Fourth Grade

Fourth Grade
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Grade 4
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INTRODUCTION TO CONTENT STATEMENTS
GRADE BAND THEME: INTERCONNECTIONS WITHIN SYSTEMS
This theme focuses on helping students recognize the components of various systems and then investigate dynamic and sustainable relationships within systems using
scientific inquiry.
SCIENCE INQUIRY AND APPLICATION
During the years of PreK-4, all students must become proficient in the use of the following scientific processes, with appropriate laboratory safety techniques, to construct
their knowledge and understanding in all science content areas:
• Observe and ask questions about the natural environment;
• Plan and conduct simple investigations;
• Employ simple equipment and tools to gather data and extend the senses;
• Use appropriate mathematics with data to construct reasonable explanations;
• Communicate about observations, investigations and explanations; and
• Review and ask questions about the observations and explanations of others.
STRANDS
Strand Connections: Heat and electrical energy are forms of energy that can be transferred from one location to another. Matter has properties that allow the transfer of
heat and electrical energy. Heating and cooling affect the weathering of Earth’s surface and Earth’s past environments. The processes that shape Earth’s surface and the
fossil evidence found can help decode Earth’s history.
EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE (ESS)
PHYSICAL SCIENCE (PS)
LIFE SCIENCE (LS)
Topic: Earth’s Surface
Topic: Electricity, Heat and Matter
Topic: Earth’s Living History
This topic focuses on the variety of processes that
shape and reshape Earth’s surface.
This topic focuses on the conservation of matter and
the processes of energy transfer and transformation,
especially as they relate to heat and electrical energy.
This topic focuses on using fossil evidence and living
organisms to observe that suitable habitats depend
upon a combination of biotic and abiotic factors.
CONDENSED CONTENT STATEMENTS
• Earth’s surface has specific characteristics and
landforms that can be identified.
• The surface of Earth changes due to weathering.
• The surface of Earth changes due to erosion and
deposition.
• The total amount of matter is conserved when it
undergoes a change.
• Energy can be transformed from one form to
another or can be transferred from one location to
another.
• Changes in an organism’s environment are
sometimes beneficial to its survival and sometimes
harmful.
• Fossils can be compared to one another and to
present day organisms according to their similarities
and differences.
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EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE (ESS)
Topic: Earth’s Surface
This topic focuses on the variety of processes that shape and reshape Earth’s surface.
CONTENT STATEMENT
CONTENT ELABORATION
Earth’s surface has specific
characteristics and landforms
that can be identified.
Prior Concepts Related to Surface of Earth
About 70 percent of the Earth’s surface
is covered with water and most of that
is the ocean. Only a small portion of the
Earth’s water is freshwater, which is
found in rivers, lakes and ground water.
Earth’s surface can change due to
erosion and deposition of soil, rock or
sediment. Catastrophic events such as
flooding, volcanoes and earthquakes can
create landforms.
PreK-2: Wind and precipitation can be measured, water can change state, heating and freezing can change the properties of
materials, and living things can cause changes on Earth.
Grade 3: The composition and characteristics of rocks and soil are studied.
Grade 4 Concepts
Earth is known as the Blue Planet because about 70 percent of Earth’s surface is covered in water. Freshwater is a small
percentage of the overall water found on Earth; the majority is oceanic.
There are many different processes that continually build up or tear down the surface of Earth. These processes include erosion,
deposition, volcanic activity, earthquakes, glacial movement and weathering.
Beginning to recognize common landforms or features through field investigations, field trips, topographic maps, remote
sensing data, aerial photographs, physical geography maps and/or photographs (through books or virtually) are important ways to
understand the formation of landforms and features. Common landforms and features include streams, deltas, floodplains, hills,
mountains/mountain ranges, valleys, sinkholes, caves, canyons, glacial features, dunes, springs, volcanoes and islands.
Connecting the processes that must occur to the resulting landform, feature or characteristic should be emphasized. This can
be demonstrated through experiments, investigations (including virtual experiences) or field observations. Technology can help
illustrate specific features that are not found locally or demonstrate change that occurred (e.g., using satellite photos of an
erosion event such as flooding).
Future Application of Concepts
Grade 5: Earth is a planet in the solar system that has a unique composition. Global seasonal changes are introduced, including
monsoons and rainy seasons, which can change erosion and deposition patterns.
Grades 6-8: Changes in the surface of Earth are examined using data from the rock record and through the understanding of
plate tectonics and the interior of Earth. Historical studies of erosion and deposition patterns are introduced, in addition to soil
conservation, the interaction of Earth’s spheres and ocean features specific to erosion and deposition.
EXPECTATIONS FOR LEARNING: COGNITIVE DEMANDS
This section provides definitions for Ohio’s science cognitive demands, which are intrinsically related to current understandings and research about how people learn. They
provide a structure for teachers and assessment developers to reflect on plans for teaching science, to monitor observable evidence of student learning, and to develop
summative assessment of student learning of science.
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VISIONS INTO PRACTICE: CLASSROOM EXAMPLES
This section provides examples of tasks that students may perform; this includes guidance for developing classroom performance tasks. It is not an all-inclusive checklist of
what should be done, but is a springboard for generating innovative ideas.
DESIGNING TECHNOLOGICAL/
ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS
USING SCIENCE CONCEPTS
DEMONSTRATING SCIENCE
KNOWLEDGE
INTERPRETING AND
COMMUNICATING SCIENCE
CONCEPTS
RECALLING ACCURATE SCIENCE
Research a specific weathering feature
(such as a sinkhole or cave). Evaluate
the risk of collapse and methods of
prevention of collapse (using actual data)
and recommend one solution based
on the scientific data. Create a model
(virtual, graphic or 3-D) of the actual
cave or sinkhole and demonstrate the
risk of collapse and how the suggested
preventative measure or solution
impacts that risk.
Plan, build and use a model (such as
a small-scale stream table) that can
demonstrate the formation of a landform
or feature that formed through contact
with water (alluvial fan, sinkhole, midchannel bar, canyon, valley, depositional
islands). Ask: What factors accelerate
the processes? What factors must
exist for the landform to form? Share
findings with the class.
Using topographic or aerial maps, locate
areas that have been formed through
deposition and erosion.
Recognize that 70 percent of Earth’s
surface is water, which is why Earth is
known as the Blue Planet.
Include areas of Ohio that have been
impacted by glacial ice or movement.
Discuss findings with the class.
Identify common landforms from maps
or graphics.
Using LANDSAT data, research and
locate a specific major landform or
geographical feature on Earth that
formed through erosion or deposition.
Represent findings graphically or orally
to the class.
Identify the processes that can change
the surface of Earth (e.g., erosion,
deposition, volcanic activity, earthquakes,
glacial movement and/or weathering).
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INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES AND RESOURCES
This section provides additional support and information for educators. These are strategies for actively engaging students with the topic and for providing hands-on, mindson observation and exploration of the topic, including authentic data resources for scientific inquiry, experimentation and problem-based tasks that incorporate technology
and technological and engineering design. Resources selected are printed or Web-based materials that directly relate to the particular Content Statement. It is not intended
to be a prescriptive list of lessons.
• Fieldtrips to local caves, caverns, sinkholes, glacial areas, stream systems, lakes, etc., should be encouraged to experience Ohio geologic landforms and features first
hand. There also are numerous virtual fieldtrips to visit caves, canyons, glaciers, mountains and valleys.
• The Ohio Department of Natural Resources provides helpful resources and geologic maps that can be used to study landforms and surface geology of Ohio. The
relationship between the types of rocks and the resulting features or landforms is a very important connection, especially if local/regional maps are used in conjunction
with field trips or outside investigations around the community or school property.
• Viewing landforms and surface geology from satellite photographs and through remote sensing can be a helpful tool in illustrating landforms in different parts of the
world and conditions that exist for formation. Click on the geographical features icon to see satellite photos of Earth’s surface.
•The NASA Visible Earth Program houses hundreds of satellite photos that can be used to illustrate specific landforms. Comparing the photo to a map can be a good
way to learn about recognizable features such as delta systems, mountain ranges, volcanoes and canyons.
•The National Atlas mapmaker site can plot areas within the United States where specific geologic features are found. For example, by clicking on Geology, then the
Karst, Engineering Aspects option, areas that have caves, caverns and sinkholes are shown. This can be a good starting resource to locate other maps, photos and
graphics related to landforms and features that form through erosion and/or deposition.
•The USGS website provides data, information, books and maps that relate to Earth’s surface, weathering and erosion. Many of these resources are free and some are
available at cost.
•The National Speleological Society provides information and resources for caves and caving for young students. Taking a field trip to an Ohio cave connects what is
learned in the classroom about weathering and erosion to the real world. It is essential to learn about the processes of cave formation and karts topography, including lab
investigations, to prepare students for a cave or cavern field experience.
COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS
• NSTA offers a list of landform resources at http://learningcenter.nsta.org/search.aspx?action=quicksearch&text=landforms. Included are guides for formative
assessment techniques that can be used to determine student misconceptions about landform formation, weathering and erosion. One reference in particular (an
assessment probe) can be found at http://learningcenter.nsta.org/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/9780873552554.22. It deals with beach sand and applies to all
Earth Science content at grade 4.
• Funded by the National Science Foundation, Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears is an online magazine for K-5 teachers. For a list of common misconceptions about
glacial movement, weathering and erosion, as well as ways to address them, visit
http://beyondpenguins.nsdl.org/issue/column.php?date=August2009&departmentid=professional&columnid=professional!misconceptions.
DIVERSE LEARNERS
Strategies for meeting the needs of all learners including gifted students, English Language Learners (ELL) and students with disabilities can be found at this site. Resources
based on the Universal Design for Learning principles are available at www.cast.org.
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CLASSROOM PORTALS
These are windows into the classroom through webcasts, podcasts or video clips to exemplify and model classroom methods of teaching science using inquiry.
A series of case studies of K-8 science classrooms by the Smithsonian and Harvard University can be found at http://www.learner.org/resources/series21.html. Teachers
need to sign up to use this free site. The case study Linda–Grades 2-4 is an example of how to work with teacher teams to help students of all ability levels to develop
scientifically accurate ideas and investigations.
The Annenberg Foundation offers training modules that support Earth and Space Sciences for K-4 teachers. There are numerous resources and video clips of actual
classroom practices that can be useful training tools at http://www.learner.org/resources/series195.html.
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MODEL CURRICULUM GRADE 4
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EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE (ESS)
Topic: Earth’s Surface
This topic focuses on the variety of processes that shape and reshape Earth’s surface.
CONTENT STATEMENT
CONTENT ELABORATION
The surface of Earth changes due
to weathering.
Prior Concepts Related to Weathering
Rocks change shape, size and/or form
due to water or ice movement, freeze
and thaw, wind, plant growth, gases in
the air, pollution and catastrophic events
such as earthquakes, mass wasting,
flooding and volcanic activity.
Note: The ice movement (above) refers to
large bodies of ice, such as glaciers that
can break large rocks into small ones.
PreK-2: Wind is moving air, water and wind have measurable properties, water changes state, properties of materials change
when exposed to various conditions (e.g., heating, freezing) and living organisms interact with their environment.
Grade 3: Rocks and soil have unique characteristics. Soil contains pieces of rock.
Grade 4 Concepts
Different types of rock weather at different rates due to specific characteristics of the rock and the exposure to weathering
factors (e.g., freezing/thawing, wind, water). Weathering is defined as a group of processes that change rock at or near Earth’s
surface. Some weathering processes take a long time to occur, while some weathering processes occur quickly.
The weathering process must be observed in nature, through classroom experimentation or virtually. Seeing tree roots fracturing
bedrock or the effect of years of precipitation on a marble statue can illustrate ways that rocks change shape over time.
Investigations can include classroom simulations, laboratory testing and field observations.
Future Application of Concepts
Grade 5: Earth is a planet in the solar system that has a unique composition, global seasonal changes and patterns are
introduced, including temperature fluctuations/ranges, monsoons and/or rainy seasons which can impact the weathering of
Earth’s surface.
Grades 6-8: The relationship between the characteristics of rocks and the environment in which they form is explored as well
as how rocks break down (weather) and are transported (erosion), water flows through rock and soil at different rates, and the
causes of changes on Earth’s surface.
EXPECTATIONS FOR LEARNING: COGNITIVE DEMANDS
This section provides definitions for Ohio’s science cognitive demands, which are intrinsically related to current understandings and research about how people learn. They
provide a structure for teachers and assessment developers to reflect on plans for teaching science, to monitor observable evidence of student learning, and to develop
summative assessment of student learning of science.
OHIO’S NEW LEARNING STANDARDS I Science 112
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VISIONS INTO PRACTICE: CLASSROOM EXAMPLES
This section provides examples of tasks that students may perform; this includes guidance for developing classroom performance tasks. It is not an all-inclusive checklist of
what should be done, but is a springboard for generating innovative ideas.
DESIGNING TECHNOLOGICAL/
ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS
USING SCIENCE CONCEPTS
DEMONSTRATING SCIENCE
KNOWLEDGE
INTERPRETING AND
COMMUNICATING SCIENCE
CONCEPTS
RECALLING ACCURATE SCIENCE
Research a specific weathering feature
(e.g., sinkhole, cave). Evaluate the risk
of collapse and methods of prevention
of collapse (using actual data) and
recommend one solution based on the
scientific data. Create a model (virtual,
graphic or 3-D) of the actual cave or
sinkhole and demonstrate the risk
of collapse and how the suggested
preventative measure or solution
impacts that risk.
Plan and implement an experiment to
model and compare different types of
weathering and/or rates of weathering
that can occur.
Differentiate between weathering and
erosion.
Identify weathering as processes that
change rock at or near Earth’s surface.
Recognize that weathering can occur at
different rates.
Using geologic, topographic or aerial
maps, research areas in the U.S. that
are impacted by natural sinkholes,
caverns or caves. Collect data regarding
the characteristics of these regions.
Compare and contrast the data to
determine common characteristics that
are present in each area. Represent
findings graphically.
Recognize that water, wind, pollution/
gases in the air, ice movement,
earthquakes, volcanoes, freezing/
thawing and plant action can all weather
rock and soil.
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INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES AND RESOURCES
This section provides additional support and information for educators. These are strategies for actively engaging students with the topic and for providing hands-on, mindson observation and exploration of the topic, including authentic data resources for scientific inquiry, experimentation and problem-based tasks that incorporate technology
and technological and engineering design. Resources selected are printed or Web-based materials that directly relate to the particular Content Statement. It is not intended
to be a prescriptive list of lessons.
• It is important for students to understand the difference between weathering and erosion, as well as how the two processes work together to form geologic features.
• Online geologic museum sites can offer examples and data for studying rates of weathering and different types of weathering. Testing the weathering rate of a variety
of substances can help in the understanding that some things may take a long time to weather and others a short time.
•The USGS provides weathering-rate data for a variety of rocks and types of soil. This data can help teachers determine types of materials that weather at a rate that could
be observed in a classroom setting).
COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS
• Funded by the National Science Foundation, Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears is an online magazine for K-5 teachers. For a list of common misconceptions about
glacial movement, weathering and erosion, as well as ways to address them, visit
http://beyondpenguins.nsdl.org/issue/column.php?date=August2009&departmentid=professional&columnid=professional!misconceptions.
DIVERSE LEARNERS
Strategies for meeting the needs of all learners including gifted students, English Language Learners (ELL) and students with disabilities can be found at this site. Resources
based on the Universal Design for Learning principles are available at www.cast.org.
CLASSROOM PORTALS
These are windows into the classroom through webcasts, podcasts or video clips to exemplify and model classroom methods of teaching science using inquiry.
A series of case studies of K-8 science classrooms by the Smithsonian and Harvard University can be found at http://www.learner.org/resources/series21.html. Teachers
need to sign up to use this free site. The case study Linda–Grades 2-4 is an example of how to work with teacher teams to help students of all ability levels to develop
scientifically accurate ideas and investigations.
The Annenberg Foundation offers training modules that support Earth and Space Sciences for K-4 teachers. There are numerous resources and video clips of actual
classroom practices that can be useful training tools at http://www.learner.org/resources/series195.html.
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MODEL CURRICULUM GRADE 4
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EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE (ESS)
Topic: Earth’s Surface
This topic focuses on the variety of processes that shape and reshape Earth’s surface.
CONTENT STATEMENT
CONTENT ELABORATION
The surface of Earth changes due
to erosion and deposition.
Prior Concepts Related to Erosion and Deposition
Water, wind and ice physically remove
and carry (erosion) rock, soil and
sediment and deposit the material in a
new location.
Gravitational force affects movements of
water, rock and soil.
PreK-2: Wind is moving air, water and wind have measurable properties, water changes state, forces change the motion of an
object and some forces act without touching (e.g., gravitational forces).
Grade 3: Soil and rock have unique characteristics. Soil and rock are nonliving resources that can be conserved.
Grade 4 Concepts
Erosion is a process that transports rock, soil or sediment to a different location. Weathering is the breakdown of large rock
into smaller pieces of rock. Erosion is what carries the weathered material to a new location. Gravity plays an important role in
understanding erosion, especially catastrophic events like mass wasting (e.g., mudslides, avalanches, landslides) or flooding.
Erosion is a “destructive” process and deposition is a “constructive” process. Erosion and deposition directly contribute to
landforms and features formation that are included in grade 4. Topographic maps and aerial photographs can be used to locate
erosional and depositional areas in Ohio. Surficial geology maps also can illustrate the patterns of glacial erosion and deposition
that have occurred. Field trips and field investigations (may be virtual) are recommended as erosional and depositional features
that can be seen locally or within the state can help to connect the concept of erosion and deposition to the real world.
Future Application of Concepts
Grade 5: Earth is a planet in the solar system that has a unique composition, global seasonal changes are introduced, including
monsoons and rainy seasons, which can change erosion and deposition patterns.
Grades 6-8: Historical studies of erosional and depositional patterns are introduced, in addition to soil conservation, the
interaction of Earth’s spheres, ocean features specific to erosion and deposition, and plate tectonics.
EXPECTATIONS FOR LEARNING: COGNITIVE DEMANDS
This section provides definitions for Ohio’s science cognitive demands, which are intrinsically related to current understandings and research about how people learn. They
provide a structure for teachers and assessment developers to reflect on plans for teaching science, to monitor observable evidence of student learning, and to develop
summative assessment of student learning of science.
OHIO’S NEW LEARNING STANDARDS I Science 115
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VISIONS INTO PRACTICE: CLASSROOM EXAMPLES
This section provides examples of tasks that students may perform; this includes guidance for developing classroom performance tasks. It is not an all-inclusive checklist of
what should be done, but is a springboard for generating innovative ideas.
DESIGNING TECHNOLOGICAL/
ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS
USING SCIENCE CONCEPTS
DEMONSTRATING SCIENCE
KNOWLEDGE
INTERPRETING AND
COMMUNICATING SCIENCE
CONCEPTS
RECALLING ACCURATE SCIENCE
Sediment fences are often placed
around construction sites to help control
sediment from moving offsite (erosion)
into the surrounding environment
(deposition). Design and construct a
model of one specific sediment-control
measure (using scientific research).
Evaluate and test it using different types
of materials. Different groups in the
class should model different methods
of control.
Use actual geologic data from a specific
location, such as the Grand Canyon.
Research the formation of the canyon.
Ask: Why does some rock weather
and erode faster than others? What
caused the weathering and erosion in
the canyon? How can the age of the
canyon be estimated?
Differentiate between weathering and
erosion.
Identify erosion as a process that
transports rock, soil or sediment to a
new location.
Compare and contrast erosion and
deposition.
Identify deposition as the settling or
coming to rest of transported rock, soil
or sediment.
Use the research data to make a
geologic cross section (3-D or virtual
model or a graphic) to model the canyon.
Each group should present findings and
demonstrate the models.
Using a surficial geology map of Ohio,
trace the patterns of glacial movement
that can be recognized by a variety of
glacial deposits or erosion. Build a model
to investigate the movement of glacial
ice that creates a similar pattern. Ask:
What factors must exist to support
the movement of glaciers? Why is
glacial movement erosional and
depositional?
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INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES AND RESOURCES
This section provides additional support and information for educators. These are strategies for actively engaging students with the topic and for providing hands-on, mindson observation and exploration of the topic, including authentic data resources for scientific inquiry, experimentation and problem-based tasks that incorporate technology
and technological and engineering design. Resources selected are printed or Web-based materials that directly relate to the particular Content Statement. It is not intended
to be a prescriptive list of lessons.
•The USGS and the National Park Service provide explanations about how erosion and weathering are different processes, but often work together. This is a good site
to assist teachers in preparing to teach about weathering and erosion.
•The Ohio Department of Natural Resources provides resources and information about Ohio’s surface geology, including surficial geology maps of Ohio that show
glacial patterns in Ohio very clearly.
•Understanding Ohio’s glacial history and the different glacial periods will help middle school students prepare for understanding the geologic history of Ohio. This
website includes a discussion of specific resultant landforms that can be seen today. Showing photographs of the landforms and connecting them to maps, drawings or
historical stories connects to the real world. Taking a field trip to view a landform in person can be a culminating experience.
• The Ohio EPA provides basic background information about sediment contamination and control issues within Ohio. There are video clips of actual sediment-control
measures and problems. This is a good starting point for the design section (classroom example) listed above.
COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS
• Funded by the National Science Foundation, Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears is an online magazine for K-5 teachers. For a list of common misconceptions about
glacial movement, weathering and erosion, as well as ways to address them, visit
http://beyondpenguins.nsdl.org/issue/column.php?date=August2009&departmentid=professional&columnid=professional!misconceptions.
DIVERSE LEARNERS
Strategies for meeting the needs of all learners including gifted students, English Language Learners (ELL) and students with disabilities can be found at this site. Resources
based on the Universal Design for Learning principles are available at www.cast.org.
CLASSROOM PORTALS
These are windows into the classroom through webcasts, podcasts or video clips to exemplify and model classroom methods of teaching science using inquiry.
A series of case studies of K-8 science classrooms by the Smithsonian and Harvard University can be found at http://www.learner.org/resources/series21.html. Teachers
need to sign up to use this free site. The case study Linda–Grades 2-4 is an example of how to work with teacher teams to help students of all ability levels to develop
scientifically accurate ideas and investigations.
The Annenberg Foundation offers training modules that support Earth and Space Sciences for K-4 teachers. There are numerous resources and video clips of actual
classroom practices that can be useful training tools at http://www.learner.org/resources/series195.html.
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MODEL CURRICULUM GRADE 4
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LIFE SCIENCE (LS)
Topic: Earth’s Living History
This topic focuses on using fossil evidence and living organisms to observe that suitable habitats depend upon a combination of biotic and abiotic factors.
CONTENT STATEMENT
CONTENT ELABORATION
Changes in an organism’s
environment are sometimes
beneficial to its survival and
sometimes harmful.
Prior Concepts Related to Behavior, Growth and Changes
Ecosystems can change gradually or
dramatically. When the environment
changes, some plants and animals
survive and reproduce and others die
or move to new locations. An animal’s
patterns of behavior are related to the
environment. This includes the kinds and
numbers of other organisms present,
the availability of food and resources,
and the physical attributes of the
environment.
PreK-2: Plants and animals have variations in their physical traits that enable them to survive in a particular environment. Living
things that once lived on Earth no longer exist, as their needs were not met. Living things have basic needs, which are met by
obtaining materials from the physical environment.
Grade 3: Plants and animals have life cycles that are part of their adaptations for survival in their natural environments.
Grade 4 Concepts
Ecosystems are based on interrelationships among and between biotic and abiotic factors. Ohio has experienced various
weather patterns. Some parts of Ohio hosted glaciers and other parts of Ohio were submerged with water. Ecosystems can
change rapidly (e.g., volcanoes, earthquakes, or fire) or very slowly (e.g., climate change). Major changes over a short period of
time can have a significant impact on the ecosystem and the populations of plants and animals living there. The changes that
occur in the plant and animal populations can impact access to resources for the remaining organisms, which may result in
migration or death. The fossil record provides evidence for changes in populations of species.
Researching and investigating specific areas in Ohio (e.g., Cedar Bog, Lake Erie, Hocking Hills, Ceasar Creek, Kellys Island) via
field studies, virtual field trips or other references must be used to explore the relationships between previous environments,
changes that have occurred in the environments and the species that lived there.
Note: Grade 4 ES focuses on changes to Earth’s surface due to erosion, deposition of soil, rock sediment, flooding, volcanoes and
earthquakes that can be taught along with this content.
Future Application of Concepts
Grades 6-8: Organisms that survive pass on their traits to future generations. Climate, rock record and geologic periods are
explored in Earth and Space Science.
High School: The concepts of evolution are explored.
EXPECTATIONS FOR LEARNING: COGNITIVE DEMANDS
This section provides definitions for Ohio’s science cognitive demands, which are intrinsically related to current understandings and research about how people learn. They
provide a structure for teachers and assessment developers to reflect on plans for teaching science, to monitor observable evidence of student learning, and to develop
summative assessment of student learning of science.
OHIO’S NEW LEARNING STANDARDS I Science 118
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BACK TO K-8 INDEX
VISIONS INTO PRACTICE: CLASSROOM EXAMPLES
This section provides examples of tasks that students may perform; this includes guidance for developing classroom performance tasks. It is not an all-inclusive checklist of
what should be done, but is a springboard for generating innovative ideas.
DESIGNING TECHNOLOGICAL/
ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS
USING SCIENCE CONCEPTS
DEMONSTRATING SCIENCE
KNOWLEDGE
INTERPRETING AND
COMMUNICATING SCIENCE
CONCEPTS
RECALLING ACCURATE SCIENCE
Critique plans (written or oral) from
different organizations to reintroduce a
species into an Ohio environment. Write
a newspaper article in support or against
the reintroduction of the species based
upon scientific facts.
Conduct an investigation to determine
if removing or adding plants to an
area increases or decreases erosion.
Ask: How does this impact other
organisms in that environment?
Read a firsthand description, view
drawings of Ohio ecosystems as first
observed by explorers and compare the
historical environmental descriptions to
the current environment. Explain the
changes that occurred in the biotic and
abiotic components of the ecosystem.
Describe the immediate consequences
of rapid ecosystem change for
organisms within an ecosystem and
describe the consequences this change
will have on an ecosystem a decade or
more later (e.g., flooding, wind storms,
snowfall, volcanic eruptions).
Research a major geologic event
(e.g., Mt. St. Helens volcanic eruption,
tsunami). Develop a timeline depicting
the environment before the event,
immediately after the event and in
designated time intervals until a stable
community is established (e.g., 30 or
more years). Find information at
http://www.fs.fed.us/gpnf/mshnvm/
education/teachers-corner/library/
life-returns01.shtml#01.
Describe major changes in Ohio’s
environments over time and the
organisms supported in each (e.g.,
oceanic, glacial, wetlands, forests).
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INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES AND RESOURCES
This section provides additional support and information for educators. These are strategies for actively engaging students with the topic and for providing hands-on, mindson observation and exploration of the topic, including authentic data resources for scientific inquiry, experimentation and problem-based tasks that incorporate technology
and technological and engineering design. Resources selected are printed or Web-based materials that directly relate to the particular Content Statement. It is not intended
to be a prescriptive list of lessons.
• Investigate various species that have been endangered due to environmental changes and examine efforts to reestablish and support their populations. One example is
the trumpeter swan. The Ohio History Central provides details of this bird’s story.
•The Virtual Nature Trail at Penn State New Kensington is an opportunity to observe photos of various species of plants interacting with one another and the
environment and examine what changes result due to those interactions.
• Citizen Science is program promoted by the National Wildlife Federation to have the public volunteer time to assist scientists in their wildlife research by collecting data,
sharing experiences and spreading valuable information. Wildlife can be monitored and the changes that occur in the ecosystem can be monitored and analyzed.
• The ODNR-Division of Wildlife’s Research and Survey website has information on current research projects on Ohio wildlife, including migration tracking, distribution and
reintroduction and monitoring programs.
• The ODNR-Division of Wildlife has a poster with an activity called Ohio’s Wildlife History. The poster can be ordered by mail through the Education Materials Brochure
found online at www.wildohio.com.
• Project Wild was developed through a joint effort of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies and the Council for Environmental Education. This program
helps students learn basic concepts about wild animals, their needs and importance and their relationships to people and the environment. The activity guides are available
to educators free of charge when they attend a workshop. Information about upcoming workshops are available on the ODNR Website. In the activity Oh Deer, students
portray deer and habitat components in a physical activity that illustrates the factors that cause fluctuations in wildlife populations over time. In Here Today, Gone
Tomorrow, students identify and describe causes of extinction within animal species and identify locally endangered and threatened species.
Career Connection
Students will choose a recent disaster to explore (e.g., hurricane, earthquake, oil spill, tsunami) and identify the immediate and long-term consequences including the
interactions and relationships among the Earth’s surface, ecosystem, and plant and animal populations. Through exploring the impact, students will address the types of
careers involved in addressing the issues. This may include performing tasks, such as relocating organisms, rebuilding habitats, rescuing or rehabilitating organisms.
COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS
• Students may think that people provide the materials (water, nutrients, light) needed for plants to survive. Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears is an online magazine for
K-5 teachers that provides information for misconceptions about plants.
• A list of common ecological misconceptions about adaptation is provided with strategies for implementing the 5E model of instruction to overcome misconception.
DIVERSE LEARNERS
Strategies for meeting the needs of all learners including gifted students, English Language Learners (ELL) and students with disabilities can be found at this site. Resources
based on the Universal Design for Learning principles are available at www.cast.org.
•Many Project Wild activities feature Universal Design for Learning principals by providing multiple means of concept representation; means of physically interacting
with materials; and multiple means of engagement, including collaboration and communication. In the activity Oh Deer, students portray deer and habitat components
in a physical activity that illustrates the factors that cause fluctuations in wildlife populations over time. In Here Today, Gone Tomorrow, students identify and describe
causes of extinction within animal species and identify locally endangered and threatened species.
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CLASSROOM PORTALS
These are windows into the classroom through webcasts, podcasts or video clips to exemplify and model classroom methods of teaching science using inquiry.
Session 5 of the Annenberg Media series Essential Science for Teachers: Life Science provides information about how children can learn about the variations of living
things and offers with classroom footage to illustrate implementation at http://www.learner.org/resources/series179.html.
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LIFE SCIENCE (LS)
Topic: Earth’s Living History
This topic focuses on using fossil evidence and living organisms to observe that suitable habitats depend upon a combination of biotic and abiotic factors.
CONTENT STATEMENT
CONTENT ELABORATION
Fossils can be compared to
one another and to present-day
organisms according to their
similarities and differences.
Prior Concepts Related to Behavior, Growth and Changes
The concept of biodiversity is expanded
to include different classification
schemes based upon shared internal and
external characteristics of organisms.
Most types of organisms that have lived
on Earth no longer exist.
Fossils provide a point of comparison
between the types of organisms that
lived long ago and those existing today.
PreK-2: Plants and animals have variations in their physical traits that enable them to survive in a particular environment. Living
things that once lived on Earth no longer exist, as their needs were not met. Living things have basic needs, which are met by
obtaining materials from the physical environment.
Grade 3: Plants and animals have life cycles that are part of their adaptations for survival in their natural environments.
Grade 4 Concepts
Fossils provide evidence that many plant and animal species are extinct and that many species have changed over time. The
types of fossils that are present provide evidence about the nature of the environment at that time. As the environment changed
so did the types of organisms that could survive in that environment.
The opportunity to learn about an increasing variety of living organisms, both the familiar and the exotic, should be provided.
The observations and descriptions of organisms should become more precise in identifying similarities and differences based
upon observed structures. Emphasis can still be on external features; however, finer detail than before should be included. Hand
lenses and microscopes should be routinely used. Microscopes are used not to study cell structure but to begin exploring the
world of organisms that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. Non-Linnaean classification systems should be developed that focus
on gross anatomy, behavior patterns, habitats and other features.
Future Application of Concepts
Grades 6-8: Diversity of species will be explored in greater detail. The study of Modern Cell Theory and rock formation is
required (Earth and Space Science).
High School: The concepts of evolution and cell biology are explored.
EXPECTATIONS FOR LEARNING: COGNITIVE DEMANDS
This section provides definitions for Ohio’s science cognitive demands, which are intrinsically related to current understandings and research about how people learn. They
provide a structure for teachers and assessment developers to reflect on plans for teaching science, to monitor observable evidence of student learning, and to develop
summative assessment of student learning of science.
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VISIONS INTO PRACTICE: CLASSROOM EXAMPLES
This section provides examples of tasks that students may perform; this includes guidance for developing classroom performance tasks. It is not an all-inclusive checklist of
what should be done, but is a springboard for generating innovative ideas.
DESIGNING TECHNOLOGICAL/
ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS
USING SCIENCE CONCEPTS
DEMONSTRATING SCIENCE
KNOWLEDGE
INTERPRETING AND
COMMUNICATING SCIENCE
CONCEPTS
RECALLING ACCURATE SCIENCE
Propose and test multiple ways that
living things with soft body parts can
leave fossil evidence.
Experiment with making fossils to
determine some of the necessary (living
and nonliving) conditions for making
fossils and to determine if similar
conditions exist today. Materials used
should include clay, dough, sand, mud,
etc. Conditions should include moist,
wet and dry. Representations of living
organisms used should include those
with hard body parts (exoskeletons,
bones) and those with soft body parts
(plants).
From observation of fossils in rock
layers, infer the environmental conditions
that existed when the fossils were
formed (e.g., fish fossils would indicate
a body of water existed at the time the
fossils formed). For more information
visit http://www.ohiohistorycentral.
org/subcategory_topic.
php?c=NH&s=GEOL&t=FOSS.
Identify evidence that can be used to
determine the existence of an organism.
For more information, visit
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/
education/explorations/tours/intro/
Introkto4b/tour1nav.php
Observe fossils and compare them to
similar plants and animals that live today,
using simple classification schemes. For
more information, visit
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/
education/explorations/tours/stories/
middle/C3.html.
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INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES AND RESOURCES
This section provides additional support and information for educators. These are strategies for actively engaging students with the topic and for providing hands-on, mindson observation and exploration of the topic, including authentic data resources for scientific inquiry, experimentation and problem-based tasks that incorporate technology
and technological and engineering design. Resources selected are printed or Web-based materials that directly relate to the particular Content Statement. It is not intended
to be a prescriptive list of lessons.
• The University of Berkeley website Understanding Evolution can provide teachers with content knowledge on the topic of evolution. This site provides detailed
information from various research projects about how fossils provide evidence of climate changes.
• The University of Berkeley’s Stories from the Fossil Record, Past Lives provides information on how fossils provide information on the behavior of organisms (family
and social) as well as how certain features of organisms came to be. Observe fossils and compare them to similar plants and animals that live today, using simple
classification schemes. The Ohio History Central provides a list of fossils found in Ohio.
• National Geographic’s movie Sea Monsters provides an opportunity to go on a virtual fossil dig and explore organisms that lived a long time ago but are similar to
organisms that are alive today.
• Life Has a History, produced by the University of California Museum of Paleontology, illustrates the similarities and differences between living things that exist today and
organisms that lived in the past. It is a simple introduction to the fossil record.
• Session 6 of the Annenberg Media series Essential Science for Teachers: Life Science provides information about how children can learn about the variations of living
things that lead to evolution and offers classroom footage to illustrate implementation at http://www.learner.org/resources/series179.html.
COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS
• The Annenberg Media series Essential Science for Teachers: Life Science: Session 5: Children’s Ideas provides greater insight to misconceptions children hold about
differing traits within a species and their causes. Strategies to address those misconceptions are addressed.
• Students may have the naïve conception that if organisms look alike, then they must have a common evolutionary history.
DIVERSE LEARNERS
Strategies for meeting the needs of all learners including gifted students, English Language Learners (ELL) and students with disabilities can be found at this site. Resources
based on the Universal Design for Learning principles are available at www.cast.org.
CLASSROOM PORTALS
These are windows into the classroom through webcasts, podcasts or video clips to exemplify and model classroom methods of teaching science using inquiry.
Session 5 of the Annenberg Media series Essential Science for Teachers: Life Science provides information about how children can learn about the variations of living
things and offers classroom footage to illustrate implementation at http://www.learner.org/resources/series179.html.
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PHYSICAL SCIENCE (PS)
Topic: Electricity, Heat and Matter
This topic focuses on the conservation of matter and the processes of energy transfer and transformation, especially as they apply to heat and electrical energy.
CONTENT STATEMENT
CONTENT ELABORATION
The total amount of matter is
conserved when it undergoes a
change.
Prior Concepts Related to Changes of Matter
When an object is broken into smaller
pieces, when a solid is dissolved in a
liquid or when matter changes state
(solid, liquid, gas), the total amount of
matter remains constant.
Note 1: At this grade, the discussion of
conservation of matter should be limited
to a macroscopic, observable level.
Note 2: States of matter are found in PS
grade 3. Heating and cooling is one way
to change the state of matter.
PreK-2: Simple measuring instruments are used to observe and compare properties of objects. Changes in objects are
investigated.
Grade 3: Objects are composed of matter, which has weight mass* and takes up space. Matter includes solids, liquids and
gases (air). Phase changes are explored.
Grade 4 Concepts:
Some properties of objects may stay the same even when other properties change. For example, water can change from a
liquid to a solid, but the mass* of the water remains the same. Parts of an object or material may be assembled in different
configurations, but the mass* remains the same. The sum of all of the parts in an object equals the mass* of the object.
When a solid is dissolved in a liquid, the mass* of the mixture is equal to the sum of the masses* of the liquid and solid.
At this grade level, the discussion of conservation of matter should be limited to a macroscopic, observable level. Conservation of
matter must be developed from experimental evidence collected in the classroom. After the concept has been well established
with experimental data and evidence, investigations can include interactions that are more complex where the mass* may not
appear to stay constant (e.g., fizzing tablets in water).
Note: Mass* is an additive property of objects and volume is usually an additive property for the same material at the same
conditions. However, volume is not always an additive property, especially if different substances are involved. For example, mixing
alcohol with water results in a volume that is significantly less than the sum of the volumes.
Future Application of Concepts
Grades 6-8: Conservation of matter in phase changes and chemical reactions is explained by the number and type of atoms
remaining constant. The idea of conservation of energy is introduced.
*While mass is the scientifically correct term to use in this context, the NAEP 2009 Science Framework (page 27) recommends using the more
familiar term “weight” in the elementary grades with the distinction between mass and weight being introduced at the middle school level. In Ohio,
students will not be assessed on the differences between mass and weight until Grade 6.
EXPECTATIONS FOR LEARNING: COGNITIVE DEMANDS
This section provides definitions for Ohio’s science cognitive demands, which are intrinsically related to current understandings and research about how people learn. They
provide a structure for teachers and assessment developers to reflect on plans for teaching science, to monitor observable evidence of student learning, and to develop
summative assessment of student learning of science.
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VISIONS INTO PRACTICE: CLASSROOM EXAMPLES
This section provides examples of tasks that students may perform; this includes guidance for developing classroom performance tasks. It is not an all-inclusive checklist of
what should be done, but is a springboard for generating innovative ideas.
DESIGNING TECHNOLOGICAL/
ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS
USING SCIENCE CONCEPTS
DEMONSTRATING SCIENCE
KNOWLEDGE
INTERPRETING AND
COMMUNICATING SCIENCE
CONCEPTS
RECALLING ACCURATE SCIENCE
Evaluate research data providing
information about the decomposition
time for paper, glass, plastic and
aluminum. Propose a sustainable plan
that might be adopted by a larger
population of citizens for minimizing
waste products and reserving more
space in our landfills. Develop a
presentation that could be for an
outside audience with the authority to
implement the plan within a community.
Investigate what happens to the total
amount of mass* during many types
of changes (e.g., ice melting, salt
dissolving, paper tearing, candle burning,
Alka-Seltzer® in water).
Explain why the volume of water
decreases when placed in an open
container and left to sit for an extended
period of time.
Recognize that the amount of matter
stays constant during any change.
Propose reasons for any difference in
the final weight (mass). Design a revised
experiment to test proposals.
*While mass is the scientifically correct term to
use in this context, the NAEP 2009 Science
Framework (page 27) recommends using the
more familiar term “weight” in the elementary
grades with the distinction between mass and
weight being introduced at the middle school
level. In Ohio, students will not be assessed
on the differences between mass and weight
until Grade 6.
INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES AND RESOURCES
This section provides additional support and information for educators. These are strategies for actively engaging students with the topic and for providing hands-on, mindson observation and exploration of the topic, including authentic data resources for scientific inquiry, experimentation and problem-based tasks that incorporate technology
and technological and engineering design. Resources selected are printed or Web-based materials that directly relate to the particular Content Statement. It is not intended
to be a prescriptive list of lessons.
• Keeping Warm, an interactive simulation from BBC Schools, allows students to measure temperature changes over time for different insulating materials.
• Melting and Freezing from Science NetLinks gives an example of using inquiry to explore the mass of water, margarine and chocolate chips before and after melting. To
extend this, students can put the substances in the refrigerator or freezer to reform the solid and find the mass again.
• Essential Science for Teachers: Physical Science Video 3 Conservation of Matter Part I, a video on demand produced by Annenberg, is designed for teachers
to improve their understanding of physical science and make them aware of common student misconceptions. It also highlights ways to help students overcome
misconceptions. While teachers should be aware of the ideas of physical changes and the particle nature of matter, these topics are not appropriate for this grade level.
• Essential Science for Teachers: Physical Science Video 3 Conservation of Matter Part II, a video on demand produced by Annenberg, is designed for teachers to
improve their understanding of physical science, to make them aware of common student misconceptions. It also highlights ways to help students overcome these
misconceptions. While teachers should be aware of the ideas of chemical changes and the particle nature of matter, these topics are not appropriate for this grade level.
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COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS
• Gases are not matter because most are invisible.
• Gases do not have mass*.
• When things dissolve, they disappear.
• Melting and dissolving are confused.
• Mass* and volume, which both describe an amount of matter, are the same property.
• Breaking something or dissolving makes it weigh less.
• Changing the shape changes the mass* and volume.
• Students believe matter is lost during burning.
• Students believe that a warmed gas weighs less than the same gas that is cooler (Driver, Squires, Rushworth & Wood-Robinson, 1994).
*While mass is the scientifically correct term to use in this context, the NAEP 2009 Science Framework (page 27) recommends using the more familiar term “weight” in the elementary grades with
the distinction between mass and weight being introduced at the middle school level. In Ohio, students will not be assessed on the differences between mass and weight until Grade 6.
DIVERSE LEARNERS
Strategies for meeting the needs of all learners including gifted students, English Language Learners (ELL) and students with disabilities can be found at this site. Resources
based on the Universal Design for Learning principles are available at www.cast.org.
CLASSROOM PORTALS
These are windows into the classroom through webcasts, podcasts or video clips to exemplify and model classroom methods of teaching science using inquiry.
From times of 3:45 to about 13:55 and from 15:00 to 22:20 on this segment of Essential Science for Teachers: Physical Science produced by Annenberg, see how to lead
students through questions and experiences that allow them to build their ideas of conservation of matter. Please note that exploring the differences between weight and
mass and using the particle model of matter to explain conservation of matter are not appropriate for this grade.
Case Studies in Education is a series of videos on demand produced by Annenberg. The segment titled Linda–Grades 2-4 features a resource teacher who models inquirybased science lessons for teachers in her large urban district. The segment titled Terez–Grade 4 features a teacher who is working to incorporate portfolios in her science
teaching. Although not all of the content is directly aligned to this content statement, the strategies could be applied to any content.
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PHYSICAL SCIENCE (PS)
Topic: Electricity, Heat and Matter
This topic focuses on the conservation of matter and the processes of energy transfer and transformation, especially as they apply to heat and electrical energy.
CONTENT STATEMENT
CONTENT ELABORATION
Energy can be transformed from
one form to another or can be
transferred from one location to
another.
Prior Concepts Related to Heat and Electricity
Energy transfers from hot objects to
cold objects as heat, resulting in a
temperature change.
Electric circuits require a complete loop
of conducting materials through which
an electrical energy can be transferred.
Electrical energy in circuits can be
transformed to other forms of energy,
including light, heat, sound and motion.
Electricity and magnetism are closely
related.
PreK-2: Temperature is a property of objects. Sunlight affects the warming or cooling of air, water and land (ESS). Charged
objects can attract uncharged objects and may either attract or repel other charged objects. Magnetic objects can attract things
made of iron and may either attract or repel other magnetic objects.
Grade 3: Objects that have energy can cause change. Heat, electrical energy, light, sound and magnetic energy are all forms of
energy.
Grade 4 Concepts:
The addition of heat may increase the temperature of an object. The removal of heat may decrease the temperature of an object.
There are materials in which the entire object becomes hot when one part of the object is heated (e.g., in a metal pan, heat
flows through the pan on the stove transferring the heat from the burner outside the pan to the food in the pan). There are other
objects in which parts of the object remain cool even when another part of the object is heated (e.g., in a Styrofoam® cup, very
little of the warmth from hot liquid inside the cup is transferred to the hand holding the cup).
Electrical conductors are materials through which electricity can flow easily. Electricity introduced to one part of the object
spreads to other parts of the object (e.g., copper wire is an electrical conductor because electricity flows through the wires in a
lamp from the outlet to the light bulb and back to the outlet).
Electrical insulators are materials through which electricity cannot flow easily. Electricity introduced to one part of the object does
not spread to other parts of the object (e.g., rubber surrounding a copper wire is an electrical insulator because electricity does
not flow through the rubber to the hand holding it).
Electrical conductivity must be explored through testing common materials to determine their conductive properties.
In order for electricity to flow through a circuit, there must be a complete loop through which the electricity can pass. When
an electrical device (e.g., lamp, buzzer, motor) is not part of a complete loop, the device will not work. Electric circuits must be
introduced in the laboratory by testing different combinations of electrical components. When an electrical device is a part of a
complete loop, the electrical energy can be changed into light, sound, heat or magnetic energy. Electrical devices in a working
circuit often get warmer.
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When a magnet moves in relation to a coil of wire, electricity can flow through the coil. When a wire conducts electricity, the
wire has magnetic properties and can push and/or pull magnets. The connections between electricity and magnetism must be
explored in the laboratory through experimentation.
Note 1: Exploring heat transfer in terms of moving submicroscopic particles is not appropriate at this grade level.
Note 2: The word “heat” is used loosely in everyday language, yet it has a very specific scientific meaning. Usually what is called
heat is actually “thermal or radiant energy.” An object has thermal energy due to the random movement of the particles that make
up the object. Radiant energy is that which is given off by objects through space (e.g., warmth from a fire, solar energy from the
sun). “Heating” is used to describe the transfer of thermal or radiant energy to another object or place. Differentiating between
these concepts is inappropriate at this grade level. This document uses the same conventions as noted in the NAEP 2009 Science
Framework (see page 29) where “heat” is used in lower grades. However, the word “heat” has been used with care so it refers to a
transfer of thermal or radiant energy. The concept of thermal energy, as it relates to particle motion, is introduced in grade 6.
Note 3: Knowing the specifics of electromagnetism is not appropriate at this grade level. At this point, the connections between
electricity and magnetism are kept strictly experiential and observational.
Note 4: Energy transfer (between objects or places) should not be confused with energy transformation from one form of energy to
another (e.g., electrical energy to light energy).
Future Application of Concepts
Grade 5: Light and sound are explored further as forms of energy.
Grades 6-8: Thermal energy is related to the atomic theory. Kinetic and potential energy are two ways objects can store
energy. Conservation of energy and energy transfer through radiation, convection and conduction, and the transfer of electrical
energy in circuits are introduced.
EXPECTATIONS FOR LEARNING: COGNITIVE DEMANDS
This section provides definitions for Ohio’s science cognitive demands, which are intrinsically related to current understandings and research about how people learn. They
provide a structure for teachers and assessment developers to reflect on plans for teaching science, to monitor observable evidence of student learning, and to develop
summative assessment of student learning of science.
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VISIONS INTO PRACTICE: CLASSROOM EXAMPLES
This section provides examples of tasks that students may perform; this includes guidance for developing classroom performance tasks. It is not an all-inclusive checklist of
what should be done, but is a springboard for generating innovative ideas.
DESIGNING TECHNOLOGICAL/
ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS
USING SCIENCE CONCEPTS
DEMONSTRATING SCIENCE
KNOWLEDGE
INTERPRETING AND
COMMUNICATING SCIENCE
CONCEPTS
RECALLING ACCURATE SCIENCE
Design a device involving energy transfers.
Design and construct a device that
causes a small cart to roll and involves
energy transfers between four objects
(e.g., push a ball off a table so it falls on
an object that releases a rubberband
cart).
Design and construct a device that
causes a small cart to roll and involves
energy transfers between four objects
(e.g., push a ball off a table so it falls on
an object that releases a rubberband
cart).
Recognize that energy can cause motion
or create change.
Investigate a simple circuit.
Design and construct a switch that can
turn a light on and off in a circuit.
Build a circuit that contains two light
bulbs.
Analyze the differences between
working and nonworking circuits and
determine patterns and trends in the
experimental evidence.
Formulate a conceptual model of a
working circuit based upon the trends in
the experimental evidence.
Pictorially represent ways to assemble
the circuit and note which are able to
light the bulbs and which are not.
Compare and contrast circuits that light
the bulbs with circuits that do not light
the bulbs.
Outline the functions of the components
of a simple electric circuit (conductor,
insulator, energy source, light bulb,
switch).
Pictorially represent the flow of energy
in a circuit in which a battery is used to
light a bulb.
Recognize that a working circuit
requires a continuous loop of electrical
conductors.
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DESIGNING TECHNOLOGICAL/
ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS
USING SCIENCE CONCEPTS
DEMONSTRATING SCIENCE
KNOWLEDGE
INTERPRETING AND
COMMUNICATING SCIENCE
CONCEPTS
RECALLING ACCURATE SCIENCE
Investigate the transfer of heat energy.
Plan and implement an experiment to
investigate the energy transfer between
hot (but not hot enough to burn) and cold
water.
Formulate a conceptual model that can
account for the trends observed in the
results.
Organize and represent the data for easy
interpretation.
Analyze the data to determine patterns
and trends.
Explain the trends in the results using
the conceptual model.
Measure the temperature of water.
Recognize that an increase in
temperature indicates an increase in heat
energy and a decrease in temperature
indicates a decrease in heat energy.
Contrast electrical conductors and
electrical insulators.
Identify ways the temperature of an
object can be changed (e.g., rubbing,
heating, bending of metal).
Contrast thermal conductors and thermal
insulators.
Identify different types of energy
conversions within an electrical circuit.
INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES AND RESOURCES
This section provides additional support and information for educators. These are strategies for actively engaging students with the topic and for providing hands-on, mindson observation and exploration of the topic, including authentic data resources for scientific inquiry, experimentation and problem-based tasks that incorporate technology
and technological and engineering design. Resources selected are printed or Web-based materials that directly relate to the particular Content Statement. It is not intended
to be a prescriptive list of lessons.
• Electrical Conductors, an interactive simulation from BBC Schools, allows students to explore different materials and classify them as electrical conductors or insulators.
It also emphasizes that a complete loop of conductors is needed for a circuit to be complete. The optional sections that deal with adding bulbs and batteries are not
aligned with this content statement.
• Electricity in a Brown Bag from eGFI gives examples of how to use inquiry to teach the basic concepts of electricity safely using readily available materials. Using bulb
sockets such as these available from many vendors, allow students to trace the flow of electricity from the wires through the bulb. Students also can try to light the bulb
without the socket.
• Career Corner from EIA Energy Kids has several articles that give information about different careers in energy.
• Coffee Can Speakers: Amazing Energy Transformers is an article from the March 2007 issue of Science and Children that gives instructions on how to make a simple
speaker to demonstrate the transformation of energy and the relationship between electricity and magnetism. Once the speaker is made and understood, students can
be challenged to make changes to the system to improve the sound from the speakers.
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COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS
• Some items cannot be heated.
• Metals get hot easily because they “draw in heat.”
• Energy is a thing, an object or something that is tangible.
• Cold can be transferred.
• Larger magnets are stronger than smaller magnets.
• Current flows from a battery (or other source of electricity) to a light bulb (or other item that consumes electricity), but not from the light bulb to the battery.
• Electricity is produced in the wall socket.
• Pure water is a good conductor of electricity.
• Electricity from a dry cell will shock or hurt if it is touched.
• All wires are insulated.
• Birds can perch on bare wires without being hurt because birds have insulated feet.
• A charge object can only affect other charged objects.
• Ice cannot change temperature.
• Heat is a substance.
• Heat is not energy.
• Temperature is a property of a particular material or object (metal is naturally colder than plastic).
• The temperature of an object depends on its size.
• Heat and cold are different, rather than being opposite ends of a continuum.
• Objects of different temperatures that are in constant contact with each other or in contact with air at a different temperature do not necessarily move toward the same
temperature.
• Heat only travels upward.
• Heat rises.
• Objects that readily become warm (conductors of heat) do not readily become cold.
DIVERSE LEARNERS
Strategies for meeting the needs of all learners including gifted students, English Language Learners (ELL) and students with disabilities can be found at this site. Resources
based on the Universal Design for Learning principles are available at www.cast.org.
CLASSROOM PORTALS
These are windows into the classroom through webcasts, podcasts or video clips to exemplify and model classroom methods of teaching science using inquiry.
Tom, a new fifth-grade teacher who works with many special needs students, is featured in this video on demand produced by Annenberg. Starting from a time of about
10:15, the video shows Tom working with his class to teach about electricity. Students construct Venn diagrams to compare motors and generators, then explore how
different variables in an electromagnet (such as the number of coils) affect the effectiveness of the magnet. Tom has students generate concept maps for magnets. The
beginning of the video, while not directly related to this content statement, shows Tom working to incorporate more formative assessment in his teaching and using
strategies such as storyboards and concept mapping to reach his diverse learners. The strategies shown can be adapted to all science content.
Linda, a resource teacher who models inquiry-based science lessons for grades 2-4 teachers in her large urban district, is featured in this video on demand produced by
Annenberg. Although not all of the content is directly aligned to this content statement, the strategies could be applied to any content.
Terez, a fourth-grade teacher who is working to incorporate portfolios in her science teaching, is featured in this video on demand produced by Annenberg. Although not all
of the content is directly aligned to this content statement, the strategies could be applied to any content.
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