Hello, and welcome to this presentation of the STM32 general-purpose IO interface. It covers the general-purpose input and output interface and how it allows connectivity to the environment around the microcontroller. 1 General-purpose IO pins of STM32 products provide an interface with the external environment. This configurable interface is used by the MCU and also all other embedded peripherals to interface with both digital and analog signals. Application benefits include a wide range of supported IO supply voltages, as well as the ability to externally wake up the MCU from low power modes. 2 General-purpose I/O provides bidirectional operation – input and output – with independent configuration for each I/O pin. They are shared across 8 ports named GPIOA to GPIOH, each of them hosting up to 16 I/O pins. I/O ports support atomic bit set and reset operation through BSSRR and BRR registers and support the use of bit banding in the memory map. I/O ports are directly connected to the AHB2 bus. This allows fast I/O pin operations, e.g. toggling of the pin every 2 clock cycles. Most of the I/O pins are 5 V tolerant when supplied from VDDIOx above 1.6 V. Up to 14 I/O pins are supplied by externally providing a voltage within the VDDIO2 supply domain. This supply is independent of the VDD provided to the part. This functionality allows users to adapt logic levels of the MCU’s I/O pins to the levels required by external logic which may be supplied by different voltage domains without need for 3 external level shifters. 3 General-purpose I/O pins can be configured into several operating modes. An I/O pin can be configured in an input mode with floating input, input mode with an internal pull-up or pulldown resistor or as an analog input. An I/O pin could be also configured in an output mode with a push-pull output or an open-drain output with an internal pull-up or pull-down resistor. For each I/O pin, the slew rate speed can be selected from 4 ranges to compromise between maximum speed and emissions from the I/O switching and adjust the application’s EMI performance. I/O pins are also used by other integrated peripherals to interface with the external environment. Alternate function registers are used to select the configuration for the peripherals in this case. Configuration of the I/O ports can be locked to increase 4 robustness of the application. Once the configuration is locked by applying the correct write sequence to the lock register, the I/O pin’s configuration cannot be modified until the next reset. 4 Several integrated peripherals such as the USART, timers, SPI and others share the same I/O pins in order to interface with the external environment. Peripherals are configured through an alternate function multiplexer which ensures that only one peripheral is connected to the I/O pin at a single time. Of course, this selection can be changed during run time of the application through the GPIOx_AFRL and AFRH registers. 5 The Independent VDDIO2 supply domain allows operation in an environment with several different logic supply voltages. It allows the STM32 to communicate with logic supplied from 1.08 V, much lower than the VDD supply of the STM32, which can range up to 3.6 V. Up to 14 I/O pins in this domain can be used to communicate with other logic circuits which are supplied by voltage rails other than VDD. Independent voltage supplies may allow for the omission of external voltage shifters in the design. 6 When the external oscillator is switched off, pins related to this oscillator can be used as standard I/O pins. This is the default state after device reset. When the external clock source is used instead of a crystal oscillator, only related OSC_IN pins are used for the clock and OSC_OUT pins can be used as standard I/O pins. 7 When the external oscillator is switched off, pins related to this oscillator can be used as standard I/O pins. This is the default state after device reset. When the external clock source is used instead of a crystal oscillator, only related OSC_IN pins are used for the clock and OSC_OUT pins can be used as standard I/O pins. 8 A new register GPIOx_ASCR has been introduced on STM32L476 devices to control analog interconnection between an I/O pin and ADC input. This register has to be configured before the ADC conversions are started to correctly bring the signal to the ADC input. This register is removed on other devices and the analog interconnection will be enabled automatically when an ADC channel is selected. 9 A new multi-supply scheme of I/O pins brings new I/O pin structures. Previously-used naming – FT, TT – has been extended by abbreviation suffixes to highlight alternate supply sources for each FT and TT I/O pin. Previously-used name FTf for Fm+ capable pins has been transformed to FT_f, the new _l suffix has been added to mark pins supplied through LCD supply, suffix _a marks pins supplied by analog supply, suffix _u is used for pins supplied from USB supply and suffix _s now clearly identifies pins within the independent VDDIO2 supply domain. The absolute maximum rating for each I/O pin is defined by the lowest voltage of the supplies listed for each I/O pin. 10 I/O pins remain active in all modes except Standby and Shutdown, where the only available configuration is input with internal pull-up, pull-down resistor or floating input. When exiting Shutdown mode, the I/O configuration is lost. When the MCU is under reset, I/O pins are forced into an analog input mode. Thank you.
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