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TECHNICAL MANUAL
WESTERBEKE 46
Marine Diesel Engine
Publication # 34907
Edition One
May 1987
~ r-.v- 'WESTERBEKE
J
I
WESTERBEKECORPORATION
MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK
150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD, TAUNTON, MA 02780-7319
TECHNICAL MANUAL
WESTERBEKE 46
Marine Diesel Engine
Publication # 34907
Edition One
May 1987
j'
-.y"
'WESTERBEKE
WESTERBEKE CORPORATION
MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK
150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD, TAUNTON, MA 02780-7319
IMPORTANT
PRODUCT SOFTWARE DISCLAIMER
Product software of all kinds, such as brochures, dr awings,
technical data, operator's and workshop manuals, parts lists
and parts price lists
(and other related information),
instructions and specifications provided from sources other
than Westerbeke, is not within Westerbeke's control and,
accordingly, is provided to Westerbeke customers only as a
courtesy and service.
WESTERBEKE CANNOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR
THE CONTENT OF SUCH SOFTWARE, MAKES NO WARRANTIES OR
REPRESENTATIONS WITH RESPECT THERETO, INCLUDING THE ACCURACY,
TIMELINESS OR COMPLETENESS THEREOF, AND WILL IN NO EVENT BE
LIABLE FOR ANY TYPE OF DAMAGES OR INJURY INCURRED IN
CONNECTION WITH, OR ARISING OUT OF, THE FURNISHING OR USE OF
SUCH SOFTWARE.
For example, components and sub-assemblies incorporated into
Westerbeke's products and supplied by others (such as engine
blocks, fuel systems and components, transmissions, electrical components, pumps and other products) are generally supported by their manufacturers with their own software, and
Westerbeke must depend on such software for the design of
Westerbeke's own product software.
Such softwar e, however,
may be outdated and no longer accurate. Routine changes made
by Westerbeke' s suppliers, of which Westerbeke rarely has
notice in advance, are frequently not reflected in the
supplier's software until after such changes take place.
Westerbeke customers should also keep in mind the time span
between pr intings of Westerbeke product software, and the
unavoidable existence of earlier, non-current Westerbeke
software
editions
in
the
field.
Additionally,
most
Westerbeke
products
include
customer-requested
special
features that frequently do not include complete documentation.
In summation, product software provided with Westerbeke products, whether from Westerbeke or other suppliers, must not
and cannot be relied upon exclusively as the definitive
authority on the respective product.
It not only makes good
sense, but is imperative that appropriate representatives of
Westerbeke or the supplier in question be consulted to determine the accuracy and currency of the product software being
consulted by the customer.
1
INTRODUCTION
IMPORTANT
THIS MANUAL IS A GENERAL GUIDE TO THE INSTALLATION, START-UP,
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF YOUR WESTERBEKE MARINE DIESEL ENGINE.
THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS MANUAL IS VITAL TO YOUR ENGINE'S
DEPENDABLE, LONG TERM OPERATION.
READ IT
KEEP IT IN A SAFE DRY PLACE
KEEP IT HANDY FOR REFERENCE AT ALL TIMES !
FAILURE TO DO SO WILL INVITE SERIOUS
INVESTMENT BUT YOUR SAFETY AS WELL.
RISK,
NOT
ONLY
TO
YOUR
UNDERSTANDING THE DIESEL ..•.
The diesel engine closely resembles the gasoline engine in as much
as the mechanism is essentially the same.
Its cylinders are arranged
above its closed crankcase; its crankshaft is of the same general type
as that of a gasoline engine; it has the same type of valves,
camshaft, pistons, connecting rods, lubricating system and reverse and
reduction gear.
Therefore,
it follows to a great extent that a diesel engine
requires the same preventive maintenance as that which any intelligent
operator would give to a gasoline engine.
The most important factors
are proper maintenance of the fuel, lubricating and cooling systems.
Replacement of fuel and lubricating filter elements at the time
periods specified is a must, and frequent checking for contamination
(i. e. water,
sediment, etc. ) in the fuel system is also essent ial.
Another important factor is the use of the same brand of high
detergent
diesel lubr icating oil developed specifically for diesel
engines.
The diesel engine does differ from the gasoline engine, however,
in the method of handling and fir ing its fuel.
The carburetor and
ignition systems are done away with and in their place are the fuel
injection pump and fuel injectors which perform the functions of both.
Continuous care and attention at the factory have resulted in a
Westerbeke eng ine capable of many thousands of hour s of dependable
service. What the manufacturer cannot control, however, is the treatment it receives in service. This part rests with the Owner/Operator.
2
ORDERING PARTS
Whenever replacement parts are needed, always include the complete
part description and part number (see separate Parts List).
Be sure
to include the eng ine' s model and ser ial number.
Also, be sure to
insist upon Westerbeke factory-packaged parts, because will-fit parts
frequently are not made to the same specifications as original factory
equipment.
GENERATOR SETS
Westerbeke diesels are used for both the propulsion of boats and
for generating electrical power.
For generator set applications, all
details of this Manual apply, except in regard to certain portions of
the Installation, Operation and Maintenance sections.
Additional
information is provided in the section titled Generator Sets.
3
INSTALLATION
FOREWORD
Since the boats in which Westerbeke engines and generators are used
are many and varied, details of engine installation are equally so.
It is not the purpose of this section to advise boatyards and engine
installers on the generally well-understood and well-developed procedures for installation of engines.
However, the following outline of
general procedure is included because it is valuable in explaining the
functions of each component, the reasons why, the precautions to be
watched and the relationship of the installation to the operation of
the engine.
There are details of the installation which should have
per iodic checks and of which the operator should have a thorough
understanding to ensure good operating conditions for the engine and
correct procedures for its servicing.
INSPECTION OF EQUIPMENT
The engine is shipped from the factory mounted securely and properly crated. Accessory equipment is shipped in a separate small box,
usually packed with the engine crate.
Before accepting shipment from the
transportation company,
the
crate should be opened and an inspection made for concealed damage.
If either visible or concealed damage is noted, you should require the
delivering agent to sign "Received in damaged condition".
Also check
contents of the shipment against the packing list and make sure proper
notation is made of any discrepancies.
This is your protection
against loss or damage. Claims for loss or damage must be made to the
carrier, not to Westerbeke Corporation.
---RIGGING AND LIFTING
The engine is fitted with lifting eyes.
Rope or chain slings should be attached to the eyes and the engine
lifted by means of tackle attached to this sling.
The lifting eyes
have been designed to carry the full weight of the engine; therefore,
auxiliary slings are not required or desired.
CAUTION
Slings must not be so short as to place the engine lifting
eyes in significant sheer stress.
Strain on the engine
lifting eyes must not be in excess of 10· from the vertical.
A spacer bar must be placed between the two lifting eyes,
if supported by valve cover studs.
4
The general rule in moving engines is to see that all equipment used
is amply strong and firmly fixed in place.
Move the engine a little
at a time and see that it is firmly supported. Eliminate the possibility of accidents by avoiding haste.
Do not lift using the propeller
coupling, or pry against this with a crowbar, as you may distort the
coupling.
In some cases it may be necessary to lift the engine in other than the
regular horizontal position.
It may be that the engine must be
lowered endwise through a small hatchway which cannot be made larger.
If the opening is extremely restricted, it is possible to reduce, to
some extent, the outside clearances by removing components such as
generator, cooling piping, water tank, filters, mounting lugs, etc.
This accessory equipment should be removed by a competent mechanic and
special care should be taken to avoid damage to any exposed parts and
to avoid dirt entering these openings.
The parts which have been
removed should be returned to position as soon as the restriction has
been passed.
In case it is necessary to hoist the engine either front end
upwards or reverse gear end upwards, the attachment of slings must be
done very carefully to avoid the possibility of damage to the parts on
which the weight may bear. It is best if special rigging work be done
by someone experienced and competent in the handling of heavy machinery.
ENGINE BOLTS
It
is
recommended
that
bronze or
stainless
hanger
bolts
of
appropriate size be used through the engine flexible mounts.
Lag
screws are less preferred because their hold on the wood is weakened
every time they are moved, whereas the hanger bolt stays in position
and the nut on top is used to tighten the engine down or is removed to
permit the engine to be lifted. The bolt itself stays in position at
all times, as a stud, and the bond between the bolt and the wood is
not weakened by its removal.
FOUNDATION FOR ENGINE
A good engine bed contributes much toward the satisfactory operation
of the engine.
The engine bed must be of rigid construction and
neither deflect nor twist when subjected to the engine weight or the
position the boat may have to take under the effects of rough seas.
The bed must keep the engine within one or two thousandths of an inch
of this position at all times.
It has to withstand the forward push
of the propeller which is applied to the propeller shaft, to the
thrust washer bear ing in the eng ine and finally to the eng ine bolts
and engine bed.
5
In
fiberglas
hulls,
we
recommend that similar wooden stringers
as in wooden hulls be formed and
fitted,
then glassed to the hull
securely.
This allows hanger bolts
to be installed firmly in the wood,
thus reducing noise and transmitted
vibration.
The engine support stringers must be
wide enough and have a good flat surface to properly carry the full width
of
the
engine mounting
isolator.
Isolator
overhang
and/or
rounded
stringer surface is very detrimental
to the ability of the engine-mounting
isolator to retain vibration within
the isolator.
Preformed
fiberglas
engine
beds,
when used, should be of sufficient
thickness to properly support the
engine and should be well glassed to
the hull when installed.
Note:
Avoid excessive height, use
solid stringer construction (A).
The temptation to install the engine
on
a
pair
of
fiberglas
angle
irons should be avoided.
Such construction will allow engine vibrations to pass through to the hull.
Flexible mounts require a firm
foundation against which to react if they are to do their job.
When
possible,
follow
bed
design A and
avoid
bed design B
(see
illustration) •
Supports between the bed stringers, and extending from the stringers
to the hull, may be required for proper support and to aid in the
absorption of vibrations.
PROPELLER COUPLING
The propeller shaft coupling fitted to the Westerbeke engine's transmission output flange must transmit not only the power of the engine
to turn the propeller shaft and propeller, but must also transmit the
thrust of the engine/transmission either ahead or astern.
The coupling should be carefully machined for a slight force fit onto
the shaft and an accurate mating surface for coupling to the output
flange of the transmission.
For all engine models, a propeller half-coupling, bored to shaft size
for the specific order, is supplied. The coupling either has a keyway
with set screws or is of the clamping type.
6
The forward end of the propeller shaft has a long str aignt keyway.
Any burrs should be removed from the shaft end.
The coupling should
be a light drive fit on the shaft and the shaft should not have to be
scraped down or filed in order to get a fit.
It is important that the
key be properly fitted both to the shaft and the coupling.
The key
should fit the side of the keyway very closely, but should not touch
the top of the keyway in the hub of the coupling.
If it seems difficult to drive the coupling over the shaft, the
coupling can be expanded by heating in a pail of boiling water.
The
face of the propeller coupling must be exactly perpendicular to the
centerline or axis of the propeller shaft.
PROPELLER
The type and size of propeller varies with the gear ratio and must be
selected to fit the application, based upon boat tests.
To utilize
the full power of the engine, and to achieve ideal loading conditions,
it is des ir able to use a propeller wh ich will permit the eng ine to
reach its full rated RPM at full throttle under normal load, underway.
ALIGNMENT OF ENGINE
The eng ine must be proper ly and exactly aligned with the propeller
shaft.
No matter what material is used to build a boat it will be
found to be flexible to some extent and the boat hull will change its
shape to a greater extent than is usually realized when it is launched
and operated in the water.
It is, therefore, very important to check
the engine alignment at frequent intervals and to correct any errors
when they may appear.
Misalignment between the engine and the propeller shaft is the cause
of troubles which are often blamed on other causes.
It will create
excessive bearing wear, rapid shaft wear and will, in many cases,
reduce the life of the hull by loosening the hull fastenings.
A bent
propeller shaft will have exactly the same effect and it is therefore
necessary that the propeller shaft itself be perfectly straight.
One particularly annoying result of misalignment may be leakage of
transmission oil through the rear oil seal.
Check to make sure that
alignment is within the limits prescribed.
The engine should be moved around on the bed and supported on the isolator adjusting nuts until the two halves of the couplings can be
brought together without using force so that the flanges meet evenly
all around. It is best not to drill the foundation for the foundation
bolts until the approximate alignment has been accurately determined.
Never attempt a final alignment with the boat on land.
The boat
should be in the water and have had an opportunity to assume its final
water form.
It is best to do the alignment with the fuel and water
tanks about half full and all the usual equipment on board, after the
mainmast has been stepped and final rigging has been accomplished.
7
Take plenty of time in making this alignment and do not be satisfied
with anything less than perfect results.
The alignment is correct when the
shaft can be slipped backward and
forward into the counterbore very
easily and when a feeler guage
indicates that the flanges come
exactly together at all points.
The two halves of the propeller
coupling should be parallel with
0.001 inch per inch diameter of
coupling (A).
In mak ing
the
final check
for
alignment, the engine half-coupling
should be held in one position and
the alignment with the propeller
coupling tested with the propeller
coupling in each of four positions
(A), rotated 90' between each position.
This test will also check
whether the propeller half-coupling is in exact alignment on its
shaft.
Then, keeping the propeller coupling in one position, the
alignment should be checked by rotating the eng ine half-coupling in
90' increments, checking dimension (A) of each 90' position until the
half-coupling has been rotated full circle.
The eng ine alignment should be rechecked after the boat has been in
serv ice for one to three week sand, if necessary, per forming the
alignment again.
It usually will be found that the engine is no
longer in alignment. This is not because the work was improperly done
at first but because the boat has taken some time to take its final
shape, and the engine bed and engine stringers have probably absorbed
some moisture.
It may even be necessary to realign once again at a
later time.
The coupling should always be opened up and the bolts removed whenever
the boat is hauled out or moved from the land to the water, and during
storage in a cradle.
The flexibility of the boat often puts a very
severe strain on the shaft or the coupling, or both, when it is being
moved.
In some cases, the shaft has actually been bent by these
strains.
This does not apply to small boats that are hauled out of
the water when not in use, unless they have been dry for a considerable time.
8
EXHAUST SYSTEM
Exhaust line
installations vary considerably and each must be
designed for the particular installation. The prime requirement is to
provide an outlet line with a minimum of restrictions, arranged so
that sea water, rain water and condensation cannot get back into the
cylinders of the engine.
The sea water supply line feeding raw cooling water into the
system must be routed to prevent siphoning of raw water through this
line into the exhaust system, filling the muffler and eng ine cylinders.
This line should be routed at least 12 inches above the water
line and an anti-siphon break installed at the top of its loop. This
loop should be high enough above the water line so as not to go below
it at various angles of heel when under sail.
Lines feeding raw cooling water to stuffing boxes, if installed,
must be located to prevent siphoning of water back into the engine
exhaust and engine cylinders as above.
Most exhaust systems today use a water lift type muffler such as
the Westerbeke Hydro-Hush.
In some installations there is a dry,
insulated high riser located after the engine manifold and before the
muffler to prevent water flowing backwards into the engine during
cranking.
It is essential not to hang too much weight, in the form of
exhaust
system
components,
rigidly
from
the
engine
manifold.
Generally, it is permissible to directly connect a pipe nipple and a
water-jacketed exhaust elbow.
Both components weigh approximately 8
pounds (4 kilograms). If there are more components to be rigidly connected to each other and they
~ weigh more than 8 pounds, then a
min
flexible exhaust section must be
installed between the manifold
6
outlet and the exhaust system
min
componen ts.
I
J--
~Water Line
SY.Phon
Break
<33327
(Teenol
Included)
(ill
..
.
,
~""':~~-
.'
, -=---::--~
lnsulate·-~ "-'~\.!
-"~
~ ~ :----'-.' \:.-""""
'----'-
....
~
12" min
ENGINE INSTALLATIONS WITH EXHAUST MANIFOLD /WATER INJECTED ELBOW MINIMUM OF 6
INCHES ABOVE VESSEL WATER LINE.
6"
~
1 Water Line
~
CAUTION: Vented loop must be
in a locatIon where it will remain
above the waterline durIng all
attitudes of the vessel's operation.
ENCINE INSTALLATIONS WITH EXHAUST MANIFOLD/WATER INJECTED ELBOW AT OR BELOW
VESSEL WATER LINE
9
The exhaust system must be supported or suspended independently of
the engine manifold, usually using simple metal hangers secured to the
overhead.
All dry portions of the exhaust system can be constructed of common black iron pipe and should be wrapped in suitable insulation
material to keep surface temperatures as low as possible.
Seasonal
inspection of
the
exhaust
system
iron
components
is
advised.
This is to allow for the removal of any carbon or scale
buildup on the inside of the exhaust that will create back-pressure
problems, reducing engine performance and cylinder head service life.
Many installations use flexible rubber exhaust hose for the watercooled section of the exhaust line because of the ease of installation
and flexibility. Provide adequate support for the rubber hose to prevent sagg ing, bending and formation of water pockets.
The exhaust
line must be at least as large an I. D. as the O. D. of the exhaust
elbow hose attachment nipple.
It should be increased in size by
1/2" 1.0. for every 10 feet beyond the first 20 feet.
Always
arrange
the
rubber
hose
section
so that water
cannot
possibly flow back into the engine.
Also make sure that entering sea
water cannot spray directly against the inside of the exhaust piping.
Otherwise, excessive erosion will occur.
The use of brass or copper
is not acceptable for wet exhaust systems, as the combination of salt
water and diesel exhaust gas will cause rapid deter ioration of this
material.
Again, seasonal inspection of the interiors of the metal
portion of the exhaust system is advised, in order to remove scale and
carbon deposits.
MEASURING EXHAUST GAS BACK PRESSURE
Back pressure must be measured on a
straight section of the
exhaust line and as near as possible to the engine exhaust manifold.
The engine should be run at maximum load during the measurement
period. Set-up should be as shown below.
1.
2.
For normally aspirated engines:
Pressure Test
Mercury Test
1.5 Max PSI
3" Mercury
Water Column
= 39"
For turbo-charged engines:
Pressure Test
Mercury Test
0.75 Max PSI
1-1/2" Mercury
Water Column
= 19-1/2"
~,
WATER CONNECTIONS
Seacocks and strainers should be of the
full-flow type, at least one size greater
than the inlet thread of the sea water
pump.
The strainer should be of the type
which may be withdrawn for cleaning while
the vessel is at sea.
Mount the strainer
below the water line to ensure self-priming
10
From Heal
Excnanger
Exnau,1
Elbow
Water lines can be copper tubing or wire-wound, reinforced rubber
hose.
In any case, use a section of flexible hose that will not
collapse under suction, between the hull inlet and engine, as well as
between the raw water cooling system outlet and the exhaust system.
This takes up vibration and permits the engine to be moved slightly
when it is being re-aligned.
Do not use street elbows in suction
piping or discharge piping to t6e exhaust system.
All pipe and fittings should be made of bronze.
Use sealing compound at all connections to pre..vent air leaks.
The neoprene impeller in the sea (raw)
water pump never should be run dry.
COOLANT RECOVERY TANK
Your
Westerbeke
diesel
is
designed for and supplied with a
remote
coolant
recovery
tank.
Once the eng ine has been f i lIe d
initially via its pressure cap,
occasional topping off can be
done through the recovery tank.
Coolant level can be easily and
frequently monitored.
FILL CAP
COOLANT
RECOVERY __
TANK
Mount the recovery tank above
the eng ine and inside the cabin,
sail locker or engine compartment
where it will always be visible.
.fr
COCKPIT
CABIN
Take
care
that
the
plastic
tubing between the engine and the
recovery tank is run so that it
will not chafe or kink.
FUEL TANK AND FILTERS
Fuel tanks may be constructed of fiberglas, monel, aluminum, plain
steel or ternepla te.
I f made of f iberg las, be cer tain that the
in ter ior is gel-coated to prevent fiber s fr om con tamina ting the fuel
system.
Copper or galvanized fuel tanks should not be used.
Great
care should be taken to ensure that the fuel system is correctly
installed so that airlocks are eliminated and precautions taken to
filter contaminants from the fuel.
A primary
fuel
filter
of the water-collecting
type should be
installed between the fuel tank and the fuel lift pump. A recommended
type is available from the list of accessories.
The secondary fuel
filter is fitted on the engine between the fuel lift pump and the
injection pump and has a replaceable filter element.
The fuel supply to the engine should be such, that it will allow
the engine-mounted fuel lift pump to maintain a positive inlet
pressure to the injection pump under all operating conditions of the
engine. Minimum fuel supply line size is 1/4-inch I.D ••
II
Fuel return should be plumbed back to the tank using a minimum of
1/4-inch LD. hose.
The fuel return at the tank should extend down
into the tank as if it were a pick-up. This is particularly important
when the top of the fuel tank is below the top of the engine.
Extending the return down into the tank as if it were a pick-up prevents fuel from syphoning out of the engine fuel system via the return
line and allowing air to enter the eng ine' s fuel system when the
return terminates at the top of the tank.
To ensure satisfactory operation, a diesel engine must have a
dependable supply of clean diesel fuel.
For this reason, cleanliness
and care are especially important at the time when the fuel tank is
installed, because dirt left anywhere in the fuel lines or tank will
certainly cause fouling of the injection equipment when the engine is
started for the first time.
FUEL PIPING
We recommend fuel hose or copper tUbing together with
fittings, both for the supply line and the return line.
suitable
Run the tubing, or hose, in the longest pieces obtainable
the use of unnecessary fittings and connectors.
The shutoff
the line between the fuel tank and engine should be of the
type, and it is important that all joints be free of pressure
to avoid
valve in
fuel oil
leaks.
Keep fuel lines as far as possible from
temperature, to eliminate "vapor locks".
exhaust
pipe
for
minimum
The fuel piping leading from the tank to the engine compartment
should always be securely anchored to prevent chafing.
Usually the
copper tubing is secured by means of copper straps.
Do not use spr ing-loaded check valves in the fuel supply line as
alternatives to good quali ty manual fuel shutoff valves.
Spr ingloaded check valves tax the engine-mounted fuel lift pump's ability to
draw fuel from the fuel tank through the check valve. This can result
in fuel starvation and engine stoppage.
Do not use fuel tanks with fuel pick-up tubes having gauze filter
screens in them.
These screens can clog easily, stopping fuel flow,
result ing in eng ine stoppage.
pick-up tubes should be open and
unobstructed.
The final connection to the engine should be through flexible
rubber hoses.
This will absorb vibration from between the engine and
metal fuel line when used.
ELECTRIC INSTRUMENT PANELS
Standard - This panel is pre-wired, with 15 feet of harness and a
6-prong plug,
into the engine harness.
The panel contains a
tachometer/hourmeter,
ignition key,
pushbuttons for PREHEAT and
START, indicator lamps for low oil pressure, high coolant temperature
and low DC charging. Also mounted in the panel are lamps to illuminate
the panel and a sonic alarm buzzer.
12
Deluxe Panel - This panel is pre-wired, with 15 feet of harness and a
6-prong plug,
into the engine harness.
The panel contains a
tachometer/hourmeter, oil pressure guage, water temperature guage, DC
voltmeter, ignition switch, pushbuttons for PREHEAT and START and a
sonic alarm buzzer.
(NOTE: Alarm Buzzer - An engine alarm system is standard with
each propuls ion unit.
Two switches are installed on the
engine, one to sense oil pressure and one to sense cooling
water temperature.
Should a loss of oil pressure or high
cooling water temperature occur, the respective switch will
trip, activating the alarm buzzer and alerting the operator.
Operator should note that the alarm buzzer will sound when
the ignition key is turned on.
After the engine is started
and oil pressure rises above 20-25 PSI, the alarm buzzer will
turn off.)
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
All
Westerbeke
diesel
engines
are
supplied pre-wired with
a
6-prong plug to accept either the standard or deluxe instrument
panels.
Two additional plug-in connectors are adjacent to this plug
for connecting to the alarm buzzer leads adjacent to the panel plug.
Carefully
follow
all
instructions
on
the
DC
wir ing
diagram
supplied with each unit, especially those relating to fuse/c ir cui t
breaker requirements (Generators) and DC battery switches.
Starter batteries should be located as close to the engine as
possible to avoid voltage drop through long leads. It is bad practice
to use the starter batter ies for other services unless they require
low current or are intermittent.
In cases where there are substantial loads (from lights, refrigerators, radios, depth sounders, etc.),
it is essential to have a complete, separate system and to provide
charg ing current for this system by means of a second alternator or
alternator output splitter.
Starter batteries must be of
discharge (Diesel starting) •
a
type which permits
a
high
rate
of
Carefully utilize the recommended wire sizes shown in the wiring
diagrams. Plan installation so the battery is close to the engine and
use the following cable sizes:
#1
#1/0
#2/0
#3/0
for
for
for
for
distances
distances
distances
distances
up
up
up
up
to
to
to
to
13
8 feet
10 feet
13 feet
16 feet
Multi-strand
Copper Cable
MECHANICAL CONTROLS
Depending on the engine model,
those with mechanical shut-down
levers on the injection pump should be operated with a sheathed push/
pull cable located in the cockpit area. These mechanical shut-down
levers are generally spring-loaded to the run position.
(NOTE:
On earlier W-46 models, the mechanical shut-off lever
was
a standard feature.
La ter models had an electr ic fuel
shut-off solenoid in the injection pump as a standard feature
and the option of a mechanical shut-off lever, or both.)
Control
cable
attachment
brackets
are
provided
on
the
engine/transmission for the attachment of throttle, shift and shut-off
cables (when used). These brackets are designed to accept Morse style
contol cables. Single-lever or dual-lever controls can be used.
(NOTE:
Single-lever controls should not be used with models
that already have throttle and engine shut-offs as a combined
lever on the engine.)
Control cables should be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. After control cables are properlyconnected and secured, check for full travel of the cable, making
certain
that the transmission shift lever moves fully into the
selected mode, Forward or Reverse, that it positions the lever properly in Neutral, and that these positions correspond with the position of the control lever in the cockpit.
Check the throttle lever on the injection pump and ensure that
full movement of the throttle lever is allowed by the cable, from the
idle stop screw to the full throttle stop.
On models having the
mechanical shut-down lever, check that the lever moves fully into the
shut-off position and returns to its full run position.
l4
OPERATION
PREPARATION FOR FIRST START
The engine, for safety reasons,
is shipped "DRY" ••• with lubricating oil drained from the crankcase and fluid drained from the
transmission.
Therefore, be sure to follow these recommended procedures carefully before starting the engine for the first time.
1. Remove the oil filler cap and fill the sump with diesel oil
having an API spec. of CC or better. Refer to the technical data Sb~­
tion of this manual for the proper amount of oil the sump should
receive; do not neglect to include filter quantity.
2. Fill the cooling system with a mixture of antifreeze and fresh
water (50-50). The mixture should be strong enough to protect against
freezing.
Open air bleed petcocks on the exhaust manifold or thermostat housing, when installed, to allow air to bleed from the system
while it is being filled.
3. Fill the reverse gear to the highest mark on the dipstick with
the proper lubricant for
the model gear, as specified in the
Transmission Section of this manual.
V-drives must be filled separately.
4. Fill the fuel tank with clean # 2 diesel fuel,
rating of 45 or better.
with a Cetane
5. Ensure that the battery is fully charged and the electrolyte
level is correct.
FUEL SYSTEM
The
fuel
injection
system
of
a
compression
ignition
engine
(diesel) depends upon very high fuel pressure dur ing the injection
stroke to function correctly.
Minute movements of the pumping
plungers produce this high fuel pressure. However, if any air is present inside the high-pressure line, this air will act as a cushion and
prevent the correct pressure, as well as fuel injection, from being
achieved.
Therefore, it is essential that all air is bled from the system
whenever any part of the system has been opened for repair or servicing.
The Westerbeke self-bleeding fuel system on the Model W-46 is
semi-automatic.
If you run out of fuel, make a filter change, or in
any other way disassemble the fuel system, the system will then contain air which may prevent the engine from starting.
If this should
occur, turn the keyswitch on, allow the electric pump to run for two
minutes, and crank the engine for approximately seven seconds. If the
engine has not started, wait for approximately thirty seconds more of
electric pump action and crank engine again.
(These time periods may
vary from engine to engine.)
15
(NOTE:
The self-bleeding feature on the Model W-46 relates
to the engine's fuel system only.
Fill any large pr imary filter /water separator with clean
diesel fuel.)
The previous procedures are basic for all initial engine start-ups or
for restarting engines that have stopped due to lack of fuel.
PREPARATION FOR STARTING
1.
Check the coolant level in plastic remote recovery tank.
level should be roughly half way between Full and Add.
The
(NOTE:
In installations using metal remote expansion tank
#24177 for domestic water heater locations, the plastic
remote recovery tank is not needed.
Maintain metal tank
half full when system is cold.)
2.
Check the engine oil level in sump.
3.
Check transmission lubricant level.
(NOTE:
In Transmission/V-Drive Combinations,
separate lubrication. Check separately.)
is
fuel
in
the
tank
and
that
V-Drive
the
fuel
has
4.
See that there
valve is open.
shut-off
5.
Ensure the engine starting battery is fully charged, and all
electr ical connections have been proper ly made.
Pay par t icular
attention to the battery ground connection to the engine and that
the instrument panel harness is fully plugged into the engine harness plug. Turn the battery selector switch to ON.
6.
Check that the seacock is open and all hose connections are tight.
Hose material used between seacock, strainer and engine raw water
pump should be of good wall construction and/or wire-reinforced.
7.
Check the exhaust connections to engine and make certain that all
clamps holding hoses to engine and muffler are tight. Ensure that
the raw water supply to exhaust elbow is plumbed through good
hose, preferably wire-reinforced, and that this hose is properly
routed to prevent syphoning.
STARTING THE ENGINE (COLD)
1.
Check to make certain that the PULL-TO-STOP lever is pushed back
into the RUN position.
This was used on earlier models and was
later replaced by an electric shut-off solenoid incorporated into
the fuel injection pump, that functioned by turning the ignition
key ON or OFF. The manual shut-off was retained as an option.
16
2.
Place the transmission shift lever in the neutral position.
This
is
particularly
important
with
engines
having
hydraulic
transmissions.
A neutral safety switch on the transmission prevents starter energizing, should the shift lever on the hydraulic
transmission be other than in neutral start.
3.
Open the throttle halfway.
Turn the ignition key ON.
This will
energ ize the instrument panel, cause the sonic alarm buzzer to
sound (engine not running, no oil pressure), electric fuel pump to
function and the electric run solenoid innthe injection pump to be
energized to run.
4.
Preheat for 15 - 20 seconds.
Panels with keyswitches: Push in on the key to activate the preheat and hold it in.
Panels with pushbuttons:
Push in on the PREHEAT button to activate preheat and hold it in.
(Generators: Depress PREHEAT switch and hold.)
5.
Start the engine.
Panels with keyswitches:
While continuing to hold the key pushed
in
for
preheat,
turn
the
key
to
the
start
position.
Panels with pushbutton start: Continuing to hold the PREHEAT button in, press the START button.
(NOTE:
Generators:
6.
PREHEAT must be depressed to energize START)
Continuing to hold PREHEAT depressed, press the START
switch.
Star t:
Once the eng ine starts, release the keyswitch (pushbuttons)
and return the throttle immedia tely to near the idle
position (1000 - 1500 RPM).
Generators:
Release the START toggle switch only.
(Continue to
hold the PREHEAT toggle switch depressed until oil pressure shows
20 - 25 PSI, then release the PREHEAT toggle.)
Check for proper oil pressure and ensure that there is raw water
coolant discharge with the exhaust.
7.
If the engine fails to start in 20 to 30 seconds of cranking,
discon tinue the
start ing and allow the starter to cool for a
period of time, at least twice that used when cranking.
Then
repeat steps 4 through 6.
CAUTION
Excessive cranking can damage the starter as well as fill
the exhaust system between the muffler and engine with raw
cooling water, possibly allowing raw water into the engine.
Shut the thru-hull sea cock and open it once engine starts.
Investigate a hard-starting problem and correct it.
17
STARTING THE ENGINE (WARM)
If the engine is warm and has been stopped for a short period of time,
place the throttle in a partially-open position, the transmission in
NEUTRAL, then depress the PREHEAT and START buttons.
Once engine
starts release both buttons and place the throttle in idle position.
(NOTE:
PREHEAT button must be pushed in order
START button.)
to energize
(NOTE:
Always make certain that the starter pinion has
stopped revolving before re-engaging the starter; otherwise, the flywheel ring gear or starter pinion may be
damaged. )
Extended use of the preheat beyond the time periods stated should also
be avoided to prevent damage to the preheat elements.
NEVER under any circumstances use, or allow anyone else to use,
starting ether to start your engine.
If your engine will not start,
then have a qualified Westerbeke marine mechanic check it.
WHEN THE ENGINE STARTS
1.
Check for normal oil pr essure immed ia tely upon eng ine start ing.
Do not continue to run engine if oil pressure is not present
within 15 seconds of starting the engine.
2.
Check sea water flow.
Do this without delay.
3.
Recheck cr ankcase oil.
After the eng ine has run 3 or 4 minutes,
subsequent to an oil change or new installation, stop the engine
and check the crankcase oil level. This is important as it may be
necessary to add oil to compensate for the oil that is required to
fill the eng ine' s internal oil passages and the oil filter.
Add
oil as necessary. Check oil level prior to each day's operation.
4.
Recheck transmission fluid level.
(This applies only subsequent
to a fluid change or new installation.)
In such a case, stop the
engine after running for several minutes at 800 RPM with one shift
in to forward and one into rever se, then add fluid as necessary.
Check
fluid
level
before
each
day
of
operation.
Look for water discharge with the exhaust.
WARNING
The cooling system is pressurized when the engine is at or
above operating temperature.
The pressure in the system
must be released with caution as the filler cap is removed.
It is advisable to protect the hands against escaping stearn
or water as the cap is turned.
18
5.
Check expansion tank water level.
This is done by stopping the
engine
and removing the fresh water fill cap from the manifold/
expansion tank.
(To remove the cap, press down on it with the
palm of the hand and twist the cap counterclockwise until the
resistance of the safety stops is felt.
Slowly release palm
pressure from the cap and allow any pressure built up in the
system to escape.
Take care not to be scalded or burned by escaping steam or water. Leave the cap in this position until all
pressure has been released. Then press the cap firmly downward
to clear the safety stops and continue turning until it can be
lifted off).
(NOTE: Systems with metal remote expansion tanks:
coolant
level should be checked at this tank and the level maintained at about
half full.
The fill cap on the engine
should not be removed while checking the system, as coolant
will be lost when this cap is removed.)
(NOTE: Engines equipped with the plastic coolant recovery
tank:
The level in the tank should be checked and coolant
added as needed.
The engine fresh water cooling system is
full when recovery tank is used; the tank collects coolant
from the eng ine through expansion as the eng ine reaches
operating temperature (170· - 190·F), returning coolant to
the engine through contraction as the engine cools.)
6.
Warm-up instructions.
As soon as possible, get the boat underway
but at reduced speed, until water temperature gauge indicates
130-150·F.
If necessary, engine can be warmed up with the
transmission in neutral at 1000 - 1500 RPM.
7.
Transmission operation.
Always reduce engine speed to idle when
shifting gears.
However, when the transmission is engaged, it
will carry full engine load.
STOPPING THE ENGINE
1.
position shift lever in neutral.
2.
Idle the engine for 2 to 4 minutes to avoid boiling and to dissipate some of the heat.
(Generator - run at no-load)
3.
Engines equipped with stop handles: Pull the handle out and hold
until the eng ine stops completely.
The sonic alarm buzzer will
sound when oil pressure drops. Turn off keyswitch.
Engines with keyswitch shut-off:
(Remove load from generator.)
Just turn the key OFF.
(NOTE:
Oil pressure gauge and water temperature gauge will
remain
close
to
normal
readings
shown
while
engine
was running,
when
instrument panel
is de-energized by
turning key OFF.)
19
4.
Turn off the keyswi tch.
Some models do not use the stop lever;
they are equipped instead with a fuel solenoid which shuts off the
fuel supply when the keyswitch is turned to the OFF position.
5.
Close the seacock (at operator's discretion).
6.
Disconnect power
discretion) •
to
system
with
battery
switch
(at
operator's
OPERATING PRECAUTIONS
1.
Never run engine for extended periods when excessive overheating
occurs, as extensive internal damage can be caused.
2.
DO NOT put cold water in an overheated engine.
cylinder head, block or manifold.
3.
Keep air intake silencer free from lint, etc.
4.
Never Race a Cold Engine;
dequate oil circulation.
5.
Keep the engine and accessories clean.
6.
Keep the fuel clean.
Handle it with extreme care as water and
dirt in fuel can cause additional trouble, resulting in service
life of the injection system being reduced dramatically.
7.
Do not allow fuel to run low, because fuel intake may be uncovered
long enough to allow air to enter the injection system, resulting
in engine stoppage, and requiring system bleeding.
8.
Do not be alarmed if the temperature gauge shows a high reading
following a sudden stop after eng ine has been oper ating at full
load.
This is caused by the release of residual heat from the
heavy metal masses near the combustion chambers. To prevent this,
run engine at idle for a short period before stopping it.
A high
temperature reading after a stop does not necessarily signal alarm
against restarting.
If there is no functional difficulty, temperatures will quickly return to normal when engine is operating.
It can crack the
internal damage can occur due to ina-
20
TWELVE
IMPORTANT
~
RULES
IMPORTANT
IMPORTANT
.•• for your safety and your engine's dependability.
ALWAYS 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Keep this Manual handy and read it whenever in doubt.
Use only filtered diesel fuel and keep fuel tank full.
Check cooling water temperature frequently to make sure it is
in the 170· - 190· F. range during operation.
Check engine coolant prior to each day's use.
Investigate any oil leaks immediately.
Check transmission lubricant prior to each day's use.
Check engine lube oil level in sump prior to each day's use.
NEVER 8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Race the engine in neutral when cold.
Run the engine unless the gauge shows proper oil pressure.
Tamper with the injection pump.
Use cotton waste or fluffy cloth for cleaning or store fuel
in a galvanized container.
Subject the engine to prolonged overloading or continue to
run it if black smoke comes from the exhaust as this is an
indication of an overload condition.
21
MAINTENANCE
PERIODIC ATTENTION:
When you have taken delivery of your engine, it is important that
you make the following checks immediately after the first 50 hours of
its operation.
(NOTE:
Transmissions generally require fluid change after
the first 25 to 30 hours of operation.
Refer to the Transmission Section of this manual for details.)
FIFTY HOUR CHECKOUT (INITIAL)
Do the following:
1.
Retorque
cylinder
the
head
bolts.
2. Retorque
the
rocker
br acket
nuts and adjust valve rocker
clearance.
3. Change fuel filter elements.
4. Change engine lubricating oil
and oil filter.
S. Check for fuel and lubr ica t ing
oil
leaks.
Correct
if
necessary.
6. Check cooling system for leak s
and inspect water level.
7. Check
for
loose
fittings,
clamps,
connections,
nuts,
bolts, V-belt tensions, etc.
Pay particular
attention
to
loose engine mounts and engine mount fittings.
These could cause
mis-alignment.
8. Check condition of zinc anode in engine heat exchanger.
9. Adjust engine idle speed, if needed.
10. Check for proper movement and security of throttle and shift
linkage.
DAILY CHECK
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Check sea water
strainer.
Clear
any accumulated debris.
Check primary fuel filter/water separator.
Drain any water present in the separator.
Check coolant level in recovery tank.
Maintain half full
when
cold.
Check lubricating oil level in sump. Maintain level at full mark.
Check lubricant level in transmission and/or V-Drives.
Maintain
at full mark on dipstick.
Visually check over engine for any noticeable abnormalities i.e. loose belts, brackets, leaks etc.
22
SEASONAL CHECK
1.
Every 100 hours of engine operation or at the end of the season,
(even if 100 hours is not reached), change the engine's lubricating oil and oil filter.
Use correct spec. oil and Westerbeke
oil filter.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Check coolant level. Add if necessary.
Check zinc anode. Clean or replace as needed.
Check security of nuts and bolts and electrical connections.
Check belt(s) tension and condition of belt(s) and hoses. Replace
as needed.
6. Clean and replace fuel filter element in primary filter/water
separator.
7. Check starting battery condition of charge and electrolyte level.
Add distilled water as needed.
8. Check that air
intake silencer is clean and unobstructed.
9. Check sea water pump to ensure there are no leaks, the impeller is
in good condition, and the cam and front cover are not showing
signs of wear. Replace as required.
10. Replace secondary fuel filter element and filter element in base
of electric fuel pump.
11. Change
lubr icant
in
transmission/V-Dr ive.
Refer
to
the
Transmission Section of this manual for details.
(IMPORTANT NOTE:
It is mandatory that the check *1 be
performed when total operating time reaches 150 hours.
In some instances, this total may be reached before the
end of your sailing season.)
WINTERIZATION
1. Fresh Water Cooling System:
The use of a 50-50 solution of antifreeze and fresh water is recommended for use in the fresh water
cooling system year round.
This solution may require a higher
concentration of antifreeze, depending on the area's winter climate.
Should more antifreeze be needed, drain an approximate amount from
the engine block and add a more concentrated mixture.
Operate the
engine to insure complete circulation throughout the system.
Recheck
coolant level.
2. Lubrication System:
With the engine warm, drain the lubricating
oil from the oil sump.
Remove and replace the oil filter.
(Place
some paper towels and a plastic bag around the filter to catch the oil
while removing it. You may find it advantageous to punch a couple of
holes in the lower and upper portion of the filter to allow oil to
drain off into the plastic bag with paper towels before attempting to
remove the filter.
23
When installing the new oil filter, be sure to apply a small amount of
oil on the sealing O-r ing a the base of the filter.
Fill the sump
with the correct amount of oil for your engine model. Use an oil with
an API Spec. CC.
Run the engine and check for proper oil level and
pressure and ensure that there are no leaks.
Do not leave old engine lubricating oil in the sump over the winter
lay-up per iod.
Lubr icating oil and combustion deposits combine to
produce harmful chemicals which can reduce the life of internal engine
parts.
3.
Transmission:
Drain the lubricant from your transmission and/or
V-dr ive.
Refill with the proper lubr icant to the full mark on the
transmission dipstick. Run the engine and shift the transmission into
forward and reverse one/two times.
Stop the engine and check the
transmission oil level; add lubricant as needed. Check for leaks.
4.
Fuel System:
Top off your fuel tanks with #2 diesel fuel.
Fuel
additives should be added at this time to control algae and condition
the fuel. Care should be taken that additives useed are compatible
with primary filter/separators used in the system. Change the element
in your primary fuel filter/separator if it contains one, and/or clean
the separator sediment bowl.
Change the fuel filter elements on the engine and bleed the fuel
system as needed.
Start the eng ine and allow it to run for 5 to 10
minutes to ensure that no air is left in the fuel system and check for
any leaks that may have been created in the fuel system during this
servicing. Correct as needed.
5.
Sea Water Circuit:
Close the thru hull sea cock. Remove the raw
water intake hose from the sea cock. Place the end of this hose into
a 5-gallon bucket of clean fresh water.
Before starting the engine,
check the z inc pencil found in the pr imary heat exchanger on the
engine and clean or replace it, if required. Clean your sea strainer,
if one is installed on the inside of the hull.
Start the engine and allow the raw water pump to draw the fresh water
through the system.
When the bucket empties, stop the engine and
refill the bucket with an antifreeze solution slightly stronger than
needed for winter freeze protection in your area.
Start the engine and allow all of this mixture to be drawn through the
raw water system.
Once the bucket empties, stop the engine.
This
antifreeze mixture should protect your raw water circuit from freezing
during winter lay-up, as well as providing corrosion protection.
Remove the impeller from the raw water pump (some antifreeeze mixture
will spill, so use a container to catch it).
Examine the impeller.
If impeller needs to be replaced, acquire a new impelller and a cover
gasket, place in a plast ic bag, and retain for later installation
(tape plastic bag to pump to avoid misplacing the parts) •
24
6. Place a clean cloth, lightly soaked in oil, in the opening of the
intake manifold so as to block it closed.
DO NOT shove the cloth out
- - see it next Spring,
of sight into the intake manifold.
If you cannot
and you attempt to start your engine, you may need the assistance of a
servicing dealer. Make a note to remove this cloth prior to start-up.
The exhaust thru-hull sea cock can be closed in this same manner.
7. Disconnect the propeller shaft coupling from the transmission.
(If
the boat remains in the water during winter storage, this need not be
done. )
Th is is a good time to check the secur i ty of the coupling to the
propeller shaft.
Ensure also that the coupling set screws are tight
and wired so as not to loosen.
The engine alignment to the propeller
shaft should be checked in the Spring when the boat is placed back in
the water, the mast stepped, and the rigging tuned.
8. Controls and Linkage:
Check the secur ity of control connections
to the engine and transmission.
Lubricate these controls and ensure
that they move freely.
Engines with pUll-type shut-off levers should
be left in the run position during winter storage.
9. Starter Motor:
Lubrication and cleaning of the starter drive
pinion is advisable, if access to the starter permits its easy removal. Disconnect the starter battery before attempting to remove the
starter.
Take care to replace proper ly any electr ical connections
removed from the starter.
10. Removing the injector s from the cylinder head and squir ting some
light lube oil down the injector hole into the cylinders is not
necessary for the few months the engine is laid up for the winter.
However, if you anticipate a longer lay-up period (12 months or more),
perform this procedure.
It will prevent the adhering of the piston
rings to the cylinder walls. Ensure that you have the proper hardware
to replace the sealing washers for the injectors and return line
connections.
11.
Spares:
This is a good time to look over your engine and see if
external items such as belts or hoses may need replacing, come spring
commissioning.
Check over your basic spares kit and order items not
on hand, or replace those items used during the Winter lay-up, such as
filters and zinc pencils.
12.
Batteries:
If batteries are to be left on board dur ing the
winter storage period, ensure that they are in a state of full charge
If not, it
and will remain that way, to prevent them from freezing.
would be wise to remove them.
25
LUBRICATING OILS
Lubr icating oils are available for Westerbeke Diesel eng ines which
offer an improved standard of performance to meet the requirements of
modern operating conditions such as sustained high speeds and temperatures.
Use a good
better.
brand
of
oil
Use the following chart
your Westerbeke engine.
that
to
has
select
Ambient Temperature
an
API
Service
the proper
Spec.
viscosity of oil
Viscosity
Above 80' F
30 - 80' F
Below 30' F
SAE 30 or 10-30
SAE 20 or 10-30
SAE 10 or
26
of CC
10-30
or
for
MAJOR DATA AND SPECIFICATIONS
Engine Model W-46 Propulsion
GENERAL
Type
Fresh water cooled with
exchanger system, 4-stroke,
inline, vertical, indirect
injected type diesel
Number of Cylinders
Four - Inline, vertical
Bore & Stroke, in mm(in.)
84 x 94 (3.307 x 3.701)
Piston Displacement, in cc(cu.in.)
2084 (127.1)
Compression Ratio
20:1
Compression Pressure
at 150 - 200 RPM, in kg/cm2 (psi)
31 (440) Normal
25 (355.5) Mininum
Rotating Horse Power
46 HP at 3000 RPM (max. )
42 HP at 3000 RPM (cont. )
Idle Speed, in RPM
700 - 850 (neutr al)
No Load Maximum Speed, in RPM
3220
Cruise Speed, in RPM
2000 - 2500
Firing Order
1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Direction of Rotation
Counterclockwise
(as
from flywheel end).
Fuel
#2 Diesel
better. )
Engine Lubricating Oil
Class A.P.I. - CC or better
Dimensions, in inches (mm)
(Standard Unit)
Length 36.72 (932.6)
Width 18.13 (460.5)
Height 23.99 (609.3)
Weight Dry, in Ibs.(kg)
(Standard Unit)
535 (242.6)
Cylinder Sleeves
Dry type made of special cast
iron.
27
viewed
(Cetane rating 45 or
Number of Piston Rings
Two compression rings, one oil
scraper with spring expander.
Valve Arrangement
Overhead
Valve Timing
Intake -
Open 30· BTDC
Close 50· ABDC
Exhaust - Open 74· BBDC
Close 30· ATDC
valve Clearance (Intake and
Exhaust - Cold), in inches (rom)
0.009 - 0.010 (0.25)
Starter
l2-Volt reduction type
1.6 KW
FUEL SYSTEM
Fuel Lift Pump
l2-Volt plunger type,
able filter element.
Capacity, in qts. (cc)
0.23 (225) free flow every fifteen seconds or better.
Fuel Lift Capacity, in ft. (m)
4
Fuel Injection Timing
23· +1 BTDC
Fuel Injection Pump
DPA Injection pump
J3942F580 (late)
J3942F490 (early)
Type
Distributor type, automatic
advance with mechanical governor. Self bleeding.
Fuel Injectors
Bosch type, spray angle
o degrees
Injection Pressure, in psi (kg/cm2)
Fuel Filter
replace-
(1.2)
+
1706 -
142
0
(120
+10
- O)
Spin-on replaceable paper
element type *24363.
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Oil Pump
Trochoid type
Oil Pressure, in psi (kg/cm2)
Idle 20-30 (1.75 - 2.46)
Idle-rated rpm 30-60(2.46-4.2l}
(continued)
28
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
(continued)
Relief Valve
Externally-mounted on oil
filter adapter.
Oil Filter
Spin-On, Full-flow,
replaceable, #35828
Oil Sump Capacity, in qts (ltrs)
7
(6.6)
Filter Capacity, in qts (ltrs)
1
(.94)
Oil Cooler
Fresh water cooled, full flow.
FRESH WATER COOLING SYSTEM
Circulating Pump
Centr ifugal
type
with
impeller, belt driven.
Capacity, in qts. (ltrs)
per minute at 3000 RPM pump speed
81. 6
Thermostat, in ·F.
180'
('C)
Cooling System Capacity, in qts (ltrs)
10.0
metal
(81)
(82') wax type
(9.5) approximate
COOLING SYSTEM - RAW WATER
Raw Wa ter Pump
Positive displacement neoprene
type impeller. Gear driven, 1/2
npt inlet-outlet.
Flow Rate, in gal. (ltrs) per minute
at 3000 rpm engine speed, measured
at discharge into exhaust elbow
Heat Exchanger
9.5 - 10.0
(35.9 - 37.8)
Copper - tube type with
removable end caps and
anode.
zinc
DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
System
12-Volt, DC, negative ground
DC Alternator
50-Amp, 12-Volt, internal
voltage regulator
Glow plugs
Sheathed type, one per
cylinder, 10.5 Volts, 8.3 Amps.
(continued)
29
DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
(continued)
Starter
l2-Volt, 1.6 KW, reduction type
Starter Current Draw
Cranking Cold 225-250 Amps
Transmission
(standard)
Mechanical, 1.88:1
Optional
Variety
of
transmission
and
reduction
ratios
available;
consult Master Distributor.
Propeller Recommendation
(using standard transmission
(1.88:1)
18-inch diameter x 10 pitch,
two blade; or l8-inch diameter
x 8 pitch, three blade.
Propeller should allow engine
to reach its rated speed
(3000 RPM + 100) at full open
throttle underway.
30
ENGINE OVERHAUL
The following sections contain detailed
information relating to the proper operation character istics of the major componen ts
and
systems
of
the
eng ine.
Included
are
disassembly,
rework
and
reassembly instructions for the guidance
of suitably-equipped and staffed mar ine
engine service and rebuilding facilities.
The necessary procedures should be undertaken only by such facilities.
Additional operating character istics are
included in the Operation Section of this
manual.
Any replacements should be made only with
genuine Westerbeke parts.
Section
---Major Data and Specifications .•••••.••• 27
Engine Disassembly •..•••••••••••••••••• 32
Engine Inspection and Repair ..••••••••. 42
Reassembly •••••••••.•...•••.•••••...•.• 63
Fuel Injection Pump •••••.•••••••••••••. 74
Lubricating System ••.••...••••.•.•.•••• 77
Oil Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Cooling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Fresh Water Pump .••..•.••••.•••••..•••• 82
Ra w Wa t e r Pump ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 85
Fuel Injector Nozzles .••••••••••••••••• 91
Serial Number Location on Engine Block
31
ENGINE DISASSEMBLY
PREPARATION FOR DISASSEMBLY
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
Clean the exterior of the engine of any deposits of dirt and oil.
Be careful not to damage each disassembled component part.
Arrange parts in the order of disassembly. Mark or label parts as
needed to ensure proper mating and reassembly. Keep parts clean.
Drain all fluids and oil from engine block and transmission prior
to engine disassembly.
Place the engine on a suitable stand or bench for disassembly.
Remove the engine electrical harness in its entirety.
Tag terminal ends to help ensure proper refitting.
Heat Exchanger Drains
Oil Sump Drain
Coolant Drain
On Engine Block
REMOVING ENGINE EQUIPMENT AND PARTS
Remove parts in the following order:
1.
Remove the engine starting motor.
2.
Remove
the
tr ansmiss ion
and
related hardware.
(Transmission overhaul should be
accomplished by the manufacturer's
authorized service facility.)
3.
the
transmission
damper
Remove
plate from the engine flywheel.
32
4.
Remove oil cooler and oil hoses. Note location of oil hoses on oil
filter bracket for correct reattachment.
(NOTE:
Reversing of lube oil cooler hoses
bracket will prevent proper oil circulation.
5.
on
the
oil
filter
Remove engine heat exchanger and related hoses.
(NOTE: Lube oi 1 cooler and heat exchanger can be cleaned
pressure-tested by a conventional automotive radiator shop.)
6.
Remove the engine bellhousing,
mounting plate/lifting eye.
7.
Remove the engine flywheel.
circuit
breaker-preheat
solenoid
(NOTE: Loosen the front
crankshaft pulley nut before
removing the flywheel.)
8.
Remove engine backplate.
9.
Remove the engine alternator,
drive belt, support bracket and
adjusting strap.
I
Flywheel Bolt Pattern
10. Remove the engine-mounted sea
water pump.
Set aside for examination and possible
rebuilding.
II. Remove the hose from the elbow
on the thermostat cover; remove
overwire
from
the
the
unit;
temperature
sending
remove the thermostat cover,
gasket, and thermostat.
12. Remove the fresh water circulating pump with connecting
hoses. Remove
by-pass
hose
between tee fitting below thermostat and upper front portion
of exhaust manifold.
(By-pass
installed on production units
C609 and on.)
13. Remove the exhaust manifold/
expansion tank in its entirety.
Disassemble separately, clean
all
surfaces,
install
new
gaskets when assembling.
Use
good quality gasket cement.
33
Disconnect wire,
leave sender unit
in the elbow
and
14. Remove the air intake silencer.
15. Remove the high-pressure injection lines between injection
pump and injectors.
16. Remove the air intake manifold
and breather hose.
17. Remove the engine oil filter
and mounting bracket from the
engine block.
18. Remove the eng ine-moun ted fuel
filter with electr ic fuel lift
pump and related lines.
Note
the
positions
of
sealing
washer s that a ttach fuel lines
to the fuel filter, the injection pump,
and the electric
fuel pump.
Scribe
19. Remove the fuel injection pump:
(NOTE:
Scr ibe rna ting marks on pump body flange and
gear case before removal.)
the
timing
A. Early Models DPAJ3942F580
Early model injection pumps had tapered drive shafts, each with
a woodruff key that fit into the injection pump drive gear and
was held in place in the drive gear by a threaded tang used to
drive the raw water pump.
Pump Removal Procedure:
1. Remove drive tang locking plate and unscrew drive tang.
2. Manually rotate engine to position keyway in injection pump
drive gear/shaft at 12:00.
This is important so that when
the injection pump is removed the woodruff key will not drop
down into the front cover.
3. Remove fuel supply and return line from the injection pump.
4. Loosen the three bolts holding injection pump to front cover
plate.
~OTE:
Inner hold-down bolt for injection pump is removed
with the aid of a 10-mm, flexible, 1/4-inch drive socket.
5. Place a soft metal drift punch against the threaded driveshaft end of the injection pump protruding through the drive
gear.
With a hammer give the drift punch a sharp blow.
This should dislodge the pump from the drive gear.
34
6. Remove the injection pump hold-down bolts and carefully (so
as not to drop the drive shaft woodruff key into the cover)
withdraw the injection pump.
(NOTE: Although the drive gear will appear very loose in its
position it will not change mesh with its drive idle gear.)
B. Later Models DPAJ3942F49D
Later style injection pumps each have a splined dr ive shaft
with a master spline.
The drive gear has a dash mark on the
front indicating which splines must engage the master spline on
the drive shaft, ensuring the injection pump is in the correct
timing sequence with the engine.
Pump Removal Procedure:
1. Remove the fuel supply and return lines from the injection
pump.
2. Remove the three bolts that hold the injection pump onto the
front cover plate and withdraw the pump from the engine.
(NOTE: When reinstalling the injection pump, the drive tang
plate bolted to the front of the drive gear must be removed
to expose the dash mark that indicates the splines which mate
with the master spline on the inject ion pump dr ive shaft,
when reinstalling the shaft in the drive gear.)
21. Removal of the fuel injectors:
(a)
Remove the fuel return line from the top of the injectors by
removing the four 25-mm attaching nuts.
(NOTE:
There are sealing washers between the injector
return banjos and the injector s.
These sealing washers
should be replaced upon reassembly.)
(b)
With a suitable 3D-mm deep
from the cylinder head.
socket,
unscrew
the
injectors
(c)
Remove the copper injector sealing washers from the head once
the injectors are removed.
(NOTE: These sealing washers should be replaced upon reassembly.)
( d)
Put injectors aside for cleaning
by
an
authorized
CAV/BOSCH
35
and rebuilding in shop or
Injection
Repair
Shop.
DISASSEMBLING ENGINE
Disassemble in the following order:
1.
Remove
cover.
cylinder
head
rocker
2.
Remove
the
rocker
assembly as follows:
shaft
a. Loosen and remove union nut.
(1)
b. Loosen
and
remove
bolts
(2)
and long
short
bolts
(3) •
c. Remove rocker shaft assembly
(4) •
d. Remove oil pipe (5) and 0rings (2 pcs-to be replaced
with new ones).
e. Remove valve
valve caps.
push
rods
and
f. Remove intake manifold.
3.
Remove
the
cylinder
assembly as follows:
head
a. Loosen cylinder head bolts
in
reverse
order
of
tightening and remove.
2
4
6
0
0
0
0
10
12
b. Remove the cylinder head and
gasket.
4.
Remove the oil pan and oil pump
assembly as follows:
a. Loosen and remove attaching
bolts and remove oil pan and
gasket.
b. Loosen and remove attaching
bolts and remove oil pump
assembly.
36
14
8
7
5
3
0
0
0
0
13
0
@J
16
0
@)
17
15
9
11
Cylinder Head Bolt Tightening Sequence
5.
Removal of front gear train.
a. Remove
pulley
pUlley.
front
crankshaft
retaining
nut
and
b. Remove timing gear cover.
(Early models: Remove injection pump drive gear with
cover. )
c. Remove idler gear retaining
bolt (1),
thrust plate (2),
idle gear (3), and bushing.
d. Remove
camshaft
nut (4), thrust
gear (5).
6.
retaining
plate and
Remove the camshaft assembly as
follows:
a. position
engine
block
so
that
the
cylinder
head
mounting surface is down.
b. Carefully
withdraw
the
camshaft (1) from the engine
block.
c. Remove all push rod solid
lifters from engine block.
7.
Remove
the
front
plate
injection
pump
assembly
follows:
and
as
a. Loosen attaching bolts (1).
b. Remove front plate.
c. Late models: injection pump
drive gear is retained on
bear ing on fr on t plate; use
suitable puller to remove.
37
8.
Remove
plate.
the
flywheel
and
back
9.
Remove
the
connecting
rod
bearing
caps
and
bearings
(lower
shells)
by
loosening
and
removing
the
attaching
bolts.
Keep each cap and
bearing with respective
rod.
10. Remove the main bearing caps by loosening and removing the attaching bolts.
11. Remove the crankshaft.
a. Withdraw each rod and piston assembly from the bottom of the block.
b. Loosely replace the bearing and rod
caps. Make sure that each bearing
and rod cap is replaced in the exact
location from which it was originally
removed. Also make sure that the
caps are not turned 1800 when
replaced.
,
Revised January of 1988
""':".
38
7\
.11
II
12. Remove the main bearing shells.
13. Disassembly
piston
and
necting rod as follows:
con-
a. Remove compression rings (1)
and oil ring by using piston
ring tool (A).
b. Remove oil scraper
spr ing. (2)
expander
c. Remove
snap
ring
(3)
by
using snap ring tool (B).
3
d. Remove piston pin
(4)
using drift punch (C).
e. Remove piston pin
and connecting rod
(upper) •
by
bushing
bearing
(NOTE:
Heating the piston
by resting the piston crown
down on an electric
hot
plate will allow for easier
removal of the piston pin.)
f'
14. Disassemble the rocker
assembly as follows:
shaft
a. Remove snap rings
(1)
on
both ends of each rocker
shaft.
b. Remove rocker assembly (2).
c. Remove rocker
shaft bracket
(3) •
d. Remove rocker assembly (4).
e. Remove
rocker
shaft
spring
(5) •
15. Disassemble
as follows:
the
cylinder
head
a. Remove glow plugs.
b. Loosen
and
remove
bolts
securing exhaust manifold.
5
c. Remove exhaust manifold.
,~--6
........- - 7
~
"""'-;:-==--~
d. Loosen and remove thermostat
cover capscrews and washer s
(1,2,3)
and
remove
thermostat cover (4).
e. Remove
thermostat
(5) ,
gaskets (6), and spacer (7 )
from cylinder head.
f. Remove valve cotters
(8) •
(depress
valve
spr ing
by
valve Ii fter. )
g. Remove retainer (9).
6
8
9
®,e
~
I
10-1
I
h. Remove valve spring (10).
i. Take out valve (11).
11
40
j. Remove valve guide (12) from
cylinder head (13) by using
remover (A).
A
~c/
Valve guide
remover
~ Z5C
/C
10
1--
I~~
/I
30
12
--I 12.~
158
188
•
b
(Dimensions in mm)
Par t #36519
41
13
o
INSPECTION AND REPAIR
CYLINDER HEAD
5trt?light·edge
1.
Inspection
Check the gasketed sur face of
the cylinder head for flatness
by using a straightedge and
thickness gauge as in the case
of checking the crankcase surfaces.
(Refer to page 54,
Crankcase, paragraph 2.)
This
check is to be made with the
precombustion
chamber
jets
removed.
Use a surface grinder to reface
the cylinder head, as
necessary,
to
the
specified
flatness.
Specifications
2.
I
Unit: mm (in.)
Item
Standard
Repair limit
Warpage of gasketed
surface of cylinder
head
0.05, max
(0.0020)
0.2
(0.008)
Precombustion
Replacement
Chamber
I
I
D
C
E
Checking cylinder head gasketed surface
for flatness
Jet
Do not remove the precombustion
chamber
jets
unless
their
replacement is necessary.
To
remove the jet (if cracks are
noted in it, or if head must be
machined
to
specifications)
ease it out by driving with a
flat-faced drift pin inserted
through the glow plug hole, as
shown.
Removing precombustion chamber jet
D
Before installing the jet, wash
the
precombustion
chamber
cavity clean, and drive the jet
into position, with its orifice
poin ting to the center of the
cylinder.
Calk one portion
with a punch.
A-Intake port
B-Exhaust port
C-Jet
D-Caulking position
42
C
A
B
Valve Guides and Valve Seats
1.
2.
3.
Check each valve for carboning,
burning, wear or other defects
on the head; also check cap end
and stem for cracks.
Replace
the valve if damaged.
~
Valve guide
remove~
Check each valve guide
for
wear. Remember, the guide wears
more
rapidly
at
the
ends.
Measure the inside diameter of
the guide at each end and at
the middle from both directions.
Measure the outside
diameter of each valve stem.
If the measurement exceeds the
repair 1 imi t given in the table
below, replace the valve guide.
o.se
i\t-.
~f\
-J
30
)Il
'-112~
/I
I
t
,
158
•
188
(Dimensions in rom)
Material:
,
)
~
S53C
Valve guide removal tool
Item
Clearance
of valve
stem in
valve guide
Wear on valve guide
0.055 -0.085
0.15
(0.00217 - 0.00335) (0.0059)
Exhaust
0.070-0.100
0.20
(0.00276-0.00394) (0.0079)
-0.060
(0315 -0.00177)
.
Valve stem
diameter
-0.080
(0315 -0.00236)
.
-0.1
(-0.004)
-0.00236
8 -0.060
Exhaust
-0.15
(-0.0059)
-0.00315
Specifications
Angle
Valve
seat
Standard
Repair
limit
Unit: mm (in.1
Service limit
30°
Sinkage
0.8 (0.031)
±0.2
(±0.008)
1.3
(0.051)
Width
1.4 (0.055)
±O.l4
(±0.0055)
1.6
(0.063)
1.7 (0.067)
±O.1
(±O.004)
~~
~rz,'I>~
43
Reface up to angle
1.2
(0.047)
n".m.'.,
.~ I- ' 0 , "
Valve seatVJ
Valve margin
If the
valve
18 ± 0.3
(0.709 ± 0.012)
Intake
Nominal
value
a
Service
limit
Intake
8 -0.045
Item
:~
Unit: mm (in.)
Standard
Valve guide
length out·
side hole
..
:
Valve face and valve seat.
Check valve face and valve seat for wear and contact.
valve face is worn excessively, reface it by using
refacer. To reface the valve, proceed as follows:
Specifications
(
..
;'P ---\
~
A
Face
t~~~age
Counterbore
Valve
margin
Valve Refacer
a. Set the valve refacer to an
angle of 45 degrees.
Installing
intake valve
inserts
b. When gr inding
the
valve,
remove the least amount of
rna ter ial to proper ly reface
the valve and, if the margin
is less than 1.2 rom (0.047
in.), replace the valve.
36.6 (exhaust)
44.6 (intake)
1
5
2-iJj~~~~ Cylinder head
gasketed
surface
3
Valve seat cutter.
Repair an excessively worn
valve seat by using a valve
grinder
or
valve
seat
cutter.
Installing 4
exhaust
valve inserts
I-Caulking body
2-Valve insert
3-Cylinder head
4-Valve guide
S-Caulking ring
c. When using
a
valve seat
cutter, carefully apply a
uniform
pressure
to
the
valve seat to prevent uneven
cutting.
After
cutting,
reface the seat by rotating
the cutter with No.400 sandpaper
placed
between
the
cutter and seat.
d. If valve seat width is overcut,
repair
it
using
a
30 degree cutter.
I f valve
seat width exceeds 1.6 rom
(0.063 in.)
due to wear,
replace
the
seat.
Also
replace the seat when valve
sinkage
exceeds
1.3
rom
(0.051 in.).
Intake
Exhaust
Valve Seat Installation
Heat cylinder head to a temperature of 80·C to 100·C (176·F to 2l2·F),
and cool the valve seat sufficiently in ether or alcohol containing
dry ice. Valve seat may be cooled in liquid nitrogen.
Press the valve seat into cylinder head and leave the head and seat
until they cool down to room temperature.
Specifications
A
Valve seat
dimensions
8
33 +0.02
41 +0.025
(1.30 ~.0008)
(1.61 ~.0009 8)
0
0
44
Unit: mm (in.)
C
D
7.8 ± 0.1
(0.307 ± 0.004)
2.8 ± 0.1
(0.11 ± 0.004)
Intake valve
insert caulking
tool
Exhaust
valve insert
caulking tool
part if365l6
Par t if 36517
Valve Springs
Inspect each spr ing for cr acks, and check it for squareness,
length and as-installed length against these specifications.
s(parelfess !tIm!
valve spring tester
slIrjiKe gage
plate ' \
f
Specifications
Unit: mm (in.)
Item
Standard
Repair
limit
Valve spring free length
48.85
(1.9232)
47.6
(1.874)
Valve spring squareness
Load compress spring to
initial working lenfth
[43 mm (1.69 in.)
kg(Ib)
0.4/25
(0.016/0.98),
max
19 ± 1
(41.9 ± 2.21)
15
(33.08)
Exhaust manifold
To check exhaust manifold,
disassemble the end plates. Clean
the gasket surfaces and remove any
carbon buildup inside the manifold.
Reassemble using new end plate
gaskets and good quality gasket
cement.
45
fr ee
Cylinder Sleeves
1.
Using a cylinder gauge, take ID
measurements in two directions
(parallel and transverse to the
crankshaft
axis)
on
each
cylinder sleeve at the three
locations indicated below.
If wear
reaches
the
repair
limit, rebore the sleeve to the
next specified oversize.
Specifications
Item
Unit: mm (in.)
Repair
limit
Standard
Service
limit
Crankcase gasketed surface
84 +0.035
0
Cylinder sleeve ID (3 .307
Out of
roundness
Taper
2.
3.
+g.oo
+0.20
0.7
138) (+0.008) (0.028)
O.OIS
(0.00059),
I
~:.
~.
~-iiH-ooE--2--+_~ ~(
max
0.05
(0.0020),
max
Two
over sizes
are
provided
for: +0.25 and +0.5 rnm(0.00984
and
0.01969
in.}.
After
rebor ing, be sure to hone the
bore to the specified oversize
accurately within plus 0.035mm
(0.00138 in.) or minus 0 mm.
Machining the bores of all four
sleeves to the same oversize is
recommended (Pistons and piston
rings are available for the two
oversizes) •
I f any sleeve bor e is unevenly
worn, determine the oversize
which
the
sleeve is to be
rebored on the basis of the
maximum wear noted.
This will
ensure perfect roundness in the
oversize bore.
I
positions for checking sleeve bore diameter
Removing ridge with ridge reamer
(NOTE: If the cylinder sleeves are found in good condition
with the wear far less than the repair limit, it 1S permissible to rebuild the engine with replacement piston rings.
In these cases, be sure to ream off the ridge and, as
necessary, hone the bore to remove any glossy surface.)
46
Pistons and Piston Rings
1-
Pistons
Inspect each piston for any
abnormal wear of its sliding
surface; cracks at the crown
and
evidence of melting
or
Examine
ring
fusion.
the
grooves for stepped wear and
sloped wear.
Replace those
pistons found in bad condition.
2.
Piston clearance in the bore.
Using
a micrometer,
measure
each piston at the positions
listed below and compute the
radial clearance at each position by referr ing to the bore
diameter of its sleeve determined in the previous text.
Specifications
Unit: mm (in.)
Item
Diameter
(at skirt A)
Fit in
cylinders
Standard
Standard
83.90 (3.3031)
0.25 (0.0098)
oversize
84.15 (3.3130)
0.50 (0.0197)
oversize
84.40 (3.3228)
B
Service
limit
A~f----If---~A
-0.2
(--0.008)
Top
0.545 - 0.610
(0.02146 - 0.02402)
Top of 2nd ring
land
0.425 - 0.490
(0.01673 - 0.01929)
Bottom of 3rd
ring land
0.245 - 0.310
(0.00965 -0.01220)
Skirt
0.085 - 0.150
(0.00335 - 0.0059 I)
47
B
~+t----:----t-i~A
--""i====--.J.-- B
3.
Replacing pistons.
Replace the piston with a new
one if the measurement exceeds
the serv ice limit.
When any
pistons have to be replaced,
the variance in weight among
the pistons must not exceed the
limit.
It is recommended that
the cylinder number be stamped
on the pis ton selected for use
in a particular cylinder for
convenient identification.
Front of engine
t
When the cylinder sleeves are
bored
to
the oversize,
the
pistons and piston rings of the
same oversize dimension should
be used.
There are two oversizes for pistons and piston
rings: +0.25 mm(0.00984in.} and
+ 0.50mm (0.01969 in.).
The
variance in weight among the
pistons per engine should be +3
grams (~O.loz) max.
4.
Piston weight
Piston weight marking
Piston ring gaps.
Always check piston ring gaps
before
assembling
rings
on
piston.
Insert rings into the
cylinder squarely by using a
piston. Check gaps with feeler
gauge.
Piston ring
Checking piston ring gap
Specifications
Standard
Service
limit
0.30 - 0.50
(0.0118 - 0.0197)
1.5
(0.059)
Item
Piston ring gap
5.
Unit: mm (in)
Piston ring grooves.
Insert the compression and oil
rings of known thicknesses into
the grooves; measure the side
clearance with a feeler gauge
(A) •
Specifications
Item
Standard
No.1 compression
Fit in ring ring
grooves
No.2 compression ring
Oil ring
48
Unit· mm (in)
Repair
limit
0.050 - 0.080
(0.00197 - 0.00315)
0.20
(0.0079)
0.025 - 0.060
(0.00098 - 0.00236)
0.15
(0.0059)
6.
Replacing piston rings.
If the rings are replaced, the
gap width will exceed the standard value, but this is not
important, provided that the
service limit is not exceeded.
7.
Piston pin bosses.
Check the piston pin bosses by
referring to the text which
follows.
Piston Pins, Piston Pin Bosses and
Piston Pin Bushings
1.
Check the pin clearance in the
pin boss of the piston by computing the difference between
the two diameter readings, one
taken on the pin and the other
in the boss.
I f the compu ted
difference (clearance) exceeds
the repair 1 imi t , replace the
piston pin with a new one.
Specifications
Item
Piston pin
diameter
2.
Use a micrometer to measure piston
pin bushing and piston pin
Unit: mm (in.)
Standard
Repair
limit
0
25 -0.006
(0.984 J.00024 )
Check the clearance of the pin in the bushing fitted to the small
end of the connecting rod by computing the difference between the
two diameter readings.
If the computed difference (clearance)
exceeds the repair limit, replace the pin or the bushing,
whichever is badly worn.
Specifications
Unit· mm (in)
Standard
Item
25 +{l.OlO
Piston pin boss
ID
Piston pin clearance in piston
pin boss
Piston pin
bushingID
0
(0.984 ~.00039 )
0-0.016
(0 - 0.00063)
49
0.05
(0.0020)
25 +{l.045
-0.020
(0 984 +{l.00 177 )
•
Piston pin clearance
in piston pin bushing
Repair
limit
-0.00079
0.020 - 0.051
(0.00079 0.00201)
0.08
(0.0031)
hend check
tWist cheolc
(I 'C~
O,~
Checking connecting rod for bend
connecting
Bearings
Rod
Alignment
and
1.
Check the connecting rod for
evidence of cracks, especially
cr acks in the fillets of its
small and large ends.
Replace
the rod if any crack is noted
in the fillets.
2.
Mount each connecting rod
the connecting rod aligner
check for bend and twist,
shown in the illustrations.
a twisted connecting rod,
bearing is not trued to
small end bushing.
Such a
must be corrected with the
of a press.
3.
in
and
as
In
the
the
rod
use
Checking connecting rod for twist
If a connecting rod aligner is
not available, the rod may be
checked as follows:
a. To check the rod for bend,
measure C and i as shown in
figure a above.
I f the
measurement at C is greater
than
O. 05rnm -per
100rnm
(0.00197in. per 3.937 in.)
of i, straighten the rod
with-the use of a press.
0.05
IOil
a.
Checking the connecting rod for bend
b.
Checking the connecting rod for twist
Checking connecting rod
50
b. To check the rod for twist,
measure C as shown in figure
b.
If the measurement at C
...1S greater
than O.05mm per
lOOmm (O.00197in. per
3.937in.) of t, correct the
rod.
4.
To check the rod with a piston,
place the rod on the sur face
plate as shown below, insert a
round
bar
of
the
cr ankpin
diameter into and through its
large
end
bore
and
take
measurements at A and B.
The
difference
between
the
two
measurements tells the straightness of the rod.
When one or more connecting
rods are to be replaced, select
new rods so that the var iance
in weight among the rods is
within the value given in the
specification.
Checking connecting rod on surface plate
Specification
Unit: gram (ozl
Variance in weight
among connecting rods
5.
±5
(±0.18)
Check the connecting rod end
playas follows:
Tighten
the
capscrews
to
5.5kg-m (39.8 Ib-ft).
Use a
feeler. Gauge to measure the
end
play end
play
(the
clearance between the large end
and
cr ank
arm) •
If
the
clearance measured exceeds the
service limit, replace the connecting rod or bearing.
Specifications
Unit: mm (in.)
Item
Standard
Service
limit
Connecting rod
end play
0.l5-0.35
(0.0059 - 0.0138)
0.50
(0.0197)
51
/
o
_ _ _ _ _ _0
6.
Check the bearings as follows:
a. Inspect each bearing for evidence of wiping or fatigue failure,
scratches by imbedded dirt particles and improper seating on
the bore.
Determine by inspection whether the bear ing should
be repaired or replaced.
b. Check the radial clearance between crankpin and bearing;
if
the repair limi t specified below is exceeded by the checked
clearance, replace the bearing.
Where the crankpin is to be
ground to the next undersize, use a replacement bearing of that
undersize.
The two bearing undersizes are O.25mm
(O.01969in.) •
Specifications
(O.00984in.)
Unit: mm (in.)
Item
Standard
Repair
limit
Crankpin diameter
58 ·...{}.035
-0.055
(2283 -0.00138)
.
-0.0::>217
0.20
(0.008)
Radial clearance
between bearing
and crankpin
0.035 - 0.100
(0.00138 -0.00394)
0.200
(0.00787)
D= Dl + D2
2
positions for measuring connecting rod
bearing with a micrometer
52
and O.50mm
c. Check the contact pattern of
the connecting-rod bearing
on the crankpin by placing
the
large
end
into
its
operating position with the
crankshaft laid out on a
bench, and by applying a
paste
of
red
lead
or
Prussian blue to visualize
the contact.
Be sure to
tighten
the
capscrews
to
the specified torque,
5.5kg-m (39.8Ib-ft).
The
contact should occur over
75% of the entire surface;
if not, replace the bearing.
(NOTE:
The above job of checking the contact pattern may be
eliminated where the crankpin is ground to the specified
tolerance and the bearing has been replaced. This is because
a replacement bear ing is precis ion-finished to ensure the
specified extent of contact).
d. Check each bearing shell for
crush.
Shells found to be
loose in the bore or have an
excessive
crush
must
be
replaced. A crush of up to
O.04mm
(.OOIGin.),
which
will yield to a load of
350kg
(772Ib.) ,
is
prescr ibed.
As in the case of
the
main
bear ing
shells,
some crush is needed for
securing
a
proper
fit,
without which the bearing
might roll or jump in place,
resulting in localized overloading and consequent flaking,
burning
or
fatigue
failure.
Check to be sure that the
crush disappears to allow
the bear ing cap to mate the
large end positively when
the capscrews are tightened
to 5.5kg-m (39.8 lb-ft).
53
Crush:O to 0.04 rnrn
(0.0016 in.)
....•;
'.o'
..
~ :~,\:~: :.'.~~:'
....~. ::;.:.<: .:.>.~:: .·:X;~!~:T.:f:m·::.::::·:~":'. .
connecting rod bearing crush
Crankcase
1.
Inspect the outside and inside
surfaces
for
evidence
of
cracking. Visually examine the
cylinder bores for scuffing,
rusting,
erosion
or
any
abnormal
wear.
Using
a
str aigh tedge,
check
the
top
face (for rna t ing with cylinder
head), front face (for mating
with front plate) and rear face
(for mating with rear plate)
for flatness.
2.
Make sure that the top face of
the crankcase is flat within
the standard specified below.
If the standard is exceeded,
reface the top by using a surface grinder to make it flat
within the specified standard.
Specifications
Item
Warpage of crankcase
gasketed surface
Standard
0.05, max.
(0.0020)
Unit: mm (in.)
A-
Repair
limit
8-
0.2mm
(0.008)
I
I
I
I
C
D
Checking crankcase top for flatness
Crankshaft
1.
Checking crankcase top for flatness
Journals
a. Inspect
each
journal
for
surface
flaws
such
as
roughing, scratches, pitting
and burns, and, as necessary, repair the journals by
grinding to the next undersize
or
replace
the
cr ankshaft.
b. Measure each journal with a
micrometer (take a total of
four readings) to determine
the wear, out-of-round and
taper (cylindr icali ty) •
If
any
of
the
limits
are
exceeded, repair by grinding
to the next undersize or
replace the crankshaft.
54
positions for measuring journal
with a micrometer
(NOTE: If the fit or clearance
of main bearings on journals is
still
in
excess
of
O.2rnrn
(O.008in.) even if new bearings
are used, or if the taper or out
of roundness is not less than
O.03rnrn (O.OOI2in.), grind the
journals to the next undersize).
2.
Crankpins
a. Inspect
each
crankpin
for
surface
flaws
such
as
roughing, scratches, pitting
and burrs; repair the crankpins,
as
necessary,
by
grinding to the next undersize or replace the
cr ankshaft.
b. Using a micrometer, measure each crankpin (take a total of four
If
readings) to determine the wear, out-of-round and taper.
any of the limits is exceeded, repair by grinding to the next
undersize or replace the crankshaft.
Specifications
Item
Diameter of
journal
Standard
Repair
limit
Service
limit
65- 0.015
-0.035
-0.15
-0.9
(2 559-0.00059 (-0.0059) (-0.035)
.
-0.00138
Out of roundness of crankpins and journals om (0.0004),
max
Taper of crankpins and journals
Diameter of
crankpin
Unit: mm (in)
0.03
(0.0012)
58 -0.035
-0.055
-0.20
(-0.008)
(228rO.00138)
.
-0.00217
0.03 - 0.089
Fit of journals
(0.0012 in main bearings
0.00350)
55
0.2
(0.0079)
Uneven
wear:
0.03
(0.0012)
c. Grinding the crankshaft.
The crankshaft journals and crankpins must be refinished to a
dimension smaller by 0.100 to 0.120mm (0.00394 to 0.00472in.)
than the undersize of bearings to be used.
Example:
If 0.50mm
be used:
(0.01969in.)
undersize bearings are
to
The journals must be refinished to
65-0.5-(0.100 to 0.120)
[2.55905-0.01969-(0.00394 to 0.00472in.)]
The crankpins must be refinished to
58-0.5-(0.100 to 0.120)
[2.28346-0.01969-(0.00394 to 0.00472in.)]
When grinding the crankpins and journals, be sure to reproduce
the same fillet radius (shoulder radius) as the original one.
Too small a radius of fillet will result in fatigue/failure of
crankshaft while too large a fillet radius will cause the
bearing to ride on the radius and thereby result in a bearing
failure.
CAUTION
Be extremely careful not to grind off the radius part beyond
the desired dimension.
An over-ground radius part can be
cor r ected only by gr ind ing off the shoulder face.
If thi s
occur s, it will pr esen t problems in obtain ing a proper end
clearance.
Also check the crankpin and journals for hardness. They should
have a hardness of 620 or more according to the Vickers Hardness Number.
I f necessary,
r e-harden the cr ankpins and
Specifications
Unit: mm (in.)
Undersize
Journals to be refinished to
journals, and check them for
cracks
by
conducting
a
0.25
64 75 -0.0]5 (2 54921-0.00059)
. -0.035'
-0.00138
(0.0098)
magnaflux (magnetic
particle) test.
0.50
-0.015 (2 5393rO.00059)
(0.0197)
3.
64.5 -0.035'
-0.00138
End Play.
Check the crankshaft for end
play,
as shown, by using a
thickness guage at the thrust
bearing.
If
the
limi t
is
reached
replace
the
thrust
plate.
Specifications
Item
Journal width
for thrust
bearing
Standard
Unit: mm (in.)
Repair
limit
0.100-0.189
0.3
(0.00394 - 0.00744) (0.012)
Checking crankshaft end play
56
The end play is due to the difference between the width of thrust
bear ing and the dimens ion (A) indicated below:
4.
Runout
Support the crankshaft as shown
and
roll
it to measure its
deflection with a dial gauge.
Distortion is one-half on the
deflection (dial gauge reading;)
if
it
exceeds
the
standard,
reduce
it
by
bending
the
crankshaft in a press.
Journal width for thrust bearing
Specifications
Item
Crankshaft runout
5.
Unit: mm (in.)
Standard
Repair
limit
0.02
(0.0008)
0.5
(0.020)
Main Bearing
Inspect each main bearing for
evidence of wiping or fatigue
failure,
scratches
from
imbedded
dirt
particles
and
improper seating on the bore
(bearing cap).
Upon inspection,
determine
whether
the
bearing should be replaced or
not.
Checking crankshaft for runout
Check each main bearing that
will be installed during engine
reassembly
to
determine
the
specified
radial
clearance.
The checking procedure is as
follows:
Measuring main bearing ID
57
Install the main bearings in
the
crankcase,
without
the
crankshaft,
securing
each
bear ing cap by tightening the
bolts to 8.5 kg-m (61.5 Ib-ft)
and measure the diameter from
two positions, (A) and (B), as
indicated in the illustration.
Measure the
journal with a
micrometer.
From
these
readings, compute the radial
clearance.
Specifications
Item
Fit of main
bearings on
journals
Unit: mm (in.)
Standard
positions for measuring main bearing
Repair
limit
0.03 -0.089
0.2
(0.0012 -0.0035) (0.008)
Crush:
0-0.04 mm
Check each main-bearing shell
for crush.
Shells that are
loose in the bor e or have an
excessive
crush
must
be
replaced.
A crush of up to
O.04mm (O.0016in.) ,- which will
yield
a
load
of
500kg
(11031b), is recommended.
/;
iW
.. ;.':}::<:':?? \'\~:H;;~':;~;1:
Main bearing crush
Camshaft
1.
Check the camshaft end playas outlined for the timing gears.
Where the end play exceeds the repair limit,
replace the thrust
plate.
Specifications
Item
Camshaft end
play
Nominal
value
Unit: mm (in.)
Standard
0.05 - 0.112
5.0
(0.00197 (0.197)
0.00441)
Repair
limit
0.3
(0.012)
2.
Inspect the camshaft journals for abnormal wear and damage; the
camshaft must be replaced if any of the three journals is found in
disrepair.
3.
Using a micrometer, measure each cam of the camshaft to read Dl
(cam height) and D2 (diameter), then compute the difference between Dl and D2.
If this difference is less than the service
limit, replace the camshaft.
58
Specifications
Unit: mm (in.)
Standard
Item
Repair limit
+0.1
01: 46.916 -0.3
Intake
cam
profde
Exhaust
cam
profde
(I 84708 +0.00394)
(0,
01 - 02 =
6.184
-0.01181
(0.24346)
01 .- [h = 6.684
(0.26315)
.
- O2
)
f¥'
O2
+0 I
01: 45.944 -0:3
+0.00394
(1.80882 -0.01181)
Dt - D2 = 7.344
01 - 02 =
6.844
(0.26945 )
(0.28913)
4.
Check the camshaft for runout.
Straighten the camshaft in a
press
or
replace
it,
as
necessary.
Specifications
Item
Camshaft runout
5.
Checking camshaft runout
Unit: mm {in.'
Standard
Service
limit
0.02 (0.0008),
max.
0.05
(0.0020)
Measure the diameter of each
journal in two directions to
compute the
fit or clearance
in the camshaft hole.
Measuring camshaft journals
6.
Use a micrometer to measure the
ID
of
respective
camshaft
bosses and compute the fit on
each
journal.
If
the
fit
exceeds
the
repair
limit,
machine the holes and install
bushings.
SpecifICations
Unit: mm {in.'
Item
Standard
Repair
limit
Fit of camshaft
holes on journals
0.040 - 0.090
(0.00157 -0.00354)
0.15
(0.0059)
Measuring camshaft hole to
59
Tappets and Tappet Holes.
1.
Inspect the riding face of each tappet for wear, contact pattern
and cracks. Replace defective tappets.
2.
Check the fit of the tappet in the hole and confirm with the
repair limi t in the char t ind ica ted below.
I f the limit is
exceeded, replace the tappet.
I f the hole is wor n, r esul t ing in
an excessive radial clearance, even with a new tappet, the crankcase must be replaced.
Specifications
Item
Standard
Fit of holes
on tappets
0.035 - 0.098
(0.00138 0.00386 )
Tappet hole
diameter
22(0.87)
Unit: mm (in.)
Repair
limit
Service
limit
0.13 +0.10 (hole)
(0.0051 ) (+0.0039)
+0.10
(+0.0039)
Flywheel and Ring Gear
1.
Check the flywheel
pin for proper fit.
2.
Check the threads of the flywheel retaining bolts for stretch and
other defects. Replace the bolts as needed.
3.
Check the ring gear for broken or excessively worn teeth.
If the
teeth are defective, remove the gear from the flywheel and replace
it with a new one.
Timing
for
cracks and
the crankshaft
flywheel dowel
Gear Case and Oil Seal.
1.
Check the timing gear case for signs of cracks and
condition of the dowel pin holes.
2.
Check the oil seal for excessive wear and defects;
replace it
when stated conditions are present.
Closely inspect the oil seal
when excessive oil leaks from the crankshaft end.
60
inspect the
Timing Gears.
1.
It
is
important
that
the
backlash in each mesh is within
the repair limit.
If the limit
is
exceeded,
r educe
the
backlash by replacing the worn
gear.
To measure backlash,
place a feeler gauge squarely
between two gear teeth.
Specifications
Standard
Repair
limit
0.12 -0.24
(0.0047 - 0.0095)
0.3
(0.012)
Item
Backlash
2.
Unit: mm (in.)
Check the r ad ial clear ance between the idler bushing and
shaft
by
measur ing
with
a
micrometer.
Compute
the
clear ance
fr om
the
read ing s
taken and, if the repair limit
is
exceeded,
replace
the
bushing.
Specifications
Item
Fit of shaft
in idler
bushing
3.
Nominal
Unit: mm (in.)
Standard
Repair
limit
0.025 -0.075
36
0.1
(1.417) (0.00098 - 0.0029 5) (0.004)
Check the idler end play with a
thickness gauge.
Replace the
thrust plate
to reduce the
play if the thickness gauge
reading
exceeds
the
repair
limit.
Specifications
Item
Idler end play
Standard
0-0.1
(0 - 0.004)
Unit: mm (in.)
Repair
limit
0.35
(0.0138)
Checking idler end play
61
4.
If the idler shaft must be
replaced, use the idler shaft
puller
for
removal,
as
illustrated.
When installing
the replacement shaft, the oil
holes must be properly aligned.
5.
Inspect
follows:
the
timing
gear
as
a. Camshaft gear.
Replace the gear if
teeth
show ev idence of flak ing or
excessive wear, or if the
keyway is galled, worn or
disfigured.
Make certain
that the camshaft gear, when
mounted on the camshaft, has
no more end play than O.4mm
(O.Ol57in.)
To
check
the
end play, use a dial gauge.
I f the reading exceeds the
repair limit,
replace the
thrust
plate
(Important:
this gear is shrink-fitted
to the camshaft).
Specifications
Item
Camshaft end play
Standard
Idler shaft puller
Part #36515
Removing idler shaft
I-Crankcase
2-Puller
3-Stud (~!lO)
4-Idler shaft
5-Nut
Unit: mm (in.)
Repair
limit
0.05 - 0.112
0.3
(0.00197 - 0.00441) (0.012)
b. Injection pump drive gear.
Inspect the gear teeth for damage and condition of the mounting
bolt holes. Replace the gear if observed to be damaged.
c. Crankshaft gear.
Replace the gear if teeth show signs of defective tooth contact, excessive wear or other defects.
d. Idler gear.
Inspect the idler gear teeth and, when necessary, replace the
gear.
6.
Inspect the gear case for cracks and for evidence of oil leakage
at the part ahead of the crankshaft.
A cracked case must be
replaced.
Inspect the cr ankshaft pulley.
Examine condition of
the surface in contact with the oil seal and check the keyway
and key for wear. Replace the pulley if found defective.
62
REASSEMBLY
1.
Reassemble the connecting
and piston as follows:
rod
a. Press bushing into small end
of
the
connecting
rod.
Ensure that the oil holes in
bushing and rod are aligned.
b. Heat piston on a hot plate
to between 100·C and 120·C
(212·F and 248·F).
Install
small end of connecting rod
into boss and connect piston
and piston pin by slowly
inserting piston pin into
piston.
(NOTE:
Insert snap ring
one end in advance.)
~-------
Combustion
chamber side
. . . Camshaft
side
into
Install the connecting rod
to the p is ton so tha t the
cylinder number side will
face the camshaft and the
combustion chamber side of
the piston will face away
from the camshaft when the
assembly is installed on the
cr ank shaft.
Stamped
cylinder
number side
Piston and connecting rod assembly
63
c. Install
compression
rings
and oil control
ring
as
shown in illustration at top
right, using standard piston
ring expanding tool.
1
(NOTE: No. 2 ring has an R
marked on its top side.
Be
sure that this side faces the
piston crown when installed in
its
groove,
as
shown
in
illustration at center right.)
2
d. Install No. 3 oil control
ring and expander as shown
in illustration at bottom
right.
I-Compression rings
2-0il control ring
This mark faces the piston crown
2.
Reassemble
follows:
the
cr ankcase
as
a. Press three camshaft bushings (1) into camshaft holes
in
crankcase
by
using
adapter (A).
(If the fit
exceeds the repair limit,
machine
the
holes
and
install new bushings.)
connecting part
Make certain the oil holes
in cam bush ings align with
Driving
1
Driving in camshaft bushing
Oil control ring and expander installed
64
b. Drive idler shaft (2) into
crankcase by using installer
(B) •
c. Lightly apply engine oil to
the crankpins and install
main
bearings
(upper) •
Securely engage the bearings
with the crankpins.
3.
Install the piston assembly as
follows:
Install
upper
connecting-rod
bearing (1) into the large end
of
connecting
rod.
Apply
engine oil to the internal surface of bearing and on the
ex ternal per iphery of piston.
Posi t ion piston ring s so that
ring gaps are located 90· in
relation
to each other,
as
shown.
Then
insert piston
assembly
(2)
into crankcase.
Alignment marks on the connecting
rod
must
face
the
camshaft side.
Put attaching
capscrews
(3)
into
rod
in
advance.
Insert
piston
assembly into its cylinder with
the
aid
of
a
piston/ring
installing tool.
(NOTE:
Piston/rod assembly is
installed from crankshaft side
of engine block.)
65
No.1 ring gap
No.2
Precombustion chamber side
4.
Install
follows:
the
crankshaft
as
a. Install thrust plate (1) and
two woodruff keys (2) to the
crankshaft
and
drive
on
crankshaft gear (3) by using
suitable hollow drift (A).
b. Install crankshaft
crankcase.
5.
Install the
as follows:
rna in
to
bear ing
the
caps
a. Apply
eng ine oi 1
to
the
crankshaft
journals
and
pins,
and
install
the
crankshaft into the crankcase securely. Attach lower
main bearing
(1)
to main
bearing
cap
(2)
(front,
center and rear) and install
the cap in place by aligning
it with dowel pin (A) on
crankcase.
b. Measure the crankshaft end
play with a thickness gauge.
Replace No.1 main bearing if
the end play is out of specification.
Tighten main
bearing capscrews (3) to a
torque of 8.5 kg-m
(61. 463
Ib-ft)
(NOTE: Rotate crankshaft to
ensure no unusual binding or
resistance occurs.)
6.
Install
the
connecting
bearing caps as follows:
rod
a. Install lower connecting-rod
bearing (2) into cap (1) and
apply
eng ine oi 1
to
the
internal
surface
of
the
bear ing.
Then install the
cap with the matching mark
on the cap aligned with mark
(A) on the rod.
66
b. Tighten
connecting
rod
clamping nuts to a torque of
5.5 kg-m (39.771 Ib-ft)
(NOTE: Rotate the crankshaft.)
7.
Install
the
retainers
gaskets as follows:
and
a. Install retainers (1) to the
external peripheries of main
bear ing caps No.1 and No.3,
with the flange facing the
inside of the case.
b. Apply good quality gasket
cement on both sides of oil
pan gasket (2) and attach it
to crankcase.
Make sure
tha t the gasket is completely attached in the grooves
(A) in the caps.
c. Apply gasket cement to both
ends of rubber packing (3)
and insert the packing into
cap.
67
d. Install sleeve onto the rear
end of cr ank sha ft.
Apply
clean eng ine oi 1 to
the
internal surface of oil seal
(1) and secure it with bolts
(2) by using an oil seal
aligner.
e. Apply gasket cement to the
tip of bolts (3) as they fit
into the four through-bolt
holes in the bearing cap.
Tighten
the
bolts
to
a
torque
of
O.4kg-m
(2.9
lb-ft) •
8.
Install
follows:
the
front
plate
as
a. Apply gasket cement to both
sides of the front plate
packing
and
attach
the
packing to the front face of
crankcase.
Secure
front
plate (1)
with injection
pump fastened by two bolts
(2).
The tightening torque
of the bolts is 2.1 kg-m
(15.2 lb-ft).
b. Heat camshaft gear on a hot
plate to between l50·C and
l80·C and fit gear to shaft.
c. Apply a light film of oil to
the camshaft journals and
bushings.
Then carefully
install the camshaft into
engine block.
68
d. Tighten
camshaft
thrust
plate to crankcase, gaining
access to the thrust plate
and securing bolts through
machined holes in camshaft
gear.
9.
Install
follows:
the
idler
gear
as
a. Install
idler
gear
by
rna tching the timing mark on
each gear.
10. Install the
as follows:
oi 1 pump
assembly
Timing gear match marks meeting
each other
a. Install oil pump (1) into
the oil pump installation
hole in the crankcase and
mesh the pump drive gear
with the camshaft pump drive
gear.
b. Install one end of the oil
strainer stay (2) to No. 2
bearing cap with distance
piece (3) inserted between
both. Install the other end
of the stay to oil strainer
(4) by bolts (5).
11. Install the oil pan and torque
pan bolts to 0.7 kg-m (5.1
lb-ft) •
69
I-Camshaft gear
2-Crankshaft gear
3-Idler gear
4-Injection pump gear
12. Install
the
backplate
flywheel as follows:
a. Install
dowel
crankshaft end
block.
and
pins
in
and engine
b. position
back
plate
to
engine block fitting over
dowel
pins
and
bolt
to
block.
c. position flywheel on crankshaft using aligning dowel
pin.
Unit: kg-m (llrft)
8.5 ± 0.5
(61.5 ± 3.6)
Flywheel bolt
tightening torque
13. Reassemble the cylinder head as
follows:
B
a. Press valve guide (2) into
cylinder head (1) as shown
in illustration on right.
lC
l-Cylinder head
2-Valve guide
A-Valve guide installer
B-As installed length: 18 rnm (0.709 in,)
Part #36518
55
Valve guide installation tool
Install stem seal (3) to
valve guide.
Completely
the breast of the seal in
guide groove.
the
fit
the
b. Install
valve
(4) ,
valve
spring (5) and retainer (6)
in this order. Compress the
spring with a valve lifter
to install valve cotter (7)
securely.
Install caps (8)
when installing rocker shaft
assembly.
c. Install thermostat,
nozzle
holders,
glow
plugs
and
exhaust
manifold
to
the
cylinder head.
70
1
9
Cylinder head asembly
l-Cylinder head 2-valve guide 3-stem seal
4-valve 5-valve spring 6-Retainer 7-valve
cotter 8-valve cap 9-combustion chamber jet
14. Install
the
cylinder
assembly as follows:
head
a. Apply liquid packing to both
sur faces of the new gasket
(1) with a brush or spray
gun.
After waiting 3 or 4
minutes, place the gasket on
the
crankcase
(2)
and
install cylinder head (3).
Use two guide bolts (4) to
prevent
the
gasket
from
moving when placing cylinder
head on the crankcase.
b. Tighten the cylinder head
bolts to a torque of 12 kg-m
(86.8 Ib-ft) at exhaust side
and 10.5 kg-m (76 Ib-ft) at
intake side in the sequence
shown in the cylinder head
bolt
tightening
illustration.
15. Install
the
push
rods
rocker shafts as follows:
a. Insert the push
into the tappets.
and
rods
(1)
b. Install
rocker
shaft
sembly as follows:
as-
c. Insert O-rings (3) into oil
pipe (2) and connect the oil
pipe to the front and rear
rocker shafts.
Then temporarily install each
bracket
to
the
cylinder
head.
d. Temporarily tighten two or
three threads on the oil
pipe union nut and connector.
e. Secure
tne
preinstalled
brackets by tightening four
bolts at the front and rear
sides uniformly to a torque
of 1.5 kg-m (10.85 Ib-ft)
Tighten the long bolts (4)
fir st.
71
14
o
10
12
11
o
0
0
o
1
2
3
7
Cylinder head bolt tightening sequence
f. Connect oil pipe to connector securely.
Then adjust the valve
clearance to 0.2Smm (O.Olin.) for both intake and exhaust
valves in cold setting.
16. Adjust valve clearance as follows:
The valve clearance specification for this engine is 0.2Smm
(0.0098 in. ) for both in take and exhaust valves.
Th is value assumes that the engine is at normal temperature, there being no temperature difference throughout the body of the engine.
The
checking
and
adjusting
procedure
is
as
follows:
a. Rotate the crankshaft slowly
to bring the piston in No.1
cylinder to Top Dead Center
(TDC) .
This
can
be
accomplished
by
observing
rocker
arms
of
No.4
cylinder. As you turn the
crankshaft,
the
exhaustvalve rocker arm of this
cylinder rises: stop turning
the
crankshaft
just when
intake-valve
rocker
arm
beg ins
to go down after
exhaust-valve rocker arm has
come up all the way.
Under this condition, adjust valve
clearance in the usual manner on the intake and exhaust valves
of No.1 cylinder, intake valve of No.2 cylinder, and exhaust
valve of No. 3 cylinder.
b. Turn the crankshaft one complete rotation (360') and hold it
there.
Adjust the clearance on intake and exhaust valves of
No. 4 cylinder, exhaust valve of No. 2 cylinder, and intake
valve of No. 3 cylinder.
Coolant by-pass hose
17. Install
gasket.
the
rocker
cover
18. Install the fresh water
assembly as follows:
and
pump
a. Install water pump assembly.
b. Install the bypass hose between the manifold and tee
below the thermostat.
72
19. Install the timing gear case
(1) to the front plate properly.
Use sealing washers
behind the head of bolt (2) to
prevent oil leaks.
20. Install front crankshaft pulley.
Take care not to damage
front
crankshaft
seal
when
slipping pulley onto crankshaft
and through the front seal.
21. Install
the
DC
charging
alternator mounting bracket and
mount the alternator.
22. Install alternator
as follows:
a. Attach
pulley.
fan
drive
belt
belt
to
the
b. Adjust the fan belt tension
to a slack of 12mm (1/2in.)
23. Install the starting motor.
24. Install the oil filter mounting adaptor,
lube oil cooler with all related hoses.
filter,
oil lines and
25. Install transmission drive damper to the flywheel.
26. Install
the
transmission.
bellhousing,
transmission
adaptor
plate
and
27. Install all four mounting brackets and mounting isolators.
28. Install flow control and heat exchanger
Replace hoses and clamps, as needed.
with
related plumbing.
29. Install rear lifting eye with preheat solenoid and main DC circuit
breaker.
30. Install
clean.
senders
and
switches.
Make
31. Reinstall engine electrical harness.
73
certain
all
contacts
are
FUEL INJECTION PUMP
Two styles of injection pumps were used with this engine.
Early - DPA #J3942F490
This type had a tapered/keyed drive shaft.
Later - DPA #J3942F580
This type had a splined drive shaft with a master spline.
The injection pump is mounted to the engine front plate.
It is
secured to the front plate by three studs with Il-mm hex nuts and
washers.
Installing Early Model Injection pump
a. Rotate engine so as to position keyway in pump drive gear
at 12:00 o'clock.
b. Rotate injection pump drive shaft to position
12:00 o'clock. Insert woodruff key in keyway.
keyway
at
c. Carefully slide pump onto the engine mounting flange and
guide the tapered drive shaft with woodruff key into the
drive gear.
d When drive shaft is positioned in the drive
gear, secure
in drive gear by threading raw water pump drive tang onto the
pump drive shaft protruding from the drive gear.
e. Snug the injection pump
up to the front plate with the
three securing nuts and washers.
position the 23· scribe
mark on the pump flange in line with the scribe on the front
cover. Tighten the three securing nuts.
12:00
I
Flange plate
sIde mark
74
Injection pump
side marks
Installing Late Model Injection Pump
a. Remove drive tang plate from front of injection pump drive gear
and locate scribe mark on face of gear that designates mating
splines for master spline on injection pump drive shaft.
b. Locate master spline on injection pump drive shaft and position
to correspond to scribe mark on drive gear by rotating
injection pump drive shaft.
c. Carefully slide the injection pump onto the engine mounting
flange, centering the master spline with the scribe mark on the
drive gear, and engage the two.
d. Snug up on the injection pump's three securing nuts and rotate
the injection pump so as to align the 23· scribe on the injection pump flange with the timing scr ibe on the front cover.
Tighten the 3 securing nuts.
b~
o
Injection PUi!';l
side marks
Flange plate
side mark
Master spline
scribe
0
VIEWED FROM SEA WATER
PUMP SIDE.
Verifying Injection Pump Timing
a. Locate timing pointer on
front gear cover.
This
pointer is located at about
the 10: OO-o'clock position
when
viewing
the
front
crank shaft pulley.
Timing pointer
Front pulley
75
b.
c.
d.
The front crankshaft pulley has timing marks embossed on its circumference from O· top dead center (TDC) to 40· before top dead
center (BTD) in five-degree
increments.
Locate the 20· and 25·
marks and place a visible mark halfway between the two points to
represent 23·.
Rotate the eng ine by hand to
position the number one piston
on
its
compression
stroke.
Continue rotating the engine to
align the
23·
mark on the
crankshaft
pulley
with
the
timing pointer and stop.
On the side of the injection
pump body is an oval cover
plate, mounted to the pump body
by two screws that are wir ed
together.
Cut the connecting
lock wire, remove the screws
and cover plate, inc Iud ing the
gasket.
(NOTE: Some fuel will be lost
from inside the pump when this
cover is removed.
Be prepared
to catch it in a container.)
e.
Inside the opening in the injection pump is a circlip and the
rotor body of the pump.
The rotor body has a scr ibe mark on it
with the Letter E stamped above it.
The scribe mark should
align with the top-flat surface of the circlip.
If the mark does
not
align, loosen the injection pump secur ing nuts and gently
rotate the injection pump body up or down to align the scribe mark
with the circlip flat.
The pump is now statically timed to the
engine.
Secure the pump to its mounting flange, replace the pump
side cover and gasket and lock wire the side cover attaching
bolts.
(NOTE:
Do not over-tighten the side cover attaching bolts.)
Reattach fuel supply and return lines to and from injection pump.
Connect high-pressure injector lines between the injection pump
and injectors. Do not cross or mix up these lines.
"E" Scribe mark
76
LUBRICATING SYSTEM
1.
Lube Oil Circulation
A trochoid rotary pump draws oil from the oil pan through the oil
strainer and delivers it under pressure to a full-flow oil filter,
then the cleaned oil is forwarded into the oil gallery inside the
crankcase.
From
the gallery, the oil is distr ibuted to the
various parts of the engine.
The pump is driven from the
camshaft.
The oil filter is a replacable cartridge-type element,
through which the oil is forced.
2.
Oil pump
The pump is loca ted ins ide the right-hand rear por t ion of the
crankcase.
Its main shaft is driven from the skew gear formed to
the camsha ft.
2.1 Disassembly
a. Loosen and remove the four capscrews and washers
(9,lO)
securing oil strainer (II), gasket (12), and oil pump cover (8)
to the oil pump (3), and separate the strainer, gasket, and
cover from oil pump case.
b. To
facilitate
removal
of
outer rotor (5), turn the
oil pump case upside down.
c. Drive out the oil pump drive
taper
pin
and
gear
(2)
remove drive gear (I) from
main shaft (4) • Pullout the
main shaft from pump case.
3
d. Drive out inner rotor pin
(7) and separate inner rotor
(6) and outer rotor (5) from
8
11-
9
10
77
2.2 Inspection
a. Running
clear ance
between
outer rotor and inner rotor.
Using a feeler gauge, check
the
clearance
at
var ious
positions.
If
the reading
exceeds the service limit,
replace both rotors.
Specifications
Item
Clearance between
inner rotor and
outer rotor
Unit: mm (in.)
Standard
Service
limit
0.013 -0.15
(0.00051 - 0.0059)
0.25
(0.0098)
b. Sliding
clearance
rotors and cover.
Checking rotor-to-rotor clearance
between
This clearance is required
not
to
be
gr ea ter
than
O.lSmm
(O.OOOS9lin.)
If
this limit is exceeded grind
off the rna ting face of the
body to reduce the clearance.
Specifications
Unit: mm (in.)
Item
Standard
Repair
limit
Clearance between
rotors and cover
0.04-0.09
(0.0016 -0.0035)
0.15
(0.0059)
Checking rotor-to cover clearance
c. Radial
clearance
between
outer rotor and pump body.
Insert a feeler gauge between the outer rotor and
the body.
If the clearance
checked is gr ea ter than the
limit,
replace
the
worn
part.
Specifications
Item
Unit: mm (in..)
Standard
Repair
limit
Checking rotor-to-body clearance
Clearance of outer
rotor in body
0.2-0.28
(0.0079 -0.0110)
0.5
(0.020)
78
d. Rotor Shaft Diameter.
Specifications
Inspect
the
shaft
for
damage, and check it for
wear by measuring with a
micrometer.
Determine the
available clearance of the
shaft in the pump body from
the micrometer readings; if
the serv ice limit in terms
of
clearance
value
is
exceeded or if the shaft is
in badly-damaged condition,
replacement is necessary.
Item
Standard
Unit: mm (in.)
Service
limit
12.6:g:~
Rotor
shaft
diameter
(0496 +{).OO24)
Shaft to
body
clearance
(0.00157 ~O.OO335)
.
+{).OO16
O.040~0.085
2.3 Reassembly
a. Install inner rotor
shaft with pin.
to pump
b. Place pump shaft in pump
case.
Install pump drive
gear to the shaft with pin.
c. Place outer rotor in pump
case, and install pump case
cover complete with gasket
and oil strainer.
(NOTE: If pump shaft or drive
gear has been replaced, a new
pin hole must be made by drilling through the gear mounted
on the shaft.)
d. After replacing the cover,
check to be certain that the
match marks are correctly
indexed. If the cover is in
the wrong position relative
to the case, the pump will
not draw in oil.
Tighten
the bolts after check ing to
be sure that the marks are
correctly matched.
79
Fitting cover-to-case by matching marks
e. After reassembling the pump complete with its strainer, immerse
the strainer in a pool of oil and run the drive gear by hand to
make certain that the pump is capable of sucking oil in.
3.
Oil Filter
The filter is mounted on the right-hand side of the crankcase at
its center part.
The oil bypass valve for letting the oil bypass
the filter is actually a relief valve located in the center portion of the element. This valve is set to open when the differential
pressure
across
the
filter
rises
to
1.0+0.2kg/cm2
(14.2+2.8psi); when the valve opens, the oil flows directly from
the inlet side to the outlet side.
The filter must be
serviced regularly or before the filter becomes so dirty that it
actuates the bypass valve.
The oil filter has a built-in
relief
valve
operating
in
response
to
the
oil
pump
discharge pressure. This valve
starts
relieving
when
the
pressure rises to 3+0.3kg/cm2
(43+4.3psi),
thereby- bleeding
the-excess oi 1 to the oi 1 pan
and limiting the pressure of
oil reaching the engine oil
gallery to a constant level.
3.1 Disassembly
1. Remove filter
valve
(2)
bracket (3).
(1) and relief
from
filter
3.2 Inspection
The filter should be replaced
after each 100 hours of operation or whenever its filtering per formance has not iceably
deter ior ated.
Inspect
the
filter to notice any signs of
rupture or fissure;
if so,
replace filter.
Visually examine examine the filter bracket
for any distortion and cracks.
80
COOLING SYSTEM
(FRESH AND RAW WATER)
/DI
WATER INJECTED ELBOW
(~
~>/~ V'
~' '-
r \
r
I
~
'I
.t
,~
\"
\.~.
' .
COOLANT RECOVERY TANK/f'.
l.J
l\
!
MANIFOLD
~. ~
'.
.. ,
HEAT EXCHANGER
THERMOSTAT
TO HOT WATER TANK
OIL LINES
1.
Fresh Water Circuit
INCOMING RAW WATER
Refer to the illustration above.
Fresh water coolant is
culated through the circuit by the belt-driven fresh water
mounted on the front of the engine block.
cirpump
The circulating pump draws coolant from the discharge side of the
hea t exchanger and moves it through the eng ine block/head.
The
thermostat, located in a housing at the top forward part of the
cylinder head, controls the operating temperature of the engine by
opening and closing to regulate coolant flow through the engine
block/head.
The coolant passes through the opened thermostat and the exhaust
manifold to the lower discharge of the manifold through the lube
oil cooler.
The coolant then passes through the domestic water
heater flow controller and into the engine's heat exchanger, where
it is finally cooled by the raw water circuit.
81
2.
Raw Water Circuit
Raw water is drawn into the raw water pump (positive displacementneoprene impeller type) by the suction action of the impeller in
the pump.
This raw water is pumped to the raw water inlet of the
heat exchanger where it passes through the tubes inside the
exchanger and removes heat from the fr esh water coolant flowing
around the outside of the tubes.
(Refer to the cooling system
illustration. )
The raw water is then discharged from the exchanger and then may
be dir ected to the tr ansmiss ion oi 1 cooler.
I t then passes in to
the exhaust injection elbow to be mixed with the exhaust gases,
cooling them as this mix falls into the exhaust muffler and is
pushed overboard by exhaust gas
3.
Thermostat
The thermostat is a wax type,
designed
to
maintain
engine
operating temperature between
170·-190·F. (7r-88·C).
3.1 Disassembly
3
4
5
4
a. Remove thermostat cover (2)
by loosening and removing
bolts (1) and washer.
1
b. Remove
thermostat
(3),
gaskets (4) and spacer (5)
from engine block (6).
4.
~
2
.~
~
o
~~ I
9
Fresh Water Pump
3
The water pump is the centrifugal type.
Its bearings are
lubr icated
by
water
pump
bearing grease applied thru the
zerk fitting on the side of the
pump.
10
8
5
4.1 Disassembly
a. Loosen and remove water pump
shaft nut and lock washer;
remove
water
pump
pulley
and woodruff key.
Remove pump cover
(2)
by
loosening and removing cover
attaching bolts (1).
82
~
~.
l-Bolt
2-Cover
3-lmpeller
4-{Jnit seal
5-Spacer
6-Snap ring
7-Bearing
8-Shaft
9-Bearing
1 a-Housing
c. To remove impeller (3), support the shaft with a stand
and unscrew impeller.
(NOTE: The impeller is threadmounted on the shaft.
The
thread is right-handed.)
d. Remove spacer (5) from the
shaft at the pulley side of
the pump case.
e. Remove snap ring (6) from
the pulley side of the pump
case.
f. Pull
shaft
(8)
off
the
pulley side of the pump case
and remove bearings (7) and
(9) from the shaft.
4.2
Inspection
a. Examine the pump operation
by slowly rotating it.
If
the pump is erratic in rotation,
replace
bearings.
bearings.
b. Visually check the impeller for corrosion or breakage. Replace
a defective impeller.
Also check for signs of rubbing.
If
such rubbing is evident, check the cause.
The impeller and
case or cover, if found damaged due to rubbing, must be
replaced with new ones.
c. Check the condition of the unit seal.
is badly worn or damaged.
83
Replace the seal if it
d. Check the pump shaft bearing journals for
shaft if the journals are excessively worn.
wear.
Replace the
e. Check the sur faces of the pump case where the bear ings are
fitted for excessive wear or damage.
Replace the case (or the
pump assembly) if those sur faces on the case are found in bad
condition.
(NOTE:
Upon assembling the water pump, tur n i t by means of the
pulley, making certain that the pump rotation is smooth without any
signs of binding.)
4.3 Reassembly
a. Install bearings ( 2) on pump
shaft (l) and install the
shaft in pump case (4) •
in
b. Install snap ring
(5)
pump case on pulley side.
S
c. Install larger half of unit
seal (7 ) in the pump case
and smaller half of seal in
screw the 1
the impeller (8) ;
impeller onto the shaft.
d. Install cover (9 )
3
e. Install spacer (3 ) onto the
pulley side of the shaft, 2
position the woodruff key in
shaft
keyway,
and
the
install the pulley onto the
shaft;
fasten the pulley
to the shaft with the lockwasher and water pump shaft
nut.
f. Rotate
the shaft to check
that the impeller does not
interfere with cover.
g. Apply water pump grease thru the Zerk fitting.
(1.2 cubic inches). Do not overfill.
84
Capacity-20cc
5.
Raw Water Pump
The pump is a positive replacement type pump, engine driven, with
a replaceable neoprene impeller.
5.1 Disassembly
7"
a. Remove front cover scr ews
and washers (13) & (14) and
front cover (12) with gasket
(11. )
5, ,
b. with a pair of screw drivers
positioned 180· apart on the
impeller (10), carefully pry
the impeller from the shaft
and out of the pump body.
/
"
"
14"
13"".
"
c. Remove screw (7 ) and take
cam (8 ) out of the pump.
d. Remove
key
(3 )
from
impeller shaft (2) •
12
11
the
"',
''''''~
~
'\)j)
10
(8
e. Support the pump base in an
arbor press or similar press
and push the impeller shaft
(2) and bearings (4 ) out of
the pump housing (6) •
.
.,.\
'\;4
f. Properly
support bearings (4) and remove from shaft (2).
some disassembly, bear ings may remain in pump housing.
those cases, support the housing and push bearings out.
g. Push seal (9)
In
In
from inner housing.
(Note placement
correctly) •
of
seal
in
housing
(seal
lip)
to
reinstall
5.2 Inspection
a. Visually examine impeller (10).
Look for any cr acked or wor n
impeller blades.
Ma ter ial should be flex ible.
Replace if
suspected.
b. Visually examine cover (12) inner surface. Replace if there is
any indication of wear or grooving from the impeller turning on
the inner surface.
c. Check cam (8)
for wear.
d. Check bearings (4)
cations of damage.
Replace as needed.
and rotate.
85
Look for binding and any indi-
e. Visually examine shaft (2) for wear in the areas of the bearing
journals and the area of seal (9) contact.
Replace if badly
worn or damaged.
f. Visually examine pump housing (8) for any wear or damage in the
areas of the shaft bearing outer journals and housing area
where the impeller turns in.
6.
Sea Water Pump
Mounting Stud
Raw Water Pump Engine Mounting
a. Care must
be
taken when
mounting the raw water pump
to
the
mounting
flange.
The slotted drive in the
shaft of the sea water pump
should fit onto the drive
tang fr om the eng ine.
The
slotted dr i ve and the tang
should not be forced against
each other when the raw water
pump is secured. This would
cause undue stress on the
pump bearings and the drive
tang gear.
Lock Washer
,·Ji
Flat Washer
SeaWater
Pump
b. Alignment is just as critical as the drive clearance.
The raw
water pump intentionally has no pilot because the location of
the timing cover and the mounting flange vary when bolted to
the engine.
To assure that the pump shaft is axial (centered)
with the driving tang, install the pump with its gasket(s) just
snuggly. With the fuel lever on the injection pump in the OFF
position, crank the engine for a few seconds, so the raw water
pump will align with the drive tang. Visually verify movement
of the pump, as it aligns during cranking.
Secure the pump by
tightening up on its four hold-down nuts.
(NOTE:
water
This
pump
procedure must be followed any time the raw
is
removed
or
loosened
for
any
reason. )
86
FUEL SYSTEM
1.
Fuel Injection Pump (DPA).
Descr iption
The DPA injection pump is a
distributor
type
pump
consisting of a transfer pump,
fuel pumping plunger, distributing device, automatic advance, mechanical governor and
control
linkage,
which
are
built into a compact, lightweight pump housing. Functionally, this pump features a pair
of pumping plunger s for me tering and delivering fuel.
21
3
1
2
I-Drive hub seal
2-Governor weight
3-Drive shaft
4-Thrust sleeve
S-Pump housing
6-Automatic advance
7-Cam advance screw
20
DPA Fuel Injection Pump
19
18
17
16
15
4
5
6
7
8
8-Head locating stud
9-Shut-off solenoid valve
IO-End plate (regulating valve)
II-Transfer pump
12-Head & rotor assembly
13-Hydraulic head
14-Rotor
DPA Fuel Injection pump
*
(NOTE: Ref
3 Dr ive Shaft
drive shaft;
later pumps
with master spline.)
14
13
12
9
11
10
IS-Metering valve
16-Plunger
17-Cam roller
18-Governor spring
19-Governor arm bracket
20-Governor arm
21-Shut-off shaft
- Sectional View
- earlier pumps had a
had a splined drive
87
keyed
shaft
2.
Fuel Filter
The fuel fi lter is a sp in-on type.
a manual priming pump.
a.
Its mounting housing has
Servicing
Remove the filter element by unscrewing it from the filter
housing with the aid of a small filter wrench.
Care should
be taken to catch any fuel that may be spilled while removing
the filter.
(NOTE:
In installations with fuel tanks located above engine
height,
to prevent fuel
syphoning when the filter
is
removed, shut the fuel OFF at the tank shut-off during this
servicing. Turn the fuel back ON, once a new filter has been
installed.
Install the new filter simply by applying some
fuel to the sealing gasket of the filter and screwing it
carefully onto the filter housing. Tighten approximately 3/4
of a turn once the sealing gasket contacts the housing. Turn
the ignition key ON to activate the fuel pump.
This will
prime the filter and vent any air from it.)
(NOTE:
The manual priming pump on the filter housing may be
used to accomplish this same function without having to turn
the ignition key ON.
(It takes approximately 20 pumps to
prime the filter.)
FUEL
RETURN
ElECTRIC LIFT
PUMP_~
FUEL FILTER
ASSEMBLY
THROTTLE CONNECTION
INCOMING FUEL
~,
CARTRIDGE
INJECTOR PUMP
88
3.
Fuel pump
This
is
solenoid-operated
a
(transistor
type)
12-Volt DC
The reciprocating
fuel pump.
motion of the pump plunger is
controlled by a transistorized
circuit.
The osc illator section incorporates transistors, diodes and
resistors.
When the transistor circuit is
closed and the solenoid coil is
excited, a sucking force acts
on the plunger.
This forces
it
down against
the
spring
force and the fuel, pushing up
the deli very valve that leads
in to the plunger.
When the
transistor circuit is opened,
the plunger
is
pushed back
upward by the spring force,
forcing the fuel out of the
ou tlet por t, and at the same
time, the inlet valve opens and
the
fuel
enter s
the
lower
chamber.
1--
2
II)
(2)
(3)
(4)
IS)
6
Diaphragm
Oscillator
Solenoid coil
I ilter
hltL'r l'\ IVL'r
(6)
Plun)!er
17 ) Outlet vain'
IR) Spring
19, Inkt valve
Fuel Pump
Disassembly and Reassembly of the Electric Fuel pump for Cleaning
Because this transistorized fuel pump is totally enclosed,
the cover, filter and plunger assembly require cleaning.
only
Using a 17-mm wrench, remove the cover (1).
(See illustration below).
Then, the cover gasket (2), magnet (3) and filter (4) can be removed
from the pump body (5).
II)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
( 6)
( 7)
( 8)
( 9)
(10)
( I I)
(12)
Cover
Cover gasket
Magnet
hlter
Body
Spring retainer
Washer
O-ring
Valve
Plunger spring
Plunger
Plunger tube
Removing Plunger
Removing Filter
89
Replace the filter as needed.
Check the cover gasket, and if damaged, replace it.
and cover thoroughly.
Clean the magnet
To remove the plunger, first remove the spring retainer (6) from the
plunger tube (12).
Then remove the washer (7), O-r ing seal (8),
valve (9), plunger spring (10) and plunger (11) from inside the tube.
Wash these parts in clean diesel oil and remove the oil and other contaminants using compressed air.
CAUTION
The plunger tube (12) has very small wall thickness.
Be
careful not to deform the tube during removal of the plunger
parts.
Carefully handle the plunger to prevent it from
being dented or otherwise damaged.
Assembling
(1)
To assemble, install the plunger, plunger spring, valve, O-ring
and washer, in that order, and secure assembled parts with the
retainer.
(2)
Install the filter element, and then the magnet and gasket in the
cover and tighten the cover with a 17-mm wrench to the ends
of the slotted stop.
Servicing and Checking the Electric Fuel Pump
(1)
Changing the Filter
After the first 50 hours of operation, and thereafter every 200 hours,
remove the lower cap of the pump, using a 17-mm wrench, and replace the
filter element.
(2)
Checking the Electric Fuel pump Operation
Turn on the ignition switch (for a generator, use PREHEAT). The pump should
produce a clicking sound.
If the pump does not produce any operating
sound, check with a DC voltmeter to determine that 12 Volts is being
supplied to the pump.
If 12 Volts is being supplied to the pump and
the pump still does not make any operating sound, replace the fuel
pump assembly. If 12 Volts is not present at the pump, check the unit
circuit breaker, electr ical connections and switch.
Fuel delivery
(free flow)
is 225cc (.48 pints) every 15 seconds.
The electrical
fuel pump should maintain a positive fuel inlet pressure to the injection pump during engine operation.
90
4.
Idling and Maximum No-Load Speed Adjustments
These adjustments are initially made at the factory during engine
testing. To adjust idle speed, loosen the 8-mm locknut and adjust
the
stop
screw
(1)
clockwise
to
increase
idle speed,
or
counterclockwise to lower idle speed; normal idle speed is between
out,
to lower (8 rnrn stop screw) normal idle speed is between
700-850 RPM.
This may vary with installations
and
reduction
gears
used.
No-load
speed
is
adjusted
and
sealed at
the
factory with 8-mm stop screw
(2). RPM full open throttle in
neutral is 3220 RPM.
Do not
tamper with this adjustment.
1
(NOTE:
Propeller load should
hold
engine
speed
between
2900-3000
RPM,
full
open
throttle, underway, and in forward gear.
Any time RPM is questionable, ensure
that tachometer calibration
is correct with engine speed before attempting other adjustments.
5.
Fuel Injection Nozzles
a. Description
The injection nozzle provides a means of spraying
fuel, delivered under
pressure from the injection
pump, into the precombustion
chamber.
The noz zle spr ays
oil in a conical pattern
of finely-atomized droplets.
The mating surfaces of the
nozzle
holder
body,
distance piece and nozzle are
precision-finished to
be oil tight.
The injection pressure is
adjusted
by
an
adjusting
washer. Increasing the
thickness of the washer will
increase the spr ing tension
and,
hence,
the injection
pressure, and vice versa.
9 ------+.'If
8
6
5
4
1---r~···
l-Retaining nut
2-Nozzle tip
3-Distance piece
4-Pressure pin
S-Spring
6-Washer
7-Nozzle holder
8-Gasket
9-Nut
Inspection Nozzle - Sectional view
91
7
2
b.
Removal and Installation
1. Removal Sequence
a.
b.
c.
d.
Connectors (1) (4 Pcs)
Fuel Feed pipes (2)
Fuel return pipe (3)
Fuel leak-off pipe (4)
(nuts (5) 4 pcs)
e. Fuel injection nozzle
assemblies
2. Installation Sequence
Unit: kg-m (lb-ft)
Follow the reverse of removal sequence.
5 ± 0.5
Fuel injection nozzle
tightening torque
(36_2 ± 3.6)
CAUTION
After removing injection nozzles, be certain to cover disconnected ends of injection pipes and nozzle holes in
cylinder head to prevent entry of dirt.
c.
Disassembly and Reassembly
(NOTE:
Before disassembly, collect data on the nozzle
by testing it for injection pressure (beginning of injection), spray pattern and internal oil-tightness, all in
the manner already descr ibed. Throughout the
disassembly,
cleaning, and reassembly work, handle each nozzle assembly
with care to protect, in particular, the nozzle tip.)
1. Disassembly Sequence
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
@--8
Retaining nut (1) (hold
it in a vise).
Nozzle holder (2)
Nozzle tip (3)
Distance piece (4)
Pressure pin (5)
Spring (6)
Washer (7)
©----g
~2
t-----7
5~~6
l-Retaining nut
2-Nozzle holder
3-Nozzle tip
4-Distance piece
5-Pressure pin
6-Spring
7-Washer
8-Nut
9-Gasket
Disassembling Nozzle Holder
4------9
3~
1~
Injection Nozzle Assembly - Disassembled View
92
2. Reassembly Sequence
Follow the reverse of disassembly sequence.
(NOTE:
If the needle valve and nozzle proper have to be replaced, be sure to wash the replacement parts in a pool
of kerosene
after
removing
their
protective
films of
plastic:
wash off the rust preventive oil from the nozzle
proper by strok ing the needle valve back and for th in the
needle valve stem bore.)
d. Inspection
Needle valve and nozzle body
1. Immerse needle valve and nozzle body in a pool of clean kerosene, insert the valve into the body, and move the valve
back and forth to be sure that the sliding contact is smooth
without evidencing any excessive clearance.
The entire
injection nozzle must be replaced if the fit is found
defective.
2. Visually examine the nozzle
having a power of 4 or 5.
body
with
a
magnifying
glass
3. Inspect the needle valve for distortion or damage at its
seating part and for wear of its end face in contact with
the pressure pin.
4. Poor sea ting contact may be corrected, if the defective
condition has not advanced too far, by lapping the valve
against the seat with a coat of clean lube oil applied to
the sea ting faces.
If this does
not help, the injection
nozzle must be replaced.
Nozzle holder and distance piece.
Check the fit between nozzle holder and distance piece.
Determine the quality of the fit from contact patterns obtained
with the use of red lead paste:
defective fit will be obvious
by an abnormally high rate of return oil (leak-off) flow.
Pressure spring and pressure pin.
1. Replace any pressure spring that is
otherwise defective, and out of square.
carefully for these defects.
broken, cracked or
Inspect each spring
2. Inspect each pressure pin for wear at its end faces, one for
pressure spring and the other for needle valve.
Leak-off pipe packing
If the packing
replace it.
is
found
to
93
be
in
a
deteriorated
condition,
4. Testing and Adjustment
Injection Pressure
The pressure at which the needle valve unseats itself against
the force of the pressure spring is referred to as valve
opening
pressure
or
beginning-of-injection
pressure,
however, it will be referred to as injection EE,essure in this
manual. The value of this pressure is specified; it is checked
and adjusted as follows:
a. Install the injection nozzle in the nozzle tester, and
operate the manual pumping handle of the tester several
times to prime the nozzle.
b. Move the lever in an up-and-down cycle of one per second to
pressurize the injection nozzle, while observing the indication of the test pressure gauge.
As the nozzle begins to
spray, the
deflected gauge needle will indicate the
injection pressure.
Specifications
Item
Injection
pressure
Unit: kg/cm 2 (psi)
Repair
limit
Standard
6.
I20+1~ (I 706.4+ 14 2 )
110(1564.2).
max
c. If the indicator reading is below the limit, increase the
thickness of the washer used on the pressure spring.
Increasing the washer thickness by lmm (0.04in.) increases
the injection pressure by about lOkg/cm2 (l42psi). Washer
stock for adjustment purposes is available in 20 sizes,
ranging from 1.0mm (0.0394in.) up to l.9Smm (0.0768in.),
in increments of O.OSmm (0.0020in.) each.
Spray Pattern
The injection nozzles used in the present engine are the
throttle type.
Some throttling action takes place when the
needle valve begins to unseat, limiting the amount of sprayed
fuel during the initial stage of each fuel injection.
Thus,
each slug of sprayed fuel may be regarded as comprised of two
portions;
initial throttled spray and terminating main spray.
1
2
3
4
5
6
UlI
Ill.I
llilJ
lWJ
llilJ
lliI
II~\
/ I
fI
Checking injection pressure
on nozzle tester
94
\\
t(),
i\ II)
{!!v
l-Good
4-After-dribble
2-Spray cone too large
5-fissured spray
3-0ff center spray
6-~~hirling spray
possible patterns of spray
When tested on the nozzle tester, the injection nozzle can reproduce
these two spray types for visual inspection.
Initial throttled spray
occurs when the tester lever is operated at a rate of 60 cycles-perminute (up and down in one second);
terminating main spray occurs
when
the
lever
is
operated
rapidly
at
a
rate
of
4
to 6
cycles-per-second.
a.
Initial Throttle Spray
When the nozzle is producing this spray only, the atomization is
generally poor and the pattern is straight then conical. Evidence
of after-dribble, fuel dribbling after injection, is also present.
All these are due to the injected fuel being throttled by the
pintle protruding from the valve.
While the nozzle is producing this spray, check the needle valve
for chattering in synchronism with the cyclic motion of the lever;
if so, then the needle valve is free from any sticking or hitching
tendency.
If not, the nozzle and needle valve must be cleaned by
washing and then re-tested.
Evidence of off-center spray or directionally-erratic spray, indicates that the injection nozzle needs thorough cleaning.
b.
Terminating Main Spray
With the tester lever operated at a rate of 4 to 6 cycles-persecond, the initial throttle spray is minimally visible.
The
spray under this condition may be regarded as main spray.
The main spray should be a good straight cone, consisting of
finely-atomized fuel particles without any large droplets, finelyatomized fuel particles without any large droplets, and should
terminate with no dribble or dripping fuel at the tip.
Seating Tightness
An injection nozzle, tested and adjusted as above, and found to produce a good spray pattern, may be re-used in the engine, provided that
it passes this final test: seating tightness test.
With the injection nozzle mounted on the nozzle tester, raise the
pressure slowly to 100 or 110kg/cm2 (1422 or 1564psi), without
exceeding the set pressure of 120kg/cm2 (1706psi), so that the needle
valve will not unseat.
Hold the pressure and observe the nozzle tip;
there should be no evidence of fuel oozing out to form a dribble. If
such evidence is noted, the contacting faces of the needle valve and
seat must be repaired by lapping in the manner previously suggested or
the entire injection nozzle must be replaced.
(NOTE:
Check injection nozzle for spray pattern every 1200
hours and remove carbon deposits around nozzle tip.
Overhaul or replace as needed.)
95
NOTES:
96
TRANSMISSIONS
97
HBW SHORT PROFILE SAILING GEAR
DESCRIP'rION
1.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION
The Type HBW Short Profile Sailing Gears are equipped with a positively-dr iven, mechanically-operated helical gear ing system.
The servooperated multiple-disc clutch requir es only minimum effort for gear
changing, making the transmission suitable for single-lever remote
control via a rod linkage, Morse or Bowden cable.
The torque transmission capacity of the clutch is exactly rated, preventing shock loads from exceeding a predetermined value and thus
ensuring maximum protection of the engine.
The transmission units are characterized by low weight and small
overall dimensions. The gearbox castings are made of a high-strength,
corrosion-resistant aluminum alloy, chromized for improved sea water
resistance and optimum adhesion of paint.
The transmissions are immersion-lubricated.
to fluid level checks (see Maintenance).
2.
Maintenance is restricted
GEAR CASING
The rotating parts of the HBW transmission are accommodated in an oiltight casing, divided into two halves in the plane of the vertical
axis. Amply-dimensioned cooling ribs ensure good heat dissipation and
mechanical rigidity.
A fluid filler screw with dipstick and a fluid drain plug are screwed
into the gear casing.
The filler screw is provided with a breather
hole.
The shaft for actuating the multiple-disc
cover on the side of the gear casing.
3.
clutch extends through
a
GEAR SETS
The transmission is equipped with shaved, case-hardened helical gears
made of forged low-carbon alloy steel. The mUlti-spline driving shaft
connecting the transmission with the engine is hardened as well.
The driven shaft (propeller side) of the transmission is fitted with a
forged coupling flange, except on the V-drive model.
98
4.
MULTIPLE-DISC CLUTCH INCLUDING OPERATION - POWER TRAIN
The engine torque is applied to the input shaft (36) in the specified
direction of rotation and, in shifting position A (forward), via
gear (44), the frictionally-engaged clutch discs (51 and 52) to the
external disc carr ier (57), and from there via the guide sleeve (59)
to the output shaft (66).
In shifting position B (reverse), the torque is transmitted from the
input shaft (36) via the in termedia te gear (not shown in cross-section), gear (65), clutch discs (51 and 52) to the external disc
carrier (57), the guide sleeve (59) and the output shaft (66).
99
FUNCTION
The
transmission
uses a positively-driven,
mechanically-operated
multiple-disc clutch system mounted on the output shaft.
The thrust force required for obtaining positive frictional engagement
between the clutch discs is provided by a servo system.
This essentially comprises a number of balls which, by the rotary movement of
the external disc carr ier, are urged against inclined sur faces provided in pockets between the guide sleeve and the external disc
carrier and in this manner exert axial pressure.
The thrust force
and, as a result, the transmittable friction torque are thus proportional to the input torque applied.
Due to the cup springs (48) supporting the clutch disc stack and a limitation of the range of axial
travel of the external disc carrier (57), the thrust force cannot
exceed a predetermined value.
The actuating sleeve (60) is held in the middle position by springloaded pins.
To initiate the shifting operation, the actuating
sleeve (60) need merely be displaced axially by a shifting fork until
the arresting force has been overcome. Then the actuating sleeve (60)
is moved automa tically by the spr ing-loaded pins, while the external
disc carr ier, which follows this movement, is rotated by the fr ictional forces exerted by the clutch discs, and the shifting operation
is completed as described above.
Input
Power flow in lever position
__ A
--~
100
B
5.
SHAFT BEARINGS
Both the input and the output shafts are carried in amply-dimensioned
taper roll bearings.
The in termedia te gear and
needle roller bearings.
6.
the movable
gear s
are
carr ied
in
sturdy
SHAFT SEALS
External sealing of the input and output shafts is provided by radial
sealing rings. The running surface on the shafts is case-hardened.
7.
LUBRICATION
The
transmissions
are
immersion-lubricated.
The
generously supplied with splash fluid and fluid mist.
bearings
are
INSTALLATION
1.
DELIVERY CONDITION
For safety reasons, the gearbox is NOT filled with fluid for shipment.
The actuating lever is mounted on the actuating shaft.
Before leaving the factory, each transmission is subjected to a test
run with the prescribed ATF fluid.
The residual oil remaining in the
transmission after draining acts as a preservative and provides
101
reliable protection against corrosion
units are properly stored.
2.
for
at least one year
if the
PAINTING THE GEARBOX
ALWAYS COVER THE RUNNING SURFACES AND SEALING LIPS OF THE RADIAL
Make certain that the
SEALING RINGS ON BOTH SHAFTS BEFORE PAINTING.
breather hole on the oil filler screw is not closed by the paint.
Indicating plates should remain clearly legible.
3.
CONNECTION OF GEARBOX WITH ENGINE
A torsio-elastic damping plate between the engine and the transmission
is to compensate for minor alignment errors and to protect the input
shaft from external forces and loads.
Radial play should be at least
0.5mm.
4.
SUSPENSION OF ENGINE-GEARBOX ASSEMBLY IN THE BOAT
To protect the gearbox from detrimental stresses and loads, provision
should be made for elastic suspension of the engine-gearbox assembly
in the boat or craft.
The fluid drain plug of the gearbox should be conveniently accessible.
5.
POSITION OF GEARBOX IN THE BOAT
The inclination of the gearbox unit in the direction of the shafts
should not permanently exceed an angle of 20 degrees (15 degrees for
the V-dr ive model) •
(See illustration.)
The gearbox also can be mounted with the output shaft in the upward
position.
Interchange the fluid dipstick and the fluid drain plug in
this case.
102
6.
OPERATION OF GEARBOX.
Gear chang ing r equir es min imal effor t.
The gearbox is su it able for
single-lever remote control.
Upon loosening the retaining screw, the
actuating lever (see illustration) can be moved to any position
required for the control elements (cable or rod linkage).
Make certain that the lever does not contact the actuating lever cover
plate;
the minimum distance between the lever and cover should be
0.5mm.
The control cable or rod should be arranged at right angles to the
actuating lever in the neutral position of the lever.
A larger amount of lever travel is not detrimental.
However, if the lever travel is shorter, proper gear engagement might
be impeded which will result in damage from premature wear and
excessive heat generation.
Minimum Travel (inner hole used)
1.18"
30mm
\
I
\
\
\
/
- ---/
/
~-I-./
\
I-}
/
/
I
/(, ':J
/
,
I
,
/
\
\
I
\
\
Shift Cable Attachment from Rear
o
103
I
,
-HV'-....
>-i ....
--'
/
'
I
Shift Arm Securing Bolt
The position of the cover plate underneath the actuating lever is
factory-adjusted to ensure equal lever travel from neutral to position
A or B.
CAUTION
Do not loosen the capscrews mounting this assembly.
Removal
disturbing of the shift cover will void all warranty responsibilities by Westerbeke.
or
When installing the gearbox, make certain that shifting is not
impeded (e.g., by restricted movability of the cable or rod linkage; by
unsuitably positioned guide sheaves; too small bending radius, etc.)
7.
ENGINE-GEARBOX COMPARTMENT.
Care should be taken that the engine-gearbox compartment is properly
ventilated.
OPERATION
1.
INITIAL OPERATION.
Fill the gearbox with automatic transmission fluid.
The fluid level
is indicated by the index mark on the dipstick (see illustration).
To check lIulCllevel
TransmiSSion
In
Operation
TransmiSSion Casing
Surlace
VenT
Full Mark
FlUid Level
.. ':,0--·.____ _
Do nOI screw In tor
fluid level checks
To check the fluid level, just insert the dipstick.
Do not screw in.
Retighten the hex screw with the dipstick after the fluid level check.
Do not omit the O-ring seal.
2.
OPERATING TEMPERATURE
The maximum permissible temperature of the transmission fluid is
130·C(266·F). If this temperature is to be exceeded, an optional fluid
cooler is available.
104
3.
OPERATION OF GEARBOX
The zero position of the operating lever on the control console must
coincide with the zero position of the actuating lever on the
transmission.
Shifting is initiated by a cable or rod linkage via the
actuating lever and an actuating cam.
The completion of the gear
changing operation is servo-automatically controlled.
Gear changing should be smooth, not too slow, and continuous (without
interruption) •
Direct changes from forward to reverse are permissible, since the multiple-disc clutch permits gear changing at high
RPM, including sudden reversing at top speeds in the event of danger.
4.
OPERATION WITHOUT LOAD.
Rotation of the propeller without load (e.g., while the boat is
sailing, being towed or anchored in a river), and idling the engine
with the propeller stopped, will have no detrimental effects on the
gearbox.
Locking of the propeller shaft by an additional brake is not required,
as locking is possible by engaging the reverse gear.
Do NOT sail
while engaged in forward.
5.
LAY-UP PERIODS.
If the transmission is not used for periods of more than 1 year, it
should be filled completely with fluid of the same grade to prevent
corrosion.
Protect the input shaft and the output flange by means of
an anticorrosive coating,if required.
6.
PREPARATION FOR RE-USE.
Drain the transmission of
with the prescribed fluid.
all
fluid
and
refill
to the proper
level
MAINTENANCE
1.
TRANSMISSION FLUID
To ensure trouble-free operation of the
transmission fluid (ATF).
Under no circumstances should
as molybdenum sulphite.
the
fluid
Commercial
Automatic
Transmission
Dexron II, is recommended.
105
clutch,
use
only
automatic
contain any additives,
Fluid
(ATF) ,
Type
A
such
or
2.
OIL QUANTITY
HBW
HBW
HBW
HBW
HBW
HBW
HBW
HBW
HBW
HBW
HBW
HBW
HBW
5
10
20
50
100
150
150V
220
250
360
360A
400
450
3.
FLUID LEVEL CHECKS
approximately
approximately
approximately
approximately
approximately
approximately
approximately
approximately
approximately
approximately
approximately
approximately
approximately
0.4
0.6
0.8
0.3
0.35
0.55
1.0
0.75
0.75
1.40
1.50
2.00
1.80
liter
liter
liter
liter
liter
liter
liter
liter
liters
liters
liters
liters
liters
Check the fluid level in the transmission daily.
Correct fluid level
is indicated by the index mark on the dipstick. (See item 1 under
OPERATION.) Always use the same fluid grade when topping off.
4.
FLUID CHANGE
Change the fluid for the fir st time after
then at intervals of at least once per year.
5.
25
hours of operation,
CHECKING THE CABLE OR ROD LINKAGE
The cable or rod linkage should be checked at fr equent in tervals.
Also, check the zero position of the operating lever (on the control
console) and of the actuating lever (on the gearbox) at this time.
The minimum lever travel from the neutral position to the operating
positions (O-A = O-B) should be 35mm for the outer and 30mm for the
inner pivot point.
Make certain that these minimum values are safely
reached.
Check the cable or rod linkage for easy movability (see
item 6 under INSTALLATION).
6.
OVERHAUL.
Disassembly of the transmission in the field is not recommended.
If
an overhaul or repair is needed, the work should be done by Westerbeke
or an authorized Westerbeke service center.
106
WARNER HYDRAULIC
1.
DESCRIPTION.
Westerbeke eng ines are furnished
and reduction gear assemblies.
with Warner hydraulic direct dr ive
The direct drive transmission consists of a planetary gear set, a forward clutch, a reverse clutch, an oil pump, a pressure regulator and
rotary control valve. All parts are contained in a cast iron housing,
along with the necessary shafts and connectors, to provide forward,
reverse and neutral operation.
A direct drive ratio is used for all
forward operation.
In reverse, the speed of the output shaft is equal
to the input shaft speed, but in the opposite dir ection.
Helical
gearing is used to provide a quieter operation that can be obtained
with spur gearing.
Oil pressure is provided by the crescent type pump. The drive gear is
keyed to the drive shaft and operates at transmission input speed to
provide screened oil to the pressure regulator.
From the regulator valve, the oil is directed through the proper circuits to the bushings and anti-friction bearings requiring lubrication.
A flow of lubricant is present at the required parts whenever
the front pump is turning and the supplied lubricant is positive in
forward, neutral and reverse conditions.
The unit has seals to prevent the escape of oil.
Both the input and output shafts are coaxial.
The input shaft is
splined for the installation of a drive damper and the output shaft
is provided with a flange for connecting to the propeller shaft.
2.
CONTROL LEVER POSITION.
The position of the control lever on the transmission, when in
forward, should be shifted to the point where it covers the letter F
on the case casting and is located in its proper position by the poppet ball.
CAUTION
The Warranty is cancelled if the shift lever poppet spring
and/or ball is permanently removed;
the control lever is
changed in any manner or repositioned; the linkage between
remote control and transmission lever shift lever does not
have sufficient travel in both directions.
(This does not
apply to transmissions equipped with Warner Gear electrical
shift control.)
107
3.
LUBRICATION
The properties of the oil used in the transmission are extremely
impqrtant to the proper function of the hydraulic system.
Therefore,
it is imperative that the recommended oil, automatic transmission
fluid (ATF) Type A, be used.
CAUTION
Be certain the cooler is properly installed and the transmission contains oil before cranking or starting the engine.
4.
CHECKING OIL LEVEL.
The oil level should be maintained at the full mark on the dipstick.
Check oil level prior to starting engine.
5.
FILLING AND CHECKING THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Check daily before starting the engine.
The hydraulic circuit includes the transmission, oil cooler, cooler lines and any gauge lines
connected to the circuit.
The complete hydraulic circuit must be
filled when filling the transmission and this requires purging the
system of air before the oil level check can be made. The air will be
purged from the system if the oil level is maintained above the pump
suction opening while the engine is running at approximately 1500 RPM.
The presence of air bubbles on the dipstick indicates that the system
has not been purged of air.
New applications or a problem installation should be checked to ensure
that the oil does not drain back into the transmission from the cooler
and cooler lines.
To inspect for oil drain back, check the oil level
immediately after the eng ine has been shut off and again after the
engine has been stopped for more than one hour
(overnight is
excellent). A noticeable increase in the oil level after this waiting
period indicates that the oil is draining from the cooler and cooler
lines.
The external plumbing should be changed to prevent any drain
back.
6.
STARTING ENGINE.
place transmission selector in neutral before starting the engine.
Shifts from any selector position to any other selector position may
be made at any time and in any order if the engine speed is below 1000
RPM; it is recommended that all shifts be made at the lowest feasible
engine speed.
108
7.
NEUTRAL
Move the shift lever to center position;
the spring-loaded bail will
enter the chamfered hole in the side of the shift lever, and will properly locate the lever in neutral position. with shift lever so positionned, flow of oil to clutches is blocked at the control valve. The
interruption of power transmission is ensured.
8.
FORWARD
Move the shift lever to extreme forward position; the spring-loaded
ball will enter the chamfered hole in the side of the shift lever and
will properly locate lever in forward position.
9.
REVERSE
Move the transmission shift lever to extreme rearward position; the
spring-loaded ball will enter the chamfered hole in the side of the
shift lever and will properly locate it in the reverse position.
10. FREEWHEELING.
Under sail with the propeller turning, or at trolling speeds with one
of two engines shut down, the gear maintains adequate cooling and
lubrication.
11. COOLING PROBLEMS
Water passages inside the cooler will sometimes become clogged; this
will reduce cooling capacity and cause overpressuring.
Back flushing
of the cooler will sometimes help to flush the foreign material from
the cooler passages. The cooler and hose should be thoroughly flushed
or replaced in the event a failure has occurred.
Metallic particles
from the failure tend to collect in the case of the cooler and gradually flow back into the lube system.
Replace oil cooler to prevent
contamination of the new transmission.
Water hoses may collapse and reduce, or completely shut off, flow
to the cooler.
Collapsed hoses are usually caused by ag ing of the
hoses or improper hose installation. Hose installation should be made
with no sharp bends.
Hoses should be routed so there is no possibiIi ty for eng ine sh i ft ing to cause hoses to pull loose or become'
pinched.
A visual inspection of hoses while under way will sometimes
allow detection of faulty hoses.
Reduction, or complete loss, of water flow can be caused by a faulty
water pump.
A rubber water pump impeller will sometimes fail and,
after such a failure, the cooler passages may be restr icted by the
particles of rubber from the failed impeller.
Water pump cavitation
may be caused by improper or faulty plumbing, or an air leak on the
inlet side of the pump.
The water pump may not prime itself, or may
lose its prime, when inlet plumbing is not properly installed.
It is possible for cross leaks to occur inside the cooler, permitting
oil to flow into the water or water flow into the oil.
109
ROUTINE CHECKS AND MAINTENANCE
ANNUAL CHECKS
1.
PROPELLER AND OUTPUT SHAFT ALIGNMENT:
This check also should be
made any time the propeller strikes a heavy object and after any accident where the boat has stopped suddenly. Shaft alignment should also
be checked after the boat has been lifted by a hoist or moved onto a
trailer.
2.
SHIFT LEVER POSITIONING: The selector controls must position the
sh i ft lever exactly in F, Nand R selection pos it ions with the ball
poppet centered in the shift lever hole for each position.
3.
BOLT TORQUE:
Check all bolts for tightness.
4.
COOLER CONNECTIONS:
Check water lines, oil lines and connections
for leakage.
Make sure lines are securely fastened to prevent
shi ft ing.
A seasonal oil change is recommended in pleasure
5.
CHANGING OIL:
boats. Work boats require more frequent changes. Change oil any time
the oil becomes contaminated, changes color or becomes rancid
smelling.
6. TRANSMISSION FLUID: Automatic transmission fluids are recommended
for use in all transmissions.
DAILY CHECKS
1.
Check transmission oil level.
2. Check for any signs of oil leakage in the bellhousing, at gasket
sealing surfaces or at the output shaft oil seal.
3. A quick visual check of the general condition of the equipment may
detect any faulty equipment.
4. Listen for any unusual noises and
cause of any such noises.
investigate to determine
the
WINTER STORAGE
Drain water
freez ing in
collecting.
from transmission oil cooler.
This will prevent
cooler clima tes, and prevent harmful deposits from
110
GENERAL CHECKS
Check coupling alignment each time a transmission is replaced in
the boat.
1.
2. Check shift linkage adjustment to ensure that the
shift lever is positioned so that the spring-loaded
the chamfered hole in the side of the shift lever.
transmission
ball enters
3. Connect an oil cooler into the cooler circuit before cranking or
starting the engine.
Various cooler circuits have been used and
the correct cooler connections should be located from service
literature prior to making the cooler installation.
4.
Use a cooler of sufficient size to ensure proper cooling.
5. Check engine rotation, transmission pump setting, and the
peller rotation prior to assembling the transmission to engine.
6.
Check oil pressure and temperature
indicates that a problem exists.
when
transmission
pro-
function
7.
Use the recommended fluid for filling the transmission
8.
Fll the transmission prior to starting the engine.
9.
Check oil level immediatly after the engine has been shut off.
10. Use a clean container for handling transmission fluid.
11. Replace cooler line after a transmission
installing a new or rebuilt transmission.
12. Check fluid level at operating temperature.
III
failure,
prior
to
WALTER V-DRIVES
FLANGE ALIGNMENT - DIRECT COUPLED MODELS
Install the propeller shaft flange onto
the propeller shaft and tighten the two
clamping bolts on the spli t hub (none on GEAR SHAFT
RV-IOD). A self-locking set screw is pro- FLANGE
vided for
the propeller shaft flange.
spot dr ill the propeller shaft and then
securely tighten the set screw. Many good
installations are ruined by improper shaft FEELER
GAGE
flange alignment. Accurate alignment will
ensure a smooth operating drive train and
eliminate many problems that arise due to
misalignment.
Final alignment should not
be attempted until the boat has been
allowed to settle in the water.
After
FLANGE
the engine has been installed, adjust the
mounts
per
manufacturer's
instructions
FLANGE ALIGN MENT
until the pilot diameters of the gear
shaft
flange and the propeller shaft
flange engage freely.
Butt the flange
faces together.
Without rotating either flange, check with a feeler
gauge in at least four places as shown in the illustration.
If the
max imum feeler gauge that can slip between the flange faces at any
point is .003", the unit is properly aligned.
If a thicker gauge can
be inserted at any point, the engine must be readjusted until proper
alignment is obtained.
Turn the propeller shaft flange one quarter
of a turn without moving the gear shaft flange.
Try inserting the
.003" feeler gauge as described above.
The gap will not change if
the propeller shaft is straight. If it increases, the shaft or flange
is bent and must be removed and straightened.
Rotate the propeller
shaft flange in two more quarter-turn increments and repeat the procedure.
The pilot diameters must be rechecked to ensure that they
still engage freely.
Secure the two flanges together with the heattreated bolts and special high-collared lockwashers supplied.
ENGINE ALIGNMENT - INDEPENDENT MODELS
The engine must be adjusted so that the alignment of the flexible
joint is within 3·.
An accurate steel rule should be used for this
purpose, as shown in the illustration. On short installations using a
flexible joint assembly, the faces of the flexible joint must be
parallel within 1/8". Measure this in at least four places around the
diameter without rotating the assembly. With long installations using
the #36 tubular drive shaft (also on all RV-IOD's) the distance from
the #33A spool adapter to the bores in the universal joint, which is
welded to the tubular shaft, must be measured on both s ides of the
joint.
Rotate the shaft exactly one quarter turn and measure to the
same joint.
The four distances must be equal within 1/8".
(Do not
measure to the joint end that is on the spool adapter. This distance
112
will not vary with misalignmen t as the join t
is bolted and cannot
move.)
Put
the
:JI: 31A
alignment gauge on the
machined
diameter
of
the :JI: 24 cover and slide
ROTA~~OCUO::lEIE" it
comple tely around.
It will indicate how
/·w
the
engine
must
be
moved
to center
the
splined shaft in the
oil seal.
Re-measur e
the joints to see if
they are still parallel
within 1/8".
It is
important
that
both
alignments be checked
thoroughly.
It is poss ible for the splined
shaft to be perfectly centered and the flexible
joint to be out more than 3·.
Premature
failure of the :JI: 26 self-aligning bear ing and
seals may occur due to misalignment.
The zerk
fitting (located on the cross of the universal
joint) should be greased with a light alemite
lubricant.
The above procedure should be
repeated after the boat has been placed in
operation.
It is possible for the eng ine to
slightly shift and settle, especially if it has
rubber mounts.
ZERK FITTING
'24ASEAl
. • JIA ALIGNMENT GAul:
27 SPLINEO
CONNECTING
SHAF I
SHORT INSTALLATION
REMOVE SCREW TO GET
AN ACCURATE MEASUREMENT
WRONG
ZERK FITTING
/
r
LONG INSTALLATION
RV-20 & RV-30
LONG INSTALLATION
RV-l0, RV-40& 48
FLANGE ALIGNMENT - INDEPENDENT MODELS
Install the propeller shaft flange onto the
propeller shaft and tighten the two clamping
bolts on the split hub (none on RV-IO).
A
self-locking set screw is provided for the propeller shaft flange.
Spot dr ill the propeller
shaft and securely tighten the set screws.
ADJUSTING SCREW
LOCKING NUT
LOOSEN SLIGHTLY TO
ADJUST BRACKETS
All V-drives are supplied with 3-way adjustable
mounting brackets
(2-way on the RV-IO and
RV-20) as standard equipment.
The brackets
must face downward to properly absorb propeller
thrust. The mounting plates can be removed and
reversed to fit wider engine bed centers.
RV-10 & RV-20
Before installing the V-dr ive, loosen all the
nuts on the mounting brackets and check to see
that the studs are in the center of the slots.
center of the slots.
Retighten the nuts.
Place the V-dr ive on the
engine bed, lining it up by eye with the propeller shaft flange, as
closely as possible.
Firmly bolt down the V-drive through the holes
provided in the mounting plates.
113
Loosen the locking nuts on the adjusting screws.
Slightly loosen the
nuts on the mounting brackets just enough to be able to move the
V-drive.
Many good installations are ruined by improper propeller shaft flange
alignment.
Accurate alignment will ensure a smooth-operating dr ive
train and eliminate many problems that ar ise due to misalignment.
Final alignment should not be attempted until the boat has been
allowed to settle in the water.
Adjust the V-dr ive until the pilot
diameters of the gear shaft flange and the propeller shaft flange
engage freely. Butt the flange faces together.
without rotating
either flange, check with a feeler guage in at least four places, as
shown in the illustration.
If the maximum feeler guage that can slip
between the flange faces at any point is .003", the unit is properly
aligned.
If a thicker guage can be inserted at any point, the V-drive
must be readjusted until proper alignment is obtained.
Turn the propeller shaft flange one quarter turn without moving the gear shaft
flange. Try inserting the .003" feeler guage as described above. The
gap will not change if the propeller shaft is straight.
If it
increases, the shaft or flange is bent and must be removed and
straightened.
Rotate the propeller shaft flange in two more quarterturn increments and repeat the procedure. The pilot diameters must be
rechecked to ensure that they still engage freely.
Tighten the nuts
on the mounting brackets and the locking nuts on the adjusting screws.
Remove the set screws from the brackets (none on RV-lO or RV-20), spot
drill and securely tighten. Recheck the flange alignment to make sure
the V-dr ive did not move out of alignment.
Secure the two flanges
together with the heat-treated bolts and special high-collared lockwashers supplied.
ADJUSTING SCREW
LOCKING NUT
GEAR SHAFT
FLANGE
LOOSEN SLIGHTLY
TO ADJUST
BRACKETS
FEELER
GAGE
1
FLANGE ALIGNMENT
MOUNTING PLATE
RV- 30, RV-40 & RV- 48
WATER AND SWITCH CONNECTIONS
Hook up the water lines to the two pipe connections on the V-dr ive
(intake and exhaust lines are interchangeable).
Generally, one line
from the seacock to the V-drive and another from the V-drive to the
intake of the engine water circulating pump are utilized. In some
114
cases, scuppers through the hull are connected to and from the V-drive
to provide independent water cooling and are actuated by the movement
of the water.
With closed cooling systems, the V-drive should be
incorporated into the system between the cooler and the suction side
of the water pump.
Proper operating temperatures are from 140' to
l80'F, although safe operating temperatures may be as high as 2l0·F.
On the models equipped with an oil circulating pump, the oil pressure
drop switch and the l2-Volt warning light should be hooked up per the
wiring diagram. The switch may be grounded to any part of the V-drive
or engine (either terminal may be used for the ground.
OIL FILL
j"
Pullout the oil level gauge.
Un12 BREATHER CAP WATER DRAIN
(UNSCREW FOR
screw the breather cap and fill the
OIL FILL)
OIL LEVEL
V-drive with SAE
30 motor
oil
WATER LINE
GAGE
through the breather elbow. On the
(PULL UP TO
REMOVE)
RV-lO only, the oil may be added by
~ ,,'
r emov ing the plug in the
top
cover.
See
table
below
for
approximate oil capacities.
The
amount varies with the angle of
installation. The oil level should
be checked with the oil level gauge
fully inserted in the unit.
The
I
\
proper level is between the Hand L
"12A BREATHER J
~.
\
WATER LINE
ELBOW
marks on the gauge.
Add a 2-ounce
DRAIN
tube
of
Molykote
(molybdenum
disulfide), which is supplied with
each V-drive for extra lubrication and break-in.
It provides protection against scoring or galling of gears, bearings and other moving
parts. Additional Molykote after break-in is not required. Reinstall
the breather cap.
The oil level should be rechecked after the unit
has been run and allowed to sit for about a minute.
Add oil if
necessary.
~WATER
RV-lO
Oil capacity
(Approx. )
1 pint
RV-20
RV-30
RV-40
RV-48
2 pints
3 pints
4 pints
4 pints
DEALER PREPARATION
The propeller shaft and engine alignment must be checked and
cor r ected, if necessary, befor e the boat is delivered.
Final alignment should not be attempted until the boat is allowed to settle in
the water.
The oil level must be checked and oil added if required.
While the boat is being run, the water connections should be checked
for leak s.
The oi 1 pr essur e drop switch and warning ligh t (i f the
V-dr ive is equipped with an oil circulating pump) should be checked
for proper operation.
Do not transport the boat with the propeller
shaft coupling connected.
Damage to the shaft, shaft log and V-drive
can result.
115
OPERATION
A pressure drop warning
light
is
mounted on the instrument panel on
V-drives equipped with an oil cirOIL LEVEL
WATER
GAGE
culating pump. The warning light will
(PULL UP TO
REMOVE)
stay on until the boat gets under way
and the engine speed increases to sufficient RPM for the pump to maintain
pressure.
This normally occurs at
approximately 1200 RPM, but the actual
speed may vary by as much as 400 RPM.
Extended cruising at low RPM, such as
when trolling, is not harmful to the
V-drive, even though the warning light
may stay Ii t.
Normal operation is
between 6 to 12P 81 .
The ligh t will
go on when the oil pressure drops
below 2P8I.
Loss of oil and/or
;'49 PRESSURE
insufficient oil level are the major
DROP SWITCH
causes of pressure drop.
The oil
level should immediately be restored,
and while running the boat, the unit should be checked for leaks.
If
the oil level is normal and the light stays lit when the boat reaches
normal cruising speed, the wir ing should be checked for loose and/or
corroded connections.
If the wiring is correct and the light remains
lit, the #49 pressure drop switch, which is mounted on the side of the
V-dr ive (see illustration), should be checked for proper operation.
The switch can easily be removed and an accurate oil pressure gauge
installed in its place.
If the pressure is normal, the switch should
be replaced.
If the pressure is below normal, the oil lines should be
checked for blockage.
The pump should be inspected and replaced if
necessary.
The pump is standard on the RV-48 and an optional feature
on other models (not available on the RV-IO).
LINE~
The oil level should be checked several times dur ing
especially on V-drives without pumps (see OIL FILL).
the
season,
A clatter or rattle in the V-drive at low RPM is due to the overriding of the propeller during the compression stroke of the engine.
Although annoying, it is not harmful.
It may be reduced by adjusting
the idle speed and/or tuning up the engine for smoother operation.
MAINTENANCE
1.
OIL CHANGE AND JOINT LUBE
After the first 100 hours of operation and every season and/or
500 hours thereafter, the oil should be changed. Run the boat to warm
up the V-drive to operating temperature. Turn off the engine. Remove
the plug in the # 6B bottom cover that is opposite the # 438 oil
s tr ainer.
Re install aft er dr ain ing.
Disconnect the oi 1 hose leading
from the #438 strainer (leave the elbow on the strainer). Unscrew the
strainer and clean the outside surface. Reinstall the strainer and
116
reconnect the oil hose.
Unscrew
the two magnetic plugs that are
located on diagonally-opposite corners of the main housing.
The plugs can be checked to see if
they are magnetic only after removal.
Touch the inside face with a
metallic
object,
such
as
a
screwdriver.
Clean
them
and
reinstall. Usually, there are four
plugs in the bottom part of the
main housing.
Only two of these
are magnetic.
The other two need
not be removed (see illustration).
Refill with SAE 30 motor oil to the
proper level (see INSTALLATION
OIL FILL). The Z erk fitting on the
external universal joint should be
greased with a light alemite lubricant (see ENGINE ALIGNMENT).
2.
tt1C HOUSING
STANDARD PLUG
lNOT MAGNETIC)
O~
WATER DRAIN
For protection from freezing during winter lay-up, remove the small
pipe plugs (located diagonally opposite) on the front and back of the
housing marked Water Drain (see illustration). On the RV-IO only, one
of the water lines going into the water-cooled bottom cover must be
disconnected to drain the water.
3.
FLANGE AND ENGINE REALIGNMENT
When the boat is launched after being in drydock, the line-up of the
V-dr ive to the propeller shaft flange and the eng ine to the V-dr ive
should be rechecked and corrected if necessary.
Some engines with
rubber mounts may sag and must be raised with adjustments or shims for
proper alignment (see Flange Alignment and Engine Alignment) •
117
NOTES:
118
MARINE ENGINE DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
KEYSWITCH & TWO PUSHBUTTONS DRAWING #33685
1.
This system is supplied on most Westerbeke Diesel Propulsion
engines.
The start circuit and instrumentation are activated by
turning ON the ignition switch.
To start the engine depress the
PREHEAT button to activate the starting aids
(glow plugs.)
Continue to hold the PREHEAT depressed and depress the START
button; this will energize the starter and crank the engine.
Once the engine starts, release both buttons.
(NOTE:
START switch will not function unless PREHEAT button is
depressed as the PREHEAT circuit supplies voltage to the START
button when depressed.)
voltage is applied to the instruments, fuel solenoid, fuel li ft
pump and to other electr ical devices via the ON posit ion of the
keyswitch.
2.
Later models that have the fuel shut-off solenoid incorporated in
the injection pump are shut off with the key switch. These models
have the option of mechanically shutting off the engine, as well.
Early models were shut off mechanically.
The option for electrical shut-off is available for these early models by the purchase
of a shut-off solenoid to replace the deactivated one in the
injection pump.
The DC circuit is protected by a circuit breaker located on the
engine.
Any time excessive current flows, the circuit breaker
will trip.
This is a manual reset breaker which must be reset
before the engine will operate electrically again.
CAUTION
The builder/owner must ensure that the instrument panel,
wir ing and eng ine are installed so that electr ical devices
cannot come in contact with sea water.
The latest information regarding your engine's electrical system
is included in the wiring diagram shipped with the engine.
Be
sure to study this wiring diagram and all notes thereon.
119
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Glowplug (Starting Aid)
A glowplug can be checked for an
open circuit fault by using a circuit tester and checking the continuity
between
the
positive
terminal on top of the glowplug
(electrical connection removed) and
the cylinder head.
I f there is no
con tinui ty, the glowplug should be
replaced.
Fuel Shut-Off Solenoid
The
fuel
shut-off
solenoid
is
located on the fuel injection pump,
lower
rear
at
about
the
6:00
o'clock position. This solenoid is
activated by 12 Volts when the
ignition switch is turned ON.
An
armature inside of the solenoid is
lifted and allows fuel flow to the
pump's dis tr ibution head.
Turning
the key switch OFF de-energizes
this solenoid, releases the plunger
and, with the spring behind it,
shuts
the
fuel
off,
positively
stopping the eng ine.
I f the solenoid appears not to be operating
(no fuel delivery to injectors when
cranking
engine
with
starter),
check wiring connections and ensure
with a voltmeter that 12 Volts is
present at the solenoid terminal
when the ignition key is ON.
If
voltage is present at the solenoid
and it does not operate, replace
the solenoid as a unit.
~--:.;.r~E---
<±>...
F
Magnet Valve
0- Ring
~
Spring
..=
Armature
Voltmeter
The voltmeter can be a useful instrument in determining the status of
your electrical system and will warn you when an abnormality occurs.
The voltmeter will indicate differently, depending when the readings
are taken.
Fully-charged batteries that are in a static state should read between
12.3 and 12.6 Volts on the dial. The term static means that the battery has not been charged or discharged for at least two hours. If the
reading is between 11 and 11.5 Volts, then the battery is about half
discharged and should be charged to ensure its usefullness.
If the
engine is started and the needle does not go up, it indicates that no
charge is being delivered to the battery.
122
When the battery is being charged, the needle should be between 12.6
and 13 Volts.
The needle may move up to about the 14.6-Volt range
toward the end of the charge cycle, at which time the needle drops
back to the 12.6-to13-Volt range, as voltage regulation controls this
function.
If the battery voltage exceeds 15 Volts, this indicates
that the battery is being overcharged and damage to the battery will
occur if left unchecked.
The voltage regulator is most likely at
fault.
When the battery is not being charged (having electrical loads placed
upon it and no charging current applied, it is normal for the needle
to indicate between 11.4 and 12.6 Volts.
Tachometer
The tachometer is operated by pulses generated from anyone of the
alternator phases.
The pulse frequency is determined by the rotational speed of the alternator rotor.
The rotor speed is dependent
upon the engine crankshaft speed and the ratio of the the alternator
pulley to the crankshaft pulley.
The tachometer in an instrument
panel is calibrated by Westerbeke for a particular engine model with
panel standard alternator;
if an optional alternator (i.e., 90 Amp)
is used to operate the tachometer, the calibration should be checked.
Also, when a tachometer is replaced, the new instrument must be
calibrated.
CAUTION
When calibrating the tachometer, use a Phillips screwdriver
with an insulated shaft.
1.
Use a motor tester with an RPM indicator, another tachometer or a
strobo-tach to determine the speed of the turning crankshaft.
2.
Remove the plastic plug and flat washer located on the rear of the
tachome te r .
3.
Insert an insulated Phillips screwdriver into the calibration
control slot and slowly turn it counterclockwise to increase the
RPM reading, clockwise to decrease reading (direction of screw as
viewed from the rear of the tachometer case).
An accurate
calibration setting is more easily achieved at the higher side of
the dial scale.
4.
Replace plastic plug and flat washer.
Service Bulletins
These bulletins, when issued, ar e sent to dis tr ibu tor s and dealer s.
These can be obtained by inquiring at the dealer for copies of latest
bulletins pertaining to your engine/generator model.
123
WIRING DIAGRAM 90 AMP ALTERNATOR (OPTIONAL)
,--_ _ _ _ _ _
W_H_I_T_E_ _ _ _
1L_I_N_E_1_1_ _....,~.. TO 1+1 TE R M I NAL OF
EXCITATION
RED
I
IGN. SWITCH
~TO RUN SWITCH
ILlNE 21
FOR DIESEL ENGINES
VOLT. SENSE
----~TO:
BATTERY
+ TERMINAL
ONLY
BEING CHARGED I SEE NOTE
OUTPUT
TERMINAL
NOTE:
It is mandatory for this
voltage sensing wire to be connected directly and physically
to the positive terminal of the
battery being charged.
It must
not be connected to any other
connection point.
Otherwise,
the alternator will not operate
properly.
LOAD
CHECKING ALTERNATOR AFTER HOOK-UP
LINE #1
LINE #2
OUTPUT
12.2 - 12.8V
12.2 - 12.8V
5.0V
14.0 - 15.0V
12.2 - 12.8V
12.2 - 12.8V
14.0 - 15.0V
IGN OFF
ENGINE NOT
RUNNING
IGN ON
ENGINE NOT
RUNNING
ENGINE RUNNING
(1500 RPM)
0
3.0 -
14.0 - 15.0V
124
1
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