AD7705_7706
3 V/5 V, 1 mW, 2-/3-Channel,
16-Bit, Sigma-Delta ADCs
AD7705/AD7706
FEATURES
AD7705: 2 fully differential input channel ADCs
AD7706: 3 pseudo differential input channel ADCs
16 bits no missing codes
0.003% nonlinearity
Programmable gain front end: gains from 1 to 128
3-wire serial interface
SPI®-, QSPI™-, MICROWIRE™-, and DSP-compatible
Schmitt-trigger input on SCLK
Ability to buffer the analog input
2.7 V to 3.3 V or 4.75 V to 5.25 V operation
Power dissipation 1 mW maximum @ 3 V
Standby current 8 μA maximum
16-lead PDIP, 16-lead SOIC, and 16-lead TSSOP packages
FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
VDD
REF IN(–)
REF IN(+)
AD7705/AD7706
CHARGE
BALANCING
A/D CONVERTER
ANALOG
INPUT
CHANNELS
MAX
BUFFER
Σ -Δ
MODULATOR
PGA
A = 1 ≈ 128
DIGITAL FILTER
SERIAL INTERFACE
REGISTER BANK
MCLK IN
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
MCLK OUT
SCLK
CLOCK
GENERATION
CS
DIN
The AD7705/AD7706 devices operate from a single 2.7 V to
3.3 V or 4.75 V to 5.25 V supply. The AD7705 features two fully
differential analog input channels; the AD7706 features three
pseudo differential input channels.
Both devices feature a differential reference input. Input signal
ranges of 0 mV to 20 mV through 0 V to 2.5 V can be
incorporated on both devices when operating with a VDD of 5 V
and a reference of 2.5 V. They can also handle bipolar input
signal ranges of ±20 mV through ±2.5 V, which are referenced to
the AIN(−) inputs on the AD7705 and to the COMMON input
on the AD7706.
DOUT
GND
DRDY
RESET
01166-001
The AD7705/AD7706 1 are complete analog front ends for low
frequency measurement applications. These 2-/3-channel devices
can accept low level input signals directly from a transducer and
produce serial digital output. The devices employ a Σ-Δ
conversion technique to realize up to 16 bits of no missing codes
performance. The selected input signal is applied to a
proprietary, programmable-gain front end based around an
analog modulator. The modulator output is processed by an onchip digital filter. The first notch of this digital filter can be programmed via an on-chip control register, allowing adjustment of
the filter cutoff and output update rate.
Figure 1.
The AD7705/AD7706 devices, with a 3 V supply and a 1.225 V
reference, can handle unipolar input signal ranges of 0 mV to
10 mV through 0 V to 1.225 V. The devices can accept bipolar
input ranges of ±10 mV through ±1.225 V. Therefore, the
AD7705/AD7706 devices perform all signal conditioning and
conversion for a 2-channel or 3-channel system.
The AD7705/AD7706 are ideal for use in smart, microcontroller,
or DSP-based systems. The devices feature a serial interface that
can be configured for 3-wire operation. Gain settings, signal
polarity, and update rate selection can be configured in software
using the input serial port. The parts contains self-calibration and
system calibration options to eliminate gain and offset errors on
the part itself or in the system. CMOS construction ensures very
low power dissipation, and the power-down mode reduces the
standby power consumption to 20 μW typ.
These parts are available in a 16-lead, wide body (0.3 inch),
plastic dual in-line package (DIP); a 16-lead, wide body
(0.3 inch), standard small outline (SOIC) package; and a low
profile, 16-lead, thin shrink small outline package (TSSOP).
1
Protected by U.S. Patent Number 5,134,401.
Rev. C
Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no
responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its use, nor for any infringements of patents or other
rights of third parties that may result from its use. Specifications subject to change without notice. No
license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Analog Devices.
Trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A.
Tel: 781.329.4700
www.analog.com
Fax: 781.461.3113
©2006 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved.
AD7705/AD7706
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Features .............................................................................................. 1
Reference Input........................................................................... 23
General Description ......................................................................... 1
Digital Filtering........................................................................... 23
Functional Block Diagram .............................................................. 1
Analog Filtering.......................................................................... 25
Revision History ............................................................................... 3
Calibration................................................................................... 25
Product Highlights ........................................................................... 4
Theory of Operation ...................................................................... 28
Specifications..................................................................................... 5
Clocking and Oscillator Circuit ............................................... 28
Timing Characteristics ................................................................ 8
System Synchronization ............................................................ 28
Absolute Maximum Ratings............................................................ 9
RESET Input ............................................................................... 29
ESD Caution.................................................................................. 9
Standby Mode ............................................................................. 29
Pin Configurations and Function Descriptions ......................... 10
Accuracy ...................................................................................... 29
Output Noise (5 V Operation)...................................................... 12
Drift Considerations .................................................................. 29
Output Noise (3 V Operation)...................................................... 13
Power Supplies ............................................................................ 30
Typical Performance Characteristics ........................................... 14
Supply Current............................................................................ 30
On-Chip Registers .......................................................................... 16
Grounding and Layout .............................................................. 30
Communication Register (RS2, RS1, RS0 = 0, 0, 0)............... 16
Evaluating the Performance...................................................... 31
Setup Register (RS2, RS1, RS0 = 0, 0, 1); Power-On/Reset
Status: 01 Hexadecimal .............................................................. 17
Digital Interface.......................................................................... 31
Configuring the AD7705/AD7706 .......................................... 33
Clock Register (RS2, RS1, RS0 = 0, 1, 0); Power-On/Reset
Status: 05 Hexadecimal .............................................................. 19
Microcomputer/Microprocessor Interfacing ......................... 34
Data Register (RS2, RS1, RS0 = 0, 1, 1) ................................... 20
Code For Setting Up the AD7705/AD7706............................ 35
Test Register (RS2, RS1, RS0 = 1, 0, 0); Power-On/Reset
Status: 00 Hexadecimal .............................................................. 20
Applications..................................................................................... 38
Zero-Scale Calibration Register (RS2, RS1, RS0 = 1, 1, 0);
Power-On/Reset Status: 1F4000 Hexadecimal ........................... 20
Full-Scale Calibration Register (RS2, RS1, RS0 = 1, 1, 1);
Power-On/Reset Status: 5761AB HexaDecimal......................... 20
Pressure Measurement............................................................... 38
Temperature Measurement ....................................................... 39
Smart Transmitters..................................................................... 40
Battery Monitoring .................................................................... 41
Circuit Description......................................................................... 21
Outline Dimensions ....................................................................... 42
Analog Input ............................................................................... 22
Ordering Guide .......................................................................... 43
Bipolar/Unipolar Input .............................................................. 22
Rev. C | Page 2 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
REVISION HISTORY
5/06—Rev. B to Rev. C
Updated Format.................................................................. Universal
Changes to Table 1 ............................................................................3
Updated Outline Dimensions........................................................42
Changes to Ordering Guide...........................................................43
6/05—Rev. A to Rev. B
Updated Format.................................................................. Universal
Changed Range of Absolute Voltage on Analog Inputs Universal
Changes to Table 19 ........................................................................21
Updated Outline Dimensions........................................................42
Changes to Ordering Guide...........................................................43
11/98—Rev. 0 to Rev. A
Revision 0: Initial Version
Rev. C | Page 3 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
PRODUCT HIGHLIGHTS
1.
The AD7705/AD7706 devices consume less than 1 mW at
3 V supplies and 1 MHz master clock, making them ideal
for use in low power systems. Standby current is less than 8
μA.
3.
The AD7705/AD7706 are ideal for microcontroller or DSP
processor applications with a 3-wire serial interface,
reducing the number of interconnect lines and reducing
the number of opto-couplers required in isolated systems.
2.
The programmable gain input allows the AD7705/AD7706
to accept input signals directly from a strain gage or
transducer, removing a considerable amount of signal
conditioning.
4.
The parts feature excellent static performance
specifications with 16 bits, no missing codes, ±0.003%
accuracy, and low rms noise (<600 nV). Endpoint errors
and the effects of temperature drift are eliminated by onchip calibration options, which remove zero-scale and fullscale errors.
Rev. C | Page 4 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
SPECIFICATIONS
VDD = 3 V or 5 V, REF IN(+) = 1.225 V with VDD = 3 V, and 2.5 V with VDD = 5 V; REF IN(−) = GND; MCLK IN = 2.4576 MHz, unless
otherwise noted. All specifications TMIN to TMAX, unless otherwise noted.
Table 1.
Parameter
STATIC PERFORMANCE
No Missing Codes
Output Noise
Integral Nonlinearity 2
Unipolar Offset Error 3
Unipolar Offset Drift 4
Bipolar Zero Error3
Bipolar Zero Drift4
Positive Full-Scale Error3, 5
Full-Scale Drift4, 6
Gain Error3, 7
Gain Drift4, 8
Bipolar Negative Full-Scale Error2
Bipolar Negative Full-Scale Drift4
B Version 1
Unit
Conditions/Comments
16
See Table 5 and
Table 7
±0.003
Bits min
Guaranteed by design, filter notch < 60 Hz
Depends on filter cutoffs and selected gain
% of FSR max
Filter notch < 60 Hz, typically ±0.0003%
0.5
μV/°C typ
0.5
0.1
μV/°C typ
μV/°C typ
0.5
μV/°C typ
0.5
±0.003
1
0.6
ppm of FSR/°C
typ
% of FSR typ
μV/°C typ
μV/°C typ
96
105
110
130
dB typ
dB typ
dB typ
dB typ
105
110
120
130
98
98
150
150
GND to VDD
dB typ
dB typ
dB typ
dB typ
dB typ
dB typ
dB typ
dB typ
V min to V max
GND − 100 mV
V min
BUF bit of setup register = 0
VDD + 30 mV
GND + 50 mV
V max
V min
BUF bit of setup register = 1
VDD − 1.5 V
1
10
0 to +VREF/gain 12
±VREF/gain
V max
nA max
pF max
nom
nom
Unipolar input range (B/U bit of setup register = 1)
Bipolar input range (B/U bit of setup register = 0)
ANALOG INPUTS/REFERENCE INPUTS
Common-Mode Rejection (CMR)2
VDD = 5 V
Gain = 1
Gain = 2
Gain = 4
Gain = 8 to 128
VDD = 3 V
Gain = 1
Gain = 2
Gain = 4
Gain = 8 to 128
Normal-Mode 50 Hz Rejection2
Normal-Mode 60 Hz Rejection2
Common-Mode 50 Hz Rejection2
Common-Mode 60 Hz Rejection2
Absolute/Common-Mode REF IN
Voltage2
Absolute/Common-Mode AIN
Voltage2, 9, 10
Absolute/Common-Mode AIN
Voltage2, 9
AIN DC Input Current2
AIN Sampling Capacitance2
AIN Differential Voltage Range 11
Rev. C | Page 5 of 44
For gains 1, 2, and 4
For gains 8, 16, 32, 64, and 128
Typically ±0.001%
For gains of 1 to 4
For gains of 8 to 128
Specifications for AIN and REF IN, unless otherwise
noted
For filter notches of 25 Hz, 50 Hz, ±0.02 × fNOTCH
For filter notches of 20 Hz, 60 Hz, ±0.02 × fNOTCH
For filter notches of 25 Hz, 50 Hz, ±0.02 × fNOTCH
For filter notches of 20 Hz, 60 Hz, ±0.02 × fNOTCH
AD7705/AD7706
Parameter
AIN Input Sampling Rate, fS
Reference Input Range
REF IN(+) − REF IN(−) Voltage
REF IN(+) − REF IN(−) Voltage
REF IN Input Sampling Rate, fS
LOGIC INPUTS
Input Current
All Inputs, Except MCLK IN
MCLK IN
All Inputs, Except SCLK and MCLK IN
Input Low Voltage, VINL
Input High Voltage, VINH
SCLK Only (Schmitt-Triggered Input)
VT+
VT−
VT+ − VT−
SCLK Only (Schmitt-Triggered Input)
VT+
VT−
VT+ − VT−
MCLK IN Only
Input Low Voltage, VINL
Input High Voltage, VINH
MCLK IN Only
Input Low Voltage, VINL
Input High Voltage, VINH
LOGIC OUTPUTS (Including MCLK OUT)
Output Low Voltage, VOL
Output Low Voltage, VOL
Output High Voltage, VOH
Output High Voltage, VOH
Floating State Leakage Current
Floating State Output Capacitance 14
Data Output Coding
SYSTEM CALIBRATION
Positive Full-Scale Limit 15
Negative Full-Scale Limit15
Offset Limit15
Input Span 16
B Version 1
Gain × fCLKIN/64
fCLKIN/8
Unit
Conditions/Comments
For gains of 1 to 4
For gains of 8 to 128
1/1.75
V min/V max
1/3.5
V min/V max
VDD = 2.7 V to 3.3 V
VREF = 1.225 ± 1% for specified performance
VDD = 4.75 V to 5.25 V
VREF = 2.5 ± 1% for specified performance
fCLKIN/64
±1
±10
μA max
μA max
Typically ±20 nA
Typically ±2 μA
0.8
0.4
2.0
V max
V max
V min
VDD = 5 V
VDD = 3 V
VDD = 3 V and 5 V
VDD = 5 V nominal
1.4/3
0.8/1.4
0.4/0.8
V min/V max
V min/V max
V min/V max
1/2
0.4/1.1
0.375/0.8
V min/V max
V min/V max
V min/V max
0.8
3.5
V max
V min
0.4
2.5
V max
V min
0.4
0.4
4
VDD − 0.6
±10
9
Binary
Offset binary
V max
V max
V min
V min
μA max
pF typ
(1.05 × VREF)/gain
−(1.05 × VREF)/gain
−(1.05 × VREF)/gain
(0.8 × VREF)/gain
(2.1 × VREF)/gain
V max
V max
V max
V min
V max
VDD = 3 V nominal
VDD = 5 V nominal
VDD = 3 V nominal
ISINK = 800 μA, except for MCLK OUT; 13 VDD = 5 V
ISINK = 100 μA, except for MCLK OUT;13 VDD = 3 V
ISOURCE = 200 μA, except for MCLK OUT;13 VDD = 5 V
ISOURCE = 100 μA, except for MCLK OUT;13 VDD = 3 V
Unipolar mode
Bipolar mode
Rev. C | Page 6 of 44
Gain is the selected PGA gain (1 to 128)
Gain is the selected PGA gain (1 to 128)
Gain is the selected PGA gain (1 to 128)
Gain is the selected PGA gain (1 to 128)
Gain is the selected PGA gain (1 to 128)
AD7705/AD7706
Parameter
POWER REQUIREMENTS
VDD Voltage
Power Supply Currents 17
VDD Voltage
Power Supply Currents17
Standby (Power-Down) Current 18
Power Supply Rejection 19, 20
B Version 1
Unit
Conditions/Comments
2.7 to 3.3
V min to V max
0.32
0.6
0.4
0.6
0.7
1.1
4.75 to 5.25
mA max
mA max
mA max
mA max
mA max
mA max
V min to V max
0.45
0.7
0.6
0.85
0.9
1.3
16
8
mA max
mA max
mA max
mA max
mA max
mA max
μA max
μA max
dB typ
For specified performance
Digital I/Ps = 0 V or VDD, external MCLK IN and CLKDIS = 1
BUF bit = 0, fCLKIN = 1 MHz, gains of 1 to 128
BUF bit = 1, fCLKIN = 1 MHz, gains of 1 to 128
BUF bit = 0, fCLKIN = 2.4576 MHz, gains of 1 to 4
BUF bit = 0, fCLKIN = 2.4576 MHz, gains of 8 to 128
BUF bit = 1, fCLKIN = 2.4576 MHz, gains of 1 to 4
BUF bit = 1, fCLKIN = 2.4576 MHz, gains of 8 to 128
For specified performance
Digital I/Ps = 0 V or VDD, external MCLK IN and CLKDIS = 1
BUF bit = 0, fCLKIN = 1 MHz, gains of 1 to 128
BUF bit = 1, fCLKIN = 1 MHz, gains of 1 to 128
BUF bit = 0, fCLKIN = 2.4576 MHz, gains of 1 to 4
BUF bit = 0, fCLKIN = 2.4576 MHz, gains of 8 to 128
BUF bit = 1, fCLKIN = 2.4576 MHz, gains of 1 to 4
BUF bit = 1, fCLKIN = 2.4576 MHz, gains of 8 to 128
External MCLK IN = 0 V or VDD, VDD = 5 V, see Figure 12
External MCLK IN = 0 V or VDD, VDD = 3 V
1
Temperature range is −40°C to +85°C.
These numbers are established from characterization or design data at initial product release.
3
A calibration is effectively a conversion; therefore, these errors are of the order of the conversion noise shown in Table 5 and Table 7. This applies after calibration at
the temperature of interest.
4
Recalibration at any temperature removes these drift errors.
5
Positive full-scale error includes zero-scale errors (unipolar offset error or bipolar zero error) and applies to both unipolar and bipolar input ranges.
6
Full-scale drift includes zero-scale drift (unipolar offset drift or bipolar zero drift) and applies to both unipolar and bipolar input ranges.
7
Gain error does not include zero-scale errors. It is calculated as (full-scale error – unipolar offset error) for unipolar ranges and (full-scale error - bipolar zero error) for
bipolar ranges.
8
Gain drift does not include unipolar offset drift or bipolar zero drift. It is effectively the drift of the part if only zero-scale calibrations are performed.
9
This common-mode voltage range is allowed, provided that the input voltage on analog inputs is not more positive than VDD + 30 mV or more negative than
GND − 100 mV. Parts are functional with voltages down to GND − 200 mV, but with increased leakage at high temperatures.
10
The AD7705/AD7706 can tolerate absolute analog input voltages down to GND − 200 mV, but the leakage current increases.
11
The analog input voltage range on AIN(+) is given with respect to the voltage on AIN(−) on the AD7705, and with respect to the voltage of the COMMON input on the
AD7706. The absolute voltage on the analog inputs should not be more positive than VDD + 30 mV, or more negative than GND − 100 mV for specified performance.
Input voltages of GND − 200 mV can be accommodated, but with increased leakage at high temperatures.
12
VREF = REFIN(+) − REFIN(−).
13
These logic output levels apply to the MCLK OUT only when it is loaded with one CMOS load.
14
Sample tested at 25°C to ensure compliance.
15
After calibration, if the analog input exceeds positive full scale, the converter outputs all 1s. If the analog input is less than negative full scale, the device outputs all 0s.
16
These calibration and span limits apply, provided that the absolute voltage on the analog inputs does not exceed VDD + 30 mV or go more negative than
GND − 100 mV. The offset calibration limit applies to both the unipolar zero point and the bipolar zero point.
17
When using a crystal or ceramic resonator across the MCLK pins as the clock source for the device, the VDD current and power dissipation varies depending on the
crystal or resonator type (see Clocking and Oscillator Circuit section).
18
If the external master clock continues to run in standby mode, the standby current increases to 150 μA typical at 5 V and 75 μA at 3 V. When using a crystal or ceramic
resonator across the MCLK pins as the clock source for the device, the internal oscillator continues to run in standby mode, and the power dissipation depends on the
crystal or resonator type (see Standby Mode section).
19
Measured at dc and applies in the selected pass band. PSRR at 50 Hz exceeds 120 dB, with filter notches of 25 Hz or 50 Hz. PSRR at 60 Hz exceeds 120 dB, with filter
notches of 20 Hz or 60 Hz.
20
PSRR depends on both gain and VDD, as follows:
Gain
1
2
4
8 to 128
VDD = 3 V
86
78
85
93
VDD = 5 V
90
78
84
91
2
Rev. C | Page 7 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
TIMING CHARACTERISTICS
VDD = 2.7 V to 5.25 V; GND = 0 V; fCLKIN = 2.4576 MHz; Input Logic 0 = 0 V, Logic 1 = VDD, unless otherwise noted.
Table 2. Timing Characteristics 1, 2
Parameter
fCLKIN 3, 4
tCLKIN LO
tCLKIN HI
t1
t2
Read Operation
t3
t4
t5 5
t6
t7
t8
t9 6
t10
Write Operation
t11
t12
t13
t14
t15
t16
Limit at TMIN, TMAX
(B Version)
400
2.5
0.4 × tCLKIN
0.4 × tCLKIN
500 × tCLKIN
100
Unit
kHz min
MHz max
ns min
ns min
ns nom
ns min
Conditions/Comments
Master clock frequency (crystal oscillator or externally supplied)
For specified performance
Master clock input low time, tCLKIN = 1/fCLKIN
Master clock input high time
DRDY high time
RESET pulse width
0
120
0
80
100
100
100
0
10
60
100
100
ns min
ns min
ns min
ns max
ns max
ns min
ns min
ns min
ns min
ns max
ns max
ns max
DRDY to CS setup time
CS falling edge to SCLK rising edge setup time
SCLK falling edge to data valid delay
VDD = 5 V
VDD = 3.0 V
SCLK high pulse width
SCLK low pulse width
CS rising edge to SCLK rising edge hold time
Bus relinquish time after SCLK rising edge
VDD = 5 V
VDD = 3.0 V
SCLK falling edge to DRDY high 7
120
30
20
100
100
0
ns min
ns min
ns min
ns min
ns min
ns min
CS falling edge to SCLK rising edge setup time
Data valid to SCLK rising edge setup time
Data valid to SCLK rising edge hold time
SCLK high pulse width
SCLK low pulse width
CS rising edge to SCLK rising edge hold time
1
Sample tested at 25°C to ensure compliance. All input signals are specified with tR = tF = 5 ns (10% to 90% of VDD) and timed from a voltage level of 1.6 V.
See Figure 19 and Figure 20.
3
The fCLKIN duty cycle range is 45% to 55%. fCLKIN must be supplied whenever the AD7705/AD7706 are not in standby mode. If no clock is present, the devices can draw
higher current than specified, and possibly become uncalibrated.
4
The AD7705/AD7706 are production tested with fCLKIN at 2.4576 MHz (1 MHz for some IDD tests). They are guaranteed by characterization to operate at 400 kHz.
5
These numbers are measured with the load circuit of Figure 2 and defined as the time required for the output to cross the VOL or VOH limits.
6
These numbers are derived from the measured time taken by the data output to change 0.5 V when loaded with the circuit of Figure 2. The measured number is then
extrapolated back to remove effects of charging or discharging the 50 pF capacitor. This means that the times quoted in the timing characteristics are the true bus
relinquish times of the part and as such are independent of external bus loading capacitances.
7 DRDY
returns high upon completion of the first read from the device after an output update. The same data can be reread while DRDY is high, but care should be
taken that subsequent reads do not occur close to the next output update.
2
ISINK (800μA AT VDD = 5V
100μA AT VDD = 3V)
TO OUTPUT
PIN
1.6V
ISOURCE (200μA AT VDD = 5V
100mA AT VDD = 3V)
01166-002
50pF
Figure 2. Load Circuit for Access Time and Bus Relinquish Time
Rev. C | Page 8 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
TA = 25°C, unless otherwise noted.
Table 3.
Parameters
VDD to GND
Analog Input Voltage to GND
Reference Input Voltage to GND
Digital Input Voltage to GND
Digital Output Voltage to GND
Operating Temperature Range
Commercial (B Version)
Storage Temperature Range
Junction Temperature
PDIP Package, Power Dissipation
θJA Thermal Impedance
Lead Temperature (Soldering, 10 sec)
SOIC Package, Power Dissipation
θJA Thermal Impedance
Lead Temperature, Soldering
Vapor Phase (60 sec)
Infrared (15 sec)
SSOP Package, Power Dissipation
θJA Thermal Impedance
Lead Temperature, Soldering
Vapor Phase (60 sec)
Infrared (15 sec)
ESD Rating
Ratings
−0.3 V to +7 V
−0.3 V to VDD + 0.3 V
−0.3 V to VDD + 0.3 V
−0.3 V to VDD + 0.3 V
−0.3 V to VDD + 0.3 V
Stresses above those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings
may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress
rating only; functional operation of the device at these or any
other conditions above those indicated in the operational
section of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute
maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect
device reliability.
−40°C to + 85°C
−65°C to + 150°C
150°C
450 mW
105°C/W
260°C
450 mW
75°C/W
215°C
220°C
450 mW
139°C/W
215°C
220°C
>4000 V
ESD CAUTION
ESD (electrostatic discharge) sensitive device. Electrostatic charges as high as 4000 V readily accumulate on
the human body and test equipment and can discharge without detection. Although this product features
proprietary ESD protection circuitry, permanent damage may occur on devices subjected to high energy
electrostatic discharges. Therefore, proper ESD precautions are recommended to avoid performance
degradation or loss of functionality.
Rev. C | Page 9 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
PIN CONFIGURATIONS AND FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS
16
MCLK IN 2
15
VDD
MCLK OUT 3
14
DIN
AD7705
SCLK 1
GND
MCLK OUT 3
CS
CS 4
TOP VIEW 13 DOUT
RESET 5 (Not to Scale) 12 DRDY
AIN1(+) 7
AIN1(–) 8
11
10
9
4
RESET 5
15 VDD
AD7706
TOP VIEW
(Not to Scale)
14 DIN
13 DOUT
12 DRDY
AIN2(–)
AIN1
6
11 AIN3
REF IN(–)
AIN2
7
10 REF IN(–)
REF IN(+)
01166-003
AIN2(+) 6
16 GND
MCLK IN 2
COMMON 8
Figure 3. AD7705 Pin Configuration
9
REF IN(+)
01166-004
SCLK 1
Figure 4. AD7706 Pin Configuration
Table 4. Pin Function Descriptions
Pin No.
1
Mnemonic
AD7705
AD7706
SCLK
SCLK
2
MCLK IN
MCLK IN
3
MCLK OUT
MCLK OUT
4
CS
CS
5
RESET
RESET
6
7
8
AIN2(+)
AIN1(+)
AIN1(−)
AIN1
AIN2
COMMON
9
REF IN(+)
REF IN(+)
10
REF IN(−)
REF IN(−)
11
12
AIN2(−)
DRDY
AIN3
DRDY
13
DOUT
DOUT
Description
Serial Clock. An external serial clock is applied to the Schmitt-triggered logic input to access serial
data from the AD7705/AD7706. This serial clock can be a continuous clock with all data transmitted in
a continuous train of pulses. Alternatively, it can be a noncontinuous clock with the information
transmitted to the AD7705/AD7706 in smaller batches of data.
Master Clock Signal. This can be provided in the form of a crystal/resonator or external clock. A
crystal/resonator can be tied across the Pin MCLK IN and Pin MCLK OUT. Alternatively, the MCLK IN
pin can be driven with a CMOS-compatible clock with the MCLK OUT pin left unconnected. The parts
can be operated with clock frequencies in the range of 500 kHz to 5 MHz.
When the master clock for these devices is a crystal/resonator, the crystal/resonator is connected
between Pin MCLK IN and Pin MCLK OUT. If an external clock is applied to Pin MCLK IN, Pin MCLK OUT
provides an inverted clock signal. This clock can be used to provide a clock source for external
circuitry and is capable of driving 1 CMOS load. If the user does not require this clock externally, Pin
MCLK OUT can be turned off via the CLKDIS bit of the clock register. This ensures that the part does
not unnecessarily burn power driving capacitive loads on Pin MCLK OUT.
Chip Select. Active low logic input used to select the AD7705/AD7706. With this input hardwired low,
the AD7705/AD7706 can operate in its 3-wire interface mode with Pin SCLK, Pin DIN, and Pin DOUT
used to interface to the device. The CS pin can be used to select the device communicating with the
AD7705/AD7706.
Logic Input. Active low input that resets the control logic, interface logic, calibration coefficients,
digital filter, and analog modulator of the parts to power-on status.
Positive Input of the Differential Analog Input Pair AIN2(+)/AIN2(−) for AD7705. Channel 1 for AD7706.
Positive Input of the Differential Analog Input Pair AIN1(+)/AIN1(−) for AD7705. Channel 2 for AD7706.
Negative Input of the Differential Analog Input Pair AIN1(+)/AIN1(−) for AD7705. COMMON input for
AD7706 with Channel 1, Channel 2, and Channel 3 referenced to this input.
Reference Input. Positive input of the differential reference input to the AD7705/AD7706. The reference
input is differential with the provision that REF IN(+) must be greater than REF IN(−).
REF IN(+) can lie anywhere between VDD and GND.
Reference Input. Negative input of the differential reference input to the AD7705/AD7706. The
REF IN(−) can lie anywhere between VDD and GND, provided that REF IN(+) is greater than REF IN(−).
Negative Input of the Differential Analog Input Pair AIN2(+)/AIN2(−) for AD7705. Channel 3 for AD7706.
Logic Output. A logic low on this output indicates that a new output word is available from the
AD7705/AD7706 data register. The DRDY pin returns high upon completion of a read operation of a
full output word. If no data read has taken place between output updates, the DRDY line returns high
for 500 × tCLK IN cycles prior to the next output update. While DRDY is high, a read operation should
neither be attempted nor in progress to avoid reading from the data register as it is being updated.
The DRDY line returns low after the update has taken place. DRDY is also used to indicate when the
AD7705/AD7706 has completed its on-chip calibration sequence.
Serial Data Output. Serial data is read from the output shift register on the part. The output shift
register can contain information from the setup register, communication register, clock register, or
data register, depending on the register selection bits of the communication register.
Rev. C | Page 10 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
Pin No.
14
Mnemonic
AD7705
AD7706
DIN
DIN
15
16
VDD
GND
VDD
GND
Description
Serial Data Input. Serial data is written to the input shift register on the part. Data from the input shift
register is transferred to the setup register, clock register, or communication register, depending on
the register selection bits of the communication register.
Supply Voltage. 2.7 V to 5.25 V operation.
Ground Reference Point for the AD7705/AD7706 Internal Circuitry.
Rev. C | Page 11 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
OUTPUT NOISE (5 V OPERATION)
Note that these numbers represent the resolution for which
there is no code flicker. They are not calculated based on rms
noise, but on peak-to-peak noise. The numbers given are for
bipolar input ranges with a VREF of 2.5 V for either buffered or
unbuffered mode. These numbers are typical and are rounded
to the nearest LSB. The numbers apply for the CLKDIV bit of
the clock register set to 0.
Table 5 shows the AD7705/AD7706 output rms noise for the
selectable notch and −3 dB frequencies for the parts, as selected
by FS0 and FS1 of the clock register. The numbers given are for
the bipolar input ranges with a VREF of 2.5 V and VDD = 5 V.
These numbers are typical and are generated at an analog input
voltage of 0 V with the parts used in either buffered or unbuffered
mode. Table 6 shows the output peak-to-peak noise for the
selectable notch and −3 dB frequencies for the parts.
Table 5. Output RMS Noise vs. Gain and Output Update Rate @ 5 V
Filter First
−3 dB
Notch and
Frequency
O/P Data Rate
MCLK IN = 2.4576 MHz
50 Hz
13.1 Hz
60 Hz
15.72 Hz
250 Hz
65.5 Hz
500 Hz
131 Hz
MCLK IN = 1 MHz
20 Hz
5.24 Hz
25 Hz
6.55 Hz
100 Hz
26.2 Hz
200 Hz
52.4 Hz
Typical Output RMS Noise in μV
Gain of 1
Gain of 2
Gain of 4
Gain of 8
Gain of 16
Gain of 32
Gain of 64
Gain of 128
4.1
5.1
110
550
2.1
2.5
49
285
1.2
1.4
31
145
0.75
0.8
17
70
0.7
0.75
8
41
0.66
0.7
3.6
22
0.63
0.67
2.3
9.1
0.6
0.62
1.7
4.7
4.1
5.1
110
550
2.1
2.5
49
285
1.2
1.4
31
145
0.75
0.8
17
70
0.7
0.75
8
41
0.66
0.7
3.6
22
0.63
0.67
2.3
9.1
0.6
0.62
1.7
4.7
Table 6. Peak-to-Peak Resolution vs. Gain and Output Update Rate @ 5 V
Filter First
−3 dB
Notch and
O/P Data Rate Frequency
MCLK IN = 2.4576 MHz
50 Hz
13.1 Hz
60 Hz
15.72 Hz
250 Hz
65.5 Hz
500 Hz
131 Hz
MCLK IN = 1 MHz
20 Hz
5.24 Hz
25 Hz
6.55 Hz
100 Hz
26.2 Hz
200 Hz
52.4 Hz
Typical Peak-to-Peak Resolution Bits
Gain of 1
Gain of 2
Gain of 4
Gain of 8
Gain of 16
Gain of 32
Gain of 64
Gain of 128
16
16
13
10
16
16
13
10
16
16
13
10
16
16
13
10
16
15
13
10
16
14
13
10
15
14
12
10
14
13
12
10
16
16
13
10
16
16
13
10
16
16
13
10
16
16
13
10
16
15
13
10
16
14
13
10
15
14
12
10
14
13
12
10
Rev. C | Page 12 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
OUTPUT NOISE (3 V OPERATION)
Note that these numbers represent the resolution for which
there is no code flicker. They are not calculated based on rms
noise, but on peak-to-peak noise. The numbers given are for
bipolar input ranges with a VREF of 1.225 V for either buffered or
unbuffered mode. These numbers are typical and are rounded
to the nearest LSB. The numbers apply for the CLKDIV bit of
the clock register set to 0.
Table 7 shows the AD7705/AD7706 output rms noise for the
selectable notch and −3 dB frequencies for the parts, as selected
by FS0 and FS1 of the clock register. The numbers given are for
the bipolar input ranges with a VREF of 1.225 V and a VDD = 3 V.
These numbers are typical and are generated at an analog input
voltage of 0 V with the parts used in either buffered or unbuffered
mode. Table 8 shows the output peak-to-peak noise for the
selectable notch and −3 dB frequencies for the parts.
Table 7. Output RMS Noise vs. Gain and Output Update Rate @ 3 V
Filter First
−3 dB
Notch and
O/P Data Rate Frequency
MCLK IN = 2.4576 MHz
50 Hz
13.1 Hz
60 Hz
15.72 Hz
250 Hz
65.5 Hz
500 Hz
131 Hz
MCLK IN = 1 MHz
20 Hz
5.24 Hz
25 Hz
6.55 Hz
100 Hz
26.2 Hz
200 Hz
52.4 Hz
Typical Output RMS Noise in μV
Gain of 1
Gain of 2
Gain of 4
Gain of 8
Gain of 16
Gain of 32
Gain of 64
Gain of 128
3.8
5.1
50
270
2.4
2.9
25
135
1.5
1.7
14
65
1.3
1.5
9.9
41
1.1
1.2
5.1
22
1.0
1.0
2.6
9.7
0.9
0.9
2.3
5.1
0.9
0.9
2.0
3.3
3.8
5.1
50
270
2.4
2.9
25
135
1.5
1.7
14
65
1.3
1.5
9.9
41
1.1
1.2
5.1
22
1.0
1.0
2.6
9.7
0.9
0.9
2.3
5.1
0.9
0.9
2.0
3.3
Table 8. Peak-to-Peak Resolution vs. Gain and Output Update Rate @ 3 V
Filter First
Notch and
−3 dB
O/P Data Rate Frequency
MCLK IN = 2.4576 MHz
50 Hz
13.1 Hz
60 Hz
15.72 Hz
250 Hz
65.5 Hz
500 Hz
131 Hz
MCLK IN = 1 MHz
20 Hz
5.24 Hz
25 Hz
6.55 Hz
100 Hz
26.2 Hz
200 Hz
52.4 Hz
Typical Peak-to-Peak Resolution in Bits
Gain of 1
Gain of 2
Gain of 4
Gain of 8
Gain of 16
Gain of 32
Gain of 64
Gain of 128
16
16
13
10
16
16
13
10
15
15
13
10
15
14
13
10
14
14
12
10
13
13
12
10
13
13
11
10
12
12
11
10
16
16
13
10
16
16
13
10
15
15
13
10
15
14
13
10
14
14
12
10
13
13
12
10
13
13
11
10
12
12
11
10
Rev. C | Page 13 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
32771
VDD = 5V
VREF = 2.5V
GAIN = +128
50Hz UPDATE RATE
32770
400
TA = 25°C
RMS NOISE = 600nV
300
OCCURRENCE
32768
32767
32766
32765
100
01166-005
32764
32763
200
0
100
200
300
400 500 600 700
READING NUMBER
800
01166-008
CODE READ
32769
0
900 1000
32765
32764
32766
32767
CODE
32768
32769
32770
Figure 8. Histogram of Data in Figure 5
Figure 5. Noise @ Gain = +128 With 50 Hz Update Rate
1.2
1.2
VDD = 3V
TA = 25°C
VDD = 5V
TA = +25°C
BUFFERED MODE, GAIN = +128
1.0
1.0
0.8
0.8
BUFFERED MODE, GAIN = +128
IDD (mA)
IDD (mA)
BUFFERED MODE, GAIN = +1
BUFFERED MODE, GAIN = +1
0.6
0.4
0.6
0.4
UNBUFFERED MODE, GAIN = +128
UNBUFFERED MODE, GAIN = +128
UNBUFFERED MODE, GAIN = +1
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8
FREQUENCY (MHz)
2.0
2.2
2.4
UNBUFFERED MODE, GAIN = +1
0
0.4
2.6
Figure 6. IDD vs. MCLK IN Frequency @ 3 V
1.0
0.5
0.4
UNBUFFERED MODE
fCLK = 2.84MHz, CLKDIV = 0
0.3
VDD = 3V
EXTERNAL MCLK
CLKDIS = 1
TA = 25°C
0.1
2
4
8
16
32
2.2
2.4
2.6
64
UNBUFFERED MODE
fCLK = 5MHz, CLKDIV = 1
0.6
UNBUFFERED MODE
fCLK = 2.4576MHz, CLKDIV = 0
VDD = 5V
EXTERNAL MCLK
CLKDIS = 1
TA = 25°C
0.2
BUFFERED MODE
fCLK = 1MHz, CLKDIV = 0
0
1
2.0
BUFFERED MODE
fCLK = 2.4576MHz, CLKDIV = 0
0.4
01166-007
0.2
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8
FREQUENCY (MHz)
UNBUFFERED MODE
fCLK = 1MHz,
0.8 CLKDIV = 0
UNBUFFERED MODE
fCLK = 5MHz, CLKDIV = 1
0.6
1.0
BUFFERED MODE
fCLK = 5MHz,
CLKDIV = 1
1.0
BUFFERED MODE
fCLK = 2.4576MHz, CLKDIV = 0
UNBUFFERED MODE
fCLK = 1MHz,
CLKDIV = 0
0.7
IDD (mA)
1.2
IDD (mA)
0.8
0.8
Figure 9. IDD vs. MCLK IN Frequency @ 5 V
BUFFERED MODE
fCLK = 5MHz,
CLKDIV = 1
0.9
0.6
128
0
1
2
4
BUFFERED MODE
fCLK = 1MHz, CLKDIV = 0
8
16
32
64
GAIN
GAIN
Figure 10. IDD vs. Gain and Clock Frequency @ 5 V
Figure 7. IDD vs. Gain and Clock Frequency @ 3 V
Rev. C | Page 14 of 44
01166-010
0
0.4
01166-009
0.2
01166-006
0.2
128
AD7705/AD7706
20
TEK STOP: SINGLE SEQ 50.0kS/s
VDD
16
STANDBY CURRENT (μA)
1
2
OSCILLATOR = 4.9152MHz
MCLK IN = 0V OR VDD
12
VDD = 5V
8
VDD = 3V
OSCILLATOR = 2.4576MHz
CH1 5.00V
CH2 2.00V
5ms/DIV
Figure 11. Crystal Oscillator Power-Up Time
0
–40 –30 –20 –10
01166-012
2
01166-011
4
0
10 20 30 40
TEMPERATURE (°C)
50
60
Figure 12. Standby Current vs. Temperature
Rev. C | Page 15 of 44
70
80
AD7705/AD7706
ON-CHIP REGISTERS
The AD7705/AD7706 each contain eight on-chip registers that
can be accessed via the serial port. The first of these is a
communication register that controls the channel selection,
decides whether the next operation is a read or write operation,
and decides which register the next read or write operation
accesses.
All communication to the AD7705/AD7706 must start with a
write operation to the communication register. After a poweron or reset, the device expects a write to its communication
register. The data written to this register determines whether
the next operation is a read or write operation and to which
register this operation occurs. Therefore, write access to any
register on the part starts with a write operation to the
communication register, followed by a write to the selected
register. Likewise, a read operation from any register on the
part, including the communication register itself and the output
data register, starts with a write operation to the communication register, followed by a read operation from the selected
register. The communication register also controls the standby
mode and channel selection. The DRDY status is available by
reading from the communication register.
The second register is a setup register that determines
calibration mode, gain setting, bipolar/unipolar operation, and
buffered mode. The third register is labeled the clock register
and contains the filter selection bits and clock control bits. The
fourth register is the data register from which the output data is
accessed. The final registers are the calibration registers, which
store channel calibration data. The registers are discussed in
more detail in the following sections.
COMMUNICATION REGISTER
(RS2, RS1, RS0 = 0, 0, 0)
The communication register is an 8-bit register from which data
can be read or to which data can be written. All communication
to the part must start with a write operation to its communication register. The data written to the communication register
determines whether the next operation is a read or write
operation and to which register this operation takes place. After
the read or write operation is complete, the interface returns to
its default state, where it expects a write operation to the
communication register. In situations where the interface
sequence is lost, a write operation of a least 32 serial clock
cycles with DIN high returns the ADC to its default state by
resetting the part. Table 10 outlines the bit designations for the
communication register.
Table 9. Communication Register
0/DRDY (0)
RS2 (0)
RS1 (0)
RS0 (0)
R/W (0)
STBY (0)
CH1 (0)
CH0 (0)
Table 10. Communication Register Bit Description
Register
0/DRDY
RS2–RS0
R/W
STBY
CH1, CH0
Description
For a write operation to the communications register, a 0 must be written to this bit. If a 1 is written to this bit, the part does
not clock subsequent bits into the register. It stays at this bit location until a 0 is written. Then, the next seven bits are loaded
into the communication register. For a read operation, this bit provides the status of the DRDY flag, which is the same as the
DRDY output pin.
Register Selection Bits. These bits are used to select which of the AD7705/AD7706 registers are being accessed during the
serial interface communication.
Read/WRITE Select. This bit selects whether the next operation is a read or write operation. A 0 indicates a write cycle for the
next operation to the selected register, and a 1 indicates a read operation from the selected register.
Standby. Writing 1 to this bit puts the part into standby or power-down mode. In this mode, the part consumes only 10 μA of
power supply current. The part retains its calibration coefficients and control word information when in standby. Writing 0 to
this bit places the parts in normal operating mode.
Channel Select. These two bits select a channel for conversion or for access to the calibration coefficients, as outlined in
Table 12. Following a calibration on a channel, three pairs of calibration registers store the calibration coefficients. Table 12
(for the AD7705) and Table 13 (for the AD7706) show which channel combinations have independent calibration coefficients.
With CH1 at Logic 1 and CH0 at Logic 0, the AD7705 looks at the AIN1(−) input internally shorted to itself, while the AD7706 looks
at the COMMON input internally shorted to itself. This can be used as a test method to evaluate the noise performance of the
parts with no external noise sources. In this mode, the AIN1(−)/COMMON input should be connected to an external voltage
within the allowable common-mode range for the parts.
Rev. C | Page 16 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
Table 11. Register Selection
RS2
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
RS1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
RS0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
Register
Communication register
Setup register
Clock register
Data register
Test register
No operation
Offset register
Gain register
Register Size
8 bits
8 bits
8 bits
16 bits
8 bits
24 bits
24 bits
Table 12. Channel Selection for AD7705
CH1
0
0
1
1
CH0
0
1
0
1
AIN(+)
AIN1(+)
AIN2(+)
AIN1(−)
AIN1(−)
AIN(−)
AIN1(−)
AIN2(−)
AIN1(−)
AIN2(−)
Calibration Register Pair
Register Pair 0
Register Pair 1
Register Pair 0
Register Pair 2
Table 13. Channel Selection for AD7706
CH1
0
0
1
1
CH0
0
1
0
1
AIN
AIN1
AIN2
COMMON
AIN3
Reference
COMMON
COMMON
COMMON
COMMON
Calibration Register Pair
Register Pair 0
Register Pair 1
Register Pair 0
Register Pair 2
SETUP REGISTER (RS2, RS1, RS0 = 0, 0, 1); POWER-ON/RESET STATUS: 01 HEXADECIMAL
The setup register is an 8-bit register from which data can be read or to which data can be written.
Table 14 outlines the bit designations for the setup register.
Table 14. Setup Register
MD1 (0)
MD0 (0)
G2 (0)
G1 (0)
G0 (0)
B/U (0)
BUF (0)
FSYNC (1)
Table 15. Setup Register Description
Register
MD1, MD0
G2 to G0
B/U
BUF
FSYNC
Description
ADC Mode Bits. These bits select the operational mode of the ADC as outlined in Table 16.
Gain Selection Bits. These bits select the gain setting for the on-chip PGA, as outlined in Table 17.
Bipolar/Unipolar Operation. A 0 in this bit selects bipolar operation; a 1 in this bit selects unipolar operation.
Buffer Control. With this bit at 0, the on-chip buffer on the analog input is shorted out. With the buffer shorted out, the current
flowing in the VDD line is reduced. When this bit is high, the on-chip buffer is in series with the analog input, allowing the input
to handle higher source impedances.
Filter Synchronization. When this bit is high, the nodes of the digital filter, the filter control logic, the calibration control logic,
and the analog modulator are held in a reset state. When this bit goes low, the modulator and filter start to process data, and
a valid word is available in 3 × 1/output rate, that is, the settling time of the filter. This FSYNC bit does not affect the digital
interface and does not reset the DRDY output if it is low.
Rev. C | Page 17 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
Table 16. Operating Mode Options
MD1
0
0
MD0
0
1
1
0
1
1
Operating Mode
Normal Mode. In this mode, the device performs normal conversions.
Self-Calibration. This activates self-calibration on the channel selected by CH1 and CH0 of the communication register. This
is a one-step calibration sequence. When the sequence is complete, the part returns to normal mode, with both MD1 and
MD0 returning to 0. The DRDY output or bit goes high when calibration is initiated, and returns low when self-calibration is
complete and a new valid word is available in the data register. The zero-scale calibration is performed at the selected gain
on internally shorted (zeroed) inputs, and the full-scale calibration is performed at the selected gain on an internally
generated VREF/selected gain.
Zero-Scale System Calibration. This activates zero-scale system calibration on the channel selected by CH1 and CH0 of the
communication register. Calibration is performed at the selected gain on the input voltage provided at the analog input
during this calibration sequence. This input voltage should remain stable for the duration of the calibration. The DRDY
output or bit goes high when calibration is initiated, and returns low when zero-scale calibration is complete and a new
valid word is available in the data register. At the end of the calibration, the part returns to normal mode, with both MD1
and MD0 returning to 0.
Full-Scale System Calibration. This activates full-scale system calibration on the selected input channel. Calibration is
performed at the selected gain on the input voltage provided at the analog input during this calibration sequence. This
input voltage should remain stable for the duration of the calibration. The DRDY output or bit goes high when calibration is
initiated, and returns low when full-scale calibration is complete and a new valid word is available in the data register. At the
end of the calibration, the part returns to normal mode, with both MD1 and MD0 returning to 0.
Table 17. Gain Selection
G2
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
G1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
G0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
Gain Setting
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
128
Rev. C | Page 18 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
CLOCK REGISTER (RS2, RS1, RS0 = 0, 1, 0); POWER-ON/RESET STATUS: 05 HEXADECIMAL
The clock register is an 8-bit register from which data can be read or to which data can be written.
Table 18 outlines the bit designations for the clock register.
Table 18. Clock Register
ZERO (0)
ZERO (0)
ZERO (0)
CLKDIS (0)
CLKDIV (0)
CLK (1)
FS1 (0)
FS0 (1)
Table 19. Clock Register Description
Register
ZERO
CLKDIS
CLKDIV
CLK
FS1, FS0
Description
Zero. A zero must be written to these bits to ensure correct operation of the AD7705/AD7706. Failure to do so might result in
unspecified operation of the device.
Master Clock Disable Bit. Logic 1 in this bit disables the master clock, preventing it from appearing at the MCLK OUT pin. When
disabled, the MCLK OUT pin is forced low. This feature allows the user the flexibility of either using the MCLK OUT as a clock
source for other devices in the system, or turning off the MCLK OUT as a power-saving feature. When using an external master
clock on the MCLK IN pin, the AD7705/AD7706 continue to have internal clocks and convert normally with the CLKDIS bit
active. When using a crystal oscillator or ceramic resonator across Pin MCLK IN and Pin MCLK OUT, the AD7705/AD7706 clocks
are stopped, and no conversions take place when the CLKDIS bit is active.
Clock Divider Bit. With this bit at Logic 1, the clock frequency appearing at the MCLK IN pin is divided by 2 before being used
internally by the AD7705/AD7706. For example, when this bit is set to Logic 1, the user can operate with a 4.9152 MHz crystal
between Pin MCLK IN and Pin MCLK OUT, and internally the part operates with the specified 2.4576 MHz. With this bit at
Logic 0, the clock frequency appearing at the MCLK IN pin is the frequency used internally by the part.
Clock Bit. This bit should be set in accordance with the operating frequency of the AD7705/AD7706. If the device has a master
clock frequency of 2.4576 MHz (CLKDIV = 0) or 4.9152 MHz (CLKDIV = 1), this bit should be set to Logic 1. If the device has a
master clock frequency of 1 MHz (CLKDIV = 0) or 2 MHz (CLKDIV = 1), this bit should be set to Logic 0. This bit sets up the
appropriate scaling currents for a given operating frequency and, together with FS1 and FS0, chooses the output update rate
for the device. If this bit is not set correctly for the master clock frequency of the device, the AD7705/AD7706 might not
operate to specification.
Filter Selection Bits. Along with the CLK bit, FS1 and FS0 determine the output update rate, the filter’s first notch, and the −3 dB
frequency, as outlined in Table 20. The on-chip digital filter provides a sinc3 (or (sinx/x)3) filter response. In association with the
gain selection, it also determines the output noise of the device. Changing the filter notch frequency, as well as the selected gain,
impacts resolution. Table 5 through Table 8 show the effects of filter notch frequency and gain on the output noise and effective
resolution of the part. The output data rate, or effective conversion time, for the device is equal to the frequency selected for
the first notch of the filter. For example, if the first notch of the filter is selected at 50 Hz, a new word is available at a 50 Hz output
rate, or every 20 ms. If the first notch is at 500 Hz, a new word is available every 2 ms. A calibration should be initiated when
any of these bits are changed. The settling time of the filter to a full-scale step input is worst case 4 × 1/(output data rate). For
example, with the filter-first notch at 50 Hz, the settling time of the filter to a full-scale step input is 80 ms maximum. If the first
notch is at 500 Hz, the settling time is 8 ms maximum. This settling time can be reduced to 3 × 1/(output data rate) by
synchronizing the step input change with a reset of the digital filter. In other words, if the step input takes place with the
FSYNC bit high, the settling time is 3 × 1/(output data rate) from the time when the FSYNC bit returns low. The −3 dB
frequency is determined by the programmed first notch frequency according to the relationship:
filter − 3 dB frequency = 0.262 × filter - first notch frequency
Table 20. Output Update Rates
CLK 1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
FS1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
FS0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
Output Update Rate
20 Hz
25 Hz
100 Hz
200 Hz
50 Hz
60 Hz
250 Hz
500 Hz
Assumes correct clock frequency on MCLK IN pin with the CLKDIV bit set appropriately.
Rev. C | Page 19 of 44
−3 dB Filter Cutoff
5.24 Hz
6.55 Hz
26.2 Hz
52.4 Hz
13.1 Hz
15.7 Hz
65.5 Hz
131 Hz
AD7705/AD7706
DATA REGISTER (RS2, RS1, RS0 = 0, 1, 1)
The data register is a 16-bit, read-only register that contains the
most up-to-date conversion result from the AD7705/AD7706. If
the communication register sets up the part for a write
operation to this register, a write operation must take place to
return the part to its default state. However, the 16 bits of data
written to the part will be ignored by the AD7705/AD7706.
TEST REGISTER (RS2, RS1, RS0 = 1, 0, 0);
POWER-ON/RESET STATUS: 00 HEXADECIMAL
The part contains a test register that is used when testing the
device. The user is advised not to change the status of any of the
bits in this register from the default (power-on or reset) status
of all 0s, because the part will be placed in one of its test modes
and will not operate correctly.
ZERO-SCALE CALIBRATION REGISTER
(RS2, RS1, RS0 = 1, 1, 0);
POWER-ON/RESET STATUS: 1F4000 HEXADECIMAL
The AD7705/AD7706 contain independent sets of zero-scale
registers, one for each of the input channels. Each register is a
24-bit read/write register; therefore, 24 bits of data must be
written, or no data is transferred to the register. This register is
used in conjunction with its associated full-scale register to
form a register pair. These register pairs are associated with
input channel pairs, as outlined in Table 12 and Table 13.
While the part is set up to allow access to these registers over
the digital interface, the parts themselves can no longer access
the register coefficients to scale the output data correctly. As a
result, the first output data read from the part after accessing
the calibration registers (for either a read or write operation)
might contain incorrect data. In addition, a write to the
calibration register should not be attempted while a calibration
is in progress. These eventualities can be avoided by taking the
FSYNC bit in the mode register high before the calibration
register operation, and taking it low after the operation is
complete.
FULL-SCALE CALIBRATION REGISTER
(RS2, RS1, RS0 = 1, 1, 1);
POWER-ON/RESET STATUS: 5761AB HEXADECIMAL
The AD7705/AD7706 contain independent sets of full-scale
registers, one for each of the input channels. Each register is a
24-bit read/write register; therefore, 24 bits of data must be
written, or no data is transferred to the register. This register is
used in conjunction with its associated zero-scale register to
form a register pair. These register pairs are associated with
input channel pairs, as outlined in Table 12 and Table 13.
While the part is set up to allow access to these registers over
the digital interface, the part itself can no longer access the
register coefficients to scale the output data correctly. As a
result, the first output data read from the part after accessing
the calibration registers (for either a read or write operation)
might contain incorrect data. In addition, a write to the
calibration register should not be attempted while a calibration
is in progress. These eventualities can be avoided by taking
FSYNC bit in the mode register high before the calibration
register operation, and taking it low after the operation is
complete.
Calibration Sequences
The AD7705/AD7706 contain a number of calibration options,
as previously outlined. Table 21 summarizes the calibration
types, the operations involved, and the duration of the
operations. There are two methods for determining the end of a
calibration. The first is to monitor when DRDY returns low at
the end of the sequence. This technique not only indicates when
the sequence is complete, but also when the part has a valid new
sample in its data register. This valid new sample is the result of
a normal conversion that follows the calibration sequence. The
second method for determining when calibration is complete is
to monitor the MD1 and MD0 bits of the setup register. When
these bits return to 0 following a calibration command, the
calibration sequence is complete. This technique can indicate
the completion of a calibration earlier than the first method
can, but it cannot indicate when there is a valid new result in
the data register. The time that it takes the mode bits, MD1 and
MD0, to return to 0 represents the duration of the calibration.
The sequence when DRDY goes low includes a normal
conversion and a pipeline delay, tP, to scale the results of this
first conversion correctly. Note that tP never exceeds 2000 ×
tCLKIN. The time for both methods is shown in Table 21.
Table 21. Calibration Sequences
Calibration Type
MD1, MD0
Calibration Sequence
Duration of Mode Bits
Duration of DRDY
Self-Calibration
0, 1
6 × 1/output rate
9 × 1/output rate + tP
ZS System Calibration
FS System Calibration
1, 0
1, 1
Internal ZS calibration @ selected gain
+ internal FS calibration @ selected
gain
ZS calibration on AIN @ selected gain
FS calibration on AIN @ selected gain
3 × 1/output rate
3 × 1/output rate
4 × 1/output rate + tP
4 × 1/output rate + tP
Rev. C | Page 20 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
cycle contains the digital information. The programmable gain
function on the analog input is also incorporated in this Σ-Δ
modulator, with the input sampling frequency being modified
to provide higher gains. A sinc3, digital, low-pass filter processes
the output of the Σ-Δ modulator and updates the output register
at a rate determined by the first notch frequency of this filter.
The AD7705/AD7706 are Σ-Δ analog-to-digital converters (ADC)
with on-chip digital filtering, intended for the measurement of
wide, dynamic range, low frequency signals, such as those in
industrial-control or process-control applications. Each contains
a Σ-Δ (or charge-balancing) ADC, a calibration microcontroller
with on-chip static RAM, a clock oscillator, a digital filter, and a
bidirectional serial communication port. The parts consume only
320 μA of power supply current, making them ideal for batterypowered or loop-powered instruments. These parts operate with
a supply voltage of 2.7 V to 3.3 V or 4.75 V to 5.25 V.
The output data can be read from the serial port randomly or
periodically at any rate up to the output register update rate.
The frequency of the first notch of the digital filter ranges from
50 Hz to 500 Hz; therefore, the programmable range for the
−3 dB frequency is 13.1 Hz to 131 Hz. With a master clock
frequency of 1 MHz, the programmable range for this first
notch frequency is 20 Hz to 200 Hz, giving a programmable
range for the −3 dB frequency of 5.24 Hz to 52.4 Hz.
The AD7705 contains two programmable-gain, fully differential
analog input channels, and the AD7706 contains three pseudo
differential analog input channels. The selectable gains on these
inputs are 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and 128, allowing the parts to accept
unipolar signals of 0 mV to 20 mV and 0 V to 2.5 V, or bipolar
signals in the range of ±20 mV to ±2.5 V when the reference input
voltage equals 2.5 V. With a reference voltage of 1.225 V, the input
ranges are from 0 mV to 10 mV and 0 V to 1.225 V in unipolar
mode, and from ±10 mV to ±1.225 V in bipolar mode. Note that
the bipolar ranges are with respect to AIN(−) on the AD7705,
and with respect to COMMON on the AD7706, but not with
respect to GND.
The AD7705 basic connection diagram is shown in Figure 13.
It shows the AD7705 driven from an analog 5 V supply. An
AD780 or REF192 precision 2.5 V reference provides the reference
source for the part. On the digital side, the part is configured for
3-wire operation with CS tied to GND. A quartz crystal or ceramic
resonator provides the master clock source for the part. In most
cases, it is necessary to connect capacitors on the crystal or
resonator to ensure that it does not oscillate at overtones of its
fundamental operating frequency. The values of capacitors vary,
depending on the manufacturer’s specifications. The same setup
applies to the AD7706.
The input signal to the analog input is continuously sampled at a
rate determined by the frequency of the master clock, MCLK IN,
and the selected gain. A charge-balancing ADC (∑-Δ modulator)
converts the sampled signal into a digital pulse train whose duty
ANALOG
5V SUPPLY
10μF
0.1μF
VDD
DIFFERENTIAL
ANALOG
INPUT
DRDY
DATA READY
DOUT
RECEIVE (READ)
AIN1(–)
DIFFERENTIAL
ANALOG
INPUT
AIN2(+)
DIN
SCLK
GND
SERIAL CLOCK
5V
RESET
VIN
VOUT
AD780/
REF192
SERIAL DATA
AIN2(–)
REF IN(+)
10μF
CS
0.1μF
REF IN(–)
MCLK IN
GND
MCLK OUT
Figure 13. AD7705 Basic Connection Diagram
Rev. C | Page 21 of 44
CRYSTAL OR
CERAMIC
RESONATOR
01166-013
ANALOG 5V
SUPPLY
AD7705
AIN1(+)
AD7705/AD7706
Table 22. External Resistance-Capacitance Combination for
Unbuffered Mode (Without 16-Bit Gain Error)
ANALOG INPUT
Ranges
The AD7705 contains two differential analog input pairs,
AIN1(+)/AIN1(−) and AIN2(+)/AIN2(−). These input pairs
provide programmable-gain, differential input channels that can
handle either unipolar or bipolar input signals. It should be noted
that the bipolar input signals are referenced to the respective
AIN(−) input of each input pair. The AD7706 contains three
pseudo differential analog input pairs, AIN1, AIN2, and AIN3,
which are referenced to the COMMON input.
In unbuffered mode, the common-mode range of the input is
from GND to VDD, provided that the absolute value of the analog
input voltage lies between GND − 100 mV and VDD + 30 mV.
Therefore, in unbuffered mode, the part can handle both unipolar
and bipolar input ranges for all gains. The AD7705 can tolerate
absolute analog input voltages down to GND − 200 mV, but the
leakage current increases at high temperatures. In buffered mode,
the analog inputs can handle much larger source impedances,
but the absolute input voltage range is restricted to between
GND + 50 mV and VDD − 1.5 V, which also restricts the commonmode range. Therefore, in buffered mode, there are some
restrictions on the allowable gains for bipolar input ranges. Care
must be taken in setting up the common-mode voltage and
input voltage ranges so that the above limits are not exceeded;
otherwise, there is a degradation in linearity performance.
In unbuffered mode, the analog inputs look directly into the
7 pF input sampling capacitor, CSAMP. The dc input leakage
current in this unbuffered mode is 1 nA maximum. As a result,
the analog inputs see a dynamic load that is switched at the
input sample rate (see Figure 14). This sample rate depends on
master clock frequency and selected gain. CSAMP is charged to
AIN(+) and discharged to AIN(−) every input sample cycle.
The effective on resistance of the switch, RSW, is typically 7 kΩ.
CSAMP must be charged through RSW and any external source
impedances every input sample cycle. Therefore, in unbuffered
mode, source impedances mean a longer charge time for CSAMP,
which might result in gain errors on the parts. Table 22 shows
the allowable external resistance-capacitance values for unbuffered
mode, such that no gain error to the 16-bit level is introduced in
the part. Note that these capacitances are total capacitances on
the analog input—external capacitance plus 10 pF capacitance
from the pins and lead frame of the devices.
AIN(–)
RSW (7kΩ TYP)
CSAMP
(7pF)
External Capacitance (pF)
50
100
500
1000
53.9 kΩ
31.4 kΩ 8.4 kΩ
4.76 kΩ
26.6 kΩ
15.4 kΩ 4.14 kΩ
2.36 kΩ
12.77 kΩ 7.3 kΩ
1.95 kΩ
1.15 kΩ
5.95 kΩ
3.46 kΩ 924 Ω
526 Ω
5000
1.36 kΩ
670 Ω
320 Ω
150 Ω
Sample Rate
The modulator sample frequency for the AD7705/AD7706
remains at fCLKIN/128 (19.2 kHz @ fCLKIN = 2.4576 MHz), regardless
of the selected gain. However, gains greater than 1 are achieved
by a combination of multiple input samples per modulator cycle
and a scaling of the ratio of reference capacitor to input capacitor.
As a result of the multiple sampling, the input sample rate of
these devices varies with the selected gain (see Table 23). In
buffered mode, the input is buffered before the input sampling
capacitor. In unbuffered mode, where the analog input looks
directly into the sampling capacitor, the effective input impedance
is 1/CSAMP × fS, where CSAMP is the input sampling capacitance
and fS is the input sample rate.
Table 23. Input Sampling Frequency vs. Gain
Gain
1
2
4
8 to 128
Input Sampling Frequency (fS)
fCLKIN/64 (38.4 kHz @ fCLKIN = 2.4576 MHz)
2 × fCLKIN/64 (76.8 kHz @ fCLKIN = 2.4576 MHz)
4 × fCLKIN/64 (76.8 kHz @ fCLKIN = 2.4576 MHz)
8 × fCLKIN/64 (307.2 kHz @ fCLKIN = 2.4576 MHz)
BIPOLAR/UNIPOLAR INPUT
The analog inputs on the AD7705/AD7706 can accept either
unipolar or bipolar input voltage ranges. Bipolar input ranges
do not imply that these parts can handle negative voltages on
their analog inputs; the analog inputs cannot go more negative
than −100 mV to ensure correct operation of these parts. The
input channels are fully differential. As a result, on the AD7705,
the voltage to which the unipolar and bipolar signals on the
AIN(+) input are referenced is the voltage on the respective
AIN(−) input.
HIGH
IMPEDANCE
>1G
VBIAS
SWITCHING FREQUENCY DEPENDS ON
fCLKIN AND SELECTED GAIN
10
152 kΩ
75.1 kΩ
34.2 kΩ
16.7 kΩ
In buffered mode, the analog inputs look into the high impedance
inputs stage of the on-chip buffer amplifier. CSAMP is charged via
this buffer amplifier such that source impedances do not affect
the charging of CSAMP. This buffer amplifier has an offset leakage
current of 1 nA. In this buffered mode, large source impedances
result in a small dc offset voltage developed across the source
impedance, but not in a gain error.
01166-014
AIN(+)
Gain
1
2
4
8 to 128
Figure 14. Unbuffered Analog Input Structure
Rev. C | Page 22 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
On the AD7706, the voltages applied to the analog input
channels are referenced to the COMMON input. For example, if
AIN1(−) is 2.5 V and AD7705 is configured for unipolar
operation with a gain of 2 and a VREF of 2.5 V, the input voltage
range on the AIN1(+) input is 2.5 V to 3.75 V.
If AIN1(−) is 2.5 V and AD7705 is configured for bipolar mode
with a gain of 2 and a VREF of 2.5 V, the analog input range on
the AIN1(+) input is 1.25 V to 3.75 V (i.e., 2.5 V ± 1.25 V). If
AIN1(−) is at GND, the part cannot be configured for bipolar
ranges in excess of ±100 mV.
Bipolar or unipolar options are chosen by programming the
B/U bit of the setup register. This programs the channel for either
unipolar or bipolar operation. Programming the channel for
either unipolar or bipolar operation does not change the input
signal conditioning, it simply changes the data output coding
and the points on the transfer function where calibrations occur.
REFERENCE INPUT
The AD7705/AD7706 reference inputs, REF IN(+) and REF IN(−),
provide a differential reference input capability. The commonmode range for these differential inputs is from GND to VDD.
The nominal reference voltage, VREF (REF IN(+) − REF IN(−)),
for specified operation is 2.5 V for the AD7705/AD7706 operated
with a VDD of 5 V, and 1.225 V for the AD7705/AD7706 operated
with a VDD of 3 V. The parts are functional with VREF voltages
down to 1 V, but performance will be degraded because the output
noise, in terms of LSB size, is larger. REF IN(+) must be greater
than REF IN(−) for correct operation of the AD7705/AD7706.
Both reference inputs provide a high impedance, dynamic load
similar to the analog inputs in unbuffered mode. The maximum
dc input leakage current is ±1 nA over temperature, and source
resistance might result in gain errors on the part. In this case,
the sampling switch resistance is 5 kΩ typ, and the reference
capacitor, CREF, varies with gain. The sample rate on the reference
inputs is fCLKIN/64 and does not vary with gain. For gains of 1
and 2, CREF is 8 pF; for gains of 16, 32, 64, and 128, it is 5.5 pF,
4.25 pF, 3.625 pF, and 3.3125 pF, respectively.
The output noise performance outlined in Table 5, Table 6,
Table 7, and Table 8 is for an analog input of 0 V, which
effectively removes the effect of noise on the reference. To
obtain the noise performance shown in the noise tables over the
full input range requires a low noise reference source for the
AD7705/AD7706. If the reference noise in the bandwidth of
interest is excessive, it degrades the performance of the
AD7705/AD7706. In applications where the excitation voltage
for the bridge transducer on the analog input also derives the
reference voltage for the part, the effect of the noise in the
excitation voltage is removed because the application is
ratiometric.
Recommended reference voltage sources for the AD7705/
AD7706 with a VDD of 5 V include the AD780, REF43, and
REF192; the recommended reference sources for the AD7705/
AD7706 operated with a VDD of 3 V include the AD589 and
AD1580. It is generally recommended to decouple the output of
these references to reduce the noise level further.
DIGITAL FILTERING
The AD7705/AD7706 each contain an on-chip, low-pass digital
filter that processes the output of the Σ-Δ modulator. Therefore,
the parts not only provide the ADC function, but also provide a
level of filtering. There are a number of system differences when
the filtering function is provided in the digital domain, rather
than in the analog domain.
For example, because it occurs after the A/D conversion
process, digital filtering can remove noise injected during the
conversion process, whereas analog filtering cannot do this. In
addition, the digital filter can be made programmable far more
readily than the analog filter. Depending on the digital filter
design, this provides the user with the update rate.
On the other hand, analog filtering can remove noise
superimposed on the analog signal before it reaches the ADC.
Digital filtering cannot do this, and noise peaks riding on
signals near full scale have the potential to saturate the analog
modulator and digital filter, even though the average value of
the signal is within limits.
To alleviate this problem, the AD7705/AD7706 have overrange
headroom built into the Σ-Δ modulator and digital filter that
allows overrange excursions of 5% above the analog input range.
If noise signals are larger than this, consider filtering the analog
input, or reducing the input channel voltage so that its full scale
is half that of the analog input channel full scale. This provides
an overrange capability greater than 100% at the expense of
reducing the dynamic range by 1 bit (50%).
In addition, the digital filter does not provide any rejection at
integer multiples of the digital filter’s sample frequency. However,
the input sampling on the part provides attenuation at multiples
of the digital filter’s sampling frequency so that the unattenuated
bands occur around multiples of the sampling frequency, fS, as
defined in Table 23. Thus, the unattenuated bands occur at n × fS
(where n = 1, 2, 3 . . .). At these frequencies, there are frequency
bands ±f3 dB wide (f3 dB is the cutoff frequency of the digital filter)
at either side where noise passes unattenuated to the output.
Rev. C | Page 23 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
0
Filter Characteristics
–20
The AD7705/AD7706 digital filter is a low-pass filter with a
(sinx/x)3 response (also called sinc3). The transfer function for
the filter is described in the z-domain by
−N
1 1− Z
×
N 1 − Z −1
–60
–80
GAIN (dB)
H (z )
–40
3
–100
–120
–140
–160
and in the frequency domain by
–200
3
01166-015
1 sin(N × π × f / f S )
H (f) =
×
N
sin (π × f / f S )
–180
–220
–240
0
where N is the ratio of the modulator rate to the output rate.
60
120
180
240
FREQUENCY (Hz)
300
360
Figure 15. Frequency Response of AD7705 Filter
Postfiltering
The phase response is defined by the following equation:
∠ H = − 3π (N − 2 ) × f f S Rad
Figure 15 shows the filter frequency response for a cutoff
frequency of 15.72 Hz, which corresponds to a first filter notch
frequency of 60 Hz. The plot is shown from dc to 390 Hz. This
response is repeated at either side of the digital filter’s sample
frequency and at either side of multiples of the filter’s sample
frequency.
The response of the filter is similar to that of an averaging filter,
but with a sharper roll-off. The output rate for the digital filter
corresponds with the positioning of the first notch of the filter’s
frequency response. Thus, for Figure 15, where the output rate
is 60 Hz, the first notch of the filter is at 60 Hz. The notches of
this (sinx/x)3 filter are repeated at multiples of the first notch.
The filter provides attenuation of better than 100 dB at these
notches.
The cutoff frequency of the digital filter is determined by the value
loaded to Bit FS0 and Bit FS1 in the clock register. Programming a
different cutoff frequency via Bit FS0 and Bit FS1 does not alter
the profile of the filter response, but changes the frequency of
the notches. The output update of the part and the frequency of
the first notch correspond.
Because the AD7705/AD7706 contain this on-chip, low-pass
filtering, a settling time is associated with step function inputs,
and data on the output is invalid after a step change until the
settling time has elapsed. The settling time depends on the output
rate chosen for the filter. The settling time of the filter to a fullscale step input can be up to four times the output data period.
For a synchronized step input using the FSYNC function, the
settling time is three times the output data period.
The on-chip modulator provides samples at a 19.2 kHz output rate
with fCLKIN at 2.4576 MHz. The on-chip digital filter decimates
these samples to provide data at an output rate that corresponds
to the programmed output rate of the filter. Because the output
data rate is higher than the Nyquist criterion, the output rate for
a given bandwidth satisfies most application requirements. Some
applications, however, might require a higher data rate for a
given bandwidth and noise performance. Applications that need
this higher data rate will require postfiltering following the digital
filtering performed by the AD7705/AD7706.
For example, if the required bandwidth is 7.86 Hz, but the
required update rate is 100 Hz, data can be taken from the
AD7705/AD7706 at the 100 Hz rate, giving a −3 dB bandwidth
of 26.2 Hz. Postfiltering can then be applied to reduce the
bandwidth and output noise to the 7.86 Hz bandwidth level
while maintaining an output rate of 100 Hz.
Postfiltering can also be used to reduce the output noise from
the devices for bandwidths below 13.1 Hz. At a gain of 128 and
a bandwidth of 13.1 Hz, the output rms noise is 450 nV. This is
essentially device noise, or white noise. Because the input is
chopped, the noise has a primarily flat frequency response. By
reducing the bandwidth below 13.1 Hz, the noise in the resultant
pass band is reduced. A reduction in bandwidth by a factor of 2
results in a reduction of approximately 1.25 in the output rms
noise. This additional filtering results in a longer settling time.
Rev. C | Page 24 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
ANALOG FILTERING
The digital filter does not provide any rejection at integer multiples
of the modulator sample frequency, as outlined earlier. However,
due to the part’s high oversampling ratio, these bands occupy
only a small fraction of the spectrum, and most broadband
noise is filtered. Therefore, the analog filtering requirements in
front of the AD7705/AD7706 are considerably reduced vs. a
conventional converter without on-chip filtering. In addition,
because the parts’ common-mode rejection performance of
100 dB extends to several kHz, common-mode noise in this
frequency range is substantially reduced.
Depending on the application, however, it might be necessary to
provide attenuation of the signal before it reaches the AD7705/
AD7706 to eliminate unwanted frequencies that can pass through
the digital filter. It might also be necessary to provide analog
filtering in front of the AD7705/AD7706 to ensure that differential
noise signals outside the band of interest do not saturate the
analog modulator.
If passive components are placed in front of the AD7705/
AD7706 in unbuffered mode, care must be taken to ensure that
the source impedance is low enough not to introduce gain errors
in the system. This significantly limits the amount of passive
antialiasing filtering, which can be provided in front of the
AD7705/AD7706 when the parts are used in unbuffered mode.
However, when the parts are used in buffered mode, large source
impedances result in a small dc offset error (a 10 kΩ source
resistance causes an offset error of less than 10 μV). Therefore,
if the system requires significant source impedances to provide
passive analog filtering in front of the AD7705/AD7706, it is
recommended to operate the part in buffered mode.
CALIBRATION
The AD7705/AD7706 provide a number of calibration options
that can be programmed via the MD1 and MD0 bits of the setup
register. The different calibration options are outlined in the
Setup Register (RS2, RS1, RS0 = 0, 0, 1); Power-On/Reset Status:
01 Hex, and Calibration Sequences sections. A calibration cycle
can be initiated at any time by writing to these bits of the setup
register. Calibration on the AD7705/AD7706 removes offset
and gain errors from the devices. A calibration routine should
be initiated on these devices whenever there is a change in the
ambient operating temperature or supply voltage. It should also
be initiated if there is a change in the selected gain, filter notch,
or bipolar/unipolar input range.
The AD7705/AD7706 offer self-calibration and system calibration
facilities. For full calibration to occur on the selected channel,
the on-chip microcontroller must record the modulator output
for two input conditions: zero-scale point and full-scale point.
These points are derived by performing a conversion on the
different input voltages provided to the input of the modulator
during calibration. As a result, the accuracy of the calibration is
only as good as the noise level that it provides in normal mode.
The result of the zero-scale calibration conversion is stored in
the zero-scale calibration register, and the result of the full-scale
calibration conversion is stored in the full-scale calibration register.
With these readings, the microcontroller can calculate the offset
and the gain slope for the input-to-output transfer function of
the converter. Internally, the part works with a resolution of
33 bits to determine the conversion result of 16 bits.
Self-Calibration
A self-calibration is initiated on the AD7705/AD7706 by writing
the appropriate values (0, 1) to the MD1 and MD0 bits of the
setup register. In self-calibration mode with a unipolar input
range, the zero-scale point used to determine the calibration
coefficients is with the inputs of the differential pair internally
shorted on the part (i.e., AIN(+) = AIN(−) = internal bias voltage
on the AD7705, and AIN = COMMON = internal bias voltage
on the AD7706). The PGA is set for the selected gain for this
zero-scale calibration conversion, as per the G1 and G0 bits in
the communication register. The full-scale calibration conversion
is performed at the selected gain on an internally generated
voltage of VREF/selected gain.
The duration time for the calibration is 6 × 1/output rate. This
is composed of 3 × 1/output rate for the zero-scale calibration
and 3 × 1/output rate for the full-scale calibration. Then, the
MD1 and MD0 bits in the setup register return to 0, 0. This
provides the earliest indication that the calibration sequence is
complete. The DRDY line goes high when calibration is initiated
and does not return low until there is a valid new word in the data
register. The duration time from the calibration command being
issued to DRDY going low is 9 × 1/output rate. This is composed
of 3 × 1/output rate for the zero-scale calibration, 3 × 1/output
rate for the full-scale calibration, 3 × 1/output rate for a conversion
on the analog input, and some overhead to set up the coefficients correctly. If DRDY is low before (or goes low during)
writing the calibration command to the setup register, it can
take up to one modulator cycle (MCLK IN/128) before DRDY
goes high to indicate that a calibration is in progress. Therefore,
DRDY should be ignored for one modulator cycle after the last
bit is written to the setup register in the calibration command.
For bipolar input ranges in the self-calibrating mode, the
sequence is very similar to that outlined in the previous
paragraph. In this case, the two points are the same as above,
but the shorted inputs point is midscale of the transfer function
because the part is configured for bipolar operation.
System Calibration
System calibration allows the AD7705/AD7706 to compensate
for system gain and offset errors, as well as their own internal
errors. System calibration performs the same slope factor
calculations as self-calibration, but uses voltage values presented
by the system to the AIN inputs for the zero- and full-scale points.
Full system calibration requires a two-step process, a zero-scale
system calibration followed by a full-scale system calibration.
Rev. C | Page 25 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
For a full system calibration, the zero-scale point must be
presented to the converter first. It must be applied to the
converter before the calibration step is initiated and remain
stable until the step is complete. Once the zero-scale voltage is
set up, a zero-scale system calibration is initiated by writing the
appropriate values (1, 0) to the MD1 and MD0 bits of the setup
register. The zero-scale system calibration is performed at the
selected gain. The duration of the calibration is 3 × 1/output
rate. Then, Bit MD1 and Bit MD0 in the setup register return to
0, 0, providing the earliest indication that the calibration
sequence is complete. The DRDY line goes high when calibration
is initiated and returns low when there is a valid new word in the
data register. The duration time from the calibration command
being issued to DRDY going low is 4 × 1/output rate, because
the part performs a normal conversion on the AIN voltage before
DRDY goes low.
If DRDY is low before (or goes low during) writing the
calibration command to the setup register, it can take up to one
modulator cycle (MCLK IN/128) before DRDY goes high to
indicate that a calibration is in progress. Therefore, DRDY
should be ignored for one modulator cycle after the last bit is
written to the setup register in the calibration command.
After the zero-scale point is calibrated, the full-scale point is
applied to AIN, and the second step of the calibration process is
initiated by writing the appropriate values (1, 1) to MD1 and
MD0. The full-scale voltage must be set up before the calibration
is initiated and must remain stable throughout the calibration
step. The full-scale system calibration is performed at the
selected gain. The duration of the calibration is 3 × 1/output
rate. Then, the MD1 and MD0 bits in the setup register return
to 0, 0, providing the earliest indication that the calibration
sequence is complete. The DRDY line goes high when calibration
is initiated and returns low when there is a valid new word in
the data register. The duration time from the calibration
command being issued to DRDY going low is 4 × 1/output rate,
because the part performs a normal conversion on the AIN
voltage before DRDY goes low. If DRDY is low before (or goes
low during) writing the calibration command to the setup
register, it can take up to one modulator cycle (MCLK IN/128)
before DRDY goes high to indicate that calibration is in
progress. Therefore, DRDY should be ignored for one
modulator cycle after the last bit is written to the setup register
in the calibration command.
In unipolar mode, the system calibration is performed between
the two endpoints of the transfer function. In bipolar mode, it is
performed between midscale (zero differential voltage) and
positive full scale.
The fact that the system calibration involves two steps offers
another feature. After the sequence of a full system calibration is
complete, additional offset or gain calibrations can be performed
individually to adjust the system zero reference point or the
system gain. Calibrating one of the parameters, either system
offset or system gain, does not affect the other parameter.
When the part is used in unbuffered mode, system calibration
can be used to remove errors from source impedances on the
analog input. A simple R-C antialiasing filter on the front end
can introduce a gain error on the analog input voltage, but the
system calibration can be used to remove this error.
Span and Offset Limits
Whenever the system calibration mode is used, there are limits
on the amount of offset and span that can be accommodated.
The overriding requirement for determining the amount of
offset and gain that can be accommodated by the part is that the
positive full-scale calibration limit is < 1.05 × VREF/gain. This
allows the input range to go 5% above the nominal range. The
built-in headroom in the AD7705/AD7706 analog modulator
ensures that the parts operate correctly with a positive full-scale
voltage that is 5% beyond the nominal.
The range of input span in both the unipolar and bipolar modes
has a minimum value of 0.8 × VREF/gain and a maximum value of
2.1 × VREF/gain. However, when determining the span, which is
the difference between the bottom and top of the devices’ input
range, the user must take into account the limitation on the
positive full-scale voltage. The amount of offset that can be
accommodated depends on whether the unipolar or bipolar
mode is used, and the user must also take into account the
limitation on the positive full-scale voltage. In unipolar mode,
there is considerable flexibility in handling negative offsets with
respect to AIN(−) on the AD7705, and with respect to
COMMON on the AD7706. In both unipolar and bipolar
modes, the range of positive offsets that can be handled by the
part depends on the selected span. Therefore, in determining
the limits for system zero-scale and full-scale calibrations, the
user must ensure that the offset range plus the span range does
not exceed 1.05 × VREF/gain.
If the part is used in unipolar mode with a required span of
0.8 × VREF/gain, the offset range that the system calibration can
handle is –1.05 × VREF/gain to +0.25 × VREF/gain. If
the part is used in unipolar mode with a required span of
VREF/gain, the offset range that the system calibration can
handle is −1.05 × VREF/gain to +0.05 × VREF/gain. Similarly, if
the part is used in unipolar mode and required to remove an
offset of 0.2 × VREF/gain, the maximum span range that the
system calibration can handle is 0.85 × VREF/gain.
Rev. C | Page 26 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
1.05 × VREF/GAIN
Power-Up and Calibration
UPPER LIMIT ON
AD7705 INPUT VOLTAGE
AD7705/AD7706
INPUT RANGE
(0.8 × VREF/GAIN TO
2.1 × VREF/GAIN)
Upon power-up, the AD7705/AD7706 internally reset, setting
the contents of the internal registers to a known state. Default
values are loaded to all registers after a power-on or reset. The
default values contain nominal calibration coefficients for the
calibration registers. However, to ensure correct calibration for the
devices, a calibration routine should be performed after power-up.
GAIN CALIBRATIONS EXPAND
OR CONTRACT THE
AD7705/AD7706 INPUT RANGE
–0V DIFFERENTIAL
NOMINAL ZERO
SCALE POINT
OFFSET CALIBRATIONS MOVE
INPUT RANGE UP OR DOWN
–1.05 × VREF/GAIN
01166-016
LOWER LIMIT ON
AD7705/AD7706 INPUT VOLTAGE
Figure 16. Span and Offset Limits
If the part is used in bipolar mode with a required span of
±0.4 × VREF/gain, the offset range that the system calibration can
handle is –0.65 × VREF/gain to +0.65 × VREF/gain. If
the part is used in bipolar mode with a required span of
±VREF/gain, the offset range that the system calibration can
handle is –0.05 × VREF/gain to +0.05 × VREF/gain. Similarly, if the
part is used in bipolar mode and required to remove an offset of
±0.2 × VREF/gain, the maximum span range that the system
calibration can handle is ±0.85 × VREF/gain.
The power dissipation and temperature drift of the AD7705/
AD7706 are low, and no warm-up time is required before the
initial calibration is performed. However, if an external reference
is used, it must be stabilized before calibration is initiated.
Similarly, if the clock source for the part is generated from a
crystal or resonator across the MCLK pins, the start-up time
for the oscillator circuit should elapse before a calibration is
initiated on the parts (see Figure 11).
Rev. C | Page 27 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
THEORY OF OPERATION
CLOCKING AND OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT
The AD7705/AD7706 each require a master clock input, which
can be an external CMOS-compatible clock signal applied to
the MCLK IN pin with the MCLK OUT pin left unconnected.
Alternatively, a crystal or ceramic resonator of the correct
frequency can be connected between MCLK IN and
MCLK OUT, as shown in Figure 17. In this case, the clock
circuit functions as an oscillator, providing the clock source for
the part. The input sampling frequency, modulator sampling
frequency, –3 dB frequency, output update rate, and calibration
time are directly related to the master clock frequency, fCLKIN.
Reducing the master clock frequency by a factor of two halves
the above frequencies and update rate and doubles the
calibration time. The current drawn from the VDD power supply
is also related to fCLKIN. Reducing fCLKIN by a factor of two halves
the digital part of the total VDD current, but does not affect the
current drawn by the analog circuitry.
CRYSTAL OR
CERAMIC
RESONATOR
MCLK IN
C1
AD7705/AD7706
01166-017
MCLK OUT
C2
Figure 17. Crystal/Resonator Connection for the AD7705/AD7706
Using the part with a crystal or ceramic resonator between the
MCLK IN pin and MCLK OUT pin generally causes more
current to be drawn from VDD than does clocking the part from
a driven clock signal at the MCLK IN pin. This is because the
on-chip oscillator circuit is active in the case of the crystal or
ceramic resonator. Therefore, the lowest possible current on the
AD7705/AD7706 is achieved with an externally applied clock at
the MCLK IN pin with MCLK OUT unconnected, unloaded, and
disabled.
The amount of additional current taken by the oscillator
depends on a number of factors. For example, the larger the
value of the capacitor (C1 and C2) placed on the MCLK IN and
MCLK OUT pins, the larger the current consumption on the
AD7705/AD7706. To avoid unnecessarily consuming current,
care should be taken not to exceed the capacitor values
recommended by the crystal and ceramic resonator manufacturers. Typical values for C1 and C2 are recommended by
crystal or ceramic resonator manufacturers, usually in the range
of 30 pF to 50 pF. If the capacitor values on MCLK IN and
MCLK OUT are kept in this range, they do not result in any
excessive current. Another factor that influences the current is
the effective series resistance (ESR) of the crystal that appears
between the MCLK IN and MCLK OUT pins of the AD7705/
AD7706. As a general rule, the lower the ESR value, the lower
the current taken by the oscillator circuit.
When operating with a clock frequency of 2.4576 MHz, there is
a 50 μA difference in the current between an externally applied
clock and a crystal resonator operated with a VDD of 3 V. With
VDD = 5 V and fCLKIN = 2.4576 MHz, the typical current increases
by 250 μA for a crystal- or resonator-supplied clock vs. an
externally applied clock. The ESR values for crystals and
resonators at this frequency tend to be low, and, as a result,
there tends to be little difference between different crystal and
resonator types.
When operating with a clock frequency of 1 MHz, the ESR
value for different crystal types varies significantly. As a result,
the current drain varies across crystal types. When using a crystal
with an ESR of 700 Ω, or when using a ceramic resonator, the
increase in the typical current over an externally applied clock is
20 μA with VDD = 3 V, and 200 μA with VDD = 5 V. When using
a crystal with an ESR of 3 kΩ, the increase in the typical current
over an externally applied clock is 100 μA with VDD = 3 V, but
400 μA with VDD = 5 V.
There is a start-up time before the on-chip oscillator circuit
oscillates at its correct frequency and voltage levels. Typical startup times with VDD = 5 V are 6 ms using a 4.9512 MHz crystal,
16 ms with a 2.4576 MHz crystal, and 20 ms with a 1 MHz crystal
oscillator. Start-up times are typically 20% slower when a 3 V
power supply is used. With 3 V supplies, depending on the loading
capacitances on the MCLK pins, a 1 MΩ feedback resistor might
be required across the crystal or resonator to keep the start-up
times around 20 ms.
The AD7705/AD7706 master clock appears on the MCLK OUT
pin of the device. The maximum recommended load on this pin
is 1 CMOS load. When using a crystal or ceramic resonator to
generate the AD7705/AD7706 clock, it might be desirable to
use this clock as the clock source for the system. In this case, it
is recommended that the MCLK OUT signal be buffered with a
CMOS buffer before being applied to the rest of the circuit.
SYSTEM SYNCHRONIZATION
The FSYNC bit of the setup register allows the user to reset the
modulator and digital filter without affecting the setup conditions
on the part. This allows the user to start gathering samples of the
analog input at a known point in time, that is, when the FSYNC
changes from 1 to 0.
With a 1 in the FSYNC bit of the setup register, the digital filter
and analog modulator are held in a known reset state, and the
part does not process input samples. When a 0 is written to the
FSYNC bit, the modulator and filter are taken out of this reset
state, and the part resumes gathering samples on the next
master clock edge.
Rev. C | Page 28 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
The FSYNC input can also be used as a software start convert
command, allowing the AD7705/AD7706 to be operated in a
conventional converter fashion. In this mode, writing to the
FSYNC bit starts conversion, and the falling edge of DRDY
indicates when conversion is complete. The disadvantage of this
scheme is that the settling time of the filter must be taken into
account for every data register update; therefore, the rate at which
the data register is updated is three times slower in this mode.
Because the FSYNC bit resets the digital filter, the full settling
time of 3 × 1/output rate must elapse before a new word is
loaded to the output register. If the DRDY signal is low when
FSYNC goes to 0, the DRDY signal is not reset to high by the
FSYNC command, because the AD7705/AD7706 recognize that
there is a word in the data register that has not been read. The
DRDY line stays low until an update of the data register takes
place, at which time it goes high for 500 × tCLKIN before returning
low again. A read from the data register resets the DRDY signal
high, and it does not return low until the settling time of the
filter has elapsed and there is a valid new word in the data register.
If the DRDY line is high when the FSYNC command is issued,
the DRDY line does not return low until the settling time of the
filter has elapsed.
RESET INPUT
The RESET input on the AD7705/AD7706 resets the logic, digital
filter, analog modulator, and on-chip registers to their default states.
DRDY is driven high, and the AD7705/AD7706 ignore all
communication to their registers while the RESET input is low.
When the RESET input returns high, the AD7705/AD7706 start
to process data, and DRDY returns low in 3 × 1/output rate,
indicating a valid new word in the data register. However, the
AD7705/AD7706 operate with their default setup conditions
after a reset, and it is generally necessary to set up all registers
and perform a calibration after a RESET command.
The AD7705/AD7706 on-chip oscillator circuit continues to
function even when the RESET input is low, and the master
clock signal continues to be available on the MCLK OUT pin.
Therefore, in applications where the system clock is provided by
the AD7705/AD7706 clock, the AD7705/AD7706 produce an
uninterrupted master clock during a RESET command.
STANDBY MODE
The STBY bit in the communication register of the AD7705/
AD7706 allows the user to place the part in a power-down
mode when it is not required to provide conversion results. The
AD7705/AD7706 retain the contents of their on-chip registers,
including the data register, while in standby mode. When released
from standby mode, the parts start to process data, and a new
word is available in the data register in 3 × 1/output rate from
when a 0 is written to the STBY bit.
The STBY bit does not affect the digital interface, nor does it
affect the status of the DRDY line. If DRDY is high when the
STBY bit is brought low, it remains high until there is a valid
new word in the data register. If DRDY is low when the STBY
bit is brought low, it remains low until the data register is updated,
at which time the DRDY line returns high for 500 × tCLKIN before
returning low again. If DRDY is low when the part enters standby
mode, indicating a valid unread word in the data register, the
data register can be read while the part is in standby. At the end
of this read operation, DRDY is reset to high.
Placing the part in standby mode reduces the total current to
9 μA typical with VDD = 5 V, and 4 μA with VDD = 3 V when the
part is operated from an external master clock, provided that this
master clock has stopped. If the external clock continues to run
in standby mode, the standby current increases to 150 μA typical
with 5 V supplies, and 75 μA typical with 3.3 V supplies. If a
crystal or ceramic resonator is used as the clock source, the total
current in standby mode is 400 μA typical with 5 V supplies, and
90 μA with 3.3 V supplies. This is because the on-chip oscillator
circuit continues to run when the part is in standby mode. This
is important in applications where the system clock is provided
by the AD7705/AD7706 clock so that the AD7705/AD7706
produce an uninterrupted master clock in standby mode.
ACCURACY
Σ-Δ ADCs, like VFCs and other integrating ADCs, do not contain
a source of nonmonotonicity and inherently offer no missing
codes performance. The AD7705/AD7706 achieve excellent
linearity by using high quality, on-chip capacitors that have a
very low capacitance/voltage coefficient. The devices also achieve
low input drift by using chopper-stabilization techniques in their
input stage. To ensure excellent performance over time and
temperature, the AD7705/AD7706 use digital calibration
techniques that minimize offset and gain error.
DRIFT CONSIDERATIONS
The AD7705/AD7706 use chopper-stabilization techniques to
minimize input offset drift. Charge injection in the analog
switches and dc-leakage currents at the sampling node are the
primary sources of offset voltage drift in the converter. The dc
input leakage current is essentially independent of the selected
gain. Gain drift within the converter primarily depends on the
temperature tracking of the internal capacitors. It is not affected
by leakage currents.
Measurement errors due to offset drift or gain drift can be
eliminated at any time by recalibrating the converter. Using the
system calibration mode also minimizes offset and gain errors in
the signal conditioning circuitry. Integral and differential linearity
errors are not significantly affected by temperature changes.
Rev. C | Page 29 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
POWER SUPPLIES
GROUNDING AND LAYOUT
The AD7705/AD7706 operate with VDD power supplies between
2.7 V and 5.25 V. Although the latch-up performance of the
AD7705/AD7706 is good, it is important that power is applied to
the AD7705/AD7706 before signals are applied at the REF IN,
AIN, or logic input pins to avoid excessive currents. If this is not
possible, the current through these pins should be limited. If
separate supplies are used for the AD7705/AD7706 and the system
digital circuitry, the AD7705/AD7706 should be powered up first.
If it is not possible to guarantee this, current-limiting resistors
should be placed in series with the logic inputs to limit the
current. The latch-up current is greater than 100 mA.
Because the analog inputs and reference input are differential,
most of the voltages in the analog modulator are common-mode
voltages. The excellent common-mode rejection of the parts
removes common-mode noise on these inputs. The digital filter
provides rejection of broadband noise on the power supplies,
except at integer multiples of the modulator sampling frequency.
The digital filter also removes noise from the analog and reference
inputs, provided that those noise sources do not saturate the
analog modulator. As a result, the AD7705/AD7706 are more
immune to noise interference than conventional high resolution
converters. However, because the resolutions of the AD7705/
AD7706 are so high and the noise levels from the AD7705/
AD7706 are so low, care must be taken with regard to grounding
and layout.
SUPPLY CURRENT
The current consumption on the AD7705/AD7706 is specified
for supplies in the range of 2.7 V to 3.3 V and 4.75 V to 5.25 V.
The parts operate over a 2.7 V to 5.25 V supply range, and the
IDD changes as the supply voltage varies over this range. There is
an internal current boost bit on the AD7705/AD7706 that is set
internally in accordance with the operating conditions. This
affects the current drawn by the analog circuitry within these
devices. Minimum power consumption is achieved when the
AD7705/AD7706 are operated with an fCLKIN of 1 MHz, or at
gains of 1 to 4 with fCLKIN = 2.4575 MHz, because the internal
boost bit reduces the analog current consumption. Figure 18
shows the variation of the typical IDD with VDD voltage for both a
1 MHz crystal oscillator and a 2.4576 MHz crystal oscillator at
25°C. The AD7705/AD7706 are operated in unbuffered mode.
The relationship shows that the IDD is minimized by operating
the part with lower VDD voltages. IDD on the AD7705/AD7706
is also minimized by using an external master clock, or by
optimizing external components when using the on-chip
oscillator circuit. Figure 6, Figure 7, Figure 9, and Figure 10
show variations in IDD with gain, VDD, and clock frequency
using an external clock.
1600
1400
1200
MCLK IN = CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR
TA = 25°C
UNBUFFERED MODE
GAIN = +128
fCLK = 2.4576MHz
800
600
fCLK = 1MHz
400
200
0
2.5
01166-018
IDD (μA)
1000
3.0
3.5
4.0
VDD
4.5
Figure 18. IDD vs. Supply Voltage
5.0
5.5
The printed circuit board that houses the AD7705/AD7706
should be designed so that the analog and digital sections are
separated and confined to certain areas of the board. This
facilitates the use of ground planes that can be separated easily.
A minimum etch technique is generally best for ground planes,
because it provides the best shielding. Digital and analog
ground planes should only be joined in one place to avoid
ground loops. If the AD7705/AD7706 are in a system where
multiple devices require AGND-to-DGND connections, the
AGND-to-DGND connection should only be made at one
point, a star ground point, which should be established as close
as possible to the AD7705/AD7706 GND.
Avoid running digital lines under the device, because they couple
noise onto the die. The analog ground plane should be allowed
to run under the AD7705/AD7706 to avoid noise coupling. The
power supply lines to the AD7705/AD7706 should use as large a
trace as possible to provide low impedance paths and reduce the
effects of glitches on the power supply line. Fast switching signals,
such as clock signals, should be shielded with digital ground to
avoid radiating noise to other sections of the board, and clock
signals should never be run near the analog inputs. Avoid
crossover of digital and analog signals. Traces on opposite sides
of the board should run at right angles to each other. This
reduces the effects of feedthrough through the board. Using a
microstrip technique works best, but it is not always possible to
use this method with a double-sided board. In this technique,
the component side of the board is dedicated to ground planes,
and signals are placed on the solder side.
Good decoupling is important when using high resolution
ADCs. All analog supplies should be decoupled with 10 μF
tantalum in parallel with 0.1 μF ceramic capacitors to GND. To
achieve the best from these decoupling components, place them
as close as possible to the device, ideally right up against the
device. All logic chips should be decoupled with 0.1 μF disc
ceramic capacitors to DGND.
Rev. C | Page 30 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
EVALUATING THE PERFORMANCE
The recommended layout for the AD7705/AD7706 is outlined
in their associated evaluations. Each evaluation board package
includes a fully assembled and tested evaluation board,
documentation, software for controlling the board over the
printer port of a PC, and software for analyzing its performance
on a PC.
Noise levels in the signals applied to the AD7705/AD7706 can
also affect performance of the parts. The AD7705/AD7706
software evaluation packages allow the user to evaluate the
true performance of the parts independently of the analog input
signals. For the AD7705, the scheme involves using a test mode
with the inputs internally shorted together to provide a zero
differential voltage for the analog modulator. External to the
AD7705, the AIN1(−) input should be connected to a voltage
that is within the allowable common-mode range of the part.
Similarly, on the AD7706 for evaluation purposes, the COMMON
input should be connected to a voltage within its allowable
common-mode range. This scheme should be used after a
calibration is performed on the parts.
DIGITAL INTERFACE
As previously outlined, the AD7705/AD7706 programmable
functions are controlled using a set of on-chip registers. Data is
written to these registers via the serial interface, which also
provides read access to the on-chip registers. All communication
to the parts must start with a write operation to the
communication register. After a power-on or reset, the devices
expect a write to their communication registers. The data
written to these registers determine whether the next operation
is a read or write operation and to which register this operation
occurs. Therefore, write access to a register on either part starts
with a write operation to the communication register, followed
by a write to the selected register. Likewise, a read operation
from any register, including the output data register, starts with
a write operation to the communication register, followed by a
read operation from the selected register.
The AD7705/AD7706 serial interfaces each consist of five signals:
CS, SCLK, DIN, DOUT, and DRDY. The DIN line is used for
transferring data into the on-chip registers, and the DOUT line is
used for accessing data from the on-chip registers. SCLK is the
serial clock input for the device, and all data transfers on either
DIN or DOUT take place with respect to this SCLK signal. The
DRDY line is used as a status signal to indicate when data is ready
to be read from the AD7705/AD7706 data registers. DRDY goes
low when a new data-word is available in the output register. It is
reset high when a read operation from the data register is complete.
It also goes high prior to updating the output register, indicating
not to read from the device, to ensure that a data read is not
attempted while the register is updated. CS is used to select the
device. It can be used to decode the AD7705/AD7706 in systems
where a number of parts are connected to the serial bus.
Figure 19 and Figure 20 show timing diagrams for interfacing to
the AD7705/AD7706, with CS used to decode the parts. Figure 19
shows a read operation from the AD7705/AD7706 output shift
register, and Figure 20 shows a write operation to the input shift
register. It is possible to read the same data twice from the
output register, even though the DRDY line returns high after
the first read operation. Care must be taken, however, to ensure
that the read operation is complete before the next output
update takes place.
The AD7705/AD7706 serial interface can operate in 3-wire
mode by tying the CS input low. In this case, the SCLK, DIN,
and DOUT lines are used to communicate with the AD7705/
AD7706, and the status of DRDY can be obtained by interrogating
the MSB of the communication register. This scheme is suitable
for interfacing to microcontrollers. If CS is required as a decoding
signal, it can be generated from a port bit. For microcontroller
interfaces, it is recommended that the SCLK idles high between
data transfers.
The AD7705/AD7706 can also be operated with CS used as a
frame synchronization signal. This scheme is suitable for DSP
interfaces. In this case, the first bit (MSB) is effectively clocked
out by CS, because CS normally occurs after the falling edge of
SCLK in DSP interfaces. The SCLK can continue to run between
data transfers, provided that the timing numbers are obeyed.
The serial interface can be reset by exercising the RESET input.
It can also be reset by writing a series of 1s on the DIN input. If
Logic 1 is written to the AD7705/AD7706 DIN line for at least
32 serial clock cycles, the serial interface is reset. This ensures
that in 3-wire systems, if the interface is lost via either a software
error or a glitch in the system, it can be reset to a known state.
This state returns the interface to where the AD7705/AD7706
are expecting a write operation to their communication registers.
This operation in itself does not reset the contents of any registers,
but it is advisable to set up all registers again, because the
information written to the registers is unknown due to the
interface being lost.
Some microprocessor or microcontroller serial interfaces have a
single serial data line. In this case, it is possible to connect the
AD7705/AD7706 DATA OUT and DATA IN lines together and
connect them to the single data line of the processor. A 10 kΩ
pull-up resistor should be used on this single data line. In this
case, if the interface is lost, the procedure to reset it back to a
known state is somewhat different than previously described
because the read and write operations share the same line. Instead,
a read operation of 24 serial clocks is required, followed by a write
operation where Logic 1 is written for at least 32 serial clock
cycles to ensure that the serial interface resets to a known state.
Rev. C | Page 31 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
DRDY
t10
t3
CS
t4
t8
t6
SCLK
DOUT
01166-019
t9
t7
t5
LSB
MSB
Figure 19. Read Cycle Timing Diagram
CS
t11
t16
t14
SCLK
DIN
t13
t15
LSB
MSB
Figure 20. Write Cycle Timing Diagram
Rev. C | Page 32 of 44
01166-020
t12
AD7705/AD7706
CONFIGURING THE AD7705/AD7706
The AD7705/AD7706 contain six on-chip registers that the user
can access via the serial interface. Communication with any of
these registers is initiated by first writing to the communication
register. Figure 21 outlines a flowchart of the sequence used to
configure registers after a power-up or reset on the AD7705;
similar procedures apply to the AD7706.
The flowchart also shows two read options—one polls the DRDY
pin, and the other interrogates the DRDY pin. In addition,
Figure 21 shows a series of words that should be written to the
registers for the following operating conditions: Gain 1, no
filter sync, bipolar mode, buffer off, clock of 4.9512 MHz, and
output rate of 50 Hz.
START
POWER-ON/RESET FOR AD7705
CONFIGURE & INITIALIZE μC/μP SERIAL PORT
WRITE TO COMMUNICATIONS REGISTER SELECTING
CHANNEL & SETTING UP NEXT OPERATION TO BE A
WRITE TO THE CLOCK REGISTER (20 HEX)
WRITE TO CLOCK REGISTER SETTING THE CLOCK
BITS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE APPLIED MASTER
CLOCK SIGNAL AND SELECT UPDATE RATE FOR
SELECTED CHANNEL (0C HEX)
WRITE TO COMMUNICATIONS REGISTER SELECTING
CHANNEL & SETTING UP NEXT OPERATION TO BE A
WRITE TO THE SETUP REGISTER (10 HEX)
WRITE TO SETUP REGISTER CLEARING F SYNC,
SETTING UP GAIN, OPERATING CONDITIONS &
INITIATING A SELF-CALIBRATION ON SELECTED
CHANNEL (40 HEX)
POLL DRDY PIN
NO
WRITE TO COMMUNICATIONS REGISTER SETTING UP NEXT
OPERATION TO BE A READ FROM THE COMMUNICATIONS
REGISTER (08 HEX)
DRDY
LOW?
YES
READ FROM COMMUNICATIONS REGISTER
WRITE TO COMMUNICATIONS REGISTER SETTING UP
NEXT OPERATION TO BE A READ FROM THE DATA
REGISTER (38 HEX)
POLL DRDY BIT OF COMMUNICATIONS REGISTER
READ FROM DATA REGISTER
NO
DRDY
LOW?
YES
WRITE TO COMMUNICATIONS REGISTER SETTING UP
NEXT OPERATION TO BE A READ FROM THE DATA
REGISTER (38 HEX)
01166-021
READ FROM DATA REGISTER
Figure 21. Flowchart for Setting Up and Reading from the AD7705
Rev. C | Page 33 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
MICROCOMPUTER/MICROPROCESSOR
INTERFACING
The flexible serial interface of the AD7705/AD7706 allows easy
interfacing to most microcomputers and microprocessors.
The flowchart in Figure 21 outlines the sequence to follow
when interfacing a microcontroller or microprocessor to the
AD7705/AD7706. Figure 22 through Figure 24 show typical
interface circuits.
The second scheme is to use an interrupt-driven system, in
which case the DRDY output is connected to the IRQ input of
the 68HC11. For interfaces that require control of the CS input
on the AD7705/AD7706, a port bit of the 68HC11 (such as
PC1) that is configured as an output can be used to drive the CS
input.
VDD
VDD
The serial interface is capable of operating from three wires and
is compatible with SPI interface protocols. The 3-wire operation
makes these parts ideal for an isolated system in which minimizing
the number of interface lines minimizes the number of
opto-isolators required in the system. The serial clock input is a
Schmitt-triggered input to accommodate slow edges from optocouplers. The rise and fall times of other digital inputs to the
AD7705/AD7706 should be no longer than 1 μs.
Because some registers on the AD7705/AD7706 are only 8 bits
long, successive write operations to two of these registers can be
handled as a single 16-bit data transfer. For example, to update
the setup register, the processor must write to the communication
register to indicate that the next operation is a write to the setup
register, and then write 8 bits to the setup register. This can be
done in a single 16-bit transfer, because once the eight serial
clocks of the write operation to the communication register are
complete, the part immediately sets up for a write operation to
the setup register.
RESET
68HC11
SCK
SCLK
MISO
DOUT
MOSI
DIN
CS
01166-022
Most of the registers on the AD7705/AD7706 are 8-bit registers,
which facilitates easy interfacing to the 8-bit serial ports of microcontrollers. The data register on the AD7705/AD7706 is 16 bits,
and the offset and gain registers are 24-bit registers, but data
transfers to these registers can consist of multiple 8-bit transfers
to the serial port of the microcontroller. DSP processors and
microprocessors generally transfer 16 bits of data in a serial data
operation. Some of these processors, such as the ADSP-2105,
have the facility to program the number of cycles in a serial
transfer. This allows the user to tailor the number of bits in any
transfer to match the length of the required register in the
AD7705/AD7706.
AD7705/AD7706
SS
Figure 22. AD7705/AD7706-to-68HC11 Interface
The 68HC11 is configured in master mode with its CPOL and
CPHA bits set to Logic 1. When the 68HC11 is configured like
this, its SCLK line idles high between data transfers. The AD7705/
AD7706 are not capable of a full duplex operation. If the AD7705/
AD7706 are configured for a write operation, no data appears
on the DOUT lines, even when the SCLK input is active.
Similarly, if the AD7705/AD7706 are configured for a read
operation, data presented to the part on the DIN line is ignored,
even when SCLK is active.
Coding for an interface between the 68HC11 and the AD7705/
AD7706 is given in the C Code for Interfacing AD7705 to
68HC11 section. In this example, the DRDY output line of the
AD7705 is connected to the PC0 port bit of the 68HC11 and is
polled to determine its status.
AD7705/AD7706-to-68HC11 Interface
VDD
8XC51
Rev. C | Page 34 of 44
P3.0
RESET
DOUT
DIN
P3.1
SCLK
CS
01166-023
Figure 22 shows an interface between the AD7705/AD7706 and
the 68HC11 microcontroller. The diagram shows the minimum
(3-wire) interface with CS on the AD7705/AD7706 hardwired
low. In this scheme, the DRDY bit of the communication register
is monitored to determine when the data register is updated. An
alternative scheme, which increases the number of interface lines
to four, is to monitor the DRDY output line from the AD7705/
AD7706. Monitoring the DRDY line can be done in two ways.
First, DRDY can be connected to a 68HC11 port bit (such as
PC0) that is configured as an input. This port bit is then polled
to determine the status of DRDY.
VDD
AD7705/AD7706
Figure 23. AD7705/AD7706-to-8XC51 Interface
AD7705/AD7706
AD7705/AD7706-to-8051 Interface
AD7705/AD7706-to-ADSP-2103/ADSP-2105 Interface
An interface circuit between the AD7705/AD7706 and the 8XC51
microcontroller is shown in Figure 23. The diagram shows the
minimum number of interface connections with CS on the
AD7705/AD7706 hardwired low. In the case of the 8XC51
interface, the minimum number of interconnects is two. In this
scheme, the DRDY bit of the communication register is monitored
to determine when the data register is updated. The alternative
scheme, which increases the number of interface lines to three,
is to monitor the DRDY output line from the AD7705/AD7706.
Monitoring the DRDY line can be done in two ways. First, DRDY
can be connected to a 8XC51 port bit (such as P1.0) that is
configured as an input. This port bit is then polled to determine
the status of DRDY. The second scheme is to use an interruptdriven system, in which case the DRDY output is connected to
the INT1 input of the 8XC51. For interfaces that require control
of the CS input on the AD7705/AD7706, a port bit of the 8XC51
(such as P1.1) that is configured as an output can be used to
drive the CS input. The 8XC51 is configured in Mode 0 serial
interface mode. Its serial interface contains a single data line.
As a result, the DOUT and DIN pins of the AD7705/
AD7706 should be connected together with a 10 kΩ pull-up
resistor. The serial clock on the 8XC51 idles high between data
transfers. During a write operation, the 8XC51 outputs the LSB
first. Because the AD7705/AD7706 expect the MSB first, the
data must be rearranged before being written to the output
serial register. Similarly, during a read operation, the AD7705/
AD7706 output the MSB first, and the 8XC51 expects the LSB
first. Therefore, the data read into the serial buffer must be
rearranged before the correct data-word from the AD7705/
AD7706 is available in the accumulator.
Figure 24 shows an interface between the AD7705/AD7706 and
the ADSP-2103/ADSP-2105 DSP processor. In the interface
shown, the DRDY bit of the communication register is monitored
to determine when the data register is updated. The alternative
scheme is to use an interrupt-driven system, in which case the
DRDY output is connected to the IRQ2 input of the ADSP-2103/
ADSP-2105. The serial interface of the ADSP-2103/ADSP-2105
is set up for alternate framing mode. The RFS and TFS pins of
the ADSP-2103/ADSP-2105 are configured as active low outputs,
and the ADSP-2103/ADSP-2105 serial clock line, SCLK, is
configured as an output. The CS for the AD7705/AD7706 is
active when either the RFS or TFS outputs from the ADSP-2103/
ADSP-2105 are active. The serial clock rate on the ADSP-2103/
ADSP-2105 should be limited to 3 MHz to ensure correct
operation with the AD7705/AD7706.
VDD
ADSP-2103/
ADSP-2105
AD7705/AD7706
CODE FOR SETTING UP THE AD7705/AD7706
The following section shows a set of read and write routines in
C code for interfacing the 68HC11 microcontroller to the AD7705.
The sample program sets up the various registers on the AD7705
and reads 1000 samples from one channel into the 68HC11. The
setup conditions on the part are the same as those outlined for the
flowchart of Figure 21. In the example code given here, the DRDY
output is polled to determine if a new valid word is available in
the data register. The same sequence is applicable for the AD7706.
The sequence of events in this program are as follows:
1.
Write to the communication register, selecting Channel 1
as the active channel and setting the next operation to be a
write to the clock register.
2.
Write to the clock register, setting the CLKDIV bit, which
divides the external clock internally by two. This assumes
that the external crystal is 4.9512 MHz. The update rate is
selected to be 50 Hz.
3.
Write to the communication register selecting Channel 1 as
the active channel and setting the next operation to be a
write to the setup register.
4.
Write to the setup register, setting the gain to 1, setting
bipolar mode, buffer off, clearing the filter
synchronization, and initiating a self-calibration.
5.
Poll the DRDY output.
6.
Read the data from the data register.
7.
Repeat Steps 5 and 6 (loop) until the specified number of
samples has been taken from the selected channel.
RESET
RFS
CS
TFS
DR
DOUT
DT
DIN
SCLK
01166-024
SCLK
Figure 24. AD7705/AD7706-to-ADSP-2103/ADSP-2105 Interface
Rev. C | Page 35 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
C Code for Interfacing AD7705 to 68HC11
#include <math.h>
#include <io6811.h>
#define NUM_SAMPLES 1000 /* change the number of data samples */
#define MAX_REG_LENGTH 2 /* this says that the max length of a register is 2 bytes */
Writetoreg (int);
Read (int,char);
char *datapointer = store;
char store[NUM_SAMPLES*MAX_REG_LENGTH + 30];
void main()
{
/* the only pin that is programmed here from the 68HC11 is the /CS and this is why the PC2 bit of PORTC is
made as
an output */
char a;
DDRC = 0x04; /* PC2 is an output the rest of the port bits are inputs */
PORTC | = 0x04; /* make the /CS line high */
Writetoreg(0x20); /* Active Channel is Ain1(+)/Ain1(−), next operation as write to the clock register */
Writetoreg(0x0C); /* master clock enabled, 4.9512MHz Clock, set output rate to 50Hz*/
Writetoreg(0x10); /* Active Channel is Ain1(+)/Ain1(−), next operation as write to the setup register */
Writetoreg(0x40); /* gain = 1, bipolar mode, buffer off, clear FSYNC and perform a Self Calibration*/
while(PORTC & 0x10); /* wait for /DRDY to go low */
for(a=0;a<NUM_SAMPLES;a++);
{
Writetoreg(0x38); /*set the next operation for 16 bit read from the data register */
Read(NUM_SAMPES,2);
}
}
Writetoreg(int byteword);
{
int q;
SPCR = 0x3f;
SPCR = 0X7f; /* this sets the WiredOR mode(DWOM=1), Master mode(MSTR=1), SCK idles high(CPOL=1), /SS can be low
always (CPHA=1), lowest clock speed(slowest speed which is master clock /32 */
DDRD = 0x18; /* SCK, MOSI outputs */
q = SPSR;
q = SPDR; /* the read of the status register and of the data register is needed to clear the interrupt which tells
the user that the
data transfer is complete */
PORTC &= 0xfb; /* /CS is low */
SPDR = byteword; /* put the byte into data register */
while(!(SPSR & 0x80)); /* wait for /DRDY to go low */
PORTC |= 0x4; /* /CS high */
}
Read(int amount, int reglength)
Rev. C | Page 36 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
{
int q;
SPCR = 0x3f;
SPCR = 0x7f; /* clear the interrupt */
DDRD = 0x10; /* MOSI output, MISO input, SCK output */
while(PORTC & 0x10); /* wait for /DRDY to go low */
PORTC & 0xfb ; /* /CS is low */
for(b=0;b<reglength;b++)
{
SPDR = 0;
while(!(SPSR & 0x80)); /* wait until port ready before reading */
*datapointer++=SPDR; /* read SPDR into store array via datapointer */
}
PORTC|=4; /* /CS is high */
}
Rev. C | Page 37 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
APPLICATIONS
PRESSURE MEASUREMENT
The AD7705 provides a dual-channel, low cost, high resolution
analog-to-digital function. Because the analog-to-digital function
is provided by a Σ-Δ architecture, the part is more immune to
noisy environments, thus making it ideal for use in industrial and
process-control applications. It also provides a programmable
gain amplifier, digital filter, and calibration options. Therefore,
it provides far more system level functionality than off-the-shelf
integrating ADCs, but without the disadvantage of needing to
supply a high quality integrating capacitor. In addition, using
the AD7705 in a system allows the designer to achieve a much
higher level of resolution, because noise performance of the
AD7705 is better than that of the integrating ADCs.
One typical application of the AD7705 is pressure measurement. Figure 25 shows the AD7705 used with a pressure
transducer, the BP01 from SenSym. The pressure transducer is
arranged in a bridge network and provides a differential output
voltage between it’s OUT(+) and OUT(−) terminals. With
rated, full-scale pressure (in this case 300 mmHg) on the
transducer, the differential output voltage is 3 mV/V of the input
voltage (that is, the voltage between it’s IN(+) and IN(−)
terminals). Assuming a 5 V excitation voltage, the full-scale
output from the transducer is 15 mV. The excitation voltage for
the bridge is also used to generate the reference voltage for the
AD7705. Therefore, variations in the excitation voltage do not
introduce errors in the system. Choosing resistor values of 24 kΩ
and 15 kΩ, as per Figure 25, results in a 1.92 V reference voltage
for the AD7705 when the excitation voltage is 5 V.
The on-chip PGA allows the AD7705 to handle an analog input
voltage range as low as 10 mV full scale with VREF = 1.25 V. The
differential inputs of the part allow the absolute value of this
analog input range to be between GND and VDD when the
part is operated in unbuffered mode. It allows the user to
connect the transducer directly to the input of the AD7705.
The programmable-gain front end on the AD7705 allows the
part to handle unipolar analog input ranges from (0 mV to
20 mV) to (0 V to 2.5 V), and bipolar inputs of ±20 mV to
±2.5 V. Because the part operates from a single supply, these
bipolar ranges are with respect to a biased-up differential input.
Using the part with a programmed gain of 128 results in the
full-scale input span of the AD7705 being 15 mV, which
corresponds with the output span from the transducer. The
second channel on the AD7705 can be used as an auxiliary
channel to measure a secondary variable, such as temperature,
as shown in Figure 25. This secondary channel can be used as a
means of adjusting the output of the primary channel, thus
removing temperature effects in the system.
EXCITATION VOLTAGE = 5V
5V
VDD
IN+
OUT(+)
AIN1(+)
OUT(–)
AIN1(–)
IN–
AD7705
24kΩ
MCLK IN
AIN2(+)
AIN2(–)
THERMOCOUPLE
JUNCTION
MCLK OUT
REF IN(+)
15kΩ
RESET
REF IN(–)
DRDY
DOUT DIN
CS SCLK
Figure 25. Pressure Measurement Using the AD7705
Rev. C | Page 38 of 44
01166-025
GND
AD7705/AD7706
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
Another application of the AD7705 is temperature measurement. Figure 26 outlines a connection between a thermocouple
and the AD7705. For this application, the AD7705 is operated in
buffered mode to allow large decoupling capacitors on the front
end to eliminate any noise pickup from the thermocouple leads.
When the AD7705 operates in buffered mode, it has a reduced
common-mode range. To place the differential voltage from the
thermocouple on a suitable common-mode voltage, the
AIN1(−) input of the AD7705 is biased up at the reference
voltage, 2.5 V.
5V
VDD
AD7705 is very low. The lead resistances present a small source
impedance; therefore, it is not generally necessary to use the
buffer of the AD7705. If the buffer is required, the commonmode voltage should be set accordingly by inserting a small
resistance between the bottom end of the RTD and the GND
of the AD7705. In the application shown, an external 400 μA
current source provides the excitation current for the PT100
and generates the reference voltage for the AD7705 via the
6.25 kΩ resistor. Variations in the excitation current do not
affect the circuit, because both the input voltage and the
reference voltage vary ratiometrically with the excitation
current. However, the 6.25 kΩ resistor must have a low
temperature coefficient to avoid errors in the reference
voltage over temperature.
5V
THERMOCOUPLE
JUNCTION
VDD
AIN1(+)
400μA
MCLK IN
AIN1(–)
REF IN(+)
AD7705
5V
6.25kΩ
REF IN(+)
REF192
OUTPUT
RL2
REF IN(–)
REF IN(–)
RL1
MCLK OUT
MCLK IN
AD7705
AIN1(+)
RTD
RESET
MCLK OUT
GND
GND
DRDY
RL3
AIN1(–)
CS
SCLK
Figure 26. Temperature Measurement Using the AD7705
DRDY
GND
Figure 27 shows another example of a temperature measurement application for the AD7705. In this case, the transducer is
a resistive temperature device (RTD), a PT100, and the
arrangement is a 4-lead RTD configuration. There are voltage
drops across lead resistances RL1 and RL4, which shift the
common-mode voltage. There is no voltage drop across lead
resistances RL2 and RL3, because the input current to the
Rev. C | Page 39 of 44
DOUT DIN
CS
SCLK
Figure 27. RTD Measurement Using the AD7705
01166-027
DOUT DIN
01166-026
RESET
RL4
AD7705/AD7706
mean that the current available to power the transmitter can be
as low as 3.5 mA. The AD7705 consumes only 320 μA, leaving
at least 3 mA available for the rest of the transmitter. The
AD7705, with its dual-input channel, is ideally suited for
systems requiring an auxiliary channel whose measured
variable is used to correct that of the primary channel.
SMART TRANSMITTERS
Another application where the low power, single-supply, 3-wire
interface capabilities of the AD7705/AD7706 are beneficial is in
smart transmitters. Figure 28 shows a block diagram of a smart
transmitter using the AD7705. Because a smart transmitter
must operate from a 4 to 20 mA loop, tolerances in the loop
MAIN TRANSMITTER ASSEMBLY
ISOLATION
BARRIER
ISOLATED SUPPLY
REF IN
4.7μF
100kΩ
VCC
VCC
BOOST
REF OUT1
COMP
REF OUT2
DRIVE
MICROCONTROLLER UNIT
SENSORS
RTD
mV
Ω
TC
AD7705
MCLK IN
•PID
•RANGE SETTING
•CALIBRATION
•LINEARIZATION
•OUTPUT CONTROL
•SERIAL COMMUNICATION
•HART PROTOCOL
0.01μF
4mA
TO
20mA
1kΩ
REF IN
1000pF
4.7μF
AD421
LOOP
RTN
C1 C2 C3
COM
COM
MCLK OUT
0.01μF
0.0033μF
GND
ISOLATED GROUND
0.01μF
Figure 28. Smart Transmitter Using the AD7705
Rev. C | Page 40 of 44
01166-028
VDD
DN25D
2.2μF 0.1μF
AD7705/AD7706
BATTERY MONITORING
An application where the low power, single-supply operation is
required is battery monitoring in portable equipment applications.
Figure 29 shows a block diagram of a battery monitor using the
AD7705 and an external multiplexer to measure differentially
the voltage across a single cell.
The second channel on the AD7705 is used to monitor current
drain from the battery. The AD7705, with its dual-input
channel, is ideally suited for measurement systems requiring
two input channels, as in this case, to monitor voltage and
current.
Because the AD7705 can accommodate very low input signals,
RSENSE can be kept low, reducing undesired power dissipation.
Operating with a gain of 128, a ±9.57 mV full-scale signal can
be measured with a resolution of 2 μV, giving 13.5 bits of flickerfree performance in such a system.
To obtain specified performance in unbuffered mode, the
common-mode range of the input is GND to VDD, provided that
the absolute value of the analog input voltage lies between
GND − 100 mV and VDD + 30 mV. Absolute voltages of
GND − 200 mV can be accommodated on the AD7705 at 25°C
without any degradation in performance, but with significantly
increased leakage at elevated temperatures.
ON/OFF SWITCH
4-TO-1
DIFFERENTIAL
MULTIPLEXER
VCELL 1
3V
VDIFF1
VCELL 2
DC BATTERY
CHARGING
SOURCE
VCELL 3
VDIFF2
5V
VOLTAGE
REGULATORS
VDD
AD7705
VDIFF3
AIN1(+)
AIN1(–)
VCELL 4
VDIFF4
REF IN(+)
1.225V
REF
LOAD
AIN2(+)
AIN2(–)
RSENSE
01166-029
REF IN(–)
GND
Figure 29. Battery Monitoring Using the AD7705
Rev. C | Page 41 of 44
AD7705/AD7706
OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
10.50 (0.4134)
10.10 (0.3976)
5.10
5.00
4.90
9
7.60 (0.2992)
7.40 (0.2913)
1.27 (0.0500)
BSC
0.30 (0.0118)
0.10 (0.0039)
COPLANARITY
0.10
10.65 (0.4193)
10.00 (0.3937)
8
1
0.51 (0.0201)
0.31 (0.0122)
16
9
4.50
4.40
4.30
6.40
BSC
1
0.75 (0.0295)
× 45°
0.25 (0.0098)
2.65 (0.1043)
2.35 (0.0925)
8°
0.33 (0.0130) 0°
0.20 (0.0079)
SEATING
PLANE
1.27 (0.0500)
0.40 (0.0157)
8
PIN 1
1.20
MAX
0.15
0.05
0.20
0.09
0.30
0.19
0.65
BSC
COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARDS MS-013-AA
CONTROLLING DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS; INCH DIMENSIONS
(IN PARENTHESES) ARE ROUNDED-OFF MILLIMETER EQUIVALENTS FOR
REFERENCE ONLY AND ARE NOT APPROPRIATE FOR USE IN DESIGN.
COPLANARITY
0.10
SEATING
PLANE
COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARDS MO-153-AB
0.800 (20.32)
0.790 (20.07)
0.780 (19.81)
16
9
1
8
0.280 (7.11)
0.250 (6.35)
0.240 (6.10)
0.325 (8.26)
0.310 (7.87)
0.300 (7.62)
PIN 1
0.100 (2.54)
BSC
0.060 (1.52)
MAX
0.210
(5.33)
MAX
0.195 (4.95)
0.130 (3.30)
0.115 (2.92)
0.015
(0.38)
MIN
0.150 (3.81)
0.130 (3.30)
0.115 (2.92)
0.015 (0.38)
GAUGE
PLANE
SEATING
PLANE
0.022 (0.56)
0.018 (0.46)
0.014 (0.36)
8°
0°
Figure 31. 16-Lead Thin Shrink Small Outline Package [TSSOP]
(RU-16)
Dimensions shown in millimeters
Figure 30. 16-Lead Standard Small Outline Package [SOIC_W]
Wide Body
(RW-16)
Dimensions shown in millimeters and (inches)
0.005 (0.13)
MIN
0.014 (0.36)
0.010 (0.25)
0.008 (0.20)
0.430 (10.92)
MAX
0.070 (1.78)
0.060 (1.52)
0.045 (1.14)
COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARDS MS-001-AB
CONTROLLING DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES; MILLIMETER DIMENSIONS
(IN PARENTHESES) ARE ROUNDED-OFF INCH EQUIVALENTS FOR
REFERENCE ONLY AND ARE NOT APPROPRIATE FOR USE IN DESIGN.
CORNER LEADS MAY BE CONFIGURED AS WHOLE OR HALF LEADS.
Figure 32. 16-Lead Plastic Dual In-Line Package [PDIP]
Narrow Body
(N-16)
Dimensions shown in inches and (millimeters)
Rev. C | Page 42 of 44
051206-A
16
0.75
0.60
0.45
AD7705/AD7706
ORDERING GUIDE
Model
AD7705BN
AD7705BNZ1
AD7705BR
AD7705BR-REEL
AD7705BR-REEL7
AD7705BRZ 1
AD7705BRZ-REEL1
AD7705BRZ-REEL71
AD7705BRU
AD7705BRU-REEL
AD7705BRU-REEL7
AD7705BRUZ1
AD7705BRUZ-REEL1
AD7705BRUZ-REEL71
AD7706BN
AD7706BNZ1
AD7706BR
AD7706BR-REEL
AD7706BR-REEL7
AD7706BRZ1
AD7706BRZ-REEL1
AD7706BRZ-REEL71
AD7706BRU
AD7706BRU-REEL
AD7706BRU-REEL7
AD7706BRUZ1
AD7706BRUZ-REEL1
AD7706BRUZ-REEL71
EVAL-AD7705EB
EVAL-AD7706EB
1
Temperature Range
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
Package Description
16-Lead PDIP
16-Lead PDIP
16-Lead SOIC_W
16-Lead SOIC_W
16-Lead SOIC_W
16-Lead SOIC_W
16-Lead SOIC_W
16-Lead SOIC_W
16-Lead TSSOP
16-Lead TSSOP
16-Lead TSSOP
16-Lead TSSOP
16-Lead TSSOP
16-Lead TSSOP
16-Lead PDIP
16-Lead PDIP
16-Lead SOIC_W
16-Lead SOIC_W
16-Lead SOIC_W
16-Lead SOIC_W
16-Lead SOIC_W
16-Lead SOIC_W
16-Lead TSSOP
16-Lead TSSOP
16-Lead TSSOP
16-Lead TSSOP
16-Lead TSSOP
16-Lead TSSOP
Evaluation Board
Evaluation Board
Z = Pb-free part.
Rev. C | Page 43 of 44
Package Option
N-16
N-16
RW-16
RW-16
RW-16
RW-16
RW-16
RW-16
RU-16
RU-16
RU-16
RU-16
RU-16
RU-16
N-16
N-16
RW-16
RW-16
RW-16
RW-16
RW-16
RW-16
RU-16
RU-16
RU-16
RU-16
RU-16
RU-16
AD7705/AD7706
NOTES
©2006 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
C01166-0-5/06(C)
Rev. C | Page 44 of 44
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