12b30_en
Professional Radio
GM Series
Radio Installation Manual
68P64112B30
Issue: June 2000
ii
Computer Software Copyrights
The Motorola products described in this manual may include copyrighted Motorola computer programs stored
in semiconductor memories or other media. Laws in the United States and other countries preserve for
Motorola certain exclusive rights for copyrighted computer programs, including the exclusive right to copy or
reproduce in any form, the copyrighted computer program. Accordingly, any copyrighted Motorola computer
programs contained in the Motorola products described in this manual may not be copied or reproduced in
any manner without the express written permission of Motorola. Furthermore, the purchase of Motorola
products shall not be deemed to grant, either directly or by implication, estoppel or otherwise, any license
under the copyrights, patents or patent applications of Motorola, except for the normal non-exclusive
royalty-free license to use that arises by operation of law in the sale of a product.
iii
SAFETY INFORMATION
Read this information before using your radio.
SAFE AND EFFICIENT OPERATION OF MOTOROLA TWO-WAY RADIOS
This document provides information and instructions for the safe and efficient operation of Motorola
Portable and Mobile Two-Way Radios. The information provided in this document supersedes the
general safety information contained in user guides published prior to 1 January 1998.
For information regarding radio use in hazardous areas, please refer to the Factory Mutual (FM)
approval manual supplement.
EXPOSURE TO RADIO FREQUENCY ENERGY
Your Motorola Two-Way Radio, which generates and radiates radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic
energy (EME), is designed to comply with the following National and International Standards and
Guidelines regarding exposure of human beings to radio frequency electromagnetic energy:
Federal Communications Commission Report and Order No. FCC 96-326 (August 1996)
American National Standards Institute (C95.1 - 1992)
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP-1986)
International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNRP- 1986)
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC):
ENV 50166-1 1995 E
Human exposure to electromagnetic fields Low
frequency (0 Hz to 10 kHz)
ENV 50166-2 1995 E
Human exposure to electromagnetic fields High
frequency (10 kHz to 300 GHz)
Proceedings of SC211/B 1996
“Safety Considerations for Human Exposure to EMFs from
Mobile Telecommunication Equipment (MTE) in the Frequency Range 30MHz - 6 GHz.” (EMF - Electro-Magnetic
Fields)
To assure optimal radio performance and to ensure that your exposure to radio frequency
electromagnetic energy is within the guidelines in the above standards, always adhere to the following
procedures:
MOBILE RADIO OPERATION AND EME EXPOSURE
To assure optimal radio performance and that human exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic
energy is within the guidelines referenced in this document, transmit only when people inside and
outside the vehicle are at least the minimum distance away from a properly installed, externallymounted antenna.
The table below lists the minimum distance for several different ranges of rated radio power.
Table 1 Rated Power and Distance
Rated Power of Vehicle-Installed
Mobile Two-Way Radio
Minimum Distance from
Transmitting Antenna
7 to 15 Watts
30.5 Centimetres (1 Foot)
16 to 50 Watts
61 Centimetres (2 Feet)
More than 50 Watts
91.5 Centimetres (3 Feet)
iv
Mobile Antenna Installation
Install the vehicle antenna external to the vehicle and in accordance with:
a. The requirements of the antenna manufacturer/supplier
b.
Instructions in the radio installation manual.
Control Station Operation
When radio equipment is used to operate as a control station, it is important that the antenna be
installed outside the building and away from places where people may be in close proximity.
NOTE Refer to Table 1 for rated power and minimum distance values for transmitting
antennas.
INSTALLATION WARNINGS
!
WARNING: Disruption of the anti-skid/anti-lock braking system by the radio transmitter may
result in unexpected vehicle motion.
For vehicles with electronic anti-lock/anti-skid brakes, Motorola recommends the following radio
installation precautions and vehicle braking system test procedures to ensure that the radio, when
transmitting, does not interfere with the operation of the vehicle braking system. Refer to your vehicle
service manual for details of your vehicle’s braking system, or contact your dealer directly.
Installation Precautions:
1. Always provide as much distance as possible between the braking modulator unit and the radio,
the radio antenna, and associated transmission line. Before installing the radio, determine the
location of the braking modulator unit in the vehicle. Depending on the make and model of the
vehicle, the braking modulator unit may be located in the trunk, under the dashboard, in the
engine compartment, or in some other cargo area. If you cannot determine the location of the
braking modulator unit, refer to the vehicle service manual or contact a dealer for the particular
make of the vehicle.
2. If the braking modular unit is located on the left side of the vehicle, install the radio on the right
side of the vehicle, and conversely.
3. Route all radio wiring, including the antenna transmission line, as far away as possible from the
braking modular unit and associated braking system wiring.
4. Never activate the radio transmitter while the vehicle is in motion and the vehicle trunk lid is open.
Braking System Tests:
Be sure the following vehicle testing is done in an isolated area. The following procedure checks for
the most common types of interference that may be caused by a radio transmitter to vehicle braking
system:
1. Run the vehicle engine at idle speed and set the vehicle transmission selector to PARK. Release
the brake pedal completely and key the radio transmitter. While NOT speaking into the
microphone, verify that there are no unusual effects (visual or audible) to the vehicle lights, or
other electrical equipment and accessories.
2. Repeat Step 1, except do so while speaking into the microphone.
3. Press the vehicle brake pedal slightly; just enough to illuminate the vehicle brake light(s). Then
repeat Steps 1 and 2.
4. Press the vehicle brake pedal firmly and repeat Steps 1 and 2.
v
5. Ensure that there is a minimum of two vehicle lengths between the front of the vehicle and any
object in the vehicle’s forward path. Then, set the vehicle transmission selector to DRIVE. Press
the brake pedal just far enough to stop the vehicle motion completely. Key the radio transmitter.
Verify that the vehicle does not start to move while NOT speaking into the microphone.
6. Repeat Step 5, except do so while speaking into the microphone.
7. Release the brake pedal completely and accelerate the vehicle to a speed between 25 and 40
kilometres (15 and 25 miles) per hour. Ensure that a minimum of two vehicle lengths is
maintained between the front of the vehicle and any object in the vehicle’s forward path. Have
another person key the radio transmitter, and verify that the vehicle can be braked normally to a
moderate stop while NOT speaking into the microphone.
8. Repeat Step 7, except do so while speaking into the microphone.
9. Release the brake pedal completely and accelerate the vehicle to a speed of 30 kilometres
(20 miles) per hour. Ensure that a minimum of two vehicle lengths is maintained between the front
of the vehicle and any object in the vehicle’s forward path. Have another person key the radio
transmitter, and verify that the vehicle can be braked properly to a sudden (panic) stop while NOT
speaking into the microphone.
10. Repeat Step 9, except do so while speaking into the microphone.
11. Repeat Steps 9 and 10, except use a vehicle speed of 50 kilometres (30 miles) per hour.
!
WARNING: For radios installed in vehicles fuelled by liquefied petroleum gas, refer to the
(U. S.) National Fire Protection Association standard, NFPA 58, for storage, handling, and/or
container information
OPERATIONAL WARNINGS
Potentially explosive atmospheres
!
WARNING: Turn off your Two-Way radio when you are in any area with a potentially explosive
atmosphere, unless it is a radio type especially qualified for use in such areas (e.g. FM or
Cenelec approved). Sparks in a potentially explosive atmosphere can cause an explosion or
fire resulting in bodily injury or even death.
Blasting caps and areas
!
WARNING: To avoid possible interference with blasting operations, turn off your radio when you are
near electrical blasting caps. In a “blasting area” or in areas posted “turn off two-way radio”, obey all
signs and instructions.
NOTE The areas with potentially explosive atmospheres referred to above include fuelling areas
such as: below decks on boats; fuel or chemical transfer or storage facilities; areas where
the air contains chemicals or particles, such as grain, dust or metal powders; and any other
area where you would normally be advised to turn off your vehicle engine. Areas with
potentially explosive atmospheres are often but not always posted.
vi
vii
Table of Contents
SAFETY INFORMATION ....................................................................................... iii
Chapter 1
INSTALLATION
1.0 Introduction.......................................................................................................... 1-1
1.1 General Information ....................................................................................... 1-1
1.2 Plan the Installation........................................................................................ 1-1
2.0 DC Power Cable Installation................................................................................ 1-1
2.1 Planning the Power Cable Installation ........................................................... 1-1
2.2 Power Cable Installation Procedure ............................................................... 1-2
3.0 Trunnion Installation ............................................................................................ 1-4
3.1 Planning the Mounting Trunnion Installation .................................................. 1-4
3.2 Trunnion Installation Procedure ..................................................................... 1-4
3.3 Control Head Mounting Position .................................................................... 1-5
4.0 Antenna Installation ............................................................................................. 1-5
4.1 Mobile Radio Operation and EME Exposure ................................................. 1-5
4.2 Selecting an Antenna Site.............................................................................. 1-6
4.3 Antenna Installation Procedure ...................................................................... 1-6
4.4 Completing the Installation ............................................................................. 1-7
5.0 Installation Options .............................................................................................. 1-9
5.1 Radio Mounting in Dashboard........................................................................ 1-9
5.2 External Speaker Installation ....................................................................... 1-10
5.3 Remote Control Head Installation ................................................................ 1-11
6.0 Accessory Connections ..................................................................................... 1-13
6.1 Accessory Connector Pin Functions ............................................................ 1-13
Chapter 2
REDUCING NOISE INTERFERENCE
1.0 Introduction.......................................................................................................... 2-1
1.1 Noise Sources................................................................................................ 2-1
1.2 Radiated Noise............................................................................................... 2-1
1.3 Conducted Noise............................................................................................ 2-2
1.4 Induced Noise ................................................................................................ 2-3
2.0 Operation of a Conventional Ignition System ...................................................... 2-3
2.1 Introduction .................................................................................................... 2-3
2.2 Sources of Ignition Interference ..................................................................... 2-3
3.0 Detection of Noise Sources ................................................................................. 2-5
3.1 Noise Detection Procedure ............................................................................ 2-5
3.2 Sources of Noise ............................................................................................ 2-7
4.0 Noise Reduction Techniques............................................................................... 2-7
4.1 General .......................................................................................................... 2-7
4.2 Ignition System Interference .......................................................................... 2-8
4.3 Alternator/Generator Whine ........................................................................... 2-9
viii
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
Voltage Regulator Noise...............................................................................2-11
Hood and Trunk Lid Noise ............................................................................2-11
Other Electrical Noises .................................................................................2-12
Wheel Static..................................................................................................2-12
Ground Bonding............................................................................................2-12
Chapter 1
INSTALLATION
1.0
Introduction
1.1
General Information
There are two methods of installing your mobile radio:
1.
Using the direct mounting trunnion and power cables supplied with a standard radio package.
2.
Mounted in the car radio cut-out (using the required GLN7320_ mounting kit, per ISO7736).
An accessory connector on the rear of the radio (see Figure 1-4 Connections to the Back of Radio)
enables you to attach different accessories required for the installation.
A ten-pin telephone type connector on the front control head panel (see Figure 1-5 Transmission
Hump Mounting (Top) and Below Dash Mounting (Bottom)) provides for the connection of various
types of microphones.
1.2
Plan the Installation
1.
Mount the radio horizontally near the driver, so the driver can easily view, access and operate
the controls and accessories.
2.
Ensure that the location is not exposed to dirt and moisture.
3.
Verify that there will be sufficient space around the mobile unit for air flow and installation.
4.
Check that there is enough routing space for the power cable connector and the antenna
coaxial cable.
5.
Plan the best place to run connections to minimize pinching, crushing, and overheating of
wires and cables.
NOTE In a vehicle with an airbag, make sure that the mounting location of the mobile radio, or of
any radio accessory, is not in the deployment path of the air bag.
2.0
DC Power Cable Installation
2.1
Planning the Power Cable Installation
!
CAUTION: This radio must be operated only in negative ground electrical systems.
Operating the radio on a positive ground system will cause the cable fuse to short-circuit.
Check the vehicle ground polarity before you begin the installation.
The 3 metres (10 feet) DC power cable shipped with the radio should be long enough to be installed
in most vehicles. Take the following precautions before you begin:
Whenever possible, avoid routing the cable above the catalytic converter.
Use grommets whenever a cable has to pass through a hole in a metal panel.
1-2
INSTALLATION
The following table lists power cables available for this radio:
Table 1-1 Power Cables
Number
2.2
Description
Rating
HKN4137_
Low power cable to battery
1-25W; 15A fuse; 14 AWG 3m
HKN4191_
High Power Cable to battery
25-45W; 20A fuse; 12 AWG 3m
Power Cable Installation Procedure
Begin the power cable installation as follows:
1.
!
CAUTION: Improper handling with the power cable may cause shorting to ground. Ensure
that during radio installation the power cable fuse is removed.
2.
!
Determine a routing plan, keeping in mind where the radio is to be mounted.
Locate an existing hole with grommet in the vehicle fire wall, or use a 9.5 mm (3/8-inch) bit to
drill an access hole in the fire wall. Install a grommet with a 4.9 mm (3/16-inch) inside
diameter into the hole to protect the power cable.
CAUTION: Be very careful not to damage existing wires.
3.
From inside the vehicle, feed the red and black leads (without the lugs attached) through the
access hole and into the engine compartment. (See Figure 1-1 Power Cable Routing into the
Engine Compartment)
To Radio
Black Lead
Firewall
Red Lead
Grommet
Engine Compartment
FL0830246-O
Figure 1-1 Power Cable Routing into the Engine Compartment
FL0830246-O
DC Power Cable Installation
4.
1-3
Connect the black lead of the power cable to the nearest vehicle chassis ground point (using
the provided ring lug if necessary). Shorten the black lead to remove any excess cable.
(See Figure 1-2 Power Cable Assembly.)
NOTE Locate a good vehicle ground point. The vehicle frame provides the best ground. Optimum
radio performance can only be achieved with a very low resistance ground connection.
Verify that the connections between the battery negative terminal, vehicle chassis, and
engine block have low resistance.
Fuse
Molded In-Line
Fuse Holder
Cover
Adapter
Red Lead
Red Lead
Red Lead
Mounting
Hole
Firewall
Black Lead
Ring
Lugs
Engine
Compartment
To Vehicle
Chassis Ground
To Battery (+)
FL0830247-O
Figure 1-2 Power Cable Assembly
5.
Place the fuse holder close to the battery. Ensure that it is not near any hot engine
component. Mount the fuse holder using its mounting hole and dress the wires as required.
6.
Insert the stripped end of the red lead of the fuse holder into the ring lug hole and crimp it.
Connect the fuse holder red adapter lead plug to the mating receptacle on the red lead of the
power cable. (See Figure 1-2 Power Cable Assembly.)
7.
Connect the power cable black lead directly to the vehicle chassis ground.
8.
Connect the red lead ring lug from the fuse holder to the positive (+) battery terminal. Make
sure the adapter cable is connected to the main power cable red lead.
NOTE Failure to mount the red lead of the power cable kit directly to the battery may result in
severe alternator whine interference.
Carefully check that all connections are proper. Insert the fuse into the fuse holder and close the
cover. (See Figure 1-2 Power Cable Assembly).
1-4
INSTALLATION
3.0
Trunnion Installation
3.1
Planning the Mounting Trunnion Installation
The standard mounting trunnion allows the radio to be mounted to a variety of surfaces.
3.2
1.
Ensure the surface can support the weight of the radio.
2.
Although the trunnion can be mounted to a plastic dashboard, it is recommended that the
mounting screws be located so they penetrate the supporting metal frame of the dashboard.
Trunnion Installation Procedure
1.
Select either the transmission hump or an open underneath portion of the dash to mount your
radio. (See Figure 1-5 Transmission Hump Mounting (Top) and Below Dash Mounting
(Bottom)). When mounting the trunnion on the transmission hump, be careful that the
transmission housing is not affected.
2.
Use the trunnion mounting bracket as a template to mark the hole positions on the mounting
surface. Use the innermost three holes for a curved mounting surface, such as the
transmission hump, and the three outermost holes for a flat surface such as under the dash.
3.
Center-punch the spots you marked and use a 4 mm (5/32-inch) bit to drill a hole at each
location.
4.
Secure the trunnion mounting bracket to the mounting surface with the three self-tapping
screws provided. (See Figure 1-5 Transmission Hump Mounting (Top) and Below Dash
Mounting (Bottom)).
5.
Slide the radio into the trunnion. Secure the radio with the two thumb screws provided.
(See Figure 1-3 Radio into Trunnion.)
Thumb
Screw
Thumb
Screw
Trunnion
FL0830248-O
FL0830248-O
Figure 1-3 Radio into Trunnion
Antenna Installation
3.3
1-5
Control Head Mounting Position
The control head is designed to be removed from the housing and turned to any position within a
180° radius. This provides multiple mounting options for the radio. For example, the radio may be
mounted on either side of the vehicle transmission tunnel to facilitate the safest and most
ergonomically ideal position. The control head may then be turned to provide the most convenient
access.
To reposition the control head:
!
1.
Insert a small flat blade screwdriver, or similar instrument, in the recess between the control
head and the radio housing.
2.
Press until the control head releases. Repeat the process on the opposite side of the radio.
3.
Pull the control head away while ensuring that the flex connector remains attached.
4.
Rotate the control head, and fold the flex circuit to align it to the new position.
5.
Push the control head into the housing until the protruding tabs snap into place.
CAUTION: The contact surface of the flex circuit should be facing the printed circuit board.
4.0
Antenna Installation
4.1
Mobile Radio Operation and EME Exposure
Observe the following caution and electromagnetic energy exposure (EME) statements when
installing antennas:
!
CAUTION: Use caution when installing antennas with mobile radio equipment using
transmitter power in excess of 7 Watts.
NOTE For low-power mobile radios (7 Watts, or less), there are no antenna type or installation
restrictions.
To assure optimal radio performance and that human exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic
energy is within the guidelines referenced in this document, transmit only when people inside and
outside the vehicle are at least the minimum distance away from a properly installed,
externally-mounted antenna.
1-6
INSTALLATION
The table below lists the minimum distance for several different ranges of rated radio power.
Table 1-2 Rated Power and Distance
Rated Power of Vehicle-Installed
Mobile Two-Way Radio
4.2
Minimum Distance from
Transmitting Antenna
7 to 15 Watts
30.5 Centimetres (1 Foot)
16 to 50 Watts
61 Centimetres (2 Feet)
More than 50 Watts
91.5 Centimetres (3 Feet)
Selecting an Antenna Site
1.
Install the vehicle antenna external to the vehicle and in accordance with:
a.
The requirements of the antenna manufacturer/supplier
b.
Instructions in the radio installation manual.
2.
The best mounting location for the antenna is in the center of a large, flat conductive surface.
In almost all vehicles, mounting the antenna in the center of the roof will satisfy these
requirements. A good alternate location is in the center of the trunk lid. If you use the trunk lid,
ensure that the trunk lid is grounded by connecting grounding straps between the trunk lid
and the vehicle chassis.
3.
Ensure the antenna cable can be easily routed to the radio. Ensure that the antenna cable is
routed separately and not in parallel to any other vehicle wiring or mobile radio cable wiring.
4.
Check the antenna location for any electrical interference.
NOTE Any two metal pieces rubbing against each other (such as seat springs, shift levers, trunk
and hood lids, exhaust pipes, etc.) in close proximity to the antenna can cause severe
receiver interference.
4.3
5.
If the vehicle is equipped with an electronic anti-lock braking system (ABS) and the antenna
will be trunk mounted, then install the antenna on the side opposite to the braking modulator
box. This minimizes radio interference to the modulator box from the radio.
6.
Motorola offers a glass-mount antenna as an accessory. It is usually mounted on the rear
window. This antenna should be placed as high as possible on the vehicle. Ensure that a
rear-window defogger element does not touch the inductive “button” on the mounting foot of
the antenna.
7.
Make sure the mobile radio antenna is installed at least 30.48 cm (1 foot) away from any other
antenna on the vehicle.
Antenna Installation Procedure
1.
Mount the antenna according to the instructions provided with the antenna kit. Run the
coaxial cable to the radio mounting location. If necessary, cut off the excess cable and install
the cable connector.
2.
Connect the antenna cable connector to the radio antenna connector on the rear of the radio.
(See Figure 1-4 Connections to the Back of Radio.)
Antenna Installation
1-7
Accessory
Connector Kit
Antenna
Connector
To Battery
+ via Fuse
F1 (red)
Power
Connector
Vehicle
Chassis
Ground
(black)
FL0830249-O
Figure 1-4 Connections to the Back of Radio
4.4
Completing the Installation
1.
Mount the microphone clip to a convenient spot near your radio.
2.
Your microphone has a telephone-type connector at the end of its cord. Plug the microphone
into the control head connector.
3.
To complete your radio installation, plug the power cable into the radio power connector.
(See Figure 1-4 Connections to the Back of Radio.)
1-8
INSTALLATION
TRANSMISSION HUMP MOUNTING
Thumb Screw
(2)
Tab
Tab
Mounting
Surface
Trunnion Mounting
Bracket
Tab
1.12"
(28mm)
1.84"
(46mm)
2.92"
(73mm)
1.84"
(46mm)
2.92"
(73mm)
BELOW DASH MOUNTING
Mounting Surface
Sheet Metal
Screws
Trunnion Mounting Bracket
Thumb Screw
(2)
FL0830250-O
Figure 1-5 Transmission Hump Mounting (Top) and Below Dash Mounting (Bottom)
Installation Options
1-9
5.0
Installation Options
5.1
Radio Mounting in Dashboard
5.1.1
To Install the Radio in an Automotive Dashboard:
1.
Open out the radio cut-out in the dashboard to ISO 7736 specification (182mm x 53mm).
2.
Remove the Top plastic cover off the radio.
3.
Insert the mounting frame into the cut-out and retain it by bending back the relevant fixing
tabs, using all 6 where possible, to hold it in place. Press the bezel onto the mounting frame.
NOTE 1. The tabs are easily bent back by twisting a large flat-bladed screwdriver in the slot behind
the tabs.
2. For a more secure installation the top and rear of the frame should also be secured with
screws.
3. The demounting tool can be used as an aid to mounting as well as demounting.
TABS
DIN MOUNT
MOUNTING FRAME
RLN4782
DEMOUNTING TOOL
P/N 8164298B01
ZWG0130399-A
Figure 1-6 Mounting the Radio into the Dashboard
5.1.2
To Mount the Complete Radio in the Frame:
1.
Provide the electrical connections to the radio for power, antenna and accessories as shown
in Figure 1-4 Connections to the Back of Radio.
2.
Plug in all the connectors and push the radio firmly into the mounting frame until the two
springs snap into place.
1-10
5.1.3
INSTALLATION
To Remove the Radio / Remote Mount from the Frame
1.
Push the two demounting tools (see Figure 1-6 Mounting the Radio into the Dashboard)
through the openings in the frame until the two springs release the radio.
2.
Slide out the radio.
NOTE 1. The fixing tabs should be checked for tightness each time the radio is removed.
The tabs are easily tightened by twisting a large flat-bladed screwdriver in the slot
behind the tabs.
2. The frame is not designed for daily mounting and demounting.
5.2
External Speaker Installation
1.
Remove the speaker from the trunnion bracket by loosening the two wing screws.
2.
Choose a place to mount the speaker.
3.
Use the trunnion bracket as a template to mark the locations of the three mounting holes.
4.
Centerpunch and drill a 4 mm (5/32-inch) diameter hole at each location.
5.
Mount the trunnion bracket with the screws supplied. (See Figure 1-7 Mounting the Speaker
Under the Dashboard.)
6.
Insert the speaker into the trunnion bracket and tighten the two wing screws.
7.
Insert the external speaker accessory plug into the accessory connector of the radio.
Trunnion Bracket
Dashboard
Firewall
Console or Floor
Dashboard
Trunnion
Bracket
0.157'' (0.399cm)
Diameter
To
Firewall
Mounting
Firewall
or
10-16 x 5/8''
Self-Tapping
Screw
Figure 1-7 Mounting the Speaker Under the Dashboard
FL0830253-O
Installation Options
1-11
5.3
Remote Control Head Installation
5.3.1
Removing the Front Housing
1.
Remove the Controlhead from the Transceiver by inserting the dismantling tool (Motorola part
number 6686119B01) in the recess between the Controlhead and the Transceiver.
2.
Split the Controlhead into Front and Back housings by inserting the dismantling tool in the
recess between them.
NOTE 1. To minimise cosmetic damage disassemble from the bottom side, (label side).
2. The Controlhead Back Housing is not required for remote mounting.
3.
Remove the flex from the Transceiver only.
8
1
2
5
4
3
7
5
4
6
ZWG0130204-P1
Figure 1-8 Remote Front and Back Housings
5.3.2
To Assemble the Remote Back Housing
1.
Remove the twists from the flex and connect the flex from the Controlhead to the Remote
Back PCB connector.
NOTE For correct orientation of the flex, align the ‘O’ on the flex with the ‘O’ on the PCB.
5.3.3
2.
Align the speaker with the speaker support.
3.
Press the Controlhead onto the Remote Back Housing until ALL the tabs snap into place.
To Assemble the Remote Front Housing:
1.
Connect the flex from the Remote Front Housing to the top small connector in the Transceiver.
NOTE For correct orientation of the flex in the Transceiver, the “plastic” tab should be up, contacts
facing down. Align the ‘O’ on the flex with the ‘O’ on the Transceiver. The flex must be
pushed into the connector until it meets the stop.
2.
Press the Remote Front Housing onto the Transceiver chassis until the chassis tabs snap into
place.
1-12
5.3.4
INSTALLATION
To Install the Remote Controlhead:
1.
Position the Remote Mount Bracket (Item2 in Figure 1-8 Remote Front and Back Housings) in
the desired location and mark the positions of the mounting holes.
2.
Centrepunch the marked spots and drill 4mm holes at each spot.
3.
Fix the Remote Mount Bracket in position using the supplied screws.
4.
Route the Remote Cable (Table 1-3) as required, feeding it through the bracket
(a 20mm hole is required for the cable plug).
5.
Push the cable plug into the Remote Front and Back Housing until it snaps into place.
6.
Snap the assembly into the bracket.
7.
Adjust the assembly as required then fix it in position with the wing screws supplied.
Table 1-3 Associated Components
Item
Description
Part Number
1
Wingscrews
0305760W02
2
Remote Bracket
0764275B01
3
Remote Back Housing
Remote Back Housing Practical/Versatile
1564268B01
1564269B01
4
Remote PCB (2 off per kit)
GLN7362
5
Flex (2 off per kit)
8486127B01
6
Cable Kit 3M
Cable Kit 5M
Cable Kit 7M
RKN4077*
RKN4078*
RKN4079*
7
Remote (Transceiver) Front Housing
1564270B01
8
Dismantling Tool
6686119B01
* Cable Kits to be ordered separately.
NOTE Specifications are subject to change without notice. Contact
your Motorola dealer for the latest specifications.
Accessory Connections
1-13
6.0
Accessory Connections
6.1
Accessory Connector Pin Functions
This section gives a description of the accessory connector pin functions.
!
CAUTION: The accessory connections shown are not compatible to some other models of
Motorola radios. Check the appropriate accessory or technical manual for further
information.
Table 1-4 Connector Pin Functions
Pin
Function
Description
1
External
Speaker -
Speaker - and Speaker + (Pin 16) are used to connect an external speaker.
The audio PA is a bridge amplifier with a minimum load resistance of 3.2 Ω.
The internal speaker can be disabled by removing the control head.
Disconnect the internal speaker and assemble the control head back to the
radio.
2
External Mic
Audio
External or Emergency Mic depends on dealer programming. This
microphone signal is independent of the microphone signal on the
microphone connector. The nominal input level is 80mV for 60% deviation.
The DC impedance is 660 Ω and the AC impedance is 560 Ω.
3
Digital In 1
This is a digital input only and the primary use for this pin is external PTT. This
pin must be used if fast DATA PTT is required.
(See Note 1).
4
Digital Out 2
This is a digital output only and the primary use for this pin is as an external
alarm output (See Note 3).
5
Flat_TX_Audio
(NPD Data Out)
This input is intended for injecting signals into the transmit path that should
not be filtered; for example, the analog output of a modem.
The nominal input level is 150mVrms for 60% deviation. The impedance is
greater than 25kΩ.
6
Digital In 3
This is a digital input only. Function depends on dealer programming.
(See Note 4).
7
Ground
Used as ground for both analog and digital signals
8
Digital In/Out 4
This is a digital input/output depending on dealer programming.
(See Notes 1, 2).
9
Digital In 5 with
Wakeup
Emergency
This is a digital input only. Emergency can be enabled via the CPS. To
activate, this line must be connected to ground; this will turn on the radio. The
CPS details which functions may be assigned to this pin by the codeplug.
10
Ignition Detect
Connecting this line to the ignition line of the vehicle will automatically turn the
radio on when the ignition of the vehicle is turned on.
11
Receiver Audio
There are two possible outputs: (1) Discriminator Audio; and (2) Continuous
filtered RX audio. The nominal output level for Discriminator Audio is
330m Vrms at 60% deviation and for Filtered Audio 600m Vrms at 60%
deviation at 1kHz. Function depends on dealer programming.
1-14
INSTALLATION
Table 1-4 Connector Pin Functions
Pin
Function
Description
12
Digital In/Out 7
This digital input/output function depends on dealer programming.
13
Switched
Battery Voltage
This voltage is available when the radio is switched on. The maximum current
is 1A.
14
Digital In/Out 8
This is a digital input/output depending on dealer programming.
(See Notes 1, 2).
15
RSSI
This is an analog output which indicates the strength of the received signal.
16
External
Speaker +
Positive output of radio’s audio PA (see Pin 1).
17
Bus +
This pin is used for flashing and for programming the radio.
18
Boot Control
To enter Boot Mode this line must be connected to ground when the radio is
switched on.
19
Reserved
Reserved.
20
Reserved
Reserved.
Note 1:
Digital Input
4.7 kΩ Internal Pull Up Resistor to +5V.
Maximum Input Voltage accepted as Low = 0.6V
Minimum Input Voltage accepted as High = 3.0V
Note 2:
Digital Output
4.7kΩ Internal Pull Up Resistor to +5V
Maximum Current when Output Low = 10mA
Maximum Voltage when Output Low = 0.5V @ 10mA
Note 3:
High Current Digital Output
4.7kΩ Internal Pull Up Resistor to continuous B+
Maximum Current when Output Low = 200mA
Maximum Voltage when Output Low = 1.7V @200mA
Note 4:
Digital Input
10kΩ Internal Pull Up Resistor to +5V
Maximum Input Voltage accepted as Low = 0.6V
Minimum Input Voltage accepted as High = 3V
Accessory Connections
6.1.1
!
1-15
Connection Plan for Accessories
CAUTION: The accessory connections shown are not compatible to some other models of
Motorola radios. Check the appropriate accessory or technical manual for further
information.
1
RSN4001 Speaker 13W
HSN8145 Speaker 7,5W
16
GKN6272 External Alarm, Relay and Cable
+12V
MIC 2
RMN4027 Visor mounted Microphone
GND 7
Accessory 16/20-Pin Connector
RLN4856 Footswitch w/Remote PTT
RLN4857 Pushbutton w/Remote PTT
RLN4858 Gooseneck PTT
PTT 3
20
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
19
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
GND 7
86
87
85
30
Alarm
Relay
+12V
Ext. Alarm 4
+12V
1 - SPEAKER
2 - EXT_MIC_AUDIO
3 - DIG_IN1 (Data PTT)
4 - DIG_OUT2 (EXTERNAL ALARM)
5 - FLAT_TX_AUDIO
6 - DIG_IN3 = Sel5/MDC
7 - GROUND
8 - DIG_IN_OUT_4 = Sel5/MDC
9 - DIG_IN5 WITH WAKEUP (EMERGENCY)
10 - DIG_IN6 WITH WAKEUP (IGNITION)
11 - FLAT/FILTERED_RX_AUDIO
12 - DIG_IN_OUT_7
13 - SWB+
14 - DIG_IN_OUT_8
15 - RSSI
16 - SPEAKER+
17 - BUS+
18 - BOOT_CNTRL
19 - N.C.
20 - N.C.
!
12k
SWB+ 13
Emergency 9
RLN4836 Tri-State Emergency
Footswitch and Cable
86
87
85
30
GND 7
+12V
4A
Ignition 10
Alarm
Relay
+12V
HKN9327 Ignition Switch CBL
Ext. Alarm 4
Ignition
Switch
Ignition Sense
"on - off"
CAUTION: DO NOT short pin 16 or 1 on the accessory connector to ground; this may
damage the radio.
HLN9457 Accessory Connector Kit
16
15
2
1
Shown from backside
Antenna
Connector
To Battery
+ via Fuse
F1 (red)
Power
Connector
Vehicle
Chassis
Ground
(black)
Accessory
Connector
1580922V01
FL0830249-O
Figure 1-9 Accessory Connector
!
CAUTION: Ensure correct position of the accessory connector.
1-16
INSTALLATION
Chapter 2
REDUCING NOISE INTERFERENCE
1.0
Introduction
Electrical noise generated by the electrical system of a vehicle, as well as local ambient noise, can
interfere with normal operation of mobile radios. Satisfactory operation of a mobile radio may require
slight or heavy noise reduction, depending upon the relative strength of the radio signal, and upon
the ability of the radio to reject undesired noise. These requirements vary from one vehicle to
another, depending upon the vehicle type and required coverage area. When operating in a strong
signal area, a certain amount of noise interference can be tolerated. In weak signal areas, however,
noise reduction becomes very important. As a rule of thumb, noise levels create greatest
interference in the 25-50MHz band and reduce with increasing frequency.
Before attempting any noise reduction procedures, determine the noise source(s). Then, follow a
logical, systematic method of elimination until the interference is eliminated or reduced to an
acceptable level.
!
CAUTION: Do not add interference elimination equipment to vehicles equipped with
electronic ignition systems before obtaining advice from the vehicle manufacturer. Addition
of some noise suppression components may interfere with proper operation of electronic
ignition systems and could seriously damage them.
Care and patience must be exercised in locating and eliminating noise sources. There may be
several sources of noise, each slightly stronger or weaker than the other. Elimination of one source
may seem ineffective because another noise source remains active at a barely discernible
difference in level. Consult a service manual for the vehicle to determine what noise reduction
provisions the manufacturer applies when AM, AM/FM, or CB radios are installed as original
equipment. These radios are also subject to electrical noise interference, and the manufacturer may
install noise suppression components only upon those vehicles which require radio equipment at the
time of manufacture. These noise suppression components should be added in any first attempt to
suppress noise.
1.1
Noise Sources
The three major noise sources affecting mobile radio systems are: (1) radiated noise, (2) conducted
noise, and (3) induced noise. (See Figure 2-1 Noise Sources for typical vehicular noise sources.)
1.2
Radiated Noise
Radiated noise enters the radio through the antenna along with the desired signal and can block or
degrade desired communication. It can be generated by power lines, fluorescent lights, or by
electrical discharges from static build-up, ignition systems, or electrical motors. Radiated noise is the
most common cause of mobile radio interference.
2-2
REDUCING NOISE INTERFERENCE
When a spark discharge or arc takes place through air, energy is radiated at frequencies from a few
kilohertz to hundreds of megahertz. This spurious radiation may have some energy radiated at a
frequency near or even identical to the desired radio signal. The standard receiver may be unable to
distinguish between the two signals (desired and noise). Therefore they both enter the receiver,
resulting in degradation of the desired signal.
It is impractical to prevent all arcing in the standard vehicle electrical system. In an 8-cylinder engine
running at 2,000 RPM, arcing occurs across the spark plugs at a rate of 8,000 sparks per minute or
133 sparks per second. Electrical motors and generators also produce arcs.
Inadequate Terminal
or Fuse Block Filtering
Windshield Wiper Motor
Heater Air Conditioner Blower
Radiated Noise Pick-up
Electric Windows Motors
Hood Static
Antenna Ground
or Location
Power Seat Motor
Electric Fuel Pump
Voltage
Regulator
Wheel Static
Distributor
Ignition
Coil
Spark Plug
Wires
Alternator or
Generator
Spark Plugs
Idle Stop
Solenoid
FL0830260-O
Figure 2-1 Noise Sources
1.3
Conducted Noise
Conducted noise enters the radio through the points where the radio is attached to the vehicle’s
electrical system such as battery cables, ignition switch, chassis ground etc. It can be generated by
electrical transients, electrical motors, poor grounding points, or inadequate electrical system
filtering (from alternators, generators, voltage regulators, or weak batteries). Conducted noise can
degrade both transmit and receive performance of a mobile radio.
Operation of a Conventional Ignition System
1.4
2-3
Induced Noise
Induced noise enters the radio through the proximity of radio wiring to other wiring in the vehicle.
Electrical currents through the standard vehicular wiring can induce undesirable noise signals into
the radio cabling. Communication is degraded simply because the wiring provides a transformertype coupling action without any actual physical connection. Induced noise can degrade both
transmit and receive performance of a mobile radio.
2.0
Operation of a Conventional Ignition System
2.1
Introduction
To effectively reduce ignition interference in a vehicle, it is well to understand the operation of an
automobile ignition system.
Ignition is necessary in a gasoline engine to ignite the gasoline vapor and the air mixture in its
cylinders. The system is made up of the battery, distributor, breaker points, coil, condenser, and
spark plugs. The battery is the only electrical source of power in an automobile, so the lower battery
voltage must be stepped up to the high voltage necessary to arc across the spark plug electrodes.
This arc ignites the gas mixture.
2.2
Sources of Ignition Interference
In the conventional ignition system ( Figure 2-2 Typical Vehicular Ignition System, Simplified
Schematic Diagram) a mechanical circuit breaker (the cam and points in the distributor) opens the
primary circuit of the ignition coil, and high voltage is developed at the secondary. This high voltage
is synchronized and applied to each spark plug by the distributor.
2-4
REDUCING NOISE INTERFERENCE
HV Lead
Distributor
Ignition
Coil
Breaker
Ignition Points
Switch
Spark plug
Battery
leads
Spark
Plugs
Cam
Condenser
Rotor Gap
Ignition
Switch
Battery
Breaker
Points
Ignition
Coil
Lead Inductance
Stray
Capacitance
Cam
Spark Plug Gap
Condenser
FL0830261-O
Figure 2-2 Typical Vehicular Ignition System, Simplified Schematic Diagram
The battery is connected to the primary winding of the coil through the ignition switch. The primary
circuit is returned to the battery through the breaker points, which are bypassed by the condenser.
The points are normally closed. As the cam shaft is rotated by the engine, its lobes or corners open
and close the points in proper synchronization with the piston in each cylinder.
With the ignition switch on and the breaker points closed, coil primary current builds up at a rate
determined by the coil inductance.
When the breaker points open, primary current decreases and, by self-induction, an electromotive
force is induced in the primary which is many times greater than the battery voltage. The high
voltage inducted in the coil secondary causes a spark across the distributor rotor-to-spark plug wire
gap and then across the spark plug gap for a short interval of time when the breaker points open.
The condenser reduces arcing of the points.
The secondary circuit of the ignition coil, including the distributor rotor gap and the spark gap, is the
main source of ignition interference. The lead inductance and stray capacitance provide a tuned
circuit. Because the discharge of the circuit is through a low resistance (ionized spark gap), the
circuit tends to oscillate. The frequency and amplitude of oscillation vary as current changes in the
spark gap.
Detection of Noise Sources
2-5
3.0
Detection of Noise Sources
3.1
Noise Detection Procedure
Detection of offending noise sources is the heart of noise suppression because, after the noise
source is identified, the solution becomes obvious. A logical methodical procedure is basic to the
effective noise suppression.
Use your available equipment to best advantage. A pick-up loop, about one inch in diameter, can be
connected to a portable CB radio or a mobile radio being operated at a frequency similar to the
installed radio frequency but from an isolated supply voltage. The pick-up loop can be moved
throughout the vehicle with the radio used as a radiated noise detector. Be sure the pick-up loop has
sufficient insulation to prevent the input of the radio from coming into direct contact with high voltage
points in the vehicle ignition system.
A non-polarized bypass capacitor, which has alligator clips firmly attached, can be used on a trialand-error basis to locate wiring which needs additional filtering. Keep capacitor lead lengths short
for best suppression. Ceramic disc capacitors are not as suitable or effective as automotive coaxial
capacitors. (See Figure 2-3 TLN8845 Noise Reduction Kit for Alternator-Equipped Vehicles and
Figure 2-4 TLN6252 Noise Reduction Kit for Generator-Equipped Vehicles for part numbers.)
Ignition
Switch
2
1
Ignition
Coil
3
Battery
Distributor
Breaker
Points
Resistive Wire
(Note 2)
Resistor
Spark Plugs
(Note 2)
Notes:
1. Noise reduction can only be achieved if components are grounded properly.
2. Items not supplied in kit. See auto parts dealer.
FL0830262-O
FL0830262-O
Reference
Number
Quantity
Motorola
Part Number
Description
1
2
3
-
1
1
1
1
0100839913
0882571B02
3000502396
0180782A52
Lead & Lug Assembly
Capacitor, Coaxial (0.1µF, 100V)
Ignition Coil Suppressor Cable
Hood Wipers (2) and Mounting
Hardware Kit (not illustrated).
Figure 2-3 TLN8845 Noise Reduction Kit for Alternator-Equipped Vehicles
2-6
REDUCING NOISE INTERFERENCE
Ignition
Switch
3
1
Ignition
Coil
Resistive Wire
(Note 2)
6
Resistor
Spark Plugs
(Note 2)
Battery
Distributor
Breaker
Points
Notes:
1. Noise reduction can only be achieved if components are grounded properly.
Be sure that all the capacitors and the generator filed suppressor assembly are
grounded properly. This may require bonding straps for proper bypass
capacitor effectiveness.
2. Items not supplied in kit. See auto parts dealer.
Voltage Regulator
Generator
2
4
ARM
4
1
4
1
FLD
BAT
Armature
5
Field
Common Ground
To
Battery
To
Generator
Field
FL0830263-O
FL0830263-O
Reference
Number
Quantity
Motorola
Part Number
Description
1
2
3
4
5
6
-
3
1
1
3
1
1
1
0100839913
0180700A88
0882571B02
0882571B01
0180700A89
3000502396
0180700A91
Lead & Lug Assembly
Lead & Lug Assembly
Capacitor, Coaxial (0.1µF, 100V)
Capacitor, Coaxial (0.5µF, 100V)
Generator Field Suppressor Assembly
Ignition Coil Suppressor Cable
Hood Wipers (2) and Mounting
Hardware Kit (not illustrated).
Figure 2-4 TLN6252 Noise Reduction Kit for Generator-Equipped Vehicles
Noise Reduction Techniques
3.2
2-7
Sources of Noise
Some interference is due to geographic location. This interference does not need to be eliminated
since it is possible for the vehicle to be moved away from the interfering noise source. Noise from
power lines, fluorescent lights, and other vehicles (emitting high levels of radiated noise) are
examples of noise which depends upon location. Make certain that you are not attempting to
suppress noise in a vehicle while it is in a noisy location. If you suspect that your location is noisy,
simply turn off everything in the vehicle except the radio and listen to the remaining ambient noise. If
the noise level is objectionable, you may have to noise suppress the vehicle during a less noisy time
of day or in a different, quieter location.
Check the installed radio for conducted and inducted noise by using an unmodulated signal
generator to supply a clean RF signal through a coaxial cable directly to the antenna connector on
the radio set. This should prevent radiated noise from entering the receiver and masking conducted
and induced noise. Make certain that the signal generator is not microphonic and is placed away
from the noise of the engine and exhaust.
Operate the controls for fans, blowers, power windows, headlamps, turn signals, windshield wipers,
and other electrical accessories. Listen for the presence of noise in the received radio signal. This
will allow the source of the interference to be determined. Some noise sources cannot be turned on
and off at will. These sources will need to be attacked piecemeal on a trial and error basis: alternator
whine, voltage regulators, electric fuel pump, and other possible sources. Remember that induced
noise can result from radio wiring being too close to other vehicle wiring. This problem is most easily
solved by proper cable routing at the time of installation.
Radiated noise must be attacked after conducted and induced noise has been satisfactorily
suppressed. The vehicle ignition system is usually the primary source of this interference. Antenna
placement can be critical in some installations. Remember that static discharge generates static or
radiated noise and will probably be generated only when the vehicle is in motion.
Since radiated noise interference is most noticeable in weak signal areas, it is suggested that
suppression be finalized while listening to a weak “on frequency” signal. (The squelch should be
“open” so that even marginal signals can be heard.)
4.0
Noise Reduction Techniques
4.1
General
There are three basic ways to suppress noise. The first is the addition of resistance in circuits
subject to ringing. This method is used for the ignition coil HV cable, spark plug wires, and spark
plugs. The second is to filter noise from low voltage wiring using coaxial bypass capacitors. The third
is to control static charge build-up using wipers for movable parts such as automobile hoods and
trunk lids, or flexible bonding leads for fixed members. Static in wheels may also be controlled using
collector rings. Applications of each of these techniques are discussed below.
The vehicle manufacturer’s service manual also may provide noise suppression information which is
valuable in any first attempt at noise suppression.
2-8
REDUCING NOISE INTERFERENCE
4.2
Ignition System Interference
4.2.1
Engine Maintenance and Tune-Up
The most important step in reducing ignition noise is insuring that the engine is in proper tune. Pay
particular attention to the following points if the noise interference from the ignition system is severe:
4.2.2
1.
Be sure the spark plugs distributor points, and condenser are in good condition.
2.
Be sure ignition timing is properly adjusted.
3.
Be sure the distributor cap and rotor are in good condition. They should be replaced at least
every 30,000 miles.
4.
Be sure that spark plug wires make good, solid contact at each end and are routed as far as
possible from low voltage leads.
5.
Many late-model automobiles are equipped with a shield over the distributor points. Check to
see that this shield is properly positioned and securely attached.
Available Noise Reduction Kits
Motorola offers two noise reduction kits: Model TLN8845 for alternator-equipped vehicles; Model
TLN6252 for generator-equipped vehicles. These kits are for suppression of noise in the primary
and secondary of the ignition coil and for bleeding of static charges on the hood. The TLN6252 also
is used to suppress noise from the generator and voltage regulator. Figure 2-3 TLN8845 Noise
Reduction Kit for Alternator-Equipped Vehicles and Figure 2-4 TLN6252 Noise Reduction Kit for
Generator-Equipped Vehicles show the contents of the kits and their usage.
Motorola also offers wheel static collectors (Motorola Part No. 0100534254-regular type and
0100563173-small type). Use of these items are described in section "4.7 Wheel Static" on page
12.
Most auto parts dealers can supply 0.05 µF bypass capacitors (condensers), resistive ignition wires,
and resistor spark plugs. The type of spark suppression used in noise reduction should always be in
accordance with the recommendations of the vehicle manufacturer, that is, if spark plugs are to be
replaced with built-in suppressor types, they should be in the proper heat ranges and thread sizes
for the particular engine. In each ignition system, there is a maximum amount of resistance that may
be connected between the distributor and a spark plug. If resistance-type ignition wire is used, the
length of each wire must be limited so that its resistance does not exceed the allowable maximum.
4.2.3
Ignition Coil Interference
This type of interference is characterized by a popping sound which is most noticeable when the
engine is running slowly. To suppress the noise, connect a 0.1 µF coaxial capacitor (Motorola Part
No. 0882571B02) from the battery side of the ignition coil to vehicle ground (see Figure 2-5 Ignition
Coil Noise Suppression). This keeps the distributor noise from being conducted through the battery
lead into the electrical system of the vehicle. Note that some electronic ignition systems do not route
the battery lead to the ignition coil; proper operation of the ignition system can be impaired if the
”input” terminal is bypassed.
Noise Reduction Techniques
2-9
Step 3.
Connect wire lead to capacitor
using lockwasher and nut.
Step 4.
Connect capacitor
lead to battery post.
From distributor
Distributor Post
Step 1.
Mount Capacitor
(0.1µF Coaxial Type)
to vehicle chassis
using lockwasher
and self-tapping screw.
Battery Post
Step 2.
Disconnect wire (dashed)
from battery post and
connect to capacitor using
lockwasher and nut.
FL0830264-O
FL0830264-O
Figure 2-5 Ignition Coil Noise Suppression
4.2.4
Distributor Interference
This type of interference is characterized by popping sounds which are present at all engine speeds.
It is caused by sparking between the rotor and the distributor cap inserts as the rotor turns. To
suppress this noise, use resistance ignition wire to connect the ignition coil to the distributor cap.
4.2.5
Battery Connections
The radio set power cable can pick up noise generated in the vehicle. This can be minimized by
connecting the power cable directly to the battery instead of the fuse block. The battery acts like a
large capacitor (about one Farad for a 50 amp/hour battery), which bypasses induced noise. The
battery ground lead should be securely bonded to the vehicle frame. Undesirable parallel ground
currents can be minimized by using the vehicle frame as a common ground point. If ignition switch
control of the radio is desired, the radio power leads may be connected to the battery through a relay
which is controlled by the ignition switch.
4.3
Alternator/Generator Whine
This type of interference is characterized by a high-pitched whine which varies with engine speed. A
0.5 µF coaxial capacitor (Motorola Part No. 0882571B01) can be used to bypass the whine. For
generators, the capacitors is connected in the armature lead. Never use a capacitor in the field lead.
Use the field suppressor assembly supplied in the TLN6252 Noise Reduction Kit. For alternators,
the capacitor is connected in the lead to the battery post (see Figure 2-6 Generator Whine
Suppression and Figure 2-7 Alternator Whine Suppression).
2-10
REDUCING NOISE INTERFERENCE
Step 1.
Mount Capacitor
(0.5µF Coaxial Type)
under generator ground screw.
Step 3.
Connect wire lead to capacitor
using lockwasher and nut.
Step 4.
Connect capacitor
lead to armature post.
Caution:
Do not connect
capacitor to field temina
Step 2.
Disconnect wire (dashed)
from armature post and
connect to capacitor using
lockwasher and nut.
FL0830310-O
Figure 2-6 Generator Whine Suppression
Step 1.
Mount Capacitor to
(0.5µF Coaxial Type)
under alternator
ground screw.
Step 2.
Disconnect wire from
battery post and connect
to capacitor using
lockwasher and nut.
Caution:
Do not connect
capacitor to field terminal.
Step 3.
Connect wire lead to capacitor
using lockwasher and nut.
Step 4.
Connect capacitor
lead to battery post.
FL0830311-O
FL0830311-O
Figure 2-7 Alternator Whine Suppression
Noise Reduction Techniques
4.4
2-11
Voltage Regulator Noise
This type of interference is characterized by erratic popping noises which change only slightly with
changes in engine speed. The noise is generated by arcing in the vibrating breaker contacts of the
voltage regulator. It can be suppressed by connecting a 0.5 µF coaxial capacitor (Motorola Part No.
0882571B01) in the battery and armature leads of the voltage regulator (see Figure 2-8 Voltage
Regulator Noise Suppression).
!
CAUTION: Disconnect the battery ground terminal before attempting to connect components
to the voltage regulator.
Step 1.
Mount Capacitor
(0.5µF Coaxial Type)
to vehicle chassis
using lockwasher and
self-tapping screw.
Step 2.
Disconnect wire (dashed)
from battery post and
connect to capacitor
using lockwasher and nut.
Vehicle
Step 3.
Add lead from battery
post to capacitor using
lockwasher and nut.
Battery
Post
Armature
A coaxial capacitor can
be added here, if required.
FL0830265-O
FL0830265-O
Figure 2-8 Voltage Regulator Noise Suppression
4.5
Hood and Trunk Lid Noise
This type of noise is characterized by irregular popping sounds. It is caused by friction in poorly
bonded automobile hoods or trunk lids. This friction causes static electricity to build up until arcing
occurs. This type of noise is suppressed using a Motorola Hood Wipers and Mounting Hardware Kit
(part of TLN8845 or TLN6252 Noise Reduction Kits) which provides electrical bonding of the hood
or trunk to the vehicle body while permitting them to be opened.
2-12
4.6
REDUCING NOISE INTERFERENCE
Other Electrical Noises
Other elements of the electrical system which can generate noise are listed below. These can be
suppressed by connecting a 0.5 µF bypass capacitor between the noise source and ground.
4.7
1.
Ammeter-to-battery lead
2.
Gauges (oil, fuel, temperature)
3.
Ignition Switch
4.
Lamp bulbs (headlamps, tail lamps, dome lamps, etc.)
5.
Accessory wiring (electrical fuel pump, electric windshield wipers, heater fan motor, window
openers, etc.)
Wheel Static
Road friction can cause static build-up on the front wheels. Suppress noise from this source using
wheel static collector rings (Motorola Part No. 0100534254 regular type - 0100653173 small type).
4.8
Ground Bonding
If a vehicle is not properly bonded to ground, static charges can increase. This increase can cause
noise from electrical arcing. This type of noise is suppressed by bonding the part using one-inch
wide ground straps (keep them as short as possible). Some common points where bonding may be
helpful are listed below (see Figure 2-9 Ground Bonding).
A. From engine block to the firewall.
B. From engine block to vehicle frame at points where the engine is shock-mounted.
C. From the battery ground terminal to the vehicle body.
D. From top of front wheel “A” frames to chassis, particularly in cases where rubber-mounted
members are used.
Firewall
A
Chassis
Battery
Fender
Well
C
Front Wheel
"A" Frame
D
B
D
FL0830266-O
Figure 2-9 Ground Bonding
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