Smart­Grid for Efficient Energy Utilization 

  Smart­Grid for Efficient Energy Utilization 
 Smart­Grid for Efficient Energy Utilization Design Review TA ­ Jackson Lenz ECE 445 ­ Senior Design Contributed by ­ Group 68: Jaime Gaya Fuertes (gayafue2) Somnath Deshmukh (sdshmkh2) Ziheng Wu (zwu13) 0 Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction…………………….……………….……………….……………….…………..3 1.1 Statement of purpose……………….……………….……………….……………….…….3 1.2 Objectives……………….……………….……………….……………….………………...3 1.2.1 Goals & Benefits……………….……………….……………….……………….……...3 1.2.2 Function and Features……………….……………….……………….………………..4 2.0 Block Diagrams……………….……………….……………….……………….…………….4 2.1 Overall System……………………….……………….……………….…………………….4 2.2 Power systems……………….……………….……………….……………….…………….5 2.3
Block Description……………….……………….……………….…………………………6 2.3.1 Power…….……………….……………….……………….……………….……………..6 2.3.2 Control System…………………………………………………………………………...6 ​
2.3.3 Cloud Computing Unit​
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2.3.4 User Interface​
…………………………………………………………………………….10 3.0 Circuits Schematic……………….……………….……………….………………………...11 3.1
Boost Converter……………….……………….……………….……………….………...12 3.2
Buck Converter……………….……………….……………….………………………….13 3.3
Linear Rectifier……………….……………….……………….……………….…………14 3.4
Battery Charger……………….……………….……………….……………….…….…..15 3.5 Power Sensor………………………………………………………………………………15 3.6
Arduino Mega……………….……………….……………….……………….…………..16 4.0 Simulations……………….……………….……………….……………….………………..17 4.1
Boost Converter……………….……………….……………….……………….………...17 4.2
Buck Converter……………….……………….……………….………………………….18 4.3
Linear Rectifier……………….……………….……………….……………….…………19 5.0 Supporting Calculations……………….……………….……………….…………………..20 5.1
Boost Converter……………….……………….……………….……………….………...20 5.2
Buck Converter……………….……………….……………….………………………….21 5.3
Linear Rectifier……………….……………….……………….……………….…………21 6.0 Software Flowchart…….………………….………………….………………….………….22 7.0 Modular Requirement and Verification Plan…….………………….……………………24 7.1 Hardware systems…….………………….………………….………………….………...24 7.2
Software systems…….………………….………………….………………….…………..26 8.0 Tolerance analysis……………………………………………………………………………...29 1 9.0 Demonstrating Score………………….………………….………………….………………31 10.0 Cost Analysis………….…………………….…………………….………………………...31 10.1 Labor………….…………………….…………………….…………………….………....31 10.2 Parts………….…………………….…………………….…………………….………….32 10.3 Total………….…………………….…………………….…………………….………….33 11.0 Schedule & Responsibility………….…………………….…………………….…………..33 12.0
Safety Statement………….…………………….…………………….……………………35 12.1 ​
Electrical concerns​
…………………….…………………….………….………………...35 12.2 ​
Consumer Safety/Security concerns……...​
……………….……………….………….....35 12.3 Liability………….……………….……………….……………….……………….……...36 13.0
Ethical Issues………….…………………….…………………….…………………….....36 14.0
References………….…………………….…………………….……………………...…...37 2 1.0 Introduction The energy market today is a very oligopolistic one in the sense that a few suppliers completely dominate the market. The current structure requires consumers to tap energy from a central grid directly without being able to track their own energy consumptions. As a result, most consumers are unable to foresee their energy expenditure as they are usually billed after consumption. Our product is a Smart­Box that aims to create a central system whereby energy can be traded freely in the market between different consumers. It provides a detailed breakdown of the amount of energy being used up within each local household. This system will store all details on a cloud­based server thereby allowing numerous users to exchange information and data about their energy demands and supply in a convenient and user­friendly manner. As a proof of concept, our system will include 3­4 batteries connected together in a grid along with the smart­box connected to each battery. The user will be able to interact with the smart­box through a web­based user interface environment to buy or sell (transfer) energy within the network of batteries. The main motivation for this system is to allow producers of renewable energy to track their local energy reserve and based on their uses, buy or sell energy directly to and from other consumers based on the demand created within the market. As a result of this, these producers of renewable energy sources will be able to sell their harvested energy in a better­planned manner by selectively providing energy to consumers based only on their demands. Furthermore, they will be able to set the market price depending on the demand and supply of energy within the grid of connected batteries. With various advancements in the field of power electronics taking place today, there has been an increasing demand for home storage battery systems such as the Tesla Powerwall to minimize costs and environmental damages. Thus in a futuristic world, beyond this proof of concept, this system may also be integrated within a big battery­powered household to allow efficient as well as economic utilization of energy. 1.1 Goals and Benefits ­
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Model the idea of a renewable energy society Enabling consumer level trade within the market Peak shifting of the energy in the electric market. More efficient way of energy utilization Economical solution to the current energy trade market Real time energy and cost analysis 3 1.2 Functions and Features ­
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Real time tracking of battery capacity and power consumption Transfer energy flexibly within a network of batteries Central cloud system ­ graphical analysis of current energy usage User interface for projecting energy demand and supply 2.0 Block Diagram 2.1 Overall System Figure 1. Overall Block System 4 2.2 Power systems Figure 2. Connection of the power systems. General View Figure 3. Connection between Grid/Battery and Battery/Battery 5 2.3 Block Description This modular design makes use of the following hardware and software entities: 2.3.1. Power The power block contains two major components ­ 2.3.1.1 Battery This refers to the Lithium­Ion battery (Li­ion) – 11.1V and 6.6 AHr and Lithium­ion polymer (Lipo) The battery component is the main source of energy used to power the entire system. It is connected to other batteries in order to allow free trade of energy to and from the network. 2.3.1.2 Li­ion/LiPo Battery Charger This component will connect the battery with the charge controller. The minimum value of input voltage must be above the charging value of the battery. a) 12.6V for 11.1 V LiPo battery 2.3.1.4 Power Sensor The power sensor system comprises of a battery fuel gauge, specifically the BQ34Z100­G1 Multi­Chemistry Impedance Track Standalone Fuel Gauge. This gas gauge, connected to the Li­Ion batteries, provides details about the battery capacity by using its using Patented Impedance Track Technology for batteries from 3 V to 65 V. The gas gauge system also provides outputs to the microprocessor (Arduino Mega) through the I2C communication port. In this manner, the arduino receives the real­time battery capacity for further trade computations. 2.3.2. Control System The control system contains the following major components ­ 2.3.2.1 Microcontroller This component refers to the Arduino Mega 2560 that is powered by the main battery. It receives as inputs the battery information from the I2C data output from the power sensor system. The Arduino also has a Wi­Fi shield connected to it to provide Internet connection to the microprocessor. This is firstly used to upload the battery consumption details to the cloud­server within the private profile of the user. After this information is made available to the user, they can decide to either buy or sell more energy depending on their usability. The microcontroller gets activated again through the cloud computing system whenever an energy trade occurs after both the users have accepted the transaction. The Arduino is further connected to the Charge controller to provide the input details about the two batteries involved in the trade, as well as the direction of energy flow. The Arduino also provides inputs to the switching controller about which two specific batteries are involved in the trade to accurately transfer energy only between those two batteries. 6 In order to avoid overloading the microcontroller by powering it at all points in time, we will be operating the arduino under sleep mode whereby an event­triggered interrupt will be used to perform arduino operations only when required. This will ensure the longevity of the Arduino as well as efficient use of energy. 2.3.2.2 AC/DC converter This component converts the voltage and the current from an AC wave to DC. The input signal will be transform to low voltage through a transformer. This component will have some a full wave rectifier, made by the diode­bridge. After this step the signal will be as shown in the figure ​
below. The full wave rectifier works as follows: When the AC wave has a positive value, D1 and D2 conduct current (short­circuit with a small voltage drop). In the same way, if the input signal has a negative value, D3 and D4 will be ‘activate’. Figure 4.(Electronics Tutorial, 2016) After this step the wave will be positive, but it won't be a DC wave. A capacitor used in the output of the diodes bridge will filter and will ensure as a dc value on the load. The wave won’t be a really DC wave, because it will have a ripple which will depend of the value of the load and of the capacitor. An element as LM317, placed between the capacitor and the load, can help to get a DC wave with a very small ripple. 7 2.3.2.3 Buck Converter This Component connect two different DC voltage, where V 1 > V 2. It will step down the voltage and step up the current between the high voltage module and the battery. Figure 5. Buck Converter. (Mike Thomson, 2011) The functioning of the converter is based in storing energy in the inductor in two different steps: 1. Switch is on (diode will switch off): the current goes through the inductor and the energy stored in it will increase. 2. Switch is off (diode will turn on): The inductor will be the one in charge of providing the circuit the needed current, which was charged during the step 1. 2.3.2.4 Boost Converter This Component connect two different DC voltage, where V 2 > V 1. It will step up the voltage and step down the current. The functioning of the converter is based in storing energy in the inductor in two different steps: 1.Switch is on (diode will switch off): the current goes through the inductor and the energy stored in it will increase. 2.Switch is off (diode will turn on): The inductor and the power source will be in charge of providing the circuit the needed current. 8 Figure 6. Boost Converter (Wikipedia, 2012) 2.3.2.5 Switching Controller This component controls the flow of the energy, allowing energy to go out or come in from the battery. The switching controller receives its inputs from the arduino. These inputs determine whether the buck/boost or the rectifier should be working so that energy can be transported based on the user’s requirements. 2.3.3. Cloud Computing Unit The cloud contains the following major components ­ 2.3.3.1 Database Server This component refers to the main software station where all the information stored by the smart­box is transferred. A personal computer will be used as the server and the related database server is also located on the computer, which stores the real­time power measurements transmitted by the Arduino WiFi Shield. The power sensor wirelessly transmits the battery conditions to the cloud database, allowing all the users to store their data remotely. The cloud database has two components associated with it namely Private Usage data and Public Usage data, allowing the users to decide what information about their smart­box do they wish to publicize to the energy market. 2.3.3.2 Private User Data This component refers to that part within the main database that contains data pertaining to the local energy usage within each smart­box. Based on all the information provided by the power sensor to the database, the private data is implemented as a personal energy profile for each user to categorically analyze their energy usage. The private user data receives specific inputs from the user interface to perform an energy trade. Depending on the energy consumption, each user can decide how much energy do they wish to purchase or sell. These user inputs are retrieved by the private user data from the user interface. 9 The outputs generated from the private user data are stored as saleable or demanded energy within the Public (Market) data for all the users within the network to view. 2.3.3.3 Public (Market) Data This component, as the name suggests, refers to the assimilated market data from all the individual users connected within the shared energy network. It is stored within the cloud system as a central point of information for the entire trade­taking place. The inputs to these components essentially included energy packets that are either demanded or available for supply within the market, depending on the private user data for each user. The market data also has a dependent computing algorithm in order to efficiently handle trade between different customers present in the market. The output of the Public market data component is used by the computing algorithm to trigger the microprocessor in order to perform the energy trade between two different batteries within the network. 2.3.3.4 Computing Algorithm This central software algorithm performs a list of computations in order to efficiently handle trade in the market. The most important function of this component is to keep a constant track of the demand and supply created as a result of the changes in the market data. As a result, the inputs for the algorithm are taken from the public data function block. The algorithm triggers a trade when a complete transaction takes place whereby a buyer and a seller are matched for a transfer of energy. Furthermore, the algorithm also performs computations about the current price in the market depending on the net demand and supply created within the network. It also projects the minimum cost of energy available in the market and provides both the supplier and the consumer with an updated scenario of the energy market. After doing all this computation, the algorithm puts back the data to the public market data unit to display it in the cloud system. A web application will be created as the user interface, which displays the data to the user and allows each user to interact with the private and market data. The web application will evaluate the validity of the user’s request and lead the user to finish the transaction. 2.3.4 User Interface This component refers to the web based platform that allows each user to make several trade decisions after analyzing their energy use. The interface first interacts with the private data to make a decision about a possible trade based on the personal energy consumption data. The user decides the suitable amount of energy for demand/supply and projects that information up to the public market data, which is available publicly for all trade purposes within the network of batteries. Furthermore, the user interface interacts with the public market data when the energy trade is confirmed between two different batteries. After confirmation from the user interface, the public market function block 10 provides the inputs to the microprocessor within the control system to begin the energy flow process between the batteries. 3.0 Circuits Schematic Figure 7 ­ High level schematic 11 3.1 Boost Converter Figu​
re 8. B​
oost Converter. Input Output [12.6 ­ 9] V DC 110V DC Load is modeled as a resistor High Voltage 12 3.2 Buck Converter Figure 9 and 10. Buck Converter 13 Input Output 110V V DC 14.2 V DC after the Buck Converter [9­12.6] V DC in the battery Battery charger 3.3 Linear Rectifier Figure 11. Rectifier Rectifier: Input Output AC 120V RMS at 60 Hz from grid DC 1 V Input Output 15 V ≅
15 V (min 13.5 V @ 15 V input at max current (3 A)) very small ripple LT1513: 14 LiPo Battery Charger 3.4 Battery Charger Input Output Output DC signal of Buck/Boost Converter or Lineal Rectifier DC Signal Input battery signal 3.5 Power Sensor This system comprises integrally of a battery gas gauge, ​
specifically the BQ34Z100­G1 Multi­Chemistry Impedance Track Standalone Fuel Gauge​
which is inbuilt with a battery fuel­gauge, providing us with the exact remaining power specifications of the connected battery. The circuit below shows the integration of the power sensor system. Figure 12 ­ Battery Gas Gauge Circuit 15 Input Output LiPo Battery (11.1V and 6.6 AHr) Battery voltage, current and charge capacity to the Arduino as data values 3.6 Arduino Mega 2560 This component serves as the primary microcontroller to receive data from the power sensor as well as the user­interface and controls the outputs accordingly. The Arduino Wifi­Shield 101 is simply mounted on top of the Arduino Mega board in order to provide the required wireless operations. Input Output Vin ­ 0­11.1V ­ from the power sensor Through pin 7 Digital values of battery voltage through Wi­Fi Shield to the web server ­ pin 18 SPI Bus connection with the Wi­Fi Shield Through pin 50, 51, 52 Digital inputs from User interface containing data about energy trade, such as details about when a user wishes to buy or sell energy, battery details and energy amounts Through pins A1­A17 31.25 kHz PWM square wave set to NMOS gate of 11.1V to 24V DC converter 16 4.0 Simulations 4.1 Boost Converter Figure 13 Ripple of Output Voltage (Boost Converter) 17 4.2 Buck Converter Figure 13. and 14. Output Voltage and Current (Buck Converter) 18 4.3 Rectifier Figure 15. Output Voltage (Rectifier) 19 Figure 16. Output current (rectifier) 5.0 Supporting Calculations 5.1 Boost Converter The model chosen has been LT3957A. The output can vary to a maximum of 350 V. R
V in ∈ [9 − 12.6]V V out ≃ 110 V V out = 1.6 × (1 + R 2 ) 1
The datasheet recommended a value of R1 < 158 K and for R2 a value of 226 K I f V out = 110 V and R2 = 226KΩ → R1 = 3.3KΩ The rest of the values has been chosen by the requirements and recommendations of the datasheet. 20 5.2 Buck Converter The model chosen has been LTC7138. This Buck Converter has the following requirements: V inmax = 140 V − V out V in ≃ 110 V V out ∈ [9 − 12.6]V V out max = 140 − 110 = 30 V > 12.6 V The output value will be determined by: V out = 0.8 V * (1 + R1
R2 ) Where R2 = 12.4 KΩ and V out = 14.3 V → R1 = 210 KΩ The rest of the values has been chosen by the requirements and recommendations of the datasheet. 5.3 Rectifier The input signal will be the grid and the output signal will be connected to the Lipo battery charger. The transformation ratio will be: √2
V in = 120 V (Rms) V out ≃14 V T ransformation Ratio = N1 = 120×
14 ≃12 LT1513 V out ≤ V in and V out ≥ 12.6 V → V in ≥ 12.6 V → V in will be designed for an average value of 14. The output value will be determined by: R ×(V
−1.245)
2
bat
R1 = 1.245+R
×0.3μA 2
R2 = 12.4KΩ (suggested value from the datasheet) I f V bat = 12.6 V → R1 = 112.75KΩ I f V bat = 9 V → R1 = 77KΩ 21 To ensure the input voltage is always above the voltage of the battery: R1 = 115KΩ The rest of the values has been chosen by the requirements and recommendations of the datasheet. 6.0 Software flowchart In the flowchart below, yellow blocks are related to the database, grey blocks are related to the the user interface and the blue blocks refer to the power and controller systems. 22 Figure 6­1 is the flow chart of connection between the power sensor and the database server. This logic shows the preparation before the server gets the inputs from the user interface and the database keeps updating based on the data received from the power sensor. 23 Figure 6­2 is the flow chart that displays the communication of the database server and user interface. The information data of each battery from the power sensor should have been stored in the database; the logic is shown in Figure 6­1. Now this flowchart shows how the cloud­computing unit processes the request from the user interface. Moreover, the microcontroller keeps listening to the relative entity and will enable the charge controller & switching controller when it detects that the current state meets the criteria for energy transmission. Then also after the energy transmission, the user interface will display the updated information of the battery. 7.0 Modular Requirement and Verification Plan 7.1 ​
Hardware Systems Requirement Verification Linear Rectifier 1) Output voltage 15 V (Above 12.6V) 2) Max ripple 0.4 V 3) Output current 1 +/­ 0.33 A 1. Verification Process for Item 1:
(a) Attach 15 ohm Resistor as load (b) Plug AC/DC rectifier unit into the grid (c) Ensure output voltage remain above 12.6 at every moment 2. Verification for item 2 (a) During process 1 attach an oscilloscope (b) Ensure the ripple is under 0.4 V 3. Verification for item 3 (a) During process 1 ensure the current is between Vout/R (should be approx 1A) +/­0.33A Boost Converter 1) Output voltage 30 (above 28.8 V) 2) Max ripple 0.4 V 3)Output current 1 +/­ 0.33 A 1. Verification Process for Item 1:
(a) Attach 30 ohm Resistor as load (c) Ensure output voltage remain above 28.8 V at every moment 2. Verification for item 2 (a) During process 1 attach an oscilloscope (b) Ensure the ripple is under 0.4 V 3. Verification for item 3 (a) During process 1 ensure the current is between Vout/R (should be approx 1A) +/­0.33A 24 Buck Converter 1) Output voltage 15 V (Above 12.6V) 2) Max ripple 0.4 V 3) Output current 1 +/­ 0.33 A 1. Verification Process for Item 1:
(a) Attach 15 ohm Resistor as load (b) Ensure output voltage remain above 12.6 at every moment 2. Verification for item 2 (a) During process 1 attach an oscilloscope (b) Ensure the ripple is under 0.4 V 3. Verification for item 3 (a) During process 1 ensure the current is between Vout/R (should be approx 1A) +/­0.33A Power sensor 1) Accuracy of : Voltage battery Capacity remaining Current 1. Verification for item 1: (a) Power the battery before establishing the gas gauge circuit as described in sections above. Check the data values flashing on the Arduino to ensure the I2C communication have been established. (b) Measure the voltage and current of the battery using a multimeter to ensure the battery voltage is within range. (c) Discharge the battery with a current of 3.3 A during 1 hour. Measure with the multimeter: the capacity remaining must be around 50% and the current 3.3A (e) Check the value read by the Arduino Mega connected to the gas gauge to ensure the correct battery details are received Li­ion Battery 1) Li­ion battery 11.1 v 4400mah Max voltage : 12.6 volts Min voltage: 9 volts
2) Each battery must store 4400mAh, ­440 mAh tolerance, of charge 1.Verification for item 1: (a) Draw 0A and measure voltage. It should measure a value between 9 and 12.6 Volts (b) During charging process measure voltage. It must be above the value of the voltage. To ensure these requirements the converters will be designed to be above 12.6 volts. 2. Verification Process for Item 2: (a) Attach 8 ohms resistor bank as load (b) Measure current and voltage after every 5 minute intervals (c) Perform midpoint Riemann summation (d) Ensure that at least 440 mAh extracted 25 Switches 1) Two Digital Outputs 0V & ≥3.3V 1) Verification for item 1. (a) Attach 5.0V to Vin (b) When switch is not pressed, 0V ≤ Vout ≤ .2V (c) When switch is pressed ensure Vout ≥ 3.3V 7.2 Software Systems Requirement Verification Control System (Microcontroller) 1) Be able to set up wireless transmission with the cloud system in order to send and receive data properly 2) Notify the charge controller to set the voltage based on the input and request (output) voltage. 3) Enable the switching controller to decide which battery to be used and set the direction of energy transmission (AC/DC or DC/DC) 1. Wi­Fi Connection Setup: (a) Attach the Wi­Fi Shield to the Arduino Mega 2560 microcontroller (b) Connect the Wi­Fi Shield to the wireless network which operate under 802.11b and 802.11g specifications (c) Enable all the connections with the appropriate wiring as explained in the Arduino Wi­Fi Shield page https://www.arduino.cc/en/Guide/ArduinoW
iFiShield#toc1 (d) Program the Arduino to output data onto a database server with a particular HTTP address (e) Send a known data packet through the arduino to the cloud platform to check if the server is receiving the information (f) Send a known data packet from the cloud based system 2) Connection to the Charge Controller: (a) Check that the logic of the microcontroller code correctly activates the right analog signals corresponding to the batteries in trade (b) Attach LEDs in series with the charge controller activation node such that the LEDs light up when 2 batteries get connected 3) Connection to Switching Controller: (a) Check that the logic of the microcontroller code correctly powers the 26 AC/DC or the DC/DC switch within the switching controller (b) Connect LEDs in series with the switch for debugging if the correct node has been powered between 2 batteries for determining current flow direction Cloud Computing Unit 1) Store the energy information (power voltage, percent usage, etc.) for each user in the database. Ex: Voltage: 10V, Charge amount: 6.6 Ahr, Remaining percentage: 90.1%, Selling Availability: True, etc. 2) A database for network, updating the network energy information Ex: The user sells 30% of energy in the battery, when 20% has been bought, the market displays only 10% is available 3) Algorithm for setting the market price P(g) based on net energy availability. Ex. Each buying request will raise the market price by 0.5 cents/kwh to its current price. And the selling request does the opposite. 4) Algorithm to determine the lowest price and make recommendation. Ex: The price of energy in the grid varies from 1 to 10 cents/kwh based on time (ex. sin function + offset). If P(g) > 5, buy from house with 5 cents/kwh Otherwise, buy from the grid with P(g) 27 1. Database server (a) Create a test data packet (b) Send the data to the server, and the received data should be automatically stored in the database (c) Visit the website as a client, post the exact correct test data and request to output the data from the database (d) Use the database command to compare the previously stored data with the sent data, check if the data received (stored in the database) is the same as the data sent to the server 2. Verify the data transmission from private usage data to public data (a) Create a test data packet in the private data table, but not in the public data (b) In the private data side, manually change the status of trading entities (ex. status: sell, percent available: 15%, etc.) to make sure it meets the criteria needed for the public data. (c) Request to output the private data we just modified in the public data table. If the test data we modified in the private data could be found in the public side, then it means the data transmission from private side to the public side has already taken place. (d) After finding the test data in the public data table, compare the data in the public and the private tables to check if the data transmission has completely taken place. 3. Computing Algorithm (a) Create a test data packet in the public data table, request for a trade, post it to public. (b) Create another piece of data which meets the trading request of previous data in (a), mark down the market price (c) Post another private data block to the public that meets the request. This should not meet any available request based on the algorithm, since the above two should have already matched up. (d) Now change the trading status of both seller and buyer. (e) Search through the public data, check if the seller information is updated. (ex. Available remaining percent: 30% to 10%) The completed transaction data should be set to Invisible, and therefore should not show up in the searching result. (f) Go to the private data table of the seller and the buyer, check if the data information has been updated. (ex. From 30% to 50%) (g) Check the updated market price after the trade is the price we expected. Since the there is less sellers now, the market price should be higher than before. 4. Computing Algorithm part2 (a) Create a function to simulate the varying energy price from the grid based (ex. Price varies from 1 to 10 cents/kwh) (b) Create a constant price for energy from house (ex. 5 cents/kwh) (c) When the market price is higher than the energy price from house, make a request to buy energy, the recommendation should suggest user to buy from the house with the lowest price, which is 5 cents/kwh here. (d) When the grid price is cheaper, repeat the request in part(c), the recommendation output should be: buy from the grid. User Interface 1) Display the information (voltage, energy charge, power, remaining percent) of each battery. 2) Display the market information (demander, supplier, target amount, etc.) of the network 3) Send trading request 28 1. Display the information (a) Create a test data packet in the private data block. (b) Request to get the data from the database server (c) Display the downloaded data, check if the data match with the test data created in the database (d) Repeat steps (a) to (c) but create the test data in the public data table instead. (buy/sell) to server based on user inputs 2. Send trading request (a) Create a test data packet in the private data table, but not in the public data (b) Send the trading request with required inputs (ex. status: sell, percent available: 15%, etc.) (c) Search in the private data table to check if the data has been updated correctly. (d) Do the steps (c) and (d) in the data transmission part in the verification part of Cloud Computing Unit to check if the private data information has been posted to the public. 8.0 Tolerance Analysis Rectifier The rectifier connects the grid and the batteries. The batteries we are going to use will have the following specifications: ­ Nominal voltage: 11.1 V. ­ Charging Voltage: 12.6 V. ­ Discharging Voltage: 9 V. ­ Standard Discharge Current: 6.6 A. ­ Working max temperature: 50ºC. ­ Charging Temperature: 45ºC. ­ The nominal voltage of cell: 3.7 V ­ The voltage of a discharged cell :3.00V During the charging process, the voltage is controlled so that it remains between 9V and 12.6 V. For the charging process the voltage will be always above the battery voltage During the discharging process the voltage of the battery has to be the following: Number of cells: 11.1 / 3.7 = 3 cells. Fully discharging voltage: 3.00 V * 3 cells= 9 V. We need to be certain that during this process, the voltage is above 9 V. Otherwise this value will definitely damage the cell. All these measures will be measured by a Multimeter to measure real voltage in real time. If the voltage is under 9 V the system would be swith off. For charging the batteries a programmable voltage battery charger: LT1513 LT1513 has the following specifications: V in min = 2.4 V 29 V in max = 29 V Max charge current = 2 A. All the measure will be within the specifications. To ensure this process a multimeter will be measuring all the critical magnitudes. The input ripple will be low but due to the wide range in the specifications we don’t have a critical value of it. Buck Converter The converter will be also a critical a critical issue in the project, as it is going to charge a battery The battery will have the same requirements that was explained in the previous tolerance analysis. The Buck Converter chosen has been LTC7138, which has the following specifications: V in min = 4 V V in max = 140 V V out min = 0.8 V Max charge current = 0.4 A. The input signal will be 110 V and the output signal will have a value above the battery voltage (this is 12.6 V) The battery specifications has been determined in the tolerance analysis for the rectifier. After the buck Converter will be used a For charging the batteries a programmable voltage battery charger: LT1513 LT1513 has the following specifications: V in min = 2.4 V V in max = 29 V Max charge current = 2 A. All the measure will be within the specifications. To ensure this process a multimeter will be measuring all the critical magnitudes. The input ripple will be low but due to the wide range in the specifications we don’t have a critical value of it. 30 9.0 Demonstrating Score Criterion Points Hardware 25 Can charge battery from the grid and other battery 15 Can switch between grid and battery 5 Calculating the power consumption in real­time 5 Control System 10 Power sensor values successfully received by Arduino 5 Can control PWM of buck/boost converters 5 Cloud Computing Unit 10 Can receive the data properly 2 Can transmit and update data properly 4 Can determine the lowest price and make recommendation 4 User Interface 5 Can display the correct information 3 Can send request properly 2 Total 50 10.0 ​
Cost Analysis 10.1 Labor Cost Name Hourly Rated Total Hours Invested Total Ziheng Wu $ 35.00 150 $ 13,125 Somnath Deshmukh $ 35.00 150 $ 13,125 Jaime Gaya $ 35.00 150 $ 13,125 31 Total 450 $ 39,375 10.2 Component cost Part Part Number Unit Cost Quantity Total Lithium ion battery 11.1 volts 4400 mAh Tenergy 31016 Lithium Li­Ion 18650 11.1V 4400mAh Battery Pack $55.95 1 $55.95 Floureon 3S 35C Li­polymer Rechargeable Battery 11.1V 5000mAh $22.68 2 $45.36 Power Sensor Battery Gas Gauge ­ BQ34Z100­G1 $7.45 4 $29.95 Battery Charger LT1513 $5.45 6 $32.7 Buck Converter LTC7138 $5.43 3 $16.29 Boost Converter LT3957a $4.22 3 $12.66 Switches SPDT 612­EG1218 $ 0.56 4 $3.94 Switches SPST 66­1401 $0.99 3 $2.97 Microcontroller Arduino Mega $ 45.95 1 $45.95 Diodes, capacitor, resistors, coils,... $5 Total 250.23$ LiPo battery 32 10.3 Total Cost Scenario Labor Cost Total $ 39,375 $ 250.23 $ 39,625.23 11.0 Schedule & Responsibility Week 2/8/16 2/15/16 2/22/16 2/29/16 3/7/16 Task Delegation Prepare Project Proposal Ziheng Wu Prepare Project Proposal Somnath Deshmukh Prepare Project Proposal Jaime Gaya Research about the microcontroller programming info and the cloud system Ziheng Wu Understand all the Wi­Fi protocols required by the power the Arduino Mega to communicate with the cloud database Somnath Deshmukh Investigate and compare microcontrollers for ‘power sensor’ Investigate the battery that will be used Jaime Gaya Set up the database on the localhost. Ziheng Wu Research about Power sensor system and arduino integration Somnath Deshmukh Start to design the hardware (AC/DC inverter) Jaime Gaya Programming for the private data and public data component Ziheng Wu Research server options and setup for the arduino­server communication Somnath Deshmukh Design the hardware (AC/DC inverter) Jaime Gaya Create user interface and start the Data transmission between ui/server Ziheng Wu 33 3/14/16 3/21/16 3/28/16 4/4/16 4/11/16 4/18/16 4/25/16 Design the PCB with arduino, fuel gauge and hardware circuitry included Somnath Deshmukh Design the hardware (DC/DC) Jaime Gaya Data transmission and start computing algorithm Ziheng Wu Design the PCB and set up cloud database Somnath Deshmukh PCB (Buck, Boost & AC/DC) Jaime Gaya Spring Break Ziheng Wu Spring Break Somnath Deshmukh Spring Break Jaime Gaya Further enhancements and debugging of the computing algorithm Ziheng Wu Start programming for arduino to communicate with cloud database and control system Somnath Deshmukh Charging system + PCB Design switching controllers Jaime Gaya Optimization Ziheng Wu Assist in developing the private profile in the cloud database Somnath Deshmukh Power system: Debugging Jaime Gaya Corner case Ziheng Wu Work towards computing algorithm for market transactions Somnath Deshmukh Corner case Jaime Gaya Remaining issues Ziheng Wu User­interface, Control system and database operations completion Somnath Deshmukh Remaining issues/Corner Case Jaime Gaya Final papers and presentation Ziheng Wu Final papers and presentation Somnath Deshmukh 34 5/2/16 Final papers and presentation Jaime Gaya Final papers and presentation Ziheng Wu Final papers and presentation Somnath Deshmukh Final papers and presentation Jaime Gaya 12. Safety Statement 12.1 Electrical concerns: The design and development of this product involves dealing with high voltages (110V). As a result, appropriate laboratory rules will be followed to avoid any tragedies. The charging and discharging process must be controlled so we can ensure everything works accurately. While debugging any such processes, we must ensure that the circuit is disconnected from the power supply to avoid any shocks. We need to make sure that any time we are working on something, the power is disconnected from the device and that all incoming circuitry and components are properly grounded. A security coefficient of at least 1.25 will be applied to ensure elements won’t be working overloads. As our system contains components mounted on a breadboard and connected using electrical wire, we will be using fully insulated wires to avoid the risk of fire hazards or electrocution. If necessary, some gloves will be used while securing the battery connections as well as testing out the system. To protect the user, all the elements will be places inside a box with ground connection. A short­circuit protection will be included along with any other appropriate safety information. 12.2 Consumer Safety/Security Concerns: The smart­box is programmed in such a way that the details about the power consumption of each user remains strictly protected within the local hardware system. Only the owner of a particular smart­box has the permission to upload any relevant personal energy details out into the central cloud system network. This ensures that there is no loss of privacy for the user. 35 Furthermore, central power distribution systems such as the smart­box can pose further concerns on allowing other users within the network to hack into the cloud­based profiles of other users. For this reason, while creating the private profile, the user will have to sign up with a user id and password. This further adds to security measures for the user. This project also required the users to provide some form of an access point to the Internet. If other users can somehow encode the user­id and password from the Google server’s, they may be able to break into the system without adequate permissions. Thus, besides the password credentials, we will also be enforcing a timeout in case of protection against unsuccessful brute­force attacks. Furthermore, it is the user’s responsibility to ensure that the Wi­Fi connection is secure to avoid any corruption or loss of data involved in energy trade. 12.3 Liability: The smart­box part is an immensely important component for the efficient functioning of the system. If the smart­box is poorly connected to any of the other components such as the grid, voltage supply or any of the batteries, the system will fail to regenerate updated energy values in market. Thus, protection of the smart­box unit is very important aspect of this system, and the users will have to find their own solutions to keeping this entity safe. 13.0 Ethical Guidelines We will adhere to the following guidelines from the IEEE Code of Ethics as relevant to our project – 1. To accept responsibility in making decisions consistent with the safety, health, and welfare of the public, and to disclose promptly factors that might endanger the public or the environment; We ensure that all procedures relating to the product design and development will be conducted with the highest level of concern to avoid any form of hazards in the laboratory. 2. ​
To avoid real or perceived conflicts of interest whenever possible, and to disclose them to affected parties when they do exist; We will highlight all instructions relating to the application and design of the product in the final product manual, including any concerns relating to the electrical design, power or heat intake. 3. To be honest and realistic in stating claims or estimates based on available data; We will provide citations of sources used during the project, and will be completely honest about any data values involved during the development. 4. To improve the understanding of technology; its appropriate application, and potential consequences; 36 The main idea of our project aims towards innovating the field of power distribution and related applications. We will clearly highlight the different applications of our product, including any limitations of operation 5. To avoid injuring others, their property, reputation, or employment by false or malicious action; We ensure to treat all our colleagues and resources with utmost respect and honor. 6. ​
To maintain and improve our technical competence and to undertake technological tasks for others only if qualified by training or experience, or after full disclosure of pertinent limitations; We promise to assist in any technical development only after acquiring all the related information or knowledge about the topic in concern 7. ​
To reject bribery in all its forms; We will not indulge in any form of bribe or malpractices of form. 14.0 References Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. 7.8 IEEE Code of ethics, http://www.ieee.org/about/corporate/governance/p7­8.html D. Wart, ​
Power Electronics​
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McGraw­Hill Education, 2010. "Arduino ­ ArduinoBoardMega2560." Arduino. Arduino, n.d. Web. March 1, 2016. https://www.arduino.cc/en/Main/ArduinoBoardMega2560​
. “Qduino Mini ­ DEV 13614 ROHS” Sparkfun. March 1, 2016 https://www.sparkfun.com/products/13614 37 
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