Laurie J. Oppel, Director
Global Sales
[email protected]
D. Reppen, Consultant
Instrumentation and Energy Management Dept.
[email protected]
D. Aronson, President
Power Technologies, Inc.
[email protected]
As open access leads to retail choice: competition bet:""ee~
energy service providers becomes more Intense. !nformatlon IS fast
becoming the key to profitability, customer retention, market advantage, and growth.
The operational and commercial needs of the power Indu~try
require information systems to perform both traditional real-tl~e
operational functions (SCADA, EMS) and to meet new competitive
The innovative use of information technology (IT) is a key way
to lower costs improve customer satisfaction, grow market share,
and offer new 'products to enhance revenues. Companies must
integrate proven best-of-breed applications and.systems from v.arious suppliers rather than develop large, expensive, and customized
As utilities transform themselves to compete on a global basis,
legacy IT systems and traditional solutions .are being replaced .o.n ~
grand scale. But before embarking on a major overhaul of a utility s
information system, several questions should be addressed: .
1. Should the legacy system be replaced entirely or can It be
Are the customer and/or utility benefits quantifiable?
What are the initial costs and future costs for installation,
expansion, maintenance and training?..
What are the needs of various groups Inside the utility?
What groups within the utility should be involved in the
design requirements?
Business-responsive IT requires a smooth integration of traditio~­
aliT systems for financial, regulatory, and risk manageme~t; for engineering and operations data; and for customer care (see Figure 1).
Regulatory, &
Risk Management
[ Information i
Operations ....•..
""'" .......
(continued on Pg. 2)
Figure 1. Utility Information Needs
D. J. Ahner
TAG Associate
[email protected]
Distributed Plant Monitoring (DPM) is rapidly becoming a necessity
within the increasingly competitive electric power generation market- .
place. Many cogeneration facilities with monitorinq ~ystems currently In
place are moving to the next lev~1 ~f pl.ant productiVity thr?ugh ~he
implementation of an energy optimization system. ThiS ~rtlcle ~IS?US~­
es the general requirements and benefits of a cogeneration optimization
system, with particular reference to PTI's APOGEE optimization software.
The objective of an energy optimization system is to minimize the
total energy operating costs (fuel, energy purchase, consumables,
maintenance, etc.) of bulk power, process steam and/or product load
profiles. This includes the purchase of external power and/or steam
vs. the use of internal self-generation equipment.
Typical applications involve optimization of equipment commitment and dispatch in response to current power and/or process s~eam
energy supply requirements. This optimization is being extended Into
energy end use equipment where the commitment and dispatch energy of process equipment (e.g. turbine/motor driven compressors,
pumps, power and/or steam fed processes, etc.) is simultaneously
optimized to meet production nee.ds. .
Optimizing energy end use arises In many applications. In industrial plants, the energy used by various proces.ses. (e.g., chemica! p~o­
duction, refining, etc.) constitute end use applications where optimization can yield large savings. The auxiliary systems in power plants
and industrial cogeneration facilities are examples where motor and
turbine driven combustion air fans, pumps, fuel handling, equipment
cooling towers, compressors, etc. constitute significant energy consumers for dispatch optimization.
Since energy production and end use processes constitute an integrated system, optimization may require a considera~io.n. of t.he ~~tal
problem to achieve optimum results, rather than optimizing individual
PTI's cogeneration optimization package, APOGEE, includes
all steam generators (e.g. boilers) and electric generators
(e.g. steam turbines), the steam
headers that connect them, and
any valves or vents connected
to the steam headers. The
external modules are the individual process loads and other
Issue No. 94 - THird Quarter 1999
Information Technology .......... 1
Cogeneration Energy ............... 1
Fuse Saving ............................ .4
International Meeting ............. .4
Recent Publications ................. 6
1999 Course Schedule ..... Insert
(continued on Pg. 3)
---~----------------------------POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC~
.i& A Stone
Webster Company
active communication with customers. It can automate information such as outage occurrence or updated estimates of service-restoration time.
Performance based rates - deliver higher revenue in return for
service reliability and quality. For accounting, OMS can provide
required data and documentation. For business planning, OMS
can facilitate historical data analysis for the setting and targeted
marketing of PBR.
• Reliability-centered maintenance - maximizes the maintenance
budget by focusing on equipment that needs maintenance
most, and which more greatly impacts system reliability.
Maintenance needs depend on the operational, failure, and outage history of the equipment, which can be tracked by the
• Valued-based planning - decisions on network planning
required to meet customer expectations of service quality, in
addition to energy demands. OMS can support reliability analysis, a cornerstone of value-based planning, with systematic
records of operations and outage histories.
(continued from Pg. 1)
In the past, these different systems typically were pr~cured inde.pendently by different departments. Today th~y must be Intewated In!o
an efficiently functioning environment to provide customer-driven busIness solutions.
Utility legacy systems tend to have the following attributes:
Vertically integrated, massive applications
Closed systems (proprietary format and solutions)
Slow development and implementation
Lack of provisions for extension, upgrade, and portability
. No apparent or documented software architecture
However, the critical attributes of business-responsive systems
Clearly identified and prioritized business goals
Aligned engineering and business processes
Fully integrated applications in the overall architecture
Rapid implementation and deployment
Thus the future power industry will require an overall IT architecture and integrated data model that supports different data requirements, flow rates, and integrity among the various systems. It must
also be able to evolve with new technologies to avoid obsolescence.
Far more value is at stake in the transmission and distribution (or
"wires") business than many realize. As a natural monopoly, wires will
continue to be regulated. Wires owners will need to provide transmission and distribution access on a nondiscriminatory basis. They will
face obligations to connect customers, maintain reliability, and possibly
act as a supplier of last resort. In most cases, regulation will be based
on performance rather than cost.
Fortunately, performance-based regulation (PBR) creates an attractive business opportunity. Companies that can negotiate and execute
well against PBR mechanisms will enjoy returns that exceed their ?o?t
of capital. The winning US wires companies will be good at negotiating
favorable PBR schemes, controlling costs, promoting load growth, and
dealing effectively with bypass threats.
Bypass will be the chief danger for wires players. The potential for
bypass will increase as distributed generation technologies (photovoltaics, fuel cells, and microturbines) improve. Also, large transition
charges placed on the wires will intensify the threat by pushing large
customers and municipal utilities to new heights of creativity.
Some wires companies will seek economies of scale by consolidating activities and assets with other local utilities such as gas and water
utilities, and municipal and co-operative electric companies. Others will
look for growth through geographic expansion, nationally and internationally. As in generation, there will be international opportunities for
growth. An estimated $100 billion in assets may come on the market
through privatization over the next five to ten years.
In many developing economies, transmission and distribution
investments have lagged generation additions. Wires companies with
world-class skills in system expansion, operation, and maintenance will
find attractive opportunities around the globe.
As deregulation, divestiture, convergence, and globalization take
hold, traditional energy providers must manage their organization? and
operations better. On top of radically changing management practices
and regulatory requirements, power traders can also seize the initia.tive
by implementing risk management techniques similar to those traditionally used by the financial markets - real-time spot and futures
markets, national power trading, and support for variable levels of service quality.
The information systems shown in Figure 2 are those typically considered in an energy-delivery IT strategy. Different utilities prioritize
and emphasize these systems differently. They also have different
underlying technologies and data models.
Corporate ~---l
Figure 2. Typical Energy-Delivery Information Systems
Energy delivery requirements are characterized by three basic data
components - energy, assets, and work activities. Energy data c~ntain
information on availability, capacity, inventory, control, and metering of
energy products. Asset data contain information about network facilities and related geographic information (streets, rights of way, etc.).
Work activities data contain information about construction and maintenance work orders and outages.
Application components are defined for geographic information
system, work and outage management, and real-time. systems. The
applications communicate with the databases to provide:
• Customer service differentiation and marketing to facilitate pro-
The success or failure of a company in the new energy marketplace
will depend on its use of information as the cornerstone of future
strategies. The company that can move information around quickly,
analyze it accurately, and apply it effectively will have the competitive
(continued from Pg. 1)
external steam requirements such as heating. These load modules may
use power and/or steam energy to satisfy their respective loads.
The optimizer is designed to be generic. It can be configured
through user input to have any number of steam headers, steam generators (e.g. boilers) on any header, steam turbine generators between
any headers (including to condensing), pressure relief valves (PRV's)
between headers, and vents off the headers.
This generic expandable approach allows the optimizer to be configured to a small system (such as the example system described below)
as well as to a much larger and more complicated energy system (such
as a large chemical processing plant) by editing a configuration form
within a DPM client.
The optimizer is capable of running in several different modes. The
simplest is the unconstrained solution. This is where all equipment and
steam headers are operating within their respective limits and require
none of the vents or PRV's to open. The constrained mode exists when
steam headers, boilers or turbines are operating at their limits. This
requires that PRV's and/or vents must open to either release excess
steam or provide the processes with steam. Another mode to consider
is the economic choice of whether or not to generate electricity versus
buying or selling it to the outside grid through a tie-line. This mode
results in PRV's opening to bypass turbine generators and/or loading up
the turbine generators, thereby needing the vents to be opened.
In a large complex system with many steam headers it is possible to
see any number of the above modes in different sections of the optimizer.
In the majority of cogeneration plants the energy supply system is
an entirely separate entity from the process load system. The process,
having its own operating strategy, typically specifies only a required
process steam load profile for its steam supply headers. The energy
supply system then optimizes itself using the optimizer to satisfy the
required load profile. It is the process specified steam load profile that
determines which of the above modes will be applicable.
To demonstrate how PTI's APOGEE Optimization System operates in
conjunction with a DPM, an example cogeneration configuration shown
in Figure 1 is used.
Figure 2 is an example display of the results of an optimization calculation. The process steam load profile, the house steam load profile,
the auxiliary (internal) electric power load, boiler fuel costs, and tie-line
power costs are all specified as inputs to the optimizer. Also required
by the optimizer are the equipment characteristics which can be determined and accessed through the DPM data. Since a DPM uses on-line
calculations to determine the equipment characteristics, these characteristics reflect the actual characteristics of the equipment instead of
"design" values acquired at manufacturing time or during an outdated
Figure 2
Referring to the results, it can be noted that with the exception of
Header 135 the steam demand profile is such that the turbines are
unconstrained and that no bypasses or vents are required to open. The
PRV leading to Header 135 is open due only to the fact that there are no
other steam paths to that header and that there is a process steam load
present on that header. The incremental steam cost on the top header
(A) reflects the incremental cost of steam from the boilers. The steam
costs on the lower pressure headers are less since there is a credit from
producing electricity by passing steam through the turbine generators.
There is no incremental credit or loss through the PRV, so the incremental steam cost on the 135 psi header is the same as that on the
higher pressure header (8). Since the auxiliary KW load is high, tie-line
power must be purchased to satisfy the load not picked up by the generating turbines.
These results are displayed to the operators for consideration in
their dispatch or fed to an automatic dispatch system.
An energy optimization system such as PTI's APOGEE can yield significant savings, often offering a payback of less than one year. It is
essential however, that the distributed plant monitor (DPM) data utilized
in optimization calculations be accurate and current. The optimization
system must recognize changes in equipment inpuVoutput relationships
and provide operating recommendations based upon real time operating
Figure 1
The configuration consists of four steam headers, two single autoextraction back pressure steam turbine generators (TG1, TG2), two boilers (81, 82), three PRV's between the steam headers and one vent off
the lowest pressure steam header.
--------------------~-------------------------POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC~
A A Stone
T. A. Short, Senior Consultant
Distribution and Energy Services
[email protected]
Power Quality and Reliability Tradeofls With
Fuse Saving
Since the majority of faults on overhead distribution are temporary (the fault will be cleared if power is interrupted and restored),
temporary faults on lateral taps can be cleared by the feeder breaker before the lateral fuse blows. This is usually done with the
instantaneous element of the breaker relay or recloser in the substation. This practice is known as fault selective feeder relaying or
simply as "fuse saving".
A downside is that all customers on the feeder will experience a
blink for most lateral faults. Because of the momentary interruptions, many utilities are choosing to operate in a fuse blowing
(breaker-saving) mode.
Many commercial and industrial customers are more sensitive
to momentary interruptions than voltage sags, so removing the
fuse saving should be an improvement. However, some who are
very sensitive to voltage sags may have reduced power quality
under the breaker-saving scheme (because feeder faults will cause
long duration voltage sags without the instantaneous element).
& Webster Company
Many utilities are deciding to allow the fuse to blow since, for
much of the circuit, attempting to clear the fault via breaker operator doesn't save the fuse. Because the distribution feeder breaker is
slow compared with typical lateral fuses, it is difficult for the fuse to
coordinate with the breaker. Assuming that the relay takes one
cycle to operate, and the breaker takes five cycles to operate, the
total operation time is six cycles (0.1 sec). The most commonly
used fuse type in the U.S. is the K link, which is a fast fuse. The
coordination points of a five-cycle breaker with several K links are
shown in Table 1. The coordination point is taken as the current
magnitude where the fuse damage curve (the minimum melt curve
shifted down 25%) crosses the breaker plus relay time (0.1 sec).
The damage curve takes into account preheating and other effects
not included in the test curves. For fault currents above the values
in Table 1, the fuse will operate.
Table 1 Limit of Coordination of K Links With a 5-Cycle Breaker
Fuse Link
limit of Coordination
65 K
780 A
1320 A
200 K
3510 A
(continued on page 5)
A special strategic planning meeting was conducted for PTI's Value-Added International Partners (V.I.P.) Group on May 3-7, 1999.
The VI.P. group includes PTI's wholly-owned subsidiaries in England and India, joint ventures in Malaysia and South Africa, and representatives from 30 other countries. With half of PTI's business conducted overseas, the V.l.P. group is a vital component of the company's continuing business expansion.
The strategic planning meeting brought together an impressive cast of individuals who serve the rapidly deregulating electric power
industry in their regions. The twenty-two attendees, pictured below, represented Argentina, Bulgaria, Costa Rica, EI Salvador, Greece,
India, Korea, Norway, Pakistan,
Peru, Malaysia, New Zealand,
South Africa, Spain, and the
United Kingdom.
The strategy meeting had
two main objectives:
1) inform participants
about the latest products and services
offered by PTI to meet
the needs of the rapidly changing power
industry around the
world, and
2) explore ways to unify
the V.I.P. Group, capitalizing on their diverse
geographic and technical expertise, to better
serve the worldwide
electrical energy marketplace.
Percent of Utilities Using Fuse Saving
Per IEEE Surveys
(continued from Pg. 4)
For the most commonly used lateral fuses (65 and 100 K), the
breaker cannot save the fuse over most of the length of typical circuits.
Under most conditions, the fuse will blow and the breaker will trip.
Knowing this, many utilities are disabling the instantaneous and allowing the fuse to blow. Why subject customers to a momentary when it
isn't very effective?
However, there are a number of important things to keep in mind
when disabling the instantaneous. These include longer voltage sags
and equipment damage (with wire burndowns being of most concern).
Wire Burndown
Burndown can be a problem if either a covered conductor (tree
wire) or a small bare wire is protected by the sUbstation breaker. If the
instantaneous element is removed, then the time overcurrent relay
must clear faults on the mains. This will greatly increase the duration
of faults that can cause wire damage or burndown.
Conductor burndowns are caused by the heating action of the fault
current arc on the wire. Although bare-wire construction can suffer
burndowns, covered conductor construction is much more susceptible.
Normally, on open wire construction, the fault arc will move along the
conductor from a motoring action caused by the magnetic forces from
the fault current, so the arc is never concentrated at one point on the
wire. But covered conductors will prevent this movement, so it will
dwell at one point on the conductor. All of the heating action of the arc
will be concentrated on a small section of conductor.
Burndowns cause permanent interruptions by faults, such as lightning, that normally would be temporary. Burndowns also can produce
safety hazards from live wires on the ground.
Figure 1. Power quality survey results on the use of a fuse saving
scheme (n=60).
second stage fuses to blow, but may still be able to save large lateral fuses (like a 100 or 200T).
Another option is to use two instantaneous elements in a scheme
to save the fuses for low-current faults but allow fuses to blow for high
current faults.
High-Low Scheme
Another scheme to consider involves disabling the instantaneous
element at the substation, but enabling it at a downstream feeder
recloser. Upstream of the recloser, fuse saving will not coordinate
because of high fault currents, so the instantaneous element of the
substation breaker is disabled. Downstream of the recloser, fuse saving
should work; reclosers are generally faster, and the fault currents are
low enough downstream of the recloser to coordinate.
Many utilities have mixed practices. The results of a 1996 PTI survey showed that of those utilities with mixed practices, most would
decide it on a case by case basis. Some operated normally in a fuse
saving mode, but if significant power quality complaints were received,
then it was changed to let the fuse blow. A few indicated that fuse saving was not successful, so it was not used. Other interesting responses
SCADA Control
Another protection scheme that can be used is to selectively
change between fuse saving and breaker saving mode with SCADA.
The normal operation would be in a breaker saving mode. During
storms, it would be switched to a fuse saving mode. During storms, the
cost (overtime pay) and impact on reliability indices (customers are out
longer as crews are stretched) of fuse operations is higher. Also, customers are slightly more forgiving of momentary interruptions during
One utility normally operates in a fuse saving mode, but on
problem feeders with many momentaries, fuse saving is disabled. After the problem areas are isolated (by letting the fuse
blow) and fixed, the fuse saving scheme is restored.
Advanced Options
• Seasonal Control of the Protection Scheme: During the active
summer period, the feeders would be operated in a fuse saving
scheme to reduce the load on crews and improve reliability during that time.
• Two utilities use an instantaneous element with a time delay.
This allows most fuses to blow but limits the duration of the
fault (which would reduce burndown and some long duration
voltage sag concerns).
• Adaptive Control by Phases: If the fault is on more than one
phase it is not on a lateral (assuming all laterals are single
phase), then the circuit should trip on the instantaneous. This
will reduce the long duration voltage sags for faults on the
mains. If the fault is only on one phase, then let the fuse blow
by going to a time delay or delayed instantaneous element.
One utility uses SCADA to switch between fuse saving and fuse
blowing modes: Normally, the fuse-blowing mode is used, but
during storms, it is switched to a fuse saving scheme.
Time Delay On The Instantaneous Element
One option is to use an instantaneous relay element with a time
delay. Most fuses are allowed to blow, but the fault duration is limited
by the delayed instantaneous. This reduces the duration of voltage
sags and reduces the chance of wire damage and other problems associated with longer duration faults. A common delay time is 10 cycles.
Partial fuse saving may also be obtained with a delayed instantaneous element if a shorter delay is used. This would allow small
• Time-of-Day Control: During the day on weekdays, the feeders
would be operated in a fuse-blowing scheme to improve power
quality (especially for commercial loads). Reliability would not
degrade as much since crews would be easily available.
• Instantaneous Reclose: From a power quality point of view, a
faster reclose is better. Some customers may not notice any-
thing more than a quick blink of the lights. Many residential
devices such as the digital clocks on alarm clocks, microwaves,
and VCR's can ride through a half-second interruption where
they probably cannot ride through a 5-second interruption (a
typical reclose delay used at many utilities).
The choice between breaker and fuse operation is a complex one
involving tradeoffs in power quality, customer interruptions, and equipment damage. Distribution protection engineers should be aware of
the potential pitfalls associated with each philosophy, recognizing the
customer loads served by the particular circuit. There are a number of
creative solutions that can help to minimize the net effect of customer
interruptions and power quality issues.
For a more detailed treatment of this topic, please see
For further information on any of the following publications, please contact:
Eileen Hanafin, Power Technologies, Inc.
1482 Erie Boulevard, P.O. Box 1058,Schenectady, NY 12301-1058
Telephone (518) 395-5006 • Fax (518) 346-2777 • [email protected]
Publication Title
Author(s) and (Affiliation)
Date & Occasi.on of Presentation
R.J. Koessler, J.w. Feltes, and J.R. Willis (PTI)
A Methodology for Management of Spinning
Reserve Requirements
January 31-February 4, 1999 - Presented at the
IEEE/PES Winter Meeting, New York, NY
S. J. Balser (PTI)
Ancillary Services: Technical Factors Related to Cost
and Price
March 11-21, 1999 - Presentation made at IBC
Conference, Pricing and Selling Ancillary
Services in a Competitive Market, San
Francisco, CA
P. Barker (PTI), K. Elsholz (AWS Scientific), and A.
Peterson (Niagara Mohawk Power Corp.)
Modular Distributed Generation Unit Improves
Reliability and Quality of Electric Power
March/April1999- Power Delivery, Volume 8,
Number 2, PennWell Publishing Co.
For further Information
Contact: Eileen M. Hanafin
Power Technologies, Inc.
P.O. Box 1058
Schenectady, NY 12301-1058
Telephone 518-395-5000
Fax 518-346-2777
Address Service Requested
A A Stone & Webster Company
FALL 1999 and SPRING 2000
*Courses will be presented at PTI Offices in Schenectady, NY, unless otherwise noted
« a::w
m a:: Ia:
w (/)
z c
· ·
· ·•
Oct. 26-28, 1999
June 7-9, 2000
$1575 - Portland, OR
Introduction to PSS/Engines
Nov. 1-3, 1999
Fundamentals of Overvoltage and Insulation Coordination
Nov. 2-4, 1999
Machine Parameter Measurements for Improved Modeling
Nov. 3-5, 1999
Reliability Assessment Methods for Transmission Systems
Substation Engineering and Design- Joint Course with New
York State Electric and Gas
Nov. 8-12, 1999
Nov. 15-19, 1999
Apr. 24-28, 2000
Power Plant Performance and Monitoring
Nov. 15-19, 1999
Power System Dynamics
Nov. 29-Dec. 3, 1999
Transient Analysis Using EMTP
Application of Distributed Generation Technologies
Nov. 29-Dec. 3, 1999
Dec. 1-3, 1999
June 19-21, 2000
Dec. 6-9, 1999
May 16-19, 2000
$1310 - Houston, TX
$1720 - Boston, MA
PSS/E - Model Writing
Dec. 7-9, 1999
Dec. 13-15, 1999
Jan. 18-20, 2000
$1575 - Fort Worth, TX
PSS/E - Advanced
Feb. 7-11, 2000
$1800 - Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Improving Reliability of Large Interconnected Systems
Feb. 23-25, 2000
$1575 - Tampa, FL
Reliability Issues in Competitive Environment
Mar. 6-8, 2000
PSS/ADEPT Introductory Users' (2 or 4 day version)
Mar. 13-14 (Mar. 15-16), 2000
$1050 ($1720)
Marine Power Systems
Mar. 14-16, 2000
Power Flow Analysis
Mar. 21-23, 2000
PSS/E - Introduction to Power Flow & Steady State Analysis
Mar. 27-31, 2000
Apr. 3-7, 2000
Apr. 10-14, 2000
PSS/E - Introduction to Dynamic Simulation
Advanced Transmission Planning with Modern Network
Analysis Tools (PSS/E, TPLAN, OPF)
Voltage Control & Reactive Power Planning
Apr. 26-28, 2000
$1575 - Atlanta, GA
Fundamentals of Overhead Transmission Line Design
Transmission Line Siting, Structure and Foundation Design Course given by GAl Consultants, Inc.
May 1-5, 2000
May 8-12, 2000
MUST Training
May 9-11,2000
Power Distribution Systems
June 5-9, 2000
Power Distribution Systems Economics
June 12-13, 2000
·• ·•
Introduction to TPLAN Reliability Assessment
Modifying & Maintaining Structures and Conductors in
Transmission Line Uprating - Joint Course
with EPRI Power Delivery Center
Low-Voltage Secondary Networks
Fundamentals of Protective Relaying
Code #9000
See more course listings on reverse side
conducted at Power Technologies, Inc. Corporate Headquarters, Schenectady, NY
Transmission Line Design and Upgrading
- A Four Week Course of Study May 1-26, 2000
This training program will allow both experienced and novice transmission line design engineers to review and
upgrade their skills and learn how to apply the latest materials and design techniques. The course will cover
both design of new lines and upgrading of existing lines over the full range of HV and EHV voltage levels.
Distribution System Engineering
- A Four-Week Course of Study June 5-30, 2000
This course offers a comprehensive curriculum in distribution system engineering including system design,
protection, equipment applications, economics, and distribution system planning. Participants will have the
opportunity to examine new technologies and become familiar with the latest industry trends to increase system efficiency and reduce costs. Distribution engineers wishing to broaden their technical skills and improve
their ability to meet the challenges of today's utility environment will find this course valuable.
Power System Transmission Planning and Analysis
- A Six-Week Course of Study September - October 2000
A comprehensive approach to gaining the practical knowledge necessary to effectively use and apply power
engineering analytical tools and methodologies in transmission system planning. The course includes sessions
on planning concepts and principles are combined with intensive "hands-on" use of PTI's PSS/E program, application workshops, and study tours of utility sites for a broad-based learning experience.
Cancellation Policy
Occasionally, unforeseen events or insufficient enrollment may necessitate the cancellation of a course. If a course is canceled, PTI will
attempt to notify each registrant no later than 14 days prior to the start of the course. PTI is not responsible for any cancellation charges
imposed by airlines, hotels, or travel agents.
Registration Note
It is recommended that you register one month before any course. Registrations will be accepted within the month time frame but space
may be limited.
For further Information on courses or registration
In the United States contact:
In Europe contact:
Educational Programs
Power Technologies, Inc.
1482 Erie Boulevard, P.O. Box 1058
Schenectady, NY 12301-1058
Telephone 518-395-5005
Fax 518-346-2777
E-mail [email protected]
Web www.pti-us.com
Charles A. Lynch
Power Technologies Ltd.
Cranford Court, King Street
Knutsford, Cheshire WA16 8BW, UK
Telephone (44) 1565-650388
Fax (44) 1565-750376
E-mail [email protected]
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