English as a Second Language and English Literacy Development The Ontario Curriculum

English as a Second Language and English Literacy Development The Ontario Curriculum
Ministry of Education
The Ontario Curriculum
Grades 9 to 12
REVISED
English as a Second Language and
English Literacy Development
2007
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
3
Secondary Schools for the Twenty-first Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
The Importance of English as a Second Language (ESL) and
English Literacy Development (ELD) in the Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
The Goals of the ESL and ELD Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
English Language Learners in Ontario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Programs to Support English Language Learners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Roles and Responsibilities in ESL and ELD Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Factors in Successful English Language Acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
THE PROGRAM IN ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE
AND ENGLISH LITERACY DEVELOPMENT
12
Overview of the Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Curriculum Expectations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Strands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Adapting ESL or ELD Courses for Students Who Speak a Variety of English . . . . . . . . 21
Procedures for Placing English Language Learners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Transition From Elementary to Secondary School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Transition to Mainstream English Courses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Integration of Students Into Mainstream Subject Classrooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Program Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION OF
STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT
31
Basic Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
The Achievement Chart for ESL and ELD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Evaluation and Reporting of Student Achievement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Reporting on Demonstrated Learning Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
This publication is available on the Ministry of Education’s
website, at www.edu.gov.on.ca.
SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM
PLANNING IN ESL AND ELD
38
Instructional Approaches and Teaching Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Planning ESL and ELD Programs for Students With Special
Education Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Antidiscrimination Education in Programs for English
Language Learners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Literacy, Mathematical Literacy, and Inquiry/Research Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
The Role of the School Library in ESL and ELD Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
The Role of Technology in ESL and ELD Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Career Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Cooperative Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
The Ontario Skills Passport and Essential Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Health and Safety in ESL and ELD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
COURSES
57
English as a Second Language, ESL Level 1, Open (ESLAO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
English as a Second Language, ESL Level 2, Open (ESLBO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
English as a Second Language, ESL Level 3, Open (ESLCO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
English as a Second Language, ESL Level 4, Open (ESLDO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
English as a Second Language, ESL Level 5, Open (ESLEO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
English Literacy Development, ELD Level 1, Open (ELDAO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
English Literacy Development, ELD Level 2, Open (ELDBO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
English Literacy Development, ELD Level 3, Open (ELDCO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
English Literacy Development, ELD Level 4, Open (ELDDO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
English Literacy Development, ELD Level 5, Open (ELDEO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
GLOSSARY
175
INTRODUCTION
This document replaces The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 9 to 12: English as a Second Language
and English Literacy Development, 1999. Beginning in September 2007, all courses in English
as a Second Language (ESL) and English Literacy Development (ELD) for Grades 9 to 12
will be based on the expectations outlined in this document.
SECONDARY SCHOOLS FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY
The goal of Ontario secondary schools is to support high-quality learning while giving
individual students the opportunity to choose programs that suit their skills and interests.
The updated Ontario curriculum, in combination with a broader range of learning
options outside traditional classroom instruction, will enable students to better customize
their high school education and improve their prospects for success in school and in life.
THE IMPORTANCE OF ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE (ESL) AND
ENGLISH LITERACY DEVELOPMENT (ELD) IN THE CURRICULUM
Ontario secondary schools are now home to students who speak more than 100 different
languages, including several Aboriginal languages, many African, Asian, and European
languages, or an English-related creole language (such as Caribbean Creole or West
African Krio). Ontario’s increasing linguistic and cultural diversity provides students
with many opportunities for cultural enrichment and for learning that is global in scope.
At the same time, however, this diversity means that a significant and growing proportion
of Ontario students arrive in English-language schools as English language learners –
that is, students who are learning the language of instruction at the same time as they
are learning the curriculum. The curriculum in English as a Second Language and
English Literacy Development for Grades 9 to 12 has been developed to ensure that
English language learners have the maximum opportunity to become proficient in
English and achieve the high levels of literacy that are expected of all Ontario students.
THE GOALS OF THE ESL AND ELD CURRICULUM
The ESL and ELD curriculum is based on the belief that broad proficiency in English is
essential to students’ success in both their social and academic lives, and to their ability
to take their place in society as responsible and productive citizens. The curriculum is
designed to provide English language learners with the knowledge and skills they need
to achieve these goals. Its aim is to help students become successful English language
learners who can:
use English to communicate effectively in a variety of social settings;
use English to achieve academically in all subject areas;
take charge of their own learning, independently and in groups;
select and use effective learning strategies;
integrate confidently into mainstream courses;
use English effectively to advocate for themselves in all areas of their lives;
make a successful transition to their chosen postsecondary destination (work,
apprenticeship, college, university);
function effectively in a society increasingly committed to the use of information
technology;
use critical-literacy and critical-thinking skills to interpret the world around them;
participate fully in the social, economic, political, and cultural life of their
communities and of Canada.
This culminating vision of successful English language learners identifies the language
skills and capabilities required for success in Ontario’s education system and for full
participation in Canadian society. The expectations outlined in the ESL and ELD curriculum are designed to enable students to develop these important skills and capabilities.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
For many English language learners, achievement of the expectations may require them
to adopt new ways of learning and new ways of interacting with others. However, growth
towards full linguistic and cultural competence in English should not be at the expense
of students’ own languages and cultures. A major goal of any instructional program for
English language learners should be to encourage students to value and maintain their
own linguistic and cultural identities so that they can enter the larger society as bilingual
and bicultural individuals. Such young people are able to choose language and cultural
norms that are appropriate in any given situation or cultural context, and can fully participate in and contribute to our multilingual, multicultural Canadian society.
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The ESL and ELD curriculum expectations are designed to help English language learners
develop the skills they need to develop proficiency in everyday English and, most especially, the proficiency in academic English that will allow them to integrate successfully
into the mainstream school program. It is important to recognize that while English language learners are in the process of acquiring academic language, their age peers are not
standing still in their learning of grade-appropriate language and concepts. In effect,
English language learners must catch up with a moving target. Thus, an effective curriculum for English language learners integrates academic language and literacy skills with
subject-matter concepts and critical-thinking skills from the very beginning levels of
instruction, so that students can gain as much momentum as possible as they progress
to full participation in mainstream classes in the various subjects.
ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS IN ONTARIO
English language learners are students in provincially funded English-language schools
whose first language is a language other than English, or is a variety of English that is
significantly different from the variety used for instruction in Ontario’s schools, and
who may require focused educational support to assist them in attaining proficiency
in English. They may be Canadian-born or recently arrived from other countries. They
come from diverse backgrounds and school experiences, and have a variety of strengths
and needs.
Newcomers to Ontario. Newcomers to Ontario from countries around the world may
arrive at any point between Grade 9 and Grade 12. They may enter school at the beginning of the school year or at any time during the year. The level of support newcomers
require to succeed in the classroom will depend on their age, country of origin, and previous educational experience. Some newcomers arrive in Canada with their families as
part of a voluntary, planned immigration process. These students have usually received
formal education in their countries of origin, and some may have studied English as a
foreign language. Some newcomers arrive in Canada under more urgent conditions: for
example, fleeing crises in their homelands. These young people have often suffered traumatic experiences, and some may have been separated from family members. They may
have been in transit for a few years, and they may or may not have had access to formal
education in their homeland or while in transit.
International or Visa Students. International or visa students are usually of secondary
school age, although some may arrive earlier. They pay fees to attend school in Ontario,
and often plan to attend a Canadian college or university. These students typically arrive
in Canada without their families. They may live with older siblings, with members of the
extended family, or under the care of a guardian or home-stay program; older students
may live alone. Many have had some instruction in English; nevertheless, they often need
considerable support to develop the level of English proficiency required for success in
Ontario schools.
Canadian-Born Students. Most English language learners entering secondary school
are newcomers from other countries; however, others are Canadian-born, such as the
following:
learners returning from a prolonged stay in another country where they received
education in a language other than English;
learners from Aboriginal communities who speak a first language other than
English;
learners from communities that have maintained distinct cultural and linguistic
traditions who choose to enter English-language schools and who have a first language other than English.
INTRODUCTION
5
Students With Limited Prior Schooling. Although all countries have schools that offer an
excellent education, some English language learners have not had access to such schools
for economic, political, ideological, or geographic reasons. The following are some reasons
why some English language learners may have had limited opportunities for education:
Some countries invest most of their resources in a small percentage of “top” students,
who may be selected through examinations for entrance to schools offering highquality educational programs. Other students, including many of high potential,
may not have this kind of opportunity.
In some countries only those parents who can afford school fees can ensure a highquality education for their children. Children in rural areas may have to travel
long distances, often on foot, to get to school, and roads may be impassable at
some times of the year. In some countries, education has been severely disrupted
or even suspended completely during periods of war or civil conflict. In some
countries, gender, social class, religion, or ideology may limit access to schooling.
Some children may have spent several years in transit before arriving in Canada,
and may have had little or no access to schooling during that time.
PROGRAMS TO SUPPORT ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS
Secondary school ESL and ELD programs are generally intended to support newcomers.
For their first few years in Ontario schools, many English language learners receive
support in one of the following two distinct programs designed to meet their language
learning needs and/or to help them develop the literacy skills they need in order to
continue their education and participate fully in life in Ontario:
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
English as a Second Language (ESL) programs are intended for students whose first
language is a language other than English or is a variety of English significantly
different from that used for instruction in Ontario schools. Students in these
programs have age-appropriate first-language literacy skills and educational
backgrounds.
6
English Literacy Development (ELD) programs are intended for students whose
first language is a language other than English or is a variety of English significantly different from that used for instruction in Ontario schools. Students in these
programs are most often from countries in which their access to education has
been limited, so that they have had limited opportunities to develop language
and literacy skills in any language. Schooling in their countries of origin has been
inconsistent, disrupted, or even completely unavailable throughout the years that
these children would otherwise have been in school. As a result, they arrive in
Ontario secondary schools with significant gaps in their education.
ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES IN ESL AND ELD PROGRAMS
Creating a welcoming and inclusive school environment for English language learners is
a whole-school activity requiring the commitment of administrators, teachers, support
staff, and other leaders within the school community. The reward for this committed
effort is a dynamic and vibrant school environment that celebrates diversity as an asset
and enriches the learning experience of all students.
Students
Students have many responsibilities with regard to their learning. Students who are able
to make the effort required to succeed in school and who are able to apply themselves
will soon discover that there is a direct relationship between this effort and their achievement, and will therefore be more motivated to work. There will be some students, however, who will find it more difficult to take responsibility for their learning because of
special challenges they face. The attention, patience, and encouragement of teachers can
be extremely important to these students’ success. However, taking responsibility for
their own progress and learning is an important part of education for all students,
regardless of their circumstances.
Mastery of concepts and skills in the ESL and ELD curriculum requires a sincere commitment to work, study, and the development of appropriate skills. Furthermore, students
should be encouraged to actively pursue opportunities outside the classroom to extend
their proficiency in English and enrich their understanding of the language. Their mastery of English will grow as they engage in real-world activities that involve listening,
speaking, reading, and writing in English. Students develop their English literacy skills
when they seek out recreational reading materials and multimedia works that relate to
their personal interests and to the various subject areas, and when they engage in conversation with parents, peers, and teachers about what they are reading, writing, and
thinking in their daily lives. As well, it is important to encourage students to maintain
their first-language skills, as their bilingual and bicultural orientation has the potential
to be a lifelong asset both to themselves and to Canadian society.
Parents
Parents 1 have an important role to play in supporting student learning. Studies show
that students perform better in school if their parents are involved in their education. By
becoming familiar with the curriculum, parents can determine what is being taught in
the courses their children are taking and what their children are expected to learn. This
awareness will enhance the ability of parents to discuss their children’s work with them,
to communicate with teachers, and to ask relevant questions about their children’s
progress. Knowledge of the expectations in the various courses also helps parents to
interpret teachers’ comments on student progress and to work with teachers to improve
student learning.
Other effective ways in which parents can support their children’s learning include
attending parent-teacher interviews, participating in parent workshops, becoming
involved in school council activities (including becoming a school council member),
supporting their children in completing their assignments at home, and encouraging
their children to maintain active use of the home language.
The ESL and ELD curriculum promotes awareness of the wider community. In addition
to supporting regular school activities, parents can encourage their children to take an
active interest in current affairs and provide them with opportunities to question and
reflect on what is happening in the world.
INTRODUCTION
1. In this document, parent(s) is used to mean parent(s) and guardian(s).
7
Teachers
Teachers and students have complementary responsibilities. Teachers are responsible for
developing appropriate instructional strategies to help students achieve the curriculum
expectations for their courses, as well as for developing appropriate methods for assessing and evaluating student learning. Teachers bring enthusiasm and varied teaching and
assessment approaches to the classroom, addressing individual student needs and
ensuring sound learning opportunities for every student.
Using a variety of instructional, assessment, and evaluation strategies, teachers provide
numerous opportunities for students to acquire proficiency in English, as well as subject
content knowledge. They provide learners with frequent opportunities to practise and
apply new learning and, through regular and varied assessment, give them the specific
feedback they need to further develop and refine their skills. By assigning tasks that
promote the development of higher-order thinking skills, teachers enable students to
become thoughtful and effective communicators in English. In addition, teachers encourage students to think out loud about their own language processes, and support them
in developing the language and techniques they need to assess their own learning.
Opportunities to relate knowledge and skills in English language learning to wider contexts, both across the curriculum and in the world beyond the school, motivate students
to learn and to become lifelong learners.
ESL/ELD teachers, mainstream subject teachers, teacher-librarians, special education
teachers, and guidance teachers must all work together, within the provisions outlined
in all secondary school curriculum documents, to support English language learners, to
help them integrate successfully into the academic and social life of the school, and to
help them learn about postsecondary pathways and destinations.
Principals
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
The principal works in partnership with teachers and parents to ensure that each student
has access to the best possible educational experience. To support student learning, principals ensure that the Ontario curriculum is being properly implemented in all classrooms
through the use of a variety of instructional approaches. They also ensure that appropriate
resources are made available for teachers and students. To enhance teaching and learning
in all subjects, including ESL and ELD, principals promote learning teams and work with
teachers to facilitate teacher participation in professional-development activities.
8
Principals ensure that schools have in place procedures and practices for welcoming
English language learners and their families, and that schools present an inclusive and
welcoming environment for all students. As well, principals ensure that all subject
teachers incorporate appropriate adaptations and strategies into their instruction and
assessment to facilitate the success of the English language learners in their classrooms.
Principals are also responsible for ensuring that every student who has an Individual
Education Plan (IEP) is receiving the modifications and/or accommodations described
in his or her plan – in other words, for ensuring that the IEP is properly developed,
implemented, and monitored.
Community Partners
Community partners can be an important resource in students’ language development.
They can provide support for students with literacy needs, both in the classroom and as
living models of how the curriculum relates to life beyond school. Such modelling and
mentoring can enrich not only the educational experience of students but also the life of
the community.
Schools and school boards can play a role by coordinating efforts with community partners. They can involve community volunteers in supporting language instruction and
in promoting a focus on literacy in and outside the school. Community partners can be
included in literacy events held in the school, and school boards can collaborate with
leaders of existing community-based literacy programs for youth, including programs
offered in public libraries and community centres. Partnerships with local settlement
agencies and ethnocultural organizations are also a valuable resource for both educators
and English language learners and their families.
FACTORS IN SUCCESSFUL ENGLISH LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
Research studies show that it takes five or more years for most English language learners
to catch up to age peers in using English for academic purposes, although some will
accomplish this earlier, and some will need much longer. Most English language learners
are able to function effectively and confidently in everyday language situations within a
year or two. For example, they can follow classroom directions and maintain simple conversations about familiar topics and routines. During this time they also acquire a basic
vocabulary of high-frequency words and phrases (such as friend, hungry, “Say it again,
please.”). However, it can take much longer for English language learners to catch up to
their age peers in academic language.
General Factors
The rate at which an English language learner acquires proficiency in English, adapts to
the new environment, and integrates into the mainstream academic program will be
influenced by a number of general factors. Factors affecting the successful acquisition of
English include the following:
The acculturation process. It is acknowledged that most newcomers experience a
period of cultural adjustment. Newly arrived students will move through the
stages of acculturation at an individual pace. The rate at which individual students
experience the acculturation process may vary even among members of the same
family. Some students may experience elements of different stages at the same
time; some may remain in one stage for an extended period of time or may repeat
characteristics associated with an earlier stage if the process has been interrupted.
The level of development in the first language. English language learners who are at
age-appropriate levels of language and literacy development in their own language
are more successful in learning English.
INTRODUCTION
The migration experience. Many newcomer students have arrived in Canada with
their families as part of a voluntary, planned immigration process. However, some
students have arrived from countries in chaos, have spent time in refugee camps,
or have experienced personal trauma caused by natural disaster, political
upheaval, or family disruption.
9
Prior experience with English. Some newcomers, especially those of secondary school
age, have studied English in their own countries. Placement of these students may
vary according to their level of proficiency in English.
Personality or motivational factors. Some students are more likely to seek out opportunities to use the new language and take the risks involved in experimenting
with English. Others may need encouragement and support to do this.
The amount and quality of prior schooling. Students who have significant gaps in
their schooling have more to catch up on and will need more support over a
longer period of time.
The presence of learning exceptionalities. English language learners show the full
range of learning exceptionalities in the same proportions as other Ontario students.
When special education needs have been identified, students are eligible for
ESL/ELD services and special education services simultaneously.
School and Classroom Factors
A number of school and classroom factors can have a positive influence on English
language acquisition. These factors include the following:
The classroom environment. A caring environment where teacher and peers support
English language learners and value their efforts to communicate is essential. It is
also important to validate students’ linguistic and cultural backgrounds, encouraging them to strive to become bilingual and bicultural. As well, the selection of
classroom resources should reflect the students’ backgrounds, ages, interests, and
level of proficiency in English.
The amount and quality of ESL or ELD support. English language learners need the
assistance of ESL or ELD teachers (and of classroom teachers who are aware of
and responsive to their needs as language learners) who use approaches and
strategies that are tailored to their needs (see the outline of approaches and strategies on pages 38−48).
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Opportunities for interaction in English. English language learners need frequent
opportunities for extended conversation in English with their peers and other
members of the larger community. They should be encouraged to become
involved in extra-curricular activities within the school community.
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Supportive language feedback. English language learners need opportunities to produce language and receive feedback in a respectful and helpful way. It is important for teachers to focus on communication first, responding to the content of
what the student is trying to say, before rephrasing in order to provide a model for
the student. As well, it is helpful to focus on one or two errors at a time rather
than trying to “fix” everything. Errors are a normal part of the language learning
process.
Opportunities to maintain and develop the first language. The student’s first language
is a critical foundation, not only for language learning but for all learning. Research
indicates that students benefit academically, socially, and emotionally when they
are encouraged to develop and maintain proficiency in their first language while
they are learning English. Language skills and conceptual knowledge are readily
transferable from one language to another, provided there are no learning exceptionalities. The first language provides a foundation for developing proficiency in
additional languages, serves as a basis for emotional development, and provides a
vital link with the student’s family and cultural background.
Emotional responses to the learning situation. Students entering a new linguistic and
cultural environment may be intimidated at first. They may also feel lonely, missing friends and family members. Newcomers who have experienced war or other
trauma in the country of origin or en route to Canada may progress slowly at first
because they are preoccupied with thoughts of the dangers they have come
through, and may not yet feel safe in their new environment.
Parental involvement. Special efforts are needed in order to reach out to parents
whose educational experiences might have been quite different from those of
Ontario-born parents. It is also important to remember that newcomer parents are
themselves dealing with culture shock, possible language difficulties, and orientation issues at the same time as they are supporting their children’s needs at school.
INTRODUCTION
11
THE PROGRAM IN
ENGLISH AS A SECOND
LANGUAGE AND
ENGLISH LITERACY
DEVELOPMENT
OVERVIEW OF THE PROGRAM
English language learners in any grade may be placed in appropriate ESL or ELD courses.
Since many ESL and ELD classes include students aged between fourteen and twenty,
the topics and activities must be selected to appeal to a wide range of ages and maturity
levels. There are five ESL courses and five ELD courses. The courses are designated
according to levels of proficiency in English and literacy development, not by grade.
All ESL and ELD courses are open courses.
Students may substitute up to three ESL or ELD courses for compulsory English credit
requirements. The remaining English credit shall be chosen from one of the compulsory
English courses offered in Grade 12. Additional ESL or ELD credits may be counted as
optional credits for diploma purposes.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
English as a Second Language (ESL) Courses
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These courses are designed for English language learners who have had opportunities
to develop language and literacy skills in their own language appropriate to their age
or grade level. Most English language learners are in this group. These learners may be
entering secondary school from elementary school alongside their English-speaking
peers, or they may be entering secondary school in Ontario having recently arrived from
other countries. They can read and write in their own language within the expected
range for students of their age in their own country. They can build on their existing
first-language skills when learning English in an ESL program.
The five ESL courses are based on levels of proficiency in English. Depending on learners’
previous experience with English, students may be placed in ESL Level 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5.
For example, a student who has been in full-time education in his or her country of
origin but who has never studied English would be placed in ESL Level 1. A student
who has been in full-time education in his or her own country and has studied some
English might be placed in ESL Level 2 or 3 on the basis of the initial English language
assessment. A student who has studied English for several years might be placed in
ESL Level 3, 4, or 5 on the basis of the initial English language assessment. Students
of Grade 9 age whose initial assessment indicates that they are beyond ESL Level 4
(ESLDO) should be placed directly in Grade 9 Applied English (ENG1P) or Grade 9
Academic English (ENG1D).
Chart 1. Courses in English as a Second Language
Course
Course Type
Course Code
Credit Value
ESL Level 1
Open
ESLAO
1
ESL Level 2
Open
ESLBO
1
ESL Level 1 or equivalent*
ESL Level 3
Open
ESLCO
1
ESL Level 2 or equivalent*
ESL Level 4
Open
ESLDO
1
ESL Level 3 or equivalent*
ESL Level 5
Open
ESLEO
1
ESL Level 4 or equivalent*
* “Equivalent” may be an equivalent course of study in other provinces in
Prerequisite
Canada or in other countries, or a proficiency level
determined through initial assessment.
English Literacy Development (ELD) Courses
These courses are designed for English language learners with limited prior schooling who
have not had opportunities to develop age-appropriate literacy skills in any language. These
students are from areas of the world where educational opportunities have not been consistently available. Their needs differ in the following two important ways from the needs
of their English language learner peers who arrive with age-appropriate schooling:
They have significant gaps in their education and therefore have more to catch up on.
ELD courses provide an accelerated program of literacy development for these students.
There are five ELD courses based on levels of literacy development and proficiency in
English. Depending on learners’ previous educational experience, first-language literacy
skills, and knowledge of English, students may be placed in ELD Level 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5.
For example, a newly arrived student with no prior formal schooling and no first-language
literacy skills would be placed in ELD Level 1. A student with some prior schooling and
some knowledge of English might be placed in ELD Level 2 or 3.
Chart 2. Courses in English Literacy Development
Course
Course Type
Course Code
Credit Value
ELD Level 1
Open
ELDAO
1
ELD Level 2
Open
ELDBO
1
ELD Level 1 or equivalent*
ELD Level 3
Open
ELDCO
1
ELD Level 2 or equivalent*
ELD Level 4
Open
ELDDO
1
ELD Level 3 or equivalent*
ELD Level 5
Open
ELDEO
1
ELD Level 4 or equivalent*
* “Equivalent” may be an equivalent course of study in other provinces in
determined through initial assessment.
Prerequisite
Canada or in other countries, or a proficiency level
THE PROGRAM IN ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE AND ENGLISH LITERACY DEVELOPMENT
They need more intensive support for a longer period of time.
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Pathways to English
The chart below shows how most English language learners may progress through their ESL
and/or ELD courses and into mainstream English courses. Not all students will follow this sequence
exactly, and individual students may vary in the rate at which they progress through the levels.
English Literacy Development
ELD Level 1
ELDAO
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
English as a Second Language
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ESL Level 1
ELD Level 2
ESLAO
ELDBO
ESL Level 2
ELD Level 3
ESLBO
ELDCO
ESL Level 3
ELD Level 4
ESLCO
ELDDO
ENG1P/1D
ENG2P/2D
ENG3E/4E
ESL Level 4
ELD Level 5
ESLDO
ELDEO
ENG3U/3C
ENG4U/4C
ESL Level 5
ESLEO
ENGLDCC
ENG1P/2P
ENG3E/4E
Half-Credit Courses
The courses outlined in this document are designed as full-credit courses, but may be
delivered as full- or half-credit courses. Half-credit courses, which require a minimum of
fifty-five hours of scheduled instructional time, must adhere to the following conditions:
The two half-credit courses created from a full course must together contain all of
the expectations of the full course. The expectations for the two half-credit courses
must be divided in a manner that best enables students to achieve the required
knowledge and skills in the allotted time.
A course that is a prerequisite for another course may be offered as two half-credit
courses, but a student must successfully complete both parts of the course to fulfil
the prerequisite. (Students are not required to complete both parts unless the
course is a prerequisite for another course they wish to take.)
The title of each half-credit course must include the designation Part 1 or Part 2.
When a student successfully completes a half-credit course, a half-credit (0.5) will
be recorded in the credit-value column of both the report card and the Ontario
Student Transcript.
Boards will ensure that all half-credit courses comply with the conditions described
above, and will report all half-credit courses to the ministry annually in the School
October Report.
CURRICULUM EXPECTATIONS
Two sets of expectations are listed for each strand, or broad curriculum area, of each
course – overall expectations and specific expectations. The overall expectations describe
in general terms the knowledge and skills that students are expected to demonstrate by
the end of each course. The specific expectations describe the expected knowledge and
skills in greater detail. The specific expectations are grouped under numbered headings
(or “suborganizers”), each of which indicates the overall expectation to which the group
of specific expectations corresponds. Each expectation in a group is identified by an
“expectation tag” (a subheading) that describes the particular aspect of the overall
expectation to which the specific expectation refers. Taken together, the overall expectations and specific expectations represent the mandated curriculum.
The organization of expectations into strands and subgroups of expectations is not meant
to imply that the expectations in any one strand or group are achieved independently of
the expectations in the other strands or groups. The groupings are used merely to help
teachers focus on particular aspects of knowledge and skills as they plan lessons or
learning activities for their students. The concepts, content, and skills identified in the
different strands of each course should, wherever appropriate, be integrated in instruction throughout the course.
THE PROGRAM IN ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE AND ENGLISH LITERACY DEVELOPMENT
The expectations identified for each course describe the knowledge and skills that students
are expected to develop and demonstrate in their class work, on tests, and in various
other activities on which their achievement is assessed and evaluated.
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The specific expectations reflect the progression in knowledge and skills from level to
level through (1) the wording of the expectation itself, (2) the examples that are given in
the parentheses in the expectation, and/or (3) the “teacher prompts” that may follow the
expectation. The examples and teacher prompts help to clarify the requirements specified
in the expectations, and suggest the intended depth and level of complexity of the expectations. They have been developed to model appropriate practice for the various levels,
and are meant to serve as illustrations for teachers. Teachers can choose to use the examples and teacher prompts that are appropriate for their classrooms, or they may develop
their own approaches that reflect a similar level of complexity. Whatever the specific ways
in which the requirements outlined in the expectations are implemented in the classroom,
they must, wherever possible, be inclusive and reflect the diversity of the student population and the population of the province.
STRANDS
The content in each of the ESL and ELD courses is organized into four interrelated strands,
or broad areas of learning: Listening and Speaking, Reading, Writing, and Socio-cultural
Competence and Media Literacy. Effective instructional activities blend expectations
from the four strands in order to provide English language learners with the kinds of
experiences that promote meaningful learning and that help students recognize how
language and literacy skills in the four strands overlap and strengthen one another. The
program at all levels is designed to develop a range of essential skills in the four interrelated strands, built on a solid foundation of knowledge of the language conventions
of standard English and incorporating the use of analytical, critical, and metacognitive
thinking skills. Students learn best when they are provided with opportunities to monitor and reflect on their learning, and each strand includes expectations that call for such
reflection.
Listening and Speaking
The Listening and Speaking strand has three overall expectations, as follows:
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Students will:
1. demonstrate the ability to understand, interpret, and evaluate spoken English
for a variety of purposes;
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2. use speaking skills and strategies to communicate in English for a variety of
classroom and social purposes;
3. use correctly the language structures appropriate for this level to communicate
orally in English.
Oral language development lays the basic foundation for the acquisition of any new
language, and paves the way for learning to read and write in that language. Welldeveloped listening and speaking skills in English are essential both for English language learners’ successful social integration at school and in the community and for
their development of the language proficiency in academic English that they will need
to succeed in all aspects of the mainstream classroom program.
To develop their oral communication skills, English language learners need extensive
opportunities to listen and to talk about a range of subjects, including personal topics,
school subjects, and current affairs. ESL and ELD programs should provide many cognitively challenging opportunities for students to engage in listening and speaking activities tied to expectations from all the other course strands. Brainstorming to identify what
students already know about the topic of a new text they are about to read, discussing
strategies for how they will organize ideas in a writing assignment, presenting and
defending ideas or debating current issues, and offering constructive feedback about
work produced by their peers are all examples of richly integrated tasks that support the
development of English language learners’ listening and speaking skills.
English language learners need to develop listening skills for use in their interactions with
others, for comprehension in less interactive formats such as classroom presentations
and radio and television broadcasts, and for many other social and school purposes: to
listen to directions, instructions, and school announcements in the beginning levels of
instruction; to take point-form notes on classroom presentations in the middle course
levels; and to provide a summary of a television or radio news report they have heard
in the higher-level courses.
Similarly, English language learners need to build a broad range of speaking skills, both
for conversational purposes and for academic purposes such as presenting ideas and
information to their classmates. Beginning-level English language learners will need
many opportunities to engage in brief conversations on personal topics, progress to
speaking tasks such as sharing ideas about books in a literature circle at the intermediate
level, and advance to presenting a classroom seminar or participating in a debate in the
higher-level courses.
In addition, teachers should model the use of English conversational strategies that will
facilitate smooth interaction appropriate to a variety of social and academic contexts, as
well as the effective use of communication tools such as clarification, circumlocution,
and repair to bridge gaps in students’ current level of proficiency in English.
THE PROGRAM IN ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE AND ENGLISH LITERACY DEVELOPMENT
English language learners need rich and frequent opportunities to interact in the classroom in a purposeful way – for example, through collaborative learning in pairs and
small groups that allows them to engage in listening and speaking for authentic purposes. Teachers should be a supportive source of input for English language learners’
oral language development, offering instruction and feedback, as well as providing
excellent models of the competence a first-language speaker would demonstrate in
listening and speaking for both academic and social purposes. Teachers at all course
levels should provide focused instruction and modelling of various features of the
English grammatical and sound systems.
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Reading
The Reading strand has three overall expectations, as follows:
Students will:
1. read and demonstrate understanding of a variety of texts for different purposes;
2. use a variety of reading strategies throughout the reading process to extract
meaning from texts;
3. use a variety of strategies to build vocabulary;
4. locate and extract relevant information from written and graphic texts for a
variety of purposes.
Adolescents whose first language is English come to the task of reading at the secondary
school level with a full repertoire of linguistic resources in English. In contrast, English
language learners learning to read in English are at the same time in the process of
acquiring English vocabulary and grammar, as well as phonological awareness of the
sound system of English. Thus, secondary school English language learners who possess
age-appropriate reading skills in their first language still face a number of learning
challenges as they approach learning to read in English. These challenges may include
differences in sound-symbol relationships between the reader’s first language and
English, limitations in learned English oral vocabulary, gaps in background knowledge,
and lack of familiarity with the structure of English text forms.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Students in the ELD program with gaps in their prior education may be experiencing
their first major foray into reading in any language, and thus may face an additional set
of challenges. These might include lack of familiarity with the routines and expectations
of the school environment, lack of reading-readiness concepts, and gaps in their general
academic and background knowledge that would normally have been filled through
childhood school attendance. An effective reading program for English language learners
will take all these differences into account, and will provide rich and extensive opportunities for tapping into and building on students’ background knowledge, developing
vocabulary, modelling and thinking aloud by teachers and students, discussing texts,
and participating in group reading and learning activities.
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As English language learners develop their reading skills in English, it is important that
they have many opportunities to read a wide variety of texts from diverse cultures and
for a variety of purposes. By reading widely, students will develop a richer vocabulary,
become more attuned to the conventions of written English in various genres, and increase
their understanding of diverse world views. A well-balanced reading program will provide students with opportunities to read to widen their knowledge in all areas of the
curriculum, to discover interesting information, for the pleasure of self-discovery, and
for sheer enjoyment. Reading experiences that invite students to discover new worlds
and to develop their imaginative powers will go a long way towards convincing them
that reading can be a rich source of pleasure and knowledge. Such experiences are likely
to lead to a love of reading, which is among the most valuable resources students can
take with them into adult life.
Reading is a complex process that involves the application of many strategies before,
during, and after reading. Students need to identify which strategies are personally most
helpful and how they can use these and other strategies to improve as readers. For example,
students might prepare before reading by identifying the purpose of the reading activity
and by activating their prior knowledge about the topic of the text and the vocabulary
contained in that text. Students may need a teacher’s help to make sense of the new
English vocabulary and grammatical structures they will encounter in a text. Teachers
can also help English language learners build the necessary background knowledge
required to understand texts that these students may not have been able to acquire
through their own experiences.
During reading, English language learners may use clues from context or from their
understanding of language structures and/or letter-sound relationships to help them
determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. They will also use a variety of comprehension strategies such as predicting, questioning, identifying main ideas, and monitoring
comprehension to help them understand a text. After reading, students may analyse,
synthesize, make connections, evaluate, and use other critical and creative thinking skills
to achieve a deeper understanding of the material they have read. For example, students
might evaluate an author’s perspective or bias in a piece of writing and discuss how that
might affect the reader’s interpretation.
To become fluent readers of English, students need to read frequently and develop the
range of skills required to read for a variety of different purposes – to follow directions,
to get advice, to obtain information, to build vocabulary, to obtain access to subject
knowledge, and for personal interest and enjoyment.
Writing
The Writing strand has four overall expectations, as follows:
2. organize ideas coherently in writing;
3. use correctly the conventions of written English appropriate for this level, including grammar, usage, spelling, and punctuation;
4. use the stages of the writing process.
Current research confirms the similarity in the writing processes of both first- and secondlanguage writers. As English language learners develop control over the language, their
writing gradually begins to approximate standard English. The elements that go into
writing in any language are essentially similar: selecting a topic; choosing and organizing the ideas to be included; framing the message appropriately for the intended audience; applying the conventions of written language such as grammar, spelling, and word
choice; and applying editing, revising, and proofreading strategies to produce a polished
piece of writing.
While the processes of English writing may be essentially similar for both first- and
second-language writers, there are some important differences in what the two groups
bring to the task. First, English language learners will surely experience some limitations
in their expressive abilities in terms of vocabulary, grammar, and idiomatic expressions.
In addition, English language learners may not have had the exposure to the various
forms and styles of written English that first-language speakers have had. Students in
the ELD program will not have had the same range of opportunities to practise and
THE PROGRAM IN ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE AND ENGLISH LITERACY DEVELOPMENT
Students will:
1. write in a variety of forms for different purposes and audiences;
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develop writing skills that English language learners with consistent prior schooling
have had, and may need extensive exposure to writing-readiness concepts, as well as to
instruction about the purpose and structure of various forms of writing. In addition, all
students need to be taught ways to avoid plagiarism when writing for reporting and
research purposes. Teachers need to be aware of the differences between first- and
second-language writers, and provide students with frequent opportunities to gain
mastery over English language structure and the organizational patterns used in
different types of texts.
Writing competence develops hand in hand with skills in other areas of English, especially reading. In many ways, the development of writing and reading skills is reciprocal. As students read a variety of texts, they build and develop a command of English
vocabulary, become familiar with more complex English grammatical structures, and
acquire an understanding of the organizational frameworks found in various genres of
English writing. To become good writers of English who are able to communicate ideas
with ease and clarity, English language learners need frequent opportunities to write for
various purposes and audiences and to master the skills involved in the various stages
of the writing process. The more English language learners read and write, the more
likely they will be to achieve full mastery in all areas of the mainstream curriculum.
Socio-cultural Competence and Media Literacy
The Socio-cultural Competence and Media Literacy strand has four overall expectations,
as follows:
Students will:
1. use English and non-verbal communication strategies appropriately in a variety
of social contexts;
2. demonstrate an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of Canadian
citizenship, and of the contributions of diverse groups to Canadian society;
3. demonstrate knowledge of and adaptation to the Ontario education system;
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
4. demonstrate an understanding of, interpret, and create a variety of media works.
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English language learners arrive in Ontario schools from a multitude of cultural and linguistic backgrounds, each with its own norms and conventions for communicating in a
range of social situations and contexts. To be fully proficient in any language, speakers
of that language must learn to interact appropriately at different levels of formality with
peers, teachers, community members, and employers. The ability to understand and use
the different language forms and observe the behavioural norms that are appropriate in
a wide variety of situations is an important part of socio-cultural competence and is also
a critical factor in English language learners’ attainment of full proficiency in English.
Newcomer secondary students also face the twin challenges of learning English and
adapting to a new school system, a system that may be very different from the one they
were previously accustomed to. English language learners need to learn to navigate the
Ontario education system to maximize their potential for success. Through this strand,
they will acquire the tools for success in the student-centred Ontario classroom environment by developing learning skills in such areas as teamwork, cooperation, time
management, and initiative. English language learners also need to learn strategies for
planning for their future, through knowledge of a range of postsecondary pathways and
destinations such as further education, apprenticeship training programs, or workforce
opportunities.
Through the expectations in this strand, students will also demonstrate their understanding
that the Ontario school system expects all students to treat each other with respect, dignity, and understanding. Students are entitled to receive equitable treatment in Ontario
schools, regardless of differences in race, gender, place of origin, ethnic origin, citizenship, religion, sexual orientation, physical ability, or class and family status. Schools will
not tolerate abuse, bullying, discrimination, intimidation, hateful words and actions, or
any form of physical violence based on any of these differences. Students are encouraged
through this strand to develop proactive problem-prevention strategies and peaceful
conflict-resolution strategies that will allow them to interact respectfully and appropriately
with each other and in the wider community. In addition, students will acquire knowledge about the contributions of the many linguistic and cultural groups that are at the
heart of our diverse Canadian society, as well as a knowledge of Canadian geography,
history, and civic issues that will empower them to participate fully as Canadian citizens.
Because media texts tend to use idioms, slang, and Canadian and North American cultural
contexts and references with which English language learners may not be familiar, media
literacy is highly relevant to a strand that focuses on socio-cultural competence. However,
media-literacy expectations also combine well with expectations in Listening and Speaking,
Reading, and Writing.
ADAPTING ESL OR ELD COURSES FOR STUDENTS WHO SPEAK
A VARIETY OF ENGLISH
ESL and ELD courses were designed for students with a language background other
than English. These courses may need to be adapted for use with students who speak a
variety of English such as those spoken in parts of the Caribbean and Africa. These students have considerable knowledge of English, even if they are newcomers to Canada.
Schools should establish protocols for adapting ESL or ELD courses to meet the needs
of students who speak different varieties of English.
THE PROGRAM IN ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE AND ENGLISH LITERACY DEVELOPMENT
This strand also includes expectations that help students to develop the media-literacy
skills needed to understand, critically interpret, and create media texts in English. The
plethora of print, screen, and electronic mass media messages directed at adolescents
and youth makes the development of media literacy especially important for secondary
students. The media-literacy aspect of this strand explores the impact and influence of
mass media and popular culture by examining the art and messaging of texts such as films,
songs, advertisements, television shows, magazines, newspapers, billboards, photographs,
and websites. Because of the significant influence that implicit and overt media messages
can have on students, it is important for students to develop the ability to evaluate such
messages critically. Understanding how media texts are constructed and aimed at specific
audiences enables students to respond to media texts intelligently and responsibly.
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English is an international language, and many varieties of English are spoken around
the world. Standard English is a variety of English that is used as the language of education, and the language of law and government in English-speaking countries and/or
regions, such as Canada, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Jamaica, the United States,
Australia, many countries in Africa, and parts of India. Standard English is spoken with
many different accents.
Some varieties of English are very different – not only in pronunciation, or accent, but
also in vocabulary and sentence structure – from the English required for success in
Ontario schools. For example, while many people in English-speaking Caribbean countries speak standard English, others speak a variety of Caribbean English Creole. These
varieties are so different from standard English that many linguistic experts consider
them to be languages in their own right. Students from some West African countries
may also speak an English-related Creole language.
An initial assessment of proficiency in English can help identify those students who,
although they may be English-speaking, may require instruction in some of the vocabulary and grammatical forms of standard Canadian English in order to succeed in Ontario
schools.
Students learning standard English are not learning “better” English. Their variety of
English is a valid form of communication in their linguistic community, and they will
need to continue to belong to that community at the same time as they are learning
standard English for success in school. As with all English language learners, the role
of the school is to encourage students to value and maintain their own linguistic and
cultural identities while enabling them to enter the larger society as bilingual and
bicultural individuals, able to choose language and cultural norms that are appropriate
in a given linguistic situation or cultural context.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
PROCEDURES FOR PLACING ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS
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Secondary schools should establish a specific process for receiving English language
learners. All staff members, including administrative staff, should be aware of and
understand the process. The placement process is aimed at successfully integrating
English language learners in Ontario secondary schools, and has four major
components:
Reception and orientation: to provide a welcoming and inclusive environment for
new students and their families
Initial assessment: to determine each student’s educational background, level of
proficiency in English, and academic achievement
Placement: to determine the best program and selection of courses for each student
Monitoring: to keep track of each student’s progress in second-language acquisition, academic development, and cultural adjustment, and to provide support as
needed
English language learners may arrive in Ontario schools at any point during the school
year. Special efforts should be made to ensure the effective placement and integration of
students in classes that are already in progress.
Reception and Orientation
Supportive reception and orientation of new students and their families is a critical first
step in the successful integration of English language learners into secondary school.
This reception process may take place at a centralized school board reception centre or
at the individual school site. During initial reception, assessment, and placement, several
interviews and counselling sessions may be needed to share background information
that will contribute to students’ successful integration into the secondary school and to
initiate open and positive communication with the home and family. The assistance of
interpreters, school settlement workers, student ambassadors, and other community
members can be very helpful during this process.
During the first interview, the interviewer should:
obtain background information about the student, including personal history,
circumstances of immigration, previous educational experience, education plans,
and career aspirations. This information should be made available to the student’s
teachers;
review any educational documents that students may bring to facilitate the granting
of equivalent credits for previous secondary education, in accordance with policy
directives, and in consultation with resource persons familiar with the education
system in the student’s home country;
if documents are not available, gather information from the student and parents
to find out about previous schooling, including the number of years completed;
introduce the new student to a student ambassador – preferably one who speaks
the newcomer’s language – who will help orient the student to the school and its
routines;
Orientation information may include the following: basic information about the structure
of the school day and year; the names and telephone numbers of relevant community
organizations and of important contact persons such as the guidance counsellor, the ESL
or ELD teacher, the principal, and a bilingual contact person or interpreter; a description
of support services available from the district school board; a description of important
school norms and routines such as the dress code and emergency procedures; a description of the Ontario school system; and information on the role of parents in Ontario
schools. It is helpful to have this information available in printed form so that newcomers
are not overwhelmed by the need to assimilate a great deal of information all at once. It
is also helpful to provide this information in the languages of the community.
Initial Assessment
The initial assessment of English language learners is an opportunity to obtain a clear
picture of their educational, cultural, and personal background, their level of achievement in the subjects covered by Ontario’s curriculum, their level of proficiency in English,
and their linguistic, academic, and other needs, including any exceptionalities.
THE PROGRAM IN ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE AND ENGLISH LITERACY DEVELOPMENT
provide essential orientation information to the student and family and establish
a relationship that allows orientation to continue during the weeks and months
ahead.
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All students entering a new school require an accurate assessment of their needs, but the
process takes longer when the students are recent arrivals from other countries or are
beginning learners of English. The purpose of the initial assessment is to gather further
information about each student’s educational background and level of proficiency in
English in order to select a suitable program. Assessment covers two key areas: proficiency in English and mathematical knowledge and skills.
Language assessment begins with the reception interview. Where possible, at least part
of the assessment may be conducted in the student’s first or dominant language to allow
a broader view of his or her linguistic and cognitive development. For example, level of
performance in reading and writing in English is seldom an indication of the student’s
level of literacy development. Students who are functioning at or above grade level in
their own language may not be able to perform nearly as well in English. At the same
time, there is a need to find out how proficient the student is in the language of instruction. With the help of these assessments, schools can make informed decisions about the
student’s academic and linguistic needs.
If appropriate resource personnel are available, an assessment of the student’s oral and
written skills in the first language may assist placement. A student’s writing in the first
language may provide some useful information, even to teachers who do not read that
language, if they use the following questions as guidelines: Does letter or character formation appear to be appropriately developed for the student’s age? How long does it
take for the student to produce the piece? Does the student check and edit the piece?
How simple or complex does the writing appear?
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
The assessment of the student’s oral skills in English begins with the initial interview.
The interview is appropriate as an assessment vehicle because it demonstrates the student’s ability to meet the demands of everyday oral communication. The student may
also be asked to participate in a conversation, describe or discuss pictures, listen to and
retell a story, or explain a diagram or concept from a familiar subject area. The specific
course expectations for Listening and Speaking may be used as criteria in assessing student performance and placing students in ESL or ELD courses.
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The most informative tool for assessing reading comprehension in English is an informal
reading inventory, which consists of a graduated series of reading passages that assess
reading comprehension. Each passage is accompanied by questions designed to focus on
specific aspects of reading comprehension, such as understanding specific words and
main ideas, finding details, following sequence, relating cause and effect, or making
inferences. It may be necessary, however, to adapt some passages that contain culturally
unfamiliar concepts. Also, caution is required in interpreting results. Results of a reading
assessment in English reflect reading performance in the student’s second language, not
the student’s level of first-language literacy development. The specific course expectations for Reading may be used as criteria in assessing student performance and placing
students in ESL or ELD courses.
If the student is able to participate in the reading assessment, it is appropriate to go on
to an assessment of writing in English. Students with limited proficiency in English may
respond to a picture by listing what they see. Someone with greater proficiency may
construct a more detailed description or write a story. With a more advanced student, it
is helpful to obtain writing samples of different kinds, such as a piece of personal writing,
a narrative, a letter, a descriptive piece, or some expository writing. In all cases, a choice
of topics within the student’s experience should be provided. The specific course expectations for Writing may be used as criteria in assessing student performance and placing
students in ESL or ELD courses.
Many English language learners may find it easier to display competence with figures
than with the words of a new language. Achievement in mathematics can provide a useful indication of a student’s educational background and learning potential. However,
since performance in mathematics depends on linguistic comprehension, limitations in
the student’s understanding of English should be taken into account in administering
the assessment. It is also important to consider that elements in the mathematics curriculum
may be taught in a different order in other countries. Assessment materials provided in
students’ first languages can be very helpful.
Placement
An interview should be arranged with the student and parents to review the assessment
information and recommend a program of study. Students should be placed in a program
that matches their educational experience and aspirations. In some cases, the choice of
school may need to be discussed. The student and parents should be informed that the
initial placement is tentative. Schools should monitor and revise the placement over a
period of time. It is important to inform the student and parents that they, too, may
initiate changes in the program.
English language learners who require ESL or ELD instruction should be placed in
programs designed to meet their learning needs. Students, including beginning-level
learners of English, should be placed in at least one mainstream class, to allow them to
interact with their English-speaking peers. Most students with the necessary background
in mathematics, for example, can participate successfully in mainstream mathematics
courses, even if they have only beginning English proficiency. Also, the practical and interactive nature of some courses in the arts, health and physical education, and technological
education makes them especially suitable for English language learners.
THE PROGRAM IN ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE AND ENGLISH LITERACY DEVELOPMENT
The mathematics assessment should begin with items related to The Ontario Curriculum,
Grades 1–8: Mathematics, 2005. If a student’s performance on these items reveals significant gaps in mathematical knowledge and skills, it may not be advisable to conduct
further assessment. In many cases, such gaps are attributable to lack of educational
opportunity. Students who have missed some years of schooling may need placement
in an accelerated upgrading program for the development of basic mathematical skills
in preparation for placement in a Grade 9 mathematics course. Students who are able
to demonstrate competence with most of the items on the assessment should then be
assessed on expectations from the secondary school mathematics curriculum to determine program placement.
25
Assessment results may indicate that a student will succeed in mainstream classes. Such
students may be placed immediately in the courses appropriate to the grade level and
desired program of study, although their progress should be monitored to ensure appropriate placement.
If the assessment indicates that a student may be performing several grades behind his or
her peers, this may not be the result of a learning disability. Low levels of first-language
literacy skills or academic achievement can often be attributed to external conditions,
such as disrupted schooling or limited access to schooling in the country of origin. With
proper support, the student can be assisted in catching up with peers. However, it is
important to keep in mind that some English language learners – about the same proportion as in the general school population – may have learning exceptionalities that are
not related to lack of knowledge of the language of instruction or to gaps in their schooling. These students are discussed in the section “Planning ESL and ELD Programs for
Students With Special Education Needs”.
Monitoring
Schools should monitor the academic progress of each student. Although the initial
assessment may provide sufficient information for a tentative placement, it is important
to assess each student’s progress on an ongoing basis. By keeping track of academic and
linguistic development, schools can suggest appropriate changes to a student’s program.
TRANSITION FROM ELEMENTARY TO SECONDARY SCHOOL
Many English language learners arrive in Grade 9 after several years in an Ontario elementary school, where various models for ESL and ELD support may be in place. Many of
these students are still learning English, even though they may not have been receiving
direct ESL or ELD support in Grade 8. Such students will benefit from ESL or ELD
courses to help them cope with the linguistic demands of the secondary school program.
Schools should establish protocols for easing the transition between elementary and
secondary school.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
TRANSITION TO MAINSTREAM ENGLISH COURSES
26
The transition to mainstream English courses is influenced by a number of variables,
particularly the individual student’s future educational goals, age, and the level of achievement he or she has attained in ESL or ELD courses. For example: a high-achieving fifteenyear-old student currently in ESL Level 4 who plans to go to university may benefit from
completing ESL Level 5 prior to transferring into the Grade 11 English university preparation course (ENG3U); whereas an eighteen-year-old student currently in ESL Level 4
who plans to enter the workforce after graduation may be best served by transferring
into the Grade 12 English workplace preparation course (ENG4E).
Some students may require more or less time than others to achieve the course expectations. Students who show exceptional progress may be able to meet the expectations of
two ESL or ELD courses within the time frame for one credit: that is, 110 hours. These
students would earn the higher ESL or ELD credit. Others may need to repeat a course
or part of a course in order to achieve all the course expectations and earn the credit for
the course. Students entering secondary school as beginning learners of English or in the
beginning stages of literacy development may need more than four years to complete
diploma requirements or to meet postsecondary entrance requirements.
INTEGRATION OF STUDENTS INTO MAINSTREAM SUBJECT CLASSROOMS
The successful integration of English language learners into the academic and social life
of the school requires all teachers to work together to support them. Although many
students become proficient users of English for most day-to-day purposes within two
years, students may take seven years or more to catch up to first-language English
speakers in their ability to use English for academic purposes. Participation in ESL
and/or ELD courses assists English language learners to make rapid progress; however,
students who arrive as beginning learners of English during their secondary school
years may not have enough time to catch up with their peers by the end of Grade 12.
Reading textbooks, participating in academic discussions, or writing essays or examination answers may be much more difficult for these students than for first-language
English speakers. Their relatively limited vocabulary may make reading some textbooks
difficult, and in some cases, inexperience with complex sentence patterns may make it
difficult for them to write as fluently as some of their peers. Most students who have
completed their ESL and/or ELD courses will therefore continue to need support from their
subject teachers to achieve success.
English language learners need access to their first language as a tool for learning and
thinking, at least until they are sufficiently proficient in the second language to use it for
a wide range of academic purposes. The first language is the foundation upon which
English proficiency is built. An insistence on “English only” may limit students’ cognitive
activity to their level of proficiency in their second language. Students’ first languages
therefore have a place in the classroom alongside English, and students may use their
first languages in a variety of ways: for example, by consulting bilingual dictionaries, by
making notes or preparing outlines and first drafts in their first language, or by working
on specific activities with first-language peers before transferring to English.
Another way of helping English language learners succeed is to design lessons and
activities and choose resources that recognize students’ background knowledge and
experiences. The subject teacher can also use the wealth of linguistic and cultural diversity in the classroom by encouraging students to share information with each other
about their own languages and cultures. In this way, all students are enriched with a
greater awareness of language and culture, and all students have a sense of belonging.
THE PROGRAM IN ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE AND ENGLISH LITERACY DEVELOPMENT
English language learners will have the best chance to succeed in classrooms where there
is opportunity for extensive oral interaction with English-speaking peers. In evaluating
achievement, it is important for teachers to recognize the value of the content and the
organization of ideas in students’ written work, as well as grammar, spelling, and word
choice. In addition, teachers must provide instruction on specific features of English for
those students whose written English indicates a need for such assistance.
27
Subject teachers should practise differentiated instruction, incorporating appropriate
strategies for instruction and assessment to facilitate the success of the English language
learners in their classrooms. These strategies include the following:
modification of some or all of the course expectations, based on the student’s level
of English proficiency
use of a variety of instructional strategies (e.g., extensive use of visual cues, graphic
organizers, and scaffolding; previewing of textbooks; pre-teaching of key vocabulary; peer tutoring; strategic use of students’ first languages)
use of a variety of learning resources (e.g., visual material, first-language material,
simplified text, bilingual dictionaries, culturally diverse materials, field trips)
use of assessment accommodations (e.g., granting of extra time; use of oral interviews and tasks requiring completion of graphic organizers and cloze sentences
instead of essay questions and other assessment tasks that depend heavily on
proficiency in English)
When learning expectations in any course are modified for English language learners,
(whether or not the students are enrolled in an ESL or ELD course), this must be clearly
indicated on the student’s report card.
For further information on supporting students who are English language learners, refer
to the resource guide Many Roots, Many Voices: Supporting English Language Learners in
Every Classroom (Ministry of Education, Ontario, 2005).
PROGRAM DELIVERY
There is flexibility in the delivery of ESL and ELD programs and the ways in which
English language learners can be given support.
Delivery Models
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Depending on local circumstances (i.e., distribution and number of English language
learners within a particular district school board, size of school board), one or more of
the following ESL and ELD program delivery models may be appropriate.
28
Local School Model
The number of students is sufficient to sustain a full-service program for English
language learners.
The school contains an ESL and ELD department with qualified ESL and ELD
teachers.
The school offers a range of ESL and ELD credit courses.
The school offers a range of other credit courses adapted to the needs of English
language learners (e.g., geography, history, science).
Congregated School Model
The number of students in local schools is not sufficient to sustain a full-service
program for English language learners; learners are congregated in a magnet
school, which serves students from the surrounding geographical area.
The school contains an ESL and ELD department with qualified ESL and ELD
teachers.
The school offers a range of ESL and ELD credit courses.
The school offers a range of other credit courses adapted to the needs of English
language learners (e.g., geography, history, science, Civics, Career Studies).
Resource Support Model
The number of students within a particular school board, geographical area, or
individual school is not sufficient to sustain ESL or ELD credit courses.
The school provides a qualified ESL and ELD teacher to offer regularly scheduled
individual assistance on a resource basis.
ESL and ELD professional resource support (provided by a qualified ESL and ELD
teacher, consultant, coordinator) is available to classroom teachers.
Types of Support
Depending on the needs of individual students, one or more of the following types of
support may be provided.
Students who arrive with little or no previous schooling need extra support to acquire
basic literacy skills and academic concepts. In addition to ELD support, first-language
assistance may also be provided, where resources are available, by teachers, trained and
supervised tutors, or volunteers. In such situations, skills and knowledge acquired
through the first language can be transferred into English and can help promote the
acquisition of English.
Partial Support
Partial support is suitable for English language learners who have acquired some basic
skills in using English and a foundation level of literacy. Such students take ESL or ELD
courses at the appropriate level and, at the same time, take an increasing number of
mainstream courses in other compulsory or optional subjects, at the appropriate grade
levels that best suit their language needs and educational and career goals.
THE PROGRAM IN ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE AND ENGLISH LITERACY DEVELOPMENT
Intensive Support
Intensive support is suitable for English language learners who are in the early stages of
learning English and/or who have had limited education. The timetable of each of these
students includes an ESL or ELD course, supplemented, where numbers permit, with
special sections of other subjects adapted to meet the needs of English language learners.
In addition, these students must be integrated into at least one mainstream course to
provide balance in the program and opportunities for interaction with English-speaking
peers.
29
Tutorial Support
English language learners who are enrolled in a full program of mainstream courses
may receive tutorial support from an ESL and ELD resource teacher, subject teachers,
and peer tutors. This type of support is suitable for English language learners at all levels of English language proficiency.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Note: English language learners should “graduate” from ESL or ELD programs when
they have attained the level of proficiency required to learn effectively in English.
Although a student may leave formal ESL or ELD classes and become completely integrated into the mainstream program within two or three years, the student’s progress
should continue to be monitored until he or she has attained a level of proficiency in
English similar to that of English-speaking peers.
30
ASSESSMENT
AND EVALUATION
OF STUDENT
ACHIEVEMENT
BASIC CONSIDERATIONS
The primary purpose of assessment and evaluation is to improve student learning.
Information gathered through assessment helps teachers to determine students’ strengths
and weaknesses in their achievement of the curriculum expectations in each course. This
information also serves to guide teachers in adapting curriculum and instructional
approaches to students’ needs and in assessing the overall effectiveness of programs
and classroom practices.
Assessment is the process of gathering information from a variety of sources (including
assignments, demonstrations, projects, performances, and tests) that accurately reflects
how well a student is achieving the curriculum expectations in a subject. As part of
assessment, teachers provide students with descriptive feedback that guides their efforts
towards improvement. Evaluation refers to the process of judging the quality of student
work on the basis of established criteria, and assigning a value to represent that quality.
In order to ensure that assessment and evaluation are valid and reliable, and that they
lead to the improvement of student learning, teachers must use assessment and evaluation strategies that:
address both what students learn and how well they learn;
are based both on the categories of knowledge and skills and on the achievement
level descriptions given in the achievement chart on pages 36–37;
are varied in nature, administered over a period of time, and designed to provide
opportunities for students to demonstrate the full range of their learning;
are appropriate for the learning activities used, the purposes of instruction, and
the needs and experiences of the students;
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT
Assessment and evaluation will be based on the provincial curriculum expectations and
the achievement levels outlined in this document.
31
are fair to all students;
accommodate the needs of students with special education needs, consistent with
the strategies outlined in their Individual Education Plan;
accommodate the needs of students who are learning the language of instruction;
ensure that each student is given clear directions for improvement;
promote students’ ability to assess their own learning and to set specific goals;
include the use of samples of students’ work that provide evidence of their
achievement;
are communicated clearly to students and parents at the beginning of the course or
the school term and at other appropriate points throughout the school year.
All curriculum expectations must be accounted for in instruction, but evaluation focuses
on students’ achievement of the overall expectations. A student’s achievement of the
overall expectations is evaluated on the basis of his or her achievement of related specific
expectations. The overall expectations are broad in nature, and the specific expectations
define the particular content or scope of the knowledge and skills referred to in the overall expectations. Teachers will use their professional judgement to determine which specific expectations should be used to evaluate achievement of the overall expectations,
and which ones will be covered in instruction and assessment (e.g., through direct observation) but not necessarily evaluated.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
The characteristics given in the achievement chart (see pages 36–37) for level 3 represent
the “provincial standard” for achievement of the expectations in a course. A complete
picture of overall achievement at level 3 in a course in English as a Second Language or
English Literacy Development can be constructed by reading from top to bottom in the
shaded column of the achievement chart, headed “70–79% (Level 3)”. Parents of students achieving at level 3 can be confident that their children will be prepared for work
in subsequent courses.
32
Level 1 identifies achievement that falls much below the provincial standard, while still
reflecting a passing grade. Level 2 identifies achievement that approaches the standard.
Level 4 identifies achievement that surpasses the standard. It should be noted that
achievement at level 4 does not mean that the student has achieved expectations beyond
those specified for a particular course. It indicates that the student has achieved all or
almost all of the expectations for that course, and that he or she demonstrates the ability
to use the specified knowledge and skills in more sophisticated ways than a student
achieving at level 3.
The Ministry of Education provides teachers with material such as exemplars that will
assist them in improving their assessment methods and strategies and, hence, their
assessment of student achievement. Exemplars include samples of student work that
illustrate achievement at each of the four levels. (Adaptations can be made within the
exemplar documents to align them with the revised curriculum.)
THE ACHIEVEMENT CHART FOR ESL AND ELD
The achievement chart that follows identifies four categories of knowledge and skills in
English as a Second Language and English Literacy Development. The achievement chart
is a standard province-wide guide to be used by teachers. It enables teachers to make
judgements about student work that are based on clear performance standards and on a
body of evidence collected over time.
The purpose of the achievement chart is to:
provide a common framework that encompasses all curriculum expectations for all
courses outlined in this document;
guide the development of high-quality assessment tasks and tools (including rubrics);
help teachers to plan instruction for learning;
assist teachers in providing meaningful feedback to students;
provide various categories and criteria with which to assess and evaluate students’
learning.
Categories of Knowledge and Skills. The categories, defined by clear criteria, represent
four broad areas of knowledge and skills within which the subject expectations for any
given course are organized. The four categories should be considered as interrelated,
reflecting the wholeness and interconnectedness of learning.
The categories of knowledge and skills are described as follows:
Knowledge and Understanding. Subject-specific content acquired in each grade (knowledge) and the comprehension of its meaning and significance (understanding).
Thinking. The use of critical and creative thinking skills and/or processes.
Communication. The conveying of meaning through various forms.
Application. The use of knowledge and skills to make connections within and between
various contexts.
Teachers will ensure that student work is assessed and/or evaluated in a balanced manner with respect to the four categories, and that achievement of particular expectations is
considered within the appropriate categories.
Descriptors. A “descriptor” indicates the characteristic of the student’s performance,
with respect to a particular criterion, on which assessment or evaluation is focused.
In the achievement chart, effectiveness is the descriptor used for each criterion in the
Thinking, Communication, and Application categories. What constitutes effectiveness
in any given performance task will vary with the particular criterion being considered.
Assessment of effectiveness may therefore focus on a quality such as appropriateness,
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT
Criteria. Within each category in the achievement chart, criteria are provided that are
subsets of the knowledge and skills that define each category. The criteria identify the
aspects of student performance that are assessed and/or evaluated, and serve as guides
to what to look for.
33
clarity, accuracy, precision, logic, relevance, significance, fluency, flexibility, depth, or
breadth, as appropriate for the particular criterion. For example, in the Thinking category,
assessment of effectiveness might focus on the degree of relevance or depth apparent
in an analysis; in the Communication category, on clarity of expression or logical organization of information and ideas; or in the Application category, on appropriateness or
breadth in the making of connections. Similarly, in the Knowledge and Understanding
category, assessment of knowledge might focus on accuracy, and assessment of understanding might focus on the depth of an explanation. Descriptors help teachers to focus
their assessment and evaluation on specific knowledge and skills for each category and
criterion, and help students to better understand exactly what is being assessed and
evaluated.
Qualifiers. A specific “qualifier” is used to define each of the four levels of achievement
– that is, limited for level 1, some for level 2, considerable for level 3, and a high degree or
thorough for level 4. A qualifier is used along with a descriptor to produce a description
of performance at a particular level. For example, the description of a student’s performance at level 3 with respect to the first criterion in the Thinking category would be: “the
student uses planning skills with considerable effectiveness”.
The descriptions of the levels of achievement given in the chart should be used to identify the level at which the student has achieved the expectations. In all of their courses,
students should be given numerous and varied opportunities to demonstrate the full
extent of their achievement of the curriculum expectations across all four categories of
knowledge and skills.
EVALUATION AND REPORTING OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Student achievement must be communicated formally to students and parents by means
of the Provincial Report Card, Grades 9–12. The report card provides a record of the
student’s achievement of the curriculum expectations in every course, at particular points
in the school year or semester, in the form of a percentage grade. The percentage grade
represents the quality of the student’s overall achievement of the expectations for the
course and reflects the corresponding level of achievement as described in the achievement chart for the discipline.
34
A final grade is recorded for every course, and a credit is granted and recorded for every
course in which the student’s grade is 50 per cent or higher. The final grade for each
course in Grades 9 to 12 will be determined as follows:
Seventy per cent of the grade will be based on evaluations conducted throughout
the course. This portion of the grade should reflect the student’s most consistent
level of achievement throughout the course, although special consideration should
be given to more recent evidence of achievement.
Thirty per cent of the grade will be based on a final evaluation in the form of one
or a combination of the following: an examination, a performance, an essay, or
another method of evaluation suitable to the course content and expectations.
The final evaluation should be administered at or towards the end of the course.
REPORTING ON DEMONSTRATED LEARNING SKILLS
The report card provides a record of the learning skills demonstrated by the student
in every course, in the following five categories: Works Independently, Teamwork,
Organization, Work Habits, and Initiative. The learning skills are evaluated using a
four-point scale (E−Excellent, G−Good, S−Satisfactory, N−Needs Improvement). The
separate evaluation and reporting of the learning skills in these five areas reflect their
critical role in students’ achievement of the curriculum expectations. To the extent
possible, the evaluation of learning skills, apart from any that may be included as part
of a curriculum expectation in a course, should not be considered in the determination
of percentage grades.
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT
35
ACHIEVEMENT CHART – ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE AND ENGLISH LITERACY
DEVELOPMENT, GRADES 9–12
Categories
50−59%
(Level 1)
60−69%
(Level 2)
70−79%
(Level 3)
80−100%
(Level 4)
Knowledge and Understanding – Subject-specific content acquired in each course (knowledge), and
the comprehension of its meaning and significance (understanding)
The student:
Knowledge of content
(e.g., vocabulary, grammatical structures, punctuation,
terminology, forms of text
and media)
demonstrates
limited knowledge of content
demonstrates
some knowledge
of content
demonstrates
considerable
knowledge of
content
demonstrates
thorough knowledge of content
Understanding of
content (e.g., information
and ideas, themes in novels
and short stories, literary
devices, language variety)
demonstrates
limited understanding of
content
demonstrates
some understanding of
content
demonstrates
considerable
understanding
of content
demonstrates
thorough understanding of
content
Thinking – The use of critical and creative thinking skills and/or processes
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
The student:
36
Use of planning skills
(e.g., focusing an inquiry,
gathering information,
organizing a project)
uses planning
skills with limited
effectiveness
uses planning
skills with some
effectiveness
uses planning
skills with
considerable
effectiveness
uses planning
skills with a
high degree of
effectiveness
Use of processing skills
(e.g., selecting, analysing,
generating, integrating, synthesizing, evaluating, forming conclusions)
uses processing
skills with limited
effectiveness
uses processing
skills with some
effectiveness
uses processing
skills with
considerable
effectiveness
uses processing
skills with a
high degree of
effectiveness
Use of critical/creative
thinking processes
(e.g., reading process, writing
process, oral discourse,
research)
uses critical/
creative thinking
processes
with limited
effectiveness
uses critical/
creative thinking
processes
with some
effectiveness
uses critical/
creative thinking
processes with
considerable
effectiveness
uses critical/
creative thinking
processes with a
high degree of
effectiveness
Communication – The conveying of meaning through various forms
The student:
Expression and organization of ideas and information in oral and visual
forms (e.g., presentations,
dialogues, discussions, role
playing, debates, graphic
texts, media works) and written forms (e.g., journals,
notes, narratives, reports,
résumés, stories, poems)
expresses and
organizes ideas
and information
with limited
effectiveness
expresses and
organizes ideas
and information
with some
effectiveness
expresses and
organizes ideas
and information
with considerable
effectiveness
expresses and
organizes ideas
and information
with a high
degree of
effectiveness
Categories
50−59%
(Level 1)
60−69%
(Level 2)
70−79%
(Level 3)
80−100%
(Level 4)
Communication – The conveying of meaning through various forms (continued)
The student:
Communication for
different audiences and
purposes in oral, visual,
and written forms
(e.g., use of English in
socially and culturally
appropriate ways)
communicates for
different audiences
and purposes
with limited
effectiveness
communicates for
different audiences
and purposes
with some
effectiveness
communicates for
different audiences
and purposes
with considerable
effectiveness
communicates for
different audiences
and purposes
with a high
degree of
effectiveness
Use of conventions (e.g.,
grammatical structures,
spelling, punctuation, style,
usage), vocabulary, and
terminology of the discipline in oral, visual, and
written forms
uses conventions,
vocabulary, and
terminology of
the discipline
with limited
effectiveness
uses conventions,
vocabulary, and
terminology of
the discipline
with some
effectiveness
uses conventions,
vocabulary, and
terminology of
the discipline
with considerable
effectiveness
uses conventions,
vocabulary, and
terminology of
the discipline with
a high degree of
effectiveness
Application – The use of knowledge and skills to make connections within and between various contexts
The student:
applies knowledge
and skills in familiar
contexts with limited effectiveness
applies knowledge
and skills in familiar
contexts with some
effectiveness
applies knowledge
and skills in familiar
contexts with
considerable
effectiveness
applies knowledge
and skills in familiar
contexts with a
high degree of
effectiveness
Transfer of knowledge
and skills (e.g., language
knowledge, languagelearning strategies, reading
strategies, vocabularybuilding strategies) to new
contexts
transfers knowledge and skills
to new contexts
with limited
effectiveness
transfers knowledge and skills
to new contexts
with some
effectiveness
transfers knowledge and skills
to new contexts
with considerable
effectiveness
transfers knowledge and skills
to new contexts
with a high degree
of effectiveness
Making connections within
and between various contexts (e.g., between the
language and the social
and cultural environment,
including the school;
between learning English
and becoming aware of citizen responsibilities, developing personal and career goals,
and understanding cultural
references in literature)
makes connections
within and between
various contexts
with limited
effectiveness
makes connections
within and between
various contexts
with some
effectiveness
makes connections
within and between
various contexts
with considerable
effectiveness
makes connections
within and between
various contexts
with a high degree
of effectiveness
Note: A student whose achievement is below 50% at the end of a course will not obtain a credit for the course.
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT
Application of knowledge
and skills (e.g., language
knowledge, languagelearning strategies, reading
strategies, vocabularybuilding strategies) in
familiar contexts
37
SOME
CONSIDERATIONS FOR
PROGRAM PLANNING
IN ESL AND ELD
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACHES AND TEACHING STRATEGIES
38
Students in ESL and ELD courses will benefit from a content-based, thematic approach to
lesson planning and delivery. All teachers should integrate language and content instruction so that students can develop academic knowledge and skills in specific content areas
at the same time as they develop their English language skills. As well, teachers should
ensure that the teaching of English grammatical structures is integrated with context
rather than being taught or practised in isolation. For example, students learning about
regions of Canada may be involved in making a bar graph to compare annual precipitation in different regions. The cognitive activity consists of finding the information and
recording it in graphic form. The language activity consists of describing the graph, orally
and in writing, using newly learned vocabulary related to the subject matter. In addition,
students will gain practice in using impersonal expressions such as it rains, it snows,
and there is/there are. Students could then compare the annual precipitation in different
regions of Canada and the world, using quantitative expressions such as twice as much,
half as much, five times more, and fifty per cent less. The lesson could then continue with a
description of the water cycle, and students might talk and write about a diagram of the
cycle, using connectors such as then, next, after that, and finally, while following the rules
for subject-verb agreement and comparative forms of adjectives.
Since language activities in ESL and ELD courses can include content from various subject
areas, ESL and ELD teachers need to be aware of the expectations in other subject areas so
that they can design relevant units of work for their students. In addition, subject teachers
should pay attention to the uses and functions of language in their respective disciplines,
in order to help all students, and most especially English language learners, to acquire
the specialized vocabulary and language skills needed for success in particular subjects.
Special sections of other subjects adapted for English language learners should include
the expectations of the mainstream course while focusing on general literacy development and the language conventions of the subject itself. This approach is most suitable
for courses that require a great deal of background knowledge and/or experience that
recently arrived students may not have, and for courses that require a high level of proficiency in English. For example, in science and technological education courses, students
need practice in using the passive voice to write laboratory reports or describe processes.
In mathematics courses, students need to understand and use expressions for comparing
quantity, speed, and size, and words and phrases that indicate specific mathematical
operations. In history, students need to become familiar with a wide range of tenses,
words, and phrases that indicate chronological order and causal relationships among
ideas and events.
All teachers should remember that English language learners need frequent opportunities
to produce language in both written and oral formats. Students need to have plentiful
opportunities to communicate with teachers and classmates through a range of interactive
activities such as instructional conversations, cooperative group work, jigsaw activities,
literature circles, writing conferences, peer tutoring, and community outreach tasks.
Students also need to receive feedback in a respectful and helpful manner. English language learners need to be given sufficient wait-time to formulate their thoughts in a
second language before they are expected to answer questions or contribute ideas in
class. Teachers should focus on communication first, responding to the content of what
the student is trying to communicate, before rephrasing in order to provide a model for
the student. Focusing on only one or two errors at a time, in both oral and written work,
will yield the most enduring results for English language learners. It is important to
remember that making errors is a normal and useful part of the language learning
process, allowing students to make and test hypotheses about the English language
and to apply knowledge and strategies from their first language and prior experiences.
More detailed descriptions of effective teaching strategies can be found below.
Bilingual Books and Labels. Bilingual books allow students to use their first-language
knowledge to help them make sense of English text. The use of bilingual books in the
classroom affirms and celebrates students’ home languages and cultures, and sends a
clear, positive message about the rich contribution of multilingualism to Canadian society.
A wide variety of bilingual books is available commercially. In addition, students can
create their own bilingual materials using their own stories or by gluing their translations into published English books already available in the classroom.
SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM PLANNING IN ESL AND ELD
Anticipation Guide. The anticipation guide is a strategy used to activate students’ prior
knowledge by asking them to identify their existing opinions and attitudes before reading a text. Prior to reading a text, students are asked to examine and respond to a series
of teacher-generated statements that may reflect their pre-reading beliefs and knowledge
about a topic. After reading the text, the students revisit the statements to explain how
their opinions may have changed as a result of their reading. The anticipation guide
also provides an excellent springboard for discussion of students’ opinions and beliefs.
Reading selections that may challenge students’ beliefs and opinions on science and
technology, the environment, history, and current affairs all provide appropriate vehicles
for the use of the anticipation guide.
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Teachers can also provide multilingual word lists, dictionaries, and glossaries to students,
often using students’ own contributions. Themed bulletin-board displays can highlight
vocabulary in many languages (e.g., mathematical terms, or ways to say hello, offer
praise, or say thank-you in a multitude of languages).
Cloze Procedure. The cloze procedure is a “fill-in-the-blanks” technique used to assess
reading comprehension and to teach new vocabulary. In the classic cloze procedure,
students read a passage from which every seventh word has been deleted and fill in the
blanks to demonstrate their overall comprehension of the passage. However, the cloze
procedure can be applied selectively to any words in a passage, to adapt the assessment
to the student’s language level, and to concentrate on specific vocabulary items or grammatical structures, such as content-specific vocabulary, prepositions, or verb tenses. A
word bank can also be supplied with a cloze passage to provide additional support for
students.
In addition to being used for individual student work, a cloze passage can be presented
as a whole-class or group activity, with the teacher reviewing the text on a chart or overhead transparency. A cloze activity can also be done in pairs or small groups using a
pocket chart or large sticky notes on chart paper.
Other cloze variations include the oral cloze, in which students learn to predict what
word is to come by using structural and context clues, and the jigsaw cloze, in which
several students each receive different words deleted from the same passage and work
together to recreate the entire text.
Cooperative Learning. Cooperative-learning techniques allow students to work together
as a team to accomplish a common learning goal. A cooperative-learning group may
work together to complete a research project, prepare a media broadcast, or publish a
newsletter.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
In cooperative group activities, group members each take on a specific task they are
responsible for, such as gathering materials, taking notes, or ensuring that the group
keeps to its timelines. While participating in the cooperative-learning activity, students
have numerous opportunities to practise the language necessary for the smooth functioning of the group: for example, how to make suggestions, express opinions, encourage others, and disagree politely.
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In addition to the final product produced by the group, an important aspect of the
cooperative-learning process is having each group member examine how the group
functioned in its task and evaluate his or her own contribution to the group process.
Discussions, journal entries, and self-evaluation checklists are some ways in which
students can reflect on the group work process and their part in it.
Dictogloss. Dictogloss is an activity in which students recreate a text read aloud in class.
This strategy supports English language learners in listening to and recalling good
English language models, while providing them with opportunities to collaborate and
negotiate with their peers.
In the dictogloss strategy, the teacher first chooses a text and reads it aloud to the class at
least twice. Teachers can make use of a variety of texts for a dictogloss activity: literature
excerpts, content-area paragraphs, news items, narrative descriptions, and even technical
procedures. After hearing the passage read aloud, students work in small groups to write
down key words and phrases, and then try to reconstruct the text. This is followed by
group editing and proofreading, then comparison of the texts generated by various
groups. The activity culminates with a whole-class comparison of the reconstructed texts
with the original text. The goal of dictogloss is not to produce a text that is identical to
the original but to create one that is well worded and has the same information as the
original.
Free Voluntary Reading. Many educators believe that one of the most important strategies
they can employ with second-language learners is free voluntary reading (sometimes
referred to as sustained silent reading). This strategy is grounded in the idea that reading
is one of the most significant activities we can engage in at school. Free voluntary reading provides students with regular, sustained periods of time in which to read materials
of their own choice. The focus of free voluntary reading is on improving students’ reading skills while helping them to find pleasure in independent reading.
Free voluntary reading should occur at frequent, regularly scheduled times, with everyone in the class taking part (including the teacher, because the modelling of reading for
enjoyment is an important aspect of the activity). Students select their own reading
material from books, magazines, manuals, newspapers, or graphic novels brought from
home or found at school. Teachers of English language learners should stock their classroom libraries with a selection of reading materials at different levels, including wordless and picture books, catalogues, brochures, flyers, and materials adapted for English
language learners. Students can keep brief logs of the items read to allow students,
teachers, and parents to track reading preferences. Time for sharing and recommending
books can also become part of a free voluntary reading program.
The use of a graphic organizer is extremely helpful when carried out initially as a class
or group brainstorming activity. The graphic organizer provides a way of collecting and
visually presenting information about a topic that will make it more comprehensible for
English language learners.
When using different graphic organizers, teachers should point out and model for
students how particular graphic organizers are especially suited to various types of text
organization. For example, the T-chart provides an ideal framework for visually representing comparison and contrast, while the flow chart is well suited to illustrating
cause-and-effect relationships.
SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM PLANNING IN ESL AND ELD
Graphic Organizers. The use of visual supports to increase English language learners’
understanding of texts is an especially powerful teaching strategy. Graphic organizers,
often also referred to as key visuals, allow students to understand and represent relationships visually rather than just with language, providing helpful redundancy in making meaning from the text. Graphic organizers can be used to record, organize, analyse,
and synthesize information and ideas. Examples of common graphic organizers include
the following: timeline, cycle diagram, T-chart, Venn diagram, story map, flow chart, and
problem-solution outline.
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Guided Reading. Guided reading is a strategy that provides the scaffolding necessary for
English language learners to tackle a challenging text. In guided reading, the teacher meets
with a group of students who are all reading at the same level. The teacher guides the
students through the text with a series of structured activities for use before, during,
and after reading the text. Pre-reading activities can include brainstorming, making predictions about the text, or posing questions to be answered from the text. Students then
read/reread the text, using a combination of silent, pair, and group reading. During
reading of the text, the teacher can provide mini-lessons to individual students on a particular grammatical structure, vocabulary item, or content question related to the text.
The individual coaching that takes place in guided reading allows the teacher to focus
on the needs of individual students in developing reading skills and strategies. After
reading, the teacher structures response tasks to match the reading proficiency level of
the group. For example, students can revisit the predictions made before reading the
text; identify and describe characters; compile a chart of adjectives to describe characters’
feelings at various points in a story; or compare the theme of the story with that of
another the group has read.
Guided Writing. In guided writing, teachers provide direct instruction on aspects of the
writing process, as well as supplying direct supports for English language learners writing in English. These supports may include furnishing sentence starters or words to
include in writing, providing a paragraph or essay outline to help students structure
their writing, or presenting models of successful writing in various genres or forms.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
During a guided-writing activity, the teacher first provides pre-writing activities, such
as a group brainstorm on what should be included in a piece of writing. The teacher
then takes students through the process of producing a piece of writing by first modelling the process in a think-aloud and then perhaps creating a shared piece of writing
with the whole class. Students then engage in their individual writing process, while
the teacher may provide focused mini-lessons to small groups or individuals who are
having difficulty with particular aspects of the writing. During the guided-writing
process, the teacher will also provide opportunities for students to engage in peer
editing, self-editing, and revision of their writing.
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Information-Gap Communication Games. In these activities, often done in pairs, students
share information with each other in order to solve a problem or arrive at a decision. In
information-gap activities, students exchange new information, rather than responding
to questions in class about material they have already covered.
Information-gap activities can focus on content concepts, vocabulary items, or grammatical structures currently being studied by the class. For example, in pairs, students can
construct a timeline of events leading up to Canadian Confederation, with one-half of
the historical events randomly assigned to each student. It is essential that partners do
not show their information to each other. Instead, they must use their oral English communication skills to convey information to their partner in order to reconstruct the entire
timeline. These games are sometimes called barrier games, because student pairs may
use a physical barrier such as a file folder to hide their information from each other.
Further examples of information-gap games include the following: one student orders a
series of pictures on a grid, and communicates orally to a partner how to order the same
set of pictures without the partner being able to see the original order; or one student,
using a map, gives directions to a partner about how to find various points of interest in
their city or town that are not marked on the partner’s map.
Jigsaw. Jigsaw is a cooperative group activity in which one segment of a learning task is
assigned to each member of a small group (the “home” group). All home group members
then work to become an “expert” in their aspect of the task in order to teach the other
group members. Jigsaw activities push all students to take equal responsibility for the
group’s learning goals. Jigsaw activities can be done in both listening and reading formats.
In a jigsaw reading activity, each student becomes a member of an “expert” group, which
reads a certain section of a text. Experts then return to their home groups to share information and thus build a complete picture of the entire text. Each expert must ensure that
all members of the home group understand all the information. In a jigsaw listening
activity, each expert listens to a different oral excerpt of information. The home group then
compiles the components into an overall report, such as a description of the habitats of
various Canadian animals, or a brief overview of various First Nation peoples across
Canada.
Journal Writing. Journal writing is a technique that encourages students to produce
copious amounts of writing while also giving them the opportunity to reflect on their
experiences and learning. Journal entries can be personal and private responses to students’ own experiences and thoughts, or they can be shared with a teacher or journal
buddy, creating a flowing, written dialogue between two partners. Another type of journal response is the “in-role” journal, in which students maintain a journal in the voice of
a character from a story or novel and convey the character’s reactions and feelings as the
story unfolds.
English language learners at the beginning stages of acquiring English should be encouraged to maintain a journal in their first language. As English proficiency develops, students
will feel more comfortable moving to a dual-language format and, finally, to keeping an
English-only journal.
K-W-L. K-W-L, which stands for Know, Want to Know, Learned, is a strategy that helps
students build background knowledge and plan for further learning and research. The
K-W-L strategy gives teachers a picture of the class level of background knowledge on a
particular topic so that gaps can be addressed. It also helps students prepare to learn
about the topic or theme.
SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM PLANNING IN ESL AND ELD
Prompts for student journal writing can be drawn from literature being studied, classroom
topics and current issues, events in the lives of students, or questions or open-ended
statements presented by the teacher. When responding to student journal entries, the
teacher should focus on the content rather than any errors in the writing. A journal is not
the place for correcting students’ grammar mistakes. Teacher responses should provide
good written English-language models, sensitive prompts for more writing, and overall
encouragement for the journal-writing process.
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To complete a K-W-L chart, the teacher asks students what they think they already know
about a topic and fills in the K column with their responses. Then the teacher prompts
the students to state what they would like to know about the topic, and adds these
details to the W (middle) column. At the end of the lesson or unit, the students review
what they have learned. This summation will complete the L (final) column of the chart.
In order to activate students’ background knowledge and stimulate their curiosity,
teachers can supply pictures, maps, models, and objects related to the topic to be studied.
When the teacher initiates the K-W-L chart, students will be eager to offer what they
know and to delve further into the topic as their interest is provoked by the prompts the
teacher has supplied.
Language-Experience Approach. In this instructional strategy, students collectively compose a written text based on an experience they have had. An excellent method for use
with beginning readers, the language-experience approach allows students to see the
connections between their actual experiences and the spoken and written language,
while reading texts that are immediately meaningful to them.
Students first participate in an experience such as a school tour, art lesson, science experiment, or field trip. The teacher then engages the class in a discussion of the experience
and records the students’ dictated words and sentences about the experience to create a
short text or story on chart paper or an overhead transparency.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Teachers can utilize class-created language-experience stories for many purposes, including highlighting sound-symbol relationships, grammatical structures, word formations,
and vocabulary study. The stories can be incorporated into class and school newsletters
or compiled into individual student booklets for rereading and illustration.
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Learning-Strategy Instruction. Learning strategies are techniques that facilitate the process
of understanding, retaining, and applying knowledge. Making learning strategies explicit so that students can apply them successfully to both language and content learning
is a powerful classroom technique. Through building a repertoire of learning strategies
that they can use in reading, writing, and vocabulary development, English language
learners take more responsibility for their own language learning and success in school.
Examples of learning strategies include: using mnemonic devices to remember new
words; using a highlighter to emphasize important information when reading; preparing
cue cards to study for a test; and observing peers to learn more about Canadian culture
and language.
To help students become aware of their own learning processes and increase their repertoire and use of learning strategies, the teacher can prepare a questionnaire or survey to
gather information on how students complete an assignment on time, learn and retain
new words, or organize and learn from their notes. Class discussion then generates a
larger class list of strategies, to which the teacher may add additional techniques and
tips. The teacher can then round out the experience by asking students to write a reflection on growth and changes that have occurred in their learning process as a result of
the application of new learning strategies.
Literature Circles. Also known as literature study groups or book clubs, literature circles
provide an opportunity for a group of readers to get together to talk about a book in
depth. The literature circle allows students to engage in natural and motivating talk
about books while sharing ideas in a small-group setting.
Teachers can structure a variety of activities for the literature circle: for example, a
“parking lot” for thoughts and feelings about the book; questions to stimulate thinking
about the text and guide discussion; and concluding activities such as book talks, dramatic
presentations, or visual art that illustrates or interprets the text.
Literature circles offer an excellent forum for English language learners to become familiar
with ways of talking about literature as they share their responses to books and connect
characters and themes in books to their own lives.
Personal Dictionaries. This strategy allows individual English language learners to build
vocabulary that is significant to them and relevant to their needs. Students can compile
their personal dictionaries thematically or alphabetically, and can embellish them with
aids such as bilingual translations, visuals, and even accompanying pronunciation tapes
made with the aid of a first-language English speaker. A personal environmental print
collection is another form of personal dictionary helpful to students at the beginning
stages of English literacy development.
Students can be encouraged to extend the personal dictionary into a vocabulary journal
in which they jot down associations with words, common accompanying adjectives, and
contexts in which they have heard or read the words.
A personal dictionary task for more advanced learners might be to compile a personal
thesaurus with lists of different and more specific words to express nuances of very
general words: for example, move (crawl, jump, slither) or say (whisper, shout, mumble).
Even students who are at the beginning stages of English language learning can participate in role-play activities – for example, by choosing a non-verbal role-play format, or
by sticking closely to the script of a simple folk tale or story read in class. For students
at more advanced levels of English proficiency, a “vocabulary role play”, into which
the student must creatively integrate certain vocabulary items, can create an enjoyable
challenge.
An important phase in any role-play activity is the follow-up. Debriefing after a role
play allows students to analyse the role-play experience and the language used, and to
make suggestions for other language choices in future situations.
SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM PLANNING IN ESL AND ELD
Role Play. Role play allows students to simulate a variety of situations, using different
registers of language for different purposes and audiences. Through role plays, English
language learners can practise English as it is used in situations outside the classroom,
such as in job interviews, meetings, and formal gatherings. The role-play strategy also
allows students to take different perspectives on a situation, helping them to develop
sensitivity and understanding by putting themselves in the shoes of others.
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Sentence Frames. A sentence frame is an open-ended model of a particular sentence
pattern into which students can insert various words to complete the sentence. Sentence
frames help beginning English language learners to develop vocabulary as well as an
awareness of English sentence structure. Teachers can introduce sentence frames to focus
on various sentence structures such as questions: Where is the ___________ ?; or repeated
actions: Every day at 9:00, I ___________ ; every day at 10:00 I ___________ .
Students can compile their frame sentences into individual illustrated books; construct a
class pattern book on a shared theme such as favourite school subjects or sports; or create
class poems using sentence frames that can be read in rhythm (e.g., I like___________ ,
but I don’t like ___________ ).
Strategic Use of First Language. Strategic use of students’ first languages in the classroom
allows students the opportunity to build bridges between concepts they already know in
their home language and the English words for those concepts.
There are many ways to integrate the strategic use of students’ first languages into classroom activities. The following are some examples:
A small group of speakers of the same language can brainstorm ideas and information on a new topic in their first language before the whole class brainstorms in
English.
Students can write a first draft of a composition in their first language before
moving on to a draft version in English.
Students can collect articles from multilingual media sources on a common topic
before reading about the topic in English.
Students can write bilingual stories, folk tales, and autobiographies and then
record them on tape in English and the first language.
Students can create multilingual websites with multilingual captions and articles.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
A class can develop school or community information and orientation materials in
a variety of community languages.
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Surveys and Interviews. English language learners can engage in meaningful oral communication with each other and with others outside the classroom through the completion
of surveys and interviews. Students can collect information on many topics and issues:
for example, how classmates spend their time during an average day; languages and
countries of origin represented in the school; favourites from the world of music,
movies, or television; health and wellness lifestyle choices; steps that classmates and
friends are taking to decrease energy consumption; and cultural studies such as current
popular Canadian names for babies or new slang terms popular with peers.
Students need to prepare for, conduct, and follow up on surveys and interviews by
formulating questions; using oral interaction to collect data; and organizing, displaying,
and interpreting the results.
Interviews and surveys provide opportunities for authentic interaction with a wide
variety of speakers, as well as occasions for students to investigate behaviours and
opinions in order to increase their cultural knowledge of Canadian society.
Think-Aloud. In the think-aloud strategy, the teacher models out loud the strategies that
good readers use when dealing with complicated texts, or demonstrates orally various
strategies that writers use to think about and organize their writing. The think-aloud
strategy gives students a chance to “get inside” the thought processes behind the use of
reading and writing strategies.
For example, the teacher reads aloud a brief passage to the class and describes in detail
his or her own thinking process when an unknown word is encountered, including
using information from context clues and background knowledge that could help in
comprehending the new word. Or, when teaching writing, the teacher models aloud the
strategies used in writing an employment-search cover letter while composing the letter
on a chart, overhead transparency, or data-projector display. During this process, the
teacher verbalizes for students the step-by-step composition of the letter, while deliberately describing the strategies, vocabulary, and content chosen in the process of writing
the letter.
Total Physical Response. Total Physical Response is based on recreating the process
through which very young children acquire their first language. Young children learning
their first language always listen and acquire language before they are ready to speak.
Toddlers often develop comprehension through carrying out actual physical actions, and
are not pressured to speak before they are ready.
In the Total Physical Response technique, the teacher models a series of actions while
repeating commands or instructions for carrying out the actions. The students carry out
the actions while the teacher speaks and models the actions. Gradually, the teacher withdraws modelling of the actions, and the students respond physically to the English commands or instructions, slowly internalizing the English words and structures. Language
learning is thus facilitated through body movement in a fun and relaxed atmosphere.
There are many ways to implement the Total Physical Response strategy for beginning
English language learners. Teachers can lead students through a series of actions such as
the following:
pointing to or rearranging a series of objects
sequencing a series of pictures
carrying out a process such as completing a morning grooming routine, checking
e-mail, opening a locker, or heating liquid in a Bunsen burner in chemistry class
Total Physical Response sequences can form the basis for language-experience story
writing. Another extension is in storytelling, in which students first listen to a story read
and acted out by the teacher, after which groups act out the story on their own as the
teacher retells it to the class.
Whole-Class Response. This strategy allows the teacher to involve all students in the
class in giving responses to review questions. It supplies information to the teacher
about which students are having difficulty while allowing all English language learners
to participate in a low-stress, linguistically adapted activity that is fun for everyone.
SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM PLANNING IN ESL AND ELD
drawing lines, figures, or pictures
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Before beginning a question or review session, students create response cards with
content-specific words, symbols, or pictures from the lesson. Information on the cards
could consist of English vocabulary items, geographical names or features, scientific or
mathematical terms, or even the words yes and no. Then, in response to the teacher’s
questions or prompts, students hold up the appropriate card or combination of cards. A
similar whole-class response activity can be done using individual dry-erase boards or
magnetic letter boards.
Word Walls. Word walls are lists of words displayed in the classroom for vocabulary
development and word study. They can be arranged alphabetically or thematically, and
are often accompanied by drawings, photographs, and other visuals and/or by word
equivalents in other languages. A prominent word wall on a classroom unit of study
provides constant reference to and reinforcement of the vocabulary needed to understand the unit.
Teachers can use the word wall as a springboard for word sorting and categorization,
spelling activities, and the study of prefixes, suffixes, and word families.
PLANNING ESL AND ELD PROGRAMS FOR STUDENTS WITH
SPECIAL EDUCATION NEEDS
Classroom teachers are the key educators of students who have special education needs.
They have a responsibility to help all students learn, and they work collaboratively with
special education teachers, where appropriate, to achieve this goal. Special Education
Transformation: The Report of the Co-Chairs with the Recommendations of the Working Table
on Special Education, 2006 endorses a set of beliefs that should guide program planning
for students with special education needs in all disciplines. Those beliefs are as follows:
All students can succeed.
Universal design and differentiated instruction are effective and interconnected
means of meeting the learning or productivity needs of any group of students.
Successful instructional practices are founded on evidence-based research,
tempered by experience.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Classroom teachers are key educators for a student’s literacy and numeracy
development.
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Each student has his or her own unique patterns of learning.
Classroom teachers need the support of the larger community to create a learning
environment that supports students with special education needs.
Fairness is not sameness.
In any given classroom, students may demonstrate a wide range of learning styles and
needs. Teachers plan programs that recognize this diversity and give students performance tasks that respect their particular abilities so that all students can derive the greatest
possible benefit from the teaching and learning process. The use of flexible groupings for
instruction and the provision of ongoing assessment are important elements of programs
that accommodate a diversity of learning needs.
In planning ESL and ELD courses for students with special education needs, teachers
should begin by examining the current achievement level of the individual student, the
strengths and learning needs of the student, and the knowledge and skills that all students are expected to demonstrate at the end of the course in order to determine which
of the following options is appropriate for the student:
no accommodations2 or modifications; or
accommodations only; or
modified expectations, with the possibility of accommodations; or
alternative expectations, which are not derived from the curriculum expectations
for a course and which constitute alternative programs and/or courses.
If the student requires either accommodations or modified expectations, or both, the
relevant information, as described in the following paragraphs, must be recorded in
his or her Individual Education Plan (IEP). More detailed information about planning
programs for students with special education needs, including students who require
alternative programs and/or courses, can be found in The Individual Education Plan (IEP):
A Resource Guide, 2004 (referred to hereafter as the IEP Resource Guide, 2004). For a detailed
discussion of the ministry’s requirements for IEPs, see Individual Education Plans: Standards
for Development, Program Planning, and Implementation, 2000 (referred to hereafter as IEP
Standards, 2000). (Both documents are available at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca.)
Students Requiring Accommodations Only
Some students are able, with certain accommodations, to participate in the regular course
curriculum and to demonstrate learning independently. Accommodations allow access
to the course without any changes to the knowledge and skills the student is expected to
demonstrate. The accommodations required to facilitate the student’s learning must be
identified in his or her IEP (see IEP Standards, 2000, page 11). A student’s IEP is likely to
reflect the same accommodations for many, or all, subjects or courses.
There are three types of accommodations:
Instructional accommodations are changes in teaching strategies, including styles
of presentation, methods of organization, or use of technology and multimedia.
Environmental accommodations are changes that the student may require in the
classroom and/or school environment, such as preferential seating or special
lighting.
Assessment accommodations are changes in assessment procedures that enable the
student to demonstrate his or her learning, such as allowing additional time to
complete tests or assignments or permitting oral responses to test questions (see
page 29 of the IEP Resource Guide, 2004, for more examples).
2. “Accommodations” refers to individualized teaching and assessment strategies, human supports, and/or
individualized equipment.
SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM PLANNING IN ESL AND ELD
Providing accommodations to students with special education needs should be the first
option considered in program planning. Instruction based on principles of universal
design and differentiated instruction focuses on the provision of accommodations to
meet the diverse needs of learners.
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If a student requires “accommodations only” in ESL or ELD courses, assessment and
evaluation of his or her achievement will be based on the appropriate course curriculum
expectations and the achievement levels outlined in this document. The IEP box on the
student’s Provincial Report Card will not be checked, and no information on the provision of accommodations will be included.
Students Requiring Modified Expectations
Some students will require modified expectations, which differ from the regular course
expectations. For most students, modified expectations will be based on the regular
course curriculum, with changes in the number and/or complexity of the expectations.
Modified expectations represent specific, realistic, observable, and measurable achievements and describe specific knowledge and/or skills that the student can demonstrate
independently, given the appropriate assessment accommodations.
It is important to monitor, and to reflect clearly in the student’s IEP, the extent to which
expectations have been modified. As noted in section 7.12 of the ministry’s policy document Ontario Secondary Schools, Grades 9 to 12: Program and Diploma Requirements, 1999,
the principal will determine whether achievement of the modified expectations constitutes successful completion of the course, and will decide whether the student is eligible
to receive a credit for the course. This decision must be communicated to the parents
and the student.
When a student is expected to achieve most of the curriculum expectations for the
course, the modified expectations should identify how the required knowledge and skills
differ from those identified in the course expectations. When modifications are so extensive
that achievement of the learning expectations (knowledge, skills, and performance tasks)
is not likely to result in a credit, the expectations should specify the precise requirements or
tasks on which the student’s performance will be evaluated and which will be used to generate the course mark recorded on the Provincial Report Card.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Modified expectations indicate the knowledge and/or skills the student is expected to
demonstrate and have assessed in each reporting period (IEP Standards, 2000, pages 10
and 11). The student’s learning expectations must be reviewed in relation to the student’s progress at least once every reporting period, and must be updated as necessary
(IEP Standards, 2000, page 11).
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If a student requires modified expectations in ESL or ELD courses, assessment and evaluation of his or her achievement will be based on the learning expectations identified in
the IEP and on the achievement levels outlined in this document. If some of the student’s learning expectations for a course are modified but the student is working
towards a credit for the course, it is sufficient simply to check the IEP box on the
Provincial Report Card. If, however, the student’s learning expectations are modified to
such an extent that the principal deems that a credit will not be granted for the course,
the IEP box must be checked and the appropriate statement from the Guide to the
Provincial Report Card, Grades 9–12, 1999 (page 8) must be inserted. The teacher’s comments should include relevant information on the student’s demonstrated learning of
the modified expectations, as well as next steps for the student’s learning in the course.
ANTIDISCRIMINATION EDUCATION IN PROGRAMS FOR
ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS
The implementation of antidiscrimination principles in education influences all aspects
of school life. It promotes a school climate that encourages all students to work to high
standards, affirms the worth of all students, and helps them strengthen their sense of
identity and develop a positive self-image. It encourages staff and students alike to value
and show respect for diversity in the school and the wider society. It requires schools to
adopt measures to provide a safe environment for learning, free from harassment, violence,
and expressions of hate. Antidiscrimination education encourages students to think critically
about themselves and others in the world around them in order to promote fairness,
healthy relationships, and active, responsible citizenship.
The ESL and ELD program provides many opportunities to support the principles relating to antidiscrimination education. The ESL and ELD program should enable students
to recognize the contributions of various cultures to Canada including the unique role of
Aboriginal people in the historical and cultural development of the country. The wealth
of linguistic and cultural diversity in ESL and ELD classrooms allows students to share
information with each other about their own languages and cultures and about their
experiences of their native countries and as newcomers to Canada. This will help students
to develop a sense of personal identity and belonging. Teachers should seek to provide
inclusive learning resources and materials representing diverse cultures, backgrounds,
and experiences in order to reinforce students’ self-identity. Both students and teachers
should explore aspects of intercultural communication – for example, how different cultures interpret the use of eye contact and body language in conversation and during
presentations. Teachers should be aware of global events that may affect students and
that can also be used as opportunities for instruction.
In the ESL and ELD program, students develop the ability to detect negative bias and
stereotypes in literary texts and informational materials. They also learn to use inclusive
and non-discriminatory language in both oral and written work.
Active, responsible citizenship involves asking questions and challenging the status quo.
The ESL and ELD program leads students to look at issues of power and justice in society, and empowers them by enabling them to express themselves and to speak out about
issues that strongly affect them.
SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM PLANNING IN ESL AND ELD
Resources should be chosen not only to reflect the diversity of the student population but
also on the basis of their appeal for both girls and boys in the classroom. Recent international research has shown that many boys are interested in informational materials, such
as manuals and graphic texts, as opposed to works of fiction, which are often more
appealing to girls. Both sexes read Internet materials, such as website articles, e-mail,
and chat messages, outside the classroom. Me Read? No Way! A Practical Guide to
Improving Boys’ Literacy Skills (available on the Ministry of Education website) provides
a number of useful literacy strategies that focus on engaging boys in reading and writing
and that can enhance the learning environment for both girls and boys.
51
LITERACY, MATHEMATICAL LITERACY, AND INQUIRY/RESEARCH SKILLS
Literacy, mathematical literacy, and inquiry/research skills are critical to students’ success
in all subject areas of the curriculum and in all areas of their lives.
The Ministry of Education has produced or supported the production of a variety of literacy resource documents that teachers may find helpful as they plan programs based on
expectations outlined in this curriculum document. These resource documents include
the following:
Think Literacy Success, Grades 7–12: Report of the Expert Panel on Students at Risk in
Ontario, 2003
Think Literacy: Cross-Curricular Approaches, Grades 7–12 – Reading, Writing,
Communicating, 2003
Think Literacy: Cross-Curricular Approaches, Grades 7–12 – Subject-Specific Examples:
Media, Grades 7–10, 2005
Think Literacy: Teacher Librarians, Grades 7–9
Think Literacy: Cross-Curricular Approaches, Grades 7–12 – Subject-Specific Examples:
English as a Second Language/English Literacy Development, Part I, 2004
Think Literacy: Cross-Curricular Approaches, Grades 7–12 – Subject-Specific Examples:
English as a Second Language/English Literacy Development, Part II, 2005
The ESL and ELD curriculum reinforces and enhances certain aspects of the mathematics
curriculum. For example, clear, concise communication often involves the use of diagrams, charts, tables, and graphs, and the ESL and ELD curriculum emphasizes students’ ability to understand, interpret, and use graphic texts. Teachers may find the following resources useful in this context:
Leading Math Success: Mathematical Literacy, Grades 7–12: The Report of the Expert
Panel on Student Success in Ontario
TIPS for English Language Learners in Mathematics, Grades 7, 8, 9 Applied, 10 Applied
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
All of the resources cited are available on the Ministry of Education website, at
www.edu.gov.on.ca.
52
Inquiry is at the heart of learning in all subject areas. In ESL and ELD courses, students
will develop their ability to pose questions and to explore a variety of possible answers
to those questions. Students will develop research skills in order to locate, extract, and
organize information for learning projects and goals. They will learn how to locate relevant information in a variety of print and electronic sources, including books and articles,
manuals, newspapers, websites, databases, tables, diagrams, and charts. As they advance
through the course levels, students will be expected to use these sources with increasing
sophistication, including acquiring the ability to reword information to avoid plagiarism.
They will also be expected to cite and evaluate critically the sources they use in their
research.
THE ROLE OF THE SCHOOL LIBRARY IN ESL AND ELD PROGRAMS
The school library program can help to build and transform students’ knowledge to
support lifelong learning in our information- and knowledge-based society. The school
library program supports student success across the language curriculum by encouraging
students to read widely, teaching them to read for understanding and enjoyment, and
helping them to improve their research skills and to use information gathered through
research effectively. The school library program enables students to:
develop a love of reading for learning and for pleasure;
acquire an understanding of the richness and diversity of literary and informational texts produced in Canada and around the world;
obtain access to programs, resources, and integrated technologies that support all
curriculum areas;
understand and value the role of public library systems as a resource for lifelong
learning;
obtain access to materials in their first language that will help clarify concepts and
support their learning while they are developing proficiency in English.
The school library program plays a key role in the development of information literacy
and research skills. In collaboration with classroom or content-area teachers, teacherlibrarians develop, teach, and provide students with authentic information and research
tasks that foster learning, including the ability to:
locate, select, gather, critically evaluate, create, and communicate information;
use the information obtained to solve problems, make decisions, build knowledge,
create personal meaning, and enrich their lives;
communicate their findings for different audiences, using a variety of formats and
technologies;
use information and research with understanding, responsibility, and imagination.
THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY IN ESL AND ELD PROGRAMS
Whenever appropriate, therefore, students should be encouraged to use ICT to support
and communicate their learning. For example, students working individually or in
groups can use computer technology and/or Internet websites to gain access to museums and archives in Canada and around the world. Students can also use digital cameras and projectors to design and present the results of their research to their classmates.
SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM PLANNING IN ESL AND ELD
Information and communications technologies (ICT) provide a range of tools that can
significantly extend and enrich teachers’ instructional strategies and support students’
language learning. Computer programs can help students collect, organize, and sort the
data they gather, and write, edit, and present reports on their findings. Information and
communications technologies can also be used to connect students to other schools, at
home and abroad, and to bring the global community into the local classroom.
53
Teachers, too, will find the various ICT tools useful in their teaching practice, both for
whole class instruction and for the design of curriculum units that contain varied
approaches to learning to meet diverse student needs.
Although the Internet is a powerful learning tool, there are potential risks attached to its
use. All students must be made aware of issues of Internet privacy, safety, and responsible use, as well as of the ways in which this technology is being abused – for example,
when it is used to promote hatred.
CAREER EDUCATION
English language learners require special attention in the area of career education. These
students need guidance in exploring the full range of educational and career opportunities available to them in their new country and/or educational setting. In addition to
offering classroom activities that build on the strengths, abilities, and language that
students bring with them, teachers should adapt career education materials as needed
and provide students with career-related opportunities such as career research, job
shadowing, and field trips.
COOPERATIVE EDUCATION
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Cooperative education and other workplace experiences, such as job shadowing, field
trips, and work experience, enable students to apply the skills they have developed in
the classroom to real-life experiences. Cooperative education and other workplace
experiences also help to broaden students’ knowledge of employment opportunities in
a wide range of fields. In addition, students develop their understanding of workplace
practices, certifications, and the nature of employer-employee relations.
54
English language learners need special consideration and support in order to take
advantage of the opportunities offered by cooperative education and other workplace
experiences. Their level of proficiency in English and their experience in Canadian
society must be considered in order to place them appropriately in cooperative education, work experience, and community service programs. The adults with whom students will interact need to be sensitive to the students’ needs as newcomers to Canada.
Some students may benefit from being placed with mentors from their own culture who
can serve as role models and who can provide support and guidance in the students’
first languages as well as in English. English language learners also bring valuable talents to the community and the workplace, and their language backgrounds and cultural
knowledge may be a special asset. For example, with appropriate training, students may
be able to provide valuable bilingual services in the school or in neighbouring elementary schools.
Health and safety issues must be addressed when learning involves cooperative education and other workplace experiences. Teachers who provide support for students in
workplace learning placements need to assess placements for safety and ensure that
students understand the importance of issues relating to health and safety in the workplace. Before taking part in workplace learning experiences, students must acquire the
knowledge and skills needed for safe participation. Students must understand their
rights to privacy and confidentiality as outlined in the Freedom of Information and
Protection of Privacy Act. They have the right to function in an environment free from
abuse and harassment, and they need to be aware of harassment and abuse issues in
establishing boundaries for their own personal safety.
Students should be informed about school and community resources and school policies
and reporting procedures with respect to all forms of abuse and harassment. Policy/Program
Memorandum No. 76A,“Workplace Safety and Insurance Coverage for Students in Work
Education Programs” (September 2000), outlines procedures for ensuring the provision
of Health and Safety Insurance Board coverage for students who are at least fourteen
years of age and are on placements of more than one day. (A one-day job-shadowing or
job-twinning experience is treated as a field trip.) Teachers should also be aware of the
minimum age requirements outlined in the Occupational Health and Safety Act for persons to be in or to be working in specific workplace settings. Relevant ministry policies are
outlined in Cooperative Education and Other Forms of Experiential Learning: Policies and
Procedures for Ontario Secondary Schools, 2000.
All cooperative education and other workplace experience will be provided in accordance
with the ministry’s policy document entitled Cooperative Education and Other Forms of
Experiential Learning: Policies and Procedures for Ontario Secondary Schools, 2000.
THE ONTARIO SKILLS PASSPORT AND ESSENTIAL SKILLS
The skills described in the OSP are the Essential Skills that the Government of Canada
and other national and international agencies have identified and validated, through
extensive research, as the skills needed for work, learning, and life. The Essential Skills
provide the foundation for learning all other skills and enable people to evolve with
their jobs and adapt to workplace change. For further information on the OSP and the
Essential Skills, visit: http://skills.edu.gov.on.ca.
SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM PLANNING IN ESL AND ELD
Teachers planning programs in ESL and ELD need to be aware of the purpose and benefits of the Ontario Skills Passport (OSP). The OSP is a bilingual, Web-based resource that
enhances the relevance of classroom learning for students and strengthens school−work
connections. The OSP provides clear descriptions of “Essential Skills”, such as Reading
Text, Writing, Computer Use, Measurement and Calculation, and Problem Solving, and
includes an extensive database of occupation-specific workplace tasks that illustrate how
workers use these skills on the job. The Essential Skills are transferable, in that they are
used in virtually all occupations. The OSP also includes descriptions of important work
habits, such as working safely, being reliable, and providing excellent customer service.
The OSP is designed to help employers assess and record students’ demonstration of
these skills and work habits during their cooperative-education placements. Students
can use the OSP to identify the skills and work habits they already have, plan further
skill development, and show employers what they can do.
55
HEALTH AND SAFETY IN ESL AND ELD
Students who are recent arrivals from other countries may need special health and safety
information while they are learning the language of instruction. The ESL and ELD program
should include health and safety topics, especially in Level 1 and 2 courses. For example,
students should learn to read warning signs and notices and respond appropriately to
them, and should be made familiar with emergency procedures at school and in the
community. Some newcomer students who are adjusting to new foods and ways of buying, storing, and preparing food need information about nutrition and food shopping
(e.g., expiry dates, nutritional labelling). Other topics that should be covered include
appropriate names for parts of the body and biological processes, and health-care services. It is important to value cultural differences in these areas while ensuring that students receive key information related to their health and well-being.
Beginning learners of English in courses in technological education, social science and
humanities, health and physical education, the arts, and science will need special instruction regarding safety procedures. A peer who speaks a student’s first language or a
shared common language may be partnered with the newcomer to provide assistance
when necessary. Signs and notices in students’ own languages and/or visual illustrations
of safety procedures will also be helpful.
Emotional health is as important as physical health and safety. The experience of immigration, even in the best of circumstances, involves feelings of loss and disorientation for
many. ESL and ELD programs should include topics related to the adjustment process
that students experience during their first few years in a new country. As well, teachers
need to be especially sensitive to the special needs of students who have experienced
the effects of war, the death of family members, family separation, and traumatic flight
from situations of extreme danger.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Health and safety issues may come to the fore when learning involves field trips.
Out-of-school field trips provide an exciting and authentic dimension to English language learners’ school experiences. They also take the teacher and student out of the
predictable classroom environment and into unfamiliar settings. Teachers must preview
and plan activities and expeditions carefully to protect students’ health and safety.
56
COURSES
English as a Second Language
ESL Level 1
Open
ESLAO
This course builds on students’ previous education and language knowledge to
introduce them to the English language and help them adjust to the diversity in
their new environment. Students will use beginning English language skills in
listening, speaking, reading, and writing for everyday and essential academic
purposes. They will engage in short conversations using basic English language
structures and simple sentence patterns; read short adapted texts; and write
phrases and short sentences. The course also provides students with the
knowledge and skills they need to begin to adapt to their new lives in Canada.
ESL
Level 1, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
demonstrate the ability to understand, interpret, and evaluate spoken English for a variety of
purposes;
2.
use speaking skills and strategies to communicate in English for a variety of classroom and social
purposes;
3.
use correctly the language structures appropriate for this level to communicate orally in English.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Developing Listening
Comprehension
By the end of this course, students will:
Listening for Specific Information
1.1 demonstrate comprehension of specific infor-
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
mation in simple directions, instructions, and
short classroom presentations on personal and
familiar topics, with contextual and visual
support (e.g., respond non-verbally to classroom
directions; follow a series of Total Physical
Response commands to arrange objects; follow
directions to order a group of pictures; retell key
events from a simple story read aloud; arrange
symbols on a map while following a short,
visually supported teacher presentation)
60
Listening to Interact
1.2 demonstrate understanding of clearly articulated, simple English on personal and familiar
topics in highly structured interactive situations (e.g., answer questions about personal
information, interests, and experiences; participate in paired and small-group exchanges on
familiar topics; take part in a think-pair-share
session)
2. Developing Fluency in Speaking
By the end of this course, students will:
Speaking to Interact
2.1 engage in simple spoken interactions on personal and familiar topics (e.g., ask and respond
to simple questions about name, age, family,
favourite school subjects, weather, leisure activities, and places and services in the community;
express likes and dislikes related to particular
food, music, and recreational activities; play simple interactive games such as “Broken Telephone”
or “Twenty Questions”)
Using Conversational Strategies
2.2 use a few familiar conversational expressions
and simple non-verbal communication cues
to negotiate simple spoken interactions (e.g.,
simple courtesy expressions such as “Please”,
“Thank you”, “I’m sorry”, “Can I help you?”;
attention-getting expressions such as “Excuse
me”, “Could I please have …” ; conversationclosing expressions such as “It was nice to meet
you”, “Sorry, I have to go now”; non-verbal cues
such as nodding and head shaking)
Speaking for Academic Purposes
2.3 present ideas and information orally for academic purposes in simple, highly structured
situations (e.g., identify science equipment and
explain content area concepts such as geometric
shapes and mathematical operations while referring to a student-created poster; tell part of a
story in a round-robin storytelling activity; retell
key events from a photo montage or picture
sequence)
Teacher prompt: “Please tell the class five
facts (or things) about your topic. Use your
poster to help you explain.”
3. Developing Accuracy in Speaking
Grammatical Structures
3.1 use correctly the grammatical structures of
spoken English appropriate for this level (see
the Language Reference Chart for ESL Level 1
on pages 68–69)
Teacher prompt: “How do you make the
word ‘chair’ show more than one (or plural)?
How do you make the word ‘water’ plural?
How are they different? Why?”
Sound Patterns
3.2 use appropriately a few basic pronunciation,
stress, rhythm, and intonation patterns of
spoken English to communicate meaning
accurately (e.g., distinguish between short and
long vowels [lip/line]; consonants and consonant clusters [tea/tree/three]; and voiced and
unvoiced consonants [bit/pit]); finish statements
with falling intonation and questions with rising
intonation)
English as a Second Language
By the end of this course, students will:
ESLAO
Teacher prompt: “Listen to my voice when I
read these questions. What do you hear at
the end of each question? Move your hands
to show what my voice does.”
Communication Strategies
3.3 use a few basic clarification strategies appropriately to bridge gaps in spoken communication (e.g., use gestures and mime to clarify
meaning; ask for repetition when they do not
understand a message)
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
61
ESL
Level 1, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
READING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
3.
4.
read and demonstrate understanding of a variety of texts for different purposes;
use a variety of reading strategies throughout the reading process to extract meaning from texts;
use a variety of strategies to build vocabulary;
locate and extract relevant information from written and graphic texts for a variety of purposes.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Reading for Meaning
By the end of this course, students will:
Reading a Variety of Texts
1.1 read a few different types of simple texts
designed or adapted for English language
learners (e.g., written instructions, group
language-experience stories, simple personal
information forms, brief information paragraphs,
levelled readers)
Demonstrating Understanding
1.2 demonstrate an understanding of simple texts
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
in a variety of ways (e.g., follow a recipe; participate in a group retell activity; order words or
sentence strips in a pocket chart; match Canada’s
provinces and territories with their capital cities)
62
Responding to and Evaluating Texts
1.3 respond to simple texts created or adapted
for English language learners (e.g., create a
pictorial representation of a story; write a journal
entry about a text; take part in a dramatic
tableau or an enactment of a text in reader’s
theatre)
Text Forms
1.4 identify the characteristics of some simple
text forms (e.g., instructions: numbered steps;
telephone and address listings: alphabetical order
by surname; timetables: date, name of activity;
product labels: expiry date, bar code; checklists:
columns and rows; greeting cards: identification
of purpose, such as “birthday”, “thank you”;
simple poems: line breaks, end-of-line rhymes)
Literary Elements
1.5 identify some simple literary elements in
short prose texts and simple poems on familiar topics (e.g., rhyming words, descriptive
adjectives, repeated words)
Teacher prompt: “What words do you see
repeated (or used again and again or used
more than one time) in this poem? Why do
you think the author repeated those words?”
2. Using Reading Comprehension
Strategies
By the end of this course, students will:
Reading Strategies
2.1 use a few reading comprehension strategies
before, during, and after reading to understand texts (e.g., preview vocabulary; create key
questions as a class before reading; brainstorm
and relate prior knowledge and experiences to
topics in texts; apply sight recognition and phonetic decoding to read words and sentences; use
pictorial clues to predict meaning; reread key
words to clarify meaning)
Teacher prompt: “How does the picture help
you to understand or guess what the paragraph (or written text) will be about?”
Text Features
2.2 identify some features of simple texts that
help convey meaning (e.g., titles, headlines,
illustrations and photographs, captions and
labels, charts, graphs, symbols, page numbers,
table of contents)
Connecting Devices
2.3 identify a few simple connecting devices and
Grammatical Structures
2.4 demonstrate an understanding of the grammatical structures of English used in texts
appropriate for this level (see the Language
Reference Chart for ESL Level 1 on pages 68–69)
3. Developing Vocabulary
By the end of this course, students will:
Vocabulary Building Strategies
3.1 use a few simple vocabulary acquisition
strategies to build vocabulary (e.g., use pictures
and illustrations to clarify meaning; make word
lists of personally relevant vocabulary [“locker”,
“hockey”, “mosque”]; compile thematic lists of
key concept vocabulary for classroom study
[“journal”, “topic”, “assessment”]; use bilingual
stories to infer meanings of English words)
Teacher prompt: “What strategies help you
(what do you do) to learn and remember
new words?”
Word Recognition Strategies
3.2 recognize simple patterns of word structure
and/or confirm the meaning of unfamiliar
words (e.g., use pictorial and bilingual dictionaries, classroom word walls, and personal word
banks to confirm or clarify meaning; check
meaning with a first-language partner)
4. Developing Research Skills
By the end of this course, students will:
Locating Information
4.1 locate key information relating to the school
and community in a variety of simple texts
(e.g., posters, notices, telephone directories, websites, schedules, diagrams, maps, first-language
sources such as multilingual school handbooks)
Extracting and Organizing Information
4.2 extract and organize key facts from informational texts designed or adapted for beginning
learners of English (e.g., find words in learner
dictionaries by using alphabetical order; complete
a simple chart of First Nation peoples in Canada
and the regions where they originated)
English as a Second Language
transition words that are used to show relationships among ideas in simple texts (e.g.,
numbered or bulleted steps in a process or list;
transition words such as “and”, “but”, “then”,
“because”)
Use of Resources
3.3 use a few different resources to determine
ESLAO
Critical Thinking
4.3 identify the source of information used (e.g.,
Ministry of Transportation map of Ontario;
Citizenship and Immigration Canada brochure;
Internet schedule of local transit company; store
or company flyer)
and use them to determine the meaning of
unfamiliar words (e.g., regular and irregular
plural noun endings, regular present and past
tense verb endings, regular comparative and
superlative adjective endings)
READING
63
ESL
Level 1, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
WRITING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
3.
write in a variety of forms for different purposes and audiences;
4.
use the stages of the writing process.
organize ideas coherently in writing;
use correctly the conventions of written English appropriate for this level, including grammar, usage,
spelling, and punctuation;
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Writing for Different Purposes
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
Academic Purposes
1.1 write short texts to convey information and
Organizing Ideas
2.1 organize information in chronological, sequen-
ideas for academic purposes using a few
simple forms (e.g., create a group languageexperience story about a tour of the school; write
and sequence captions for a series of photographs
of a class activity; compose a guided autobiographical narrative; complete a short cloze
passage using a word bank; write an acrostic
or concrete poem following a model)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Personal Purposes
1.2 write short texts to express ideas and feelings
64
2. Organizing Ideas in Writing
on personal and familiar topics using a few
simple forms (e.g., create greeting cards; write
e-mail messages to classmates and e-pals; complete a summer school registration form; write
a simple postcard to a friend; write a brief telephone message or note; produce a journal entry
following a model)
Community and Workplace Purposes
1.3 write short texts to communicate basic personal
information and ideas using a few simple forms
(e.g., fill in an application for a library card or
transit pass; request brochures and information
from online agencies; compile a personal “to-do”
list for the first months at school; compose a
thank-you note for a class visitor using sentence
scaffolds)
tial, or spatial order in a scaffolded paragraph
(e.g., write about daily routines and descriptions
of home or classroom using a teacher-provided
model; write travel directions or the procedure
for opening a locker using sentence scaffolds)
Linking Ideas
2.2 use connecting devices and transition words
and phrases to show simple chronological,
sequential, spatial, and causal relationships
(e.g., use simple connectives such as “and”,
“then”, “after” to link ideas; use modifiers such
as “beside”, “under”, “on the right side” to
indicate spatial relationships; use “because”
to indicate cause and effect)
3. Developing Accuracy in Writing
By the end of this course, students will:
Grammatical Structures
3.1 use correctly the grammatical structures and
conventions of written English appropriate for
this level (see the Language Reference Chart for
ESL Level 1 on pages 68–69)
Spelling Strategies
3.2 use some simple spelling strategies to spell
4. Using the Writing Process
By the end of this course, students will:
Using Pre-writing Strategies
4.1 use a few pre-writing strategies to generate
vocabulary and develop and organize ideas
for writing (e.g., brainstorm and record ideas on
a topic; view non-narrative films and visuals for
information; use their first language to generate
ideas; draw or sketch to formulate thoughts)
Teacher prompt: “How does jotting (or writing) down ideas in your first language help
you to prepare (or get ready) for writing?”
Producing Drafts
4.2 produce draft pieces of writing, following a
model provided by the teacher (e.g., sentence
frames; a model paragraph; a cloze paragraph;
a scaffolded paragraph)
directed strategies (e.g., use a teacher-prepared
checklist; participate in a teacher-student
conference)
Publishing
4.4 use a few elements of effective presentation
to publish a final product (e.g., legible printing
and cursive writing, titles, margins, spacing,
drawings, captions, simple labels, different font
sizes and colours to attract the eye)
Metacognition
4.5 identify and use a few writing strategies
before, during, and after writing, and reflect
after writing on the strategies they found
most helpful (e.g., respond to teacher prompts
during a writing conference; use a vocabulary
list for quickly referring to new words)
English as a Second Language
words accurately (e.g., consult class word walls
and personal word lists of high-frequency words;
employ common and predictable English soundsymbol relationships and spelling patterns)
Revising and Editing
4.3 revise, edit, and proofread drafts, using teacher-
Teacher prompt: “How did our conference
(or meeting, talk) help you with your
writing?”
ESLAO
WRITING
65
ESL
Level 1, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
SOCIO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE
AND MEDIA LITERACY
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
use English and non-verbal communication strategies appropriately in a variety of social contexts;
3.
4.
demonstrate knowledge of and adaptation to the Ontario education system;
demonstrate an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of Canadian citizenship, and of the
contributions of diverse groups to Canadian society;
demonstrate an understanding of, interpret, and create a variety of media texts.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Using English in Socially and
Culturally Appropriate Ways
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
Register
1.1 determine and use the appropriate language
Knowledge About Canada
2.1 demonstrate knowledge of some basic facts
register in a few social and classroom contexts
(e.g., use common social greetings and courtesies
with peers and teachers; obtain a teacher’s attention in an appropriate manner; take turns with
peers in conversations and classroom discussions;
conclude a brief conversation in an appropriate
manner)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Non-verbal Communication
1.2 use a few non-verbal communication cues
66
2. Developing Awareness of Canada,
Citizenship, and Diversity
appropriately in classroom contexts (e.g.,
use an appropriate speech volume to suit the
particular situation; nod to indicate agreement;
make appropriate eye contact with teachers
and classmates)
about Canada (e.g., identify Canada’s regions,
provinces, territories, and capital cities; identify
some Canadian symbols, animals, attractions,
and sports; communicate information about
common Canadian observances and holidays
such as Remembrance Day and Canada Day)
Canadian Citizenship
2.2 demonstrate knowledge of a few basic elements
of Canadian citizenship (e.g., explain the symbolism of the Canadian flag; say or sing the words
to the Canadian national anthem; demonstrate
awareness of and respect for diversity of culture,
language, physical and intellectual ability, age,
gender, and sexual orientation; identify elements
that should be included in a code of behaviour
for a Canadian classroom)
Canadian Diversity
2.3 communicate information about some basic
social forms and practices that may vary
from culture to culture (e.g., naming customs,
forms of address, relationship to elders, responsibilities within the home, celebrations)
Teacher prompt: “How did you get your
name? What does your name mean in your
language?”
3. Adapting to School Life in Ontario
4. Developing Media Knowledge
and Skills
Knowledge of the Ontario Secondary School
System
3.1 describe a few procedures and rules in use
in the Ontario secondary school system
(e.g., school attendance procedures, emergency
procedures, the school code of conduct, appropriate dress at school, appropriate ways to address
school staff, responsibility for textbooks and
lockers, procedures for field trips)
Teacher prompt: “What are some rules we
always follow in this school?”
Study Skills and Strategies
3.2 use appropriate notebook conventions and
formats in all subject areas (e.g., dates, titles,
headings, dividers)
Strategies for the Cooperative Classroom
3.3 work cooperatively with a partner or in a
group (e.g., use appropriate behaviour in coeducational, mixed age, or mixed cultural groupings,
including showing equal respect for male and
female classmates)
By the end of this course, students will:
Understanding Media Texts
4.1 view, read, and listen to simple media texts to
obtain information and complete assigned
tasks (e.g., report the weather as forecast on television; compile sports scores from the newspaper;
obtain transportation schedules from websites;
scan flyers to price school supplies)
Interpreting Media Texts
4.2 identify the purpose and intended audience
of a few different types of media texts (e.g.,
advertising flyers, travel brochures, settlement
services pamphlets, DVDs, websites)
English as a Second Language
By the end of this course, students will:
Creating Media Texts
4.3 create simple media texts for a few different
purposes (e.g., posters or brochures about the
school or community, a collage on first impressions of Canada)
ESLAO
Knowledge of School and Community Resources
3.4 identify a few school and community resources
that are available to support learning (e.g., key
school staff and locations, school guidance services, school settlement workers, newcomer
resources available from www.settlement.org,
school and public libraries)
SOCIO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE AND MEDIA LITERACY
Teacher prompt: “How can you find school
and community resources (or help, services,
information) in your home (or first) language? Can you bring some in to share with
the class?”
67
Language Reference Chart – ESL Level 1
ESL Level 1, Open
This chart shows the structures that students are expected to learn through work done in all four strands.
These structures should be taught in context rather than in isolation (e.g., as part of a food unit, students
learn the difference between count and non-count nouns by surveying the foods found in their homes).
I. Grammatical Structures
Nouns
count: singular and plural of regular and high-frequency irregular nouns
(e.g., table/tables, child/children)
non-count (e.g., water, money, bread, coffee, sugar)
possessive form of proper nouns (e.g., Pablo’s hat)
articles a, an, the
Numbers
cardinal
ordinal (e.g., first, fifth, twentieth)
Pronouns
subject: I, you, he, she, it, we, they
object: me, you, him, her, it, us, them
demonstrative: this/these, that/those
impersonal expressions: It + be (e.g., It’s noisy in the classroom.)
Verbs
be (e.g., I am a student.)
there is/are
have (e.g., I have a sister.)
can: for ability and permission (e.g., I can dance. I can go to the dance.)
simple present (e.g., I live in Canada.)
simple past regular verbs (e.g., They talked to me.)
simple past high-frequency irregular verbs (e.g., He came late.)
simple future (e.g., We will meet in the library.)
present progressive (e.g., She is sitting.)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
contractions with be, do (e.g., She’s sitting. We don’t like that music.)
68
imperative forms (e.g., Come in. Sit down.)
let’s (e.g., Let’s ask the teacher.)
Adjectives
possessive: my, your, his, her, its, our, their
high-frequency (e.g., red, big, rainy, young, Canadian, round)
comparative/ superlative (e.g., taller/tallest; happier/happiest)
some, any, every, all
Adverbs
used to modify adjectives (e.g., very tall, really late)
some adverbs of frequency and time (e.g., today, always, never,
sometimes, then)
too
I. Grammatical Structures (continued)
conjunctions: and, but, or, because
Question forms
yes/no (e.g., Are you a student? Yes, I am/No, I’m not. Do you live in Canada? Yes,
I do/No, I don’t. Did they talk to you? Yes, they did/No, they didn’t. Will you join
our group? Yes, I will/No, I won’t.)
information questions: what, where, when, who, why, how
Negation
be in simple present (e.g., He is not here/He isn’t here.)
do (e.g., We don’t like that. It doesn’t work. We didn’t watch the game.)
will (e.g., They won’t eat these cookies.)
Prepositions
of location (e.g., in, on, at, under, beside, on the right/left)
of direction (e.g., to, from)
of time (e.g., at, before, after, on, in)
Sentences
simple sentence: subject + verb + object or prepositional phrase
(e.g., She reads books. She reads in the classroom.)
II. Conventions of Print
Punctuation
English as a Second Language
Transition words
and phrases
ESLAO
final punctuation: period, question mark, exclamation mark
apostrophe: contractions and possessive forms (e.g., He’s buying a hat.
The boy’s hat is red.)
Capitalization
first word in a sentence (initial capitalization)
proper nouns (e.g., names of people and places)
LANGUAGE REFERENCE CHART – ESL LEVEL 1
69
English as a Second Language
ESL Level 2
Open
ESLBO
This course extends students’ listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in English
for everyday and academic purposes. Students will participate in conversations in
structured situations on a variety of familiar and new topics; read a variety of texts
designed or adapted for English language learners; expand their knowledge of
English grammatical structures and sentence patterns; and link English sentences to
compose paragraphs. The course also supports students’ continuing adaptation
to the Ontario school system by expanding their knowledge of diversity in their new
province and country.
ESL
Level 2, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
demonstrate the ability to understand, interpret, and evaluate spoken English for a variety
of purposes;
2.
use speaking skills and strategies to communicate in English for a variety of classroom and social
purposes;
3.
use correctly the language structures appropriate for this level to communicate orally in English.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Developing Listening
Comprehension
2. Developing Fluency in Speaking
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
Listening for Specific Information
1.1 demonstrate comprehension of specific
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
information in directions, instructions, and
classroom presentations on familiar and new
topics, with contextual and visual support
(e.g., follow directions in barrier language games;
obtain specific information over the telephone
such as bus departure times, entertainment
schedules, and business opening and closing
hours; list key ideas from school announcements;
complete a graphic organizer with information
from a classroom presentation)
72
Listening to Interact
1.2 demonstrate understanding of clearly articulated, simple English on personal and familiar
topics in structured interactive situations (e.g.,
use the telephone to check prices of Science Fair
project materials; participate in a “Find Someone
Who” activity; interview a classmate in order to
introduce him or her to the larger group)
Speaking to Interact
2.1 engage in structured spoken interactions on
personal and familiar topics (e.g., play barrier
language games; participate in an inside-outside
circle; offer and respond to greetings, invitations,
compliments, and apologies)
Using Conversational Strategies
2.2 use some common conversational expressions
and appropriate non-verbal communication
cues to negotiate structured spoken interactions (e.g., non-verbal cues such as nodding,
maintaining eye contact, and making encouraging noises; polite expressions of agreement such
as “Right”, “That’s fine”, “Sure”; expressions of
apology or regret such as “I’m sorry about that”,
“I’ll try not to ...”)
Teacher prompt: “Think about a time when
you needed to apologize (or say ‘sorry’) to a
friend. What expressions (or words) did you
use? What else can you say in this situation?”
Speaking for Academic Purposes
2.3 present ideas and information orally for academic purposes in structured situations (e.g.,
use subject-specific or key vocabulary to explain
the solution to a mathematics problem or to
describe aspects of traditional life of some
Aboriginal peoples; tell a brief story about an
imaginary or real event following a model
provided by the teacher)
3. Developing Accuracy in Speaking
Grammatical Structures
3.1 use correctly the grammatical structures of
spoken English appropriate for this level
(see the Language Reference Chart for ESL
Level 2 on pages 80–81)
Teacher prompt: “Tell your partner about a
time when you felt like the character in this
novel. Remember to use the past tense when
you are talking about something that happened before.”
Sound Patterns
3.2 use appropriately some basic pronunciation,
stress, rhythm, and intonation patterns of spoken English to communicate meaning accurately (e.g., pronounce final consonant sounds in
past-tense verbs [liked, wanted, answered] and
in plurals [books, pens, wishes]; stress the first
syllable of most compound words [backpack,
cupcake, toothpaste]; articulate consonant sounds
for increased comprehensibility [tank, thank])
English as a Second Language
By the end of this course, students will:
ESLBO
Communication Strategies
3.3 use some basic clarification and repair strategies to bridge gaps in spoken communication
(e.g., ask for confirmation that a word used is
correct; use pause fillers, such as “Well … um …
oh …”, to gain time to organize thoughts; start
again using different phrasing when listeners
seem confused; use rehearsed phrases from a list
of learned expressions)
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
73
ESL
Level 2, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
READING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
3.
4.
read and demonstrate understanding of a variety of texts for different purposes;
use a variety of reading strategies throughout the reading process to extract meaning from texts;
use a variety of strategies to build vocabulary;
locate and extract relevant information from written and graphic texts for a variety of purposes.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Reading for Meaning
By the end of this course, students will:
Reading a Variety of Texts
1.1 read a number of different types of literary,
informational, and graphic texts designed or
adapted for English language learners (e.g.,
folk tales from diverse cultures; letters; informational books and series; materials with graphs,
tables, and charts; levelled readers; poetry)
Demonstrating Understanding
1.2 demonstrate an understanding of a number of
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
different types of adapted texts in a variety of
ways (e.g., sequence events in a story; participate
in teacher-led discussions about texts; retell content; complete a cloze passage; state the main
idea of a short, adapted text containing familiar
vocabulary and content)
74
Responding to and Evaluating Texts
1.3 respond to simplified or adapted texts in a
variety of ways (e.g., explain why they like a
particular book; participate in an informal class
discussion about a text; compose an “in-role”
diary based on a story character; explain how
a text relates to their personal experience)
Text Forms
1.4 identify the characteristics of a number of
different text forms (e.g., salutation and closing
in a personal letter, sequence of information in
a classified advertisement, the “five W’s” format
of a simple newspaper article, dialogue in a
narrative)
Teacher prompt: “What are some characteristics of a newspaper article? What are some of
the differences between this newspaper article
and an article in your first language?”
Literary Elements
1.5 identify a number of literary elements in short
prose, poems, and dialogues (e.g., evocative
descriptions of setting, adjectives that create a
mood or describe character traits, the syllable
patterns of a haiku)
Teacher prompt: “Which words in the first
paragraph tell you that this is a sad story?”
2. Using Reading Comprehension
Strategies
By the end of this course, students will:
Reading Strategies
2.1 use a number of reading comprehension strategies before, during, and after reading to
understand texts (e.g., activate prior knowledge
through a concept web; preview visually supported text; use graphophonic cues to construct meaning; guess meanings of unfamiliar words using
context clues)
Text Features
2.2 identify specific features of adapted texts and
use them to locate and extract information
(e.g., table of contents, index, glossary, tables,
charts, diagrams, maps, headlines, title page,
icons, text box)
Teacher prompt: “What is the purpose of the
coloured box on page ___?”
Connecting Devices
2.3 identify some common connecting devices
Grammatical Structures
2.4 demonstrate an understanding of the grammatical structures of English used in texts
appropriate for this level (see the Language
Reference Chart for ESL Level 2 on pages 80–81)
3. Developing Vocabulary
By the end of this course, students will:
Vocabulary Building Strategies
3.1 use a number of vocabulary acquisition strategies to build vocabulary (e.g., use context
clues to infer meaning; use word order in a sentence to help determine meaning; find a synonym
for an unfamiliar word; create a notebook of
vocabulary related to various subject areas such
as mathematics or a branch of technological
studies)
Word Recognition Strategies
3.2 use knowledge of patterns of word structure
to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words
(e.g., a familiar word within a compound word,
common prefixes and suffixes, word families)
Teacher prompt: “What English word do you
see inside this larger word? How does knowing the meaning of the smaller word help you
to figure out the meaning of this new word?”
mine and/or confirm the meaning of unfamiliar words (e.g., refer to personal word banks or
notebooks and learner and bilingual dictionaries;
do word category sorts from classroom word
walls; check meaning with a partner)
4. Developing Research Skills
By the end of this course, students will:
Locating Information
4.1 locate information for a variety of purposes in
simplified or adapted informational and
graphic texts selected in collaboration with
the teacher-librarian (e.g., abridged or modified
versions of science and geography series, online
databases, first-language sources)
English as a Second Language
and transition words and phrases that are
used to show relationships among ideas in
adapted texts (e.g., first, second, finally; since;
similar to, different from)
Use of Resources
3.3 use a number of different resources to deter-
Extracting and Organizing Information
4.2 extract information from informational and
graphic texts designed or adapted for English
language learners, and organize it using a
graphic organizer (e.g., complete a T-chart of
Canadian political parties and their leaders;
label a diagram of the food chain)
ESLBO
Critical Thinking
4.3 compare information from a number of
sources on a topic for a classroom research
assignment (e.g., print and electronic magazines;
newspapers; television and radio broadcasts; a
range of media for different cultural groups;
general and subject-specific encyclopaedias)
READING
75
ESL
Level 2, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
WRITING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
3.
write in a variety of forms for different purposes and audiences;
4.
use the stages of the writing process.
organize ideas coherently in writing;
use correctly the conventions of written English appropriate for this level, including grammar, usage,
spelling, and punctuation;
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Writing for Different Purposes
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
Academic Purposes
1.1 write short texts to convey information and
Organizing Ideas
2.1 organize information relating to a central idea
ideas for academic purposes using a number
of forms (e.g., write a scaffolded paragraph
about familiar content-area information; create
an autobiographical timeline; compose a short
dialogue between two characters in a story; prepare a set of written instructions to carry out a
simple science experiment; complete an adapted
inventory of learning strategies)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Personal Purposes
1.2 write short texts to express ideas and feelings
76
2. Organizing Ideas in Writing
on personal and familiar topics using a number of forms (e.g., compose short letters to friends
and family members; write a poem modelled on
a simple poem structure studied in class, such
as a haiku or diamante; write thoughts in a
dialogue journal exchanged with the teacher
or a classmate)
Community and Workplace Purposes
1.3 write short texts to communicate basic personal
information and ideas using a number of forms
(e.g., compose a “lost” or “found” advertisement;
complete a survey on student music preferences
or an application for a Social Insurance Number;
compile a shopping list with an accompanying
recipe for a favourite dish)
in a short paragraph with a topic sentence,
supporting details, and a concluding sentence
(e.g., follow a teacher think-aloud to write a
paragraph about the variety of natural resources
found in Canada; recount an event such as a
school field trip using an introductory sentence,
chronological order of events and details, and
a concluding sentence)
Teacher prompt: “What supporting details
can you add to explain this topic sentence
more?”
Linking Ideas
2.2 use connecting devices and transition words
and phrases to link sentences and show relationships between ideas and information (e.g.,
use “next”, “finally” to indicate sequence; use
“similar to”, “different from”, “like”, “unlike” to
compare and contrast; use “since”, “because of”
to indicate cause and effect)
Teacher prompt: “What time-order (or transition) words might help clarify (or show
clearly) the sequence (or order) of events in
your story?”
3. Developing Accuracy in Writing
Grammatical Structures
3.1 use correctly the grammatical structures and
conventions of written English appropriate for
this level (see the Language Reference Chart for
ESL Level 2 on pages 80–81)
Spelling Strategies
3.2 use a number of spelling strategies to spell
words accurately (e.g., spell common words
from personal lists and word walls; apply rules
for forming plurals to unfamiliar nouns; follow
rules for changing base words when adding
common endings; apply knowledge of common
prefixes, suffixes, and word families to help
spell new words; refer to bilingual dictionaries
and electronic spell checkers)
Teacher prompt: “What clues tell you that
you need to double the final consonant
before adding ‘-ing’ to this verb?”
4. Using the Writing Process
or template (e.g., a teacher-prepared model;
student exemplars; a template for a paragraph,
letter, or dialogue)
Revising and Editing
4.3 revise, edit, and proofread drafts using a
number of teacher-directed and independent
strategies (e.g., use a teacher-prepared editing
checklist; participate in a peer-editing conference;
reread, add, and reorder information to improve
organization)
Publishing
4.4 use a number of different elements of effective
presentation to publish a final product (e.g.,
a cover page, different font sizes for titles and
headings, labelled diagrams, illustrations,
photographs, borders)
English as a Second Language
By the end of this course, students will:
Producing Drafts
4.2 produce draft pieces of writing using a model
Metacognition
4.5 identify and use a number of writing strategies before, during, and after writing, and
reflect after writing on those they found most
helpful (e.g., use a writer’s notebook to keep
track of new and interesting words and ideas for
writing)
ESLBO
By the end of this course, students will:
Using Pre-writing Strategies
4.1 use a number of pre-writing strategies to generate vocabulary and develop and organize
ideas for writing (e.g., construct a concept web
to explore the scope of a topic; use graphic organizers such as timelines and charts to sort and
classify information; participate in partner and
group discussions and use guiding questions to
develop ideas)
WRITING
77
ESL
Level 2, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
SOCIO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE
AND MEDIA LITERACY
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
use English and non-verbal communication strategies appropriately in a variety of social contexts;
3.
4.
demonstrate knowledge of and adaptation to the Ontario education system;
demonstrate an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of Canadian citizenship, and of the
contributions of diverse groups to Canadian society;
demonstrate an understanding of, interpret, and create a variety of media texts.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Using English in Socially and
Culturally Appropriate Ways
immigration patterns, weather, geographical features, and industrial and agricultural production;
complete a graphic organizer with information
about various Aboriginal peoples across Canada)
By the end of this course, students will:
Register
1.1 determine and use the appropriate language
register in a number of social and classroom
contexts (e.g., make polite suggestions and
requests to teachers or classmates; offer apologies
to and accept apologies from friends)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Non-verbal Communication
1.2 demonstrate an understanding of cultural
78
variations in the appropriate use of nonverbal communication cues (e.g., describe the
gestures, facial expressions, or conventions of
eye contact in the home culture and Canadian
culture)
Teacher prompt: “When is it appropriate or
not appropriate to look someone in the eye
in Canada? Is this similar or different in your
home country?”
2. Developing Awareness of Canada,
Citizenship, and Diversity
By the end of this course, students will:
Knowledge About Canada
2.1 demonstrate knowledge of a variety of facts
about Canada (e.g., describe similarities and
differences among the regions of Canada with
respect to their major economic activities,
Canadian Citizenship
2.2 demonstrate knowledge about a number of
key elements of Canadian citizenship, levels
of government in Canada, and current
Canadian issues (e.g., compare key functions
of municipal, provincial, and federal levels of
government, the electoral process, and the main
political parties in Canada; discuss some current
Canadian issues covered in the media)
Canadian Diversity
2.3 demonstrate an awareness of the diversity
of languages and cultures represented in the
community and school (e.g., present the findings of a survey about first-language media
available in the community; prepare a class
bulletin-board display in different languages)
3. Adapting to School Life in Ontario
By the end of this course, students will:
Knowledge of the Ontario Secondary School
System
3.1 describe a number of aspects of the Ontario
secondary school system (e.g., levels of achievement and the “provincial standard”; the emphasis on evidence-based learning; semestered or
non-semestered schedules; the credit system;
ways of getting extra help; role of homework)
Study Skills and Strategies
3.2 identify and use appropriate time-management
specific audiences in a number of different
types of media texts (e.g., font style and size
in product packages; pictures, illustrations, and
colour in a brochure; the age of people in a television commercial or photo image)
Strategies for the Cooperative Classroom
3.3 negotiate roles and tasks in cooperative learn-
Creating Media Texts
4.3 create media texts appropriate for a number
ing activities, games, and teamwork (e.g., assume
various roles as required in jigsaw learning groups,
literature circles, or think-pair-share activities;
engage in peer- and self-evaluation activities)
of specific purposes (e.g., an advertisement,
brochure, or design for a billboard to promote
a product, service, or message; a stamp to commemorate an event in Canadian history; a book
jacket to promote a favourite story or book)
Teacher prompt: “What role did each person
play in the cooperative activity? How did
that person’s role help the group complete
the task?”
Knowledge of School and Community Resources
3.4 identify a number of school and community
resources that are available to support learning (e.g., settlement agencies, school and community information meetings, school-community
partnerships, peer-tutoring services)
English as a Second Language
techniques to organize school work (e.g., use
an agenda book; follow timetables; set goals to
complete the stages of a homework project; make
and follow plans to help meet assignment and
evaluation deadlines)
Interpreting Media Texts
4.2 identify features that are used to appeal to
ESLBO
4. Developing Media Knowledge
and Skills
By the end of this course, students will:
Understanding Media Texts
4.1 view, read, and listen to a number of media
SOCIO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE AND MEDIA LITERACY
texts to obtain information and complete
assigned tasks (e.g., school announcements;
television, radio, and Internet news broadcasts;
newspaper and magazine advertisements; short
documentaries about Canada; online databases
with Canadian information and images)
79
ESL Level 2, Open
Language Reference Chart – ESL Level 2
This chart shows the structures that students are expected to learn through work done in all four strands.
These structures should be taught in context rather than in isolation (e.g., while writing an autobiographical timeline, students learn to use the simple past of low-frequency irregular verbs). Some English language
learners may require reinforcement and repetition of language structures from previous course levels in
order to achieve mastery.
I. Grammatical Structures
Nouns
count nouns: singular and plural of low-frequency irregular forms
(e.g., shelf/shelves, mouse/mice, goose/geese)
compound nouns (e.g., living room, city street, golf club, pop singer)
possessive forms of singular and plural nouns (e.g., the girl’s book,
the girls’ book)
articles a, an, the, or no article
gerunds for activities and pastimes (e.g., skating, swimming, fishing)
Pronouns
possessive: mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs
reflexive: myself, yourself, himself, herself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves
Verbs
past progressive (e.g., She was waiting for the bus.)
future with going to (e.g., They’re going to be late.)
simple past of low-frequency irregular verbs (e.g., sink/sank, swim/swam,
hold/held)
modals: have to, must, can (e.g., I have to go now. I must stop because I’m tired.
I can send e-mails to my friends.)
there was/were
would like + noun phrase (e.g., We would like more time.)
infinitive forms after want, start, like (e.g., She wants to work.)
Adjectives
noun + two adjectives (e.g., shiny, fast cars)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
comparative/superlative forms + more/most (e.g., more beautiful/
most intelligent)
80
irregular forms + comparative/superlative (e.g., better/(the) best;
worse/(the) worst)
a little, a lot of, much, many
Adverbs
of manner (e.g., verb + adverb: We sat quietly.)
Transition words
and phrases
conjunctions: so, since, because, because of (e.g., He was sick, so he went home.
Because he was sick, he went home. Because of his cold, he went home.)
like/unlike, similar to/different from
first, second(ly), in the beginning, as well, next, finally
I. Grammatical Structures (continued)
Question forms
inverted word order: verb + subject (e.g., Was he studying?)
“wh” questions (e.g., Where was it?)
Negation
be in simple past (e.g., They were not interested. They weren’t interested.)
negative imperative (e.g., Don’t sit there.)
Prepositions
with simple/ literal phrasal verbs (e.g., take off, put on, put away,
turn on/off, get up, wait for, look for, look at, talk over)
Sentences
compound sentence with and, but, or, because (e.g., I took the bus, but I was still
late. He came late because the bus broke down.)
direct speech (e.g., “I live on this street,” said Milad.)
indirect speech: no tense change (e.g., He said he lives on this street.)
English as a Second Language
with do, can (e.g., Do you have it? Can I call you?)
II. Conventions of Print
Punctuation
comma: for items in a list; for direct speech
quotation marks
period with high-frequency abbreviations (e.g., Dr., apt., hr., min.)
ESLBO
LANGUAGE REFERENCE CHART – ESL LEVEL 2
81
English as a Second Language
ESL Level 3
Open
ESLCO
This course further extends students’ skills in listening, speaking, reading, and
writing in English for a variety of everyday and academic purposes. Students will
make short classroom oral presentations; read a variety of adapted and original texts
in English; and write using a variety of text forms. As well, students will expand
their academic vocabulary and their study skills to facilitate their transition to the
mainstream school program. This course also introduces students to the rights and
responsibilities inherent in Canadian citizenship, and to a variety of current
Canadian issues.
ESL
Level 3, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
demonstrate the ability to understand, interpret, and evaluate spoken English for a variety of
purposes;
2.
use speaking skills and strategies to communicate in English for a variety of classroom and social
purposes;
3.
use correctly the language structures appropriate for this level to communicate orally in English.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Developing Listening
Comprehension
2. Developing Fluency in Speaking
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
Listening for Specific Information
1.1 demonstrate comprehension of specific infor-
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
mation in more detailed directions, instructions, and classroom presentations, with
reduced contextual and visual support (e.g.,
construct or draw a model of an item based on a
partner’s oral instructions; identify main ideas
from news broadcasts; extract key concepts from
audio webcasts and library dial-a-story services;
take point-form notes on main ideas from classroom oral presentations using an outline or
graphic organizer)
84
Teacher prompt: “How did the use of a graphic
organizer help you to listen for and understand information from the presentation?”
Listening to Interact
1.2 demonstrate understanding of spoken English
on familiar and content-area topics in a variety
of interactive situations (e.g., conduct a survey
of classmates about reading preferences in English
and in their first language; participate in a smallgroup place-mat activity to reach agreement about
the accomplishments of Alexander Graham Bell;
show understanding during discussions in a literature circle by contributing relevant questions)
Speaking to Interact
2.1 engage in spoken interactions on personal and
content-area topics (e.g., contribute information
in a jigsaw group discussion on current events;
share ideas in a literature circle; give feedback to
a classmate in a peer-assessment activity)
Teacher prompt: “When you are going to participate in a discussion, what kind of preparation do you find most helpful?”
Using Conversational Strategies
2.2 use a number of conversational expressions to
negotiate spoken interactions (e.g., take turns
speaking by using expressions such as “What do
you think about that?”, “What’s your opinion?”,
“It’s _____’s turn now”, “I’d like to add…”; indicate understanding and sympathy with expressions such as “Oh no!”, “That’s too bad”, “I’m
sorry to hear that”; ask for clarification with
expressions such as “I’m not sure I understand”,
“Would you please repeat that?”, “Pardon?”)
Speaking for Academic Purposes
2.3 present ideas and information orally for academic purposes in supported situations (e.g.,
make short oral presentations on familiar topics
using appropriate elements of a classroom presentation format such as an introduction, questionand-answer exchange, and conclusion; explain
the points of view of different characters in a
novel using a graphic organizer as a guide)
3. Developing Accuracy in Speaking
Grammatical Structures
3.1 use correctly the grammatical structures of
spoken English appropriate for this level (see
the Language Reference Chart for ESL Level 3
on pages 92–93)
Teacher prompt: “Use big to compare a car
and a skateboard. Use useful to compare two
objects in the classroom. Why are the comparative forms different for the two adjectives?”
Sound Patterns
3.2 use appropriately a number of pronunciation,
stress, rhythm, and intonation patterns of
spoken English to communicate meaning
accurately (e.g., change intonation patterns in
tag questions to indicate a question or confirmation; move syllable stress and reduce vowels in
different words in a word family [photograph,
photography, photographic])
Communication Strategies
3.3 use a number of circumlocution, clarification,
English as a Second Language
By the end of this course, students will:
ESLCO
and repair strategies to bridge gaps in spoken
communication (e.g., use a simple word meaning something close to the intended concept and
invite feedback; define the features of something
concrete for which they do not know or remember
the word)
Teacher prompt: “What strategies do you use
(or what do you do) when you don’t know
the English word for an object or concept?”
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
85
ESL
Level 3, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
READING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
3.
4.
read and demonstrate understanding of a variety of texts for different purposes;
use a variety of reading strategies throughout the reading process to extract meaning from texts;
use a variety of strategies to build vocabulary;
locate and extract relevant information from written and graphic texts for a variety of purposes.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Reading for Meaning
By the end of this course, students will:
Reading a Variety of Texts
1.1 read a variety of adapted and authentic fictional, informational, and graphic texts (e.g., myths
and legends from diverse cultures, readers for a
specific level, short stories, short novels, poetry,
newspaper articles, brochures, textbook excerpts,
informational web pages)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Demonstrating Understanding
1.2 demonstrate an understanding of adapted
86
and authentic texts in a variety of ways (e.g.,
complete an outline of an article through a jigsaw reading group process; complete a graphic
organizer showing the causes and effects of an
event described in a literary or informational
text; maintain a learning log while reading a
text)
Teacher prompt: “What strategies did you
use (or what did you do) during the jigsaw
reading activity to make sure that everyone
in your home group understood the entire
article?”
Responding to and Evaluating Texts
1.3 respond to adapted and authentic texts in a
variety of ways (e.g., identify and discuss story
elements in a literature study circle; write short
book reports; discuss personal connections with
specific passages or events in a story or book)
Teacher prompt: “Why do you think the main
character in the story made that decision?”
Text Forms
1.4 identify the characteristics of a variety of text
forms (e.g., salutations and closings in personal
and business letters; short forms in e-mail communications; plot and character development in
short stories and novels)
Teacher prompt: “Give some examples of
short forms or graphics you would use in an
e-mail. Write an e-mail to a partner using
some of these examples.”
Literary Elements
1.5 identify a variety of literary or stylistic
devices in short stories, poems, and novels,
and describe their function (e.g., simile,
metaphor, personification, foreshadowing)
2. Using Reading Comprehension
Strategies
By the end of this course, students will:
Reading Strategies
2.1 use a variety of reading comprehension strategies before, during, and after reading to
understand texts (e.g., activate prior knowledge
with a K-W-L chart or anticipation guide; scan
text for specific information; make predictions
based on knowledge of similar texts; identify
important ideas to remember)
Teacher prompt: “What else can you do if
reading on or rereading does not clarify the
meaning?”
Text Features
2.2 identify specific features and/or sections
Teacher prompt: “What features in this textbook help you to locate information?”
Connecting Devices
2.3 identify a number of connecting devices and
transition words and phrases that are used to
show relationships among ideas in texts (e.g.,
sequence, comparison, cause and effect)
Grammatical Structures
2.4 demonstrate an understanding of the grammatical structures of English used in texts
appropriate for this level (see the Language
Reference Chart for ESL Level 3 on pages 92–93)
3. Developing Vocabulary
By the end of this course, students will:
Vocabulary Building Strategies
3.1 use a variety of vocabulary acquisition strategies to build vocabulary (e.g., maintain a word
study journal; use memory and visualization strategies to learn new words; construct a semantic
web; as a class, compile a multilingual glossary
of content-area terms; use knowledge of cognates
to deduce the meaning of unfamiliar words)
Word Recognition Strategies
3.2 use knowledge of patterns of word structure
and derivation to determine the meaning of
unfamiliar words (e.g., recognize how suffixes
differentiate parts of speech [origin/original/
originate]; infer meaning from word order in
a sentence)
confirm the meaning of unfamiliar words (e.g.,
refer to an electronic or online bilingual dictionary;
consult a dictionary for English language learners;
use a classroom word wall to study how prefixes
and suffixes extend word families; collaborate
with a group to learn unfamiliar vocabulary)
4. Developing Research Skills
By the end of this course, students will:
Locating Information
4.1 locate information on classroom topics from
appropriate research materials selected in
consultation with the teacher-librarian, and
acknowledge their sources (e.g., use encyclopaedias and other informational texts to research
contributions of Aboriginal and immigrant groups
to Canadian society; use online databases to
gather information about postsecondary career
pathways)
Extracting and Organizing Information
4.2 extract information from a variety of sources
English as a Second Language
of content-area texts and use them to locate
information and aid comprehension (e.g.,
headings and subheadings, margin notes, sidebars, chapter summaries, illustrated figures,
tables and charts, tables of contents, indexes,
glossaries, appendices, menus, task/toolbars,
hyperlinks)
Use of Resources
3.2 use a variety of resources to determine and/or
ESLCO
and organize it using appropriate outlines
and graphic organizers (e.g., read a short text
and complete a pie graph showing the contributions of various industries to Canada’s GNP;
complete a Venn diagram showing the similarities and differences between two folk tales from
different cultures)
Critical Thinking
4.3 identify sources of information used and
evaluate them for reliability and point of view
(e.g., online newspapers, community organization
publications, personal Internet blogs, free local
tabloids, school- and public-library websites)
Teacher prompt: “What information does the
suffix on this word give you? How can you
use this information to predict the meaning
of the word?”
READING
87
ESL
Level 3, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
WRITING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
3.
write in a variety of forms for different purposes and audiences;
4.
use the stages of the writing process.
organize ideas coherently in writing;
use correctly the conventions of written English appropriate for this level, including grammar, usage,
spelling, and punctuation;
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Writing for Different Purposes
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
Academic Purposes
1.1 write more complex texts to convey informa-
Organizing Ideas
2.1 organize information relating to a central idea
tion and ideas for academic purposes using a
variety of forms (e.g., compose an information
paragraph about the contribution of Chinese
immigrants to the building of Canada’s transcontinental railroad; summarize a chapter in a
novel; write a bilingual, illustrated folk tale in
their first language and English; write a short
piece of poetry or prose to contribute to a student
literary anthology)
in a series of several linked paragraphs (e.g., a
character sketch based on a character in a novel,
a brief opinion piece based on a model, a short
informational report)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Personal Purposes
1.2 write more complex texts to express ideas and
88
2. Organizing Ideas in Writing
feelings on personal topics using a variety of
forms (e.g., compose a narrative about a personal
journey; write a poem following a model; depict
an imaginary conversation between two characters in a novel; set down the words to a favourite
song in their first language and provide a translation with words and pictures; write a letter to
a friend describing school life in Ontario)
Community and Workplace Purposes
1.3 write more complex texts to communicate
information for official or personal purposes
using a variety of forms (e.g., write a covering
letter for a job application using an appropriate
salutation and closing; write a letter of complaint
to a business; compile a set of instructions for
completing a “do-it-yourself” project)
Linking Ideas
2.2 use connecting devices and transition words
and phrases to show relationships between
ideas and information in linked sentences and
paragraphs (e.g., use “for example”, “another” to
add details and information; use “therefore”, “as
a result of” to identify cause and effect; use “on
the other hand”, “similarly”, “both … and” to
indicate comparison and contrast)
Teacher prompt: “What other transition words
or phrases could you use to show comparison
and contrast?”
3. Developing Accuracy in Writing
By the end of this course, students will:
Grammatical Structures
3.1 use correctly the grammatical structures and
conventions of written English appropriate for
this level (see the Language Reference Chart for
ESL Level 3 on pages 92–93)
Teacher prompt: “Why did you use the present perfect tense in this sentence?”
Spelling Strategies
3.2 use a variety of spelling strategies to spell words
4. Using the Writing Process
By the end of this course, students will:
Using Pre-writing Strategies
4.1 use a variety of pre-writing strategies to generate vocabulary and develop and organize
ideas for writing (e.g., use guiding questions
to identify the purpose and audience for a piece
of writing; engage in timed writing activities;
organize information from reading or research
using a Venn diagram or flow chart; use English
or their first language to develop ideas)
Producing Drafts
4.2 produce draft pieces of writing using a number of strategies and models (e.g., a teachermodelled think-aloud process; templates or
exemplars; information organizers such as webs,
charts, and tables)
variety of teacher-directed and independent
strategies (e.g., use a posted list of guiding questions for revision; read work in an author’s circle
to receive constructive comments; use word lists
and other sources to extend and enrich word
choice)
Teacher prompt: “What similar words or
phrases could you use to bring more variety
to your writing?”
Publishing
4.4 use a variety of elements of effective presentation to publish a final product (e.g., point-form
layout to summarize key ideas; bolding, italics, or
underlining for emphasis; different text layouts to
suit different forms of writing)
Metacognition
4.5 identify and use a variety of writing strategies
before, during, and after writing, and reflect
after writing on those they found most helpful (e.g., choose appropriate graphic organizers
from a list to order ideas for specific writing
purposes)
English as a Second Language
accurately (e.g., divide words into syllables; use
familiar logographic symbols [@, &, $, ¢, ™];
apply knowledge of rules for forming plurals,
contractions, and possessives; confirm spellings
in learner dictionaries)
Revising and Editing
4.3 revise, edit, and proofread drafts using a
ESLCO
Teacher prompt: “Which graphic organizers
are most helpful in organizing ideas for this
particular piece of writing?
WRITING
89
ESL
Level 3, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
SOCIO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE
AND MEDIA LITERACY
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
use English and non-verbal communication strategies appropriately in a variety of social contexts;
3.
4.
demonstrate knowledge of and adaptation to the Ontario education system;
demonstrate an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of Canadian citizenship, and of
the contributions of diverse groups to Canadian society;
demonstrate an understanding of, interpret, and create a variety of media texts.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
1. Using English in Socially and
Culturally Appropriate Ways
90
2. Developing Awareness of Canada,
Citizenship, and Diversity
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
Register
1.1 determine and use the appropriate language
Knowledge About Canada
2.1 explain the relationship between some impor-
register in a variety of social and classroom
contexts (e.g., use appropriate styles of greeting
and apology to peers or teachers in classroom
role-plays; choose appropriate phrasing in a
simulated telephone conversation making an
appointment with a friend or school counsellor
or accepting or declining an invitation from a
close friend or a new acquaintance)
tant aspects of geography and history and
current Canadian issues (e.g., the effect of rivers
on transportation routes and settlement patterns;
the quest for self-government of Aboriginal
peoples)
Teacher prompt: “What are the differences
between making a request to a good friend
and making a request to your supervisor at
work?”
Non-verbal Communication
1.2 identify non-verbal communication cues that
are suited to specific social, academic, and
workplace contexts (e.g., greeting a friend with
a “high-five” versus shaking hands with an interviewer; maintaining more personal space in a
workplace than at a social gathering)
Canadian Citizenship
2.2 demonstrate knowledge of a variety of key
facts about Canadian citizenship, levels of
government in Canada, and current Canadian
issues (e.g., identify the steps in the application
process for Canadian citizenship; identify some
rights and responsibilities of Canadian citizenship such as free speech, equal protection under
the law, voting, and participation on a jury;
research issues such as the sustainable use of
natural resources, provincial elections, or the
legalization of same-sex unions, and participate
in small- and large-group discussions about
them)
Teacher prompt: “What differences do you
see between the system of government in
Canada and that of your home country?”
Canadian Diversity
2.3 compare and contrast the traditions and
Teacher prompt: “How does having knowledge
about different groups help us as a society?”
3. Adapting to School Life in Ontario
evant to their learning needs and explain how
to make use of them (e.g., summer school, night
school, and virtual school classes; international
language classes; the Independent Learning
Centre; career counselling centres; community
centres; school clubs and sports teams)
Teacher prompt: “What resources are available in the school and community that would
help you to continue to develop your first
language?”
By the end of this course, students will:
Knowledge of the Ontario Secondary School
System
3.1 compare a variety of aspects of the Ontario
secondary school system to aspects of the
school system in other countries (e.g., discipline expectations and consequences; the role
of teachers; parental involvement in school life
and changes after students turn eighteen; the
focus on process as well as product in classroom
tasks)
Teacher prompt: “How are some of the learning activities in Ontario classrooms similar to
and/or different from those in your home
country?”
Study Skills and Strategies
3.2 identify and use the most appropriate study
strategies for specific learning tasks (e.g., use
graphic organizers to categorize information;
highlight key information for a summary; create
a personal mnemonic device to remember steps
in a procedure)
that differ from their own in pair work, small
groups, and whole-class discussions (e.g., disagree politely in group discussions; avoid making
generalizations and/or negative comments about
the behaviour or characteristics of groups or
individuals)
By the end of this course, students will:
Understanding Media Texts
4.1 view, read, and listen to media texts to compare the information available on a subject
or issue in different sources (e.g., compare television, newspaper, and Internet accounts of the
same event; compare advertising from different
companies or stores; view the Aboriginal Peoples
Television Network [APTN] and compare
Aboriginal perspectives with perspectives in
other sources)
ESLCO
Interpreting Media Texts
4.2 analyse a variety of advertisements to identify
language and other features that are designed
to appeal to specific audiences (e.g., use of repetition, synonyms, non-standard spellings, descriptive words, youth-oriented slang and idioms;
use of particular types of music or visuals)
Teacher prompt: “Which consumer group is
targeted in this advertisement? How do you
know?”
Creating Media Texts
4.3 create media texts using language and features appropriate for the intended audience
(e.g., an advertising campaign for Student
Council elections, a video promoting healthy
lifestyle choices, a website for students about
strategies for finding summer employment)
SOCIO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE AND MEDIA LITERACY
Strategies for the Cooperative Classroom
3.3 respond appropriately and respectfully to views
4. Developing Media Knowledge
and Skills
English as a Second Language
behavioural norms of a number of cultural
communities in Canada, including Aboriginal
communities (e.g., gender roles, family structures,
and days of significance in different cultural
groups)
Knowledge of School and Community Resources
3.4 identify school and community resources rel-
91
ESL Level 3, Open
Language Reference Chart – ESL Level 3
This chart shows the structures that students are expected to learn through work done in all four strands.
These structures should be taught in context rather than in isolation (e.g., while conducting a survey,
students focus on using comparative and superlative forms of adjectives appropriately). Some English
language learners may require reinforcement and repetition of language structures from previous course
levels in order to achieve mastery.
I. Grammatical Structures
Nouns
collective nouns (e.g., team, crowd, group, family, police, audience) + verb
agreement
Pronouns
indefinite: some, no, any, every + body/thing
relative: who, that, which, whose in defining relative clause (e.g., The girl who sits
beside you plays tennis. That’s the man whose daughter sits beside you.)
Verbs
simple past of low-frequency irregular verbs (e.g., sweep/swept, rise/rose,
light/lit, shine/shone)
present perfect (e.g., He has just arrived.)
past perfect (e.g., They had studied English before they arrived in Canada.)
used to (e.g., They used to eat in the cafeteria.)
modals: should, could, would (e.g., I should leave before it rains. We could do that
tomorrow.)
simple passive (e.g., The book was found in the desk yesterday. Ferraris are made
in Italy.)
simple use of infinitives with would like, ask, tell (e.g., I would like to go to the
concert. The teacher asked me to study hard.)
simple use of gerunds: go + ing (e.g., They are going skating.); gerund with verbs
of like/dislike (e.g., She hates cooking. We love skiing.); gerund as subject (e.g.,
Writing in English is hard.)
know, think, hope, believe, feel + that (e.g., I think that you are right.)
conditional: type 1 / probable (e.g., If it rains, we will stay home.)
Adjectives
irregular comparative/superlative (e.g., better/best, worse/worst, more/most)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
comparative using er/more + than (e.g., bigger than, more interesting than)
92
superlative using est/most + in/of (e.g., oldest of the group, most expensive in
the store)
comparative using as … as (e.g., My plans are as important as hers.)
adjective phrases (e.g., The man in the red hat lives close to me.)
other, another, each
Adverbs
verb + two adverbs (e.g., They drove very slowly through the storm.)
adjective + ly (e.g., happily, truly, extremely, beautifully)
somewhere, nowhere, anywhere, everywhere
Transition words
and phrases
conjunctions: before, after, when, then, while, both … and, in contrast, in
conclusion, yet, for example, therefore, similarly, as a result, on the other hand,
at first
I. Grammatical Structures (continued)
Question forms
negative yes/no questions (e.g., Don’t you live here?)
simple tag questions (e.g., It’s hot today, isn’t it?)
Negation
negation + some variety of tenses (e.g., He hasn’t finished. She shouldn’t go.)
Prepositions
with (simple figurative) phrasal verbs (e.g., give up, look after, bring up, get
along, clear up, go through, hang around, hold on, point out, put down)
Sentences
some variety of compound sentences
main clause + one subordinate clause (e.g., I saw lots of people when I got near
the school.)
direct speech + correct punctuation (e.g., Juan said, “I’m late so I have to take the
bus.” “I’m late so I have to take the bus,” said Juan.)
indirect speech + present tense (e.g., They said you go to the movies every week.)
English as a Second Language
information questions + some variety of tenses (e.g., When can I leave? How
have you been?)
indirect speech + say, tell, ask + some variety of tenses (e.g., They said he wanted
you to call.)
II. Conventions of Print
Punctuation
ESLCO
colon before a list (e.g., Bring the following items: pen, pencil, and paper.)
parentheses (e.g., for additional information)
LANGUAGE REFERENCE CHART – ESL LEVEL 3
93
English as a Second Language
ESL Level 4
Open
ESLDO
This course prepares students to use English with increasing fluency and accuracy in
classroom and social situations and to participate in Canadian society as informed
citizens. Students will develop the oral-presentation, reading, and writing skills
required for success in all school subjects. They will extend listening and speaking
skills through participation in discussions and seminars; study and interpret a variety
of grade-level texts; write narratives, articles, and summaries in English; and respond
critically to a variety of print and media texts.
ESL
Level 4, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
demonstrate the ability to understand, interpret, and evaluate spoken English for a variety of
purposes;
2.
use speaking skills and strategies to communicate in English for a variety of classroom and social
purposes;
3.
use correctly the language structures appropriate for this level to communicate orally in English.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Developing Listening
Comprehension
opinions, and points of view; participate in a
“four corners” activity; negotiate solutions to
tasks and problems in small-group or paired
activities)
By the end of this course, students will:
Listening for Specific Information
1.1 demonstrate comprehension of specific information in more complex directions, instructions, and classroom presentations (e.g., follow
recorded telephone message prompts from a bank
or public-service organization; identify main ideas
and relevant supporting details in classroom presentations using a written outline or graphic
organizer as a guide)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Listening to Interact
1.2 demonstrate understanding of more complex
96
spoken English on a variety of topics in interactive situations (e.g., participate in and contribute to academic classroom discussions; provide
a summary of a group discussion; collaborate on
preparing and presenting a skit)
Teacher prompt: “Please work in your group
to decide on the five most important points
in the radio documentary you have just
heard.”
2. Developing Fluency in Speaking
By the end of this course, students will:
Speaking to Interact
2.1 engage in more complex spoken interactions
on a variety of topics (e.g., participate in roleplays; express and defend personal preferences,
Using Conversational Strategies
2.2 use a variety of conversational expressions
to negotiate spoken interactions (e.g., disagree
politely using expressions such as “That’s interesting, but have you thought about …?”, “What
about …?”, “I’m not sure I agree because …”,
“That’s a good idea, but …”; make polite suggestions using expressions such as “Maybe we
could …”, “Why don’t we …?”, “How about …?”,
“Don’t you think ...?”)
Speaking for Academic Purposes
2.3 present ideas and information orally for academic purposes in a variety of situations (e.g.,
plan and make oral presentations on schoolrelated topics using subject-specific vocabulary;
present a critique of a film, book, or poem)
Teacher prompt: “What kinds of facial
expressions, body language, and visuals
might improve your presentation?”
3. Developing Accuracy in Speaking
By the end of this course, students will:
Grammatical Structures
3.1 use correctly the grammatical structures of
spoken English appropriate for this level (see
the Language Reference Chart for ESL Level 4
on pages 104–105)
Sound Patterns
3.2 use appropriately a variety of pronunciation,
Communication Strategies
3.3 use a variety of circumlocution, clarification,
repair, and monitoring strategies to bridge
gaps in spoken communication (e.g., keep a
record of frequent mistakes and consciously
monitor speech to avoid them; plan and rehearse
the language components of a task)
English as a Second Language
stress, rhythm, and intonation patterns of
spoken English to communicate meaning
accurately (e.g., stress the syllable before the
suffix “-tion” [attraction, information]; change
the stressed syllable within the same word to
distinguish between noun and verb form
[combat/combat, addict/addict, object/object];
stress the first word of compound nouns
[learning strategies, essay outline, bar graph])
ESLDO
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
97
ESL
Level 4, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
READING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
3.
4.
read and demonstrate understanding of a variety of texts for different purposes;
use a variety of reading strategies throughout the reading process to extract meaning from texts;
use a variety of strategies to build vocabulary;
locate and extract relevant information from written and graphic texts for a variety of purposes.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Reading for Meaning
By the end of this course, students will:
Reading a Variety of Texts
1.1 read a wide variety of more complex, authentic texts (e.g., short stories, novels, autobiographies, plays, poetry, online news reports, graphs,
diagrams)
Demonstrating Understanding
1.2 demonstrate an understanding of more complex authentic texts in a variety of ways (e.g.,
conduct guided research for an assigned project;
complete a T-chart with information from a text;
distinguish between main ideas and supporting
details in a report)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Teacher prompt: “How does the information
in the opening paragraph help you predict
what will be in the rest of the report?”
98
Responding to and Evaluating Texts
1.3 respond to more complex authentic texts in a
variety of ways (e.g., explain the reasons for
their interest in a specific author, genre, or theme;
connect ideas in a text to their own knowledge,
experience, and insights; distinguish between
facts and opinions in an editorial; compare how
two texts deal with the same theme)
Text Forms
1.4 identify a variety of organizational patterns
used in informational texts (e.g., chronological
order, cause and effect, comparison and contrast,
description, definition)
Literary Elements
1.5 identify literary elements and devices in texts
and explain how they help convey the
author’s meaning (e.g., cross-cultural themes
such as coming of age, creation of the universe,
heroic journeys; unique character traits, plot
reversals, foreshadowing, simile, metaphor)
2. Using Reading Comprehension
Strategies
By the end of this course, students will:
Reading Strategies
2.1 use a wide variety of reading comprehension
strategies before, during, and after reading to
understand texts (e.g., preview vocabulary; create key questions as a class before reading; brainstorm to activate related prior knowledge and
experiences; use sight recognition and phonetic
decoding techniques to read words and sentences;
reread key words to clarify meaning; use pictorial
clues to predict meaning; use visualization to
clarify details of a character, scene, or concept)
Teacher prompt: “How does the picture help
you to understand or guess what the paragraph will be about?”
Text Features
2.2 identify and use a variety of features of texts
Teacher prompt: “What part of the text provides an explanation of the diagram on
page ___?”
Connecting Devices
2.3 identify a variety of connecting devices and
transition words and phrases, and explain
how they express relationships among ideas
in texts (e.g., “moreover’’ for addition; “in short”
for summary; “by contrast” for comparison and
contrast; “as a result” for cause and effect;
“possibly” for hypothesis)
Grammatical Structures
2.4 demonstrate an understanding of the grammatical structures of English used in texts
appropriate for this level (see the Language
Reference Chart for ESL Level 4 on pages 104–105)
3. Developing Vocabulary
By the end of this course, students will:
Vocabulary Building Strategies
3.1 use a variety of vocabulary acquisition strategies to enrich vocabulary (e.g., develop lists of
homonyms, synonyms, and antonyms; build a
register-difference scale – “astute, intelligent,
bright, smart, with it”; apply rehearsal techniques
to learn new words)
ries, available technology, and specialized dictionaries, to determine and/or confirm the
part of speech, etymology, and pronunciation
of words and their precise meaning in different contexts (e.g., consult a dictionary of idioms
to clarify a use not found in a regular dictionary)
4. Developing Research Skills
By the end of this course, students will:
Locating Information
4.1 locate information for guided research projects from a variety of print and electronic
sources selected in consultation with the
teacher-librarian, and acknowledge their
sources (e.g., online journals, informational
and graphic books, online newspapers in other
languages)
Extracting and Organizing Information
4.2 extract information for guided research projects
from a variety of sources, and organize it using
a variety of graphic organizers (e.g., complete a
chart with research information on appropriately
respectful behaviours when visiting a Hindu
temple, mosque, synagogue, church, and Sikh
Gurdwara; use a Venn diagram to identify areas
of agreement in a debate on an issue)
English as a Second Language
to locate information and aid comprehension
(e.g., titles and subtitles, graphics, italics, boldface type, text boxes, questions, sidebars, summaries, footnotes/endnotes, reference lists / works
cited, back cover of novels)
Use of Resources
3.3 use a variety of resources, including glossa-
ESLDO
Critical Thinking
4.3 evaluate information sources to determine
their authority, reliability, and objectivity
(e.g., websites, reports, newspapers, tabloids,
video clips)
Word Recognition Strategies
3.2 use knowledge of a variety of patterns of
word structure and derivation to determine
the meaning of unfamiliar words (e.g., use
knowledge of prefixes, suffixes, and word roots to
differentiate parts of speech and infer meaning)
READING
99
ESL
Level 4, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
WRITING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
3.
write in a variety of forms for different purposes and audiences;
4.
use the stages of the writing process.
organize ideas coherently in writing;
use correctly the conventions of written English appropriate for this level, including grammar, usage,
spelling, and punctuation;
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Writing for Different Purposes
By the end of this course, students will:
Academic Purposes
1.1 write longer and more complex texts to convey information and ideas for academic purposes using a variety of forms (e.g., create an
“autobiography” in the role of a contemporary or
historical person; write a description of the steps
in the process of becoming a Canadian citizen;
write an article on a school or community event
or issue for the school newspaper; prepare an
outline for a debate on a school, national, or
international issue)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Personal Purposes
1.2 write longer and more complex texts to express
100
ideas and feelings on personal topics using a
variety of forms (e.g., write a narrative about an
important personal event using evocative language
to convey their mood and emotions; create a class
graffiti wall on a topic of interest; record thoughts
and feelings in a personal reflection journal; write
a letter to the editor of the school newspaper supporting the inclusion of articles in students’ first
languages)
Teacher prompt: “Identify some specific word
choices you made in your writing, and describe
the effect you wanted to have on the reader.”
Community and Workplace Purposes
1.3 write longer and more complex texts to communicate information and ideas for official or
personal purposes using a variety of forms
(e.g., a letter of application for a bursary or
scholarship, a statement of intent for an apprenticeship program or a cooperative work experience,
a résumé for a summer job search)
2. Organizing Ideas in Writing
By the end of this course, students will:
Organizing Ideas
2.1 organize information relating to a central idea
in a structured composition of three or more
paragraphs (e.g., a memoir in the role of a significant Canadian, a letter giving advice to a
character from literature studied in class, a report
showing cause-and-effect relationships concerning the decline of an endangered species)
Linking Ideas
2.2 use a variety of connecting devices and transition words and phrases to show relationships
between ideas and information in linked sentences and paragraphs (e.g., use “for instance”,
“in addition” to add details or examples; use
“because of”, “as a result”, “for this reason” to
indicate cause and effect; use “according to”,
“in the opinion of” to refer to a source)
3. Developing Accuracy in Writing
Grammatical Structures
3.1 use correctly the grammatical structures and
conventions of written English appropriate for
this level (see the Language Reference Chart for
ESL Level 4 on pages 104–105)
Spelling Strategies
3.2 use a wide variety of spelling strategies to
spell words accurately (e.g., use mnemonics to
learn irregular or difficult spellings; highlight
tricky letters or groups of letters; confirm
spellings using dictionaries)
4. Using the Writing Process
By the end of this course, students will:
Using Pre-writing Strategies
4.1 use a wide variety of pre-writing strategies to
generate vocabulary and develop and organize ideas for writing (e.g., activate background
knowledge through peer conferencing; generate
ideas using webs, idea logs, and other graphic
organizers; interview people about a topic; identify the appropriate form to suit the purpose and
audience for a piece of writing)
Teacher prompt: “How does a brainstorming
session help you to prepare for writing?”
ety of strategies and models (e.g., graphic
organizers, jot notes, report templates, student
exemplars)
Revising and Editing
4.3 revise, edit, and proofread drafts using a variety of strategies (e.g., confer with teacher and
peers; participate in teacher-directed mini-lessons
on points of organization or structure; use sticky
notes to record ideas for revision; follow the steps
in a posted class writing guideline; consult a
folder of previous drafts to confirm or rethink
decisions made earlier)
Teacher prompt: “At what stage of editing is
a peer conference most helpful?”
Publishing
4.4 use a wide variety of elements of effective
presentation to publish a final product (e.g.,
computer-generated graphs and charts; a glossary
of terms for a project on a specialized topic; text
boxes to accompany photographs in a photo
essay)
English as a Second Language
By the end of this course, students will:
Producing Drafts
4.2 produce draft pieces of writing using a vari-
ESLDO
Metacognition
4.5 identify and use a wide variety of writing
strategies before, during, and after writing,
and reflect after writing on those they found
most helpful (e.g., record thoughts and learnings
about writing in a writing reflection journal;
maintain a writing portfolio)
Teacher prompt: “How does a review of your
writing portfolio help you set new goals for
improving your writing?”
WRITING
101
ESL
Level 4, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
SOCIO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE
AND MEDIA LITERACY
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
use English and non-verbal communication strategies appropriately in a variety of social contexts;
3.
4.
demonstrate knowledge of and adaptation to the Ontario education system;
demonstrate an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of Canadian citizenship, and of
the contributions of diverse groups to Canadian society;
demonstrate an understanding of, interpret, and create a variety of media texts.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Using English in Socially and
Culturally Appropriate Ways
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
Register
1.1 determine and use the appropriate language
Knowledge About Canada
2.1 identify examples of the influence of Canada’s
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
register in a wide variety of social and classroom contexts (e.g., use “What’s up?” with peers
as compared to “Hello. How are you?” with
teachers; use “Would you please repeat that?”
with a supervisor as compared to “Run that by
me again” with a friend or classmate; use “going
to” in formal situations, reserving “gonna” for
informal occasions)
102
2. Developing Awareness of Canada,
Citizenship, and Diversity
Non-verbal Communication
1.2 analyse examples of non-verbal communication to determine their appropriateness in a
variety of social, academic, and workplace
contexts (e.g., the appropriateness of slouching
during a job interview or while making an oral
presentation, or of tapping a stranger on the
shoulder to get his or her attention; pushing
or cutting into a line to get on a bus or to buy
tickets)
history and geography on its literature and art
(e.g., images of nature in Aboriginal art and
Group of Seven paintings; Celtic influences in
Maritime music; portrayals of immigrant experiences in Canadian novels and short stories)
Canadian Citizenship
2.2 demonstrate knowledge of important constitutional and social policy documents in
Canada and Ontario (e.g., the Canadian
Charter of Rights and Freedoms; the Ontario
Human Rights Code; school board equity and
antidiscrimination policies)
Canadian Diversity
2.3 analyse and outline some benefits and challenges of living in a society made up of diverse
linguistic and cultural groups (e.g., benefits
and challenges of maintaining or not maintaining particular forms of ethnocultural or religious
dress at school or work, or of accommodating or
not accommodating various religious practices/
traditions at school or work)
3. Adapting to School Life in Ontario
4. Developing Media Knowledge
and Skills
Knowledge of the Ontario Secondary School
System
3.1 describe a variety of aspects of the Ontario
secondary school system that can help them
achieve personal, educational, and occupational goals (e.g., the learning skills outlined in
the Provincial Report Card; the assessment criteria outlined in the provincial achievement charts;
the prerequisites for postsecondary education
and training; types of courses; graduation
requirements and related terms, including “compulsory credit”, “transcript”, “full disclosure”,
“literacy test”, “community involvement”, “diploma”, “certificate of achievement”, “Specialist
High-Skills Major”)
Study Skills and Strategies
3.2 identify and use a variety of appropriate study
and test-preparation strategies (e.g., make notes;
rehearse with cue cards; use process of elimination; manage time efficiently; follow directions
carefully)
Teacher prompt: “What strategies are most
helpful when you are studying for a test or
exam?”
Strategies for the Cooperative Classroom
3.3 identify some essential strategies for participating in cooperative learning activities and
use them effectively to complete group tasks
(e.g., listen actively; clarify directions; share
ideas; plan and delegate tasks; offer constructive
criticism)
resources that are provided to support learning and explain how to use them (e.g., school
board bullying and harassment policies and procedures; Safe Schools policies; local organizations
where students can volunteer in order to complete
their community service requirement; cooperative
education and apprenticeship programs; schoolto-work transition programs)
Understanding Media Texts
4.1 view, read, and listen to media texts, and
identify strategies used in them to influence
specific audiences (e.g., figurative language,
striking or provocative visual images, visual
conventions, logos and slogans, youth-oriented
music)
Teacher prompt: “What visual clues are used
to identify ‘good’ and ‘bad’ characters in
movies and music videos you have seen
recently?”
Interpreting Media Texts
4.2 demonstrate understanding that different
media texts may reflect different points of view,
and suggest reasons why particular perspectives are presented (e.g., marketing concerns
may influence whether media texts include or
ignore people of a particular age, gender, income
level, or ethnocultural background; news reports
of a conflict may present more than one point of
view to try to achieve the “balance” appropriate
for a general audience)
ESLDO
Teacher prompt: “Whose point of view is
most often presented in media texts? Why?
Who is often absent from advertising in
magazines and on television?”
Creating Media Texts
4.3 create a variety of media texts for specific purposes and audiences (e.g., a news report summarizing the causes and potential consequences
of a current issue such as Aboriginal land claims;
an editorial to explain and support a position on
an issue; an interview with a person with a
physical disability about barriers and access in
public places for publication in a school or community magazine/newspaper; a public-service
announcement on a current issue relevant to
students such as poverty, AIDS, violence
prevention, or global warming)
SOCIO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE AND MEDIA LITERACY
Knowledge of School and Community Resources
3.4 identify school and community policies and
By the end of this course, students will:
English as a Second Language
By the end of this course, students will:
103
ESL Level 4, Open
Language Reference Chart – ESL Level 4
This chart shows the structures students are expected to learn through work done in all four strands. These
structures should be taught in context rather than in isolation (e.g., while summarizing a newspaper article,
students focus on paraphrasing by using indirect speech and that clauses). Some English language learners
may require reinforcement and repetition of language structures from previous course levels in order to
achieve mastery.
I. Grammatical Structures
Nouns
abstract nouns (e.g., advice, information, beauty, knowledge, philosophy, democracy) + a, an, the, or no article (e.g., He had a good knowledge of math. He had
knowledge about many things. I gave him the information about travel times.)
Pronouns
indefinite: some, any, every + one
one, ones
who, which, that, whose in a relative clause (e.g., non-defining relative clause:
She gave me this photo, which she had taken in Mexico. The students, who wanted
to play soccer, were disappointed when it rained.)
Verbs
present perfect progressive (e.g., What have you been doing?)
passive: present progressive (e.g., The game is being played today.)
passive: present perfect (e.g., The pie has been eaten.)
passive: future (e.g., The project will be finished soon.)
dual use of some nouns/verbs: produce, report, present
gerunds/infinitives (e.g., Bullying is unacceptable. To know him is to love him.)
modals: need, may, might
conditional: type 2 / unlikely (e.g., If I had a million dollars, I would buy a large
house.)
consistent use of verb tenses (e.g., maintain the same verb tense in a sentence
or paragraph)
Adjectives
noun + three adjectives (e.g., She wore a large, blue, checked scarf.)
the + adjective (e.g., The large leather bag is mine. She bought the big red hat.)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
gerund as adjective or as part of a compound noun (e.g., running water, walking
stick, diving board)
104
both, all, enough + of
either, neither
Adverbs
formed by adding -ly to ing/ed participles (e.g., She was staring lovingly at the
child. They excitedly cheered for their team.)
of possibility (e.g., probably, possibly, definitely)
of opinion (e.g., obviously, clearly)
Transition words
and phrases
conjunctions: yet, although, since, because of
not only … but also (e.g., She is taking not only ESLDO but also physics.)
as … as, as soon as, as well as, nearly as, just as, not quite as, whereas
moreover, in short, as a result, even though, now that, for instance, because of,
by contrast, possibly, that is, in addition, for this reason
I. Grammatical Structures (continued)
Question forms
negative forms of information questions (e.g., What doesn’t she like?)
Negation
with conjunction unless (e.g., Don’t call me unless you need help. Unless you have
a permit, you can’t drive.)
Prepositions
with a variety of phrasal verbs (e.g., be away, be back, be for, be over, be up; ask
about, ask for, ask [someone] in, ask [someone] out)
despite, throughout, until, according to
Sentences
complex, with addition of second subordinate clause (e.g., The ball, which he
threw wildly, bounced off the tree and hit Sunita, who had stepped into the park.)
complex, with relative clause(s) (e.g., She reads books that explore environmental
issues.)
indirect speech with wh questions and if (e.g., I asked him what he was doing. We
asked him if he would go to the movies.)
relative clause + that (stated or implied) (e.g., The car that was speeding caused
an accident. The sweater [that] I bought was too small.)
English as a Second Language
with modals (e.g., Should she take this course?)
noun clause + that (stated or implied) (e.g., I know [that] you’re smart.)
indirect speech + a variety of tenses
self-correction of common sentence errors (e.g., run-ons, fragments)
ESLDO
II. Conventions of Print
Punctuation
hyphen
colon, semi-colon
apostrophe
quotation marks
parentheses
ellipses
LANGUAGE REFERENCE CHART – ESL LEVEL 4
105
English as a Second Language
ESL Level 5
Open
ESLEO
This course provides students with the skills and strategies they need to make the
transition to college and university preparation courses in English and other secondary
school disciplines. Students will be encouraged to develop independence in a range of
academic tasks. They will participate in debates and lead classroom workshops; read
and interpret literary works and academic texts; write essays, narratives, and reports;
and apply a range of learning strategies and research skills effectively. Students will
further develop their ability to respond critically to print and media texts.
ESL
Level 5, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
demonstrate the ability to understand, interpret, and evaluate spoken English for a variety
of purposes;
2.
use speaking skills and strategies to communicate in English for a variety of classroom and
social purposes;
3.
use correctly the language structures appropriate for this level to communicate orally in English.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Developing Listening
Comprehension
By the end of this course, students will:
Listening for Specific Information
1.1 demonstrate comprehension of specific information in detailed, complex directions, instructions, and classroom presentations (e.g., take
detailed notes from a group presentation on the
life and times of Shakespeare; plan future course
selections and postsecondary pathways based on a
presentation by school guidance staff; summarize
a short documentary, news report, or radio interview; participate in a group dictogloss activity to
reconstruct a paragraph of text read aloud)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Listening to Interact
1.2 demonstrate understanding of complex spoken
108
English on a wide variety of topics in interactive situations (e.g., present a rebuttal in a
debate; survey members of the community about
their personal Internet use; collaborate on
preparing and presenting a seminar)
2. Developing Fluency in Speaking
By the end of this course, students will:
Speaking to Interact
2.1 engage in complex spoken interactions on a
wide variety of topics (e.g., synthesize ideas in a
group discussion; negotiate solutions to problems,
interpersonal misunderstandings, and disputes;
conduct opinion surveys among classmates and
community members about a variety of topics)
Using Conversational Strategies
2.2 use a wide variety of conversational expressions
to negotiate spoken interactions of all types
(e.g., use “Let’s get back to work now”, “Let’s
focus”, “We’re getting off topic” to stay on topic in
group tasks; use “by the way”, “before I forget”,
“speaking of” to shift the topic; use “Do you
understand what I mean?”, “Is that clear?”, “Do
you get it?” to check for comprehension; use “I
really mean …”, “What I’m trying to say is …”
to self-correct)
Teacher prompt: “When you have the role of
taskmaster in a group, what expressions
could you use to keep the group on task?”
Speaking for Academic Purposes
2.3 present ideas and information orally for academic purposes in a wide variety of situations
(e.g., explain a viewpoint on a current issue during a debate; lead a workshop or seminar; deliver
a radio broadcast; give an oral presentation using
notes or a detailed script and/or visual aids)
Teacher prompt: “Can you identify the most
effective elements in your oral presentation?
How do you know they were effective? What
would you do differently next time?”
3. Developing Accuracy in Speaking
Grammatical Structures
3.1 use correctly the grammatical structures of
spoken English appropriate for this level (see
the Language Reference Chart for ESL Level 5
on pages 116–117)
Teacher prompt: “Look at these two sentences. How could you combine them into
one using a relative pronoun from the list on
the word wall?”
Sound Patterns
3.2 use appropriately a wide variety of pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation patterns
of spoken English to communicate meaning
accurately (e.g., stress key content words to clarify meaning [“I read a book last night” versus
“I read the book last night”]; use appropriate
pitch and volume to indicate emphasis or to
show surprise or other emotions)
Communication Strategies
3.3 use a wide variety of circumlocution, clarifica-
English as a Second Language
By the end of this course, students will:
ESLEO
tion, repair, and monitoring strategies to bridge
gaps in spoken communication (e.g., identify
and correct slips and errors that may have caused
misunderstandings; use circumlocution and paraphrase to compensate for gaps in knowledge of
vocabulary and grammar)
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
109
ESL
Level 5, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
READING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
3.
4.
read and demonstrate understanding of a variety of texts for different purposes;
use a variety of reading strategies throughout the reading process to extract meaning from texts;
use a variety of strategies to build vocabulary;
locate and extract relevant information from written and graphic texts for a variety of purposes.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Reading for Meaning
By the end of this course, students will:
Reading a Variety of Texts
1.1 read a wide variety of authentic texts of increased complexity on a range of topics (e.g.,
textbook chapters, charts and tables, magazine
articles, essays, literary texts from a range of cultures, including Aboriginal cultures: short stories,
novels, plays, satire, poetry)
Demonstrating Understanding
1.2 demonstrate an understanding of complex
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
authentic texts in a variety of ways (e.g., summarize the key ideas in an article; write a short
essay comparing two texts; draw conclusions and
make generalizations about a text, citing supporting evidence from the text)
110
Responding to and Evaluating Texts
1.3 respond to complex authentic texts in a variety
of ways (e.g., give a book talk; write an in-role
diary entry for a character in a novel; suggest
reasons for the point of view presented in a magazine essay; write a critical review of a book or
article)
Text Forms
1.4 analyse a variety of texts and explain the relationship between their form and purpose (e.g.,
compare how newspapers and periodicals from
around the world present information and use
format, layout, titles, and styles of address to appeal to specific audiences; determine whether a
biography is objective by analysing the selection
of facts about the subject, both favourable and
unfavourable; explain how a realistic portrayal
of imagined characters and actions in a novel
helps the reader become involved in the story)
Literary Elements
1.5 analyse texts in a range of genres, including
essays, short stories, novels, poems, and drama, to identify literary elements and explain
their effect on the reader (e.g., cultural references to Greek or Native mythology; biblical
allusions; historical settings or allusions; subplot;
imagery; conflict; metaphor and imagery in the
poems of Chief Dan George)
Teacher prompt: “Do you recognize any other
culturally specific or world mythologies in
what you are reading? Explain.”
2. Using Reading Comprehension
Strategies
By the end of this course, students will:
Reading Strategies
2.1 identify and use the most appropriate reading
comprehension strategies before, during, and
after reading to understand texts (e.g., preview
text; divide text into digestible sections; ask questions while reading; reread to consolidate understanding; make jot notes; sort and classify ideas
using a concept map; summarize sections of text
during reading; synthesize ideas to broaden
understanding)
Teacher prompt: “What types of questions
do you ask yourself to help monitor your
reading?”
Text Features
2.2 identify different features of texts and explain
Connecting Devices
2.3 identify a wide variety of connecting devices
and transition words and phrases, and explain
how they express relationships among ideas
in texts (e.g., “that is”, “i.e.” for definition or
explanation; “for example”, “e.g.” for illustration;
“first … next” for sequence; “in short” for summary; “by contrast” for comparison and contrast;
“as a result” for cause and effect; “possibly” for
hypothesis)
Grammatical Structures
2.4 demonstrate an understanding of the grammatical structures of English used in texts
appropriate for this level (see the Language
Reference Chart for ESL Level 5 on pages 116–117)
3. Developing Vocabulary
By the end of this course, students will:
Vocabulary Building Strategies
3.1 use a wide variety of vocabulary acquisition
strategies to enrich and extend vocabulary
(e.g., infer meaning from context; use mental
imagery to memorize words; keep a vocabulary
journal of word associations and contexts in
which a word is heard or read; use word webs
to heighten awareness of relationships among
words and nuances of meaning that affect word
choice)
Word Recognition Strategies
3.2 use knowledge of a wide variety of patterns
of word structure and derivation to determine
the meaning of unfamiliar words (e.g., relate
unfamiliar words to cognates or word families;
apply knowledge of prefixes, suffixes, and root
Use of Resources
3.3 use a wide variety of resources, including
glossaries, available technology, thesauri, and
specialized dictionaries, to determine and/or
confirm the part of speech, etymology, and
pronunciation of words and their precise
meaning in different contexts (e.g., use a dictionary to confirm or correct deductions about
word meanings based on contextual clues)
Teacher prompt: “Explain how you used a
dictionary to understand an unfamiliar use
of a familiar word.”
4. Developing Research Skills
English as a Second Language
how they help readers understand the text
(e.g., charts, graphs, and tables in subject-area
text; preface or foreword; prologues and epilogues
in novels; sidebars and illustrations in magazine
articles; website taskbars and hyperlinks; reference lists / works cited)
words; interpret syntactic clues such as word
order and part of speech; use knowledge of Latin
and Greek roots to comprehend words [octagon,
centimetre])
By the end of this course, students will:
Locating Information
4.1 locate information from a wide variety of print
and electronic sources (e.g., non-fiction books,
newspaper and magazine articles, Internet sites,
statistics, research reports), and use it to answer
student-generated research questions, acknowledging sources of information, ideas, and
quotations in an approved reference list style
(e.g., MLA or APA)
ESLEO
Extracting and Organizing Information
4.2 extract information for an independent research
project from a wide variety of sources, and
organize it using a variety of graphic organizers (e.g., complete a chart comparing the
lifestyles of Aboriginal people living in First
Nation communities and urban environments)
Critical Thinking
4.3 compare, synthesize, and evaluate the information gathered from a variety of sources for
an independent research project
Teacher prompt: “How does the author’s
treatment of this topic compare with treatments of the topic in other sources?”
READING
111
ESL
Level 5, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
WRITING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
3.
write in a variety of forms for different purposes and audiences;
4.
use the stages of the writing process.
organize ideas coherently in writing;
use correctly the conventions of written English appropriate for this level, including grammar, usage,
spelling, and punctuation;
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Writing for Different Purposes
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
Academic Purposes
1.1 write complex texts to convey information and
Organizing Ideas
2.1 organize information in a logically structured
ideas for academic purposes using a wide
variety of forms (e.g., write a report comparing
the environments of two regions of Canada; compose a formal letter to the principal about providing healthy food choices in the school cafeteria;
write a detailed report clearly outlining causes
and effects of greenhouse gas emissions; write a
coherent summary synthesizing information from
several different sources)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Teacher prompt: “What is the purpose of
your writing? What form will best suit this
purpose?”
112
2. Organizing Ideas in Writing
Personal Purposes
1.2 write short texts to express ideas and feelings
on personal topics using a wide variety of
forms (e.g., a poem responding to an event in
their lives; a short play written in a group interpreting a contemporary event or issue of relevance; a manual for other newcomer students on
how to learn a language, based on their own
experience)
Community and Workplace Purposes
1.3 write complex texts to communicate information and ideas for official or personal purposes
using a wide variety of forms (e.g., a statement
of interest to accompany an application for a
summer internship or apprenticeship program;
a personal statement to accompany an application for a postsecondary education program)
essay of five or more paragraphs that includes
a thesis statement, body, and conclusion (e.g.,
a report comparing the economies of Canada and
their native country; a persuasive essay about
the advantages of cutting down on television
watching; an essay that documents the barriers
that visually impaired and hearing-impaired
people confront in daily life)
Linking Ideas
2.2 use a wide variety of connecting devices and
transition words and phrases to show relationships between ideas and information in linked
sentences and paragraphs (e.g., use “meanwhile”,
“prior to” to indicate sequence; use “despite”,
“although” to compare and contrast; use “moreover”, “not only … but also” to add details and
examples; use “in conclusion”, “finally”, “to sum
up” to signal closing remarks)
3. Developing Accuracy in Writing
Grammatical Structures
3.1 use correctly the grammatical structures and
conventions of written English appropriate for
this level (see the Language Reference Chart for
ESL Level 5 on pages 116–117)
Spelling Strategies
3.2 select and use the spelling strategies and
resources most appropriate for the task to
spell words accurately (e.g., prepare and use
webs of root words and related forms as a guide
to spell subject-specific terms; visualize spellings;
maintain a spelling journal for difficult words;
confirm spellings using a variety of print and
electronic resources)
Teacher prompt: “What strategies do you use
to learn and remember the spelling of new or
difficult words in English? Do you use these
or other strategies in your first language?”
4. Using the Writing Process
By the end of this course, students will:
Using Pre-writing Strategies
4.1 select and use the pre-writing strategies most
appropriate for the purpose to generate vocabulary and develop and organize ideas for
writing (e.g., activate prior knowledge through
peer and group interaction; organize ideas using
graphic organizers suited to the structure of the
piece of writing; make jot notes about background
reading)
variety of strategies and models (e.g., teacherprovided models and exemplars; research notes)
Revising and Editing
4.3 revise, edit, and proofread drafts using a wide
variety of strategies (e.g., incorporate peer conference feedback to achieve a more effective or
logical progression of ideas; use checklists to edit
for accurate use of grammar and conventions;
review successive drafts to verify or reconsider
earlier decisions; self-evaluate to determine next
steps in writing)
Teacher prompt: “Does your opening sentence
engage (catch) the interest of your audience?”
Publishing
4.4 select and use the elements of effective presentation most appropriate for the purpose to
publish a final product (e.g., different fonts and
colours to distinguish titles, headings, and subheadings; a detailed table of contents for a portfolio or major project; imported Internet images
to add interest or clarify information; text boxes
to emphasize facts or ideas)
English as a Second Language
By the end of this course, students will:
Producing Drafts
4.2 produce draft pieces of writing using a wide
ESLEO
Metacognition
4.5 identify and use the most appropriate writing
strategies for the purpose before, during, and
after writing, and reflect after writing on the
strategies they found most helpful (e.g., produce a plan for carrying out a research project;
use a thesaurus to vary vocabulary and achieve
precise expression)
WRITING
113
ESL
Level 5, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
SOCIO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE
AND MEDIA LITERACY
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
use English and non-verbal communication strategies appropriately in a variety of social contexts;
3.
4.
demonstrate knowledge of and adaptation to the Ontario education system;
demonstrate an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of Canadian citizenship, and of the
contributions of diverse groups to Canadian society;
demonstrate an understanding of, interpret, and create a variety of media texts.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Using English in Socially and
Culturally Appropriate Ways
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
Register
1.1 determine and use the appropriate language
Knowledge About Canada
2.1 discuss some aspects of Canadian-American
register in social and classroom contexts of all
types (e.g., use slang in conversations with peers;
use formal language in a speech or debate; demonstrate understanding of when and how it is appropriate to use humour in social interactions)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Teacher prompt: “Imagine that you are working at the cash desk in a store. How might an
older customer interpret your use of the expression ‘My bad’ when you make a mistake?”
114
2. Developing Awareness of Canada,
Citizenship, and Diversity
Non-verbal Communication
1.2 analyse and explain instances where different
interpretations of non-verbal signals lead to
misunderstanding in a variety of social, academic, and workplace contexts (e.g., role play
scenarios involving intercultural misunderstandings of non-verbal communication, and discuss
how communication could be improved)
relations since World War II (e.g., trade agreements; border security; foreign affairs and
international military involvement; cultural influences; the influence of various prime ministers
and presidents on the relationship between the
two countries)
Canadian Citizenship
2.2 explain how government policies on equity
and social justice apply to current social
issues (e.g., Aboriginal treaty rights, same-sex
unions, hiring practices)
Teacher prompt: “How are the values of
Canadian society demonstrated in our
government institutions and policies?”
Canadian Diversity
2.3 use research and presentation skills to inform
the class about issues of concern to diverse
groups in Canada (e.g., the wearing of traditional dress in police services; access to Braille
and sign-language interpreter services; the
impact of profiling on various communities)
3. Adapting to School Life in Ontario
4. Developing Media Knowledge
and Skills
Knowledge of the Ontario Secondary School
System
3.1 describe a wide variety of aspects of the
Ontario secondary school system that can
help them achieve personal, educational,
and occupational goals (e.g., assistance with
postsecondary planning and goal setting;
policies on the accommodation of religious
observances/practices)
Study Skills and Strategies
3.2 identify appropriate and effective study skills
and test-preparation strategies, and use them
to achieve their academic goals (e.g., use positive self-talk to decrease anxiety; keep a learning
log of their study schedules, strategies, and
achievement of goals)
Strategies for the Cooperative Classroom
3.3 identify a variety of appropriate strategies for
participating in cooperative learning activities,
and use them effectively to complete group
tasks (e.g., use conflict-resolution strategies;
encourage participation of all group members;
share decision making; show respect for diverse
points of view)
Knowledge of School and Community Resources
3.4 identify a variety of school and community
Understanding Media Texts
4.1 view, read, and listen to a variety of media
texts, and explain some ways in which they
influence society (e.g., how the ideas and images
in various media affect social and cultural
norms, lifestyles, and gender roles)
Teacher prompt: “Which groups in Canada
are represented most positively and which
are most negatively represented in ads on
television and in magazines?”
Interpreting Media Texts
4.2 analyse coverage of current local, national,
or global issues in a variety of media texts to
identify subjective approaches and types of
bias
Teacher prompt: “In this news report about
a conflict between two countries, does the
reporter favour one side over the other?
Give support for your opinion.”
ESLEO
Creating Media Texts
4.3 create a variety of media texts for specific purposes and audiences, and explain how the
purpose and audience influenced their design
decisions and language choice (e.g., a class
newspaper or pamphlet to inform parents about
the achievements and activities of students in the
class; an advertising campaign to appeal to specific consumer groups; a review of a television
program, film, or artistic performance to encourage teenagers or adults to see it)
SOCIO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE AND MEDIA LITERACY
policies and resources that are available to
support learning, and explain how to use
them to achieve educational success (e.g.,
TOEFL preparation classes; multilingual collections in libraries; postsecondary education
guides; school board Internet-use policy; public
reference libraries)
By the end of this course, students will:
English as a Second Language
By the end of this course, students will:
115
ESL Level 5, Open
Language Reference Chart – ESL Level 5
This chart shows the structures students are expected to learn through work done in all four strands.
These structures should be taught in context rather than in isolation (e.g., while writing a report comparing the economies of Canada and their native country, students work on cohesion in their writing by
using subordinate clauses in addition to transition words and phrases). Some English language learners
may require reinforcement and repetition of language structures from previous course levels in order to
achieve mastery.
I. Grammatical Structures
Nouns
special use of non-count nouns (e.g., hair, coffee, glass, wood, wine) as count
nouns + a/an (e.g., He pulled out a grey hair from his moustache. Could I have a
coffee, please? Pour the water into a glass. We would like to walk in a wood/woods.
They enjoy a good Chilean wine.)
Pronouns
relative: who, which, that, whose + relative and subordinate clauses (e.g., He has
done all that is necessary. The film is about a spy whose best friend betrays him
when they travel in Russia.)
reciprocal: each other
indefinite: no one
Verbs
future progressive (e.g., I’ll be waiting by the door.)
future perfect (e.g., Ontario students will have earned at least thirty credits by
the time they finish Grade 12.)
past perfect progressive (e.g., The students had been practising their speeches
before the teacher entered the room.)
passive: modals (e.g., Diamonds can be mined in Canada. The plate must have
been broken by the dog.)
passive: past perfect (e.g., The plate had already been broken before we came
downstairs.)
conditional: type 3 / condition cannot be fulfilled (e.g., If I had known that you
were coming, I would have met you at the airport.)
Adjectives
adjectives + enough (e.g., He is tall enough for the basketball team.)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
adjectives with nearly as … as, just as … as, not quite as … as
116
Adverbs
position of adverbs in a sentence + effect on meaning (e.g., They secretly decided
to leave town. [The decision was secret.] They decided to leave town secretly. [The
departure was secret.] Honestly, he didn’t get the money. [It’s true that he didn’t
get the money.] He didn’t get the money honestly. [He got the money in a dishonest manner.])
Transition words
and phrases
not only … but also (e.g., Not only are they taking a course this summer, but they
are also working part-time.)
as … as, as soon as, as well as, nearly as, just as, not quite as, whereas
prior to, subsequently, although, furthermore, to sum up, meanwhile, moreover,
despite
I. Grammatical Structures (continued)
positive and negative tag questions (e.g., This course is hard, isn’t it? She was
walking quickly, wasn’t she? He won’t ask for it, will he? They have travelled a lot,
haven’t they?)
Negation
alternative ways of saying the same thing (e.g., He didn’t eat anything / He ate
nothing. They don’t ever complain / They never complain. We haven’t seen
anyone / We have seen no one.)
Prepositions
with a variety of phrasal verbs (e.g., break down/up/out, call for/in/on, cut
down/in/off/out/up, fall back/behind/in/out/through)
Sentences
complex sentence with subordinate clauses and/or relative clauses (e.g., While
we were driving, we noticed a little girl who seemed lost. As she thought about him,
she wondered how his new job would change their lives. Ahmed, who worked with
Manuel, was waiting by the car.)
indirect speech + past perfect (e.g., I asked him what he had said.)
maintaining parallel structure
English as a Second Language
Question forms
II. Conventions of Print
Punctuation
with a variety of defining phrases and/or relative and subordinate clauses (e.g.,
Mrs. Minuk, who is the guidance counsellor, suggested [that] I take this course.)
ESLEO
with a variety of subordinate clauses (e.g., After I spoke to Mrs. Minuk, I decided
to apply to college.)
LANGUAGE REFERENCE CHART – ESL LEVEL 5
117
English Literacy Development
ELD Level 1
Open
ELDAO
This course is intended for English language learners who have had limited access to
schooling and thus have significant gaps in their first-language literacy skills. Students
will use basic listening and speaking skills to communicate in English for everyday
purposes; develop readiness skills for reading and writing; begin to read highly
structured texts for everyday and school-related purposes; and use basic English
language structures and sentence patterns in speaking and writing. The course will
also help students become familiar with school routines and begin to adapt to their
new lives in Canada.
ELD
Level 1, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
demonstrate the ability to understand, interpret, and evaluate spoken English for a variety of
purposes;
2.
use speaking skills and strategies to communicate in English for a variety of classroom and social
purposes;
3.
use correctly the language structures appropriate for this level to communicate orally in English.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Developing Listening
Comprehension
By the end of this course, students will:
Listening for Specific Information
1.1 demonstrate comprehension of specific information in simple directions and instructions
and short classroom presentations on personal
and familiar topics, with contextual and visual
support (e.g., respond non-verbally to classroom
directions; follow directions for an emergency
procedure; play word bingo; point to, choose,
or rearrange items while listening to teacher
instructions)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Listening to Interact
1.2 demonstrate understanding of clearly articu-
120
lated, simple English on personal and familiar
topics in highly structured interactive situations
(e.g., rehearse and respond to questions about
personal information that students are comfortable
sharing)
2. Developing Fluency in Speaking
By the end of this course, students will:
Speaking to Interact
2.1 engage in simple spoken interactions on personal and familiar topics (e.g., interview a
partner about likes and dislikes; take part in icebreakers; play simple language games; with a
partner, ask and answer questions related to personal information, interests, and experiences that
students are comfortable sharing)
Using Conversational Strategies
2.2 use some familiar conversational expressions
and simple non-verbal communication cues
to negotiate simple spoken interactions (e.g.,
greetings such as “Hi, how are you?”; introductions such as “This is my friend …”; requests for
clarification such as “Pardon?”; non-verbal cues
such as nodding encouragement)
Speaking for Academic Purposes
2.3 present ideas and information orally for academic purposes in simple, highly structured
contexts (e.g., introduce and thank a speaker in
class from a rehearsed statement; participate in
a brief dialogue to simulate asking for directions;
retell key events from a picture sequence, photo
montage, or non-narrative film)
3. Developing Accuracy in Speaking
By the end of this course, students will:
Grammatical Structures
3.1 use correctly the grammatical structures of
spoken English appropriate for this level (see
the Language Reference Chart for ELD Level 1
on pages 128–129)
Teacher prompts: “What do you do every
day? What is the verb tense?” “What are you
doing now? What is the verb tense?”
Sound Patterns
3.2 use appropriately a few pronunciation, stress,
Teacher prompt: “Put your hand on your
throat and say ‘zzz’ (as in ‘zoo’). Do you feel
a buzzing? Now say ‘sss’ (as in ‘Sue’). Do
you still feel the buzzing?”
Communication Strategies
3.3 use a few oral communication strategies to
bridge gaps in spoken communication (e.g.,
use gestures and mime to clarify meaning; ask
for repetition when a message is not understood)
English Literacy Development
rhythm, and intonation patterns of spoken
English to communicate meaning accurately
(e.g., distinguish between short and long vowels
[lip/line], consonants and consonant clusters
[tea/tree/three], and voiced and unvoiced consonants [bit/pit]; finish statements with falling
intonation and questions with rising intonation)
ELDAO
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
121
ELD
Level 1, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
READING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
3.
4.
read and demonstrate understanding of a variety of texts for different purposes;
use a variety of reading strategies throughout the reading process to extract meaning from texts;
use a variety of strategies to build vocabulary;
locate and extract relevant information from written and graphic texts for a variety of purposes.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Reading for Meaning
By the end of this course, students will:
Reading a Variety of Texts
1.1 read a few different types of simple texts, with
teacher support (e.g., traffic signs, grocery-store
flyers, calendars, environmental print, classgenerated language-experience stories, rhymes,
pattern books)
Demonstrating Understanding
1.2 demonstrate an understanding of a few types
of simple texts, with teacher support (e.g.,
sequence pictures to accompany a story; identify
words or phrases; construct models for a diorama)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Responding to and Evaluating Texts
1.3 respond to simple texts in highly supported
122
contexts (e.g., express personal preferences about
characters; make a collage of favourite foods; create a word bank of vocabulary from a website)
Teacher prompt: “How is this book like the
one we read together last week? How is it
different?”
Text Forms
1.4 identify some characteristics of a few simple
text forms (e.g., signs and symbols in the school
and community: stop signs, “school zone” signs,
pedestrian crosswalk signs; telephone and address
listings: alphabetical order by surname; calendars:
rows and columns; captions for pictures; product
labels: expiry date, bar code; lists: numbers or
bullets; weather reports: symbols for snow, rain,
clouds, sun)
Literary Elements
1.5 identify a few basic literary elements in short
prose texts and simple poems on familiar topics (e.g., identify rhyming words in jazz chants,
songs, raps, and pattern books; demonstrate
understanding of narrative organization [beginning, middle, and end] by sequencing pictures;
demonstrate understanding of story settings by
building models or drawing pictures)
2. Using Reading Comprehension
Strategies
By the end of this course, students will:
Reading Strategies
2.1 demonstrate understanding of readingreadiness concepts (e.g., recognize the directionality of English print; identify the letters of the
Roman alphabet in printed texts; demonstrate
understanding of basic sound-letter correspondences; interpret pictures and use picture clues
to aid comprehension), and apply a few
appropriate reading strategies to:
• familiarize themselves with texts before
they read them (e.g., activate and build on
prior knowledge using pictures, other visual
supports, and teacher cues; preview key vocabulary and contribute to word walls; predict
meaning using pictorial clues and create questions as a class)
• understand texts while they are reading
them (e.g., apply sight recognition of highfrequency words; look at images and photographs to clarify meaning; track words during
a teacher read-aloud)
Teacher prompt: “What do the pictures tell
you about the book you are going to read?”
Text Features
2.2 identify a few features of simple texts that
help convey meaning (e.g., alphabetical order,
pagination, illustrations and photographs, titles,
headlines, captions)
Connecting Devices
2.3 identify a few simple connecting devices and
transition words that are used to show relationships among ideas in simple texts (e.g.,
numbers and bullets in a list; “and”, “or”, “but”,
“because”)
Grammatical Structures
2.4 demonstrate an understanding of the grammatical structures of English and conventions
of print used in texts appropriate for this level
(see the Language Reference Chart for ELD Level 1
on pages 128–129)
3. Developing Vocabulary
By the end of this course, students will:
Word Recognition Strategies
3.2 use knowledge of simple patterns of word
structure to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words, with teacher guidance (e.g.,
rhyming patterns, sound-symbol relationships,
plural endings for regular count nouns)
Teacher prompt: “Listen to these three words:
‘bat’, ‘log’, ‘cat’. Which words rhyme?”
Use of Resources
3.3 use a few different resources to build vocabulary, with teacher support (e.g., picture dictionaries, classroom word walls, personal word
banks)
4. Developing Research Skills
By the end of this course, students will:
English Literacy Development
• confirm understanding of texts after they
have read them (e.g., retell events in a story
sequentially; record key information and facts
using simple graphic organizers)
Locating Information
4.1 locate key information in simple texts, with
teacher support (e.g., pictures, maps, emergency
symbols, washing instructions, traffic signs,
cash-register sales receipts)
ELDAO
Extracting and Organizing Information
4.2 extract, record, and organize key information,
with teacher support (e.g., put students’ names
in alphabetical order; record key words on a
word wall)
Vocabulary Building Strategies
3.1 use a few basic vocabulary acquisition strat-
Critical Thinking
4.3 identify the source of information used for
egies to build vocabulary (e.g., use a bank of
sight words for regular reference; use pictures
and illustrations to clarify meaning; make word
lists; identify sight words in simple stories; add
to word walls; complete word puzzles)
a school project (e.g., book, agenda, calendar,
dictionary, flyer, sign, magazine)
Teacher prompt: “What do you do in a fire
drill? Where is this information in the classroom? Are there other signs like this in the
school? Why are these signs important?”
READING
123
ELD
Level 1, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
WRITING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
3.
write in a variety of forms for different purposes and audiences;
4.
use the stages of the writing process.
organize ideas coherently in writing;
use correctly the conventions of written English appropriate for this level, including grammar, usage,
spelling, and punctuation;
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Writing for Different Purposes
By the end of this course, students will:
Academic Purposes
1.1 write short, simple texts to convey information and ideas for academic purposes using
highly scaffolded forms (e.g., label items and
pictures related to home, school, food, body, or
family; label maps of Canada; write captions
for a poster; use sentence stems to write short
answers to questions; record homework assignments and due dates in school agendas)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Personal Purposes
1.2 write short texts to express ideas and feelings
124
on personal and familiar topics using a few
simple scaffolded forms (e.g., follow teacherprepared models to write shopping lists, short
messages in greeting cards, brief e-mail messages)
Community and Workplace Purposes
1.3 write short texts to communicate basic personal information and ideas using a few simple forms (e.g., an emergency contact information form, an application for a library card, an
application for a transit pass)
2. Organizing Ideas in Writing
By the end of this course, students will:
Organizing Ideas
2.1 organize words in simple sentences to communicate a central idea (e.g., use a sentence
stem to compose sentences about daily routines;
write captions for a poster)
Linking Ideas
2.2 use a few simple transition words to show
relationships between ideas and information
(e.g., and, but, after, then)
3. Developing Accuracy in Writing
By the end of this course, students will:
Grammatical Structures
3.1 use correctly the grammatical structures and
print conventions of written English appropriate for this level (see the Language Reference
Chart for ELD Level 1 on pages 128–129)
Spelling Strategies
3.2 use a few basic spelling strategies to spell
high-frequency words accurately (e.g., locate
words on an alphabetical word wall using the
first letter; find pictures or words in picture
dictionaries; apply knowledge of common and
predictable English sound-symbol and spelling
patterns; spell words aloud; record words in a
personal word list)
4. Using the Writing Process
By the end of this course, students will:
Using Pre-writing Strategies
4.1 demonstrate understanding of writingreadiness concepts (e.g., directionality of
English print; the importance of spacing between
letters and words; the location of text in relation
to the lines on a page and margins; the print
characters of the Roman alphabet; basic sound-
Producing Drafts
4.2 produce draft pieces of writing using vocabulary and ideas from pre-writing activities,
with teacher direction and modelling (e.g.,
scaffolded sentences for journal writing, modelled
captions, greeting-card templates)
Revising and Editing
4.3 revise, edit, and proofread drafts, with teacher
direction and modelling (e.g., use a pocket chart
to reorder words to improve clarity; discuss word
choice and add words from a class word wall; use
a simple checklist in conference with the teacher)
Publishing
4.4 use a few simple elements of effective presentation to publish a final product (e.g., legible
printing or handwriting; text centred within a
border; appropriate margins and spacing; centred
title; mounted pictures and photographs; different
font sizes and colours)
Metacognition
4.5 identify and use a few writing strategies
before, during, and after writing, and reflect
after writing on the strategies they found
most helpful, with teacher support (e.g.,
respond to teacher prompts during a writing
conference)
Teacher prompt: “How did you get the idea
for your caption?”
English Literacy Development
letter correspondence), and use a few prewriting strategies to generate vocabulary and
develop and organize ideas for writing (e.g.,
activate prior knowledge about a topic through
brainstorming and read-alouds; use visuals and
manipulatives, and view non-narrative films to
generate ideas; gather information from field
trips or shared classroom experiences)
ELDAO
SOCIO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE AND MEDIA LITERACY
125
ELD
Level 1, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
SOCIO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE
AND MEDIA LITERACY
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
use English and non-verbal communication strategies appropriately in a variety of social contexts;
3.
4.
demonstrate knowledge of and adaptation to the Ontario education system;
demonstrate an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of Canadian citizenship, and of the
contributions of diverse groups to Canadian society;
demonstrate an understanding of, interpret, and create a variety of media texts.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Using English in Socially and
Culturally Appropriate Ways
By the end of this course, students will:
Register
1.1 determine and use the appropriate language
register in a few social and classroom contexts
(e.g., use common social greetings and courtesies
with peers and teachers; offer and/or ask for
assistance to/from a peer or teacher; take turns
with peers in conversations and classroom
discussions)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Non-verbal Communication
1.2 use a few non-verbal communication cues
126
appropriately in classroom contexts (e.g., eye
contact, facial expressions, gestures, nodding)
Canadian Citizenship
2.2 demonstrate basic knowledge about the rights
and responsibilities of groups and individuals
in Canada (e.g., follow classroom and school
codes of conduct; identify some basic rights such
as education and health care)
Teacher prompt: “What are some rules for all
students? Why do we have these rules?”
Canadian Diversity
2.3 demonstrate an understanding and acceptance of the diversity in the school and community (e.g., show courtesy and sensitivity in
pair and group work with peers of different cultures and languages, or with different physical
and intellectual abilities, or of a different gender
or sexual orientation)
3. Adapting to School Life in Ontario
2. Developing Awareness of Canada,
Citizenship, and Diversity
By the end of this course, students will:
Knowledge About Canada
2.1 demonstrate knowledge of some basic facts
about Canada (e.g., identify Canada’s regions,
provinces, territories, capital cities, and currency;
name some Canadian festivals and holidays;
identify some Canadian symbols, animals,
attractions, and sports)
By the end of this course, students will:
Knowledge of the Ontario Secondary School
System
3.1 demonstrate an understanding of a few basic
aspects of the Ontario secondary school system (e.g., essential classroom and school routines
and behaviour, including appropriate ways to
address staff, responsibility for textbooks and
lockers, individual timetables, emergency procedures, the school code of conduct, attendance procedures, appropriate dress)
Study Skills and Strategies
3.2 follow routines and use basic study skills (e.g.,
Strategies for the Cooperative Classroom
3.3 work cooperatively with a partner or in a group
(e.g., use appropriate behaviour in coeducational,
mixed age, or mixed cultural groupings, including showing equal respect for male and female
classmates)
Knowledge of School and Community Resources
3.4 identify key school and community personnel
and locations (e.g., match school staff with their
jobs; map important locations in the school and
community)
television programs, movies, documentaries,
advertisements, newspapers, magazines, websites, video games, CDs and DVDs, comic strips,
logos, billboards)
Creating Media Texts
4.3 create a few simple media texts for different
purposes (e.g., collage, poster, notice, sign,
greeting card, menu)
English Literacy Development
bring necessary materials to class; organize information in notebooks by writing on the lines and
using margins, titles, and dates; record key information in a planner; complete homework)
Interpreting Media Texts
4.2 identify different types of media texts (e.g.,
4. Developing Media Knowledge
and Skills
By the end of this course, students will:
ELDAO
Understanding Media Texts
4.1 view, read, and listen to simple media texts
to obtain information (e.g., scan supermarket
flyers to compare prices; obey traffic signs;
demonstrate an understanding of international
symbols and environmental print such as graphics and logos for government and community
services; retell the story told by photographs)
SOCIO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE AND MEDIA LITERACY
127
ELD
Level 1, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
Language Reference Chart – ELD Level 1
This chart shows the structures students are expected to learn through work done in all four strands.
These structures should be taught in context rather than in isolation (e.g., as part of a procedural writing
activity, such as writing a recipe, students practise using the imperative form of verbs).
I. Grammatical Structures
Nouns
count: singular and plural (e.g., chair/chairs; bus/buses)
articles a, an, the
Numbers
cardinal numbers (e.g., 1–100)
Pronouns
subject: I, you, he, she, it, we, they
object: me, you, him, her, it, us, them
demonstrative: this/these, that/those
Verbs
be (e.g., I am a student.)
there is/are
have (e.g., I have a sister.)
can: for ability and permission (e.g., I can dance. I can go to the dance.)
simple present (e.g., I live in Canada.)
present progressive (e.g., She is sitting.)
contractions with be, do (e.g., She’s sitting. They don’t like coffee.)
imperative forms (e.g., Sit down. Don’t sit down.)
let’s (e.g., Let’s ask the teacher.)
Adjectives
high-frequency (e.g., red, big, round)
following It + be (e.g., It’s hot.)
possessive: my, your, his, her, its, our, their (e.g., That’s my book.)
Adverbs
high-frequency (e.g., slowly, fast, quickly)
some adverbs of frequency and time (e.g., then, always, never, sometimes)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
too
128
Transition words
and phrases
conjunctions: and, but, or, because
Question forms
yes/no (e.g., Do you see that stop sign? Yes, I do. No, I don’t.)
Negation
be, do in simple present (e.g., He is not here / He isn’t here. We don’t like that.)
Prepositions
of location (e.g., in, on, at, under, beside, on the right/left)
of direction (e.g., to, from)
of time (e.g., at, before, after, on, in)
Sentences
simple sentence: subject + verb + object (e.g., I eat cookies. I watch a movie every
weekend.)
II. Conventions of Print
Punctuation
final punctuation: period, question mark
Capitalization
first word in a sentence
names of people and places
English Literacy Development
apostrophe for contractions (e.g., I’m happy.)
ELDAO
LANGUAGE REFERENCE CHART – ELD LEVEL 1
129
English Literacy Development
ELD Level 2
Open
ELDBO
This course is intended for English language learners who have had limited access to
schooling and thus have gaps in their first-language literacy skills. Students will use their
developing listening and speaking skills to communicate in English for a variety of
purposes; develop reading strategies to understand a variety of simple texts; produce
simple forms of writing; apply increasing knowledge of English grammatical structures
in speaking and writing; expand their vocabulary; and develop fundamental study skills.
The course will also provide opportunities for students to become familiar with and use
school and community resources and to build their knowledge of Canada and diversity.
ELD
Level 2, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
demonstrate the ability to understand, interpret, and evaluate spoken English for a variety of
purposes;
2.
use speaking skills and strategies to communicate in English for a variety of classroom and social
purposes;
3.
use correctly the language structures appropriate for this level to communicate orally in English.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Developing Listening
Comprehension
By the end of this course, students will:
Listening for Specific Information
1.1 demonstrate comprehension of specific information in directions, instructions, and classroom presentations on familiar and new topics,
with contextual and visual support (e.g., retell
key ideas from school announcements; play language games; follow oral instructions to assemble
an object; complete an oral true/false quiz)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Listening to Interact
1.2 demonstrate understanding of clearly articu-
132
lated, simple English on personal and familiar
topics in structured interactive situations (e.g.,
respond to questions relating to familiar topics in
a role-play; play barrier games; participate in
choral speaking and singing)
Using Conversational Strategies
2.2 use some common conversational expressions
and non-verbal communication cues to negotiate structured spoken interactions (e.g., polite
forms that signal agreement and disagreement,
such as “Right”, “That’s fine”, “I’m not sure about
that”; expressions that signal admiration, such as
“Awesome!”, “Amazing!”, “Wow!”; non-verbal
cues, such as nodding or shrugging)
Speaking for Academic Purposes
2.3 present ideas and information orally for academic purposes in structured situations (e.g.,
make a short rehearsed presentation about a
Canadian province or territory, referring to a
student-prepared poster; participate in a thinkpair-share activity on the school code of conduct;
give a book talk using visual aids and realia)
3. Developing Accuracy in Speaking
By the end of this course, students will:
2. Developing Fluency in Speaking
By the end of this course, students will:
Speaking to Interact
2.1 engage in structured spoken interactions on
personal and school-related topics (e.g., share
information to solve a math problem; play board
games; plan and perform a role-play about purchasing an item from a store)
Grammatical Structures
3.1 use correctly the grammatical structures of
spoken English appropriate for this level (see
the Language Reference Chart for ELD Level 2
on pages 140–141)
Sound Patterns
3.2 use appropriately some pronunciation, stress,
Communication Strategies
3.3 use some oral communication strategies to
bridge gaps in spoken communication (e.g.,
ask for confirmation that a word used is correct;
use pause fillers such as “Well … um … oh …”
to gain time to organize thoughts; start again
using different phrasing when listeners seem
confused; use rehearsed phrases from a stock
of learned expressions)
English Literacy Development
rhythm, and intonation patterns of spoken
English to communicate meaning accurately
(e.g., pronounce final consonant sounds in past
tense verbs [liked, wanted, answered] and plurals
[books, pens, wishes]; place stress on the first
syllable of most compound words [handshake,
toothbrush, bedroom]; articulate certain consonant sounds for increased clarity [tank, thank])
ELDBO
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
133
ELD
Level 2, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
READING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
3.
4.
read and demonstrate understanding of a variety of texts for different purposes;
use a variety of reading strategies throughout the reading process to extract meaning from texts;
use a variety of strategies to build vocabulary;
locate and extract relevant information from written and graphic texts for a variety of purposes.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Reading for Meaning
By the end of this course, students will:
Reading a Variety of Texts
1.1 read some different types of simple texts, with
teacher support (e.g., group language-experience
stories, readers for a specific level, simple poems,
labels, advertisements, e-mail messages, simple
maps, posters)
Demonstrating Understanding
1.2 demonstrate an understanding of some types
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
of simple texts, with teacher support (e.g.,
comment on words, expressions, and ideas in a
text; create illustrations or storyboards to accompany a text; complete a graphic organizer; prepare a word collage of key words from a text)
134
Responding to and Evaluating Texts
1.3 respond to adapted texts, with teacher support (e.g., complete a reading log; create a poster
or book jacket to reflect some aspect of a text;
present a tableau depicting a key scene in a text)
Teacher prompt: “Tell me about your favourite part of the story. What did you like/not
like about the story?”
Text Forms
1.4 identify the characteristics of some simple
text forms (e.g., maps: labels, different colours
for land and water; bus schedules: dates, times,
destinations; personal letters and e-mails: salutations and closings; simple poems: rhythm, endof-line rhymes; menus: grouping of different
types of food, such as salads, drinks, desserts)
Literary Elements
1.5 identify some common literary elements in
short prose texts and poems (e.g., repetition
and rhyme in simple poems, descriptive words
and expressions in a story, conflict between
characters in a story)
Teacher prompt: “What words in the text
helped you make a picture in your mind?”
2. Using Reading Comprehension
Strategies
By the end of this course, students will:
Reading Strategies
2.1 apply some appropriate reading strategies to:
• familiarize themselves with texts before
they read them (e.g., complete a K-W-L chart
with the class; predict content from visual cues,
title, and organizational features; complete an
anticipation guide; preview key vocabulary on
a word wall)
• understand texts while they are reading
them (e.g., use think-aloud as modelled by the
teacher; ask questions to confirm meaning; use
graphic organizers and visuals to aid comprehension; use knowledge of familiar grammatical structures and punctuation to determine
meaning; look up unfamiliar words in picture
and learner dictionaries)
• confirm understanding of texts after they
have read them (e.g., connect themes or scenes
to personal experience in class discussions;
complete cloze activities; depict plot events or
characters through drawing; complete the
remaining portions of a K-W-L chart)
Text Features
2.2 identify some key features of simple texts and
use them to determine meaning (e.g., title,
author, numbered steps in a set of instructions,
chronological order in a narrative, charts, icons)
Teacher prompt: “Were the instructions for
the recipe clear and easy to follow? Why or
why not?”
Connecting Devices
2.3 identify some simple connecting devices and
transition words and phrases that are used to
show relationships among ideas in simple
texts (e.g., because, so; first, next, then, after;
first of all)
Grammatical Structures
2.4 demonstrate an understanding of the grammatical structures of English and conventions
of print used in texts appropriate for this level
(see the Language Reference Chart for ELD
Level 2 on pages 140–141)
3. Developing Vocabulary
By the end of this course, students will:
Vocabulary Building Strategies
3.1 use some basic vocabulary acquisition strategies to build vocabulary (e.g., make thematic
word lists to classify words; record new words in
a personal dictionary; play simple word games)
Word Recognition Strategies
3.2 use knowledge of simple patterns of word
structure to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words (e.g., irregular plural noun endings, regular present and past verb tense endings,
comparative and superlative adjective endings,
familiar words within compound words)
Use of Resources
3.3 use some different resources to build vocabulary and determine the meaning of new
words (e.g., consult informational picture texts,
atlases, and learner dictionaries; check meaning
with a partner)
4. Developing Research Skills
By the end of this course, students will:
English Literacy Development
Teacher prompts: “How does the title help
you to understand what you are going to
read?” “Can you imagine what the character
in the story looks like? What words in the
text describe the character?”
Locating Information
4.1 locate information in simple texts relating to
the school and community, and connect it to
personal experiences and previous reading
(e.g., picture dictionaries, telephone directories,
posters, the Internet, atlases, graphic texts, flyers)
ELDBO
Extracting and Organizing Information
4.2 extract, record, and organize information
from a variety of teacher-selected resources
(e.g., complete a simple weather chart)
Critical Thinking
4.3 identify sources of information used for a
variety of everyday purposes (e.g., local transit
schedules, Ministry of Transportation maps, telephone directories, flyers, public service brochures,
websites, newspapers)
READING
135
ELD
ESL
Level 1,
2, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
WRITING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
3.
write in a variety of forms for different purposes and audiences;
4.
use the stages of the writing process.
organize ideas coherently in writing;
use correctly the conventions of written English appropriate for this level, including grammar, usage,
spelling, and punctuation;
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Writing for Different Purposes
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
Academic Purposes
1.1 write short, simple texts to convey information
Organizing Ideas
2.1 organize a series of linked sentences chrono-
and ideas for academic purposes using a number of scaffolded forms (e.g., complete sentences
in a cloze exercise; label a bar graph showing the
results of a survey; complete a T-chart about the
pros and cons of fast-food lunches; develop a
word web to describe a character in a story)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Personal Purposes
1.2 write short texts to express ideas and feelings
136
2. Organizing Ideas in Writing
on personal and familiar topics using some
simple forms (e.g., reminders in an agenda
about appointments or significant dates; simple
messages expressing thanks, congratulations,
or condolences; invitations; directions; simple
telephone messages; simple e-mail messages;
a “to-do” list; a postcard)
logically, sequentially, or spatially to develop
a central idea (e.g., follow the model of a teacher
think-aloud to write a description of a favourite
activity, person, or place; use a graphic organizer
to identify and order main ideas and supporting
details on a topic)
Linking Ideas
2.2 use some different types of transition words
and phrases to show relationships between
ideas and information (e.g., first, next, and,
but, so, because)
3. Developing Accuracy in Writing
By the end of this course, students will:
Community and Workplace Purposes
1.3 write short texts to communicate basic information for official and personal purposes
using some simple forms (e.g., simple jobapplication and medical-information forms,
cheques, bank withdrawal and deposit forms,
a labelled map of the neighbourhood, a list of
community involvement activities, an application form for a Social Insurance Number)
Grammatical Structures
3.1 use correctly the grammatical structures and
print conventions of written English appropriate for this level (see the Language Reference
Chart for ELD Level 2 on pages 140–141)
Teacher prompt: “Did this happen in the
past? What verb form should you use to
show it happened in the past?”
Spelling Strategies
3.2 use some spelling strategies to spell words
4. Using the Writing Process
teacher-directed strategies (e.g., discuss ideas
and content in conferences with the teacher; use
checklists; consult picture dictionaries, class
charts, and word walls during editing)
Publishing
4.4 use some different elements of effective presentation to publish a final product (e.g., a
cover page, titles and headings, drawings and
maps, imported images, charts and illustrations,
different font sizes and colours)
By the end of this course, students will:
Using Pre-writing Strategies
4.1 use some pre-writing strategies to generate
vocabulary and develop and organize ideas
for writing (e.g., brainstorm to gather ideas
about topics for writing; draw or sketch to clarify
thinking; consult the teacher-librarian for resource
materials; formulate “wh” questions; scan newspapers and magazines for information and ideas;
use T-charts to sort and classify information)
Producing Drafts
4.2 produce draft pieces of writing following
Metacognition
4.5 identify and use some different writing strategies before, during, and after writing, and
reflect after writing on the strategies they
found most helpful, with teacher support
(e.g., use word walls, class charts, and a teacher
think-aloud to develop ideas for writing)
English Literacy Development
accurately (e.g., consult word walls, personal
word lists, and learner dictionaries; refer to classcreated word webs; apply rules for forming plurals to nouns; segment words to identify and
record sound-symbol correspondences; identify
rhyming patterns; use computer spell-check
software)
Revising and Editing
4.3 revise, edit, and proofread drafts using some
Teacher prompt: “How does the word wall
help you while you are writing?”
ELDBO
models provided by the teacher (e.g., sentence
starters, cloze passages, a teacher think-aloud,
student exemplars)
WRITING
137
ELD
Level 2, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
SOCIO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE
AND MEDIA LITERACY
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
use English and non-verbal communication strategies appropriately in a variety of social contexts;
3.
4.
demonstrate knowledge of and adaptation to the Ontario education system;
demonstrate an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of Canadian citizenship, and of the
contributions of diverse groups to Canadian society;
demonstrate an understanding of, interpret, and create a variety of media texts.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Using English in Socially and
Culturally Appropriate Ways
By the end of this course, students will:
Register
1.1 determine and use the appropriate language
register in a number of social and classroom
contexts (e.g., offer and/or accept apologies
to/from a peer; communicate suggestions and
requests to teachers or classmates; disagree
politely with an adult)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Non-verbal Communication
1.2 use non-verbal communication cues appro-
138
priately in a number of different contexts (e.g.,
eye contact, gestures, physical distance/proximity,
handshakes)
2. Developing Awareness of Canada,
Citizenship, and Diversity
By the end of this course, students will:
Knowledge About Canada
2.1 demonstrate knowledge of some Canadian
celebrations and sites of historical, social, or
civic significance (e.g., Canada Day, Remembrance Day, Victoria Day, Thanksgiving Day; the
federal Parliament Buildings, the Peace Tower,
Queen’s Park, local memorials, provincial and
national parks, tourist attractions)
Canadian Citizenship
2.2 demonstrate knowledge of some basic facts
about Canadian citizenship (e.g., the words to
the national anthem, the symbolism of the
Canadian flag, the principle of free speech, the
concept of multiculturalism, the rights and
responsibilities of community members)
Canadian Diversity
2.3 demonstrate an awareness of the variety of
languages and cultures represented in the
school community (e.g., map the countries of
origin of classmates; make graphs of the first
languages used in the school)
3. Adapting to School Life in Ontario
By the end of this course, students will:
Knowledge of the Ontario Secondary School
System
3.1 describe some features of the Ontario secondary school system (e.g., kinds of secondary
schools and types of secondary school courses,
the credit system, field-trip procedures, immunization requirements)
Study Skills and Strategies
3.2 use a few appropriate study skills and timemanagement and goal-setting strategies to
carry out learning tasks (e.g., use a
planner/agenda to record homework and other
assignments; draw up and follow a schedule to
help complete assignments on time and make up
missed work; complete a personal timeline to
project goals for the school year)
Strategies for the Cooperative Classroom
3.3 negotiate roles and tasks in group learning
activities (e.g., take on the roles of recorder,
time keeper, or facilitator, as needed)
Teacher prompt: “Each person in your group
took on a different role. How did that help
your group finish the task?”
Knowledge of School and Community Resources
3.4 identify some school and community resources
that are available to support classroom learning (e.g., school guidance services, school settlement workers, newcomer resources available
from www.settlement.org, school and public
libraries, in-school study and computer rooms,
tutoring programs, community recreation centres)
By the end of this course, students will:
Understanding Media Texts
4.1 view, read, and listen to different types of media
texts to obtain and record key information (e.g.,
compile a weather report based on television
forecasts; summarize sports results from the
newspaper; obtain transportation schedules from
websites)
Interpreting Media Texts
4.2 identify the purpose and intended audience of
different types of media texts (e.g., advertising
flyers, public service or travel brochures, television commercials)
English Literacy Development
Teacher prompt: “Explain how an agenda can
help you manage your time and meet schoolwork deadlines.”
4. Developing Media Knowledge
and Skills
Creating Media Texts
4.3 create media texts for different purposes (e.g.,
a poster to advertise a school event, a stamp to
commemorate an invention or discovery, a coat
of arms to represent themselves or their families,
a song to tell people about a favourite activity)
ELDBO
SOCIO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE AND MEDIA LITERACY
139
ELD
Level 2, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
Language Reference Chart – ELD Level 2
This chart shows the structures students are expected to learn through work done in all four strands.
These structures should be taught in context rather than in isolation (e.g., after reading, students identify
prepositions used with phrasal verbs in the text, with teacher support, and add them to a word wall).
English language learners in the ELD program need reinforcement and repetition of language structures
from previous course levels in order to achieve mastery.
I. Grammatical Structures
Nouns
count: high-frequency irregular forms (e.g., child/children)
non-count (e.g., no plural form – water, ice, bread, sugar, money, paper)
possessive form of proper nouns (e.g., Paulo’s hat.)
ordinal numbers for dates (e.g., the first, the twenty-ninth)
articles a, an, the
Pronouns
demonstrative: this, these, that, those
reflexive: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves
Verbs
simple present (e.g., We study science.)
present progressive (e.g., They are studying science.)
simple past regular/irregular (e.g., I bought a magazine yesterday. They played
tennis all afternoon. We went to a restaurant last night.)
there was/were
simple future (e.g., I will call you tomorrow.)
future with going to (e.g., They’re going to be late.)
Adjectives
possessive (e.g., We ate at their house.)
comparative/superlative (e.g., taller/tallest)
Adverbs
modifying adjectives (e.g., very tall, really late)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
of frequency and time (e.g., already, sometimes, often, always, never, today,
then, last)
140
Transition words
and phrases
conjunctions: because, so, first, next
Question forms
“wh” questions (e.g., what, where, when, who, why)
how
Negation
be, do in simple past (e.g., They weren’t ready. We didn’t like that story.)
Prepositions
with simple phrasal verbs (e.g., take off, put on, put away, turn on/off, get up, wait
for, look for, look at, talk over)
Sentences
simple (subject + verb + object or prepositional phrase) (e.g., She reads books.
She reads in the classroom.)
compound with and (e.g., She reads books, and she also plays sports.)
II. Conventions of Print
Punctuation
comma (for items in a list)
apostrophe for possessive forms (e.g., Paulo’s hat, the children’s ball)
Capitalization
proper nouns
English Literacy Development
exclamation mark
ELDBO
LANGUAGE REFERENCE CHART – ELD LEVEL 2
141
English Literacy Development
ELD Level 3
Open
ELDCO
This course builds on students’ growing literacy and language skills and extends their
ability to communicate in English about familiar and school-related topics. Students
will make brief oral presentations; improve their literacy skills through a variety of
contextualized and supported reading and writing tasks; distinguish between fact and
opinion in short written and oral texts; complete short guided-research projects; and
engage in a variety of cooperative learning activities. The course will also enable students
to strengthen and extend their study skills and personal-management strategies and to
broaden their understanding of Canadian diversity and citizenship.
ELD
Level 3, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
demonstrate the ability to understand, interpret, and evaluate spoken English for a variety of
purposes;
2.
use speaking skills and strategies to communicate in English for a variety of classroom and social
purposes;
3.
use correctly the language structures appropriate for this level to communicate orally in English.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Developing Listening
Comprehension
2. Developing Fluency in Speaking
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
Listening for Specific Information
1.1 demonstrate comprehension of specific information in more detailed directions, instructions, and classroom presentations, with
moderate contextual and visual support (e.g.,
identify major weather trends from weather
broadcasts; use a teacher-prepared graphic
organizer to note main ideas from classroom
presentations)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Teacher prompt: “What questions can you
ask yourself while you are listening to help
you understand what you have heard?”
144
Listening to Interact
1.2 demonstrate understanding of spoken English
on familiar topics that are relevant to community and school in interactive situations (e.g.,
use the telephone to check the availability of an
item advertised in a flyer; interview a classmate
about a favourite book)
Speaking to Interact
2.1 engage in spoken interactions on personal
and content-area topics (e.g., conduct surveys
with other students and graph the results; interview a partner about how a past experience
compares with a new experience in Canada, and
record the results in a Venn diagram; participate
in planning for a class celebration)
Using Conversational Strategies
2.2 use a number of conversational expressions to
negotiate spoken interactions (e.g., engage in
small talk with classmates using expressions such
as “How’s it going?”, “What’s up?”, “What do
you think?”; start a telephone inquiry for information with expressions such as “Could you
please tell me …?”, “I’m calling about …”)
Speaking for Academic Purposes
2.3 present ideas and information orally for academic purposes in supported situations (e.g.,
give an oral presentation supported by pictures
or graphics; assume a variety of roles in smallgroup activities; explain geometric concepts with
the aid of a model; create questions in groups for
a class quiz)
3. Developing Accuracy in Speaking
Grammatical Structures
3.1 use correctly the grammatical structures of
spoken English appropriate for this level (see
the Language Reference Chart for ELD Level 3
on page 152)
Sound Patterns
3.2 use appropriately a number of pronunciation,
stress, rhythm, and intonation patterns of
spoken English to communicate meaning
accurately (e.g., move syllable stress and reduce
vowels in words within a word family [multiply,
multiplication]; apply general rules about rhythm
and stress patterns to unfamiliar words from rap
songs or jazz chants)
English Literacy Development
By the end of this course, students will:
Communication Strategies
3.3 use a number of oral communication strategies
to bridge gaps in spoken communication (e.g.,
restate complex ideas in simple language and
invite feedback; describe the features or components of objects for which they do not know or
remember the word)
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Teacher prompt: “What words can you use to
describe the size, shape, and function of this
object?”
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
145
ELD
Level 3, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
READING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
3.
4.
read and demonstrate understanding of a variety of texts for different purposes;
use a variety of reading strategies throughout the reading process to extract meaning from texts;
use a variety of strategies to build vocabulary;
locate and extract relevant information from written and graphic texts for a variety of purposes.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Reading for Meaning
By the end of this course, students will:
Reading a Variety of Texts
1.1 read a number of adapted texts and simple
authentic texts (e.g., short stories from diverse
cultures, poems, short novels, letters, memos,
and a variety of electronic texts)
Demonstrating Understanding
1.2 demonstrate an understanding of adapted
and simple authentic texts in a number of
ways (e.g., present role-plays; summarize key
points; compose an alternative ending to a work
of fiction; use a Venn diagram to record similarities and differences)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Responding to and Evaluating Texts
1.3 respond to adapted and simple authentic texts,
146
with minimal support (e.g., participate in an
informal class discussion about a text; complete
a reader’s response journal; participate in a roleplay dramatizing the resolution of a conflict in
a text; identify the main ideas and supporting
details in a text)
Text Forms
1.4 identify the characteristics of a number of text
forms (e.g., columns and rows in charts and tables,
abbreviations in recipes, numbered steps in instructions and procedures, frames with dialogue in
comics, a simple W-5 format in newspaper articles, quotation marks for dialogue in a narrative)
Literary Elements
1.5 identify a number of literary elements in short
stories, poems, and simple novels (e.g., the
theme of a story, turning points in the plot of a
short story or novel, words that create mood or
describe character traits)
2. Using Reading Comprehension
Strategies
By the end of this course, students will:
Reading Strategies
2.1 apply a number of appropriate reading strategies to:
• familiarize themselves with texts before
they read them (e.g., brainstorm with a partner to predict content; ask questions about
illustrations, photographs, and graphic organizers; activate prior knowledge of a topic
through a concept web; preview key vocabulary using picture dictionaries and other
materials related to the topic of the text)
• understand texts while they are reading
them (e.g., reread with a partner or read on;
identify common prefixes, suffixes, and roots;
chunk information and distinguish between
main ideas and supporting details; pose questions to clarify meaning; highlight key words
and make jot notes; use contextual clues such
as signal words and phrases; look up unfamiliar words in learner dictionaries)
Teacher prompt: “What can you do when you
don’t understand a word?
Text Features
2.2 identify a number of features of adapted and
simple authentic texts, and use them to aid or
increase comprehension (e.g., different fonts,
italics, boldface type, bullets, table of contents,
chapter titles, labelled diagrams)
Connecting Devices
2.3 identify a number of connecting devices and
transition words and phrases that are used to
show relationships among ideas in adapted
and simple authentic texts (e.g., as, when, if,
while; first of all, secondly, as well, finally)
Grammatical Structures
2.4 demonstrate an understanding of the grammatical structures of English and conventions of
print used in texts appropriate for this level
(see the Language Reference Chart for ELD Level 3
on page 152)
3. Developing Vocabulary
By the end of this course, students will:
Vocabulary Building Strategies
3.1 use a number of vocabulary acquisition strategies to build vocabulary (e.g., complete graphic
organizers of word families, synonyms, antonyms,
and homonyms; use memory and visualization
strategies to learn new words; refer to learner
dictionaries; play a variety of word games)
Word Recognition Strategies
3.2 use knowledge of familiar patterns of word
structure to determine the meaning and pronunciation of unfamiliar words and expressions (e.g., use common prefixes and suffixes to
deduce meaning; identify word families; apply
knowledge of the adverb ending “ly” to assist
with pronunciation)
Use of Resources
3.3 use a number of resources to build vocabulary
and to determine the meaning of unfamiliar
words (e.g., simplified print and online encyclopaedias, a classroom word wall showing how
prefixes and suffixes extend word families, a
personal word list of simple phrasal verbs and
their prepositions)
4. Developing Research Skills
English as
Literacy
a Second
Development
Language
• confirm understanding of texts after they
have read them (e.g., participate in literature
circles; use graphic organizers to compare and
contrast two texts; write a summary; work in a
small group to create questions about a text for
a class game)
By the end of this course, students will:
Locating Information
4.1 locate information in adapted and simple
authentic texts pre-selected in collaboration
with the teacher-librarian (e.g., e-zines,
brochures, simplified newspaper and magazine
articles, simplified print and online encyclopaedias, websites)
ELDCO
ESLAO
Extracting and Organizing Information
4.2 extract, record, and organize information from
adapted and simple authentic texts for a variety of purposes (e.g., make point-form notes,
cue cards, and poster boards to prepare for oral
presentations; complete a concept web for a
guided-research project)
Critical Thinking
4.3 identify sources of information from research,
and discuss the reliability of the information,
with teacher support (e.g., newspapers, entertainment tabloids, personal blogs, books from
school and public libraries, flyers, brochures)
Teacher prompts: “Who makes decisions
about what information is published in
newspapers?” “Can you believe everything
that is said in an advertisement? Why?”
READING
147
ELD
Level 3, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
WRITING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
3.
write in a variety of forms for different purposes and audiences;
4.
use the stages of the writing process.
organize ideas coherently in writing;
use correctly the conventions of written English appropriate for this level, including grammar, usage,
spelling, and punctuation;
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Writing for Different Purposes
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
Academic Purposes
1.1 write short texts to convey information and
Organizing Ideas
2.1 organize information to develop a central
ideas for academic purposes using a variety
of scaffolded forms (e.g., use a model to write a
short informational paragraph about a landform
in a region of Canada; complete a science lab
report following an outline provided by the
teacher; outline safety instructions in a technology class; label a timeline showing important
dates in Canada’s history)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Personal Purposes
1.2 write short texts to express ideas and feelings
148
2. Organizing Ideas in Writing
on personal and familiar topics using a number of forms (e.g., notices about items lost, found,
or for sale; personal letters or e-mails describing
experiences and impressions; letters of apology;
responses to online surveys)
Community and Workplace Purposes
1.3 write short texts to communicate information
for official and personal purposes using a
number of forms (e.g., a school or work accident
report, a short history of past work experience,
a change-of-address request form, a request for
information from a government agency or
website)
idea in a scaffolded paragraph with a topic
sentence, supporting ideas, and a concluding
statement (e.g., use a paragraph frame to structure an informational, narrative, or procedural
paragraph)
Linking Ideas
2.2 use a number of transition words and phrases
to show relationships between ideas and
information (e.g., when, first, secondly, in the
beginning, in addition, as well, finally)
Teacher prompt: “What words and phrases
did you use to connect the supporting details
to your main idea?”
3. Developing Accuracy in Writing
By the end of this course, students will:
Grammatical Structures and Conventions of Print
3.1 use correctly the grammatical structures and
print conventions of written English appropriate for this level (see the Language Reference
Chart for ELD Level 3 on page 152)
Teacher prompt: “How can you change this
statement into a question?”
Spelling Strategies
3.2 use a number of spelling strategies to spell
Teacher prompt: “What tells you that you
need to double the final consonant before
adding ‘ed’ to this word?”
4. Using the Writing Process
By the end of this course, students will:
Using Pre-writing Strategies
4.1 use a number of pre-writing strategies to
generate vocabulary and develop and organize ideas for writing (e.g., generate ideas using
collaborative concept webs; map out storyboards;
write jot notes about a topic; complete Venn diagrams to see relationships; conduct interviews
and do background reading to expand knowledge
of a topic)
number of teacher-directed and independent
strategies (e.g., discuss ideas, content, and organization in peer and teacher conferences; reread
for punctuation, clarity of ideas, appropriate verb
tenses, and subject-verb agreement; confirm
spelling using learner dictionaries; refer to checklists of editing/proofreading tasks)
Publishing
4.4 use a number of elements of effective presentation to publish a final product (e.g., labelled
diagrams; graphs; different fonts for headings
and subheadings; proper paragraph form, including spacing and margins)
Metacognition
4.5 select and use a number of writing strategies
before, during, and after writing, and reflect
after writing on the strategies they found
most helpful (e.g., choose an appropriate graphic organizer to sort ideas for writing; identify
pieces of writing that they think show their best
work and explain the reasons for their choice)
English as
Literacy
a Second
Development
Language
words accurately (e.g., apply rules for forming
plurals, contractions, and possessives; follow
rules for changing base words when adding
common endings; pronounce the silent letters in
words: knock; relate new words to known words
with similar sounds; find familiar words within
longer words; keep a personal spelling list; use
computer spell-check software)
Revising and Editing
4.3 revise, edit, and proofread drafts using a
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ESLAO
Teacher prompt: “How does conferencing
with the teacher and peers help to improve
your writing?”
Producing Drafts
4.2 produce draft pieces of writing using a number of different strategies and models (e.g.,
teacher-prepared models; templates and student
exemplars; graphic organizers)
WRITING
149
ELD
Level 3, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
SOCIO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE
AND MEDIA LITERACY
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
use English and non-verbal communication strategies appropriately in a variety of social contexts;
3.
4.
demonstrate knowledge of and adaptation to the Ontario education system;
demonstrate an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of Canadian citizenship, and of the
contributions of diverse groups to Canadian society;
demonstrate an understanding of, interpret, and create a variety of media texts.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Using English in Socially and
Culturally Appropriate Ways
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
Register
1.1 determine and use the appropriate language
Knowledge About Canada
2.1 demonstrate knowledge of a variety of facts
register in a variety of social and classroom
contexts (e.g., role play how to offer advice to
a friend; simulate a telephone inquiry about
community and/or school support services; create
a dialogue in which they describe symptoms to a
doctor)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Non-verbal Communication
1.2 use non-verbal communication cues appro-
150
2. Developing Awareness of Canada,
Citizenship, and Diversity
priately in a variety of social, academic, and
workplace contexts (e.g., exchange a “high five”
with a friend, but shake hands with an interviewer; maintain a bigger personal space in a
workplace than in a social gathering)
Teacher prompt: “Let’s brainstorm a list of
situations when it is appropriate (correct) to
shake hands. Are there differences in your
home culture?”
about Canadian geography (e.g., name and
locate on maps the provinces and territories,
major cities, and major rivers and lakes; complete charts showing the distribution of natural
resources in some provinces/territories)
Canadian Citizenship
2.2 describe the process by which immigrants become Canadian citizens (e.g., application, residence in Canada for three years, knowledge of
English or French, preparation for the citizenship
test, participation in the citizenship ceremony)
Canadian Diversity
2.3 demonstrate an awareness of the variety of
languages and cultures represented in their
local community (e.g., compare gender roles,
family structures, days of significance, and
naming customs among linguistic or cultural
groups in the community)
Teacher prompt: “Do you use special words
to address older people in your culture? In
what other ways do you show respect for
older people?”
3. Adapting to School Life in Ontario
4. Developing Media Knowledge
and Skills
Knowledge of the Ontario Secondary School
System
3.1 describe a number of policies and practices in
place in the Ontario secondary school system
(e.g., the role of teachers; involvement of parents
in school life and changes after their child turns
eighteen; discipline expectations and consequences;
district school boards’ equity and antidiscrimination policies)
Study Skills and Strategies
3.2 use a number of appropriate time-management
and study skills and strategies to carry out
learning tasks in all subject areas (e.g., establish
a study schedule; organize notes for study; meet
with peers to plan projects; use graphic organizers to categorize information; highlight key information; create a personal mnemonic device)
Strategies for the Cooperative Classroom
3.3 interact appropriately and respectfully in co-
By the end of this course, students will:
Understanding Media Texts
4.1 view, read, and listen to media texts in a variety of forms to identify their key elements and
characteristics (e.g., compare the format of television sitcoms, game shows, and reality programs;
compare the styles of news delivery used on television and in newspapers and tabloids; compare
advertisements in magazines, on billboards, and
in pop-ups on the Internet)
Interpreting Media Texts
4.2 identify features in media texts that are used
to appeal to specific audiences (e.g., font style
and size on packaging and in advertisements;
pictures, illustrations, and colour in a brochure;
images that feature people in a specific age group;
celebrity endorsement in advertisements; type of
music played in television advertisements)
operative learning activities (e.g., help keep the
group on task; take turns; take on different roles
as needed; show respect for other points of view)
Teacher prompt: “What messages do advertisements on television and in magazines
give about physical appearance for women
and men?”
Knowledge of School and Community Resources
3.4 identify and use a number of school and com-
Creating Media Texts
4.3 create media texts for a number of different
munity resources that are available to support
lifelong learning (e.g., school/community clubs
and sports teams; the public library; guidance
department brochures and personnel; career
information databases; career days, field trips,
and job shadow programs; settlement agencies)
English as
Literacy
a Second
Development
Language
By the end of this course, students will:
ELDCO
ESLAO
audiences and purposes, and explain their
choice of format (e.g., create a brochure to
attract young travellers to their country of origin;
produce a board game related to a classroom unit
of study; create an advertisement for a new or
imaginary product)
SOCIO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE AND MEDIA LITERACY
Teacher prompt: “Think of advertisements
aimed at specific audiences: for example,
people who like basketball, people who like
fast cars, or people who like a certain type of
music. How do you know an advertisement
is designed to appeal to that audience?”
151
ELD
Level 3, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
Language Reference Chart – ELD Level 3
This chart shows the structures students are expected to learn through work done in all four strands. These
structures should be taught in context rather than in isolation (e.g., while reading dialogues in narrative
texts, students learn how to use quotation marks for direct speech). English language learners in the ELD
program need reinforcement and repetition of language structures from previous course levels in order to
achieve mastery.
I. Grammatical Structures
Nouns
count: various irregular forms (e.g., mice, knives, sheep, clothes)
compound (e.g., city street, school library, summer holiday)
possessive forms (e.g., The girl’s bag. The girls’ bags.)
gerunds for activities and pastimes (e.g., skating, swimming, fishing)
ordinal numbers (e.g., first, hundredth)
articles a, an, the, no article
Pronouns
possessive: mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs
indefinite: some, no, any, every + body/thing
Verbs
past progressive (e.g., She was saying goodbye.)
modals: have to/must/can (e.g., I have to go.)
would like + noun phrase (e.g., We would like more time.)
want/start/like + infinitive (e.g., They wanted to go home.)
Adjectives
irregular comparative/superlative (e.g., better/best, worse/worst)
of quantity (e.g., a little, a lot of, some of, much, many)
Adverbs
of manner (e.g., quietly, sadly, kindly, carefully)
Transition words
and phrases
first of all, secondly, in the beginning, as well, also, in addition, finally
conjunctions: as, when, if, while, that
Question forms
inverted word order: verb + subject (e.g., Was he studying? Did she leave?)
Negation
be, do, can in past tenses (e.g., We could not/couldn’t finish on time.)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
will (e.g., He won’t go to the game.)
152
Prepositions
with phrasal verbs (e.g., give up, look after, look up, talk over, get along, take off)
Sentences
compound (e.g., She reads magazines, but she doesn’t like novels.)
direct speech (e.g., “Welcome to the school,” said the teacher.)
II. Conventions of Print
Punctuation
comma to set off parenthetical clauses (e.g., presenting research information:
Alberta, which has a lot of oil and gas, also has some of the highest mountains in
Canada.)
quotation marks for direct speech
apostrophe for possessive forms (e.g., The girl’s bag. The girls’ bags.)
English Literacy Development
ELD Level 4
Open
ELDDO
This course extends students’ literacy skills and ability to apply learning strategies
effectively, and teaches them how to use community resources to enhance lifelong learning.
Students will communicate with increased accuracy and fluency for a variety of academic
and everyday purposes; perform a variety of guided reading, writing, and viewing tasks;
and use media and community resources to complete guided-research projects. This
course further develops the critical thinking skills students will need to participate in
Canadian society as informed citizens.
ELD
Level 4, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
demonstrate the ability to understand, interpret, and evaluate spoken English for a variety of
purposes;
2.
use speaking skills and strategies to communicate in English for a variety of classroom and social
purposes;
3.
use correctly the language structures appropriate for this level to communicate orally in English.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Developing Listening
Comprehension
2. Developing Fluency in Speaking
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
Listening for Specific Information
1.1 demonstrate comprehension of specific information in more complex directions, instructions,
and classroom presentations, with minimal
contextual and visual support (e.g., complete a
teacher-prepared cloze activity with information
from a class presentation; follow recorded message prompts from a bank or public service
organization; extract key concepts from audio
webcasts and library Dial-A-Story services)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Listening to Interact
1.2 demonstrate understanding of spoken English
154
on a variety of topics in interactive situations
(e.g., in a think-pair-share activity on a schoolrelated topic; in a simulated job interview)
Speaking to Interact
2.1 engage in more complex spoken interactions
on a variety of topics and in a variety of situations (e.g., request information about the community involvement activities required for a secondary school diploma; participate in a group jigsaw
information-sharing activity; share information
to solve a Sudoku puzzle)
Using Conversational Strategies
2.2 use a variety of conversational expressions to
negotiate spoken interactions (e.g., disagree
politely using expressions such as “I don’t know
about that …”, “Good idea, but what about …?”;
make polite suggestions using expressions such
as “How about …?”, “Why don’t we try …?”; use
modals such as “could” and “should” to offer
advice, as in “You could try again tomorrow.”)
Speaking for Academic Purposes
2.3 present ideas and information orally for academic purposes in a variety of situations (e.g.,
participate in a discussion about stereotypes in
television shows and other media; contribute to
a group discussion about how to complete a
cooperative project)
3. Developing Accuracy in Speaking
Grammatical Structures
3.1 use correctly the grammatical structures of
spoken English appropriate for this level (see
the Language Reference Chart for ELD Level 4
on page 162)
Sound Patterns
3.2 use appropriately a variety of pronunciation,
stress, rhythm, and intonation patterns of
spoken English to communicate meaning
accurately (e.g., change intonation patterns in
tag questions to indicate a question or confirmation; stress the syllable before the suffix -tion
[attraction, information]; change the stressed
syllable within a word to distinguish between its
noun and verb forms [produce, produce; record,
record; reject, reject])
English as
Literacy
a Second
Development
Language
By the end of this course, students will:
Communication Strategies
3.3 use a variety of oral communication strategies
to bridge gaps in spoken communication
(e.g., keep a record of frequent mistakes and consciously monitor speech to avoid them)
ELDDO
ESLAO
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
155
ELD
Level 4, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
READING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
3.
4.
read and demonstrate understanding of a variety of texts for different purposes;
use a variety of reading strategies throughout the reading process to extract meaning from texts;
use a variety of strategies to build vocabulary;
locate and extract relevant information from written and graphic texts for a variety of purposes.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Reading for Meaning
By the end of this course, students will:
Reading a Variety of Texts
1.1 read a variety of increasingly complex texts
(e.g., myths and legends, short stories, brochures,
news reports, graphic novels, charts and tables)
Demonstrating Understanding
1.2 demonstrate an understanding of more complex texts in a variety of ways (e.g., complete a
graphic organizer showing the causes and effects
of an event described in an informational text;
explain the motivations of a character in a story;
distinguish between main ideas and supporting
details in a report)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Responding to and Evaluating Texts
1.3 respond to a variety of adapted and authentic
156
texts selected for study and pleasure (e.g., create a stop-motion animation film using models
based on a myth or legend studied in class; write
short book reports; relate specific passages or
events in a story to their own experiences)
Teacher prompt: “Do you think this text
about space exploration covered the topic
well? Why or why not?”
Text Forms
1.4 identify the characteristics of a variety of text
forms and explain how they help to communicate meaning (e.g., descriptions in course
calendars help with course selection; print and
visual elements work together to convey a message in graphic texts and novels; the personal
perspective of a historical journal narrative helps
the reader understand how historical events
affected individual people)
Literary Elements
1.5 identify a variety of literary elements in short
stories, novels, and poems, and describe their
function (e.g., simile, metaphor, personification,
foreshadowing)
2. Using Reading Comprehension
Strategies
By the end of this course, students will:
Reading Strategies
2.1 apply a variety of appropriate reading strategies to:
• familiarize themselves with texts before
they read them (e.g., predict content by participating in a think-pair-share; collaborate to
generate a list of questions about the topic; use
information from visuals to make predictions
about a text)
• understand texts while they are reading
them (e.g., reread or read on to confirm or
adjust predictions; skim and scan for main
ideas and supporting details; complete graphic
organizers; monitor understanding of a text in
groups; look up words in learner dictionaries)
• confirm understanding of texts after they
have read them (e.g., participate in a class
discussion; record reactions in a reading log;
discuss questions about a text with a reading
partner)
Teacher prompt: “What strategies did you use
most often to help you to understand the
text?”
locate and extract information (e.g., headings
and subheadings, sidebars, text boxes, margin
notes, graphs, columns and rows in a table, a
grid and coordinates in a map, an index, a
glossary)
Teacher prompt: “What organizing devices
and symbols in this textbook help you to
locate information?”
Connecting Devices
2.3 identify a variety of connecting devices and
transition words and phrases that are used to
show relationships among ideas in texts (e.g.,
in contrast, in conclusion, yet)
Grammatical Structures
2.4 demonstrate an understanding of the grammatical structures of English and conventions
of print used in texts appropriate for this level
(see the Language Reference Chart for ELD
Level 4 on page 162)
3. Developing Vocabulary
By the end of this course, students will:
Vocabulary Building Strategies
3.1 use a variety of vocabulary acquisition strategies to build subject-specific vocabulary (e.g.,
use context clues to infer meaning; create a notebook of vocabulary related to various subject
areas; consult a variety of print and electronic
dictionaries; chart word families; solve jigsaw
word puzzles; create and play interactive word
games)
word structure and word order to determine
the meaning of content-area words (e.g., determine how meaning changes when prefixes and
suffixes change; infer meaning from word order)
Use of Resources
3.3 use a variety of resources to build vocabulary
and determine the meaning of unfamiliar
content-area words (e.g., a variety of print and
electronic dictionaries, websites designed for
English language learners, glossaries and text
boxes in subject textbooks)
4. Developing Research Skills
By the end of this course, students will:
English as
Literacy
a Second
Development
Language
Text Features
2.2 use specific features of content-area texts to
Word Recognition Strategies
3.2 use knowledge of a variety of patterns of
Locating Information
4.1 locate information for guided research from
a variety of teacher-selected texts (e.g., books,
encyclopaedias, websites, DVDs, video clips,
news reports), and determine whether the
ideas and information gathered are relevant
to and adequate for the purpose
ELDDO
ESLAO
Extracting and Organizing Information
4.2 select and organize information from texts for
a variety of purposes (e.g., use teacher-prepared
outlines to make notes for guided-research projects; develop word webs and fishbone maps to
organize ideas for a report)
Critical Thinking
4.3 identify a variety of sources of information on
the same topic, and compare them for reliability and point of view (e.g., compare reports from
ethnocultural community newspapers versus
mainstream newspapers, television versus radio
broadcasts, print versus electronic magazines)
READING
157
ELD
Level 4, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
WRITING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
3.
write in a variety of forms for different purposes and audiences;
4.
use the stages of the writing process.
organize ideas coherently in writing;
use correctly the conventions of written English appropriate for this level, including grammar, usage,
spelling, and punctuation;
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Writing for Different Purposes
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
Academic Purposes
1.1 write longer texts to convey information and
Organizing Ideas
2.1 organize information to develop a central idea
ideas for academic purposes using a variety
of forms (e.g., a summary of main points for a
guided-research project; a biographical sketch
of a famous Canadian based on research; a book
report or website review; a letter to the author
about their reaction to a particular text)
in two or more linked paragraphs (e.g., use a
variety of graphic organizers to sort and order
main ideas and supporting details for a review of
a book, movie, or video game)
Personal Purposes
1.2 write longer texts to express ideas and feelings
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
using a variety of forms (e.g., poems, song
lyrics/raps, journals or diaries, e-mails or letters,
text messages, narratives, descriptions, class
graffiti walls)
158
2. Organizing Ideas in Writing
Community and Workplace Purposes
1.3 write longer texts to communicate information
for official and personal purposes in a variety
of forms (e.g., complete a driver’s licence application form or a short medical history form; compose a statement of interest for a co-op placement
or an internship; write a thank-you note for a job
interview)
Linking Ideas
2.2 use a variety of connecting devices and transition words and phrases to show relationships
between ideas in linked sentences and paragraphs (e.g., in contrast, in conclusion, yet,
furthermore)
Teacher prompt: “What words or phrases
could you use to help the reader follow your
thinking more easily?”
3. Developing Accuracy in Writing
By the end of this course, students will:
Grammatical Structures and Conventions of Print
3.1 use correctly the grammatical structures and
print conventions of written English appropriate for this level (see the Language Reference
Chart for ELD Level 4 on page 162)
Teacher prompt: “How can you change the
adjective ‘neat’ into an adverb that describes
how a student writes?”
Spelling Strategies
3.2 use a variety of spelling strategies to spell
Teacher prompt: “Tell a partner about a memory trick you use to help you spell a certain
word correctly.”
4. Using the Writing Process
By the end of this course, students will:
Using Pre-writing Strategies
4.1 use a variety of pre-writing strategies to generate vocabulary and develop and organize
ideas for writing (e.g., consider purpose and
audience in choosing an appropriate form for
writing; generate ideas using concept or word
webs, brainstorming, discussions; interview
people with knowledge of the topic; conduct
an Internet search)
Teacher prompt: “How does discussing your
topic with a partner help you to prepare for
writing?”
Producing Drafts
4.2 produce draft pieces of writing using a vari-
ety of strategies (e.g., discuss ideas, organization, and word choice in conferences with the
teacher; use an author’s circle for peer feedback;
reread to check clarity of ideas and word choice;
refer to a checklist to double-check punctuation,
consistency of verb tense, and subject-verb agreement; verify spelling using print and electronic
resources)
Teacher prompt: “What similar words could
you use instead of _______?”
Publishing
4.4 use a variety of elements of effective presentation to publish a final product (e.g., italics,
bolding, and underlining for emphasis; layouts
that enhance or highlight the content; detailed
labels)
English as
Literacy
a Second
Development
Language
words accurately (e.g., apply knowledge of prefixes, suffixes, and roots; refer to dictionaries and
electronic spell-checkers; divide long words into
manageable chunks; use mnemonic devices to
learn difficult spellings)
Revising and Editing
4.3 revise, edit, and proofread drafts using a vari-
Metacognition
4.5 select and use a variety of writing strategies
before, during, and after writing, and reflect
after writing on the strategies they found
most helpful (e.g., use a reflection journal to
record ideas and learning about writing; maintain a writing portfolio that they think shows
their best work and explain the reasons for their
choice)
ELDDO
ESLAO
Teacher prompt: “What helped you organize
your ideas on paper?”
ety of strategies and models (e.g., a variety of
graphic organizers, student exemplars)
Teacher prompt: “How can looking at an
exemplar help you with your writing?”
WRITING
159
ELD
Level 4, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
SOCIO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE
AND MEDIA LITERACY
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
use English and non-verbal communication strategies appropriately in a variety of social contexts;
3.
4.
demonstrate knowledge of and adaptation to the Ontario education system;
demonstrate an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of Canadian citizenship, and of the
contributions of diverse groups to Canadian society;
demonstrate an understanding of, interpret, and create a variety of media texts.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Using English in Socially and
Culturally Appropriate Ways
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
Register
1.1 determine and use the appropriate language
Knowledge About Canada
2.1 demonstrate knowledge of a variety of facts
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
register in a wide variety of social and classroom contexts (e.g., “What’s up?” to peers versus
“Hello. How are you?” to teachers; “I’m sorry,
would you please repeat that?” to an adult
acquaintance versus “What did you just say?” to
a friend; “Thanks a lot” to a friend or a family
member versus “I really appreciate your help”
to a sales assistant in a store)
160
2. Developing Awareness of Canada,
Citizenship, and Diversity
Non-verbal Communication
1.2 adjust their use of non-verbal communication
cues to suit a variety of social, academic, and
workplace contexts (e.g., eye contact, gestures,
personal space, handshakes, posture, touch)
Teacher prompt: “Let’s watch the video without sound. How well do these people know
each other? How do you know?”
about Canadian political processes and structures (e.g., name the types of services that are
provided by each level of government; identify
current political figures and their roles; explain
the process of electing governments in Canada)
Canadian Citizenship
2.2 demonstrate knowledge of key facts about
Canadian citizenship, levels of government in
Canada, and current Canadian issues (e.g.,
identify the steps in the application process for
Canadian citizenship; identify some rights and
responsibilities of Canadian citizenship, such as
free speech and voting; research issues such as
energy conservation, recycling, election platforms
of different political parties, human rights)
Teacher prompt: “What are some of the ways
you can influence decisions about an issue
you are interested in?”
Canadian Diversity
2.3 identify needs that all people share and needs
3. Adapting to School Life in Ontario
By the end of this course, students will:
Knowledge of the Ontario Secondary School
System
3.1 describe aspects of the Ontario secondary
school system that can help them achieve
their personal, educational, and/or occupational goals (e.g., the focus on both process and
product in the achievement chart categories, the
focus on learning skills in the Provincial Report
Card, policies on accommodating religious dress
and worship traditions)
Study Skills and Strategies
3.2 use a variety of appropriate time-management, study, and test-preparation skills and
strategies to carry out learning tasks in all
subject areas (e.g., make notes; rehearse with
cue cards; determine priorities; manage time
efficiently; follow directions)
Strategies for the Cooperative Classroom
3.3 participate effectively in cooperative learning
Knowledge of School and Community Resources
3.4 identify and explain the purpose of a variety
of school and community resources that are
available to support lifelong learning, and use
them appropriately as needed (e.g., summer,
night, and virtual school opportunities; international language classes; the school board’s policies and procedures on bullying and harassment;
antidiscrimination and safe schools policies; local
organizations where students can volunteer in
order to complete the diploma requirement
for community involvement activities; public
reference libraries)
Understanding Media Texts
4.1 view, read, and listen to coverage of the same
subject or issue in different media sources and
compare the type of information provided
(e.g., compare television, newspaper, and Internet
accounts of a natural disaster or a sports event)
Teacher prompt: “How did the map in the
newspaper report help you understand the
television coverage of the hurricane?”
Interpreting Media Texts
4.2 compare media texts that are designed to
appeal to different audiences, and identify
elements that are aimed at specific groups
(e.g., visuals that show particular types of people
or that evoke a particular mood, youth-oriented
language and music, key words or slogans that
reveal a particular point of view)
Teacher prompt: “Do you think all people
who read this brochure will react in the same
way? Would an older person react in the
same way as a teenager? Why or why not?”
ELDDO
ESLAO
Creating Media Texts
4.3 create media texts for a variety of audiences
and purposes, and explain their content and
design decisions (e.g., a mock television or radio
announcement to inform students about a schoolrelated issue, a multi-media presentation to orient
newcomer students to the school and community,
a movie poster based on a novel they have read)
SOCIO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE AND MEDIA LITERACY
activities to complete group tasks (e.g., express
opinions appropriately; express disagreement
politely; pay attention to peers’ and teachers’
comments; contribute by building on peers’ and
teachers’ comments; negotiate group roles and
tasks)
By the end of this course, students will:
English as
Literacy
a Second
Development
Language
that are different because of culture, religion,
language background, age, and/or gender role
(e.g., summarize information from films, videos,
and print sources on diverse needs of people in
Canadian communities)
4. Developing Media Knowledge
and Skills
161
ELD
Level 4, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
Language Reference Chart – ELD Level 4
This chart shows the structures students are expected to learn through work done in all four strands. These
structures should be taught in context rather than in isolation (e.g., while writing a science lab report
using an outline, students learn how to use comparative and superlative adjectives with more and most).
English language learners in the ELD program need reinforcement and repetition of language structures
from previous course levels in order to achieve mastery.
I. Grammatical Structures
Nouns
collective (e.g., team, group, family, crowd) + verb agreement
Numbers
all cardinal and ordinal numbers
Pronouns
indefinite (e.g., some, no, any, every + one)
Verbs
present perfect (e.g., They have just/already left.)
present perfect progressive (e.g., What have you been doing?)
modals: could, would, should (e.g., I couldn’t see anything.)
conditional: type 1 / probable (e.g., If it rains, we will stay home.)
used to (e.g., They used to go to Montreal.)
Adjectives
comparative/superlative with more, most (e.g., more useful, most useful)
other, another, each
Adverbs
adjectives + ly (e.g., happily, truly, extremely, beautifully)
Transition words
and phrases
in contrast, in conclusion, yet, furthermore
Question forms
“wh” questions with a few different verb tenses (e.g., What was he studying?
Why has the music stopped?)
conjunctions: before, after, when, then, while
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
with modals (e.g., Should we take the bus?)
162
Negation
with a few different verb tenses (e.g., He wasn’t playing soccer. They didn’t bring
lunch.)
Prepositions
with a variety of phrasal verbs (e.g., be away, be back, be for, be over, be up; ask
about, ask for, ask [someone] in, ask [someone] out)
Sentences
complex, with relative clause (e.g., I like to watch television programs that cover
sports events. People who like sports often watch a lot of television.)
indirect speech (e.g., The teacher asked the students to come in.)
II. Conventions of Print
Punctuation
colon before a list (e.g., Bring the following items: pen, pencil, and paper.)
parentheses (e.g., for additional information)
English Literacy Development
ELD Level 5
Open
ELDEO
This course provides students with skills and strategies that will allow them to continue
their education successfully and pursue pathways to employment that may involve
apprenticeship and/or cooperative education programs. Students will communicate
orally and in writing on a variety of topics; perform a variety of independent reading and
writing tasks; interpret and create media texts; and use a range of media and community
resources. This course also expands the critical thinking skills students will need in order
to contribute to Canadian society as informed citizens.
ELD
Level 5, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
demonstrate the ability to understand, interpret, and evaluate spoken English for a variety of
purposes;
2.
use speaking skills and strategies to communicate in English for a variety of classroom and social
purposes;
3.
use correctly the language structures appropriate for this level to communicate orally in English.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Developing Listening
Comprehension
By the end of this course, students will:
Listening for Specific Information
1.1 demonstrate comprehension of specific information in complex directions, instructions,
and classroom presentations (e.g., take notes
on a documentary; use information from a classroom presentation to complete a graphic organizer; identify differences between reports of a news
event from radio and television broadcasts; follow
a series of technical instructions to complete a
task)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Listening to Interact
1.2 demonstrate understanding of spoken English
164
on a wide variety of topics in interactive situations (e.g., in a collaborative activity to develop a
group presentation; in discussions with peers
about current events or issues)
2. Developing Fluency in Speaking
By the end of this course, students will:
Speaking to Interact
2.1 engage in extended spoken interactions on a
variety of topics and in a variety of situations
(e.g., work in a group to plan and organize a
class trip, to dramatize events from stories and
novels studied in class, and/or to negotiate solutions to tasks and problems)
Using Conversational Strategies
2.2 use a wide variety of conversational expressions
to negotiate spoken interactions of many different types (e.g., accept and reject information
using expressions such as “I thought so”, “I knew
it”, “I don’t see it that way”, “I’m not sure about
that”; close a formal conversation or job interview
using expressions such as “Thank you for your
time”, “I really appreciate ...”)
Speaking for Academic Purposes
2.3 present ideas and information orally for academic purposes in a wide variety of situations
(e.g., make a presentation on the rights and
responsibilities of Canadian citizenship, with
reference to the Canadian Charter of Rights and
Freedoms; interview an expert or an eyewitness
in preparation for writing a news article)
3. Developing Accuracy in Speaking
By the end of this course, students will:
Grammatical Structures
3.1 use correctly the grammatical structures of
spoken English appropriate for this level (see
the Language Reference Chart for ELD Level 5
on pages 172–173)
Teacher prompt: “Should there be an article
before this noun? Why or why not?”
Sound Patterns
3.2 use appropriately a wide variety of pronunci-
Communication Strategies
3.3 use a wide variety of oral communication
strategies to bridge gaps in spoken communication (e.g., notice and correct slips and errors;
anticipate misunderstandings and rephrase to
avoid or correct them; use circumlocution and
paraphrase to compensate for incomplete knowledge of vocabulary and grammar)
English as
Literacy
a Second
Development
Language
ation, stress, rhythm, and intonation patterns
of spoken English to communicate both
explicit and implicit meaning accurately (e.g.,
stress the content words in a sentence to clarify
meaning [I read the book last night]; use pitch
and volume appropriately to indicate emphasis
and/or emotions [surprise, joy, annoyance]; use
tone and volume to clarify implied messages in
rap lyrics)
Teacher prompt: “If you don’t know the
word(s) for something, what strategies can
you use to help get your meaning across?”
ELDEO
ESLAO
LISTENING AND SPEAKING
165
ELD
Level 5, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
READING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
3.
4.
read and demonstrate understanding of a variety of texts for different purposes;
use a variety of reading strategies throughout the reading process to extract meaning from texts;
use a variety of strategies to build vocabulary;
locate and extract relevant information from written and graphic texts for a variety of purposes.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Reading for Meaning
By the end of this course, students will:
Reading a Variety of Texts
1.1 read a wide variety of increasingly complex
texts (e.g., novels, magazine articles, manuals,
online and print encyclopaedias, textbook excerpts,
informational books on a range of topics)
Demonstrating Understanding
1.2 demonstrate an understanding of complex
texts in a wide variety of ways (e.g., follow a
series of instructions to set up a DVD player;
summarize a report about the impact of human
activity on aquatic systems; describe how they
would “counsel” a character in a novel)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Responding to and Evaluating Texts
1.3 respond to more complex texts in a variety
166
of ways (e.g., identify what is fact and what is
opinion in newspaper, online, or magazine articles; explain what they would change in an
author’s treatment of a particular topic; identify
a favourite passage in a text and explain what
they like about it)
Text Forms
1.4 analyse a wide variety of text forms to identify key characteristics, and explain how they
help to communicate meaning (e.g., illustrations
in a “how-to” manual help clarify instructions;
captions in photo essays clarify or highlight the
message of the pictures; numbered points in an
overview or summary identify key information)
Teacher prompt: “How does the organizational pattern in this manual make it easy for you
to locate the information you need?”
Literary Elements
1.5 identify a wide variety of literary elements in
short stories, novels, and poems, and explain
how they help convey the author’s meaning
(e.g., explain why they think an author uses a
first-person or a third-person narrator; explain
how setting, plot, and character help illustrate
the theme in a short story)
2. Using Reading Comprehension
Strategies
By the end of this course, students will:
Reading Strategies
2.1 apply a wide variety of appropriate reading
strategies to:
• familiarize themselves with texts before they
read them (e.g., independently generate a list of
questions about the topic; brainstorm the topic
with a partner to activate prior knowledge; preview text features to understand organization)
• understand texts while they are reading them
(e.g., interpret context clues; use visualization to
clarify details of characters, scenes, or concepts;
monitor understanding by identifying and
restating the main idea and supporting details;
summarize sections of text during reading; make
inferences about a character’s motivation)
• confirm and extend understanding of texts
after they have read them (e.g., do further
research to deepen understanding of a topic;
identify bias; participate in school reading clubs)
Teacher prompt: “What questions do you ask
yourself after reading to check whether you
have understood?”
Text Features
2.2 use specific features of a wide variety of texts
Connecting Devices
2.3 identify a wide variety of connecting devices
and transition words and phrases, and explain
how they show relationships among ideas in
texts (e.g., either … or, neither … nor, both …
and, as … as, although, as a result of)
Grammatical Structures
2.4 demonstrate an understanding of the grammatical structures of English and conventions of
print used in texts appropriate for this level
(see the Language Reference Chart for ELD
Level 5 on pages 172–173)
3. Developing Vocabulary
By the end of this course, students will:
Vocabulary Building Strategies
3.1 use a wide variety of vocabulary acquisition
strategies to build subject-specific vocabulary
and determine the meaning of unfamiliar
words (e.g., compare multiple definitions found
in a dictionary and select the correct meaning
for a particular context; compile subject-specific
glossaries; create lists of synonyms)
Word Recognition Strategies
3.2 use knowledge of a variety of patterns of word
structure and derivation to determine the
meaning of unfamiliar words (e.g., recognize
changes of meaning caused by suffixes that differentiate parts of speech [photograph, photographer,
Use of Resources
3.3 use a wide variety of resources to extend vocabulary and determine the precise meaning of
words (e.g., select among a range of vocabulary
resources, such as dictionaries, glossaries, manuals,
online references, and technical dictionaries)
4. Developing Research Skills
By the end of this course, students will:
Locating Information
4.1 locate and compare information for independent research from a variety of school and community sources selected in collaboration with
the teacher-librarian, and cite information
from those sources appropriately (e.g., articles,
non-fiction books, encyclopaedias, websites,
DVDs, blogs)
English as
Literacy
a Second
Development
Language
to locate information and aid comprehension
(e.g., graphics, questions, summaries, footnotes/
endnotes, reference lists / works cited, back covers
of novels)
photographic]; recognize root words with Latin
and Greek origins used in science, mathematics,
and technology [milli = thousand: millimetre =
a thousandth of a metre; micro = small: microscope = an optical instrument for viewing very
small objects])
ELDEO
ESLAO
Extracting and Organizing Information
4.2 select information and organize it effectively
for a wide variety of purposes (e.g., use a
graphic organizer to identify the basic rights in
the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms;
compare cultural practices of diverse groups
using a T-chart or Venn diagram)
Critical Thinking
4.3 compare a wide variety of sources of information to evaluate their reliability (e.g., websites,
newspapers, tabloids, blogs)
READING
167
ELD
Level 5, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
WRITING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
3.
write in a variety of forms for different purposes and audiences;
4.
use the stages of the writing process.
organize ideas coherently in writing;
use correctly the conventions of written English appropriate for this level, including grammar, usage,
spelling, and punctuation;
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
1. Writing for Different Purposes
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
Academic Purposes
1.1 write longer and more complex texts to con-
Organizing Ideas
2.1 organize information to develop a central idea
vey information and ideas for academic purposes using a wide variety of forms (e.g., a
series of linked paragraphs synthesizing information from an independent research project about
the changing role of technology; a news report
using the five-W’s format; a mystery story using
the structures and conventions of the genre; a
report outlining the steps in a science experiment)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Personal Purposes
1.2 write longer and more complex texts to express
168
2. Organizing Ideas in Writing
ideas and feelings using a wide variety of forms
(e.g., poems, song lyrics/raps, blogs, e-mails or
letters, narratives, descriptions, journal entries)
Community and Workplace Purposes
1.3 write longer and more complex texts to communicate information for official and personal
purposes using a wide variety of forms (e.g.,
a résumé and cover letter; an online purchase
agreement; a letter of complaint to a customer
service department; a letter to cancel a contract,
service, or subscription)
in a structured composition of three or more
paragraphs (e.g., use a graphic organizer to map
cause-and-effect relationships for a report about
an endangered species; use the five-W’s format
in a newspaper article about a real or imaginary
community event)
Teacher prompt: “Are there any key ideas that
are missing or that need more explanation?”
Linking Ideas
2.2 use a wide variety of connecting devices and
transition words and phrases to show relationships between ideas in linked sentences
and paragraphs (e.g., now that, as a result of,
because of, although, even though)
3. Developing Accuracy in Writing
By the end of this course, students will:
Grammatical Structures and Conventions of Print
3.1 use correctly the grammatical structures and
print conventions of written English appropriate for this level (see the Language Reference
Chart for ELD Level 5 on pages 172–173)
Spelling Strategies
3.2 use a wide variety of spelling strategies to
4. Using the Writing Process
By the end of this course, students will:
Using Pre-writing Strategies
4.1 use a wide variety of pre-writing strategies to
generate vocabulary and develop and organize ideas for writing (e.g., consider purpose and
audience in choosing a form for writing; generate
ideas using webs, discussions with peers and the
teacher, and prior reading and experience; cluster
and sort ideas and information; consult the teacherlibrarian about relevant print and electronic
resource materials)
Producing Drafts
4.2 produce draft pieces of writing using a wide
variety of strategies and models (e.g., a variety
of graphic organizers, jot-notes made while reading, student exemplars or authentic texts)
Teacher prompt: “What are some strategies
writers use to convince the reader? Can you
use these strategies in your own writing?”
variety of strategies (e.g., reread for clarity and
organization of ideas; use print and electronic
resources to confirm spelling; vary word choice
through the use of a thesaurus; review drafts
with the teacher and peers, and explain how a
piece of writing has evolved)
Teacher prompt: “Explain how your dictionary and thesaurus helped you with your
revisions.”
Publishing
4.4 use a wide variety of elements of effective
presentation to publish a final product (e.g.,
a cast list and drama dialogue format for a play,
a table of contents for a handbook or manual, a
brief glossary of terms for an essay about new
technology, computer-generated graphs and
charts for a science report)
English as
Literacy
a Second
Development
Language
spell words accurately (e.g., divide words into
syllables; consult specialized print and electronic
dictionaries; use electronic spell-checkers; record
difficult words in a spelling list or journal, highlighting tricky letters or groups of letters)
Revising and Editing
4.3 revise, edit, and proofread drafts using a wide
Metacognition
4.5 select and use a wide variety of writing strategies before, during, and after writing, and
reflect after writing on the strategies they
found most helpful (e.g., use a reflection journal
to explain thinking and identify strengths, areas
for improvement, and next steps; respond to
teacher and peer questions about why they used
certain strategies more often than others)
ELDEO
ESLAO
Teacher prompt: “In what way does reading
a variety of texts help you in your writing?”
WRITING
169
ELD
Level 5, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
SOCIO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE
AND MEDIA LITERACY
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
1.
2.
use English and non-verbal communication strategies appropriately in a variety of social contexts;
3.
4.
demonstrate knowledge of and adaptation to the Ontario education system;
demonstrate an understanding of the rights and responsibilities of Canadian citizenship, and of the
contributions of diverse groups to Canadian society;
demonstrate an understanding of, interpret, and create a variety of media texts.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
1. Using English in Socially and
Culturally Appropriate Ways
170
2. Developing Awareness of Canada,
Citizenship, and Diversity
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
Register
1.1 determine and use the appropriate language
Knowledge About Canada
2.1 demonstrate knowledge of a variety of signi-
register in a wide variety of social, classroom,
and workplace contexts (e.g., “Huh?” to peers
versus “I don’t understand” to a teacher; “Joe” to a
co-worker versus “Mr. Baca” to a customer or
supervisor; “May I speak to / I’d like to speak to
Ms. Starsky” when phoning for an employment
interview versus “Is Sabina there?” when phoning a friend; “Okay, guys” when addressing a
class project team versus “My fellow students”
when giving a campaign speech for election to
the Student Council)
Teacher prompt: “What are some of the
expressions you have heard when listening
to your classmates begin presentations?”
Non-verbal Communication
1.2 identify non-verbal communication cues that
are appropriate or inappropriate in a wide
variety of social, academic, and workplace
situations, and adjust their behaviour to suit
the particular occasion (e.g., role play scenarios
requiring formal and informal behaviour, and
determine what behaviour is appropriate in
each case)
ficant facts about Canadian history and culture
(e.g., identify contributions of Aboriginal individuals to Canada; describe the early settlement
patterns and contributions of significant groups
and individuals in New France and in British
North America)
Canadian Citizenship
2.2 demonstrate knowledge of important social
and political documents that guarantee rights
and freedoms in Canadian society (e.g., identify the basic rights specified in the Canadian
Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Ontario
Human Rights Code, school board equity
policies)
Canadian Diversity
2.3 describe some benefits and challenges of living
in a society composed of diverse linguistic
and cultural groups (e.g., the effects of maintaining or not maintaining particular forms of
dress in certain cultures; the effects of accommodating or not accommodating various religious
practices or traditions at school and work)
3. Adapting to School Life in Ontario
4. Developing Media Knowledge
and Skills
Knowledge of the Ontario Secondary School
System
3.1 describe graduation requirements of the Ontario
secondary school system and support services
that are available to help them achieve their
goals (e.g., graduation requirements and related
components, such as compulsory credit, transcript, full-disclosure requirements, the literacy
test, diploma requirements for community
involvement activities, the Specialist High-Skills
Major program, criteria for earning a diploma or
certificate of achievement; services to assist with
planning and goal-setting for postsecondary life)
Study Skills and Strategies
3.2 use a wide variety of study and timemanagement skills effectively to carry out
learning tasks, and explain their relevance to
future academic and career plans (e.g., manage
time efficiently; plan work and complete tasks
satisfactorily; use technology appropriately)
Teacher prompt: “Describe a situation at work
or home where it would help you to break a
task down into manageable segments.”
Strategies for the Cooperative Classroom
3.3 participate and interact effectively, and take
on leadership responsibilities to complete
collaborative classroom projects (e.g., listen
actively; clarify directions; share ideas; plan
work and delegate tasks; offer constructive
criticism)
variety of school and community resources
that are available to support lifelong learning,
and use them appropriately to implement
their educational and career plans (e.g.,
Independent Learning Centre, career counselling
centres, the Ontario Skills Passport, cooperative
education and apprenticeship opportunities,
postsecondary education guides)
Understanding Media Texts
4.1 view, read, and listen to media texts, and
identify strategies used in them to influence
specific audiences (e.g., youth-oriented music,
celebrity endorsements, visual images)
Teacher prompt: “What message on the packaging made you want to buy this video
game?”
Interpreting Media Texts
4.2 compare a variety of media texts, and evaluate
them for balance, inclusiveness, and possible
bias (e.g., media texts representing people of different ages, genders, income levels, and ethnocultural backgrounds; news reports of a conflict
that present single or multiple points of view)
Teacher prompt: “What different groups do
you see in this media text? Does the text treat
them differently? If so, how and why?”
ELDEO
ESLAO
Creating Media Texts
4.3 create media texts for a wide variety of audiences and purposes, and explain their content
and design decisions (e.g., create a T-shirt logo
and slogan for a school-wide information campaign; compile a collection of symbols found
in traditional and contemporary art forms of
specific Aboriginal groups)
SOCIO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE AND MEDIA LITERACY
Knowledge of School and Community Resources
3.4 identify and explain the purpose of a wide
By the end of this course, students will:
English as
Literacy
a Second
Development
Language
By the end of this course, students will:
171
ELD
Level 5, Open
Grade 11,
University
Preparation
Language Reference Chart – ELD Level 5
This chart shows the structures students are expected to learn through work done in all four strands. These
structures should be taught in context rather than in isolation (e.g., while practising writing advice letters
for a class assignment, students learn to use the type 2/unlikely conditional verb tense). English language
learners in the ELD program need reinforcement and repetition of language structures from previous
course levels in order to achieve mastery.
I. Grammatical Structures
Nouns
abstract (e.g., advice, information, beauty, knowledge, philosophy, democracy) + a,
an, no article (e.g., He had a good knowledge of math. He had knowledge about
many things.)
Pronouns
relative: who, which, that, whose
reciprocal: each other
Verbs
past perfect (e.g., They had studied English before they arrived in Canada.)
present perfect progressive (e.g., What have you been doing?)
conditional: type 2/unlikely (e.g., If I had a million dollars, I would buy a large
house.)
consistent use of tenses (e.g., maintain the same verb tense in a sentence or
paragraph)
Adjectives
the + adjective (e.g., the most common)
irregular comparative/superlative (e.g., far/farther/farthest; bad, worse, worst;
good, better, best; little, less, least)
adjective phrases (e.g., The man in the red hat lives close to me.)
Adverbs
of possibility (e.g., probably, definitely, possibly)
of opinion (e.g., obviously, clearly)
Transition words
and phrases
either … or, neither … nor, both … and
as … as (e.g., My plans are as important as hers.)
now that, though, although, even though, yet, since, because of, as a result of
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
Question forms
172
tag questions (e.g., They couldn’t understand him, could they? Ann is studying
music, isn’t she?)
information requests + various tenses (e.g., When were they leaving on vacation?
How have you been?)
Negation
with various tenses and/or modals (e.g., They couldn’t have finished already! We
haven’t been going to the gym recently.)
with unless (e.g., Unless you have a permit, you can’t drive.)
Prepositions
with a variety of phrasal verbs (e.g., break down/up/out, call for/in/on, cut
down/in/off/out/up, fall back/behind/in/out/through)
by + gerund (e.g., I did well on the math test by memorizing all the formulas.)
during, following, regarding
Sentences
complex, with subordinate clause (e.g., Because we were stuck in traffic, the girl
on the bike arrived ahead of us.)
II. Conventions of Print
Punctuation
hyphen
apostrophe
quotation marks
parentheses
ellipses
English as
Literacy
a Second
Development
Language
colon, semi-colon
ELDEO
ESLAO
LANGUAGE REFERENCE CHART – ELD LEVEL 5
173
GLOSSARY
The following definitions and lists of examples are intended to help teachers and parents
use this document. It should be noted that the examples provided are suggestions and are
not meant to be exhaustive.
Aboriginal person. A person who is a
descendant of the original inhabitants
of North America. The Canadian
Constitution (1982) recognizes three
primary groups as Aboriginal peoples:
Indians, Inuit, and Métis.
academic language. A style of language
incorporating technical and specialized
terms and used to communicate for
academic purposes.
acculturation process. The process of
cultural adjustment that newcomers
experience when they arrive in a new
country. Four stages have been identified
in this process. During the first stage,
initial enthusiasm, newcomers may feel
excitement and optimism about the new
country and the new opportunities it
presents, combined with some anxiety
about the future. During the second
stage, culture shock, newcomers may
experience confusion, misunderstandings,
depression, and isolation, and as a result
may demonstrate withdrawal and avoid
contact with the mainstream culture.
During the third stage, recovery, newcomers may feel less anxious, show
renewed optimism and more constructive
attitudes, and try out new behaviours
associated with their adopted culture.
During the fourth stage, acculturation/
integration, newcomers may feel that
their emotional equilibrium is restored
and become able to value both their own
culture and that of their adopted country.
achievement levels. Brief descriptions
of four different degrees of student
achievement of the provincial curriculum
expectations for any given course. Level 3,
which is the “provincial standard”,
identifies a high level of achievement of
the provincial expectations. Parents of
students achieving at level 3 in a particular course can be confident that their
children will be prepared for work in the
next course. Level 1 identifies achievement that falls much below the provincial
standard. Level 2 identifies achievement
that approaches the standard. Level 4
indicates achievement that surpasses
the standard.
adapted text. A text that has been rewritten so that the reading level is easier and
students can more easily make connections
to prior knowledge and determine meaning. Adaptations to the text may include
simplifying and/or defining relevant
vocabulary, using short, relatively simple
sentences, and maintaining a consistent
format (e.g., a topic sentence followed by
several sentences providing supporting
details all of which are relevant to the
content).
audience. The intended readers, listeners,
or viewers for a particular text.
bilingual. Able to function equally well in
two different languages.
authentic text. A text that has not been
simplified or adapted for English language
learners. See also authentic English.
bilingual dictionary. A two-language
translation dictionary (e.g., English –
French) in which the learner can look up
a word in one language and find its
equivalent in the other.
authentic English. English that is not
manipulated or revised to make it easier
to understand. The language used daily
by first-language speakers includes idioms,
hesitations, incomplete sentences, implied
meanings, and culturally specific references.
authentic language task. A language
learning task that involves using language
to communicate a message and/or accomplish a purpose in a real-world situation.
background knowledge. The background
experience and knowledge that a student
brings to classroom learning. Sometimes
referred to as prior knowledge.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
barrier game. A language learning game,
usually played in pairs, in which each
player has different information that both
need in order to solve a problem. A physical barrier between the players is used
to prevent them from seeing each other’s
information. Players must ask each other
and respond to questions to bridge the
“information gap” and solve the problem.
176
basic interpersonal communication skills
(BICS). Face-to-face language skills used
in everyday communication – listening,
speaking, carrying on basic conversations,
and getting one’s basic needs met. English
language learners typically acquire basic
interpersonal communication skills before
they develop proficiency in more complex,
academic language.
biculturalism. The ability to understand
equally well, and follow, the cultural
rules and norms of two different cultural
systems.
blog. A short form for Web log. An online
forum where people share personal journal entries, opinion articles, and/or photographs with others on a regular basis.
cognitive academic language proficiency
(CALP). Language proficiency associated
with schooling and the abstract language
abilities required for academic work. A
more complex, conceptual, linguistic
ability than conversational language,
CALP includes facility in analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. English language
learners need at least five years to develop
cognitive academic language proficiency
in English.
choral reading. A group recitation of a
story or poem, intended to help students
gain confidence in reading.
circumlocution. A communication strategy
used by English language learners when
they do not know or remember a particular word. To get their meaning across,
learners may define or describe the item,
give examples, or cite characteristics of
the item.
citizenship. The condition of being vested
with the rights, duties, and responsibilities
of a member of a state or nation.
cloze passage. A passage of text with some
words omitted (e.g., Canada’s mineral
resources include nickel, copper, and _____ ).
Students complete cloze passages to
demonstrate reading comprehension,
knowledge of the subject matter, and proficiency with specific items of grammar,
vocabulary, or spelling.
cognate. A word related to another word
in origin and/or meaning (e.g., English
school and scholar; English school and
Spanish escuela).
coherence. A text possesses coherence
when its ideas, argument, or exchanges
are presented in a logical, orderly, and
consistent manner.
communication strategies. Strategies that
are used to convey and interpret messages
in a second language when there is inadequate knowledge of vocabulary or rules to
govern the exchange. See, for example,
circumlocution.
communicative approach. An approach to
second-language teaching in which real
communication is emphasized and grammar is learned inductively from examples
that occur naturally in the context.
communicative competence. The ability
to comprehend and produce fluent and
appropriate language in all communicative settings.
comprehensible input. Language that is
made comprehensible to the learner
through the use of visual aids, familiar
content, rephrasing, repetition, and so on.
comprehension. The ability to understand
and draw meaning from spoken, written,
and visual communications in all media.
comprehension strategies. A variety of
cognitive and systematic techniques that
students use before, during, and after listening, reading, and viewing to construct
meaning from texts. Examples include:
making connections to prior knowledge
and to familiar texts, questioning, finding
main ideas, summarizing information,
inferring, analysing, synthesizing.
concept map. A graphic organizer students can use to explore knowledge and
gather and share information and ideas.
Features of concept maps may include
various shapes and labels, as well as arrows
and other links to show relationships
between ideas.
concepts of print. Concepts related to the
way language is conveyed in print that
are necessary for reading readiness. Print
concepts include directionality (Englishlanguage text is read from left to right and
from top to bottom), the difference between
letters and words (letters are symbols that
represent sounds; words are made up of
letters; there are spaces between words),
the use of capitalization and punctuation,
and the common characteristics of books
(title, author, front/back).
connective device. A graphic signal, word,
or phrase that links or shows relationships
between ideas.
consonant cluster. A group of two or more
consonant sounds that occur together
(e.g., /str/ in stripe).
content words. Words such as nouns, verbs,
and adjectives that convey the meaning of
a sentence.
content-based language instruction. An
instructional approach in which topics
related to curriculum content are used as
the vehicle for second-language learning.
These topics are often delivered through
thematic units. Students thus acquire
important curriculum-based knowledge
and skills at the same time as they learn
language.
conventions. Accepted practices or rules
in the use of language. In the case of written
or printed materials, some conventions
GLOSSARY
177
help convey meaning (e.g., punctuation,
typefaces, capital letters) and other conventions aid in the presentation of content
(e.g., table of contents, headings, footnotes,
charts, captions, lists, pictures, index). See
also text features.
critical literacy. The capacity for a particular type of critical thinking that involves
looking beyond the literal meaning of
texts to observe what is present and what
is missing, in order to analyse and evaluate the text’s complete meaning and the
author’s intent. Critical literacy goes
beyond conventional critical thinking in
focusing on issues related to fairness, equity,
and social justice.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
critical thinking. The process of thinking
about ideas or situations in order to
understand them fully, identify their
implications, and/or make a judgement
about what is sensible or reasonable to
believe or do. Critical-thinking skills used
in reading and writing include: examining
opinions, questioning ideas, detecting bias,
and making and supporting judgements.
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cueing systems. Cues or clues that effective
readers use in combination to read unfamiliar words, phrases, and sentences and
construct meaning from print. Semantic
(meaning) cues help readers guess or predict the meaning of words, phrases, or
sentences on the basis of context and prior
knowledge. Semantic cues may include
visuals. Syntactic (structural) cues help
readers make sense of text using knowledge of the patterned ways in which words
in a language are combined into phrases,
clauses, and sentences. Graphophonic
(phonological and graphic) cues help
readers to decode unknown words using
knowledge of letter or sound relationships,
word patterns, and words recognized by
sight. See also syntax.
culture. The way in which people live, think,
and define themselves as a community.
dialect. The form of a language peculiar
to a specific region or to characteristics
such as social class or education level. A
dialect features variations in vocabulary,
grammar, and pronunciation.
dictogloss. An activity in which a short
text is read aloud at normal speed to students. The students take down the key
words and then attempt to reconstruct
the passage from their general understanding of the gist of the text and from
their notes. The task of reconstructing the
text in their own words requires students
to focus consciously on their knowledge
of the content and the relationship
between ideas and words. The activity
also involves small-group interaction
wherein students pool their key words
and understanding to complete the task.
diversity. In reference to a society, the
variety of groups of people who share a
range of commonly recognized physical,
cultural, or social characteristics. Categories
of groups may be based on various factors
or characteristics, such as gender, race, culture, ethnicity, sexual orientation, ability/
disability, age, religion, and socio-economic
circumstances.
editing. The making of changes to drafts
to correct grammatical, punctuation, and
spelling errors, and generally ensure that
the writing is correct. See also writing
process.
environmental print. Written texts
encountered in the everyday environment, such as labels, signs, billboards,
sandwich boards, product logos, and
packaging.
fishbone map. A graphic organizer that
uses framing questions to show the causal
relationships involved in a complex event.
Framing questions might include: “What
are the factors that cause X? How do they
relate to one another?”
flow chart. A diagram showing a sequence
of events, actions, or steps in a process
(e.g., the sequence of events in a short
story).
forms of informational texts. Examples
include: textbook, report, essay, theatre or
concert program, book review, editorial,
newspaper or magazine article, television
or radio script, letter (business or personal),
invitation, manual, biography, résumé,
brochure, reference book, encyclopaedia.
four corners activity. An activity in which
students are asked to respond to a strong
or controversial statement. The four corners
of the room are labelled with four points
of view (e.g., “Agree”, “Disagree”,
“Strongly Agree”, “Strongly Disagree”).
Students are asked to go to the corner of
the room that corresponds to their opinion
of or reaction to the statement. Students
are given time to talk and to prepare a
case to persuade their classmates to join
their corner. They choose a spokesperson
to explain their reason for choosing that
corner. Time may be given after the four
presentations for questioning or challenging other groups. Students are then asked
to move to a new corner if they were
swayed by another group’s presentation.
forms of literary texts. Examples include:
story, short story, myth, legend, folk tale,
poem, ballad, novel, play, script, picture
book, graphic novel.
graded reader. Books that are graded by
vocabulary level and complexity of sentence structure (e.g., a graded reader at
the level of the 1,000 most common
words in English).
forms of media texts. Examples include:
advertisement, e-mail, film, video, DVD,
stop-motion animation film, clothing,
athletic wear, food packaging, newspaper,
magazine, brochure, movie trailer, editorial, song, sports program, documentary,
travelogue, television commercial, cartoon,
web page, interactive software, database,
blog.
graphic organizer. A visual framework
(e.g., a flow chart, a Venn diagram, a
word web) that helps students organize,
analyse, synthesize, and assess information and ideas. Sometimes referred to as
a “key visual”. See also concept map,
flow chart, fishbone map, T-chart,
Venn diagram, word web.
graphophonics. The study of the relationships between the symbols and sounds of
a language and the visual information on
the page.
guided reading. A reading process in which
the teacher guides students through a text,
using a series of structured activities before,
during, and after reading.
higher-order thinking. The process of
mentally manipulating and transforming
information and ideas in order to solve
problems, acquire understanding, and
discover new meaning. Higher-order
GLOSSARY
forms of writing. Examples include: story
or other narrative piece, anecdote, commentary, critical review, description,
instructions or procedures, recount (personal or informational), transcription of
an interview, announcement, argument,
position paper, essay, research report,
television or radio script, editorial, speech,
letter, minutes of a meeting, notes, jottings,
poem, song text, dialogue, label, supported
opinion, summary, cartoon caption, log,
diary, memoir, journal, riddle, script for
a commercial, advertisement, list, survey,
word web, chart.
179
thinking skills include: focusing, information gathering, combining facts and ideas,
organizing, analysing, synthesizing,
generalizing, integrating, explaining,
hypothesizing, interpreting, evaluating,
drawing conclusions.
idiom. A group of words that, through
usage, has taken on a special meaning
different from the literal meaning (e.g.,
“A new magazine hit the newsstands.” or
“She’s dancing up a storm.”)
language-learning strategies. Strategies
that learners use to assist in the acquisition
of a second language. Examples include:
memorizing, visualizing, organizing and
classifying vocabulary, monitoring speech,
seeking opportunities to practise.
inclusive language. Language that is equitable in its reference to people, thereby
avoiding stereotypes and discriminatory
assumptions (e.g., fire fighter includes both
males and females, whereas fireman refers
only to males).
learner dictionary. A dictionary produced
specifically for second-language learners,
containing extra features such as illustrative sentences and information about the
grammatical features and language styles
associated with specific words.
intonation. The rise and fall of the pitch
of the voice in speaking. Intonation is
used to communicate information additional to the meaning conveyed by words
alone (e.g., a rising intonation at the end
of a sentence indicates a question).
learning strategies. Planned methods or
techniques for facilitating and enhancing
learning (e.g., memorization techniques
for assimilating material; cognitive techniques for making purposeful associations
among ideas; social techniques for interacting with peers).
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
jigsaw activity. A collaborative learning
activity in which individuals or groups of
students read or listen to specific sections
of a text and then come together to share
their information.
180
bring to class (or have together) and then
works with the students to compose stories
in the students’ own words. The stories
may then be used in a variety of ways to
develop reading and oral skills.
K-W-L. A learning activity that helps students draw on background knowledge
before reading and focus on and retain
specific information during and after
reading. Prior to reading about a topic,
with teacher assistance, students identify
what they know about the topic and what
they want to know and record the information in the first two columns of a chart.
After reading about the topic, students
record what they learned in the third
column of the chart.
language-experience approach. A method
of promoting reading in which the teacher
begins with the experiences the students
learning log. A journal in which students
reflect on their learning, and on the strategies and skills that help them learn in
particular situations.
literary device. A particular pattern of
words, a figure of speech, or a technique
used in literature to produce a specific
effect. Examples include: rhyme, analogy,
comparison, contrast, irony, foreshadowing,
allusion, simile, metaphor, personification,
hyperbole, symbolism.
literature circle. A book discussion format
designed to promote reading. In a literature
circle, students independently read the
same book (or different titles by the same
author or books with a common theme)
and then come together to discuss elements of the book(s).
media literacy. An informed and critical
understanding of the nature of the media,
the techniques used by them, and the
impact of these techniques. Also, the
ability to understand and use the mass
media in an active critical way.
metacognition. The process of thinking
about one’s own thought processes.
Metacognitive skills include the ability
to monitor and reflect on one’s own
learning.
mind map. A graphic representation
showing the relationships between ideas
and/or information. In making a mind
map, students summarize information
from a text and organize it by listing,
sorting, or sequencing it, or by linking
information and/or ideas.
minimal pair. A pair of words in which
the only sound difference is the sound
being practised. Examples: sit/seat,
live/leave. These pairs are used for isolating and practising particular sounds that
may be challenging for second-language
learners.
mnemonic device. A way of representing
information that makes it easier to
remember (e.g., an acronym or word in
which each letter stands for one step in a
process as a way of helping a learner to
remember the steps in the proper order).
“Mnemonic” derives from the Greek
word mnemon, meaning “mindful”.
non-verbal communication (non-verbal
cues). Communication by the use of gestures, eye contact, body movement, facial
expressions, physical proximity, touching,
and pauses during speech.
orthography. The study of spelling and of
the way in which letters are combined to
represent sounds and make words.
pattern book. A book that contains text
with predictable and/or repetitive language patterns.
phoneme. The smallest unit of sound in
spoken language that makes the meaning
of one word different from another. A
phoneme may be represented by more
than one letter (e.g., ch in check).
phonemic awareness. The ability to hear,
identify, and manipulate phonemes in
spoken words.
phonics. Instruction in how the letters
(graphemes) of written language are
related to the individual sounds
(phonemes) of spoken language.
picture dictionary. A dictionary for language learners in which entry words are
accompanied by illustrations or photographs to clarify their meaning.
portfolio. A collection of self-selected
student work chosen to demonstrate the
student’s efforts, progress, and achievement over time.
proofreading. The careful reading of a final
draft of written work to eliminate typographical errors and to correct errors in
grammar, usage, spelling, and punctuation.
See also writing process.
reader’s theatre. An instructional activity
in which students: adopt the roles of different characters and of a narrator to read
a text; or develop scripts based on familiar
texts, practise their parts, and then present
their rehearsed reading to others.
GLOSSARY
Ontario Skills Passport (OSP). A bilingual, Web-based resource that provides
clear descriptions of the skills and work
habits required for success in the workplace. The skills identified in the OSP are
transferable from school to work, from
job to job, and from sector to sector. This
resource is available for use by students,
teachers, employers, and job-seekers at
http://skills.edu.gov.on.ca.
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reading strategies. Approaches used
before, during, and after reading to figure
out unfamiliar words, determine meaning,
and increase understanding of a text.
Examples include comprehension strategies
and word-recognition strategies, including
the use of cueing systems. Good readers
use a combination of word-recognition
and comprehension strategies, while
maintaining a focus on developing and
deepening their understanding of a text.
See also comprehension strategies.
realia. Real-life objects and artefacts used
to supplement teaching. They can provide
effective visual scaffolds for English language learners. See also visual aid.
register. A style of language (e.g., formal,
colloquial) appropriate to a specific audience, purpose, or situation. Register is
determined by the level of formality in a
particular social setting, the relationship
among the individuals involved in the
communication, and the purpose of the
interaction.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
revising. The process of making changes
to the content, structure, and wording of
a draft to add or remove information,
correct errors of fact, improve the organization of ideas, eliminate awkward phrasing,
and generally ensure that the writing is
clear and coherent. See also writing process.
182
rhythm. The pattern of sound created by
the stressed syllables in a sentence.
scaffolding. Teacher support for student
learning and performance that may
include building on prior knowledge,
modelling, questioning, feedback, providing graphic organizers, and supplying
exemplars. Support is gradually withdrawn
as students develop the ability to apply
newly learned skills and knowledge
independently.
scribing. Writing down verbatim the
words dictated by a student.
sentence patterns. The characteristic
grammatical structures or patterns of
English that influence such things as word
order and the use of prefixes, suffixes,
prepositions, articles, and auxiliary verbs
(e.g., to form questions and negatives:
Do you speak English?; I don’t eat hot dogs.).
sight words. Words that can be recognized
or read as a whole unit without sounding
them out letter by letter or syllable by
syllable.
socio-cultural competence. The ability to
function appropriately in a particular
social or cultural context according to the
rules and expectations for behaviour held
by members of that social or cultural
group.
standard Canadian English. Oral and
written English that follows accepted
rules and practices of grammar, usage,
spelling, and punctuation and that is
used across a broad spectrum of
Canadian society (e.g., in government,
educational, medical, legal, scientific,
business, and media communications).
stress. Emphasis on specific syllables in
a word or specific words in a sentence
when speaking. Stress is an important
component of pronunciation and contributes to meaning. See also intonation,
rhythm.
student-teacher conference. A teacher’s
planned dialogue with an individual student about the student’s learning. Conferences offer teachers opportunities to get to
know their students’ strengths and the
challenges they face in relation to specific
learning expectations; to monitor their
progress; and to plan future instruction
based on individual identified needs and
interests.
subject-specific vocabulary. Vocabulary
specific to or most often used in the
context of a particular school subject
(e.g., equation, axis, and correlate belong
to the subject-specific vocabulary of
mathematics).
syntax. The predictable structure of a language and the ways in which words are
combined to form phrases, clauses, and
sentences. Syntax includes classes of
words (e.g., nouns, verbs, adjectives) and
their functions (e.g., subject, object). See
also cueing systems.
tone. A manner of speaking, writing,
or creating that reveals the speaker’s,
author’s, or creator’s attitude towards
a subject and/or audience.
transition words and phrases. Words and
phrases that link and/or signal relationships between clauses, sentences, or paragraphs. For example, afterwards and in the
meantime show relationships with respect
to time; in comparison and on the other hand
show relationships of similarity and
difference.
T-chart. A chart that has been divided
into two columns, so that the divider
looks like the letter T. T-charts are used to
compare and contrast information and to
analyse similarities and differences.
varieties of English. Different forms of
English used by particular groups of
English speakers, including regional and
social groups, and characterized by distinct vocabularies, pronunciation patterns,
and grammatical features.
text. A means of communication that
uses words, graphics, sounds, and/or
images, in print, oral, visual, or electronic
form, to present information and ideas to
an audience.
Venn diagram. A graphic organizer in
which sets of things are represented as
circles, with the shared characteristics
of the sets located in the area where the
circles overlap.
text features. The physical or design characteristics of a text that clarify and/or
give support to the meaning in the text
(e.g., title, headings, subheadings, bold
and italic fonts, illustrations). See also
conventions.
visual aid. An object used to relate classroom teaching to real life (e.g., food,
clothing, a photograph, an item from
school or daily life). See also realia.
text form. A category or type of text that
has certain defining characteristics. The
concept of text forms provides a way for
readers and writers to think about the
purpose of a text and its intended audience.
think-aloud. An activity in which the
teacher (or sometimes a student) describes
aloud the thinking process as he or she
reads, writes, or solves problems.
voiced consonant. A speech sound produced with vibration of the vocal cords;
for example, the consonant sound /b/.
voiceless consonant. A speech sound
produced without vibration of the vocal
cords; for example, the consonant
sound /p/.
word pattern. A particular arrangement
of components in a group of words that
have elements in common with respect to
meaning, syntax, spelling, and/or sound;
GLOSSARY
think/pair/share. An instructional strategy
in which students individually consider
an issue or problem and then discuss their
ideas with a partner.
voice. The style or character of a piece of
writing conveyed through the author’s use
of vocabulary, sentence structure, imagery,
rhythm, and other elements that contribute
to the mood of the piece as a whole.
183
for example, the formation of the past
tense in a group of verbs by adding the
suffix -ed to the verb root.
word-recognition strategies. Any of a
variety of semantic, syntactic, or graphophonic strategies that help students read
and understand a word. Examples include:
decoding words; using knowledge of the
structure or meaning of words to read
unfamiliar words; combining knowledge
of letter-sound relationships with clues
from an illustration to predict the word.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 9 –12 | ESL and ELD
word wall. A list of words, grouped
alphabetically (or sometimes thematically)
and prominently displayed in the classroom, that teachers use to help students
become familiar with high-frequency
words and new vocabulary.
184
word web. A graphic organizer that allows
the user to explore and demonstrate conceptual links among ideas and information.
Sometimes called a semantic web.
writing process. The process involved in
producing a polished piece of writing.
The writing process comprises several
stages, each of which focuses on specific
tasks. he main stages of the writing
process are: planning for writing, drafting,
revising, editing, proofreading, and publishing. See also editing, proofreading,
revising.
zine. A word, derived from magazine, that
denotes an inexpensively produced, selfpublished publication. An e-zine is a zine
that is published electronically, especially
on the Internet.
The Ministry of Education wishes to acknowledge
the contribution of the many individuals, groups, and
organizations that participated in the development
and refinement of this curriculum policy document.
Printed on recycled paper
07-004
ISBN 978-1-4249-4884-0 (Print)
ISBN 978-1-4249-4885-7 (HTML)
ISBN 978-1-4249-4886-4 (TXT)
© Queen’s Printer for Ontario, 2007
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