Carpet Cleaning Technician Course Manual

Carpet Cleaning Technician Course Manual
Carpet Cleaning
For the
Value-Added
Technician
Bill Yeadon
Jon Don
400 Medinah Road
Roselle, Illinois 60172
317 201 7670
[email protected]
www.jondon.com
Copyright © 1/2013 Jon-Don
Reproduction without permission is prohibited
A message from your instructor
When I started in the cleaning industry in 1975 things were a bit different
than today. The IICRC (then IICUC) had just begun and probably had fewer
than 100 registrants. Training was very hard to find.
Carpet fibers were nylon, polyester and acrylic. Backings were made of jute
and the hot colors were avocado, burnt orange, harvest gold, brown and
blue. Most popular style was shag. Oh yes disco was king.
The field of cleaning chemistry was in its early stages. In other words pH
was king and browning due to those jute backings was an everyday
occurrence. The solvents would dissolve most anything oily and rust
removers could eat the bone marrow in your fingers as well as cloud glass.
Wands easily weighed 20 pounds and guide handles had not been added yet
which left technicians fatigued by lunchtime. Upholstery tools were the size
of today’s stair tools and if it wasn’t a Herculon sofa you could guarantee
browning and some shrinkage. If there was a mistake to be made I made it.
Of course everything wasn’t bad; my 1975 Chevy van only cost 5800.00 and
gas was 50 cents a gallon.
This trip down memory lane is to show how the industry has changed for the
better (maybe not the gas and van prices.) Today you have tremendous
opportunities with improved training, equipment, chemicals and of course
the technology of the internet, mobile phones and social media.
I am here because I would love to help you attain your goals. Whether your
goals are financial or the ability to spend your time as you wish, this industry
can get you there. Dedication, hard work, attitude, and sincerity in providing
a great service are required. These are all under your control.
If you have any questions when you leave this class please contact me at
[email protected] or my cell 317 201 7670.
Thanks for being here,
Bill Yeadon
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Index
Timeline History of the Carpet Industry……………………………………………….4
Carpet Fibers…………………………………………………………………………...6
Natural Fibers…………………………………………………………………………..7
Synthetic Fibers………………………………………………………………………..10
Burn Test………………………………………………………………………………17
Review 1………………………………………………………………………………18
Yarn Manufacturing…………………………………………………………………...19
Dyeing…………………………………………………………………………………20
Review 2………………………………………………………………………………24
Carpet Manufacturing…………………………………………………………………25
Installation…………………………………………………………………………….29
Review 3………………………………………………………………………………32
Soil…………………………………………………………………………………….33
Principles of Cleaning…………………………………………………………………35
Review 4………………………………………………………………………………40
Methods of Cleaning…………………………………………………………………..41
Review 5………………………………………………………………………………52
Chemistry……………………………………………………………………………...53
Chemicals……………………………………………………………………………...57
Review 6………………………………………………………………………………59
Spotting………………………………………………………………………………..60
Spotting Chart…………………………………………………………………………68
Additional Chemicals…………………………………………………………………69
Review 7………………………………………………………………………………72
Carpet Cleaning Procedures…………………………………………………………..73
Review 8………………………………………………………………………………77
Problems & Solutions…………………………………………………………………78
Practice Exam………………………………………………………………………..81
IICRC Forms………………………………………………………………………….96
Answers to quizzes…………………………………………………………………...102
The IICRC reviews course manuals only to verify that each manual covers all of the test questions on
the respective course exam, and that the course manual otherwise meets the criteria in the IICRC
Policy and Procedures Manual. The IICRC does not otherwise review or approve course manuals
for content or technical accuracy. The schools are independent of the IICRC and the responsibility
for course manual content and technical accuracy, except as to exam question coverage, remains the
responsibility of the respective schools and not the IICRC.
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Timeline History of the Carpet Industry in the US
1791 William Sprague starts first carpet mill in Philadelphia
1839 Erastus Bigelow invents power loom
1845 Alexander Smith builds carpet plant in NY
1849 Jacquard mechanism invented
1877 Bigelow creates first broadloom carpet.
1900 Catherine Whitener sells first chenille bedspread
1926 Karastan Rug Mills open
1930 First mechanized tufting machine created in Dalton
1947 Nylon introduced for carpet
1950 97 million yards, 10% tufted, 90% woven
2005 2.057 billion yards 90% tufted
Since 2005 the carpet industry has mirrored the economy and in
particular the new home industry has caused massive downsizing. Most
nylon producers have been sold to carpet manufacturers in particular
Shaw and Mohawk.
Staple fiber is being replaced by bulked continuous filament (BCF).
Polyester has seen huge growth in market share due to the pricing of oil
and the introduction of natural materials such as corn into the
production of fiber.
Olefin has lost market share due to demand for some of the petroleum
components from other industries.
On the commercial side carpet tile is the dominant product for upscale
projects.
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Here is what you will be cleaning.
Polypropylene
17%
Polyester
28%
Other
1%
Nylon
55%
Source: Data from PCI Fiber.
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Carpet Fibers
How a carpet fiber performs in a home depends on many things: carpet
construction, yarn construction, type of installation, quality and
frequency of maintenance, type of cushion used and type of fiber used.
Each fiber has different characteristics that do not change. A characteristic
that may affect cleaning is how the fiber repels or attracts various soils and
stains.
Fibers are broken into two major categories:
Natural - derived from plants or animals.
 Protein – Wool, Silk
 Cellulosic – Cotton, Jute
Synthetic – derived from petrochemicals or renewable sources.




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Nylon
Olefin
Polyester
Acrylic
Triexta
Natural and synthetic fibers differ in their ability to absorb moisture.
Natural fibers have a high absorbency rate while synthetics have a low
absorbency factor. This affects how the fibers are dyed and how easily they
are stained. One additional concern is drying time. Natural fibers normally
take longer to dry.
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Characteristics:
Wool is obtained from the fleece of sheep.
Characteristics:
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Oldest fiber used in carpet since 2000BC
Naturally resilient due to fiber crimp
Good abrasion resistance
Dyes easily
Cleans well – clean between pH 4.5-8.5
Buffered products may cause damage
Natural soil resistance, releases soil easily
Natural protective membrane repels moisture
Natural fire resistance
Concerns:






Excessive alkalinity can damage outer layer (epidermis)
Silicones (protectors) can cause resoiling
Chlorine bleach (sodium hypochlorite) dissolves wool
Stains are very difficult to remove
Bleeding and crocking are issues
Aggressive agitation can damage epidermis, causing felting
Clean with
products tested
as safe for wool
Do not confuse wool Berber with olefin Berber
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Silk - normally found only in rugs
Characteristics:

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Obtained from silkworm
1 cocoon provides 300-900 meter silk thread
Most luxurious fiber
Soft hand
Concerns:
 Yellows with age
 Spots easily
 Texture distorts easily
 Damaged by high alkalinity and perspiration
 Rayon is used as a low priced alternative
Cocoons
Worms feeding on mulberry leaves
Moth
Spinning silk
1. Silk moths lay eggs on specially prepared paper.
2. Eggs hatch and the caterpillars are fed fresh mulberry leaves.
3. After about 35 days, and 4 moltings, the silkworms are 10,000 times
heavier than when hatched –now ready to begin spinning a cocoon.
4. A straw frame is placed over tray of silkworms – they begin spinning
cocoons by moving their heads in a figure 8.
5. Liquid silk, coated in sericin, is produced in 2 of the silkworm’s
glands, which is forced through spinnerets.
o Sericin: water-soluble protective gum
o Spinnerets: openings in silkworm’s head
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6. As this liquid silk comes into contact with the air, it solidifies.
7. Within 2-3 days, the silkworm will have spun 1 mile of filament and
will be completely encased in a cocoon.
8. After this entire process, the silkworm metamorphoses into a moth,
but is usually killed by heat before it reaches the moth stage – any
silkworm reaching the moth stage is used for breeding the next
generation of silkworms.
Cotton - used only in rugs and as a
backing yarn
Characteristics:
 Dyes easily
 Great hand (feels soft)
Concerns:
 Easily browns due to high
cellulosic content
 Shrinkage
 Stains easily
 Poor resilience
Jute – same concerns as cotton (Sisal, hemp, coir, paper rugs)
Jute is one of the cheapest natural fibers and is second only to cotton in
amount produced and variety of uses. Jute fibers are composed primarily of
the plant materials cellulose (major component of plant fiber) and lignin
(major components wood fiber)
Sisal Rug
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Synthetic fibers comprise over 95% of the fibers used in the
manufacture of carpet. Two types are BCF and Staple.
All synthetic fibers are manufactured the same way – fiber
extrusion. Polymer chips are blended and heated to a liquid form,
then forced or extruded through a piece of equipment known as
a spinneret. Spinnerets contain hundreds of tiny holes, which
determine the cross section of the fiber. The fibers are then cooled
in a cooling tower and become solid filaments. Each hole in
the spinneret produces a filament of fiber. The filaments are
then drawn, crimped(which adds bulk to the fiber) and stretched and
bulked, resulting in BCF – bulked continuous filament, which is
wound onto cones and shipped to a yarn facility. The fibers can be
cut into 6-8 inch lengths after the drawing process and baled for shipment to
a spinning mill.
This is referred to as staple fiber and staple is produced from the bales.
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Nylon – the most popular fiber used in carpet
Characteristics:
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Great resiliency (ability to spring back after compression)
Accepts dyes better than other synthetics (mostly acid dyes)
Cleans well
Resists abrasion
Dissolves in formic acid
Concerns:
 Attracted to acid dyes
Generations of nylon – first introduced in 1939 by Dupont
First: round fiber magnified soil
Second: modified shape to trilobal
Third: added property to reduce or dissipate static charge
Fourth: added fluorochemical to resist soil and stains
Fifth: added acid-dye blockers(colorless dyes) to repel acid dyes
- +++
- +++
Round
Trilobal
_ acid
dye
blocker
Fluorochemical
Dye sites
Fifth generation nylon was first introduced in 1986 by Dupont under the
trade name StainMaster®. Other fiber producers such as Allied and
Monsanto followed quickly with competitive products. Within a few years
carpet manufacturers began using their own version of the stain resist
technology.
Most of these products have similar warranties stating: Warranty covers
normal indoor residential use for carpets properly installed and
maintained in owner-occupied residences. The stain resistance warranty
will resist staining caused by most common household food and
beverages better than comparable untreated nylon carpet.
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Exclusions to the warranty included:
 Household cleaners including bleach
 Pesticides
 Plant foods
 Acne medicine including benzoyl peroxide
 Disperse dyes e.g. mustard, herbal tea
 Pigmented stains e.g. shoe polish
 Urine Sorry Fluffy, not covered
 Water damage
 Residue
 Heavy use of solvents
Guidelines were established to safeguard the stain resist warranty.
 Cleaning agents should not exceed a pH of 10.
 Products should not contain cationic surfactants.
 Silicone products such as protectors should not be used.
Periodic professional cleaning of the overall carpet is recommended. The
frequency of overall cleaning may vary depending on the level and type of
traffic and the conditions to which your carpet is exposed, and may range
from as little as 6 months to 18 months between cleanings. The preferred
method is hot water extraction utilizing cleaning products that are anionic
(negative) or nonionic (neutral) with a pH less than 10. Cationic
(positively charged) surfactants void the warranty
Source: Anso® nylon Residential Warranty Information
The fiber producers recommend that spotting be done after cleaning. Most
spots will normally be removed with a good preconditioner followed by
extraction.
When requested to perform a warranty carpet inspection, the
technician is to make a report to the requesting party only. The
technician should not make any statements to the customer
concerning the warranty.
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Polypropylene (Olefin) – very popular in Berber style
Characteristics:
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Must be solution dyed
Most stain resistant
Excellent fade resistance
Least water absorbent
Floats on water due to specific gravity less than water
Cleans well
Olefin Berbers are especially tricky and prone to wicking. Due to the
looped construction, Berbers can hold large amounts of dry soil. Pre
vacuum thoroughly, turn down pressure, provide additional extraction
passes, and use air movers. In very difficult wicking situations the use of a
cotton bonnet may help. Encapsulation may prevent wicking.
Concerns:
 Poor resilience
 Low melting point (wrap your
couplers)
 Attracted to oily soils
 Wicking problems
Olefin is used frequently in commercial buildings that have high tenant
turnover. It usually is an extremely low pile carpet and is normally glued
directly to the floor. Wicking is a major problem.
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Polyester – fastest growing market share
Characteristics:


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Great hand (feels soft)
Excellent stain and fade resistance
Good color clarity
Cleans well
Dyed with disperse dyes, not attracted to acid dyes
Concerns:
 Resiliency not as good as nylon
 Attracted to oily soils, fluorocarbon treatments help
The most common polyester for fiber purposes is polyethylene terephthalate,
or simply PET. This is also the polymer used for many soft drink bottles and
it is becoming increasingly common to recycle them after use by remelting
the PET and extruding it as fiber. This saves valuable petroleum raw
materials, reduces energy consumption, and eliminates solid waste sent to
landfills.
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Triexta (PTT) - first new residential fiber since 1960
In the market place this fiber is known as Dupont Sorona and as Mohawk
SmartStrand®.
Though triexta carpet fibers have a chemical structure similar to standard
polyester carpet fibers, there is a substantial difference between the two.
When compared to standard polyester carpet fibers, triexta carpet fibers are
incredibly soft and durable and have superior built-in stain resistance that
never washes off, making carpet cleaning a breeze. Triexta carpet fibers also
have excellent fiber strength and retain their appearance very well without
the matting, fuzzing, or piling that some polyester carpet fibers are known
for. Time and time again, carpets made with triexta carpet fibers have
outperformed standard polyester carpet fibers in independent tests.
These innovative carpets made with triexta carpet fibers are mold and
mildew resistant, easy to clean, and dry quickly, resulting in carpets that are
kid friendly, pet friendly, and allergy friendly. In addition, Mohawk’s
SmartStrand® with DuPont™ Sorona® renewably sourced polymer is
partially made of renewable, sustainable corn sugar. Using corn sugar
reduces the need for petroleum-based products, making Mohawk’s
SmartStrand® with DuPont™ Sorona® renewably sourced polymer a green,
eco-friendly carpet choice.
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SmartStrand® carpet deliberately abused for testing purposes.
We followed the 5 principles of cleaning to achieve great
results. Thanks to my friend Steve Poulos for his help.
Acrylic – originally marketed as the synthetic wool because of
its similar characteristics.
Characteristics:
 Always a staple fiber
 Usually solution dyed or stock dyed
Concerns:

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Poor abrasion resistance
Poor soil hiding
Poor resilience
Fair cleaning
Shading
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FIBER ID by Burn Testing
Fiber
Flame
Odor
Ash/Residue
cotton/jute
orange ember
burning paper
ash
rayon
orange
burning paper
no ash or bead
wool
orange/sputters
burning hair
black ash/crumbles
silk
orange
burning hair
black beads/crushes
nylon
blue base/orange tip plastic/celery
round,black bead
olefin/polypropylene blue base/orange tip asphalt
round,gray to brown bead
polyester
orange sputters black sweet/fruity
round, shiny, black bead
acrylic
white/orange/sputters acrid,burnt meat
black crust can be crushed
Use butane lighter to avoid sulfur smell of matches. Use a cup or ashtray.
Chemical tests:
Nylon – formic acid
Wool – sodium Hypochlorite
Olefin – floats on water
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Review #1
Fibers
1. Natural fibers are very ______________ which means they take dye
easily, stain easily, and take longer to ________.
2. The most popular synthetic fiber is _______________.
3. Olefin loves _______ and hates _______.
4. Wool and silk are examples of ____________ fibers.
5. Nylon can be dissolved by ________ acid.
6. Wool does not _______ and smells like a wet ____ when wet.
7. The ___________ of a wool fiber can be damaged by _________.
8. ____________ can dissolve a wool or silk fiber.
9. Polyester is not a good choice for a __________ building.
10. Olefin is always _________ dyed but ________ easily.
11. All synthetic fibers are __________ through a ________________.
12. The _____________ fiber is a synthetic substitute for wool.
13. Nylon is attracted to ______ dye stains and should be cleaned with
a pH under ______.
14. When a synthetic fiber is burned it leaves a hard ______ when a
natural fiber is burned it leaves an ____.
15. When nylon is burn tested it smells like ________, olefin smells like
_________, polyester smells like _______, wool smells like burnt
________, cotton or jute smells like _________, acrylic smells like
burnt _______.
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Yarn manufacturing
BCF yarn requires only two processes – twisting and heat setting.
Staple yarns resemble wool a natural fiber. They are losing market share to
BCF. Because staple or spun yarns need additional processing this adds
expense.
 Blending insures that the product is as uniform as possible. This helps
to prevent dye streaking.
 Carding straightens the various fibers and creates a yarn sliver.
 Pin drafting continues to blend the fiber and get the fibers as parallel
as possible before twisting.
 Spinning is the actual formation of the yarn.
 Plying is the process where 2 or more yarns (2 ply)
are twisted together to form the final plied yarn for tufting. The
twisted yarn must be heat-set to maintain the twist and provide a
yarn memory.
Staple fiber due to it short length sheds throughout the life of the carpet but
especially when it is new. You or the consumer may notice bunches of fiber
in your vacuum bag. This is not a defect.
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Dyeing – color is the visual effect that is caused by the spectral
composition of light emitted, transmitted or reflected by the object.
Primary colors – red, blue, yellow
Secondary colors are blends of primaries.
Methods of dyeing
Pre-dyeing is the application of dye prior to carpet manufacturing. The
methods include:
 Solution – adding pigment to the liquid polymer before extrusion.
o Olefin must be solution dyed while all extruded fibers can be
solution dyed. Pre-dyeing represents approximately 30% of
residential and 70% of commercial carpet.
 Stock – dyeing of fibers in staple form. Used only on wool today.
 Yarn – dyed in yarn form before the fabric stage.
o Skein, space, and package. Space dyeing is the application of
multiple colors onto yarn.
Post-Dyeing is the application of the dye following the tufting process.
 Continuous – a process in which the fabric or greige goods pass
through dyeing and subsequent operations without interruption.
 Beck or batch – a process in which separate pieces of fabric are
handled sequentially through dyeing and subsequent processes.
o These 2 processes are referred to as piece dyeing and are the
most popular for residential goods.
o Differential dyeing is a variation of piece dyeing whereby the
dye being applied is in a dye bath with carpet is constructed
with fibers of varying affinities to accept the dye – each color
being a different shade.
 Print – application of the multiple dye colors in a pattern applied
through a screen or rollers. Used frequently in hospitality and
restaurants.
**** Some manufacturers prefer a pH closer to neutral when
cleaning print carpet. The problem is that printed carpets are popular
in restaurants that have infrequent cleaning schedules. Many cleaners
choose products with high alkalinity >10 to break down the caked on
grease. While this works well it may cause bleeding.
USE CAUTION!
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Color originates in light. Sunlight, as we perceive it, is colorless. In reality, a
rainbow is testimony to the fact that all the colors (the sun) to the object (the
apple), and finally to the detector (the eye and brain).
Dye terminology:
 Pigment – an insoluble material used to dye fabrics especially
solution dyes prior to extrusion.
 Dyes – a soluble, color absorbing/reflecting material.
 Dye sites – area within the fiber that provides sites for chemical
bonding with the dye molecule.
 Acid dye blocker – an anionic compound used to block open dye
sites in order to eliminate the attraction of acid staining material such
as fruit drinks. This is the chemistry behind fifth generation nylon.
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Color Loss Concerns:
 Bleeding – loss of color by the fabric or yarn when contacted by
water, as a result of improper dyeing or the use of poor quality dyes.
High alkaline cleaners can increase the chance of bleeding. High
temperatures will accelerate the reaction. When bleeding is a
concern leave the carpet in an acid pH state.
 Crocking – the rubbing off or transfer of a dye from a fabric as a
result of insufficient dye penetration or fixation. Crocking can occur
under wet or dry conditions but requires agitation. A person sitting on
a white chair with new blue jeans may leave a blue tint on the chair.
 Fume fading – a shade change of a fabric caused by a chemical
reaction between dyes and acid gases from fuel combustion,
particularly oxides of nitrogen. From gas furnaces. Ozone pollution is
also included in this category.
 Bleaching – products such as household bleach (sodium
hypochlorite), benzoyl peroxide, fertilizers can remove color.
 Pesticides – loss of color around room perimeters.
 Ozone fading –a powerful oxidizing agent which may cause a loss of
color especially blue.
 Lighter color – if the color of the stain is lighter than the carpet, it is
a loss of color and will need to be redyed or resectioned.
 Optical Brighteners – a colorless compound that, when applied to a
fabric, absorbs the ultraviolet in light, but emits radiation in the visible
spectrum. OB’s void carpet warranties and can cause permanent
yellowing of the carpet. OB’s are often found in detergents.
Various Color Problems:
 Metamerism – variation of color under differing light sources when
compared to a master sample e.g. sunlight versus fluorescent or
incandescent.
 Pile Reversal –generally irreversible, localized change in the
orientation of the pile yarns of textiles. It can be caused by traffic,
shading, watermarking, pooling or the installer turned the carpet 180°
at the seam.
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 Shading – an apparent change in color when the pile is bent and the
light reflects differently off the bent fibers. Shading is not a defect and
is aggravated when fibers are subjected to abrasive soil and traffic.
 Watermarking – an irreversible, localized change in the orientation
of the carpet. The phenomenon has different names in different
countries. Referred to as pile reversal, watermarking, pooling and
shading. Not considered to be a defect.
 Wear – a loss of face pile in the traffic areas as opposed to the nontrafficked areas.
 Side match – dye lots were not installed sequentially or installed
incorrectly.
 Soil shading – abrasion of plastic like fibers causing a difference in
the way the light reflects.
 pH indicator dye stains – imbalance of pH has caused a color
change. Adjusting the pH can restore the color.
Backing – once the yarns have been spun it is time to turn them into a carpet
or rug. The yarns in a tufting machine are inserted into a primary backing.
At this stage the fabric is referred to as greige goods or an unfinished
(undyed) material. The greige goods are dyed and receive an application of
latex before being married to a secondary backing. The carpet is dried and
sheared if needed and it is ready to be shipped.
 Primary made from polypropylene or jute.
 Secondary made from polypropylene or jute.
 Applying the secondary strengthens the carpet and provides
dimensional stability (ability of a carpet to maintain its
shape).
 Synthetic backed carpets cannot shrink. Only woven carpets
with cellulosic yarns or jute backed tufted carpets can shrink.
 Woven backings are composed of warp chain, stuffer warp, and filler
or weft yarns, all of which are interwoven with face yarns.
 Vinyl backing is primarily used in carpet modules or 6 ft. wide carpet
designed for commercial use. The system uses a layered application of
hot vinyl, or plastic compound and fiberglass scrim for dimensional
stability (the ability of a carpet to retain its shape.)
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Review #2
Yarns & Dyeing
1. Synthetic fibers are created through a process called ____________.
2. Synthetic fibers can be either ___________ or cut into __________.
3. Loose ________ fiber is normal in a cut pile and called __________.
4. Olefin can be damaged by __________.
5. Olefin and polyester are attracted to __________ soil, this is referred
to as being ______________.
6. Bulked continuous filaments are referred to as _________.
7. When 2 or more yarns are twisted together they are called________.
8. A carpet that is dyed in a pattern is called a __________ carpet.
9. A carpet that has not been dyed is called ___________ goods.
10. The most popular form of dyeing for residential carpet is called
__________ dyeing. These two methods are ___________ and
_________ dyeing.
11. Wool cannot be ________ dyed.
12. A pigment is _____________; a dye is ___________.
13. Optical brighteners can cause permanent _________ and void stain
resist ___________.
14. Pooling, watermarking, and ___________ are not considered
__________ by the carpet manufacturers.
15. Bleeding requires ___________ crocking requires ____________.
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Carpet Manufacturing
Weaving – method of interlacing two yarns of similar material so they cross
each other at right angles to produce woven fabric. Weaving is done on a
loom and is much slower than tufting, which makes it more expensive.
Woven carpet is distinguished by intricate patterns and is frequently
comprised of wool. Two sets of yarn are used; the warp or lengthwise and
the weft or filling yarn which is the crosswise yarn.
4 components of a woven carpet




Pile
Warp
Weft
Backcoat
Tufting – is the most popular form of manufacturing. Tufting machines
resemble a multi needle sewing machine that insert the pile yarns through a
primary backing and holds it in place as the needle is withdrawn.
Needle punching – preformed layers or batts of loose fibers
are punched by barbed needles into and entangled with, a
synthetic backing. Back coated with latex to lock in fibers.
Fusion bonding– a thermoplastic process in which yarns are implanted in a
liquid vinyl compound in a sandwich configuration between two backing
materials. A knife splits the sandwich to create two cut pile carpets.
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Carpet Styles:
Level loop– loops of the same pile height
Multi-level loop- various pile height
Berber– fat loop with colored flecks originally wool but
now mostly olefin or nylon.
Velvet/plush – non-heat set cut pile yarns are only slightly
twisted and very dense and evenly sheared.
Frieze– a very durable cut pile heat set carpet (either singles
or plied) are tufted or woven into dense carpet with a smooth
velvet-like pile.
Saxony– cut pile carpet, highly twisted, evenly sheared
medium length pile height. Most popular residential style.
Shag– loosely tufted carpet with long yarns with wide spacing.
Shag has overcome the bad press of the late 60’s when it was
made primarily of single polyester yarns. The yarns tended to
crush together creating a very ugly carpet. Today’s shags are made
primarily of a more resilient nylon. Most styles have a thick cable
yarn and a single accent yarn. Modern shags are stylish but very
difficult to vacuum and clean.
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Carpet Finishing
Once the carpet has been dyed it is ready to go through the coating process.
Latex is applied to the primary backing as well as the secondary backing.
The carpet is attached to the secondary via a marriage roller. The carpet then
goes through a dryer so the latex can cure.
The shearing process involves the removal of loose or projecting fibers and
surface lint from the face of the carpet.
The final step in the finishing process is the inspection. Before the carpet is
wrapped and sent to the distribution facility it is checked for any visible
manufacturing defects.
Carpet cushion/pad
Proper cushion provides several benefits:
 Extends the life of the carpet by preventing matting and crushing.
 Improves the acoustical properties.
 Provides better thermal insulation.
 Vacuuming is easier.
 Safety is enhanced.
 Carpet feels more luxurious.
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Types of cushion:
 Prime polyurethane foam is a firmer
version of the same cushioning used in
upholstered furniture, mattresses, and
automobile seats. Two liquid ingredients
are combined to form a large mass of
foam, which is then sliced into sheets
for use as carpet cushion.
 Bonded polyurethane foam
(sometimes called rebond) is quite
unique. You cannot mistake it when you
see it, because it is formed by
combining chopped and shredded pieces
of foam, in different sizes and usually
different colors, into one solid piece. It
frequently has a surface net for ease of
installation and improved performance
 Molding natural or synthetic rubber creates waffled
rubber cushion. Heat cures the rubber and forms a waffle
pattern. This variety produces a soft, resilient cushion whose
luxurious feel is particularly useful for residences.
 Flat sponge rubber is a firm, dense cushion, which has a flat
surface and is normally used in large-scale commercial applications
and with loop type (or Berber) carpet.
 Natural fibers include felt, animal hair, and jute (the material used to
make some kinds of rope and heavy burlap bags). This is one of the
oldest types of carpet cushion, dating back to the earliest days of
machine-made carpet.
 Synthetic fibers include nylon, polyester, polypropylene, and
acrylics, which are needle-punched into relatively dense
cushions which have a firm feel and, as with other types of
cushion, can be made in virtually any weight, to stand up
under light, medium, or heavy traffic, which is how they are
usually classified.
 Berber carpet is becoming increasingly popular, and needs a thin,
firm cushion. When using this type of carpet, be sure that the
accompanying cushion has been specified by the manufacturer as
suitable for Berber carpet.
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Installation – Having a good knowledge of proper installation techniques
prevents paying unjustified claims.
Commercial Carpet
Standard For Installation Specification Of Commercial Carpet, CRI 104 is a
definitive industry minimum commercial installation standard.
Residential Carpet
Standard for Installation of Residential Carpet, CRI 105 is a definitive
industry minimum residential installation standard.
These standards are available free of charge and may be downloaded at
www.carpet-rug.org
Installation methods
 Stretch in – Provides enhanced underfoot comfort,
acoustical properties (i.e., higher noise reduction
coefficients and higher impact noise ratings) when
installed with separate cushion.
 Glue down – carpet is glued directly to the floor.
 Double Glue-down Installation - Combines the stability
of direct glue-down carpet with the cushioning benefits of
a separate cushion, stretch-in installation
Installation Tools
Power Stretcher– required for all stretch in over pad.
Knee Kicker– a positioning tool
Seam sealer – required on all cut seams
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Installation concerns
 Carpet rippling – caused by failure to power stretch the carpet. Alert
the consumer that the carpet should settle to precleaning levels once
the humidity has stabilized.
 Commercial Carpet bubbles – improper use of solvents, improper
adhesive or inadequate amount of adhesive can cause bubbles.
 Seam separation – may be lack of seam sealer.
 Delamination – separation of primary backing and face fiber from
secondary backing.
Causes:
 Improper specification
 Improper latex formulation
 Improper use of solvents
 Wrong cushion
 Inadequate latex encapsulation of the yarn (olefin Berber)
Strategies for Improving the Indoor Air Quality
1. Keep walkway and entries clean to eliminate tracking and debris.
2. Use mats to trap soil at entries to protect carpets and reduce the quantity
of particles that eventually becoming airborne.
3. Clean shoes at entries to reduce fine particles such as lead.
4. Use quality vacuum equipment. Check the Carpet and Rug Institute’s list
of vacuums that passed the Seal of Approval Program at: www.carpetrug.org.
5. Use high-efficiency vacuum filter bags. Small particles can pass through
inexpensive paper filter bags.
6. Vacuum frequently before soils become embedded in the carpet.
7. Use quality reusable electrostatic filters for HVAC systems. Remove and
flush them free of collected soils monthly.
8. Have the carpet cleaned professionally. To find a certified technician,
check with the IICRC at (800) 835-4624 or www.iicrc.org.
9. Clean upholstery, drapery, bedding and other fabric surfaces; wash linens
weekly.
10. Control moisture and humidity to keep down dust mites and mold.
Source: Institute of Inspection Cleaning and Restoration Certification
IICRC
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Common factors that Affect Indoor Air Quality
People (exhalation, body odors, and diseases)
Activities (work such as cleaning, using correction fluids, carbonless paper,
pest control products, and personal activities such as wear fragrances and
smoking)
Technology (photocopiers and laser printers)
Furnishings (furniture, draperies, floor coverings)
Finishes (paint, varnish, vinyl wall coverings)
Building materials (caulking compounds, adhesives, wood laminates)
Outdoor air quality
Inadequate or contaminated air handling units
Inadequate cleaning practices
Source: Carpet & Rug Institute
Don’t forget to offer your customers a green cleaning alternative. According
to a recent Harris Research survey nearly 60% of consumers would be
extremely likely, very likely, or likely to purchase cleaning products that are
specifically designed to be environmentally friendly.
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Review #3
Manufacturing& Styles
1. Woven carpet is made on a ________ and the yarns consist of a
________yarn a ___________ yarn and a __________ yarn.
2. A tufted carpet consists of a face _______stitched in to
a___________ backing with latex bonding it to a _________
backing.
3. Most tufted carpet has a __________ backing but some woven
carpet has cotton or _______ yarns which can __________.
4. The most popular cut pile carpet style is called ____________.
5. Olefin Berbers can be difficult to clean because of the cleaning
wand _________ and excess moisture and soil ___________.
6. An inexpensive cushion will cause the carpet to _________.
7. The most popular style of cushion is called ___________.
8. All stretched in carpet must be installed using a ______ stretcher.
9. The CRI Standard for installation of residential is called CRI____.
10.Tufted carpet must have enough__________ to hold the yarns in
and can be damaged by excessive use of ___________.
11. The separation of primary and secondary backing is called
_________________.
12. Seam sealer prevents the seams from ________________.
13. A stretch in carpet that ripples normally settles when _______.
14. Be careful with solvents on a _______ ________ carpet.
15. Download CRI installation standards from www.__________.
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1 micrometer is a unit of measurement =1/1,000,000 of a meter
Most soil falls in
the 2 micron size
Definition of Cleaning – IICRC S100-02
Cleaning is the traditional activity of removing contaminants, pollutants and
undesired substances from an environment or surface to reduce damage or
harm to human health or valuable materials. Cleaning is the process of
locating, identifying, containing, removing and properly disposing of
unwanted substances from an environment or material.
Soil is any unwanted matter on the surface of any
object that one desires to be clean. Cleanliness is
an unnatural condition, because all surfaces are
constantly being soiled. In order to clean a surface, it
is therefore necessary to work against nature and special care must be taken
to ensure that all soil is removed and not redeposited on the surface.
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Most soil is acidic in nature consisting of foods, soft drinks, bodily fluids,
acid rain and other materials. The majority of soil is brought in from the
outside by foot traffic. Materials such as sand and grit quickly work their
way to the bottom of the pile where they can become trapped by compacted
yarns. The majority of this tracked in soil accumulates at the entry
points in the home. Fine particles (0.1 microns) have a significant effect on
visible soiling. These particles, although by weight are minimal, actually are
responsible for the soiled look of the carpet. Large particles fall to the
bottom while fine particles may be trapped in the abrasions and
imperfections of the fibers.
 Real soil – actual amount of soil in the carpet that can be weighed and
measured.
 Visual soil – soil that changes the color and luster of the top third of
the carpet.
 Apparent soil –soil that cannot be removed due to shading and
abrasion. This is referred to as graying of the traffic lanes. This should
be explained to the customer beforehand.
Shading, pooling, watermarking, pile distortion as well as wear can
make traffic lanes look darker even after proper cleaning.
Classes of soils
Insoluble –
sand, clay, quartz,
animal fibers, skin
cellulose, paper, grass
gypsum, apatite
limestone, dolomite
45%
12%
12%
5%
5%
79%
Water Soluble resins, gums, starches
10%
Dry solvent soluble fats, oils, rubber, tars
8%
moisture
3%
Average adult sheds 300,000 skin
cells per day in addition to 300
hairs.
Total
100%
* Study performed by Hoover Vacuum Company 1953. Also CW Studer
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Carpet filters soils, pollutants, gases, and animal dander. Like any filter
it needs to be cleaned.
Nearly 80% of the soil is insoluble which means that it does not dissolve in
water or solvents. The best and most thorough way to remove insoluble soil
is through vacuuming. The majority of dry soil accumulates in the
entryways.
Principles of Cleaning
The objective of carpet cleaning is soil removal. Cleaning can be
accomplished by several methods, but regardless of the method chosen, five
principles must be followed to achieve the best results.
Dry soil removal – use of a CRI Seal of Approval (SOA) vacuum with a
high efficiency filter is recommended.
HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) is a filtering
efficiency specification for filters developed by the Atomic
Energy Commission during World War II to effectively
remove radioactive dust from plant exhausts without
redistribution. A HEPA filter must retain all particles as small
as 0.3 µm in size with an efficiency rating of 99.97%. The
phrases "as small as" or "at" mean that if all particles were
that small, it would still have that efficiency. This should not be confused
with the phrase "down to" which may mean a mixture of particle sizes for
the stated efficiency. Particles smaller than 7 µm are not contained in lowefficiency bags.
Prior to vacuuming if the carpet is matted or tangled in entries, pivot or hightraffic areas a brush or groomer should be used to separate the yarns. This
will improve the airflow and allow the vacuum to remove more soil.
Vacuuming should be performed in a push and pull motion with a minimum
of 6 passes in heavy traffic areas. The push pass is the positioning pass and
the pull is the soil removal pass. Slow down on the pull pass.
Vacuum by hand the edges of the room and if the entry is heavily soiled
hand vacuuming may be required also.
Removing soil when it is dry is a lot easier than removing mud.
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Empty the bag when it is 1/2 -2/3 full.
A truck mounted cleaning unit is not designed to remove dry soil regardless
of the power of the vacuum system. Most manufacturers do not recommend
the use of their systems for dry soil removal due to possible damage to the
blower. The most effective tool will always be the vacuum cleaner.
The importance of vacuuming with a high-filtration bag
Particle Settling Rates
<1µm
Permanently suspended
1µm
8 1/2 hours
5µm
20 minutes
10µm
5 minutes
15µm
2 ¼ minutes
30µm
34 seconds
50µm
12 seconds
100µm
3 seconds
Soil suspension
Soils that were not removed during the dry soil removal step are suspended
from the fiber during this step. This is accomplished through four
fundamentals known as the cleaning pie. This is called TACT or CHAT.
Time
Chemical
Agitation
Temperature
Time – soil that has accumulated over months or years cannot be suspended
in a manner of seconds. The preconditioner must dwell for a period of time
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to be most effective. The longer the better, but it should not be allowed to
dry. On non-colorfast carpet the dwell time should be limited.
Agitation – provides uniform distribution of the preconditioner or
detergent. This may be accomplished manually with hand brushing or with
mechanical (rotary/cylindrical brush) agitation, as long as adequate detergent
lubrication is provided. The agitation helps to lift matted fibers.
Chemical – Detergents, builders and or selected solvents must be used to
suspend, emulsify or saponify the various soils. Detergents used on stainresistant carpet must be anionic or nonionic with a pH not to exceed 10.
Detergents used on wool must be within a pH range from 4.5 – 8.5 and
should be designed specifically for wool.
Temperature – Increasing temperature reduces the surface tension of
water, while it accelerates most chemical reactions, thereby causing
cleaning agents to function more efficiently. Higher heat may reduce the
quantity of cleaning agent required, which may result in fewer residues.
When one part of the pie is decreased one or more of the others must be
increased
less heat
T
C
A
T
T
A
more
agitation
C
In methods such as absorbent compound heat is missing from the
fundamentals. In this case agitation has been increased by the brushing
action.
Soil Extraction
Once soils have been suspended they must be physically removed from the
carpet. Various cleaning methods accomplish extraction include absorption,
wet vacuuming, rinsing or vacuuming of dry detergent residues and
suspended soils.
Increased temperature during extraction improves cleaning agent efficiency.
Temperature during extraction should be limited to 140 F at the carpet on cut
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pile wool, on noncolorfast carpet, and on velvet plush pile designs that might
be subject to distortion when extreme heat 160 F plus is combined with
high-pressure injection (over 300 psi).
Cleaning processes seek, as a minimum, to sanitize (clean to a generally
healthful state) those environments, insofar as possible.
Substances extracted from carpets by any method must
disposed of in accordance with all local, state and
federal regulations.
be
Grooming
Grooming is recommended for appearance (removal of
wand marks), for uniform distribution of carpet
protectors and for proper drying.
Drying
The level of soiling, method of cleaning, temperature, humidity and airflow
affect drying.
The goal of every technician should be to have the carpet dry in 4-8 hours,
but in a worst-case scenario in 12 hours. The technician is responsible for
any overwetting problems.
Carpets that exceed proper drying time could result in
slip and fall hazards, odors, and rapid resoiling.
Technicians should post warning signs where
slip-fall potential exists.
Airflow is necessary to achieve drying. The technician
should provide airmovers combined with ventilation
throughout the cleaning and drying process. Wicking
promotes drying which results in evaporation.
Soils not removed during cleaning may wick to the yarn tips during drying
and create dark areas or streaks.
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Is your equipment working as efficiently as you are?
Check out these items regularly:






Vacuum hoses and hose cuffs
T-jets
Vacuum blower or fan vacuums
Belts on blower
Dump valve
Lips of the wand
Finally, are you making a sufficient amount of drying passes?
The technician is responsible for the equipment as well as the technique.
That means if there is an overwetting problem the technician is the culprit.
The customer normally has one big question when they call for cleaning.
How long will it take to dry?
___________________________________________________________
Summary of carpet soiling as stated in IICRC S100:
Understanding carpet soil, its ability to accumulate, and its impact both on
the life of the carpet investment and on occupant well-being is critical for an
appreciation of the important role of the maintenance and cleaning
programs. The objective of professional cleaning is to remove as much soil
from an occupied environment as practical without damaging surfaces or
materials. Cleaning enhances the appearance of a textile floor covering
while extending investment life. Moreover, it enhances the well-being,
comfort, and productivity of residential and commercial building occupants.
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Review #4
Soiling & Principles
1. Soil is normally _________ on the pH scale.
2. The highest percentage of soil is ____________.
3. The best way to remove dry soil is by ______________.
4. Soil shading is caused by _________ of plastic fibers.
5. The principle of ____ _______ _________ is frequently skipped.
6. The cleaning pie consists of T______ A_________ C_________
T___________ or CHAT.
7. The second principle is ________ suspension.
8. Extraction can include ____________.
9. Water-soluble soils cannot be removed by ____________.
10. Hair, sand and skin are considered _______________.
11. Empty a vacuum bag when it is ____ to _____ full.
12. A micron or micrometer is 1 _____________ of a meter.
13. Fast drying prevents ________ and _______ hazards.
14. A carpet should be groomed to remove _______ ______ and help
the protector be _____________ evenly.
15. The _____________ is responsible for___ __________. Some of this
may be caused by lack of ___________ maintenance.
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Methods of Cleaning
As previously discussed, each method needs to adhere to the five principles
of cleaning to achieve maximum cleaning. All methods of cleaning use
detergents. The difference is in the carrier used (water, foam, compound) to
deliver the detergent. All methods can improve the effectiveness and
contribute to the effective removal of biocontaminants by increasing the
temperature of the chemical.
The first step in all methods is thorough dry soil removal using a vacuum
with a high efficiency filtration system.
Upright
Backpack
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Absorbent/Adsorbent Compound
This method may incorporate the use of an organic or synthetic carrier that
contains detergents, solvents and a bit of moisture. The compound may or
may not be preceded by a preconditioner. The compound can be spread by
hand or a specially designed machine. Brushing is used to spread and agitate
the compound that absorbs/adsorbs the suspended soil. Following drying the
suspended soil and compound is removed by dry vacuuming.
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Dry Foam
Dense foam is produced by a dry foam machine through mechanical aeration
of a liquid detergent. A preconditioner may or may not be used prior to
application of the foam detergent. The foam is distributed and agitated via
mechanical brush action. Suspended soil and the foam are extracted by the
same machine or with a wet vacuum.
Figure 1 Dry Foam Machine
Figure 1 Rotating Brushes & Extraction
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Absorbent Pad (Bonnet /Oscillating Pad)
A preconditioner may or may not be used prior to cleaning. Detergent in
either a dry-solvent based or a carbonated or non-carbonated water-based
carrier is sprayed onto the pad and the carpet. The pads may be round or
square towels made of cotton, rayon, synthetics or a combination of fibers.
In place of spraying the pad they may be dipped into a bucket of cleaning
solution. During the agitation (spin buffing/oscillating/orbital) phase of soil
suspension, the bonnet (pad) attracts or absorbs suspended soils. Technicians
must monitor the rate of soil attraction to the pad and turn it over or replace
it before the bonnet becomes soil saturated.. When both sides of the pad are
soil saturated, it must be exchanged before continuing in order to assure
maximum soil removal.
Different pads for
different situations
Shampoo
A preconditioner may or may not be used prior to shampooing. A highShower fed or
foaming detergent is applied to the carpet nap through a shower or channelfeed, nylon bristled brush rotating at a speed recommended by spray
the with T-jet
equipment manufacturer that is safe for the carpet being cleaned. The
agitation of the brush creates the foam that suspends the soil. Depending on
the detergent used, either a wet vacuum extracts the suspended soils and
detergents or upon drying the suspended soils and detergents are dry
vacuumed. Brushes not properly lubricated with shampoo can cause textural
damage to the carpet.
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A brush or floor pad may be
used depending on the carpet.
Use caution on cut pile carpet.
For extreme soiling a rotary
brush followed by Hot Water
Extraction is unbeatable.
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Encapsulation
The cleaning agent is brushed into the carpet using a cylindrical or rotary
brush/pad machine. The encapsulation chemistry surrounds each soil particle
and crystallizes it so it can’t attract other soil. The encapsulated particles
release from the fiber and are removed through dry vacuuming. This can be
accomplished by the cleaner or in-house or contract building services pers
Encapsulation is ideally suited for commercial maintenance especially in
office, church, schools and other areas where high productivity, lower costs,
and fast dry time is critical. Encapsulation works well to prevent spills from
wicking following cleaning.
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Hot Water Extraction (HWE)
A preconditioner is normally applied through a pump sprayer, in-line sprayer
or by using a rotary shampoo machine. The suspended soil along with the
preconditioner is flushed from the carpet with a HWE machine. Heavily
soiled carpets may need several flushing passes and followed up with several
overlapping extraction only passes.
Complete drying should be accomplished in 6-8 hours, but not to exceed 24
hours. Additional extraction passes; air movers and good ventilation will
expedite drying. Over wetting or prolonged drying are normally due to
operator error.
All extracted solutions must be disposed of according to local rules and
regulations. Wastewater should be disposed of into a sewer line leading to a
wastewater treatment station.
All methods should be followed by pile setting or grooming as necessary.
Nap setting must be accomplished for uniform distribution of all post
cleaning treatments.
Understanding the components of an extractor is important to the end result.
HWE can be broken into two main categories:
 Portables
o (box & wand)
o walk behind
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 Truck mounts
o van powered or direct drive/power take off (PTO)
o slide in units (separate engine)
o electric
The major difference between the portables and truckmounts is productivity.
A few portables have direct water and waste hookups most truckmounts can
clean higher volumes of carpet due to greater heat, pressure and vacuum.
Vacuum is measured in two ways:
 Lift measured by inches of mercury (Hg) or water (H20) lift.
 Airflow CFM – cubic feet per minute.
HWE cleaning strokes:
Single pass – apply solution on forward stroke and vacuum on
backstroke.
Double pass – apply solution on forward and backstroke shutting off
solution momentarily at end of stroke. Be sure to give additional
vacuum.
Chop stroke – apply solution in short continuous strokes. Be sure to
provide adequate vacuum passes when through. Use in heavily soiled
areas. Use caution on velvet styles and wool carpet.
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Tools for HWE:
The choice of tools has expanded over the last decade. Tools come in all
shapes and sizes from the original cleaning wand to several types of power
heads. A technician would be wise to try different tools to see which is
preferable before purchasing the tool.
Don’t forget to change those tee jets regularly.
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Safety Issues:
1. Truck mounts that are powered by the truck engine should always be
parked so that the exhaust faces away from the home. Fumes are
easily drawn into the structure.
2. Truck mounts that use propane heaters should have the propane tanks
mounted on the outside of the van. Be sure the valves have been shut
off before driving.
3. Replace any solution hoses that are worn to prevent a line rupture.
4. Replace any electrical plugs that are missing the ground plug.
5. Make sure all equipment including wands has been secured in the van
before driving. Be sure the back doors are closed before driving.
6. Have a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for every product on the
truck including any household type chemicals. These sheets need to
be in a folder accessible by the driver with his seatbelt fastened.
7. Every spray bottle and container must be labeled.
8. Carry and use goggles, gloves and respirators as necessary. When in
doubt wear them.
9. Use the proper gauge electrical cords with grounds.
10. Drive safely and cautiously. Remember your company name is on
the side of your truck.
11. When mixing chemicals wear PPE and only mix them
in your facility or in your van. Never mix chemicals in
your customers home.
12. Purchase chemicals from a reputable source and
never mix chemicals other than by label directions.
13. Never leave samples of chemicals in unlabeled bottles.
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Review #5
Methods
1. Regardless of the method chosen the ____________ must be
followed.
2. The oldest method of cleaning is ________________.
3. A very popular interim method for commercial maintenance is
_____________ __________.
4. __________________ has the most chances of overwetting.
5. Systems using a granular detergent are called_________ ______.
6. A system using a foaming surfactant using a cylindrical brush is
called ________ ________.
7. The method favored by many carpet manufacturers is __ __ __.
8. When using an absorbent pad the pad should be changed when it
stops ___________ soil.
9. Systems using rotary action are more likely to cause ______
distortion.
10. Propane tanks should be mounted on the _______ of the van.
11. All trucks must carry _________, and a fire extinguisher.
12. Replace any plugs that are cut or missing the ___________.
13. Replace any solution hoses that are _________.
14. Park your van so that _________ faces away from the home.
15. Wicking is minimized in a commercial building with multiple spills
when using an ____________________ system.
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Chemistry
Many of us recoil in horror when we hear the word chemistry. It reminds us
of that horrible class we took in high school. We were expected to memorize
terms such as electrons, protons, valence and that terrible periodic table.
The difference between your high school chemistry class and learning
cleaning chemistry is tremendous. Back then chemistry was a subject you
felt you would never use. Today understanding a bit of detergent chemistry
can not only make our jobs easier but also increase our profitability. But just
like in school we need to learn some of the terms to really understand
cleaning chemistry.
pH - the relative acidity or alkalinity of a water-based solution. The pH
chart ranges from 0-14. Acids are below 7, neutral is 7, and everything
above 7 is alkaline. Each number as it moves from 7 in either direction
increases by 10 times the previous number.
In addition to pH the strength of a cleaning solution is determined by the
concentration. This measures the amount of material in the solution. For
example 7% acetic acid means of the total weight 7% is acetic acid.
10,000,000
1,000,000
100,000
10,000
Acid
Alkaline
1,000
Neutral
100
10
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Water is H2O or it could be written as H-OH. The OH- is an hydroxyl
and the H+ is hydrogen. If there are more H+ ions than OH- then the
solution is acidic and the reverse would be alkaline.
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Compound - a substance that contains two or more elements that have been
bonded together by a chemical reaction. Soap is a compound.
Mixture - a substance containing two or more different elements mixed
together, that can be separated easily but is not subject to a chemical
reaction. Dirt in your vacuum cleaner bag is a mixture.
Solubility/solvent/– a solid that dissolves in a liquid is called a solute and is
said to be soluble. The liquid that dissolves the solid is called a solvent and
the resulting mixture is called a solution. For example, sodium chloride
(salt) is soluble. It dissolves readily in water forming a colorless solution.
Sand, on the other hand, is insoluble; it does not dissolve in water or solvent.
Suspension - most insoluble solids settle to the bottom of a liquid, but some
split into tiny particles that spread throughout the liquid. This type of
mixture is called a suspension. Milk is a suspension of fat particles in water.
Emulsifier– process of dispersing one liquid into another liquid with which
it is immiscible (do not mix such as oil and water). Emulsifiers are
important in cases where oily or fatty soils are encountered. The main
ingredient in emulsification is the surfactant, with a little help from the
builders.
Surfactant– (surface-active agent) chemical that when added to a liquid,
changes the properties of that liquid at the surface. It allows penetration into
the material being cleaned. It makes the water wetter. Surfactants are
classified as anionic (negative), nonionic (no charge), cationic (positive).
Anionics and nonionics are good cleaners. Biocides, antistats, bactericides
and disinfectants normally have cationic surfactants.
Builders– are materials that enhance or maintain the cleaning efficiency of
the surfactant by tying up the hard water minerals. It also supplies additional
alkalinity for neutralization of acid soils, aids in keeping soil from
redepositing on the carpet and emulsifies oily and greasy soils.
Saponification– The process of converting fat into soap by treating it with
an alkali. It comes in handy in greasy restaurants.
Buffer – is a solution which is resistant to changes in pH.
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Hydrophilic – water loving, Hydrophobic – water hating, these are
opposite ends of the detergent molecule.
Water is used in most of our cleaning products. Water is attracted to other
water molecules and surrounds itself with these molecules. At the surface
these molecules are surrounded only on the water side. A tension is created
as the water molecules are pulled into the body of the water. This creates a
surface similar to the skin on a drum.
During cleaning, this surface tension must be reduced so water can penetrate
the carpet. Chemicals that do this are called surfactants because they lower
or break the surface tension and allow the cleaning solution to penetrate and
begin cleaning.
Soaps have been around since ancient times. Soaps are made from fats and
oils, or their fatty acids, by treating them with a strong alkali. The pioneers
made soap by boiling animal fats with lye. Many rug-cleaning products were
made with coconut oils because of their good foaming qualities.
Unfortunately these shampoos also left a sticky residue behind which caused
rapid resoiling. Soaps did not work well in hard water and formed a curd
similar to the ring that develops in the bathtub.
Today we use synthetic detergents. Petrochemicals have replaced animal fats
in detergents. These products do not break down in hard water like the soaps
and do not leave a soil-attracting residue.
A properly formulated detergent has several ingredients:
Surfactants- helps to penetrate, lower the surface tension and wet out the
fabric. Anionic (-) cationic (+) nonionic (o)
Builders- help to provide alkalinity and soften the water and prevent
redeposition of the soil once it has been suspended. Soft water uses less
detergent.
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Solvents – designed to emulsify oils.
Deodorizer– because if it smells clean it is clean
Soap and detergent molecules do have one thing in common. One end of the
molecule hates water (hydrophobic) and one end likes water (hydrophilic).
Think of a detergent molecule as resembling a tootsie roll pop. The head
(the tasty part) is the water loving part and the tail or stick is the water hating
part. If it is water hating that means it will go to anything that isn’t water
such as oils in the soil. The stick/tail attaches to the oily soil while the head
is attracted to the water of the cleaning solution. Eventually the head pulls
into the water and the tail pulls the dirt off the fiber into solution. This is
normally happening during the preconditioning or soil suspension step.
Agitation during this step speeds up the process and a hot solution will help
to dissolve grease and oil on the carpet.
Chemicals required for cleaning:
1. Preconditioners – the workhorse of cleaning. Because most soil is acid
most preconditioners and detergents are alkaline. Soil suspension is
accomplished primarily with this step. These products can fall into several
categories.
 General - can be safely used on all synthetic fibers as long as
the product has a pH under 10 and is not cationic.
 Heavy duty – used on restaurants and non stain resistant
carpets. Normally the pH is 10-12 and may include enzymes.
Voids the warranty on stain resistant carpet.
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 Neutral to acidic – mild products used on wool, cotton and any
non-colorfast carpets or rugs
2. Rinse detergents – added into cleaning solution.
 Alkaline – used on any synthetic including stain resistant carpet as
long as the product has a pH under 10 and is not cationic.
o Used when carpet is more than moderately soiled.
o Can be used on wool if pH is 8.5 or below.
o Can accelerate browning on cellulosic materials.
o Most preconditioners are alkaline due to acidic soil.
 Acid – used in place of an alkaline detergent when carpet is light to
moderately soiled.
o Very effective in removing alkaline residue from previous
cleanings.
o Stabilizes dyes while preventing browning.
o Breaks down alkaline salts from old urine.
o Usually dries faster than alkaline detergents.
o pH 2-5
In most residential carpets a quality preconditioner and rinse detergent will
remove 90-95 of soil and spots.
Remember that most of your cleaning is being accomplished with two
products, a preconditioner and detergent. This is not the time to look for the
least expensive chemicals. Labor is the most expensive component of your
business. If you use cheaper chemicals your labor expense will increase.
Effective chemicals make the job easier and will result in happier customers.
That means repeat business.
Chemical dilutions
1 gallon =128 oz.
1 quart = 32 oz.
1 pint =16 oz.
1 cup = 8 oz.
1:4 means 1 part chemical to 4 parts water. 128/4 = 32 oz. chemical to 1
gallon water.
Always dissolve powders in hot water and stir thoroughly.
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Review #6
Chemistry
1. The pH chart ranges from __ to __ with ___ being _________.
2. Any water-based solution below 7 is ____ above 7 is ________.
3. A surfactant allows _______ into the fabric being cleaned.
4. A builder adds __________ and _________ water while
___________ oily and greasy soils.
5. Hydrophilic loves ________ hydrophobic _______ water.
6. A surfactant resembles the candy _________ ____ ________.
7. Soaps do not work as well as detergents in ________ water.
8. The universal solvent that dissolves the most substances is ______.
9. The pH of toothpaste is on the _________ side of the pH scale.
10. The pH of a browning removal product is on the _______ side.
11. Rust is considered _______ so to remove use an _____ product.
12. Most disinfectants contain _________ surfactants.
13. Mixing a _________ surfactant with an _________ surfactant will
make a gooey mess.
14. Doubling the amount of detergent will most likely leave additional
_____________ in the carpet making it feel _________.
15. Adding a scented deodorizer leaves a pleasant _________ but does
not neutralize the odor. It dissipates as it dries.
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Spotting for the professional
Once the carpet has been preconditioned and rinsed a few spots may remain.
In many cases while 95% of the carpet may look great it may be these few
spots that really provoked the customer to call. If you cannot remove these
spots the customer may feel that you failed.
The difference between a cleaner and a professional is getting those spots
out of the carpet. A word of caution, a few stains may not be removed. Learn
how to resection a carpet and you can guarantee 100% spot removal.
Definitions:
 Spot – substance added
 Gum, tar, food, ink
 Stain – color added
 Wine, red pop, mustard
 Discolorations – color removed
 Bleach, medicine,
 Damage – repair required
 Toilet bowl cleaner, burns
Identification: before you can remove a spot you need to identify the
category that it falls in. Knowing the fiber and backing type you are working
on will help determine how aggressive you can get. In other words there is a
big difference in taking red dyes out of wool versus olefin. Solvents are
much riskier on glue down installations than on stretch in installations.
 Ask the customer
This is not a
 Location – bathroom versus kitchen
professional
 Use your senses
spotting kit
 Sight
 Smell
 Touch
 Taste?
Professional Spotting Kit
Using a professional spotting kit
will instill confidence in the
consumer that they chose the right company. The spotting kit should have
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a solid bottom and a lid that can close. Ideally it will have preformed
slots so that a missing bottle is very evident before you leave the job site.
Chemicals required:
Solvents – normally water free and used to break up oily or nonwater-soluble spots (nonpolar). When using solvents wear PPE and
provide plenty of ventilation. Solvents normally have a low flash
point (temperature at which a vapor will ignite). Solvents should be
used carefully to prevent delamination of the carpet backing.
 VDS - Volatile Dry Solvent (evaporates) solvents are only used
for spotting, not total cleaning. Volatile means evaporates.
 NVDS/POG - Nonvolatile Dry Solvent –also referred to as
Paint Oil Grease remover – leaves a residue that needs to be
rinsed. Provides more dwell time than a volatile solvent.
 Citrus gels - same as POG except in a gel form which helps to
prevent delamination of carpet or adhesive. Must be flushed.
Water-based – these spotters are used on water-soluble (polar)
spots. Many of these spots are easily removed with a quality
preconditioner and extraction.
 NDS Neutral Detergent Spotter pH 6-8
 ADS Alkaline Detergent Spotter pH 9-10
 AS Acid/tannin spotter pH 4-6 (tannin is a vegetable dye
found in tea and coffee.)
 Enzyme/digester pH 7 – designed to break down protein and
carbohydrate materials that have become insoluble. Must be
used with hot water 100-150° and at least 20-30 minute dwell
time. Some spots may require even longer dwell time. The spot
should be rinsed prior to application of the enzyme to provide a
neutral environment. Rinse as the final step.
 Rust remover pH 1-4 – neutralize and rinse after applying rust
remover.
 Dye remover – can also remove carpet dye.
Oxidizers/Reducers- color removal by adding oxygen
Oxidizers are bleaching agents. Before you think that you
are going to damage all your carpet, you need to
understand the different types of bleaches. The sun is the
biggest oxidizing agent. Ozone used in odor remediation
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is an oxidizer. A few are great tools and others will get us in trouble.
 Sodium hypochlorite/ household bleach will dissolve wool and
silk and destroy the color in nylon. While it can be safely used
on 100% olefin it should only be considered in a
salvage situation
 Sodium perborate/percarbonate is a common
ingredient in many boosters or energizers used in
our industry.
 3% Hydrogen peroxide is a very safe yet slow
acting color remover. Effective on minor blood
spots. It is always found in a dark bottle and should
be kept in a cool dark place. Hydrogen peroxide is
self-neutralizing. Higher % hydrogen peroxide used for hair
bleaching may also bleach the carpet.
 Oxidizers can be accelerated by heat and light.
 A color made invisible by oxidizers is permanent.
H
H
H
H
O
O
Reducers/strippers perform a similar function (color removal)
to oxidizers by removing oxygen from the stain.
 Reducers are not as permanent as oxidizers because the
stain may absorb oxygen-containing moisture.
 Reducers are commonly found in coffee stain and browning
formulas as well as in Haitian cotton cleaners.
 Sodium Bisulfite or metabisulfite are mild reducers.
 Sodium Hydrosulfite is much stronger with a terrible sulfur
smell. Suppliers have new formulated products that are
effective on mustard and furniture stains.
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Enzymes – are protein molecules that accelerate chemical reactions by
helping to break up other target molecules such as blood, eggs, milk and old
urine into smaller soluble pieces. Most cleaning or spotting enzymes are
proteolytic which means they break down protein.
Enzymes are not living organisms but biological catalysts and are highly
specific. They work similar to a key and lock.
Microorganism deodorizers are made up of specific strains of bacteria or
fungi, which are considered living, as compared to enzymes which are
nonliving.
Enzymes are easily deactivated by extremes of pH, temperature, cationic
surfactants and require water at all times.
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Spotting tools required:
pH paper
bone spatula
Tamping brush
napping shears
Trigger sprayer
Drip spout for spotting bottle
Inspection light
Gloves
UV light
Goggles
Respirator
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Steps of removal – remember that you did not cause the spot or stain.
Explain to the customer the options and the risks of each method. You do
not determine which method to use. The customer selects after you have
provided the information. If necessary have the customer sign a release. If
the stain cannot be removed it is because of the characteristics of the staining
material in relation to the fabric. It is not the weakness of the technician.
1. Always pretest your chemicals.
2. Wear appropriate PPE.
3. Follow the label directions.
 Remove the excess – blot, scrape, absorb.
 Check the solubility of the spot. When in doubt of the stains
components use a volatile (evaporates quickly) solvent on a
towel and blot. If it is solvent soluble it will transfer. If not it
evaporates quickly and you can switch to a water-based spotter.
 If the spot responds to your choice of spotter be sure to work on
the spot from the outside in to avoid spreading the spot.
 Patience! If you use the correct spotter most spots will dissolve
given adequate dwell time.
 Once the spot has been suspended rinse thoroughly.
 If the carpet has a pile, groom the pile.
 If you believe the spot may wick, place absorbent paper
toweling on the spot and weight it down. Inform the
customer to remove the toweling in 12 –24 hours.
Concerns:
 Using more of a spotter can leave more residue and cause
resoiling. More is not better. Additional dwell time, heat or
agitation will work more efficiently.
 Never rub a spot. Use the tamping brush or a bone spatula.
Wrapping a towel around the brush helps keep your brush clean
and absorbs the spot.
 If the spot is lighter than the carpet you probably have color
loss and the carpet needs to be redyed or resectioned.
 Urine spots and odor are difficult because the customer believes
there is only 1 spot while there may be multiple locations. Once
the residue has been removed there may be a color loss from
 old urine. The customer needs to be informed before spotting is
attempted.
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Specialty spotting – certain spots may require specialty spotters and
techniques. Use caution and explain everything including risks to the
customer prior to attempting spotting.
Rust
Hydrofluoric acid has been the most effective rust remover for years.
Unfortunately it is the most dangerous. It desensitizes the nerve ending and
can cause serious burning. When using any acidic rust remover such as
hydrofluoric, oxalic, phosphoric or a specially formulated acid neutralize
with an alkaline material and thoroughly rinse the spot. If the spot should
turn a different color such as pink or purple use an alkaline spotter or
ammonia and the spot should return to the normal color. This is referred to
as an indicator dye stain and means the normal pH of the fabric has been
affected. Hydrofluoric acid can etch glass. Watch where you set the bottle.
Red dye
Specialized spotters have been developed for red and other synthetic
dye removal. Most use the heat transfer method. Apply the dye remover to
the spot then place a damp towel and place the iron or wallpaper steamer
over the spot. Check the towel after 15-30 seconds to see if there is a
transfer. As long as the dye of the carpet is not transferring to the towel it is
safe to continue.
Pictures courtesy of Referral Cleaners
MustardRemoving organic dyes such as mustard and furniture stain
requires an oxidizing agent. Mustard and furniture stains are
difficult to remove. For severe stains the chemical may need to
be covered in plastic and allowed to dwell for 8-24 hours.
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Persistent protein (milk, gravy, egg)
Remove excess material and rinse. Work enzyme digester into spot.
Cover with a hot wet towel. Place bucket of hot water on spot and wait 2030 minutes. Remove observe and rinse. Important do not use hot water on
protein spots.
Blood
Small amounts may be removed by a cool
spotter or an enzyme/digester. For larger amounts
follow blood-borne pathogen guidelines.
Benzoyl Peroxide
Is a bleaching agent (peroxide) present in
acne medicine and other cosmetics or
medications. It is activated by heat and
moisture. Causes loss of color and must be
redyed or resectioned.
Gum
Your favorite gel product agitation and dwell time, rinse/extract. This is
when a hot portable or truck mount is very handy.
Why do spots return?
1. Didn’t remove all the residue
2. Didn’t remove all the detergent residue
3. It is a new spot
Wicking is your enemy. You must remove the source
Wicking is the upward migration of moisture in a fabric
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Spotting Chart
Volatile Dry Solvent VDS
Non Volatile NVDS POG
Citrus Gel
Ink
Fresh paint
Grease
Carbon
Shoe polish
Tar
Oil
Rinse for NVDS
VDS is for minor solvent soluble
spots if spot is heavy go to NVDS.
Nail polish
Lipstick
Glue
Dried paint
Gum
Lipstick
Glue
Can be used in place of NVDS
when delamination is possible.
NVDS should be rinsed with VDS.
Be careful of delamination.
Gels must be rinsed. Gelling agent
can cause rapid resoiling.
Neutral Detergent NDS
Alkaline Detergent ADS
Acid/Tannin Spotter AS
Minor water soluble spots
Food
Soft drinks
Rust remover neutralizer
Tea
Coffee
Urine
Feces
Alkaline Neutralizer
Preconditioner will remove same
spots during cleaning.
Preconditioner will remove same
spots during cleaning.
Enzyme/Protein Spotter
Rust Remover
Oxidizer/Reducer
Old food
Blood
Old milk
Old urine
Gravy
Vomit
Rust
Dye stains
Wine
Furniture Stain
Mustard
Apply cool and allow plenty of
dwell time.
Be sure to neutralize and rinse.
Can cause burns and etch glass.
These products can also remove
carpet color. Use caution.
Remember to pretest your spotters and follow directions.
Experiment at home not in your customer’s home.
Use only enough spotting solution to suspend the spot.
Mixing chlorine bleach with ammonia forms toxic chlorine gas.
Isopropyl alcohol is handy for dye crocking, cough medicines,
Christmas tree pads, and window cleaner (Windex).
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Additional chemicals
Deodorizers – odors are triggers. Smells
may be experienced as negative, positive or
neutral. If we react negatively to an odor we
are provoked to a behavior that reduces or
removes the odor. A favorable scent leads us
to a positive or pleasant reaction.
In our industry we have a variety of
deodorizers.
 Scents are products that only add a perfume to the air and have
no other quality other than masking. This will not destroy a bad
odor. Once the scent has evaporated the malodor will return.
 Odor neutralizers contain essential oils that attract
malodorous molecules and neutralize them.
 Microorganisms are natural fungi or bacteria used to destroy
urine-based odors.
 Biocides/sanitizers/disinfectants kill specific bacteria or
sanitizes to a level of public acceptance.
 Oxidizers such as ozone, chlorine bleach, or hydrogen peroxide
burn up odors.
Principles of Deodorization
Regardless of the cause of the odor the following principles must be
followed or the smell will return.
1. Eliminate the source.
2. Clean all surfaces.
3. Recreate the conditions of penetration.
4. Seal materials that cannot be thoroughly treated or removed.
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Tools for odor detection
Moisture Sensor
UV Light
Sub Surface Extractor
Fogging
Defoamers – products designed to eliminate foaming
problems in hoses and extractors. It is available in powder
or liquid form. Due to silicone formula defoamers are not
designed to be applied directly to carpet. This will cause
resoiling and voids stain resist warranties. Add
defoamer directly to vacuum hose at the hose cuff nearest
the wand.
If using a portable extractor add it to the recovery tank also.
Antistats – most nylon fibers have a built in carbon core
fiber that reduces or dissipates the static charge.
 Static problems usually occur in times of low
humidity, normally winter.
 Antistat products are available to spray on a clean
carpet to dissipate the static charge.
 Most antistats are silicone-based and void
warranties of stain resist nylons.
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Soil & Stain protectors
 Soil retardants – filled in crevices of the fibers
with Colorless particles to prevent soil from
attaching. Carpets became stiff.
 Silicones – great water repellency but not very
effective on oil or dry soil. Starting in 1986 voided
stain-resist warranties. Many silicones cause rapid resoiling.
 Fluorochemical – the 2 most recognized trade names are 3M
Scotchgard and Dupont Advanced Teflon. They improve stain and
soil resistance by lowering the surface energy of the fabric and
creating a barrier.
o Solvent – better oil and water repellency.
o Water – better dry soil repellency and durability.
 Factors effecting its performance
o Concentration of chemical applied.
o Surface of the material, the flatter the better.
o Grooming the carpet helps the penetration.
o Fabric should be residue free.
Your sales will increase drastically if you will do 2 things:
Ask every customer!
Demonstrate the performance
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Review #7
Chemicals & Spotting
1. The workhorse of cleaning products is the ___________________.
2. A(n) __________ detergent is used on soiled synthetic fabrics.
3. A(n) ________ _______ is the best choice for neutralizing a
preconditioner.
4. For all synthetic carpet the safest pH to use is under _____.
5. A ________________ repels all three types of soils.
6. A gallon contains ______ ounces.
7. A spot adds __________ to the carpet, a stain adds _________.
8. Asking the customer, noting the _____________, and using your
___________ helps to identify the spot.
9. A(n) _________ adds oxygen to a spot a reducer ________ oxygen.
10. Use solvents that have a high_______ _______ and be sure to
__________ the area.
11. To remove a coffee spot use a ________ spotter.
12. When using rust removers ___________ and ___________.
13. Acne medicines contain ________ ________ which can bleach
fabric.
14. _________ spotters need heat, ________ and longer dwell time.
15. Nail polish, lipstick or paint will need a __________ to remove.
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Carpet Cleaning Procedures in the Home
Before we can talk about procedures we need to look at your image. Do you
realize that before you opened your mouth, the customer has already
determined if she likes you? According to Malcolm Gladwell, in his book
Blink he refers to this as our adaptive unconscious. This part of our brain is
similar to a giant computer that quickly and quietly processes a lot of data,
your van, your uniform, your body language and decides if she will let you
in. This is “thin slicing” which refers to the ability of our unconscious to find
patterns in situations and behavior based on very narrow slices of
experience. You are being compared to every other service person she has
dealt with. So in other words you don’t want to look like Bozo Clean.
Bozo Clean
So wear a clean uniform, work on your grooming, wear an ID badge
and make sure you are smiling and looking at the customer when she
answers the door.
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Now that you are an expert in the fields of fiber, carpet, chemistry,
principles of cleaning and spotting, it is time to put all that knowledge to
good use. While having the technical expertise is critical even more
important is how the technician relates and communicates to the customer.
The choice of one or two technicians is up to the company. The consumer
who is most likely female would prefer two technicians for a couple of
reasons:
 She feels safer with two people.
 She feels her furniture will be properly moved.
Two technicians will not complete the job in half the time of one technician
but they will be much faster and more efficient. Two technicians usually are
more cost effective for the company. The second technician can also be
clean upholstery or other material in the home while the first tech cleans
carpet. This also allows for training of a second technician.
Park that clean van where the customer can see it and immediately head for
the front door.
Greeting the customer
 Knock on the door and step back from the door.
 When the customer answers, smile and hand her your business card.
 After the customer has invited you in place a mat and wipe your feet.
 Look at your clipboard and ask the customer to show you the areas to
be cleaned. A good preinspection and communication of your
findings will prevent complaints and instill confidence in the
customer.
 As the customer gives you a tour write down any and all comments
on your invoice. Ask the customer pertinent questions.
 How old is the carpet
 Any spots or areas of
concern
 Any pets
 Bad seams, ripples, loose
carpet
 Previous cleanings
 Any health concerns of
occupants
 Perform a burn test and colorfastness test if needed.
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 Review the areas of concern with the customer and explain what you
will do to take care of these areas. Do not over promise. Set realistic
expectations for the customer. Clean a “magic square.”
 Start in the furthest area of the home unless the customer requests
otherwise.
Cleaning – follow the principles of cleaning.
 Prevacuum edges and entryways. Give extra attention to traffic areas.
 Move furniture away from walls and clean perimeters first. Remember
to tab and block all furniture to prevent staining. Once perimeter is
cleaned the open areas of the room can be cleaned. Move furniture
back to exact location where you found it.
 Precondition and agitate.
 Perform extraction. Overwetting is normally caused by technician
error. Not enough extraction passes, improper technique or faulty
equipment can cause this.
 Apply post treatment chemicals. Protectors are always applied last. Be
sure to wipe up any overspray.
 Groom carpet. This helps the carpet to dry, and improves the overall
appearance. Grooming also helps to spread and allow penetration of
post treatments.
 Dry carpet. Use airmovers. Turn on ceiling fans with customer’s
approval. Check ceiling fans for soil accumulation before activating.
Best drying temperature is between 70-72°. Carpet should dry within
6-8 hours.
Customer consultation
 Review the job with the customer. Make sure everything has been
done to her satisfaction. If she has any concerns, even if you think you
have done everything possible, try it one more time. Make one final
trip through the home to make sure you didn’t leave anything behind.
 Ask for the check number.
 Give her tips on maintaining her carpet. Explain the drying process
and why it is best for people and pets to stay off the carpet till it is dry.
Provide her with traffic lane paper or booties. Emphasize the
importance of frequent vacuuming. It is a good idea to inspect her
vacuum and point out any concerns e.g. belts, bags, and brushes.
 Thank the customer for her business and leave business cards for her
friends and neighbors.
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Leaving the job
 Be sure to walk around your van and close all the doors. Check for
kids, bikes, and the family dog etc.
 Pick up any balls of fuzz in the driveway that came from your vacuum
hose.
 Back out carefully.
Post job
 Dump waste in a manner approved by local, state and federal
guidelines. The wastewater must go to a wastewater treatment facility.
 Clean and refill sprayers and containers.
 Wash the van.
 Organize the van for the following day.
Dumping wastewater is illegal and very expensive if you are caught.
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Review #8
Procedures
1. A thorough ____________ and ______________ with the customer
will prevent many problems.
2. Wear a clean ______ with an _ __ badge and ________.
3. Ask about any ________before you leave the door open.
4. Introduce the other tech as your ______ even if he is a helper.
5. Start in the __________ area of the house with the customer’s
permission.
6. Even if the customer has __________ you still need to vacuum.
7. Remember to under ____________ and over _____________.
8. Clean the __________ _________ in the most soiled area.
9. Follow up the preconditioner with _______ in the traffic areas.
10.Following extraction __________ all cut pile carpet.
11.Be sure to wipe up all hard surface areas to avoid ______ and _____
hazards.
12. Tab and _________ all furniture that has been moved.
13. Use _________ _________ to speed the drying process.
14. Recommend how to keep her carpet looking good by frequent
___________ and proper _________ of spots.
15.Dump _____________ in an approved receptacle.
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Problems & Solutions – a chance to show your skills
Browning
 Browning is caused by, overwetting, slow drying and cellulosic
material such as cotton and jute. It is accelerated by alkalinity. The
culprit causing the problem is lignin, a naturally occurring gum. In
the presence of moisture it breaks down and is transported to the
surface. Most of the backings that are used today on tufted carpets
are synthetic. The only way to have true cellulosic browning is to
have cellulosic materials involved. On the rare occasion that you
would encounter browning on a synthetic carpet it is much easier
to remove. Normally because browning is caused by alkalinity it is
cured by an acidic application. In the old days this was called
souring. Today we use formulated browning formulas, acid rinses,
mild reducers or hydrogen peroxide. Whichever product is chosen
it should be lightly misted or applied to the tips only of the carpet.
Wicking
 A common misconception is that wicking is browning. Wicking is
the upward migration of moisture in a fabric. The best analogy
is that of a kerosene lantern. The oil wicks the bottom to the top of
the wick and is lit. This process is referred to as capillary action.
The difference between wicking and cellulosic browning is the
absence of cellulose in synthetic carpet. The discoloration found on
the tips of synthetic carpets especially on olefin Berber’s is soil.
Due to the lack of dry soil removal prior to wet extraction soil
wicking is a major problem today. Overwetting and slow drying
increase the chances of wicking.
Wicking occurs in spotting situations when the residue of the
contaminant or the spotter wicks to the surface during drying. If
you suspect this may happen, the final step after rinsing is to apply
a poultice of absorbent material such as paper towels to the top of
the spot. Place a weight on top of ½ inch of paper towels and allow
it to dry. The moisture and residue will continue to wick into the
towels.
Yellowing - comes in many forms.
 BHT (butylated hydroxy toluene) is an antioxidant that has been
used primarily in carpet cushion. It was believed to have been the
cause of yellowing on carpet and its use has been discontinued in
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the manufacturing of cushion. To remove dilute citric acid and
spray and agitate on the tips of the carpet. Citric acid may dry to a
harsh crystal and should be vacuumed and rinsed with an acid
rinse.
 Pesticides – applied to the perimeter of the carpet may attack a
primary color and cause a color change. This damage is permanent.
 Optical brighteners – reflect the blue-white part of light. Use of
OB’s on carpet may cause a permanent yellowing.
 Nitrogen Dioxide – loss of the blue or red dye from incomplete
combustion may cause permanent yellowing.
 Ozone – attacks the blue dye and may leave a permanent yellowing.
 Soiling – soil can cause yellowing especially on blue or gray carpet.
Cleaning using maximum soil suspension can remove yellowing.
 Tracked in oils from parking lots, warehouses etc.
Maximize soil suspension.
Soil Filtration (associated with air pollution)
 The name aptly describes the problem. The microscopic particles of
soil that continuously float in the air are filtered by the fibers usually
along the perimeters of the room and under closed doors. Much of this
soil is carbon and other non-soluble forms of soil with an oily residue
that only complicates the removal. Removal will once again use the
principles in an aggressive manner. Staining may be permanent.
 Thorough vacuuming by hand.
 Specially designed chemical or aggressive preconditioner
heated if possible.
 Hand agitation or tamping brush.
 Hottest rinse extraction possible.
 Groom & dry.
Fume fading
 Loss of color in carpet due to atmospheric pollutants such as ozone
and NO2 passing through fibers. May not be apparent until soil
filtration is removed.
 Permanent damage
Streaking
 Clean or dirty streaks in carpet caused by:
 Improper wand stroking
 Blockage of vacuum slot or Tee jets
 Wicking
 Improper preconditioning (clogged sprayer tip)
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Ready to go?
Van ready
How about your equipment?
How about your tools?
Finally are you ready?
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Jon Don Carpet Cleaning Quiz
1.
Wool fibers should be cleaned with a pH range of:
(A) not affected by pH
(B) 4.5-8.5
(C) neutral only 7.0
(D) dry clean only solvents
2.
Which of the following carpet fibers is the most absorbent and requires
longer dry time:
(A) nylon
(B) olefin
(C) wool
(D) polyester
3.
Cellulosic fibers are derived from:
(A) petrochemicals
(B) plants
(C) animals
(D) minerals
4.
Which of the following fibers are protein:
(A) nylon, olefin
(B) wool, silk
(C) polyester, acrylic
(D) cotton, jute
5.
A wool fiber may be used in a commercial building for what reason:
(A) low flammability
(B) owner of the building used to be a shepherd
(C) wool is not affected by aggressive cleaning
(D) wool is inexpensive
6.
Which chemical will dissolve wool:
(A) chlorine bleach
(B) formic acid
(C) 3% Hydrogen peroxide
(D) sodium chloride
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7.
The most popular synthetic carpet fiber is:
(A) nylon
(B) olefin
(C) acrylic
(D) polyester
8.
Nylon is most affected by what type of stains:
(A) oily
(B) dry soil
(C) acid dyes
(D) cosmetics
9.
Fourth generation fibers contain what additive to improve soil and stain
resistance:
(A) fluorochemical
(B) solvent
(C) sodium hypochlorite
(D) acetic acid
10.
Which fiber is most stain resistant:
(A) nylon
(B) wool
(C) olefin
(D) acrylic
11.
Fifth generation carpets repel what type of stains:
(A) urine
(B) acid dye
(C) disperse
(D) water damage
12.
Synthetic fibers including stain resist fifth generation fibers can be safely
cleaned using a pH:
(A) must use a neutral pH
(B) must use an acid pH
(C) below 10
(D) above 10
13.
Olefin fibers, even in a Berber (loop) construction:
(A) crush easily
(B) repel oily stains
(C) are ideal in high traffic areas
(D) are damaged by acid dye stains (Kool-Aid
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14.
The fiber that melts easily from dragging furniture or due to hot couplers
resting on the carpet is:
(A) polyester
(B) wool
(C) nylon
(D) olefin
15.
Polyester fibers are best used in:
(A) Rikko the Rhino’s house
(B) low traffic areas e.g. bedrooms
(C) high traffic areas e.g. school classrooms
(D) carpet for stairways
16.
Triexta is a:
(A) fiber used to make pants that squeak when your legs rub
(B) new fiber that repels acid dyes and has good resilience
(C) fiber that will never wear out
(D) new car from BMW
17.
When doing a burn test to identify a fiber, if the residue turns to an ash you
have:
(A) really messed up
(B) a natural fiber
(C) a synthetic fiber
(D) a burnt finger
18.
Which fiber floats on water:
(A) olefin
(B) nylon
(C) wool
(D) cotton
19.
Stain resist nylon (StainMaster) is warranted against common household
food and beverage in :
(A) all structures
(B) owner-occupied residences
(C) apartments
(D) offices
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20.
When cleaning a carpet made of staple fibers the cleaner or consumer may
encounter loose fibers. This is normal and is called:
(A) shedding
(B) big trouble
(C) pin drafting
(D) staplitis
21.
Primary colors consist of:
(A) change when you enter secondary school
(B) red, blue, yellow
(C) blue, green, red
(D) black, white, magenta
22.
When pigments are added to liquid polymer before extrusion the dye
method is called:
(A) beck
(B) solution
(C) hit and miss
(D) print
23.
Carpets that have been print dyed are found primarily in:
(A) hospitality & restaurants
(B) family rooms
(C) schools
(D) mobile homes
24.
Bleeding is normally caused by:
(A) high alkalinity and slow drying
(B) solvent chemicals
(C) absorbent compounds
(D) tripping over your hoses
25.
Optical brighteners reflect the blue white light causing colors to be brighter
but:
(A) void carpet warranties
(B) only work on cotton
(C) only work in nightclubs
(D) are a figment of our imagination
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26.
Pooling, watermarking and shading:
(A) can be repaired
(B) are only found in rugs
(C) is an apparent color change when the pile is bent and the light
reflects differently
(D) only affects natural fibers
27.
When the primary and secondary backings separate it is called:
(A) dimensional stability
(B) delamination
(C) shrinkage
(D) divorce
28.
Backings made of a synthetic material cannot:
(A) be used in woven goods
(B) shrink
(C) delaminate
(D) deflocculate
29.
Woven carpets made with a natural yarn backing such as cotton or jute:
(A) are only made in the U.K.
(B) can shrink
(C) are found only in rugs
(D) only found in mansions
30.
Carpet styles Saxony, frieze, and plush are examples of:
(A) cut pile
(B) loops
(C) textured loops
(D) Berbers
31.
An olefin Berber carpet may be difficult to clean due to:
(A) the cleaning head bouncing on the carpet and losing vacuum
(B) olefin being so resilient
(C) you left your wand at the last job
(D) solution-dyed fibers holding soil
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32.
The difference between real soil and apparent soil is:
(A) spelling
(B) you can charge more for real soil
(C) apparent soil comes from animals
(D) apparent soil cannot be removed and shows up as graying of the
traffic lanes
33.
The proper tool used by a professional installer to install stretch in carpet is
a:
(A) knee kicker
(B) power stretcher
(C) his helper
(D) staple gun
34.
When vacuuming the technician should:
(A) slow down on the pull pass
(B) wear his special vacuuming outfit
(C) use the truck mount
(D) use the customers vacuum
35.
Dry insoluble soil including sand, hair, skin and dust accounts for:
(A) 74-79% of total soil
(B) 50% of total soil
(C) 30% of total soil
(D) 10% of the total soil
36.
Dry insoluble soil is best removed by a:
(A) truck mount
(B) vacuum cleaner
(C) shampooing
(D) opening the windows
37.
Soil suspension includes TACT which stands for:
(A) techniques used when telling the customer her house smells like a
zoo
(B) tannin, acid, chemical, time
(C) time, agitation, chemical, temperature
(D) petroleum
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38.
Grooming a cut pile carpet removes wand marks and:
(A) is usually unnecessary
(B) improves drying, and provides uniform distribution of protectors
(C) makes the carpet smell better
(D) hides the spots you missed
39.
Slow drying time of a synthetic carpet could lead to:
(A) shrinkage
(B) cellulosic browning
(C) odor, resoiling, slip and fall hazards
(D) better soil suspension
40.
Place the principles of cleaning in the proper sequence by numbering 1-5:
(A) soil suspension
(B) soil extraction
(C) dry soil removal
(D) drying
(E)
grooming
The best way to prevent cleaning complaints when dealing with a consumer
is:
(A) give them a cheap price
(B) spray a deodorizer before cleaning
(C) thoroughly inspect and communicate your findings
(D) give the dog a biscuit
41.
42.
When can you skip the dry soil removal (vacuum) step:
(A) when the customer has prevacuumed
(B) when you see no signs of visible soiling
(C) never
(D) when the carpet is a dark color
43.
How much dwell time should you allow the preconditioner on a synthetic
carpet:
(A) extract immediately
(B) minimum of 10 – 15 minutes
(C) spray the whole house then start cleaning
(D) what is a preconditioner
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44.
What furniture should be tabbed or blocked:
(A) bleeders
(B) everything that you moved
(C) only pieces that are flush to the floor
(D)
valuable pieces
45.
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for each chemical:
(A) must be on each truck and made available to anyone requesting that
information
(B) must be posted on the main entrance during cleaning
(C) must be given to all occupants before cleaning
(D) is required only when small children are present during cleaning
46.
Which chemical is always applied last:
(A) acid rinse
(B) fluorochemical
(C) detergent
(D) preconditioner
Besides setting up air movers for fast drying, what temperature is best for
drying:
(A) 80-85
(B) 65-68
(C) 70-72
(D) 55-60
47.
48.
Where should the wastewater be legally dumped :
(A) in a street sewer
(B) down the driveway
(C) in a sanitary sewer system or approved wastewater treatment plant
(D) anywhere after midnight
49.
Which of the following is an organic stain:
(A) Kool-Ade
(B) Coca Cola
(C) Wine
(D) Gatorade
50.
Biocides are products that can:
(A) brighten the carpet
(B) be mixed into the cleaning solution
(C) destroy bacteria caused odor
(D) be sprayed after the fluorochemical
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51.
The purpose of a defoamer is:
(A) keeps the foam down in your solution tank
(B) breaks down the foam in your recovery tank
(C) prepares the carpet for a fluorochemical
(D) used on deplane
52.
Even though it will void a stain resist warranty a defoamer is the best
product to:
(A) break down oily spots
(B) break down old urine
(C) apply on soda spots
(D) apply to concentrated shampoo or detergent spills
53.
Static problems are most prevalent during what time of the year:
(A) summer
(B) spring
(C) fall
(D) winter
54.
Odor problems are most prevalent during:
(A) warm humid periods
(B) cold seasons
(C) doesn’t matter
(D) when company is coming
55.
Products such as 3M Scotchgard and Dupont Teflon are known as:
(A) fluorochemicals
(B) silicones
(C) antistats
(D) surfactants
56.
The purpose of a fluorochemical (Scotchgard, Teflon) is to:
(A) repel soil, oil and water borne stains
(B) deodorize
(C) soften the carpet
(D) brighten the carpet
57.
Browning is caused by:
(A) overwetting, slow drying and cellulosic material
(B) olefin Berbers
(C) acid chemicals
(D) solvents
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58.
Wicking is caused by:
(A) kerosene
(B) deodorizers
(C) fluorochemicals
(D) excess residue, slow drying, dry soil not removed prior to wet
cleaning
59.
Yellowing (BHT) caused by rebond cushion may be removed by an
application of:
(A) sodium hypochlorite
(B) a strong preconditioner
(C) citric acid
(D) an alkaline detergent
60.
Soil Filtration is caused by
(A) microscopic soil particles being filtered through carpet fibers around
the perimeter
(B) aliens
(C) cleaning residue
(D) animal urine
10,000,000
1,000,000
100,000
10,000
Alkaline
1,000
Neutral
100
10
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Place the words alkaline, acid and neutral where they belong on the chart
Place the words SOIL & DETERGENT on the proper sides of the chart
Circle the number representing the more POWERFUL pH 2 or pH 10
Place a star above the pH that you should stay under for Stain resist nylon
Place the letter W above the range of pH that are safe to clean wool
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61.
The definition of pH is:
(A) pretty hot
(B) phat
(C) the amount of phiz in water
(D) the relative acidity or alkalinity in a water-based solution
62.
The purpose of a surfactant (surface-active agent) is:
(A) to allow penetration of the cleaning solution into the fabric being
cleaned
(B) to skip the vacuuming step
(C) make the carpet slippery
(D) I have no clue
63.
Match the surfactant charge to the surfactant by drawing lines to the correct
one:
(A) cationic
negative
(B) nonionic
neutral
(C) bionic
positive
(D) anionic
Lee Majors
64.
A detergent molecule has a hydrophobic tail and a hydrophilic head, what
does that mean:
(A) it has a split personality
(B) the head likes water and the tail hates water but likes oil or soil
(C) it hates large crowds
(D) it works best in a petroleum solvent
65.
Doubling the amount of detergent in a cleaning solution:
(A) cleans twice as fast
(B) cleans four times faster
(C) will leave more residue which may cause resoiling and stiff texture
(D) is fine as long as the water is above 300°
66.
Solubility is important because:
(A) your breathalyzer test may not work correctly
(B) it determines what the soil or spot will dissolve in
(C) the pH may be out of balance
(D) it sounds impressive to other people
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67.
Most preconditioners and detergents are:
(A) neutral
(B) acidic
(C) alkaline
(D) petroleum solvents
68.
Preconditioners designed for greasy soil found in restaurants are normally:
(A) acid sours
(B) 100% solvents
(C) high pH and may contain enzymes
(D) cationic
69.
When using any powdered detergents it is very important to:
(A) remove the TIDE label
(B) dilute thoroughly in very hot water
(C) mix your SECRET formula in with it
(D) have it blessed by the local minister
70.
Using an acid rinse after thoroughly preconditioning the carpet will:
(A) make you enjoy Grateful Dead records
(B) soften the carpet, brighten the colors, neutralize the preconditioner
(C) do nothing
(D) cause rapid resoiling
71.
What is the best way to identify a spot or stain:
(A) cut out the spot and send it to Dalton, GA for analysis
(B) use your senses, location of the spot and ask the customer
(C) guess
(D) spray it with your magic potion and if it doesn’t come out call it a
stain
72.
Identify the spots below by placing the letter of the appropriate spotter next
to the spot:
(A) volatile dry spotter VDS
(B) non volatile spotter NVDS or POG paint, oil, grease remover
(C) citrus gel solvent
(D) neutral detergent spotter NDS
(E)
alkaline spotter ADS
(F)
acid/tannin spotter AS
(G) enzyme/digester spotter
(H) rust remover
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SPOTS – you may use more than one spotter
small grease drip
rust
old milk spill
ink
gum
old paint
lipstick
shoe polish
catsup
nail polish
coca cola
iced tea
coffee
residue from POG
73.
Using too much of a POG may cause:
(A) delamination
(B) uncontrollable twitching
(C) purple spots
(D) bleach spots
74.
The most important issue when using solvents is:
(A) looking good while you remove the spot
(B) ventilation
(C) total saturation
(D) keeping your business from becoming insolvent
75.
This chemical helps to safely remove color stains by adding oxygen:
(A) a box cutter
(B) oxidizers such as 3% hydrogen peroxide
(C) sodium hypochlorite
(D) Billy’s bathtub chemical formulation pH 15.5
Methods of Cleaning
Match up the methods to the descriptions
All methods require dry soil removal prior to cleaning. 76-80 Choose from Hot
Water Extraction, Absorbent Compound, Absorbent Pad, Rotary
Shampoo, Dry Foam.
76.
This method is the most popular method and most recommended by fiber
producers and carpet manufacturers. A preconditioner is applied to the
carpet, agitated and allowed to dwell for 10-15 minutes to allow adequate
soil suspension. The suspended soil and detergent is extracted by a
portable, walk behind or truck mounted extractor. The four components of
soil suspension (time, agitation, chemical, temperature) are best utilized in
this method. The technician is responsible if overwetting should occur.
This method is called_______________________________________________
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77.
This method uses a machine that aerates the detergent into a thick shaving
cream like foam. As with the previous method a preconditioner may or may
not be used first. Following the application of the foam a large cylindrical
brush agitates the foam into the carpet. Excess foam and suspended soil are
removed from the carpet. Used properly the method is a low moisture
method.
This method is called_______________________________________________
78.
This method involves sprinkling an organic or synthetic compound
(powder) on the carpet. A preconditioner may or may not be used prior to
application of the compound.
The compound is brushed into the carpet by means of a brush or a machine
and allowed to dwell on the carpet for a period of time (10-30 minutes).
Once the compound has absorbed the soil it is removed by vacuuming. The
benefit of this method is fast drying.
This method is called _____________________________________
79.
This method is the oldest method of carpet cleaning. The machine has a
holding tank for the shampoo. This shampoo is fed down onto the brush.
The brush turning at approximately 175 RPM creates a foaming detergent.
The brush provides plenty of agitation making up for the lack of heat. This
is an excellent method for commercial or used as a preconditioner prior to
extraction. If the technician does not break in the brush or does not apply
enough shampoo to lubricate the fibers, damage may occur to cut pile
carpets. Wet or dry vacuuming removes the suspended soil and detergent.
This method is called_______________________________________________
80.
This method is extremely popular in commercial cleaning. A rotary
machine fitted with absorbent pads is used. Detergent is sprayed onto the
carpet and the absorbent pad. Another method incorporates dipping the
pads into a bucket of detergent. During the spin buffing phase of soil
suspension, the bonnet (pad) attracts or absorbs the soil. Technicians need
to monitor the pad and turn it over or replace the pad when it becomes
filled with soil. This is an excellent method for maintenance or appearance
cleaning. This is considered an interim cleaning method and should be
extracted after 2-3 cleanings.
This method is called_______________________________________________
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Bonus questions for your group.
You start to clean a home and come across 3 large blackish stains near the
back door. They look to be filled with residue and have an odor of urine.
How do you proceed?
__________________________________________________________
You are at a customer’s house with a strong cat urine odor. You have
explained your deodorization process and the customer says she can’t afford
to deodorize and tells you to clean only. How would you handle this?
_________________________________________________________
Your customer’s dog chewed up an ink pen. Your customer tried a few
spotters on it. How should you proceed?
You have just been called to the local greasy spoon restaurant which is about
to be shut down by the Board of Health. You can hardly find the carpet
under the grease. How would you clean this?
_______________________________________________________________________
You just won a contract for 10,000 square feet of carpet tile. The carpet is in
the lobby and floors 3-6. The 6th floor has multiple spills. Their janitorial
staff seems to be making the spots bigger. How will you clean this building?
You encounter an unknown spot. What is your procedure?
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REVISED RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR IICRC
CERTIFICATIONS AVAILABLE BY EXAMINATION
CERTIFIED CARPET CLEANING TECHNICIAN
(CCT)
Exam 101
CERTIFIED RUG CLEANING TECHNICIAN
(RCT)
Exam 141
* Prerequisites: IICRC Certification in CCT or CCMT, and UFT
CERTIFIED COMMERCIAL CARPET MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN
(CCMT)
Exam 201
HEALTH AND SAFETY TECHNICIAN
(HST)
Exam 202
CERTIFIED STONE, MASONRY & CERAMIC TILE CLEANING TECHNICIAN(SMT)
Exam 241
CERTIFIED UPHOLSTERY & FABRIC CLEANING TECHNICIAN
(UFT)
Exam 301
CERTIFIED LEATHER CLEANING TECHNICIAN
(LCT)
Exam 311
CERTIFIED WATER DAMAGE RESTORATION TECHNICIAN
(WRT)
Exam 501
CERTIFIED CARPET REPAIR & REINSTALLATION TECHNICIAN
(RRT)
Exam 601
CERTIFIED COLOR REPAIR TECHNICIAN
(CRT)
Exam 701
CERTIFIED FLOOR CARE TECHNICIAN
(FCT)
Exam 890
CERTIFIED FIRE & SMOKE RESTORATION TECHNICIAN
(FSRT)
Exam 901
 Academic: Must attend an approved course with fourteen (14) hours of classroom instruction and pass
appropriate exams with 75% or higher.
CERTIFIED ODOR CONTROL TECHNICIAN
(OCT) Exam401
 Academic: Must attend an approved course with eight (8) hours of classroom instruction and pass
exam with 75% or higher.
APPLIED STRUCTURAL DRYING TECHNICIAN
(ASD)
Exam 511
 Academic: Attend approved 3-day course with at least 24 hours of classroom instruction and pass
exam with 75% or higher.
 Prerequisite: IICRC Certification in WRT
APPLIED MICROBIAL REMEDIATION TECHNICIAN
(AMRT)
Exam 521
 Academic: Attend approved 4-day course with at least 28 hours of instruction (20% hand-on) and pass
exam with 75% or higher.
 Prerequisite: IICRC Certification in WRT
APPLIED MICROBIAL REMEDIATION SPECIALIST
(AMRS)
 Prerequisites: AMRT: and HST or an OSHA 10 hour General Industry Health and Safety course, or
other suitable program subject to IICRC approval; and one year verifiable microbial remediation
experience after the date of issuance of the AMRT certification; and one of the following within one
calendar year immediately before AMRS qualification: 10 verifiable microbial remediation projects or
1000 hours verifiable microbial remediation experience. Verification is by written Witness Statement
under penalty of perjury plus an appropriate Project Sheet(s).
CERTIFIED CARPET INSPECTOR
(SCI) Exam801
 Academic: Must attend at least thirty five (35) hours of classroom instruction over a five (5) day
period and pass exam with 75% or higher.
 Prerequisites: IICRC Certification in CCMT or CCT and RRT. In lieu of the RRT, the student may
have achieved the Certified Floorcovering Installers Association (CFI) CFI-R1, R2, C1, C2, CFI
Master Installer status or attended the CFI Installation for the Inspector program, Installation Training
(FIT) program, or achieved Journeyman status in an approved installation program. During the first
year after passing the IICRC inspector exam, the individual is required to submit a minimum of ten
(10) inspection reports which will be reviewed by the Inspector Committee. Inspector status will not
be awarded until such time these reports are approved by committee.
INTRODUCTION TO SUBSTRATE SUBFLOOR INSPECTION
(ISSI)Exam 811
MARBLE & STONE INSPECTOR
(MSI)Exam 821
 Prerequisite: IICRC Certification in ISSI and FCT
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RESILIENT FLOORING INSPECTOR
(RFI)Exam 831
 Prerequisite: IICRC Certification in ISSI and FCT
CERAMIC TILE INSPECTOR
(CTI)Exam 841
 Prerequisite: IICRC Certification in ISSI and FCT
WOOD LAMINATE FLOORING INSPECTOR
(WLFI)
Exam851 & 852
 Prerequisite: IICRC Certification in ISSI and FCT
 Academic for all hard surface inspection courses: Attend approved course with at least 14 hours of
classroom instruction and pass exams with 75% or higher.
ADVANCED DESIGNATIONS (NO EXAMINATION)
JOURNEYMAN TEXTILE CLEANER
(JTC)
Twelve (12) months active service in the industry after original certification date, plus attainment of
specific designations as listed below. Designation will automatically be awarded upon attainment of the
proper credits
 Certification in(CCT or CCMT) and UFT and either (OCT, CRT or RRT)
JOURNEYMAN FIRE & SMOKE RESTORER
(JSR)
Twelve (12) months active service in the industry after original certification date plus attainment of specific
categories as listed below.
 Certification in UFT, OCT and FSRT
JOURNEYMAN WATER RESTORER
(JWR)
Twelve (12) months active service in the industry after original certification date plus attainment of specific
categories as listed below.
 Certification in (CCT or CMT), WRT and RRT
MASTER TEXTILE CLEANER
(MTC)
A minimum of three (3) years after original certification date plus attainment of specific certifications as
listed below.
 Certification in (CCT or CCMT), UFT, OCT, (RRT or BRT) and CRT
MASTER FIRE & SMOKE RESTORER
(MSR)
A minimum of three (3) years after original certification date plus attainment of specific certifications as
listed below.
 Certification in (CCT or CCMT), UFT, OCT, FSRT and (HST or equivalent)
MASTER WATER RESTORER
(MWR)
A minimum of three (3) years after original certification date plus attainment of specific certifications as
listed below.
 Certification in (CCT or CCMT), RRT, WRT, ASD, AMRT/S and (HST or equivalent)
IICRC TESTING FEE STRUCTURE
All Technician Exams (excluding AMRT & Inspector):
AMRT and INSPECTOR:
Retest:
$65.00
$150.00
$25.00
RETESTING
If technician doesn’t pass an exam and wishes to retake, there will be a fee of $25. Only two retakes
are allowed. Exam must be retaken within 90 days of receiving test results otherwise re-attendance
will be required before testing can be done again.
ANNUAL REGISTRATION FEE
After one (1) year, registrant will receive annual renewal billing. If certified in 1 or 2 categories, fee will be
$30 annually, 3 and 4 categories is $40 and 5 or more categories is $50 annually. Master status will be an
additional $10.00. Applied Microbial Remediation certification will be $60.00 annually. If registrant lets
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certification lapse for a period of over twelve (12) months, he or she will be required to re-attend an
approved school, retake exam and pay appropriate fees. If registrant wishes to reinstate certification within
the twelve (12) month period, outstanding fees and fulfillment of continuing education credits will be
required. Registrants must follow the Code of Ethics or be subject to sanctions up to and including loss of
certification.
CERTIFIED INSPECTOR: Once the inspector has passed the probationary requirements, he or she may
choose to be listed as “Practicing” or “Credentialed”. Practicing inspectors will pay $80.00 annually for
fees with listing on the #800 IICRC Referral System and the web site, while Credentialed will pay $40.00
per year with no listing.
CERTIFIED FIRMS: A Certified Firm Application Request Form must be requested and returned to
IICRC with a nonrefundable $25.00 processing fee. Upon approval of the request form, the firm will be
sent Application for Certified Firm. The Application for Certified Firm must be forwarded to headquarters
with the annual fee of $125.00. This is a separate fee from the $25.00 processing fee and is also
nonrefundable. Once Certified Firm status is granted, the firm is immediately listed on the #800 IICRC
Referral System as well as the IICRC web site at www.iicrc.org. The Certified Firm is also eligible at this
time to use the registered trademark for advertising purposes.
THE IICRC RESERVES THE UNQUALIFIED RIGHT TO CHANGE AND REVISE THE
POLICIES, PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS.
You may review the Privacy Policy at www.iicrc.org/privacypolicy
Revised 10/06
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Institute of Inspection, Cleaning
and Restoration Certification
2715 East Mill Plain Blvd
Vancouver, WA 98661
(360) 693-5675 fax (360) 693-4858
e-mail: [email protected]
CERTIFIED FIRM APPLICATION REQUEST FORM
Name:
Title:
Company Name:
Company Address:
City:
State/Prov:
Country:
E-Mail:
Phone:
Fax:
Zip/Postal Code:
If you know the names of IICRC Certified Technicians currently employed by the
firm, please list their names here:
Request for Certified Firm Application fee is $25.00 (U.S. Funds) and must
accompany this form. Fees are nonrefundable.

Check or Money Order enclosed or:
Please charge my:
 Visa
Account number:
 MasterCard
Expiration date:

American Express
V-Code:
Cardholder Name:
Signature:
Send fee along with this completed request form to:
IICRC
2715 East Mill Plain Blvd
Vancouver, Washington 98661
In addition to the application fee, the annual fee for Certified Firms status is $125 (U.S. funds) and must accompany
your final application.
If the firm does not meet the requirements to become an IICRC
Certified Firm upon submission of this request, the pending application
will be held for six months.
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Process for becoming an IICRC Certified Firm
Firms must first fill out a Certified Firm Application Request Form and submit to IICRC
headquarters with a non-refundable $25 application fee. The Certified Firm Application
Request Form is included with these instructions.
Once the request form is received and reviewed to make sure the Certified Technicians
are still with the firm and have a current registration, the firm will be sent a Certified
Firm Application and Code of Ethics.
The firm must sign and return a completed application and the IICRC Certified Firm
Code of Ethics, along with a copy of its business license (if applicable), proof of
insurance, and a non-refundable $125 for the first year’s registration fees.
If a firm does not meet the requirements to become an IICRC Certified Firm upon
submission of a Certified Firm application, the pending application will be held for up to
six months. During this period, the firm is allowed to take the necessary steps to meet the
requirements.
All Certified Firms will have a common anniversary date of December 1 of each year.
The first annual renewal bill will be prorated based on the acceptance date of the original
registration. For example, if the firm became registered on June 1of the year at which
time it paid the $125 annual registration, the annual renewal bill in November would be
$63.00. Thereafter, the annual renewal bill will be equal to the full annual renewal
amount set by the IICRC Board of Directors.
When a firm is 90 days delinquent on its fees, the firm will be dropped from the roster.
The firm may be reinstated when requirements are met and fees are paid.
Certified Firms are not eligible to order supplies or receive Certified Firm credentials
until such time they meet all requirements.
Only Certified Firms may display the registered trademark.
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Review #1
Fibers
1.
Natural fibers are very absorbent which means they dye easily,
stain easily, and take longer to dry.
2.
The most popular synthetic fiber is nylon.
3.
Olefin loves oil and hates water.
4.
Wool and silk are examples of protein fibers.
5.
Nylon can be dissolved by formic acid.
6.
Wool will not burn and smells like a wet dog when wet..
7.
The epidermis of a wool fiber can be damaged by alkalinity.
8.
Bleach can dissolve a wool or silk fiber.
9.
Polyester is not a good choice for a commercial building.
10.
Olefin is always solution dyed but crushes easily.
11.
All synthetic fibers are extruded through a spinneret_.
12.
The acrylic fiber is a synthetic substitute for wool.
13.
Nylon is attracted to acid dye stains and should be cleaned with a
pH under 10.
14.
When a synthetic fiber is burned it leaves a hard bead when a
natural fiber is burned it leaves an ash.
15.
When nylon is burn tested it smells like plastic, olefin smells like
asphalt, polyester smells like fruit wool smells like burnt hair,
cotton or jute smells like paper, acrylic smells like burnt meat.
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Review #2
Yarns & Dyeing
1. Synthetic fibers are created through a process called extrusion.
2. Synthetic fibers can be either filament or cut into staple.
3. Loose staple fiber is normal in a cut pile and called shedding.
4. Olefin can be damaged by heat .
5. Olefin and polyester are attracted to oily soil, this is referred to as
being oliophilic.
6. Bulked continuous filaments are referred to as BCF.
7. When 2 or more yarns are twisted together they are called plied.
8. A carpet that is dyed in a pattern is called a printed carpet.
9. A carpet that has not been dyed is called greige goods.
10. The most popular form of dyeing for residential carpet is called piece
dyeing. These two methods are continuous and beck dyeing.
11. Wool cannot be solution dyed.
12. A pigment is insoluble a dye is soluble.
13. Optical brighteners can cause permanent yellowing and void stain
resist warranties.
14. Pooling, watermarking, and shading are not considered defects by
the carpet manufacturers.
15. Bleeding requires water crocking requires agitation.
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Review #3
Manufacturing& Styles
1. Woven carpet is made on a loom and the yarns consist of a warp yarn
a weft yarn and a face yarn.
2. A tufted carpet consists of a face yarn stitched in to a primary
backing with latex bonding it to a secondary backing.
3. Most tufted carpet has a synthetic backing but some woven carpet has
cotton or jute yarns that can shrink.
4. The most popular cut pile carpet style is called Saxony.
5. Olefin Berbers can be difficult to clean because of the cleaning wand
bouncing and excess moisture and soil wicking.
6. An inexpensive cushion will cause the carpet to crush.
7. The most popular style of cushion is called rebond.
8. All stretched in carpet must be installed using a power stretcher.
9. The CRI Standard for installation of residential is called CRI 105.
10.Tufted carpet must have enough latex to hold the yarns in and can be
damaged by excessive use of solvents.
11. The separation of primary and secondary backing is called
delamination.
12. Seam sealer prevents the seams from separating.
13. A stretch in carpet that ripples normally settles when dry.
14. Be careful with solvents on a direct glue carpet.
15. Download CRI installation standards from www.carpet-rug.org
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Review #4
Soiling & Principles
1. Soil is normally acidic on the pH scale.
2. The highest percentage of soil is insoluble.
3. The best way to remove dry soil is by vacuuming.
4. Soil shading is caused by abrasion of plastic fibers.
5. The principle of dry soil removal is frequently skipped.
6. The cleaning pie consists of Time Agitation Chemical
Temperature or CHAT.
7. The second principle is soil suspension.
8. Extraction can include vacuuming.
9. Water-soluble soils cannot be removed by solvents.
10. Hair, sand and skin are considered insoluble.
11. Empty a vacuum bag when it is 1/2 to 2/3 full.
12. A micron or micrometer is 1 millionth of a meter.
13. Fast drying prevents slip and fall hazards.
14. A carpet should be groomed to remove wand marks and help the
protector be distributed evenly.
15. The technician is responsible for over wetting Some of this may be
caused by lack of equipment maintenance.
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Review #5
Methods
1. Regardless of the method chosen the principles must be followed.
2. The oldest method of cleaning is shampooing.
3. A very popular interim method for commercial maintenance is
absorbent pad.
4. Hot Water Extraction has the most chances of overwetting.
5. Systems using granular detergent are called absorbent compound.
6. A system using a foaming surfactant using a cylindrical brush is
called dry foam.
7. The method favored by many carpet manufacturers is H W E.
8. When using an absorbent pad the pad should be changed when it
stops absorbing soil.
9. Systems using rotary action are more likely to cause fiber distortion.
10. Propane tanks should be mounted on the outside of the van.
11. All trucks must carry MSDS, and a fire extinguisher.
12. Replace any plugs that are cut or missing the ground.
13. Replace any solution hoses that are worn.
14. Park your van so that exhaust faces away from the home.
15. Wicking is minimized in a commercial building with multiple spills
when using an encapsulation system.
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Review #6
Chemistry
1. The pH chart ranges from 0 to 14 with 7 being neutral.
2. Any water-based solution below 7 is acidic above 7 is alkaline..
3. A surfactant allows penetration into the fabric being cleaned.
4. A builder adds alkalinity and softens water while emulsifying oily
and greasy soils.
5. Hydrophilic loves water hydrophobic hates water.
6. A surfactant resembles the candy tootsie roll pop.
7. Soaps do not work as well as detergents in hard water.
8. The universal solvent that dissolves the most substances is water.
9. The pH of toothpaste is on the alkaline side of the pH scale.
10. The pH of a browning removal product is on the acid side.
11. Rust is considered alkaline so to remove use an acidic product.
12. Most disinfectants contain cationic surfactants.
13. Mixing a cationic surfactant with an anionic surfactant will make a
gooey mess.
14. Doubling the amount of detergent will most likely leave additional
residue in the carpet making it feel stiff.
15. Adding a scented deodorizer leaves a pleasant scent but does not
neutralize the odor. It dissipates as it dries.
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Review #7
Chemicals & Spotting
1. The workhorse of cleaning products is the preconditioner.
2. A(n) alkaline detergent is used on soiled synthetic fabrics.
3. A(n) acid rinse is the best choice for neutralizing a preconditioner.
4. For all synthetic carpet the safest pH to use is under 10.
5. A fluorochemical repels all three types of soils.
6. A gallon contains 128 ounces.
7. A spot adds substance to the carpet; a stain adds dye.
8. Asking the customer, noting the location, and using your senses
helps to identify the spot.
9. A(n) oxidizer adds oxygen to a spot a reducer reduces oxygen.
10. Use solvents that have a high flash point and be sure to ventilate
the area.
11. To remove a coffee spot use a tannin spotter.
12. When using rust removers neutralize and rinse.
13. Acne medicines contain benzoyl peroxide that can bleach fabric.
14. Enzyme spotters need heat, moisture and longer dwell time.
15. Nail polish, lipstick or paint will need a POG_ to remove.
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Review #8
Procedures
1. A thorough preinspection and communication with the customer
will prevent many problems.
2. Wear a clean uniform with an I D badge and smile.
3. Ask about any pets before you leave the door open.
4. Introduce the other tech as your partner even if he is a helper.
5. Start in the furthest area of the house with the customer’s
permission.
6. Even if the customer has vacuumed you still need to vacuum.
7. Remember to under promise and over deliver.
8. Clean the magic square in the most soiled area.
9. Follow up the preconditioner with agitation in the traffic areas.
10.Following extraction groom all cut pile carpet.
11.Be sure to wipe up all hard surface areas to avoid slip and fall
hazards.
12. Tab and block all furniture that has been moved.
13. Use air movers to speed the drying process.
14. Recommend how to keep her carpet looking good by frequent
vacuuming and proper removal of spots.
15.Dump wastewater in an approved receptacle.
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