Texas Instruments - A Glossary of Analog-to-Digital Specifications and Performance Characteristics

Texas Instruments - A Glossary of Analog-to-Digital Specifications and Performance Characteristics
Application Report
SBAA147B – August 2006 – Revised October 2011
A Glossary of Analog-to-Digital Specifications and
Performance Characteristics
Bonnie Baker ................................................................................................ Data Acquisition Products
ABSTRACT
This glossary is a collection of the definitions of Texas Instruments' Delta-Sigma (ΔΣ), successive
approximation register (SAR), and pipeline analog-to-digital (A/D) Converter specifications and
performance characteristics. Although there is a considerable amount of detail in this document, the
product data sheet for a particular product specification is the best and final reference. To download or
view a specific data converter product data sheet, see the Texas Instruments web site at www.ti.com/.
Glossary of Terms
Acquisition Time:
Refer to Figure 1 when comparing SAR, Pipeline, and Delta-Sigma converter acquisition time.
Signal Noise
2
2
1
1
Data
Out
Multiple samples,
averaged
Single
sample per
conversion
Data
Out
1 2 3 4
Sampling SAR ADC
1 2 3 4
Pipeline ADC
Data
Out
1 2 3 4
Oversampling
Delta-Sigma ADC
Figure 1. SAR vs Pipeline vs ΔΣ A/D Converters Sampling Algorithms Comparison
•
Acquisition time, Delta-Sigma A/D Converters–
The Delta-Sigma (ΔΣ) converter averages multiple samples for each conversion result. The averaging
performed by the converter usually occurs in the form of a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) or Infinite
Impulse Response (IIR) digital filter. Consequently, the acquisition time is longer than it is with a SAR
or pipeline converter, which only samples the signal once for each conversion. Figure 1 illustrates one
of the differences between the sampling mechanism of a SAR, a Pipeline and a ΔΣ converter. If the
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•
user presents a step-input to the delta-sigma converter input or switches a multiplexer output channel,
the converter will require time for the digital filter to refresh with the new signal. If a snap-shot of the
signal or a defined acquisition point in time is required, it is more appropriate to use a SAR A/D
converter.
Acquisition time, Pipeline A/D Converters–
With a pipeline A/D converter, the user initiates the conversion process with the rising edge (or falling
edge, as specified in the product data sheet) of the external input clock. The capture of the differential
input signal follows the opening of the input internal switches. See Figure 1 and Figure 2.
Sample Error
(offset, nonlinearity)
Input signal
Aperture time
Acquisition time
or sample time
Hold
Sample
Hold
Figure 2. Acquisition Time (Sample Time) and Aperture Time
•
Acquisition time, SAR A/D Converters–
The acquisition time for the SAR converter is the time required for the sampling mechanism to capture
the input voltage. This time begins after the sample command is given where the hold capacitor
charges. Some converters have the capability of sampling the input signal in response to a sampling
pin on the converter. Other SAR CMOS converters sample with the clock after CS (chip select) drops
(with a serial peripheral interface, or SPI™). Figure 3 shows an example of a clock-initiated sample
using the ADS7816. Also see Figure 1 and Figure 2.
A
Sample
Conversion Period
Period
CS
B
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11 12 13 14 15
D D
11 10
D
9
D
8
D
7
D
6
D
5
D
4
Clock #15 is
optional;
D0 is clocked out
on falling edge of
Clock #14
CLK
DOUT
D
3
D
2
D
1
D
0
All data transitions occur
Null Bit
on the falling edge of SLK
A
Chip select (CS) falls.
B
The falling edge of the clock closes the sample switch.
Figure 3. Clock-Initiated Sample for a SAR A/D Converter
Analog Input, Analog Bandwidth: The input frequency where the reconstructed output of the A/D
converter is 3dB below the value of the input signal.
Analog Input, Capacitance, Common-mode: The common-mode capacitance of an A/D converter is the
capacitance between each analog signal input(s) and ground.
Analog Input, Capacitance, Differential: The capacitance between the positive input (AIN+) and negative
input (AIN–) of an A/D converter with a differential input.
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Analog Input, Differential Input: With the analog differential input, both input pins of the A/D converter
can swing the full range, and typically change in a balanced fashion—that is, as one input goes up, the
other goes down in a corresponding way. The differential input offers the advantage of subtracting the two
inputs and provides common-mode rejection. These types of inputs are commonly found in single-supply
converters, such as delta-sigma or pipeline converters. The differential input offers the advantages of
common-mode rejection, with a smaller input voltage swing required on each pin while preserving a high
dynamic range.
Analog Input, Impedance, Common-mode: The impedance between each analog signal input of the
A/D converter and ground.
Analog Input, Impedance, Differential: The impedance between the positive input (AIN+) and negative
input (AIN–) of an A/D converter with a differential input.
Analog Input, Voltage Range, Absolute: The absolute analog voltage range of an A/D converter is the
maximum and minimum voltage limit of the input stage (compared to ground and/or the analog supply
voltage). This term describes the absolute input voltage range limits of the input stage. Usually, the
positive and negative power supplies impose these limits on the device, unless there is a resistance
network on the input. If there is a resistive input network, the absolute inputs can exceed the positive and
negative power supplies.
Analog Input, Voltage Range, Bipolar Input Mode (Differential Inputs): An A/D converter configured in
a Bipolar Input Mode has an input range that uses two input pins and allows negative and positive analog
inputs on both pins with respect to each other. In this configuration, neither input pin goes below or above
the absolute input voltage range. (See Input Voltage Range – Differential Inputs.)
Analog Input, Voltage Range, Full-Scale (FS or FSR): The converter digitizes the input signal up to the
full-scale input voltage. The internal or external applied voltage reference value determines the full-scale
input voltage range. The actual FS input voltage range will vary from device to device. Refer to the
specific A/D converter data sheet for details.
• For an n -bit converter, FS is equal to:
FS = (2n) × (ideal code width)
• For delta-sigma converters, FSR is often used to express units in terms of percentages. For
instance, you may find INL defined at ±0.001% of FSR. In this instance, the input range of the A/D
converter could be ±2.5V, with a FSR = 5V.
Also see: Analog Inputs, Differential Inputs. Refer to a specific A/D converter data sheet for details.
Analog Input, Voltage Range, Pseudo-differential: A pseudo-differential input has two input pins, AIN+
and AIN–, as Figure 4 illustrates. With a pseudo-differential input, the second input pin provides the
reference for the signal. This second input pin (the negative input) can only accept a small range of
voltages, perhaps a few hundred millivolts (mV). This configuration can be very helpful in situations where
the signal has a slight common-mode offset or small-signal error. The pseudo-differential input reduces
this offset or small-signal error because the converter sees only the difference between the positive input
pin and the negative input pin.
AIN+
ADC
DAC
AIN-
±200mV Maximum
Figure 4. Pseudo-Differential Mode for A/D Converters
Analog Input, Voltage Range, Single-ended (unipolar and bipolar): A single-ended input A/D converter
is configured for one input voltage that is referenced to ground. Some single-supply devices have a
single-ended input range that allows only positive analog input signals. Other single-supply (and
dual-supply) parts handle a signal that moves both above ground and below ground, and have a bipolar
input. Also see Analog Input, Voltage Range, Pseudo-differential.
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Analog Input, Voltage Range, Differential Inputs: The differential input voltage range is equal to the
noninverting analog input (AIN+) minus the inverting analog input (AIN–). With these two input pins, the input
voltage range is:
Full-Scale = ((AIN+(MAX) - AIN-(MIN)) - (AIN+(MIN) - AIN-(MAX)))
A positive digital output is produced when the analog input differential voltage (AIN+ – AIN–) is positive. A
negative analog input differential voltage produces negative digital output. Most SAR and delta-sigma A/D
converters operate in a similar fashion to analog instrumentation amplifiers and do not require a
common-mode voltage. Most CMOS pipeline A/D converters require a common-mode voltage bias (VCM)
to the inputs, which is typically set to mid-supply (+VS/2). An external source can drive the differential
converter inputs in one of two ways: either single-ended or differential. See Figure 5.
Differential Input
Single-Ended Input
+ fs
+ fs/2
VCM
- fs/2
Input
VCM
IN
ADC
- fs
IN
IN
ADC
+ fs/2
VCM
- fs/2
IN
VCM
Figure 5. Single-Ended and Differential Inputs to an A/D Converter
Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC, A-D Converter, A/D Converter): An A/D converter is a device that
changes a continuous signal into a discrete-time, discrete-amplitude digitized signal.
Aperture:
• Delay–
The delay in time between the rising or falling edge (typically the 50% point) of the external sample
command and the actual time at which the signal is captured. See Figure 2.
• Jitter–
Aperture jitter is the standard deviation of aperture delay from sample to sample over time. Aperture
jitter is sometimes mistaken as input noise. The aperture jitter, along with clock jitter of the sampling
system, impacts the overall signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the conversion. The contribution of jitter to
the SNR is equal to:
SNR = 20log10(
1 )
(2pf tj)
Where:
•
•
tj is the clock and aperture jitter;
f is the clock frequency of the converter
The aperture and clock jitter is equal to:
tj =
2
2
(ta + tc )
Where:
•
•
•
ta is the root-mean-square of the aperture jitter;
tc is the root-mean-square of the clock jitter
There is no correlation between the clock-jitter and aperture-jitter terms; therefore, these terms can be
combined on a root-sum-square basis (rss).
Uncertainty–Also known as aperture jitter.
Asynchronous Sampling: Sampling of the A/D converter that is not locked to the frequencies or the time
of other frequencies or samples in the application circuit.
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Average Noise Floor: In a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) representation of converter data, the average
noise floor is a calculated average of all of the bins within the FFT plot, excluding the input signal and
signal harmonics.
Binary Twos Complement Code (BTC): With the BTC code, the digital zero (0000, for a 4-bit system)
corresponds to Bipolar Zero (BPZ), and the digital count increments to its maximum positive code of 0111
as the analog voltage approaches and reaches its positive full-scale value. The code then continues at the
negative full-scale value at a digital code of 1000, then approaches BPZ until a digital value of 1111 (for a
4-bit system) is reached at one LSB value below BPZ (see Table 1). With the BTC coding scheme, the
most significant bit (MSB) can also be considered a sign indicator. When the MSB is a logic '0' a positive
value is indicated; when the MSB is a logic '1' a negative value is indicated. The analog positive full-scale
minus one LSB digital representation is equal to (0111), and the analog negative full-scale representation
is (1000). See Table 1 for more details.
Table 1. BTC Coding Scheme (1)
MNEMONIC
DIGITAL CODE
VTR–
VCODE
VTR+
–FS
1000
—
–5.000
–4.6875
1001
1010
1011
–4.6875
–4.0625
–3.4375
–4.375
–3.750
–3.125
–4.0625
–3.4375
–2.1825
1100
–2.1825
–2.500
–2.1875
1101
1110
–2.1875
–1.5625
–1.875
–1.250
–1.5625
–0.9375
BPZ – 1VLSB
1111
–0.9375
–0.625
–0.3125
BPZ
0000
–0.3125
0.000
+0.3125
BPZ + 1VLSB
0001
+0.3125
+0.625
+0.9375
0010
0011
+0.9375
+1.5625
+1.250
+1.875
+1.5625
+2.1875
0100
+2.1875
+2.500
+2.8125
0101
0110
+2.8125
+3.4375
+3.125
+3.750
+3.4375
+4.0625
0111
+4.0625
+4.375
—
1/2 –FS
1/2 +FS
+FS
(1)
(2)
(2)
Also known as Two's Complement. For this 4-bit system, FSR = ±5V.
VTR– = lower code transition voltage; VTR+ = upper code transition voltage; VCODE = (digital code)10 × VLSB, VTR+ = VCODE +
(1/2)VLSB; VTR– = VCODE – (1/2)VLSB.
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Bipolar Offset Binary Code (BOB): BOB coding begins with digital zero (0000, for a 4-bit system) at the
negative full-scale. By incrementing the digital count, the corresponding analog value approaches the
positive full-scale in 1V, least significant bit (LSB) steps, passing through bipolar zero on the way. This
zero crossing occurs at a digital code of 1000 (see Table 2). The digital count continues to increase
proportionally to the analog input until the positive full-scale is reached at a full digital count (1111, for a
4-bit system) as seen in Table 2. With BOB coding, the MSB can be considered a sign indicator, whereas
a logic '0' indicates a negative analog value, and a logic '1' indicates an analog value greater than or equal
to Bipolar Zero (BPZ).
Table 2. BOB Coding Scheme (1)
MNEMONIC
DIGITAL CODE
–FS
VTR–
VCODE
VTR+
0000
—
–5.000
–4.6875
0001
0010
0011
–4.6875
–4.0625
–3.4375
–4.375
–3.750
–3.125
–4.0625
–3.4375
–2.1825
0100
–2.1825
–2.500
–2.1875
0101
0110
–2.1875
–1.5625
–1.875
–1.250
–1.5625
–0.9375
BPZ – 1VLSB
0111
–0.9375
–0.625
–0.3125
BPZ
1000
–0.3125
0.000
+0.3125
BPZ + 1VLSB
1001
+0.3125
+0.625
+0.9375
1010
1011
+0.9375
+1.5625
+1.250
+1.875
+1.5625
+2.1875
1100
+2.1875
+2.500
+2.8125
1101
1110
+2.8125
+3.4375
+3.125
+3.750
+3.4375
+4.0625
1111
+4.0625
+4.375
—
1/2 –FS
1/2 +FS
+FS
(1)
(2)
6
(2)
FSR = ±5V.
VTR– = lower code transition voltage; VTR+ = upper code transition voltage; VCODE = (digital code)10 × VLSB, VTR+ = VCODE +
(1/2)VLSB; VTR– = VCODE – (1/2)VLSB.
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Calibration:
• Background Calibration–
Background calibrations are pre-programmed and occur at a scheduled frequency during converter
operation without further instructions. During a background calibration, the converter is disconnected
from the input signal and an internal offset and/or gain calibration occurs. The results for each
calibration are stored in the internal registers of the converter and applied to every conversion after the
calibration occurs. The converter algorithm subsequently adds or subtracts the offset calibration value
with every conversion result. The converter algorithm also divides the gain calibration value with every
conversion.
• Self-Calibration–
On command, a self-calibration occurs as the converter is disconnected from the input signal. Once
this calibration occurs, the converter performs an internal offset and/or gain calibration algorithm. The
converter algorithm subsequently adds or subtracts the offset calibration value with every conversion
result. The converter algorithm also divides the gain calibration value with every conversion.
• System Calibration–
On command, a system calibration occurs with the input signal connected. In this mode, the converter
calibrates offset and gain, including the external input signal(s), on two separate commands. The offset
calibration is performed with the assumed zero applied to the input of the converter. The converter
algorithm subsequently adds or subtracts the offset calibration value with every following conversion
result. The user can then perform the gain calibration with an assumed full-scale signal applied to the
input. The converter algorithm also divides the gain calibration value with every following conversion.
Clock:
• Duty Cycle–
The duty cycle of a clock signal is the ratio of the time the clock signal remains at a logic high (clock
pulse width) to the period of the clock signal. Duty cycle is typically expressed as a percentage value.
The duty cycle of a perfect square wave or a differential sine wave is 50%.
• Jitter–
The standard deviation of clocking the A/D converter sampling edge (can be a rising edge or falling
edge, depending on the specific A/D converter) variation from pulse-to-pulse in time. This instability of
the clock signal may cause converter errors as well as an increase in converter noise.
The total jitter includes both aperture and clock jitter, and is equal to:
tj =
2
2
(ta + tc )
Where:
•
•
ta is the root-mean-square of the aperture jitter;
tc is the root-mean-square of the clock jitter
There is no correlation between the clock-jitter and aperture-jitter terms; therefore, these terms can be
combined on a root-sum-square basis (rss). In most cases, the clock jitter is several times higher than
the A/D converter aperture jitter, making the clock jitter the dominant jitter noise source in the system.
Clock jitter can impact the SNR of the converter at medium and higher frequencies. The aperture jitter,
along with clock jitter of the sampling system, impacts the overall SNR of the conversion. The
contribution of jitter to the SNR of the conversion is equal to:
SNR = 20log10(
1 )
(2pf tj)
Where:
•
•
•
tj is the clock and aperture jitter;
f is the clock frequency of the converter
Slew Rate–
The time derivative (δV/δt) of the clock signal (digital input or digital output) as it passes through the
logic, voltage threshold.
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Code Width: The code width is the voltage differential between two adjacent transition points of an A/D
converter digital output code. The code width is ideally equal to 1LSB. See Figure 6.
Ideal transfer function
for a 3-bit A/D
111
Transition point = where
output code changes
from one code
to an adjacent code
110
101
Digital
Output
Code
Transition
Points
100
011
code width
010
Ideal code width =
1LSB
001
000
0
1/4 FS
1/2 FS
3/4 FS
FS
Analog Input Voltage
NOTE: The unipolar ideal transfer function has zero Offset Error, zero Gain Error, zero DNL error, and zero INL error.
In this graph, FS means Full-Scale.
Figure 6. Unipolar Ideal Transfer Function
Code Transition Point (Uncertainty): The Code Transition Point is the point at which the digital output
switches from one code to the next as a result of a changing analog input voltage. The uncertainty or
variation in the transition point is a result of internal converter noise, as Figure 7 illustrates.
Code
under test
111
110
Digital Output
100%
101
0%
Center of code width
50%
100
011
Low side transition
010
001
Transition point; uncertainty noise
000
0
1/2 FS
FS
Analog Input
Figure 7. A/D Converter Transition Noise
Coherent sampling: Coherent sampling exists when the sampling frequency times the integer number of
cycles of the waveform in the data record equals the frequency of the waveform times the number of
samples in the data record, where the waveform is periodic. In other words, coherent sampling exists
when the following relationship is met:
fS · K = ft · N
Where:
•
•
•
•
8
fS = the sampling frequency
K = number of cycles of a waveform in the data record (integer)
ft = the waveform frequency
N = number of samples in the data record
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Complementary Offset Binary (COB): COB coding begins with digital zero (0000, for a 4-bit system) at
the positive full-scale. By incrementing the digital count, the corresponding analog value approaches the
negative full-scale in –1LSB steps, passing through BPZ on the way. This zero crossing occurs at a digital
code of 0111 (see Table 3). As the digital count continues to increase, the analog signal goes more
negative until the negative full-scale is reached at a full digital count (1111), as shown in Table 3.
With COB coding, like BOB coding, the MSB can also be considered a sign indicator where a logic '1'
indicates a negative analog value, and a logic '0' indicates an analog value greater than or equal to BPZ.
See Table 3.
Table 3. COB Coding Scheme (1)
MNEMONIC
DIGITAL CODE
VTR–
VCODE
VTR+
–FS
1111
—
–5.000
–4.6875
1110
1101
1100
–4.6875
–4.0625
–3.4375
–4.375
–3.750
–3.125
–4.0625
–3.4375
–2.1825
1011
–2.1825
–2.500
–2.1875
1010
1001
–2.1875
–1.5625
–1.875
–1.250
–1.5625
–0.9375
BPZ – 1VLSB
1000
–0.9375
–0.625
–0.3125
BPZ
0111
–0.3125
0.000
+0.3125
BPZ + 1VLSB
0110
+0.3125
+0.625
+0.9375
0101
0100
+0.9375
+1.5625
+1.250
+1.875
+1.5625
+2.1875
0011
+2.1875
+2.500
+2.8125
0010
0001
+2.8125
+3.4375
+3.125
+3.750
+3.4375
+4.0625
0000
+4.0625
+4.375
—
1/2 –FS
1/2 +FS
+FS
(1)
(2)
(2)
FSR = ±5V.
VTR– = lower code transition voltage; VTR+ = upper code transition voltage; VCODE = (digital code)10 x VLSB, VTR+ = VCODE +
(1/2)VLSB; VTR– = VCODE – (1/2)VLSB.
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Complementary Straight Binary Code (CSB): The Complementary Straight Binary coding scheme is the
exact digital opposite (that is, one’s complement) of Unipolar Straight Binary. CSB coding, as with USB
code, is also restricted to unipolar systems. When using CSB coding with a digital system, the digital count
begins at all zeros (0000, for a 4-bit system) at the positive full-scale value. As the digital code increments,
the analog voltage decreases one VLSB at a time, until 0V is reached at a digital code of 1111. The
relationship between CSB coding and its corresponding analog voltages can be seen in Table 4. (In
Table 4, BPZ is analogous to Bipolar Zero.)
Table 4. CSB Coding Scheme (1)
MNEMONIC
DIGITAL CODE
VTR–
VCODE
VTR+
Zero
1111
—
0.000
0.3125
+1VLSB
1110
1101
1100
0.3125
0.9375
1.5625
0.625
1.250
1.875
0.9375
1.5625
2.1875
1/4 FSR
1011
2.1875
2.500
2.8125
1010
1001
1000
2.8125
3.4375
4.0625
3.125
3.750
4.375
3.4375
4.0625
4.6875
0111
4.6875
5.000
5.3125
0110
0101
0100
5.3125
5.9375
6.5625
5.625
6.250
6.875
5.9375
6.5625
7.1875
0011
7.1875
7.500
7.8125
0010
0001
7.8125
8.4375
8.125
8.750
8.4375
9.0625
0000
9.0625
9.375
—
1/2 FSR
3/4 FSR
+FS
(1)
(2)
10
(2)
FSR = 10V.
VTR– = lower code transition voltage; VTR+ = upper code transition voltage; VCODE = (digital code)10 x VLSB, VTR+ = VCODE +
(1/2)VLSB; VTR– = VCODE – (1/2)VLSB.
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Common-mode, DC:
• Error–
Common-mode error is the change in output code when the two differential inputs are changed by an
equal amount. This specification applies where a converter has a differential input, AIN+ and AIN–. This
term is usually specified in LSBs.
• Range–
The common-mode, analog voltage range at the differential input of the A/D converter while the
converter still converts accurate code in accordance with the specific device limits. This specification
applies when the input voltages applied to the converters has a relatively small differential input, AIN+
and AIN–.
• Signal–
The input common-mode signal is equal to (AIN+ + AIN–) / 2. Another name for this specification is
Common-mode Voltage. This specification applies when the input voltages applied to a converter have
a differential input, AIN+ and AIN–.
• Voltage–
The common-mode voltage is equal to the sum of the two analog input voltages divided by two.
Common-mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR): The Common-mode Rejection Ratio is the degree of rejection
of a common-mode signal (dc or ac) across the differential input stage. This specification is the ratio of the
resulting digital output signal to a changing input common-mode signal.
Complementary Twos Complement (CTC): With CTC coding, digital zero is at an analog voltage that is
slightly less (1LSB) than analog bipolar zero. As the digital count increments, the analog voltage becomes
more negative until all of the bits are high except for the MSB (0111, for a 4-bit system). At this point, the
digital code corresponds to the analog negative full-scale. The next step in incrementing the digital code
would be to have the MSB set to a logic '1', and the rest of the bits as logic '0's (1000); this code then
represents the analog positive full-scale value. As the digital codes continue to increment, the
corresponding analog voltage decreases until BPZ is obtained. Table 5 illustrates this analog/digital
relationship. With Complementary Two’s Complement coding, the MSB is also a sign indicator with its
states of '0' and '1' representing negative and positive voltages, respectively.
Table 5. CTC Coding Scheme (1)
MNEMONIC
DIGITAL CODE
VTR–
VCODE
VTR+
–FS
0111
—
–5.000
–4.6875
0110
0101
0100
–4.6875
–4.0625
–3.4375
–4.375
–3.750
–3.125
–4.0625
–3.4375
–2.1825
0011
–2.1825
–2.500
–2.1875
0010
0001
–2.1875
–1.5625
–1.875
–1.250
–1.5625
–0.9375
BPZ – 1VLSB
0000
–0.9375
–0.625
–0.3125
BPZ
1111
–0.3125
0.000
+0.3125
BPZ + 1VLSB
1110
+0.3125
+0.625
+0.9375
1101
1100
+0.9375
+1.5625
+1.250
+1.875
+1.5625
+2.1875
1011
+2.1875
+2.500
+2.8125
1010
1001
+2.8125
+3.4375
+3.125
+3.750
+3.4375
+4.0625
1000
+4.0625
+4.375
—
1/2 –FS
1/2 +FS
+FS
(1)
(2)
(2)
FSR = ±5V.
VTR– = lower code transition voltage; VTR+ = upper code transition voltage; VCODE = (digital code)10 x VLSB, VTR+ = VCODE +
(1/2)VLSB; VTR– = VCODE – (1/2)VLSB.
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Conversion Cycle: A conversion cycle is a discrete A/D converter operation, and refers to the process of
changing the input signal to a digital result. When performed by a SAR converter, for example, the
conversion occurs after the sample is acquired. For delta-sigma converters, a conversion cycle refers to
the tDATA time period (that is, the period between each data output). With delta-sigma converters, each
digital output is actually based on the modulator results from several tDATA time periods.
Conversion Maximum Rate: The maximum sampling rate of a device while performing within specified
operating limits. All parametric testing is performed at this sampling rate unless otherwise noted. (Also see
Sample Rate.)
Conversion Minimum Rate: The minimum conversion rate is the minimum sampling rate at which the
A/D converter meets its stated specifications.
Conversion Rate: The frequency of the digital output words at the output of the converter. (See also
Sample Rate.)
Conversion Speed: See Sample Rate.
Conversion Time: After sampling the signal, the conversion time is the time required for a SAR or
pipeline A/D converter to complete a single conversion. The conversion time does not include the
acquisition time or multiplexer set-up time. The conversion time for a given device is less than the
throughput time.
Crosstalk: This term refers the condition in which a signal affects another nearby signal. With A/D
converters, this event is the occurrence of an undesirable signal coupling across a multi-channel A/D
converter from one channel that is not being used in the conversion to another channel that is part of the
signal path. This undesired coupling is a result of capacitive or conductive coupling from one channel to
another. This interference appears as noise in the output digital code.
Cutoff Frequency: The cutoff frequency (fCUT-OFF) of a low-pass analog or digital filter is commonly defined
as the –3dB point for a Butterworth and Bessel filter, or the frequency at which the filter response leaves
the error band for the Chebyshev filter. See Figure 8.
M = filter order
Gain (dB)
fCUT-OFF
e
APASS
fSTOP
AMAX
ASTOP
Passband
Transition Stop band
band
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 8. Key Analog and Digital Filter Design Parameters
Data Rate or Data Output Rate: The rate at which conversion results are available from a converter. For
a SAR converter, the data rate is equal to the sampling frequency, fS. With a delta-sigma converter, the
data rate is equal to the modulator frequency (fMOD) divided by the decimation ratio.
Data Valid Time: The time (as measured in A/D converter clock cycles) between the first clock transition
where data is valid and the last clock transition where data is no longer valid.
Decibels (dB): Decibels are a logarithmic unit used to describe a ratio of two values; one value is
measured while the other value is a reference. The ratio may measure power, sound pressure, voltage, or
intensity.
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dBFS: dBFS is the decibel measurement as it is referred to the full-scale input range.
dBc: Decibels referenced to a carrier, or decibels below a carrier. For example, a spurious signal or
distortion less than –40dBc means that the distortion is at least 40dB less than the specified carrier signal
or desired signal level.
dBm: dBm represents a measured power level in decibels relative to 1mW.
Decimation Ratio: The decimation ratio is the ratio between the output sampling rate of the delta-sigma
modulator and the output data rate of a delta-sigma converter as performed by the decimator. The
decimator is a block that decimates or discards some results. The decimation ratio sets the number of
data samples from the modulator that are averaged together to get a result. Higher decimation ratios
average a greater number of values together, thereby producing lower noise results.
Delta-Sigma Converter (ΔΣ): A delta-sigma converter is a one-bit (or multi-bit) sampling system (see
Figure 9). In this system, multiple bits are sent serially through a digital filter where mathematical
manipulation is performed. This diagram illustrates a FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filter. Another filter
option could be IIR (Infinite Impulse Response). Also see Digital Filter.
Sample rate (fS)
Analog
Input
Delta-Sigma
Modulator
fS
= DR (decimation ratio)
fD
Data rate (fD)
Digital
Filter
Decimator
Digital
Output
Digital Decimating Filter
(usually implemented
as a single unit)
NOTE: The analog portion of a delta-sigma converter can be modeled using a optional input Programmable Gain
Amplifier (PGA), followed by a charge-balancing A/D converter. The digital portion is modeled using a low-pass digital
filter followed by a digital decimation filter.
Figure 9. Block Diagram of a Delta-Sigma A/D Converter
Differential Gain: see Gain.
Differential Gain Error: see Gain Error.
Differential Phase Error: The difference in phase between a reconstructed output and a small-signal
input.
Differential Nonlinearity (DNL): An ideal A/D converter exhibits code transitions at analog input values
spaced exactly 1LSB apart (1LSB = VFS / 2n). DNL is the deviation in code width from the ideal 1LSB code
width. A DNL error less than –1LSB can cause missing codes.
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DNL is a critical specification for image-processing, closed-loop, and video applications. This is a dc
specification, where measurements are taken with near-dc analog input voltages. Other dc specifications
include Offset Error, Gain Error, INL, Total Unadjusted Error (TUE), and Transition Noise. Figure 10
illustrates the ideal transfer function as a solid line and the DNL error as a dashed line.
111
110
101
Digital
Output
Code
100
011
Actual
Transfer
Function
Ideal
Transfer
Function
010
001
Wide code (>1 LSB)
000
Narrow code (<1 LSB)
Analog Input Voltage
NOTE: DNL is the difference between an ideal code width and the measured code width.
Figure 10. Differential Nonlinearity Error
Digital Filter: A digital filter uses on-chip digital functions to perform numerical calculations on sampled
values of the input signal. The on-chip digital functions are dedicated functions included in the delta-sigma
converter. A digital filter works by performing digital math operations on an intermediate form of the signal.
This process contrasts with that of an analog filter, which works entirely in the analog realm and must rely
on a physical network of electronic components (such as resistors, capacitors, transistors, etc.) to achieve
a desired filtering effect.
Digital Filter, Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter: A finite impulse response (FIR) filter is a type of a
digital filter. It is finite because its response to an impulse ultimately settles to zero. This type of response
contrasts with an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter that has internal feedback and may continue to
respond indefinitely. An FIR filter has a number of useful properties. FIR filters are inherently stable. This
stability exists because all the poles are located at the origin and are therefore located within the unit
circle. The FIR filter is a linear-phase or linear-plus-90°-phase response digital filter. A moving average
filter is a very simple FIR filter.
Digital Filter, Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter: IIR filters have an impulse response function that is
non-zero over an infinite length of time. This characteristic contrasts with finite impulse response filters
(FIR), which have fixed-duration impulse responses. Analog filters can be effectively realized with IIR
filters.
Digital Interface, SPI™: – Serial peripheral interface, or SPI, is a three- or four-wire interface. With this
interface, the A/D converter is typically a slave device. A/D converters with SPI capability communicate
using a master/slave relationship, in which the master initiates the data frame. When the master generates
a clock and selects a slave device, the data is either transferred in or out, or in both directions
simultaneously.
SPI specifies four signals: clock (SCLK); master data output, slave data input (MOSI); master data input,
slave data output (MISO); and slave select (SS). SCLK is generated by the master and input to all slaves.
MOSI carries data from master to slave. MISO carries data from slave back to master. A slave device is
selected when the master asserts its CS signal. Because it lacks built-in device addressing, SPI requires
more effort and more hardware resources than I2C™ when more than one slave is involved, but SPI tends
to be more efficient and straightforward than I2C in point-to-point (single master, single slave) applications.
SPI can also achieve significantly higher data rates than I2C.
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Digital Interface, I2C™: I2C is a two-wire (SDA and SCL) Philips standard interface. The I2C interface is
an 8-bit serial bus with bi-directional data transfer capability. The speeds for I2C are 100kbit/s, 400kbit/s
and 3.4Mbit/s. Devices connected to the network are addressable, having unique addresses. This
interface protocol has collision detection and arbitration to prevent data corruption with two or more
masters on line.
Dynamic Range: The ratio of the maximum input signal to the smallest input signal. Dynamic range can
be specified in terms of SFDR or SNR. This critical specification sets the limits on the detectable
maximum and minimum analog signal.
Dynamic Specifications: These are product data sheet specifications where the input to the A/D
converter is an ac signal. This group of specifications includes: Signal-to-Noise Rejection (SNR),
Signal-to-Noise Ratio plus Distortion (SINAD or SNR+D), Effective Number Of Bits (ENOB), Total
Harmonic Distortion (THD), Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR), Intermodulation Distortion (IMD), and
Full-power Bandwidth (FPBW). See Figure 11.
FREQUENCY SPECTRUM
(8192 point FFT, FIN = 10.0022kHz, -0.2dB)
0
B
-20
Amplitude (dB)
-40
D
-60
-80
A
-100
C
G
F
-120
A: Fundamental Signal Magnitude
B: Headroom = -0.5dB
C. Signal-to-Noise Ratio = +85dB
D: Spurious Free Dynamic Range = +96dB
E: Average Noise Floor = -125dB
F: First Harmonic Magnitude = -105dB
G: Second Harmonic Magnitude = -96dB
E
-140
-160
0
10
20
30
40
50
Frequency (kHz)
Figure 11. Dynamic Specifications (FFT Plot)
Effective Number of Bits (ENOB): ENOB is a critical performance limit with digital oscilloscope/waveform
recorders, as well as with image processing, radar, sonar, spectrum analysis, and telecommunications
applications. This critical specification often describes the dynamic performance of the A/D converter. See
also Dynamic Specifications.
• Effective Number of Bits vs SINAD—
The units of measure for signal-to-noise-ratio plus distortion (SINAD) are dB and the units of measure
for ENOBs are bits. SINAD is converted into ENOB through this calculation:
ENOB =
(SINAD - 1.76)
6.02
•
Effective Number of Bits vs SNR of Delta-Sigma Converters—
This value defines the usable resolution of the delta-sigma A/D converter in bits. ENOB is determined
by applying a fixed, known dc voltage to the analog input and computing the standard deviation from
several conversions. Calculate ENOB using data taken from the device. ENOB is equivalent to:
ENOB = n - log2(s)
where:
•
•
σ = standard deviation of data
n = number of converter bits
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If 2.72 bits (the industry standard, with a crest factor = 3.3) is subtracted from bits-rms, the resulting units
are peak-to-peak bits. Noise volts peak-to-peak (VPP) in a signal is equal to (Noise volts rms * 2 * CF). The
Noise bits peak-to-peak is equal to (Noise in bits rms – BCF [see Table 6]). From the selected CF (crest
factor), the probability of an occurrence that exceeds defined peak-to-peak limits is predicted.
Table 6 summarizes the relationship between crest factor, subtracted bits from RMS bits, and the
percentage of noise events outside the peak defined.
Table 6. Relationship Between Crest Factor, Digital
Crest Factor, and Probability of Occurrence
(1)
Crest Factor
(CF)
Crest Factor in Bits
(BCF, bits)
Percentage of
Occurrences (1)
2.6
–2.38
1%
3.3
–2.72
0.1%
(Industry-standard;
accepted values)
3.9
–2.94
0.01%
4.4
–3.13
0.001%
4.9
–3.29
0.0001%
Percentage of occurrences where peaks are exceeded
Effective Resolution: Effective resolution describes the useful bits from an A-D conversion as they relate
to the input signal noise, and is equivalent to the effective number of bits (ENOB). Volts or bits are the
units of measure for this specification. This measurement can be confused with the actual resolution that
is commonly stated in product data sheet titles. The actual resolution is simply the number of converter
bits that are available at the output of the device, without clarifying whether or not these bits are
noise-free. Effective resolution is expressed using two different units of measure. The specification of bits
rms refers to output data. This specification predicts the probability of a conversion level of repeatability of
70.1% for a dc input signal. Volts rms (VRMS or Vrms) refers to the input voltage. Also see Effective
Number of Bits.
Effective Resolution Bandwidth: The effective resolution bandwidth is the highest input frequency where
the SNR is dropped by 3dB for a full-scale input amplitude.
Fall Time: The time required for a signal to fall from 90% of the transition range to 10% of that range.
Fourth Harmonic (HD4): The fourth harmonic is four times the frequency of the fundamental.
Full-power Bandwidth (FPBW): The frequency where the reconstructed output of the A/D converter is
3dB below the full-scale value of a full-scale input signal. Other dynamic or ac specifications include the
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Signal-to-Noise Ratio plus Distortion (SINAD or SNR+D), Effective Number
Of Bits (ENOB), Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR), and
Intermodulation Distortion (IMD); see also Dynamic Specifications.
Full-scale (FS or FSR): See Analog Input, Voltage Range, Full-Scale (FS or FSR).
Gain: Gain is a value at which the input values are multiplied with the offset error removed.
Gain Error (Full-Scale Error): Gain error is the difference between the ideal slope between zero and
full-scale (as well as negative full-scale for differential input A/D converters) and the actual slope between
the measured zero point and full-scale. Offset errors are zeroed out for this error calculation. This is a dc
specification, using a near-dc analog input voltage for measurements. Other critical dc specifications
include Offset Error, DNL, INL, and transition noise. See Figure 12.
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Full-scale range =
Difference between the First
and Last Code Transition Points
111
110
101
Digital
Output
Code
Actual
Transfer
Function
Gain Error =
Full-scale Error - Offset Error
100
011
010
Ideal
Transfer
Function
001
Gain errors can be corrected
in software or hardware.
000
Ideal full-scale range
Actual full-scale range
NOTE: Gain error is the difference between the ideal gain curve (solid line) and the actual gain curve (dashed line)
with offset removed.
Figure 12. Gain Error
Gain Temperature Drift: Gain temperature drift specifies the change from the gain value at the nominal
temperature to the value at TMIN to TMAX. It is computed as the maximum variation of gain over the entire
temperature range divided by (TMAX – TMIN). The units of measure for this specification is parts per million
per degree C (ppm /°C).
Group Delay: Group delay is the rate of change of the total phase shift with respect to angular frequency
or δΦ/δω, where Φ is the total phase shift in radians, and ω is the angular frequency in radians per unit
time (ω equal to 2πf), where f is the frequency (hertz if group delay is measured in seconds). With
delta-sigma converters, the group delay is caused by the digital filters.
Harmonic Distortion: The ratio of the rms input signal to the rms value of the harmonic in question.
Typically, the magnitude of the input signal is 0.5dB to 1dB below full-scale in order to avoid clipping.
When the input signal is much lower than full-scale, other distortion entities may limit the distortion
performance as a result of the converter DNL. When determining the ac linearity of a device, harmonic
distortion is used when a single tone is applied. Harmonic distortion can be specified with respect to the
full-scale input range (dBFS or dB), or with respect to the actual input signal amplitude (dBc). (Also see
second harmonic - HD2, third harmonic - HD3, and fourth harmonic - HD4.)
I2C Interface See Digital Interface, I2C.
Ideal Code Width (q): The ideal full-scale input voltage range divided by the total number of code bins.
The total number of code bins equals:
q=
FS
2
n
Where:
•
•
•
total number of code bins = 2n;
n = number of bits;
FS = Full-Scale Range
Ideal A/D Converter Transfer Function: An analog voltage is mapped into n-bit digital values with no
offset, gain, or linearity errors. See Figure 6.
Idle Tones: These tones are caused by the interaction between the delta-sigma A/D converter modulator
and digital filter. Idle tones come from two sources. One is inherent in the voltage being measured, such
as when the modulator output repeats in a pattern that cannot be filtered by the digital filter. This type of
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pattern occurs at 0V, one-half the FSR, three-fourths of the FSR, etc. The second source of idle tones is
the chopping frequency being sampled in to the measurement. This sampled frequency produces a digital
pattern of codes that oscillate at a slow frequency within the passband. As the name implies, idle tones
can appear as a frequency in the output conversion data with multiple dc input conversions at a constant
data rate. Patented techniques are available to reduce idle tone concerns.
Input range (FS or FSR): The specified range of the peak-to-peak, input signal of an A/D converter.
Integral Nonlinearity (INL, also known as Relative Accuracy Error): An INL error is the maximum
deviation of a transition point from the corresponding point of the ideal transfer curve, with the measured
offset and gain errors zeroed. This specification can be referenced to a best-fit transfer function or an
end-point transfer function. The best-fit INL results will be one-half the error of the end-point measurement
method for the same device. The best-fit transfer function is determined with a least squares curve fit to
the transfer function. This is a dc specification, where measurements are taken with near-dc analog input
voltages. The units for INL are LSB. INL is a critical specification for image processing applications. Other
critical dc specifications include Offset Error, Gain, TUE, DNL, and transition noise. See Figure 13.
111
110
Actual
Transfer
Function
INL < 0
101
Digital
Output
Code
INL = maximum deviation
between an actual (dashed line) code
transition point and its corresponding
ideal (solid line) transition point,
after gain and offset error have
been removed.
100
011
Ideal
Transfer
Function
010
001
Positive INL means
transition(s) later than ideal
Negative INL means
transition(s) earlier than ideal
000
INL < 0
Analog Input Voltage
Figure 13. Integral Nonlinearity Error
Intermodulation Distortion (IMD): The A/D converter can create additional spectral components as a
result of the input of two sinusoidal frequencies simultaneously applied at the input. IMD is the ratio of
power of the intermodulation products to the total power of the original frequencies. IMD is either given in
units of dBc (when the absolute power of the fundamental is used as the reference) or dBFS (when the
power of the fundamental is extrapolated to the converter full-scale range).
Two-tone intermodulation distortion, or IMD3, is the ratio of the power of the fundamental (at frequencies f1
and f2) to the power of the worst spectral component at either frequency (2f1 – f2 or 2f2 – f1). IMD3 is given
in units of dBc (dB to carrier) when the absolute power of the fundamental is used as the reference, or in
units of dBFS (dB to full-scale) when the power of the fundamental in extrapolated to the converter
full-scale range.
IMD is a critical specification for radar, sonar, spread spectrum communication, telecommunication, and
wideband digital receiver applications. Other dynamic or ac specifications include the Signal-to-Noise
Ratio (SNR), Signal-to-Noise Ratio plus Distortion (SINAD or SNR+D), Effective Number Of Bits (ENOB),
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR), and Full-power Bandwidth
(FPBW).
Internal Buffer: If the A/D converter has an input buffer at its input, this provides a high impedance input
that isolates the external input signal from the sampling effects of the converter and provides a higher
input impedance.
Jitter: see Aperture Jitter and Clock Jitter.
Large Signal: A large signal is where the peak-to-peak amplitude of a signal spans at least 90% of the
full-scale analog range of an A/D converter.
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Latency:
Cycle latency: For A/D converters, cycle-latency is equal to the number of complete data cycles
between the initiation of the input-signal conversion and the initiation of the next signal conversion. The
unit of measure for this definition of latency is (n)-cycle latency, where n is a whole number. Figure 14
illustrates the cycle-latency behavior of two different A/D converters. Figure 14A shows a timing
diagram for a zero-cycle latency A/D converter; Figure 14B shows a timing diagram for a four-cycle
latency A/D converter. An A/D converter with zero-cycle latency can also be described as having
single-cycle settling or single-cycle conversion.
A. Zero-cycle Latency
Single-Cycle
Conversion
N+2
N+3
N+1
N+0
N+4
Analog IN
N+5
Zero-cycle latency
Data OUT
N-5
N+0
N+1
N+2
N+3
N+4
N+5
N+6
N+6
N+7
N+7
Data
Invalid
B. Four-cycle Latency
N+2
N+3
N+1
N+0
N+4
Analog IN
N+5
N+6
N+7
Four-cycle latency
Data OUT
N-5
N-4
N-3
N-2
N-1
N+0
N+1
N+2
N+3
Data
Invalid
NOTE: With zero-cycle latency (A), the sampling period of N+0 is initiated. The output data of N+0 are acquired
before the sampling period of N+1 is initiated. With four-cycle latency (B), the sampling period of N+0 is initiated. The
output data of N+0 are acquired after four cycles.
Figure 14. Input/Output Characteristics of an A/D Converter with
(A) Zero-Cycle Latency and (B) Four-Cycle Latency
Latency-time: Latency-time is the time required for an ideal step-input to converge, within an error
margin, to a final digital output value. This error-band is expressed as a pre-defined percentage of the
total output voltage step. The latency-time of a conversion is that period between the time where the
signal acquisition begins to the time the next conversion starts. In contrast to the cycle-latency
specification, the latency-time (or settling-time) is never equal to zero.
Latency-Time, Delta-Sigma Converter: For delta-sigma A/D converters, latency is harder to define
because delta-sigma A/D converters do not output a code corresponding to a single point in time. The
code that ΔΣ converters output is the result of filtering or averaging the input during an interval of time; the
interval is equal to the sample period. For this reason, we measure latency for a delta-sigma A/D
converter by starting at the beginning of a sample period, and measuring to the time that data can be
retrieved. It may also be practical to include in the latency time the time needed to retrieve the data, since
delta-sigma A/D converters nearly always have serial interfaces. For audio converters, this additional
latency can be very significant, even up to several tens of sample periods. For low-speed industrial
converters with sinc filters, it sometimes amounts to only a few modulator cycles. For delta-sigma A/D
converters, filters with constant group delay are almost always used, so there is no difference between
group delay and latency. The latency-time of a delta-sigma converter is often called Settling time.
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Latency-Time, SAR Converter: For SAR A/D converters, latency is typically very short; it is the amount
of time needed for the successive approximation process to complete. Data is typically available
immediately afterward. This approach is typically equal to the conversion time, and exclusive of the
sample time. For SARs, which generally have an external continuous-time analog filter at the front-end,
group delay can be a more useful measurement, since the latency may be frequency-dependent.
Latency-Time, Pipeline Converter: The number of complete clock cycles between the initiation of a
conversion and when the data appears on the output driver stage.
Least Significant Bit (LSB): The least significant bit is the bit representation of the smallest analog input
signal that is converted, and is synonymous with the code bin width. The least significant bit defines the
resolution of the converter. It is also referred to the furthest right bit in a binary digital word.
Major Carry Transition: The mid-scale point where the MSB changes from low to high and all other bits
change from high to low, or where the MSB changes from high to low and all other bits change from low to
high. These transition points are often where the worst switching noise occurs. (See also Most Significant
Bit or MSB.)
Missing Code: A missing code is when a legitimate A/D converter output code that should exist is not
available. An increase in the analog voltage can produce an unexpected smaller or the same digital output
code. See Figure 17.
Modulator: At the input of a first-order modulator, the signal comes in through a summing amplifier (see
Figure 15). The signal then passes through an integrator that feeds a comparator. The comparator acts
like a one-bit quantizer. The output of the comparator feeds forward to a digital filter and back to a one-bit
Digital-to-Analog (D/A) Converter. The signal at the inverted output of the D/A converter is summed into
the input summer. The output of a modulator provides a stream of digital ones and zeros. The time
average of this serial output is proportional to the analog input voltage. The order of the modulator is
equivalent to the number of integrators and feedback loops.
Summing
Amplifier
Integrator
Comparator
(1-bit ADC)
Analog
Input
Digital
Filter
1-bit DAC
NOTE: For the entire delta-sigma ADC block diagram, refer to Figure 9.
Figure 15. First-Order Modulator Segment (Delta-Sigma A/D Converter)
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Modulator, continued:
Figure 16 illustrates a second-order modulator. It is not uncommon to have a third-, fourth-, fifth- or
sixth-order modulator inside a delta-sigma A/D converter. The number of output bits can also be higher
than one. A modulator can be included in a delta-sigma A/D converter chip or it can be a stand-alone
component. The combination of a modulator and a processor (programmed to implement a digital filter)
results in a high-resolution A/D converter system.
Integrator
Integrator
1-bit ADC
Analog
IN
Digital
OUT
S
S
xi
yi
ei
1-bit DAC
NOTE: For the entire delta-sigma ADC block diagram, refer to Figure 9.
Figure 16. Second-Order Modulator Segment (Delta-Sigma A/D Converter)
Monotonic: This term implies that an increase (or decrease) in the analog voltage input will always
produce no change or an increase (or decrease) in the digital code. Monotonicity does not imply there are
no missing codes. Monotonicity is a critical specification with automatic control applications. See
Figure 17.
111
Non-monotonic as well as
a missing code
110
If the output code
always increases when
the input increases, the
device is monotonic.
101
Digital
Output
Code
100
011
010
001
000
0
1/4 FS
1/2 FS
3/4 FS
FS
Analog Input Voltage
NOTE: In this graph, FS means Full-Scale.
Figure 17. Non-monotonic Transfer Function
Most Significant Bit (MSB): The most significant bit is often considered as the furthest left bit in a binary
digital word. The most significant bit can serve as the sign bit in bipolar converters. For more information
about the definition of the MSB, refer to Bipolar Offset Binary Code (BOB), Complementary Offset Binary
Code (COB), Complementary Straight Binary Code (CSB), Complementary Two’s Complement (CTC)
Code, or Unipolar Straight Binary Code (USB).
Multiplexer (MUX): A multiplexer selects one of several input signals into a single output signal. At the
input of an A/D converter with a multiplexer, one signal (which can be a single-ended or differential input)
is selected from several inputs.
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No Missing Codes: This term implies that an increase (or decrease) in the analog voltage input will
always produce an increase (or decrease) in digital output converter code. A converter with no missing
codes is also monotonic to specified bits. See Figure 17.
Noise, A-D Converter: Any deviation between the output digital code with a dc, noise-free, input analog
signal. Examples of noise include random noise, nonlinearities such as harmonic distortion, and aperture
uncertainty.
• Random Noise–
A random fluctuation in the output code of an A/D converter.
• Uncertainty Noise–
The transition point is typically not a single threshold, but rather a small region of uncertainty. The
region of uncertainty is defined with repetitive code transitions on a given code. The transition point is
the statistical average of these repetitive transitions. This is a dc specification. Other dc specifications
include Offset Error, Gain, DNL, INL, and TUE. See Figure 18. (Also see Code Transition Point.)
Code
under test
111
Digital Output
110
101
100%
0%
Center of code width
50%
Transition Point
100
011
Low side transition
010
001
Transition point; uncertainty noise
000
0
1/2 FS
FS
Analog Input
NOTE: This non-ideal transfer function of a 3-bit A/D converter illustrates the transition noise of every code. In this
graph, FS means Full-Scale.
Figure 18. Non-Ideal Transfer Function (3-bit A/D Converter)
Noise Power Ratio (NPR): The dynamic performance of an A/D converter with a broad bandwidth input
can be characterized by measuring the noise power ratio (NPR). In A/D converter applications where the
input signal contains a large number of incoherent tones or narrow bandwidth signals, it is generally
desired that distortion (resulting from combinations of strong signal components) should not interfere with
detection of weaker signal components. For an A/D converter sample set, NPR is the ratio of the average
out-of notch to the average in-notch power spectral density magnitudes. This parameter is a critical
specification in spread spectrum communication applications. A/D converters having measured noise
power ratios that closely match theoretical NPR, for an ideal N-bit device, are desirable candidates for
broadband signal applications.
Normal-mode Rejection (NMR): Normal-mode rejection is the degree of rejection of a common-mode
signal (dc or ac) across the differential input stage. This specification is the ratio of the changing input
common-mode signal to the resulting digital output. NMR is the same as CMR; also see Common-Mode
Rejection.
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Number of Converter Bits (n): The number of converter bits (n) represents the number of bits in the
output digital word. The number of output codes that an A/D converter produces is 2n possible codes.
Nyquist Theorem: When sampling a signal at discrete intervals, this theorem postulates that theoretically,
the sampling speed must be greater than twice the bandwidth of the input signal being sampled. The
Nyquist frequency is half of the sample rate. When the signal bandwidth is less than half of the sample
rate, the original signal can theoretically be reconstructed.
Offset Error: Offset error is the difference in voltage between the ideal first code transition and the actual
code transition of an A/D converter. This is a dc specification, where measurements are taken with
near-dc analog input voltages. Other dc specifications include Gain, DNL, INL, and Transition Noise.
Offset Error, Unipolar: In a unipolar device, offset error is the difference between the first measured
transition point (lowest in voltage) and the first ideal, transition point. (See Figure 19.) Unipolar Offset Error
is measured and calculated as shown in the following equation:
Offset Error = (V[0:1] - (0.5)VILSB)
Where:
•
•
•
•
VILSB = VREF / 2n = ideal LSB voltage size;
V[0:1] = analog voltage of first transition;
VREF = full-scale voltage;
n = number of converter bits
111
Offset Error = Difference
between the actual (dashed line)
first transition point and the
ideal (solid line) first transition point.
Ideal
Transfer
Function
110
101
Digital
Output
Code
First (Ideal)
Code
Transition
100
011
Actual
Transfer
Function
Offset errors can be
corrected in software or
hardware.
010
001
Offset Error
000
0
1/4 FS
1/2 FS
3/4 FS
FS
Analog Input Voltage
NOTE: In this graph, FS means Full-Scale.
Figure 19. Unipolar Offset Error
Offset Error, Bipolar: For a bipolar device, offset error is the deviation of output code from mid-code or
mid-scale (or zero) when both inputs are tied to a common-mode voltage.
Offset Error, Temperature Drift: Temperature drift specifies the change from the offset value at the
nominal temperature to the value at TMIN to TMAX. It is computed as the maximum variation of offset over
the entire temperature range divided by (TMAX – TMIN). The units of measure for this specification are parts
per million per degree Celsius (ppm/°C) or microvolts per degree Celsius (μV/°C).
Output Data Format: See Bipolar Offset Binary Code (BOB), Complementary Offset Binary Code (COB),
Complementary Straight Binary Code (CSB), Complementary Two’s Complement (CTC) Code, or Unipolar
Straight Binary Code (USB).
Output Hold-time: The amount of time that the output data of the converter is valid.
Overrange Recovery (also known as out-of-range recovery or over voltage recovery): After the
analog input signal goes beyond the absolute input range and returns to the specified input range, the
overrange recovery time is the time required for the converter to make conversions at its rated accuracy.
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Oversampling: With an oversampling converter, the sample rate of the A/D converter is at a much higher
frequency than the converted analog frequency bandwidth. The Nyquist frequency fNYQUIST is:
fNYQUIST > 2 × fSIGNAL
where fSIGNAL is the highest frequency of interest in the input signal. The advantages of oversampling are
the lowering of the quantization noise contained within the passband, and moving harmonics out of the
band of interest. Increasing the Oversampling Rate by two theoretically improves SNR by 3dB. Using
Oversampling techniques makes anti-aliasing filter design easier. (Also see Nyquist Theorem.)
Passband: With an analog filter, the frequency span from dc to the analog cutoff frequency is defined as
the passband region. The magnitude of the response in the passband is defined as APASS, as shown in
Figure 20. The response in the passband can be flat, with no ripple, as it is when an analog Butterworth or
Bessel filter is designed. Conversely, a Chebyshev filter has a ripple up to the cutoff frequency. The
magnitude of the ripple error of a filter is defined as ε.
M = filter order
Gain (dB)
fCUT-OFF
e
APASS
fSTOP
AMAX
ASTOP
Passband
Transition Stop band
band
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 20. Key Analog Filter Design Parameters
Parallel Interface: A parallel interface is where the A/D converter interface is capable of transferring more
than one bit simultaneously. The other type of A/D converter interface is a serial interface.
Phase Noise: Phase noise describes short-term, random frequency fluctuations (or time-based jitter) of a
clock or input signal. Frequency stability is a measure of the degree to which an oscillator maintains the
same value of frequency over a given time. When phase noise is measured, it shows small variations in
the frequency phase angle with the signal magnitude constant. When observed on a spectrum analyzer,
amplitude and phase noise appears as sideband noise on both sides of the carrier. Often, phase noise
specifications refer to single-sideband noise. Most phase noise measurement schemes fold both
sidebands together. Increased phase noise decreases the magnitude of SNR, degrading the overall
converter performance.
Phase Nonlinearity: Phase nonlinearity is the deviation of the phase response from a linear-phase
response as a function of frequency.
Pipeline Converter: A pipeline A/D converter consists of a number of consecutive segments. Each
segment can execute its operation concurrently with other segments (see Figure 21). The segments are
similar in their function and only resolve one or two bits. Each segment has a sample-and-hold, a
low-resolution flash A/D converter, and a summing stage, including an inter-stage amplifier for providing
gain. Stage 1 takes a sample of the input voltage and makes the first coarse conversion. The result is then
the MSB and its digital value is fed to the first latch (Latch 1). When a segment completes an operation, it
passes the analog difference to the next segment. As the residue of the first stage gets resolved in the
subsequent n-stages, the MSB value ripples through the n number of latches in order to coincide with the
end of the conversion of the last stage.
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Pipeline Converter, continued:
As seen in Figure 21, the number of segments is often similar to the number of bits of resolution. The
outputs of each stage are combined in the output latch. Then, all data bits are latched in the output and
are available on the parallel data bus. This process results in a data latency (see Figure 1) of several
clock cycles (refer to the respective product data sheet).
VIN
VIN
Stage 1
Stage i
Latch 1
Latch 1
Latch n
Latch n-i
Stage n
Digital Error Correction and Output Latch
Bit 1, MSB
Bit i
Bit n, LSB
Figure 21. Pipeline A/D Converter Topology
Pipeline Delay (Latency): see Latency, pipeline.
Power Dissipation: The A/D converter consumes this amount of power as a function of sampling
frequency and quiescent current. This value is an important specification for power-sensitive applications
and their respective environments, including battery-powered circuits, extreme temperature conditions,
and/or space limitations.
Power Down, hardware: The voltage that is applied to the A/D converter power pin is removed or made
to be equal to 0V. With the power down, software engaged, the power remains applied to the power pin of
the device.
Power Down, software: In order to invoke a software power down, some A/D converters have a register
option that powers down the converter to a quiescent current that is lower than the current flowing during
normal operation.
Power Supply Rejection Ratio (PSRR): The ratio of a change in the power-supply voltage to resulting bit
change. This specification is expressed in dB or μV/V.
• DC Power-Supply Rejection Ratio (DC PSRR or PSRR)—
DC PSRR is the ratio of output code change (converted to input voltage) to the dc change in
power-supply voltage.
• AC Power-Supply Rejection Ratio (AC PSRR)—
AC PSRR is the ratio of the output spectral power with respect to the injected ac-power on the positive
supply pin at that frequency, displayed on an FFT plot. The ac-input amplitude on the power supply
should be limited to less than 100mVPP. This specification is expressed in dB.
Programmable Gain Amplifier (PGA): A programmable gain amplifier is an analog amplifier with
digitally-programmed gain.
Quantization: Quantization occurs when a continuous range of analog input values are divided into
non-overlapping sub-ranges. Each sub-range becomes a unique, discrete value at the output of the A/D
converter. This specification sets the theoretical limit of the converter SNR. (See Signal-to-Noise Ratio.)
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Quantization Noise: The noise that an A/D converter generates as a consequence of dividing the input
signal into discrete buckets. The ideal width of these buckets is equal to the LSB size of the converter.
The uncertainty of any A/D converter bit is ±1/2 LSB. This characterization is true for a perfect converter
with no Differential Non-Linearity (DNL) errors. If it is assumed the response of this error is a triangular
across an analog input signal, the rms value of the triangular signal is equal to the magnitude of signal
divided by the √3.
Quantization Noise (rms) =
± (LSB)
2
3
q
=
12
With:
•
q = ideal code width
Ratiometric Operation: This term describes an environment where the converter uses the same
reference voltage as is used to drive the signal source, such as a sensor. Under these conditions, the
output code is a function of the ratio of reference voltage to the signal source and is independent of the
value of the reference voltage.
Record of Data: A record of data is a collection of samples that are acquired in a sequential fashion from
an A/D converter.
Resolution: When describing the general performance of a converter, resolution is the number of possible
output bits that an A/D converter can produce in one conversion. Resolution also is the smallest analog
increment corresponding to a 1LSB converter change. This critical specification determines the smallest
analog input signal that can be resolved.
Rise Time: Rise time is the time required for a signal to rise from 10% of the transition range to 90% of
that range.
Root-mean-square (rms): RMS is a mathematical term for the standard deviation from a record of data.
The calculation of rms is equivalent to the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squared values (the
difference between the data and the mean).
Root-sum-square (rss): For a given set of data, rss is the square-root-of-the-sum-of-the-squares.
Sampling: Sampling assigns discrete time values to a continuous time signal.
Sample-and-Hold (or S&H): A sample-and-hold circuit has an analog-switched input with a function that
opens (samples) for a short duration to capture (hold) the analog input voltage.
Sampling Time: Sampling time is the time required to sample an analog input signal to a specified level
of accuracy. Also see Acquisition Time.
Sample Rate: The Sample Rate is the speed that a converter can continuously convert several
conversions. This critical specification determines the largest allowable bandwidth of the analog input
signal. Typically specified as samples per second (sps) or hertz (Hz). (Also see Conversion Maximum
Rate.)
SAR Converter: Successive-approximation register (SAR) converters are frequently the architecture of
choice for medium-resolution applications with medium sampling rates. SAR A/D converters range in
resolution from 8 bits to 18 bits with speeds typically less than 10MSPS. They provide low power
consumption and have a small form factor. Figure 22 illustrates a typical SAR converter architecture.
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SAR Converter, continued:
R/C
Clock
Successive Approximation Register and Control Logic
CS
BUSY
CDAC
Analog Input
SS
Comparator
MSB
Cap
Output
Latches
and
VREF
VREF
Three
State
Parallel
or Serial
Data
Bus
Drivers
Buffer
5kW
Reference
Input or Output
Internal
Reference
Figure 22. Successive Approximation Register A/D Converter Block Diagram
In more recent designs, the topology of SAR A/D converters use a capacitive redistribution design
approach instead its predecessor architecture, the R-2R ladder topology. The capacitive-redistribution,
SAR converter uses a capacitive array at the analog input (see Figure 22). The capacitive array and the
remainder of the device can be manufactured in a CMOS process, making it easy to integrate the SAR
converter with microcontrollers or microprocessors. With the topology shown in Figure 22, the analog input
voltage is initially sampled by connecting the input signal to the bottom side of sampling capacitors. This
configuration is achieved with the sampling switch (SS). The other ends of these sampling capacitors are
connected to the reference voltage. Once the capacitors are fully charged from the analog input voltage,
the internal capacitive array of the converter is disconnected from the input signal as well the voltage
reference.
Now that the input signal has been sampled, the bottom side of the MSB capacitor is connected to the
reference voltage while the other capacitors are tied to the system ground. With this action, the charge
from the MSB capacitor is distributed among the other capacitors. The comparator input moves up or
down in voltage according to the way the charge is distributed. If the voltage across the capacitive array is
greater than the comparator reference, an MSB equal to zero is generated and the MSB capacitor is left
tied to VREF. If this voltage is less than the comparator reference, an MSB bit equal to '1' is generated, and
the MSB capacitor is connected to ground.
With the determination of the value of the MSB, the converter then examines the MSB–1 value. This
process is done by connect the MSB–1 capacitor to the voltage reference while the other capacitors are
tied to ground. Once again, a comparison of this voltage to the internal voltage reference is done with the
comparator. In this analysis, if this voltage is greater than the comparator reference, an MSB–1 equal to
zero is generated and the MSB–1 capacitor is left tied to VREF. If this voltage is less than the comparator
reference, an MSB–1 bit equal to one is generated and the MSB–1 capacitor is connected to ground. This
process is repeated until the capacitive array is fully utilized.
The SAR architecture is ideal for applications where a multiplexer may be used before to the converter,
applications where the converter may only need to make a measurement once every few seconds, or
applications that require a fast measurement. The conversion time remains the same in all cases and has
little sample-to-conversion latency compared to a pipeline or delta-sigma converter. SAR converters are
ideal for real-time applications such as industrial control, motor control, power management,
portable/battery-power instruments, PDAs, test equipment, and data/signal acquisition.
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Second Harmonic (HD2): The second harmonic is two times the frequency of the fundamental.
Settling Time (as it relates to ΔΣ A/D converters): The settling time of the digital filter in a delta-sigma A/D
converter reflects the order of the digital filter internal to the converter. This time is given in cycles and
equal to the number of conversions required for the signal to propagate through the filter. Settling time can
be an issue to consider after power-up, when switching channels with the input multiplexer, after an input
step response, or re-starting the converter after a long wait time.
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR): The signal-to-noise ratio is a calculated rms value that represents the ratio
of ac signal power to noise power below one-half of the sampling frequency. The noise power excludes
harmonic signals and dc.
The ideal SNR for SAR and pipeline converters with a full-scale sine wave input to an A/D converter is
6.02n +1.76dB; n is equal to the number of converter bits. SNR can be specified with respect to full-scale
input range (dBFS or dB) or with respect to the actual input signal amplitude (dBc). The three different
formulas for SNR are:
SNR (dB) = 10log10
PS
, where PS is the signal power and PN is the noise power.
PN
SNR (dB) = 10log10 rms signal
rms noise
(2
q
(n - 1)
SNR (dB)ideal = 10log10
·
)
2
q
= 6.02n + 1.76 (dB)
12
Where:
•
•
q = the LSB size
n = number of bits
The ideal SNR for a delta-sigma converter first-order modulator is 6.02n + 1.76dB + 10log10(fS / (2BW)),
where fS is the converter sampling frequency and BW is the maximum frequency of interest.
Other dynamic or ac specifications include the Signal-to-Noise Ratio plus Distortion (SINAD or SNR+D),
Effective Number Of Bits (ENOB), Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), Spurious Free Dynamic Range
(SFDR), Intermodulation Distortion (IMD), and Full-power Bandwidth (FPBW). (Also see Quantization
Noise.)
Signal-to-(Noise Ratio plus Distortion) (SINAD or SNR+D, also called Total Harmonic Distortion
plus Noise): SINAD is the calculated combination of SNR and total harmonic distortion (THD). SINAD is
the ratio of the rms amplitude of the fundamental input signal to the rms sum of all other spectral
components below one-half of the sampling frequency (excluding dc). The theoretical minimum for SINAD
is equal to the ideal SNR or 6.02n + 1.76dB with SAR and pipeline converters.
SINAD = -20log10 (10-SNR/10 + 10+THD/10)
SINAD = 10log10
or
PS
PN + PD
Where:
•
•
•
PS is the fundametal signal power;
PN is the power of all the noise spectral components; and
PD is the power of all the distortion spectral components
SINAD is either given in units of dBc (decibels to carrier) when the absolute power of the fundamental is
used as the reference, or dBFS (decibels to full-scale) when the power of the fundamental is extrapolated
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to the converter full-scale range. SINAD is a critical specification for digital oscilloscope/waveform
recorders, as well as geophysical, image processing, radar, sonar, spectrum analysis, video,
telecommunication, and wideband digital receiver applications. Other dynamic or ac specifications include
the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR),, Effective Number Of Bits (ENOB), Total Harmonic Distortion (THD),
Intermodulation Distortion (IMD), and Full-power Bandwidth (FPBW).
Small Signal: A voltage input signal whose peak-to-peak amplitude spans not more than 10% of the full
input range of the A/D converter.
Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR): The distance in dB on an FFT plot from the fundamental input
signal to the worst or highest spur. SFDR can be specified with respect to full-scale input range (dBFS or
dB), or with respect to the actual input signal amplitude (dBc). (See Figure 23.) SFDR is a critical
specification for telecommunication and video applications. Other dynamic or ac specifications include the
Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Signal-to-Noise Ratio plus Distortion (SINAD or SNR+D), Effective Number
Of Bits (ENOB), Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), Intermodulation Distortion (IMD), and Full-power
Bandwidth (FPBW).
Static Specifications: Static specifications are the A/D converter specifications pertaining to a dc signal
input. These specifications generally include Offset Error, Gain Error, DNL, INL, and TUE.
Step Response: The step response is the time required for the output digital results to reflect the rated
accuracy of the converter after the input voltage goes from the lowest input voltage to the highest input
voltage (or vice-versa).
SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface): See Digital Interface – SPI.
Successive Approximation Register Converter (SAR): See SAR Converter.
Synchronous Sampling: Synchronous sampling is where the input signal is phase locked to the
sampling of another signal and/or to the A/D converter sampling frequency.
Temperature, Specified: The temperature range where electrical specifications apply. If the device is
taken beyond the specified temperature range, the typical, maximum, and minimum specifications do not
apply.
Temperature, Storage: The temperature range limiting storage conditions. If the device is stored at
temperatures beyond the stated storage temperatures, damage to the device may occur.
Temperature, Junction: The maximum allowed internal junction temperature. If this junction temperature
is exceeded, the device may stop operation and/or damage may occur.
Temperature, Operating: The temperature range limits where the product continues to operate, but not
necessarily to specification.
Thermal Noise: Thermal Noise is generated by a resistor. Ideally, this noise is equal to:
Thermal Resistor Noise =
4kTRB
Where:
•
•
•
k = Boltzmann's constant, 1.38 × 10–23;
T = temperature in degrees Kelvin; and
B = bandwidth
Thermal Impedance: Thermal impedance quantifies a component or device capability to dissipate heat.
In electronics, this heat is normally generated by the device power. With components, the overall thermal
impedance causes a rise in temperature that is linearly dependent on the power dissipated in the device.
The coefficient is called θ, and has the units of °C/W.
Third Harmonic (HD3): The third harmonic is three times the frequency of the fundamental.
Throughput rate: Throughput rate is the inverse of throughput time.
Throughput Time: The time required for the converter to sample, acquire, digitize, and prepare for the
next conversion. This time is also the minimum conversion time in a continuous conversion application.
Timing Jitter: See Aperture Jitter.
Timing Phase Noise: See Aperture Jitter.
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Total Harmonic Distortion (THD): The rms sum of the powers of the harmonic components (spurs)
ratioed to the input signal power. This ratio is specified in rms decibels (dB) or rms dBc. The formula
describing THD is:
THDRMS = 20log10
THDRMS =
((10
HD2/20 2
) + (10
HD3/20 2
) + (10
HD4/20 2
) +. . .)
or
PS
PO
Where:
•
•
•
PS = power of the first harmonic (signal power); and
PO = power of the first specified harmonics
HD2 = magnitude of the second harmonic
Significant INL errors of the A/D converter typically appear in the THD results. THD is usually specified
with the input signal close to full-scale; see Figure 23.
FREQUENCY SPECTRUM
(8192 point FFT, FIN = 10.0022kHz, -0.2dB)
0
B
-20
Amplitude (dB)
-40
D
-60
-80
A
-100
C
G
F
-120
A: Fundamental Signal Magnitude
B: Headroom = -0.5dB
C. Signal-to-Noise Ratio = +85dB
D: Spurious Free Dynamic Range = +96dB
E: Average Noise Floor = -125dB
F: First Harmonic Magnitude = -105dB
G: Second Harmonic Magnitude = -96dB
E
-140
-160
0
10
20
30
40
50
Frequency (kHz)
NOTE: THD is the aggregate of harmonics (F, G, etc.) above the fundamental input signal (A).
Figure 23. Total Harmonic Distortion FFT Plot
THD is either given in units of dBc (decibels to carrier) when the absolute power of the fundamental is
used as the reference, or dBFS or dB (decibels to full-scale) when the power of the fundamental is
extrapolated to the converter full-scale range. THD is a critical specification for geophysical applications.
Other dynamic or ac specifications include the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Signal-to-Noise Ratio plus
Distortion (SINAD or SNR+D), Effective Number Of Bits (ENOB), Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR),
Intermodulation Distortion (IMD), and Full-power Bandwidth (FPBW).
Total Harmonic Distortion plus Noise: See Signal to noise ratio plus distortion.
Total Unadjusted Error (TUE): TUE is a dc specification that determines the overall deviation of digital
code as it differs from ideal. This error includes Offset, Gain, and nonlinearity errors in its calculation.
TUE = OFFSET + GAIN + INL + DNL
Transfer Function (transfer curve): An A/D converter representation of the average digital output code
compared to the analog input value. (See Figure 10)
Transition Point: The analog input voltage at which the digital output switches from one code to the next.
(See Figure 10)
Transition Noise: See Code Transition Point and Uncertainty.
Two-Tone Intermodulation Distortion: See Intermodulation Distortion (IMD).
30
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Undersampling: In an undersampling system, the sampling rate of the A/D converter is lower than the
input frequency, causing aliasing to lower frequencies. With undersampling circuits, the bandwidth of the
signal of interest (ΔfSIG) is centered at a higher frequency than the sampling frequency (fSAMPLE) of the
converter:
fSAMPLE > 2 (ΔfSIG)
ΔfSIG is limited by an analog bandpass filter that acts like an anti-aliasing filter in this system. The
bandwidth of the sample-and-hold (or track-and-hold) function of the input of the A/D converter must be
capable of handing these high-frequency signals.
Uncertainty: Refer to Code Transition and Noise.
Unipolar Offset:
• Error–
See Offset Error.
• Drift–
See Offset Error.
Unipolar Gain:
• Error–
See Gain Error.
• Drift–
See Gain Error.
Unipolar Straight Binary Code (USB): With the lowest input voltage, the digital count begins with all
zeros and counts up sequentially all ones with a full-scale input. Straight Binary is a digital coding scheme
for unipolar voltages only. The representation of 0V is equal to a digital (0000, for a 4-bit system). The
analog full-scale –1LSB digital representation is equal to (1111). With this code, there is no digital
representation for analog full-scale. See Table 7.
Table 7. Unipolar Straight Binary Code (1)
MNEMONIC
DIGITAL CODE
VTR–
VCODE
VTR+
Zero
0000
—
0.000
0.3125
+1VLSB
0001
0010
0011
0.3125
0.9375
1.5625
0.625
1.250
1.875
0.9375
1.5625
2.1875
1/4 FSR
0100
2.1875
2.500
2.8125
0101
0110
0111
2.8125
3.4375
4.0625
3.125
3.750
4.375
3.4375
4.0625
4.6875
1000
4.6875
5.000
5.3125
1001
1010
1011
5.3125
5.9375
6.5625
5.625
6.250
6.875
5.9375
6.5625
7.1875
1100
7.1875
7.500
7.8125
1101
1110
7.8125
8.4375
8.125
8.750
8.4375
9.0625
1111
9.0625
9.375
—
1/2 FSR
3/4 FSR
+FS
(1)
(2)
(2)
Also known as straight binary; FS = 10V.
VTR– = lower code transition voltage; VTR+ = upper code transition voltage; VCODE = (digital code)10 × VLSB, VTR+ = VCODE +
(1/2)VLSB; VTR– = VCODE – (1/2)VLSB.
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Voltage Reference (also know as Analog Voltage Reference): This reference voltage sets the analog
input range. For the actual analog input range for a given device, refer to the product data sheet. The
source of this voltage can be internal or external to the A/D converter.
• Reference Error–
The reference error is the variation of the actual reference voltage (VREFP – VREFM) or VREF from its ideal
value. The reference error is typically given as a percentage or absolute voltage.
Zero-Scale Error (or zero-code error): See Offset Error (Unipolar).
References
The following documents are available for download through the Texas Instruments web site
(www.ti.com), except where noted.
• Albanus, J. (2000.). Coding schemes used with data converters. Application report SBAA042.
• Anonymous. (1995.) Understanding data converters. Application report SLAA013.
• Baker, B. (2005.). A Baker's Dozen: Real analog solutions for digital designers. Burlington, MA:
Elsevier/Newnes.
• Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (2001.). IEEE STD-1241-2000: IEEE Standard for
Terminology and Test Methods for Analog-to-Digital Converters. Available at IEEE.org.
• Oljaca, M. and Hendrick, T. (2004.). Data converters for industrial power measurement. Application
report SBAA117.
Revision History
Changes from A Revision (January, 2008) to B Revision .............................................................................................. Page
•
Corrected mistake in units for dBm definition
.......................................................................................
13
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