
lymphoblastic leukemia have quickly become one of the most exciting research areas
in hematology.81-83
Reviews
Weaver W. M., Tseng P., Kunze A., Masaeli M., Chung A. J., et al. (2014) Advances in high-throughput singlecell microtechnologies. Curr Opin Biotechnol 25C: 114-123
Fozza C. and Longinotti M. (2013) T-cell receptor repertoire usage in hematologic malignancies. Crit Rev
Oncol Hematol 86: 201-211
Warren E. H., Matsen F. A. t. and Chou J. (2013) High-throughput sequencing of B- and T-lymphocyte antigen
receptors in hematology. Blood 122: 19-22
Gottgens B. (2012) Genome-scale technology driven advances to research into normal and malignant
haematopoiesis. Scientifica (Cairo) 2012: 437956
For more information, see: Cancer and the Immune System.
20
Immunology Research Review
80. Fozza, C., and Longinotti, M. (2013) T-cell
receptor repertoire usage in hematologic
malignancies. Critical reviews in oncology/
hematology 86: 201–211
81. Faham, M., Zheng, J., Moorhead, M., Carlton,
V. E. H., Stow, P., et al. (2012) Deep-sequencing approach for minimal residual disease
detection in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood 120: 5173–5180
82. Gawad, C., Pepin, F., Carlton, V. E. H., Klinger,
M., Logan, A. C., et al. (2012) Massive evolution of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus
in children with B precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood 120: 4407–4417
83. Jan, M., Snyder, T. M., Corces-Zimmerman,
M. R., Vyas, P., Weissman, I. L., et al. (2012)
Clonal Evolution of Preleukemic Hematopoietic
Stem Cells Precedes Human Acute Myeloid
Leukemia. Science Translational Medicine 4:
149ra118–149ra118
MICROBIOTA AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
Microbiota refers to the extraordinarily large and diverse reservoir of microorganisms
that has a co-evolved relationship with the mammalian immune system. These
complex microbial communities inhabit the body surfaces of virtually all vertebrates.
The immune system plays an essential role in maintaining homeostasis with resident
microbial communities to ensure that the mutualistic nature of the host-microbial
relationships is sustained. The co-evolution of the vertebrate immune system has
therefore been driven by the need to protect the host from pathogens and to foster
complex microbial communities for their protective and metabolic benefits. Given that
alterations in host-microbiota homeostasis have been implicated in viral infections,84,85
autoimmune diseases,86 cancer, metabolic diseases, and cardiovascular diseases,
this is an exciting opportunity for researchers to examine the interactions between the
84. Sandler N. G., Koh C., Roque A., Eccleston
J. L., Siegel R. B., et al. (2011) Host response
to translocated microbial products predicts
outcomes of patients with HBV or HCV infection. Gastroenterology 141: 1220-1230, 1230
e1221-1223
85. Leung J. M., Davenport M., Wolff M. J., Wiens
K. E., Abidi W. M., et al. (2014) IL-22-producing CD4+ cells are depleted in actively
inflamed colitis tissue. Mucosal Immunol 7:
124-133
86. McGuckin M. A., Eri R., Simms L. A., Florin
T. H. and Radford-Smith G. (2009) Intestinal
barrier dysfunction in inflammatory bowel
diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis 15: 100-113
microbiota and the host-immune response.
Next generation sequencing technologies have enabled researchers to define the
construction of these microbiota by operationally defining polymorphisms of bacterial
genes; especially those encoding the 16S ribosomal RNA sequences. Sequencing the
human microbiome is now enabling researchers to examine the interactions between
microbial communities and host immunity. This has illuminated the significant role that
the immune system plays in mediating this homeostatic relationship.
The human intestine harbors over 100 trillion microbes, which represent approximately 500 different
species of bacteria.
An Overview of Publications Featuring Illumina® Technology
21 Intestinal immune
system promotes
a tolerant response
to microbiota
87. Kamada N., Seo S. U., Chen G. Y. and Nunez
G. (2013) Role of the gut microbiota in immunity and inflammatory disease. Nat Rev Immunol
13: 321-335
Host
Microbiota
Nutrient-rich
environment
Microbial
Digestion=
vitamins + nutrients
Compete with
pathogens for
limited nutrients
Protected
Niches
Protection
from pathogens
Enhance Innate and
Adaptive Immunity
The host and microbiota have co-evolved mutually beneficial outcomes and the immune system plays a
critical role in preserving homeostasis. The host provides a nutrient-rich environment and protected niches
for the microbiota. The microbiota provides the host with vitamins and nutrients as by-products of microbial
digestion and protects the host from pathogens. The microbiota enhances the innate and adaptive immune
response. Conversely, there is a need for the host to promote a tolerant immune response that enables the
microbiota to inhabit the niches of the gut.
Multiple sclerosis
TH17 cell
Allergic inflammation
Beneficial commensal
bacteria
Treg cell
IgE
iNKT cell
B cell
Basophil
Type 1 diabetes
Pancreatitis
Gut lumen
Lamina
propria
IL-1β
TH17 cell
Arthitis
IL-1R
antagonist
This network illustrates the various roles of the gut microbiota in extra-intestinal autoimmune diseases.87
Reviews
Brown E. M., Sadarangani M. and Finlay B. B. (2013) The role of the immune system in governing hostmicrobe interactions in the intestine. Nat Immunol 14: 660-667
Castelino M., Eyre S., Upton M., Ho P. and Barton A. (2013) The bacterial skin microbiome in psoriatic
arthritis, an unexplored link in pathogenesis: challenges and opportunities offered by recent technological
advances. Rheumatology (Oxford)
22
Immunology Research Review
Kamada N., Chen G. Y., Inohara N. and Nunez G. (2013) Control of pathogens and pathobionts by the gut
microbiota. Nat Immunol 14: 685-690
Kamada N., Seo S. U., Chen G. Y. and Nunez G. (2013) Role of the gut microbiota in immunity and
inflammatory disease. Nat Rev Immunol 13: 321-335
Mavrommatis B., Young G. R. and Kassiotis G. (2013) Counterpoise between the microbiome, host immune
activation and pathology. Curr Opin Immunol 25: 456-462
Hooper L. V., Littman D. R. and Macpherson A. J. (2012) Interactions between the microbiota and the
immune system. Science 336: 1268-1273
References
Leung J. M., Davenport M., Wolff M. J., Wiens K. E., Abidi W. M., et al. (2014) IL-22-producing CD4+
cells are depleted in actively inflamed colitis tissue. Mucosal Immunol 7: 124-133
Changes to bacterial taxa may be associated with disease pathogenesis in inflammatory bowel disease. The
authors performed deep sequencing analysis on the variable region 4 (V4) of bacterial 16S rRNA to investigate
the mucosal microbiota communities in pinch biopsies from a cohort of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. This
deep sequencing study when combined with data generated by flow cytometry demonstrates that the
depletion of Th22 cells, a subset of CD4+ helper T cells that produce IL-22, during active inflammation in UC
patients is associated with reduced populations of Clostridiales and increased population of Proteobacteria
among other specific alteration of the mucosal microbiota
Illumina Technology: MiSeq of 16S rRNA
Markle J. G., Frank D. N., Mortin-Toth S., Robertson C. E., Feazel L. M., et al. (2013) Sex differences in
the gut microbiome drive hormone-dependent regulation of autoimmunity. Science 339: 1084-1088
Microbial factors, in particular the gut microbiota, are thought to influence susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. In
the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes, female mice are significantly more susceptible
to disease than males. This difference is not apparent under germ-free conditions, which indicates a role for
microbes in type 1 diabetes susceptibility. The authors sequenced bacterial 16S rRNA libraries prepared from
cecal contents to identify microbiome composition differences between sexes, through maturation and postcecal transplantation. Transfer of cecal contents from male NOD mice to female NOD mice prior to disease
onset protected against pancreatic islet inflammation, reduced autoantibody production, prevented the onset
of diabetes, and was associated with increased testosterone in female mice. The protection conferred by
M➝F microbiome transfer was attenuated when androgen receptors were blocked. This study suggests that
the microbiota may have a regulatory role on sex hormones and may influence autoimmune disease fate in
individuals with high genetic risk.
Illumina Technology: MiSeq paired-end sequencing 16S rRNA
Wang X., Lin Z., Gao L., Wang A., Wan Z., et al. (2013) Exome sequencing reveals a signal transducer
and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) mutation in a child with recalcitrant cutaneous fusariosis. J
Allergy Clin Immunol 131: 1242-1243
Fusarium species can cause papopustular lesions with abscesses, ulcerations, and even necrosis in
immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The authors report a case study of a 7 year old girl
with treatment-resistant cutaneous fusariosis. They employed exome sequencing and identified a single
heterozygous missense mutation in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) gene, which
is the most likely genetic defect underlying the fusariosis in this patient.
Illumina Technology: HiSeq 2000 exome sequencing
Schwab C., Berry D., Rauch I., Rennisch I., Ramesmayer J., et al. (2014) Longitudinal study of murine
microbiota activity and interactions with the host during acute inflammation and recovery. ISME J
Arthur J. C., Perez-Chanona E., Mühlbauer M., Tomkovich S., Uronis J. M., et al. (2012) Intestinal
inflammation targets cancer-inducing activity of the microbiota. Science 338: 120-123
Caporaso J. G., Lauber C. L., Walters W. A., Berg-Lyons D., Huntley J., et al. (2012) Ultra-high-throughput
microbial community analysis on the Illumina HiSeq and MiSeq platforms. ISME J 6: 1621-1624
Maslanik T., Tannura K., Mahaffey L., Loughridge A. B., Benninson L., et al. (2012) Commensal bacteria and
MAMPs are necessary for stress-induced increases in IL-1beta and IL-18 but not IL-6, IL-10 or MCP-1. PLoS
ONE 7: e50636
An Overview of Publications Featuring Illumina® Technology
23 MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY
COMPLEX
Although both T and B cells use surface receptors to recognize antigens, they
accomplish this in two different ways. In contrast to antibodies or B-cell receptors,
which can directly recognize antigens, T-cell receptors only recognize antigens that
are presented on the surface of antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and
macrophages. These antigen peptides reside within the groove of a cell surface
protein called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule.
In humans, the MHC locus is referred to as the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)
and encodes a collection of genes that span a contiguous 4 Mb region on the short
arm of chromosome 6.88 Moreover, the extended MHC, termed (xMHC), spans
an even larger 7.6 Mb region comprising more than 400 annotated genes and
pseudogenes.89
Chromosome 6
HLA Region
D
β 1 α1 β 2 α2
β 1 α1 β 2 α2
DP
DQ
270
191
1,694
1
1,431
B
282
2,549
3
A
β1 β3 β4 α
DR
111
4
23
5
509 465 609
Class I Gene
157 270
276
276 117
1
3
4
Class II Gene
2
C
786
2
130
241
578
5
102
33 48 2
6 7
442 142169 432
6
Exon
α2 α1
Class II Protein
α1
α1
α2
α3 β2M
β2
Class I Protein
Cell Membrane
This is a map of the human MHC loci. The MHC class I genes are colored red, MHC class II genes are
colored blue, and genes in MHC III are colored green. The 6 loci that are outlined encode the peptide binding
sites of class I and II MHC molecules. These loci are routinely assessed in matching donors and recipients in
hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplantation.
24
Immunology Research Review
88. de Bakker P. I. and Raychaudhuri S. (2012)
Interrogating the major histocompatibility
complex with high-throughput genomics. Hum
Mol Genet 21: R29-36
89. Horton R., Wilming L., Rand V., Lovering R.
C., Bruford E. A., et al. (2004) Gene map of
the extended human MHC. Nat Rev Genet 5:
889-899
Six of the HLA genes (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DQA1, -DQB1 and –DRB1) are extremely
polymorphic and constitute a set of important markers that are routinely employed
in matching patients and donors for solid organ transplantation90 and hematopoietic
stem cell transplantation.91,92 HLA genes also play an important role in infectious
diseases (HIV, Hep C and CMV), autoimmune diseases (diabetes, rheumatoid
arthritis, and celiac disease), and drug hypersensitivity.93
With conventional technologies, only the most polymorphic regions of HLA class I
(exons 2 and 3) and II (exon 2), which encode the peptide binding sites, are assessed
in clinical settings. Next-generation sequencing provides clinical researchers with the
capability to sequence the entire gene, resulting in phase-resolved, unambiguous
HLA typing. Clinical studies have shown that matching these regions of the 6 major
HLA loci provides the best clinical outcomes with decreased incidence of rejection
and graft versus host disease (GVHD) in solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell
transplantation. However, even when these regions are matched, approximately 30%
of recipients experience adverse events within 5 years.94
The source of these imperfect matches is unknown, but there are several possibilities.
Adverse events may reflect mismatches in regions that lie outside of the regions
that are currently analyzed. Given the high degree of polymorphisms, ambiguous
combination of alleles may arise during HLA typing. These may result from cis/trans
90. Eapen M., Rubinstein P., Zhang M. J., Stevens
C., Kurtzberg J., et al. (2007) Outcomes of
transplantation of unrelated donor umbilical
cord blood and bone marrow in children with
acute leukaemia: a comparison study. Lancet
369: 1947-1954
91. Marks C. (1983) Immunobiological determinants in organ transplantation. Ann R Coll Surg
Engl 65: 139-144
92. Davies J. L., Kawaguchi Y., Bennett S. T.,
Copeman J. B., Cordell H. J., et al. (1994) A
genome-wide search for human type 1 diabetes susceptibility genes. Nature 371: 130-136
93. Mallal S., Nolan D., Witt C., Masel G., Martin
A. M., et al. (2002) Association between
presence of HLA-B*5701, HLA-DR7, and
HLA-DQ3 and hypersensitivity to HIV-1
reverse-transcriptase inhibitor abacavir. Lancet
359: 727-732
94. Ottinger H. D., Ferencik S., Beelen D. W.,
Lindemann M., Peceny R., et al. (2003)
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation:
contrasting the outcome of transplantations
from HLA-identical siblings, partially HLA-mismatched related donors, and HLA-matched
unrelated donors. Blood 102: 1131-1137
95. Wang C., Krishnakumar S., Wilhelmy J.,
Babrzadeh F., Stepanyan L., et al. (2012)
High-throughput, high-fidelity HLA genotyping
with deep sequencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S
A 109: 8676-8681
ambiguities or due to a particular allele combination being identical over the regions
commonly analyzed. For example, in conventional sequencing both heterozygous
alleles are coamplified and sequenced. Combination ambiguity can occur when two
or more alleles share identical sequences in the targeted exons but exhibit differences
in non-sequenced exons.95 Next-generation sequencing provides phase information,
which may significantly improve the analysis of the HLA cohort (See Phase-Defined
HLA Sequencing for more details).
Reviews
de Bakker P. I. and Raychaudhuri S. (2012) Interrogating the major histocompatibility complex with highthroughput genomics. Hum Mol
Erlich H. (2012) HLA DNA typing: past, present, and future. Tissue Antigens 80: 1-11
An Overview of Publications Featuring Illumina® Technology
25 References
Wang C., Krishnakumar S., Wilhelmy J., Babrzadeh F., Stepanyan L., et al. (2012) High-throughput,
high-fidelity HLA genotyping with deep sequencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109: 8676-8681
The authors propose a high-throughput HLA genotyping method that employs the use of a single long
range PCR to amplify the genomic DNA spanning the majority of the coding regions of four polymorphic
HLA genes (HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1). This extensive coverage method enhances allelic resolution, which
reduces combination ambiguity that results from off-phase heterozygous sequences. Their coverage of
non-polymorphic regions increases the chance of identifying previously undescribed alleles with mismatches,
insertions, and deletions.
Illumina Technology: MiSeq and HiSeq 2000 for 150 and 100 bp paired-end sequencing. Used Genome
AnalyzerIIx to sequence 150 bases from both ends
Zheng X., Shen J., Cox C., Wakefield J. C., Ehm M. G., et al. (2014) HIBAG-HLA genotype imputation with
attribute bagging. Pharmacogenomics J 14: 192-200
Hosomichi K., Jinam T. A., Mitsunaga S., Nakaoka H. and Inoue I. (2013) Phase-defined complete
sequencing of the HLA genes by next-generation sequencing. BMC Genomics 14: 355
Kim Y. J., Kim H. Y., Lee J. H., Yu S. J., Yoon J. H., et al. (2013) A genome-wide association study identified
new variants associated with the risk of chronic hepatitis B. Hum Mol Genet 22: 4233-4238
Lam T. H., Shen M., Chia J. M., Chan S. H. and Ren E. C. (2013) Population-specific recombination sites
within the human MHC region. Heredity (Edinb) 111: 131-138
Levin A. M., Iannuzzi M. C., Montgomery C. G., Trudeau S., Datta I., et al. (2013) Association of ANXA11
genetic variation with sarcoidosis in African Americans and European Americans. Genes Immun 14: 13-18
Riolobos L., Hirata R. K., Turtle C. J., Wang P. R., Gornalusse G. G., et al. (2013) HLA Engineering of Human
Pluripotent Stem Cells. Mol Ther 21: 1232-1241
26
Immunology Research Review
Phase-Defined HLA Sequencing
Phase-defined sequencing indicates which of the two parental chromosomes
a particular allele is derived from. Paired-end sequencing inherently provides
information for phasing. When a read encompasses two or more heterozygous
genotypes of an individual, the phase of the heterozygous genotypes is determined
since each fragment from which a read or pair of reads is obtained in a single allele.
Therefore, if read lengths have sufficiently high coverage a substantial amount of
phase information can be obtained.96 This has vast implications in understanding the
interplay of genetic variation and disease,97 imputing untyped genetic variation,98-100
calling genotypes in sequence data,101-104 detecting genotype error,105 inferring human
demographic history,106 inferring points of recombination,107 detecting recurrent
mutation,
107
signatures of selection,
108
and modeling cis-regulation of
gene expression.
Paternal
A
G
Maternal
T
C
97. Tewhey R., Bansal V., Torkamani A., Topol E.
J. and Schork N. J. (2011) The importance of
phase information for human genomics. Nat
Rev Genet 12: 215-223
98. Marchini J., Howie B., Myers S., McVean
G. and Donnelly P. (2007) A new multipoint
method for genome-wide association studies
by imputation of genotypes. Nat Genet 39:
906-913
99. Browning B. L. and Browning S. R. (2009) A
unified approach to genotype imputation and
haplotype-phase inference for large data sets
of trios and unrelated individuals. Am J Hum
Genet 84: 210-223
100. Li Y., Willer C. J., Ding J., Scheet P. and
Abecasis G. R. (2010) MaCH: using sequence
and genotype data to estimate haplotypes and
unobserved genotypes. Genet Epidemiol 34:
816-834
101. Yu Z., Garner C., Ziogas A., Anton-Culver H.
and Schaid D. J. (2009) Genotype determination for polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium. BMC Bioinformatics 10: 63
102. Genomes Project C. (2010) A map of human
genome variation from population-scale
sequencing. Nature 467: 1061-1073
Non Phased: Information is lost
Combined
96. Levy S., Sutton G., Ng P. C., Feuk L., Halpern
A. L., et al. (2007) The diploid genome
sequence of an individual human. PLoS Biol
5: e254
A
G
T
C
Phased: Information is retained
Sequence 1
A
G
Sequence 2
T
C
Combination ambiguity occurs when a non-phased consensus sequence is generated. When a single
consensus sequence is generated this conceals which of the parental chromosome variants are derived from.
Phasing analysis enables researchers to generate two identifiable sequences that correspond to both parental
chromosomes. This resolves combination ambiguity and enables researchers to identify which of the two
parental chromosomes variants are derived from.
103. Le S. Q. and Durbin R. (2011) SNP detection
and genotyping from low-coverage sequencing data on multiple diploid samples. Genome
Res 21: 952-960
104. Li Y., Sidore C., Kang H. M., Boehnke M.
and Abecasis G. R. (2011) Low-coverage sequencing: Implications for design of complex
trait association studies. Genome Res 21:
940-951
105. Scheet P. and Stephens M. (2008) Linkage
disequilibrium-based quality control for
large-scale genetic studies. PLoS Genet 4:
e1000147
106. Tishkoff S. A., Dietzsch E., Speed W., Pakstis
A. J., Kidd J. R., et al. (1996) Global patterns
of linkage disequilibrium at the CD4 locus
and modern human origins. Science 271:
1380-1387
107. Kong A., Masson G., Frigge M., Gylfason
A., Zusmanovich P., et al. (2008) Detection
of sharing by descent, long-range phasing
and haplotype imputation. Nat Genet 40:
1068-1075
108. Sabeti P. C., Reich D. E., Higgins J. M., Levine
H. Z., Richter D. J., et al. (2002) Detecting
recent positive selection in the human genome
from haplotype structure. Nature 419: 832-837
An Overview of Publications Featuring Illumina® Technology
27 Although there has been a strong emergence of next generation sequencing efforts
in HLA-genotyping, these comprehensive analyses omit non-coding HLA regions
and mRNA-spliced data,109-111 which may have an impact on gene regulation.112,113
Moreover, allele determination is conventionally based on sequence alignment to the
reference library of HLA sequences in the IMGT/HLA database,114 which prevents the
identification of novel phase-defined HLA gene haplotypes.
Reviews
Browning S. R. and Browning B. L. (2011) Haplotype phasing: existing methods and new developments. Nat
Rev Genet 12: 703-714
Tewhey R., Bansal V., Torkamani A., Topol E. J. and Schork N. J. (2011) The importance of phase information
for human genomics. Nat Rev Genet 12: 215-223
References
Hosomichi K., Jinam T. A., Mitsunaga S., Nakaoka H. and Inoue I. (2013) Phase-defined complete
sequencing of the HLA genes by next-generation sequencing. BMC Genomics 14: 355
This is the first study to report a complete sequence of the HLA region. Here the authors were able to
determine the phase-defined entire HLA gene sequences, regardless of whether the alleles were rare or novel.
They sequenced long-range PCR products of HLA genes spanning from promoter to 3’-UTRs and employed
a gene-tagging method to generate two HLA gene haplotype sequences based on phase-defined SNVs.
Paired end reads of 2 x 250 bps allowed them to demonstrate phase-defined allele determination for 33 HLA
homozygous samples, 11 HLA heterozygous samples, and 3 parent-child families.
Illumina Technology: MiSeq 2 x 250 bp and Nextera DNA Sample Prep Kit for library construction
28
Immunology Research Review
109. Elsner H. A., Bernard G., Eiz-Vesper B., de
Matteis M., Bernard A., et al. (2002) Non-expression of HLA-A*2901102 N is caused by a
nucleotide exchange in the mRNA splicing site
at the beginning of intron 4. Tissue Antigens
59: 139-141
110. Tamouza R., El Kassar N., Schaeffer V.,
Carbonnelle E., Tatari Z., et al. (2000) A novel
HLA-B*39 allele (HLA-B*3916) due to a rare
mutation causing cryptic splice site activation.
Hum Immunol 61: 467-473
111. Dubois V., Tiercy J. M., Labonne M. P.,
Dormoy A. and Gebuhrer L. (2004) A new
HLA-B44 allele (B*44020102S) with a splicing
mutation leading to a complete deletion of
exon 5. Tissue Antigens 63: 173-180
112. Cocco E., Meloni A., Murru M. R., Corongiu D., Tranquilli S., et al. (2012) Vitamin D
responsive elements within the HLA-DRB1
promoter region in Sardinian multiple sclerosis
associated alleles. PLoS One 7: e41678
113. Thomas R., Apps R., Qi Y., Gao X., Male V., et
al. (2009) HLA-C cell surface expression and
control of HIV/AIDS correlate with a variant
upstream of HLA-C. Nat Genet 41: 1290-1294
114. Hosomichi K., Jinam T. A., Mitsunaga S.,
Nakaoka H. and Inoue I. (2013) Phase-defined
complete sequencing of the HLA genes by
next-generation sequencing. BMC Genomics
14: 355
SELF VS NON-SELF
ANTIGEN DISCRIMINATION
Tolerance
Tolerance refers to the many layers of protection imposed by the immune system
to prevent the reaction of its cells and antibodies against host components.
An important form of tolerance is self-tolerance, which refers to the lack of response
of the immune system to self-antigens.
Recent studies report a more active role of immune cells in the selective inhibition
of responses to self-antigens. For example the study of regulatory T cells (TREG),
which in fact recognize self-proteins, have revolutionized the field of tolerance and
autoimmunity, not to mention transplantation.
T regulatory cell
(specificity for A)
T effector cell
(specificity for B)
T effector cell
(specificity for A)
TCR
Peptide
HMC class II
Peptide A
Peptide B
Antigen presenting cell
Linked suppression represents a way in which regulatory T cells (TREG) support local self-tolerance.
TREG cells inhibit antigen-presenting cells (APCs) presenting their cognate antigen. They can also inhibit
bystander T cells, of the same and different antigen specificity, through soluble inhibitory factors.
An Overview of Publications Featuring Illumina® Technology
29 Central tolerance occurs in the primary lymphoid organs: the bone marrow for
B cells and the thymus for T cells. In the first step of this process, T or B-cell clones
that recognize self-antigens with high affinity are not allowed to mature. Peripheral
tolerance is a secondary precaution in the event that some self-reactive lymphocytes
do find their way into the periphery and secondary lymphoid tissues. The peripheral
tolerance will render some self-reactive lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid tissues
inactive and generates others that actively inhibit immune responses against self.
Furthermore, induced cell death, or apoptosis adds a further protective measure by
limiting the lifespan of activated lymphocytes.
T cell anergy has been characterized as a hyporesponsive state, or unresponsiveness
to an antigenic stimulus, induced by TCR engagement in the absence of
costimulation.115,116 Conversely, when the same antigen is presented with appropriate
costimulatory molecules it can become a potent immunogen and mount an
immunologic response. Indirect evidence suggests that T cell dysfunction in the
tumor microenvironment and establishment of transplant tolerance is partially
attributed to T cell anergy.117 Despite the advances in the characterization of T cell
anergy, there are gaps in our knowledge base of the anergic phenotype. This is
due to the lack of surface markers that might be useful in identifying anergic T cells.
Furthermore, it is unclear teleologically why T cells that are subjected to anergyinducing conditions are not deleted from the repertoire, in order to eliminate T cells of
undesired specificities.
Reviews
Nishikawa H. and Sakaguchi S. (2014) Regulatory T cells in cancer immunotherapy. Curr Opin Immunol 27C: 1-7
Wherry E. J. (2011) T cell exhaustion. Nat Immunol 12: 492-499 Immunol 132: 170-181
References
Zheng Y., Zha Y., Spaapen R. M., Mathew R., Barr K., et al. (2013) Egr2-dependent gene expression
profiling and ChIP-Seq reveal novel biologic targets in T cell anergy. Mol Immunol 55: 283-291
T-cell anergy contributes to peripheral tolerance and plays a role in tumor growth and in promoting
transplant allograft acceptance. Egr2 is a critical transcriptional regulator of T-cell anergy. To identify
the direct transcriptional targets of Egr2, the authors performed a ChIP-Seq analysis of anti-Egr2 Ab
immunoprecipitated nuclear extracts derived from untreated and anergized Th1 T cells. By merging this data
with gene expression profiling analyses, the authors revealed 49 targets that are directly regulated by Egr2.
They unexpectedly identified cell surface molecules and secreted factors, including lymphocyte-activation
gene 3 (Lag3), Class-I-MHC-restricted T-cell associated molecule (Crtam), Semaphorin 7A (Sema7A), and
chemokine CCL1. These results indicate that the anergic state may have a functional role through interactions
with other immune cells.
Illumina Technology: Genome AnalyzerIIx for ChIP-Seq of DNA fragments ranging from 200 and 400 bp
Roychoudhuri R., Hirahara K., Mousavi K., Clever D., Klebanoff C. A., et al. (2013) BACH2 represses
effector programs to stabilize T(reg)-mediated immune homeostasis. Nature 498: 506-510
Genetic polymorphisms within a single locus encoding the transcription factor BACH2 are associated with
numerous autoimmune and allergic diseases. The authors use mice that had the BACH2 gene disrupted.
They find that BACH2 is a regulator of immune activation.
Illumina Technology: HiSeq for MiRNA sequencing and ChIP-Seq
Ferraro A., D’Alise A. M., Raj T., Asinovski N., Phillips R., et al. (2014) Interindividual variation in human T
regulatory cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111: E1111-1120
30
Immunology Research Review
115. Steinert E. M., Schwartz R. H. and Singh N.
J. (2012) At low precursor frequencies, the
T-cell response to chronic self-antigen results
in anergy without deletion. Eur J Immunol 42:
2875-2880
116. Chappert P. and Schwartz R. H. (2010) Induction of T cell anergy: integration of environmental cues and infectious tolerance. Curr Opin
Immunol 22: 552-559
117. Gajewski T. F., Fuertes M., Spaapen R., Zheng
Y. and Kline J. (2011) Molecular profiling to
identify relevant immune resistance mechanisms in the tumor microenvironment. Curr
Opin Immunol 23: 286-292
Autoimmunity
Autoimmunity is caused from the failure of tolerance to protect the host from
autoreactive T or B-cell clones. The pathogenesis of these diseases manifests itself
in the destruction of proteins, cells, and organs by self-reactive lymphocytes. The
onset and pathogenesis of autoimmunity not only depends on intrinsic factors of
T and B-cells, such as germline or somatic mutations118-120 but also on environmental
factors such as microbiota or infections,121 the cytokine milieu, and the presence of
other immune cells in the microenvironment.122
For most chronic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, patient populations are
heterogeneous and do not uniformly respond to a given therapy. As a result the
therapeutic decisions for most autoimmune and inflammatory diseases are based
mainly on trial-and-error observations. The development of “actionable biomarkers”
may potentially improve the design of clinical trials and inform treatment decisions.123
For example high-throughput DNA sequencing facilitates the tacking of diseaseassociated clones of T and B-cells in autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, changes in
these cell populations can be correlated with a patient’s response to therapies.124
The greatest hope in treating these diseases lie in a greater understanding of the
functional roles of genetic and epigenetic variants in autoimmune pathogenesis.125
Next-generation sequencing of whole-exomes and whole-genomes has become
an essential tool in identifying rare genetic variants in large cohorts of autoimmune
disease patients. In addition, recent advances in the sequencing of epigenetic
markers are adding more information to elucidate the subtle interplay among
epigenetic modifications, genetic factors, and environmental signals that predispose
individuals to autoimmune risk.
118. Corradin O., Saiakhova A., Akhtar-Zaidi B.,
Myeroff L., Willis J., et al. (2014) Combinatorial
effects of multiple enhancer variants in linkage
disequilibrium dictate levels of gene expression
to confer susceptibility to common traits.
Genome Res 24: 13-Jan
119. Li Y., Cheng H., Zuo X. B., Sheng Y. J., Zhou
F. S., et al. (2013) Association analyses identifying two common susceptibility loci shared by
psoriasis and systemic lupus erythematosus
in the Chinese Han population. J Med Genet
50: 812-818
120. McDonald-McGinn D. M., Fahiminiya S., Revil
T., Nowakowska B. A., Suhl J., et al. (2013)
Hemizygous mutations in SNAP29 unmask
autosomal recessive conditions and contribute
to atypical findings in patients with 22q11.2DS.
J Med Genet 50: 80-90
121. Yurkovetskiy L., Burrows M., Khan A. A., Graham L., Volchkov P., et al. (2013) Gender bias
in autoimmunity is influenced by microbiota.
Immunity 39: 400-412
122. Knoechel B. and Lohr J. G. (2013) Genomics
of lymphoid malignancies reveal major activation pathways in lymphocytes. J Autoimmun
45: 15-23
123. Chan A. C. and Behrens T. W. (2013) Personalizing medicine for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Nat Immunol 14: 106-109
124. Maecker H. T., Lindstrom T. M., Robinson
W. H., Utz P. J., Hale M., et al. (2012) New
tools for classification and monitoring of
autoimmune diseases. Nat Rev Rheumatol 8:
317-328
125. Laird, P. W. (2010) Principles and challenges
of genome-wide DNA methylation analysis.
Nature reviews. Genetics 11: 191–203
Reviews
Chan A. C. and Behrens T. W. (2013) Personalizing medicine for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Nat
Immunol 14: 106-109
Graham D. B. and Xavier R. J. (2013) From genetics of inflammatory bowel disease towards mechanistic
insights. Trends Immunol 34: 371-378
Knoechel B. and Lohr J. G. (2013) Genomics of lymphoid malignancies reveal major activation pathways in
lymphocytes. J Autoimmun 45: 15-23
Orrù V., Steri M., Sole G., Sidore C., Virdis F., et al. (2013) Genetic variants regulating immune cell levels in
health and disease. Cell 155: 242-256
Viatte S., Plant D. and Raychaudhuri S. (2013) Genetics and epigenetics of rheumatoid arthritis. Nat Rev
Rheumatol 9: 141-153
Maecker H. T., Lindstrom T. M., Robinson W. H., Utz P. J., Hale M., et al. (2012) New tools for classification
and monitoring of autoimmune diseases. Nat Rev Rheumatol 8: 317-328
An Overview of Publications Featuring Illumina® Technology
31 References
Joseph C. G., Darrah E., Shah A. A., Skora A. D., Casciola-Rosen L. A., et al. (2014) Association of the
autoimmune disease scleroderma with an immunologic response to cancer. Science 343: 152-157
Scleroderma is an autoimmune connective tissue disease in which patients make antibodies to a limited
group of autoantigens. Patients with scleroderma and antibodies against RPC1 are at increased risk for
cancer. The authors sequenced the tumor and normal coding sequences of the POLR3A, TOP1, and CENPB
genes in 16 patients. The results suggest that POLR3A mutations triggered cellular immunity and crossreactive humoral immune responses.
Illumina Technology: Genome AnalyzerIIx
Christodoulou K., Wiskin A. E., Gibson J., Tapper W., Willis C., et al. (2013) Next generation exome
sequencing of paediatric inflammatory bowel disease patients identifies rare and novel variants in
candidate genes. Gut 62: 977-984
The authors utilize exome-sequencing analysis to identify rare and novel variants in known inflammatory
bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility genes. Of a panel of 169 known IBD susceptibility genes, approximately
300 non-synonymous, truncating and frameshift mutations were identified from eight pediatric IBD patients.
After excluding HLA variants, they uncovered 58 variants across 39 genes, of which 17 were not previously
reported. Of the cohort, both patients with severe ulcerative colitis (UC) displayed a distinct profile; both
carried potentially deleterious unique variation in the B-cell regulatory gene BACH2 and IL10 genes, which
was not seen in the other IBD patients. Variation in BACH2 has not been reported in GWAS of UC.
Illumina Technology: HiSeq 2000 for exome sequencing
Coit P., Jeffries M., Altorok N., Dozmorov M. G., Koelsch K. A., et al. (2013) Genome-wide DNA
methylation study suggests epigenetic accessibility and transcriptional poising of interferon-regulated
genes in naive CD4+ T cells from lupus patients. J Autoimmun 43: 78-84
DNA methylation changes have been implicated in T cell differentiation in systemic lupus erythematosus
patients. The authors performed a genome-wide DNA methylation study and gene expression profiling in
naïve CD4+ T cells from lupus patients and controls. Among 86 CG sites that are differentially methylated in
naïve CD4+ T cells from lupus patients, they revealed that 21 out of 35 hypo methylated genes are regulated
by type-1 interferon - including IFIT1, IFIT3, MX1, STAT1, IFI44L, USP18, TRIM22 and BST2. These results
indicate that abnormal DNA methylation exists in lupus T cells prior to activation and differentiation and
provide an epigenetic explanation for hyper-responsiveness to type-1 interferon in lupus T cells.
Illumina Technology: Infinium Human-Methylation450 BeadChip array for DNA methylation studies and
HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChip array for gene expression studies. DNA methylation analysis was
performed with GenomeStudio methylation analysis package
Han A., Newell E. W., Glanville J., Fernandez-Becker N., Khosla C., et al. (2013) Dietary gluten triggers
concomitant activation of CD4+ and CD8+ alphabeta T cells and gammadelta T cells in celiac disease.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110: 13073-13078
Celiac disease is an intestinal autoimmune disease caused by dietary gluten and gluten-specific CD4+ T cell
responses. Gluten exposure also induces the appearance of activated, gut-homing CD8+ αβ and γδ T cells
in peripheral blood. Single-cell T cell receptor sequence analysis indicates that both of these cell populations
have highly focused T cell receptor repertoires. Such a focused repertoire usually indicates that the induction
is driven by an antigen.
Illumina Technology: MiSeq paired-end sequencing
Roychoudhuri R., Hirahara K., Mousavi K., Clever D., Klebanoff C. A., et al. (2013) BACH2 represses
effector programs to stabilize T(reg)-mediated immune homeostasis. Nature 498: 506-510
BACH2 is expressed in B cells where it acts as a transcriptional repressor of Blimp-1 and other class switch
recombination genes. Polymorphisms within a single locus encoding the transcription factor BACH2 are
associated with numerous autoimmune and allergic diseases. By studying mice in which the BACh2 gene
was disrupted, the authors found that BACH2 is a key regulator of CD4+ T-cell differentiation that prevents
inflammatory disease by controlling the balance between tolerance and immunity. They stimulated BACH2
knockout murine naive CD4+ T cells, and subsequently performed massively parallel RNA sequencing to
show that the majority of differentially expressed genes were unregulated in BACH2-deficient cells. The
authors measured genome-wide BACH2 binding in iTreg cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation with
massively parallel sequencing. They determined that BACH2 bound 43.6% of all derepressed genes,
including 408 derepressed effector lineage-associated genes.
Illumina Technology: HiSeq 2000 and used TruSeq Sample Prep Kit to prepare RNA-Seq libraries
32
Immunology Research Review
Lessard C. J., Li H., Adrianto I., Ice J. A., Rasmussen A., et al. (2013) Variants at multiple loci
implicated in both innate and adaptive immune responses are associated with Sjögren’s syndrome.
Nat Genet 45: 1284-1292
Sjögren’s syndrome is a common autoimmune disease that typically presents as inflammation of the cornea
(keratoconjunctivitis sicca) and dry mouth syndrome (xerostomia). In this publication the authors performed a
genome-wide association study using Illumina Omni1 Quad array, Illumina ImmunoChip and performed gene
expression profiling on the Illumina Human WG-6 v.3.0 BeadChip. Using bioinformatics… read more tools,
the combination of genome-wide significance thresholding and suggestively associated variants provided
evidence of direct and indirect protein-protein interaction and enrichment of genes involved in immune
signaling processes including: TNFAIP3, PTTG1, PRDM1, DGKQ, FCGR2A, IRAK1BP1, ITSN2 and PHIP,
among others.
Illumina Technology: HumanOmni1-Quad, Human ImmunoChip
Martin J. E., Assassi S., Diaz-Gallo L. M., Broen J. C., Simeon C. P., et al. (2013) A systemic sclerosis
and systemic lupus erythematosus pan-meta-GWAS reveals new shared susceptibility loci. Hum Mol
Genet 22: 4021-4029
In this meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies (GWAS) the authors searched for common
genetic susceptibility loci for systemic sclerosis (SSc) and lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both diseases are
archetypical autoimmune diseases and previous studies have shown that several autoimmune diseases have
a common genetic basis. In this study of a total of ~21,000 samples, one new associated locus was identified
and two previously described SLE loci were found to be shared with SSc.
Illumina Technology: HumanCNV370-Duo, HumanHap550, Human610-Quad, Human Gene
Expression - BeadArray
Bhanusali D. G., Sachdev A., Olson M. A., Gerlach J. A. and Sinha A. A. (2014) PTPN22 profile indicates a
novel risk group in Alopecia areata. Hum Immunol 75: 81-87
Leung J. M., Davenport M., Wolff M. J., Wiens K. E., Abidi W. M., et al. (2014) IL-22-producing CD4+ cells are
depleted in actively inflamed colitis tissue. Mucosal Immunol 7: 124-133
Furukawa H., Oka S., Matsui T., Hashimoto A., Arinuma Y., et al. (2013) Genome, epigenome and
transcriptome analyses of a pair of monozygotic twins discordant for systemic lupus erythematosus. Hum
Immunol 74: 170-175
Guo X., Brenner M., Zhang X., Laragione T., Tai S., et al. (2013) Whole-genome sequences of da and f344 rats
with different susceptibilities to arthritis, autoimmunity, inflammation and cancer. Genetics 194: 1017-1028
Koelsch K. A., Webb R., Jeffries M., Dozmorov M. G., Frank M. B., et al. (2013) Functional characterization
of the MECP2/IRAK1 lupus risk haplotype in human T cells and a human MECP2 transgenic mouse. J
Autoimmun 41: 168-174
Nakano K., Whitaker J. W., Boyle D. L., Wang W. and Firestein G. S. (2013) DNA methylome signature in
rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 72: 110-117
Wang C., Ahlford A., Laxman N., Nordmark G., Eloranta M. L., et al. (2013) Contribution of IKBKE and IFIH1
gene variants to SLE susceptibility. Genes Immun 14: 217-222
Ahn J., Gutman D., Saijo S. and Barber G. N. (2012) STING manifests self DNA-dependent inflammatory
disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109: 19386-19391
Cottrell T. R., Hall J. C., Rosen A. and Casciola-Rosen L. (2012) Identification of novel autoantigens by a
triangulation approach. J Immunol Methods 385: 35-44
Labbe C., Boucher G., Foisy S., Alikashani A., Nkwimi H., et al. (2012) Genome-wide expression profiling
implicates a MAST3-regulated gene set in colonic mucosal inflammation of ulcerative colitis patients. Inflamm
Bowel Dis 18: 1072-1080
An Overview of Publications Featuring Illumina® Technology
33 Solid Organ Transplantation
Graft rejection in solid organ transplantation is attributed to histoincompatible
tissues. One type of transplanted tissue is an allograft, which is transferred between
genetically different members of the same species. Because an allograft is genetically
dissimilar to the host and therefore expresses unique antigens, these are often not
recognized as self-antigens by the immune system and result in graft rejection.
Tissues that share sufficient antigenic similarity, allowing transfer without immunologic
rejection, are said to be histoincompatible, as is the case when the transfer occurs
between identical twins. Most transplants are conducted between individuals with a
matching ABO blood group and HLA matching. However, even when MHC antigens
are identical, the transplanted tissue can be rejected because of differences at
various other loci, including the minor histocompatibility locus.
Currently, for heart transplant recipients, the endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) has
been employed as the ‘gold standard’ for rejection surveillance. However, the
endomyocardial biopsy is an expensive and invasive procedure that is limited by
sampling error, interobserver variability in grading, late detection of rejection, and
risk of morbidity.126,127 Therefore, there has been a considerable effort to develop
noninvasive techniques that might replace or reduce the need for EMB, with
much focus placed on monitoring the recipient’s immune response to detect the
onset of rejection.
34
Immunology Research Review
126. Winters G. L. and McManus B. M. (1996) Consistencies and controversies in the application
of the International Society for Heart and Lung
Transplantation working formulation for heart
transplant biopsy specimens. Rapamycin
Cardiac Rejection Treatment Trial Pathologists.
J Heart Lung Transplant 15: 728-735
127. Oto T., Levvey B. J. and Snell G. I. (2007) Potential refinements of the International Society
for Heart and Lung Transplantation primary
graft dysfunction grading system. J Heart Lung
Transplant 26: 431-436
Reviews
Gabriel C., Furst D., Fae I., Wenda S., Zollikofer C., et al. (2014) HLA typing by next-generation sequencing getting closer to reality. Tissue Antigens 83: 65-75
Boyd S. D. (2013) Diagnostic applications of high-throughput DNA sequencing. Annu Rev Pathol 8: 381-410
De Santis D., Dinauer D., Duke J., Erlich H. A., Holcomb C. L., et al. (2013) 16(th) IHIW : review of HLA typing
by NGS. Int J Immunogenet 40: 72-76
Starzl R., Brandacher G., Lee W. P., Carbonell J., Zhang W., et al. (2013) Review of the early diagnoses and
assessment of rejection in vascularized composite allotransplantation. Clin Dev Immunol 2013: 402980
References
Chen Y., Zhang H., Xiao X., Jia Y., Wu W., et al. (2013) Peripheral blood transcriptome sequencing
reveals rejection-relevant genes in long-term heart transplantation. Int J Cardiol 168: 2726-2733
The authors employed transcriptome sequencing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived
from 6 quiescent and 6 severe rejection heart transplant recipients. Through digital gene expression (DGE)
profiling, a measurement of expression based on the number of reads of the same or similar sequences, they
identified a 10-gene PBMC signature capable of distinguishing patients with acute cardiac allograft rejection.
Based on a protein-protein interaction network analysis, the authors indicate that CXCR4 and HLA-A are the
most informative genes based on a higher degree of control over information flowing to the other 10 genes in
the cooperative networkt.
Illumina Technology: Genome AnalyzerIIx for 85 bp reads RNA-Seq
Hosomichi K., Jinam T. A., Mitsunaga S., Nakaoka H. and Inoue I. (2013) Phase-defined complete
sequencing of the HLA genes by next-generation sequencing. BMC Genomics 14: 355
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, the 3.8-Mb segment of the human genome at 6p21, has been
associated with more than 100 different diseases, mostly autoimmune diseases. Due to the complex nature of
HLA genes, there are difficulties in elucidating complete HLA gene sequences especially HLA gene haplotype
structures by the conventional sequencing method. This study presents a new method for… read more costeffective phase-defined complete sequencing of HLA genes using indexed multiplexed samples on Illumina
MiSeq. The method was demonstrated on 53 samples showing high resolution for HLA typing.
Illumina Technology: MiSeq, Nextera DNA Sample Prep
Snyder T. M., Khush K. K., Valantine H. A. and Quake S. R. (2011) Universal noninvasive detection
of solid organ transplant rejection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United
States of America 108: 6229-6234
Due to increased cell death in the organ during graft rejection, increased donor molecules are expected to
be present in the blood at these times. Here the authors genotyped the donor and recipient to establish a
unique donor “genetic fingerprint,” which was subsequently detected by high-throughput sequencing of the
cell-free DNA in peripheral blood of heart transplant recipients. Reads with donor and recipient SNP calls
were identified to determine a % Donor DNA. This study establishes a mean value below 1% as indicative of a
healthy normal level of donor-derived cell-free DNA. In contrast, during organ rejection the level of donor DNA
signal rises to a mean value ranging from 3-4% of the total cell-free DNA.
Illumina Technology: Genome AnalyzerIIx and Omni1-Quad Beadchip
An Overview of Publications Featuring Illumina® Technology
35 INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND VACCINES
New technological advances in T cell isolation and T receptor sequencing have
enabled greater understanding of the basic structure of immune T cell repertoires,
the diversity of responses within and between individuals, and temporal changes in
repertoires and in response to infectious conditions.
Reviews
Vladimer G. I., Marty-Roix R., Ghosh S., Weng D. and Lien E. (2013) Inflammasomes and host defenses
against bacterial infections. Curr Opin Microbiol 16: 23-31
Viral Infections
Viral infections such as HIV, a retrovirus, are able to perturb and alter gene
expression through several mechanisms. Studies have profiled the expression
of cellular miRNA and some sncRNA post HIV infection using next generation
sequencing.128-130 Emerging studies have focused on the novel mechanisms of gene
expression regulation, central to recently discovered players between HIV and the
immune system. For example, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) family of proteins
plays a key role in retroviral progression because it is a crucial modulator of the
immune response.
Ultimately, understanding how immune cells, such as naïve virus-specific CD8 T cells,
influence the type of immune response generated after virus infections is critical to
the development of enhanced therapeutic and vaccination strategies to exploit CD8+
T cell-mediated immunity.
Reviews
Bauersachs S. and Wolf E. (2013) Immune aspects of embryo-maternal cross-talk in the bovine uterus. J
Reprod Immunol 97: 20-26
Celsi F., Catamo E., Kleiner G., Tricarico P. M., Vuch J., et al. (2013) HLA-G/C, miRNAs, and their role in HIV
infection and replication. Biomed Res Int 2013: 693643
La Gruta N. L. and Thomas P. G. (2013) Interrogating the relationship between naive and immune antiviral T
cell repertoires. Curr Opin Virol 3: 447-451
Lipkin W. I. and Firth C. (2013) Viral surveillance and discovery. Curr Opin Virol 3: 199-204
36
Immunology Research Review
128. Duskova K., Nagilla P., Le H. S., Iyer P., Thalamuthu A., et al. (2013) MicroRNA regulation
and its effects on cellular transcriptome in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infected
individuals with distinct viral load and CD4 cell
counts. BMC Infect Dis 13: 250
129. Whisnant A. W., Bogerd H. P., Flores O., Ho P.,
Powers J. G., et al. (2013) In-depth analysis of
the interaction of HIV-1 with cellular microRNA
biogenesis and effector mechanisms. MBio 4:
e000193
130. Chang S. T., Thomas M. J., Sova P., Green R.
R., Palermo R. E., et al. (2013) Next-generation sequencing of small RNAs from HIV-infected cells identifies phased microrna expression
patterns and candidate novel microRNAs
differentially expressed upon infection. MBio 4:
e00549-00512
References
Dillon S. M., Lee E. J., Kotter C. V., Austin G. L., Dong Z., et al. (2014) An altered intestinal mucosal
microbiome in HIV-1 infection is associated with mucosal and systemic immune activation and
endotoxemia. Mucosal Immunol
In this paper the authors investigated the impact of HIV-1 infection on the intestinal microbiome and its
association with mucosal T-cell and dendritic c ell (DC) frequency and activation, as well as with levels of
systemic T-cell activation, inflammation, and microbial translocation. They found that HIV-1-related change
in the microbiome that was associated with increased mucosal cellular immune activation, microbial
translocation, and blood T-cell activation.
Illumina Technology: MiSeq with 250 bp paired-end kit
O’Connor K. S., Parnell G., Patrick E., Ahlenstiel G., Suppiah V., et al. (2014) Hepatic metallothionein
expression in chronic hepatitis C virus infection is IFNL3 genotype-dependent. Genes Immun 15: 88-94
The IFNL3 genotype predicts the clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV), spontaneously and with interferon
(IFN)-based therapy. The authors identified an association between a cluster of ISGs, the metallothioneins
(MTs) and IFNL3 genotype. They found that metallothioneins (MTs) were significantly upregulated (in contrast
to most other ISGs) in HCV-infected liver biopsies of IFNL3 genotype rs8099917 responders.
Illumina Technology: HiSeq 2000 TruSeq RNA sample preparation and Human HT-12_V3
Wang X., Wang H. K., Li Y., Hafner M., Banerjee N. S., et al. (2014) microRNAs are biomarkers of
oncogenic human papillomavirus infections. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111: 4262-4267
The authors studied miRNA expression in 158 cervical specimens, including 38 normal, 52 cervical
intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and 68 cervical cancer (CC) tissues. They found an increase of miR-25, miR92a, and miR-378 expression with lesion progression but no obvious change of miR-22, miR-29a, and miR100 among the HPV-infected tissues. An expression ratio ≥1.5 of miR-25/92a group over miR-22/29a group
could serve as a cutoff value to distinguish normal cervix from CIN and from CIN to CC.
Illumina Technology: HiSeq 2000
Chang S. T., Thomas M. J., Sova P., Green R. R., Palermo R. E., et al. (2013) Next-generation
sequencing of small RNAs from HIV-infected cells identifies phased microrna expression patterns and
candidate novel microRNAs differentially expressed upon infection. MBio 4: e00549-00512
The authors investigated the effects of HIV infection on small RNA expression in CD4-expressing T
lymphoblastoid cells at 5, 12, and 24 h post infection (hpi). The authors focused on the host response at the
level of a single infected cell type and profiled this system over time to detect a phased pattern of microRNA
expression. Small RNA-Seq identified 14 differentially expressed microRNA at 5 and 12 hpi; many of which
displayed initial suppressed expression followed by rebound later by 24 hpi. They also identified a novel
microRNA, an 18-mer encoded in the first intron of the EPB41L2 gene, which was highly expressed in
uninfected cell and down regulated by 90% at 24 hpi.
Illumina Technology: Genome AnalyzerIIx for RNA-Seq of 54 bp reads. Small RNA libraries were prepared
with a small RNA version 1.5 sample preparation kit
Whisnant A. W., Bogerd H. P., Flores O., Ho P., Powers J. G., et al. (2013) In-depth analysis of the
interaction of HIV-1 with cellular microRNA biogenesis and effector mechanisms. MBio 4: e00019
The question of how HIV-1 interfaces with cellular microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and effector mechanisms
has been highly controversial. In this paper, the authors used Illumina HiSeq 2000 for deep sequencing
of small RNAs in two different infected cell lines and two types of primary human cells to unequivocally
demonstrate that HIV-1 does not encode any viral miRNAs.
Illumina Technology: HiSeq 2000 with TruSeq RNA kit deep sequencing of small RNAs and PAR-CLIP to
find miRNA binding sites in the HIV-1 genome
Genolet R., Leignadier J., Osteras M., Farinelli L., Stevenson B. J., et al. (2014) Duality of the murine CD8
compartment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111: E1007-1015
Paquette S. G., Banner D., Chi l., Le?n A. J., Xu L., et al. (2014) Pandemic H1N1 influenza A directly induces
a robust and acute inflammatory gene signature in primary human bronchial epithelial cells downstream of
membrane fusion. Virology 448: 91-103
Schoggins J. W., MacDuff D. A., Imanaka N., Gainey M. D., Shrestha B., et al. (2014) Pan-viral specificity of
IFN-induced genes reveals new roles for cGAS in innate immunity. Nature 505: 691-695
An Overview of Publications Featuring Illumina® Technology
37 Bolen C. R., Robek M. D., Brodsky L., Schulz V., Lim J. K., et al. (2013) The blood transcriptional signature
of chronic hepatitis C virus is consistent with an ongoing interferon-mediated antiviral response. J Interferon
Cytokine Res 33: 15-23
Duskova K., Nagilla P., Le H. S., Iyer P., Thalamuthu A., et al. (2013) MicroRNA regulation and its effects on
cellular transcriptome in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infected individuals with distinct viral load
and CD4 cell counts. BMC Infect Dis 13: 250
Grainger J. R., Wohlfert E. A., Fuss I. J., Bouladoux N., Askenase M. H., et al. (2013) Inflammatory monocytes
regulate pathologic responses to commensals during acute gastrointestinal infection. Nat Med 19: 713-721
Haralambieva I. H., Oberg A. L., Ovsyannikova I. G., Kennedy R. B., Grill D. E., et al. (2013) Genome-wide
characterization of transcriptional patterns in high and low antibody responders to rubella vaccination. PLoS
One 8: e62149
Pociask D. A., Scheller E. V., Mandalapu S., McHugh K. J., Enelow R. I., et al. (2013) IL-22 Is Essential for
Lung Epithelial Repair following Influenza Infection. Am J Pathol 182: 1286-1296
Swaminathan S., Hu X., Zheng X., Kriga Y., Shetty J., et al. (2013) Interleukin-27 treated human macrophages
induce the expression of novel microRNAs which may mediate anti-viral properties. Biochem Biophys Res
Commun 434: 228-234
Archer J., Weber J., Henry K., Winner D., Gibson R., et al. (2012) Use of Four Next-Generation Sequencing
Platforms to Determine HIV-1 Coreceptor Tropism. PLoS ONE 7: e49602
38
Immunology Research Review
Vaccine Development
The new generation of sequencing technology holds tremendous promise in
the areas of systems biology131and vaccinomics132-136 for developing a deeper
understanding of the host response to both vaccines and viral infections.
Studies, which report differential gene expression patterns between high and
low responders to vaccines, provide insight into the divergent immunoregulatory
processes between high and low responders. Further investigation of these loci may
lead to important findings regarding the genetic control of immune responses, which
can inform the engineering of new vaccine candidates.
132,136
Human monoclonal antibodies have a high potential to serve as potential therapeutic
tools. Until recently, single antibodies capable of neutralizing a broad array of
evolving viruses, such as influenza or HIV, were considered extremely rare and nearly
impossible to isolate. By employing high-throughput technologies, careful screening
processes and clever selection of infected donors, researchers are now able to
isolate and characterize these broadly neutralizing antibodies.137,138 There is now a
strong effort to preferentially target the epitopes of these antibodies.
Reviews
Wilson P. C. and Andrews S. F. (2012) Tools to therapeutically harness the human antibody response. Nat Rev
Immunol 12: 709-719
Kaur K., Sullivan M. and Wilson P. C. (2011) Targeting B cell responses in universal influenza vaccine design.
Trends Immunol 32: 524-531
131. Oberg A. L., Kennedy R. B., Li P., Ovsyannikova I. G. and Poland G. A. (2011) Systems biology approaches to new vaccine development.
Curr Opin Immunol 23: 436-443
132. Poland G. A., Jacobson R. M. and Ovsyannikova I. G. (2009) Trends affecting the future
of vaccine development and delivery: the role
of demographics, regulatory science, the
anti-vaccine movement, and vaccinomics.
Vaccine 27: 3240-3244
133. Poland G. A., Ovsyannikova I. G., Kennedy
R. B., Haralambieva I. H. and Jacobson R.
M. (2011) Vaccinomics and a new paradigm
for the development of preventive vaccines
against viral infections. OMICS 15: 625-636
134. Poland G. A., Ovsyannikova I. G. and Jacobson R. M. (2008) Personalized vaccines: the
emerging field of vaccinomics. Expert Opin
Biol Ther 8: 1659-1667
135. Poland G. A., Ovsyannikova I. G., Jacobson R.
M. and Smith D. I. (2007) Heterogeneity in vaccine immune response: the role of immunogenetics and the emerging field of vaccinomics.
Clin Pharmacol Ther 82: 653-664
136. Poland G. A., Kennedy R. B. and Ovsyannikova I. G. (2011) Vaccinomics and personalized
vaccinology: is science leading us toward a
new path of directed vaccine development and
discovery? PLoS Pathog 7: e1002344
137. Ekiert D. C., Bhabha G., Elsliger M. A., Friesen
R. H., Jongeneelen M., et al. (2009) Antibody
recognition of a highly conserved influenza
virus epitope. Science 324: 246-251
138. Sui J., Hwang W. C., Perez S., Wei G., Aird D.,
et al. (2009) Structural and functional bases
for broad-spectrum neutralization of avian and
human influenza A viruses. Nat Struct Mol Biol
16: 265-273
An Overview of Publications Featuring Illumina® Technology
39 References
Furman D., Jojic V., Kidd B., Shen-Orr S., Price J., et al. (2013) Apoptosis and other immune
biomarkers predict influenza vaccine responsiveness. Mol Syst Biol 9: 659
There is a known association between pre-existing antibodies and poor vaccination response, which has
been attributed to pre-existing flu-specific memory CD4+ T cells that inhibit antigen-presentation by dendritic
cells, and subsequently suppress B-cell response. The authors used whole-genome DNA microarrays to
assess the baseline levels of immune parameters that correlate with the hemagglutinin inhibition titer response
in influenza vaccination. They reported 109 gene modules, sets of coexpressed genes to which the same set
of transcription factors binds. Nine variables could predict the antibody response with 84% accuracy. This
is the first study to report an association between apoptosis of reactive memory cells and robust antibody
response to a vaccine.
Illumina Technology: HumanHT-12v3 Expression BeadChip and GenomeStudio software
Kennedy R. B., Oberg A. L., Ovsyannikova I. G., Haralambieva I. H., Grill D., et al. (2013) Transcriptomic
profiles of high and low antibody responders to smallpox vaccine. Genes Immun 14: 277-285
Vaccinia virus (VACV) is an immunologically cross-protective virus that used in the smallpox vaccine. The
authors used mRNA-Seq transcriptome profiling to identify host and viral gene expression patterns in
peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from smallpox vaccine recipients after VACV stimulation. Of the
over 1200 genes that exhibited differential gene expression, they identified a number of chemokine, cytokines,
interferon and macrophage-associated genes with significant down regulation upon vaccinia infection.
Conversely, they identified upregulation in genes encoding histone, IFNβ, IFNγ and heat-shock proteins.
Gene set analysis revealed that genes with lowest expression values were expressed ‘late’ in the viral life
cycle, whereas genes classified as ‘early’ were expressed at significantly higher levels. The patient cohort of
high and low vaccinia-specific responders enabled the identification of differential gene regulation patterns
between robust humoral immunity and weaker humoral immune responses.
Illumina Technology: Genome AnalyzerIIx and Single Read Cluster Generation Kit (v2) and 50 cycle
Sequencing Kit (v3). cDNA libraries were created using mRNA-Seq 8 sample prep kit
Fulton R. W., d’Offay J. M. and Eberle R. (2013) Bovine herpesvirus-1: Comparison and differentiation of
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40
Immunology Research Review
TECHNIQUES
miRNA and noncoding RNAs
Only a small fraction of the transcriptome is translated, leaving most of the
transcriptional output as ncRNAs, which is classified into two broad categories:
small and long RNAs. MicroRNA (miRNAs) is a sub-class of the small noncoding
RNA (ncRNA) family, which are small endogenously expressed molecules that
regulate the expression of proteins encoded by their mRNA targets. miRNAs have
been associated with central roles in growth, development, and immune response
in vivo.139-141 They primarily target gene expression at the post-transcriptional,142,143
level by adjoining to the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which targets
the 3’-untranslated region (3’-UTR) of complementary mRNAs and results in the
transcript’s repression or degradation.144,145
Recent studies have shown that miRNAs have unique expression profiles in cells
of the innate and adaptive immune systems, CNS, and cancers.146-149 Furthermore,
new evidence implicates a central role of miRNAs in altering mRNA expression in
HIV-target cells in response to viral replication.150 Improvements in high-throughput
sequencing technologies, with respect to depth and sensitivity, are enabling
researchers to profile known and novel miRNAs, and identify their exact sequence
and length, which provides insights on RNA editing processes and mutational
events.151 This allows researchers to decode the networks of non-coding RNA
control in the development of the adaptive and innate immune systems and their
functional response.
139. Barnes M. R., Deharo S., Grocock R. J.,
Brown J. R. and Sanseau P. (2007) The micro
RNA target paradigm: a fundamental and polymorphic control layer of cellular expression.
Expert Opin Biol Ther 7: 1387-1399
140. Carthew R. W. and Sontheimer E. J. (2009)
Origins and Mechanisms of miRNAs and
siRNAs. Cell 136: 642-655
141. Chua J. H., Armugam A. and Jeyaseelan K.
(2009) MicroRNAs: biogenesis, function and
applications. Curr Opin Mol Ther 11: 189-1996
142. Barik S. (2005) Silence of the transcripts: RNA
interference in medicine. J Mol Med (Berl) 83:
764-773
143. Amariglio N. and Rechavi G. (2007) A-to-I
RNA editing: a new regulatory mechanism of
global gene expression. Blood Cells Mol Dis
39: 151-155
144. Guo H., Ingolia N. T., Weissman J. S. and
Bartel D. P. (2010) Mammalian microRNAs
predominantly act to decrease target mRNA
levels. Nature 466: 835-840
145. Lewis B. P., Burge C. B. and Bartel D. P.
(2005) Conserved seed pairing, often flanked
by adenosines, indicates that thousands of
human genes are microRNA targets. Cell 120:
15-201
146. Gomase V. S. and Parundekar A. N. (2009)
microRNA: human disease and development.
Int J Bioinform Res Appl 5: 479-500
147. Fritz J. H., Girardin S. E. and Philpott D. J.
(2006) Innate immune defense through RNA
interference. Sci STKE 2006: pe27
148. Carissimi C., Fulci V. and Macino G. (2009)
MicroRNAs: novel regulators of immunity.
Autoimmun Rev 8: 520-524
“Wherever the requirement for miRNAs
has been tested in the immune system,
essential roles have been found”
Ansel et al. 2013
149. O’Connell R. M., Rao D. S., Chaudhuri A. A.
and Baltimore D. (2010) Physiological and
pathological roles for microRNAs in the immune system. Nat Rev Immunol 10: 111-122
150. Duskova K., Nagilla P., Le H. S., Iyer P., Thalamuthu A., et al. (2013) MicroRNA regulation
and its effects on cellular transcriptome in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infected
individuals with distinct viral load and CD4 cell
counts. BMC Infect Dis 13: 250
151. Peng Z., Cheng Y., Tan B. C., Kang L., Tian
Z., et al. (2012) Comprehensive analysis of
RNA-Seq data reveals extensive RNA editing
in a human transcriptome. Nat Biotechnol 30:
253-260
An Overview of Publications Featuring Illumina® Technology
41 ChIRP-Seq
ncRNA
RBP
Crosslink
Sonicate
Hybridize
Biotinylated tiling oligos
Streptavidin
Magnetic beads
RNase H
RBP
DNA
DNA
DNA
extraction
Chromatin isolation by RNA purification (ChIRP-Seq) is a protocol to detect the locations on the genome where non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), such as long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and their proteins are bound.152 In this method, samples are first crosslinked and sonicated. Biotinylated tiling oligos are hybridized to the
RNAs of interest, and the complexes are captured with streptavidin magnetic beads. After treatment with RNase H the DNA is extracted and sequenced. With deep
sequencing the lncRNA/protein interaction site can be determined at single-base resolution.153
Reviews
Minton K. (2014) Antiviral immunity: Editing HLA-E expression. Nat Rev Immunol 14: 210-211
Ansel K. M. (2013) RNA regulation of the immune system. Immunol Rev 253: 5-11
Bronevetsky Y. and Ansel K. M. (2013) Regulation of miRNA biogenesis and turnover in the immune system.
Immunol Rev 253: 304-316
Pagani M., Rossetti G., Panzeri I., de Candia P., Bonnal R. J., et al. (2013) Role of microRNAs and long-noncoding RNAs in CD4(+) T-cell differentiation. Immunol Rev 253: 82-96
Leong J. W., Sullivan R. P. and Fehniger T. A. (2012) Natural Killer Cell Regulation by MicroRNAs in Health and
Disease. J Biomed Biotechnol 2012: 632329
References
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The non-protein–coding parts of the mammalian genome encode thousands of large intergenic non-coding
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applied custom microarrays and Illumina RNA sequencing for THP1 macrophages. A panel of 159 lincRNAs
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Illumina Technology: HiSeq 2000
Kirigin F. F., Lindstedt K., Sellars M., Ciofani M., Low S. L., et al. (2012) Dynamic microRNA gene
transcription and processing during T cell development. J Immunol 188: 3257-3267
The authors used next generation sequencing to construct a comprehensive miRNA atlas of T cell
development, which reveals the dynamic nature of miRNA gene transcription and processing throughout this
developmental pathway starting from murine hematopoietic stem cells to mature CD4 and CD8 thymocytes.
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Illumina Technology: Genome AnalyzerIIx system, RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq
Wang P., Gu Y., Zhang Q., Han Y., Hou J., et al. (2012) Identification of resting and type I IFN-activated
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Authors used next-generation sequencing to perform smRNA expression profiling of human CD56+CD3Natural Killer (NK) cells during the process of cytokine activation. Of the >200 novel miRNAs identified,
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Illumina Technology: smRNA-Seq between 18 and 30 bp
42
Immunology Research Review
152. Chu C., Qu K., Zhong F. L., Artandi S. E. and
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Nolte-’t Hoen E. N., Buermans H. P., Waasdorp M., Stoorvogel W., Wauben M. H., et al. (2012) Deep
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Yang G., Yang L., Zhao Z., Wang J. and Zhang X. (2012) Signature miRNAs Involved in the Innate Immunity of
Invertebrates. PLoS ONE 7: e39015
An Overview of Publications Featuring Illumina® Technology
43 ChIP-Seq
Many transcription factors and chromatin modifiers linked to innate and adaptive
immunity.154-157 The identification and characterization of the genome-wide
locations of transcription factors and chromatin-modifying enzymes and the
modification status of histones has been accelerated by the application of chromatin
immunoprecipitation techniques in next-generation sequencing analysis (ChIP-Seq).
This method employs antibodies directed against a target protein to isolate a DNAprotein complex. Purified DNA is obtained from the immunoprecipitated DNA-protein
complexes and is subsequently ligated with sequencing adaptors, amplified by PCR
and sequenced on a next-generation sequencing platform.158 Ultimately, the need
to comprehend global transcriptional regulation of the immune system positions
ChIP-Seq as a powerful application, which informs our understanding of the dynamic
processes of stem cell differentiation, formation of immunological memory, disease
progression, and response to environmental stimuli.
158,159
154. Barski A., Cuddapah S., Cui K., Roh T. Y.,
Schones D. E., et al. (2007) High-resolution
profiling of histone methylations in the human
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155. Wei G., Wei L., Zhu J., Zang C., Hu-Li J., et
al. (2009) Global mapping of H3K4me3 and
H3K27me3 reveals specificity and plasticity
in lineage fate determination of differentiating
CD4+ T cells. Immunity 30: 155-167
156. Northrup D. L. and Zhao K. (2011) Application of ChIP-Seq and related techniques to
the study of immune function. Immunity 34:
830-842
157. Natoli G. (2010) Maintaining cell identity
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158. Kidder B. L., Hu G. and Zhao K. (2011) ChIPSeq: technical considerations for obtaining
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159. Vahedi G., Takahashi H., Nakayamada S., Sun
H. W., Sartorelli V., et al. (2012) STATs Shape
the Active Enhancer Landscape of T Cell
Populations. Cell 151: 981-993
ChIP-Seq
DNA-protein complex
Crosslink proteins and
DNA
Sample
Exonuclease digestion
fragmentation
Immunoprecipitate
DNA
DNA
extraction
The ChIP-Seq workflow. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) is a well-established method to map specific protein-binding sites. In this method,
DNA-protein complexes are crosslinked in vivo. Samples are then fragmented and treated with an exonuclease to trim unbound oligonucleotides. Protein-specific
antibodies are used to immunoprecipitate the DNA-protein complex. The DNA is extracted and sequenced, giving high-resolution sequences of the
protein-binding sites.
44
Immunology Research Review
Reviews
Kidder B. L., Hu G. and Zhao K. (2011) ChIP-Seq: technical considerations for obtaining high-quality data.
Nat Immunol 12: 918-922
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