Industrial Technology and Design Guideline

Industrial Technology and Design Guideline
Guideline
A Practical Handbook for
ITD Activities
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1. DEPARTMENTAL MANAGEMENT & SAFE PRACTICE
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1.1 General Introduction
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Responsibility for the Management of Safety
Legislation & Regulatory Requirements
First Aid Facilities
Notification of Accidents, Injuries & Incidents
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3
1.3.4
Statute Law & Common Law
What is “Reasonably Practicable” ?
Workplace Health & Safety School Inspectors – WHSQ Officers
School Based WHS Officers – WHSOs & HSRs
1.4 Qualifications & Requirements for ITD Teachers & Staff
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1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.2.4
1.4.1 Classroom Teachers
1.4.2 Vocational Education & Training (VET) Teachers
 QSA Staff Profile Form
1.4.3 Conditions of Employment for Substitute ITD Teachers
1.4.4 ITD Teachers Aide Qualifications & Responsibilities
1.5 Student Induction to Workplace Safety & Training
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1.5.1 Introduction To Workplace Safety – A Student Handbook
1.5.2 Student “Safety Induction” Register
1.5.3 A Message to Parents & Student Safety Contracts
2. RISK MANAGEMENT
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2.1 Risk Management Guidelines
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2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4
2.1.5
2.1.6
Risk Management Overview
Risk Management Code of Practice
The Four Step Risk Management Process
Hierarchy of Risk Control
ITD Hazard Identification
Manual Handling & Ergonomics
2.2 Risk Assessment Guidelines
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1.3 Health, Safety & The Law
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Queensland Studies Authority Subject Area Guidelines
1.2 Management of Safety
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2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4
Curriculum Activity Risk Assessment (CARA)
Plant & Equipment Risk Assessment
Chemicals & Hazardous Materials Risk Assessment
Annual Safety Assessment
2.3 “Risk Management” Professional Development
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2.3.1 ITD Professional Development “Risk Management” Courses
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3. MAINTAINING A PRACTICAL WORKSPACE ENVIRONMENT
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3.1 Establishing a Culture of Safety
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3.2 Class Size Limits
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3.3 Workspace Layout
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3.4 Workspace Conditions
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3.4.1 Ventilation Systems
3.4.2 Environmental Dust & Dust Extraction
 Risks & Control Measures
3.4.3 Industrial Noise
 Risks & Control Measures
3.4.4 Flooring
3.4.5 Lighting
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3.5.1 Classifications & Usage
3.5.2 Workplace Safety Colour Codes
3.6 Electrical Safety
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3.5 Safety Signage
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3.3.1 Planning & Machinery Placement
 Safe Work Zones
 Workspace “Machinery Layout Planner”
3.3.2 Project Storage
3.6.1
3.6.2
3.6.3
3.6.4
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Regulatory Electrical Requirements for ITD Workspaces
Testing & Tagging
Safety Switching & Electrical Isolation Devices
Lockout of Machinery, Plant & Equipment
3.7 Fire Safety
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3.7.1 General Precautions for ITD Departments
3.7.2 Fire Extinguishers – Types & Uses
4. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
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4.1 Guidelines for the Selection of PPE
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4.2 Selection of PPE
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4.2.1 Foot Protection
4.2.2 Eye & Face Protection
 Hair Protection
4.2.3 Hearing Protection
4.2.4 Hand Protection
4.2.5 Respiratory Protection
4.2.6 Clothing (Body) Protection
4.2.7 Welding Protection
5. MACHINERY, PLANT & EQUIPMENT
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5.1 Purchasing of ITD Machinery, Plant & Equipment
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5.1.1
5.1.2
5.1.3
5.1.4
Procurement Delegation
DETE Standing Offer Arrangements (SOAs)
Purchasing Outside a DETE Standing Offer Arrangement (SOA)
Asset Disposals & Write-offs
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5.2 Responsibility for Safe Use of Machinery
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5.2.1 Schools Responsibility
5.2.2 Teachers Responsibility
 Teacher Demonstration Projects
5.2.3 Working Safely With Machinery, Plant & Equipment
5.3 Student Use of Machinery, Plant & Equipment
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5.3.1 Student Usage Control Index
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5.4 Service Maintenance & Responsibilities
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5.5 Equipment Maintenance Records (EMRs)
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5.6 Safe Operating Procedures (SOPs)
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5.7 Battery Powered Tools & Equipment
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5.8 Hand Tools
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5.9 Compressed Air, Pneumatics Tools & Equipment
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5.9.1 Safe Use of Nailing Tools (Nail Guns) in Schools
5.10 Welding Processes & Equipment
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5.10.1 Oxy/Acetylene – Fuel Gas Welding, Cutting & Brazing
5.10.2 Electric Arc Welding – MMAW, MIG & TIG
6. CHEMICALS & HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES
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6.1 Legislative Requirements for Chemicals in Schools
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6.2 Management of Chemicals & Hazardous Materials
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6.2.1 Safety Data Sheets (SDS)
6.2.2 ChemWatch® – Chemical Management System & SDS Database
6.2.3 Ordering & Purchasing of Chemicals
6.2.4 Transportation & Storage of Chemicals
6.2.5 Hazardous Chemicals Manifest & Register
6.2.6 Decanting & Re-Labelling of Chemicals
6.2.7 Disposal of Chemicals & Hazardous Materials
6.2.8 Chemicals Presenting an Uncertain or Unpredictable Risk
6.2.9 Managing Risks With Chemicals & Hazardous Materials
6.2.10 ITD Chemicals & Hazardous Materials for Particular Consideration
6.3 Wood Dust & Toxic Timbers
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6.3.1 Health Concerns & Symptoms
6.3.2 Toxic Timber Species & Your Health
 Toxic Timbers Index
6.3.3 Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL) for Wood Dust
6.3.4 CCA Treated Timber
6.3.5 Formaldehyde Adhesives in MDF & Plywood
6.3.6 Managing the Risks & Control Measures
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1.
DEPARTMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND SAFE PRACTICE
1.1 General Introduction
This Guideline Document on managing Industrial Technology and Design (ITD) Departments in
Queensland secondary schools complies with all current state legislation and regulations
including the national Work Health and Safety Act: 2011. It is designed to be a source of easy
reference and provides important information relating to the establishment, management and
maintenance of a healthy and safe teaching, learning, and working environment for staff and
students. ITD staff should find support for the due diligence required to ensure the safety of
students through current legislative requirements and their departmental accountabilities. All
teachers should appreciate that it is imposed upon them to take reasonable precautions at all
times and to ensure that they have up-to-date knowledge of health and safety risks involved in
their ITD activities, thus avoiding foreseeable dangers to the students placed in their care.
All Information and guidelines offered are directed not only at ITD Heads of Department,
Subject Coordinators and teachers, but also to others who work within the ITD department,
including Special Needs teaching assistants, teacher aids, and other support staff and trainees.
The term – “Industrial Technology and Design” (ITD), refers to the following junior and senior
secondary school curriculum subjects:
Junior Secondary – Industrial Technology & Design Education (Technology KLA) syllabus:
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Industrial Technology and Design (Manual Arts)
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Graphical Communication
Senior Secondary – Years 10/11/12 subjects: (primarily QSA and QSA registered subjects)
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Aerospace Studies (authority subject)
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Engineering Technology (authority subject)
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Graphics (authority subject)
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Technology Studies (authority subject)
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School Based Apprenticeships or Traineeships (SAT)
Manufacturing – Study Area Specification (SAS)
The range of subject stands and certificate offerings varies from school to school and usually include both
certificate and non-certificate based units of study, or a combination of both, such as:
- Approach A: Vocational Education and Training (VET)
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CPC10111 – Certificate I in Construction
LMF10108 – Certificate I in Furnishing
MEM10105 – Certificate I in Engineering
MSA10107 – Certificate I in Manufacturing (Pathways)
MSA20208 – Certificate II in Manufacturing Technology
- Approach B: Vocational Learning (non-certificate stand options)
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Aeroskills Studies
Automotive Studies
Building and Construction Studies
Engineering Studies
Furnishing Studies
Industrial Graphics Studies
Plastics Studies
Industrial Technology Studies
- Approach C: Strand allowing for a VET outcome
o Vocational Learning (a school - devised A & B combination approach)
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
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Note: For more information or guidance on the Queensland Studies Authority (QSA) Subject
Area Guidelines for Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:
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QSA – Design & Technology Lower Secondary Subject Area Guidelines
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QSA – Aerospace Studies Subject Area Guidelines
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QSA – Technology Studies Subject Area Guidelines
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QSA – Graphics Subject Area Guidelines
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QSA – Engineering Technology Subject Area Guidelines
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QSA – Manufacturing Subject Area Guidelines
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QSA – Vocational Education & Training Subject Area Guidelines
Curriculum planning processes must include consideration of students’ learning needs
delivered in a safe learning environment; an environment in which the hazards inevitably
associated with practical workshop activities are reduced to an acceptable level. Because
these environments might change in time, safety guidelines should be regularly reviewed and
underwritten, to ensure that one’s diligent duty of care is constantly maintained. ‘Good practice’
risk management and risk assessment strategies will ensure that well implemented guidelines
become a default part of any curriculum review and planning process.
A further aim of this “Guidelines” booklet for staff is to help foster and encourage an ITD
“Culture of Safety” within departments – creating an atmosphere in the workplace conducive to
developing appropriate “work safe” attitudes.
It is imperative that ITD teachers model, to their students, the principles of Workplace Health
and Safety (WHS) explicitly, including a mature and responsible attitude to safe working
practices, theoretical knowledge, and skill levels relevant to all areas of Industrial Technology
and Design. The principles children learn at school form the basis of common workplace safety
applicable to their future employment. Safety, therefore, is an integral workplace activity
consideration.
This resource will not provide all the answers to all ITD health and safety issues or concerns.
Detailed information relating to specific standards required for all aspects of the ITD curriculum
can be found in relevant state and national legislation and the Queensland DETE Policy and
Procedure Register. Reference should also be made to other essential sources including the
DETE Creating Healthier Workplaces website and your local Workplace Health and Safety
regional representatives and advisers.
For your easy access, much of the related content and references are hyperlinked within this
document.
Note: As a guide, the word should in this guidelines document is used to mean something
that is recommended but not compulsory; these are usually actions that are considered to
be good working practices, but the school may choose other actions if it has good reasons
for doing so.
Conversely, the word must is used to mean something that is compulsory, usually something
statutory, and a failure to implement could be breaching one’s common law duty of care and
legislated duty.
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
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1.2
Management of Safety
The Queensland Department of Education, Training and Employment (DETE) acknowledges
that an effective and productive Industrial Technology and Design curriculum involves a
significant amount of high risk practical workshop curriculum activity. Such experiences
provide opportunities to introduce students to the concept of risk management and safe work
practices. Naturally, it is essential that all ITD staff are fully conversant with the management of
safety in their workplace and that they carefully plan curriculum activities.
1.2.1 Responsibility for the Management of Safety
Every person at your school has a responsibility and legal duty to be actively involved in the
effective management of safety. Responsibilities focus on planning the curriculum, providing
meaningful educational activities with appropriate supervision and working cooperatively for a
safer environment or workspace.
An appropriate level of supervision when teaching ITD will depend on the range of equipment
utilised, the number of students involved, their maturity and individual needs and the physical
nature of the particular workplace. Minimum standards have been established for ITD
supervision. Refer to the Curriculum Activity Risk Assessment Guidelines.
Do not forget to consult with all ITD staff, Principals, Special Needs teaching assistants, ITD
teacher aids, trainees and any voluntary staff when formulating your departmental safety
management strategies. Ensure that adequate procedures be developed, implemented,
managed and scrutinised meticulously to ensure that those responsible:
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Can safely deliver any high or extreme risk ITD curriculum activities with evidence of an
appropriately prepared Curriculum Activity Risk Assessment;
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Regularly undertake curriculum activity risk assessments and enforce them rigorously;
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Hold specialist ITD teaching qualifications, and receive adequate health and safety training
and regular ITD Professional Development training – only suitably qualified staff should be
using designated restricted machinery or processes;
Effectively communicate information, policy and procedures to those who need to know –
ensuring all workshop users are aware of the various hazards and understand the
procedures to control the assessed risks;
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Ensure all machinery, plant and equipment is regularly checked, inspected, tagged and
maintained to recognised standards and that good records are kept – all defective
equipment is reported and ensure electrical safety is never compromised;
Work in a positive environment and participate in consultation on all WHS issues;
Ensure all Safety Data Sheet (SDS) information is up-to-date, available, monitored and
followed;
Ensure that issues relating to excessive dust, industrial noise, safety signage etc. are
immediately addressed;
Provide adequate space allocation for fixed machines, benches and tools, project storage
and overall working arrangements;
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Ensure a safe educational environment and provide diligent duty of care and appropriate
levels of supervision during teaching and learning activities;
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Ensure special-needs groups are considered in regard to all WHS issues;
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Ensure the numbers of students working in any particular ITD area contribute to a safe
working environment and do not present an unacceptable risk to health and safety;
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Provide and maintain adequate first aid facilities and provide for effective emergency
management and reporting of all accidents and injuries;
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Take reasonable care of their own health and safety and that of their colleagues and
students;
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 7 of 141
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Do not interfere with, or misuse, resources provided for health, safety and welfare
purposes, and do comply with our new Work Health and Safety Act: 2011 (Qld).
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on the responsibility for the
management of safety in ITD departments of Queensland schools, refer to the following useful
links:

Work Health and Safety Act: 2011 (Qld) (new window) 1.42 MB
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How to Manage WHS Risks – Code of Practice 2011 (new window) 510k

Workplace Health & Safety Queensland – Codes of Practice Index
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DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – “Health & Safety”
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DETE, PPR – “Managing Risks in School Curriculum Activities”
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Safe Work Aust. – Interpretive Guideline “Reasonably Practicable” (new window) 62k
Further Useful Resources:
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Management of Safety in Design & Technology – Checklist.doc (new window) 585k
1.2.2 Legislation and Regulatory Requirements
For the purposes of this ITD Guidelines handbook for teachers, the following list of government
legislation, regulations, policies, procedures and codes of practice requirements are all
important sources of reference.
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1. Education (General Provisions) Act: 2006 (Qld) (new window) 1.46 MB
“An Act about the education of children and the participation of young people in education and
training, and for other purposes”.
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2. Work Health and Safety Act: 2011 Qld) (new window) 1.42 MB
Schools are workplaces and, as such, operate under the Work Health and Safety Act: 2011.
New national legislation sets out legal rules that govern school workplaces to ensure the health,
safety and effective welfare management of employees. The Act defines those with an
obligation to ensure safety.
Note: For this legislation, the term “The Act” is defined to include the regulations unless a
particular provision provides otherwise.
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3. Work Health and Safety Regulation: 2011 (Qld) (new window) 2.7 MB
The Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulation reflects the national model with some changes
which will enable it to operate effectively in Queensland.
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4. DETE, Policy and Procedure Register
DETE Policies outline what the government or department intends to do, through stated plans
of action. DETE Procedures are government policy in action, and they:
• Promote understanding of how the department operates;
• Provide step-by-step processes to follow;
• Present ways to meet mandatory legal obligations;
• Explain staff obligations and responsibilities;
• Focus on how to achieve a constructive outcome or result.
To locate a procedure in this register, click on the relevant category on the orange toolbar or
use the search box located at the top right of the screen. You will find navigational links to six
listed procedural categories. Of particular relevance to ITD staff are the categories:
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‘School Education’ and ‘ Corporate’, refer below:
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 8 of 141
DETE, “School Education” Procedures
The “School Education” category within the register provides guidance in relation to the
operational functions of schools, as well as the services and programs they offer.
Sub-category “School Management” includes the “Managing of Risk in School Curriculum
Activities”.
“Managing Risks in School Community Activities”
This procedure specifically outlines the responsibility regional directors, principals, teachers
and others have in managing the hazards and risks associated with all school curriculum
activities.
The Curriculum Activity Risk Assessment Guidelines describe the scope of specific curriculum
activities, sets minimum standards for supervision and qualifications, suggested risk control
measures and guides staff through the written “Risk Assessment” process. This written
assessment is necessary to help identify, minimise and record any inherent high or extreme
risks and subsequent control measures before the commencement of any proposed ITD
curriculum activity.
“Workplace Health, Safety and Wellbeing” Procedures
The “Corporate – Human Resource Management” category within the register, and more
specifically the “Workplace Health, Safety and Wellbeing” procedures provide guidance to
implement practices which provide safe, supportive and healthy working and learning
environments for DETE workers and other persons involved in DETE activities: e.g. First Aid,
Managing Risks With Chemical, WHS Officers, Incident notification.
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5. How to Manage WHS Risks – Code of Practice 2011 (new window) 510k
This Code of Practice applies to anyone who has a duty of care in the workplace. Health and
safety obligations require duty holders (ITD teachers and administration, or ‘workers’) to
consider all risks associated with work, not only those for which regulations and codes of
practice exist. This Code operates under the national Work Health and Safety Act: 2011 (Qld)
and the Electrical Safety Act: 2002 (the ES Act) to make sure all hazards in the workplace are
eliminated or, at least, minimised to acceptably safe levels.
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6. Electrical Safety Act: 2002 (new window) 886k
The Act imposing obligations on all persons who may affect the electrical safety of others by
their actions and establishes regulatory electrical safety benchmarks for industry and the
community, including schools.
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7. Australian Standards: AS/NZS, 4801: 2001 – OHS Management Systems
“.. organisations (including schools) must develop and implement control actions which,
wherever possible, eliminate hazards or isolate people from the hazard. Where this is not
possible, work activities should be planned or controlled through administrative means to the
extent necessary to prevent injury and illness.”
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on Health and Safety Legislation
and regulatory Codes of Practice for DETE workplaces, refer to the following useful link:
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Workplace Health & Safety Queensland – Codes of Practice Index
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 9 of 141
1.2.3 First Aid Facilities
In compliance with the Work Health and Safety Act: 2011 (Qld), all schools must ensure the
health and safety of staff, students and “others”. This statutory obligation requires Education
Queensland to provide and maintain adequate first aid facilities in schools for the effective
emergency management of accidents and injuries, based on an evaluation of risks and need.
Due to the many hazards and risks associated with the diversity of machinery, tools, materials
and chemical substances used daily in ITD workshops, any injuries sustained have the
potential to be more severe than might result in other subject areas in schools. ITD staff,
therefore, should always be alert to quickly recognise reasonably foreseeable hazards and
appreciate the levels of risk associated with them.
It is important therefore, that managed emergency first aid procedures be established to ensure
that appropriate medical attention can be delivered in a timely manner. It is also recommended
that the ITD department assist the school administration to identify and recommend all first aid
equipment, placement of facilities and any professional staff training required.
Helpful MyHR WHS Staff Training Support Tutorials are available online:

OnePortal – MyHR WPHS Training & Support Tutorials
The best way to be prepared for responding to injuries, accidents and emergency situations in
ITD is to keep an appropriate, well stocked, first aid kit on hand – visible and accessible.
First aid kits should be wall mounted, dust proof, well signed, and contain an appropriate
variety of dressings and bandages depending upon the environment in which they are to be
used. The Queensland Ambulance Service has a number of different first aid kits available for
use in environments ranging from the home, to schools and industrial work sites.
The Queensland Ambulance Service also has a very useful website. Staff can access
numerous health and safety publications, details on first aid training courses available to
teachers and several downloadable resources including some important Emergency First Aid
Hints.
Note: For more information, or further guidance on requirements for First Aid facilities and
Staff training in Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:
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Work Health and Safety Act: 2011 (Qld) (new window) 1.42 MB
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Work Health and Safety Regulation: 2011 (Qld) (new window) 2.7 MB
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WHSQ, First Aid Code of Practice 2004 (new window) 320k
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DETE, Policy and Procedure Register – ‘First Aid’
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DETE, PPR – ‘First Aid Guideline Handbook’
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DETE, CHW – ‘First Aid’
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OnePortal – MyHR WPHS Training & Support Tutorials
Further Useful Resources:
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Emergency Medication Requirements
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Managing Head Injuries
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Infection Control
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Queensland Ambulance Service – First Aid Hints
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Queensland Ambulance Service – First Aids Training Courses
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DETE, Regional Health and Safety Consultants
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 10 of 141
1.2.4 Notification of Accidents, Injuries and Incidents
The notification of accidents, injuries and health and safety incidents is also an important
component in the management of health and safety in schools. DETE has policies and
procedures, in accordance with current legislation, that will provide details of requirements for
the recording, notification and management of accidents and incidents in all DETE workplaces.
The following link provides information on this procedure:

DETE, PPR – “Health & Safety Incident Recording, Notification and Management”
DETE has also prepared for staff an ”Incident Recording & Notification Guideline”, providing
information on the correct notification systems to be used, explanatory flowcharts and
definitions.
Helpful MyHR WHS Staff Training Support Tutorials are also available online:

OnePortal – MyHR WPHS Training & Support Tutorials
The MyHR WHS Solution:
All Education Queensland Schools and Regional Offices that have access to the MyHR WHS
Solution (MyHR WHS) are to record all health and safety incidents in MyHR WHS. If a
“Notifiable” incident occurs then WHSQ must be notified immediately (refer below).
Note: If MyHR WHS is not available, e.g. system outage, school camp, excursion, staff with
limited online access, then you are to complete a paper based Health and Safety Incident Data
Collection Form.
Notifiable Incidents: For example, if a staff member or others sustained a serious injury
whilst undertaking work within the ITD department or if a student suffered a significant injury at
school (requiring them to be absent for 4 days or more) then this incident must be notified, by
the school administration, directly to WHSQ immediately within 24 hours of its occurrence. It is
recommended that workplaces notify WHSQ by phone on 1300 369 915 and then record the
incident in MyHR WHS.
If notification is not made, either by phone call or the standard MyHR Health & Safety Incident –
Data Collection Form, a WHSQ Inspector can issue an Infringement Notice (on-the-spot fine)
for failure to notify of a serious event.
It is very important that all reports of accidents and injuries be investigated by staff, irrespective
of their degree of severity. Immediate interim safety control measures may need to be taken to
help prevent any similar recurrence. Your Curriculum Activity Risk Assessment or, perhaps, a
particular Plant and Equipment Risk Assessment report may also need to be re-evaluated,
modified and re-approved if necessary.
Note: For more information or guidance on requirements for notification of accidents and
incidents in Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, PPR – “Health & Safety Incident Recording, Notification and Management”
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Guideline – Health & Safety Incident Reporting, Notification & Management 42k

OnePortal – MyHR Workplace Health & Safety Fact Sheets
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OnePortal – MyHR WPHS Training & Support Tutorials
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MyHR Health & Safety Incident – Data Collection Form (new window) 240k
Further Useful Resources:

Management of Safety in Design & Technology – Checklist.doc (new window) 585k
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 11 of 141
1.3
Health, Safety and the Law
We are all expected to know the law. In a court of law, ignorance is not accepted as an
excuse. Workplace Health and Safety legislation has gained an increasing profile. Trends in
other parts of the world have resulted in an increase in litigation for negligence which is also
evidenced in Australia. Obviously, it is uncommon for any one person to know and understand
all of the law but it is important for teachers to have a basic understanding.
1.3.1
Statute Law and Common Law
The various Acts and Regulations in relation to an ITD workplace are known as Statute Law.
Such laws enforce rules and regulations imposed as an Act of Parliament. An example of
such a law, and one that we all must abide by is the new “harmonised” National WHS Act,
known as the Work Health and Safety Act: 2011 (Qld). This Act revokes previous state
legislation that we were all familiar with, the Workplace Health and Safety Act: 1995, and
reflects consistent (or harmonised) workplace health and safety laws across all states and
territories of Australia. The main aim of this new national Safety Act is to ensure that
employers and employees can work together to help ensure we remain free from unacceptable
risk of illness or injury created by workplaces and workplace activities.

Work Health and Safety Act: 2011 (Qld) (new window) 1.42 MB

Work Health and Safety Regulation: 2011 (Qld) (new window) 2.7 MB

How to Manage WHS Risks – Code of Practice 2011 (new window) 510k

Workplace Health & Safety Queensland – Codes of Practice Index
Common Law establishes our diligent duty of care while at our place of employment (our
school), i.e. acting in an appropriate manner and taking every care to prevent accidents and
injury to our students, our staff, ourselves and others. It is imposed upon all teachers to
ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that they take precautions to avoid foreseeable
dangers to the students placed in their care. Such reasonable precautions are known as our
statutory duty to take reasonable care, and include the following provisions:

Having a safe place to work, teach and learn;

Identifying hazards and the seriousness of any resulting risks;

Determining appropriate risk management measures;

Ensuring safe, reliable workplace infrastructure, machinery, plant and equipment and
materials;

Providing competent, qualified and well trained staff.
For most ITD curriculum activities in schools there is an increasing inherent potential for
possible harm to students and staff. Consequently ITD teachers today have to be much more
vigilant and hazard aware, more ready to adopt protective and considered control measures
through manageable ITD processes and systems, more persistent in taking precautions and
invoking clear safety rules, and more prepared to proactively intervene to mediate
professionally, knowledgeably and supportively where necessary.
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1.3.2

What is “Reasonably Practicable” ?
Safe Work Aust. – Interpretive Guideline “Reasonably Practicable” (new window) 62k
This information provides some guidance for teachers on the meaning and application of the
concept of ‘reasonably practicable’ defined under the Work Health and Safety Act: 2011.
More information can be found in Section 18 of the Act.
When teachers and school administration ‘workers’ are considering the hazards and risks
associated with the health and safety of themselves, colleagues and students ‘others’, a
number of their obligations under the Act are qualified by the words ‘to take reasonable care’.
This relates to the extent to which schools and teachers must go to meet a legal expectation (or
duty) of what is ‘reasonable’ in a particular situation. These obligations are framed to take
account of the range of circumstances that might apply and to provide the ability to consider all
the relevant factors when determining what it is ‘reasonably practicable’ to do or to expect
any employer to do.
Essentially, ‘reasonably practicable’ means taking into account all relevant matters including:

The likelihood that the risk could result in injury; and

The seriousness of any injury that could result from realisation of the risk; and

The availability, suitability, effectiveness and cost of the measures.
The test for what is ‘reasonable care’ is an objective test. That is, a duty holder is to be judged
by the standard of behaviour expected of a reasonable person in the duty-holder’s position who
is required to comply with the same duty and is:

Committed to providing the highest level of protection for people against risks to their
health and safety; and

Proactive in taking measures to protect the health and safety of people.
Finally, the required standard of care for all teachers and students is ‘to take reasonable care’
for their self and others and to comply with reasonable directions and instructions as well as
cooperate with any reasonable policy or procedure of the Department of Education. The term
‘to take reasonable care’ is not defined in the WHS Act: 2011 but rather will be determined by a
court under common law.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on Health, Safety and the Law in
Queensland Schools, refer to the following useful links:

Work Health and Safety Act: 2011 (Qld) (new window) 1.42 MB

Work Health and Safety Regulation: 2011 (Qld) (new window) 2.7 MB

Workplace Health & Safety Queensland – Codes of Practice Index

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – Health & Safety

DETE, PPR – “Managing Risks in School Curriculum Activities”
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1.3.3
Workplace Health and Safety School Inspectors
Workplace Health and Safety Queensland (WHSQ) inspectors monitor compliance with WHS
legislation. They also provide information and expert advice on WHS issues in the workplace.
WHSQ workplace inspectors may:

Investigate workplace incidents;


Investigate reports of unsafe or unhealthy conditions and hazardous work practices;
Assess workplace health and safety risks to teachers and students;

Conduct workplace health and safety inspections and audits;

Provide information and guidelines on legislation.
Advance notice is not usually provided prior to a visit to a school. This is to ensure that the
inspector can observe normal activities and procedures. Where advance notice is provided,
schools should consult with their local or regional workplace health and safety consultant for
advice about the pending inspection or audit. Schools should provide every assistance as
requested. This could include the following:

Notifying your EQ Regional WHS Consultant of the presence of a WHSQ workplace
inspector at the school and invite them to assist with issues raised during the visit;

Providing all documents as requested;

Answering questions and providing information;

Providing convenient access to staff and students for interviews;

Allowing access to workshops, machinery and computers including all files and records.
It is an offence to obstruct, threaten or interfere with a WHSQ workplace inspector. A WHSQ
workplace inspector may take enforcement action during or after their visit, including:

Providing general guidelines and advice on health and safety issues;

Giving verbal directions;
Issuing Provisional Improvement Notices (PIN’s), machinery ‘lock-out’ notices, prohibition
notices, dangerous goods directions, electrical safety protection notices or on-the-spot
infringement notices;
Cancel or suspend licences, approvals, certifications and authorisations.


Note: For more information and guidance on WHSQ workplace Inspectors and School Safety
Audits, refer to the following useful links:

Workplace Health & Safety Queensland (WHSQ) – Workplace Inspectors

DETE, Regional Senior Workplace Health & Safety Consultants

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – Managing Health & Safety
Further Useful Resources:

DETE, “WHSQ Inspectors School Visits” – Fact Sheet (new window) 124k

WHSQ – Who are WHSQ Workplace Inspectors ?

What happens during a WHSQ Workplace Inspection or School Safety Audit ?
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1.3.4
School Based Workplace Health and Safety Officers – WHSOs and HSRs
School based Workplace Health and Safety Officers (WHSO) and Health and Safety
Representatives (HRS) play an important role in the department‘s commitment to maintaining
and monitoring health and safety in our schools. Workplace Health and Safety Officer‘s advise
management (administration) on the health and safety aspects at schools. They must assist
principals with their responsibilities under legislation. The ability for a WHSO to perform their
responsibilities listed below will depend upon the level of support they are afforded.


A qualified WHSO must undertake prescribed training;
The function of a WHSO is briefly summarised by the following ...
o
Conduct an Annual Workplace Assessment (audit) to identify any hazards and unsafe
or unsatisfactory WHS conditions or activity practices throughout the school every 12
months; ITD departments, as a work environment in a school, should be inspected
during the audit to determine if all workshop spaces are free of hazardous conditions.
WHSO consultation with ITD HODs and staff is always critical. They will probably know
of any existing problems and how to rectify them quickly;
Record and report the assessment results to the Principal and WHS Committee;
Make recommendations to rectify any identified hazards – then all records are to be
retained by the Principal (School) for 5 years;
The Principal also has a range of responsibilities to ensure the WHSO can fulfil their functions;
o
o


The Principal, as manager, must ensure an Annual Safety Assessment process is
completed every year and all priority issues and strategies are noted in the school Action
Plan - the WHSO audit findings must also be incorporated into the school’s Annual
Operational Plan;
The appointment of a WHSO does not, in any way, diminish the WHS obligations of the
Principal, Deputies, HODs or ITD staff.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on WHSOs in Queensland
schools, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, Policy and Procedure – Workplace Health & Safety Officers (WHSO)

DETE, WHSO Information Checklist – Fact Sheet (new window) 108k

DETE, Health & Safety Representative Checklist – Fact Sheet (new window) 106k

DETE, Regional Workplace Health & Safety Consultants
DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – “Annual Assessment”
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1.4
Qualifications and Requirements for ITD Teachers and Staff
1.4.1
Classroom Teachers
To be eligible for employment as an ITD teacher in Queensland, you must have successfully
completed a qualification accepted for teacher registration by the Queensland College of
Teachers, such as:
•
A course of preservice teacher education consisting of at least four years of academic
study, including professional studies that are at least one year of academic study;
•
A graduate course of preservice teacher education consisting of professional studies that
are at least one year of academic study; or
Another course of teacher education, provided by a higher education institution, that the
College is satisfied is the equivalent of a course mentioned above.
•
Some common graduate and postgraduate teacher education qualifications include:





Bachelor of Education – Secondary (Qld.) (completing ITD, Graphics or both as specialist
teaching areas)
Graduate Diploma of Education – Secondary (Qld.)
Graduate Certificate in Industrial Technology and Design – Secondary (Qld.)
Bachelor of Adult and Vocational Education (Qld.)
Graduate Certificate in Industrial Technology and Design (for DETE Qld. scholarship
holders)
ITD teachers are normally required to be skilled in the full range of subjects within the
parameters of woodwork, metalwork, design technology, computer graphics, engineering and
construction. However depending on the qualifications and training of the staff member, it is
possible to focus on one specific subject, i.e. Computer-aided Design and Drafting (CADD)
rather than Technology Studies or Vocational Education and Training (VET).
For more information, or if further guidance is required about ITD teacher education
qualifications available specifically through Griffith University:

Griffith University – Programs & Courses in Design & Technology
Minimum Qualifications Required for Practical Activity Supervisors:
When teachers undertake to submit a Curriculum Activity Risk Assessment report, they are
required to list the qualifications held by all ITD staff involved in the delivery of that activity. The
minimum qualification requirements are:


A registered ITD teacher demonstrating experience and competency, (i.e. staff profile); or
A registered teacher with additional training in a course where working in an ITD practical
workspace was part of that course.
A registered teacher could demonstrate their competency to conduct an ITD curriculum activity
to the person approving the Curriculum Activity Risk Assessment through their:
o
o
o
o
Knowledge of the particular activity and the associated hazards and inherent risks;
Experience (i.e. previous involvement) in undertaking the activity;
Demonstrated ability and / or expertise to undertake the activity;
Possession of qualifications related to the activity.
Note: A leader other than a registered teacher (e.g. a visiting trade specialist) with formal trade
qualifications and experience in a trade appropriate to a specific ITD practical activity, including
VET, may participate only in the presence of a registered ITD teacher.

Blue Card (working with children check) requirements must be adhered to;
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1.4.2
Vocational Education and Training (VET) Teachers
Most Queensland secondary schools offer VET certificates within the Australian Qualifications
Framework, Australia's system of nationally accredited vocational education and training. This
structure, including the work of RTOs, is regulated by two sets of national standards:
•
The Australian Quality Training Framework (AQTF)
•
The legislative instruments established under the National VET Regulator (NVR) Act: 2011.
Schools generally offer VET at Certificate I and II levels, however some schools also offer
Certificate III qualifications. Schools wishing to offer VET subjects are required to register
through the Queensland Studies Authority (QSA) using the registration form provided on the
QSA website. The QSA, as a delegate of the Training and Employment Recognition Council
(TERC), can register schools to deliver and assess vocational training for students in Years 10,
11 and 12. If the school meets the necessary registration requirements and Australian Quality
Training Framework (AQTF) standards, the school will become a Registered Training
Organisation (RTO) and have a ‘Scope of Registration’ to deliver VET to a certain level within
that particular industry area.
VET in Year 10:
For information about delivering VET at the Year 10 level, see the QSA Year 10 Guidelines.
VET information is in Part 2: Learning options and advice.
VET in Years 11–12:
Schools can offer VET through:
•
Authority subjects with embedded VET, and some Authority-registered subjects. For a list
of syllabuses and study area specifications (SASs) offering VET certificates, refer to the
QSA – supported VET qualifications for further details.
•
Stand-alone AQF qualifications. The training.gov.au website has a database of all
available training packages and their associated AQF qualifications.
•
Students may also access other qualifications through TAFE and private VET providers.
VET and the Queensland Certificate of Education (QCE):
VET certificates can provide credits towards a QCE. Refer to the QCE Learning Options and
Requirements for further details.
VET Teacher Qualifications and Requirements – Frequently Asked Questions:
ITD teachers wishing to participate in a school-based VET program need to meet several
regulatory requirements, qualifications and standards. The most commonly asked questions
are answered below.
1. I am a registered ITD teacher. Does this mean I can teach VET?
The requirements for teaching VET are national requirements, and are different from those for
Queensland teacher registration. To teach VET you must meet the requirements of Standard
1, Element 1.4 of the AQTF Essential Conditions and Standards for Registration.
2. What is "vocational competency"?
Vocational competency is defined as broad industry knowledge and experience, usually
combined with a relevant industry qualification. The new Standards for NVR Registered
Training Organisations, 2011 provides this definition as well as explanatory notes:
“ A person who has vocational competency will be familiar with the content of the vocation and
will have relevant current experience in the industry. Vocational competencies must be
considered on an industry-by-industry basis and with reference to the guidance provided in the
Assessment Guidelines of the relevant Training Package.”
Where teachers, trainers and assessors demonstrate equivalent competency, there must be a
clear and verified relationship between the teachers formal and/or informal training and
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experience, and each of the units delivered or assessed. Contact the relevant Industry Skills
Council for further information.
3. What are "vocational currency" and "training and assessment currency"?
These refer to the need for teachers to continue developing their vocational competencies and
their training and assessment competencies, which are part of new Standards for NVR
Registered Training Organisations, 2011. There must be a clear and verified relationship
between the trainers' and assessors' experience, and each of the units delivered or assessed in
schools.
4. What is the QSA Staff Profile Form?

QSA Generic Staff Profile Form Template (new window) 100k
This staff profile form should be completed by each teacher or person involved in the delivery
and assessment of the National Training Package qualifications or accredited Vocational
Education and Training courses. It can be kept as either a hard or electronic copy. The profile
was developed by the QSA for Queensland schools and is a sample only. Any other profile or
documentation that meets current NVR Standards can be used. Kept with this profile should be
copies of teacher qualifications and results, as well as any other relevant documentation re
qualifications and industry currency.
5. Do I have to do industry placement, and if so, how many days?
There is no simple answer to this question. All teachers, trainers and assessors must be able
to demonstrate current industry skills as well as continue to develop their industry currency as
part of the new Standards for NVR Registered Training Organisations, 2011. The requirements
will vary from person to person, depending on their experiences in the particular industry.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on Vocational Education and
Training (VET) in Queensland Schools, the Queensland Studies Authority (QSA) and Industry
Skill requirements, refer to the following useful links:

National VET Regulator (NVR) Act: 2011

Standards for NVR Registered Training Organisations - 2011

WPHS Queensland – Registered Training Organisation (RTO)

Queensland Studies Authority (QSA) – Vocational Education & Training Information

Queensland Studies Authority (QSA) – VET News & Frequently Asked Questions

DETE, Senior Education & Training Pathways In Queensland – “VET in Schools”
1.4.3 Conditions of Employment for Substitute ITD Teachers
Substitute or relief teachers are employed under the Teacher Relief Scheme (TRS) on a day to
day basis to replace teachers who are absent for less than five (5) consecutive days.
Industrial Technology and Design (ITD) is a specialised teaching faculty and requires that
their substitute or relief teachers be suitably qualified if they are to instruct, or supervise
practical ITD activities. Most practical ITD curriculum activities in schools pose increased
potential for possible harm to students. Therefore ITD teachers, substitute or otherwise, have
to be vigilant and hazard aware, take precautions and invoke safety rules, be ready to install
protective measures and systems and be ready to intervene and mediate. It is incumbent upon
school administrators to consider these requirements when engaging any substitute, casual or
contract staff for ITD vacancies.

DETE, PPR – “Management of the Teacher Relief Scheme” (TRS)
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1.4.4 ITD Teachers Aide Qualifications and Responsibilities
Teacher aides support teaching and learning in Education Queensland schools. The ordinary
hours of work for an ITD teacher aide will vary enormously depending on the school and its
size. Regular contact time can vary from 5 to 25 hours per week.
ITD teacher aides are also entitled to a meal break of 30 minutes (unpaid) if they work in
excess of 5 hours on any day. There are no set uniform requirements however employees are
required to wear protective clothing suitable for working in a workshop environment and are
required to wear enclosed footwear at all times. Naturally, ITD teacher aides are also expected
to wear all mandatory and appropriate PPE including vision and hearing protection.
Regular obligations and responsibilities: ITD teacher aide responsibilities might include:

Room and Activity setup: setting up of practical workshops and classrooms prior to a
demonstration lesson by ITD teachers;

Stock Control: monitor the quantities of equipment, materials and supplies in the ITD
department and advise the HOD or Subject Coordinator when purchases are required. The
Teacher Aide should do a stock-take once every three months of items such as wood,
metal, hand tools and electrical equipment. They may also unpack deliveries of equipment
and materials into appropriate storage facilities. Additionally, the Teacher Aide may be
required to monitor all ITD electrical and mechanical equipment to ensure they adhere to
annual or bi-annual “testing & tagging”, etc.

Material Preparation: preparation of all materials for curriculum projects as requested by
ITD teachers. This will usually require operating ITD plant and equipment such as a table
saw, band saw, thicknesser and a docking (mitre) saw.

Maintenance: responsibility for ensuring the maintenance of equipment, tools, and
machinery at regular intervals or engaging the appropriate external tradespersons, e.g. a
qualified electrician. Maintenance may be undertaken with the ITD teacher if more than
one person is required. This may involve operating ITD plant and equipment, performing
simple welding tasks and undertaking minor departmental maintenance.

Administration: provide administrative assistance to ITD teachers as requested. This
may include photo-copying information sheets for classes, conducting departmental
stocktaking and keeping machinery maintenance records, phoning trades’ people and
assisting with quotes for repairs.

Basic Cleaning and Housekeeping: This may involve emptying bins and dust filter
collection bags, clearing unused materials, putting away hand tools and equipment,
replenishing material supplies, and moving mechanical equipment between workshops as
required. Cleaning should NOT include the duties of contract cleaners employed by the
school to undertake regular daily cleaning tasks such as vacuuming, mopping of floors and
cleaning windows.
There are no mandatory certificates or licences required to perform basic wood and metal
machining or welding tasks for maintenance purposes in Queensland schools.
All ITD machinery, plant and equipment is potentially hazardous, particularly welding, and
misuse can lead to catastrophic consequences. To demonstrate a minimum standard of
competency, it is recommended that all ITD Teacher’s Aides receive some technical training on
standard ITD plant and equipment and expected related maintenance tasks.
Training designed to provide such basic skills in welding, soldering, hand tools and the use of
some workshop machinery is desirable. It is encouraged that the following training courses, or
equivalents, should be considered – See below:
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MEM13014A
Appling principles of occupational health and safety in the work environment
This unit covers adherence to occupational health and safety procedures in an
engineering or similar work environment.
MEM14004A
Planning to undertake a routine task
This unit covers a person planning their own work where tasks involve one or more
steps or functions and are carried out routinely on a regular basis. It includes the
concepts of following routine instructions, specifications and requirements.
MEM15024A
Appling quality procedures
This unit covers applying established quality procedures to an employee's own work
within a manufacturing, engineering or related environment.
MEM16006A
Organising and communicating information
This unit covers accessing, organising and communicating information related to
processes or tasks.
MEM16007A
Working with others in a manufacturing, engineering or related environment
This unit covers operating in an interactive work environment. It covers contribution to a
group effort in order to plan and carry out work. This includes identification of work
roles, communication and cooperation with others.
Note: It is important that ITD Teachers Aides understand the type of welding tasks they are
able to undertake. Extensive experience and full qualifications are required to undertake tasks
known as ‘structural welding’. ITD Teachers Aides and Schools Officers must not be expected
nor encouraged to undertake any structural welding under any circumstances unless they can
demonstrate evidence of both the extensive experience and skill levels and carry the necessary
up to date trade qualifications.
ITD Teachers Aides may at times also be asked to undertake work around the department
considered to be general building and construction work. Under the national Work Health and
Safety Act: 2011, it is recommended that they complete the “Work Safely in The Construction
Industry - White Card” training to provide them with some basic knowledge and understanding
of general construction work hazards and risk controls measures.
CPCCOHS1001A - Work Safely in the Construction Industry "White Card" has replaced
30215QLD - Course in General Safety Induction (Construction Industry) "Blue Card".

Workplace Health & Safety Queensland – General Construction Induction Cards

White Card Online – Construction Industry Training, Registration & Course Details

White Card Online – Keys Human Resources Training, Registration & Course Details
Note: For more information and guidance relating to ITD Teacher Aides in Queensland
Schools refer to the following link:

DETE, PPR – “Management of Teacher Aide Hours”
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1.5 Student Induction to Workplace Safety and Training
Student safety preparation, induction and Safe Operation Procedures (SOPs) training must be
designed to promote student awareness of workplace safety and educate them about the
policies and procedures in ITD designed to make practical activities a safe learning experience.
1.5.1
“Introduction to Workplace Safety” – A Student Handbook
With any introductory workshop safety program, some points to remember:




Safety videos, theory tests, procedural practical demonstrations, information lectures or the
issuing of “machinery competency licensing” should never substitute for a comprehensive
and specific introduction to each and every new practical activity, plant and equipment and
machine or operational process as they present themselves;
Because of the number of different machines and the number of students involved, tests,
of necessity, should be positive, simple and as brief as possible. They could be written or
oral in style, or a combinations of these;
The first occasion a student controls and operates any ITD machinery, plant or equipment
must be under the direct supervision of a qualified ITD teacher. At this time the student
should demonstrate orally and practically that the safe and proper methods of control and
operation are clearly understood;
It is incumbent upon all ITD teachers to rigorously promote regular and ongoing
reinforcement regarding student compliance with workshop safety rules and all specific
PPE requirements.
Workshop safety induction booklets or worksheets for students should highlight and reinforce
the following:
•
•
•
•
•
How the national Work Health and Safety Act: 2011 regulates and mandates the
curriculum content and the practical activity delivery process;
The dangers, safety hazards, inherent risks and preventative control measures commonly
encountered in normal ITD workspaces;
The importance of Safe Operating Procedures (SOPs) of all machinery;
The importance of appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE);
The importance of departmental workspace safety rules and consequences.
1.5.2
Student “Safety Induction” Register
It is important to remember that a process of permanently recording a student’s active
participation in an introductory workshop safety induction program must be established in all
ITD departments. Data gathered should accurately document individual student readiness and
understanding of practical workshop activities and should be a measure of workplace
awareness, confidence and operational proficiency.
Such a register, when completed effectively, should be collated by student name, date and
particular process, for all your ITD “Workplace Safety Induction Procedures”, and whether the
processes were demonstrated, observed or evaluated by the ITD class teacher. In summary, a
typical safety induction register might include the following content:
•
The successful completion of an appropriate “Introduction to Workshop Safety” handbook
or worksheets (or similar) by each student at the commencement of each year level, plus a
task-specific similar exercise based upon the introduction of new materials, machinery and
processes as they present themselves;
•
The results of any verbal or written analysis (tests) relating to safety when using materials
or machinery, etc;
•
Details and dates of all class group discussions and demonstrations on workplace safety,
materials, machinery and processes;
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•
•
Individual teacher observations of student participation, safety awareness and outcomes;
Machinery and equipment proficiency testing or “Safe Operational Machinery Licensing” of
individual students.
Student “Workplace Safety Induction” registry data should be regularly monitored by HODs and
retained by each school for their continuing students.
Note: Several schools are currently utilising the services of an approved private provider –
®
“OnGuard Safety Training ”, to help manage their student record keeping requirements for
“Workplace Health and Safety Training and Induction”.
DETE is currently developing an online computer based register (possibly
accessible through the OneSchool website) for the recording, collating, storing and
sharing state-wide of individual ITD student “Workplace Safety Induction”
participation data. Schools will be advised when this product becomes available.
Operational & Safety Procedures Poster:
For machinery, plant and equipment, students must demonstrate knowledge, understanding
and competent application of operational and safety procedures before being permitted to use
a particular machine. Below is an operational and safety procedures competency poster that
could be displayed in all practical workspaces. This is a reminder to students NOT to be
tempted to operate machinery and equipment in any ITD workplace unless they have been
assessed as competent to do so.
DO NOT OPERATE THIS MACHINE
unless you have demonstrated competence to your ITD teacher




Correct method of starting and stopping the machine;
Knowledge of the location and use of all other controls;
Correct method of operating the machine;
Knowledge of potential hazards when using the machine;





Correct use and adjustment of guards and safety devices;
Recognising equipment faults or malfunctions that may cause harm;
Emergency action in case of a malfunction or injury;
Intended use of the machine and practices to be avoided;
Knowledge of protective clothing and equipment that must be worn.
Industrial Technology and Design Department
Example State High School
Mr I. M. Allthumbs, Head of Dept.
January, 2012
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1.5.3
A Message to Parents, and Student Safety Contracts
A well prepared “Introduction to Workplace Safety” booklet for students (or a similar folder of
worksheets) will also encourage parents to become involved by keeping them up to date with
ITD WHS policies and procedures. A formal introductory message to parents could be
incorporated into the student safety booklet and might include such information as:
EXAMPLE STATE HIGH SCHOOL
Industrial Technology & Design Department
A MESSAGE TO PARENTS
Dear Parents of ITD Students,
To ensure the quality of safety education in the Industrial Technology & Design Department (ITD) at
Example High School we have implemented WHS procedures that are linked closely to those of
Industry practices.
My letter to you today includes important workplace safety information that you and ITD students
need to be aware of. Please take the time to read it.
Under the national Work Health and Safety Act: 2011, both teachers and students have obligations.
Teachers are obligated to provide students with a WHS “Introduction to Workplace Safety” program,
followed by informed instruction, workshop demonstrations and close supervision of safe working
practices within all ITD practical workspaces.
It is extremely important for parents to be aware of their child’s obligations to also be safe
around themselves and others. Failure of students to comply unfortunately means that they
may be excluded from the ITD practical workshop environment for a time.
Example SHS cannot allow any student who demonstrates the potential to injure themselves or others
to actively participate in workshops. Our ITD staff take extreme precautions to create the safest
possible environment for all students. This Introduction to Workplace Safety booklet forms part of
that process.
The ITD department has developed several workshop safety rules and a range of consequences for
breaches of these rules. A laminated poster listing our safety rules and their consequences are
displayed in each classroom. Teacher instruction is provided to all students regarding our safe
working environment and our culture of safety. Students should become very familiar with their
obligations regarding safety in ITD.
CONSEQUENCES FOR SAFETY BREACHES
Depending upon the type and severity of the safety breach, consequences may include:
 A verbal warning: Verbal warnings for minor breaches entails the teacher explaining to the
student how they failed to meet their obligations;
 Writing out the guidelines for safety and behaviour in ITD;
 The teacher will contact parents either by phone, or in writing which will require a parents
signature for acknowledgement;
 The student may be required to complete a re-training program before returning to a workshop;
 The student may be prohibited from using workshop facilities for a period of time determined by
the subject coordinator or Head of Department;
 The student may be prohibited from using practical ITD workshop facilities indefinitely at
Example SHS. Subject transfer arrangements would then need to be negotiated.
Finally, it is important to point out that students are required to complete a number of practical
exercises for assessment and once completed they are permitted to take these items home.
Parents and students need to be aware that these products are a result of an assessment exercise
only. They do not and are never intended to conform to Australian Standards and therefore
should only be used with due care and consideration.
Should you have any further questions, we invite you to contact the school or the ITD Head of Dept.
Yours Sincerely.
_________________________
Head of Department, ITD
Mr Allthumbs
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
_________________________
Principal
Mr Niceguy
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 23 of 141
Student Safety Contracts:
A contract is an agreement between two parties. Some schools have introduced three-way
student safety contract documents between teacher, student and parents/guardians. Such a
contract states a number of requirements agreed to between student and teacher and is to be
signed by the student and that student’s parent or guardian, signifying that they have each read
and understood the safety contract conditions.
Note: The example shown below has no legal bearing and is nothing more than a mechanism
by which teachers can exercise their diligent duty of care thus ensuring that appropriate WHS
information is seen to be provided for all students. Most parents or guardians should welcome
the opportunity to share in the ITD student safety induction process, acknowledging the fact
that they too have an obligation and a responsibility for ensuring safety at school and thus offer
their pledge to help the school to provide ‘good practice’ duty of care.
EXAMPLE STATE HIGH SCHOOL
Industrial Technology & Design Department
WORKSHOP SAFETY RULES









Students must complete their Safety Induction Booklet before being authorised to take part in
practical lessons in the workshop.
Students are to use only those tools and machinery that they have been taught to use by their
teacher and, where applicable, only when they have been certified as being competent in their
use.
All tools and machinery are to be used correctly at all times.
Workshop dress rules must be complied with at all times in the workshop. These rules are
outlined in the students' Safety Induction Booklet.
Sensible and safe behaviour is to be observed at all times.
Appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) is to be worn at all times whenever in ITD
workspaces. Strong, protective footwear covering the entire foot and safety glasses are
considered the minimum requirement for any ITD practical workspace activity.
Overalls and reinforced (steel-toe) safety boots are considered minimum requirements for
engineering, metal fabrication and welding students.
When machinery, plant and equipment are being used, students are to maintain a safe distance
from the operator and not attempt to distract them in any way.
Students are to remain outside the yellow safety lines unless they are using the machine.
___________________________________________________________________________
STUDENT SAFETY CONTRACT
I _____________________________________________(student) have read and understood
the workshop safety rules and I agree to abide by them to the best of my ability. I am aware
that if I breach these regulations I could be excluded from all ITD practical workshops for the
safety of myself and others.
Student’s Signature: _____________________________________
Date:
/
/
I _____________________________________________(parent/guardian) have read and
understood the workshop safety rules and agree to the enforcement of them for my child’s
safety. I am aware that if my child breaches the rules, my child could be excluded from all
ITD practical workshops due to the danger they pose to themselves and others.
Parent’s Signature: _______________________________________
Date:
/
/
Note: This Safety Contract will be retained on file at the School for a period of one (1) Year.
Please return completed, signed and dated, to your ITD teacher ASAP.
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 24 of 141
An Obligation Agreement:
This is another form of safety contract often adopted by schools that is an excellent way for ITD
teachers to make sure that all parents are adequately informed and are fully aware of the
responsibilities of their child undertaking ITD as a course of study conducted through the ITD
facilities at your school. The content of the agreement should ask all students and their parents
to acknowledge that they too have an obligation and a responsibility for ensuring safety at
school and help provide ‘good practice’ duty of care for students. The agreement document
would usually be included in the Student Safety Induction Handbook issued to each student of
each year level at the start of a new school semester or school year.
Note: As with the Student Safety Contract, again, this type of document has no legal bearing
and is nothing more than a mechanism by which teachers can exercise their diligent duty of
care thus ensuring that appropriate WHS information is seen to be provided for all students.
Most parents or guardians should welcome the opportunity to share in the ITD student safety
induction process, acknowledging the fact that they too have an obligation and a responsibility
for ensuring safety at school and thus offer their “pledge” to help the school to provide ‘good
practice’ duty of care for our students in IDT.
EXAMPLE STATE HIGH SCHOOL
Industrial Technology & Design Department
OBLIGATION AGREEMENT
The majority of accidents in a workplace are caused by human factors. Students will need to show a
mature attitude and display safe working practices at all times.
Student Name : ___________________________________________
of Class : _____________
I have read and understand the ITD safety procedures and I will endeavour to carry them out at all
times. I will follow my teachers’ instructions and will always wear the correct safety footwear and
safety glasses in practical workshop lessons. Failure to do so may deny me the use of workshop
facilities.
Note: In ITD, students are required to complete a number of practical exercises for assessment. Once
completed and subject levies are paid, students are permitted to take these items home. Parents and
students need to be aware that these products are a result of an assessment exercise only. They do not
and were never intended to conform to Australian Standards and should only be used with due care and
consideration.
Student’s Signature: ________________________________________
Date:
/
/
Parent’s Signature (as an acknowledgement): _________________________________________
Date:
/
/
Note: This agreement will be retained on file at the School for a period of one (1) Year.
Please return completed, signed and dated, to your ITD teacher ASAP.
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 25 of 141
Parental Consent Form – for High & Extreme Risk Activities:
As a requirement of our risk assessment processes in ITD, it is recommended for risks
designated HIGH, and required (mandated) for risks designated EXTREME, that schools first
obtain additional parental consent, including all relevant medical information for individual
students, before permitting them to participate in these activities.
The following is an example of a “Parental Permission or Consent Form” designed to assist
schools in their planning for High and Extreme risk activities. This is an excellent way for ITD
staff to ensure that all parents are adequately informed and are fully aware of their child’s
undertakings in ITD curriculum activity programs at your school.
This document could also be included in the Student Safety Induction Handbook issued to each
student of each year level at the start of a new school semester or school year.
PARENTAL CONSENT FORM – 2013
Dear Parent / Caregiver
Your child has elected to undertake study in at least one of the ITD Faculty practical subjects offered at
Example State Hugh School for 2013. These courses require the students to be instructed on the use of a
variety of materials and equipment in the production of their work. A number of typical resources and
processes have been designated by Education Queensland to have a potential high or extreme risk of injury
associated with their use.
As a requirement of our risk assessment process, it is recommended for risks designated HIGH, and required
for risks designated EXTREME, that the school obtain additional parental consent, including relevant
medical information for students, before permitting them to use the ITD resources indicated below.
High Risk: Oxy, MIG, TIG Welder, Metal & Wood Lathes, Bandsaw, Cold Saw, Power Hacksaw, Wall
Saw, Circular Saw, Angle Grinders, Plunge Routers, Table Router, Electric Plane, Guillotine & Nailing Gun.
Extreme Risk: Thickness, Spindle Moulder, Surface Planer, Compound Mitre (Drop) Saw, Table Saw,
Radial Arm Saw, Metal Cutting Bandsaw, Metal Cut-off Saw.
Possible Exposure to: Toxic Timbers & Wood Dusts including MDF & Formaldehyde, Plastics, Spray
Painting Lacquers, Thinners & Solvents, Fiberglass & Resins, Oils, Compressed Air & Pneumatic Tools.
Students may choose not to use equipment they do not feel confident with. Similarly, students who do not
demonstrate appropriate maturity or fail to complete safe operational training will be restricted in their use.
ITD Subjects most likely to be utilising some or all of these resources and processes during 2013 are:
Years 10, 11 & 12 – Cert 1. Engineering, Cert 1. Construction, Furnishing Studies, Technology Studies.
Years 8 & 9 – Note: Junior practical workshop curriculum activities are designed to a modified structure,
thus minimising exposure to all high and extreme risk plant & machinery. Students are, however, still likely
to be exposed to some atmospheric wood dusts, lacquers, solvents and various plastics materials.
If you wish your child to participate in their selected ITD subject, utilising the resources as identified, please
complete the consent details on the form below.
NOTE: Should you require any further information, please contact the school on 07 31234567.
________________________________________________________________________
I understand my son/daughter ___________________________________ is undertaking practical
subjects which may involve the use of specific ITD machinery, power tools or processes designated
by DETE as High or Extreme risk.
I DO / DO NOT give permission for my child to use processes designated HIGH risk.
I DO / DO NOT give permission for my child to use processes designated EXTREME risk.
Please discuss any of your child’s medical conditions you feel may be relevant, and indicate how they
may affect your child’s ability to use any particular machine, power tool or ITD manufacturing process.
Condition: ______________________________ Effect: _____________________________________
Condition: ______________________________ Effect: _____________________________________
Parent’s Signature: ________________________________
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Date:
/
/
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 26 of 141
2.
RISK MANAGEMENT
Ensuring safety is achieved through effective risk management. This is, of course, a significant
part of our core business. It is important, therefore, that all teachers with responsibilities for the
planning and implementation of curriculum activities have a clear understanding of the risk
management process and how it can be applied to safely manage the activities we undertake
with students.
2.1
Risk Management Guidelines
The resources in this section have been developed to support ITD staff in schools meet their
responsibilities with confidence. They have been designed to provide teachers with information
and tools needed to help identify a variety of ITD workplace hazards and how to manage
exposure to the risks associated with those hazards or potentially hazardous situations. The
DETE website, ‘‘Creating Healthier Workplaces – Health & Safety” provides information,
guidelines and advice to schools on aspects of WHS including risk management, risk
assessment guidelines, policies and procedures, and hazard alerts. WPHS Officers within
schools and Regional WHS Officers can also assist staff with the risk management and risk
assessment process.
“The Department of Education, Training and Employment is committed to the health, safety
and well-being of students, staff and others involved in all curriculum activities conducted at
schools or other locations. This requires all schools to proactively manage all aspects of risk
for curriculum activities with consideration of learning outcomes and the safety and well-being
of all participants.”
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on risk management guidelines
and advice for Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

Work Health and Safety Act: 2011 (Qld) (new window) 1.42 MB

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – Health & Safety

DETE, PPR – “Managing Risks in School Curriculum Activities”

DETE, Workplace Health & Safety Staff Contact Details

How to Manage WHS Risks – Code of Practice 2011 (new window) 510k

Australian Standards: AS/NZS, 4801: 2001 – OHS Management Systems
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 27 of 141
2.1.1 Risk Management Overview
It is essential to have an effective process in place for the good management of ITD workplace
hazards and inherent risks because ignorance or disregard will predictably result in injury or
illness with possible severe repercussions for any ITD staff, students and others associated
with this instructive, practical educational environment.
Effective risk management starts with a commitment to health and safety. When considering
risk management across ITD activities, the following guidance is provided:

An explanation of the “Risk Management Process”;

Links to DETE risk management policies and procedures;
Tools to assist ITD staff with the complete departmental risk management process;

The national Work Health and Safety Act: 2011 (Qld) describes the risk management process
as involving some rather basic principles:

The early awareness and identification of potentially hazardous workplace situations;

Judging how dangerous these hazards might be, and assessing any perceived risks;

Doing something about it, by way of making decisions on, and then ...;

implementing adequate control measures;

Finally, the regular monitoring or review of your control measures to make sure that they
are effective into the future, and that any identified risks are eliminated or at least,
managed.
Risk management, in the simplest terms, is a structured and systematic approach to decision
making for a range of issues including health and safety management. Once a hazard has
been identified, a series of four (4) steps has to be followed – called the Risk Management
process.
The Risk Management Process
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 28 of 141
2.1.2 Risk Management Code of Practice
The Workplace Health and Safety Queensland risk management code of practice defines and
explains the recommended four step risk management process that teachers and leaders in
schools (Principals) are required to follow. This code commenced on 1 January 2012.

How to Manage WHS Risks – Code of Practice 2011 (new window) 510k
The Code operates under the national Work Health and Safety Act: 2011 (Qld) and the
Electrical Safety Act: 2002 (the ES Act) to help ensure all hazards or potentially hazardous
situations in the workplace are eliminated or, at least, minimised to safe levels.
ITD teachers are required to apply this process, in accordance with DETE Policy and
Procedure “Managing Risks in School Curriculum Activities”, for the range of practical
curriculum activities that occur in their department. The level of complexity of the process and
subsequent documentation required will depend on the assessed risks levels of the proposed
activity.

Work Health and Safety Act: 2011 (Qld) (new window) 1.42 MB

Electrical Safety Act: 2002 (new window) 885.3k
The Meaning of Key Terms in Risk Management:

Hazard – means a situation or thing that has the potential to harm a person. Hazards at
work may include: noisy machinery, a moving forklift, chemicals, electricity, working at
heights, a repetitive job, bullying and violence at the workplace – or simply, anything that
could hurt you or someone else.

Hazard Identification – means the process of recognising that a hazard exists and
defining its characteristics.

Risk – means the possibility that harm (death, injury or illness) might occur when
exposed to a hazard.... the likelihood and consequence of that injury or harm occurring –
or, working out how likely it is that the hazard will hurt someone and how badly they could
get hurt.

Risk Assessment – means the overall process of estimating or minimising the level of
risk and deciding what actions will be taken.

Risk Control – means taking action to eliminate health and safety risks so far as is
reasonably practicable, and if that is not possible, minimising the risks so far as is
reasonably practicable. Eliminating a hazard will also eliminate any risks associated with
that hazard.

Control Measures – means that part of risk management which involves the
implementation of policies, standards, procedures and physical changes to eliminate or
minimise adverse risks.

Monitor and Review – This is an essential step in the risk management process. It
means that hazardous situations must be continually re-evaluated to establish the
effectiveness of any control measures and strategies that have been implemented to
manage risk.

Reasonably Practicable – means the extent to which schools and teachers must go to
meet a legal expectation (or duty of care) in a particular situation. These expectations or
‘obligations’ take account of any specific circumstances that may apply when determining
what it is ‘reasonably practicable’ to do or to expect any employer to do.

Competent Person – means a person who has acquired through training, qualification,
or experience, or a combination of these, the knowledge and skills, including OHS
knowledge and skills, qualifying that person to perform the activity required.
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DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 29 of 141
2.1.3 The Four Step Risk Management Process
A safe and healthy workplace does not happen by chance or guesswork. You have to think
about what could go wrong at your workplace and what the consequences could be. Then you
must do whatever you can (in other words, whatever is ‘reasonably practicable’) to eliminate or
minimise health and safety risks arising from your business or undertaking.
This process involves four (4) distinct and recognised stages of Risk Management as identified
in the national Work Health and Safety Act: 2011 (Qld).
Step 1.
How to Identify Potential Hazards:
Look around the workplace and investigate what might cause you, your students or someone
else, any harm or injury if you proceed with a particular activity or manufacturing process.
Hazards come in many forms. Some are common and easily identified, such as using power
tools and machinery, tripping over timber, using hazardous chemicals. Others may not be so
easy to identify. Activities that are normally low risk become much riskier when they are done
in a new or unusual way, such as, with junior students, with larger groups, for the first time, or
in unfamiliar settings.

(refer also to Section 2.1.5; ‘ITD Hazard Identification’ for further detail)
Step 2.
How to Assess the Risks:
A risk assessment involves considering what could happen if someone is exposed to a hazard
and the likelihood of it happening. A risk assessment can help you determine:
•
How severe a risk is;
•
Whether any existing control measures are effective;
•
What action you should take to control the risk;
•
How urgently the action needs to be taken.
Note: A risk assessment is mandatory under the WHS Regulations for HIGH and EXTREME
risk curriculum activities.
Risk level is assessed by considering the “likelihood” of an incident occurring, any possible
harm or injury “likely” as a result, and if so, what you believe the likely health “consequences”
might be. The more likely an incident is to occur and the worse its consequences, the higher
the risk. Remember to assess the degree of risk for each hazard.
Risk = Likelihood x Consequence
Use the matrix below as a guide to assist with your risk assessment.
Consequence
Likelihood
Insignificant
Minor
Moderate
Major
Critical
Medium
Medium
High
Extreme
Extreme
Likely
Low
Medium
High
High
Extreme
Possible
Low
Medium
High
High
High
Unlikely
Low
Low
Medium
Medium
High
Rare
Low
Low
Low
Low
Medium
Almost Certain
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Modified: February 04, 2013
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Step 3.
How to Control and Manage the Risks:
The most important step in managing risks involves eliminating them, so far as is reasonably
practicable. If that is not possible, you must endeavour to minimise the risks, so far as is
reasonably practicable.
There are many ways to control risks and some control measures are more effective than
others. Effective risk management may involve a single control measure or a combination of
different controls that together provide the highest level of protection that is reasonably
practicable.
The ways of controlling risks are ranked from the highest level of protection and reliability to the
lowest. This ranking is known as the “Hierarchy of Risk Control”. The WHS Regulations
requires teachers to work through this hierarchy when managing risk under the WHS
Regulations. You must always aim to eliminate a hazard, which is the most effective control.
If this is not reasonably practicable, you must minimise the risk by working through the other
alternatives in the hierarchy.

(refer also to Section 2.1.4; ‘The Hierarchy of Risk Control’ for further detail)
Step 4.
How to Monitor and Review the Controls:
The control measures that you put in place should be reviewed regularly to make sure they
work as planned. Don’t wait until something goes wrong. There are certain situations where
you must review your control measures under the WHS Regulations and, if necessary, revise
them. A review is required:

When the control measure is not effective in controlling the risk;

If a new hazard or risk is identified that the existing control measures may not effectively
control;

If the results of consultation indicate that a review is necessary;
If a health and safety representative requests a review.

Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on the risk management process
for Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

How to Manage WHS Risks – Code of Practice 2011 (new window) 510k

Work Health and Safety Act: 2011 (Qld) (new window) 1.42 MB

Work Health and Safety Regulation: 2011 (Qld) (new window) 2.7 MB

DETE, PPR – “Managing Risks in School Community Activities”
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
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Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 31 of 141
2.1.4 The Hierarchy of Risk Control
The ways of controlling risks are ranked from the highest level of protection and reliability to the
lowest, as shown in the diagram below. This ranking is known as the hierarchy of risk control.
The WHS Regulations requires duty holders (e.g. Heads of Department and their staff) to work
through this hierarchy when managing risks in ITD practical activities.
The Hierarchy of Risk Control
Always aim for the most effective control measure, which is to eliminate a hazard. If this is
not reasonably practicable, you must endeavour to minimise the risk by working through the
other alternatives in the hierarchy as follows:
Level 1 control measures:
The most effective control measure involves eliminating the hazard and associated risk. The
best way to do this is by, firstly, not introducing the hazard into the workplace. For example,
you can eliminate the risk of a fall from height by doing the work at ground level.
Eliminating hazards is often cheaper and more practical to achieve at the design or planning
stage of a product, process or place used for work. In these early phases, there is greater
scope to design out hazards or incorporate risk control measures that are compatible with the
original design and functional requirements. For example, a noisy machine could be designed
and built to produce as little noise as possible, which is more effective than providing workers
with personal hearing protectors.
You can also eliminate risks by removing the hazard completely, for example, by removing trip
hazards on the floor or disposing of unwanted chemicals.
It may not be possible to eliminate a hazard if doing so means that you cannot make the end
product or deliver the service. If you cannot eliminate the hazard, then eliminate as many of the
risks associated with the hazard as possible.
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DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 32 of 141
Level 2 control measures:
If it is not reasonably practicable to eliminate the hazards and associated risks, you should
minimise the risks using one or more of the following approaches:
•
Substitute the hazard with something safer;
For instance, replace solvent-based paints with water-based ones.
•
Isolate the hazard from people;
This involves physically separating the source of harm from people by distance or using
barriers. For instance, install a guard rail behind the manually operated guillotine; paint yellow
‘safe working zone’ lines on the floor around all fixed plant and machinery; store harmful
chemicals in a fume cabinet or a dedicated volatile store room.
•
Use engineering controls;
An engineering control is a control measure that is physical in nature, including a mechanical
device or process. For instance, use mechanical devices such as trolleys or hoists to move
heavy loads; place guards around moving parts of machinery; install residual current devices
(electrical safety switches) in all electrical switch boards, in all practical rooms.
Level 3 control measures:
These control measures do not control the hazard at the source. They rely on human
behaviour and supervision, and used on their own, tend to be least effective in minimising risks.
Two approaches to reduce risk in this way are:
•
Use administrative controls;
Administrative controls are work methods or procedures that are designed to minimise
exposure to a hazard. For instance, develop procedures on how to operate machinery safely,
limit exposure time to a hazardous task, and use signage to warn people of a hazard.
•
Use personal protective equipment (PPE)
Note: Administrative controls and PPE should only be used:
o
When there are no other practical control measures available (as a last resort);
As an interim measure until a more effective way of controlling the risk can be used;
o
To supplement higher level control measures (as a back-up).
o
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on the hierarchy if risk control in,
refer to the following useful links:

How to Manage WHS Risks – Code of Practice 2011 (new window) 510k

Work Health and Safety Act: 2011 (Qld) (new window) 1.42 MB

Work Health and Safety Regulation: 2011 (Qld) (new window) 2.7 MB

DETE, PPR – “Managing Risks in School Community Activities”
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
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Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 33 of 141
2.1.5
ITD Hazard Identification
While staff should be alert to hazards at any time, routine inspections of the workshops and
work practices should be conducted regularly. However, informal hazard identification must be
incorporated into your daily routines. When new procedures or equipment are introduced or if
there are changes to the physical workspace environment, a thorough hazard assessment
should be conducted.
Hazards come in many forms. To assist schools in addressing their hazard identification and
risk management process, a checklist has been developed. This checklist might be used to
assist WHS Officers and Safety Committees to report on the safety of an ITD environment.
A Checklist for Identifying Hazards in ITD:
This checklist provides guidance only. It is not intended as a definitive list for the identification
of all hazards. Schools are advised to modify this list as needed in accordance with their own
circumstances:
1.
ITD Buildings and Practical Workspaces:
•
All areas should be kept clean and tidy. Are there any slip, trip or fall hazards?;
•
•
•
•
There should be sufficient space for each student to work effectively and safely;
Floor surfaces should be maintained in a safe condition and be suitable for the type of
activities conducted in the particular workspace?;
Walls, ceilings and roofs should be structurally sound, safe and in good condition;
Steps, stairs and access ramps should be in a safe condition with safety signage, a nonslip surface, and secure handrails where needed;
All doors, windows, external and internal locks and latches are to be in good working
condition;
There should be adequate ventilation and fresh air to all workspaces;
Isolation valves are to be readily accessible and clearly labelled;
There should be adequate lighting to conduct practical activities safely;
Toilet facilities are to be cleaned and maintained to an appropriately hygienic condition.
Hand washing facilities should be available;
Disability access facilities are to be provided and appropriate signage displayed;
All gas and water pipes are to be clearly labelled with appropriate signage.
2.
Electrical Safety:
•
Electrical equipment is to be in good condition with any testing tags ‘up-to-date’ as required
by the department's electrical testing procedures;
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
All new power tools and equipment require “testing & tagging” prior to initial use;
RCD’s should be regularly tested and working condition;
All power boards should have an overload switch;
Overhead cables should not a hazard;
Electrical cables and cords are to be kept clear of walkways, etc;
The Power Distribution Board should always be clean and readily accessible.
All identified ‘Electrical Caution’ areas should be prominently signed.
3.
Fire Safety and Emergency Responses:
•
All EQ schools will have an Emergency Management Plan that will identify key personnel
as controllers. Familiarise yourself with your emergency control team;
•
•
Fire safety, emergency information and evacuation routes are to be prominently displayed;
The facilities and all surrounding areas should have an audible emergency fire and
evacuation alarm system;
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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Modified: February 04, 2013
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•
•
•
Doorways, walkways and evacuation exits are to be kept clear and at least 600 mm wide;
External exit doors must not be locked from the inside, be readily opened in an emergency
without a key and be identified with appropriate emergency signage;
Battery backup for all emergency exit signs and corridor lighting should be installed;
Fire control equipment should be accessible, signed appropriately, and regularly tested;
All ITD facilities should have an emergency gas supply isolation valve where required;
An approved first aid kit should be readily available in each practical workspace and
stocked appropriately – with extra consideration for eye injuries and burns;
There should be emergency eye wash and drenching facilities available.
4.
Fume Extraction Hoods:
•
Fire and explosion from highly volatile, combustible materials is a major hazard. All fume
extraction installations should be checked for compliance with AS/NZS 2243.8, 2001 and
inspected by a fume maintenance contractor every 12 months.
5.
Furniture, Fixtures and Fittings:
•
All workspace furniture, such as benches, cupboards, platforms, screens and display
fittings or fixtures, should be safe and in good condition;
•
•
•
•
Work benches should be are positioned for safe, comfortable use, access or egress;
Light fittings, fixtures and ceiling fans should be in good working condition;
Light bulbs and fluorescent tubes should be guarded where there is a risk of damage;
Hanging fixtures, fittings and displays should not pose any hazards;
6.
Chemicals and Hazardous Materials:
•
•
•
•
•
Safety data sheets (SDS) are to be readily available and current within five (5) years;
Chemicals and hazardous materials should be stored and labelled appropriately;
Spill control systems should be in place, i.e. absorbing materials, etc;
Chemicals presenting an uncertain or unpredictable risk must be controlled and monitored;
Appropriate eye washing and dousing facilities should be available in the event of an
accident with chemicals.
7.
Management Procedures:
•
•
•
Safe Operating Procedures (SOPs) should be displayed near potentially hazardous
equipment;
Equipment Maintenance Records (EMRs) should be available;
Approved personal protective equipment (PPE) is to be available and in good condition.
8.
Machinery, Plant and Equipment:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Manuals should be available for operating all ITD machinery, plant and equipment;
EMRs should be regularly completed for all fixed plant and equipment;
Moving parts of all plant should be guarded in accordance with the new WHS Act: 2011;
Plant and machinery should display all appropriate safety signage (including SOPs);
Emergency stop devices are to be readily accessible on all machines that require them;
No machinery and equipment should expose students and staff to hazards due to noise,
fumes or other factors, (i.e. over 85 dBA for eight hours);
Dust extraction systems should be working efficiently where required, and be fitted with an
inspection point where a blockage is likely to accumulate;
Fume extraction systems should be in place where required;
All fixed machines are to have clearly defined ‘safe work zone’ floor boundaries marked
with 80 mm wide bright yellow delineation lines;
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 35 of 141
9.
Spray Painting:
•
Skin contact or inhalation of spray painting material is a major health hazard. Spray
painting or air brushing should, where practical, be carried out in an approved spray booth.
The system should be fitted with a particulate filtration mechanism to filter any overspray;
Where a spray booth is not practical, use a local exhaust ventilation system to capture any
overspray and solvent vapour as close to the source as possible. Fans and natural fresh
air (as well as local exhaust ventilation) should be used to displace contaminated air.
•
•
•
Fire and explosion from highly volatile, combustible materials is also a major hazard. All
spray booth installations should be checked for compliance with AS/NZS 4114.1:2003 and
AS 1482:1985 and be inspected by a qualified maintenance contractor every 12 months;
Any possible sources of ignition should be identified and isolate, including static electricity,
in areas around any spray painting operation. Lights and switches must be spark proof;
•
Use water based paint instead of organic solvent based paints when ever possible;
•
Regularly clean the spray booth to prevent paint build-up;
•
Flammable materials such as paints and thinners should be correctly stored;
•
Appropriate breathing apparatus should be available and worn when required;
•
Suitable fire prevention, including extinguishers should be available in this location.
10. Storage:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Storage areas can be secured to prevent any unwanted, unauthorised access;
Flammable materials should be stored and handled in a safe manner;
Materials, resources and equipment should be stored safely and securely;
Free standing shelves or cupboards should be secured to ensure safety and stability;
Storage areas should display appropriate signage and HAZCHEM labelling;
Waste containers should be available in each workspace.
11. Welding and Soldering;
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
There should be a separate storage area for full and empty gas cylinders;
All gas cylinders are to be stored in an upright position and chained to a trolley or stand;
Where applicable, manifolds should be located and guarded to protect them from damage;
Operating instructions are to be prominently displayed for the safe ‘Opening and Shutdown’ procedures of all gas supply cylinders and manifolds;
All appropriate UV welding helmets, IR safety goggles, face shields, gloves, aprons,
jackets, spats, etc. should be available and in good repair;
Operators should be suitably insulated from electric welding tables, damp concrete floors
and any exposed parts by rubber matting, wooden duck boards or other means;
Any water on the floor is to be investigated and removed immediately;
All electric welding bays should be fitted with appropriate UV flash screens or curtain;
Electronics soldering areas should also have good ventilation, lighting and fume extraction.
12. General:
•
All other potential hazards such as chemicals, waste, dust, fumes, sharps, glare, noise or
even the evidence of possible vermin infestation are investigated and identified.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on hazard identification in ITD
departments in Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, PPR – ‘Managing Risks in School Community Activities’

DEIR, ‘How to Manage Work Health & Safe Risk’ – Code of Practice 2011

DETE, PPR – ‘Emergency Management’
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 36 of 141
2.1.6
Manual Handling and Ergonomics
“Manual handling and ergonomics” covers a range of activities in the schools and particularly
the ITD workspace and Physical Education environments. This includes any manual task from
entering data into a computer to moving heavy metalwork benches, unloading delivery stock,
using portable power tools and equipment or even helping transferring a student from a
wheelchair onto a toilet. These tasks involve the exertion of force to gasp, lift, lower, push, pull,
carry, throw, move, slide, hold or retrain an object, load or body part.
Manual handling (also called 'manual tasks') can be hazardous and can contribute to a range of
musculoskeletal disorders (injuries) for ITD teachers including:

Sprains and strains of muscles, ligaments, discs and other structures of the back;

Injuries to soft tissues such as nerves, tendons, ligaments in the wrists, arms and
shoulders;

Abdominal Hernias;

Injuries such as abrasions, lacerations, bruising, fractures or amputations to the hands,
fingers, legs, feet, toes, and head etc.
These types of injuries are often cumulative with damage occurring over a period of time before
pain or injury is apparent. Steps can be immediately implemented to minimise the risk of
injuries associated with manual tasks in ITD. Planning the task, using equipment to reduce the
effort required and asking for help are simple ways to reduce the risks.
By identifying the risks and preventing or minimising personal injury is the purpose of the
various advisory standards providing guidance on manual tasks. The Manual Tasks Advisory
Standards 2001 defines ten risk elements associated with the performance of manual tasks.
ITD teachers need firstly to identify the potential risks created by:

Forceful exertion;

Restricted or incorrect working posture;

Repetition and duration;

Excessive vibration;

Slips, trips and falls on floors, stairs and ramps or in outdoor areas;

Workshop or storeroom design layout and organisational factors;

Characteristics of specific tools and machinery commonly used;

Manual handling of heavy materials, workspace furniture and machinery;

An individual’s capability.
When completing a ‘Manual Handling’ risk assessment, teachers must also consider control
measures that will help eliminate or minimise exposure to any risks. The most effective time to
ensure that most manual task risks are controlled is when designing ITD practical workspace
environments, recommending the procurement of new machinery, plant and equipment, and
when planning practical curriculum activities.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on the risk of injury in ITD
through Manual Handling tasks, refer to the following useful links:

WHSQ, Advisory Standards Notice – ‘Manual Tasks’

How to Manage WHS Risks – Code of Practice 2011 (new window) 510k

WHSQ, First Aid Code of Practice 2004 (new window) 320k
Further Useful Resources:

DETE, CHW, Checklist – ‘Slips, Trips and Falls’ (new window) 286k

DETE, CHW, Brochure – ‘Preventing Slips, Trips and Falls’ (new window) 546k

DETE, CHW, Fact Sheet – ‘End of Year Clean Up & Relocations’ (new window) 92k
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 37 of 141
2.2
Risk Assessment Guidelines
As you have seen, risk management is an overall process for looking at what can cause harm,
how likely and severe the harm could be, and what can be done to prevent it. More specifically,
risk assessment is a process of estimating the magnitude of the risk and deciding what actions
should be adopted that might reduce the risks to more acceptable levels. There is no such
thing as zero risk. Risk merely varies from “Low” to “Extreme”.
Creating a healthy and safe learning environment for ITD staff and students requires careful,
considered curriculum activity and workplace planning based around the following:

Legislative requirements;

Community expectations;

Departmental accountabilities.
The chart shown below establishes a common link or importance to an overall holistic approach
to risk management and department risk assessment.
A Healthy and Safe Learning Environment for Staff and Students
Legislative
Requirements
Community
Expectations
Departmental
Accountabilities
ITD Curriculum Plan
High to Extreme Risk Activities
Curriculum Activity
Risk Assessments
Plant and Equipment
Risk Assessments
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Chemical
Risk Assessments
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 38 of 141
2.2.1 Curriculum Activity Risk Assessment (CARA)
Should a proposed curriculum activity in ITD be assessed by the teachers
as posing a High or Extreme level of inherent risk then staff must
complete, for approval, a “Curriculum Activity Risk Assessment” (CARA)
for that activity before commencing.
An extensive index of Curriculum Activity Risk Management Guidelines,
for common school-based curriculum activities has been developed as a
part of the DETE Policy and Procedure Register.
As shown below, this index includes a number of risk management
guideline documents specially written for a range of ITD practical activities and manufacturing
processes.
Note: CARA guidelines (including those specific to ITD) are now presented as interactive
online PDF documents. It has never been easier to access, navigate and download a printable
version of a quality Curriculum Activity Risk Assessment document.
If a specific CARA Guideline document exists for your particular planned activity, adhere to its
requirements closely. Complete and sign it as your written “Risk Assessment” for approval for
that activity.
CARA Guidelines Specific to ITD
Probable Levels of Risk
o
Compressed Air Equipment
347k
Medium
High
o
Electrics & Electronics
389k
Medium
High
o
Industrial Technology & Design Activity
572k
Low
Medium
High
Extreme
o
Machines, Fixed
462k
Low
Medium
High
Extreme
o
Managing a Practical ITD Workspace
662k
Low
Medium
High
Extreme
o
Managing Hazardous Materials in ITD
369k
Low
Medium
High
o
Mechanics
323k
Low
Medium
o
Metalworking
608k
o
Plastics, Fibre Reinforced/Composites
642k
o
Portable Electric Power Tools
589k
Low
Medium
High
Extreme
o
Soft Soldering
339k
Low
Medium
High
Extreme
o
Spray Painting
358k
Low
Medium
o
Thermoforming Plastics
406k
Medium
High
o
Welding, Electric Arc
372k
Medium
High
o
Welding, Gas Heating & Cutting
630k
Medium
High
Extreme
o
Woodworking
382k
Medium
High
Extreme
Medium
e
High
High
Low
Note: The new “ITD Activity” CARA listed above was developed and introduced in 2012.
It is designed to assess the risk of specific ITD practical activities, linking several key
elements such as the use of fixed and portable plant and equipment, hazardous materials
and various manufacturing processes, incorporating them all into one compensative format.
Consequently, it is expected that, by 2013, a number of the current ITD CARA guidelines
as listed above will no longer be required and will be discontinued.

Exemplar ITD CARA samples are now available on our OnePortal “ITD Team Site”
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 39 of 141
DETE stipulates that there are minimum procedural requirements for the management of all
Activity Risk Assessments in our EQ schools:
1.



2.


For Low Risk activities:
Document all control measures in an ITD Curriculum Activity Risk Planner;
Consider seeking information from parents, carers and students with any condition (e.g.
physical or medical) that may impair a student's capacity to safely engage in an activity;
Manage the activity through regular planning processes.
For Medium Risk activities:
Document all control measures in an ITD Curriculum Activity Risk Planner;
A Curriculum Activity Risk Assessment (CARA) may be completed to assist with the risk
assessment process.
3.
For High Risk activities:

Discuss the intention to undertake a high risk activity with the HOD or subject coordinator;

Complete a CARA for the proposed activity;

Details of all CARAs for ‘High’ risk curriculum activities are to be recorded in the School
Curriculum Activity Risk Assessment Register once they are approved.

Obtain signed approval to undertake the activity in accordance with the CARA by the
Principal, or a delegated Deputy Principal or HOD, prior to the activity being undertaken.
Any delegation arrangements must be documented by the school:
4.
For Extreme Risk activities;
Consider whether the activity should be undertaken as a part of a DETE curriculum. Ask
yourself – “Do the potential benefits of the activity warrant the inherent extreme level of
risk?
Discuss the intention to undertake an extreme risk activity with the HOD or subject
coordinator and complete a CARA for the activity;
Obtain signed approval of the Principal to undertake the activity, in accordance with the
CARA, prior to the activity being undertaken;
Schools are reminded that a School Curriculum Activity Risk Assessment Register is to be
established and maintained for all High and Extreme risk activities. A School Curriculum
Activity Register can assist schools to record and manage the details of all activities and
ensure appropriate authorisations have been recorded for these activities.
Always inform parents and carers of the details of any ‘Extreme’ ITD activity and obtain
written permission for all students that may be involved.
Sample parental permission templates are available to assist schools in their planning for
High and Extreme risk activities.






5.

Parental Permission Template

Mature Age Student Permission Template
Remember, all staff have a responsibility to ensure that no ‘High’ or ‘Extreme’ risk activities
are undertaken without the appropriate CARA being completed and approved prior to the
activity being undertaken.
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 40 of 141
When Schools Elect Not To Use The Prepared DETE CARA Guidelines:
Using prepared CARA guidelines has many benefits for ITD staff because they are based on
current regulations and prepared with expert advice. However, it is recognised that some
schools or departments may elect to utilize alternative documentation perhaps as a more
detailed risk assessment proforma format. Where such curriculum risk assessment formats are
used, documentation is to include the following information, as a minimum:








Activity details (date, locations, etc.);
Inherent risk level of the activity;
Identification of the hazards and risks;
Level of supervision and qualification of leaders;
Explanation of the planned control measures;
Date of submission for approval;
Approval details (who approved, approval date);
Activity review notes.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on Curriculum Activity Risk
Assessment guidelines for Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, PPR – ‘Managing Risks in School Curriculum Activities’

DETE, Fact sheet – ‘Managing Plant & Equipment in ITD’ (new window) 927k

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – ‘Risk Management’

How to Manage WHS Risks – Code of Practice 2011 (new window) 510k
Further Useful Resources:

DETE, Curriculum Activity Risk Assessment Guidelines

DETE, Curriculum Activity Risk Assessment Generic Template (new window) 368k

DETE, School Curriculum Activity Register (new window) 125k

DETE, CHW Checklist – ‘Management of Safety in ITD’ (new window) 585k

DETE, Letter Template – ‘Parental Permission’ (new window) 49.5k

DETE, Letter Template – ‘Mature Age Student Permission’ (new window) 50k
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 41 of 141
2.2.2 Plant and Equipment Risk Assessment
Risk assessment generally, as described previously in section 2.1:
“Risk Management Guidelines”, is the overall process of looking at
what can cause harm, how likely and how severe the harm could
be, and what could be done to minimise or prevent it. This process
applies equally to all applications of “risk” determination, including
the use of machinery, plant and equipment.
The term “plant” is defined broadly to cover a wide range of items,
ranging from complex installations to portable equipment and tools.
In EQ schools, ITD machinery plant and equipment can be categorised as:
•
•
Fixed (non-portable, connected or stationary) workshop machinery,
plant and equipment;
Portable power tools and miscellaneous electrical workshop appliances
(usually 240V, battery / cordless, pneumatic or explosive).
Note: An extensive index of risk assessments for the more common ITD plant and equipment
found in most EQ schools (both fixed and portable) has been prepared by DETE through 2011:

ITD Plant & Equipment Risk Assessments

DETE, Fact sheet – ‘Managing Plant & Equipment in ITD’ (new window) 927k
All are currently available as interactive online documents. It’s easy to access, download and
print off, all your “Plant and Equipment Risk Assessment” reports for your ITD department.
If the specific plant risk assessment document for a particular item of ITD equipment is
available online, it should be completed and signed as your written “Risk Assessment” for that
item (current for five years). However, if NO specific ITD guideline document is available, you
should use the following:

Curriculum Activity Risk Assessment Generic Template (new window) 368k
All items of plant and equipment pose some risk to health and safety in any school
environment. If the inherent or perceived risk level of any item is considered to be LOW, and
there is only little chance of incident or serious injury when it is used, then control measures
may be managed through routine planning processes.
Similarly, if the item of plant and equipment carries pre-determined inherent risks considered to
be MEDIUM, and there is some chance of an incident and minor injury requiring first aid, then
implemented control measures need to be documented, and if staff considers it necessary, a
full “Plant and Equipment Risk Assessment” can and should be completed.
Plant may be assessed as posing a HIGH to EXTREME level of risk if, ‘should an accident
occur, there would be a real chance of a serious or debilitating injury occurring’. For such plant
and machinery, a “Plant and Equipment Risk Assessment” should always be completed, signed
and approved prior to its use in any ITD curriculum activity.
Plant and Equipment Risk Assessments must be monitored and reviewed when ever teachers
vary the way in which the equipment is used. Under normal conditions, an approved
assessment will also need to be monitored and reviewed annually. If all documented
information regarding inherent risk levels, management requirements and any recommended
control measures remains unchanged, then assessments will remain current of five (5) years.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on Plant and Equipment Risk
Assessments guidelines for Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – ‘Risk Management’

DETE, Fact Sheet – ‘Managing Plant & Equipment in ITD’ (new window) 927k
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 42 of 141

How to Manage WHS Risks – Code of Practice 2011 (new window) 510k

Work Health and Safety Act: 2011 (Qld) (new window) 1.42 MB

Workplace Health and Safety Advisory Standards Notice – Manual Tasks

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – ‘Health & Safety’

DETE, CHW – ITD Fixed & Portable ‘Safe Operating Procedures’ index

DETE, CHW – ITD Fixed Machinery ‘Equipment Maintenance Records’ index
Further Useful Resources:

DETE, ITD Plant & Equipment Risk Assessments Guidelines

DETE, Curriculum Activity Risk Assessment Generic Template (new window) 368k

DETE, Fact Sheet – ‘Managing Electrical Safety in Schools’ (new window) 591k

DETE, Checklist – ‘Management of Safety in ITD’ (new window) 585k
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 43 of 141
2.2.3 Chemicals and Hazardous Materials Risk Assessment
The purpose of a chemical risk assessment is to enable decisions to be
made about appropriate control measures, training, and monitoring of
hazards associated with a chemical or a chemical process. The
assessment does this by establishing:

The nature and severity of the hazard for each hazardous chemical;

The degree of exposure of persons in the workplace; and

Whether existing control measures adequately control exposure.
Generic DETE risk assessment templates for “Managing Hazardous Chemicals” in both
curriculum and non-curriculum related activities can be found at:

DETE, PPR – “Managing Risks with Chemicals in DETE Workplaces”
The information collected, and the decisions made around the points above, allows for
reasoned conclusions to be made about the risk of using of a hazardous chemical under
particular working conditions. Making conclusions about a risk level is important as it allows
staff to determine what action is required. Regardless of the risk classification, teachers always
have an obligation to do what is reasonably practicable to eliminate the risk, or if that is not
possible, to minimise the risk to the lowest possible level.
Note: Risk Conclusions 1 - 4 differ from other CARA risk level matrices used by DETE for nonchemical based curriculum activity risk assessments. These differences arise because of
legislative requirements and because we know what the consequences are if we are exposed
to a chemical during a curriculum activity – the consequences are documented in the Safety
Data Sheet (SDS). However, in non-chemical curriculum activity risk assessments informed
judgements are made about the inherent risks associated with the activity, because the
consequences can only be projected.
The result of this process means that there can only be an indicative relationship between
the usual CARA risk levels of “Low”, “Medium” or “High” and “Risk Conclusions” 1 to 4.
Curriculum activities involving chemicals may only be undertaken at the Risk Conclusion 1 or
Risk Conclusion 2 levels. Once risks are not effectively controlled (i.e. Conclusion 3 and
Conclusion 4 activities), or where there is not sufficient certainty about the risks associated with
an activity, the level of exposure to a chemical cannot be determined with confidence and the
activity becomes unsafe. Therefore, Conclusion 3 risk classifications must be revised to reduce
the risks, as risks are not effectively controlled. Conclusion 4 activities are not to proceed
because there is insufficient information available to make a valid risk conclusion.
Schools are reminded that a Curriculum Activity Risk Assessment Register is to be established
and maintained for Risk Conclusion 2 activities where the risk occurs at the higher end of the
spectrum where risks are significant and not effectively controlled. A School Curriculum Activity
Register can assist schools to record and manage the details of their risk management
strategies involving hazardous chemicals.
The Risk Assessment Conclusions Table (shown over page) is to be used as a guide to
assist with quantifying the overall risk levels for chemical assessments.
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 44 of 141
Risk Assessment Conclusion Table:
Overall Risk Level Conclusion
Conclusion
1
Risks are not significant now,
and not likely to increase in the
future
(i.e. risks are low).
Action Required/Approval
 Comply with all requirements of the label and
current SDS.
 Comply with the standard operating procedure for
the substance(s).
 Manage and document through your regular
planning processes and/or person(s) using the
chemicals should approve and sign the risk
assessment.
Select 1 – if you are using a concentration considered less than hazardous or if precautions are required and it is unlikely that the use of the
chemical(s) will adversely affect the health of persons at the workplace and the risk is not likely to increase in the future e.g. you are using
concentrations that are too small to constitute a risk, even if controls fail; or the operation strictly conforms to information on the label and SDS.
Conclusion
2
Risks are significant but
effectively controlled, and could
increase in the future
(i.e. risks are medium to high).
 Comply with all requirements of the label and
current SDS.
 Comply with the standard operating procedure
for the substance(s).
 Implement the identified controls to minimise the
chances of higher exposure occurring.
 Determine and implement additional measures
for regaining control if a high risk event occurs
despite the precautions already taken. Parental
consent may be required.
 Document controls in planning documents and/or
complete this Chemical Use Curriculum Activity
Risk Assessment.
 The Principal or delegated Deputy Principal or
Head of Program (i.e. HOD, HOSES, HOC) to
review and approve the risk assessment.
Select 2 – if you are satisfied that adequate controls are in place. Where serious health effects could result if the control measures fail or
deteriorate. This usually results from the use of toxic hazardous chemicals or where the potential exposure is HIGH.
Risks, while presently adequately controlled, could increase in the future.
Conclusion
3
Risks are significant now and
not effectively controlled
(i.e. risks are extreme).
 The activity must not proceed. Alternatives to
undertaking the activity must be found.
 Obtain additional information or expert advice to
reach a conclusion of 1 or 2
 Comply with all requirements of the current SDS.
 Comply with the standard operating procedure for
the substance(s).
 Implement sufficient controls to ensure the safe
use of the material.
 The Principal or delegated Deputy Principal is
required to review and approve the revised risk
assessment prior to conducting this activity.
Select 3 – if the use of a chemical is likely to constitute a significant risk and further investigation may be necessary (e.g. there are persistent
or widespread complaints of illness, discomfort, irritation or excessive odour, hazardous chemicals are splashed, control measures are broken,
defective or badly maintained, for example a poorly maintained extraction system which no longer draws a hazardous chemical away from the
work area, recognised safe work practices are not being observed)
Conclusion
4
Uncertain about risks.
There is not enough
information, or there is
uncertainty about the degree or
extent of exposure.
DO NOT PROCEED.
 The activity must not proceed. Alternatives to
undertaking the activity must be found.
 Obtain additional information or expert advice to
reach a conclusion of 1 or 2
 In the meanwhile, implement work practices to
ensure safety
Select 4 – if no SDS is available, if labelling is inadequate, if the level of exposure cannot be estimated with confidence or further investigation
is necessary. Obtain additional information from other sources, such as suppliers, occupational health and safety consultants and industry or
trade associations. Meanwhile, implement good work practices to minimise exposure.
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 45 of 141
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on chemicals and hazardous
materials risk assessment guidelines for Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – ‘Risk Management’

How to Manage WHS Risks – Code of Practice 2011 (new window) 510k

DETE, PPR – ‘Managing Risks with Chemicals in DETE Workplaces’

DETE, Curriculum Activity Risk Assessment Generic Template (new window) 368k

Hazardous Chemicals Register & Manifest (new window) 293k
Further Useful Resources:

DETE, PPR – ‘First Aid’ for Schools & Non-Schools Locations

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – ‘Chemical & Hazardous Substances’

WHSQ, Storage Management of Dangerous Goods

WHSQ, Chemicals, Substances & Dangerous Goods

WHSQ, Hazardous Chemicals Code of Practice 2003, (2012) (new window) 352k

WHSQ, First Aid Code of Practice 2004 (new window) 320k

Health (Drugs and Poisons) Regulation 1996 – (2012 reprint) (new window) 1.5 MB

GHS of Classification & Labelling of Chemicals – (4th edition: 2011) (new window) 3 MB

Australian Code for the Transport of Dangerous Goods (ADG7) – (7th ed: 2011) 18 MB
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2.2.4
Annual Safety Assessment
A work safety audit, or Annual Safety Assessment (ASA), is a comprehensive study of a
workplace and its operations to help identify health and safety issues and to review all current
school safety processes or procedures. The aim is to identify those things that need improving,
and to develop a school action plan to address them.
The ASA is an important process to be conducted at any workplace on a regular basis. At
DETE workplaces, such as schools, it is recommended that a safety assessment is conducted
each year. Hence, it is commonly referred as the “Annual” Safety Assessment. All subject
departments will be included in this comprehensive audit, particularly the practical subjects
such as Industrial Technology and Design, Science, Lifestyle Management, Art, Physical and
Outdoor Education and Vocational Education.
What is the purpose of the ASA ?
By conducting a comprehensive ASA schools will:

Review the safety incidents, emergency plans and safety processes to determine if
adequate levels of safety and compliance are being maintained at your school;

Identify the hazards that exist at the school;

Develop a Safety Action Plan to document and Prioritise how the issues will be addressed.
Who completes the ASA ?
It is recommended that all DETE workplaces conduct an ASA each year. For schools with over
30 employees an ASA is mandated. Normally this would be facilitated by a trained workplace
Health and Safety Officer (WHSO). For schools which do not have a trained WHSO, a person
with a designated responsibility for health and safety would be suitable to facilitate the ASA.
Given the importance of the ASA, it is expected that sufficient resources are provide for it to be
completed effectively each year.
What is the scope of the ASA ?
For DETE workplaces the ASA covers thirteen (13) performance criteria which are the safety
aspects of your workplace to be assessed. Each criterion is assessed against specific
indicators which will be provided by DETE and a recording sheet is also available for each of
the 13 criteria in the document.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on the Annual Safety
Assessment process in DETE workplaces, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – ‘Annual Safety Assessment’

DETE, CHW – ‘Workplace Health & Safety Officers’ (WHSO)

DETE, CHW, Checklist – Workplace Health and Safety Officers (WHSO) 225k

DETE, CHW – ‘Schools Officers Health & Safety Folder’
Further Useful Resources:

DETE, CHW, Checklist – ‘Management of Safety in ITD’ (new window) 585k

DETE, CHW, Fact Sheet – ‘Annual Safety Assessment’ (new window) 125k

DETE, CHW – ‘Annual Safety Assessment’ Template for 2013 (new window) 580k

DETE, ‘School Action Plan’ Template (new window) 27k

DETE, ‘Annual Operational Planning’
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2.3
“Risk Management” Professional Development
2.3.1 ITD Professional Development “Risk Management” Courses
Two new pioneering programs for ITD teacher professional development were trialled through
2010/12 by the DETE, Queensland.
1. “Managing Risks in ITD Workshops” Program:
The first to be introduced was a risk management workshop primarily for existing ITD teachers
that was designed to offer guidance and support by focusing on issues such as:

Increasing teacher awareness of the WHS issues affecting ITD faculties state wide;

Assisting schools with identifying risks in practical workshops;

Maintaining currency of existing ITD staff – (through non punitive assessment);

Increasing teachers’ confidence and competence in teaching;

Encouraging the development of group or regional forums to network and discuss ITD
issues with other schools, i.e. management of risks in workshops, etc.
The general aim of this professional development opportunity is to provide ITD teachers with an
understanding of inherent risks associated with practical workshops and highlight the resources
available to assist them in the “Managing of Risks in Industrial Technology Workshops”. The
delivery of the program, face-to-face over two (2) days includes:
•
•
•
•
•
Completion of four (4) units of competency – delivered online prior to attending;
Emphasis on the key issues of Health and Safety practices in ITD workshops;
The safe use of machines, plant and equipment;
Completion of a typical workshop Project (reinforcing safe use machinery etc.)
Planning and co-ordinating ‘Curriculum Activity Risk Assessments’ and risk management in
Practical workshops;
•
Risk management resources available to ITD teachers;
•
General housekeeping and maintenance issues of ITD workshops;
On completion of the course, all teachers receive a ‘Certificate of Participation’ crediting 20
hours of ‘Continuing Professional Development’ (CPD).
2. “Managing Risks in ITD Workshops” - Induction Course:
The second DETE initiative, introduced late in November 2010, was a similar program to the
first, however was developed specifically as a three (3) day face-to-face induction course for
ITD teachers new to teaching in school workshop environments (such as transition program
graduates). This course was also aimed at the management of risk in workshops with a focus
on risk identification and other departmental processes and procedures relevant to ITD
curriculum activities. As with the first program developed for existing ITD teachers, on
completion of the induction course, all new teachers will receive a ‘Certificate of Participation’
crediting 20 hours of ‘Continuing Professional Development’ (CPD).
It is anticipated that these professional development courses for ITD teachers will continue to
be conducted throughout the state as the need arises and as funding becomes available.
Future locations will vary and will involve regional State High School facilities, regional TAFE
training centres and SkillsTech Australia.
Note: For more information and guidance on the ‘Risk Management’ professional development
programs for ITD teachers in Queensland Schools – refer to the following contact:
Phil Cooper
Health and Safety Consultant
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Phone: (07) 3235 9964 or Email: [email protected]
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3. MAINTAINING A PRACTICAL WORKSPACE ENVIRONMENT
Industrial Technology and Design (ITD) teachers need to develop a proactive culture of safety
through practical curriculum activity experiences and from the environment in which they work.
There should always be a logical relationship between valuable educational curriculum content,
considerately sized practical class groupings, manageable timetabling schedules and
appropriate hazard identification and risk assessment processes.
3.1 Establishing a Culture of Safety
Managing risk begins with the culture you nurture at your school towards safety. The beliefs,
values, attitudes and behaviours of staff and students are as important as the condition of the
practical workspace. Involving students in the process of risk management will help to
reinforce the importance of safety and develop in student’s personal responsibility for their own
safety and the safety of others.
The following is a four step agenda that schools are encouraged to consider:
1. Clear Safety Rules and Expectations:
Establishing and maintaining a positive attitude and proactive approach toward safety in a
practical workspace environment requires all participants to have an understanding of ‘good
practice’ common sense expectations. Accidents can often happen when common sense is
absent.
For ITD students – ‘Workshop Safety Rules’ should be:
•
Displayed in prominent areas in all practical workspaces and in student workbooks or
design folios;
•
Discussed and explained to students at suitable times such as, the start of a new school
year, each semester or as part of the introduction to a new unit of work;
ITD HODs may consider providing their staff with a “Staff Handbook” with clear and concise
safety information highlighting their school’s expectations. Any ITD staff safety training or staff
information handbook provided should also introduce the location and content of important
DETE resources for ITD teachers, including this “Guidelines” document.
2. Safety Information and Training:
Provide students with sound information – practical workshop safety training with a structured
machinery induction program and any relevant Safe Operating Procedures for all plant and
equipment introduced. Training should occur prior to use of any machine for the first time.
This should include:
•
Written safety procedures, rules and expectations;
•
Practical demonstration on the safe use of the equipment by the teacher;
•
Written record of training given – what machine, student name and date of training.
Provide staff with appropriate information and training on issues such as:
•
Departmental health and safety requirements, first aid facilities, procedures for accident
and incident reporting and recording;
•
The safe use of all machinery, plant and equipment (SOPs and EMRs);
•
The importance of electrical safety including all legislative requirements;
•
Risk assessments and curriculum planning;
•
Hazardous workspace conditions to be aware of such as:
o The dangers of atmospheric wood dust particulates, excessive industrial noise and any
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poor, slippery floor surfaces around practical workspaces, etc.;
o
o
The importance of adequate lighting, fresh air and ventilation;
The importance of good housekeeping and general departmental cleanliness;
•
The safe use of all chemicals and hazardous materials stored and familiarity with SDS.
•
The importance of safety signage – what is mandatory, and where should it be placed;
•
The importance of personal protective equipment (PPE), for both teachers and students.
This can be done through formal training (with RTO certificates issued) or informal processes
such as at regular staff meetings or briefings.
Record all training provided to staff members on an ITD Staff Training Profile. Monitor and
review regularly to ensure ongoing training opportunities (PD) are provided.
3. Model and Promote Safety:
Students are generally influenced not only by what teachers say but by what they see teachers
do. Modelling good safety practice by staff will help to not only reinforce the importance of
safety but also help develop in students’ personal responsibility for their own safety and the
safety of others.
Every teaching space and practical activity undertaken by students can present different risks.
Regularly discuss and explain safety requirements with students.
Display appropriate safety signage throughout the department and particularly at the entry to
workshops. Signs provide good visual reminders to everyone to “think and act safely”.
Workshop areas should have:
•
Mandatory signs – relating to the required PPE that must be worn in certain areas;
•
Emergency information signs – e.g. evacuation plan and emergency exit directions;
•
•
Fire signs – e.g. fire extinguishers and fire blankets;
Safe Operating Procedures (SOPs) displayed near all fixed machinery;
•
Safety rules or expectations and reminders of the consequences for breeching those
expectations, prominently displayed.
4. Review and Monitor Safety:
Ensure systems are in place in ITD centres that monitor, maintain and enhance practical
workshop safety.
Undertake regular inspections of all workspaces to identify safety concerns and to maintain
good safety processes. Use “check lists” to document and assist ITD staff with reviewing
facilities and practices.
Maintain records of the systems utilised throughout ITD workshops. These records should
include:
•
Equipment and machinery maintenance records (EMRs);
•
Training records relating to machines – for both students and staff;
•
Risk assessments for curriculum activities, equipment and hazardous substances;
•
Registers of all risk assessments and of all hazardous substances stored on the premises.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on “Establishing a Culture of
Safety” for ITD departments in Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, Industrial Technology & Design Department – Safety & Hazard Alerts

DETE, ‘Equipment & Machinery’ (Procedures, legislation, & safe use within schools)

DETE, CHW, Equipment & Machinery Resources’ – SOPs & EMRs Index

DETE, CHW, Fact Sheet – ‘Using SOPs &’ EMRs in Your School’ (new window) 283k
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3.2
Class Size Limits
Maximum class size targets in Queensland state schools were established in 2007 and
subsequently included in the Department of Education and Training Teachers’ Certified
Agreement: 2010. This industrial relations agreement, still current at the time of this
publication, states that: (Section 2.1.1) “Schools will be funded for staffing in accordance with a
student/teacher ratio based on established class size targets”. The agreement commits the
department to the following maximum class size targets for secondary schools:
•
Years 7 to 10
– 28 students per teacher
•
Years 11 & 12
– 25 students per teacher
ITD teachers recognise that their practical lessons or activities, by their very nature, have the
inherent potential for dangerous situations to occur and overcrowding the available area with
too many students should never be allowed to occur. However, in relation to any “practical”
classes or activities in schools, under our current certified agreement there are no prescribed
class size limits that, as a department are imposed.
As an alternative to “maximum class size targets” for ITD, the agreement acknowledges that
there must be specific procedures in place for assessing risk and determining “safe” practices
in all workshop environments. These procedures require that the ITD department should first
complete a risk assessment for each activity that they are intending to undertake.
All staff should be familiar with the Curriculum Activity Risk Assessment Guidelines and should
regularly assess the inherent risk levels identified for all ITD curriculum activities by means of
the “Curriculum Activity Risk Management”(CARA) process. These risk assessment findings or
evaluations should then be used by ITD HODs to advocate or recommend suitable class size
numbers below any “certified agreement” provisions where required.
There is a wide range of factors that must be considered when assessing risk and advocating
for any projected limits for class size numbers in specific ITD workspaces. These include:

The physical dimensions and layout, number of work benches and fabrication areas, safe
access to all machinery and facilities, and, if it exists, building plan information regarding
the “ intended (designed) purpose * ” that may recommend occupancy numbers appropriate
for that particular workspace.
*Unfortunately specific details regarding “intended (designed) purpose” are not always
available and might only be available for our newer schools – i.e. found on architectural
building plans and associated design specifications.




Student factors such as their maturity, prior experience, educational background, and
special needs;
Inherent risk factors associated with plant and equipment used and processes undertaken
in specific ITD curriculum activities, and the complexity of that activity;
Specific staffing factors such as experience, expertise and availability of a competently
trained teacher’s aide or Special Ed teacher assistance, if required;
Trained staff numbers available in a particular school environment.
Ultimately, schools are responsible for ensuring that appropriate risk identification and risk
management processes are implemented throughout all curriculum areas. This is achieved by:
 A sound knowledge of the inherent risks associated with curriculum activities;
 Understanding of the range of controls measures that can be used;
 An ability to implement processes into the relevant curriculum context.
If, after all procedures have been followed, ITD teachers are still concerned that their allocated
class size numbers in a particular practical workspace activity might compromise WHS to an
unacceptably high or extreme level of personal risk, they must immediately report their
concerns to their ITD Head of Department, Subject Coordinator and Principal (or staffing
deputy).
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If ITD teachers and their HODs continue to face obstacles over “reasonably practicable” safe
class sizes allocations or fail to reach more favourable staffing resolutions, and their specific
WHS concerns remain unacceptably high, then it is important to be reminded that their
proposed curriculum activity must not be undertaken until such issues have been resolved.
To minimise any disruption to the curriculum and to ensure that teachers’ and students’ health
and safety is never compromised, ITD departments may, at times, need to reflect on their risk
control methods by investigating safer alternatives such as modifications to their curriculum
delivery including;


Modifying the complexity of the proposed activity;
Changing the environment or proposed workspace;

Utilising a more experienced, more competent or more qualified ITD staff member;

Or, as a last resort, it might be necessary to temporarily suspend a particular subject
offering from the ITD curriculum until such time as circumstances change.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on “Class Size Limits” for ITD
departments in Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

Working in DETE – Awards and Agreements

Qld IR Commission – DET Teachers’ Certified Agreement: 2010 (new window) 520k

QTU – Information Guidelines on Class Sizes (Jan 2012) (new window) 132k
Further Useful Resources:

Qld IR Commission – DET TAFE Teachers’ Certified Agreement: 2009 136k
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3.3
Workspace Layout
Many subjects taught in ITD expose the potential for hazardous situations to emerge if the work
environment is too restrictive or poorly prepared. Overcrowding should never be acceptable.
The overall size of any ITD workspace should be appropriate for its intended purpose.
The selection, procurement, placement and fit-out of machinery, plant and equipment will need
to comply with all manufacturer specifications, and all DETE requirements and procedures
regarding Workplace Health and Safety issues should never be compromised.

DETE SOA 100664A - Industrial Machinery for Industrial Technology and Design (Manual
Arts) use in Educational Facilities

DETE, Design Standards in DETE Facilities
New hazards may be introduced as a consequence of the introduction of new machinery, plant
and equipment, or modifications to existing machinery or plant. At such times, revised risk
assessments must be undertaken by the department.
3.3.1
Planning and Machinery Placement
ITD Plant and machinery that is poorly located or too close together may not be safe even
when it has been properly guarded. Some basic points to consider in relation to layout are to:














Avoid congestion around the machinery. Eliminate or minimise the necessity for
uncomfortable manoeuvrability in relation to operation, cleaning or routine maintenance;
Identify and define anticipated busy traffic areas, i.e. the regular movements of staff,
students and materials;
Safe working areas around fixed machines must also be clearly delineated. Painted
yellow floor lines 80mm wide are ideal;
Consider the length or overall dimensions of all materials likely to be machined. Table
saws, for example, require large floor space allocation to comfortably accommodate full
sheets of plywood and longer lengths of timber to be able to safely “feed in” and “tail out”
without any interference and obstruction;
Well-organized workspace planning must allow for a quick and efficient exit in case of fire
or other emergency;
Consider if any particular items of heavy-duty fixed plant or machinery will require electrical
connectivity to a 415 V – 3 phase power supply;
It is recommended that schools hard-wire all electrically powered fixed plant and machinery
to help minimise any electrical safety hazards;
If it can be avoided, do not located fixed machinery that are closely adjoining (particularly
back-to-back) in the centre of a workspace. Screening guards should be erected if no
alternative arrangements can be found. Proximity to natural window lighting must also be
considered;
Understand how any waste materials will be generated and consider the ease of
connection of plant and machinery to waste (dust) extraction filters or any integrated
ducting within the workspace;
Identify the room location and height of all wall mounted isolating switches for fixed
machinery items;
Investigate if any emergency stops buttons, direct-on-line (DOL) switches or perhaps micro
cut-offs on machinery guarding are required for machinery items in the workspace;
Plan the location of all wall mounted and suspended 240v power outlets of power tools;
Consider painting or defining all item of equipment that might protrude, such as bench
vices or guard rails, to alert workshop users to pass with caution;
Portable audio-visual equipment such as DVD players, laptops, multimedia digital
projectors, television monitors and speakers should be secured on stable trolleys or tables
away from traffic areas.
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Safe Work Zones:
Safe work zones around any ITD plant and machinery must be clearly delineated based on the
risk assessment of individual items of fixed and portable equipment. Teachers and planners
have to consider what injuries could result if an accident were to occur.
It should be noted that currently there are no Australian Standards that regulate a ‘Safe Work
Zone’ around plant and machinery. Australian Standard - AS 1318: 1995, references to an
Industrial Safety Colour Code. Different States legislation in WA, Qld, NSW and SA gives
reference to painted walkways and exclusion zones but no clear guidance. The emphasis
appears to be on engineered control measures or physical machinery guarding and barriers.
Although they are still required in all ITD workspaces, simply painting 80mm yellow safety lines
on floors relies to heavily on the human factor.
The Hare & Forbes – Machinery House website provides a very useful fully dimensioned,
supplier recommended, “Safe Working Area” diagram for each item of machinery, plant and
equipment offered of sale to Schools, TAFE College and Trade Training Centres throughout
Australia. This beneficial planning feature can be found in the “Overview” tab of the web page
below the description of the individual items.
Workspace “Machinery Layout Planner”:
The Department of Education, Training and Employment (DETE) is currently planning and
developing a workspace “Machinery Layout Planner” as an online interactive application
specifically for ITD teachers that will hopefully become a useful planning tool designed to assist
with:
• Appreciating and understanding the planning process for a more workable, efficient and
safer ITD workspace layout;
• Diagrammatical representations of DETE recommended “Safe Work Zones” clearly defining
appropriate ‘work safe’ zoning proportions around all ITD fixed machinery, welding and
construction courts, public assess pathways and storage areas.
In some ITD facilities these operational working areas are often incorrectly proportioned, poorly
delineated and, from a safety perspective, ineffectively planned and managed.
DETE Organisational Health Unit will notify all EQ schools when this resource is developed and
made available for online access.
Note: For more information and guidance on ITD workspace layout and requirements for
Queensland schools, refer to the following sections of this Guidelines document or other useful
links listed below:

Section 3.4.1: Workspace Conditions - “Ventilation Systems”

Section 3.5:

Section 3.6.3: “Safety Switching and Electrical Isolation Devices”

Section 5.1:

DETE, Design Standards in DETE Facilities

Queensland Building Act: 1975 (QLD) (new window) 1.31 MB

Australian Standards: AS 1428.1: 2009 – Design for Access and Mobility

Australian Standards: AS 1428.3: 2009 – Requirements for Children With a Disability
“Safety Signage”
“Purchasing of ITD Machinery, Plant and Equipment”
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3.3.2 Project Storage
ITD workspaces require the adequate, safe and effective storage of equipment, supplies,
project materials and student projects within their facility. Teachers should encourage an
organised approach, particularly for the storage of student projects in all practical workspaces,
considering the following:

Items should never be stored under workbenches and on top of cupboards if at all
possible. This does not facilitate safe and easy access and removal of these items;

Do not allow work areas to become cluttered by simply stacking student projects in a
corner of the room. In addition to being an unsafe practice, other classes may also be
using this workspace regularly;
The main storeroom that contains uncut lengths of timber should also be organised. Areas
between shelving should not be cluttered, and easy access should always be maintained.
Students should not be encouraged to store individual projects in these material
storerooms. This will simply add to any congestion and untidiness;
Store sharp and heavy projects at a low level;



Unused project materials either need to be disposed of or stored appropriately if they are to
be recycled and reused;

Mezzanine or elevated storage areas should be carefully planned and considered. A safety
audit should be completed and department HOD approval sought before any major
building construction is undertaken within the facility.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on ITD project storage
requirements in Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:



Building Code of Australia (BCA) – (web link at “Australian Building Codes Board”)
Australian Standards: AS 1428.1: 2009 – Design for Access and Mobility
Australian Standards: AS 1428.3: 2009 – Requirements for Children and Adolescents
with a Disability
Further Useful Resources:

Queensland Building Act: 1975 (QLD) (new window) 1.31 MB

DETE, Design Standards in DETE Facilities
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3.4
Workspace Conditions
In all ITD practical workspaces, safety factors are a priority consideration and schools have a
clear responsibility to ensure all reasonable precautions are taken to minimise risk to staff and
students. Effective housekeeping within the facility needs to be continually reviewed. For
example, the common practice of simply sweeping wood waste, dust and metal filings etc. from
work benches onto the floor for the cleaners to then remove at the end of the day, should be
discouraged. ‘Good practice’ must be the aim.
•
Students should be encouraged to place all rubbish from their particular practical activities
directly into a waste bin at the conclusion of each session;

Exits from buildings and other work areas must be suitably signed and access to them
kept clear of obstructions;

Fire extinguishers of the correct type must be readily available and suitably signed –
preferably small models for ease of handling. Staff must be trained in their use;

Furniture such as portable workstations and benches should be regularly checked for
practical suitability, structural soundness and be well maintained;

Observe safety signs and marked safety zones at all times. Use extra caution when
accompanying visitors on the premises;
Excessive, irritating and potentially toxic airborne dust from wood machining and other
environmental volatile fumes and vapours must be controlled effectively;


Industrial noise from various machines, plant and equipment, or the amplified percussion
sounds from the use of hand tools, can damage hearing and must be controlled.


The floors can become very slippery when any rubbish is “left for the cleaners”;
Ensure that machine safety guards are always in place and well maintained;

Be extremely careful when handling all chemicals and hazardous materials;

Overalls and aprons become covered with dust and metal filings etc. when they are thrown
onto the floors instead of be stored away in appropriate locker storage;
Discarded shoes and work boots should never be left laying around in rooms;


Students’ half finished projects need adequate storage space. It is often a challenge for
staff to find enough room to safely accommodate these, sometimes very large, items.
3.4.1
Ventilation Systems
Ventilation systems in ITD workspaces can be of two main types. When the airborne
contaminants comprise of low to moderately toxic materials (or dusts) generated in smaller
amounts, general forced dilution ventilation, such as a number of open windows, or an
extracted air system that complies with Australian Standards AS 1668.2, can be used as a
control measure - with careful monitoring.
Where airborne contaminants and finer wood dusts are generated in moderate to large
quantities or comprise of toxic materials, then a forced exhaust ventilation system is strongly
recommended. Many schools already use this system. Australian Standards AS 1668.2 might
be used for guide when considering the installation of a ducted or forced exhaust dust
ventilation system in your facility.
In either situation, the fresh air circulation or the exhaust ventilation system adopted for your
particular circumstances should be capable of reducing the level of airborne contaminants in
such a way that staff, students and others are not exposed to more than the relevant exposures
specified in the National Exposure Standards for Atmospheric Contaminants in Workplace
Environments.
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3.4.2
Environmental Dust and Dust Extraction
(refer also to Section 6.3; ‘Wood Dust & Toxic Timbers’)
In the average ITD practical workspace and associated environments, there will be present
many different identifiable types of dusts.
Dust is an irritant that will cause personal discomfort and health problems. It can even trigger
allergic reactions resulting in occupational asthma, rhinitis or other forms of severe respiratory
distress. A detailed description of the health concerns associated with exposure to dust can be
referenced at Hazardous Materials – Section 6.3.1 ‘Health Concerns and Symptoms’. Dust is
usually generated by a variety of mechanical and chemical processes, such as:

Sawing, routing, woodturning, sanding, drilling, grinding, welding, fibreglassing;

Cleaning down with compressed air;

Dry sweeping of floors, walls, ceiling fans or machinery;

Repairing machines or during routine maintenance work;

Cleaning or disturbing carpets, rugs and floor mats or using cotton waste and rags;

Internal combustion engines adding fumes and particulate matter into the atmosphere.
Wood dust is of particular concern and can be created when processing and preparing natural
timbers, particle boards, medium density fibre boards (MDF) or laminated products such as
plywoods and beams. The micro fine dust particulates released are so fine they can easily be
inhaled. Teachers, staff and students are at persistent risk of breathing in large amounts of
damaging fine wood dust particulates whenever timber is being handled or machined in any
typical ITD workspace environment. In fact, in Australia all wood dust is now classified as
carcinogenic – Group 1 (liable to cause cancer). In the interests of maintaining a safe working
environment, it is recommended that workplace exposures to all wood dust should not exceed
1.0 mg/m3.
Risks and Control Measures:
Schools have an obligation to effectively manage all known or perceived risks that can be
associated with exposure to excessive dust in ITD workspaces. Control measures need to be
introduced to ensure that the levels of dust particles in the air do not exceed national exposure
standards and limits. These are known as Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL). This is a
measure of air quality or airborne dust concentration in a particular workspace.
Where concerns exist, air quality can be tested by a qualified examiner using a real-time
monitor (e.g. Casella Microdust Pro ®), and is recorded as “milligrams of wood dust per cubic
meter of air, and at 25°C, as a time weighted average” (calculated over a normal working day).
The best protection from dust is to keep it out of the air in the first place by applying effective
hazard control measures. Effective controls that will help minimise health risks are:


If possible, use timbers that are less likely to cause any health issues;
Minimise the generation of, and exposure to, excessive wood dusts in the atmosphere;

If possible, when using machines and portable power tools, capture any loose waste and
dust at the point of generation. This is best achieved using vacuum or exhaust extraction
systems specifically designed to fit the machine or equipment;

Maintain effective natural ventilation; or consider a professionally designed and installed,
fully ducted exhaust ventilation dust extraction and external collection system for your ITD
facility. This will maintain maximum control over dust levels throughout the facility by
removing airborne contaminants from the environment at their source.

Be aware of how much dust is being produced. Teachers and students may need more
protection when working wood at high speeds. Machine sanding causes more dust
exposure than hand sanding because a larger area can be sanded in the same time;

Maintain a good housekeeping schedule. Where possible, have cleaning staff keep all
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



surfaces such as floors, walls, machinery, the tops of storage cupboards, fans, filters and
accessible ceiling cavities free of dust accumulation;
Don’t use compressed air when cleaning machinery. This will simply put more dust into
the air. Instead, use wet clean-up methods such as wiping surfaces with a wet rag, or
have your ITD cleaning staff use a vacuum cleaner with a HEPA filter;
Always securely bag and seal wood dust waste, and dispose of waste safely;
Remember that concentrations of small dust particles in the air can form a mixture that will
explode if ignited. This situation may occur in dust collection equipment. Dust will
generally burn easily if ignited. Overheated motors or sparks have been known to start
wood dust fires;
Provide and always wear correct PPE such as a good dust mask or respirator. It is
important to remember that any PPE should be the last control measure to be chosen
from the hierarchy of control. This is because simply wearing appropriate and effective
PPE does not actually remove the hazard.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on environment dust hazards and
controls measures in Queensland schools, and recommended PPE for dust and respiratory
protection, refer to:

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – ‘Hazards in Schools – Dust’

DETE, ‘Design Standards in DETE Facilities’

DETE, CHW Audit Checklist – ‘Building Fire Safety’ (2011)

Adopted National Exposure Standards for Atmospheric Contaminants 612k

WorkSafe WA – ‘Controlling Wood Dust Hazards at Work’ (new window) 20k
Further Useful Resources:

Australian Wood Panels Assosiation Inc. (2005) – ‘Wood Dust’ (new window) 612k

University of Sydney (thesis) – ‘Exposure to Wood Dust’ (new window) 1.38 MB

Australian Standards: AS/NZS 1715: 2009 – Selection, Use and Maintenance of
Respiratory Protection Devices

Australian Standards: AS/NZS 1716: 2012 – Respiratory Protection Devices
3.4.3
Industrial Noise
(refer also to Section 4.2.3; ‘Personal Protective Equipment – Hearing Protection’)
High noise levels are usually unwanted sound that may, in time, damage one’s hearing. The
loudness of noise is measured in decibel units (dB). For example, the hum of a refrigerator
motor is about 40 dB, normal conversation can be approximately 60 dB, and heavy city traffic
noise can be 85 dB and above. An angle grinder will often measure 95dB and a pneumatic
hammer, 105 dB. In a typical ITD practical workspace, particularly in the senior school, noise
levels could well reach levels of 95 dB or more and at times, could well be sustained for hours.
These intolerable noises levels that teachers and students can often be exposed to are
extremely damaging to our health and hearing and must be controlled.
The harmful effects of exposure to high noise levels have been well documented. ITD
departments need to clearly identify those activities or any plant and equipment that might
generate excessive noise levels and then implement affirmative measures to help remove the
exposure hazards and prevent the harmful effects.
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Schools have an obligation to effectively manage all known or perceived risks that can be
associated with exposure to excessive noise in ITD workspaces. Effective management of loud
industrial noise in ITD departments should be directed at minimising the health risks by
including control measures such as:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Acknowledging that workspaces utilising hand tools such as hammers and mallets on
metal surfaces can generate excessively amplified percussion noise levels often higher
that of some machinery, plant and equipment;
Evaluating how long we are exposed each day in these noisy environments;
Limiting or avoiding exposure to loud noises (i.e. 85 dB and above) wherever possible;
Researching and determining noise levels of plant and equipment prior to their purchase
and trying to 'buy quiet';
Redesigning curriculum activities, general maintenance tasks and the placement of specific
machines so that staff and students are not exposed to loud noise over extended periods –
for example, air compressors should be located in a separate enclosure;
Regularly maintaining plant and equipment to help reduce their high noise levels;
Prominently displaying safety signs indicating that personal hearing protection (PPE)
should be worn;
Provision of PPE and training for relevant staff and students in the correct use of
appropriate hearing protection – (rated to Class 2 for noise exposure up to 95 decibel
units)
It is important to remember that any PPE should be the last control measure to be chosen
from the hierarchy of control. This is because simply wearing appropriate and effective PPE
does not actually remove the hazard.
Hearing protection only works when it is worn correctly, is the right type and is well maintained.
It is therefore important to manage PPE properly to ensure maximum protection.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on industrial noise hazards and
controls measures in Qld. Schools, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, CHW – ‘Hazards in Schools – Noise’

DETE, Fact Sheet – Managing Noise for ITD Teachers & Teacher Aides’ 124

DETE, ‘Design Standards in DETE Facilities’

Managing Noise & Preventing Hearing Loss at Work – Code of Practice: 2011 560k
Further Useful Resources;

DETE, CHW Checklist – ‘Reviewing Noisy Environments in Schools’ 121k

DETE, CHW Fact Sheet – ‘Noise Induced Hearing Loss’ (new window) 100k
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3.4.4
Flooring
The workspace floors in most ITD facilities are a hard-wearing smooth concrete finish. Ideally
they should also be impact resistant, slip resistant and have an easy to clean surface. The
Department of Education, Queensland has trialled a thin roll coat system and, more recently, a
seamless resin system – e.g. Flowcoat SF41® Composite (Flowcrete®). These epoxy
workspace floors not only offer superior durability, they are also non-slip, very easily cleaned
and resistant to most chemicals, oils, fats and greases. Whatever flooring schools have at
present, ITD teachers must be aware of some basic housekeeping and floor maintenance
considerations. If practical workspaces and classrooms are to remain safe, consider the
following:

Workspace floors should be non-slip under normal circumstances and area managers
should ensure they are maintained to reduce the occurrence of slips, trips and falls. Never
have hard, smooth floors in wet, dusty or oily areas;


Check for any leaks of fluid on to the floor from activities or machines, etc.;
Don’t allow poor drainage to cause pooling of fluids such as waste water;

Be aware of any floor surface transitions that are sudden or not easily noticed;

Safe working areas around fixed machines must be clearly delineated — painted 80mm
wide yellow lines are ideal.
Maintain all painted anti-slip floor areas, coating profiles and yellow safety lines as they
may be become worn, damaged and ineffective;
Carpeted areas in Graphics or Theory Rooms that might be lifting at the seams and joins,
or have loose or lifting tiles etc. must be repaired promptly;
There should never be any raised carpet edges, corners of mats, holes worn in carpets,
linoleum, broken or raised tiles;




Highlight any isolated low steps that might become an unexpected tripping point.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on safe workplace flooring
requirements in Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – ‘Hazards in Schools’

DETE, ‘Design Standards in DETE Facilities’

DETE, CHW Fact Sheet – ‘Preventing Slips, Trips and Falls’ (new window) 546k
Further Useful Resources:

Australian Standards: AS 1264.1: 2007 – Safety Requirements for Workplace Surfaces

Australian Standards: AS/NZS 3661.2: 1994 – Slip Resistance of Pedestrian Surfaces
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3.4.5
Lighting
Proper lighting not only helps teachers and students see better while doing their work, but it can
also help prevent health issues, improve productivity and create an overall better working
environment. If practical workspaces and classrooms in ITD are to remain healthy, safe and
productive, consider the following:

Improper lighting in a work environment can cause health-related issues. Eye strain and
headaches are the most common lighting-related ailments;

Inadequate lighting can also cause fatigue and physical stress. One example of poor
lighting having a detrimental effect on workers is how well the eyes adjust from looking at a
computer screen then looking at paperwork;

Sufficient and even lighting can reduce the impact of having to readjust our focus in
changing light variations;

Exposure to adequate light levels can boost melatonin production in the body, which can
help relieve fatigue and improve productivity;
Sufficient and appropriate lighting goes beyond productivity and health effects such as
fatigue and eye strain. A poorly lit practical workspace such as in ITD can cause
accidents. Shadowy areas and glare can lead to trips, falls and other injuries;
Plan the workspace lighting based on what tasks will be done in the area. For example,
electronics workstations with poor lighting could result in poor soldering, improper
measurements, burns, eye strain and fatigue;



Paint practical workspace walls a light colour, such as cream, in order to maximise
available light reflection;

Plan to maximise natural lighting. Make full use of daylight coming in through windows,
doors or skylights. Position workstations near windows and areas where natural sunlight is
available. Not only can this reduce the need for artificial lighting, but it also creates a good
working environment.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on adequate workplace lighting
requirements in Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces: ‘Hazards in Schools – Electrical’

DETE, ‘Design Standards in DETE Facilities’

Electrical Safety Act: 2002 (new window) 885.3k
Further Useful Resources:

Australian Standards: AS/NZS 1680.2.3: 2008 – Interior and Workplace Lighting for
Educational and Training facilities.

Australian Standards: AS/NZS 1680.4: 2001 – Emergency Exit Lighting

Australian Standards: AS 2293 Set: 2005 – Interior Lighting – Maintenance of Lighting
Systems
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3.5
Safety Signage
There are many safety signs that can be found in the workplace. Each workplace will have
different signs depending on the environment. It is important that ITD teachers understand the
most common signs and their correct application.
3.5.1 Classifications and Usage
Safety signage is generally classified according to specific function:

Regulatory and Mandatory signs:

Hazard and Danger signs:

Information, Instructional and Emergency signs:

Fire Equipment and Services signs:
Whenever safety signs are purchased or prepared for display in a workspace, teachers should
always use them in accordance with recognised Australian Standards - AS1319: 1994.
Workplace safety signage for the ITD department should be:
•
Displayed in all areas where it has been determined that mandatory PPE is required due to
the perceived risks associated with any ITD curriculum activity, general departmental
workshop processes or associated environmental hazards;
•
Located prominently in specific work areas, at eye level and always in a well-lit position so
they are clearly visible to all approaching staff, students and visitors;
•
Located ahead of the hazard to allow time for approaching persons to heed the warning;
•
Worded simply, precisely, and where possible, positively expressed;
•
Sized appropriately so that the safety messages are legible and clearly evident;
•
Coloured using the standard colours reserved for specific classifications of signs are show
below and should be the predominate colour in the sign. Standard sign colours are RED,
YELLOW, BLUE and GREEN.
1.
Regulatory and Mandatory signs:

Mandatory Signs indicate that the message, usually depicting the use
of personal protective equipment (PPE), must be followed. These
signs usually incorporate a white symbol within a blue disk. Usually
contained within the message is the word “MUST”.


2.
Australian Standards - AS1319: 1994 – Mandatory Signs
Prohibition Signs indicate actions or activities that are NOT permitted.
These signs usually incorporate a white background with a red annulus
(circle) and slash symbol.

Australian Standards - AS1319: 1994 – Prohibition Signs
Hazard, Caution and Danger Signs:

Hazard Warning and Caution Signs indicate that care is necessary
because of possible dangers or to warn of unsafe practices. These
signs usually incorporate a yellow equilateral triangle within a black
enclosure.


Australian Standards - AS1319: 1994 – Warning & Caution Signs
Danger Signs warn of specific immediate or existing hazards. These
signs usually incorporate the word “Danger” in white letters on a red
oval within a black background.

Australian Standards - AS1319: 1994 – Danger Signs
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
Dangerous Goods Code Signs refer to the Australian Dangerous
Goods Code (ADG7) and state government "Dangerous Goods,
Storage and Handling” Regulations.


Hazard Pictograms refer to the newly introduced visual warning
symbols of the Globally Harmonised System (GHS) for the classification
and labelling of Chemicals. These symbols must appear on all
chemical substance labelling, re-labelling and all SDS (if required).


GHS approved under Section 274 of the WHS Act: 2011
HAZCHEM Signs include a three digit, alphanumeric code, usually
displayed only when transporting or storing larger qualities of any
hazardous chemical or substance. This signage provides all initial
emergency response information.

3.
Australian Standards - AS1216: 2006 – Dangerous Goods Signs
Australian Standards - AS1216: 2006 – HAZCHEM Signs
Information, Instructional and Emergency Signs:

Disability Information Signs indicate access or facilities for disabled,
less mobile or visually impaired people: They are often blue and white in
colour.
As of 2002 these signs must comply with a range of Australian
Standards as referenced in the Disability Transport Standards (under
the Disability Discrimination Act 1992)
4.

Emergency Information Signs indicate the location of first aid
equipment, safety devices, emergency exits, etc. These signs usually
incorporate a green rectangle with a white symbol and text within a
white enclosure.

Australian Standards - AS1319: 1994 – Instructional Signs

Information or Notice Signs indicate such facilities as the Office,
Parking, Teacher Only areas, etc. Although these signs are not
regulated by an Australian Standard, they are produced here due to
popular demand. They mainly convey information of a general nature.
Fire Equipment and Services Signs:

Fire Equipment and Services Signs indicate the location of fire
extinguishes, fire blankets and hose reels, etc. These signs usually
incorporate a white legend and border within a red rectangle.

Australian Standards - AS1319: 1994 – Fire Signs

DETE Audit Checklist – ‘Building Fire Safety’ (2011)
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3.5.2
Workplace Safety Colour Codes
Standardised colours and shapes have been designed to attract our attention and Australian
Standards advise that particular “Safety Colours” are to be used extensively throughout ITD
departments in schools as part of our regularly accident prevention strategies or control
measures.

Australian Standards AS1318: 1985 – SAA Industrial Safety Colour Code

Australian Standards AS1345: 1995 – Identification of Piping, Conduits & Ducts

Australian Standards AS2700: 2011 – Colour Standards for General Purposes
These standard safety colour codes can be used to discern physical hazards and identify your
risk management controls on and around machinery, plant and equipment. They are also used
to clearly identify the contents of piping, conduits and ducts present in your work environment.
Some of the messages that safety colour codes are intended to communicate are:
•
Red R13 (safety red) – conveys “Danger” or “Beware” such as;
• Flashing red lights signifying that an immediate danger exists;
• The location of fire protection equipment such alarms, hoses and extinguishers;
• Electrical stop buttons or Emergency stop controls;
• Containers of flammable liquids;
• The possible presence of excessive heat such as hot surfaces.
• Fire safety equipment – hose reels, blankets, extinguishers, etc.
•
Yellow Y15 (sunflower yellow) – conveys “Hazard”, “Caution” or “Attention” such as;
 The lines painted on the floor around all fixed machinery clearly drawing attention to
the hazard and delineating a “Safe Working Area” for the operator – 80mm wide solid
colour bright sunflower yellow lines are ideal, (or bright yellow with black 45º stripes);
 The interior of a machinery safety guard should be painted yellow;
 Drawing attention to fixtures or low beams which might be accidentally struck;
 Y14 (golden yellow) – Ionizing Radiation hazards exist;
Orange X15 (light orange) – conveys “Electrical Safety” such as Electrical conduits.

Blue B23 (bright blue) – conveys information of a general nature in places and on
subjects such as;
 Toilets, wash rooms, entrances, admin office, storerooms, etc.;
 Disability access;
 Mandatory PPE guidelines;
 B24 (mid-blue) – Potable or fresh drinking water;
Purple P24/23 (jacaranda / lilac) – denotes service pipes for treated recycled water;

Green G21 (jade) – conveys safety generally and indicates the location of devices,
equipment and resources such as;
• Start buttons on machinery, plant and equipment;
• First Aid cabinets, respiratory and revival equipment, school nurses station (Sick Bay);
• Exit Signs and emergency evacuation route.
When teachers and students are aware of the hazards around them and take the necessary
precautions, the possibility of an injury, illness or other loss is minimised. However, while
safety signs and workshop colour coding is valuable in the warning of hazards, they are never
to be considered a substitute for eliminating or reducing those hazards, whenever possible.
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3.6
Electrical Safety
The safety of students, staff and others using electrical equipment is of paramount importance
and there are legislative requirements that must be followed to ensure electrical safety. All
electrically operated equipment used in schools must be wired and manufactured to Australian
Standards specifications, i.e. AS3100: 1994 and AS3300: 1992 and must conform to the
provisions of the Qld. Electrical Act and Regulations.
3.6.1 Regulatory Electrical Requirements for ITD Workspaces
Specific electrical regulatory requirements apply to all ITD workspaces, as follows:

Double adaptors and piggy-back plugs must never be used;

240v electrical equipment must never be used around wet areas. (Only battery powered
or non-powered equipment may be used);

Double insulated equipment must be tested and tagged every 12 months and connected
to a fixed safety switch (e.g. hand-held drill or angle grinder);

Non-double insulated equipment must be tested and tagged every 6 months and
connected to a fixed safety switch (e.g. drill press, lathe or bench grinder);

All ITD classroom workshop areas must have fixed electrical safety switches or a Residual
Current Device (RCD);
All external freestanding storage sheds and workspaces must have either a fixed or
portable RCD;


Fixed RCD must be tested every 6 months by the school and every 12 months by a
licensed electrician;

Portable RCD must be tested regularly by the school and every 12 months by a licensed
electrician as part of your scheduled ‘Test ‘n’ Tag’ program;

Multi-outlet portable power boards (EPOD) must be tested regularly by the school and
every 12 months by a licensed electrician as part of your scheduled ‘Test ‘n’ Tag’ program;
Electrical power leads and plugs must be tested regularly by the school and every 12
months by a licensed electrician as part of your scheduled ‘Test ‘n’ Tag’ program. If power
leads are showing damage in any way they must be immediately taken out of service until
tested;


For high use, heavy duty and welding areas, leads must be tested every 6 months;

In between testing and tagging, during normal use of equipment, electrical leads, plugs and
EPODs should be visually inspected for damage when machines or power tools are
undergoing routine maintenance (housekeeping) or when removed from storage for use.

Fixed ‘heavy-duty’ machinery is often supplied with a 415 volt 3-phase motor. 240 volt
single-phase motors are more common for smaller fixed machines, plant and equipment
and applications requiring less forceful operation or performance. It is recommended that
schools hard-wire all fixed or stationary machinery to minimise electrical safety hazards.
Because of the risk of damage to some machinery wiring, it may also be necessary for
your electrician to provide additional protection by using appropriate, heavy duty wiring
conduit.
Note: Only a licensed electrical contractor can be responsible for the installing of hard-wired
machinery, plant and equipment. A certificate of compliance must be provided to the school by
the licensed electrician on completion of any installation.
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3.6.2 Testing and Tagging
The Electrical Safety Act and Regulations 2002 requires that all portable electrical appliances,
electrical hand tools, extension leads, multi-point power boards and RCDs (Safety Switches)
need to be tested regularly to ensure the safety of all staff and students that may use them.
Each piece of equipment must pass a series of tests to prove that they are electrically safe.
Specialist metering equipment will ascertain the insulation resistance, earth continuity, electrical
continuity and the integrity of the earth conductor. A visual and mechanical test is also
required. Once a piece of equipment has been tested it will have an approved ‘tag’ affixed to
the power lead which will clearly show the test date and the next scheduled test and inspection
date.
A regularly scheduled ‘Testing ‘n’ Tagging’ program for all portable ITD
power tools and equipment is the responsibility of each school.
The intervals required for these inspections are:
•
•

•
Once every 12 months – for double-insulated electrical equipment
such as most commonly used portable power tools;
Once every 6 months – for non double-insulated electrical equipment;
Once every 6 months – for multi-outlet portable power boards;
Once every 6 months – for electrical power leads, (extension leads)
Any ‘Testing ‘n’ Tagging’ procedure must be completed in accordance with
Australian Standards - AS/NZS 3760 and AS/NZS 3012, and carried out by a licenced electrical
contractor.
Equipment that fails testing must be immediately taken out of service and an “OUT OF
SERVICE” or “DANGER” tag attached, warning others not to use the equipment.
Remember that it is also an offence under the Electrical Safety Act 2002 to repair electrical
equipment unless you have the appropriate electrical work licence.
3.6.3 Safety Switching and Electrical Isolation Devices
1. Electrical Safety Switches, or Residual Current Devices (RCD), protects people against
shocks from an electrical current passing through their body to earth. This is the most frequent
cause of electrocution.
Electrical Safety switches are also known as:

Residual Current Device (RCD)

Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB)

Earth Leakage Device (ELD)
All ITD portable power equipment must be connected through one of the
following:
•
An electrical safety switch permanently installed at a switchboard;
•
A portable electrical safety switch (power pack) when not in a
permanent workplace (e.g. working around the school or an outdoor
practical teaching space).
Regular operational checks are required for safety switches permanently installed at the
switchboard. This should be a simple “push button test” by a staff member every 6 months and
an “operating current test” by an electrical contractor every 12 months. Portable safety
switches should have the “push button test” by a staff member every time they are used and
then an “operating current test” every 12 months by an electrical contractor.
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2. Isolating Switch: All fixed machinery must have a functional individual isolating switch
that disconnects all motive power and that conforms to Australian Standards - AS1543: 1985.
The isolating switch must:
•
•
•
•
Have one ON and one OFF position only;
Be clearly marked with ON and OFF, (or O and I );
Have a means of locking-off in the OFF position only (particularly for
maintenance lock-out and situations where an increased risk is present);
Be mounted prominently in a clean and dry location, easily accessible
about 1.5 metres from the floor and protected from any accidental
damage.
3. DOL Starter Switches: All fixed machinery must be fitted with effective and robust control
equipment for use by the operator in the form of a Direct-on-Line (DOL) Start/Stop switch.
Such devices must conform to Australian Standards - AS1318 and AS1543: 1985.
The START button must be:
•
Any other colour but RED (the recommended colour is GREEN);
•
Flush or recessed slightly to prevent accidental starting;
•
Identified by the word START or the symbol “I”.
The STOP button must be:
•
RED in colour;
•
Identified by the word STOP or by the symbol “O”.
Note: the Direct-on-Line (DOL) switch must have a No - Volt / Low Release relay with thermal
overload protection incorporated into the circuitry. This ensures that once power is lost the
machine cannot re-start again until the START button is deliberately activated.
4. Emergency Stop Device (E-stop): An emergency stop device will be fitted to machinery
where the manufacturer has considered it necessary or when a departmental risk assessment
determines that the machine would be more safely operated by students with the fitting of an
emergency stop button. The device must conform to Australian Standards - AS4024.1: 1996
and AS1543: 1985.
An emergency stop device must:
•
•
•
•
•
Be fitted in addition to the DOL Start/Stop device (not as an
alternative to the DOL);
Have a large button, preferably with a mushroom shaped head, that
can be hit in an emergency;
Be of the latch-in type so that the machine cannot restart until reset;
Be pressed only in emergency and not used for normal stopping;
Be located and mounted in a readily accessible, conveniently close
location and yet where it will not be accidentally knocked and
triggered; (often knee-high is considered conveniently close for
hurried and reactive hands-free emergency activation.)
5. Micro-switches: Micro-switches fitted to machinery safety guarding and access
covers will help ensure that the machine is affectively disabled when the guarding or
cover is lifted or accessed. Schools are advised to consider retro-fitting microswitched interlocking guards to all ITD plant and machinery in their facility that is not
already protected, to eliminate uncontrolled access.
Note: DETE requires that all new ITD machinery, plant and equipment purchased
through DETE SOA 100664A arrangements will have all of these safety switching
devices pre-fitted by the supplier prior to installation and commissioning.
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3.6.4 Lockout of Machinery, Plant and Equipment
Lockout is the term applied to a system or procedure designed to control all situations where
the unexpected start-up or release of stored energy of the machinery, equipment or process
(energising) would be likely to endanger or injure personnel. It may also be used to refer to the
actual task of applying proper locks.
Danger Tags and Out of Service Tags:
The accidental operation of machinery, plant and equipment undergoing installation,
commissioning, repair, maintenance or cleaning could represent a severe hazard. In order to
prevent or at least minimise the risk, an OUT OF SERVICE tag and a DANGER tag should be
implemented as part of a lock-out system.
“CAUTION – DO NOT OPERATE” or “OUT OF SERVICE” tags are
normally yellow and black. They must be fixed to the isolating control
and should include the reason for being out of service. The tags must
be in place BEFORE any danger tags are attached and they should be
the last notice or tag removed before the plant and equipment is
restarted.
“DANGER – DO NOT OPERATE” tags are normally red and black. They
are used to warn people about hazards associated with a particular item
of machinery, plant or equipment. After isolating the machine, the danger
tag must be printed with all appropriate information detailing any
identified hazards and securely attached to the isolating control. Once
the safety of all personnel is ensured, the person who attached the
danger tag must be responsible for the removal of that tag.
Multi-padlock Safety Lockout Hasps:
Multi-padlock safety lockout hasps are often used when several
individuals might apply their own padlock to the one isolating control
device. Each lock must be identified and personally tagged to fully
explain each individual’s safety concerns and circumstances.
For example, if a number of different maintenance personnel, such
as private contractors, are to be working on a particular item of
machine, plant or equipment, they could apply their own individual
lock to the lockout hasp (besides the danger tag) and then remove
their lock separately only when they are satisfied the safety of all
personnel is assured.
Note: For more information and guidance on the electrical switching requirements, isolation
and lockout devices for ITD machinery, plant and equipment, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – “Hazards in Schools – Electrical”

DETE, Fact Sheet – ‘Managing Electrical Safety in Schools’ (new window) 592k

DETE, CHW Checklist – ‘Guide to Managing Electrical Safety’ (new window) 66k

DETE, ‘Design Standards in DETE Facilities’
Further Useful Resources:

Electrical Safety in Qld Schools – What is a Competent Person? (new window) 115k

Electrical Requirements for Machinery (Sth Aust) – Fact Sheet (new window) 172k
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3.7
Fire Safety
Accidental fires in ITD facilities should be preventable. They are typically caused by:

Open flames coming in contact with combustible rubbish;

Gas welding and cutting;

Portable heaters or ovens being left on and unattended;

Hot surfaces and sparks from machinery components and machining processes;

Faulty electrical equipment;

Incorrect use of storage of chemicals;

Static electricity;
It is of vital importance that teachers understand their responsibilities in the event of any
emergency situation including any accidental fire in their practical workshops or classrooms.

DETE, CHW Audit Checklist – ‘Building Fire Safety’ (2011)
•
All EQ schools will have an Emergency Management Plan that will identify key personnel
as controllers. Familiarise yourself with your emergency control team;

It is the duty of the Principal to ensure that all staff and students have been thoroughly
drilled in the procedures to be adopted in the event of an emergency of any type, anywhere
in the school;
Fire evacuation drills must be carried out regularly by the school administration;
The facilities and all surrounding areas should have an audible emergency fire and
evacuation alarm system;







The first response to a potentially significant ITD fire, or to the school’s fire alarm, must be
for teachers to move all students out of the facility to a safe position as quickly as possible
and to maintain supervision of them;
Escape routes and exits to be used in case of emergency must be planned, clearly
marked, kept clear of obstruction at all times;
No door should be so securely locked as to prevent it being opened from the inside while a
workroom is occupied by students;
At least one appropriate fire extinguisher and a fire blanket must be supplied and installed
in a practical workspace where a fire hazard exists.
When a fire has occurred in a classroom, and it has not been serious enough to warrant
evacuation, the teacher must report the incident to the Principal, through the HOD, and
with full details, actions taken, possible causes and any follow-up preventative
recommendations.
3.7.1
General Precautions for ITD Departments

Fire extinguishers of the correct type must be readily available — preferably small, portable
models for ease of handling — and all ITD staff must be trained in their use;

Fire extinguishers must be positioned near exit doors and outside of storerooms;
Fire blankets must be sited near exit doors;




Workspace layout must also allow for a quick and efficient exit in case of fire or other
emergencies;
Safety signage should clearly denote the locations of all fire safety items such as fire
extinguishers, fire hoses, fire blankets, exits, evacuation routes and first-aid kits;
Avoid the accumulation of fine wood dust on the top of storage cupboards and shelves.
Fine wood dust poses an explosion and fire hazard in all workspaces;
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
Spray painting booths should have filters inspected and changed regularly and must have
an approved fire extinguisher in immediate proximity to each booth. Any ignition sources
should be identified and isolate, including static electricity. Any lights and switches must
be spark proof;

Always store resins, catalysts and other volatiles in fireproof storerooms. Fires involving
such substances should be extinguished with carbon dioxide or dry powder appliances;

Beware of spontaneous combustion. Incidences of fire resulting from “clean up” rags
discarded in the corner of a workspace igniting spontaneously have occurred at several
schools. This usually occurs as a chemical reaction between the substance on the rag and
the surrounding air;

Ensure that during the end of year clean-up, any rags that are saturated with oils, volatile
solvents or oil-based paints are disposed of safely to minimise the risk of fire. Hot weather
during the Christmas holiday break can contribute to creating the perfect conditions for
spontaneous combustion.
FUEL + HEAT + OXYGEN = FIRE
3.7.2
Fire Extinguishes – Types and Uses
Portable fire extinguishes must be of the correct type for the particular fire, and they must be
used correctly. There are a number of types of extinguishers available in Australia and each
type is rated for one or more classes of fire. The classes of fire are as follows;

Class A - Ordinary combustible materials such as wood, paper, textiles and rubber;

Class B - Flammable and combustible liquids such as petrol or thinners;

Class C - Flammable gases;

Class D - Combustible metals such as magnesium or potassium;

Class E - Electrically energized equipment such plant, machinery or switchboards;

Class F
- Hot oils and cooking fats.
Portable fire extinguishers are distinguished by their labels and
their colouring. In 1999 the standard colours of some portable
extinguishers were changed. It is therefore likely that you may
encounter two of the same type of extinguisher with different
identifying colouring.
Older types of fire extinguishers include the solid yellow coloured Halon 1211 (BCF) or (Freon
12B1) extinguishers. It must be noted that these have been banned and should be returned to
a fire protection supplier or fire brigade as soon as possible for save destruction.
The most common types of extinguishers available today are:

Water
- Solid Red;
Suitable for Class A fires only. They are not considered effective for Class B
or C fires, and are dangerous if used for electrical, oil or fat fires.

Foam
- Red with a Blue band or label (previously solid blue);
Suitable for Class A and Class B fires, and have limited effectiveness for Class
F fires. They are not considered effective for Class C fires, and are dangerous
if used for electrically energised equipment.

Powder - Red with a White band or label;
These extinguishers are rated as either ABE or BE. ABE types are considered
suitable for Class A, B,C & E fires. They are not effective on Class F fires.
BE type extinguishers are considered suitable for Class B, C & E fires, and
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may be used with limited effectiveness on Class F fires - (they are also
considered effective for Class A fires).

CO2

Vaporising Liquid - Red with a Yellow band or label;
Suitable for Class A and Class E fires, and have limited effectiveness for Class
B fires. They are not considered effective for Class F fires.

Wet Chemical - Red with an Oatmeal band or label;
Suitable for Class F and are also considered effective for most Class A fires.
They are not considered effective for Class C fires, and are dangerous if used
for electrically energised equipment.

Class D fires (involving combustible metals) will require special purpose sodium
chloride or copper based dry chemical extinguishers. These are NOT currently
available in EQ schools.
- Red with a Black band or label;
Suitable for Class E fires, and have limited effectiveness for Class A, B & F
fires.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on Fire Safety requirements in
Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, PPR – ‘Emergency Planning’

DETE, OnePortal – ‘Fire Safety for Schools’

DETE, CHW Audit Checklist – ‘Building Fire Safety’ (2011)

DETE, CHW Fact Sheet – ‘Fire Safety Instruction for Schools’ (2009)

DETE, Fact Sheet – ‘End of Year Clean-up – Preventing Fires During Vacation’ 92k

Queensland Fire & Rescue Service – Fire Safety in Schools

Queensland Fire & Rescue Service – Fire Safety Products

Guide to The Selection & Location of Portable Fire Extinguishers (new window) 781k
Further Useful Resources:

Qld Fire & Rescue Service, Local Fires Services – Regional Contact Details

DETE, CHW, Hazards in Schools – ‘Electrical’

DETE, Design Standards in DETE Facilities
Relevant Australian Standards:

Australian Standards: AS 1674.1: 1990 – Fire Prevention & Control Procedures

Australian Standards: AS 2444: 2001 – Portable Fire Extinguishers & Blankets


Australian Standards: AS 1851: 2005 – Maintenance of Fire Protection Equipment
Australian Standards: AS 1940: 1993 – The Storage & Handling of Combustibles

Australian Standards: AS 1596: 2002 – The Storage & Handling of LP Gas

Australian Standards: AS 2118.1: 1999 – Automatic Fire Sprinkler Systems
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4.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Personal protective equipment (PPE) is designed to be worn by an individual to provide
personal protection from an identified hazard. Approved PPE utilised in a typical ITD
workspace might include; eye protection, welding helmets and goggles, protective shoes or
steel-toe work boots (rubber soled for welding), hearing protection, hand protection, overalls,
aprons, jackets and spats, hair restraints (e.g. hair net), dust masks, breathing apparatus and
respirators, safety harnesses, and much more.
This protective equipment should only be required:
• When there are no other practical control measures available (as a last resort);
• As an interim measure until a more effective way of controlling the risk can be used;
• To supplement higher level control measures (as a back-up).
The WHS Regulations, 44 - 47, includes specific requirements if PPE is to be used at the
workplace, including that the equipment be:
•
Selected to minimise risk to health and safety;
•
Suitable for the nature of the work and any hazard associated with the work;
•
Maintained, repaired or replaced so it continues to minimise the risk;
•
Used or worn by the worker, so far as is reasonably practicable.
Staff and students must, so far as reasonably able, wear appropriate, required PPE in
accordance with any information, training or reasonable instruction.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on Personal Protective
Equipment for use in Queensland schools, refer to the following useful link:

WHSQ – ‘Guidelines on PPE’
WHSQ – ‘What is PPE ?’

WHSQ – ‘Selecting PPE’

WHSQ – ‘What Laws Apply for PPE ?’

4.1
Guidelines for the Selection of PPE
The basic requirement for successfully selecting the type of PPE for staff and students is to be
aware of the hazards and risks in the practical workspace. Several types of PPE may be
required to control multiple risks presented by the same tool or machine. For example using a
power saw to cut wood presents risks to eyes (flying chips, dust), lungs (dust), whole of body
(electrical), hands (cut), and ears (noise).
Listed below are the types of physical hazards and the associated potential or inherent risks
that will require close consideration when selecting appropriate PPE:
• Gravity
falling objects, slipping, tripping, climbing, carrying, lifting objects;
• Kinetic Energy
cutting, crushing, pinching, flying, protruding or sharp objects;
• Mechanical Energy
crushing, pinching, moving or projected debris;
• Sound (Noise)
over exposure to loud noise, ringing in ears, temporary loss of
hearing; chronic long-term hearing damage;
• Electrical
electrocution, electrical shock, sparks, burns, glare, welding arc UV
‘flash burns’ causing skin and eye damage;
• Thermal Energy
blisters, burns, scalding, splashes, spills, sparks;
• Chemicals and
splashes, burns, skin and eye irritation, dermatitis, respiratory,
asthma, toxic vapours, ingestion, poisoning.
Hazardous Materials
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4.2
Selection of Personal Protective Equipment
Students need to be given instruction on the appropriate selection of each item of PPE. This
includes an explanation of its function, why it is to be used, its proper use, and information on
how to get a “good fit” so as to make it as comfortable as possible.
Whatever type of PPE is selected, the items must conform to the relevant Australian
Standards.
4.2.1 Foot Protection
Relevant Standard

Australian Standards: AS/NZS 2210.5: 2009 – Occupational Protective Footwear – Guide
to selection and use.
Whilst for many ITD curriculum activities the selection of approved PPE is elementary, the
definition and implementation regarding ‘appropriate’ footwear has from time to time presented
challenges for many ITD departments. Managing PPE is further complicated when trying to
consider local school uniform policies and the desire by students to follow fashion trends.
Footwear is a most important safety issue. Toes and feet can be injured during the course of
many activities in ITD workshops. There is often a risk of:
•
Crushing, fractures and bruising from heavy falling objects, or kicking objects;
•
Penetration wounds and cuts from sharp hand tools falling from work benches, etc.;
•
•
Exposure to hot liquids and solids or hot sparks when welding;
Burns from chemical spills.
•
Slipping, tripping or serious falls when footwear is poorly or improperly fitted.
Where potential or evident risk has been identified in a Curriculum Activity Risk Assessment,
then the wearing of “safe” footwear is mandatory and hence, substantial footwear appropriate
to that practical activity must be worn. Footwear such as thongs, open weave type shoes, or
shoes with openings at toes or heels, platforms or high-heel shoes shall not be worn in areas
which present hazardous situations and any risk of personal injury.
ITD teachers need to make judgements about the most appropriate footwear to be worn for
each practical curriculum activity, in its particular environment, bearing in mind the materials
being used, the processes being undertaken and the knowledge, experience and training of all
those involved.
The uniform for each EQ school is agreed upon in consultation with the school community and
it is the expectation that all staff support their school’s uniform policy. However, the standards
of footwear required for ITD practical activities should be incorporated into the school uniform
policy. Staff can set a positive example for students through their own appearance and attire.
For example, ITD staff must always model equivalent and appropriate work safe clothing and
leather footwear in all practical workspaces and classrooms where students have been
instructed to do likewise.
When departmental rules and expectations have been determined and Curriculum Activity Risk
Assessments completed, the following might be close to a compromise:
•
Soft, open weave footwear might be appropriate to be worn in a computer graphics
classroom;
•
Fully enclosed, more robust sports shoes might be considered the minimum appropriate
when working on electronics projects in a practical ITD workspace. In this instance it
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would be assumed that students would NOT be operating any heavy machinery, or be
using heavy materials, but be primarily engaged with using minor hand tools, electronics
components and operating from a student work bench;
•
Fully enclosed school shoes or similar protective footwear of substantial construction with a
sturdy sole and in good condition, must be the minimum footwear considered appropriate
to be worn in a general woodworking or light metalwork fabrication activity.
However, senior students engaged in Engineering, Metal Fabrication and Welding or other
Vocational Education courses where specific workplace risks are high to extreme, will
definitely be required to wear far more substantial footwear protection, i.e. safety boots.
Steel reinforced (steel-toe) safety boots protect feet from common machinery hazards such as
falling or rolling objects, cuts and punctures. The entire toe box and insole are steel-reinforced,
and steel, aluminium or plastic materials protect the instep. Some safety boots also insulate
against temperature extremes and may be equipped with special rubber soles to guard against
slips, chemicals and electrical hazards such as welding.
Frequently Asked Questions regarding appropriate footwear for ITD;
Question 1. Can a parent insist that their child be allowed to wear soft, non-substantial, noncompliant shoes in an ITD workshop and write a note to the school accepting responsibility if
something should happen to the child?
Answer: No. The PPE requirements in ITD workspaces must be non-negotiable. A parent
signing a disclaimer provides no protection for the teacher or the Department. The student and
parent possibly will need to re-evaluate participating in this subject.
•
The PPE requirement must comply with current Curriculum Risk Assessments developed
by the ITD departments and must be a condition of entry into any ITD workshop.
•
A teacher (or Principal) who knowingly permits students to enter ITD workspaces without
the necessary PPE could open themselves, and the Department, to fines and prosecution.
Question 2. What if the parent then provides a medical certificate indicating that this student
has a medical condition and cannot wear any kind of sturdy, protective, PPE compliant
footwear? Does this medical certificate override legislation and allow beach sandals or casual
canvas footwear to be worn in ITD workspaces until the medical condition improves?
Answer: No. A medical certificate does not override WHS legislation. If a student presented
with a medical certificate that says the student cannot wear appropriate protective shoes, then
the school would have to undertake a risk assessment to come up with strategies to control the
potential or evident risk posed. In this instance maybe the school is left with no alternative but
to unfortunately exclude the student from further participation in this course of study.
Question 3. But what about the student who occasionally neglects to wear appropriate shoes
for the practical workshop activities they are timetabled for?
Answer: A fair and reasonable approach should then be taken.
•
It is generally accepted that students not having the appropriate footwear on a particular
day may enter a practical ITD workspace and do safe learning activities (e.g. theory)
separate from the main body of students, providing they can be closely supervised and do
not participate in any practical work. This is entirely governed by the diligent duty of care
discretion of the teacher in charge, the ITD Head of Department and any pre-determined
“ITD non-compliance policy” in regards to PPE.
•
Where a student is seeking a more permanent exemption from wearing the right footwear,
then it cannot be considered to be safe or appropriate and the student should be looking
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at other subject areas where WHS requirements regarding appropriate PPE footwear is not
an issue.
Managing safety in an ITD practical workspace is an ongoing process. Proactive risk
management will establish the rules and safety standards to be maintained – such as the
wearing of correct PPE. It is important that students and their parents understand these rules
and standards, and that the minimum standards are maintained at all times.
Every teaching space and activity undertaken by students can present different risks.
Considering risks locally is the best approach to determine how to best manage risk. Involving
students in this process of risk management will help to not only reinforce the importance of
safety but also help develop in student’s personal responsibility for their own safety and the
safety of others.
Further Useful Resources:

Footwear and Safety at Work – Fact Sheet (new window) 105k
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Modified: February 04, 2013
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4.2.2
Eye, Face and Hair Protection
Relevant Standard

Australian Standards: AS/NZS 1336/7: 1997/2007 – Eye Protection for Industrial
Applications – (Recommendations for occupational eye protection.)
Before purchasing approved protective equipment for the eyes and face, the following should
be considered:
•
•
•
•
•
•
The nature of the risk to the eyes or face - i.e. impact from flying objects, chemical splash,
irritant or corrosive vapour, heat, welder’s flash, UV protection or general irritation to eyes
such as dust;
The work conditions (indoors or outdoors, are side shields required?);
Personal preference of the wearer (wrap around, tinted or clear);
Condition of operator’s eyesight (need to be worn over glasses);
Plastic generally has a higher resistance to breakage from sharp objects and hot materials;
Glass has a higher abrasion and scratch resistance.
Goggles provide a more reliable seal to keep products out of the sensitive eye area. They are
useful for protection against chemical splash, dust or vapour. Face shields are appropriate
when the entire face need protection: for example, during activities where the worker may be
welding or exposed to other burn types, or chemicals that are a skin irritant.

DETE, Fact Sheet – ‘Eye Protection - Safety Glasses And Goggles’ 49k
Maintenance of Safety Glasses and Goggles:
•
•
•
Store correctly to minimize scratches. Scratched and dirty lenses will restrict vision;
Visually check, clean and maintain regularly;
Some schools might consider installing a lens cleaning station for their safety glasses in
each room. These will include replaceable bottles of lens cleaning fluid and tissues.
Emergency Face and Eye Wash Station:
Eye and face wash stations are an important part of workplace safety anywhere that hazardous
materials are used or stored. They provide on-the-spot decontamination and allow staff and
students to flush away hazardous substances that can cause injury.
Many ITD departments are currently equipped with an eye wash station. These are usually a
wall mounted stainless steel or ABS bowl style with push paddle tap and twin aerated diffusers.
Eyewashes can be critical in the seconds after an accident. They are usually not used often,
so it is important to regularly check that they are functioning properly so they are ready for
those rare emergencies.
Protection for Long Hair:
Loose hair poses a significant entanglement hazard around machinery. Any person with
longer, uncontrolled, loose hair must not work or pass in close proximity to the moving parts of
any machinery unless their hair is securely confined close to the head. This could be, for
example, with a hair band, rubber band, a hair net or a close-fitting cap (worn backwards).
Ponytails must also be tied up and contained so that they cannot fall forward, sideways or
backwards into the moving, rotating parts of any machinery.
Note: Hair nets specifically are not mandatory in Qld ITD practical activities. What is
mandatory is that when hazards and risks are identified, controls must be put in place
to manage that hazard to reduce the risk of injury.
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4.2.3
Hearing Protection
Relevant Standard

Australian Standards: AS/NZS 1269.3: 2005 – Occupational Noise Management - 3
Noise level is measured in decibel units (dB). For example, the hum of a refrigerator motor
operates at about 40 dB, normal conversation can be approximately 60 dB, and heavy city
traffic or industrial workshop noise can be 85 dB and above. Industrial Technology and Design
departments in schools deserve special attention because of the excess noise levels that
teachers and students can often be exposed to in many practical workshop curriculum
activities. ITD departments need to clearly identify those activities or plant and equipment that
might generate excessive noise levels, and then implement affirmative measures to help
remove the exposure hazards and prevent the harmful effects.
Hearing can be damaged by short bursts of very loud noise, or even exposure to moderately
loud noise levels over an extended period of time. Hearing damage can be temporary or, in
serious cases, permanent. Symptoms of hearing damage can include:
•
Loss of hearing;
•
Tinnitus, (or, ringing in your head or ears);
•
Difficulty understanding normal conversations, especially with background noise;
Hearing protection should be worn:

In all practical ITD activities when noisy power tools and hand tools are in use;

When teachers and teachers’ aides are undertaking noisy preparation activities;

In any other circumstance where excess noise levels are a problem.
Before purchasing approved hearing protection: Check the levels of noise that your plant,
equipment and machinery produce. This can be matched against information in the user
manual or directly from the manufacturer. Always discuss such issues with your PPE supplier
for the most suitable hearing protection for your situation.
Earplugs: Ear plugs may be disposable or reusable and are easy to carry from job to job.
They also have the advantage over earmuffs (much cooler) for work in hot, humid
environments. They must be easily accessible and preferably stored within the practical
workspace where they are to be normally used. Earplugs are too often stored in boxes located
in locked storerooms at the other end of the facility. It is recommended that earplugs should
NOT be worn if:
•
•
The wearer has a pre-existing ear infection or;
The earplugs are not being worn (fitted) properly.
Earmuffs: When purchasing earmuffs ensure they have the Australian Standard approval
marking and be rated at Class 2 - for noise exposures up to 95 dB. Earmuffs should be a snug
but comfortable fit on the worker’s head. They can be virtually useless if not fitted properly. Full
earmuffs will provide the safe, more reliable alternative. It is also considered to be more
advantageous to wear earmuffs instead of earplugs, if:
•
Noise exposure levels are high, or continuous over an extended period;
•
Noise is of an impulsive nature such as sudden loud explosive sounds;
•
There is a need to remove and replace the hearing protection frequently;
•
Users are likely to acquire dirty hands during their practical workshop activities;
•
Users have a pre-existing ear infection.
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Maintenance:
•
•
•
Disposable earplugs must be thrown away after each use;
Reusable earplugs must be cleaned in detergent and water and allowed to dry completely
before the next use;
If earplugs lose their softness, shrink or become distorted, they need to be replaced;
•
Ear muffs should to be inspected regularly for damage and require regular care and
cleaning;
•
The cushions of the earmuff should be soft and supple not hard and cracked, to provide a
firm but comfortable seal around the ear;
The cushions can be replaced when they become hardened and brittle (often due to
perspiration) or torn and damaged, without the expense of buying new earmuffs;
•
•
The cushions and head band should be regularly wiped clean but need to be dry before the
next use;
•
Earmuffs should be stored where they can be kept dry, clean and out of the sun as the
band can become distorted when exposed to heat and humidity.
Further Useful Resources:

Reviewing Noisy Environments In Schools (new window) 121k

Noise Induced Hearing Loss – Fact Sheet (new window) 100k

Hearing Conservation Program – Fact sheet (new window) 46k

Hearing Protection for ITD Teachers & Teacher Aides – Fact Sheet (new window)124k

Managing Noise & Preventing Hearing Loss at Work Code of Practice: 2011 560k
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4.2.4
Hand Protection
Relevant Standard

Australian Standards: AS/NZS 2161.1: 2000 – Occupational Protection Gloves - 1
Before purchasing approved protective gloves: look for gloves most suitable for the various
practical activities in ITD by considering the following:
•
•
The nature of the risk to the hands and arms based on the activity: e.g. exposure to
extreme heat, mild heat, chemical burns, sharp objects causing cuts or scratches, pinching
and various fluids;
Gloves that might be suitable for one application may not be suitable for another;
•
The extent of hand and arm protection required (the glove length);
•
The level of manual dexterity required;
•
•
Are the gloves made of suitable material to give the required protection? (e.g. PVC, latex,
nitrile, rubber and leather). Refer to the current Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for specific types
of gloves as some may dissolve upon contact with some solvents and cause harm to the
wearer;
Leather welding gloves should preferably be made of split Grey Chrome-tanned cowhide
with extended cuff to give a full 46cm glove. They should have a cotton lining and Kevlar
stitching for strength, comfort and durability. They must be sound, dry, and used on both
hands while welding or changing electrodes;
Are the gloves of a suitable style and fit;
•
Are they disposable (single use), or reusable.
•
Gloves should be closely inspected to detect potential weaknesses or defects as a result of
manufacture or wear. Common signs of failure include:
•
Wear between the fingers;
•
Seam failures;
•
Cracking or bubbling of the material such as waterproofing agents. Cleaning should be
undertaken as part of a regular program of maintenance. Refer to the manufacturer’s
instructions for any special cleaning procedures and/or frequency. Record the date of any
issues, maintenance required and visual checks in a PPE Register;
Any gloves with obvious faults should be replaced.
Note: Thermal protective gloves, when required, must be worn on BOTH hands to prevent
accidental handling of hot materials.
Further Useful Resources:

DETE, CHW Fact Sheet (Poster) – ‘Hand Washing Technique’ 116k
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
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Modified: February 04, 2013
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4.2.5
Respiratory Protection
Relevant Standard


Australian Standards: AS/NZS 1715: 2009 – Selection, Use and Maintenance of
Respiratory Protection Devices
Australian Standards: AS/NZS 1716: 2012 – Respiratory Protection Devices
A respirator enables inhaled air to be drawn through a filter that will remove the harmful
substance. It purifies the air the person breathes. The type of filter required will depend on the
composition of the contaminant.
There are three main types of air-purifying filters:
•
Particulate canisters: these filter out only thermally and/or mechanically generated
particles (dust, mist, smoke, fume);
•
Gas filters: these filter out certain gases and vapours, and;
•
Combination filters: these are used when particulate and gas hazards exist.
Before purchasing approved respiratory protection, look for devices most suitable for
practical activities in ITD, by considering the following:
•
•
•
•
Refer to the current manufacture’s Safety Data Sheet (SDS) in order to select the correct
respirator with the appropriate filter for the job;
Disposable respirators, or dust face masks, have the advantage of requiring no
maintenance. However, if they do need to be stored before use, they should be in a sealed
container so they are not absorbing micro fine dust, vapours or fumes etc. from the work
environment;
Individuals that have facial hair will need to check with the manufacturer to ensure the
respirator or dust face mask product will give the user adequate facial seal against
leakage;
When working in a hot environment, respirators and dust face masks are available with an
air valve to increase worker comfort.
Maintenance:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
With the exception of disposable dust face masks, respiratory protective equipment
requires regular inspection and maintenance;
All filter respirators should be inspected at least once per month, even without regular use.
They should also be cleaned after each student’s use, and filter replaced if necessary.
Each student should use a clean filter;
Record date of issue, maintenance and all visual checks in a PPE Register;
Face-pieces should be washed in warm water and detergent, rinsed and air dried;
Filter respirators with activated charcoal filters will continue to absorb contaminants in the
air even when not being worn - after use ensure they are stored in a sealed container;
Disposable respirators cannot be cleaned and should be replaced at least daily, and
also when breathing becomes noticeably more difficult indicating that the filter is becoming
clogged;
All go or vapour filters need to be discarded 6 months after opening regardless of being
used or not;
Further Useful Resources:
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 80 of 141
4.2.6
Clothing (Body) Protection
Relevant Standard

Australian Standards: AS/NZS 6529 & 3765: 2006 – Protective Clothing
The protective clothing required in many ITD curriculum activities might include: the customary,
and commonly worn, cotton drill woodworking and painting aprons that add additional
protection in “messy” situations, workshop overalls, and leather protective outer-clothing
specifically designed for welding and heavy duty grinding applications.
Overalls (coveralls) are a one piece garment designed to fit loosely over the body to protect
the worker and any clothing worn underneath from workplace trauma and dirt. Students
undertaking practical ITD workshop lessons in Mechanics, Engineering, and Welding etc. will
be required to provide and to wear protective overalls.
•
A good pair of workshop overalls suitable for school should cover the entire body from
neck-to-ankle with sleeves to the wrist;
•
When selecting and purchasing suitable overalls to wear at school, students should wear
clothing similar to that normally worn to school to try on under the overalls;
•
Overalls should be made from sturdy, non-flammable cotton material which can withstand
the rigors of the workshop environment and of a colour which will not show dirt readily;
Overalls should have a loose fit which permits a wide range of motion, but they should not
bunch or gather. Working overalls are protective gear, not a style statement, but they
should not sag or bag too much, as they could snag on equipment;
•
•
•
Students might keep their personal overalls (and work boots) in a designated clothing
locker in the ITD Engineering workspace, typically wearing them over their day uniform and
taking them off at the end of the lesson;
If it has been determined through an Activity Risk Assessment that overalls are necessary
PPE for a particular workshop activity, then they must be worn correctly at all times, during
all practical lessons. Hot weather is never an excuse to relax safety requirements;
•
Should hazardous chemicals be spilled on the overalls, remove the clothing and wash the
skin immediately and thoroughly. Contaminated overalls must be washed before re-using;
•
Direct exposure of the skin to hot welding sparks, spatter and Ultra Violate radiation is
significantly minimised when wearing full length workshop overalls. Normally in such
situations operators must also be wearing appropriate leather clothing accessories and
steel-toe heavy duty RUBBER SOLE work boots to ensure maximum full body protection
and insulation.
Leather welding clothing includes jackets, aprons, sleeves, chaps (pants) and spats:
•
•
They are usually made from split Grey Chrome-tanned cowhide;
They offer very durable and distinctly increased protection from UV radiation, thermal
protection from hot welding sparks and splatter and from cuts and abrasions when
grinding;
•
All leather clothing must be stored carefully and maintained regularly to ensure prolonged
life, comfort, durability and effectiveness.
(for other welding related PPE also refer to Section 4.2.7; ‘Welding Protection’)
Further Useful Resources:
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 81 of 141
4.2.7
Welding Protection
Relevant Standards

Australian Standards: AS/NZS 1336/7: 1997/2007 – Eye Protection for Industrial
Applications – (Recommendations for occupational eye protection.)
Australian Standards: AS/NZS 1338.1: 1994 – Filters for Eye Protectors (Welding)

Australian Standards: AS/NZS 6529 & 3765: 2006 – Protective Clothing

Australian Standards: AS/NZS 1716: 2012 – Respiratory Protection Devices

Australian Standards: AS/NZS 1269.3: 2005 – Occupational Noise Management - 3


Australian Standards: AS/NZS 2210.5: 2009 – Occupational Protective Footwear – Guide
to Selection and Safe Use.
Australian Standards: AS/NZS 2161.1: 2000 – Occupational Protection Gloves – 1

Australian Standards: AS 1674.2: 2007 – Safety in Electrical Welding and Allied Processes

The welding industry is rated number one among all industries for the highest number of eye
injuries. It’s no surprise welding can cause damage to your eyes if you do not use the proper
personal protective equipment. Burns caused by sparks, heat, molten metal and ultraviolet
rays or cuts caused by flying spatter, and flash burns, commonly known as welder’s arc flash or
arc eye, all point to the importance of wearing the right PPE when welding.
But what about the rest of the body? Hearing, eyes, skin, neck, back, head, feet and the
respiratory system are all at risk when performing both oxy and arc welding operations.

Hearing: Welding can generate noise at levels which cause hearing loss;

Eyes: Unprotected eyes are exposed to hot metal, sparks, splatter and dangerous radiated
light. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes inflammation of the cornea and can burn the retinas
of the eyes. Infrared (IR) wavelengths cause severe discomfort and redness;
Skin: When welding, unprotected skin is exposed to hot metal, sparks and splatter, and
when arc welding, to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UV light can cause serve sunburn or cancer
to unprotected skin. Electrocution could occur from poorly earthed or insulated structures;
Head: Sparks can also burn hair, causing painful damage to the scalp and skin;



Neck and Back: These areas also need protecting from possible exposure to hot metals,
UV radiation, sparks and splatter. Note that standing for long periods of time bent over a
welding bench can also cause stress to the neck and back;

Feet: Burns caused by sparks, dripping molten metal and even cuts, crushing and
fractures from heavy falling objects, kicking solid structures. Electrocution could occur
through contact with poorly earthed or insulated damp concrete floors;
Respiratory System: When performing welding operations in a poorly ventilated area,
teachers and students are at risk of inhaling fumes, gas and dust present in the air as a
result of the welding process.

So before purchasing approved protective equipment suitable for welding activities at school,
all of the following should be considered:
•
•
Noise levels and hearing protecting: (also refer to Section 4.2.3; ‘Hearing Protection’)
Ventilation and respiratory protection: (also refer to Section 4.2.5; ‘Respiratory Protection’)
o
Note: When arc welding several highly toxic, irritant gases are given off including
vaporised metals, fluxes, ozone, oxides of nitrogen, fluoride, silicone and enormous
quantities of carbon dioxide. Following both short and long term exposure, all of these
gases may cause inflammation and congestion of the respiratory tract. Exposures of
just one (1) ppm for more than half an hour may result in headache and feelings of
general discomfort or uneasiness.
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 82 of 141
•
Overalls for body protection: (also refer to Section 4.2.6; ‘Clothing (Body) Protection’)
o
•
Note: Students might prefer to a wear long sleeve cotton shirt (fire-resistant, cotton,
with no pockets) and work trousers (fire-resistant, heavy cotton and no cuffs).
Leather welding clothing for body protection:
... (also refer to Section 4.2.6; ‘Clothing (Body) Protection’)
•
Rubber soled heavy duty work boots for foot protection:
... (also refer to Section 4.2.1; ‘Foot Protection’)
•
Welding Helmets, Goggles and Face Shields for head, face and eye protection:
Welding Helmets and Welding Goggles:
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes inflammation of the cornea and can burn the retinas of the
eyes. Infrared (IR) wavelengths cause severe discomfort and redness. Welding helmets and
welding goggles with dark IR and UV filtering lenses must be worn to prevent this exposure.
Before purchasing approved protective welding helmets and goggles for student use in typical
ITD welding activities, the following must be considered:
•
•
•
•
Oxy/acetylene welding, oxy cutting and brazing processes emit IR radiation and will require
the operator to wear welding goggles (50mm filter lenses) with a shade rating of no less
than 5;
The various electric arc welding processes emit both IR and UV radiation and hence
require a full face welding helmet with UV filter lenses. These helmets vary enormously
and must be designed to be suitable for the particular welding process - with filter shades
between 8 and 13;
Many people mistakenly think that the lens shade number corresponds to the amount of
protection that is provided to the eyes and hence the higher the number, the better the
protection. But in reality, all well-constructed quality welding lenses have a screen that
filters out 100 % of the harmful UV and infrared IR wavelengths and provides protection to
the eyes. The number just denotes the amount of darkness provided by that particular lens
and should be used by operators as a guide to select the one that is most comfortable and
yet provides good visibility for the particular application;
Many newer helmet models feature a lens plate that self-darkens upon exposure to high
amounts of UV light. This eliminates the need to raise and lower the lens plate when
striking the arc. Helmets with these auto lenses are actually considered to be safer to use
than traditional welding helmets as the helmet shield can always be in the down position,
protecting your face and eyes. Your hands are not preoccupied with constant visor
adjustment;
•
Since high-quality auto-darkening helmets provide UV and IR protection even when the
helmet is not activated, the operator is always protected. For maximum comfort, look for a
high quality helmet that has a response darkening time of 0.4 of a millisecond. Less than a
millisecond is not perceivable by the human eye and will provide the most comfort. There
is no arc flash (arc eye) evident with auto lenses because the lens changes too quickly for
the eye to see a flash.
•
To protect student bystanders and unexpected visitors to the welding area, especially in
confined classroom workshop environments, transparent welding screens or curtains must
be installed around all welding areas. These moveable screens or fitted curtains, made of
a polyvinyl chloride plastic film, shield the rest of the class from sparks and harmful UV
light rays during arc welding activities. Flying sparks create the potential for fires. The
welding screens help to contain these hazards. However, the safety screens and fitted
welding bay curtains should never be expected to substitute for the effect of the filter glass
lenses used in the welders helmets.
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 83 of 141
5.
MACHINERY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT
Machinery, plant and equipment (commonly called ‘Plant’) includes any machinery, equipment,
appliance, implement or tool and any component, fitting or accessory used in, or in conjunction
with them. In the ITD departments of Queensland Schools ‘Plant’ refers to all workshop
machines, hand held power tools, welding equipment, extractions systems, etc., and are
usually categorised into four sub-groups:
•
Non-portable or fixed machine tools, equipment and infrastructure;
•
Portable power tools, including 240V, cordless (battery), pneumatic and explosive;
•
•
Electrical appliances, equipment and computers;
Hand tools.
Any of these items of plant and equipment may pose a risk to health and safety in a school
environment. If the inherent or perceived risk level of any item is considered low, and there is
only little chance of incident or serious injury when it is used, then control measures need only
be managed through regular and considered departmental planning processes.
However, should the item of plant and equipment potentially or historically show evidence of
inherent levels of risk considered MEDIUM, HIGH or EXTREME, and there is significant
likelihood of a serious to debilitating injury, then there is a mandatory need to complete the
Plant and Equipment Risk Assessment process to determine if control measures are necessary
before the equipment can be used by staff or students, for any purpose.
Many teachers have seen, first hand, evidence of the injuries that moving or rotating parts and
pulleys, ejected materials or pinch and squash points on machines can inflict on individuals.
Adequate safety guarding is therefore vital to prevent accidental contact between the operator
and these mechanical hazards. Risks could include entanglement, cutting, crushing, or serious
injuries such as amputations, scalping and fatality. Non-mechanical hazards include harmful
emissions or fumes, dust, noise and electrocution.
Most new items of machinery will be adequately guarded according to the manufacturers’
specifications and any relevant Australian Standards. However, some ITD resources in
schools could be of an older design, perhaps would never pass an Annual WHS Assessment,
and may require urgent upgrading or replacement.
In this section of the “Guidelines”, information is provided, including:

5.1
Purchasing ITD machinery, plant and equipment;


5.2
5.3
Responsibility for safe use of machinery;
Guidelines and recommendations for safe student usage;

5.4
Service maintenance and responsibilities;

5.5 – 5.6
SOPs and EMRs;

5.7 – 5.10 Battery power tools, hand tools, compressed air and welding.
Note: Machinery, Plant and Equipment topics referred to in other sections of this document
include:

Machinery Hazard Management and Risk Assessment: (refer to Section 2.2; ‘Risk
Assessment Guidelines’)

Non-Mechanical Machinery Hazards, Risks and Control Measures: (dust, fumes, noise
etc. refer to Section 3.4; ‘Workspace Conditions’)

Workplace Planning and Machinery Placement: (refer to Section 3.3; ‘Workplace
Layout’)
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 84 of 141
5.1
Purchasing ITD Machinery, Plant and Equipment
In our school environments the risk of injury is increased where young people are working with
machinery, plant and equipment. Workplace Health and Safety Queensland (WHSQ) has
identified that young workers (school students) are much more likely to be injured than older
experienced workers. This is due to some of their inherent characteristics including high risk
thresholds, feelings of invulnerability and general lack of experience. This increased level of
risk requires that robust procedures are in place to ensure, as much as possible, the safety of
all students in our ITD environments.
Schools need to demonstrate a comprehensive and systematic approach to the management
of plant and equipment. This necessitates that every ITD workplace is able to show that:




Authorised delegated staff only undertake plant and machinery procurement activities on
behalf of the department;
The procurement and purchase of plant and equipment is managed to ensure health and
safety risks are minimised and items that come on to the site have appropriate and robust
safety features for their intended purpose;
Use of equipment is undertaken safely through the use of guarding and other design
controls, provisions of instruction, training and supervision;
Proactive servicing and maintenance is completed to ensure the equipment is functioning
correctly.
5.1.1
Procurement Delegation
Heads of Department (HODs) or ITD Subject Coordinators would normally have the delegated
authority to undertake procurement activities for the department. Such an authority is known as
a Procurement Delegation and the staff member is known as a Procurement Officer. A
Procurement Officer must have completed an appropriate level of training and hold current
state government procurement certification.
If a teacher in authority with such a delegation vacates a position, the next appointee does not
assume the delegation until they have obtained the appropriate delegation and training. It is
not delegated directly to a position. Regional training courses on procurement policy and
procedures are regularly conducted. Details can be found at the follow link:

DETE, Purchasing Training
Procurement Officers in schools have authority to approve purchases up to $250,000
depending on their level of training and certification. The table below show some details:
Delegation Authority
Purchase Value
Minimum Competitive
Process Required
( if not on current SOA )
Procurement Training or Certification
Required
$1 to $100
No quote required
DETE Internal Procurement Training
or QGCPO Level 1 Certification.
$101 to $2,000
One (1) verbal quote
DETE Internal Procurement Training
or QGCPO Level 1 Certification.
$2,001 to $5,000
Three (3) verbal quotes
DETE Internal Procurement Training
or QGCPO Level 1 Certification.
$5,001 up to $20,000
Three (3) written quotes
DETE Internal Procurement Training
or QGCPO Level 1 Certification.
$20,001 and $100,000
Preferably up to five (5)
written quotes
DETE Internal Procurement Training
or QGCPO Level 1 Certification.
Over $100,001 to $250,000
Open Tender
Only staff within the Corporate Procurement
Branch or Capital Works and Infrastructure
Management Branch - Level 3 Certification
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 85 of 141
5.1.2
DETE Standing Offers Arrangements (SOAs)
DETE (Infrastructure) has undertaken a new Standing Offer Arrangement (SOA) process for
the purchase of commonly procured static-use or hard wired (fixed) ITD machinery, plant and
equipment. This SOA process does not include battery powered or portable electrical hand
tools.
It is acknowledged that most machinery, plant and equipment have a number of suppliers with
items that have almost identical specifications. However, this pre-arranged procurement
process enables schools to confidently purchase such ITD items knowing that they fully comply
with all DETE operational and safety specifications. The usual EQ procurement requirements
such as asking various suppliers for product demonstrations or requesting the necessary
number of quotations is not necessary with this process.
When selecting which machinery, plant and equipment to include on the current SOA, a DETE
procurement committee conducted a rigorous evaluation and assessment process using a
number of key criteria:






Robustness and quality;
Value for money;
Compliance with all required specifications;
Suitability for use in school environments;
Service, delivery and warranty;
Availability of spare parts.
Note that the current SOA DETE 10064A has been established as a mandatory list evaluated
and preferred ITD plant, machinery and equipment from preferred suppliers. This means that
schools must first review and careful consider the SOA on our OnePortal intranet website
before purchasing.

DETE 100664A - Industrial Machinery for Industrial Technology and Design (Manual Arts)
use in Educational Facilities

List for ITD SOA 10064A: Item Description & Model No. – Preferred Suppliers – Price
Of course, some ITD workshop plant and equipment items may not be included on the current
SOA listings and schools will then need to follow the arrangements for “Purchasing Outside a
DETE Standing Offer Arrangement – (refer also to Section 5.1.3)
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on SOA procurement of
machinery, plant, equipment and services requirements for ITD departments in Queensland
schools, including all forms and guidelines, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, Services (OnePortal) – ‘Purchasing & Procurement’

DETE, PPR – ‘Purchasing & Procurement’

DETE, SOA 100664A - Industrial Machinery for Industrial Technology & Design (Manual
Arts) use in Educational Facilities

Purchasing ITD Machines Outside the SOA Arrangement Forms (new window) 398k

DETE, Corporate Procurement Plan: 2010 - 2014 (new window) 205k

Queensland Government Chief Procurement Office (CPO)

Queensland Government CPO – ‘Procurement Policy & Guidance’

Queensland Government CPO – ‘Sustainable Procurement’

Queensland Government CPO – ‘Disposal of Government Assets’

WHSQ – ‘Safeguarding Common Machinery & Plant’ (2006) (new window) 804k
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 86 of 141
5.1.3
Purchasing Outside a DETE Standing Offer Arrangement (SOA)
If schools have a need to purchase ITD machinery, plant and equipment that is not included in
the current SOA process, DETE SOA 100664A – Industrial Machinery for Industrial Technology
& Design (Manual Arts) use in Educational Facilities, then DETE documentation must be
completed prior to any purchase and be retained at the school for audit purposes. This
process covers ITD equipment which is typically static use (often hard wired) or that needs to
be fixed or secured for safe operation. It includes items such as, metal and wood machining
equipment; welding equipment etc. Remember, It does not include battery powered, portable
electrical or hand tools.

Forms A & B – Purchasing Outside the DETE SOA Process (new window) 398k
1.
Part A – Machine / Equipment Requirements and Risk Assessment
2.
Part B – Machine / Equipment: Principal’s Approval
The ITD Procurement Officer (HOD) should complete the Part B documentation and obtain the
Principal’s approval prior to the purchase of the equipment described in Part A. The school
Principal can delegate a Deputy Principal or Business Services Manager to sign-off the
approval process in circumstances where the Principal is not available.
Note: If a school identifies any ITD machinery, plant and equipment that they believe should
be considered for inclusion on the current SOA, they should contact:
DETE Organisational Health Unit,
Level 1, Mary St,
City East, Brisbane.
Prior to the purchase of ITD plant and machinery items outside the current DETE SOA, schools
need to demonstrate that a comprehensive and systematic approach has been followed. The
DETE request documentation (Part A & B), as show above, has been developed to ensure all
health and safety risks are minimised in ITD workshops, with fixed machinery having the
appropriate and robust safety features for their intended purpose. It is important to understand
that the following factors should be carefully considered:
Employees (Teachers) and Students:
•
•
•
Who will come into contact with the equipment?
How will work be carried out and completed?
Based on the knowledge of existing machinery, plant and equipment, what improvements if
any, should your department specify before procurement? (e.g. the fitment of zero voltage
cut-out switches.)
Documentation and Training:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What supporting documentation will accompany the proposed new machinery, plant and
equipment?
To what manufacturing standards has the equipment been designed, developed and
produced – European CE®, etc.? Is this acceptable?
What support is offered by suppliers – service, training, maintenance, etc.?
What operating and maintenance information is supplied with the new equipment?
Is the supplied information sufficient to provide the basis of a workplace training package?
If the equipment is refurbished or second-hand, how do the risk controls compare with
similar new machinery and equipment?
Have you allowed extra resources to upgrade existing risk controls to reflect state
recommendations and legislations?
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 87 of 141
Location:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Where is the proposed new equipment to be located, and how much space does it require?
Is there enough room to access the equipment for servicing, maintenance, repair or
cleaning?
Do staff and students walk past or work in close proximity to the proposed equipment
location?
Is there enough light?
Is there sufficient ventilation?
If dust extraction if required what allowances have been made to connect either to an
existing system or a new extractor?
Will the new equipment require an upgrade of existing wiring? (e.g. single phase to 3
phase.)
Is the floor of the workspace strong enough?
Operations and maintenance:
•
•
•
•
Will the proposed new equipment introduce more noise to the ITD workplace?
What types of emissions does the equipment produce when operated or cleaned, such as
noise, dust, fumes, light and heat?
Is the new equipment robust enough to cope with an educational environment?
Will the new equipment require electrical testing & tagging prior to initial use?
General:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Will the proposed new equipment fit through the door?
Do you understand that if you purchase machinery, plant and equipment outside
Queensland, then you also take on the obligations of the importer and designer?
Do you understand the obligations of an importer and designer?
What will be the ongoing costs such as maintenance, replacement life and redundancy?
Are specialised tools and equipment required to adjust and use the equipment included?
Is the new equipment compliant to all or any required Australian Standards?
5.1.4
Asset Disposals and Write-offs
Before the disposal process can be undertaken, written approval must be obtained from a
Delegated Officer (e.g. school registrar or BSM) who can approve the write-off of a capital
asset or items of machinery, plant and equipment. A detailed explanation of disposal, write-off,
and transferee procedures is outlined in the following DETE policy and procedure:

Equipment Management for Schools – Disposal of Equipment
Your school may approve several options for the disposal of surplus equipment, such as:
•
•
•
Transfers to another school;
Disposal;
Write-off.
The key principles for the disposal of any surplus in schools are:
•
Return is maximised;
•
Cost of disposal is minimised;
•
Disposal process is fair, equitable and open;
•
Employees of the DETE are not advantaged.
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 88 of 141
Transfers to another school:
The transfer of an item of equipment from one school to another is recorded in SMS. The
school retains a signed hard copy of SMS Asset Disposal form and EQ13 for audit purposes.

Equipment Disposal/Write-off form (EQ13)
A copy of the Asset ID form is forwarded to the new location with the item of equipment. In the
case of capital assets (acquisition value is $5000 or greater), a copy of the signed EQ13 form is
forwarded to Fixed Assets Team, Finance Branch for updating of department’s central register.
Note: Schools do not sell items to other state schools or business units. Such items are
transferred at no charge. Freight and installation charges for equipment are borne by the
receiving entity.
Disposals:
Several options are available to schools for the disposal of surplus assets. These include:
•
Sale by action;
•
Sale by “Garage Sale”;
•
Sale by inviting offers;
•
Trade-in of Equipment;
•
Disposal by dumping;
•
Disposal by scrapping.
Write-offs:
Equipment being disposed of through write-off should be identified as having no further
operational value or have been fully depreciated. If equipment is beyond economic repair and
there is no residual value, then the item may be destroyed and dumped, or given to a scrap
metal merchant. Care should be taken to ensure that the equipment number (Ed Quip No.) is
totally obliterated prior to dumping or scrapping.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Equipment may be beyond economic repair if:
Too much money has been expended on repairs;
It’s current value is less than repair quote – A replacement item can be purchased at a
significantly lower cost;
The item is obsolete;
The item's estimated life has expired;
New technology is available which improves efficiency;
The item was missed at the last departmental stocktake and cannot be accounted for.
It must be remembered that DETE employees have no prior right to the acquisition of surplus
equipment, materials or furniture over the public. Any employee wishing to acquire such
material may bid at a public auction if applicable, or submit an offer after notification of sale.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required regarding the disposal or write-off
of ITD assets, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, PPR – ‘Equipment Management for Schools’

DETE, Equip. Management for Schools – ‘Unauthorised Use of Equipment’

DETE, Equip. Management for Schools – ‘Registering New Equipment’

DETE, Form EQ13 – ‘Equipment Disposal/Write-offs’

DETE, ‘Guidelines for the Annual School Stocktake Process’
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 89 of 141
5.2
Responsibility for Safe Use of Machinery
5.2.1
Schools Responsibility
It is the responsibility of the school, through close consultation with DETE and cooperation of
the Principal and ITD Head of Department, to ensure that:

Prior to purchasing, and as a condition of acceptance, all “Plant and Equipment” is
checked for compliance with Australian Standards, and that appropriate information is
provided with the item, such as operating and maintenance instructions;

No modifications are made to equipment unless such modifications comply with the
manufacturer’s specifications and/or relevant Australian Standards;
All machinery is correctly installed and connected to the power supply prior to operation;




Machines are fitted with appropriate guarding and waste/dust extraction equipment, and
with all safety cut-off micro-switches and emergency stop mechanisms where necessary;
All machines and equipment are regularly serviced and maintained in a safe operating
condition;
Machines designed to be operated in a fixed position are adequately secured to a stable
supporting medium to prevent inadvertent movement when power is applied or the
machine is operated;

All machinery in a fixed position must have a clearly delineated “safe operational zone” in
the form of 80mm wide yellow safety lines;

All operational risks associated with any plant and equipment have been identified,
assessed and controlled (and documented in a Plant & Equipment Risk Assessment);
Safe Operating Procedures (SOPs) or instructions are fitted to or near all fixed machines
and near where portable equipment is stored;
All operators are trained in the use of particular machines and are physically capable of
handling them. Training must include the following:
o
The correct method of use;


o
Known hazards which arise in the course of normal work;
o
Hazards arising from bad practices, inattention and misuse;
The need to wear all necessary PPE, i.e. foot, hand, eye, hearing and respiratory
protection;
o
o
The need to ensure that dust/waste and fume extraction equipment is functioning
correctly.

Any inexperienced operators should always be directly supervised;

All operators should avoid working alone with potentially hazardous equipment.
5.2.2
Teachers Responsibility
It is the responsibility of the ITD teaching staff to ensure safe work practices are adopted, in
particular that:
•
Students do not use machinery and equipment unless they have been trained and judged
competent in its safe use. (refer also to Section 1.5.2; ‘Student Induction to Workplace
Safety and Training – Student Induction Register’)

Teachers should refer to the “Student Use of Machinery, Plant & Equipment” (Section
5.3; ‘Machinery, Plant & Equipment’, page 96 - 99). This is a comprehensive index of
items of machines, equipment, tools and processes with guidelines for recommendations
for ITD teachers regarding which student groups should or could be permitted to be
involved with, or be allowed access to. The list also includes items which are restricted to
ITD teachers only, or to senior students under direct ITD teacher supervision;
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 90 of 141

Teachers should provide formal instruction and demonstration in the safe operation of all
phases of hand tools, power tools and machinery, manufacturing and fabrication processes;

Workshop hand and power tool safety, and the requirement for appropriate PPE to be worn
will then require regular, repetitive, informal re-enforced for all students;

Teacher Demonstration Projects: Teachers should be expected to complete (lesson by
lesson) a full-size demonstration for each of their class group projects. The teacher ‘Demo’
should accurately reflect step-by-step project development, all intended design concepts,
and clearly display exemplar manufacturing and fabrication techniques and processes;

When working in situations or areas which are potentially hazardous, all students, teachers
and all support staff should wear all necessary PPE, i.e. correct footwear, safety
spectacles, hearing protection and any other equipment or clothing supplied;

Teaching staff should always visually check all electrical equipment for safety compliance
prior to any student use.

The “safe work zone” areas around each fixed machine are to be clear of debris such as
off cuts, sawdust or shavings. Slip, trip and fall hazards should be removed;

Dust, waste and fume extraction systems are operating as necessary;

Safety guards fitted to machines as standard safety operational equipment should always
in place;
Teaching staff from outside the ITD faculty area must gain approval from the Head of
Department, subject coordinator or a senior ITD teacher before using any ITD facilities,
equipment and machinery.

Note: For more information and guidance on the responsibilities for safe use of ITD plant and
equipment in Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, Policy and Procedure Register – “Equipment Management for Schools”
Further Useful Resources:

DETE, Equip. Management for Schools – ‘Unauthorised Use of Equipment’

DETE, Equip. Management for Schools – ‘Registering New Equipment’

DETE, Form EQ13 – ‘Equipment Disposal/Write-offs’

DETE, ‘Guidelines for the Annual School Stocktake Process’
Some Relevant Australian Standards:

AS 60204.1: 2005 – General Safety of Machining
AS 1473: 1991 – Guarding and Safe Use of Woodworking Machinery

AS/NZS 60745.2: 2009 – General Safety for Hand-held Power Tools

AS 1473.4: 2201 – Wood Safety / Bandsaws

AS 1473.6: 2001 – Wood Safety / Surface Planing and Thicknesses

AS 1473.8: 2001 – Wood Safety / Milling Tools and Circular Saw Blades

AS 4024.3101: 2008 – Safety of Metal Cutting Machines

AS 4524.16: 2005 – Hand-held Grinders
AS 1893: 1997 – Guillotine Guards


Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 91 of 141
5.2.3 Working Safely With Machinery, Plant and Equipment
Before any staff, students or others operate any fixed or portable power tools, equipment or
machinery in any ITD workshop, particular care should be taken to ensure they are fully
conversant with four basic safety considerations – i.e. the designed function of the machine;
the Safe Operating Procedures; the concept of a safe working environment and; and the
designed safety control functions of the machine.
1. Designed Function:

The capabilities of the machine;

The fact that fixed machines are generally far more powerful than smaller portable, hand
held equipment;

Starting and stopping procedures;

Operation of guards and safety devices, especially emergency stop mechanisms, and the
need for ensuring they are kept in good condition, properly mounted, and correctly
adjusted;
How to recognise, as far as possible, faults which may occur in a machine, guard or safety
device; how to recognise those of a minor nature, and the need for reporting to the person
in charge those faults which are beyond the user’s authority or competence to rectify.

2. Safe, Standard Operation:
(refer also to Section 5.6: ‘Safe Operating Procedures’)


Machines should not be operated unless all shields, grilles and safety guards are provided
and are properly in place;
Ensure that machines come to rest before making adjustments or during the manual
removal of waste or blockages;
Don’t use bare hands or fingers to clear choked cutters;

Never attempt to lubricate or adjust machinery which is turned on or in motion;

Always turn off the power when a machine is no longer being used;


Know the hazards and associated risks which arise in the course of normal work;
Be aware of hazards that arise from bad practices, inattention and misuse;

Know the dangers that arise when more than one person at a time operates a machine;


Where machines are fitted with table or feed controls, always select the neutral position
before the machine is started;
Wear all appropriate PPE, i.e. foot, eye and hearing protectors and/or respirators when
there are dangers of dust, flying chips or harmful noise;
Take care that work gloves do not become caught in moving parts;

Ensure that dust and fume extraction equipment is functioning correctly;


Do not reach over a saw or other cutting tools for any purpose;
Watch for sparks in open pockets and cuffs of clothing when welding;

Don’t wear jewellery that can snare in moving parts of machinery;

Always clean down the machinery after use - (DO NOT use compressed air).


3. Safe Working Environment:
(refer also to Section 3.4: ‘Workspace Conditions’)

The machine and work area must be kept free of an accumulation of materials, hand tools,
trade waste, oil, grease, sawdust and obstructions of any kind;

Keep a proper footing and balance at all times;

Observe yellow safety lines and the parameters of the “save operational zone” for each
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 92 of 141
fixed machine to maintain a safe distance from others when working;



Sufficient space must be kept clear in the vicinity of any fixed power transmission
machinery to enable any person to work, attend to, and clean it without risk of injury to him
or herself, or any other person;
Any person who is required or permitted to work, move or pass in close proximity to the
moving parts of any machinery must not wear any clothing or accessories likely to become
easily entangled in those moving parts;
Any person with unconfined, loose, long flowing hair must not work or pass in close
proximity to the moving parts of any machinery unless their hair is securely confined close
to the head. This could be a hair band, rubber band, hair net or a close-fitting cap (worn
backwards). Ponytails must also be tied up and contained so that they cannot fall forward,
sideways or backwards into the moving parts of a machine.
Note: Hair nets are not mandatory in schools. What is mandatory in all DETE workplaces
is that when hazards and risks are identified, controls must be put in place to manage that
hazard to reduce the risk of injury.

Because all schools are required to provide access to students with special needs, HODs
might consider isolating powered workshop machinery with a key-operated isolating lock to
all electrical switch panels in each room.
4. Designed Safety Controls and Machinery Guards:
(refer also to Section 3.6.3: ‘Safety Switching and Electrical Isolation Devices’)
Wherever practicable, controls for a power-driven fixed machine should be located in visible
positions where they can be readily and conveniently reached by the operator and in particular:

Starting controls must be designed and located to minimise the risk of inadvertent,
mistaken or incorrect starting;

Start buttons must be shrouded or recessed and coloured green;



Lockable magnetic control switchgear is recommended. This will also immediately cut
power to the machine on loss of current to the workshop;
Stopping controls must be readily and safely accessible to the operator. This should be
particularly addressed if the operator is a student with special needs;
Stop buttons must protrude in both initial and operating positions, must be easy to locate,
be coloured red and clearly marked “Stop”, either on the button or as near to it as
practicable;

On some fixed machines, such as the Drill Press, a large, knee access emergency stop
button must be fitted;

Where a machine is designed to be operated or attended by more than one person, the
multiple controls should be of the “stop and lock-off” type so the machine cannot be
restarted after a stop control has been used, unless the stop control is reset;

The hazardous working parts of power-driven machinery and equipment must be
safeguarded in accordance with the appropriate requirements of relevant standards issued
by Standards Australia (as listed below);

Where designed safeguards, such as hinged pulley covers and maintenance access doors
can be inadvertently opened during normal machinery operation, a Safety Micro Switch
must be fitted to immediately isolate power supply to the motor.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on working safely with ITD plant
and equipment in Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, Policy and Procedure Register – “Equipment Management for Schools”
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 93 of 141
Further Useful Resources:

Cutting fuel drums and empty containers - Explosion Hazard (new window) 287k

Electrical Safety

Grinder (hand-held) - Hazard Alert (new window) 173k

Magnabend metal folding machine - Safety Alert (new window) 336k

Multi-cutters Alert

Router table & spindle moulder equipment - Hazard Alert (new window) 324k
Some Relevant Australian Standards:

AS 60204.1: 2005 – General Safety of Machining

AS 1473: 1991 – Guarding and Safe Use of Woodworking Machinery

AS/NZS 60745.2: 2009 – General Safety for Hand-held Power Tools

AS 1473.4: 2201 – Wood Safety / Bandsaws

AS 1473.6: 2001 – Wood Safety / Surface Planing and Thicknesses

AS 1473.8: 2001 – Wood Safety / Milling Tools and Circular Saw Blades

AS 4024.3101: 2008 – Safety of Metal Cutting Machines

AS 4524.16: 2005 – Hand-held Grinders
AS 1893: 1997 – Guillotine Guards

Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 94 of 141
5.3
Student Use of Machinery, Plant and Equipment
DETE offers guidelines and recommendations only as to which ITD student groups might
be permitted to be allowed access to specific machinery, plant and equipment items and
processes commonly used in ITD practical curriculum activities. It must be noted that access
to some items should be restricted to ITD teachers only or to senior students under close
one-on-one ITD teacher supervision.
Note: “Close one-on-one ITD teacher supervision” means: “ ...with a qualified ITD teacher in
the immediate vicinity, observing, tutoring and monitoring the individual student involved in the
practical activity or process - at all times”.
All items of ITD plant and equipment will pose some risk to health and safety in any school.
Plant and Equipment Risk Assessment templates for both fixed machinery and portable power
tools have been prepared by DETE and are currently available online. It must be noted,
however, that these Risk Assessment documents do not necessarily restrict access or usage
by specific student groups or year levels. They are designed to assess the risk levels inherent
for each individual item when used in a specific way, (refer also to Section 2.2.2).
The “Student Usage Control Index” (refer below, Section 5.3.1) has been categorised into
four (4) levels of recommended control for ITD student access and safe use.
These levels of recommendation have been evaluated based on the significant inherent risks
associated with each item of ITD machinery, plant, equipment or workshop process, and the
likelihood of any student accidents or injuries being sustained as a result of their access and
usage under normal ITD practical workshop conditions.
The four access levels referred to in the Student Usage Control Index are defined as follows:
 LEVEL 1: Junior Years: Industrial Technology and Design Education students in yrs. 7 & 8
with limited exposure and experience.
 LEVEL 2: Middle Years: Industrial Technology and Design Education students in yrs. 8 & 9
with regular exposure and proven levels of competence and
experience.
PLUS any inexperienced and insufficiently skilled senior students
in yrs. 10, 11 & 12 where individual assessments indicate
“Unsatisfactory Progress”.
 LEVEL 3: Senior Years: QSA students (i.e. Technology Studies, Engineering and
Aerospace), SAS students (i.e. Manufacturing and Industrial
Skills), and VET or SAT students in yrs. 10,11 &12 with regular
workshop exposure and with proven levels of individual
competence, experience and skill levels,
 LEVEL 4: RESTRICTED: Limited to ITD teachers or Level 3 students working under close
one-on-one supervision by qualified ITD teacher.
Note: Ultimately individual schools will make their own evaluations and rational, informed
duty of care decisions regarding which students in their school might be safely permitted to
access specific ITD machinery, plant and equipment or processes under their normal ITD
workshop conditions. Access by an individual student can and must be restricted, if a Plant
& Equipment Risk Assessment indicates that it is in the interest of that individual student or
others in the class group to do so.
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 95 of 141
5.3.1
Student Usage Control Index
Student Usage Control Index
Workshop management guidelines and measured recommendations are offered in this index
to help ITD teachers maintain control over student access and safe usage for machinery,
plant, equipment and processes common in ITD practical curriculum activities.
Level 1 – Junior Years
Level 2 – Middle Years
Fixed or Non Portable Plant & Machinery
Air Compressor (separately housed with fixed lines to
rooms)
Buffing Machine, Pedestal (or bench mounted)
Drill Press, Pedestal (or bench mounted)
Level 3 – Senior Years
Level 1


Folder, Light Sheet Metal (electric powered)
Folder, Light Sheet Metal (electromagnetic, Magnabend ® )
Folder, Pan Brake, Light Sheet Metal (manual < 1270mm)


Level 2






Folder, Press Brake, Heavy Sheet Metal (hydraulic < 40 ton)


Grinder, Pedestal (or bench mounted)
o retrofitted with a linishing sander attachment
o retrofitted with wire brush wheels
Level 3 Restricted










Guillotine, Heavy Sheet Metal (< 5mm, hydraulic < 40 ton)



Guillotine, Light Sheet Metal (< 1.6mm, manual)
Hydraulic Press (< 35 ton)
Lathe, Centre (metal turning)
Lathe, Wood Copy


Lathe, Wood Turning (longbed & shortbed)
Metal Shears (sheet metal, bar & rods)
Milling Machine (vertical & horizontal)
Mortiser, Chisel (free standing)
Router, MatCam ® CNC Table
Sander, Bobin or Vertical Spindle
Sander, Disc (<380 mm)


Sander, Drum (variable speed, twin or single drum)
Sander, Linishing Belt (<200 mm)







Saw, Cold (metal cutting 300mm disc)
Saw, Metal Bandsaw (vertical or horizontal)
Saw, Wood Bandsaw (pedestal or bench mounted)


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


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

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


Saw, Radial Arm
Shaping Machine
Spindle Moulder


Surface Planer or Jointer
Thicknesser
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit

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Saw, Panel (table, cabinet)
Saw, Power Hacksaw


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
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 96 of 141
Combination Fixed Plant & Machinery
Level 1
Level 2

Linishing Sander & Disc Sander
Wood Lathe with a 300mm Disc Sander
Panel Saw / Surface Planer / Spindle Moulder / Mortiser
Portable Power Tools & Machinery
Level 1
Battery Powered (cordless) Angle Grinders

Battery Powered (cordless) Laminate Trimmer/Router
Battery Powered (cordless, Gas) Nailing & Framing Gun
(>20mm)
Battery Powered (cordless) Nailing & Stapling Gun (<20mm)
Battery Powered (cordless) Planer
Battery Powered (cordless) Sanders

Level 2








Battery Powered (cordless) Saw, Circular
Biscuit Jointer
Blow Former

Block & Tackle (rope or chain)
Concrete Mixer (<120 Lt, electric)

Mortising Machines (bench mounted)
Dowell Machine
Dremel
®
Rotary Tools & Attachments
Drill (AC Powered, <10mm chuck)



Air Compressor (small portable unit)
Battery Powered (cordless) Drills & Screwdrivers
Level 3 Restricted










Level 3 Restricted


















Explosive Powered Tools

Grinder, Angle (discs <115mm)
o with discs >115mm
o with a masonry disc
o with wire brush attachments




o with wood carving attachments
Hot-Air Welder
Hydraulic Trolley Jack
Hot-Wire Poker (pyrograph)




Jackhammer (pneumatic or electric)

Metal Nibbler
Nail & Framing Gun (cordless gas, >20mm)

Nail & Stapling Gun (electric, <20mm)
o Nail & Stapling Gun (electric, >20mm)

Nail & Stapling Gun (pneumatic, <20mm)
o Nail & Stapling Gun (pneumatic, >20mm)
Oven, Convection (for thermoplastics, etc. only)


Planer (electric, <90mm)
, etc)
Router, CNC (or lathe, e.g. Denford ® Compact 1000)




Router, Laminate Trimmer
Router, Palm (small)
Router, Plunge
Router Table (fixed or sliding – fitted with correct router)
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
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Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 97 of 141
Portable Power Tools & Machinery
(continued )
Level 1
Level 2





Sander, Belt
Sander, Orbital (random orbit)
Sander, Sheet
Saw, Circular
Saw, Metal Cut Off (300mm abrasive disc blade)
Saw, Compound Mitre (drop saw)
Saw, Jigsaw

Saw, Scroll


Saw, Wet Table (tiles, stone and ceramics)
Soldering Iron, Electric







Level 1
Level 2
Spray Painting Guns
Strip Heater / Bender (acrylic, thermoplastics)
Vacuum Former
Welding Applications & Equipment

Brazing – Fuel Gas
MMAW or Electric Arc Welding – Manual, Stick

MIG Welding – Portable, Metal Inert Gas Welding
Oxy/Acetylene Cutting – Fuel Gas

Oxy/Acetylene Welding – Fuel Gas Welding
Plasma Cutting – Portable, Inverted Air 40 amp
Spot Welding – Hand, Portable, 240v (up to 2 mm)


Level 1
Level 2
Spot Welding – Pedestal, Fixed, 415v 3Phase
TIG Welding – Tungsten Inert Gas (AC/DC high frequency)
Miscellaneous Processes
Level 3 Restricted













Solvent Degreasing
Glass Reinforced Plastics (fibre glass & MEKP catalyst)
Glass Reinforced Plastics (sun cured UVC catalysts only)
Resin Casting & Embedment (MEKP catalyst)
Resin Casting & Embedment (sun cured UVC catalyst only)
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
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Level 3 Restricted
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
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
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Level 3 Restricted
Electro-Plating
Metal Casting (foundry work)

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
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 98 of 141
5.4
Service Maintenance and Responsibilities
Schools should identify their responsibilities regarding the annual Asset Maintenance Program
(AMP) and Special Maintenance Programs (SMP) for their ITD facilities.
Servicing and maintenance is required to be undertaken on a regular basis to ensure that
equipment is able to function effectively, to maintain safety and to reduce the likelihood of
expensive future maintenance and costly repairs.
The DETE Asset Maintenance policy and procedure provides clear guidelines. Schools
responsibilities falls into two categories:
•
Servicing and Testing by DETE – School Principals should ensure that the department
(QBuild) conducts regular servicing and testing, in accordance with the QBuild Service
Maintenance Reference Guide for Plant & Equipment, for all ITD fixed machinery, plant and
equipment, gas installations, lighting and electrical, air conditioning and ducting, fire services,
water and sewage, etc.;
… and inform QBuild of all new fixed plant and equipment purchased for the department.

Servicing, Testing, Maintenance and Repairs by individual schools – including inspections,
monitoring, testing ‘n’ tagging, repairs and maintenance of fixed machinery and all portable
power tools, etc., and are managed by school grants funding. Regular servicing and
maintenance should be carried out in accordance with manufactures requirements.
The following table is an extract from “Service Maintenance Guide for Plant and Equipment”.
Responsibility for Service & Maintenance
Service & Testing
ITD Facilities Plant & Equipment
Air Conditioning – Ducted
DETE


Air Conditioning – Split Systems & Filters
Electrical Services – Plant Installations,
RCD’s, Lighting & Fans, Switchboards etc.
Emergency Evacuation Lighting
Fire Protection Systems
Gases – Gas Line Installations
School




Glazing
Hydraulics – Water Supply & Sewage



Intercom System
ITD – Test & Tagging of Portable
Equipment & Portable Safety Switches
ITD – Test & Tagging of Fixed Plant
& Fixed Safety Switches
ITD Equipment – Fixed Workshop
Plant & Machinery
ITD Equipment – Portable Electric
Power Tools

















Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
School

Roller Shutters, Screens & Doors, etc.
Security Alarms & Safety Systems
DETE

ITD Equipment – Hand Tools
Mechanical Ventilation – Spray Booth,
Dust Extraction System & Canopies, etc.
Maintenance & Repair





Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 99 of 141
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on service and maintenance of
ITD plant and equipment requirements in Queensland schools, refer to the following useful
links:

DETE, Policy and Procedure Register – “Asset Maintenance”

DETE, Policy and Procedure Register – “Equipment Management for Schools”

Plant & Equipment Notification Form (new window) 55k

QBuild Service Maintenance Reference Guide
Further Useful Resources, Documents and Forms:

Plant Code of Practice 2005 (new window) 655k

Equipment Disposal / Write-off Form (EQ13)

External Request for Equipment (or Loaning) (EQ11)

Guidelines for the School Stocktake Process

Registering New Plant & Equipment

Disposal of Plant & Equipment

Unauthorised Use of Plant & Equipment
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 100 of 141
5.5
Equipment Maintenance Records (EMRs)
The national Work Health and Safety Act: 2011 (Qld) outlines obligations to manage risks.
These obligations extend to managing inherent risks associated with machinery, plant and
equipment use in schools. The Plant Code of Practice (part of the framework of health and
safety legislation) provides more detailed information on how to address specific issues related
to the use of plant and equipment. Within the current Code, aspects of record keeping are
outlined which require documents such as Safe Operating Procedures (SOPs) and Equipment
Maintenance Records (EMRs) to be maintained and retained for the life of all fixed machinery,
plant and equipment at the school.
Auditors and WHSQ officers will expect schools to produce all Equipment Maintenance
Records (EMRs) including any service, maintenance or repair documentation in the event of
Safety Audit Review’s or following departmental investigations of any serious injury or incident
involving the use of school machinery, plant and equipment.
Three (3) EMR pages are provided for each piece of fixed or non-portable equipment:
1.
Maintenance Record: date, description of service, performed by, time taken, all costs,
tagging details if required;
2.
Random Equipment Checklist: date, tick checked, any follow-up action required;
3.
End of Semester and Annual Checklist: date, tick checked, any actions required;
Note: All Equipment Maintenance Record documents are provided in a MS Word format.
Select from the list at the following DETE website:

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – “Equipment & Machinery Resources”
Schools may have already developed forms and procedures for managing their fixed or nonportable machinery, plant and equipment. The EMR form layout provided by DETE in itself is
not mandatory but forms a baseline of information for the establishment or review of your
school system. The use of these DETE documents however does provide a standardised
system that will benefit new, relocated and relieving staff throughout the state, and it is
therefore recommended that they be universally adopted.
The timelines provided in the generic checklists could be altered to suit local circumstances at
your school. It is important that visual checks be undertaken prior to the use of a piece of
equipment. The two checklists provided do not replace the need for this visual check before
every use of the equipment.
For more information, or if further guidance is required on Equipment Maintenance Records in
Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, CHW, Equipment & Machinery Resources (SOPs, EMRs & P&ERAs)

DETE, CHW, Hazards in Schools – ‘Equipment & Machinery’

DETE, Fact Sheet – ‘Managing Plant & Equipment in ITD’ 927k

DETE, Safety & Hazard Alerts - Education Queensland
Further Useful Resources:

DETE, Fact Sheet – ‘Using SOPs & EMRs in Your School’ (new window) 283k
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 101 of 141
5.6
Safe Operating Procedures (SOPs)
Safe Operating Procedures (SOPs) are mandatory documents that
provide staff and students with a table of directions that are a consistent
and structured approach for the safe use of all ITD machinery, plant and
equipment in schools.
An extensive index of “Safe Operating Procedure” documents for
the more common ITD machinery, plant and equipment found in
most EQ school is currently available for download (in MS Word
format for editing if required) at the following DETE website:

DETE, Equipment & Machinery Resources (SOPs & EMRs)
1. SOPs for fixed or stationery ITD machinery, plant and equipment
have been available for some time in ‘A4 Poster’ format:

All fixed machinery SOPs are to be signed and dated by the HOD,
laminated and displayed prominently, close to the equipment where they
can be seen readily by students and supervising staff.
2. SOPs for portable and cordless machines and power tools have also
been developed by DETE for use in schools. Three (3) alternate formats are
available including:

A small ‘Swing Tag’ that will attach with a cable tie to the electrical lead or the body of
each portable power tool or machine. This tag will require folding, laminating, trimming to
size and the fitting of a small brass grommet – a little time consuming; however it should
prove very useful as a portable resource.

An A4 size ‘Checklist’ that you can require students to complete (tick box style) each time
they use a medium to high risk power tool such as compressed air equipment, the
compound mitre saw, the abrasive cut off saw or portable router table. This format also
requires laminating and a little trimming to shape;

An A4 size ‘Poster’ format that is very similar to the suite of fixed SOPs that have been
used in schools for many years – They will also require laminated and could be displayed
adjacent to where the portable power tools or machines is usually stored or used.
3. SOPs for ‘Hazardous Chemicals’ are written procedures explaining how to work safely
with chemicals in DETE workplaces. The generic Chemicals SOP template can be found at:

DETE, PPR – ‘Generic SOP Template for Chemicals in DETE Workplaces’
How schools utilise the Health and Safety information and structured content of SOPs will
depend on local circumstances and individual school preference. Remember, however, they
are mandatory documents for all ITD departments in all EQ schools and, as such, must be
displayed prominently close by to items of machinery, plant and equipment where they can be
seen readily by all users and supervising staff.
There is also a responsibility of ensuring that your SOPs are reviewed on an ongoing basis.
This needs to be done at least once a year or as changes are made to your ITD plant and
equipment inventory, work processes or your evolving curriculum requirements.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on SOPs and EMRs in
Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, CHW, Hazards in Schools – ‘Equipment & Machinery Resources’

DETE, Fact Sheet – ‘Using SOPs & EMRs in Your School’ (new window) 283k

DETE, Fact Sheet – ‘Managing Plant & Equipment in ITD’ 927k

DETE, Safety & Hazard Alerts - Education Queensland
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 102 of 141
5.7
Battery Powered Tools and Equipment
Battery powered or cordless power tools and equipment have improved over the years and are
a great choice. With lithium-ion batteries, rechargeable power tools are lighter, stronger and
more versatile than ever. There are a number of advantages to these versatile tools, and a
number of safety considerations that need to be addressed:

Lithium-ion batteries hold a charge better and last longer than nickel-cadmium batteries;

Cordless power tools are more portable and convenient. They are usually not as versatile
or as powerful as 240v powered alternatives, however, they can be used in more areas
without the inconvenience of distance from an AC power outlet or generator. This generally
makes them safer when being used by students – no electrical cords to trip over, get
tangled in, or to accidentally cut into. Note, however, that most cordless power tools could
still potentially be a hazardous machine if not used properly;

Schools regularly have a number of batteries on charge ready for use in multiple tools that
can run on the same battery size and type – i.e. hand drills, orbital sanders, edge-trim
routers, circular saws, reciprocating saws, jigsaws, brad nailers, impact drivers and hand
vacuum cleaners;

Not all chargers are equally efficient, so schools are advised to shop for the most energyefficient models. However, do not use a different charger aside from the prescribed one
that comes with the tool. Incompatible chargers or adaptors can greatly damage not only
the battery but sometimes the entire device. Incompatible chargers or adaptors have also
been known to cause fires;

Never use the cordless power tool in damp or watery places. Even if the cordless tool is not
connected to an electric socket, it is still electrically powered when it is running on battery.
This is called dry current or DC power. Any device that runs on electric current is very
sensitive to water based materials. It might develop short circuit problems after getting wet
or damp accidentally;
Never use cordless tools in places near explosive gases. Even battery powered tools emit
heat or at times, produce sparks, while being used. This heat or spark may trigger any
volatile gases to explode;


Always work in a safe environment. Naturally, all necessary PPE must be provided and
worn. If the operator is working with an assistant, make sure that they too are taking the
same precautionary measures.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on battery-powered tools and
equipment for use in Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, CHW, Equipment & Machinery Resources (SOPs, EMRs & P&ERAs)

DETE, CHW, Hazards in Schools – ‘Equipment & Machinery’

DETE, Fact Sheet – ‘Managing Plant & Equipment in ITD’ 927k

DETE, Safety & Hazard Alerts - Education Queensland
Further Useful Resources:

DETE, Fact Sheet – ‘Using SOPs & EMRs in Your School’ (new window) 283k
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 103 of 141
5.8
Hand Tools
Hand tools can be classified as non-powered tools and include anything from hammers to
spanners to jenny callipers. The greatest hazards posed by hand tools result from misuse by
students and improper maintenance by staff. Some examples include:

Using a screwdriver as a chisel may cause the tip of the screwdriver to break and fly,
possibly hitting someone in the eye.

If a wooden handle on a tool such as a hammer or a bossing mallet is loose, splintered, or
cracked, the head of the tool may fly off and strike those nearby. Students should be
instructed in the routine procedure of checking the condition of the tools before use

Impact tools such as cold chisels, centre punches or drift pins with an excessively worn or
mushroomed heads need to be ground back, or dressed, to the correct shape to prevent
the curled edges from shattering on impact, sending sharp fragments flying.
As part of the process of safety self-regulation, all teachers engaging in activities involving the
use of hand tools should individually identify the hazards, assess their significance and manage
the potential risks. Always consider the following:

Teachers are responsible for the serviceable and safe condition of hand tools and
equipment used by in ITD. Chisels must be sharp to work correctly and efficiently. Dull
tools can be more hazardous than sharp ones. Students should be cautioned that saw
blades, chisels, or other sharp tools be directed away from aisle areas and other students
in close proximity;

Appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), e.g., safety goggles, leather shoes and
gloves should be worn due to hazards that may be encountered while using most hand
tools;

Hand tools used within the facility need to be returned to a designated area after they are
used. Store all hand tools neatly and safely so they do not create a hazard, e.g. falling,
tripping or stubbing;

The level of theft of hand tools within the facility is difficult to control when they are left
scattered around the room, on floors, in project storage cupboards and lost behind
machinery. Always endeavour to account for all hand tools at the end of every lesson. It is
suggested that a hand tool register be developed to assist in accounting for tools in each
room and Peg Boards or Shadow Boards be provided. Teachers can do a quick visual
check and immediately identify all hand tools that are misplaced or lost;
Around flammable substances, sparks produced by iron and steel hand tools can be a
hazardous ignition source. Where this hazard exists, spark-resistant tools made from
brass, plastic, aluminium, or wood will provide a much higher degree of safety.

Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on the safe use, service and
maintenance of ITD hand tools and equipment in Queensland schools, refer to the following
useful links:

DETE, PPR – Risk Assessment Guideline, ‘Managing a Practical ITD Workspace’
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 104 of 141
5.9
Compressed Air, Pneumatic Tools and Equipment
Compressed air pneumatic tools and equipment refers to all tools and equipment that use
compressed air as a means of their functioning. A variety of compressors are commonly used
in ITD departments by staff and students, ranging from small portable types to the larger
capacity fixed machinery.
As part of the process of risk management, all teachers involved in activities incorporating the
use of any compressed-air pneumatic tools and equipment in ITD must initially identify the
associated hazards, assess their significance and manage the potential risks by means of a
Plant and Equipment Risk Assessment. Control measures requiring your consideration are:
•
Ventilate the workspace with open doors or windows and turn on the dust extractor;
•
Safety glasses and appropriate fully enclosed footwear that protects against falling sharp
tools, equipment or project materials must be worn by all persons;
•
Where the noise level of the air-operated device and the frequency of use demand it,
appropriate ear protection should be worn during operation. Noise levels output should be
kept below 85 dB;
•
Air pressure in compressors and pipelines should not exceed the manufacturer's
specifications;
•
Air pressures should be regulated to the minimum pressure that will allow the appropriate
functioning of the equipment being operated;
Compressors must be fitted with functioning relief valves and a suitable regulator;
•
•
All air hoses must be fitted with self-sealing fittings to prevent personal damage from an
open air hose;
•
Any leaking air lines should be fixed as soon as they are detected;
•
Tank inspection for large air-compressor unit with a cylinder capacity of 26 cubic feet or
greater required ever 6 months. Certification reports must be filed and available at the
school.
Any required maintenance on the air-compressor unit, manifolds and air lines, and all air
tools should carried out to manufacturer’s standards;
Compressor units are to be located clear of access and egress of all walkways and
pathways;
•
•
•
It is strongly recommended that all spray-painting activities be conducted in a purpose built
and well-ventilated booth;
•
The use of compressed air for cleaning down workspaces and clothing etc. must be
avoided and discouraged. Material accidently propelled as a result of high-pressure air or
even the direct contact of the high-pressure air nozzle on to unprotected skin can cause
serious penetration wounds.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on compressed air, and
pneumatic powered tools and equipment for use in Queensland schools, refer to the following
useful links:

DETE, PPR – Risk Assessment Guideline, “Compressed Air Equipment”

DETE, CHW, Equipment & Machinery Resources (SOPs, EMRs & P&ERAs)

DETE, CHW, Hazards in Schools – ‘Equipment & Machinery’

DETE, Fact Sheet – ‘Managing Plant & Equipment in ITD’ 927k

DETE, Safety & Hazard Alerts - Education Queensland
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 105 of 141
5.9.1
Safe Use of Nailing Tools in Schools
This specific safety guideline highlights the HIGH and EXTREME risk hazards present when
using nailing tools, such as nail guns and stapling tools, and provides examples of their correct
and safe usage. The information provided is designed to help ITD teachers meet their duty of
care obligations under the WHS Act: 2011.
Nail guns have often replaced hammers as tools of choice amongst builders. There are many
types of portable hand-held nail guns used throughout industry and, to a much lesser degree,
regularly utilised in Vocational Education and Training (VET) courses conducted in most
Queensland Secondary schools and colleges. They are powered by either:
•
•
Electromagnetism;
Compressed air – pneumatic;
•
Highly flammable gases – such as butane or propane;
•
Powder actuated – requiring an explosive charge.
The compressed air/pneumatic models have become the most commonly used form.
Investigations have identified that occurrences of serious nail gun incidents are increasing, not
only within Queensland, but throughout Australia and other countries. The main cause for
many of these incidents is associated with the use of contact trip actuation (also known as
bump-fire, bounce-fire or simultaneous discharge) type nail guns.
Nail guns are significantly prone to unintentional firing when users accidentally make contact
with the gun’s muzzle while handling the equipment or when moving from one location to
another with their finger engaged on the tool’s trigger mechanism.
The contact trip actuation method of operation allows nails to be driven or fired by holding the
trigger in the firing position, then bringing the muzzle into contact with any surface that provides
enough resistance to counteract the spring compression forces of the muzzle assembly.
Primarily, due to the likelihood of repetitive strain considerations for tradespersons using these
tools regularly, many designers have adopted relatively low intensity spring compression units
within the muzzle assemblies, therefore providing little protection against unintentional
discharge by unsuspecting, inexperienced school students.
Today, nail gun penetration injuries have increased throughout the industry to dangerously high
levels. Reports clearly show that a significant number of these incidents are a direct result of
the gun’s muzzle being unintentionally struck into a part of the body while the user has hold of
the tool’s trigger switch. These incidents resulted in people being left partially or permanently
disabled, blinded, and in some cases fatally injured.
High and extreme risk hazards to be particularly aware of in schools are:
•
•
•
•
ITD teachers, students and others can accidentally place themselves into positions where
they are directly exposed to the projectile path of a nail gun;
As it currently stands, the safety of nail gun operations is mainly dependent upon the skill,
knowledge, aptitude, maturity and ‘safe work’ attitude of the user;
The nail gun is effectively a firearm which can release steel projectiles in excess of 130
mm in length;
Contact trip actuation (bump-fire, bounce-fire or simultaneous discharge) type nail guns are
much more prone to unintentional firing through accidental contact with the machine’s
muzzle when handling the equipment from one position to another.
Control or prevention measures:
•
Bump-fire nail guns (including those fitted with switchable levers that allow the gun to be
used in another mode) must not be used:
o
In restricted and tight spaced areas where the gun’s actuation muzzle is at high risk of
being bumped;
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 106 of 141
o
Where other students are likely to come within the firing path of the nail gun or there is a
foreseeable risk of them being struck by a flying nail (e.g. by ricochet or deflection).
•
Nail guns must be maintained to ensure correct operation of the actuation mechanism. If
any problems occur, the tools must be repaired by a competent person (i.e. an authorised
agent) or be replaced;
•
A safer design of operation is found within sequential actuation type nail guns, which allow
for only one single driving operation via trigger, after the muzzle of the tool has been
applied to the driving location;
•
All teachers and students who use nail guns must be fully trained in their safe use.
Training is to address the safe operation of the nail gun, personal protective equipment
(PPE) requirements and any other specific directions as stated in the manufacturer’s
manual;
•
Due to the increasing number of serious nail gun penetration injuries taking place
throughout the building and construction industry, Workplace Health and Safety
Queensland considers that bump-fire type nail guns should only be used within this
industry under the strictest of controls. Nail guns with safer actuation mechanisms are
preferred;
•
Specific safety rules should include:
o
Establishing an appropriate exclusion zone around the nailing operation;
o
Placing appropriate workplace safety signage to alert people that a nailing tool is in use;
o
Re-assigning students not directly involved in the nailing work away from the area
where the nailing operation is taking place (where possible);
o
Ensuring teachers, students and other workers (located in or near the exclusion zone)
wear appropriate eye and hearing protection and any additional specified PPE.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on compressed air, and gas
powered tools and equipment for use in Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

Workplace Health & Safety Qld – ‘Safe Use of Nailing Tools’ (new window) 125k

DETE, CHW, Equipment & Machinery Resources (P&ERAs, SOPs &EMRs)

DETE, CHW, Hazards in Schools – ‘Equipment & Machinery’

DETE, Fact Sheet – ‘Managing Plant & Equipment in ITD’ 927k

DETE, Safety & Hazard Alerts - Education Queensland
Further Useful Resources:

DETE, Fact Sheet – ‘Using SOPs & EMRs in Your School’ (new window) 283k
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 107 of 141
5.10
Welding Processes and Equipment
This is not a technical manual, nor is it a recommendation to use particular brands of PPE
clothing or welding equipment. This is, however, a general guideline for safe-work procedures
and practices when welding and gas-cutting in the ITD workplace environment. All guideline
advice is intended for ITD teachers, staff and students, and anyone else who uses welding
equipment in the schools ITD workshop.
It is the responsibility of the school to ensure that all operators are adequately trained, and that
they understand and use the correct operating techniques. Equally, it is the responsibility of
every operator to use only the correct operating techniques.
5.10.1 Oxy/Acetylene – Fuel Gas Welding, Cutting and Brazing

There must be a safe working system in place for the performance of welding activities.
This system must address the inherent oxy-welding safety risks including extreme heat,
infra-red radiation and volatile, explosive and toxic gases;

Effective control measures must include ways of preventing or minimising these risks,
including well designed oxy-welding bays and workshop layout that allows provision for
sufficient teacher supervision, enabling student observation to be maintained at all times.
This will vary depending on the maturity and responsibility of the students;

Walkways and access around welding bays should be left free of all obstructions;

Provision for quenching hot metals should be made available and be very close at hand;

Operating instructions should be prominently displayed for the safe ‘Opening and Shutdown’ procedures of all gas supply cylinders and manifolds;

To prevent the accidental play of a welding flame onto the gas cylinders, it is important to
locate the oxygen and acetylene cylinders on the storage trolley, and behind the operator;

Ensure that good ventilation and welding fume extraction systems are effective. This is
critical as the build-up of fumes produced by all welding processes creates a toxic
atmosphere;
Full protective PPE covering for all welding operations is essential. All appropriate UV
welding helmets, IR safety goggles, face shields, gloves, aprons, jackets, spats, etc. must
be available and in good repair. Watch for sparks in open pockets and cuffs of clothing
when welding;
Adequate facilities should be provided for the delivery of full gas cylinders and the return of
empties. Gas cylinders must be stored away from exposure to excessive heat, on a
readily moveable vertical hand trolley and secured in position by means of a safety chain
or comparable device;




Acetylene cylinders must be secured in an upright position prior to and during use.
Acetylene is packaged in a cylinder filled with Diatomaceous Earth. The acetylene is
dissolved in acetone and the solution is then pumped into the cylinder. If the cylinder is
placed on its side and then set upright again, it takes some time for the system to reequilibrate and for the acetone to drain out of the dip tube in the valve. If welding is done
during this period, you may get “spitting” as the weld will be high in carbon due to the
presence of acetone;
Be aware of flashbacks. A flashback is the burning back of the flame into the tip, torch, or
hose. It is often accompanied by a hissing or squealing sound with a smoky or sharppointed flame. When this occurs the flame should be extinguished immediately by closing
the oxygen valve and then the acetylene valve. The occurrence of a flashback indicates
that something is radically wrong with the procedure or with the equipment. A qualified gas
fitter or QBuild should be called to check the equipment and or procedures before
resuming;
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 108 of 141





Oxy acetylene torches, hoses, gas lines, regulators and flashback arresters must be
inspected annually under the departmental “Plant and Equipment Service Maintenance
Program”. This is the responsibility of DETE;
Storage of disconnected replacement oxygen and acetylene bottles should be arranged to
keep the two gases separated by several metres. Consider not holding any more full gas
cylinders in storage than is absolutely necessary for your requirements;
Stored cylinders, not connected for use, must remain capped;
Teachers should never convey or move gas cylinders without the aid of the storage hand
trolley, with the cylinder still securely fastened. If possible, arrange for the gas supplier or
delivery agent to deliver all gas cylinders to the nearest point-of-use, thus minimising
unnecessary handling;
Oil and grease must never come into contact with oxy/acetylene welding equipment.
These substances may ignite spontaneously when in contact with oxygen.
5.10.2
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Electric Arc Welding – MMAW, MIG and TIG
The primary hazards associated with electric arc welding are electric shock, burns from hot
material, radiant energy from ultraviolet and infra-red rays, toxic fumes, fires and
explosions;
Effective control measures must include ways of preventing or minimising all inherent risks,
including well designed welding bays and workshop layout that allow provision for sufficient
teacher supervision, enabling student observation to be maintained at all times. This will
vary depending on the maturity and responsibility of the students;
Radiated light waves produced by the electric arc will seriously damage eyes. Ultraviolet
(UV) radiation causes inflammation of the cornea and can burn the retinas of the eyes.
Infra-red (IR) wavelengths cause severe discomfort and redness;
Because of the harmful radiation generated, electric arc welding must be carried out in its
own room or in a separate bay adequately screened from any person not taking part in the
actual welding process. The walls of the welding bay should be non-reflecting (black);
To protect student bystanders and any unexpected visitors to the welding area, especially
in confined classroom workshop environments, transparent welding screens or curtains
must be installed around all welding areas. These moveable screens or fitted curtains,
made of a polyvinyl chloride plastic film, shield the rest of the class from sparks and
harmful UV light rays during arc welding activities. Flying sparks create the potential for
fires. The welding screens help to contain these dangerous hazards. However the safety
screens and fitted welding bay curtains should never be expected to substitute for the
effect of the filter glass lenses used in the welders’ helmets;
Overexposure to ultraviolet radiation can also cause skin cancer, so the proper full body
protection must always be worn. Leather welding clothing includes gauntlet gloves,
jackets, aprons, sleeves, chaps (pants) and spats. They are usually made from split Grey
Chrome-tanned cowhide and offer very durable and distinctly increased protection from UV
radiation, thermal protection from hot welding sparks and splatter, and from cuts and
abrasions when grinding. Watch for sparks in open pockets and cuffs of clothing when
welding;
Cables should be correctly insulated to avoid any dangers of electric shock. All hoses
should be checked periodically to correct slow leaks of argon, argoshield, helium etc;
Ensure that good ventilation and welding fume extraction systems are effective. This is
critical as the build-up of fumes produced by the electric arc creates a toxic atmosphere.
During inert-gas-shielded arc welding some ozone, oxides of nitrogen, fluoride and
silicone, as well as prolific quantities of carbon dioxide are given off. These are highly
toxic, irritant gases, which can cause inflammation and congestion of the respiratory tract
after both short and long term exposure. A one (1) ppm exposure for more than half an
hour often results in headache and malaise;
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 109 of 141
•
Earthing of electric arc welding equipment should be done by bolting the earth lead to the
welding table. This prevents the inadvertent connection of the earth to the case of the
welding unit;
•
All operators must be insulated from the arc welding tables, from damp concrete floors and
any exposed parts of the work piece by rubber sole work boots, rubber matting, wooden
duck boards or some other means;
•
Any water on the floor should be investigated and removed immediately.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on welding processes and
equipment for use in Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, Equipment and Machinery Resources (SOPs, EMRs & P&ERAs)

DETE, Hazards in Schools – ‘Equipment & Machinery Resources’

DETE, PPR – Risk Assessment Guideline, “Gas Heating Welding & Cutting”

DETE, PPR – Risk Assessment Guideline, “Electric Arc Welding”

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – ‘Safety & Hazard Alerts’
Relevant Australian Standards:

AS 1674.2: 2007 – Safety in Electrical Welding and Allied Processes, Part 2.


AS 2717.1: 1996 – Welding Electrodes - Gas Metal Arc Welding
AS 2717.2: – MIG Welding Wires

AS 4603: 1999 – Flashback Arresters

AS 4267: 1995 – Oxy/Acetylene Pressure Regulators
Further Useful Resources:

DETE, CHW, Fact Sheet – ‘Using SOPs & EMRs in Your School’ (new window) 283k
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 110 of 141
6.
CHEMICALS AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES
It must be acknowledged that any chemicals and hazardous substances utilised in ITD can
cause adverse health effects such as acute poisoning, asthma, skin rashes, allergies,
sensitisation, cancer and many other long term chronic diseases from misuse or over exposure.
The purpose of these guidelines is to assist ITD departmental staff to adopt safe practices for
the management of all chemicals and to help prevent or minimise the risk of injury or illness to
all staff, students and others (such as visitors and volunteers) from exposure to chemicals,
particularly hazardous materials and dangerous goods.
“Chemical” is a general term that includes substances, products, mixtures and preparations
composed of elements, compounds or mixtures. Chemicals may exist as solids, liquid or gases
and they may be handled, stored, used or produced in a workplace. Chemical products may be
classed as hazardous or non-hazardous, or as dangerous goods depending on their
potential to cause harm to workers, the environment or property. For clarity of purpose, the
word chemical will be used in this document to refer to all substances, whether they are
hazardous, non-hazardous or a dangerous good.
What are ‘hazardous chemicals’? A hazardous chemical is a substance, mixture or article
that satisfies the criteria for a hazard class within either the AC Classification system (the
original system in the OSH regulations 1996) or the Globally Harmonised System for
Classification & Labelling of Chemicals, 4th revised edition (GHS). Hazardous chemical classes
are listed in Schedule 11 of the Work Health & Safety (WHS) Regulation, 2011. Hazardous
chemicals have the potential to cause harm to workers and other people, property or the
environment through fire, explosion, reaction or release of toxic, flammable or corrosive
materials during storage, handling or use.
What are ‘non - hazardous chemicals’? Simply, chemicals that are not classified as
hazardous chemicals are referred to as non-hazardous chemicals. Non-hazardous chemicals
generally do not represent a threat to the health and safety of employees and others provided
that they are used for the purpose specified and in the manner specified. However, there is still
an obligation for the safe management of non-hazardous chemicals in the workplace under the
Work Health & Safety (WHS) Regulation, 2011.
What are ‘dangerous goods’? Dangerous goods are substances or articles that present an
immediate hazard to people, property or the environment due to the possibility of fire,
explosion, chemical reaction or release of toxic, flammable or corrosive materials during
storage or handling. They are classified on the basis of immediate physical or chemical risk.
Are ‘hazardous chemicals’ and ‘dangerous goods’ the same thing? No. Hazardous
chemicals are substances that meet criteria under either the previous AC classification system
or the current GHS classification system. These classification systems are based on the
harmful effects of substances on people. In contrast, dangerous goods are substances or
articles that, because of their physical and chemical (physiochemical) or acute toxicity
properties, present an immediate hazard to people, property or the environment. For example,
a chemical that is only flammable and has no toxic, corrosive, sensitising or cancer causing
properties would be a ‘dangerous good’ but not a ‘hazardous chemical’.
Note: For more information and guidance on using Chemicals and Hazardous Substances in
DETE workplaces, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, PPR – “Managing Risks with Chemicals in DETE Workplaces”

GHS of Classification & Labelling of Chemicals – 4th edition: 2011 (new window) 3.08 MB

Hazardous Chemicals Register & Manifest (new window) 293k

Work Health and Safety Act: 2011 (Qld) (new window) 1.42 MB

Work Health and Safety Regulation (Qld): 2011 (new window) 2.69 MB
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 111 of 141
6.1
Legislative Requirements for Chemicals in Schools
State and federal legislation imposes obligations on all ITD staff irrespective of the quantities
and types of chemical substances that may be used in schools. All DETE workplaces have the
same responsibility to safely utilize and manage their chemical inventory. However, extra
vigilance must be exercised when managing any hazardous chemicals and/or dangerous
goods. Effective management is best achieved if schools comply with all relevant DETE
legislative requirements.
In Queensland there is a complex range of legislation, codes of practice and related standards
for the management of chemical substances in schools. The principal DETE requirements are
contained in the following publications:
Legislation:

Work Health and Safety Act: 2011 (Qld) (new window) 1.42 MB

Work Health & Safety Regulation (Qld): 2011 (new window) 2.69 MB

GHS of Classification & Labelling of Chemicals – (4th edition: 2011) (new window) 3 MB

Australian Code for the Transport of Dangerous Goods (ADG7) – (7th ed: 2011) 18 MB

WHSQ – Storage Management of Dangerous Goods

WHSQ – Hazardous Chemicals, Substances & Dangerous Goods

WHSQ – Hazardous Chemicals Code of Practice 2003, (2012) (new window) 352k

Transport Operations (Road Use Management) Act: 1995 (new window) 2.11 MB

Transport Operations (RUM) Regulation: 2009, (2012 reprint) (new window) 2.14 MB

Chemical Usage Control Act: 1988, (July 2010 reprint) (new window) 514k

Chemical Usage Control Regulation: 1999, (Sept 2011 reprint) (new window) 456k

Health (Drugs & Poisons) Regulation: 1996, (Nov 2012 reprint) (new window) 1.3 MB

Hazardous Chemicals Register & Manifest (new window) 293k
DETE Policy and Procedure:

DETE, PPR – ‘Managing Risks with Chemicals in DETE Workplaces’, (2012)
Note: The Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is
recognised and approved under the new Work Health & Safety Regulation (Qld): 2011.
However, we must continue to apply the Australian Code for the Transport of Dangerous
Goods, 7th Edition, October 2011 for the transport, storage and handling of such hazardous or
dangerous goods.
The GHS introduces a new system of chemical hazard classification, labelling and Safety Data
Sheet (SDS) requirements that enhances the protection of human health and the environment
from hazardous chemicals. It does this by providing an internationally harmonised system of
chemical hazard communication and a uniform way of classifying chemicals that makes it safer
to recognise and trade in hazardous chemicals worldwide.
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DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 112 of 141
6.2
Management of Chemicals and Hazardous Materials
ITD supervisors, HODs and subject coordinators have an obligation to ensure that the health
and safety of themselves, their staff, students and others, is not affected by the conduct of
work-related activities involving any chemicals or hazardous materials undertaken in schools.
The obligations staff have for managing chemicals and hazardous substances in ITD
workplaces, including transport, storage, handling, labelling and disposal of all chemicals are
outlined in the following DETE procedure and associated guideline.

DETE, PPR – “Managing Risks with Chemicals in DETE Workplaces”
The following generalised management guidelines briefly highlight the responsibilities of all ITD
staff with respect to DETE policy and procedures for hazardous materials in the workplace.

Consider how the substance fits into the workshop process or the proposed curriculum
activity: for example, how is the chemical or hazardous material used; where should it be
kept; will teachers or students be adversely affected by exposure to the substance;

Remember as a general rule, where possible, endeavour to use non-hazardous
substances in preference to any product that might impose a potential risk to personal
health or the environment;

Ensure any necessary risk assessments are completed, approved and recorded for all
hazardous materials to manage occupational risks in accordance with the processes
outlined in the procedure;

Consider all necessary control measures and appropriate signage to manage the risks;

Deny access by unauthorised persons (particularly students) to chemicals and hazardous
materials stored in any ITD workspace and storage areas;

Ensure all current Safety Data Sheets (SDS) are understood by all staff prior to their use of
a substance and keep the SDS close to where the substance is being stored and/or used;

Ensure all SDS are up-to-date (minimum every 5 years) and are readily accessible, both
within the workplace and to all emergency services;

Ensure that a hazardous chemicals manifest and register is maintained, recording details
of all such products commonly used in ITD, all current SDS and their location –

Hazardous Chemicals Manifest and Register Template

Ensure all staff are adequately trained in the safe use of chemicals and hazardous
materials that they may use;

All EQ schools will have an emergency management plan that outlines the procedures to
deal with all identified emergencies likely to occur regarding chemicals and hazardous
materials (e.g. spills, fires, inadequate ventilation);

Provide a structurally sound, secure, well ventilated and fire resistant storage facility;

Investigate the compatibility, or the adverse effects, of different chemicals and hazardous
materials being stored together in the same confines;

Ensure that all chemical and hazardous materials containers are appropriately labelled with
relevant safety information. Chemicals are not to be stored in unlabelled containers or
containers such as drinking bottles;

Provide and maintain safety equipment or personal protective equipment that is suitable for
use with chemicals and hazardous materials;

Ensure that adequate Fire Safety facilities are immediately and conveniently available;
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 113 of 141
6.2.1
Safety Data Sheets (SDS)
A Safety Data Sheet (SDS), formally known as a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), is a
structured document that provides important information about a specific chemical and will
contain the following details:

The product name, and the names of the hazardous ingredients;

The chemical and physical properties of the chemical;

Health hazard information, e.g. exposure health effects, first aid guidelines;

Precautions for safe use and handling; probability of exposure and severity of
consequences etc.;
The manufacturer’s or wholesaler’s company name, their Australian address and contact
telephone number;


Storage and disposal guidelines including the Dangerous Goods Classification, a poisons
schedule and the transport and storage management three digit HAZCHEM code;

Dangerous goods guidelines – i.e. Emergency Telephone Numbers.
SDS provide the necessary information to safely manage the risk from chemical exposure. A
current SDS must be made available for quick reference at the point of use of the relevant
chemical. Access to a current SDS can be provided in several ways including online SDS
databases, or a hard copy provided by the supplier or manufacturer of the chemical.
All ITD staff must be instructed in how to read and interpret an SDS. In most cases the
shortened form of the SDS is found to be preferable for general use, rather than the multipaged and often overly complex full-detail version.
ITD departmental HODs or relevant ITD subject coordinators must:

Obtain a current manufacturer’s SDS for a chemical or hazardous material from the
product supplier. Note: A ChemWatch online SDS is considered by law as an “advisory
document” only and not always recognised as a legal SDS for the product;

Establish a Hazardous Chemicals Manifest and Register containing a list of all chemicals
and hazardous materials used at the workplace, including copies of all current SDS;


Keep a separate copy of the SDS close to where the substance is normally used;
Ensure all staff are aware of the location and content of the Register and of all SDS;

Ensure that the current SDS for each substance is no more than five (5) years old;
Remember, schools can request individual SDS directly from the supplier or manufacturer of a
particular product. Many manufacturers’ SDS are available online and can be easily found by
an internet search. Currently EQ state schools have an online subscription to ChemWatch® ChemGold III® or other online databases. ChemWatch is recommended by DETE as a useful
and functional website for chemical management, risk assessment, labelling, training
guidelines, etc. However, it must be recognised that a ChemWatch SDS is an advisory
document only and not a legally recognised SDS for the chemical product.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on Safety Data Sheets
requirements in Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – Safety Data Sheet (SDS) Information

DETE, “Handling of Chemicals for Schools Officers” – Fact Sheet

DETE, PPR – “Managing Risks with Chemicals in DETE Workplaces”

Hazardous Chemicals Register & Manifest (new window) 293k
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 114 of 141
6.2.2 ChemWatch® – Chemical Management System and SDS Database
The new ChemGold III® by ChemWatch® is a well known example of an online chemical risk
management and SDS database system providing 'real-time' online guidance and product
support. This valuable resource is only available to registered industry workplaces, institutions,
universities and schools, etc., with easy accessibility through the ChemWatch® website. All
DETE workplaces are eligible to register their location and apply for their DETE user ID and
individual school password.
Ideally, schools should obtain the manufacturer’s current SDS for their product supplier’s.
ChemWatch® SDS are an advisory document only and not a legally recognised SDS unless
they are exactly the same as the manufacturer’s original.
With registration, schools will have access to a comprehensive database of either copies of
®
original manufacturers’ SDS or customised ChemWatch SDS designed to meet the needs of
subscribers, and all drawn from a comprehensive library collection of over 6 million. SDS’s are
subject to constant updating by manufacturers and when this occurs, the updates are instantly
added to the ChemGold III® database.
To access ChemGold III® by ChemWatch®, schools will first need to register their location to
obtain their individual EQ password.

ChemWatch® Registration Online (new window) 190.02k
Note: If your school already has a DETE username and password for ChemWatch®, the
password will remain the same for ChemGold III® (CG3). However, the DETE username must
have the prefix 'detq'. For example, if your school username for ChemWatch® was '0617',
your school username for ChemGold III® will now be 'detq0617'.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on CG3® by ChemWatch® and
chemical inventory management and SDS in DETE workplaces, refer to the following useful
links:

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – ChemWatch® SDS information

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – Health & Safety; “Hazards in Schools”

ChemGold III® – Safety Data Sheets (SDS)

How to Use ChemGold III® PowerPoint Presentation (new window) 1 MB, PPSX

ChemWatch® CG3 – Quick Start User Guide (new window) 747k

ChemWatch® CG3 – Detailed User Guide (new window) 2.2 MB

DETE, PPR – “Managing Risks with Chemicals in DETE Workplaces”

Hazardous Chemicals Register & Manifest (new window) 293k
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 115 of 141
6.2.3
Ordering and Purchasing of Chemicals
Firstly, prior to ordering or purchasing a chemical product for the first time, teachers should
assess the potentially hazardous or toxic nature of a particular substance. Refer to any school
approved hazardous chemicals list such as a ‘Chemical Safety Pre-purchase Checklist’, the
manufacturer’s original product SDS, or the ChemWatch® website.

Choose the safest chemical for the application;

Consult with your staff as to who may be required to handle the substance.

Do not purchase any chemicals prohibited or not recommended by Queensland
legislation or the department. A number of chemicals and hazardous materials are
prohibited from use because of their identified major inherent risk to staff, students and
others.
For ITD staff and students, prohibited materials or chemicals substances will include:
Materials containing asbestos;
CCA treated timber;
o Creosote
o Potassium Chlorate;
o Benzene;
o Carbon Tetrachloride.
Staff responsible for purchasing any chemicals substances for ITD should be familiar with
the DETE hazardous materials list – (refer to Section 6.2.8; ‘Chemicals Presenting an
Uncertain or Unpredictable Risk’). These chemical substances pose unacceptable,
unpredictable and potentially major health risks and all DETE workplaces (including all
schools) should consider very carefully whether the relevance of a particular curriculum
activity or machinery operation and maintenance program involving these substances is
sufficient to warrant them being stocked. In such cases, minimum quantities should be
obtained, stored and used. Such substances include heavy metals and their salts, very
strong oxidising agents, chlorides, very caustic or corrosive acids, toxic agents, explosive
compounds, carcinogens and halogens.
If a newly acquired chemical substance is considered to be within the classifications of
hazardous or dangerous, immediately complete a risk assessment on its suitability for use
within the ITD department;
Any identified controls should be put in place prior to the purchase of a new chemical;
o
o




Ensure that all newly acquired substances are appropriately labelled according to
legislation. Refer to ChemWatch® ChemGold III® for all appropriate labelling.
(refer also to Section 6.2.6; ‘Decanting and Re-Labelling of Chemicals’)

Ensure that copies of all new and current SDS are placed with the schools Hazardous
Chemicals Manifest and Register and that all relevant product details are recorded;
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on Hazardous Substance
requirements in Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:


DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – Safety Data Sheet (SDS) Information

DETE, Handling of Chemicals for Schools Officers – Fact Sheet

DETE, PPR – “Managing Risks with Chemicals in DETE Workplaces”

ChemWatch® Registration Online ( new window) 190k
Hazardous Chemicals Register & Manifest (new window) 293k
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 116 of 141
6.2.4
Transportation and Storage of Chemicals
The safe transportation and storage of chemicals is a requirement in all DETE workplaces.
Specified dangerous goods are grouped under the Australian Code for the Transport of
Dangerous Goods (ADG7), 2011 and classified into nine (9) specific categories. Dangerous
Goods signage must be used for the safe transportation and storage of all inherently hazardous
or dangerous substances. (refer also to Section 3.5; ‘Safety Signage’)
Class 1
Class 5.1
Explosives
Oxidising Agents
0
Class 2.1
Class 5.2
Flammable Gases
Organic Peroxides
Class 2.2
Class 6.1(a)
Non Flammable, Non Toxic gases
Poisons – Toxic to Human Health
Class 2.3
Toxic Gases
Class 6.1(b)
Harmful to Human Health
(N.B. now know as PG III – not used often)
Class 3
Class 6.2
Flammable Liquids
Infectious Substance – Biohazard
Class 4.1
Class 7
Flammable Solids
Radioactive Materials
Class 4.2
Class 8
Spontaneously Combustible
Corrosive Substances
8.1 – Acids, 8.2 - Alkalis
Class 4.3
Class 9
Dangerous when Wet
Miscellaneous Hazardous Goods
Note: The Australian Code for the Transport of Dangerous Goods (AGD7) continues to be
recommended for the transport and storage of hazardous or dangerous goods signage. With
the adoption of the national Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulation: 2011, a new system of
chemical classification and hazard communication, the Globally Harmonised System of
Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is now in effect for product labelling of
chemicals. There will be a five (5) year transitional period, until 31st December 2016, to allow
time to adopt the new GHS-based system, thus allowing for the two systems to be used
concurrently.
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 117 of 141
What is the HAZCHEM Code?
The HAZCHEM code (or Emergency Action code) was developed by the British Fire Service for
use on vehicles transporting dangerous substances in bulk to provide immediate action
guidelines and recommendations when attending an incident. The system has also been
adopted by all states in Australia for bulk dangerous substances transport, and where
dangerous chemicals and substances are stored (only above certain quantities).
Note: All DETE workplaces, including all schools, where dangerous chemicals or hazardous
substances above threshold quantities are stored, e.g. LP Gas in cylinders – 500L or
Flammable Liquids – 1000L, must display the appropriate HAZCHEM placards at the front gate
of their premises.
Details of these threshold quantities are available from the Work Health and Safety Regulations:
2011, Chapter 7, Part 7.1, Table 328:

Work Health and Safety Regulation: 2011 (Qld) (new window) 2.7 MB
The HAZCHEM Code is a three digit, alphanumeric code, usually displayed as a product label,
a transportation placard or volatile storeroom signage that provides initial emergency response
information.
A “sample only” example of a HAZCHEM code placard is shown below:
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is sought on the dangerous goods
classifications and codes required for transporting or storing chemicals on DETE premises,
including all Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – “Chemical & Hazardous Substances”

DETE, PPR – “Managing Risks with Chemicals in DETE Workplaces”

WHSQ – Storage Management of Dangerous Goods

WHSQ – Hazardous Chemicals, Substances & Dangerous Goods

WHSQ – Hazardous Chemicals Code of Practice 2003, (2012) (new window) 352k

GHS of Classification & Labelling of Chemicals – (4th edition: 2011) (new window) 3 MB

Australian Code for the Transport of Dangerous Goods (ADG7) – (7th ed: 2011) 18 MB

Chemical Usage Control Act: 1988, (July 2010 reprint) (new window) 514k

Chemical Usage Control Regulation: 1999, (Sept 2011 reprint) (new window) 456k

Hazardous Chemicals Register & Manifest (new window) 293k
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 118 of 141
6.2.5
Hazardous Chemicals Manifest and Register
The Work Health and Safety Regulation, 2011 requires that a manifest and register of
hazardous chemicals present within the workplace (including all schools) be prepared and kept
up-to-date (WHS Regulation 2011, Part 7.1: S346). This register must be readily accessible to
all staff involved in the using, handling or storing of hazardous chemicals or substances and to
anyone else who is likely to be accidentally exposed and adversely affected, e.g. contractors or
cleaners. A comprehensive Hazardous Chemicals Register & Manifest must include a list of all
hazardous chemicals or substances used, handled or stored throughout the school and must
contain the current SDS for each chemical or substance listed.
Included must be all chemicals and hazardous materials stored and used in all faculty areas
such as ITD, Science, Art and Lifestyle Management, and all cleaning, gardening and
agricultural chemicals used and stored in school administration offices and grounds staff
storerooms or work sheds.
A typical example of a hazardous chemicals manifest and register spreadsheet has been
developed by DETE to assist schools that may NOT already have access ChemWatch®:

Hazardous Chemicals Register & Manifest (new window) 293k
There are two worksheets included in this MS Excel file:


A Chemical Manifest (click on the green ‘Manifest’ tab);
A Hazardous Chemicals Register (click on the orange ‘Hazchem Register’ tab.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on the “Hazardous Chemicals
Register and Manifest” for Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – “Chemical & Hazardous Substances”

DETE, PPR – “Managing Risks with Chemicals in DETE Workplaces”

WHSQ – Storage Management of Dangerous Goods

WHSQ – Hazardous Chemicals, Substances & Dangerous Goods

WHSQ – Hazardous Chemicals Code of Practice 2003, (2012) (new window) 352k

GHS of Classification & Labelling of Chemicals – (4th edition: 2011) (new window) 3 MB

Australian Code for the Transport of Dangerous Goods (ADG7) – (7th ed: 2011) 18 MB

Chemical Usage Control Act: 1988, (July 2010 reprint) (new window) 514k

Chemical Usage Control Regulation: 1999, (Sept 2011 reprint) (new window) 456k

Health (Drugs & Poisons) Regulation: 1996, (Nov 2012 reprint) (new window) 1.3 MB
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 119 of 141
6.2.6
Decanting and Re-labelling of Chemicals
A container that has had chemicals decanted into it must be labelled if the contents are not
used immediately. A container that is repeatedly used for decanting as part of normal work
procedures or processes requires a permanent label with all the general labelling information
attached to the container. Permanently labelled containers must not be used to contain any
other substances or mixtures than those specified on the label. When decanting a chemical
substance into another container, always consider the following:

Only decant a chemical if it is necessary to do so;

Choose a container that you know will not react with the chemical;

Never decant any chemical substances into empty food or drink containers;

The new container must be labelled in clear and legible English;

Labels must not simply be written on jars, bottles and tins with a marker pen;

Label all chemical substances with the correct product identifiers as shown below.
1. Hazard Pictograms are diamond - shaped warning signage that identifies the hazard
classification that chemicals are grouped into, and are shown below. The new 2011 Globally
Harmonised System for Classification of Chemicals (GHS) specifies nine (9) hazard
pictograms. They are designed to reflect the physical, health and environmental hazards
identified and must be included on all chemical substance labelling (if required). All of the
relevant hazard pictograms for a particular substance must be included on the label.
Note: The Australian Code for the Transport of Dangerous Goods (ADGC or ADG7) as
previously used is still recommended for the transport and storage of any hazardous or
dangerous chemicals. It is, however, expected that the new GHS pictogram elements will be
adopted over time into all DETE workplaces, with a five (5) year transitional period – until
31st December 2016 - thus allowing the two systems to be used concurrently without penalty.
•
•
•
Explosives
Self - Reactives
Organic Peroxides
•
•
•
Acute Health Hazards
Skin Irritants
Eye Irritants
•
•
•
Flammables
Pyrophorics
Self - Heating (Spontaneous)
•
•
•
Chronic Health Hazards
Carcinogens
Organ Toxicants
•
Oxidisers
•
•
•
Corrosives
Skin Corrosion
Corrosive to Metals
•
Gases Under Pressure
•
•
Environmental Hazards
Aquatic Toxicity
•
Acute Toxicity
2. Signal Word warnings are used to show the level of severity of a hazard. The GHS gives
you a choice of two (2) words as signal words. ‘Danger’ is used for a more severe or significant
hazard, while ‘Warning’ is used for the less severe hazards. Only one signal word should be on
any one label and should be represented in bold and uppercase.

DANGER

WARNING
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 120 of 141
3. Precautionary statements describe the recommended measures that the user of the
substance should take to minimise or prevent adverse effects resulting from exposure to the
substance, or improper storage or handling. Then labelling comments or statements are
specifically assigned to each hazard class and category and are separated into five (5)
categories:
o
Prevention statements – precautions to be taken;
o
Response statements – instructions in case of an accident;
o
o
Storage statements
Disposal statements
– instructions for safe storage;
– appropriate disposal instructions;
o
General statements
– for use where appropriate.
Note: Mark all unlabelled containers with unknown, unidentifiable contents with:
“Caution DO NOT USE – Unknown Substance”
... and then dispose of it safely and appropriately as soon as practicable.
Remember, most substance labels are available on the ChemWatch® website.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on the decanting and re-labelling
of all chemicals and hazardous materials commonly used in Queensland schools, refer to the
following useful links:

DETE, PPR – “Managing Risks with Chemicals in DETE Workplaces”

GHS of Classification & Labelling of Chemicals – (4th edition: 2011) (new window) 3 MB

Australian Code for the Transport of Dangerous Goods (ADG7) – (7th ed: 2011) 18 MB

Qld Dept. Environmental & Resource Management – Waste Management

DETE, “Handling of Chemicals for Schools Officers” – Fact Sheet

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – Health & Safety: “Hazards in Schools”

WHSQ – Storage of Dangerous Goods

Hazardous Chemicals Manifest and Register Template (new window) 293k
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 121 of 141
6.2.7 Disposal of Chemicals and Hazardous Materials
Always refer to your Safety Data Sheets (SDS) for manufacturer’s guidelines, advice and
recommendations on waste disposal methods. Items which should be identified as regulated
waste in ITD departments might include:

Any out-dated, unused or unwanted paints, chemicals, oils or solvents etc that have been
accumulating in storerooms;

All contaminated or unhygienic products;


Contaminated workplace waste materials, e.g. soluble oils or fine particle MDF dust;
Any waste that is thought to contain asbestos material;

Any accumulated chemicals and hazardous materials that cannot be identified.
Always ensure that:

There is no cross-contamination with other substances or contamination of equipment;

Adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) is available and is correctly used;

The quantities of chemicals held on site are kept to a minimum to reduce the associated
risks;
Arrangements are made for collection by an approved waste disposal contractor.

To ensure chemical waste meets the local authority Trade Waste Policy guidelines and is
acceptable for disposal into the local sewage system:
Waste must be soluble in water;

Waste must not be a solid or viscous substance in a quantity, or of a size, that can obstruct,
or interfere with the operation of the sewerage facility (e.g. ash, sand, tar, oil and grease);

Waste containing heavy metals cannot be disposed to sewer (e.g. lead, mercury, nickel);

Waste containing pesticides, herbicides, or fungicides cannot be disposed to sewer;

Waste must not be toxic (Dangerous Goods Class 6) or hazardous to aquatic, marine and
terrestrial life and environments;

Acceptable Flammable Liquids (short chain alcohol solutions containing Dangerous Goods
Class 3) must be diluted to ensure there is no accumulation of alcohols in the under-sink
traps that has the potential to create a fire hazard;

Concentrated solutions of acids and alkali cannot be disposed to sewer;

Weak acid and alkali solutions need to be neutralised to between pH6 and pH9 prior to
sewer disposal.
Note: When a decision is made to dispose of water soluble, non-toxic chemicals to the sewer,
flush thoroughly with sufficient water to ensure no trace of chemical remains in traps and sinks.
Oils, oil drums, gas cylinders and batteries must be disposed of in a responsible manner. Used
oil is a recyclable resource and should be managed carefully to protect the environment. Nickel
cadmium (NiCad) batteries contain cadmium, which is potentially carcinogenic and should not
be placed in general waste bins. Oil drums and gas cylinders must not be reused for another
purpose. Contact the original supplier or local landfill operator to determine the best method of
disposal. Empty gas cylinders should be segregated from full gas cylinders and must be
returned to the supplier.
Hazardous wastes are known as “Regulated Wastes” and are controlled by state government
legislation. On 1st July 2000, the Queensland Government introduced specific Waste
Management legislation. The Environmental Protection (Waste Management) Policy 2000 and
the Environmental Protection (Waste Management) Regulation 2000 clarify waste management
practices in Queensland and provide improved environmental safeguards.
There are some particular chemical waste substances which are extremely hazardous to the
environment and to human health. There are specialist waste removal companies in most
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DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 122 of 141
areas that will remove unwanted chemicals and hazardous waste. Contact them directly or
seek guidance and advice from your local government waste management authority about the
best way to have such waste removed from your school.
Below is a list and contact details for some of the licensed chemical waste contractors that are
able to service all departmental workplaces throughout Queensland. However, this list is not
exhaustive and does not mean that the listed contractors should be preferenced over any other
waste contractors.

AceWaste - www.acewaste.com.au

BCD Technologies - www.bcdtechnologies.com.au

Geocycle - www.geocycle.com.au

Transpacific Industries Group - www.transpacific.com.au

ToxFree - http://www.toxfree.com.au

Veolia Environmental Services - http://www.veoliaes.com.au
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on approved and regulated waste
disposal from Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, PPR – “Managing Risks with Chemicals in DETE Workplaces”

DETE, Handling of Chemicals for Schools Officers – Fact Sheet

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – Health & Safety: ‘Hazards in Schools’

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – ‘Chemical & Hazardous Substances’

WHSQ – Storage Management of Dangerous Goods

WHSQ – Hazardous Chemicals, Substances & Dangerous Goods

WHSQ – Hazardous Chemicals Code of Practice 2003, (2012) (new window) 352k

GHS of Classification & Labelling of Chemicals – (4th edition: 2011) (new window) 3 MB

Chemical Usage Control Act: 1988, (July 2010 reprint) (new window) 514k

Chemical Usage Control Regulation: 1999, (Sept 2011 reprint) (new window) 456k

Hazardous Chemicals Register & Manifest (new window) 293k
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Modified: February 04, 2013
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6.2.8 Chemicals Presenting an Uncertain or Unpredictable Risk
It has been determined that the following chemicals present an uncertain or unpredictable risk
in relation to worker health and safety, storage and handling in DETE workplaces, or are
considered too hazardous for use by inexperienced staff, students and others. They must be
stored and handled according to the information provided in an appropriate safety data sheet
and only used by very experienced and competent teachers and staff. They are generally not
suitable for use by any students in schools. It is recommended that these substances are
eliminated from the workplace and substituting with less reactive, less toxic and more stable
compounds.
Chemical
Characteristics and Associated Health Hazards
Acrylonitrile
Restricted carcinogen. Any use requires permission for use by the
Regulator (WHS Reg. 2011 S380-384, Schedule 10).
Ammonium Chlorate
Violently explosive
Ammonium Perchlorate
Violently explosive
Aniline (Phenylamine)
Extremely toxic, carcinogenic
Arsenic compounds
Extremely toxic, carcinogenic
Beryllium salts
Highly toxic and carcinogenic
Carbon Disulphide
Very low flash point, extremely flammable, highly volatile, very toxic. Use
for spray painting requires permission from the Regulator (WHS Reg
2011 S380-384, Schedule 10).
Cadmium compounds
Highly toxic
Chlorates (all)
Dangerous explosion risk. Explosive mixtures easily formed
Chromic Acid, Chromium (VI)
Oxide, Chromium Trioxide,
Chromic Anhydride, Red Zinc
Chromate
Highly toxic and carcinogenic. Hexavalent compounds are known to be
carcinogenic.
Cyanide compounds
Extremely poisonous, forming acids and toxic hydrogen cyanide gas
Diethyl Ether
Low flash point, extremely flammable
Ethylene Dichloride
May cause cancer, low flash point, extremely flammable, may form
explosive compounds
Ethylene Oxide
May cause cancer, low flash point, extremely flammable, extremely toxic
Epoxy Resins (Uncured)
Toxic, respiratory and skin sensitiser, possibly carcinogenic
Ethylene Dibromide
Restricted carcinogen. When used as a fumigant, this chemical requires
permission for use by the Regulator WHS Reg. 2011 S380-384,
Schedule 10. Residues may be found in wood dust.
Fluoride compounds
Can evolve Hydrofluoric acid if acidified, all are highly toxic.
Formaldehyde
Skin irritant, carcinogen
Gun Wash (Liquid
Hydrocarbons)
Highly flammable, possibly carcinogenic, toxic
Halogenated solvents (e.g.
Carbon Tetrachloride,
Chloroform, Trichloromethane)
Extremely toxic and suspected carcinogens
Hardite
Extremely toxic, carcinogenic
Hydrofluoric Acid
Extremely toxic. Very hazardous.
Lead & Lead compounds (e.g.
metals, carbonates, nitrate,
sulphides, paints, and solders)
Highly toxic, cumulative effects from prolonged exposure
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Modified: February 04, 2013
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Chemical
Characteristics and Associated Health Hazards
MEKP (Methyl ethyl ketone
peroxide)
Shock sensitive, special storage and use requirements. Experienced
users only
Mercury compounds
Highly toxic
Methylene Chloride
Possible carcinogen, highly toxic
Methyl Iodide
Extremely toxic, may form explosive compounds
Naphthalene compounds
Highly toxic, carcinogenic impurities
Nickel and Nickel compounds
Possible carcinogen, toxic, sensitiser
PCBs (Polychlorinated
Biphenyls)
Moderately toxic, probably carcinogenic
Perchloric Acid
Violently explosive mixtures with combustible materials
Phosphorus, White,
Phosphorus, Yellow
Phosphorus, Red
Extremely toxic, ignites spontaneously, extreme fire hazard
Picric acid
Explosive when dry and compacted or in contact with metals
Potassium/ Sodium/ Calcium
metals
React violently with water to form hydrogen which ignites or explodes
Potassium Cyanide
Extremely poisonous
Sodium Amide (Sodamide)
Highly toxic, flammable, reacts violently with water
Sodium Azide
Extremely toxic
Toluene
Highly flammable, highly toxic, possible carcinogen
Tolidine
Highly toxic, carcinogen
Trichloroethylene
Highly toxic, carcinogen, may form explosive compounds
Vinyl Chloride
Restricted carcinogen. Any use requires permission for use by the
Regulator WHS Reg. 2011 S380-384, Schedule 10.
Xylene
Toxic
Zinc Chloride
Toxic
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on Hazardous Chemicals
commonly used in Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – “Chemical & Hazardous Substances”

DETE, PPR – “Managing Risks with Chemicals in DETE Workplaces”

WHSQ – Storage Management of Dangerous Goods

WHSQ – Hazardous Chemicals, Substances & Dangerous Goods

WHSQ – Hazardous Chemicals Code of Practice 2003, (2012) (new window) 352k

GHS of Classification & Labelling of Chemicals – (4th edition: 2011) (new window) 3 MB

Australian Code for the Transport of Dangerous Goods (ADG7) – (7th ed: 2011) 18 MB

Chemical Usage Control Act: 1988, (July 2010 reprint) (new window) 514k

Chemical Usage Control Regulation: 1999, (Sept 2011 reprint) (new window) 456k

Health (Drugs & Poisons) Regulation: 1996, (Nov 2012 reprint) (new window) 1.3 MB

Hazardous Chemicals Register & Manifest (new window) 293k
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Modified: February 04, 2013
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6.2.9
Managing Risks with Chemicals and Hazardous Materials
All chemicals that are designated as a hazardous material must have an assessment of the risk
of exposure to ITD staff and students in schools. The Chemical Risk Assessment process is
fully explained in Section 2.2.3 of this guideline, ‘Chemicals & Haz Materials Risk Assessment’.
Note: The perceived risk levels – Low, Medium, High and Uncertain – attributed to a
particular substance in a Chemical Risk Assessment conclusion should, however, depend on
the nature and complexity of the activity or operation, and the SDS hazard information data
available.
Overall Risk Level Conclusion
Conclusion
1
Risks are not significant now,
and not likely to increase in the
future
(i.e. risks are low).
Action Required/Approval



Comply with all requirements of the label and current
SDS.
Comply with the standard operating procedure for the
substance(s).
Manage and document through your regular planning
processes and/or person(s) using the chemicals
should approve and sign the risk assessment.
Select 1 – if you are using a concentration considered less than hazardous or if precautions are required and it is unlikely that the use of the chemical(s) will
adversely affect the health of persons at the workplace and the risk is not likely to increase in the future e.g. you are using concentrations that are too small to
constitute a risk, even if controls fail; or the operation strictly conforms to information on the label and SDS.
Conclusion
2
Risks are significant but
effectively controlled, and could
increase in the future
(i.e. risks are medium to high).

Comply with all requirements of the label and
current SDS.
 Comply with the standard operating procedure for
the substance(s).
 Implement the identified controls to minimise the
chances of higher exposure occurring.
 Determine and implement additional measures for
regaining control if a high risk event occurs despite
the precautions already taken. Parental consent
may be required.
 Document controls in planning documents and/or
complete this Chemical Use Curriculum Activity Risk
Assessment.
 The Principal or delegated Deputy Principal or Head
of Program (i.e. HOD, HOSES, HOC) to review and
approve the risk assessment.
Select 2 – if you are satisfied that adequate controls are in place. Where serious health effects could result if the control measures fail or deteriorate. This
usually results from the use of toxic hazardous chemicals or where the potential exposure is HIGH.
Risks, while presently adequately controlled, could increase in the future.
Conclusion
3
Risks are significant now and
not effectively controlled
(i.e. risks are extreme).






The activity must not proceed. Alternatives to
undertaking the activity must be found.
Obtain additional information or expert advice to
reach a conclusion of 1 or 2
Comply with all requirements of the current SDS.
Comply with the standard operating procedure for the
substance(s).
Implement sufficient controls to ensure the safe use
of the material.
The Principal or delegated Deputy Principal is
required to review and approve the revised risk
assessment prior to conducting this activity.
Select 3 – if the use of a chemical is likely to constitute a significant risk and further investigation may be necessary (e.g. there are persistent or widespread
complaints of illness, discomfort, irritation or excessive odour, hazardous chemicals are splashed, control measures are broken, defective or badly maintained,
for example a poorly maintained extraction system which no longer draws a hazardous chemical away from the work area, recognised safe work practices are
not being observed)
Conclusion
4
Uncertain about risks.
There is not enough information, or
there is uncertainty about the
degree or extent of exposure.
DO NOT PROCEED.



The activity must not proceed. Alternatives to
undertaking the activity must be found.
Obtain additional information or expert advice to
reach a conclusion of 1 or 2
In the meanwhile, implement work practices to
ensure safety
Select 4 – if no SDS is available, if labelling is inadequate, if the level of exposure cannot be estimated with confidence or further investigation is necessary.
Obtain additional information from other sources, such as suppliers, occupational health and safety consultants and industry or trade associations. Meanwhile,
implement good work practices to minimise exposure.
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Implement all necessary control measures and address the actions required through risk
management. If the assessment shows there is a risk to health, further actions should be taken
to provide training and establish emergency procedures and first aid. As with all risk
management, a “Hierarchy of Control” should be implemented.
The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) should not be regarded as an alternative to
engineering or other options for controlling exposure but should be utilised to supplement such
measures.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on Hazardous Chemicals Risk
Assessment guidelines for Queensland schools, refer to the following useful links:

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – “Chemical & Hazardous Substances”

DETE, PPR – “Managing Risks with Chemicals in DETE Workplaces”

WHSQ – Storage Management of Dangerous Goods

WHSQ – Hazardous Chemicals, Substances & Dangerous Goods

WHSQ – Hazardous Chemicals Code of Practice 2003, (2012) (new window) 352k

GHS of Classification & Labelling of Chemicals – (4th edition: 2011) (new window) 3 MB

Australian Code for the Transport of Dangerous Goods (ADG7) – (7th ed: 2011) 18 MB

Chemical Usage Control Act: 1988, (July 2010 reprint) (new window) 514k

Chemical Usage Control Regulation: 1999, (Sept 2011 reprint) (new window) 456k

Health (Drugs & Poisons) Regulation: 1996, (Nov 2012 reprint) (new window) 1.3 MB

Hazardous Chemicals Register & Manifest (new window) 293k
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Modified: February 04, 2013
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6.2.10






ITD Chemicals and Hazardous Materials for Particular Consideration
Asbestos
Fibreglass
MEKP
Chemical Solvents
Lead
Wood Dust and Toxic Timbers ... (refer to Section 6.3; ‘Wood Dust and Toxic Timbers’)
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on Workplace Health and Safety
and Hazard Alerts issued by DETE for EQ schools, refer to the following useful link:

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – “Safety & Hazard Alerts” Archives Index
1. Asbestos:
Note: Staff should refer to the current manufacturer’s SDS for complete and up-to-date advice.
It is generally recognised that asbestos materials become more hazardous when disturbed or
damaged in some way, so public awareness is important for teachers and students.




The Department of Education is seeking to totally eradicate all remaining asbestos
materials from older Queensland school buildings.
Asbestos may continue to be accidentally uncovered in old insulation materials, pipe
lagging, ceiling tiles, floor coverings and possibly in some older types of equipment such as
the lining of ovens.
All newly identified asbestos discoveries will be clearly labelled, professionally sealed,
safely removed and disposed of.
If any staff member suspects that asbestos material is likely to be present, they must not,
under any circumstances, undertake work that might disturb it, damage it or create any
dust. If they believe damage has occurred, they must evacuate the area and immediately
alert the HOD, the Principal and WHSO.
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required specifically on the management
of Asbestos in Queensland schools, refer to the following useful link:

DETE, Asbestos Management Plan for Facilities (new window) 1.32 MB
2. Fibreglass:
Note: Staff should refer to the current manufacturer’s SDS for complete and up-to-date advice.
Fibreglass is a form of synthetic or man-made mineral fibre. Others include Rockwool® and
ceramic fibre. It is commonly used as either glass wool, such as batts for insulation or woven
as a cloth and mixed with a polyester resin as used in the manufacture of products such as
surfboards and boats. Particular precautions should be taken when handling this product:




Some of the fibres used in insulation are fine enough to be breathed deep into the lungs
and they can cause irritation to the eyes, nose, throat and skin;
Like all fibreglass products, woven filament fibreglass cloth must be handled with caution.
Particular care must be taken when cutting, sanding or grinding as high levels of irritant
dust can be generated. Extraction ventilation or the wearing of respirators may be
necessary;
Always wear safety goggles or face shield, a 3M® N95 mask and PVC gloves while
measuring and laying-up sections of resined cloth;
Because fibreglass contains fine silicate fibres very similar to asbestos, it has been called
"The Asbestos of the 21st Century". The first connection between fibreglass fibres and
pulmonary disease was reported by Walter J. Siebert who investigated the health of
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


workers with the cooperation of Owens Corning in 1941. However, the International
Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) changed its classification in November 2001:
Note: “Fibreglass is now not classifiable as carcinogenic to humans and is no longer
considered “possibly carcinogenic to humans”
Modern “Biosoluble” fibreglass is made from newer materials that disappear from the body
much more rapidly than ‘traditional’ glass fibre products. All the fibreglass manufactured in
Australia since January 2001 has been of the “Biosoluble” type.
Styrene vapours from polyester resins used in fibreglass products are however a more
serious hazard, and may cause both short-term irritation and long-term effects to the
nervous system.
Epoxy resins sometimes used in the manufacture of fibreglass products can cause contact
dermatitis and burns. Cured resins are generally non-toxic.
3. Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide (MEKP):
Note: Staff should refer to the current manufacturer’s SDS for complete and up-to-date advice.
MEKP commonly used as a catalyst for curing polyester resins such as fibreglass-reinforced
plastics projects. MEKP is considered a “hazardous material” by Standards Australia and must
only be used in the presence of a person who is conversant with its properties and experienced
in its use. Pure MEKP is a colourless liquid, extremely shock-sensitive and explosive in this
form. It is generally supplied in plasticiser solutions (such as dimethyl phthalate) with a
flashpoint of 68ºC to reduce shock sensitivity. Precautions must be taken when handling this
product.














Storage must be in its original container, with tamper-proof lid and bearing a “Poison”
label.
MEKP must be kept away from other combustible chemicals and hazardous materials,
particularly acids and petroleum-based products, in a cool place away from any source of
direct sunlight, heat, flame or sparks (including electrical switches);
Wear appropriate PPE as per the current SDS;
There must be no metal contamination. In case of an accidental rupture, all bottled MEKP
should be kept in a ceramic saucer of sufficient size to accommodate the entire contents of
the bottle;
Do not mix resins and MEKP catalyst in metal containers or tins. Use only paper
containers and wooden stirrers or strips of acrylic for mixing;
Do not mix the contents of different containers of MEKP;
Do not store MEKP in the flammables cabinet;
Mixing must only be carried out by teachers, in a well-ventilated area and near a readily
available supply of water. Eyewash facilities must also be available. Ketone peroxides
which have been splashed on the skin must be washed off immediately with soap and
water, as these substances can cause eczema-type skin conditions which do not heal well;
If MEKP is swallowed, drink copious quantities of milk or water. A doctor should be
consulted immediately;
Do not use a syringe for dispensing MEKP. Always use a graduated reagent-type plastic
bottle and disposable medical pipette;
Do not return surplus MEKP to the original storage container;
Small spillages of MEKP should be absorbed in dry sand. Spillages of 1ml or more require
the room to be evacuated, a staff member with an organic vapour respirator to clean-up
and the room ventilated for twelve hours;
Disposal is best attempted by mixing small quantities of MEKP with a polyester resin, thus
activating and hardening the mix. When cool, dispose of the result in landfill;
After handling or dispensing MEKP, thoroughly wash hands with soap and water.
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4. Chemical Solvents:
Note: Staff should refer to the current manufacturer’s SDS for complete and up-to-date advice.
Solvents are chemicals that dissolve other substances. They are often used as cleaners or
degreasers, and as ingredients in most paints, inks, glue and varnishes. Many solvents are
poisonous when swallowed (often from contact with food or fingers), breathed in as vapour or
absorbed through direct contact with the skin. They can impair memory and cause headaches,
dizziness, weakness or tiredness, mood changes or nausea. Exposure to high levels of some
solvents can cause liver damage, unconsciousness, death and cancer. In general, particular
precautions must be taken when handling these products.

Storage of all chemical solvents must be in a ventilated “Volatile Storage” room;

Storage of any chemical solvent must be in its original container, with tamper-proof lid and
bearing a “Poison” label;

Always wear appropriate PPE as per the current SDS;

In the event of a chemical solvents spill, refer to ChemWatch® for the latest information on
the particular chemical agent;

As a general rule, carefully mop up spilled solvents with clean rags or by spreading
absorbent material such as sawdust or dry sand;

Remove contaminated material as soon as possible. Material contaminated with solvents
should be removed from the work area and stored in a place where evaporation of the
solvents may safely take place;

When solvents are disposed of improperly - in the garbage, on the ground or down the
drain - the hazardous chemicals may contaminate lakes, rivers, streams and groundwater.
Many chemicals found in landfills may contaminate the underground water table, but
solvents are a primary concern.
Some chemical solvents commonly used in ITD include:
Paint Thinners
Paint Strippers
Degreasers
Acrylic Cements
– acetone, toluene, xylene, mineral spirits, petroleum, Stoddard
solvent (white spirit), turpentine
– acetone, ethyl acetate, toluene, ethylene dichloride, xylene,
naphtha
– acetone, mineral spirits, ethyl acetate, ethylene dichloride,
naphtha, petroleum, Stoddard solvent (white spirit), turpentine
– methylene chloride, ethylene dichloride
5. Lead:
Note: Staff should refer to the current manufacturer’s SDS for complete and up-to-date advice.
Lead is a metal obtained from mining lead ore, which is used in a number of forms including
pure metal, alloys (mixtures of metals) and as lead compounds. It has many uses including
vehicle batteries, solder, paint pigments and as a stabiliser to protect plastic from sun damage.
Exposure to lead has long been known to exert toxic effects on the human body. Lead
particles can be inhaled through dust or fumes or swallowed through eating contaminated food
or smoking with contaminated fingers. Exposure to lead can have a broad range of health
effects depending on the amount of lead present and the length of exposure.
To prevent exposure to lead, staff should:

Conduct a risk assessment to identify the hazards and controls and review controls;

Use alternatives to lead (e.g. acrylic coated flashing, lead free paint and PVC, tin or silver
solder, etc.);

Undertake good hygiene practices (e.g. hand washing before eating, toilet, etc.);

Use appropriate safety equipment and personal protective equipment (e.g. fume/dust
extraction, gloves, etc.).
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DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 130 of 141
Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required specifically on the management
of exposure to lead and lead risk jobs in Queensland schools, refer to the following useful link:

DETE, Safety Alert – “Lead Exposure & Lead Risk Jobs” (new window) 70.5k
6. Wood Dust and Toxic Timbers:
(refer to Section below - 6.3; ‘Wood Dust and Toxic Timbers’)
6.3
Wood Dust and Toxic Timbers
Wood dust can be defined as tiny particulates of wood produced during the processing and
preparation of natural timbers, particle boards, medium density fibre boards (MDF) or laminated
products such as plywoods and beams. The micro fine dust particulates released can very
easily be inhaled. Teachers, staff and students are at persistent risk of breathing in large
amounts of damaging fine wood dust particulates whenever timber is being handled or
machined in any typical ITD workspace environment.
For example, wood dust can be a serious problem whenever an activity involves:


Sawing, routing, woodturning, drilling, and sanding;
Cleaning down with compressed air;

Dry sweeping of floors, walls, ceiling fans or machinery;

Disturbing dust when repairing machines or during routine maintenance work.
6.3.1
Health Concerns and Symptoms
There are health concerns associated with many products used in schools - even naturally
occurring products like the timbers commonly used in ITD. In particular, the processing of
these timbers and the volumes of wood dust that can result pose the majority of health
concerns. Studies show that wood dust particulates must never be considered as merely
“nuisance dust”. Exposure can actually be very harmful to our health. The International
Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), as part of the World Health Organisation (WHO), has
found that wood dust can be directly linked to some very serious health concerns. Exposure to
wood dust from some of the commercially available native and imported species can often have
a very devastating effect on individual workers.
The physical symptoms and the damaging health-related consequences of excessive exposure
to wood dust in the workplace are many and varied:

Allergic skin irritation, itching, dermatitis, eczema, urticarious (hives), eye irritation and
inflammation;

Dust may also irritate the upper respiratory tract and cause sinus and rhinitis, throat
irritations, shortness of breath, hoarseness and coughing, asthma, pneumonia, and even
bronchitis. Chronic lung irritations may result in permanent wasting of the tissue;

The most sinister quality of wood dusts is that some may be carcinogenic (likely to cause
cancer). Tannins and lignin-related compounds occur naturally in wood and are strongly
believed to be carcinogenic. They are more abundant in hardwoods and Australian native
hardwoods such as the Acacia’s and Eucalyptus species have high tannin contents;

The latent period for the onset of adenocarcinoma, (the most common cancerous condition
caused by woodworking activities) is often 25 - 45 years.
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Some commonly used timbers may also contain other biological or chemical contaminants that
either grow on the wood or have been applied as insecticides or finishing treatments. They
might include:

Moulds and fungi (spalted woods showing dark lines or discoloured streaks in the grain);

Glues and adhesives (such as formaldehyde) - (refer to Section 6.3.5 for more details);


Resin binders, sealants and waterproofing compounds;
Pesticides and preservatives (CCA, ACQ, CuAz, LOSP or PEC) – (refer to 6.3.4 for more
details);

Paints, lacquers, varnishes and strippers.
Some of these substances will often cause skin, eye and lung irritations, allergic reactions, and
asthma. Schools should be aware of the health hazards with these substances. ITD
departments must always provide and wear the appropriate personal protective equipment
(PPE) such as safety goggles, gloves, and a respirator.
6.3.2
Toxic Timber Species and Your Health
In Australia all wood dust is now classified as carcinogenic (liable to cause cancer). Some
timber species may also contain other biological or chemical contaminants in the wood sap,
bark, leaves or roots or that have been applied, prior to commercial sale, as a CCA fungicide or
insecticide. To date, because of identified WHS risks, there are two (2) timber species that
have been classified as totally unsuitable and must NOT be used in Queensland schools for
ITD woodworking:

Oleander or Rose Laurel (Nerium oleander)

Western Red Cedar (Thuja plicata)
Common spalted woods are those which show decorative black lines or dark grain markings
within the timber. This usually occurs in pale hardwoods such as maple, birch and beech.
These markings can be regarded as a mould or fungal environment and, as such, can cause
health problems such as serious lung diseases. They should be worked and sanded only when
wearing a dusk mask or respirator. Be careful in selecting the species used for making kitchen
utensils, food storage containers, or toys an infant might chew on, as heat, moisture and time
stimulate the release of the toxins found in some of these timbers.
“Bag-seasoned” timbers (i.e. unfinished turning projects stored in plastic bags) may also
generate a spore environment. This may promote sensitisation and result in allergic reactions.
It must also be remembered that any second hand or re-cycled wood products may have been
previously coated with varnishes, lacquers, polishes, preservatives and other unknown
chemicals. These may well cause serious harm to human health under some circumstances,
and ITD teachers must be observant and aware that these unforeseen chemical hazards may
be present.
Toxic Timbers Index:
Note: For further detailed information, the following “Toxic Timbers Index” is an evaluation of
the more commonly used Australian and imported timber species known to be potentially toxic
(for various reasons), together with their known associated adverse health effects on humans.
This information contained in this index is based on public domain data only and is believed to
be reliable. In Australia all wood dust is now classified as carcinogenic (liable to cause
cancer). This list has been compiled to give ITD teachers an insight into the potential health
hazards posed by some of the timbers that are commonly used in schools.
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DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 132 of 141
Commonly used timbers to be aware of and associated health hazards
Some of the potential health hazards associated with timbers used in Industrial Technology & Design
in Queensland State High Schools.
(Note: This information is based on public domain data only and is believed to be reliable. In Australia all wood dust is now
classified as carcinogenic (liable to cause cancer) This list has been compiled to give ITD teachers an insight into the
potential health hazards posed by some of the timbers that are commonly used)
Species
Origin
Problem
Potency
Reported Associated Health Hazards
Alder, Rose
(Atherton Pencil Cedar)
Australian native
Nth. Queensland
Dust

Skin irritations, dermatitis and rhinitis
Australian native
Dust, wood

Sensitizer, Irritation to nose, throat and eyes
and skin , dermatitis

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis
Caldcluvia australiensis
Ash, Alpine
(Mountain Ash)
Eucalyptus regnans
Ash, Crows
(Australian Teak)
Australian native, Dust, wood
New Guinea
Flindersia australia
Beech, Brown
(European Beech)
Europe
Dust, leaves, 
bark
Sensitizer, Nasal cancer, skin irritations and
dermatitis
Australian native
Dust, leaves, 
bark
Sensitizer, Irritation to mucous membranes,
irritation to eyes and throat and difficulty
breathing. Fungus found in bark
Northern NSW,
Southern Qld.
Dust, leaves, 
bark
Sensitizer, Nasal cancer, skin irritations and
dermatitis. Greasy. Woodturning only.
Australian native
East Coast
Dust
Fagus sylvatica
Beech, Myrtle
Nothofagus cunninghamii
Beech, White
(Beech, Grey Teak)
Gmelina leichhardtii
Black Bean
(Morton Bay Chestnut)

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis,
itchiness, irritation of mucous membranes

Sensitizer, irritations and contact dermatitis,
bronchial asthma, dust causes irritation to
eyes, nose and throat
Castanospermum australe
Blackwood
Australian native, Dust, wood,
bark
(Black Wattle, Mudgerabah) Tasmania
Acacia melanoxylon
( The tree's twigs and its bark are used to poison fish
as a way of fishing )
Dust, wood

Buxus sempervirens
U.K. Europe,
S.E. Asia,
Morocco
Sensitizer, irritations and dermatitis, asthma,
dust causes irritation to eyes, nose and
throat
Brazilwood
South America
Dust, wood

Sensitizer, Headaches, nausea, painful
swelling of limbs and visual disturbances
Australian native
East Coast
Dust

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis
Australian native
Coastal Qld
Dust

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis,
nose bleed, conjunctivitis, giddiness
USA, Canada,
plantations in
New Zealand,
Australia &
Europe
Dust

Sensitizer, Dermatitis, violent ear ache
giddiness, stomach cramps, bronchitis,
irritation of mucous membranes
Boxwood
(European Boxwood)
Caesalpinia echinata
Brigalow
(Spearwood)
Acacia harpophylla
Cedar, Mackay
(Red Siris)
Albizia Toona
Cedar, Port Orford
(Lawson’s Cypress)
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana
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Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 133 of 141
Species
Origin
Cedar, Red
(Cedar)
Toona ciliata
Cedar, Sth. American
Cedrela spp.
Cedar, Western Red
(Canadian Red Cedar)
Problem
Potency
Reported Associated Health Hazards
Australian native, Dust, wood
New Guinea,
Philippines

Sensitizer, Violent headache, giddiness,
stomach cramps, asthma, bronchitis,
dermatitis, irritation of mucous membranes
Southern
America
Dust, wood,
bark, sap

Sensitizer, Dermatitis, asthma, nasal
cancer, irritation to nose & throat. Sap may
cause blistering of skin and inflammation of
eyelids
North America
Dust, wood,
bark, leaves

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis,
asthma, effects central nervous system
(rarely) nasopharyngeal cancer (nasal
cancer)
Thuja plicata
(NOT to be used in Queensland schools
for woodworking)
India, China,
Australia
Dust, wood,
bark, leaves

Sensitizer, Fruits and leaves are highly
poisonous. Skin irritations, dermatitis
headache, congestion of lungs, nausea,
fainting
China, Japan,
Australia (toxic
hybrids of
northern NSW)
Dust, wood

Sensitizer, Serious skin-rash complaints and
dermatitis, irritation to eyes and throat and
difficulty breathing
Australian native, Dust, wood,
New Guinea
bark, sap

Anacardium occidentale
Sensitizer, Sap causes blisters, wood dust
cause skin irritations and dermatitis,
itchiness.
Coolibah
Australian native
Dust, wood
bark

Sensitizer, Bark and wood dust may cause
skin irritation and dermatitis
Australian native
Dust, wood,
thorns

Wood splinters and thorns cause skin
irritations. Dust causes dermatitis
USA, Canada,
Dust, leaves
bark
plantations in
New Zealand,
Australia, New
Guinea & Europe

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis,
nasal cancer, irritation to eyes and throat

Sensitizer, Skin irritations, acute dermatitis,
sneezing, conjunctivitis
Diospyros spp.
Africa, Malagasy, Dust, wood
Ceylon, S.E.
Asia, Hawaii
Elm, European
Europe
Dust, wood

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis,
nasal cancer
Equatorial Africa
Dust

Sensitizer, Itchy skin, irritation to eyes and
nose
South America,
Guiana
Dust, wood

Sensitizer, causing headache, wheezing,
shortness of breath, disturbance of vision,
diarrhoea
Australian native
Sth Australia
Dust

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis,
itchiness, irritation of mucous membranes
Australia native
Dust

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis,
nasal irritation and temporary spasmodic
rhinorrhea
Cedar, White
(Chinaberry)
Melia azedarach
Camphor Laurel
Cinnamomum camphora
Cashew
Eucalyptus microtheca
Dead Finish
(Needle Wattle)
Acacia tetragonophylla
Douglas Fir
(Oregon)
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Ebony
(all dark coloured species)
Ulmus spp.
Gaboon
(Okoumé)
Aucoumea klaineana
Greenheart
(Bebeeru)
Chlorocardium rodiei
Gum, Blue
(Blue Gum, Yellow Gum)
Eucalyptus leucoxylon
Gum, Grey Box
(Grey Box)
Eucalyptus microcarpa
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Modified: February 04, 2013
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Species
Origin
Gum, Spotted
(Spotted Iron Gum)
Eucalyptus maculata
Gum, Tasmanian Blue
(Southern Blue Gum)
Problem
Potency
Reported Associated Health Hazards
Australian native, Dust
South America,
Africa & Europe

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis,
nasal irritation and temporary spasmodic
rhinorrhea
Australian native
Dust, wood

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis,
itchiness, irritation of mucous membranes
Australian native
South Australia
Dust

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis,
itchiness, irritation of mucous membranes
Tropical West &
East Africa
Dust, wood

A direct toxin and sensitizer. causing
dermatitis, furunculosis, oedema of eyelids,
respiratory difficulties, pneumonia, alveolitis,
giddiness
Australian native
Dust, wood,
bark, leaves

Sensitizer, Nausea, headaches, asthma,
skin irritations and dermatitis, foliage contains
Eucalyptus globulus
Gum, Yellow
(Sth Aust. Blue Gum)
Eucalyptus leucoxylon
Iroko
(African Teak)
Milaca excelsa
Ironwood, Cooktown
Erythrophleum chlorostachys
toxic levels of alkaloids
Jarrah
Dust

Sensitizer, Irritation to nose, throat and eyes
South East Asia, Dust
Andaman Islands

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis
Australia, New
Guinea, Pacific
Islands, South
East Asia
Dust

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis,
rhinitis
West Indies,
Central &
northern South
America
Dust, bark,
sap

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis
West Africa
Dust

Sensitizer, Irritation to the mucous
membranes, skin irritations, dermatitis, nasal
cancer
Central America, Dust
northern South
America, Mexico,
Fiji

Sensitizer, Skin irritations, giddiness,
vomiting, furunculosis
Australian native
Dust

Sensitizer, Exceedingly irritating causing
eczema, congestion of lungs, eye infections,
irritation of mucous membranes, headache,
nose bleed, loss of appetite. Effects increase
with more seasoned wood
Nth Queensland
rainforests
Dust

Sensitizer, Skin irritations to back of hands
and between fingers, eczema and acute
exfoliative dermatitis
Australian native, Dust
plantation in
Africa, Europe
and Sth America

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis,
asthma, sneezing,
Sth East Asia

Dermatitis, Irritation to nose, throat and eyes
Australian native
Eucalyptus marginata
Keruing
Dipterocarpus spp.
Kwila
(Merbau, Vesi)
Intsia bijuga
Lignum Vitae
Guaiacum
Mahogany, African
Khaya ivorensis
Mahogany, American
Swietenia macrophylla
Mahogany, Miva
(Red Bean)
Dysoxylum muelleri
Maple, Queensland
(Maple)
Flindersia brayleyana
Messmate
(Messmate Stringybark)
Eucalyptus obliqua
Meranti
(Red, White & Yellow )
Dust
All Shorea spp.
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Species
Origin
Problem
Potency
Reported Associated Health Hazards
Merbau
(Kwila, Vesi)
Australia, New
Guinea, Pacific
Islands, South
East Asia
Dust

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis,
rhinitis
Intsia bijuga
Australian native, Dust, wood
South East Asia, bark, sap
Pacific

Excoecaria agalioche
Sap is poisonous and may cause severe
irritation to eyes, even temporary blindness,
headache, burning of throat, and rapid
blistering of skin
Mulga
Australian native
Dust, leaves
wood, bark

Sensitizer, Wood contains a virulent
poisonous principle, used for spear heads by
aboriginals. Dust may cause irritation to
mucous membranes, headache, vomiting
Australian native
Dust, leaves, 
bark
Milky Mangrove
Acacia aneura
Myrtle, Beech
Nothofagus cunninghamii
Vic, Tasmania
Sensitizer, Irritation to mucous membranes,
irritation to eyes and throat and difficulty
breathing. Fungus found in bark
Oregon,
California USA
Dust, wood

Sensitizer, Nausea, headaches, asthma,
skin irritations and dermatitis
India, Oceania,
S.E. Asia
Dust, bark

Schima wallichii
Dust and bark can cause severe skin
irritations
Oak, European
(most European species)
Europe, Japan,
China
Dust, leaves
wood, bark

Sensitizer, Nasal cancer, dermatitis,
sneezing, irritation to eyes and throat and
difficulty breathing
Dust, wood

Grevilea striata
Australian native
WA., NT., Qld.,
NSW
Sensitizer, Irritation to mucous membranes,
skin irritation and dermatitis, asthma, dust
causes irritation to eyes, nose and throat
Oak, Northern Silky
(Bull Oak, Qld Oak)
Nth Qld,
Townsville
Dust, wood

Sensitizer, Green timber may cause
dermatitis
Dust

Sensitizer, Irritation to mucous membranes,
skin irritation and dermatitis
Australian native, Dust, wood,
New Caledonia
bark, sap

Sensitizer, Sap may cause blistering of skin,
inflammation of eyelids. Wood contains an
allergen which may cause dermatitis.
Flowers and fruit contain toxic hydrogen
cyanide.
West Africa

Sensitizer, Asthma, sneezing, congestion of
the lungs
Myrtle, Oregon
(Bay Laurel)
Umbellularia californica
Needlewood
Quercus spp.
Oak, Beef
(Desert Beefwood)
Cardwellia sublimis
Oak, Red Silky
Australian native
(Red Beef Oak, Queensland Tropical NSW,
Waratah)
Qld
Stenocarpus salignus
Oak, Silky
(Southern Silky Oak,
Silver Oak)
Grevillea robusta
Obeche
Dust, wood
Triplochiton scleroxylon
Oleander
(Rose Laurel)
Nerium oleander
Oregon
(Douglas Fir)
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Southern Europe, Dust, leaves
Asia, China,
wood, bark
latex gum
Northern Africa
Mediterranean,
Australia
 A direct toxin and sensitizer, Latex is
USA, Canada,
plantations in
New Zealand,
Aust. & Europe

Dust, leaves
bark
poisonous if turned green. Smoke toxic if
burned. Causes vomiting, diarrhoea,
dizziness, breathing difficulties, skin
irritations and dermatitis.
(NOT to be used In Queensland schools
for woodworking)
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DETE Organisational Health Unit
Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis,
nasal cancer, irritation to eyes and throat
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 136 of 141
Species
Origin
Problem
Potency
Reported Associated Health Hazards
Padauk
(Sandalwood, Coralwood,
Central West
Africa,
Dust, wood

Sensitizer, Nausea, headaches, asthma,
skin irritations and dermatitis
New Zealand
Dust, wood

Sensitizer, Dermatitis, irritation to nose and
throat
Australian native
Dust, wood

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis,
swelling of eyelids, asthma, irritation of nose
and throat, nasal cancer, furunculosis
Europe
Dust

Sensitizer, Asthma, Irritation to nose and
throat
Australian native
Dust, wood

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis,
swelling of eyelids, asthma, irritation of nose
and throat, nasal cancer, furunculosis
Central & South
America
Dust

Nausea, headaches
North America,
Europe, East
Asia
Dust, wood

Sensitizer, Asthma, dermatitis, bronchitis
South East Asia,
New Guinea
Dust, leaves
bark, wood,
sap

Sensitizer, Bark, sap and wood dust
irritating to skin, causing dermatitis, blistering
and chronic skin ulcers
New Zealand
Dust

Sensitizer, Irritation to nose, eyes
Australian native
Nth. Queensland
Dust

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis,
conjunctivitis
South East Asia,
India, New
Guinea
Dust, wood

Sensitizer, causing skin irritations and
dermatitis, asthma, irritation to eyes and
throat and difficulty breathing
New Guinea, Nth Dust, wood
Australia, S.E.
Asia

Sensitizer, Nausea, headaches, asthma,
skin irritations and dermatitis
Cambodia, Laos, Dust, wood
Thailand

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis,
conjunctivitis. Contains methoxydalbergione
West Africa
Dust, wood

Sensitizer, Skin irritation, sneezing
India, Pakistan,
Ceylon
Dust, wood

Dermatitis, headache, swelling of scrotum,
irritation of mucous membranes, irritation to
eyes and throat and difficulty breathing
Australian native
Dust, wood
bark, thorns

Lesions made by thorns & splinters take a
long time to heal. Dust causes dermatitis,
cramp, eye & throat irritation, disturbance of
vision
Pterocarpus soyauxii
Pine, N.Z. White
(Kahikatea, kahika)
Dacrycarpus dacrydioides
Pine, Northern Cypress
(Blue Pine)
Callitris intratropica
Pine, White Baltic
(Norway spruce)
Picea abies
Pine, White Cypress
(Cypress Pine)
Callitris glauca
Purpleheart
Peltogyne spp.
Poplar
Populus spp.
Rengas
Gluta spp.
Rimu
(New Zealand Red Pine)
Dacrydium cupressinum
Rose Butternut
(Nth. Qld. Bollygum)
Blepharocarya depauperata
Rosewood, Indian
(Black Rosewood,
Blackwood)
Dalbergia latifolia
Rosewood, New Guinea
(Malay Padauk)
Pterocarpus indicus
Rosewood, Thailand
Dalbergia cochinchinensis
Sapale
(Sapelli, Aboudikro)
Entandrophragma cylindricum
Satinwood
(East Indian Satinwood)
Chloroxylon swietenia
Satinwood
(Thorny Yellowwood)
Zanthoxylum brachyacanthum
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Species
Origin
Spruce
(European Spruce)
Problem
Potency
Reported Associated Health Hazards

Sensitizer, Asthma, Irritation to nose and
throat
Picea abies or Picea excelsa
Nth Scandinavia, Dust, wood
Russia, Europe,
Japan
Sumac
(Staghorn Sumac & others)
Asia, South
America, Europe
Dust, wood,
bark

Sensitizer, Bark causes blisters, dust may
cause skin irritations and dermatitis
South East Asia,
plantations in
most tropical
regions
Dust, wood

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis,
conjunctivitis, over sensitivity to light,
swelling of hands, forearms and scrotum,
irritation to throat & nose, pneumonia,
alveolitis, nausea
Australian native, Dust, wood
New Guinea

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis
Tropical West &
East Africa

A direct toxin and sensitizer. causing
dermatitis, furunculosis, oedema of eyelids,
respiratory difficulties, pneumonia, alveolitis,
giddiness
Australian native, Dust, wood
Hawaii
bark

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis,
mild swelling. Identified by Work Safe
Australia and NOHSC as concerning
because of direct skin absorption of chemical
irritants
West Africa,
Angola
Dust, wood

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis,
itchiness, irritation of mucous membranes
Australian native
Dust, wood,
bark, sap

Sensitizer, Bark and sap very irritating to
skin. Dust may cause breathing problems,
vomiting, giddiness, dermatitis
England, Europe
and Asia Minor
Dust, wood

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis,
nasal cancer
Equatorial Africa
Dust, wood,

Sensitizer, dust causes dermatitis similar to
the effects of poison ivy and is an irritant to
the eyes, respiratory problems, giddiness,
drowsiness, and abdominal cramps.
Splinters are septic, similar to those of
greenheart
North America
Dust, wood,
bark, leaves

Sensitizer, Skin irritations and dermatitis,
asthma, effects central nervous system
(rarely) nasopharyngeal cancer (nasal
cancer)
Rhus typhina & Rhus Vernix spp.
Teak, Asian
(Indian Teak)
Tectona grandis
Teak, Australian
(Crows Ash)
Flindersia australia
Teak, Iroko
(African Teak)
Dust, wood
Milaca excelsa
Turpentine
Syncarpia glomulifera
Walnut, African
Lovoa trichilioides
Walnut, Australian
(Poison Walnut)
Cryptocarya pleurosperma
Walnut, European
(English Walnut)
Juglans regia
Wenge
Millettia laurentii
Western Red Cedar
(Canadian Red Cedar)
Thuja plicata
(NOT to be used in Queensland schools
for woodworking)
White Handlewood
(Prickly Fig)
Australian native
Dust, wood
bark, sap

Sensitizer, Sap very irritant to eye, dust
causes dermatitis, abdominal pains, nausea
Streblus brunonianus
Yew
Taxus baccata
UK, Europe,
Dust, wood
 A direct toxin and sensitizer, Skin
N.W. Africa, Asia bark, leaves,
irritations and dermatitis, headache,
Minor
fruits
congestion of lungs, nausea, fainting,
irritation of alimentary tract, visual
disturbances
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6.3.3
Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for Wood Dust
This is a measure of air quality or airborne dust concentration in a particular workspace. Air
quality must be tested by a qualified examiner using a real-time monitor (e.g. Casella
Microdust Pro®), and is recorded as “milligrams of wood dust per cubic meter of air, and at
25°C, as a time weighted average” (calculated over a normal working day).
The National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (NOHSC) Standard and the
Hazardous Substance Information System (HSIS) set these exposure limits for Australia, as a
guidance standard for safer air quality. Hardwood and softwood species have differing
Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL) for their associated airborne wood dust particulates. The
limits recommend inhalable wood dust levels should not be allowed to exceed more than 5
mg/m3 for softwoods and 1.0 mg/m3 for some hardwoods such as oaks, mahogany, beech, and
eucalypts. This differential is because some hardwoods are listed as having more severe
health hazards associated with them than do most softwoods. In Australia, Western Red Cedar
and Oleander have been placed in a particular category as allergic species of wood and as
such must never be used for ITD curriculum activities or production projects in any Queensland
schools. In fact, in Australia all wood dust is now classified as carcinogenic – Group 1 (liable to
cause cancer).
Wood dust is also listed as a sensitiser and the Exposure Standard is regularly under review by
the NOHSC. In the interests of maintaining a safe working environment, it is recommended
that workplace exposures to all wood dust should not exceed 1.0 mg/m3.
Note: the NOHSC Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for Western Red Cedar is now 0.5 mg/m3
It may be unsafe for you to be exposed to even very small amounts of wood dust if you already
have asthma or certain other medical conditions. The only reliable way to know your exposure
level is to measure the amount of dust in the air while you are working. This is known as air
monitoring. Remember, you can’t accurately judge your exposure just by looking at the amount
of dust around. Much of the fine dust particulates are almost invisible. You might have a
dangerously high exposure without noticing any immediate breathing trouble.
6.3.4
CCA Treated Timber:
Apart from the effects of the wood itself, the risks posed by the use of chemicals in wood
treatment, preservation and finishing must not be overlooked. A typical example is Copper
Chrome Arsenate (CCA) – or treated pine e.g. Koppers Arch® products, Permapine® etc. CCA
treated timber is commonly used on pine timbers for outdoor structures such as playgrounds,
decks, garden furniture, picnic tables, exterior seating and handrails. Other uses that come into
less contact with students include fencing, retaining walls and pergolas, etc.
These very toxic timber treatments are used as protection from rotting and fungal attack,
termites or other wood boring insects. The process has been registered and used for over 60
years worldwide. However, the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority
released a report in March 2005, recommending that CCA treated timbers are no longer to be
used in any structures where the public (particularly children) are likely to come into frequent
contact.
Refer to Australian Standards AS 1604:1997 for all CCA regulations and restrictions.
The Queensland Department of Education has subsequently decided to prohibit the use of
CCA treated timbers (for new structures only) in all state schools. To ensure student safety,
alternative products will need to be considered. You must never burn any existing CCA treated
timbers and be extra cautious with any CCA treated sawdust. Remember to always wear
gloves, wash hands with soap after exposure and avoid contact with food.
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 139 of 141
At present, other unrestricted toxic timber preservatives to be aware of include:


Alkaline Copper Quaternary (ACQ);
Copper Azole (CuAz);

Light Organic Solvent Preservative (LOSP);

Pigment Emulsified Creosote (PEC).
6.3.5
Formaldehyde Adhesives in MDF and Plywood
Another hazard to be aware of is the adhesives used in the manufacture of wood panels such
as medium density fibreboards (MDF), plywoods and laminated veneers. Formaldehyde-based
adhesives in particular emit small amounts of formaldehyde vapour into the air. However,
research has shown that MDF, plywood and laminated veneers manufactured in Australia, and
regulated by our strict manufacturing codes, (including AS/NZS 1859.2), have far less free
formaldehyde likely to off-gas as harmful emissions than do the same products manufactured
overseas. Therefore, by sourcing locally produced MDF or plywood and by restricted or
substituting the product in any future ITD workshop projects, the amount of formaldehyde
emissions will generally remain well below the (Australian) National Occupational Health and
Safety Commission's exposure standard of 1.0 part per million (ppm).
The eyes, nose and throat can be irritated by formaldehyde vapours at levels as low as 1.0
ppm. Levels of 5.0 ppm or more can severely irritate the lungs, eyes and nose. Formaldehyde
solutions can destroy the human skin's natural protective oils, and frequent or prolonged skin
contact with these solutions can cause severe dryness, flaking, cracking, and dermatitis. Direct
skin contact can also cause allergic reactions such as redness, itching, hives, and blisters.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) notes that whilst more research is
required, formaldehyde-based adhesives are a probable carcinogen and a strong sensitiser or
an allergen that could cause allergic reactions such as severe asthma.
6.3.6
Managing the Risks and Control Measures
The best protection from wood dust is to keep it out of the air in the first place by applying
effective hazard control measures. The most effective controls that will help minimise any
health risks are:

If possible, use timbers that are less likely to cause any health issues;

Minimise the generation of dust by operating woodworking machines inside an enclosure;

If possible, when using machines and portable power tools, capture any loose wood dust at
the point of generation. This is best achieved using vacuum or exhaust extraction systems
specifically designed to fit the machine or equipment;

Maintain effective natural ventilation; or

Consider a professionally designed and installed, fully ducted, wood dust extraction and
collection system for the entire ITD workspace. This will maintain maximum control over
dust concentration levels throughout the facility;

Provide and always wear correct PPE such as a good dust mask or respirator as per
Australian Standards AS/NZS 1715: 2009 and AS/NZS 1716: 2012. PPE must be used
when necessary, and usually as a final control procedure when other safety measures do
not give enough protection. A long sleeve shirt will help protect the skin;
Be aware of how much dust is being produced. Teachers and students may need more
protection when working wood at high speeds. Machine sanding causes more dust
exposure than hand sanding because a larger area can be sanded in the same time;


Maintain a good housekeeping schedule. Keep surfaces and floors free of wood chips and
dust to help prevent tripping or slipping accidents;
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 140 of 141

Don’t use compressed air when cleaning machinery. This will simply put more dust into
the air. Instead use wet clean-up methods such as wiping surfaces with a wet rag, or have
your ITD cleaning staff use a vacuum cleaner with a HEPA filter;

Always securely bag and seal wood dust waste, and dispose of waste safely;
Remember that concentrations of small dust particles in the air can form a mixture that will
explode if ignited. This type of situation may occur in dust collection equipment, such as
filter bags. Wood dust will also burn easily if ignited. Overheated motors or sparks can
start wood dust fires.

Note: For more information, or if further guidance is required on the dangers of wood dust,
toxic timbers and adhesives commonly used for ITD in Queensland schools, refer to the
following useful links:

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – “Hazards in Schools” (Dust, etc)

DETE, Creating Healthier Workplaces – “Chemical & Hazardous Substances”

DETE, PPR – “Managing Risks with Chemicals in DETE Workplaces”

WHSQ – Storage Management of Dangerous Goods

WHSQ – Hazardous Chemicals, Substances & Dangerous Goods

WHSQ – Hazardous Chemicals Code of Practice 2003, (2012) (new window) 352k

GHS of Classification & Labelling of Chemicals – (4th edition: 2011) (new window) 3 MB

Australian Code for the Transport of Dangerous Goods (ADG7) – (7th ed: 2011) 18 MB

Chemical Usage Control Act: 1988, (July 2010 reprint) (new window) 514k

Chemical Usage Control Regulation: 1999, (Sept 2011 reprint) (new window) 456k

Health (Drugs & Poisons) Regulation: 1996, (Nov 2012 reprint) (new window) 1.3 MB

Hazardous Chemicals Register & Manifest (new window) 293k
Guidelines – A Practical Handbook For ITD Activities
DETE Organisational Health Unit
Modified: February 04, 2013
Page 141 of 141
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