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USACE / NAVFAC / AFCEC / NASA
UFGS-32 11 10 (August 2008)
--------------------------Preparing Activity: USACE
Superseding
UFGS-32 11 10 (April 2006)
UNIFIED FACILITIES GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS
References are in agreement with UMRL dated January 2016
**************************************************************************
SECTION TABLE OF CONTENTS
DIVISION 32 - EXTERIOR IMPROVEMENTS
SECTION 32 11 10
DRAINAGE LAYER
08/08
PART 1
GENERAL
1.1
UNIT PRICES
1.1.1
Measurement
1.1.1.1
Aggregate Drainage Layer Material
1.1.1.2
Bituminous or Cement Stabilized Drainage Layer
1.1.1.3
Bituminous Material
1.1.1.4
Cementitious Material
1.1.2
Payment
1.1.3
Waybills and Delivery Tickets
1.2
REFERENCES
1.3
SUMMARY
1.4
SUBMITTALS
1.5
QUALITY ASSURANCE
1.5.1
Sampling and Testing
1.5.2
Sampling
1.5.3
Test Methods
1.5.3.1
Sieve Analyses
1.5.3.2
Density Tests
1.5.3.3
Soundness Test
1.5.3.4
Los Angeles Abrasion Test
1.5.3.5
Flat or Elongated Particles Tests
1.5.3.6
Fractured Faces Tests
1.5.3.7
Bitumen Content
1.5.4
Initial Tests
1.5.5
Testing Frequency
1.5.5.1
Aggregate Layer
1.5.5.2
Stabilized Layer
1.5.6
Approval of Materials
1.5.6.1
Aggregate
1.5.6.2
Bituminous or Cementitious Materials
1.6
ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS
PART 2
2.1
PRODUCTS
GOVERNMENT APPROVAL
SECTION 32 11 10
Page 1
2.2
EQUIPMENT
2.2.1
Placement Equipment
2.2.2
Compaction Equipment
2.2.3
Bituminous Mixing Plant
2.2.4
Cementitious Mixing Plant
2.3
AGGREGATES
2.3.1
Aggregate Quality
2.3.2
Gradation Requirements
2.4
BITUMINOUS MATERIALS
2.5
CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS
2.6
BITUMINOUS OR CEMENT STABILIZED JOB-MIX FORMULA
PART 3
EXECUTION
3.1
STOCKPILING AGGREGATES
3.2
TEST SECTION
3.2.1
Data
3.2.2
Schedule/Evaluation
3.2.3
Location and Size
3.2.4
Initial Testing
3.2.5
Mixing, Placement, and Compaction
3.2.6
Procedure
3.2.6.1
RDM Aggregate Drainage Layer Tests
3.2.6.2
Bituminous/Cement Stabilized Drainage Layer
3.2.6.3
OGM with Choke Stone
3.2.7
Evaluation
3.3
PREPARATION OF UNDERLYING COURSE
3.4
TRANSPORTING MATERIAL
3.4.1
Aggregate Drainage Layer Material
3.4.2
Bituminous Stabilized Material
3.4.3
Cement Stabilized Material
3.5
PLACING
3.5.1
General Requisites
3.5.2
Placement of Stabilized Material
3.5.3
Placing Adjacent Stabilized Strips
3.5.4
Hand Spreading
3.6
COMPACTION REQUIREMENTS
3.6.1
Field Compaction
3.6.2
Number of Passes
3.6.3
Dry Density
3.7
FINISHING
3.8
CURING OF CEMENT STABILIZED MATERIAL
3.9
EDGES OF DRAINAGE LAYER
3.10
SMOOTHNESS TEST
3.11
THICKNESS CONTROL
3.12
DEFICIENCIES
3.12.1
Grade and Thickness
3.12.2
Density
3.12.3
Smoothness
-- End of Section Table of Contents --
SECTION 32 11 10
Page 2
**************************************************************************
USACE / NAVFAC / AFCEC / NASA
UFGS-32 11 10 (August 2008)
--------------------------Preparing Activity: USACE
Superseding
UFGS-32 11 10 (April 2006)
UNIFIED FACILITIES GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS
References are in agreement with UMRL dated January 2016
**************************************************************************
SECTION 32 11 10
DRAINAGE LAYER
08/08
**************************************************************************
NOTE: This guide specification covers the
requirements for a drainage layer under roads,
streets and airfield pavements.
Adhere to UFC 1-300-02 Unified Facilities Guide
Specifications (UFGS) Format Standard when editing
this guide specification or preparing new project
specification sections. Edit this guide
specification for project specific requirements by
adding, deleting, or revising text. For bracketed
items, choose applicable items(s) or insert
appropriate information.
Remove information and requirements not required in
respective project, whether or not brackets are
present.
Comments, suggestions and recommended changes for
this guide specification are welcome and should be
submitted as a Criteria Change Request (CCR).
**************************************************************************
PART 1
1.1
GENERAL
UNIT PRICES
**************************************************************************
NOTE: This paragraph will be deleted when the work
is covered by a lump sum contract price.
**************************************************************************
1.1.1
Measurement
Deductions will be made for any material wasted, unused, rejected, or used
for the convenience of the Contractor.
1.1.1.1
Aggregate Drainage Layer Material
Measure the quantity of aggregate drainage layer material, completed and
accepted, in cubic meters yards. Determine the volume of aggregate
SECTION 32 11 10
Page 3
drainage layer material, in place and accepted, by the average job
thickness obtained in accordance with paragraph THICKNESS CONTROL and the
dimensions indicated. The choke stone shall be considered as part of the
drainage layer thickness and shall not be measured separately.
1.1.1.2
Bituminous or Cement Stabilized Drainage Layer
Measure the quantity of bituminous or cement stabilized drainage layer
material, completed and accepted, in metric 2000 pound tons, excluding the
weight of the asphalt or portland cement used in the mix.
1.1.1.3
Bituminous Material
Measure the quantity of asphalt cement, used in the bituminous stabilized
mix, by the number of liters gallons of material used in the accepted work
corrected to liters at 16 degrees C gallons at 60 degrees F in accordance
with ASTM D1250.
1.1.1.4
Cementitious Material
Measure the quantity of portland cement, used in the cement stabilized mix,
by the number of 50 kilogram short hundred-weight (cwt) units of cement
used in the accepted work.
1.1.2
Payment
The quantities of drainage layer aggregates and bituminous or cementitious
materials, as specified above, will be paid for at the contract unit
prices, which will constitute full compensation for the construction and
completion of the drainage layer, including the test section, and the
furnishing of all other necessary labor and incidentals.
1.1.3
Waybills and Delivery Tickets
Submit certified waybills and delivery tickets for all aggregates,
bituminous, and cementitious materials actually used. Before the final
payment is allowed, file certified waybills and certified delivery tickets
for all aggregates, bituminous, and cementitious materials actually used.
1.2
REFERENCES
**************************************************************************
NOTE: This paragraph is used to list the
publications cited in the text of the guide
specification. The publications are referred to in
the text by basic designation only and listed in
this paragraph by organization, designation, date,
and title.
Use the Reference Wizard's Check Reference feature
when you add a RID outside of the Section's
Reference Article to automatically place the
reference in the Reference Article. Also use the
Reference Wizard's Check Reference feature to update
the issue dates.
References not used in the text will automatically
be deleted from this section of the project
specification when you choose to reconcile
SECTION 32 11 10
Page 4
references in the publish print process.
**************************************************************************
The publications listed below form a part of this specification to the
extent referenced. The publications are referred to within the text by the
basic designation only.
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY AND TRANSPORTATION OFFICIALS
(AASHTO)
AASHTO M 320
(2010; 2015) Standard Specification for
Performance-Graded Asphalt Binder
AASHTO T 102
(2009; R 2013) Standard Method of Test for
Spot Test of Asphaltic Materials
ASTM INTERNATIONAL (ASTM)
ASTM C117
(2013) Standard Test Method for Materials
Finer than 75-um (No. 200) Sieve in
Mineral Aggregates by Washing
ASTM C131/C131M
(2014) Standard Test Method for Resistance
to Degradation of Small-Size Coarse
Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in the
Los Angeles Machine
ASTM C136/C136M
(2014) Standard Test Method for Sieve
Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates
ASTM C150/C150M
(2015) Standard Specification for Portland
Cement
ASTM C29/C29M
(2009) Standard Test Method for Bulk
Density ("Unit Weight") and Voids in
Aggregate
ASTM C595/C595M
(2015; E 2015) Standard Specification for
Blended Hydraulic Cements
ASTM C88
(2013) Standard Test Method for Soundness
of Aggregates by Use of Sodium Sulfate or
Magnesium Sulfate
ASTM D1250
(2008) Standard Guide for Use of the
Petroleum Measurement Tables
ASTM D140/D140M
(2015) Standard Practice for Sampling
Bituminous Materials
ASTM D2172/D2172M
(2011) Quantitative Extraction of Bitumen
from Bituminous Paving Mixtures
ASTM D2487
(2011) Soils for Engineering Purposes
(Unified Soil Classification System)
ASTM D3381/D3381M
(2013) Viscosity-Graded Asphalt Cement for
Use in Pavement Construction
SECTION 32 11 10
Page 5
following the "G" typically are not used for Navy,
Air Force, and NASA projects.
An "S" following a submittal item indicates that the
submittal is required for the Sustainability
Notebook to fulfill federally mandated sustainable
requirements in accordance with Section 01 33 29
SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING.
Choose the first bracketed item for Navy, Air Force
and NASA projects, or choose the second bracketed
item for Army projects.
**************************************************************************
Government approval is required for submittals with a "G" designation;
submittals not having a "G" designation are for [Contractor Quality Control
approval.] [information only. When used, a designation following the "G"
designation identifies the office that will review the submittal for the
Government.] Submittals with an "S" are for inclusion in the
Sustainability Notebook, in conformance to Section 01 33 29 SUSTAINABILITY
REPORTING. Submit the following in accordance with Section 01 33 00
SUBMITTAL PROCEDURES:
SD-03 Product Data
Waybills and Delivery Tickets
SD-06 Test Reports
Sampling and Testing
Approval of Materials; G[, [_____]]
Evaluation
1.5
QUALITY ASSURANCE
1.5.1
Sampling and Testing
Conduct sampling and testing; performed by an approved testing laboratory
in accordance with UFGS [01 45 00.00 10] [01 45 00.00 20] [01 45 00.00 40]
QUALITY CONTROL. Perform tests at the specified frequency. No work
requiring testing will be permitted until the testing laboratory has been
inspected and approved. Test drainage layer materials to establish
compliance with the specified requirements.
1.5.2
Sampling
Take aggregate samples in accordance with ASTM D75/D75M. Take bituminous
samples in accordance with ASTM D140/D140M. Take bituminous or cement
stabilized mixture samples using methods approved by the Contracting
Officer.
1.5.3
1.5.3.1
Test Methods
Sieve Analyses
Make sieve analyses in accordance with ASTM C117 and ASTM C136/C136M.
SECTION 32 11 10
Page 7
following the "G" typically are not used for Navy,
Air Force, and NASA projects.
An "S" following a submittal item indicates that the
submittal is required for the Sustainability
Notebook to fulfill federally mandated sustainable
requirements in accordance with Section 01 33 29
SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING.
Choose the first bracketed item for Navy, Air Force
and NASA projects, or choose the second bracketed
item for Army projects.
**************************************************************************
Government approval is required for submittals with a "G" designation;
submittals not having a "G" designation are for [Contractor Quality Control
approval.] [information only. When used, a designation following the "G"
designation identifies the office that will review the submittal for the
Government.] Submittals with an "S" are for inclusion in the
Sustainability Notebook, in conformance to Section 01 33 29 SUSTAINABILITY
REPORTING. Submit the following in accordance with Section 01 33 00
SUBMITTAL PROCEDURES:
SD-03 Product Data
Waybills and Delivery Tickets
SD-06 Test Reports
Sampling and Testing
Approval of Materials; G[, [_____]]
Evaluation
1.5
QUALITY ASSURANCE
1.5.1
Sampling and Testing
Conduct sampling and testing; performed by an approved testing laboratory
in accordance with UFGS [01 45 00.00 10] [01 45 00.00 20] [01 45 00.00 40]
QUALITY CONTROL. Perform tests at the specified frequency. No work
requiring testing will be permitted until the testing laboratory has been
inspected and approved. Test drainage layer materials to establish
compliance with the specified requirements.
1.5.2
Sampling
Take aggregate samples in accordance with ASTM D75/D75M. Take bituminous
samples in accordance with ASTM D140/D140M. Take bituminous or cement
stabilized mixture samples using methods approved by the Contracting
Officer.
1.5.3
1.5.3.1
Test Methods
Sieve Analyses
Make sieve analyses in accordance with ASTM C117 and ASTM C136/C136M.
SECTION 32 11 10
Page 7
1.5.3.2
Density Tests
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Nuclear gauge density testing may not be
accurate for gradations of RDM with a small
percentage of fines. The testing may still indicate
segregation or consistency in placement of the
material.
**************************************************************************
Perform field density tests for RDM drainage layers in accordance with
ASTM D6938 by Direct Transmission Method for the full depth of the lift,
use ASTM D6938 to determine the moisture content of the aggregate drainage
layer material. Check the calibration curves furnished with the moisture
gauges along with density calibration checks as described in ASTM D6938.
The calibration checks of both the density and moisture gauges shall be
made by the prepared containers of material method, as described in
paragraph "Calibration" of ASTM D6938, on each different type of material
being tested at the beginning of a job and at intervals as directed by the
Contracting Officer.
1.5.3.3
Soundness Test
Perform soundness tests in accordance with ASTM C88.
1.5.3.4
Los Angeles Abrasion Test
Perform Los Angeles abrasion tests in accordance with ASTM C131/C131M.
1.5.3.5
Flat or Elongated Particles Tests
Perform flat and/or elongated particles tests in accordance with ASTM D4791.
1.5.3.6
Fractured Faces Tests
When aggregates are supplied from crushed gravel, use approved test methods
to ensure the aggregate meets the requirements for fractured faces in
paragraph AGGREGATES.
1.5.3.7
Bitumen Content
Perform bitumen extraction tests in accordance with ASTM D2172/D2172M or
ignition tests in accordance with ASTM D6307.
1.5.4
Initial Tests
Perform one of each of the following tests on the proposed material, prior
to commencing construction, to demonstrate that the proposed material meets
all specified requirements when furnished. If materials from more than one
source are going to be utilized, complete the following tests for each
source.
a.
Sieve Analysis including 75 µm No. 200 sieve size material.
b.
Flat and/or elongated particles
c.
Fractured Faces
d.
Los Angeles abrasion.
SECTION 32 11 10
Page 8
e.
1.5.5
Soundness.
Testing Frequency
1.5.5.1
Aggregate Layer
Perform field density and moisture content tests at a rate of at least one
test for every [2000] [_____] square meters yards of completed area and not
less than one test for each day's production.
Sieve analyses shall be
performed at a rate of at least one test for every [6000] [_____] square
meters yards of completed area. Perform soundness tests, Los Angeles
abrasion tests, fractured faces tests and flat and/or elongated particles
tests at the rate of one test for every 12,000 square meters square yards
of production.
1.5.5.2
Stabilized Layer
Perform sieve analyses on aggregates prior to addition of asphalt or
portland cement, at a rate of at least one test for every [6000 ] [_____]
square meters yards of completed area and not less than one test for each
days production. Make extraction tests on bituminous stabilized material
at the same frequency. Perform soundness tests, Los Angeles abrasion
tests, fractured faces tests, and flat and/or elongated particles tests at
the rate of one test for every 12,000 square meters yards of production.
1.5.6
Approval of Materials
Submit material sources and material test results prior to field use.
1.5.6.1
Aggregate
Select the aggregate source at least [60] [_____] days prior to field use
in the test section. Tentative approval of the source will be based on
certified test results to verify that materials proposed for use meet the
contract requirements. Final approval of both the source and the material
will be based on test section performance and tests for gradation,
soundness, Los Angeles abrasion, flat and/or elongated particles tests and
fractured faces tests. For aggregate drainage layer materials, perform
these tests on samples taken from the completed and compacted drainage
layer course within the test section. For bituminous or cement stabilized
drainage layer material, perform these tests on aggregate samples taken
prior to addition of bituminous or cementitious material and subsequent
placement in the test section.
1.5.6.2
Bituminous or Cementitious Materials
Submit bituminous or cementitious sources and certified material test
results for approval not less than [60] [_____] days prior to field use in
the test section.
1.6
ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS
Place drainage layer material when the atmospheric temperature is above 2
degrees C 35 degrees F. Correct areas of completed drainage layer or
underlying courses that are damaged by freezing, rainfall, or other weather
conditions or by contamination from sediments, dust, dirt, or foreign
material to meet specified requirements.
SECTION 32 11 10
Page 9
PART 2
2.1
PRODUCTS
GOVERNMENT APPROVAL
Asphalt or cement stabilized material will require Government notification
and delivery of approved materials in accordance with paragraph BITUMINOUS
OR CEMENT STABILIZED JOB-MIX FORMULA.
2.2
EQUIPMENT
**************************************************************************
NOTE: If desirable, include requirements for
specific types of equipment applicable to methods of
construction based on local conditions.
**************************************************************************
All plant, equipment, and tools used in the performance of the work will be
subject to approval before the work is started and shall be maintained in
satisfactory working condition at all times.
2.2.1
Placement Equipment
Use an asphalt paving machine to place drainage layer material. Alternate
methods may be used if it can be demonstrated in the test section that
these methods obtain the specified results.
2.2.2
Compaction Equipment
Use a dual or single smooth 10 metric- 2000 lb- tons (min.) vibratory drum
roller, which provides a maximum compactive effort without crushing the
drainage layer aggregate, to compact drainage layer material.
2.2.3
Bituminous Mixing Plant
Provide a bituminous mixing plant that is an automatic or semiautomatic
controlled, commercially manufactured unit capable of producing a
bituminous stabilized aggregate mixture consistent with the job-mix formula
(JMF).
2.2.4
Cementitious Mixing Plant
Provide a cementitious mixing plant that is an automatic or semiautomatic
controlled, commercially manufactured unit capable of producing a cement
stabilized aggregate mixture consistent with the job mix formula determined
by the Government. Aggregate and cement shall be dry mixed sufficiently to
prevent cement balls from forming when water is added.
2.3
AGGREGATES
Provide aggregates consisting of clean, sound, hard, durable, angular
particles of crushed stone, crushed slag, or crushed gravel which meet the
specification requirements. Slag shall be an air-cooled, blast-furnace
product having a dry weight of not less than 1040 kg per cubic meter 65 pcf
determined by ASTM C29/C29M. Provide aggregates free of silt and clay as
defined by ASTM D2487, vegetable matter, and other objectionable materials
or coatings.
SECTION 32 11 10
Page 10
2.3.1
Aggregate Quality
**************************************************************************
NOTE: A percentage of loss on abrasion of 40 will
be used except that a value up to 50 percent may be
used where experience with local materials indicates
such an increase is justified. A percentage of
soundness loss of 18 has proven effective in many
localities. The Designer will insert in the blank
spaces the applicable losses in percent for the
specific job based on the knowledge of both coarse
and fine aggregates in the areas that have been
previously approved and have a satisfactory service
record for at least 5 years. The percent of
fractured faces may be reduced to 75 if the required
CBR is 50 or less.
**************************************************************************
The aggregate shall have a soundness loss not greater than [18] [_____]
percent weighted averaged at 5 cycles when tested in magnesium sulfate in
accordance with ASTM C88 and a percentage of loss on abrasion not to exceed
[40] [_____] after 500 revolutions as determined by ASTM C131/C131M.
Determine the percentage of flat and/or elongated particles by ASTM D4791
with the following modifications: 1) The aggregates shall be separated
into 2 size fractions, particles greater than 12.5 mm 1/2 inch sieve and
particles passing the 12.5 mm 1/2 inch sieve and retained on the 4.75 mm
No. 4 sieve. 2) The percentage of flat and/or elongated particles in either
fraction shall not exceed 20. 3) A flat particle is one having a ratio of
width to thickness greater than 3; an elongated particle is one having a
ratio of length to width greater than 3. 4) When the aggregate is supplied
from more than one source, aggregate from each source shall meet the
specified requirements. When the aggregate is supplied from crushed gravel
it shall be manufactured from gravel particles, 90 percent of which by
weight are retained on the maximum-size sieve listed in TABLE I. In the
portion retained on each sieve specified, the crushed gravel shall contain
at least [90] [75] percent by weight of crushed pieces having two or more
freshly fractured faces with the area of each face being at least equal to
75 percent of the smallest midsectional area of the face. When two
fractures are contiguous, the angle between planes of the fractures must be
at least 30 degrees in order to count as 2 fractured faces.
2.3.2
Gradation Requirements
**************************************************************************
NOTE: The gradation or gradations applicable to the
specific job will be specified. The designer will
select rapid draining material (RDM) and/or open
graded material (OGM) depending on the required
permeability and material availability. RDM should
provide a permeability of 300 to 1500 m 1000 to 5000
feet per day. OGM should provide a permeability
greater than 1500 m 5000 feet per day. RDM is well
graded enough to be stable to work on, however OGM
will require choke stone, asphalt cement, or
portland cement for stability. The gradation for
the choke stone matches ASTM gradation No. 8.
For roads, where the drainage path is short and a
permeability of 300 m 1000 feet per day is adequate,
SECTION 32 11 10
Page 11
the Contractor can be permitted to use the following
Optional Table I.
Add the following "Note 5. The
Optional Table I gradation can be meet in some areas
with 77 percent #57 stone and 23 percent concrete
sand blend."
OPTIONAL TABLE I
GRADATION OF DRAINAGE LAYER MATERIAL
Percentage by Weight Passing Square-Mesh Sieve
Designation (mm)
Sieve Material (RDM) Rapid Draining
502 in.
100
37.501-1/2 in.
95-100
25.001 in.
70-100
19.003/4 in.
60-100
12.501/2 in.
50-76
9.503/8 in.
40-65
4.75No. 4
20-45
2.36No. 8
17-30
1.18No. 16
5-16
0.30No. 50
0-5
0.15No. 100
0-2.5
**************************************************************************
Drainage layer aggregates must be well graded within the limits specified
in TABLE I.
TABLE I
GRADATION OF DRAINAGE LAYER MATERIAL
Rapid Draining Material (RDM)
Sieve Designation
(mm)
37.501-1/2 in.
Percentage by Weight Passing
Square-Mesh Sieve
100
25.001 in.
70-100
19.003/4 in.
55-100
SECTION 32 11 10
Page 12
TABLE I
GRADATION OF DRAINAGE LAYER MATERIAL
Rapid Draining Material (RDM)
Sieve Designation
(mm)
Percentage by Weight Passing
Square-Mesh Sieve
12.501/2 in.
40-80
9.503/8 in.
30-65
4.75No. 4
10-50
2.36No. 8
0-25
1.18No. 16
0-5
NOTE 1: The values are based on aggregates of uniform specific gravity,
and the percentages passing the various sieves may require appropriate
correction by the Contracting Officer when aggregates of varying specific
gravities are used.
NOTE 2: The coefficient of uniformity (CU) shall be greater than 3.5. (CU
= D60/D10). The Contractor is responsible for adjusting the RDM gradation
within the ranges listed in Table I to provide a stable construction
surface for the proposed equipment and method of transporting materials or
the drainage layer can be stabilize with portland cement or asphalt at no
additional cost to the government, if approved during the test section.
TABLE I
GRADATION OF DRAINAGE LAYER MATERIAL
Percentage by Weight Passing Square-Mesh Sieve
Sieve
Designation (mm)
Open Graded Material
(OGM)
Choke Stone
100
100
95-100
100
19.003/4 in.
---
100
12.501/2 in.
25-80
100
9.503/8 in.
---
80-100
4.75No. 4
0-10
10-100
2.36No. 8
0-5
5-40
1.18No. 16
---
0-10
37.501-1/2 in.
25.001 in.
NOTE 1: The values are based on aggregates of uniform specific gravity,
and the percentages passing the various sieves may require appropriate
correction by the Contracting Officer when aggregates of varying specific
gravities are used.
SECTION 32 11 10
Page 13
trucks equipped with protective covers. Loads that have crusts of
unworkable material or have become excessively wet will be rejected.
Hauling over freshly placed material will not be permitted.
3.5
3.5.1
PLACING
General Requisites
Place drainage layer material on the underlying course in lifts of uniform
thickness using equipment meeting the requirements of paragraph EQUIPMENT.
When a compacted layer 150 mm 6 inches or less in thickness is required,
place the material in a single lift. When a compacted layer in excess of
150 mm 6 inches is required, place the material in lifts of equal
thickness. No lift shall exceed 150 mm 6 inches or be less than 75 mm 3
inches when compacted. The lifts when compacted after placement shall be
true to the grades or levels required with the least possible surface
disturbance. Where the drainage layer is placed in more than one lift,
clean the previously constructed lift of loose and foreign material. Such
adjustments in placing procedures or equipment shall be made to obtain true
grades and minimize segregation and degradation of the drainage layer
material. Spread choke stone used to stabilize the surface of the OGM in a
thin layer no thicker than 13 mm 1/2 inch. The OGM shall be brought to
grade and the choke stone placed and rolled as described in paragraph; TEST
SECTION.
3.5.2
Placement of Stabilized Material
Bituminous stabilized material having temperatures less than 80 degrees C
175 degrees F when dumped into the asphalt paving machine will be
rejected. Adjust the paving machine so that the surface of the lift being
laid will be smooth and continuous without tears and pulls. Correct
irregularities in alignment of the lift left by the paving machine by
trimming directly behind the machine. Immediately after trimming,
thoroughly compact the edges of the lift by a method approved by the
Contracting Officer. Distortion of the lift during tamping will not be
permitted. If more than one lift is required, offset the longitudinal
joint in one lift that in the lift immediately below by at least 300 mm 1
foot; however, the joint in the top layer shall be at the centerline of the
pavement. Offset transverse joints in one layer by at least 600 mm 2 feet
from transverse joints in the previous layer. Transverse joints in
adjacent strips shall be offset a minimum of 3 meters 10 feet. At the end
of each day's construction, form a straight transverse construction joint
by cutting back into the completed work to form a true vertical face free
of loose or shattered material. Remove material along construction joints
not properly compacted.
3.5.3
Placing Adjacent Stabilized Strips
Place the stabilized material in consecutive adjacent strips having a
minimum width of 3 meters 10 feet, except where edge lanes require strips
less than 3 meters 10 feet to complete the area. In placing adjacent
strips, the screed of the paving machine shall overlap the previously
placed strip 75 to 100 mm 3 to 4 inches and shall be sufficiently high so
that compaction will produce a smooth, dense joint. The stabilized
material placed on the edge of the previously placed strip by the paver
shall be pushed back to the edge of the strip being placed. Remove and
waste excess stabilized material.
SECTION 32 11 10
Page 19
3.5.4
Hand Spreading
Spread by hand drainage layer material in areas where machine spreading is
impractical. The material shall be spread uniformly in a loose layer to
prevent segregation. The material shall conform to the required grade and
thickness after compaction.
3.6
3.6.1
COMPACTION REQUIREMENTS
Field Compaction
Base field compaction requirements on the results of the test section,
using the materials, methods, and equipment proposed for use in the work.
3.6.2
Number of Passes
Accomplish compaction using rollers meeting the requirements of paragraph
EQUIPMENT and operating at a rolling speed of no greater than 2.4 km 1.5
miles per hour. Compact each lift of drainage material, including
shoulders when specified under the shoulders, with the number of passes of
the roller as follows: for RDM material use 4 passes in the vibratory state
and one in the static. For cement or Bituminous stabilized OGM material
use 3 passes in the vibratory state and one in the static state. For OGM
stabilized with choke stone use 4 passes in the vibratory state on OGM and
2 additional roller passes on the choke stone in the vibratory state with
wetting. The Contracting Officer will validate the number of roller passes
after the test section is evaluated and before production starts.
3.6.3
Dry Density
In addition, maintain a minimum field dry density as specified by the
Contracting Officer. If the required field dry density is not obtained,
adjust the number of roller passes in accordance with paragraph
DEFICIENCIES. Compact aggregate in a moisture state as determined in the
test section. Excessive rolling resulting in crushing of aggregate
particles shall be avoided. Choke stone used to stabilize the surface of
the OGM shall be worked into the surface of the OGM by two passes of a
vibratory roller and wetting. Begin compaction of bituminous stabilized
material immediately when the material has cooled to 77 degrees C 170
degrees F. Not more than 30 minutes shall elapse between the start of
moist mixing of cement stabilized material and the start of field
compaction, which shall be completed within 60 minutes. In all places not
accessible to the rollers, compact the drainage layer material with
mechanical hand operated tampers.
3.7
FINISHING
Finish the top surface of the drainage layer after final compaction, as
determined from the test section. Make adjustments in rolling and
finishing procedures to obtain grades and minimize segregation and
degradation of the drainage layer material.
3.8
CURING OF CEMENT STABILIZED MATERIAL
Cure the completed cement stabilized drainage layer with water for a period
of 12 hours following completion of compaction. Commence curing operations
within 3 hours after compaction. Curing shall consist of one of the
following: 1) Sprinkling the surface of the drainage layer with a fine
spray of water every 2 hours for the required 12 hour period, 2) by
SECTION 32 11 10
Page 20
conditions approved by the Contracting Officer]. The underlying courses
and subgrade preparation, required for the pavement section, shall be
completed, inspected and approved in the test section prior to constructing
the drainage layer. The test section shall be a minimum of [30] [_____] m
[100] [_____] feet long and two full paving lanes wide side by side.
3.2.4
Initial Testing
Provide certified test results, approved by the Contracting Officer prior
to the start of the test section, to verify that the materials proposed for
use in the test section meet the contract requirements.
3.2.5
Mixing, Placement, and Compaction
Accomplish mixing, placement, and compaction using equipment meeting the
requirements of paragraph EQUIPMENT. Compaction equipment speed shall be
no greater than 2.4 km/hour 1.5 mph. Start compaction from the outside
edges of the paving lane and proceed to the centerline of the lift being
placed. The roller shall stay a minimum of one half the roller width from
the outside edge of the drainage layer being placed until the desired
density is obtained. The outside edge shall then be rolled.
3.2.6
3.2.6.1
Procedure
RDM Aggregate Drainage Layer Tests
Construct the test section with aggregate in a wet state so as to establish
a correlation between number of roller passes and dry density achievable
during field production. Designate three separate areas within the test
section, test each area for density, moisture, and gradation. Complete all
testing in the middle third of the test section being placed. Conduct
density and moisture content tests in accordance with ASTM D6938. Conduct
sieve analysis tests on samples, taken adjacent to the density test
locations. Take one set of tests (i.e. density, moisture, and sieve
analysis) before the third compaction pass and after each subsequent
compaction pass at three separate locations as directed by the Contracting
Officer. Define a pass as the movement of a roller over the drainage layer
area for one direction only. Compaction for the RDM shall consist of a
maximum of 5 passes in the vibrating state and one final pass in the static
state. Continue compaction passes and density readings until the
difference between the average dry densities of any two consecutive passes
is less than or equal to 16 kg per cubic meter 1.0 pcf.
3.2.6.2
Bituminous/Cement Stabilized Drainage Layer
Construct the test section with the same equipment used for production.
Designate three separate areas within the test section for sampling.
Complete all testing in the middle third of the test section being placed.
The Contracting Officer will perform visual examination of each sample to
determine if and when crushing of aggregate occurs. Take one sample before
compaction and after each subsequent compaction pass at three separate
locations as directed by the Contracting Officer. Continue compaction for
a maximum of 6 passes. Define a pass as the movement of a roller over the
drainage layer area for one direction only. Placement procedures and
equipment shall be as described herein. The Contracting Officer will
determine the number of passes required for compaction from the test
section.
SECTION 32 11 10
Page 16
3.2.6.3
OGM with Choke Stone
Construct the test section with aggregate in a moist state. When the OGM
gradation is used, density testing is not required, only gradation testing
is required. Designate three separate areas within the test section for
sampling. Complete all testing in the middle third of the test section
being placed. The maximum number of passes per lift shall be 8. Define a
pass as the movement of a roller over the drainage layer area for one
direction only. Placement procedures and equipment will be as described
herein. Conduct sieve analysis tests on samples. Take one set of sieve
tests before the third compaction pass and after each subsequent compaction
pass at three separate locations as directed by the Contracting Officer.
Compaction for the OGM shall consist of first 5 passes in the vibrating
state and one final pass in the static state. The Contracting Officer will
determine the number of passes required for production from the results of
the test section. If choke stone is used to stabilize the surface of OGM,
place the choke stone after final static compaction of the OGM. Spread the
choke stone in a thin layer no thicker than 13 mm 1/2 inch and worked into
the surface of the OGM using two additional passes of a vibratory roller
and wetting. Sieve testing is not required after the compaction of the
choke stone.
3.2.7
Evaluation
**************************************************************************
NOTE: The Designer will evaluate the data from the
test section. To do this for RDM aggregate drainage
layer material, it is suggested that the in-place
density and percent passing the 4.75 mm No. 4 and
1.18 mm No. 16 sieve sizes be plotted against
cumulative passes.
With these results, the
designer should try to maximize dry density while
minimizing aggregate degradation. Generally, after
between 3 and 6 passes, only slight increases in dry
density (16 kg per cubic meters1.0 pcf) will be
achieved. At this point the measured field density
is at or near the optimum density obtainable for
this material, for the given field conditions and
the number of roller passes at this point can be
determined. If local experience indicates more than
6 passes maybe required, edit the specification
accordingly. The Contractor is required by the
specification to to use 4 vibratory and one static
roller passes on the drainage material. If the test
section indicated more or less is rolling is
appropriate, a field modification should be
written.. The required field dry density should be
set slightly lower than this optimum field dry
density. It is suggested that the field dry density
be set at 98 percent of the optimum density obtained
in the test section. The data on the percent
passing should be looked at closely to determine if
degradation of the aggregate is occurring. If the
percent passing the given sieve sizes is increasing,
then the aggregate is being broken down by the
compaction effort. If this is occurring, selection
of a field control density will be more difficult.
The field density selected will have to be balanced
between aggregate degradation, dry density and
SECTION 32 11 10
Page 17
stability of the drainage layer surface. Stability
of the layer surface should take precedence. For OGM
material with a choke stone drainage layer, plot
cumulative passes against sieve analyses and watch
for degradation similar to the RDM. For bituminous
or cement stabilized drainage layer material, the
required number of passes should be based on visual
observations by the designer in the field test
section of degradation in lieu of sieve analyses.
**************************************************************************
Within 10 days of completion of the test section, submit to the Contracting
Officer a Test Section Construction Report complete with all required test
data and correlations. The Contracting Officer will evaluate the data and
validate the required number of passes of the roller, the need for a final
static pass of the roller, and provide the dry density for field density
control during construction.
3.3
PREPARATION OF UNDERLYING COURSE
**************************************************************************
NOTE: Retain only the reference to the
specification section that covers the preparation of
the underlying course for the particular project.
**************************************************************************
Prior to constructing the drainage layer, clean the underlying course of
all foreign materials. During construction, the underlying course shall
contain no frozen material. The underlying course shall conform to Section
32 11 16.16 SUBBASE COURSES. Correct ruts or soft yielding spots in the
underlying courses having inadequate compaction and deviations of the
surface from the requirements set forth herein by loosening and removing
soft or unsatisfactory material and by adding approved material, reshaping
to line, and grade, and recompacting to specified density. The finished
underlying course shall not be disturbed by traffic or other operations and
shall be maintained in a satisfactory condition until the drainage layer is
placed.
3.4
3.4.1
TRANSPORTING MATERIAL
Aggregate Drainage Layer Material
Transport aggregate drainage layer material to the site in a manner which
prevents segregation and contamination of materials.
3.4.2
Bituminous Stabilized Material
Transport bituminous stabilized material from the mixing plant to the site
in trucks having tight, clean, smooth beds lightly coated with an approved
releasing agent to prevent adhesion of the stabilized material to the truck
beds. Drain excessive releasing agent prior to loading. Cover each load
with canvas or other approved material of ample size to protect the
stabilized material from the weather and to prevent loss of heat. Loads
that have crusts of cold, unworkable material or have become wet will be
rejected. Hauling over freshly placed material will not be permitted.
3.4.3
Cement Stabilized Material
Transport cement stabilized material from the mixing plant to the site in
SECTION 32 11 10
Page 18
trucks equipped with protective covers. Loads that have crusts of
unworkable material or have become excessively wet will be rejected.
Hauling over freshly placed material will not be permitted.
3.5
3.5.1
PLACING
General Requisites
Place drainage layer material on the underlying course in lifts of uniform
thickness using equipment meeting the requirements of paragraph EQUIPMENT.
When a compacted layer 150 mm 6 inches or less in thickness is required,
place the material in a single lift. When a compacted layer in excess of
150 mm 6 inches is required, place the material in lifts of equal
thickness. No lift shall exceed 150 mm 6 inches or be less than 75 mm 3
inches when compacted. The lifts when compacted after placement shall be
true to the grades or levels required with the least possible surface
disturbance. Where the drainage layer is placed in more than one lift,
clean the previously constructed lift of loose and foreign material. Such
adjustments in placing procedures or equipment shall be made to obtain true
grades and minimize segregation and degradation of the drainage layer
material. Spread choke stone used to stabilize the surface of the OGM in a
thin layer no thicker than 13 mm 1/2 inch. The OGM shall be brought to
grade and the choke stone placed and rolled as described in paragraph; TEST
SECTION.
3.5.2
Placement of Stabilized Material
Bituminous stabilized material having temperatures less than 80 degrees C
175 degrees F when dumped into the asphalt paving machine will be
rejected. Adjust the paving machine so that the surface of the lift being
laid will be smooth and continuous without tears and pulls. Correct
irregularities in alignment of the lift left by the paving machine by
trimming directly behind the machine. Immediately after trimming,
thoroughly compact the edges of the lift by a method approved by the
Contracting Officer. Distortion of the lift during tamping will not be
permitted. If more than one lift is required, offset the longitudinal
joint in one lift that in the lift immediately below by at least 300 mm 1
foot; however, the joint in the top layer shall be at the centerline of the
pavement. Offset transverse joints in one layer by at least 600 mm 2 feet
from transverse joints in the previous layer. Transverse joints in
adjacent strips shall be offset a minimum of 3 meters 10 feet. At the end
of each day's construction, form a straight transverse construction joint
by cutting back into the completed work to form a true vertical face free
of loose or shattered material. Remove material along construction joints
not properly compacted.
3.5.3
Placing Adjacent Stabilized Strips
Place the stabilized material in consecutive adjacent strips having a
minimum width of 3 meters 10 feet, except where edge lanes require strips
less than 3 meters 10 feet to complete the area. In placing adjacent
strips, the screed of the paving machine shall overlap the previously
placed strip 75 to 100 mm 3 to 4 inches and shall be sufficiently high so
that compaction will produce a smooth, dense joint. The stabilized
material placed on the edge of the previously placed strip by the paver
shall be pushed back to the edge of the strip being placed. Remove and
waste excess stabilized material.
SECTION 32 11 10
Page 19
3.5.4
Hand Spreading
Spread by hand drainage layer material in areas where machine spreading is
impractical. The material shall be spread uniformly in a loose layer to
prevent segregation. The material shall conform to the required grade and
thickness after compaction.
3.6
3.6.1
COMPACTION REQUIREMENTS
Field Compaction
Base field compaction requirements on the results of the test section,
using the materials, methods, and equipment proposed for use in the work.
3.6.2
Number of Passes
Accomplish compaction using rollers meeting the requirements of paragraph
EQUIPMENT and operating at a rolling speed of no greater than 2.4 km 1.5
miles per hour. Compact each lift of drainage material, including
shoulders when specified under the shoulders, with the number of passes of
the roller as follows: for RDM material use 4 passes in the vibratory state
and one in the static. For cement or Bituminous stabilized OGM material
use 3 passes in the vibratory state and one in the static state. For OGM
stabilized with choke stone use 4 passes in the vibratory state on OGM and
2 additional roller passes on the choke stone in the vibratory state with
wetting. The Contracting Officer will validate the number of roller passes
after the test section is evaluated and before production starts.
3.6.3
Dry Density
In addition, maintain a minimum field dry density as specified by the
Contracting Officer. If the required field dry density is not obtained,
adjust the number of roller passes in accordance with paragraph
DEFICIENCIES. Compact aggregate in a moisture state as determined in the
test section. Excessive rolling resulting in crushing of aggregate
particles shall be avoided. Choke stone used to stabilize the surface of
the OGM shall be worked into the surface of the OGM by two passes of a
vibratory roller and wetting. Begin compaction of bituminous stabilized
material immediately when the material has cooled to 77 degrees C 170
degrees F. Not more than 30 minutes shall elapse between the start of
moist mixing of cement stabilized material and the start of field
compaction, which shall be completed within 60 minutes. In all places not
accessible to the rollers, compact the drainage layer material with
mechanical hand operated tampers.
3.7
FINISHING
Finish the top surface of the drainage layer after final compaction, as
determined from the test section. Make adjustments in rolling and
finishing procedures to obtain grades and minimize segregation and
degradation of the drainage layer material.
3.8
CURING OF CEMENT STABILIZED MATERIAL
Cure the completed cement stabilized drainage layer with water for a period
of 12 hours following completion of compaction. Commence curing operations
within 3 hours after compaction. Curing shall consist of one of the
following: 1) Sprinkling the surface of the drainage layer with a fine
spray of water every 2 hours for the required 12 hour period, 2) by
SECTION 32 11 10
Page 20
continuously saturated burlap or cotton mats, or by continuously saturated
plastic coated burlap, 3) Impervious sheet curing. Curing water shall be
applied so that the cement paste on the surface of the mixture will not be
eroded. Water trucks will not be permitted on the completed cement
stabilized drainage layer. Impervious sheeting curing shall consist of all
surfaces being thoroughly wetted and then completely covered with the
sheeting. Sheeting shall be at least 450 mm 18 inches wider than the
stabilized drainage layer surface to be covered. Lay covering with
light-colored side up. Lap covering not less than 300 mm 12 inches;
securely weight covering to prevent displacement so that it remains in
contact with the surface during the specified length of curing. Coverings
shall be folded down over exposed edges of slabs and secured by approved
means. Sheets shall be immediately repaired or replaced if tears of holes
appear during the curing period
3.9
EDGES OF DRAINAGE LAYER
Place shoulder material along the
quantity that will compact to the
constructed. At least 1 m 3 feet
compacted simultaneously with the
the drainage layer.
3.10
edges of the drainage layer course in a
thickness of the layer being
width of the shoulder shall be rolled and
rolling and compacting of each lift of
SMOOTHNESS TEST
**************************************************************************
NOTE: A 3.66 m (12 foot) straightedge with the
deviations unchanged may be specified instead of a 3
m 10 foot straightedge, especially if the paving
specifications call for a 3.7 m 12 foot straight
edge.
**************************************************************************
The surface of the top lift shall not deviate more than 10 mm 3/8 inch when
tested with either a 3 or 3.7 m10 or 12 foot straightedge applied parallel
with and at right angles to the centerline of the area to be paved.
Correct deviations exceeding 10 mm 3/8 inch in accordance with paragraph
DEFICIENCIES.
3.11
THICKNESS CONTROL
The completed thickness of the drainage layer shall be within 13 mm 1/2 inch
of the thickness indicated. Measure thickness at intervals providing at
least one measurement for each 500 square meters yards of drainage layer.
Make measurements in test holes at least 75 mm 3 inches in diameter unless
the Contractor can demonstrate, for COR approval, that a steel rod pushed
through the drainage layer clearly stops at the material interface. Where
the measured thickness is more than 13 mm 1/2 inch deficient, such areas
shall be corrected in accordance with paragraph DEFICIENCIES. Where the
measured thickness is 13 mm 1/2 inch more than indicated, it will be
considered as conforming to the requirements plus 13 mm 1/2 inch, provided
the surface of the drainage layer is within 13 mm 1/2 inch of established
grade. The average job thickness shall be the average of all job
measurements as specified above but within 8 mm 1/4 inch of the thickness
shown on the drawings.
SECTION 32 11 10
Page 21
3.12
3.12.1
DEFICIENCIES
Grade and Thickness
Correct deficiencies in grade and thickness so that both grade and
thickness tolerances are met. Thin layers of material shall not be added
to the top surface of the drainage layer to meet grade or increase
thickness. If the elevation of the top of the drainage layer is more than
13 mm 1/2 inch above the plan grade it shall be trimmed to grade and
finished in accordance with paragraph FINISHING. If the elevation of the
top surface of the drainage layer is 13 mm 1/2 inch or more below the
required grade, the surface of the drainage layer shall be scarified to a
depth of at least 75 mm 3 inches, new material shall be added, and the
layer shall be blended and recompacted to bring it to grade. Where the
measured thickness of the drainage layer is more than 13 mm 1/2 inch
deficient, such areas shall be corrected by excavating to the required
depth and replaced with new material to obtain a compacted lift thickness
of at least 75 mm 3 inches. The depth of required excavation shall be
controlled to keep the final surface elevation within grade requirements
and to preserve layer thicknesses of materials below the drainage layer.
3.12.2
Density
Density is considered deficient if the field dry density test results are
below the dry density specified by the Contracting Officer. If the
densities are deficient, roll the layer with two additional passes of the
specified roller. If the dry density is still deficient, stop work until
the cause of the low dry densities can be determined and reported to the
Contracting Officer.
3.12.3
Smoothness
Correct deficiencies in smoothness as if they are deficiencies in grade or
thickness. Maintain all tolerances for grade and thickness while
correcting smoothness deficiencies.
-- End of Section --
SECTION 32 11 10
Page 22
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