Cowern Papers: Motor Basics

Cowern Papers: Motor Basics
COWERN PAPERS
Baldor Electric Company
5711 R.S. Boreham Jr. Street
Fort Smith, AR 72901
Phone (479) 646-4711
Fax (479) 648-5792
www.baldor.com
Enclosed you will find a set of papers that I have written on motor related subjects.
For the most part, these have been written in response to customer questions regarding
motors.
I hope you find them useful and I would appreciate any comments or thoughts you
might have for future improvements, corrections or topics.
If you should have questions on motors not covered by these papers, please give us a
call and we will do our best to handle them for you.
Thank you for buying Baldor motors.
Sincerely,
Edward Cowern, P.E.
“To be the best as determined by our customers”
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Edward H. Cowern, P.E.
Ed Cowern was Baldor’s District Manager in New England, U.S.A. from 1977
to 1999. Prior to joining Baldor he was employed by another motor company
where he gained experience with diversified motors and related products.
He is a graduate of the University of Massachusetts where he obtained
a BS degree in Electrical Engineering. He is also a registered Professional
Engineer in the state of Connecticut, a member of the Institute of Electrical and
Electronic Engineers (IEEE), and a member of the Engineering Society of Western
Massachusetts.
Ed is an excellent and well-known technical writer, having been published many
times in technical trade journals such as Machine Design, Design News, Power
Transmission Design, Plant Engineering, Plant Services and Control Engineering.
He has also been quoted in Fortune Magazine. In addition, he has authored many
valuable technical papers for Baldor, used repeatedly by sales and marketing
personnel throughout our company.
Ed lives in North Haven, Connecticut with his wife, Irene. He can be reached at
[email protected]
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Motor Basics
Glossary of Frequently Occurring Motor Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Types of Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
The Mystery of Motor Frame Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
A Primer on Two Speed Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Motor Temperature Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Metric Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Locked Rotor Code Letters and Reduced Voltage Starting Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Applications
Understanding Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Fans, Blowers, and Other Funny Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
RMS Horsepower Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Power & Energy
Factors That Determine Industrial Electric Bills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Electric Motors and Power Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Electric Motors and Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Unbalanced Currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Conserving with Premium Efficiency Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Premium Efficiency Motors — (Questions and Answers)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Amps, Watts, Power Factor and Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Approximate Load Data from Amperage Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Power Factor Correction on Single Induction Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Convenient Motor & Energy Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Horsepower Calculations for Speed Changes on Variable Torque Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Hazardous Location
How to Select Motors for Hazardous Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Explosion Proof Motors in Division II Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Miscellaneous
DC Drive Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Handling 50 Hertz Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Operating Motors in Wet and Damp Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
glossary of frequently occurring motor terms
Amps
Full Load Amps
The amount of current the motor can be expected to draw under full load (torque)
conditions is called Full Load Amps. it is also know as nameplate amps.
Locked Rotor Amps
Also known as starting inrush, this is the amount of current the motor can be
expected to draw under starting conditions when full voltage is applied.
Service Factor Amps
This is the amount of current the motor will draw when it is subjected to a percentage
of overload equal to the service factor on the nameplate of the motor. For example,
many motors will have a service factor of 1.15, meaning that the motor can handle a
15% overload. The service factor amperage is the amount of current that the motor
will draw under the service factor load condition.
code letter
The code letter is an indication of the amount of inrush or locked rotor current that is
required by a motor when it is started. (See “Locked Rotor Code Letters” for more details.)
design
The design letter is an indication of the shape of the torque speed curve. Figure 1
shows the typical shape of the most commonly used three phase design letters.
They are A, B, C, and D. Design B is the standard industrial duty motor which has
reasonable starting torque with moderate starting
current and good overall performance for most
industrial applications. Design C is used for hard
to start loads and is specifically designed to have
high starting torque. Design D is the so-called
high slip motor which tends to have very high
starting torque but has high slip RPM at full load
torque. In some respects, this motor can be said
to have a “spongy” characteristic when loads are
changing. Design D motors are particularly suited
for low speed, punch press applications and hoist
and elevator applications. Generally, the efficiency
of Design D motors at full load is rather poor and
thus they are normally used on those applications
where the torque characteristics are of primary
importance. Design A motors are not commonly
specified but specialized motors used on injection
molding applications have characteristics similar
to Design A. The most important characteristic of
Design A is the high pullout torque.
efficiency
Efficiency is the percentage of the input power that is actually converted to work
output from the motor shaft. Efficiency is stamped on the nameplate of most
domestically-produced electric motors.
frame size
Motors, like suits of clothes, shoes and hats, come in various sizes to match the
requirements of the application. In general, the frame size gets larger with increasing
horsepowers or with decreasing speeds. In order to promote standardization in the
motor industry, NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) prescribes
standard frame sizes for certain dimensions of standard motors. For example, a
motor with a frame size of 56, will always have a shaft height above the base of 3-1/2
inches. (See “The Mystery of Motor Frame Size” for more details.)
1
frequency
This is the frequency for which the motor is designed. The most commonly occurring
frequency in this country is 60 cycles but, on an international basis, other frequencies
such as 40, and 50 cycles can be found.
full load
An indication of the approximate speed that the motor will run when it is putting out
speedfull rated output torque or horsepower is called full load speed.
high inertia
load
These are loads that have a relatively high flywheel effect. Large fans, blowers, punch
presses, centrifuges, commercial washing machines, and other types of similar loads
can be classified as high inertia loads.
insulation
class
The insulation class is a measure of the resistance of the insulating components of a
motor to degradation from heat. Four major classifications of insulation are used
in motors. they are, in order of increasing thermal capabilities, A, B, F, and H. (See
“Motor Temperature Rating” for more details.)
load types
Constant Horsepower
The term constant horsepower is used in certain types of loads where the torque
requirement is reduced as the speed is increased and vice-versa. The constant
horsepower load is usually associated with metal removal applications such as drill
presses, lathes, milling machines, and other similar types of applications.
Constant Torque
Constant torque is a term used to define a load characteristic where the amount of
torque required to drive the machine is constant regardless of the speed at which it is
driven. For example, the torque requirement of most conveyors is constant.
Variable Torque
Variable torque is found in loads having characteristics requiring low torque at low
speeds and increasing values of torque as the speed is increased. Typical examples of
variable torque loads are centrifugal fans and centrifugal pumps.
phase
Phase is the indication of the type of power supply for which the motor is designed.
Two major categories exist; single phase and three phase. There are some very spotty
areas where two phase power is available but this is very insignificant.
poles
This is the number of magnetic poles that appear within the motor when power is
applied. Poles always come in sets of two (a north and a south). Thus, the number of
poles within a motor is always an even number such as 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, etc. In an AC
motor, the number of poles work in conjunction with the frequency to determine the
synchronous speed of the motor. At 50 and 60 cycles, the common arrangements are:
Poles
Synchronous Speed
60 Cycles50 Cycles
power
factor
2
2
4
6
8
10
36003000
18001500
12001000
900750
720600
Per cent power factor is a measure of a particular motor’s requirements for
magnetizing amperage.
service
factor
The service factor is a multiplier that indicates the amount of overload a motor can be
expected to handle. For example, a motor with a 1.0 service factor cannot be
expected to handle more than its nameplate horsepower on a continuous basis.
Similarly, a motor with a 1.15 service factor can be expected to safely handle
intermittent loads amounting to 15% beyond its nameplate horsepower.
slip
Slip is used in two forms. One is the slip RPM which is the difference between the
synchronous speed and the full load speed. When this slip RPM is expressed as a
percentage of the synchronous speed, then it is called percent slip or just “slip”. Most
standard motors run with a full load slip of 2% to 5%.
synchronous This is the speed at which the magnetic field within the motor is rotating. It is also
speed
approximately the speed that the motor will run under no load conditions. For
example, a 4 pole motor running on 60 cycles would have a magnetic field speed
of 1800 RPM. The no load speed of that motor shaft would be very close to 1800,
probably 1798 or 1799 RPM. the full load speed of the same motor might be 1745
RPM. The difference between the synchronous speed and the full load speed is called
the slip RPM of the motor.
temperature Ambient Temperature
Ambient temperature is the maximum safe room temperature surrounding the motor
if it is going to be operated continuously at full load. In most cases, the standardized
ambient temperature rating is 40°C (104° F). This is a very warm room. Certain types
of applications such as on board ships and boiler rooms, may require motors with a
higher ambient temperature capability such as 50° C or 60° C.
Temperature Rise
Temperature rise is the amount of temperature change that can be expected within
the winding of the motor from non-operating (cool condition) to its temperature at
full load continuous operating condition. Temperature rise is normally expressed in
degrees centigrade. (See “Motor Temperature Ratings” for more details)
time rating
Most motors are rated for continuous duty which means that they can operate at
full load torque continuously without overheating. Motors used on certain types of
applications such as waste disposal, valve actuators, hoists, and other types of
intermittent loads, will frequently be rated for short term duty such as 5 minutes, 15
minutes, 30 minutes, or 1 hour. Just like a human being, a motor can be asked to
handle very strenuous work as long as it is not required on a continuous basis.
torque
Torque is the twisting force exerted by the shaft of a motor. Torque is measured in
pound inches, pound feet, and on small motors, in terms of ounce inches. (For more
information see “Understanding Torque”.)
Full Load Torque
Full load torque is the rated continuous torque that the motor can support without
overheating within its time rating.
Peak Torque
Many types of loads such as reciprocating compressors have cycling torques where
the amount of torque required varies depending on the position of the machine.
The actual maximum torque requirement at any point is called the peak torque
requirement. Peak torques are involved in things such as punch presses and other
types of loads where an oscillating torque requirement occurs.
3
Pull Out Torque
Also known as breakdown torque, this is the maximum amount of torque that is
available from the motor shaft when the motor is operating at full voltage and is
running at full speed. The load is then increased until the maximum point is reached.
Refer to figure 2.
Pull Up Torque
The lowest point on the torque speed curve for a motor that is accelerating a load up
to full speed is called pull up torque. Some motor designs do not have a value of pull
up torque because the lowest point may occur at the locked rotor point. In this case,
pull up torque is the same as locked rotor torque.
Starting Torque
The amount of torque the motor produces when it is energized at full voltage and
with the shaft locked in place is called starting torque. This value is also frequently
expressed as “locked rotor torque”. It is the amount of torque available when power is
applied to break the load away and start accelerating it up to speed.
voltage
This would be the voltage rating for which the motor is designed.
4
types of motors
The most reliable piece of electrical equipment in service today is a transformer. The second most reliable
is the 3-phase induction motor. Properly applied and maintained, 3-phase motors will last many years.
One key element of motor longevity is proper cooling. Motors are generally classified by the method used
to dissipate the internal heat.
Several standard motor enclosures are available
to handle the range of applications from “clean
and dry” such as indoor air handlers, to the “wet
or worse” as found on roofs and wet cooling
towers.
Open Drip-proof (ODP) motors are good
for clean and dry environments. As the name
implies, drip-proof motors can handle some
dripping water provided it falls from overhead
or no more than 15 degrees off vertical. These
motors usually have ventilating openings that
face down. The end housings can frequently be
rotated to maintain “drip-proof” integrity when the
motor is mounted in a different orientation. These
motors are cooled by a continuous flow of the
surrounding air through the internal parts of the
motor.
Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled
(TEFC) motors are cooled by
an external fan mounted on
the end opposite the shaft.
The fan blows ambient air
across the outside surface of
the motor to carry heat away.
Air does not move through
the inside of the motor, so
TEFC motors are suited for
dirty, dusty, and outdoor
applications. there are many
special types of TEFC motors including Corrosion
Protected and Washdown styles. These
motors have special features to handle difficult
environments. TEFC motors generally have
“weep holes” at their lowest points to prevent
condensation from puddling inside the motor. As
in open drip-proof motors, if the TEFC motor is
mounted in a position other than horizontal, the
end housings can generally be repositioned to
keep the weep holes at the lowest point.
Totally Enclosed Air Over (TEAO) motors are
applied in the air-stream on machines such as
vane axial fans where the air moved by a direct
connected fan passes over the motor and cools
it. TEAO motors frequently have dual HP ratings
depending on the speed and temperature of the
cooling air. Typical ratings for a motor might be:
10 HP with 750 feet per minute of 104°F air, 10
HP with 400 FPM of 70°F air, or 12.5 HP with
3000 FPM of 70°F air. TEAO motors are usually
confined to Original Equipment Manufacturer
(OEM) applications because the air temperature
and flows need to be predetermined.
Totally Enclosed Non-ventilated (TENV) motors
are generally confined to small sizes (usually
under 5 HP) where the motor surface area is
large enough to radiate and convect the heat to
the outside air without an external fan or air flow.
They have been popular in textile applications
because lint cannot obstruct cooling.
Hazardous Location
Motors are a special form of
totally enclosed motor. They
fall into different categories
depending upon the
application and environment,
as defined in Article 500 of
the National Electrical Code.
The two most common
hazardous location motors
are Class I, Explosion
proof, and Class II, Dust
Ignition Resistant. The term
explosion proof is commonly but erroneously
used to refer to all categories of hazardous
location motors. Explosion proof applies only to
Class I environments, which are those that involve
potentially explosive liquids, vapors, and gases.
Class II is termed Dust Ignition Resistant. These
motors are used in environments that contain
combustible dusts such as coal, grain, flour, etc.
Single Phase Motors
Three phase motors start and run in a direction
based on the “phase rotation” of the incoming
power. Single phase motors are different. They
require an auxiliary starting means. Once started
in a direction, they continue to run in that
5
direction. Single phase motors are categorized by
the method used to start the motor and establish
the direction of rotation.
Category
ApproximateRelative
HP Range
Efficiency
Shaded pole 1/100 - 1/6 HP
Split Phase
1/25 - 1/2 HP
Capacitor
1/25 - 15 HP
Low
Medium
Medium to
High
The three categories generally found in HVAC
applications are:
Shaded pole is the simplest of all single phase
starting methods. These motors are used only
for small, simple applications such as bathroom
exhaust fans. In the shaded pole motor, the
motor field poles are notched and a copper
shorting ring is installed around a small section of
the poles as shown in Figure A-1.
Figure A-2: The split-phase motor has two separate windings
in the stator.
higher electrical resistance than the main winding. The
difference in the start winding location and its altered
electrical characteristics causes a delay in current flow
between the two windings. This time delay coupled
with the physical location of the starting winding
causes the field around the rotor to move and
start the motor. A centrifugal switch or other
device disconnects the starting winding when
the motor reaches approximately 75% of rated
speed. The motor continues to run on normal
induction motor principles.
Split phase motors are generally available from
1/25 to 1/2 HP. Their main advantage is low
cost. Their disadvantages are low starting torque
and high starting current. These disadvantages
generally limit split phase motors to applications
where the load needs only low starting torque and
starts are infrequent.
Figure A-1: Shaded pole is the simplest of all single phase starting methods.
The altered pole configuration delays the
magnetic field build-up in the portion of the poles
surrounded by the copper shorting rings. This
arrangement makes the magnetic field around the
rotor seem to rotate from the main pole toward
the shaded pole. This appearance of field rotation
starts the rotor moving. Once started, the motor
accelerates to full speed.
The split phase motor has two separate
windings in the stator (stationary portion of the
motor). See Figure A-2. The winding shown in black
is only for starting. It uses a smaller wire size and has
6
Capacitor motors are the most popular single
phase motors. They are used in many agricultural,
commercial and industrial applications where
3-phase power is not available. Capacitor motors are
available in sizes from subfractional to 15 HP.
Usual
Category
HP
Range
Capacitor start – induction run
1/8 - 3 HP
Single value capacitor
(also called permanent split capacitor or PSC)
1/50 - 1 HP
Two-value capacitor
(also referred to as capacitor start capacitor run)
2 - 15 HP
Capacitor motors fall into three categories:
switches the starting capacitor into the circuit during
the starting period. When the motor approaches full
speed the inrush current decreases and the relay
opens to disconnect the starting capacitor.
Capacitor Start Induction Run motors form the largest
group of general purpose single phase motors. The
winding and centrifugal switch arrangement is similar
to that in a split phase motor. However, a capacitor
start motor has a capacitor in series with the starting
winding. Figure A-3 shows the capacitor start motor.
Single Value Capacitor Motors, also called
permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) motors utilize a
capacitor connected in series with one of the two
windings. This type of motor is generally used on small
sizes (less than 1 HP). It is ideally suited for small fans,
blowers, and pumps. Starting torque on this type of
motor is generally 100%, or less, of full load torque.
Two Value Capacitor Motors. The two value
capacitor motor is utilized in large horsepower (5-15
HP) single phase motors. Figure A-4 shows this motor.
The running winding, shown in white, is energized
directly from the line. A second winding, shown in
black, serves as a combined starting and running
winding. The black winding is energized through two
parallel capacitors. Once the motor has started, a
switch disconnects one of the capacitors letting the
motor operate with the remaining capacitor in series
with this winding of the motor.
Figure A-3: A capacitor start motor has a capacitor in series with
the starter winding.
The starting capacitor produces a time delay between
the magnetization of the starting poles and the running
poles, creating the appearance of a rotating field. The
rotor starts moving in the same direction. As the rotor
approaches running speed, the starting switch opens
and the motor continues to run in the normal induction
motor mode.
The two value capacitor motor starts as a capacitor
start motor but runs as a form of a two phase or PSC
motor. Using this combination, it is possible to build
large single phase motors having high starting torques
and moderate starting currents at reasonable prices.
The two value capacitor motor frequently uses an
oversize conduit box to house both the starting and
running capacitors.
This moderately priced motor produces relatively
high starting torque (225 to 400% of full load
torque) with moderate inrush current. Capacitor
start motors are ideal for hard to start loads such as
refrigeration compressors. Due to its other desirable
characteristics, it is also used in applications where
high starting torque may not be required. The
capacitor start motor can usually be recognized by
the bulbous protrusion on the frame that houses the
starting capacitor.
In some applications it is not practical to install a
centrifugal switch within the motor, these motors have
a relay operated by motor inrush current. The relay
Figure A-4: The two valve capacitor motor is used in large
horsepower single phase motors.
7
Motors Operating on Adjustable Frequency Drives
(AFDs) In the infancy of adjustable frequency drives
(AFDs), a major selling point was that AFDs could
adjust the speed of “standard” 3-phase induction
motors. This claim was quite true when the adjustable
frequency drives were “6-step” designs. The claim is
still somewhat true, although Pulse Width Modulated
(PWM) AFDs have somewhat changed the rules,
PWM drives are electrically more punishing on motor
windings, especially for 460 and 575 volt drives.
“Standard” motors can still be used on many
AFDs, especially on HVAC fan, blower, and pump
applications, as long as the motors are high quality,
conservative designs that use Inverter Spike Resistant
(ISR) magnet wire. On these variable torque loads a
relatively small speed reduction results in a dramatic
reduction in the torque required from the motor. For
example, a 15% reduction in speed reduces the
torque requirement by over 25%, so these motors
are not stressed from a thermal point of view. Also,
variable torque loads rarely need a wide speed range.
Since the performance of pumps, fans, and blowers
falls off dramatically as speed is reduced, speed
reduction below 40% of base speed is rarely required.
The natural question is, “What is meant by a high
quality, conservative designs?” Basically, this means
that the motor must have phase insulation, should
operate at a relatively low temperature rise (as in
the case with most premium efficiency motors), and
should use a high class of insulation (either F or H).
In addition, it is frequently desirable to have a winding
thermostat in the motor that will detect any motor
overheat conditions that may occur. Overheating could
result from overload, high ambient temperature, or loss
of ventilation.
“Inverter Duty Motors” being offered in the marketplace
today incorporate “premium efficiency” designs along
with oversized frames or external blowers to cool
the motor regardless of its speed. These motors are
primarily designed for constant torque loads where
the affinity laws do not apply. “Inverter Duty Motors”
usually have winding thermostats that shut the motor
down through the AFD control circuit in case of
elevated temperature inside the motor. Inverter Duty
Motors also have high temperature insulating materials
operated at lower temperatures. This reduces the
stress on the insulation system. Although some of the
design features of inverter duty motors are desirable
for HVAC applications, HVAC applications usually do
not require “inverter duty” motors.
8
Some cautions should be observed. Generally
speaking, the power coming out of an AFD is
somewhat rougher on the motor than power from a
pure 60 cycle source. Thus it is not a good idea to
operate motors on AFDs into their service factors.
In addition, when an old motor (one that has been
in service for some time) is to be repowered from an
adjustable frequency drive, it may be desirable to add
a load reactor between the AFD and the motor. The
reactor reduces the stress on the motor windings by
smoothing out current variations, thereby prolonging
motor life.
Reactors are similar to transformers with copper
coils wound around a magnetic core. Load reactors
increase in importance when the AFDs are going
to run in the “quiet” mode. In this mode the very
high carrier frequency can create standing waves
that potentially double the voltage peaks applied to
the motor. The higher voltage can stress the motor
insulation enough to cause premature failure.
Service Factor
Some motors carry a service factor other than 1.0.
This means the motor can handle loads above the
rated HP. A motor with a 1.15 service factor can
handle a 15% overload, so a 10 HP motor with a 1.15
service factor can handle 11.5 HP of load. Standard
open drip-proof motors have a 1.15 service factor.
Standard TEFC motors have a 1.0 service factor, but
most major motor manufacturers now provide TEFC
motors with a 1.15 service factor.
The question often arises whether to use service
factor in motor load calculations. In general, the best
answer is that for good motor longevity, service factor
should not be used for basic load calculations. By not
loading the motor into the service factor, the motor
can better withstand adverse conditions that occur.
Adverse conditions include higher than normal ambient
temperatures, low or high voltage, voltage imbalances,
and occasional overload. These conditions are less
likely to damage the motor or shorten its life if the
motor is not loaded into its service factor in normal
operation.
NEMA Locked Rotor Code
The “NEMA Code Letter” is an additional piece of
information on the motor nameplate. These letters
indicate a range of inrush (starting – or “locked rotor”)
currents that occur when a motor starts across the
line with a standard magnetic or manual starter. Most
motors draw 5 to 7 times rated full load (nameplate)
amps during the time it takes to go from standstill up
to about 80% of full load speed. The length of time the
inrush current lasts depends on the amount of inertia
(flywheel effect) in the load. On centrifugal pumps with
very low inertia, the inrush current lasts only a few
seconds. On large, squirrel cage blowers the inrush
current can last considerably longer.
The locked rotor code letter quantifies the value of the
inrush current for a specific motor. The lower the code
letter, the lower the inrush current. Higher code letters
indicate higher inrush currents.
The table lists the NEMA locked rotor code letters and
their parameters:
NEMA
LockedNEMA
Locked
Code
Rotor
Code
Rotor
LetterKVA/HP
LetterKVA/HP
a
0 - 3.15l
9.0 - 10.0
b
3.15 - 3.55m
10.0 - 11.2
c
3.55 - 4.0n
11.2 - 12.5
d
4.0 - 4.5
e
4.5 - 5.0p
12.5 - 14.0
f
5.0 - 5.6q
not used
g
5.6 - 6.3r
14.0 - 16.0
h
6.3 - 7.1s
16.0 - 18.0
i
not used
t
18.0 - 20.0
j
7.1 - 8.0u
20.0 - 22.4
8.0 - 9.0v
22.4 and up
k
0
not used
ghj
3
phase 15 up 10 - 71/2 5
HP
1
phase
HP
5
3
3 2 - 11/2
kl
2 - 11/21
1, 3/4
1
Insulation Classes
The electrical portions of every motor must be
insulated from contact with other wires and with the
magnetic portion of the motor. The insulation system
consists of the varnish that jackets the magnet wire in
the windings along with the slot liners that insulate the
wire from the steel laminations. The insulation system
also includes tapes, sleeving, tie strings, a final dipping
varnish, and the leads that bring the electrical circuits
out to the junction box.
Insulation systems are rated by their resistance to
thermal degradation. The four basic insulation systems
normally encountered are Class A, B, F, and H. Class
A has a temperature rating of 105°C (221°F), and
each step from A to B, B to F, and F to H involves a
25°C (45°F) jump. The insulation class in any motor
must be able to withstand at least the maximum
ambient temperature plus the temperature rise that
occurs as a result of continuous full load operation.
Selecting an insulation class higher than necessary to
meet this minimum can help extend motor life or make
a motor more tolerant of overloads, high ambient
temperatures, and other problems that normally
shorten motor life.
*Please refer to page 27 for formulas and more details.
The code letters usually applied to common motors
are:
f
breakers and starters for these motors when they
become available. The 1998 National Electrical
Code incorporated some special provisions for these
proposed Design E motors.
/2
The proposed Design E motors, which will have very
high efficiencies, will have higher inrush currents than
the motors currently available. These motors will
require special considerations when sizing circuit
A widely used rule of thumb states that every
10°C (18°F) increase in operating temperature cuts
insulation life in half. Conversely, a 10°C decrease
doubles insulation life. Choosing a one step higher
insulation class than required to meet the basic
performance specifications of a motor provides 25°C
of extra temperature capability. The rule of thumb
predicts that this better insulation system increases
the motor’s thermal life expectancy by approximately
500%. For more information on motor temperature
please see page 17.
Motor Design Letters
The National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association
(NEMA) has defined four standard motor designs
using the letters A, B, C and D. These letters refer to
the shape of the motors’ torque and inrush current vs.
speed curves. Design B is the most popular motor. It
has a relatively high starting torque with reasonable
starting currents. The other designs are only used on
9
fairly specialized applications. Design A is frequently
used on injection molding machines that require high
pullout torques. Design C is a high starting torque
motor that is usually confined to hard to start loads,
such as conveyors that are going to operate under
difficult conditions.
Design D is a so-called high slip motor and is normally
limited to applications such as cranes, hoists, and low
speed punch presses where high starting torque with
low starting current is desirable. Design B motors do
very well on most HVAC applications.
10
the mystery of motor frame size
introduction
Industrial electric motors have been available for nearly a century. In that time there have been a great
many changes. One of the most obvious has been the ability to pack more horsepower in a smaller
physical size. Another important achievement has been the standardization of motors by the National
Electric Manufacturers Association (NEMA).
A key part of motor interchangeability has been the standardization of frame sizes. This means that the
same horsepower, speed, and enclosure will normally have the same frame size from different motor
manufacturers. Thus, a motor from one manufacturer can be replaced with a similar motor from another
company provided they are both in standard frame sizes.
three generations
The standardization effort over the last forty years has resulted in one original grouping of frame sizes
called “original”. In 1952, new frame assignments were made. These were called “U frames”. The current
“T frames” were introduced in 1964. “T” frames are the current standard and most likely will continue to
be for some time in the future.
Even though “T” frames were adopted in 1964, there are still a great many “U” frame motors in service
that will have to be replaced in the future. Similarly there are also many of the original frame size motors
(pre-1952) that will reach the end of their useful life and will have to be replaced. For this reason, it is
desirable to have reference material available on frame sizes and some knowledge of changes that took
place as a part of the so-called rerate programs.
frame size reference tables
Tables 1 and 2 show the standard frame size assignments for the three different eras of motors. As you
will note, these tables are broken down for open drip proof (table 1) and totally enclosed (table 2). Also,
you will find that for each horsepower rating and speed, there are three different frame sizes. The first is
the original frame size, the middle one is the “U frame” size, and the third one is the “T frame”. These are
handy reference tables since they give general information for all three vintages of three phase motors in
integral horsepower frame sizes.
One important item to remember is that the base mounting hole spacing (“E” and “F” dimensions) and
shaft height (“D” dimension) for all frames having the same three digits regardless of vintage, will be the
same.
rerating and temperatures
The ability to rerate motor frames to get more horsepower in a frame has been brought about mainly by
improvements made in insulating materials. As a result of this improved insulation, motors can be run
much hotter. This allows more horsepower in a compact frame. For example, the original NEMA frame
sizes ran at very low temperatures. The “U” frame motors were designed for use with Class A insulation,
which has a rating of 105° C. The motor designs were such that the capability would be used at the
hottest spot within the motor. “T” frame motor designs are based on utilizing Class B insulation with a
temperature rating of 130° C. This increase in temperature capability made it possible to pack more
horsepower into the same size frame. To accommodate the larger mechanical horsepower capability,
shaft and bearing sizes had to be increased. Thus, you will find that the original 254 frame (5 HP at
1800 RPM) has a 1-1/8" shaft. The 254U frame (7-1/2 HP at 1800 RPM) has a 1-3/8" shaft, and the
current 254T frame (15 HP at 1800 RPM) has a 1-5/8" shaft. Bearing diameters were also increased to
accommodate the larger shaft sizes and heavier loads associated with the higher horsepowers.
frame size basis
On page 14 you will find a Baldor frame size chart that is a great reference on “T” frame, “U” frame and
original frame motors. Most of the dimensions are standard dimensions that are common to all motor
manufacturers. One exception to this is the “C” dimension (overall motor length) which will change from
one manufacturer to another.
11
fractional horsepower motors
The term “fractional horsepower” is used to cover those frame sizes having two digit designations as
opposed to the three digit designations that are found in Tables 1 and 2. The frame sizes that are normally
associated with industrial fractional horsepower motors are 42, 48, and 56. In this case, each frame size
designates a particular shaft height, shaft diameter, and face or base mounting hole pattern. In these
motors, specific frame assignments have not been made by horsepower and speed, so it is possible that a
particular horsepower and speed combination might be found in three different frame sizes. In this case, for
replacement it is essential that the frame size be known as well as the horsepower, speed and enclosure.
The derivation of the two digit frame number is based on the shaft height in sixteenths of an inch. You
can figure that a 48 frame motor will have a shaft height of 48 divided by 16 or 3 inches. Similarly, a 56
frame motor would have a shaft height of 3-1/2 inches. The largest of the current fractional horsepower
frame sizes is a 56 frame which is available in horsepowers greater than those normally associated with
fractionals. For example, 56 frame motors are built in horsepowers up to 3 HP and in some cases, 5 HP.
For this reason, calling motors with 2 digit frame sizes “fractionals” is somewhat misleading.
integral horsepower motors
The term Integral Horsepower Motors generally refers to those motors having three digit frame sizes such
as 143T or larger. When dealing with these frame sizes one “rule of thumb” is handy. It is that the centerline
shaft height (“D” dimension) above the bottom of the base is the first two digits of the frame size divided
by four. For example, a 254T frame would have a shaft height of 25 ÷ 4 = 6.25 inches. Although the last
digit does not directly relate to an “inch” dimension, larger numbers do indicate that the rear bolt holes are
moved further away from the shaft end bolt holes (the “F” dimension becomes larger).
variations
In addition to the standard numbering system for frames, there are some variations that will appear.
These are itemized below along with an explanation of what the various letters represent.
C — Designates a “C” face (flange) mounted motor. This is the most popular type of face mounted motor and
has a specific bolt pattern on the shaft end to allow mounting. The critical items on “C” face motors are
the “bolt circle” (AJ dimension), register (also called rabbet) diameter (AK dimension) and the shaft size
(U dimension). C flange motors always have threaded mounting holes in the face of the motor.
D — The “D” flange has a special type of mounting flange installed on the shaft end. In the case of the “D”
flange, the flange diameter is larger than the body of the motor and it has clearance holes suitable for
mounting bolts to pass through from the back of the motor into threaded holes in the mating part. “D”
flange motors are not as popular as “C” flange motors.
H — Used on some 56 frame motors, “H” indicates that the base is suitable for mounting in either 56, 143T, or
145T mounting dimensions.
J — This designation is used with 56 frame motors and indicates that the motor is made for “jet pump” service
with a threaded stainless steel shaft and standard 56C face.
JM — The letters “JM” designate a special pump shaft originally designed for a “mechanical seal”. This motor also
has a C face.
JP — Similar to the JM style of motor having a special shaft, the JP motor was originally designed for a “packing”
type of seal. The motor also has a C face.
S — The use of the letter “S” in a motor frame designates that the motor has a “short shaft”. Short shaft motors
have shaft dimensions that are smaller than the shafts associated with the normal frame size. short shaft
motors are designed to be directly coupled to a load through a flexible coupling. They are not supposed to
be used on applications where belts are used to drive the load.
T — A “T” at the end of the frame size indicates that the motor is of the 1964 and later “T” frame vintage.
U — A “U” at the end of the frame size indicates that the motor falls into the “U” frame size assignment (1952 to
1964) era.
Y — When a “Y” appears as a part of the frame size it means that the motor has a special mounting
configuration. It is impossible to tell exactly what the special configuration is but it does denote that there is
a special non-standard mounting.
Z — Indicates the existence of a special shaft which could be longer, larger, or have special features such as
threads, holes, etc. “Z” indicates only that the shaft is special in some undefined way.
12
TABLE 1 — OPEN DRIP-PROOF
THREE PHASE FRAME SIZES — GENERAL PURPOSE
RPM 3600 18001200 900
NEMA1952
19641952
19641952
19641952
1964
ProgramOrig.RerateRerateOrig.RerateRerateOrig.Rerate
RerateOrig.Rerate
Rerate
HP
1
—
—
—
203
182
143T
204
184
145T 225
213
182T
1.5
203182 143T204184 145T224184182T
254213184T
2 204184 145T224184 145T225213184T
254215213T
3 224 184 145T 225 213
182T 254 215 213T284 254U 215T
5 225 213 182T 254 215 184T 284 254U215T324 256U254T
7.5 254 215 184T 284 254U 213T 324 256U254T326 284U256T
10 284 254U 213T 324 256U 215T 326 284U256T364 286U284T
15 324 256U 215T 326 284U 254T 364 324U284T365 326U286T
20 326 284U 254T 364 286U 256T 365 326U286T404 364U324T
25 364S286U 256T 364 324U 284T 404 364U324T405 365U326T
30 364S324US284TS365 326U 286T 405 365U326T444 404U364T
40 365S326US286TS404 364U 324T 444 404U364T445 405U365T
50 404S364US324TS405S365US 326T 445 405U365T504 444U404T
60 405S365US326TS444S404US 364T 504 444U404T505 445U405T
75
444S 404US 364TS 445S
405US
365T
505
445U
405T
—
—
444T
100
445S 405US 365TS 504S
444US
404T
—
—
444T
—
—
445T
125
504S 444US 404TS 505S
445US
405T
—
—
445T
—
—
—
150
505S 445US 405TS
—
—
444T
—
—
—
—
—
—
200
—
—
444TS
—
—
445T
—
—
—
—
—
—
250
—
—
445TS
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
TABLE 2 — TOTALLY ENCLOSED FAN COOLED
THREE PHASE FRAME SIZES — GENERAL PURPOSE
RPM
3600
1800
1200
900
NEMA 1952 1964 1952 1964 19521964 19521964
ProgramOrig. Rerate RerateOrig. Rerate RerateOrig. RerateRerateOrig. RerateRerate
HP
1
—
—
—
203
182
143T
204
184
145T 225
213
182T
1.5 203 182 143T 204 184
145T 224 184 182T254 213 184T
2 204 184 145T 224 184
145T 225 213 184T254 215 213T
3 224 184 182T 225 213
182T 254 215 213T284 254U215T
5 225 213 184T 254 215
184T 284 254U 215T324 256U254T
7.5 254 215 213T 284 254U 213T 324 256U 254T326 284U256T
10 284 254U 215T 324 256U 215T 326 284U 256T364 286U 284T
15 324 256U 254T 326 284U 254T 364 324U 284T365 326U 286T
20 326 286U 256T 364 286U 256T 365 326U 286T404 364U 324T
25 365S 324U 284TS 365 324U 284T 404 364U 324T405 365U 326T
30 404S 326US 286TS 404 326U 286T 405 365U 326T444 404U 364T
40 405S 364US 324TS 405 364U 324T 444 404U 364T445 405U 365T
50 444S 365US 326TS 444S 365US 326T 445 405U 365T504 444U 404T
60 445S 405US 364TS 445S 405US 364T 504 444U 404T505 445U 405T
75
504S
444US 365TS 504S
444US
365T
505
445U
405T
—
—
444T
100
505S
445US 405TS 505S
445US
405T
—
—
444T
—
—
445T
125
—
—
444TS
—
—
444T
—
—
445T
—
—
—
150
—
—
445TS
—
—
445T
—
—
—
—
—
—
13
Leading Provider of Energy Efficient
Industrial Electric Motors and Drives
NEmA
Shaft
keyseat
Dimensions
NEmA
Shaft
keyseat
Dimensions
(U)
(R)
(S)
(U)
(R)
(S)
3/8
1/2
5/8
7/8
1-1/8
1-3/8
1-5/8
21/64
29/64
33/64
49/64
63/64
1-13/64
1-13/32
FLAT
FLAT
3/16
3/16
1/4
5/16
3/8
1-7/8
2-1/8
2-3/8
2-1/2
2-7/8
3-3/8
3-7/8
1-19/32
1-27/32
2-1/64
2-3/16
2-29/64
2-7/8
3-5/16
1/2
1/2
5/8
5/8
3/4
7/8
1
drawings represent standard TEFC general purpose motors
Refer data Section 502 for various models, oPEn or TEFC
*dimensions are for reference only.
*Contact your local Baldor Sales office for “C” dimensions.
dimensions - n, o, P, AB and xo are specific to Baldor.
NEmA qUiCk REFERENCE CHART
NEmA
FRAmE
D
E
2F
42
2-5/8
1-3/4
1-11/16
2-3/4
48
56
56H
143T
145T
182
184
182T
184T
213
215
213T
215T
254U
256U
254T
256T
284U
286U
284T
286T
284TS
286TS
324U
326U
324T
326T
324TS
326TS
364U
365U
364T
365T
364TS
365TS
404U
405U
404T
405T
404TS
405TS
444U
445U
444T
445T
447T
449T
444TS
445TS
447TS
449TS
3
2-1/8
3-1/2
2-7/16
3-1/2
2-3/4
4-1/2
3-3/4
5-1/4
4-1/4
6-1/4
5
7
5-1/2
8
6-1/4
9
7
10
8
11
H
3
5
4
5
4-1/2
5-1/2
4-1/2
5-1/2
5-1/2
7
5-1/2
7
8-1/4
10
8-1/4
10
9-1/2
11
9-1/2
11
9-1/2
11
10-1/2
12
10-1/2
12
10-1/2
12
11-1/4
12-1/4
11-1/4
12-1/4
11-1/4
12-1/4
12-1/4
13-3/4
12-1/4
13-3/4
12-1/4
13-3/4
14-1/2
16-1/2
14-1/2
16-1/2
20
25
14-1/2
16-1/2
20
25
9
N
O
p
U
V
AA
AB
AH
AJ
Ak
BA
BB
BD
XO
TAp
1-1/2
5
4-11/16
3/8
1-1/8
3/8
4-1/32
1-5/16
3-3/4
3
2-1/16
1/8
4-5/8
1-9/16
1/4-20
9/32
SLOT
11/32
SLOT
11/32
SLOT
1-7/8
5-7/8
5-11/16
1/2
1-1/2
1/2
4-3/8
1-11/16
3-3/4
3
2-1/2
1/8
5-5/8
2-1/4
1/4-20
2-7/16
2-1/8
6-7/8
6-5/8
5/8
1-7/8
1/2
5
2-1/16
5-7/8
4-1/2
2-3/4
1/8
6-1/2
2-1/4
3/8-16
11/32
2-1/2
6-7/8
6-5/8
7/8
2-1/4
3/4
5-1/4
2-1/8
5-7/8
4-1/2
2-1/4
1/8
6-1/2
2-1/4
3/8-16
7/8
7/8
1-1/8
1-1/8
1-1/8
1-1/8
1-3/8
1-3/8
1-3/8
1-3/8
1-5/8
1-5/8
1-5/8
1-5/8
1-7/8
1-7/8
1-5/8
1-5/8
1-7/8
1-7/8
2-1/8
2-1/8
1-7/8
1-7/8
2-1/8
2-1/8
2-3/8
2-3/8
1-7/8
1-7/8
2-3/8
2-3/8
2-7/8
2-7/8
2-1/8
2-1/8
2-7/8
2-7/8
3-3/8
3-3/8
3-3/8
3-3/8
2-3/8
2-3/8
2-3/8
2-3/8
2-1/4
2-1/4
2-3/4
2-3/4
3
3
3-3/8
3-3/8
3-3/4
3-3/4
4
4
4-7/8
4-7/8
4-5/8
4-5/8
3-1/4
3-1/4
5-5/8
5-5/8
5-1/4
5-1/4
3-3/4
3-3/4
6-3/8
6-3/8
5-7/8
5-7/8
3-3/4
3-3/4
7-1/8
7-1/8
7-1/4
7-1/4
4-1/4
4-1/4
8-5/8
8-5/8
8-3/8
8-3/8
8-3/8
8-1/2
4-5/8
4-5/8
4-5/8
4-3/4
2-1/8
2-1/8
2-5/8
2-5/8
2-3/4
2-3/4
3-1/8
3-1/8
3-1/2
3-1/2
3-3/4
3-3/4
4-5/8
4-5/8
4-3/8
4-3/8
3
3
5-3/8
5-3/8
5
5
3-1/2
3-1/2
6-1/8
6-1/8
5-5/8
5-5/8
3-1/2
3-1/2
6-7/8
6-7/8
7
7
4
4
8-3/8
8-3/8
8-1/4
8-1/4
8-1/4
8-1/4
4-1/2
4-1/2
4-1/2
4-1/2
5-7/8
5-7/8
7-1/4
7-1/4
4-1/2
4-1/2
8-1/2
8-1/2
2-3/4
1/8
1/8
1/4
1/4
6-1/2
6-1/2
9
9
2-3/8
3/8-16
3/8-16
1/2-13
1/2-13
7-1/4
8-1/2
3-1/2
1/4
9
2-3/4
1/2-13
7-1/4
8-1/2
4-1/4
1/4
10
—
1/2-13
9
10-1/2
4-3/4
1/4
11-1/4
—
1/2-13
11
12-1/2
5-1/4
1/4
13-3/8
—
5/8-11
11
12-1/2
5-7/8
1/4
13-3/8
—
5/8-11
11
12-1/2
6-5/8
1/4
13-7/8
—
5/8-11
14
16
7-1/2
1/4
16-3/4
—
5/8-11
13/32
13/32
17/32
17/32
21/32
21/32
13/16
13/16
2-11/16
2-11/16
3-9/16
3-9/16
3-1/2
3-1/2
3-7/8
3-7/8
4-1/16
4-1/16
4-5/16
4-5/16
5-1/8
5-1/8
4-7/8
4-7/8
3-3/8
3-3/8
5-7/8
5-7/8
5-1/2
5-1/2
3-15/16
3-15/16
6-3/4
6-3/4
6-1/4
6-1/4
4
4
7-3/16
7-3/16
7-5/16
7-5/16
4-1/2
4-1/2
8-5/8
8-5/8
8-9/16
8-9/16
8-9/16
8-9/16
4-13/16
4-13/16
4-13/16
4-13/16
8-11/16
7-7/8
10-1/4
9-9/16
12-7/8
12-15/16
14-5/8
14-5/8
16-1/2
16-1/2
18-1/2
19-1/2
21-5/16
22-1/2
23-3/8
23-3/8
34-3/16
34-3/16
34-3/16
34-3/16
34-3/16
34-3/16
34-3/16
34-3/16
25-1/4
25-1/4
28-3/4
28-3/4
28-3/4
28-3/4
28-3/4
28-3/4
28-3/4
28-3/4
3/4
5-7/8
1
7-3/8
1
9-5/8
1-1/2
13-1/8
2
14-1/8
2-1/2
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
18
18
18-1/16
18-1/16
18-1/16
18-1/16
19-1/4
19-1/4
19-5/16
19-5/16
19-5/16
19-5/16
22-3/16
22-3/16
24-5/8
24-5/8
24-5/8
24-1/2
24-5/8
24-5/8
24-5/8
24-1/2
The above chart provides typical Baldor•Reliance motor dimensions. For more exact dimensional data, please check the specific drawing for each catalog number.
Dimensional data for 444T through 449TS frame sizes reflect the use of a top mounted conduit box with a cantilevered mounting arm.
14
5000
FRAME
D
E
2F
H
O
P
U
V
AA
AB
BA
5008S
5008L
12-1/2
12-1/2
10
10
22
22
15/16
15/16
26-27/32
26-27/32
32.24
32.24
4.13
4.13
6.84
10.84
4-NPT
4-NPT
32.74
32.74
8-1/2
8-1/2
5010S
5010L
12-1/2
12-1/2
10
10
28
28
15/16
15/16
26-27/32
26-27/32
32.24
32.24
4.13
4.13
6.84
10.84
4-NPT
4-NPT
32.74
32.74
8-1/2
8-1/2
5012S
5012L
12-1/2
12-1/2
10
10
36
36
15/16
15/16
26-27/32
26-27/32
32.24
32.24
4.13
4.13
6.84
10.84
4-NPT
4-NPT
32.74
32.74
8-1/2
8-1/2
Frame
NEMA C-Face
BA Dimensions
143-5TC
2-3/4
182-4TC
3-1/2
213-5TC
4-1/4
254-6TC
4-3/4
BALDOR ELECTRiC COmpANy
p.O. BOX 2400
FORT SmiTH, ARkANSAS
72902-2400 U.S.A.
66
203
204
224
225
254
284
324
326
364
365
404
405
444
445
504
505
D
4-1/8
5
5-1/2
NEMA FRAMES PRIOR TO 1953
E
F
N
U
V
2-15/16 2-1/2
2-1/4
3/4
2-1/4
2-3/4
4
2-7/16
3/4
2
3-1/4
3-3/8
4-1/2
3-1/4
1
3
3-3/4
6-1/4
7
5
5-1/2
8
6-1/4
9
7
10
8
11
9
12-1/2
10
4-1/8
4-3/4
5-1/4
6
5-5/8
6-1/8
6-1/8
6-7/8
7-1/4
8-1/4
8
9
3-7/16
4-1/4
1-1/8
1-1/4
3-3/8
3-3/4
BA
3-1/8
3-1/8
3-1/2
4-1/4
4-3/4
5-3/8
1-5/8
4-7/8
5-1/4
5-5/8
1-78/8
5-3/8
5-7/8
6-3/8
2-1/8
6-1/8
6-5/8
7-1/8
2-3/8
6-7/8
7-1/2
8-5/8
2-7/8
8-3/8
8-1/2
A PRIMER ON TWO SPEED MOTORS
There seems to be a lot of mystery involved in two speed motors but they are really quite simple. They
can first be divided into two different winding types:
two speed, two winding
The two winding motor is made in such a manner that it is really two motors wound into one stator. One
winding, when energized, gives one of the speeds. When the second winding is energized, the motor
takes on the speed that is determined by the second winding. The two speed, two winding motor can
be used to get virtually any combination of normal motor speeds and the two different speeds need not
be related to each other by a 2:1 speed factor. Thus, a two speed motor requiring 1750 RPM and 1140
RPM would, of necessity, have to be a two winding motor.
two speed, one winding
The second type of motor is the two speed, single winding motor. In this type of motor, a 2:1 relationship
between the low and high speed must exist. Two speed, single winding motors are of the design that is
called consequent pole. These motors are wound for one speed but when the winding is reconnected,
the number of magnetic poles within the stator is doubled and the motor speed is reduced to one-half
of the original speed. The two speed, one winding motor is, by nature, more economical to manufacture
than the two speed, two winding motor. This is because the same winding is used for both speeds and
the slots in which the conductors are placed within the motor do not have to be nearly as large as they
would have to be to accommodate two separate windings that work independently. Thus, the frame size
on the two speed, single winding motor can usually be smaller than on an equivalent two winding motor.
load classification
A second item that generates a good deal of confusion in selecting two speed motors is the load
classification for which these motors are to be used. In this case, the type of load to be driven must be
defined and the motor is selected to match the load requirement.
The three types that are available are: Constant Torque, Variable Torque, and Constant Horsepower.
For more details on load types please refer to “Understanding Torque” in this booklet.
constant torque
Constant torque loads are those types of loads where the torque requirement is independent of speed.
this type of load is the normally occurring load on such things as conveyors, positive displacement
pumps, extruders, hydraulic pumps, packaging machinery, and other similar types of loads.
variable torque
A second load type that is very different from Constant Torque is the kind of load presented to a motor
by centrifugal pumps and blowers. In this case, the load torque requirement changes from a low value at
low speed to a very high value at high speed. On a typical variable torque load, doubling the speed will
increase the torque requirement by 4 times and the horsepower requirement by 8 times. Thus, on this
type load, brute force must be supplied at the high speed and much reduced levels of horsepower and
torque are required at the low speed. A typical two speed, variable torque motor might have a rating of 1
HP at 1725 and .25 HP at 850 RPM.
The characteristics of many pumps, fans, and blowers are such that a speed reduction to one-half
results in an output at the low speed which may be unacceptable. Thus, many two speed, variable
torque motors are made with a speed combination of 1725/1140 RPM. This combination gives an output
from the fan or pump of roughly one-half when the low speed is utilized.
15
CONSTANT HORSEpower
The final type of two speed motor that is utilized is the two speed, constant horsepower motor. In this
case, the motor is designed so that the horsepower stays constant when the speed is reduced to the
low value. In order to do this, it is necessary for the motor’s torque to double when it is operating in the
low speed mode. The normal application for this type of motor is on metal working processes such as
drill presses, lathes, milling machines, and other similar metal removing machines.
The requirement for constant horsepower can perhaps be best visualized when you consider the
requirements of a simple machine like a drill press. In this case, when drilling a large hole with a large
drill, the speed is low but the torque requirement is very high. Compare that to the opposite extreme of
drilling a small hole when the drill speed must be high but the torque requirement is low. Thus, there is
a requirement for torque to be high when speed is low and torque to be low when speed is high. This is
the Constant Horsepower situation.
The Constant Horsepower motor is the most expensive two speed motor. Three phase, two speed
motors are quite readily available in constant torque and variable torque. Two speed, constant
horsepower motors are usually only available on a special order basis.
two speed, single phase motors
Two speed, single phase motors for constant torque requirements are more difficult to supply since there
is a problem of providing a starting switch that will operate at the proper time for both speeds. Thus,
the normal two speed, single phase motor is offered as a variable torque motor in a permanent split
capacitor configuration. The permanent split capacitor motor has very low starting torque but is suitable
for use on small centrifugal pumps and fans.
summary
The use of two speed motors in the future will grow quite rapidly as industrial motor users begin to realize
the desirability of using this type of motor on exhaust fans and circulating pumps so that the air flow
and water flow can be optimized to suit the conditions that exist in a plant or a process. Very dramatic
savings in energy can be achieved by utilizing the two speed approach.
16
motor temperature ratings
A frequently misunderstood subject related to electric motors is insulation class and temperature ratings.
This paper tries to describe, in basic terms, the temperature relationships that are meaningful in standard
AC induction motors. Some of the same information can be applied to DC motors but DC motors are
more specialized and some of the ratings are slightly different.
Perhaps the best way to start is to define the commonly used terms.
definitions
ambient temperature
Ambient temperature is the temperature of the air surrounding the motor or the room temperature
in the vicinity of the motor. This is the “threshold point” or temperature that the entire motor would
assume when it is shut off and completely cool.
temperature rise
Temperature rise is the change in temperature of the critical electrical parts within a motor when
it is being operated at full load. For example: if a motor is located in a room with a temperature of
78° F, and then is started and operated continuously at full load, the winding temperature would
rise from 78° F to a higher temperature. The difference between its starting temperature and the
final elevated temperature, is the motor’s temperature rise.
hot spot allowance
Since the most common method of measuring “temperature rise” of a motor involves taking the
difference between the cold and hot ohmic resistance of the motor winding*, this test gives the
average temperature change of the entire winding including the motor leads and end turns as well
as wire placed deep inside the stator slots. Since some of these spots are bound to be hotter
than others, an allowance factor is made to “fudge” the average temperature to give a reflection
of what the temperature might be at the hottest spot. This allowance factor is called the “hot spot
allowance”.
*The formula for determining temperature rise by resistance is given on page 21.
insulation class
Insulations have been standardized and graded by their resistance to thermal aging and failure.
Four insulation classes are in common use. For simplicity, they have been designated by the letters
A, B, F, and H. The temperature capabilities of these classes are separated from each other by
25° C increments. The temperature capabilities of each insulation class is defined as being the
maximum temperature at which the insulation can be operated to yield an average life of 20,000
hours. The rating for 20,000 hours of average insulation life is as shown below.
Insulation Class
A
B
F
H
Temperature Rating
105°
130°
155°
180°
C
C
C
C
insulation system
There are a number of insulating components used in the process of building motors. The obvious
ones are the enamel coating on the magnet wire and the insulation on the leads that come to the
conduit box. Some less obvious components of the “system” are the sleeving that is used over
joints where leads connect to the magnet wire, and the lacing string that is used to bind the end
turns of the motor. Other components are the slot liners that are used in the stator laminations to
protect the wire from chafing. Also, top sticks are used to hold the wire down in place inside the
17
stator slots. Another important component of the system is the varnish in which the completed
assembly is dipped prior to being baked. The dipping varnish serves the purpose of sealing nicks
or scratches that may occur during the winding process. The varnish also binds the entire winding
together into a solid mass so that it does not vibrate and chafe when subjected to the high
magnetic forces that exist in the motor.
Much like a chain that is only as strong as its weakest link, the classification of an insulation
system is based on the temperature rating of the lowest rated component used in the system. For
example, if one Class B component is used along with F and H components, the entire system
must be called Class B.
putting it all together
ow that the basic terms have been identified, we can move on to understand the total picture and how
N
the factors of temperature go together in the motor rating.
he basic ambient temperature rating point of nearly all electric motors is 40° C. This means that a
T
motor, rated for 40° C ambient, is suitable for installation in applications where the normal surrounding air
temperature does not exceed 40° C. This is approximately 104° F. A very warm room. This is the starting
point.
hen the motor is operated at full load, it has a certain amount of temperature rise. The amount of
W
temperature rise is always additive to the ambient temperature. For example, U frame motors were
designed for Class A insulation and a maximum temperature rise by resistance of 55° C. When operated
in a 40° C ambient temperature, this would give a total average winding temperature of 40° (ambient) +
55° (rise) or 95° C. The ten degree difference between 95° C and the 105° C rating of Class A insulation
is used to handle the “hot spot allowance”. Now, if you use the same motor design but change the
system to Class B, there is an extra 25° C of thermal capability available. This extra thermal capability can
be used to handle:
a – higher than normal ambient temperatures,
b – higher than normal temperature rise brought on by overloads, or
c – the extra capability can be used to extend motor life and make it more tolerant of overheating
factors caused by high or low voltages, voltage imbalance, blocked ventilation, high inertia loads,
frequent starts, and any other factors that can produce above normal operating temperatures.
For example: if a motor with Class A “design” (55° C) temperature rise is built with Class B insulation,
then it could be expected to give a normal insulation life even when subjected to ambient temperatures
of 65° C.
Most “T” frame motors are designed for use with Class B insulation. In a “T” frame motor with Class B
insulation, the extra 25° of thermal capacity (Class B compared to Class A), is utilized to accommodate
the higher temperature rise associated with the physically smaller “T” frame motors.
For example: a standard T frame, open drip proof motor might have the following rating: 40° C ambient,
80° C temperature rise, and a 10° hot spot allowance. When these three components are added
together, you will find that the total temperature capability of Class B insulation (130° C) is used up.
changing insulation classes
By taking a Class B, totally enclosed fan cooled, T frame motor, and building it with Class F insulation,
it is usually possible to increase the service factor from 1.0 to 1.15. As mentioned previously, this same
change of one insulation class can be used to handle a higher ambient temperature or to increase the
life expectancy of the motor. The same change could also make the motor more suitable for operation in
high elevations where thinner air has a less cooling effect.
actual insulating practice
Over the years, great improvements have been made in insulating materials. With these improvements
have come cost reductions. As a result of these changes, most motor manufacturers use a mixture of
18
materials in their motors, many of which have higher than required temperature ratings. For example,
Baldor does not use Class A materials. This means that even though many fractional horsepower motors
are designed for Class A temperature rise, the real insulation is Class B or better. Similarly, many motors
designed for Class B temperature rise actually have insulation systems utilizing Class F and H materials.
This extra margin gives the motor a “life bonus”. At the present time, Baldor has standardized on ISR
(Inverter Spike Resistant) magnet wire in all three phase motors 1 HP and larger. this wire has a Class H
temperature rating and excellent resistance to high voltage spikes.
As a rule of thumb, insulation life will be doubled for each 10 degrees of unused insulation temperature
capability. For example: if a motor is designed to have a total temperature of 110° C (including ambient,
rise, and hot spot allowance), and is built with a Class B (130° C) system, an unused capacity of 20°
C would exist. This extra margin would raise the expected motor insulation life from 20,000 hours to
80,000 hours. Similarly, if a motor is not loaded to full capacity, its temperature rise will be lower. This
automatically makes the total temperature lower and extends motor life. Also, if the motor is operated in
a lower than 40° C ambient temperature, motor life will be extended.
The same ten degree rule also applies to motors operating at above rated temperature. In this case,
insulation life is “halved” for each 10° C of overtemperature.
motor surface temperatures
Motor surface temperature is frequently of concern. The motor surface temperature will never exceed
the internal temperature of the motor. However, depending upon the design and cooling arrangements in
the motor, motor surface temperature in modern motors can be high enough to be very uncomfortable
to the touch. Surface temperatures of 75° to 95° C can be found on T frame motor designs. These
temperatures do not necessarily indicate overload or impending motor failure.
other factors
Insulation life is affected by many factors aside from temperature. Moisture, chemicals, oil, vibration,
fungus growth, abrasive particles, and mechanical abrasion created by frequent starts, all work to
shorten insulation life. On some applications if the operating environment and motor load conditions can
be properly defined, suitable means of winding protection can be provided to obtain reasonable motor life
in spite of external disturbing factors.
old and current standards
U frame 184 through 445U frames, were designed based on using Class A insulation. Temperature rise
was not precisely defined by the resistance method. Temperature rise by thermometer for Class A, open
drip proof motors was 40° C. This was generally thought to be equivalent to approximately 50° C by
resistance. U frame motors were the industry standard from 1954 to 1965 and are still preferred in some
industries and plants. T frame, 143T through 449T motors are generally designed based on using Class
B insulation with temperature rises by resistance of approximately 80° C. Production of T frame motors
started in the mid-sixties and they continue to be the industry standard at this time.
summary
A key ingredient in motor life is the insulation system used in the motor. Aside from vibration, moisture,
chemicals, and other non-temperature related life-shortening items, the key to insulation and motor life is
the maximum temperature that the insulation system experiences and the temperature capabilities of the
system components.
Table 1 shows the temperature ratings, temperature rise allowances and hot spot allowances for various
enclosures and service factors of standard motors.
Table 2 shows a listing of temperature related life-shortening factors along with symptoms and cures. You
may find this table useful.
19
TABLE 1
Insulation System Class
Temperature Rating in Degrees Centigrade
A
B
F
H
105°
130°
155°
180°
Temperature Rise Allowance by Resistance (Based on 40° C Ambient Temperature)
All Motors with 1.15 Service Factor
(Hot Spot Allowance)
70
*
90
*
115
*
—
Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled Motors
(Hot Spot Allowance)
60
(5)
80
(10)
105
(10)
125
(15)
Totally Enclosed Non-Ventilated Motors
(Hot Spot Allowance)
65
85
110
135
(0)(5)(5)(5)
Motors other than those listed above
(Hot Spot Allowance)
60
(5)
80
(10)
105
(10)
125
(15)
*When operating at service factor loading the hot spot temperatures can actually exceed the insulation rating
resulting in shortened motor life.
TABLE 2
Temperature Related Life-Shortening Factors
PROBLEMS
SYMPTOMS
CURES
Low Voltage
Overload Tripping
High current
Short motor life
Correct power supply or match motor to
actual power supply voltage rating.
High Voltage
Overload tripping
High Current
Short Motor Life
Correct power supply or match motor to
actual power supply voltage rating
Unbalanced Voltage
Unbalanced phase currents
Overload tripping
Determine why voltages are unbalanced
and correct.
Overload
Overload tripping
High current
Short motor life
Determine reason for overload.
Increase motor size or decrease load speed.
High Ambient Temperatures
Short motor life
* Rewind motor to higher class of insulation.
Oversize motor to reduce temperature rise.
Ventilate area to reduce ambient temperature.
Blocked Ventilation
Clean lint and debris from air passageways
or use proper motor enclosure for application.
Short motor life
Runs hot
Amperage o.k.
Frequent Starts
Short motor life
** Use a reduced voltage starting method.
Upgrade class of insulation.
High Inertia Loads
Oversize motor frame
Use higher class of insulation.
** Use a reduced voltage starting method.
Short motor life
Overload tripping during
starting
*Bearing lubrication must also be matched to high operating temperature.
**Reduced voltage starting method and motor characteristics must be matched to the load requirement.
20
APPENDIX
Temperature Rise by Resistance Method
Degrees C Rise = Rh – Rc (234.5 + T)
Rc
WhereRc = Cold Winding Resistance in Ohms
Rh = Hot Winding Resistance in Ohms
T = Cold (ambient) Temperature in
Degrees Centigrade
Note: This formula assumes that the ambient temperature does not change during the test.
Example: A small motor has a cold temperature resistance of 3.2 ohms at 25° C (77° F) ambient
temperature. After operating at full load for several hours, the resistance measures 4.1 ohms
and the ambient has increased to 28° C.
Calculate the temperature rise:
Apparent rise = 4.1 – 3.2 (234.5 + 25) = 73° C
3.2
Correcting for 3° C increase in ambient:
Actual rise = 73° – 3° = 70° C
Centigrade Fahrenheit Conversions
Actual Temperatures
To change Fahrenheit to Centigrade:
C° = (F° – 32) 5
9
To change Centigrade to Fahrenheit:
F° = (C° x 9 ) + 32
5
Rise Values Only
Degrees “C” Rise = °F (Rise) x .56
Degrees “F” Rise = °C (Rise) x 1.8
21
22
metric motors
The influx of foreign equipment have put great numbers of metric motors in plants. As a result of this
and the age of these motors, we are seeing inquiries for replacement motors that will match the IEC
(International Electrical Commission) standards.
To help identify these motors and make suitable replacements, the following information could be useful.
rating system
One of the first things is that ratings are given in kilowatts (KW) rather than horsepower. The first thing to
do is to convert from kilowatts to horsepower. It is important to note that even though KW is an electrical
term, in this case it is associated with mechanical output (just as horsepower is in this country). A simple
factor will make the conversion. Multiply the KW rating of the motor by 1.34 to get the horsepower of
the motor. For example, a 2 KW motor would be equal to approximately 2.7 HP and the closest NEMA
equivalent would be 3 HP.
The next item of concern would be the speed of the motor. Generally, somewhere on the nameplate
of the foreign motor, you find the speed listed in RPM. The convention in Europe seems to be to show
the no load speed of the motor and occasionally, the 50 cycle speed may be shown rather than the
60 cycle speed. The following table shows a crossover from the 50 cycle speeds to the equivalent 60
cycle speeds. In some cases, both the 50 and 60 cycle speeds are shown generally separated with a
slash, for example, 1500/1800 RPM. this would be a 4 pole motor that U. S. manufacturers would show
nameplated with its full load speed. In this case it might be 1725 to 1760 RPM depending on the size of
the motor.
FREQUENCY
50 HZ
SPEEDS (RPM)
60 HZ
SPEEDS (RPM)
FULL LOAD
FULL LOAD
POLES SYNCHRONOUS
SYNCHRONOUS
(Typical)(Typical)
2
3000
2850
3600
3450
4
1500
1425
1800
1725
6
1000
950
1200
1150
8
750
700
900
850
EFFICIENCY
IEC 60034-30 specifies the efficiency levels for metric 50Hz motors. The equivalent to our EPAct level
of energy efficient motors (NEMA MG 1, table 12-11) is IE2; and premium efficient motors (NEMA
MG 1, table 12-12) are IE3. Baldor manufactures metric motors to both levels. A new IEC 60034-2-1 test
method now measures all losses and is equivalent to IEEE 112b and CSA 390.
failure replacement
When an IEC (metric) motor fails in service the most practical way to proceed is to attempt to get an
exact metric framed replacement motor. Baldor and other manufacturers offer a limited selection of the
most popular ratings for direct replacement.
When direct replacements are not available, the following information should be helpful in adapting NEMA
frame motors to the metric application.
23
frame size
European frame sizes are handled in a different way from U. S. frame sizes. They are based on the shaft
height (equivalent to our “D” dimension) in millimeters. For example, a 112 frame would have a 112
millimeters shaft height. Convert this to inches by dividing 112 by 25.4 to get an equivalent domestic
shaft height. In this case, the shaft height of a 112 frame would be slightly over 4.4 inches and the
closest NEMA frame motor would be a 180 series frame (182, 184, 182T or 184T) with a shaft height of
4.5 inches. This is true for IEC base mounted motors. In the case of this motor, it would be necessary
to make adjustments on the machine that would allow for either using the 180 series frame domestic
motor and aligning the shaft height difference or by selecting a 145T or 56 frame motor (3.5" shaft
height) and shimming up to get the proper alignment. The bolt pattern on the bases of IEC motors are
given as metric dimensions and it is impossible to get complete interchangeability with NEMA frame
sizes. However, it is usually possible on foot mounted motors to adapt to domestic frame sizes by drilling
new holes or making other accommodation to accept the different footprint of the NEMA frame motor.
IEC frame sizes for rigid base motors and the associated metric dimensions are shown on page 25.
(Dimensions are in Millimeters — Divide by 25.4 to get inch equivalents.)
flange mounted motors
Flange mounted motors become a real nemesis for conversion. There are two popular face mounting
configurations used on the IEC motors. The most popular is the “B5” configuration which is closest to
NEMA “D” flange motors. the important thing to note is that with the B5 flange, the clearance holes are
in the flange and the threaded holes are in the mating part, such as the pump, gear reducer or machine.
The other popular IEC flange is the B14 flange. In this case, the threaded holes are in the face of the
motor much the same as the NEMA “C” face motors.
IEC flange mounted motors all have metric rather than inch shaft diameters and where threaded holes
are involved, they are metric rather than “inch” threads. To replace metric flange mounted motors, an
exact flange mounting equivalent would be necessary unless someone is resourceful enough to make
adapter flanges that would convert NEMA “C” face motors to the metric dimensions required. Since this
usually is not the case, metric flange mounted motors have to be replaced with metric motors. Page
26 shows typical metric dimensions for B5 and B14 metric motors. Note that dimensions are given in
Millimeters.
Baldor is now offering selections of metric, three phase, motors through 200kW. We also stock some
permanent magnet DC motors that can be used as replacement units. On a custom basis when
reasonable quantities are involved we can build many different metric equivalent motors.
summary
This information should be useful in your day-to-day dealings in metric replacements.
24
typical metric foot mounted dimensions
AE
AC
L
Ad
kk
Ed
F
Hd
g
H
+0
–0.5
Holes
k dia.
d
C
E
AA
B CRS
BB
Fixing
AA
A CRS
AB
Shaft
HA
General
Frame
Size
a
b
c
h
k
d
e
f
g
ed
aa
ab
bb
Typical
L
ha
ac
ad
hd
d63
100
80
40
63
7
11
23
3
8.5
10
19
119
100
207
2
126
—
169
D71
112
90
45
71
7
14
30
5
11
14
19
131
110
251
2
126
—
177
d80
125
100
50
80
10
19
40
6
15.5
25
27
157
127
295
4
158
132
212
d90s
140
100
56
90
10
24
50
8
20
32
28
174
127
314
4
178
140
230
d90l
140
125
56
90
10
24
50
8
20
32
28
174
152
339
4
178
140
230
d100L
160
140
63
100
12
28
60
8
24
40
28
184
170
371
4
208
138
251
d112m
190
140
70
112
12
28
60
8
24
40
37
214
170
384
4
243
192
233
d132s
216
140
89
132
12
38
80
10
33
56
38
243
208
463
5
243
234
371
d132m
216
178
89
132
12
38
80
10
33
56
38
243
208
463
5
243
234
271
d160m
254
210
108
160
15
42
110
12
37
80
49
304
304
598
5
329
278
328
d160l
254
254
108
160
15
42
110
12
37
80
49
304
304
598
5
329
278
328
d180m
279
241
121
180
15
48
110
14
42.5
80
51
329
329
698
8
388
317
375
d180l
279
279
121
180
15
48
110
14
42.5
80
51
329
329
698
8
388
317
375
d200l
318
305
133
200
19
55
110
16
49
80
60
380
379
745
10
453
357
410
25
typical metric flange mounted motor dimensions
B5
motor
2 poles
4 poles
6 poles
Typical
de
nmpsv
xy
sizehpkwhpkwhp kw
56A
0.120.090.080.06 — —
9
20
80
100
120
2.5
7
167
102
56b
0.160.120.120.09 — —
63a 0.25
0.18
0.16
0.12
—
—
11
23
95
115
140
3
9
185
122
63b
0.33
0.25
0.25
0.18
—
—
71a
0.5
0.37
0.33
0.25
0.25
0.18
14
30
110
130
160
3.5
9
211
140
71b
0.75
0.55
0.5
0.37
0.33
0.25
80a
1
0.75
0.75
0.55
0.5
0.37
19
40
130
165
200
3.5
11
231
164
80b
1.5
1.1
1
0.75
0.75
0.55
90s
21.51.51.110.75 245
90l
32.221.51.51.1 24
50
130
165
200
3.5
11
270
181
90ll
—
—
2.5
1.8
—
—
292
100la
433
2.2
2
1.5
304
100lb
——4 3—— 28 60 180215250 4 14 304207
112m
5.5
4
5.5
43
2.2
343
132s
7.5-10
5.5-7.5
7.5
5.5
43
364
132m
12.5 9 10 7.5 5.5-7.54-5.5 38 80 230265300 4 14 402259
132l
—
—
12.5
9
—
—
402
160m
15-20
11-15
15
11
10
7.5
42110 250300350 5 18 540335
160l
25
18.5
20
15
15
11
180m
30
22
25
18.5
—
—
48110 250300350 5 18 600374
180l
3526302220 15
200l
40-50
30-3740 3025-30
18.5-2255110 300350400 5 18 656416
225s
—
—
50
37
—
—
* 60 140 350400450 5 18 680416
225m
6045604540 30
250m
75 55 75 55 50 37 * 65 140 450500550 5 18 742490
100
75
100
75
60
45
280s
* 75 140 450500550 5 18 892490
125
90
125
90
75
55
* For 2 poles motors: Gr. 225 D = 55; E = 110
Gr. 250 D = 60; E = 140
Gr. 280 D = 65; E = 140
B14
Typical
motor
2 pole
4 pole
6 pole
de
nmpsv
xy
sizehpkwhpkwhp kw
63A
0.250.180.160.12 — —
1123607590
2.5m5
185
122
63b
0.330.250.250.18 — —
71a
0.5 0.370.330.250.250.18
14307085105
2.5m6
211
140
71b
0.750.55 0.5 0.370.330.25
80a
1 0.750.750.55 0.5 0.37
194080
100
1203m6
231
164
80b
1.5 1.1 1 0.750.750.55
90s
21.51.51.110.75 245
90l
32.221.51.51.124 50 95 115 140 3m8 270181
90ll
— —2.51.8— — 292
100la
4 3 32.221.5
2860
110
130
160
3.5m8
304
207
100lb
——4 3——
112m
5.545.54 32.228 60 110130 1603.5m8 343207
26
locked rotor code letters
and
reduced voltage starting methods
When AC motors are started with full voltage (Across-the-Line Starting), they draw line amperage
300% to 600% greater than their full load running current. The magnitude of the “inrush current” (also
called locked rotor amps or LRA) is determined by motor horsepower and design characteristics. To
define inrush characteristics and present them in a simplified form, code letters are used. Code letters
group motors depending on the range of inrush values and express the inrush in terms of KVA (Kilovolt
Amperes). By using the Kilovolt ampere basis, a single letter can be used to define both the low and high
voltage inrush values on dual voltage motors.
The code letter designations and their values appear in Table I.
approximateapproximate
codekva/hpmid-rangecodekva/hpmid-range
letterrangevalueletterrangevalue
a
B
c
d
e
f
g
h
J
K
0.00 - 3.15
3.15 - 3.55
3.55 - 4.0
4.0 - 4.5
4.5 - 5.0
5.0 - 5.6
5.6 - 6.3
6.3 - 7.1
7.1 - 8.0
8.0 - 9.0
1.6l
9.0 - 10.0
3.3m
10.0 - 11.2
3.8n
11.2 - 12.5
4.3
P
12.5 - 14.0
4.7r
14.0 - 16.0
5.3
S
16.0 - 18.0
5.9
T
18.0 - 20.0
6.7
U
20.0 - 22.4
7.5
V
22.4 - and up
8.5
9.5
10.6
11.8
13.2
15.0
17.0
19.0
21.2
Table 1
To determine starting inrush amperes from the code letter, the code letter value (usually the mid-range
value is adequate), horsepower and rated operating voltage are inserted in the appropriate equation. The
equation to be used is determined by whether the motor is single or three phase.
(code letter value) x hp x 1000
inrush amperes
=
rated voltage
(single phase motors)
(code letter value) x hp x 577
inrush amperes
=
rated voltage
(three phase motors)
The following simplified equations for three phase motors will give approximate results for 3 phase
motors rated for 200, 230, 460 or 575 volts:
200
230
460
575
volts
volts
volts
volts
LRA
LRA
LRA
LRA
=
=
=
=
Code
Code
Code
Code
Letter
Letter
Letter
Letter
Value
Value
Value
Value
x
x
x
x
HP
HP
HP
HP
x
x
x
x
2.9
2.5
1.25
1.0
27
starting methods
Across the line starting is used on a high percentage, probably over 95% of normal motor applications.
Other starting methods (reduced voltage) are used mainly to control inrush current and limit it to
values that can be safely handled without excessive voltage dips and the accompanying light flicker.
Occasionally, reduced voltage starters are used to reduce starting torque for smoother acceleration of
loads. Various methods of reduced voltage starting have been developed. Table 2 shows the common
reduced voltage starter types and the results that can be expected in terms of motor voltage, line current,
and the output torque of the motor. Caution should be used in applying reduced voltage starters on
certain types of loads. For example, a centrifugal pump, which is very easy to start, can be operated with
either wye-delta starting or part winding starting. These starting methods produce 33% and 50% of rated
motor starting torque respectively and can easily start centrifugal pumps. They could also be expected
to start a compressor so long as it is unloaded. They could have difficulty starting a loaded inclined
conveyor or a positive displacement pump because of high starting torques required on these types of
loads. The best starting method has to be one that achieves the desired result in inrush reduction and
yields adequate starting torque to reliably start the load.
squirrel cage induction motors
% of Full Voltage Value*
Voltage
Line
Motor
Starting Method
at
CurrentOutput
Motor
Torque
Full Voltage
Autotransformer
Primary reactor
80
65
50
80
65
50
100100100
%
%
%
%
%
%
tap
tap
tap
tap
tap
tap
80
65
50
80
65
50
64**
42**
25**
80
65
50
64
42
25
64
42
25
Primary resistor Typical Rating
80
80
64
Part Winding High Speed Motors (1/2 - 1/2)
100
70
50
Wye Start – Delta Run
100
33
33
* Percent of “Across The Line Value”.
** Autotransformer magnetizing current not included. Magnetizing current usually less than 25 percent motor full-load current.
Table 2
In all cases, reduced voltage starters will cost substantially more than full voltage (across the line) starters.
Standard motors can be used with autotransformer, primary reactor and primary resistor type starters. In
addition, dual voltage motors can usually be utilized with part winding starters but only at the low voltage.
Generally speaking, wye delta motors and part winding motors for higher voltage (for example, 460 or
575 volts) must be made to order. This will raise the cost of the motor over a standardly available motor
suitable for use on other types of reduced voltage starting.
28
solid state starters
So far we have discussed the traditional types of reduced voltage starters. The newer arrival is the solid
state soft-start control. With this type of device, the voltage is gradually raised electronically from a low
value at which the motor starts to turn the load up to the final across the line operating voltage. This type
of starter has the advantage of giving smoothly controlled acceleration and substantially reduced inrush
current.
summary
Overall, it is important to note that one of the primary objectives of reduced voltage starting is to limit the
inrush current to a value that the power system or the local utility will accept. There are fringe benefits
derived from all types of reduced voltage starting. Reduced torque values that result from the lower
applied voltage also reduce wear and tear on couplings, belts, gears and other equipment that is being
powered by the motor. Solid state starters offer a smooth transition from standstill to full speed with
reduced line current, controlled motor torque and acceleration.
29
30
National Conference on Power Transmission
UNDERSTANDING TORQUE
EDWARD H. COWERN, P.E.
31
UNDERSTANDING TORQUE
table of contents
Page
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Torque Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Horsepower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Variable Speed Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Constant Torque Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Constant Horsepower Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Horsepower/Torque Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Variable Torque Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
High Inertia Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Reflected Inertias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Linear Motion Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
32
understanding torque
Edward H. Cowern, P.E.
In the process of applying industrial drive products,
we occasionally are misled into believing that we are
applying horsepower. The real driving force is not
horsepower, it is TORQUE. This paper is developed
to give a deeper understanding of torque, its
relationship to horsepower, and the types of loads
we most frequently encounter.
introduction
Torque is the twisting force supplied by a drive to
the load. In most applications, a substantial amount
of torque must be applied to the driven shaft before
it will even start to turn. In the English System,
the standard units of torque as used in the power
transmission industry are pound inches (lb. in.), or
pound feet (lb. ft.) and, in some cases, for very low
levels of torque, you will encounter ounce inches
(oz. in.).
torque basics
At some time, we have all had difficulty in removing
the lid from a jar. The reason we have this trouble
is simply that we are unable to supply adequate
torque to the lid to break it loose. The solution to
our dilemma may be to: 1) grit our teeth and try
harder, 2) use a rubber pad, or cloth, to increase
the ability to transmit torque without slippage, or 3)
use a mechanical device to help multiply our torque
producing capability. Failing on all of the above, we
may pass the jar to someone stronger who can
produce more torque.
If we were to wrap a cord around the lid and
supply a force to the end of the cord through a
scale, as shown in Figure 1, we could get the exact
measurement of the torque it takes to loosen the lid.
The torque required would be the force as indicated
on the scale., multiplied by the radius of the lid.
of the lid was 1.5 inches, the torque required would
have been:
T = 25 lbs. x 1.5 in. = 37.5 lb. inches
Although this example does give a reasonable
illustration of “torque”, it does not represent a very
common example of requirements on industrial
equipment.
There is, however, one additional important point
that can be derived from the jar and the lid example;
namely “Sticksion”. “Sticksion” is a term generated
to indicate the amount of torque required to break a
load loose on its way to making the first revolution.
Generally speaking, the breakaway torque
requirement to start a machine will be substantially
greater than that required to keep it running once it
has started. The amount of “sticksion” present in a
machine will be dependent on the characteristics of
the machine as well as the type of bearings that are
used on the moving parts.
Table I indicates typical values of breakaway torque
for various general classifications of machinery.
breakaway & starting torque
characteristics of various types of loads
Torque
% of Running
Torque
Types of Machines
Breakaway
120% to 130%
Torque
General machines with
ball or roller bearings
Breakaway
130% to 160%
Torque
General machines with
sleeve bearings
Breakaway
160% to 250%
Conveyors and
Torque
machines with
excessive sliding
friction
Breakaway
250% to 600%
Torque
Machines that have
“high” load spots in their
cycle, such as some
printing and punch
presses, and machines
with “cam” or “crank”
operated mechanisms.
Table 1
Figure 1
For example, if the indicated force on the scale at
the time of “breakaway” was 25 lbs. and the radius
Assuming that the “sticksion”, or breakaway torque,
has been overcome and the load has started, a
continuing amount of torque must be supplied
to handle the running torque requirements of the
machine.
33
In a high percentage of industrial applications, the
torque requirement of the load is independent of the
speed at which the machine is driven. This type of
load is generally called a “constant torque load”.
Constant torque loads will be used to introduce the
basic concepts of horsepower. Additional load types
will be introduced after the discussion of horsepower.
horsepower
Many years ago, the invention of the steam
engine made it necessary to establish a unit of
measurement that could be used as a basis for
comparison for how much work could be done by an
engine. The unit that was chosen was related to the
animal that was to be replaced by the new sources
of power – the horse.
After a great deal of testing, it was found that the
average work-horse could accomplish work at a rate
equal to 33,000 ft. lbs. in one minute. This would be
equal to lifting 1 ton (2,000 lbs.) 16.5 feet, or 1,000
lbs., 33 feet in one minute.
HP =
T X S
5252
T = TORQUE IN LB. FT.
S = SPEED IN RPM
HP =
TXS 63,025
T = TORQUE IN LB. IN.
S = SPEED IN RPM
HP =
TXS 1,000,000
T = TORQUE IN IN. OUNCES
S = SPEED IN RPM
OR
OR
Re-arranging these formulas to obtain torque, we
can arrive at the equations:
HP X 5252
S
T = TORQUE IN LB. FT.
S = SPEED IN RPM
T=
HP X 63.025
S
T = TORQUE IN LB. IN.
S = SPEED IN RPM
T=
HP X 1,000,000T = TORQUE IN IN. OUNCES
S
S = SPEED IN RPM
T=
OR
OR
In order to save time, graphs and tables are
frequently used to show values of torque, speed and
horsepower.
The previous discussion applies to calculations for
all single speed loads where the required torque and
speed for a given operating condition are known.
Adjustable speed drives
When adjustable speed drives such as DC SCR
units, magnetic couplings, or variable frequency
drives are to be utilized, a determination of load type
must be made.
Figure 2
As previously mentioned, the most common type of
load is the “constant torque” load. The relationships
of torque and horsepower to speed for a “constant”
torque load is shown in Figure 3.
This unit, once established, has become the Western
Hemisphere’s standard for measuring the rate at
which motors and other drives can produce work.
For example, a 1 H.P. motor can produce 33,000 ft.
lbs. of work in one minute.
Torque and horsepower are related to each other by
a basic formula which states that:
Horsepower = Torque x Speed
Constant
The value of the constant changes depending
upon the units that are used for torque. The most
frequently used combinations are as follows:
Constant Torque Speed-Torque Relationship
Figure 3
34
In the case of “constant torque” loads, the drive
must be sized to handle:
1) The torque required to breakaway the load.
2) The torque required to run the load.
3) The output speed required to operate the
machine at the maximum required speed.
Please note that only after the load has 1) been
started and 2) adequate torque is available to run it,
does speed become a factor.
Only after these three items have been determined,
is it possible to calculate the required horsepower for
the application.
When a small hole is being drilled, the drill is
operated at a high speed, but it requires a very low
torque to turn the small drill in the material.
A mathematical approach to this type of requirement
would indicate that the HP requirement would be
nearly constant regardless of the machine speed.
Figure 5 shows the relationships of torque and
horsepower to speed on constant horsepower loads.
As previously mentioned, this load type occurs
most frequently on metal working applications,
such as: drilling or boring, tapping, turning (lathes),
planing, milling, grinding, wire drawing, etc. Center
driven winders winding materials under constant
tension also require constant horsepower. Constant
horsepower can also be a requirement on some
types of mixers.
Most adjustable speed drives are inherently
“constant torque” devices; therefore, no special
considerations are involved in handling “constant
torque” loads.
constant horsepower
A load type that occurs most frequently in metal working
applications, is the Constant Horsepower load.
On applications requiring constant horsepower, the
torque requirement is greatest at the lowest speed
and diminishes at higher speeds. In order to visualize
this requirement, consider the torque requirements of
a drill press, as shown in Figure 4.
Constant HP Speed-Torque Relationships
Figure 5
An example of this might be a food mixer used to
mix a variety of batters and dough. In this case,
dough would require low speed and high torque.
Thin batters would require high speed and low
torque. This is “Constant Horsepower”.
Spring coilers, fourslide machines, punch presses
and eyeletting presses will frequently have torque
requirements falling somewhere between the
characteristics of constant horsepower and constant
torque.
HP =
TS =
_______
5250
S
T
_______
5250
Figure 4
When a large hole is being drilled, the drill is
operated at a low speed, but it requires a very high
torque to turn the large drill in the material.
A general test for deciding if a machine might
require “Constant Horsepower” would be to study
the machine output. When a machine is designed
to produce a fixed number of pounds per hour
regardless of whether it is making small parts at high
speed, or large parts at a lower speed, the drive
requirement is apt to be “Constant Horsepower”.
Although details of selecting drives for constant
horsepower loads are beyond the scope of this
35
presentation, some possibilities are as follows.
“Constant Horsepower” loads can be handled by
oversizing drives such as standard SCR units or
slip couplings. This is done by matching the drive’s
output torque with the machine’s requirement at
the low speed. Depending upon the speed range
that is required, this can result in gross oversizing at
the high speed. More practical approaches involve
using stepped pulleys, gearshift transmissions
and metallic or rubber belt adjustable pitch pulley
drives. Some additional and more sophisticated
approaches are DC (SCR) drives operating with a
combination of armature control at full field power
up to base speed and field weakening above base
speed. Some variable frequency drives can also be
used at frequencies above 60 HZ., with voltage held
constant to achieve a moderate amount of constant
horsepower speed range.
variable torque
The final load type that is often encountered is the
“Variable Torque” load. In general, variable torque loads
are found only in centrifugal pumps, fans and blowers.
A cross section of a centrifugal pump is shown in
Figure 6. The torque requirement for this load type
can be thought of as being nearly opposite that of
the “Constant Horsepower” load. For a variable
torque load, the torque required at low speed is very
low, but the torque required at high speed is very
high. Mathematically, the torque requirement is a
function of the speed squared and the horsepower is
a function of the speed cubed.
Variable Torque — Speed-Torque Relationships
Figure 7
The key to drive sizing on “Variable Torque” loads
is strictly related to providing adequate torque and
horsepower at the MAXIMUM speed that will be
required. MAXIMUM must be emphasized since a
9% increase in speed over the normal maximum
will produce a 30% increase in the horsepower
requirement.
It is impossible to speculate on the number of
motors that have been burned out because people
have unknowingly changed pulley ratios to obtain
“more output” from their centrifugal pumps or
blowers.
Table 2 illustrates the very dramatic changes in
horsepower requirements for relatively small changes
in speeds that occur with “Variable Torque” loads.
% Speed
Change
Centrifugal Pump — Variable Torque Load
Figure 6
The relationships of torque and horsepower to speed
on “Variable Torque” loads are shown in Figure 7.
–20
–15
–10
– 5
0
+5
+10
+15
+20
% Torque % of Original % HP
Change
HP
Change
–36
–28
–19
–10
0
+10
+21
+32
+44
51
61
73
86
100
116
133
152
173
–49
–39
–27
–14
0
+16
+33
+52
+73
Table 2
Most variable speed drives are inherently capable
of handling “Variable Torque” loads provided that
they are adequately sized to handle the horsepower
requirement at MAXIMUM speed.
36
high inertia loads*
A discussion of load types would not be complete
without including information on “High Inertia Loads”.
Inertia is the tendency of an object that is at rest
to stay at rest or an object that is moving to keep
moving.
In the industrial drive business, we tend to think
immediately of flywheels as having high inertia; but,
many other types of motor driven equipment, such
as: large fans, centrifuges, extractors, hammer mills,
and some types of machine tools, have inertias
that have to be identified and analyzed in order to
produce satisfactory applications.
*A load is generally considered to be “High Inertia” when the
reflected inertia at the motor shaft is greater than five times
the motor rotor inertia.
the high inertia problem
The high inertia aspect of a load normally has
to be considered only during acceleration and
deceleration. For example, if a standard motor is
applied to a large high inertia blower, there is a
possibility that the motor could be damaged or fail
completely on its first attempt to start. This failure
could occur even though the motor might have more
than adequate torque and horsepower capacity to
drive the load after it reaches the required running
speed.
A good example of high inertia that most of us are
familiar with is a jet plane taking off. In this case,
the maximum output of the engines is required to
accelerate the weight of the plane and contents.
Only when it has reached take-off speed and is
nearly ready to leave the ground do the engines start
doing the useful work of moving the plane to the final
destination.
Similarly, when the plane lands, the reversed thrust
of the engines and the brakes are used to slow
down and stop the inertia of the plane.
In the motor and drive industry, the inertia of a
rotating body is referred to as the WR2 or WK2. In
the English System. “W” is the weight in pounds
and “R” or “K” is the Radius of Gyration in feet. It
is usually easy to obtain the weight of the body,
but determining the radius of gyration can be a
little more difficult. Figure 8 gives the formulas for
determining the radius of gyration and WR2 of two
frequently occurring cylindrical shapes.
RADIUS OF
SIZE OF LOAD
PARTGYRATIONWR2 =
(IN FEET)
POUNDS X FEET2
CIRCULAR CYLINDER
.71R
1.58 W LR4
(R4 = RxRxRxR)
W = weight in pounds of
one cubic foot of the
material
HOLLOW
CIRCULAR CYLINDER
4
4
.71
R22+R12 1.58w L (R2 -R1 )

W = weight in pounds of
one cubic foot of the
material
w: Steel = 490
Cast Iron = 450
Aluminum = 165
Figure 8
In most cases, the WR2 of flywheels can be
determined by utilizing one, or both, of these normal
shapes. In the case of flywheels having spokes, the
contribution made by the spokes can generally be
ignored and the inertia calculation based only on
the formula for a Hollow Circular Cylinder as shown
in Figure 8. The weight of the spokes should be
included. If exact calculations are required, formulas
are available to enable the calculation of WR2 values
of nearly any shape.
In most cases, equipment manufacturers will be
able to provide the exact inertia values for a given
application.
Motor manufacturers can be asked to supply the
maximum WK2 limits for any specific application
requirement. (Please note WK2 and WR2 are used
interchangeably and they are the same).
The values shown in Table 3 are published in NEMA
(National Electrical Manufacturers Association)
standards MG 1. This table gives a listing of the
normal maximum values of WK2 that could be safely
handled by standard motors. This table can be
used as a guide. If the required WK2 exceeds these
values, the motor manufacturer should be consulted.
It is also important to note the details of paragraphs
1, 2, and 3 that are associated with this table. If the
number of starts required or the method of starting
is not “across the line”, the manufacturer should be
consulted.
37
why is high inertia a problem?
Prior to the time that a standard induction motor
reaches operating speed, it will draw line current
several times the rated nameplate value. The high
current does not cause any problem if it is of short
duration; but, when the high currents persist for an
extended period of time, the temperature within the
motor can reach levels that can be damaging.
Speed, RPM
3600
1800
1200 900
HP
720
600
514
Load WK (Exclusive of Motor WK ), Lb-Ft
2
2
2
1
—
5.8
15
31
53
82
118
11/21.8 8.6 23 45 77 120 174
2
2.4
11
30
60
102
158
228
3
3.5
17
44
87
149
231
335
5
5.7
27
71
142
242
375
544
71/2 8.3 39 104208 355 551 799
10
11
51
137
273
467
723
1050
15
16
75
200
400
684
1060
1540
20
21
99
262
525
898
1390
2020
25
26
122
324
647
1110
1720
2490
30
31
144
384
769
1320
2040
2960
40
40
189
503
1010
1720
2680
3890
50
49
232
620
1240
2130
3300
4790
60
58
275
735
1470
2520
3820
5690
75
71
338
904
1810
3110
4830
7020
100
92
441
1180
2370
4070
6320
9190
125
113
542
1450
2920
5010
7790
11300
150
133
640
1720
3460
5940
9230
—
200
172
831
2240
4510
7750
—
—
250
210
1020
2740
5540
—
—
—
300
246
1200
3240
—
—
—
—
350
281
1370
3720
—
—
—
—
400
315
1550
—
—
—
—
—
450
349
1710
—
—
—
—
—
500
381
1880
—
—
—
—
—
3. Two starts in succession (coasting to rest
between starts) with the motor initially at the
ambient temperature or one start with the
motor initially at a temperature not exceeding
its rated load operating temperature.
Copyright NEMA MG 1
Load WK2 for Integral horsepower Polyphase
Squirrel-cage Induction Motors
The table shown above lists the load WK2 which
integral-horsepower polyphase squirrel-cage induction
motors, having performance characteristics in
accordance with Part 12*, can accelerate without
injurious heating under the following conditions:
1. Applied voltage and frequency in accordance
with 12.44.
*Locked-rotor torque in accordance with 12.38.1,
breakdown torque in accordance with 12.39.1,
Class A or B insulation system with temperature
rise in accordance with 12.43, and service factor in
accordance with 12.51.2.
2. During the accelerating period, a connected
load torque equal to or less than a torque
which varies as the square of the speed and
is equal to 100 percent of rated-load torque at
rated speed.
Table 3
38
most cases, for standard motors through 100 HP, it
is reasonable to assume that average accelerating
torque available would be 150% of the motor full
load running torque and that accelerating times
of 8-10 seconds, or less, would not be damaging
provided that starting is not repeated frequently.
When load inertias exceed those shown in Table
4, the application should be referred to the motor
supplier for complete analysis.
reflected inertias
Up to this point, the only load inertias that have
been considered have been rotating inertias directly
connected to the motor shaft.
Figure 9(a)
Figure 9(b)
Figure 9 (a) shows typical plots of available torque
from a standard motor vs. speed. Also plotted on
curve (a) is the typical speed torque curve for a
Variable Torque load. The values of A1, A2, A3, and
A4 are the values of torque available to overcome
the effect of the inertia and accelerate the load
at different motor speeds as the motor speed
increases.
Referring to Figure 9 (b), you will see that during the
accelerating period this motor will draw line current
that initially starts at 550% of rated current and
gradually drops off as the motor approaches rated
speed. A great deal of heat is generated within the
motor during this high current interval. It is this heat
build up that is potentially damaging to the motor if
the acceleration interval is too long.
how long will it take?
Calculating the time to accelerate a direct coupled
load can be determined quite easily by utilizing the
following formula:
WR2 x N
t=
308T
t = AVERAGE accelerating torque in LB. FT.
n =required change in speed
wr2 =inertia in lb. ft.2
t=time in seconds
The same formula can be rearranged to determine
the average accelerating torque required to produce
full speed in a given period of time.
WR2 x N
T=
308t
Referring back to Figure 9 (a), the accelerating torque
would be the average value of the shaded area. In
On many applications, the load is connected to the
motor by belts or a gear reducer. In these cases, the
“Equivalent Inertia” or “Reflected Inertia” that is seen
at the motor shaft is the important consideration.
In the case of belted or geared loads, the “Equivalent
Inertia” is given by the following formula:
EQUIVALENT WR2= WR2 LOAD
[ ]
N
NM
2
x 1.1*
WR2 LOAD = INERTIA OF THE ROTATING PART
N = SPEED OF THE ROTATING PART
NM = SPEED OF THE DRIVING MOTOR
*Please note: the x 1.1 factor has been added as a
safety factor to make an allowance for the inertia and
efficiency of the pulleys (sheaves) or gears used in
the speed change.
This formula will apply regardless of whether the
speed of the load is greater than, or less than, the
motor speed.
Once the equivalent inertia has been calculated, the
equations for accelerating time, or required torque,
can be solved by substituting the equivalent WR2 in
the time or torque equation to be solved.
WHAT CAN BE DONE
When loads having high inertias are encountered,
several approaches can be used. Some of the
possibilities are:
1.Oversize the motor.
2.Use reduced voltage starting.
3.Use special motor winding design.
4.Use special slip couplings between the motor and load.
5.Oversize the frame.
6. Use an adjustable speed drive.
39
linear motion
Occasionally, applications arise where the load to be
accelerated is traveling in a straight line rather than
rotating. In this case, it is necessary to calculate an
equivalent WR2 for the body that is moving linearly.
The equation for this conversion is as follows:
equivalent wr2=
W(V)2
39.5 (SM)2
W = WEIGHT OF LOAD IN POUNDS
V = VELOCITY OF THE LOAD IN FEET PER MINUTE
SM = SPEED OF THE MOTOR IN RPM WHEN LOAD IS MOVING AT VELOCITY V
Once the equivalent WR2 has been calculated, acceleration
time, or required accelerating torque, is calculated by using
the same equations for rotating loads.
In all cases, the horsepower required for single
speed application can be determined by utilizing
the torque required at rated speed along with the
required speed.
When variable speed drives are to be utilized, an
additional determination of load type has to be
made. Most applications require either Constant
Torque or Variable Torque. Metal cutting and metal
forming applications frequently will require Constant
Horsepower.
High inertia loads need to be approached with
some caution due to high currents absorbed by
the motors during the starting period. If there is any
question regarding safe accelerating capabilities,
the application should be referred to the motor
manufacturer.
An understanding of torque is essential for proper
selection of any drive product.
summary
The turning force on machinery is torque, not
horsepower.
Horsepower blends torque with speed to determine
the total amount of work that must be accomplished
in a span of time.
glossary of terms
Torque
… Twisting force measured in pounds-inches, pounds-feet, or ounce-inches.
Horsepower
… A measurement of work done per unit of time. 33,000 foot pounds per minute = 1 H.P.
Sticksion
… A word used to describe the torque required to breakaway a load.
Constant Torque Load
… A load where the driving torque requirement is independent of speed.
Variable Speed Drives
… A driving device whose speed is adjustable to provide for changes in speed flow or rate.
Load Type
… Classifications of loads by their torque and horsepower requirements as related to speed.
Constant Horsepower
… A load type where the torque requirement is greatest at low speeds and reduces at higher speeds.
Variable Torque
… A load type where the torque required to drive a load increases with speed. This load type is usually associated with centrifugal pumps and blowers.
Inertia
… The tendency of a load to resist increases or decreases in speed.
High Inertia Loads
… Loads exhibiting a flywheel characteristic.
WR2 or WK2
… A measure of inertia related to the weight and radius of gyration of a rotating body.
Radius of Gyration
… A radius at which the entire weight of a body can be assumed to exist for purposes of inertia calculations.
NEMA
… National Electrical Manufacturers Association. A body charged with establishing many industry standards for electrical equipment.
Direct Connected Loads
… A load coupled directly to the motor shaft where the load speed is the same as the motor speed.
Reflected Inertia
… Used to relate load inertia to the motor shaft for loads driven through speed increasing or
decreasing belt or gear ratios. Also called “Equivalent Inertia”.
Linear Motion
40
… Straight line motion as encountered in cars and conveyors of various types.
fans, blowers, and other funny loads
A family of motor applications that tend to confuse people who are not regularly involved with them,
is that of Variable Torque Loads. These loads represent a high percentage of motor requirements, so
it is desirable to have a little extra knowledge of the mysterious aspects of these loads. First, Variable
Torque Loads are fans, blowers, and centrifugal pumps. In general fans and blowers are moving air but
centrifugal pumps can be moving many kinds of liquids including water, petroleum products, coolants,
etc.
There are two mysterious characteristics that these loads have. The first is the way they act when the
speed is changed. The rules that cover these characteristics are called the “affinity laws”. In order to
simplify we will discuss only the performance of these loads when they are applied to systems where the
load is not changing. For example, we can discuss a pump arrangement as shown in Figure 1. This is a
pump circulating chilled or hot water through a closed system. What we find is that the torque required
to drive the pump goes up as a squared function of speed (Speed2). Thus, increasing the speed causes
the torque required by the pump to go up, not directly with speed, but in proportion to the change of
speed squared. For example, if we change the speed from 1,160 to 1760 RPM the torque required
will go up by the ratio of (1760 ÷ 1160)2. This would mean that the torque required would go up by 2.3
times to 230% of the original value. Also, since horsepower (HP) is based on speed times torque, and
the speed has increased by 52%, the new value of HP would be 2.30 x 1.52 or almost 350% of the HP
required at the original speed.
The dramatic increases in the horsepower required to drive these loads when speed increases is a little
difficult to understand but it is very important. It is also important because small decreases can result in
great energy savings. For example, decreasing the speed of a variable torque load by only 20% will result
in a driving energy reduction of nearly 50%. This, obviously, has big importance when conservation is
considered. It also accounts for the tremendous market that exists for variable frequency drives operating
Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems used in heating, ventilating, air conditioning and variable speed
pumping used in similar systems.
41
The second puzzling thing that occurs with variable torque loads is that the motor load actually
decreases as the output or input to the blower or pump is blocked off or restricted. This would be the
situation in Figure 1 as the valve is closed. The reverse of this is that motor load increases dramatically
as restrictions are removed. As an example of this, I once had a call from a motor user who had burned
out a motor driving a blower on a heating system. The motor was driving a blower that drew air through
a filter and fed it to a ducted distribution system. When I asked if there had been any changes in the
system he said, “Well, we extended the ducts into another room and cut the end off to let the air flow,
but that would have made it easier for the motor not more difficult.” When I told him that the opposite
was true he couldn’t believe it. It defies good judgement to think that adding a restriction to the output
of the blower would decrease the motor load. If you don’t believe it, here's a simple test. Take a vacuum
cleaner and listen to it carefully while you alternately open and close the suction. At first you might
think that the “heavier” noise is the motor straining when the suction is the greatest, but if you listen
more carefully you will notice that the pitch of the motor goes up when the suction is closed. What this
means is that the load is being reduced on the motor and it speeds up. If you still don’t believe, you can
do the same test but with an ammeter on the motor. What you will find is that the amps drop as the
suction level is increased. The same is true of centrifugal pumps. Closing down or restricting the output
causes the pump to draw less mechanical power. Another way of looking at this is when the output of
a centrifugal pump or a squirrel cage blower is closed off the air or fluid inside the housing becomes a
“liquid flywheel”. It just spins around with the vanes of the pump or blower. Since there is no new fluid
coming in to be accelerated, the only energy needed is what it takes to make up for the friction losses
within the housing of the pump or blower. It doesn’t seem to make sense, but that’s the way it is!
As another example, think of fans applied to dust collection systems, the maximum load occurs when
everything is as clean as can be. As the filter bags get coated with dust, the back pressure increases and
the load on the blower and motor is reduced.
The amount of overloading or underloading that occurs as a result of changes in the “back pressure” on
the pump or blower will depend on the specific design of the impeller used. Some types of pumps and
blowers are designed to be non-overloading. But in most cases the worst case loading occurs at the
open discharge condition.
summary
When dealing with Variable Torque loads things are not always as they would seem. If there is some
question about how this equipment performs, it is best to contact the equipment manufacturer and
discuss the matter.
42
rms horsepower loading
There are a great many applications especially in hydraulics and hydraulically-driven machines that have
greatly fluctuating load requirements. In some cases, the peak loads last for relatively short periods
during the normal cycle of the machine. At first glance, it might seem that a motor would have to
be sized to handle the worst part of the load cycle. For example, if a cycle included a period of time
where 18 HP is required, then the natural approach would be to utilize a 20 HP motor. A more practical
approach to these types of “duty cycle loads” takes advantage of an electric motor’s ability to handle
substantial overload conditions as long as the period of overload is relatively short compared to the total
time involved in the cycle.
The method of calculating whether or not the motor will be suitable for a particular cycling application is
called the RMS (root mean squared) horsepower loading method. The calculations required to properly
size a motor for this type of application are relatively simple and are presented in this paper.
The RMS calculations take into account the fact that heat buildup within the motor is very much greater
at a 50% overload than it is under normal operating conditions. Thus, the weighted average horsepower
is what is significant. RMS calculations determine the weighted average horsepower.
In addition to reducing the size and cost of a motor for a particular application, RMS loading also offers
the advantage of being able to improve the overall efficiency and power factor on a duty cycle type of
load. For example, when an oversized motor is operated on a light load, the efficiency is generally fairly
low, so working the motor harder (with a higher average horsepower), will generally result in improved
overall efficiency and reduced operating cost.
In order to use the RMS method of horsepower determination, the duty cycle has to be spelled out in
detail as shown in the following example.
Step
Horsepower
Duration (seconds)
13
3
27.5
10
32.5
12
412.5
3
Repeats continuously.
43
In order to determine the RMS loading for the previous cycle, we can use the formula:

2
. . . HPx2 x tx
HP12 x t1 + HP22 x t2 + HP32 x t3 + HP4 x t4 + . ______________
RMS HP =
t1 + t2 + t3 + t4 + . . . . tx
The easiest way to approach this type of calculation is to make several columns as shown below and fill
in the details underneath.
Duration
Step
Horsepower
HP2HP2 x Time
(Seconds)
1
3.0
9.0
3
27.0
2
7.5
56.3
10
563.0
3
2.5
6.3
12
75.6
4
12.5
156.3
3 28
468.8
1134.4
In this case, the total time of the cycle is 28 seconds and the summation of horsepower squared times
time for the individual steps in the cycle is 1134.4. when inserted into the equation, the RMS horsepower
comes out to be:
 
1134.4
RMS HP=
28
= 40.5 = 6.4
At first glance, it appears that a 7-1/2 HP motor would be adequate to handle the loading required by
this duty cycle. One further check has to be made and that is to determine if the motor has adequate
pullout torque (breakdown torque) to handle the worst portion of the duty cycle without stalling. In this
case, you would have to refer to the manufacturer’s data for the motor and determine the percent of
pullout torque that is available.
An additional safety factor should be used because the pullout torque of the motor varies with the
applied voltage. In fact, the pullout torque varies in relation to applied voltage squared. Thus, when
the motor is running on 90% of rated voltage the amount of pullout torque available is only .9 x .9 or
approximately 80% of the value that it has at full rated voltage. For this reason, it is never safe to use the
full value of the pullout torque to determine if the overload can be handled. As a rule of good practice, it
is wise not to use more than 80% of the rated pullout for a determination of adequacy.
In this case, referring to the Baldor Engineering Data Section on www.Baldor.com, we would find that a
7-1/2 HP, open drip proof motor with a catalog number M3311T, has a breakdown torque of 88.2 ft. lbs.
and a full load operating torque of 22.3 ft. lbs. Thus, the actual pullout torque is 395% and utilizing 80%
of this value, we would find that the available, safe pullout torque would be 316%.
For the duty cycle shown, the required pullout torque percentage can be determined by the ratio of
maximum horsepower to rated horsepower as follows:
% Pullout torque required = 12.5 (Max. HP Point) x 100 = 167%
7.5 (Selected HP)
Since the available pullout torque at 90% of rated voltage is 316%, this 7-1/2 HP motor would be more
than adequate to handle this application.
44
The previous formula and example can be used for applications where the duty cycle repeats itself
continuously, without interruption. When a duty cycle involves a period of shut-off time, a different formula
is used. That formula is shown below.

HP12 x t1 + HP22 x t2 + HP32 x t3 + . . . . HPx2 x tx
_____________________________________________________
RMS HP =
t1 + t2 + t3 + . . . . tx + ts/C
where ts = number of seconds that motor is stopped
and C = 3 (open drip proof motors)
or C = 2 (totally enclosed motors)
This formula is the same as the previous one but it is modified to reflect the fact that during the nonoperating (motor is at standstill) time, it also loses its capability of cooling itself.
The total amount of time for which RMS loading can be adequately calculated would depend somewhat
on the size of the motor but, in general, it would be safe to utilize this method for duty cycles that total
less than 5 minutes from start to finish (of one complete cycle). If the total time is beyond 5 minutes, then
the application should be referred to the motor manufacturer for more detailed analysis.
summary
RMS horsepower loading is a very practical way to reduce motor horsepower requirements on cycling
loads. With reduced motor horsepower also come a reduction in physical size and a reduction in initial
cost, along with somewhat improved efficiency and reduced operating costs. If the selection procedure is
handled carefully, you can expect to get very good performance and reliability from the completed unit.
On servomotors and other adjustable speed applications, similar calculations are frequently made. In
these cases armature amperes or required torques are substituted in place of horsepower. The resulting
RMS amperes or RMS torque requirement is then compared to the motor’s continuous and peak ratings
to determine adequacy.
If you should have any questions regarding this method of sizing, please feel free to give us a call.
45
46
factors that determine
industrial electric bills
introduction
A good deal of confusion exists regarding the factors that determine an industrial electric bill. The
following information is presented to help sort out the various items on which billing is based, and to offer
suggestions on measures to help control and reduce electric utility bills.
Three basic factors and an optional item determine an industrial power bill. They are:
1 – Kilowatt hour consumption
2 – Fuel charge adjustments
3 – Kilowatt demand
4 – Power factor penalty (if any)
kilowatt hours
The first of these is the easiest to understand since it is one that we are familiar with based on our
experience at home. Kilowatt hour consumption is the measure of the electrical energy that has
been used during the billing period, without any regard to when or how it is used. In most cases, it
is determined on a monthly basis by taking the accumulated kilowatt hour readings from the dial of a
conventional kilowatt hour meter.
fuel charge adjustment
Fuel charge adjustment is an adjustment factor determined monthly. It is based on the cost of the fuel
used to produce power during a given month. For example, in areas where water power is plentiful
in the Spring, the contribution of water power might be great and its cost low. Thus, in the Spring of
the year, a downward adjustment might be made in fuel cost. In other instances, and at other times of
the year, a utility may find it necessary to burn large quantities of high priced imported oil to meet their
requirements. When this occurs, there would be an upward adjustment of the fuel cost charge. Fuel
charge adjustments are usually based on a unit charge per kilowatt hour.
kilowatt demand
Perhaps the least understood factor involved in calculating an industrial electric bill is the matter of
demand. Demand is based on how much power is consumed during a given period of time. It is
measured in kilowatts and it determines how much equipment the utility has to supply in terms of
transformers, wire and generation capability, to meet a customer’s maximum requirements. Demand can,
in some ways, be compared to the horsepower of an automobile engine. The normal requirement may
be relatively low but the size of the engine is determined by how much power is needed to accelerate
the car. Similarly, demand reflects a peak requirement. However, the term peak in relation to electric
demand is frequently misunderstood. In virtually all cases, demand for an industrial plant is based on a
15 or 30 minute average. Thus, brief high peaks, such as those that are present during the starting of
large motors, are averaged because the starting is of very short duration with respect to the demand
averaging interval.
A description of how the demand is measured may help to clarify this point. In each demand meter there
is a resetting timer. This timer establishes the demand interval and that interval, as mentioned previously,
may be either 15 or 30 minutes. In effect, during the demand interval, the total number of revolutions
made by the kilowatt hour meter disc is recorded. Thus, a high number of turns during the demand
interval would indicate a high demand, and a small total number of turns during the demand interval
would indicate a low demand.
47
For example, when a large motor is started, it would cause the disc in the meter to surge forward for
a short period of time. However, as the initial surge passes, the meter would settle down to a normal
rotation rate. Thus, the extra disc revolutions recorded as a result of the motor in-rush would not have
much impact on the total number of revolutions that accumulate during a 15 or 30 minute interval. At
the end of each demand averaging interval, the meter automatically resets and starts recording for the
next 15 minute period. This process goes on continuously. A special dial, which can be seen in Figure
1, records only the highest demand since the last time the meter was read. When the monthly reading
is taken, the meter reader resets the demand to zero. Once again, the meter starts searching for the
highest 15 minute interval and it does so continuously until the next time it is read. It is the highest
demand for a month that is normally used to compute the bill. More about this later.
Figure 1
This is a typical demand meter used on a small commercial installation. The demand is determined by
reading the position of the top needle and multiplying that reading by the meter constant. In this case,
the reading is .725 multiplied by 12 for a demand reading of 8.7 KW. After the monthly reading is taken,
the lock is unlocked, the needle reset to zero, and the meter is relocked. Accumulated kilowatt hours are
recorded in the conventional manner on the dials.
Figure 2 shows an example of typical manufacturing plants recorded demand over the course of twentyfour hours. This plant had a full first shift and partial second shift. By examining the graph, it is easy to
pick out some of the factors influencing the demand. The initial run up of demand occurs as the first shift
starts. The growth of demand continues until the preparation for a coffee break begins. Coffee breaks
result in a major dip followed by another run up until the peak demand is reached shortly after 10 a.m.
Demand then stays reasonably steady until preparations for lunch and the lunch period begins.
48
Figure 2
It is interesting to note that after the lunch hour, things never quite get back to equal the peak that
occurred before the lunch period. Another lower peak occurs at 1:00 p.m., followed by lower peaks and
a final drop-off as clean up and end of shift occurs. The second shift has peaks and valleys similar to the
first shift but shows the lower level of activity in the plant. Finally, on the third shift, demand drops sharply
to a level reflecting only the very basic loads of security, lighting, and other continuous loads.
controlling demand
Reducing demand peaks will result in lower demand charges and lower bills. High demand can result
from a number of factors. Some of the most likely would be the heating up of large furnaces or ovens
during the normal work day. This can happen since the heat-up requirement may be five to six times the
sustaining requirement for this equipment. Installing time switches which will allow the unit to preheat
to normal operating temperature before the plant shift starts is one easy way to reduce demand peaks.
This approach keeps the large demand required by heat-up from being imposed on top of the normal
plant demand. Large central air-conditioning chillers can pose similar problems if they are allowed to start
during the normal shift rather than pre-cooling the building during a non-working period.
Other factors that can contribute to high demands would be items such as air compressors if start up
is delayed until after the normal work shift starts. In this case, the compressor may run at full load for
an extended period, until the accumulator and distribution system has been filled. The solution with air
compressors is the same as that with industrial ovens. A timer can be used to start the compressors
and fill the system prior to the normal shift start. This approach allows the pressure to build up and the
compressor to fall into a normal loading and unloading pattern prior to the time that the balance of the
plant load is applied.
49
With some thought, you will be able to discover some items within a facility that may fall into the category
that can increase peak demand. The installation of seven day timers that will start essential compressors,
ovens and other similar loads ahead of the first shift, can help reduce demand in most plants.
Demand charges are normally figured on a dollars per kilowatt basis. For example, one Connecticut utility
has an industrial power rate that charges $401.00 for the first 100 kilowatts of demand and $2.20 for
each additional kilowatt.
demand ratchets
To encourage industrial plants to control their demand to reasonable levels, many utilities impose a
twelve month ratchet on demand. What this means is that a very high demand, established in a particular
month, will continue to be billed at a percentage of that high demand for eleven months unless actual
demand exceeds the established percentage of the previous peak. This type of arrangement can be
expensive to the power customers who are not careful in controlling their demand, and to industries
having high seasonal variations.
In many situations it is not possible to exercise any great degree of control over plant demand without
encumbering operations unnecessarily and adding extra labor costs, etc. Even if a plant happens to
be in one of these situations, it is important to understand the basic factors involved in demand and to
understand what equipment within a facility is contributing to the total demand picture.
demand monitoring and control
Demand monitoring and control equipment is available to help plant operators control their demand and
energy costs. This equipment is based on monitoring the demand build-up over the normal demand
averaging interval and taking action to curtail certain loads or operations to level peaks and prevent new
peaks from being established. For demand control to be effective, a plant must have electrical loads
that can be deferred. Typical examples of deferrable loads would be water heating for storage, heat
treating, and possibly the controlled shutdown of certain portions of ventilation systems where short term
interruptions would not create a problem.
Demand control is not for everyone but it can save substantial amounts of money when the right
conditions exist.
power factor
Another misunderstood item in computing industrial electrical bills is power factor penalty. Power factor,
in itself, is quite complicated to attempt to deal with in a broad manner. However, a capsule summary
might be in order.
Utilities have to size their transformers and distribution equipment based on the amount of amperes that
are going to be drawn by the customer. Some of these amperes are borrowed to magnetize inductive
loads within the plant. This borrowed power is later returned to the utility company without having been
bought. This borrowing and returning goes on at the rate of 60 times a second (the frequency of a 60
cycle power system). The borrowed power, as mentioned previously, is used to magnetize such things as
electric motors, transformers, fluorescent light ballasts, and many other kinds of magnetic loads within a
plant. In addition to the borrowed power, there is the so-called real power. This is the power that is used
to produce heat from heating elements, light from incandescent bulbs, and to drive the shaft on motors.
Power factor is a measure of the relative amounts of borrowed versus real power that is being used
within the plant.
50
Obviously, utilities would like to have the situation where the customer borrows nothing and utilizes
everything. In commercial and industrial situations, this ideal almost never exists. Plants with large
quantities of lightly loaded motors or large quantities of electric welding equipment, may run at poor
power factors of 65 to 70%. On the other hand, plants with substantial amounts of electric heating
equipment as found in injection molding machines and fully loaded motors, could run with power factors
of 85 to 90%.
Plants with poor power factors can improve their situation by adding power factor correction capacitors
to their systems. Power companies like to have plants provide power factor correction capacitors since
they lessen the number of amperes that need to be supplied. Within an individual plant, higher power
factors also mean that incoming circuit breakers and distribution panels are not being taxed as much.
So, within the plant, good power factor has some rewards as well.
power factor penalties
Some utilities impose power factor penalties. What this means is that when your power factor falls below
a pre-established level, a penalty charge may be added to the basic bill for kilowatt hours, fuel charge,
and demand. The amount of the penalty is dependent on how far below the pre-established level the
power factor falls. There is no uniformity among utilities on how they determine the power factor penalties
and at what level they start. The variations in the way they are imposed is almost as large as the number
of different utilities in the country. The penalties can range from none at all, which is the case with a great
many power companies, to very substantial penalties imposed by others. Frequently, when penalties
are imposed, there is also a reward arrangement. The reward is structured to reward high power factor
customers by giving them a credit on the monthly bill for having high power factor.
If you are concerned with power factor and any possible penalty you may be paying, the best approach
is to contact the local power company. They will provide you with any information you might require on
the existing power factor and any penalties that are being paid. They can also help you compute the
amount of power factor correction that you may need to eliminate any penalty charges.
summary
Understanding the four factors that go into determining industrial electric bills can help map approaches
to saving money on electric bills. Generally speaking, conservation efforts such as reduced lighting
levels, buying more efficient motors, and replacing existing inefficient equipment with equipment having
better designs, will reduce both kilowatt hour consumption and kilowatt demand. Reducing kilowatt hour
consumption will also reduce fuel charge assessment. Shifting demand of certain types of equipment into
more optimum time periods when plant demand is low, can reduce kilowatt demand and the charges
associated with it. Finally, improving power factor, if there are penalties being imposed, will help reduce
power factor penalty charges.
A basic understanding of these four factors can help the conservation-minded to reduce overall electric
energy costs. Table I shows a simplified analysis of how various conservation and load control actions
effect the four components that make up the normal industrial electric bill. It can be used as a guide in
directing conservation and electric bill reduction.
51
conservation action/results chart
savingS possibility
ENERGY
EQUIPMENT OR ACTION
FUEL COST ADJ.DEMAND KW
(KW HRS)
POWER
FACTOR
REDUCED LIGHT LEVELS
REDUCED
REDUCED
REDUCED
NEGLIGIBLE
MORE EFFICIENT
LIGHT SOURCE
REDUCED
REDUCED
REDUCED
NEGLIGIBLE
ENERGY EFFICIENT
REDUCED
REDUCED
REDUCED
MOTORS
MODEST
IMPROVEMENT
PROPER SIZING OF MOTORS
REASONABLE
IMPROVEMENT
MODEST
REDUCTION
MODEST
REDUCTION
MODEST
REDUCTION
SLIGHT
SLIGHT
SUBSTANTIAL
DEMAND CONTROL
REDUCTION
REDUCTION
REDUCTION
Table 1
52
NEGLIGIBLE
electric motors and power systems
There seems to be a lot of confusion about the voltage standards for motors and why they are structured
the way they are. There are, of course, two broad categories of motors, AC and DC. The voltage
standards for these two decidedly different motors are much different from each other. It will be the goal
of this paper to try to reduce some of the confusion that exists in the AC motor voltage standards.
ac power systems
To understand how voltage standards for motors are set it is important to know the basics of the power
systems they operate on. In general, utilities that supply power in the USA, and most other 60 cycle
countries, are required to provide power to the incoming point of a facility in multiples of 120 volts. Thus
incoming equipment, such as circuit breaker panels, are rated in multiples of 120 volts. The common
voltages are 120, 240, 480, and 600.
In addition, utilities are obligated by the regional governing authorities, (usually called Public Utility
Commissions) to regulate the voltage within a fairly narrow range such as plus or minus 5%.
For example, in most single phase residential systems the voltage is 120/240. It is brought to the building
with 3 wires, one being a neutral and the other two having voltages 120 volts different from the neutral
wire. The voltage difference between the two “hot” wires is 240 volts.
In 3 phase systems the situation is a bit different. There are 3 phase, 3 wire, ungrounded systems
where the voltage between the three wires is 240 volts. The big brother of that system is the ungrounded
3 phase, 3 wire 480 volt system. Ungrounded systems are usually found in older facilities.
In newer installations, the two most popular systems are called 4 wire grounded wye systems. The low
voltage version is represented by a 120/208 volt system. The higher voltage version it is a 277/480 volt
system. On both of these “grounded wye” systems, the low voltage portion (120 or 277 volts) is only
available as single phase. The high voltage (208 or 480 volts) is available as either single phase or 3
phase. It should be noted that in the 4 wire grounded wye systems the high voltage is 1.73 times (the
square root of 3) higher than the low voltage. These grounded wye systems are generally felt to be safer
and more flexible than the older ungrounded systems. The flexibility comes from the ability to handle
single phase lighting circuits, that operate at 120 volts or 277 volts, from the same system that feeds the
3 phase circuits for motors, equipment for heating, air conditioning, elevators, and industrial machinery.
motors
Now to discuss motors that operate on these 60 cycle power systems. In the case of “utilization
equipment”, such as motors, the voltage standards have been selected in multiples of 115 volts.
For example, 115, 230, 460 and 575 volts. The standards for the “utilization equipment” have been
deliberately picked to be slightly less than the utility delivery voltages because in an industrial plant or
large commercial building there may be several hundred feet between the incoming service point and the
equipment. The distances involved will always lead to some voltage loss (or drop) through the wiring. On
short runs this might be very small, even less than a volt, but on long heavily loaded runs it might be as
much as 3 or 4% of the operating voltage. So choosing the utilization voltage to be different — and less
than — the utility service voltage makes good sense.
There is also another factor that should be mentioned. The design standards for utilization equipment are
set so the equipment is able to handle a voltage variation of plus or minus 10% of the nameplate rating.
Thus a motor nameplated at 460 volts should be able to be operated successfully up to 460 plus 10%
(506 volts) and down to 460 minus 10% (414 volts). If everything is right with the voltage of the system
53
being in multiples of 120 plus or minus 5% and the equipment voltage being multiples of 115, plus or
minus 10% then everything fits together like a neat jigsaw puzzle.
There is one oddity in the mix. That is 3 phase motors for the 120/208 volt power systems. For example,
if the power system were to be 208 volts minus 5% (approximately 198 volts) and you were using a 230
volt motor, then the 230 volt motor could only go down to 207 volts (-10%) without being in trouble.
There would be a discrepancy between the 198 volt low range of the system voltage, and the 207 lowest
operating voltage of a 230 volt motor, this could spell trouble. So how can this be addressed?
There are two ways that motor manufacturers have faced up to the problem. The first is to provide
motors rated for 200 volts that can operate successfully down to 180 volts, or up to 220 volts. This is
an adequate margin to cover the normal range of voltages that could be expected on a 120/208 volt
system. But using this approach exclusively would mean that the complete inventory of motors in all
sizes, enclosures, mechanical configurations, etc. would have to be duplicated to handle the motor
requirements for the 120/208 volt power systems. This would be very expensive and cumbersome,
especially with the wide variety of small motors (under 10 HP) that exist.
So most motor manufacturers have taken a different approach to handling these smaller motors. This
approach is that by using a somewhat more conservative design on the 230 volt motors it is possible to
create a 3 phase, tri-voltage motor with voltage ratings of 208-230/460. With this approach the 230 volt
winding ( and connection diagram) is used on the 208 volt power system. When this approach is taken
the motor manufacturer is essentially saying that this motor can be successfully operated on voltages as
low as 208 minus 10% or 187 volts. This approach usually works very well since 208 volt power systems
are normally used in small buildings with relatively short distances between the incoming power service
and the utilization equipment. These short runs tend to make 208 volt power systems quite stable so that
the limit of the motor’s low voltage capability is seldom tested.
On motors larger than 10 HP the 200 volt motor is generally the best choice, but in many situations 230
volt motors are frequently and successfully applied on the 208 volt systems. In some cases a derate table
is provided for the “low voltage” situation. In other cases the motor service factor may be reduced from
1.15 down to 1.0 when it is applied to a 208 volt power system.
Table 1 summarizes this information to show the power system voltage and description along with the
motor voltage rating for single and 3-phase 60 Hertz motors.
50 hertz power systems
There seems to be an endless array of possible combinations, but most of them do make sense. In 50
hertz areas virtually all power systems are of the 4 wire, grounded wye type. A typical arrangement would
be a 220/380 volt power system. In this case, as in the case of a 120/208 volt 60 hertz system, the (low
voltage) 220 volt power is only available as single phase and the 380 volt power is available as either
single or three phase.
As a result of the voltage being described as 220/380 we frequently see specifications indicating that
3-phase motors be wound for 220/380. Although feasible to do this, it is unnecessary because the
3-phase motors will only be operated on 380 volt 3-phase power.
Some of the most popular voltages are 220/380 and 240/415. Recently European countries have
recognized the problem of trying to provide equipment for these two different voltage standards and
have come up with a standard that splits the difference. The new standard is 230/400. What this means
is that if the motor has an adequate amount of tolerance it can run on either a 380 volt system or a 415
volt system without being damaged. Also in most 50 Hertz systems, unlike the domestic systems, the
equipment voltage rating tends to be the same as the supply voltage. In other words, 380 volt motors are
used on 380 volt systems as opposed to situation in this country where the equipment utilization voltage
is deliberately set lower than the supply voltage.
54
Table 2 shows some typical supply voltages and the appropriate equipment standards for 50 cycle
power systems.
When dealing with foreign voltage requirements it is always desirable to check the specified voltage
against the listing of available voltages indicated in a U. S. Department of commerce booklet, Electric
Current Abroad. If the specified voltage and frequency does not match the voltages shown in the
booklet for the country and city involved it should be a “Red Flag” that would suggest that the customer
be contacted and the voltage confirmed for accuracy. Mistakes can be very costly!!
55
table 1
TYPICAL 60 HZ
COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL POWER SYSTEM VOLTAGES
UTILIZATION EQUIPMENT
VOLTAGE RATINGS
SUPPLY
SYSTEMclassification
voltageconfiguration*
SINGLE PHASE
3 PHASE
120/208
3 Phase
4 Wire
Grounded Wye
(A)
240
3 Phase
3 Wire
230
230
Delta Connected (B)
208 - 230
208 - 230
(Normally Ungrounded)
(1)
120/240/240
3 Phase
4 Wire
Tapped Delta
(C)
Neutral Grounded
115
230
208 - 230
230
208 - 230
277/480
3 Phase
4 Wire
Grounded Wye
(A)
277
265 (2)
460
480
3 Phase
3 Wire
Delta Connected (B)
(Normally Ungrounded)
(1)
460
460
600
3 Phase
3 Wire
Delta Connected (B)
(Normally Ungrounded)
(1)
575
575
2400
3 Phase
3 Wire
2300
Delta Connected (B)
4160
3 Phase
4 Wire
Grounded Wye (A)
2300
4000
4160
200
208 - 230
2300
2300/4160
4000
2300/4160
(1) On some systems grounding of one leg may be utilized.
(2) Some Single Phase equipment may be rated for 265 Volts.
*See page 58 for typical transformer connections.
56
115
208 - 230
Low
Voltage
Medium
Voltage
table 2
TYPICAL 50 HZ
COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL POWER SYSTEM VOLTAGES
UTILIZATION EQUIPMENT
VOLTAGE RATINGS
SUPPLY
SYSTEM
voltageconfiguration*
SINGLE PHASE
3 PHASE
115/200
3 Phase
4 Wire
Grounded Wye
(A)
115
200
200
127/220
3 Phase
4 Wire
Grounded Wye
(A)
127
220
220
220/380
3 Phase
4 Wire
Grounded Wye
(A)
220
380
380
400 (1)
230/400
3 Phase
4 Wire
Grounded Wye
(A)
230
400
400
240/415
3 Phase
4 Wire
Grounded Wye
(A)
240
415
415
400 (1)
250/440
3 Phase
4 Wire
Grounded Wye
(A)
250
440
440
220
3 Phase
3 Wire
Delta Connected
(B)
220
220
440
3 Phase
3 Wire
Delta Connected
(B)
440
440
(1) Alternate Rating
*See page 58 for typical transformer connections.
summary
Matching motors to the power system voltages can be fairly simple if the basis of the systems is
understood.
57
58
electric motors and voltage
The effect of low voltage on electric motors is pretty widely known and understood but, the effect of high
voltage on motors is frequently misunderstood. This paper will try to describe the effects of both low and
high voltage and to describe the related performance changes that can be expected when voltages other
than nameplate voltages are utilized.
Low voltage
When electric motors are subjected to voltages, below the nameplate rating, some of the characteristics
will change slightly and others will change more dramatically. A basic point is, to drive a fixed mechanical
load connected to the shaft, a motor must draw a fixed amount of power from the power line. The
amount of power the motor draws is roughly related to the voltage times current (amps). Thus, when
voltage gets low, the current must get higher to provide the same amount of power. The fact that current
gets higher is not alarming unless it exceeds the nameplate current rating of the motor. When amps go
above the nameplate rating, it is safe to assume that the buildup of heat within the motor will become
damaging if it is left unchecked. If a motor is lightly loaded and the voltage drops, the current will
increase in roughly the same proportion that the voltage decreases.
For example, a 10% voltage decrease would cause a 10% amperage increase. This would not be
damaging if the motor current stays below the nameplate value. However, if a motor is heavily loaded
and a voltage reduction occurs, the current would go up from a fairly high value to a new value which
might be in excess of the full load rated amps. This could be damaging. It can be safely said that low
voltage in itself is not a problem unless the motor amperage is pushed beyond the nameplate rating.
Aside from the possibility of over-temperature and shortened life created by low voltage, some other
important items need to be understood. The first is that the starting torque, pull-up torque, and pull-out
torque of induction motors, all change based on the applied voltage squared . Thus, a 10% reduction
from nameplate voltage (100% to 90%, 230 volts to 207 volts) would reduce the starting torque, pull-up
torque, and pull-out torque by a factor of .9 x .9. The resulting values would be 81% of the full voltage
values. At 80% voltage, the result would be .8 x .8, or a value of 64% of the full voltage value.
In this case, it is easy to see why it would be difficult to start “hard-to-start” loads if the voltage happens
to be low. Similarly the motor’s pull-out torque would be much lower than it would be under normal
voltage conditions.
To summarize the situation, low voltage can cause high currents and overheating which will subsequently
shorten motor life. Low voltage can also reduce the motor’s ability to get started and its values of pull-up
and pull-out torque. On lightly loaded motors with easy-to-start loads, reducing the voltage will not have
any appreciable effect except that it might help reduce the light load losses and improve the efficiency
under this condition. This is the principle that is used in the so-called Nola devices that have been sold
as efficiency improving add-on equipment to motors.
Effects of High Voltage
One thing that people assume is, since low voltage increases the amperage draw on motors, then by the
same reasoning, high voltage would tend to reduce the amperage draw and heating of the motor. This is
not the case. High voltage on a motor tends to push the magnetic portion of the motor into saturation.
This causes the motor to draw excessive current in an effort to magnetize the iron beyond the point to
which it can easily be magnetized. This generally means that the motors will tolerate a certain change in
voltage above the design voltage but extremes above the designed voltage will cause the amperage to
go up with a corresponding increase in heating and a shortening of motor life. For example, older motors
59
were rated at 220/440 and had a tolerance band of plus/minus 10%. Thus, the voltage range that they
can tolerate on the high voltage connections would be 396 to 484. Even though this is the so-called
tolerance band, the best performance would occur at the rated voltage. The extreme ends, either high or
low, would be putting unnecessary stress on the motor.
Generally speaking, these tolerance bands are in existence not to set a standard that can be used all the
time but rather to set a range that can be used to accommodate the normal hour-to-hour swings in plant
voltage. Operation on a continuous basis at either the high extreme or the low extreme will shorten the
life of the motor.
Although this paper covers the effects of high and low voltage on motors, the operation of other
magnetic devices are effected in similar ways. Solenoids and coils used in relays and starters are
punished by high voltage more than they are by low voltage. This is also true of ballasts in fluorescent,
mercury, and high pressure sodium light fixtures. Transformers of all types, including welding
transformers, are punished in the same way. Incandescent lights are especially susceptible to high
voltage conditions. A 5% increase in voltage results in a 50% reduction in bulb life. A 10% increase in
voltage above the rating reduces incandescent bulb life by 70%.
Overall, it is definitely in the equipment’s best interest to have the utility company change the taps on
incoming transformers to optimize the voltage on the plant floor to something that is very close to the
equipment ratings. In older plants, some compromises may have to be made because of the differences
in the standards on old motors (220/440) and the newer “T” frame standards (230/460), but a voltage in
the middle of these two voltages, something like 225 or 450 volts, will generally result in the best overall
performance. High voltage will always tend to reduce power factor and increase the losses in the system
which results in higher operating costs for the equipment and the system.
60
The graph shown in Figure 1 is widely used to illustrate the general effects of high and low voltage on the
performance of “T” frame motors. It is okay to use the graph to show “general” effects but, bear in mind
that it represents only a single motor and there is a great deal of variation from one motor design to the
next.
For example, the lowest point on the full load amp line does not always occur at 2-1/2% above rated
voltage. On some motors it might occur at a point below rated voltage. Also the rise in full load amps at
voltages above rated, tends to be steeper for some motor winding designs than others.
Some general guidelines might be useful.
1. Small motors tend to be more sensitive to over-voltage and saturation than large motors.
2. Single phase motors tend to be more sensitive to over-voltage than three phase motors.
3. U-frame motors are less sensitive to over-voltage than “T” frames.
4. Premium efficiency Super-E motors are less sensitive to over-voltage than standard efficiency
motors.
5. Two pole and four pole motors tend to be less sensitive to high voltage than six pole and eight
pole designs.
6. Over-voltage can drive up amperage and temperature even on lightly loaded motors. Thus, motor
life can be shortened by high voltage.
7. Full load efficiency drops with either high or low voltage.
8. Power factor improves with lower voltage and drops sharply with high voltage.
9. Inrush current goes up with higher voltage.
summary
There are very few desirable and many undesirable things that happen to electric motors and other
electrical equipment as a result of operating a power system at or near the ends of voltage limits. The
best life and most efficient operation usually occurs when motors are operated at voltages close to the
nameplate ratings.
61
62
unbalanced currents
Motor users and installers get concerned when they detect unbalanced phase currents on a 3-phase
motor. The question is frequently asked: “Is there something wrong with the motor?” The other question
is: “How much current unbalance can be tolerated?” This paper will attempt to answer those questions.
history
In the “Good Old Days” about the only sources of unbalanced phase currents was either a problem in
the motor, such as an unbalanced number of turns in the windings, an uneven air gap or unbalanced
phase voltages. Winding or air gap problems are definitely motor related. On the other hand unbalanced
phase voltages are a power system problem. Unbalanced voltages will generally produce unbalanced
currents that are many times greater than the percentage of voltage unbalance. The ratio used is close to
8:1. In other words, a voltage unbalance of 1% could create unbalanced phase currents of as much as
8%.
A very unscientific way of looking at the problem is as follows: Suppose a motor has a nameplate full
load current of 10 amps. At full load the amps on each leg of the 3 phases added together would be 10
+ 10 + 10 or 30. However, if the load is the same but the phase currents are unbalanced, the total of
the 3 legs added together will always be more than the total of the balanced currents. In this case the
currents might be 10.5, 11.3 and 12.1 for a total of 33.9. This is a very unscientific way of looking at it,
but it is accurate in describing the effect. What this means is that high current on one leg doesn’t mean
that the other two legs will be reduced by an equal amount. It can be said that unbalanced currents
always result in higher operating temperature, shortened motor life and efficiency reduction.
The next question is “What creates unbalanced currents?” In years past, if the motor was not the
problem — the source of unbalanced currents was unbalanced phase voltages. When measuring line to
line voltages from phase A to B, B to C, and C to A, detectable differences in the voltages would show
up. The voltage differences would account for the unbalanced currents.
In today’s world there are other problems that are frequently not detectable with simple voltage tests.
One problem of growing concern, is voltage distortion caused by harmonics in the power system
currents. This can happen if there are loads in the general area that draw non-linear (harmonic rich)
currents from the power system, they can create voltage distortion in the normal voltage sine-wave
that, in turn, can cause unbalanced currents in motors even when phase voltage differences are not
detectable with a voltmeter. For example, if you were to detect unbalanced motor currents and took
measurements with a digital voltmeter on the three phases, they might be very close to one another.
The natural tendency under these conditions, would be to blame the motor for the problem. When
this happens it is necessary to go a step further to identify or dismiss the motor as the source of the
problem. The test is to rotate all 3 phases. If the power phases are labeled A, B and C and the motor
leads connected to them are labeled 1, 2, and 3, motor lead #1 might be reconnected to power
supply lead B; motor lead #2 would be reconnected to power supply lead C, motor lead #3 would be
reconnected to power supply lead A. Moving all three legs will keep the motor rotating in the same
direction. The currents are recorded on each power line leg before and after the connections are
changed. If the high current leg stays with the power line phase (for example, B), then the problem is a
power supply problem rather than a motor problem. If, however, it moves with the motor leg, then it is a
motor problem. This test will pinpoint the problem to be either power supply or motor.
how much unbalance can be tolerated?
In general, this depends on the conditions that are found. If the motor is driving the load and the highest
amperage of the three legs is below the nameplate Full Load rating, then generally it is safe to operate.
If the high leg is above the nameplate rating, but within the normal service factor amps (for a motor with
a service factor, normally 1.15) then it is probably still safe to operate the motor. Also, it is not unusual
to find currents more unbalanced at no load than they will be under load, so the loaded amps should
63
be used. Finally, in general, if the high leg is not more than 10% above the average of the three legs,
determined as shown in the example, it is probably safe to operate the motor.
example
Motor Nameplate FLA = 10.0
Phase
A
B
C
Service Factor 1.15
Loaded Amps
10.6
9.8
10.2
Determine the Average
10.6 + 9.8 = 10.2
3
= 10.2 amps
Determine the % Difference
Highest Phase – Average
x 100
Average
10.6 – 10.2 .4
x 100 =
10.2
10.2
x 100 = .039 x 100 = 3.9%
The following table shows some of the sources of unbalanced voltages and currents along with possible
remedies.
Table 1
problemsolution
Blown fuse on a power factor
correction capacitor bank
Search, find and replace blown fuse.
Uneven single phase loading of
the 3 phase system
Locate single phase loads and distribute them more evenly on
the 3 phase circuit.
Utility unbalanced voltages
If the incoming voltages are substantially unbalanced, especially
at lightly loaded or no load periods, contact the utility company
and ask them to correct the problem.
Harmonic distortion
Locate the sources of the harmonics and use harmonic filters to
control or reduce harmonics. Install line reactors on existing and
new variable frequency controls.
summary
Unbalanced currents on 3 phase motors are undesirable but a small amount can generally be tolerated.
Excessive unbalanced currents can shorten motor life and increase energy consumption.
64
World Energy Engineering Congress
conserving with
premium efficiency motors
65
CONSERVING WITH PREMIUM EFFICIENCY MOTORS
Edward H. Cowern, P.E.
Wallingford, CT
INTRODUCTION
Conservation through lighting alterations using
different bulbs, ballasts and light sources is well
understood and easy to achieve. The use of
improved efficiency three phase induction motors
has not been as accepted. There are a number of
reasons why conservation efforts with motors have
not been as popular.
same type. Curves of this type change dramatically
with motor size, but trends are the same.
Light bulbs are sold by input ratings or watts. With
the input rating being so prominent, it’s easy to
understand that if a 40 watt bulb is replaced by a
34 watt bulb, there will be savings. But, unlike light
bulbs, electric motors are sold by output rating
(horsepower) rather than input wattage. As a result,
the measure used to evaluate differences in motors
is the efficiency rating and efficiency shows up in
the fine print and is not as easily understood as the
wattage of bulbs.
The second reason lighting is different from motors
is that lights are usually on or off – not in between.
But motors can be running at full load, half load,
quarter load, or no load. Frequently when motors
are coupled through clutches to an intermittent
motion system the motor may spend a lot of the time
operating with no load. Similarly, air compressors
may run unloaded much of the time. As a result
of varying load levels and intermittent loading,
projected savings based on full load efficiencies
may not materialize.
That’s the bad news.
The good news is that premium efficiency motors,
with their enhanced designs, result in lower operating
costs at any level of loading including no load. For
example, the no load losses of a five horsepower
premium efficiency motor might be 215 watts. The
no load losses of a standard motor of the same
type might be 330 watts. Figure 1 shows a plot of
watts loss for various load levels on a conventional
motor versus the premium efficiency motor of the
66
Figure 1
THE BASICS
The process of converting electrical energy to
mechanical energy is never perfect. As much as
we would like to have a 100% efficient motor, it is
impossible to build a machine that will take 746
watts of electricity (the equivalent of 1 HP) and
convert it to 1 HP of mechanical output. It always
takes somewhat more than 746 watts to yield 1 HP’s
worth of output. It does become easier to approach
100% perfection with large motors than with small.
For example, if the conversion process were only
50% efficient, then it would take 1492 watts of
electricity to get 1 HP’s worth of output. Luckily, in
industrial motors the conversion process is usually
more efficient than this. The efficiency of standard
industrial three phase motors usually runs from a
level of approximately 75% at 1 HP up to 94% at
200 HP. The curve shown in Figure 2 illustrates the
general trend of motor efficiency versus motor size
for standard and premium efficiency motors.
where the efficiency levels out and ultimately drops
from its highest level. In most motors the peak
efficiency will occur somewhere between 50 and
100% of rated load. The point at which it peaks is
determined by the specific motor design.
Figure 2
A reasonable question might be, “Where does the
extra energy go?” In all cases, energy not delivered
to the shaft becomes heat that must be carried
away from the outside surface and internal parts of
the motor.
As an additional complication, the efficiency of
electric motors varies depending on the amount
of load on the motor. Figure 3 shows the general
trend of motor efficiency based on motor loading.
To show where the losses occur in a fully loaded
motor, Figure 4 gives a general outline of the flow
of power through the motor. The flow is shown as
100% electrical power going to the motor on the left
side and the various losses involved in converting
the power until it ends up as mechanical power at
the output shaft. In this case, the major losses are
stator resistance loss (so-called Stator I2R). This is
the largest single loss in the motor. It is followed by
rotor resistance loss (Rotor I2R) Next come losses
that are described as the core losses. These are
losses resulting from the cycling magnetic forces
within the motor. The more specific terms used
for these losses are hysteresis and eddy current
losses. Hysteresis loss is a result of the constant
re-orientation of the magnetic field within the
motor’s steel laminations. Eddy current losses
occur because the re-orientation of magnetic forces
within the steel produces small electrical currents
in the steel. These electric currents circulate on
themselves and produce heat without contributing
to the output of the motor. Hysteresis and eddy
current losses occur in both the stationary and the
rotating portion of the motor, but the largest share
occur in the stationary portion.
15 HP, 4 POLE, 3 PHASE MOTOR
TYPICAL ENERGY FLOW
Figure 3
For example, when a motor is running idle (no load
on the output shaft), energy is being used by the
motor to excite the magnetic field and overcome the
friction of the bearings and the so-called windage
of the rotating portion of the motor. Thus the
efficiency at no load is 0%. The efficiency climbs as
torque is applied to the motor shaft up to the point
Figure 4
Next come the so called friction and windage losses.
In this case the friction is the friction of the bearings.
Ball bearings are extremely efficient, but still there
are some losses generated as a result of the rolling
of the ball bearings. Windage loss is a combination
67
of things. First, the rotor spinning in the air creates
some drag. The faster it spins, the more drag it
creates with the surrounding air. In addition, there
has to be air flow through or over the motor to carry
away heat being generated by the losses. In most
cases, a fan is either incorporated on the shaft of
the motor or designed in to the ends of the motor’s
rotor to provide air flow for cooling. This requires
energy and uses input without developing output.
Finally, there is a category called stray load losses.
These are losses that cannot be accounted for
in the previous four categories. Generally, stray
load losses are dependent on motor loading and
increase as load is applied.
The accepted domestic test for electric motor
efficiency is the one defined by IEEE Standard 112
Method B. This test method accounts for all of these
losses when the motor’s performance is measured
on a dynamometer. More about this later.
The energy flow diagram shown in Figure 4 would
be typical for a standard motor of 15 HP. The mix
of losses will vary somewhat based on motor size,
but the diagram shows the overall trend of where
the energy goes. It is important to note that many of
the core losses and friction and windage losses are
independent of the amount of load on the motor,
whereas stator resistance loss, rotor resistance loss
and stray load losses get larger as torque is applied
to the motor shaft. It is the combination of these
losses that produces the result of efficiency versus
load shown in Figure 5.
EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT
To improve efficiency of a motor the five categories
of losses mentioned previously are worked on
one at a time. Reducing the stator resistance loss
involves both magnetic and electric modifications
that allow for more copper wire to be inserted in
the slots of the stator of the motor. In general,
the stator lamination design has to have slots
large enough to accept more copper wire. For
example, in household wiring #12 gauge wire
has higher ampacity than #14 gauge wire. The
same is the case in motors. But increasing the
wire’s size without increasing the amperage load
results in less loss. In addition, the best reasonably
priced conductor material must be used. In the
case of electric motors, the best reasonably priced
conductor material is copper.
The second largest loss, rotor resistance, is reduced
by using special rotor designs with larger areas of
aluminum conductor. Using larger “rotor bars”
results in lower rotor resistance and less rotor
energy loss.
Hysteresis and eddy currents are reduced in many
different ways. Hysteresis loss can be reduced
by using improved steels and by reducing the
intensity of the magnetic field. Eddy current losses
are lowered by making the individual laminations
that comprise the stator (and rotor) thinner and
insulating them more effectively from each other.
In the case of friction and windage, there is little that
can be done to improve the efficiency of bearings,
but if the previously outlined steps have been
effective in reducing total losses, the size of the
cooling fan can be reduced which helps increase
motor efficiency.
The last component of losses is stray load loss.
In this case, various manufacturing techniques
are used to reduce stray load losses. With each
of the five elements being worked individually and
collectively, substantial improvements in motor
efficiencies can be achieved.
Figure 5
68
BASIS OF COMPARISON
There are many different terms used to compare
efficiencies of one motor to another. The two most
often heard are nominal efficiency and guaranteed
minimum efficiency. It is easy to get confused as to
what basis should be used for determining potential
savings from efficiency upgrades. The basis for
nominal efficiency ratings can be explained in the
following manner. If a large batch of identical motors
were to be made and tested, the nominal efficiency
would be the average efficiency of the batch. Due
to manufacturing tolerances, some units might be
less efficient and others more efficient. However,
the nominal is the predictable average of the lot.
The second term used is guaranteed minimum
efficiency. The guaranteed minimum recognizes the
variations from one motor to the next and sets an
arbitrary low limit. It says in essence, none of the
motors in the batch will be less efficient than this.
With these two choices, what should be the basis
of comparison?
If you had to stake your life on the result and it
involved a single motor, then guaranteed minimum
efficiency would be the one to use. However, if
you’re considering a number of motors in a range of
sizes, and you’re not held precisely to what the final
minimum result would be, then nominal efficiency is
the proper basis of comparison. Nominal efficiency
also makes it easier because nominal efficiency
is stamped on the nameplate of the motor. In
addition, nominal and minimum guaranteed are
related to each other by a formula established by
the National Electrical Manufacturers Association.
So comparing different motors on the basis of
“nominal” is really equivalent to comparing on the
basis of minimum guaranteed.
Of more importance is the standard by which the
efficiency is going to be determined. The standard
should always be IEEE 112 Method B. Of all
standards developed for determining efficiency of
motors, this is one of the most rigorous.
Other standards that are used, particularly some
international standards, do not demand such
rigorous testing. In some cases, efficiency is
merely calculated rather than measured. In virtually
all cases the “other” standards will give efficiencies
higher than the tougher IEEE 112 standard. The
correct basis of comparison should be that all
motors be compared on the same standard. The
IEEE method also measures the efficiency in the
hot running condition. This makes it more accurate
because the efficiency of the motor will fall slightly
as operating temperature rises.
A FEW PRECAUTIONS
The result of using premium efficiency motors is
not necessarily without some pitfalls. For example,
premium efficiency motors run somewhat faster
(have less slip) than their less efficient counterparts.
A premium efficiency motor might run at a full load
speed of 1760 RPM. The motor it replaces might
be running at 1740 RPM. This can help or hurt
conservation efforts depending on the type of load
the motor is driving. For example, if it is driving a
conveyor handling bulk materials, the higher speed
will result in getting the job done faster. Also, if the
conveyor has periods of light load, the reduced
losses of the motor will save energy during that
period of time.
The same situation exists on many pumping
applications where a specific amount of fluid is going
to be used to fill a tank. If the motor runs faster, the
work is completed sooner and the motor is shut
down earlier. In these cases the consequence of
the increased speed does not result in increased
energy use. But there are applications such as
chilled water circulating pumps where the extra
speed can reduce expected savings.
The reason this can happen is that centrifugal
pumps along with other types of variable torque
loads such as blowers and fans, require horsepower
proportional to speed cubed. As a result a
slight increase in speed can result in a sharper
increase in horsepower and energy used. A typical
example might be where the original motor is
directly connected to a centrifugal pump. The
original motor’s full load speed is 1740 RPM. The
replacement premium efficiency motor, driving the
same pump, has a higher speed of 1757 RPM.
The resulting difference of 1% will increase the
horsepower required by the pump by 1.01 x 1.01 x
1.01 = 1.03. Thus the horsepower required by the
load is increased by 3% above what it would be
if the pump speed had remained the same. Even
with increased speed there remains, in most cases,
some improvement in efficiency and reduction in
energy usage although it may not be what you
hoped to achieve.
69
On fans and blowers the same thing would hold
true if no changes take place to bring the equipment
speed back to the original value. For example, if a
motor drives a fan with a belt drive and the fan
speed is 650 RPM, changing the motor and using
the same exact pulley and belt would increase the
fan’s speed and the horsepower required. This
could reflect back as extra energy drawn from the
power system. However, if an adjustment is made
in the ratio between the pulleys to restore the fan
speed to the original value, then the anticipated
savings will materialize. These types of challenges
make it desirable to look at efficiency upgrading as a
“system” rather than strictly a motor consideration.
DRIVEN EQUIPMENT EFFICIENCY
As consumers, we are faced with energy efficient
ratings on new refrigerators, air conditioners, hot
water heaters, etc. The same type of data is usually
not nearly as available on machinery purchased
for industrial and commercial installations. For
example, not all pumps with the same performance
specifications have the same efficiency. Similarly
not all air compressors have the same efficiencies.
Some air compressors have dramatically better
efficiencies than others especially when operated
at less than full load. At first glance it looks like a
problem of evaluating one versus the other could
be insurmountable. However, a good vendor
should be willing to share certified performance
information.
PROPER SIZING
In addition to the challenge of different efficiencies
from different equipment manufacturers there is also
the matter of selecting properly sized equipment.
For example, a pump oversized for the job may
be much less efficient than a pump properly sized.
Similarly, an air compressor oversized for the job
may be much less efficient than one selected to
more closely match actual requirements.
tend to be a simpler problem and usually do not
need the rigorous mathematical treatment found
in these more complicated analysis approaches.
Formulas to determine savings are found in the
appendix of this paper.
IDEAL MOTOR LOADING
In the process of upgrading efficiency a question
comes up as to what the ideal load conditions
should be for replacement motors. A motor that
is overloaded will have short life. In the opposite
situation, a motor that is grossly oversized for the
job it is asked to do, is inefficient. Figure 6 shows
a typical load versus efficiency curve for a 10 HP
motor. This curve shows that in the upper half of
the load range (50% - 100%) the efficiency stays
fairly constant at a high level. At loads below 50%
the efficiency drops dramatically. In most situations,
once the motor is in operation and running, the
load doesn’t vary. This is especially true on heating,
ventilating and air conditioning applications such as
circulator pumps and air handling equipment. On
other types of machinery such as air compressors
and machine tools, the load may cycle on and off,
heavily loaded for some periods and lightly loaded
at other times. Obviously on cycling loads it is
important to size the motor so that it can handle
the worst case condition. However, on continuously
loaded motors it is desirable to load motors at
somewhere between 50 and 100% and more
ideally in the range of 75 to 80%. By selecting a
motor to be loaded in this range, high efficiency
is available and motor life will be long. Also, by
loading at somewhat less than 100% the motors
can more easily tolerate such things as low voltage
and high ambient temperatures that can occur
simultaneously in summer. This approach will get
somewhere closer to optimum efficiency while
preserving motor life.
EVALUATION
There are a great many ways to approach capital
investment and determine rates of return, payback
periods, present worth, etc. Most of these are good
for large capital investments where there may be
risk involved if the project doesn't work out or if the
product changes or is affected by market dynamics.
Electric motors and other conservation measures
70
Figure 6
EXISTING MOTOR EFFICIENCY UPGRADES
In a commercial or large industrial situation the
question comes up: “Should motors be replaced
on a wholesale basis throughout the plant or
selectively changed?” There is probably no hard
rule for this, but here are some ideas. The wholesale
change-out of all motors in a plant or commercial
building generally cannot be justified on a cost
basis. The reason for this is that some of the
motors may be used only intermittently. Such things
as test equipment, trash compactors and other
similar situations support the case for not changing
everything. There can also be other complications
such as specialized motors found on some types of
pumps and machine tools and old motors (where
direct interchanges are not readily available). These
fall into a cloudy area where change-out may not
be justified.
Motors having the greatest potential for savings are
those that run on an extended basis with near full
load conditions. These are the logical candidates
for any change-out program.
UTILITY REBATE PROGRAMS
A major breakthrough occurred a short time
ago when court rulings were passed down so
utilities could offer their customers financial help
for conservation efforts. Prior to this change utility
companies were in a dilemma. If they financed
and promoted conservation, the cost of the effort,
personnel, equipment, etc., was an expense
that reduced their sales and income. This set up
a double disincentive for utility support of con­
servation measures.
Under the new rules, utility money expended
on conservation can be considered as a capital
investment. Put differently, this means that
financing the “buy back” of one kilowatt of capacity
through conservation efforts is equivalent, for
accounting purposes, to investing money to build
a generating plant capable of generating that
extra kilowatt. This new accounting approach has
unleashed money that utilities are now willing (in
some cases mandated) to invest in their customers’
conservation efforts. A statement made by one
utility indicated it was now possible to “buy back”
a kilowatt of capacity for roughly two-thirds of the
cost of installing a new kilowatt of capacity. This
new approach has turned a losing situation into a
win-win situation for utilities and their customers.
The result of this has been a great flurry of activity
in utility rebate programs to finance various types
of conservation efforts. Again, as with individual
initiatives on conservation, lighting has received
major attention because it is easy to understand
and large gains can be quickly achieved. Electric
motors and variable speed drive systems now
receive more attention because they represent the
equipment that utilizes almost two-thirds of the
power generated in the country.
Rebate programs usually handle motors in two
different ways. One is a rebate allowed for standard
motors that fail in service. This rebate recognizes
that the expense involved to remove the old motor
and install a new one is going to be necessary. In
the “failed motor” programs the rebate is usually
reduced, but is based on making it economically
feasible to buy the premium efficiency motor to
replace the old standard efficiency motor. In this
case, only the extra cost difference for the purchase
of the premium efficiency motor is recognized and
offset.
A second approach is used for operating motors
where a higher rebate incentive is offered to cover
some of the cost of removal and replacement of an
operable motor.
In the case of the operating motors, the rebate
is aggressive enough to encourage wholesale
change-out of operating motors. In this particular
case, in addition to the rebate, the benefits of
reduced energy costs are enjoyed by the customer
— with few strings attached.
There are many other rebate programs based on
different concepts including some where the utility
invests in the conservation project and the resulting
savings are shared by the utility and the customer
over a period of time. Utility rebates in whatever
form are a great incentive.
Perhaps the most important aspect is that utility
rebates have aroused the commercial and industrial
consumer’s interest in conservation with motors.
In all rebate programs minimum efficiency standards
for the new motors must be met and usually there
is a qualifier regarding the number of hours per
year the motor must operate to be considered.
In situations where rebate programs are offered,
especially the aggressive ones, there can be few
excuses for not using premium efficiency motors.
71
GETTING INVOLVED
The steps for getting involved in upgrading your
motor efficiency situation should be as follows:
New Equipment
When purchasing new equipment that will operate
for substantial periods of time, ask for the premium
efficiency motor option. Written into your request
for quotation on air compressors, pumps, HVAC
equipment, process machinery, etc., should be a
specification that reads something like this: “Bidder
should quote with his choice of standard induction
motors and as an alternative, quote on the same
machine equipped with premium efficiency motors.
Bidder will separate the incremental cost for the
addition of the premium efficiency motor(s) and
provide the nominal efficiencies of both the standard
and the premium efficiency motors offered.”
By using a specification similar to this, the ultimate
owner of the equipment will be in the position to
make logical decisions on new motors being installed
in the facility. In most cases, the incremental cost for
a more energy efficient motor will be relatively small
especially when compared with the cost of the
equipment it drives.
In-Service Failures
If a motor operates at a high level of load and runs
reasonably long hours, replace it with a premium
efficiency motor at time of failure.
Motors will normally last for many years if they
are operated within reasonable limits and cared
for properly. When they do fail it can be almost as
expensive to get them repaired as it is to buy a
new unit. Also, when a failure occurs the labor to
get the old motor removed and a rebuilt or new
replacement in place is the same. In some cases,
labor can cost more than the motor. This makes
time of failure the ideal time to make the change to
get a more efficient motor in place.
Motor Change-Outs
Changing operating motors is the most difficult
procedure to justify. It becomes feasible if the
motors operate at high levels of load, have long
hours of service, and especially if a utility rebate is
involved.
If these three conditions are met then you can
start moving toward realizing bottom line savings
available with premium efficiency motors.
72
Don’t ignore the other possibilities. Some great
energy saving possibilities in addition to or in
conjunction with premium efficiency motors are the
use of variable frequency drives. These are great
energy savers especially on variable torque loads
such as centrifugal pumps, fans and blowers. On
these types of loads the horsepower required varies
as a cubic function of speed and the energy varies
almost in direct relationship to the horsepower.
Thus slowing a fan by 15% can yield energy savings
of over 35%. Electronic variable frequency drives
(VFD’s) are extremely reliable and have become
relatively inexpensive.
Two speed motors also offer a simple and economical
way to reduce energy costs. The speeds are not
infinitely adjustable as they are with adjustable
frequency drives, but in many situations that degree
of adjustment is not necessary, the simplicity and
economy of the two speed motor and its control
can yield great savings.
Don’t ignore the opportunities with small motors.
Many motor users in “light industry” and commercial
facilities do not recognize the opportunity to
save energy because they are of the opinion
that their motors are “too small” to be viable
candidates for efficiency upgrades. That thought
process couldn’t be more wrong! The degree of
efficiency improvement on motors less than 10 HP
is substantially more than it is on larger units. For
example, the efficiency improvement between a
standard 3 HP motor and a premium efficiency 3
HP motor might be 7 or 8%.
Comparing it in the same way with a 100 HP motor
the efficiency gain might be only 2%. The net result
is that small motors have the potential for paying off
their differential cost faster than large motors.
OPERATING COSTS AND SAVINGS
Rule of Thumb
To get some perspective on the costs to operate
motors and some possible savings, here is a good
“Rule of Thumb”.
At 5 cents per kilowatt hour it costs $1 per horse­
power per day to operate a motor at full load. (At
10 cents per kilowatt hour this doubles to $2 per
day.) In some parts of the country, such as Hawaii
and Alaska, energy costs run between 20 and 40
cents per kilowatt hour. This value can be ratioed
to reflect less than full load or less than continuous
operation, etc.
Consider a 100 HP motor operating continuously
in a 10 cents per kilowatt hour area. The annual
cost of operation comes out to be approximately
$70,000. This can represent about 11 times the
first cost of the motor. By spending an extra 30%
($1200) to get a premium efficiency unit (2.4%
more efficient) the annual operating cost could be
reduced by approximately $1800.
In the case of a small 3 HP motor at 10 cents per
kilowatt hour, the annual operating cost would be
over $2300 per year and an extra 40% spent on
the motor could reduce the operating cost by $140
per year. In both cases mentioned, the extra cost
of the motor would be paid off by energy savings in
a few months.
When motors are running continuously at or near
full load the initial cost of the motor is usually of little
consequence compared with the annual operating
cost.
Other Benefits
Because of their reduced losses, premium efficiency
motors run at lower temperatures than equivalent
standard motors. This results in longer insulation
and lubricant life and less downtime. Inherent in
their design is the ability to tolerate wider voltage
variations and when necessary, higher ambient
temperatures.
An additional benefit is that by generating less
waste heat in the space around the motor, building
ventilation and/or air conditioning requirements are
reduced. This can result in additional savings.
SUMMARY
At the present time electric energy costs are high,
but stable. Conservation has reduced the need for
new generating facilities and the prices of fuels have
been relatively constant. However, many nuclear
plants are approaching the end of their useful life.
As they are retired and their capacity has to be
replaced, capital costs will certainly rise. Also, as
the demand for clean burning gas, liquid and solid
fuels increases, the cost of these fuels is certain to
rise. Thus it is important to seize every reasonable
opportunity to conserve now. Adoption of premium
efficiency three phase induction motors is an easy
and cost effective way to conserve.
OPERATING COST FORMULAS
MOTORS
Kilowatt Hours = HP** x .746 x Hours of Operation
Motor Efficiency
** Average Load HP (May be lower than motor
nameplate HP)
Useful Constants
Average hours per month
Hours per year
Average hours of darkness per year Approximate average hours per month
(single shift operation)
= 730
= 8760
= 4000
= 200
Annual Savings Formula
S = 0.746 x HP x C x N
S
HP
C
N
ES EPE
=
=
=
=
=
=
[
1
ES
_
1
EPE
]
Dollars saved per year
Horsepower required by load
Energy cost in dollars per kilowatt hour
Annual running hours
Efficiency of standard motor (decimal)
Efficiency of premium motor (decimal)
General Formula - All Loads
Kilowatt Hours = Watts x Hours of Operation
1000
Approximate Operating Cost* =
Kilowatt Hours x Average
Cost per Kilowatt Hour
* Does not include power factor penalty or demand
charges which may be applicable in some areas.
73
74
premium efficiency motors – (Q & A)
In spite of the great money and energy saving potential available by using premium efficiency motors, it
is surprising that many motor users are not specifying these motors. Some reasons for not using them
are misunderstandings about the energy saving potential. The following information is presented in a
question and answer format to address some of the myths and questions related to premium efficiency
motors.
Question:
Can I save money even when I only have relatively small motors in my plant?
Answer:
The energy saving potential of small premium efficiency motors is actually greater
percentage-wise than the savings on large motors. The reason is that on small motors,
the percentage difference in efficiency between the standard motor and the premium
efficiency motor is actually much greater than it is on larger motors. For example, the
difference between a standard motor at 3 HP and the premium efficiency motor could
easily be 9 or more percentage points. Compare this to a 100 HP motor where the
difference between the standard and premium efficiency motors might only be 2%.
Question:
Do my motors have to be fully loaded to realize the savings available in premium efficiency
motors?
Answer:
It is usually advantageous to have motors loaded to more than 50% of rated load
for optimum efficiency. Thus, it is usually best to resize a motor at the same time it is
upgraded to premium efficiency. However, even if this is not done and the motor is
oversized, there is still substantial savings to be gained by utilizing a premium efficiency
motor. For example, at 25% of rated load, the difference in efficiency between a standard
motor and a premium efficiency motor (of 10 HP) would be 89.5% vs. 92.4%. Thus, the
premium efficiency motor is still substantially better even at low load levels than a nonpremium efficiency motor. Even without resizing, a substantial efficiency improvement can
be made.
Question:
How much more do premium efficiency motors cost?
Answer:
Generally, premium efficiency motors cost 20 to 30% more depending upon the size and
speed of the motor.
Question:
Why do premium efficiency motors cost more than standard motors?
Answer:
Premium efficiency motors use more and better materials. For example, the lamination
material is a higher grade, higher cost steel. In addition, the rotor and stator are generally
longer in a premium efficiency motor than in a standard motor. The laminations are
thinner compared to a standard efficiency motor. This means there are more laminations.
In addition, the lamination slots are larger so more copper can be used in the windings.
Finally, premium efficiency motors are manufactured in smaller production lots which also
tends to make them more expensive.
Question:
If premium efficiency motors can save lots of money, why don’t more people use them?
Answer:
This is a tough question but is probably related to the fact that many people buy on first
cost rather than considering operating costs. Also, there seems to be skepticism about
manufacturer’s claims on performance of these motors. Many power users that have been
very active in other energy conserving programs such as lighting, insulating etc., have
ignored the energy-saving potential of premium efficiency motors.
75
Question:
Why can’t motor manufacturers make it more obvious that we are going to save money
with these motors?
Answer:
Unlike light bulbs that are sold by wattage consumption (input), electric motors are sold
by horsepower (output). Thus, subtle differences in efficiency usually appear in the fine
print and get overlooked. For example, it is obvious when you buy a 34 watt fluorescent
light bulb to replace a 40 watt bulb, that some savings are available. It is less obvious
when you buy a 5 HP motor of one design versus a 5 HP motor of a premium efficiency
design, that there will be savings on the electric bill. Also, the vagaries of electric bills and
the complications involved in the electric billing process with demand charges, energy
charges, fuel cost adjustments and occasionally, power factor penalties, create enough
confusion so savings are not obvious. But they exist.
Question:
How can I evaluate the dollar savings on premium efficiency motors?
Answer:
There are three items needed to conduct an evaluation. First and most important, is the
average cost per kilowatt hour of electricity. The simplest and most direct way to get this
is to take the bottom line cost on a monthly electric bill and divide it by the total kilowatt
hours used. This gives a net cost per kilowatt hour which is generally the best cost to
use in evaluating energy saving equipment. The reason this works is that equipment
designed for better efficiency will in general, reduce the demand, kilowatt hours, and fuel
cost adjustments in equal proportions. Thus, using the average cost per kilowatt hour is
the easiest way of making an evaluation. Next would be the HP size of the motor that is
operating and, finally, the number of hours per month or year that it operates. With these
three items and the efficiency difference between one motor and the other, it is easy to
figure the cost savings. The formulas for doing this appear on page 74.. If in doubt, let us
have the information and we’ll make the calculations for you.
Question:
How quickly will these motors pay for themselves?
Answer:
This is impossible to answer without all the facts from the previous question but motors
operating twenty-four hours a day at or near full load, can be expected to pay for
themselves in less than two years. The difference between a standard motor’s cost and
a premium efficiency motor’s cost can be paid off in a few months. One thing is certain:
regardless of the operating details, premium efficiency motors will always save money
versus lower efficiency units and savings go on for as long as the motor is in operation. In
many cases this could be twenty to thirty years. Also, as power costs rise, savings will rise
in proportion. The old rule of “pay me now or pay me later” has a corollary when applied
to premium efficiency motors which might be “pay a little more now and save some now
and more later.”
Question:
Are there any other advantages to premium efficiency motors?
Answer:
Yes, because of the superior designs and better materials used in them, premium
efficiency motors tend to run at lower operating temperatures resulting in longer life
for lubricants, bearings and motor insulation. Another advantage is that, by generating
less waste and less heat in the space around the motor, air conditioning and ventilation
requirements are reduced, resulting in additional energy savings.
76
Question:
What is the best way to take advantage of premium efficiency savings potential?
Answer:
Specify motors that meet the NEMA Premium® efficiency requirements on new equipment
and as replacement units for failures. Some judgement should be used on blanket
specifications. For example, it may be impractical to try to specify premium efficiency
motors for single phase, fractional horsepower, and specialized motor requirements or
where the motor is an integral part of the equipment. Also, on motor installations where
infrequent service is required, the extra cost may not be justified. Examples of this would
be trash compactors, batch mixers and other equipment that only operate for short
periods of time. It might also be difficult to justify the added cost of premium efficiency
motors on equipment that operates on a seasonal basis, especially if the season is short.
In summary, it is important to seize the opportunity to move into premium efficiency motor use as soon
as possible. If you have questions not covered above, please give us a call. We’ll get you the answers.
77
78
amps, watts, power factor and efficiency
what do you really pay for?
introduction
There seems to be a great deal of confusion among the users of electric motors regarding the relative
importance of power factor, efficiency and amperage, as related to operating cost. The following
information should help to put these terms into proper perspective.
At the risk of treating these items in reverse order, it might be helpful to understand that in an electric bill,
commercial, industrial or residential, the basic unit of measurement is the kilowatt hour. This is a measure
of the amount of energy that is delivered. In many respects, the kilowatt hour could be compared to
a ton of coal, a cubic foot of natural gas, or a gallon of gasoline, in that it is a basic energy unit. The
kilowatt hour is not directly related to amperes, and at no place on an electric bill will you find any
reference to the amperes that have been utilized. It is vitally important to note this distinction. You are
billed for kilowatt hours: you do not necessarily pay for amperes.
power factor
Perhaps the greatest confusion arises due to the fact that early in our science educations, we were told
that the formula for watts was amps times volts. This formula, watts = amps x volts, is perfectly true for
direct current circuits. It also works on some AC loads such as incandescent light bulbs, quartz heaters,
electric range heating elements, and other equipment of this general nature. However, when the loads
involve a characteristic called inductance, the formula has to be altered to include a new term called
power factor. Thus, the new formula for single phase loads becomes, watts are equal to amps x volts
x power factor. The new term, power factor, is always involved in applications where AC power is used
and inductive magnetic elements exist in the circuit. Inductive elements are magnetic devices such as
solenoid coils, motor windings, transformer windings, fluorescent lamp ballasts, and similar equipment
that have magnetic components as part of their design.
Looking at the electrical flow into this type of device, we would find that there are, in essence, two
components. One portion is absorbed and utilized to do useful work. This portion is called the real
power. The second portion is literally borrowed from the power company and used to magnetize
the magnetic portion of the circuit. Due to the reversing nature of AC power, this borrowed power is
subsequently returned to the power system when the AC cycle reverses. This borrowing and returning
occurs on a continuous basis. Power factor then becomes a measurement of the amount of real power
that is used, divided by the total amount of power, both borrowed and used. Values for power factor
will range from zero to 1.0. If all the power is borrowed and returned with none being used, the power
factor would be zero. If on the other hand, all of the power drawn from the power line is utilized and
none is returned, the power factor becomes 1.0. In the case of electric heating elements, incandescent
light bulbs, etc., the power factor is 1.0. In the case of electric motors, the power factor is variable
and changes with the amount of load that is applied to the motor. Thus, a motor running on a work
bench, with no load applied to the shaft, will have a low power factor (perhaps .1 or 10%), and a motor
running at full load, connected to a pump or a fan might have a relatively high power factor (perhaps
.88 or 88%). Between the no load point and the full load point, the power factor increases steadily with
the horsepower loading that is applied to the motor. These trends can be seen on the typical motor
performance data plots which are shown in figure 1.
79
efficiency
Now, let’s consider one of the most critical elements involved in motor operating cost. This is efficiency.
Efficiency is the measure of how well the electric motor converts the power that is purchased into useful
work. For example, an electric heater such as the element in an electric stove, converts 100% of the
power delivered into heat. In other devices such as motors, not all of the purchased energy is converted
into usable energy. A certain portion is lost and is not recoverable because it is expended in the losses
associated with operating the device. In an electric motor, these typical losses are the copper losses,
the iron losses, and the so-called friction and windage losses associated with spinning the rotor and the
bearings and moving the cooling air through the motor.
In an energy efficient motor, the losses are reduced by using designs that employ better grades of
material, more material and better designs, to minimize the various items that contribute to the losses in
the motor.
For example, on a 10 HP motor, a Super-E® energy efficient design might have a full load efficiency of
92.4%, meaning that, at full load (10 HP), it converts 92.4% of the energy it receives into useful work. A
less efficient motor might have an efficiency of 82%, which would indicate that it only converts 82% of
the power into useful work.
In general, the efficiency of motors will be relatively constant from 50% to 100% of rated load.
amperes
Now, let’s discuss amperes. Amperes are an indication of the flow of electric current into the motor. This
flow includes both the borrowed as well as the used power. At low load levels, the borrowed power is a
high percentage of the total power. As the load increases on the motor, the borrowed power becomes
less and less of a factor and the used power becomes greater. Thus, there is an increase in the power
factor as the load on the motor increases. As the load continues to increase beyond 50% of the rating of
the motor, the amperage starts to increase in a nearly straight line relationship. This can be seen in figure 1.
summary
Figure 1 shows significant items that have been discussed as plots of efficiency, power factor and watts, as
they relate to horsepower. The most significant factor of all these is the watts requirement of the motor for
the various load levels because it is the watts that will determine the operating cost of the motor, not the
amperage.
The customer that has an extremely low power factor in the total plant electrical system, may be penalized
by his utility company because he is effectively borrowing a great deal of power without paying for it. When
this type of charge is levied on the customer, it is generally called a power factor penalty. In general, power
factor penalties are levied only on large industrial customers and rarely on smaller customers regardless
of their power factor. In addition, there are a great many types of power customers such as commercial
establishments, hospitals, and some industrial plants that inherently run at very high power factors. Thus,
the power factor of individual small motors that are added to the system, will not have any significant effect
on the total plant power factor.
It is for this reasons that the blanket statement can be made, that increasing motor efficiency will reduce
the kilowatt hour consumption and the power cost for all classes of power users, regardless of their
particular rate structure or power factor situation. This same type of statement cannot be made relative to
power factor.
80
Figure 1
81
The following basic equations are useful in understanding and calculating the factors that determine the
operating costs of motors and other types of electrical equipment.
operating cost calculations
motors
HP** x .746 x Hours of Operation
Kilowatt Hours = Motor Efficiency
** Average Load HP (May be lower than Motor Nameplate HP)
General Formula
All Loads
Kilowatt Hours = Watts x Hours of Operation
1000
Approximate Operating Cost* = Kilowatt hours x Average Cost per Kilowatt Hour
* Does not include power factor penalty or demand charges which may
be applicable in some areas.
Useful Constants
Average Hours per Month
=
730
Average Hours per Year
=
8760
Average Hours of Darkness per Year
=
4000
Approximate Average Hours per Month
(Single Shift Operation)
=
200
82
approximate load data from amperage readings
conditions
1. Applied voltage must be within 5% of nameplate rating.
2. You must be able to disconnect the motor from the load.
(By removing V-belts or disconnecting a coupling).
3. Motor must be 7-1/2 HP or larger, 3450, 1725, or 1140 RPM.
4. The indicated line amperage must be below the full load nameplate rating.
procedure
1. Measure and record line amperage with load connected and running.
2. Disconnect motor from load. Measure and record the line amperage when the motor is running
without load.
3. Read and record the motor’s nameplate amperage for the voltage being used.
4. Insert the recorded values in the following formula and solve.
(2 x LLA) – NLA
% Rated HP =X 100
(2 x NPA) – NLA
Where:
LLA = Loaded Line Amps
NLA = No Load Line Amps
(Motor disconnected from load)
NPA = Nameplate Amperage
(For operating voltage)
Please Note: This procedure will generally yield reasonably accurate results when motor load is
in the 40 to 100% range and deteriorating results at loads below 40%.
for an example and sample calculation, see next page
83
Example:
A 20 HP motor driving a pump is operating on 460 volts and has a loaded line amperage of 16.5.
When the coupling is disconnected and the motor is operated at no load the amperage is 9.3.
The motor nameplate amperage for 460 volts is 19.4.
Therefore we have:
Loaded Line Amps
LLA = 16.5
No Load Amps
NLA = 9.3
Nameplate Amps
NPA = 19.4
(2 X 16.5) – 9.3 23.7
% Rated HP =X 100 =X 100 = 80.3%
(2 X 19.4) – 9.3
29.5
Approximate load on motor slightly over 16 HP.
84
power factor correction on
single induction motors
introduction
Occasionally we get asked to size power factor correction capacitors to improve the power factor of a
single motor. Usually the requested improved power factor level is 90 or 95%. The necessary calculations
to get the proper capacitor KVAR (Kilovolt Ampere Reactive) value are straightforward, but since we don’t
do it often it is nice to have the method in writing.
procedure
The first thing needed is the full load power factor and efficiency information for the motor. On Baldor
motors this can be found on the internet at www.Baldor.com. Next, since most power factor tables
are worked in terms of Kilowatts, it is necessary to convert the motor output rating into Kilowatts. The
procedure for doing this is to take the motor HP multiplied by the constant for KW per HP (0.746). This
will give Output KW. Then it is necessary to divide this by the efficiency of the motor (as a decimal) to
get the Input KW at full load. Next, refer to power factor correction Table I going in from the left with the
existing power factor and coming down from the top with the desired power factor. Where they intersect
find the multiplier needed.
Next, multiply the motor Input Kilowatts by the appropriate multiplier from Table 1 to get the required
KVAR of power factor correction. This value would be rounded out to match commercially available
power factor correction capacitor ratings shown in Table 2.
Figure 1
85
table 1
ORIGINALDESIRED POWER FACTOR %
FACTOR %
859095
60 0.7130.8491.004
62 0.6460.7820.937
64 0.5810.7170.872
66 0.5180.6540.809
68 0.4580.5940.749
70 0.4000.5360.691
72 0.3440.4800.635
74 0.2890.4250.580
76 0.2350.3710.526
77 0.2090.3450.500
78 0.1820.3180.473
79 0.1560.2920.447
80 0.1300.2660.421
81 0.1040.2400.395
82 0.0780.2140.369
83 0.0520.1880.343
84 0.0260.1620.317
85 0.0000.1360.291
86
0.109
0.264
87
0.083
0.238
88
0.056
0.211
89
0.028
0.183
90
0.000
0.155
91
0.127
92
0.097
93
0.066
94
0.034
95
0.000
86
TABLE 2
3-PHASE STANDARD CAPACITOR RATINGS
KVAR (Kilovolt Amperes Reactive)
1.0
20.0
70.0
1.5
22.5
75.0
2.0
25.0
80.0
2.5
27.5
85.0
3.0
30.0
90.0
4.0
32.5
100.0
5.0
35.0
120.0
6.0
37.5
140.0
7.5
40.0
150.0
8.0
42.5
160.0
9.0
45.0
180.0
10.0
50.0
200.0
11.0
52.5
225.0
12.5
55.0
250.0
15.0
60.0
300.0
17.5
65.0
350.0
example:
To illustrate the procedure an example is worked as follows:
What is the KVAR of power factor correction capacitors needed to improve the power factor of a
catalog number M2555T, 100 HP motor, to 95% at full load?
Step 1: Look up the existing power factor and efficiency Efficiency = 94.1%
Power Factor = 85%
Step 2: Convert the HP to Kilowatts output. 100 HP x 0.746 = 74.6 KW
Step 3: Convert Kilowatts output to Kilowatts input by dividing by the full load efficiency.
74.6 = 79.3 KW Input
.941
Step 4: Look in Table 1 to find the multiplier to achieve the desired 95% corrected power factor.
The multiplier is 0.291.
Step 5: Multiply Input KW by this multiplier.
79.3 x 0.291 = 23.1 KVAR
This gives the required Capacitor KVAR.
Step 6: Select closest value from Table 2.
22.5 KVAR
The voltage of the capacitor would also have to be specified. In this case it would be 480 volts.
87
current correction
In many cases when a single motor is being corrected, the capacitors are connected between the
motor starter and the motor at the motor terminals as shown in Figure 1. With this being the case, the
effect of the correction is to reduce the current flowing through the starter and overload relay. Since the
overload heaters are selected (or adjusted) on the basis of the motor full load current, this means that
the overloads will not correctly protect the motor unless the ampacity is reduced to reflect the reduced
current now flowing as a result of the power factor improvement.
The motor itself will draw the same number of amps at full load as it would without the Power Factor
Correction. However, the power factor correction capacitors will be supplying a portion of the current and
the balance will be coming through the starter from the power line.
The new value of current passing through the overloads is given by the following formula:
Currentnew = Motor Full Load (Nameplate) Amps X Power Factor Original
Power Factor Corrected
For example, in the case of the 100HP motor in the example, the heater size, which would normally be
selected from the motor nameplate current at 118 amps would have to be adjusted as follows:
Currentnew = 118 X .85 = 118 X .895 = 105.6 or approximately 106 amps
.95
summary
A few words of caution might be appropriate. Usually it is desirable to “under correct” rather than “over
correct”. If the capacitors chosen are too large there can be a number of problems, including high
transient torques and overvoltage. Thus it is usually desirable not to attempt to improve power factor
beyond 95%. It also usually becomes uneconomical to attempt improvements beyond 95%.
Please note: This type of power factor improvement should not be used in any situation where the motor
is being controlled by a solid state device such as a soft start control or a variable frequency drive.
88
convenient motor & energy formulas
120 x frequency
Synchronous Speed =
No. of Poles
Poles can be 2, 4, 6, 8, etc.
(Over 95% of motors sold are 2, 4, or 6 pole.)
Torque x Speed
Constant
Horsepower (HP) =
Speed in RPM
Value of Constant depends on units used for torque
Torque Units Pound Feet
Pound Inches
Ounce Inches
Constant Value
5252
63,025
1,000,000
Horsepower Required by Pumps
Centrifugal Pumps
HP = Gallons per Minute x Head in Feet
3960 x pump efficiency
Hydraulic Pumps
HP =
Gallons per Minute x Pounds per sq. inch
1714 x pump efficiency
Fans and Blowers
HP =
C F M x Pressure (Inches of Water )
6356 x (fan or blower) efficiency
Normal efficiency range is 50 to 75 percent.
Air Compressor Rule of Thumb
1 HP produces 4 CFM @ 100 PSI
89
Approximate Full Load Amps (3 Phase Motors)
Amps = HP x 1.2 x
460
Motor Voltage
Motor Watts (at full load) =
HP x 746
Efficiency
Divide Watts by 1000 to get KW (Kilowatts)
operating cost calculation
Operating Cost on Motors
Kilowatt Hours =
HP** x .746 x Hours of Operation
Motor Efficiency (Decimal)
**Average Load HP (may be lower than motor nameplate HP)
general formula — all loads
Average Hours per Month
=
730
Average Hours per Year
= 8760
Average Hours of Darkness per Year
= 4000
Approximate Average Hours per Month
(Single Shift Operation)
=
200
Annual Operating Cost = Annual Kilowatt Hours X Cost per KW Hour
Example:
A fully loaded 20 HP motor with FL efficiency of 91.0% runs 2500
hours per year, at a location where power costs 7.5¢ per kilowatt hour.
What is the annual operating cost?
Annual Kilowatt Hours =
20 x .746 x 2500
= 40,989
.910
Annual Operating Cost = 40,989 x .075 = $3,074
90
horsepower calculations for speed changes
on
variable torque loads
(Fans, Blowers, & Centrifugal Pumps)
HPnew = HPoriginal x
(
Speed New
Speed Original
)
3
Example:
Original HP = 7.5
Original Blower Speed
900 RPM
New Blower Speed
750 RPM
Determine new HP
HPnew = 7.5 x
( )
750
900
or 7.5 x 750 x 750 x 750 =
900
900
900
3
7.5 x .83 x .83 x .83 =
7.5 x .57 = 4.3 HP
Note: Driving Energy Requirement (Watts) go up and down at approximately the
same rate as HP.
91
92
how to select motors for
hazardous locations
By Edward Cowern, P.E.,
93
How To Select Motors for
Hazardous Locations
By EDWARD COWERN, P.E.
F
AILURE TO SPECIFY the proper motor for use in a
hazardous location can have serious consequences
— lost production, extensive property damage,
and even loss of human life. Selection of the proper
motor requires an understanding of underwriters’
Laboratories’ (UL) and National Electrical Code (NEC)
Class, Group and Division designations and the T code
letters.
In some plant engineering departments, there may
be only a vague understanding of the selection criteria
of motors for hazardous locations. In some cases, the
specifier passes the buck to another party in the hope
that someone — perhaps the motor manufacturer
— will fill in the missing specification data. In other
cases, the same type of motor that had been used in the
plant previously is specified, with the hope that this
approach will certainly handle any situation. But this
approach can greatly increase the cost of the project,
and, in some cases, result in a motor that is inadequate
for the application.
Hazardous locations are operating environments
in which explosive or ignitable vapors or dust is
present, or is likely to become present. Special motors
are required to ensure that any internal fault in the
motor will not ignite the vapor or dust. Requirements
for electrical installations in hazardous locations are
covered in Articles 500, 501, 502, 503, 510, 511, 513,
514, 515, and 516 of the National Electrical Code.
A relatively new article 505 makes an abrupt change
in traditional hazardous location require­
ments and
brings the NEC closer to the somewhat less stringent
European code requirements by classifying areas into
three separate zones 0, 1 and 2. This section tends to
involve wiring practices and components rather than
motors so it will not be included in the discussion to
follow.
At the present time article 505 sets forth some
principles, but it will be some time before equipment
suppliers will have products available to match the
new requirements. We can also expect the “inertia of
habit” to slow the change to the somewhat relaxed zone
requirements. Perhaps the changes will be used first
by multinational companies where engineers are more
familiar with the zone system and matching hardware.
The term “explosion proof” is often erroneously
thought to apply to any hazardous-location motor.
Explosion proof motors, however, are only those
approved for Class I locations — that is, where
94
An Underwriters' Laboratory name­
plate is used on all motors approved
for use in Division 1 hazardous
locations. In addition to the normal
motor data such as horsepower,
speed, voltage, amperage, NEMA
Code Letter, etc. it also shows the
specific Class(es) and Group(s) for
which the motor is approved. In
the example shown the motor is
approved for Class I Group D and
Class II Groups F and G. The T
code is also indicated.
potentially explosive gases or vapors are present. A
Class I unit is constructed to contain an explosion
within itself without rupturing. After the initial pressure
buildup on ignition, the hot gas is forced to cool by
passing through long, tight passageways (flame paths)
before escaping from the motor. the temperature of
gas escaping from the motor will then be below the
minimum ignition temperature (MIT) of the gases of
vapors in the atmosphere surrounding the motor.
Meaning of Motor “Class” Designations — Every
motor approved for hazardous locations carries an
Underwriters’ Laboratories’ nameplate that indicates
the motor is approved for hazardous locations (see
illustration). This nameplate identifies the motor as
having been designed for operation in Class I or Class
II locations. Some motors may be approved for both
Class I and II locations.
Basically, the Class identifies the physical
characteristics of the hazardous materials present at the
location where the motor will be used. Class I covers
gases, vapors, or liquids that are explosive or else pose
a threat as ignitable mixtures. A familiar example of a
Class I material is gasoline. It is explosive as a vapor
and ignitable as a liquid. Some of the most common
Class I substances are listed in Table 1.
Class II covers dusts — specifically, dust in amounts
sufficient to create explosive mixtures, and dusts that
are electrically conductive. A prime example of a
hazardous dust is wheat flour. As a compact mass, flour
burns or smolders; but when it is finely distributed in
air, it is highly explosive. Also included in Class II
are electrically conductive metallic and nonmetallic
dusts, such as powdered aluminum and magnesium,
and pulverized coal. Aluminum and magnesium dusts
can burn violently even when not suspended in air;
but when airborne, they are explosive. Some common
Class II substances are listed in Table 2.
Class III locations do not normally require
hazardous-location motors. Specifying a hazardouslocation motor for Class III locations is a common
error. Section 503-6 of the NEC permits a totally
enclosed fan-cooled or nonventilated motor to be
used in Class III locations. A totally enclosed motor
can be purchased at lower cost than a motor approved
for hazardous locations. NEC Section 503-6 also
allows the use of an open drip-proof motor in Class
III locations, if the inspection authority is satisfied
that proper housekeeping will be maintained. Class III
locations are those where easily ignitable fibers and
“flyings” are likely to be present. Such substances are
commonly encountered in the textile, woodworking,
and plastics industries. Class III materials are not
normally airborne, because they are fairly heavy and
settle rapidly. They are, however, quite flammable,
and, therefore, create a potentially hazardous condition
when near electrical equipment. Common Class III
substances are listed in Table 3.
Meaning of “Group” Designations — Within
Class I and Class II, Group designations are assigned
to various combustible substances on the basis of their
behavior after ignition. Group designations A through
G are arranged in descending order according to the
stringency of motor design requirements; Group A
requirements would require the longest flame paths
and tightest fits. Groups A through D fall within Class
I, and Groups E, F, and G fall within Class II. Class III
materials are not broken down by group.
Gasoline and acetylene provide an illustration of the
group concept. Both are Class I substances. Acetylene
is designated as a Group A substance, gasoline falls
within Group D. MIT of automotive gasoline is 280˚
C (536˚ F), slightly below the 305˚ C (581˚ F) MIT
of acetylene. An acetylene explosion, however, is
more intense than a gasoline explosion, so acetylene is
grouped well above gasoline.
It is a common misconception that Class I transcends
Class II and that a Class I motor will automatically
satisfy any Class II requirement. But, a Class I
motor is designed primarily to confine the effects
of an internal motor explosion. Design is based on
the assumption that, over a period of time, normal
heating and cooling will cause the motor to breathe the
surrounding atmosphere, and the atmosphere within
the motor will, eventually, become the same as that of
the operating environment. A subsequent internal fault
can, therefore, cause an explosion within the motor.
A Class II motor, however, is designed to maintain
the motor’s surface temperature at a level such that Class
II materials in the motor operating environment will not
be heated to their MIT. If the operating environment
contains both Class I and Class II substances, a dualrated Class I/Class II motor must be specified.
Another common misconception is that because
the Classes and Groups exist — then there should
be suitable products (motors or other equipment) to
operate in the defined environment. As it turns out,
Classes and Groups are used for all types of equipment
including enclosures, light fixtures, heating elements,
operator devices, etc. But just because there is a
definition it doesn’t mean that a matching product is
available. In the case of motors this is especially true
for Class I Groups A and B. Apparently the market for
motors to operate in these environments is so limited,
TABLE I, CLASS I SUBSTANCES AND ATMOSPHERES
Substance or Atmosphere
Minimum Ignition
Temperature
Group A
acetylene
305˚ C (581˚ F)
Group B
butadiene
ethylene oxide
hydrogen
420˚ C (788˚ F)
570˚ C (1058˚ F)
500˚ C (932˚ F)
Group C
acetaldehyde
cyclopropane
diethyl ether
ethylene
isoprene
unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine
(UDMH) 1, 1-dimethyl hydrazine)
175˚
498˚
180˚
450˚
395˚
C
C
C
C
C
(347˚
(928˚
(356˚
(842˚
(743˚
F)
F)
F)
F)
F)
249˚ C (480˚ F)
Group D
acetone
acrylonitrile
ammonia
benzene
butane
1-butanol (butyl alcohol)
465˚
481˚
651˚
498˚
287˚
343˚
C
C
C
C
C
C
(869˚ F)
(898˚ F)
(1204˚ F)
(928˚ F)
(550˚ F)
(650˚ F)
2-butanol (secondary butyl alcohol)
n-butyl acetate
isobutyl acetate
ethane
ethanol (ethyl alcohol)
ethyl acetate
405˚
425˚
421˚
472˚
363˚
426˚
C
C
C
C
C
C
(761˚
(797˚
(790˚
(882˚
(685˚
(800˚
F)
F)
F)
F)
F)
F)
ethylene dichloride
gasoline
heptane
hexane
methane (natural gas)
methanol (methyl alcohol)
413˚
280˚
204˚
225˚
537˚
464˚
C
C
C
C
C
C
(775˚
(536˚
(399˚
(437˚
(999˚
(867˚
F)
F)
F)
F)
F)
F)
3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol)
methyl ethyl ketone
methyl isobutyl ketone
2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutyl alcohol)
2-methyl-2-propanol (tertiary butyl alcohol)
octane
350˚
404˚
448˚
415˚
478˚
206˚
C
C
C
C
C
C
(662˚
(759˚
(840˚
(780˚
(892˚
(403˚
F)
F)
F)
F)
F)
F)
petroleum naphtha
1-pentanol (amyl alcohol)
propane
1-propanol (propyl alcohol)
2-propanol (isopropyl alcohol)
propylene
288˚
300˚
450˚
412˚
399˚
455˚
C
C
C
C
C
C
(550˚
(572˚
(842˚
(775˚
(750˚
(851˚
F)
F)
F)
F)
F)
F)
styrene
vinyl acetate
vinyl Chloride
p-xylene
490˚
402˚
472˚
528˚
C
C
C
C
(914˚
(756˚
(882˚
(984˚
F)
F)
F)
F)
95
and the designs so difficult, that most manufacturers do
not make them.
The most common hazardous location motors are
made for Class I Group D and Class II Groups F and
G. Several manufacturers can build motors for Groups
C and E but they are normally made on a special order
basis.
table II. class ii substances
GroupGeneral definitions
Examples
Metallic dusts
Dusts of aluminum,
magnesium, their commercial
alloys and other metals
of similarly hazardous
characteristics
F
Electrically conducting
non-metallic dusts
Coal dust
Pulverized coal
Pulverized coke
Pulverized charcoal
Carbon black
and similar substances
G
Electrically non-
conducting dusts
Grain dusts
Grain product dusts
Pulverized sugar
Pulverized starch
Dried powdered potato
Pulverized cocoa
Pulverized spices
Dried egg and milk powder
Wood flour
Oilmeal from beans and seeds
Dried hay and other products
producing combustible dust
when dried or handled and
other similar substances
E
table III. class iiI substances
(no groups assigned)
Cotton
Sisal
Istle
Hemp
Cocoa fiber
Baled waste kapok
Excelsior
(and other materials of similar nature)
table IV. t codes and their associated temperatures
Maximum
T Number motor surface temperature
T1
T2
T2A
T2B
T2C
T2D
T3
T3A
T3B
T3C
T4
T4A
T5
T6
96
C
For a complete list of Class I materials refer to
NFPA 325 – “Guide to Fire Hazard Properties of
Flammable Liquids, Gases and Volatile Solids”.
Division distinctions are concerned primarily with
installation procedures required by the NEC. Class
I and Class II motors for hazardous locations have
no Division designation on the UL label. All Class I
and Class II motors are designed to meet Division 1
requirements and are, therefore, suitable for installation
in both Division 1 and Division 2 locations.
Hazardous-Location Motor T Codes — All
motors manufactured after February 1975 carry a T
code designation (Table 4). The T code identifies the
maximum absolute motor surface temperature that
will be developed under all conditions of operation,
including overload up to and including motor burnout.
The T code designation of the motor must be correlated
with the Minimum Ignition Temperature (MIT) of the
substances in the motor’s operating environment.
The presence of acetone or gasoline, for example,
will affect motor selection. Acetone and gasoline
are both Class I, Group D materials. Acetone has an
MIT of 465˚ C (869˚ F) (Table IV) indicates that a
motor with a T1 rating (450˚ C maximum surface
temperature) would be acceptable for operation in an
acetone environment.
Ignitable Fibers or Flyings
Rayon
Sawdust
Henequen
Jute
Tow
Oakum
Spanish moss
Meaning of “Division” — Hazardous locations are
further broken down into Division 1 and Division 2.
The distinctions are defined in detail in Article 500 of
the NEC. Simply stated, a Division 1 location is one
in which ignitable substances are likely to be present
continuously or intermittently in the course of normal
operations. In a Division 2 location, ignitable materials
are handled or stored in a manner that allows the
combustible substance to escape in the event of spill,
accident, or equipment failure.
F
450
842
300
572
280
536
260
500
230
446
215
419
200
392
180
356
165
329
160
320
135
275
120
248
100
212
85185
Gasoline, however, has an MIT of 280˚ C (536˚ F).
For operation in an environment containing gasoline,
no less than a T2A motor, designed to develop a surface
temperature no greater than 280˚ C, should be specified
(Table 4). Although T codes and ignition temperatures
are conservatively assigned and are based on “worst
case” testing procedures, an extra margin of safety
should be provided by specifying a T2B or higher T
rated motor, designed to develop a maximum surface
temperature of 260˚ C (500˚ F).
Meeting some of the lower temperature T Code
requirements necessitates the use of automatic thermal
overload devices (fractional horsepower motors) or
normally closed (NC) winding thermostats in larger
(integral horsepower) motors.
Winding thermostats are control devices with
relatively low current capacity. They have to be
connected to the motor’s magnetic starter to cause
it to interrupt power to the motor when the internal
temperature gets too high. Failure to make the required
“control circuit” connection will negate the motor
nameplate T Code rating.
In a motor designed for Division 1 use, the winding
thermostats are mounted inside the frame's flame
path. On Division 2 motors, such a construction is
not used, so thermostats and any other accessory
must be intrinsically safe as discussed in IEEE 303.
"Recommended practice for Auxiliary Devices for
Rotating Electrical Machines in Class I, Division 2 and
Zone 2 locations".
Use with Inverter Power Supply — Unlike
standard motors which can readily be used with
Adjustable Speed Drives, motors used in Division 1
and 2 locations need specific certification and marking
indicating suitability for the specific class and group,
speed range and constant or variable torque. Most
manufacturers have a specific family of Inverter Duty
Explosion Proof motors suitable for Division 1 or
2 locations. Standard motors that are suitable for
Division 2 use may be name plated with their speed
capabilities. Intrinsically Sate Auxiliary devices must
be used.
Additional Sources of Information — In addition
to the NEC, three other publications of the National
Fire Protection Association (NFPA)* will be helpful
in selecting the proper motor. NFPA publication 325,
mentioned previously, covers the properties of hazardous
liquids, gases, and volatile solids, and provides a more
comprehensive listing of hazardous substances than
does Table 1. NFPA 497 —“Recommended Practice
for the Classification of Flammable Liquids, Gases,
or Vapors and of Hazardous (Classified) Locations for
Electrical Installations in Chemical Process Areas”
will help classify installations and areas. NFPA 499
— “Recommended Practice for the Classification of
Combustible Dusts and of Hazardous (Classified)
Locations for Electrical Installations in Chemical
Process Areas” covers Class II substances. Each
publication provides MIT’s for the substances covered
in the respective publications.
The field service representative of the plant’s
insurance underwriter can also provide advice when
there is uncertainty as to what type of motor is required
for a particular hazardous-location application.
*NFPA publications can be obtained from National Fire Protection
Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269-9101.
97
98
explosion proof motors in division 2 areas
We have found that one of the most confusing things about explosion proof requirements involves the
application of motors in Division 2 areas.
To put things in perspective, Division 1 involves areas where hazardous liquids, vapors, gases or
hazardous dusts are present a good deal of the time or even all the time in the normal course of events.
Division 2 areas are where the hazardous materials are only apt to be in the area if there is a spill,
accident, loss of ventilation or some other unusual condition. the treatment of both of these divisions is
covered in Article 500 of the National Electric Code (NEC).
Once an area has been identified as being either Division 1 or Division 2, the National Electric Code
requires certain types of motors be used in those environments. Division 1 areas always require
hazardous location (explosion proof) motors having the class and group approvals that match the
particular hazardous substance in the area. Thus, for Division 1 requirements, explosion proof equipment
must be used. On the other hand, if an area has been classified as Division 2, the National Electric
Code will frequently allow the use of totally enclosed (or even open drip proof) motors provided certain
conditions are met. Basically, those conditions relate to there not being any hot surfaces or sparking
parts in the motor. For example, sparking parts could be brushes (as found in DC motors), switching
devices (such as centrifugal switches used in many single phase motors), thermostats or thermal
overloads normally found in thermally protected motors, or space heaters that might have high surface
temperatures.
In essence, what the code is saying is that three phase induction motors that do not have high
temperature surfaces or sparking parts will not, in normal operation, be likely to ignite the surrounding
environment. They can be used because the likelihood of a (spark producing) failure of the motor
occurring at the same time that a spill or accident occurs is so remote it is a very unlikely event.
One way to avoid conflicts on interpretations of what is needed is to “play safe” and use hazardous
location motors for both Division 1 and Division 2 requirements. This is a safe but expensive option and
becomes more expensive as motors get larger.
A second choice is to use three phase TEFC or even Open Drip Proof motors that meet the nonsparking and no hot surfaces requirements for Division 2.
For machinery builders or contractors who want to use the less expensive motors for Division 2
requirements, it is always wise to make your intentions known to the customer in advance.
Perhaps the best way to do this would be to notify them by letter, with a statement such as follows:
“Since your stated requirement is Class
*
Group
* , Division 2, it is our intention
to supply totally enclosed, fan cooled, three phase induction motors in accordance with
Paragraph (1) of the National Electric Code. If you object to this, please notify us as soon as
possible.”
By using this type of letter to make your intentions clear, it is much less likely that a dispute over
interpretation will develop at a later time.
If you should have any questions regarding this requirement, please refer to the National Electric Code for
the appropriate Section based on the class, group and division of the requirement.
* Fill in appropriate references
(1) Paragraph references
For Class I ---------------------501-8(b)
For Class II -------------------- 502-8(b)
When using motors in Division 2 areas with an inverter power supply, refer to comments on page 96-97.
99
100
dc drive fundamentals
understanding dc drives
DC motors have been available for nearly 100 years. In fact the first electric motors were designed and
built for operation from direct current power.
AC motors are now and will of course remain the basic prime movers for the fixed speed requirements of
industry. Their basic simplicity, dependability and ruggedness make AC motors the natural choice for the
vast majority of industrial drive applications.
Then where do DC drives fit into the industrial drive picture of the future?
In order to supply the answer, it is necessary to examine some of the basic characteristics obtainable
from DC motors and their associated solid state controls.
1. Wide speed range.
2. Good speed regulation.
3. Compact size and light weight (relative to mechanical variable speed).
4. Ease of control.
5. Low maintenance.
6. Low cost.
In order to realize how a DC drive has the capability to provide the above characteristics, the DC drive
has to be analyzed as two elements that make up the package. These two elements are of course the
motor and the control. (The “control” is more accurately called the “regulator”).
dc motors
Basic DC motors as used on nearly all packaged drives have a very simple performance characteristic
— the shaft turns at a speed almost directly proportional to the voltage applied to the armature. Figure 1
shows a typical voltage/speed curve for a motor operating from a 115 volt control.
From the above curve you can see that with 9 volts applied to the armature, this motor would be
operating at Point 1 and turn at approximately 175 RPM. Similarly with 45 volts applied, the motor would
101
be operating at Point 2 on the curve or 875 RPM. With 90 volts applied, the motor would reach its full
speed of 1750 RPM at point 3.
From this example a general statement can be made that DC motors have “no load” characteristics that
are nearly a perfect match for the curve indicated in Figure 1.
However, when operated at a fixed applied voltage but a gradually increasing torque load, they exhibit a
speed droop as indicated in Figure 2.
This speed droop is very similar to what would occur if an automobile accelerator pedal was held in a
fixed position with the car running on level ground. Upon starting up an incline where more driving torque
would be needed, the car would slow down to a speed related to the steepness of the hill. In a real
situation, the driver would respond by depressing the accelerator pedal to compensate for the speed loss
to maintain a nearly constant speed up the incline.
In the DC drive a similar type of “compensation” is employed in the control to assist in maintaining a
nearly constant speed under varying load (torque) conditions.
The measurement of this tendency to slow down is called Regulation and is calculated with the following
equation:
No Load Speed – Full Load Speed
% Regulation =X 100
No Load Speed
In DC drives the regulation is generally expressed as a percentage of motor base speed.
If the control (regulator) did not have the capability of responding to and compensating for changing
motor loads, regulation of typical motors might be as follows:
HP
% MOTOR REGULATION
HP
% MOTOR REGULATION
1/4
13.6
1.5
8.0
1/3
12.9
2
7.2
1/2
13.3
3
4.2
3/4
10.8
5
2.9
1
6.7
7.5
2.3
102
One other very important characteristic of a DC motor should be noted. Armature amperage is almost
directly proportional to output torque regardless of speed. This characteristic is shown by Figure 3. Point
1 indicates that a small fixed amount of current is required to turn the motor even when there is no
output torque. This is due to the friction of the bearings, electrical losses in the motor materials and load
imposed by the air in the motor (windage).
Beyond Point 1 through Point 2 and 3, the current increases in direct proportion to the torque required
by the load.
From this discussion and Figure 3 a general statement can be made that for PM and Shunt Wound
motors load torque determines armature amperage.
In summary, two general statements can be made relative to DC motor performance.
1. Motor Speed is primarily determined by Applied Armature Voltage.
2. Motor Torque is controlled by Armature Current (amperes).
Understanding these two concepts of DC motors provides the key to understanding total drive
performance.
regulators (controls)
The control provides two basic functions:
1. It rectifies AC power converting it to DC for the DC motor.
2. It controls the DC output voltage and amperage in response to various control and feedback
signals thereby regulating the motor’s performance, both in speed and torque.
rectifying function
The basic rectifying function of the control is accomplished by a combination of power semiconductors
(Silicon Controlled Rectifiers and Diodes) that make up the “power bridge” assembly.
103
regulating function
The regulating function is provided by a relatively simple electronic circuit that monitors a number of
inputs and sums these signals to produce a so called “error” signal. This error signal is processed and
transformed into precisely timed pulses (bursts of electrical energy). These pulses are applied to the gates
of the SCR’s in the power bridge thereby regulating the power output to the DC motor.
For most purposes it is not necessary to understand the electronic details of the regulator, however, in
order to appreciate the regulator function it is good to understand some of the input signals that are
required to give the regulator its capabilities, these are shown diagrammatically in Figure 4.
The AC to DC power flow is a relatively simple straight through process with the power being converted
from AC to DC by the action of the solid state power devices that form the power bridge assembly.
The input and feedback signals need to be studied in more detail.
set point input
In most packaged drives this signal is derived from a closely regulated fixed voltage source applied to a
potentiometer. 10 volts is a very common reference.
The potentiometer has the capability of accepting the fixed voltage and dividing it down to any value
of from, for example, 10 to zero volts, depending on where it is set. A 10 volt input to the regulator
from the speed adjustment control (potentiometer) corresponds to maximum motor speed and zero
volts corresponds to zero speed. Similarly any speed between zero and maximum can be obtained by
adjusting the speed control to the appropriate setting.
104
speed feedback information
In order to “close the loop” and control motor speed accurately it is necessary to provide the control with
a feedback signal related to motor speed.
The standard method of doing this in a simple control is by monitoring the armature voltage and feeding
it back into the regulator for comparison with the input “set point” signal.
When armature voltage becomes high, relative to the set point, established by the speed potentiometer
setting, an “error” is detected and the output voltage from the power bridge is reduced to lower the
motor’s speed back to the “set point”. Similarly when the armature voltage drops an error of opposite
polarity is sensed and the control output voltage is automatically increased in an attempt to re-establish
the desired speed.
The “Armature Voltage Feedback System” which is standard in most packaged drives is generally called
a “Voltage Regulated Drive”.
A second and more accurate method of obtaining the motor speed feedback information is called
“Tachometer Feedback”. In this case the speed feedback signal is obtained from a motor mounted
tachometer. The output of this tachometer is directly related to the speed of the motor. Using Tachometer
Feedback generally gives a drive improved regulation characteristics. When “tach feedback” is used the
drive is referred to as a “Speed Regulated Drive”. Most controls are capable of being modified to accept
tachometer signals for operation in the tachometer feedback mode.
In some newer high performance “digital drives” the feedback can come from a motor mounted encoder
that feeds back voltage pulses at a rate related to motor speed. These (counts) are processed digitally
being compared to the “set point” and error signals are produced to regulate the armature voltage and
speed.
current feedback
The second source of feedback information is obtained by monitoring the motor armature current. As
discussed previously, this is an accurate indication of the torque required by the load.
The current feedback signal is used for two purposes:
1.As positive feedback to eliminate the speed droop that occurs with increased torque load on
the motor. It accomplishes this by making a slight corrective increase in armature voltage as
the armature current increases.
2. As negative feedback with a “threshold” type of control that limits the current to a value that
will protect the power semiconductors from damage. By making this function adjustable it
can be used to control the maximum torque the motor can deliver to the load.
The current limiting action of most controls is adjustable and is usually called “Current Limit” or “Torque
Limit”.
In summary, the Regulator accomplishes two basic functions:
1. It converts the alternating Current to Direct Current.
2. It regulates the armature voltage and current to control the speed and torque of the DC
Motor.
105
typical adjustments
In addition to the normal external adjustment such as the speed potentiometer, there are a number of
common internal adjustments that are used on simple small analog type SCR Drives. Some of these
adjustments are as follows:
•Minimum Speed
•Maximum Speed
•Current Limit (Torque Limit)
•IR Compensation
•Acceleration Time
•Deceleration Time
The following is a description of the function that these individual adjustments serve and their typical use.
minimum speed
In most cases when the control is initially installed the speed potentiometer can be turned down to its
lowest point and the output voltage from the control will go to zero causing the motor to stop. There
are many situations where this is not desirable. For example there are some machines that want to be
kept running at a minimum speed and accelerated up to operating speed as necessary. There is also a
possibility that an operator may use the speed potentiometer to stop the motor to work on the machine.
This can be a dangerous situation since the motor has only been brought to a stop by zeroing the input
signal voltage. A more desirable situation is when the motor is stopped by opening the circuit to the
motor or power to the control using the on/off switch. By adjusting the minimum speed up to some point
where the motor continues to run even with the speed potentiometer set to its lowest point, the operator
must shut the control off to stop the motor. This adds a little safety into the system. The typical minimum
speed adjustment is from 0 to 30% of motor base speed.
maximum speed
The maximum speed adjustment sets the maximum speed attainable either by raising the input signal
to its maximum point or turning the potentiometer to the maximum point. For example on a typical DC
motor the rated speed of the motor might 1750 RPM but the control might be capable of running it up
to 1850 or 1900 RPM. In some cases it’s desirable to limit the motor (and machine speed) to something
less than would be available at this maximum setting. The maximum adjustment allows this to be done.
By turning the internal potentiometer to a lower point the maximum output voltage from the control is
limited. This limits the maximum speed available from the motor. In typical controls such as our BC140
the range of adjustment on the maximum speed is from 50 to 110% of motor base speed.
current limit
One very nice feature of electronic speed controls is that the current going to the motor is constantly
monitored by the control. As mentioned previously, the current drawn by the armature of the DC motor
is related to the torque that is required by the load. Since this monitoring and control is available an
adjustment is provided in the control that limits the output current to a maximum value.
This function can be used to set a threshold point that will cause the motor to stall rather than putting out
an excessive amount of torque. This capability gives the motor/control combination the ability to prevent
damage that might otherwise occur if higher values of torque were available. This is handy on machines
that might become jammed or otherwise stalled. It can also be used where the control is operating a
device such as the center winder where the important thing becomes torque rather than the speed. In
this case the current limit is set and the speed goes up or down to hold the tension o the material being
wound. The current limit is normally factory set at 150% of the motor’s rated current. This allows the
106
motor to produce enough torque to start and accelerate the load and yet will not let the current (and
torque) exceed 150% of its rated value when running. The range of adjustment is typically from 0 to
200% of the motor rated current.
ir compensation
IR compensation is a method used to adjust for the droop in a motor’s speed due to armature
resistance. As mentioned previously, IR compensation is positive feedback that causes the control output
voltage to rise slightly with increasing output current. This will help stabilize the motor’s speed from a
no-load to full load condition. If the motor happens to be driving a load where the torque is constant
or nearly so, then this adjustment is usually unnecessary. However, if the motor is driving a load with
a widely fluctuating torque requirement, and speed regulation is critical, then IR compensation can be
adjusted to stabilize the speed from the light load to full load condition. One caution is that when IR
compensation is adjusted too high it results in an increasing speed characteristic. This means that as the
load is applied the motor is actually going to be forced to run faster. When this happens it increases the
voltage and current to the motor which in turn increases the motor speed further. If this adjustment is set
too high an unstable “hunting” or oscillating condition occurs that is undesirable.
acceleration time
The Acceleration Time adjustment performs the function that is indicated by its name. It will extend or
shorten the amount of time for the motor to go from zero speed up to the set speed. It also regulates the
time it takes to change speeds from one setting (say 50%) to another setting (perhaps 100%). So this
setting has the ability to moderate the acceleration rate on the drive.
A couple notes are important: if an acceleration time that is too rapid is called for “acceleration time” will
be overridden by the current limit. Acceleration will only occur at a rate that is allowed by the amount of
current the control passes through to the motor. Also important to note is that on most small controls
the acceleration time is not linear. What this means is that a change of 50 RPM may occur more rapidly
when the motor is at low speed than it does when the motor is approaching the set point speed. This is
important to know but usually not critical on simple applications where these drives are used.
deceleration time
This is an adjustment that allows loads to be slowed over an extended period of time. For example,
if power is removed from the motor and the load stops in 3 seconds, then the decel time adjustment
would allow you to increase that time and “power down” the load over a period of 4, 5, 6 or more
seconds. Note: On a conventional simple DC drive it will not allow for the shortening of the time below
the “coast to rest” time.
adjustment summary
The ability to adjust these six adjustments gives great flexibility to the typical inexpensive DC drive. In
most cases the factory preset settings are adequate and need not be changed, but on other applications
it may be desirable to tailor the characteristics of the control to the specific application.
Many of these adjustments are available in other types of controls, such as variable frequency drives.
107
108
HANDLING 50 hertz REQUIREMENTS
INTRODUCTION
As American manufacturers increase exports to 50 hertz countries, there arises the problem of supplying
motors for 50 hertz service at an array of unfamiliar voltages. Fortunately there are some possibilities
available that make it feasible to handle many of these requirements without waiting for special designs.
The first choice should always be to utilize a stock 50 hertz motor from the wide variety offered in the
current 501 catalog. If the basic motor exists but needs some type of modifications, they can frequently
be handled through the Mod Express program to get exactly what is needed.
If a 50 Hz stock motor either doesn’t exist or cannot be modified to match the requirement, then some
other alternatives exist.
In order to provide a description of these alternatives, we must first break it into two major groups: Three
Phase and Single Phase.
three phase motors
When three phase motors are required, the situation can be quite simple. One “Rule of Thumb” that
comes in very handy is as follows:
When the Ratio of Volts to Hertz Stays Constant, the Motor Can be Operated at the
Reduced Frequency and Reduced Voltage.
Under this condition, the motor will provide the same operating torque that it would provide at its 60
hertz frequency. Please note that the stipulation — the same torque should be remembered. An
example may help illustrate the situation.
A standard induction motor rated at 1 HP, 3 phase, 230/460 volts, 60 hertz would be checked out as
follows: 460 ÷ 60 = 7.66 volts per hertz. In this case, the matching 50 hertz voltage would be 50 x 7.66
= 383 volts. Thus the standard 60 hertz motor could be used at 50 hertz on voltages of 190 or 380.
Under this condition of reduced voltage and frequency, the motor could be expected to generate the
same amount of torque as it would on the normal 60 hertz application. In this case, it would be 3 lb. ft. of
torque.
The speed of the motor would of course be lower then it would be on 60 hertz. Normally, you would
expect to get a speed that is roughly five-sixths of the 60 hertz speed. In the case of a 1725 RPM motor,
you would normally be 1425 RPM when the motor is operated on a 50 hertz power system.
what about horsepower?
Since horsepower is the product of speed and torque, you would expect that the horsepower output
would be five-sixths or slightly over 80 percent of the 60 hertz rating. In order to overcome this problem,
there are two approaches: The first would be to select the next larger HP rating. Thus, in the example
cited above, a 1-1/2 HP motor could be used to handle very nicely the 1 HP requirement at 50 hertz. In
most cases, the incremental cost of selecting the next higher horsepower is substantially less than the
cost and time involved in ordering a special unit. This derating approach is a sound and conservative one
that can be used on virtually all applications involving open drip-proof and totally enclosed motors and
brake motors. A motor selected in this manner can be renameplated to the new voltage, HP, speed and
frequency combination.
109
Due to the inherent conservative designs used in Baldor motors and the normal voltage tolerances, many
stock motors can be operated on 200 volts, 3 phase, 50 hertz or 400 volts, 3 phase, 50 hertz. Some can
also be operated on 415 volt, 50 hertz systems. These combinations of 200, 380, 400 and 415 are the
most frequently occurring 50 hertz voltages.
A second approach allows you to handle many of the 50 hertz requirements without derating. This is
a little more involved and might normally be considered where special motors exist or where there are
specific frame size restrictions that do not allow for an increase to the next larger HP rating.
The approach in this case involves asking a few specific questions and having a reasonable understanding
of the type of load that is being driven. The basic question is this: “Is the machine going to be identical in
all respects to its 60 hertz counterpart?” If the answer to that question is “yes”, a second question should
be asked as follows: “Are you going to allow your machine to run at five-sixths of the 60 hertz speed or
are you going to change transmission components such as gearing, belts, pulleys, etc. to increase the
output speed up to the normal rate that you would get if the motor were to be running on 60 hertz?” In
this case, if the customer is going to change components in the machine to maintain the performance of
the machine up to the 60 hertz capability, then the approach of oversizing, as discussed previously, should
be used.
If, on the other hand, the machine is identical and the customer is going to operate it at reduced
capability, then the torque required to drive the machine would normally be the same torque or in some
cases less than the 60 hertz torque requirement. If the torque requirement is the same or less, then the
motor need not be derated since the machine’s requirements have been decreased and the motor would
still be a perfect match for the machine. There are also many Baldor motors that can be operated at the
rated horsepower on 50 hertz requirements without exceeding their rated temperature rise. Thus, a third
option also exists but it involves a good deal more searching to determine if a motor can be utilized to
handle specific requirements.
other voltages
Aside from the three commonly occurring 50 hertz voltages that have been described previously, there
also arises from time to time requirements for others such as 440 volts, 50 hertz. When the rule of thumb
is applied to standardly available motors, it turns out that this voltage is not one that can be handled by
normal derating processes. In this instance, a special motor would have to be wound or an existing motor
could be rewound by a service shop to match this requirement. In some instances, 575 volt, 60 hertz
motors can be utilized to handle voltages of 480, 50 hertz or as high as 500 volts, 50 hertz. When this
occurs, the normal procedures for derating as listed previously can be applied.
single phase motors
Single phase motors present a unique problem since there are two items involved:
1.The winding must match the 50 hertz frequency and voltage.
2.The centrifugal starting switch must be set to operate at the right point as the motor accelerates
during its starting period.
The simultaneous requirement for both of these items usually makes it impossible to utilize normal 60 hertz
motors for 50 hertz, single phase requirements. In most instances it may be possible to rewind an existing
60 hertz motor and change the centrifugal starting switch to one that is appropriate for 50 hertz operation.
This procedure is fairly costly and time consuming.
A second option exists with Baldor motors since we now offer a good selection of single phase, 50 hertz
motors in the range of horsepowers of from 1/3 to 5. These motors are specifically designed for 50 hertz
operation on either 110 volts or 220 volts (5 HP, 220 volts only). They are rigid base motors in both open
drip proof and totally enclosed. When C Flanges are required, footless C Face 1425 and 2850 RPM
110
motors are offered in a range of sizes from 1/3 to 2 HP. C Flange kits are available to convert stock
motors from the standard mounting to a C Flange mounting. Since the bases are welded on, it is not
feasible to remove the base in order to get a footless motor but most customers will not object to having
both the C Flange and rigid base if they can get availability of the basic unit.
explosion proof motors
Explosion proof motors present some unique problems. Basically, they conform to the same rules that
have been discussed previously. However, due to the UL (Underwriters Laboratory), many of these
motors cannot be renameplated to alternate voltages or frequency. The reason for this hinges on the
safety aspects of the explosion proof designs as well as the thermal overload coordination situation.
Thus, explosion proof, 50 hertz motors, that are not available from stock, both single and three phase,
have to be ordered as special units.
Many three-phase Baldor explosion proof motors are already supplied with a 50/60 Hz nameplate.
summary
By using the techniques described, it is possible to handle a very high percentage of the normally
occurring 50 hertz voltage requirements. If you should have questions, please contact us and we will try
to be of assistance.
111
112
operating motors in wet or damp environments
When electric motors are installed in wet or damp areas, the life of the motor is almost always shortened
from what would be expected in a dry situation. However, there are several cautions and suggestions
that can extend the life of motors in these less than ideal situations.
open drip-proof motors
Generally speaking, open drip-proof motors are not suitable for wet environments. However, there
are many situations where an equipment manufacturer chooses the open drip-proof motor (probably
because of its lower first cost) for use where a totally enclosed motor would have been a better and
longer life choice. If an open drip-proof motor is in place, a few suggestions can help extend motor life.
First, the motor should be shielded from the direct impact of rain, fog, snow, etc. In shielding a motor
from the elements, caution should be used not to restrict air flow to and around the motor. Thus, putting
a shelter over the motor is a fine idea, as long as the shelter is well ventilated or louvered so that hot air
is not trapped inside.
Next, it is important to realize that open drip-proof motors are built to be mounted with a certain
orientation. For example, many open drip-proof motors have “venetian blind” type louvers in the end
housings to make water that is falling from above deflect away from the inside of the motor. This works
fine except when motors get mounted to a wall or with feet up (ceiling mounting). In the ceiling mounted
case, unless the position of the end housings is changed relative to the base of the motor, the louvers
will have a funnel effect directing rain, snow and other debris into the windings to shorten the life of the
motor. In these cases, end housings should be rotated to put the louvers in the proper position to fend
off rain rather than funneling it inside.
The use of open drip-proof motors outdoors or in wet areas is not ideal. In the event of a failure, the
motor should be replaced with a motor more suitable for an outdoor or wet environment.
totally enclosed fan cooled
Totally enclosed fan cooled motors are more adaptable to outdoor and high moisture areas and with a
bit of caution, they will work well. The following suggestions will help extend the life of totally enclosed
motors.
Totally enclosed fan cooled motors have “weep holes” at the bottom of the end housings. Weep holes
or fittings are put there to allow condensation or other accumulations of moisture to drain. At times,
motors are mounted in unusual positions such as with the shaft horizontal but with the base mounted
on a vertical wall. In this case the weep holes are out of position by 90 degrees and the only time they
could do their job would be when the motor is half full of water. This, of course, is unacceptable. When
motors are going to be used in different positions, care should be taken to reposition the end brackets
so the weep holes are at the lowest point of the motor. This is especially important in applications such
as the brush drives used in car washes and similar situations where water is apt to be falling on the
motors continuously. In this situation some water can always be expected to enter the motor. The key
to extending motor life is to give it an easy way out. On motors that are mounted at odd angles where
the weep holes cannot be properly re-positioned to the lowest point, the problem can be remedied by
carefully drilling a small hole at the lowest point. Caution must be taken to be sure power to the motor is
disconnected and the drill bit does not touch or damage the windings or motor bearings.
Motors such as the Baldor “Washdown Duty™”, “Dirty Duty®” and “Severe Duty” are designed to seal
the motor and prevent the entrance of moisture. However, try as we might, it is nearly impossible to keep
all water out. Thus, it is vitally important that the weep holes be positioned so that water entering the
motor either by direct impingement or by exchange of air saturated with dampness, can drain away freely
rather than accumulating.
113
One other source of water in a motor is condensation that can occur as a result of repeated heating and
cooling cycles. For example, when the motor gets hot, the air within the motor expands and pushes out.
Later, when the motor cools, fresh moisture laden air will be drawn in as the air contracts. As this cycle
repeats again and again, substantial quantities of water can accumulate. If left unchecked, it will lead to
insulation failure.
Again, this highlights the importance of having the weep holes properly positioned so that water can
drain before it accumulates in sufficient quantities to damage the motor.
Where motors run continuously, the heat generated in the motor by normal operation can keep windings
dry. But when a motor is used infrequently and is subject to large swings in temperature, there are two
methods which can be used to reduce the susceptibility to failure caused by accumulated moisture.
The first and most popular method is the use of heaters installed within the motor. In this case,
cartridge heaters or silicon rubber strip heaters, are placed within the motor and are turned on during
the non-operating periods. The object of this method is to maintain the temperature inside the motor
approximately five to ten degrees warmer than the surrounding air. when this is done, condensation
inside the motor is prevented and the motor will stay dry. The heater method is similar to the way light
bulbs are used in closets where the climate is humid to prevent mildew on clothing and leather goods.
When internal heaters are used, they are interconnected with the motor starter to turn on when the motor
is not running and off when the motor is running.
The second method of accomplishing the same result is a system called “trickle heating”. In this case,
a source of low voltage single phase power is applied to the three phase motor windings when the
motor is at rest. This results in a low energy, single phasing condition that produces heat in the windings,
rotor, and indirectly the shaft and the bearings of the motor. This system is a good one for preventing
condensation in motors that are at rest. Trickle heating is particularly good where there are groups of
identical motors such as those used on aerators in pollution control lagoons.
hazardous location
One of the most difficult motors to protect in wet and damp environments is hazardous location or
explosion proof. The difficulty in protecting these motors arises from several factors. First, due to
explosion proof design requirements, gaskets cannot be used. Similarly, the joints between the end
housings and the frame and the conduit box and frame cannot be gasketed or sealed. There must be
metal-to-metal contact along these joints. This metal-to-metal contact is close fitting but nonetheless,
it cannot seal completely. Also, in explosion proof designs, it is not possible to use normal weep holes.
Thus, when explosion proof motors get used in wet environments, moisture that gets inside the motor
can accumulate and stay there for extended periods of time. There are breather drain devices that are
used in some motors such as the Baldor 1.15 service factor Class 1, Group D explosion proof motors.
These specially designed breather drains allow moisture to drain from the motor while still retaining the
explosion proof integrity. Again, as in the case of other motors with weep holes, care must be taken to
make sure that the breather drains are at the lowest point on the motor.
Some of the options that are available to control moisture in explosion proof motors are the same as
those used in totally enclosed motors. Space heaters can be installed in the motors to keep the internal
temperature of the motor above the outside temperature during idle periods. This is an effective way to
control the build-up of condensation.
One further key to protecting explosion proof motors, especially in outdoor situations, is to shelter them
from direct rainfall. Again, as in the case of other motors, the sheltering must be done so that it protects
the motor but does not restrict the air flow to and around the motor from the outside.
114
summary
The installation of motors in outdoor, wet, or damp environments presents some unique problems but, by
the proper choice of motor and some caution in installation, most situations can be successfully handled
to yield good, long term operating results. The proper choice of motor enclosure and features followed
closely by the proper location of the weep holes and in some cases, use of an auxiliary heating device or
system to warm the motor during non-operating time, will result in an effective life-extending ‑solution.
Motors such as the Baldor Washdown Duty™ and Severe Duty motors are specifically designed to
handle difficult situations but even when using these specialized products, the basic cautions regarding
proper orientation of the weep holes must be followed.
115
116
BALDOR SALES OFFiCES
•VANCOUVER
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mONTREAL
TORONTO
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SALT LAkE CiTy
DES mOiNES
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CLEVELAND•
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yORk
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UNiTED STATES
ARizONA
pHOENiX
4211 S 43RD PLACE
PHOENIx, AZ 85040
PHONE: 602-470-0407
FAx: 602-470-0464
gEORgiA
ATLANTA
62 TECHNOLOGY DRIVE
ALPHARETTA, GA 30005
PHONE: 770-772-7000
FAx: 770-772-7200
ARkANSAS
CLARkSViLLE
706 WEST MAIN STREET
CLARkSVILLE, AR 72830
PHONE: 479-754-9108
FAx: 479-754-9205
iLLiNOiS
CHiCAgO
340 REMINGTON BLVD.
BOLINGBROOk, IL 60440
PHONE: 630-296-1400
FAx: 630-226-9420
CALiFORNiA
LOS ANgELES
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COMMERCE, CA 90040
PHONE: 323-724-6771
FAx: 323-721-5859
iNDiANA
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INDIANAPOLIS, IN 46241
PHONE: 317-246-5100
FAx: 317-246-5110
HAyWARD
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HAYWARD, CA 94545
PHONE: 510-785-9900
FAx: 510-785-9910
COLORADO
DENVER
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PHONE: 303-623-0127
FAx: 303-595-3772
CONNECTiCUT
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WALLINGFORD, CT 06492
PHONE: 203-269-1354
FAx: 203-269-5485
FLORiDA
TAmpA/pUERTO RiCO/
ViRgiN iSLANDS
3906 EAST 11TH AVENUE
TAMPA, FL 33605
PHONE: 813-248-5078
FAx: 813-241-9514
iOWA
DES mOiNES
1943 HULL AVENUE
DES MOINES, IA 50313
PHONE: 515-263-6929
FAx: 515-263-6515
mARyLAND
BALTimORE
7071A DORSEY RUN RD
ELkRIDGE, MD 21075
PHONE: 410-579-2135
FAx: 410-579-2677
mASSACHUSETTS
BOSTON
6 PULLMAN STREET
WORCESTER, MA 01606
PHONE: 508-854-0708
FAx: 508-854-0291
miCHigAN
DETROiT
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STERLING HEIGHTS, MI 48312
PHONE: 586-978-9800
FAx: 586-978-9969
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ROGERS, MN 55374
PHONE: 763-428-3633
FAx: 763-428-4551
miSSOURi
ST LOUiS
13678 LAkEFRONT DRIVE
EARTH CITY, MO 63045
PHONE: 314-373-3032
FAx: 314-373-3038
kANSAS CiTy
9810 INDUSTRIAL BLVD.
LENExA, kS 66215
PHONE: 816-587-0272
FAx: 816-587-3735
NEW yORk
AUBURN
ONE ELLIS DRIVE
AUBURN, NY 13021
PHONE: 315-255-3403
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NORTH CAROLiNA
gREENSBORO
1220 ROTHERWOOD ROAD
GREENSBORO, NC 27406
PHONE: 336-272-6104
FAx: 336-273-6628
OHiO
CiNCiNNATi
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WEST CHESTER, OH 45069
PHONE: 513-771-2600
FAx: 513-772-2219
CLEVELAND
8929 FREEWAY DRIVE
MACEDONIA, OH 44056
PHONE: 330-468-4777
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OkLAHOmA
TULSA
5555 E. 71ST ST., SUITE 9100
TULSA, Ok 74136
PHONE: 918-366-9320
FAx: 918-366-9338
OREgON
pORTLAND
12651 SE CAPPS ROAD
CLACkAMAS, OR 97015
PHONE: 503-691-9010
FAx: 503-691-9012
pENNSyLVANiA
pHiLADELpHiA
103 CENTRAL AVENUE, SUITE 400B
MOUNT LAUREL, NJ 08054
PHONE: 856-840-8011
FAx: 856-840-0811
piTTSBURgH
159 PROMINENCE DRIVE
NEW kENSINGTON, PA 15068
PHONE: 724-889-0092
FAx: 724-889-0094
TENNESSEE
mEmpHiS
4000 WINCHESTER ROAD
MEMPHIS, TN 38118
PHONE: 901-365-2020
FAx: 901-365-3914
TEXAS
DALLAS
2920 114TH STREET SUITE 100
GRAND PRAIRIE, Tx 75050
PHONE: 214-634-7271
FAx: 214-634-8874
HOUSTON
10355 W. LITTLE YORk ROAD
SUITE 300
HOUSTON, Tx 77041
PHONE: 281-977-6500
FAx: 281-977-6510
UTAH
SALT LAkE CiTy
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PHONE: 801-832-0127
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iNTERNATiONAL SALES
FORT SmiTH, AR
P.O. BOx 2400
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PHONE: 479-646-4711
FAx: 479-648-5895
CANADA
EDmONTON, ALBERTA
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PHONE: 780-434-4900
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TORONTO
OAkViLLE, ONTARiO
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mONTREAL, qUEBEC
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PHONE: 514-933-2711
FAx: 514-933-8639
VANCOUVER,
BRiTiSH COLUmBiA
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PORT COQUITLAM,
BRITISH COLUMBIA V3C 5M5
PHONE 604-421-2822
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WiNNipEg, mANiTOBA
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MExICO
PHONE: +52 477 761 2030
FAx: +52 477 761 2010
Baldor Electric Company • P.O. Box 2400 • Fort Smith, AR 72902-2400 U.S.A.
Ph: (479) 646-4711 • Fax (479) 648-5792 • International Fax (479) 648-5895 • www.baldor.com
© Baldor Electric Company
PR2525
Printed in U.S.A.
03/14 CMB 10,000
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