Scholars Journal of Engineering and Technology (SJET) ISSN 2321-435X (Online)

Scholars Journal of Engineering and Technology (SJET) ISSN 2321-435X (Online)

Scholars Journal of Engineering and Technology (SJET) ISSN 2321-435X (Online)

Sch. J. Eng. Tech., 2014; 2(2B):281-290

©Scholars Academic and Scientific Publisher

(An International Publisher for Academic and Scientific Resources) www.saspublisher.com

ISSN 2347-9523 (Print)

Research Article

Influence of Linseed Oil Based Biodiesel On Exhaust Emissions And Combustion

Characteristics With Fixed Injection Timing Using Ceramic Coated Diesel

Engine

S. Narasimha kumar

Mechanical Engineering Department, Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology, Gandipet, Hyderabad-500 075,

Andhra Pradesh, India.

*Corresponding author

S. Narasimha kumar

Email:

Abstract: Stringent emission legislation all over the world has led to the search for alternative fuels for I.C. Engines. In this context, experiments were carried out to evaluate the exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics with a conventional diesel engine (CE) and ceramic coated low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine [with ceramic coated cylinder head] with different operating conditions [normal temperature and pre-heated temperature] of linseed oil based biodiesel with fixed injection timing and injector opening pressure. Exhaust emissions [smoke and oxides of nitrogen] and combustion characteristics [peak pressure, maximum rate of pressure rise and time of occurrence of peak pressure] were determined at peak load operation of the engine fuelled with linseed oil based biodiesel with different versions of the engine. Studies were compared on exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics were made between different versions of the engine with biodiesel operation with varied engine parameters. Smoke levels decreased and NOx levels increased with engine with LHR combustion chamber with biodiesel operation. Fixed injection timing, increase of injector opening pressure preheated biodiesel reduced exhaust emissions from LHR engine with biodiesel operation.

Keywords: Alternate Fuels, Vegetable Oils, Biodiesel, LHR engine, Exhaust emissions, Combustion characteristics

INTRODUCTION

The paper is divided into i) Introduction, ii)

Materials and Methods, iii) Results and Discussions, iv)

Conclusions, Future scope of work, v)

Acknowledgements followed by References.

Introduction deals with investigations carried out by researchers in the work related to the authors or brief literature review.

This section deals with need for alternate fuels in diesel engine, problems with use of crude vegetable oil in diesel engine, advantages of use of preheated vegetable oil in diesel engine, use of biodiesel in diesel engine, effect of increase of injector opening pressure and fixed injection timing on the performance of the diesel engine, concept of engine with LHR combustion chamber, advantages of LHR combustion chamber, classification of engines with LHR combustion chamber, use of diesel, crude vegetable oil and biodiesel in engine with LHR combustion chamber, research gaps and objectives of the investigations.

The world is presently confronted with the twin crises of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. The fuels of bio origin can provide a feasible solution of this worldwide petroleum crisis[1-

2].

It has been found that the vegetable oils are promising substitute, because of their properties are similar to those of diesel fuel and they are renewable and can be easily produced. Rudolph Diesel, the inventor of the diesel engine that bears his name, experimented with fuels ranging from powdered coal to peanut oil. Several researchers [3-6] experimented the use of vegetable oils as fuel on diesel engine and reported that the performance was poor, citing the problems of high viscosity, low volatility and their polyunsaturated character. The different fatty acids present [6] in the vegetable oil are palmic, steric, lingoceric, oleic, linoleic and fatty acids. These fatty acids increase smoke emissions and also lead to incomplete combustion due to improper air-fuel mixing.

Experiments were conducted [7-10] on preheated vegetable [temperature at which viscosity of the vegetable oils were matched to that of diesel fuel] oils and it was reported that preheated vegetable oils improved the performance marginally and decreased pollution levels of smoke and NOx emissions. The

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problems of crude vegetable oils can be solved, if these oils are chemically modified to bio-diesel.

Bio-diesels derived from vegetable oils present a very promising alternative to diesel fuel since biodiesels have numerous advantages compared to fossil fuels as they are renewable, biodegradable, provide energy security and foreign exchange savings besides addressing environmental concerns and socioeconomic issues. Experiments were carried out [11-15] with bio-diesel on direct injection diesel engine and it was reported that performance was compatible with pure diesel operation on conventional engine. However biodiesel operation increased NOx levels.

Few investigators [16-19] reported that injector opening pressure has a significance effect [20] on the performance and formation of pollutants inside the direct injection diesel engine combustion.

The other important engine variable to improve the performance of the engine is injection timing. Investigations were carried out [21-24] on single cylinder water cooled vertical diesel engine with brake power 3.68 kW at a speed of 1500 rpm with varied injection timing from 27-34 o bTDC and it was reported that performance of the engine improved with advanced injection timing and increased NOx emissions and decreased smoke levels.

The drawbacks associated with biodiesel for use in diesel engine call for low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine.

The concept of LHR engine is to reduce heat loss to coolant by providing thermal insulation in the path of heat flow to the coolant. Engines with LHR combustion chamber are classified depending on degree of insulation such as low grade, medium grade and high grade insulated engines. Several methods adopted for achieving low grade LHR combustion chamber are using ceramic coatings on piston, liner and cylinder head, while medium grade LHR engines provide an air gap in the piston and other components with lowthermal conductivity materials like superni, cast iron and mild steel etc. High grade LHR engine is the combination of low grade and medium grade engines.

Engine with LHR combustion chamber with ceramic coating of thickness in the range of 500 microns on the engine components with pure diesel operation [25-27] provided adequate insulation and improved brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) in the range of 5-7%. The investigations on low grade

LHR combustion chamber consisting of ceramic coating on cylinder head were extended [28-30] to crude vegetable oil also and reported that ceramic coated LHR engines marginally improved brake thermal efficiency.

Little literature was available on comparative studies on exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics with conventional diesel engine and engine with ceramic coated LHR combustion chamber with different operating conditions of the biodiesel with varied engine parameters. Hence attempt was made in that direction.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

This section contains fabrication of engine with LHR combustion chamber, preparation of biodiesel, properties of biodiesel, description of the schematic diagram of experimental set up, specifications of experimental engine, specifications of sound analyzer and gas analyzers, definitions of used values.

The inner side portion of cylinder head was coated with partially stabilized zirconium (PSZ) of thickness of 500 microns in order to convert conventional diesel engine to low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine.

The chemical conversion of esterification reduced viscosity four fold. Linseed oil contains up to

72.9 % (wt.) free fatty acids [31].The methyl ester was produced by chemically reacting the linseed oil with an alcohol (methyl), in the presence of a catalyst (KOH). A two-stage process was used for the esterification [32-

33] of the waste fried vegetable oil. The first stage

(acid-catalyzed) of the process is to reduce the free fatty acids (FFA) content in linseed oil by esterification with methanol (99% pure) and acid catalyst (sulfuric acid-

98% pure) in one hour time of reaction at 55°C. In the second stage (alkali-catalyzed), the triglyceride portion of the linseed oil reacts with methanol and base catalyst

(sodium hydroxide-99% pure), in one hour time of reaction at 65°C, to form methyl ester and glycerol. To remove un-reacted methoxide present in raw methyl ester, it is purified by the process of water washing with air-bubbling. The methyl ester (or biodiesel) produced from linseed oil was known as linseed oil biodiesel

(LSOBD). The physic-chemical properties of the biodiesel in comparison to ASTM biodiesel standards are presented in Table-1

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Property

Carbon chain

Cetane Number

Density

Bulk modulus @ 20Mpa

Kinematic viscosity @ 40

Sulfur

Oxygen

Air fuel ratio ( stochiometric)

Lower calorific value o

C

Table.1. Properties of Test Fuels

Units Diesel

-- gm/cc

Mpa cSt

%

%

-- kJ/kg o

C

--

C

8

-C

55

28

0.84

1475

2.25

0.25

0.3

14.86

42 000

66 o

C

226

--

Light yellow

Biodiesel

C

16

-C

24

55

0.87

1850

4.5

0.0

10

14.2

38000

180

ASTM D 6751-02

C

12

-C

22

48-70

0.87-0.89

NA

1.9-6.0

0.05

11

13.8

37 518

130

280

60

Yellowish orange ---

292

--

Flash point (Open cup)

Molecular weight

Preheated temperature

Colour

--

The test fuels used in the experimentation were pure diesel and linseed oil based biodiesel. The schematic diagram of the experimental setup with test fuels is shown in Figure 1. The specifications of the experimental engine are shown in Table-2. The combustion chamber consisted of a direct injection type with no special arrangement for swirling motion of air.

The engine was connected to an electric dynamometer for measuring its brake power. Burette method was used for finding fuel consumption of the engine. Airconsumption of the engine was measured by an air-box method (Air box was provided with an orifice meter and U-tube water manometer). The naturally aspirated

80 o

C by adjusting the water flow rate. Engine oil was provided with a pressure feed system. No temperature control was incorporated, for measuring the lube oil temperature. Copper shims of suitable size were provided [so as to vary the length of plunger in pump barrel] in between the pump body and the engine frame, to vary the injection timing and its effect on the performance of the engine was studied, along with the change of injector opening pressure from 190 bar to 270 bar (in steps of 40 bar) using nozzle testing device. The maximum injector opening pressure was restricted to

270 bar due to practical difficulties involved. Exhaust gas temperature was measured with thermocouples engine was provided with water-cooling system in which inlet temperature of water was maintained at made of iron and iron-constantan.

Table.2. Specifications of the Test Engine

Description Specification

Kirloskar ( India) AV1

3.68 kW

Engine make and model

Maximum power output at a speed of 1500 rpm

Number of cylinders ×cylinder position× stroke

Bore × stroke

Method of cooling

Rated speed ( constant)

Fuel injection system

Compression ratio

BMEP @ 1500 rpm

Manufacturer’s recommended injection timing and pressure

Dynamometer

Number of holes of injector and size

Type of combustion chamber

Fuel injection nozzle

One × Vertical position × four-stroke

80 mm × 110 mm

Water cooled

1500 rpm

In-line and direct injection

16:1

5.31 bar

27 o bTDC × 190 bar

Electrical dynamometer

Three × 0.25 mm

Direct injection type

Make: MICO-BOSCH

No- 0431-202-120/HB

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Fuel injection pump

Smoke levels and NOx levels were measured with AVL smoke meter and Netel Chromatograph NOx analyzer respectively at full load operation of the engine. The specification of the measuring instruments were shown in Table.3

Piezo electric transducer, fitted on the cylinder head to measure pressure in the combustion chamber was connected to a console, which in turn was connected to Pentium personal computer. TDC (top dead centre) encoder provided at the extended shaft of the dynamometer was connected to the console to

Make: BOSCH: NO- 8085587/1 measure the crank angle of the engine. A special pressure-crank angle (P-



) software package evaluated the combustion characteristics such as peak pressure

(PP), time of occurrence of peak pressure (TOPP) and maximum rate of pressure rise (MRPR) from the signals of pressure and crank angle at the peak load operation of the engine. Pressure-crank angle diagram was obtained on the screen of the personal computer. The accuracy of the instrumentation was 0.1%.

Figure 1. Experimental Set-up

1.Engine, 2.Electical Dynamometer, 3.Load Box, 4.Orifice meter, 5.U-tube water manometer, 6.Air box, 7.Fuel tank, 8, Pre-heater, 9.Burette, 10. Exhaust gas temperature indicator, 11.AVL Smoke meter, 12.Netel

Chromatograph NOx Analyzer, 13.Outlet jacket water temperature indicator, 14. Outlet-jacket water flow meter,

15.Piezo-electric pressure transducer, 16.Console, 17.TDC encoder, 18.Pentium Personal Computer and 19.

Printer.

Name of the analyzer

AVL Smoke meter

Netel

Chromatograph

NOx analyzer

Table 3. Specifications of Analyzers

Measuring

Range

Precision

0-100 HSU 1 HSU

0-2000 ppm 2 ppm

Resolution

1 HSU

1 ppm

Different operating conditions of the biodiesel were normal temperature and preheated temperature.

Different injector opening pressures attempted in this experimentation were 190 bar, 230 bar and 270 bar and fixed injection timings attempted in the investigations were 30 o bTDC.

Definitions of used values:

Brake thermal efficiency (BTE); It is the ratio of brake power of the engine to the energy supplied to the engine. Brake power was measured with dynamometer. Energy supplied to the engine is the product of rate of fuel consumed (m f

)and calorific value

(c v

)of the fuel. Higher the efficiency better the performance of the engine is.

𝐡𝑃

𝐡𝑇𝐸 =

BP= 𝐡𝑀𝐸𝑃 ×10

5

×𝐿×𝐴×𝑛×π‘˜

60000

BP= Brake power of the engine in kW

BMEP= Brake mean effective pressure of the engine in bar π‘š 𝑓×𝐢𝑉

Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP) It is defined as specific torque that is torque per unit volume. Its unit is bar.

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L= Stroke of the engine =110 mm

D= Bore of the cylinder= 80mm n= Power cycles per minute=N/2, where N=Speed of the engine= 1500 rpm k= Number of cylinders=01

HSU= Hartridge smoke unit. Higher the value, higher the concentration of carbon particles.

RESULTS AND DICUSSION

Results and discussion were made in three parts such as 1. Determining the exhaust emissions and

2. Determining the combustion characteristics.

The performance of diesel fuel in conventional engine and LHR combustion chamber was taken from

Reference [34]. The optimum injection timing with conventional engine was 31 combustion chamber it was 27 o o bTDC, while with LHR bTDC.

Exhaust Emissions

This section deals with i) effect of smoke and

NOx emissions on human health and its impact on environment, ii) Comparative study of smoke and NOx emissions in CE and engine with LHR combustion chamber with varied injector opening pressure and fixed injection timing with different operating conditions of the vegetable oil.

Smoke and NOx are the emissions from diesel engine cause [34] health hazards like inhaling of these pollutants cause severe headache, tuberculosis, lung cancer, nausea, respiratory problems, skin cancer, hemorrhage, etc. The contaminated air containing carbon dioxide released from automobiles reaches ocean in the form of acid rain, there by polluting water.

Hence control of these emissions is an immediate task and important.

This was due to fuel cracking at higher temperature, leading to increase in smoke density.

Higher temperature of engine with LHR combustion chamber produced increased rates of both soot formation and burn up. The reduction in volumetric efficiency [34] and air-fuel ratio [34] was responsible factors for increasing smoke levels in the LHR engine near the peak load operation of the engine. As expected, smoke increased in the LHR engine because of higher temperatures and improper utilization of the fuel consequent upon predominant diffusion combustion

[35].

When injection timing was fixed to their respective optimum values with both versions of the engine, smoke levels decreased with diesel operation.

This was due to increase of air fuel ratios, causing effective combustion in both versions of the engine.

The reason for reduction of smoke levels in the LHR engine was reduction of gas temperatures, with the availability of more of oxygen when the injection timing was fixed to its optimum value. This was confirmed by the observation of improved air fuel ratios

[34] with the increase of injector opening pressure and with the advancing of the injection timing with both versions of the combustion chamber. However at optimum injection timings, smoke levels were lower in the conventional engine compared to the engine with

LHR combustion chamber, due to improved air fuel ratios [34] and volumetric efficiency in the conventional engine.

Smoke levels decreased by 28% and 22% with engine with LHR combustion chamber with biodiesel operation at recommended and injection timings respectively in comparison with conventional engine.

Engine with LHR combustion chamber marginally reduced smoke levels due to efficient combustion and less amount of fuel accumulation on the hot combustion chamber walls of the LHR combustion chamber at different operating conditions of the biodiesel compared to the conventional engine

Conventional engine with pure diesel operation gave lower smoke levels in comparison with biodiesel. This was due to the higher value of ratio of

C/H [ C

57

H

98

O

6

], (C= Number of carbon atoms and H=

Number of hydrogen atoms in fuel composition ( higher the value of this ratio means, number of carbon atoms are higher leading to produce more carbon dioxide and more carbon monoxide and hence higher smoke levels) of fuel composition. The increase of smoke levels was also due to decrease of air-fuel ratios [35] and volumetric efficiency [35] with biodiesel compared with pure diesel operation. Smoke levels were related to the density of the fuel. Since biodiesel has higher density compared to diesel fuel, smoke levels were higher with biodiesel.

Smoke levels decreased [35] at the respective fixed injection timing with test fuels. This was due to initiation of combustion at early period. This was due to increase of air entrainment, at the advanced injection timings, causing lower smoke levels.

Smoke levels were found to be lower with biodiesel operation compared with diesel operation with engine with LHR combustion chamber. The inherent oxygen of biodiesel might have provided some useful interactions between air and fuel, particularly in the fuel-rich region. Certainly, it is evident proof of the oxygen content of biodiesels enhanced the oxidation of hydrocarbon reactions thus reducing smoke levels.

This was due to improvement in the fuel spray characteristics at higher injector opening pressure causing lower smoke levels. Even though viscosity of biodiesel was higher than diesel, high injector opening pressure improves spray characteristics, hence leading to a shorter physical delay period. The improved spray also leads to better mixing of fuel and air resulting in

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turn in fast combustion. This will enhance the performance [35]

Preheating of the biodiesel reduced smoke levels, when compared with normal temperature of the biodiesel. This was due to i) the reduction of density of the biodiesel, as density was directly related to smoke levels, ii) the reduction of the diffusion combustion proportion with the preheated biodiesel, iii) the reduction of the viscosity of the biodiesel with which the fuel spray does not impinge on the combustion chamber walls of lower temperatures rather than it directed into the combustion chamber. tough emission targets at affordable cost, while improving fuel economy.

Temperature and availability of oxygen are two favorable conditions to form NOx levels. At peak load, NOx levels increased with test fuels at recommended injection timing due to higher peak pressures, temperatures as larger regions of gas burned at close-to-stoichiometric ratios.

From the Table-3, it was observed that increasing the injection advance resulted in higher combustion temperatures and increase of resident time leading to produce more NOx concentration in the

NOx are the precursor pollutants which can combine to form photochemical smog. These irritate the eyes and throat, reduces the ability of blood to carry oxygen to the brain and can cause headaches, and pass deep into the lungs causing respiratory problems for the human beings. Long-term exposure has been linked with leukemia. Therefore, the major challenge for the existing and future diesel engines is meeting the very exhaust of conventional engine with test fuels.

At the optimum injection timing, the LHR engine with test fuels produced lower NOx emissions, at peak load operation compared to the same version of the engine at the recommended injection timing. This was due to decrease of Combustion Temperatures [36]

With Improved Air Fuel Ratios.

Table-3. Data Of Exhaust Emissions At Peak Load Operation

Injection

Timing

( o

bTDC)

27(CE)

Test Fuel

DF

LSOBD

Smoke Levels (Hartridge Smoke Unit)

Injector Opening Pressure (Bar)

190

NT

48

55

PT

--

50

230

NT

38

50

PT

--

45

270

NT PT

NOx Levels(ppm)

Injector Opening Pressure (Bar)

190

NT PT

230

NT PT

270

NT PT

34 -- 850 ---- 900 ---- 950 ---

45 40 950 875 1000 925 1050 975

27LHR)

DF 55

LSOBD 45

-- 50

40 40

--

35

45

35

-- 1100 -- 1050 -- 1000 --

30 1225 1175 1175 1125 1125 1075

Biodiesel with both versions of the engine gave higher NOx levels than pure diesel operation. The linseed oil based biodiesel having long carbon chain

(C

20

-C

32

) [31] recorded more NOx than that of fossil diesel having both medium (C

8

-C

14

) as well as long chain (C

16

-C

28

). The increase in NOx emission might be an inherent characteristic of biodiesel due to the presence of 54.9% of mono-unsaturated fatty acids(MUFA) and 18% of poly-unsaturated fatty acids

(PUFA). That means, the long chain unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and FUPA) such as oleic C18:1 and linoliec C18:2 fatty acids are mainly responsible for higher levels of NOx emission [33]. Another reason for higher NOx levels is the oxygen (10%) present in the methyl ester. The presence of oxygen in normal biodiesel leads to improvement in oxidation of the nitrogen available during combustion. This will raise the combustion bulk temperature responsible for thermal NOx formation . Many researchers reported that oxygen [33] and nitrogen [35] content of biodiesel can cause an increase in NOx emissions. The production of higher NOx with biodiesel fueling is also attributable to an inadvertent advance of fuel injection timing due to higher bulk modulus of compressibility, with the in-line fuel injection system.

From the Table.4, it is noted that these levels increased with increase of injector opening pressure with different operating conditions of biodiesel.

NOx slightly increased with test fuels as injector opening pressure increased. As seen from the

Table.4, that peak brake thermal efficiency increased as injector opening pressure increased. The increase in peak brake thermal efficiency was proportional to increase in injector opening pressure. Normally, improved combustion causes higher peak brake thermal efficiency due to higher combustion chamber pressure

[35] and temperature and leads to higher

NOx formation. This is an evident proof of enhanced spray characteristics, thus improving fuel air mixture preparation and evaporation process.

NOx levels decreased with preheating of the biodiesel as noticed from the Table-3. The fuel spray properties may be altered due to differences in viscosity and surface tension. The spray properties affected may include droplet size, droplet momentum, degree of mixing, penetration, and evaporation. The change in any of these properties may lead to different relative duration of premixed and diffusive combustion regimes.

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Since the two burning processes (premixed and diffused) have different emission formation characteristics, the change in spray properties due to preheating of the vegetable oil (s) are lead to reduction in NOx formation. As fuel temperature increased, there was an improvement in the ignition quality, which will cause shortening of ignition delay. A short ignition delay period lowers the peak combustion temperature which suppresses NOx formation [33,35]. Lower levels of NOx is also attributed to retarded injection, improved evaporation, and well mixing of preheated biodiesel due to their viscosity at preheated temperatures. Biodiesel has higher value of NOx emissions followed by diesel.

This was because of inherent nature of biodiesel as it has oxygen molecule in its composition.

Combustion Characteristics

From the Table-4, it is noticed that peak pressures at an injection timing of 27 o

bTDC were lower in the LHR engine in comparison with the conventional engine with pure diesel operation. This was because the LHR engine exhibited higher temperatures of combustion chamber walls leading to continuation of combustion, giving peak pressures away from TDC. However, this phenomenon was nullified with advanced injection timing of 30 o bTDC on the same LHR engine with diesel operation because of reduced temperature of combustion chamber walls thus bringing the peak pressures closure to TDC. Similar findings were obtained by Reference [34].

Peak pressures increased by 4% and 2% with

LHR engine with biodiesel operation at recommended and optimized injection timings respectively in comparison with conventional engine. Peak pressure with LHR engine increased the mass-burning rate of the fuel in the hot environment leading to produce higher peak pressures. The advantage of using LHR engine for biodiesel was obvious as it could burn high viscous fuels.

From the Table.3 it is noticed that peak pressure for normal biodiesel was slightly higher than that of diesel fuel; even though biodiesel was having lower value of lower calorific value. Biodiesel advanced the peak pressure position as compared to fossil diesel because of its higher bulk modulus and cetane number. This shift is mainly due to advancement of injection due to higher density and earlier combustion due to shorter ignition delay caused by higher cetane number of biodiesel. When, a high density (or high bulk modulus) fuel is injected, the pressure wave travels faster from pump end to nozzle end, through a high pressure in-line tube [35]. This causes early lift of needle in the nozzle, causing advanced injection. Hence, the combustion takes place very close to TDC (lower value of time of occurrence of peak pressure) and the peak pressure slightly high due to existence of smaller cylinder volume near TDC.

Peak pressures increased with the increase of injector opening pressure and with the advancing of the injection timing with the test fuels. Peak pressure increased as injector opening increased. This may be due to smaller sauter mean diameter [35]shorter breakup length, better dispersion, and better spray and atomization characteristics. This improves combustion rate in the premixed combustion phase.

However, the peak pressures of preheated biodiesel were less than that of normal biodiesel. When the engine is running on preheated biodiesel the fuel injection was slightly delayed, due to decrease in bulk modulus of biodiesel with the increase in fuel temperature. The reasons for lower peak pressures of preheated biodiesel was also attributed to earlier combustion caused by short ignition delay (due to faster evaporation of the fuel) at their preheated temperatures.

With pure diesel operation, with engine with LHR combustion chamber, MRPR decreased by 22% at recommended injection timing and increased by 10% at optimized injection timing in comparison with CE. This was due to deteriorated combustion at recommended injection because of reduction of ignition delay and improved combustion at advanced injection timing with improved air fuel ratios.

With biodiesel operation, with engine with

LHR combustion chamber, MRPR increased by 12% and 14% at recommended injection timing and optimized injection timing respectively in comparison with CE. This was because of improved combustion with biodiesel operation on engine with LHR combustion chamber as biodiesel required higher duration of combustion and hence engine with LHR combustion chamber was more suitable for it.

The value of time of occurrence of peak pressure (TOPP) decreased (towards TDC) with the advancing of the injection timing and with increase of injector opening pressure at different operating conditions of the test fuels. This once again established the fact by observing marginal increase of peak pressure and higher TOPP, that biodiesel operation with conventional engine showed compatible performance when compared with LHR engine.

Preheating of the biodiesel showed lower

TOPP, compared with biodiesel at normal temperature.

This once again confirmed by observing the lower

TOPP, the performance of the engine improved with the preheated biodiesel compared with the normal biodiesel.

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Injection

Timing

( o

bTDC)

27(CE)

27(LHR)

Test Fuel

DF

LSOBD

DF

LSOBD

Table-4: Data Of Combustion Characteristics At Full Load Operation

PP (bar)

Injector opening pressure

190

NT

50.4

PT

--

270

MRPR (bar/deg)

Injector opening pressure

190 270

TOPP (deg)

Injector opening pressure

190 270

NT PT

53.5 --- 5.4 -- 6.0 -- 10 9

50.8 49.8 51.6 50.8 5.2 3.9 5.2 4.2 11 10 10 9

49.4 -- 50.2 -- 4.2 3.8 11 10 10 9

52.2 51.1 51.1 50.3 5.8 5.6 5.2 4.8 10 9 10 9

This trend of increase of maximum rate of pressure rise indicated improved and faster energy substitution and utilization by biodiesel in engine, which could replace 100% diesel fuel. That too, all these combustion characters were within the limits hence biodiesel can be effectively substituted for diesel fuel. engines. International Journal Energy Combustion

Science, 2006; 33:233-271

3. Babu AK, Devarajane G; Vegetable oils and their derivatives as fuels for CI engines: an overview.

SAE,2003;1:767.

4. Surendra RK, Suhash DV; Jatropha and karanj bio-

CONCLUSIONS

When compared with conventional engine, with biodiesel operation, at recommended and optimized injection timings, at full load operation, engine with LHR combustion chamber decreased smoke levels by 28% and 22%, increased NOx levels by 29% and 9%, increased peak pressure by 4% and 2% and increased maximum rate of pressure rise by 12% and 14% at full load operation.

With increase of injection pressure with both versions of the combustion chamber with test fuels, smoke levels and NOx levels decreased.

With preheating of biodiesel with both versions of the combustion chamber, smoke levels and

NOx levels decreased.

All the combustion parameters were within the limits and hence biodiesel can be substituted for 100% of diesel fuel.

Research Findings and Suggestions

Investigations on study of exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics with engine with ceramic coated LHR combustion were systematically carried out with varied injector opening pressure and fixed injection timing with different operating conditions of the test fuels with various configurations of the combustion chamber. However, engine with LHR combustion chamber increased NOx levels with test fuels and hence study of reduction of NOx emission is necessary. .

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