November 1996
Steelworker, Volume 2
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Although the words “he,” “him,” and
“his” are used sparingly in this course to
enhance communication, they are not
intended to be gender driven or to affront or
discriminate against anyone.
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
PENSACOLA, FL 32509-5237
29 May 2001
Specific Instructions and Errata for
Nonresident Training Course
1. This errata supersedes all previous errata. No attempt has been made to
issue corrections for errors in typing, punctuation, etc., that do not affect
your ability to answer the question or questions.
2. To receive credit for deleted questions, show this errata to your local
course administrator (ESO/scorer). The local course administrator is directed
to correct the course and the answer key by indicating the questions deleted.
Assignment Booklet, NAVEDTRA 14251.
Delete the following questions, and leave the corresponding spaces blank
on the answer sheets:
By enrolling in this self-study course, you have demonstrated a desire to improve yourself and the Navy.
Remember, however, this self-study course is only one part of the total Navy training program. Practical
experience, schools, selected reading, and your desire to succeed are also necessary to successfully round
out a fully meaningful training program.
COURSE OVERVIEW: In completing this nonresident training course, you will demonstrate a
knowledge of the subject matter by correctly answering questions on the following subjects:
Technical Administration
Layout and Fabrication of Sheet Metal and Fiberglass Duct
Structural Terms/Layout and Fabrication of Structural Steel and Pipe
Fiber Line
Wire Rope
Reinforcing Steel
Pre-engineered Structures: Buildings, K-Spans, Towers, and Antennas
Pre-engineered Storage Tanks
Pre-engineered Structures: Short Airfield for Tactical Support
Steelworker Tools and Equipment
THE COURSE: This self-study course is organized into subject matter areas, each containing learning
objectives to help you determine what you should learn along with text and illustrations to help you
understand the information. The subject matter reflects day-to-day requirements and experiences of
personnel in the rating or skill area. It also reflects guidance provided by Enlisted Community Managers
(ECMs) and other senior personnel, technical references, instructions, etc., and either the occupational or
naval standards, which are listed in the Manual of Navy Enlisted Manpower Personnel Classifications
and Occupational Standards, NAVPERS 18068.
THE QUESTIONS: The questions that appear in this course are designed to help you understand the
material in the text.
VALUE: In completing this course, you will improve your military and professional knowledge.
Importantly, it can also help you study for the Navy-wide advancement in rate examination. If you are
studying and discover a reference in the text to another publication for further information, look it up.
1996 Edition Prepared by
SWC Michael P. DePumpo
Published by
NAVSUP Logistics Tracking Number
Sailor’s Creed
“I am a United States Sailor.
I will support and defend the
Constitution of the United States of
America and I will obey the orders
of those appointed over me.
I represent the fighting spirit of the
Navy and those who have gone
before me to defend freedom and
democracy around the world.
I proudly serve my country’s Navy
combat team with honor, courage
and commitment.
I am committed to excellence and
the fair treatment of all.”
1. Technical Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1
2. Layout and Fabrication of Sheet Metal and Fiber-glass Duct . . . .2-1
3. Structural Steel Terms/Layout and Fabrication of Structural Steel
and Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1
4. Fiber Line, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-1
5. Wire Rope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1
6. Rigging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-1
7. Reinforcing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-1
8. Pre-engineered Structures: Buildings, K-Spans, Towers,
and Antennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
9. Pre-engineered Storage Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
10. Pontoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
11. Pre-engineered Structures: Short Airfield for Tactical
support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..11-1
12. Steelworker Tools and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
I. Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AI-1
II. Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AII-1
III. Metric Conversion Tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AIII-1
IV.HandSignals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AIV-1
V. References Used to Develop This TRAMAN . . . . . . . . . . . AV-1
INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. INDEX-1
Safety is a paramount concern for all personnel. Many of the Naval Ship’s
Technical manuals, manufacturer’s technical manuals, and every Planned Maintenance System (PMS) maintenance requirement card (MRC) include safety precautions. Additionally, OPNAVINST 5100.19 (series), Naval Occupational Safety and
Health (NAVOSH) Program Manual for Forces Afloat, and OPNAVINST 5100.23
(series), NAVOSH Program Manual, provide safety and occupational health information. The safety precautions are for your protection and to protect equipment.
During equipment operation and preventive or corrective maintenance, the
procedures may call for personal protective equipment (PPE), such as goggles,
gloves, safety shoes, hard hats, hearing protection, and respirators. When specified,
your use of PPE is mandatory. You must select PPE appropriate for the job since
the equipment is manufactured and approved for different levels of protection. If
the procedure does not specify the PPE, and you aren’t sure, ask your safety officer.
Most machinery, spaces, and tools requiring you to wear hearing protection are
posted with hazardous noise signs or labels. Eye hazardous areas requiring you to
wear goggles or safety glasses are also posted. In areas where corrosive chemicals
are mixed or used, an emergency eyewash station must be installed.
All lubricating agents, oil, cleaning material, and chemicals used in maintenance and repair are hazardous materials. Examples of hazardous materials are
gasoline, coal distillates, and asphalt. Gasoline contains a small amount of lead and
other toxic compounds. Ingestion of gasoline can cause lead poisoning. Coal
distillates, such as benzene or naphthalene in benzol, are suspected carcinogens.
Avoid all skin contact and do not inhale the vapors and gases from these distillates.
Asphalt contains components suspected of causing cancer. Anyone handling asphalt
must be trained to handle it in a safe manner.
Hazardous materials require careful handling, storage, and disposal. PMS
documentation provides hazard warnings or refers the maintenance man to the
Hazardous Materials User’s Guide. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) also
provide safety precautions for hazardous materials. All commands are required to
have an MSDS for each hazardous material they have in their inventory. You must
be familiar with the dangers associated with the hazardous materials you use in your
work. Additional information is available from you command’s Hazardous Material Coordinator. OPNAVINST 4110.2 (series), Hazardous Material Control and
Management, contains detailed information on the hazardous material program.
Recent legislation and updated Navy directives implemented tighter constraints
on environmental pollution and hazardous waste disposal. OPNAVINST 5090.1
(series), Environmental and Natural Resources Program Manual, provides detailed
information. Your command must comply with federal, state, and local environmental regulations during any type of construction and demolition. Your supervisor
will provide training on environmental compliance.
Cautions and warnings of potentially hazardous situations or conditions are
highlighted, where needed, in each chapter of this TRAMAN. Remember to be
safety conscious at all times.
Steelworker, Volume 1, NAVEDTRA 14250, consists of chapters on the following subjects: properties and Uses of Metal; Basic Heat Treatment; Introduction
to Welding; Gas Cutting; Gas Welding; Soldering Brazing, Braze Welding and
Wearfacing; Shielded Metal-Arc Welding and Wearfacing; and Gas Shielded-Arc
Steelworker, Volume 2, NAVEDTRA 14251, consists of chapters on the following subjects: Technical Administration; Layout and Fabrication of Sheet Metal
and Fiber-Glass Duct; Structural Steel Terms/Layout and Fabrication of Structural
Steel and Pipe; Fiber Line; Wire Rope; Rigging; Reinforcing Steel; Pre-engineered
Structures: Buildings, K-Spans, Towers, and Antennas; Pre-engineered Storage
Tanks; Pontoons; pre-engineered Structures: Short Airfield for Tactical Support;
and Steelworker Tools and Equipment.
The following copyrighted illustrations in this TRAMAN are included
through the courtesy of MIC Industries:
Figure 8-11
Figure 8-24
Figure 8-25
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answers via the Internet, go to:
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questions. Pay close attention to tables and
illustrations and read the learning objectives.
The learning objectives state what you should be
able to do after studying the material. Answering
the questions correctly helps you accomplish the
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referring to or copying the answers of others and
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These answer sheets are preprinted with your
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enrolled in the course with the Nonresident
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(NETPDTC). Following enrollment, there are
two ways of having your assignments graded:
(1) use the Internet to submit your assignments
as you complete them, or (2) send all the
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Follow the instructions for marking your
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1, 2, and 3 are filled in correctly. This
information is necessary for your course to be
properly processed and for you to receive credit
for your work.
Advantages to
you may submit your answers as soon as
you complete an assignment, and
you get your results faster; usually by the
next working day (approximately 24 hours).
Courses must be completed within 12 months
from the date of enrollment. This includes time
required to resubmit failed assignments.
In addition to receiving grade results for each
assignment, you will receive course completion
confirmation once you have completed all the
For subject matter questions:
If your overall course score is 3.2 or higher, you
will pass the course and will not be required to
resubmit assignments. Once your assignments
have been graded you will receive course
completion confirmation.
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(Do not fax answer sheets.)
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If you receive less than a 3.2 on any assignment
and your overall course score is below 3.2, you
will be given the opportunity to resubmit failed
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assignments only once. Internet students will
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After successfully completing this course, you
will receive a letter of completion.
If you are a member of the Naval Reserve,
you may earn retirement points for successfully
completing this course, if authorized under
current directives governing retirement of Naval
Reserve personnel. For Naval Reserve retirement, this course is evaluated at 12 points.
(Refer to Administrative Procedures for Naval
Reservists on Inactive Duty, BUPERSINST
1001.39, for more information about retirement
Errata are used to correct minor errors or delete
obsolete information in a course. Errata may
also be used to provide instructions to the
student. If a course has an errata, it will be
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criticisms on our courses. If you would like to
communicate with us regarding this course, we
encourage you, if possible, to use e-mail. If you
write or fax, please use a copy of the Student
Comment form that follows this page.
Student Comments
Course Title:
Steelworker, Volume 2
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NETPDTC 1550/41 (Rev 4-00
When you achieve the status of PETTY
OFFICER, it becomes your most important
advancement in the Navy. Sewing on your first
chevron carries many responsibilities with it. Among
these responsibilities is the commitment to become an
effective supervisor/leader, instructor, and
administrator in all military, technical, and safety
areas of your rating.
for even a small assignment/project. You will begin to
understand the variety of methods used to administer
the job. Administration ranges from just keeping a
notebook in your back pocket to filling out a variety
of reports and forms.
As a growing leader in the Navy, you must learn
about and become effective in the use of
administrative tools as well as the tools of your trade.
Once you become comfortable with using these tools,
you will then develop the skill of a successful
administrator who can lead and direct people in
getting the job done right and done well.
As a petty officer, you will begin to develop your
ability to manage the work that is done by your
personnel as well as to supervise/lead them.
As you gain experience as a petty officer and
increase your technical abilities as a Steelworker, your
skill as leader becomes more and more important as
you lead/supervise personnel assigned to you. At each
rating level, you will be given more responsibility and
will be expected to seek the responsibility associated
with that particular rating level. The intent of this
chapter is to help you understand the importance of
leadership, to show you the practical aspects of
applying leadership principles coupled with sound
administrative practices, and to help you use and
prepare the administrative “paperwork” that you will
be involved with as a crew leader.
While planning for a small or large project, you
must consider the abilities of your crew. Use PRCP
data, which will be discussed later in the chapter. Next,
consider any special tools and equipment you will
need and arrange to have them at the jobsite when the
work is started. Determine who will use these tools,
and ensure the crew members assigned know how to
use them Properly and safely.
To assure that the project is done properly and on
time, you should consider the method of
accomplishment as well as the skill level (PRCP level)
of your crew. When there is more than one way of
constructing a particular project, you must analyze the
methods and choose the one best suited to the project
conditions and the skill levels of your crew. Listen to
suggestions from others. If you can simplify a method
and save time and effort, by all means do it.
As your crew leader or supervisor experience
grows, you begin to assume greater responsibility for
the work of others. As this is occurring, you will also
assume greater administrative duties. For this reason,
you must understand that proper administration is the
backbone of any project. You will have personnel
assigned to your project who must be employed
effectively and safely. Therefore, you not only have to
meet production requirements and conduct training
but also must know and apply the procedures required
to process “paperwork” correctly,
As the petty officer in charge of a crew, you are
responsible for crew member time management as
well as your own. You must plan constructive work
for your crew. Always remember to PLAN AHEAD!
A sure sign of poor planning is that of crew members
standing idle each morning while you plan the events
for the day. At the close of each day, you should
confirm the plans for the next workday. In doing so,
you will need answers on the availability y and use of
manpower, equipment, and supplies. Keep the
following questions in mind:
Administration is the mechanical means that a
person or an organization uses to plan, organize,
supervise, manage, and document activities. It
provides a means of telling you such things as what
has been planned, what is required, what has occured,
what is completed, what personnel are assigned, and
so on. Try keeping all that information in your head
delegate is a common failing of a new supervisor. It is
natural to want to carry out the details of a job yourself,
particularly when you know that you can do it better
than any of your subordinates. Trying to do too much,
however, is one of the quickest ways to get bogged
down in details and to slow down a large operation.
On some projects, you will have crews working in
several different places. Obviously, you cannot be in
two places at the same time. There will be many
occasions when a crew member needs assistance or
instruction on some problem that arises. If he or she
has to wait until you are available, then valuable time
will be lost. Therefore, it is extremely important for
you to delegate authority to one or more of your
experienced crew members to make decisions in
certain matters. However, you must remember that
when you delegate authority, you are still responsible
for the job. Therefore, it is very important that you
select a highly qualified individual when you delegate
1. Manpower. Who is to do what? How is it to be
done? When is it to be finished? Since idleness will
breed discontent, have you arranged for another job to
start as soon as the first one is finished? Is every crew
member fully used?
2. Equipment.
Are all necessary tools and
equipment on hand to do the job? Is safety equipment
on hand?
3. Supplies. Are all necessary supplies on hand to
start the job? If not, who should take action? What
supply delivery schedules must you work around?
Have a definite work schedule and inspection
plan. Set up realistic daily goals or quotas. Personally
plan to check the work being done at intervals and the
progress toward meeting the goals. Spot-check for
accuracy, for workmanship, and the need for training.
As a crew leader or supervisor, you must be able
to ORGANIZE. This means that you must analyze the
requirements of a job and structure the sequence of
events that will bring about the desired results.
A supervisor must be able to COORDINATE.
When several jobs are in progress, you need to
coordinate completion times so one can follow
another without delay. Possessing coordinating skill is
also very helpful when working closely with your
sister companies or shops. Coordination is not limited
to projects only. You would not want to approve a
leave chit for a crew member and then remember a
school during the same time period. Nor would you
want to schedule a crew member for the rifle range
only to find the range coaches unavailable at that time.
You must develop the ability to look at a job and
estimate how many man-hours are required for
completion. You will probably be given a completion
deadline along with the job requirements. Next (or
perhaps even before making your estimate of
man-hours), plan the job sequences. Make sure that
you know the answers to questions such as the
• What is the size of the job?
• Are the materials on hand?
• What tools are available, and what is their
• Is anyone scheduled for leave?
The primary responsibility of every supervisor is
PRODUCTION. You and your crew can attain your
best by doing the following:
• Will you need to request outside support?
After getting answers to these questions, you
should be able to assign your crews and set up tentative
schedules. If work shifts are necessary, arrange for the
smooth transition from one shift to another with a
minimum of work interruption. How well you do is
directly related to your ability to organize.
• Plan, organize, and coordinate the work to get
maximum production with minimum effort and
• Delegate as much authority as possible, but
remain responsible for the final product.
• Continuously supervise and control to make sure
the work is done properly.
In addition to organizing, you must know how to
DELEGATE. This is one of the most important
characteristics of a good supervisor. Failure to
• Be patient (“Seabees are flexible and
As a crew leader, you should be able to get others
to work together in getting the job accomplished.
Maintain an approachable attitude toward your crew
so that each crew member will feel free to seek your
advice when in doubt about any phase of the work.
Emotional balance is especially important; you must
not panic before your crew, nor be unsure of yourself
in the face of conflict.
Supervising/Leading Work Teams
Before starting the project, you should make sure
your crew understands what is expected of them. Give
your crew instructions, and urge them to ask questions.
Be honest in your answers. If you do not know, say so;
then find the correct answers and inform your crew.
Establish goals for each workday and encourage your
crew members to work together as a team while
accomplishing these goals. Goals should be set that
will keep your crew busy but also ensure these goals
are realistic. Do not overload your crew or undertask
them. During an emergency, most crew members will
make an all-out effort to meet the deadline. But people
are not machines, and when there is no emergency,
they cannot be expected to work at an excessively high
rate continuously.
Be tactful and courteous in dealing with your
crew. Never show partiality to certain members of the
crew. Keep your crew members informed on matters
that affect them personally or concern their work.
Also, seek to maintain a high level of morale because
low morale can have a detrimental effect on safety
awareness and the quality and quantity of the work
your crew performs.
As you advance in rate, more and more of your
time will be spent in supervising others. Therefore,
learn as much as you can about the subject of
supervision. Study books on supervision as well as
leadership. Also, watch how other supervisors operate
and do not be afraid to ASK QUESTIONS.
While the job is underway, check from time to
time to ensure that the work is progressing
satisfactorily. Determine if the proper methods, the
materials, the tools, and the equipment are being used.
If crew members are doing the job incorrectly, stop
them, and point out what is being done
unsatisfactorily. Then explain the correct procedure
and check to see that it is followed.
Tool kits contain all of the craft hand tools
required by one four-member construction crew of a
given rating to pursue their trade. The kits kits can be
augmented with additional tools to complete a specific
job requirement. However, kits must not be reduced in
any type of item and must be maintained at 100 percent
of the kit allowance.
NOTE: When you check the work of your crew
members, do it in such a way that they will feel that
the purpose of checking is to teach, guide, or direct,
rather than to criticize or find fault.
Make sure your crew members take all applicable
safety precautions and wear/use safety apparel/
equipment that is required. Also, watch for hazardous
conditions, improper use of tools and equipment, and
unsafe work practices that could cause mishaps and
possibly result in injury to personnel. Many young
personnel ignore danger or think a particular safety
practice is unnecessary. This can normally be
corrected by proper instruction and training. Safety
awareness is paramount, and it must be a state of
mind and enforced daily until the crew understands its
importance. When this occurs, you MUST NOT allow
the crew to become complacent in safety matters.
Constant training and awareness is the key; therefore,
conduct safety lectures daily!
As a crew leader, you are authorized to draw the
tools required by the crew. In so doing, you are
responsible for the following:
• Maintaining complete tool kits at all times
• Assigning tools within the crew
• Ensuring proper use and care of assigned tools
by the crew
• Preserving tools not in use
Securing assigned tools
To ensure that the tools are maintained properly,
the operations officer and the supply officer establish
a formal tool kit inventory and inspection program.
You, as a crew leader, must have a tool kit inventory
performed at least once a month. Damaged and worn
tools must be returned to the central toolroom (CTR)
When time permits, rotate crew members on
various jobs within the project. Rotation gives them
varied experience. It also helps you, as a crew leader,
to get the job done when a crew member is out for any
length of time.
not necessary to fill in all the blocks on this form when
it is used as a requisition.
for replacement. Tools requiring routine maintenance
are turned in to CTR for repair and reissue.
Requisitions will be submitted through prescribed
channels for replacement items.
When ordering material, you need to know about
the national stock number (NSN) system. Information
on the NSN system and other topics relating to supply
is provided in Military Requirements for Petty Officer
Third Class, NAVEDTRA 10044-A.
As a crew leader, you should become familiar with
forms that are used to request material or services
through the Naval Supply System. Printed forms are
available that provide all the necessary information for
physical transfer of the material and accounting
In a battalion deployed overseas, as well as at
shore-based activities, your duties can involve the
posting of entries on time cards for military
personnel. Therefore, you should know the type of
information called for on time cards and understand
the importance of accuracy in labor reporting. You
will find that the labor reporting system primarily
used in Naval Mobile Construction Battalions
(NMCBs) and the system used at shore-based
activities are similar.
Two forms used for ordering materials are the
Single-Line Item Consumption/Management
Document (Manual), NAVSUP Form 1250 (fig. 1-1),
and the Requisition and Invoice/Shipping Document,
DD Form 1149 (fig. 1-2).
As a crew leader, you are not usually required
to make up the entire NAVSUP Form 1250;
however, you must list the stock number (when
available) of the item, the quantity required, and
the name or description of each item needed. This
form is turned in to the company expediter, who
will check it over, complete the rest of the
information required, and sign it. Then it is
forwarded to the material liaison officer (MLO)
or supply department for processing.
A labor accounting system is mandatory to record
and measure the number of man-hours that a unit
spends on various functions. In this system, labor
utilization data is collected daily in sufficient detail
and in a way that enables the operations officer to
compile the data readily. This helps the operations
officer manage manpower resources and prepare
reports to higher authority.
You are not likely to use DD Form 1149 often
since the items most frequently ordered are bulk fuels
and lubricants. This form is limited to a single page
and must contain no more than nine line items. It is
A unit must account for all labor used to carry out
its assignment, so management can determine the
amount of labor used on the project. Labor costs are
figured and actual man-hours are compared with
Figure 1-1.—NAVSUP form 1250.
Figure 1-2.—DD Form 1149.
mission of the unit, including construction operations,
military operations, and training. Productive labor is
previous estimates based on jobs of a similar nature.
When completed, this information is used by unit
managers and higher commands for developing
planning standards. Although labor accounting
systems can vary slightly from one command to
another, the system described here can be considered
accounted for in three categories: direct labor,
indirect labor, and military, which is called “other” on
some timekeeping cards.
1. DIRECT LABOR includes labor expended
directly on assigned construction tasks either in the field
or in the shop that contributes directly to the completion
of an end product. Direct labor must be reported
separately for each assigned construction task.
The type of labor performed must be broken down
and reported by category to show how labor has been
used. For timekeeping and labor reporting purposes,
all labor is classified as either productive or overhead.
2. INDIRECT LABOR comprises labor required
to support construction operations but does not produce
an end product itself.
Productive Labor
3. MILITARY or “Other” includes military
functions and training necessary to support the
PRODUCTIVE LABOR includes labor that directly
or indirectly contributes to the accomplishment of the
bond beams, code R-17. You will use direct labor
codes to report each hour spent by each of your crew
members during each workday on assigned
construction tasks.
Overhead Labor
OVERHEAD LABOR is not considered to be
productive labor because it does not contribute
directly or indirectly to the completion of an end
product. Included is labor that must be performed
regardless of the assigned mission.
Codes are also used to report time spent by crew
members in the following categories: indirect labor,
military operations and readiness, disaster control
operations, training, and overhead labor. The codes
shown in figure 1-3 are used at most activities to
indicate time spent in these categories.
During the planning and scheduling of a
construction project, each phase of the project
considered as direct labor is given an identifying code.
Because there are many types of construction projects
involving different operations, codes for direct labor
reporting can vary from one activity to another. For
example, excavating and setting forms can be assigned
code R-15; laying block, code R- 16; and installing
Your report is submitted on a Daily Labor
Distribution Report form (timekeeping card), like the
one shown in figure 1-4. The form provides a
breakdown by man-hours of the activities in the
various labor codes for each crew member for each
PRODUCTIVE LABOR. Productive labor includes all labor that directly contributes to the accomplishment of the Naval
Mobile Construction Battalion, including construction operations and readiness, disaster recovery operations, and training.
DIRECT LABOR. This category includes all labor expended directly on assigned construction tasks, either in the field or in
he shop, and which contributes directly to the completion of the end product
INDIRECT LABOR. This category comprises labor required to support construction operations, but which does not produce
n itself. Indirect labor reporting codes are as follows:
X01 Construction Equipment Maintenance,
Repair and Records
X02 Operation and Engineering
X03 Project Supervision
X04 Project Expediting (Shop
X05 Location Moving
X06 Project Material Support
X07 Tool and Spare Parts Issue
X08 Other
MILITARY OPERATIONS AND READINES. This category comprises all manpower expended in actual military
operations, unit embarkation, and planning and preparations necessary to insure unit military and mobility readiness. Reporting
codes areas follows:
M01 Military Operations
M02 Military Security
M03 Embarkation
M04 Unit Movement
M05 Mobility Preparation
M06 Contingency
M08 Mobility & Defense
M07 Military Administrative
M09 Other
D01 Disaster Control Operations
D02 Disaster Control Exercise
TRAINING. This category includes attendance at service schools, factory and industrial training courses, fleet type training,
and short courses, military training, and organized training conducted within the battalion. Reporting codes are as follows:
T01 Technical Training
T02 Military Training
T03 Disaster Control Training
T04 Leadership Training
T05 Safety Training
T06 Training Administration
OVERHEAD LABOR. This category includes labor which must be performed regardless of whether a mission is assigned
and which does not contribute to the assigned mission. Reporting codes are as follows
Y01 Administrative & Personnel
Y02 Medical& Dental Department
Y03 Navy Exchange and Special Semites
Y04 Supply& Disbursing
Y05 commissary
Y06 Camp Upkeep& Repairs
Y07 security
Y08 Leave& Liberty
Y09 Sickcall, Dental&
Figure 1-3.—Labor codes.
Y10 personal Affairs
Y11 Lost Time
Y12 TAD not for unit
Y13 Other
Figure 1-4.—Typical timekeeping card.
information to all levels of management within the
NCF. ‘Ibis increases the ability of management to
control, to plan, and to make decisions concerning the
readiness of each unit. The PRCP is also used to
identify the rating skills required and to determine the
formal training and individual skills required by the
Naval Facilities Engineering Command. Figure 1-5 is
an example of a PRCP.
day on any given project. It is reviewed at the company
level by the staff and platoon commander and then
initialed by the company commander before it is
forwarded to the operations department. It is tabulated
by the management division of the operations
department, along with all of the daily labor
distribution reports received from each company and
department in the unit. This report is the means by
which the operations office analyzes the labor
distribution of total manpower resources for each day.
It also serves as feeder information for preparation of
the monthly operations report and any other source
reports required of the unit. This information must be
accurate and timely. Each level in the company
organization should review the report for an analysis
of its own internal construction management and
Guidance for the PRCP has been published in a
one volume publication, NAVFAC P-458, to ease its
use by staff personnel and PRCP interviewers. The
PRCP contains standard skill definitions applicable to
the NCF, Standards and Guides, that consist of seven
separate manuals (one for each Seabee rating), and is
the primary tool of the interviewer in collecting and
updating data.
The Personnel Readiness Capability Program
(PRCP) was developed for use within the Naval
Construction Force (NCF). The PRCP is based upon
skill inventories of personnel and provides personnel
An accurate and current skill inventory is the
backbone of PRCP. Without this information, any
planning done would be questionable. The PRCP is
Figure 1-5.—PRCP Skills Update Record.
1. Individual General Skills (PRCP 040-090).
These are essentially nonmanipulative skills
(knowledge) related to two or more ratings, such as
material liaison office operation (PRCP 040),
instructing (PRCP 080), and safety (PRCP 090).
the management tool used to determine the readiness
of the unit and identify skill deficiencies in which the
troops must be trained. It is used with the requirements
established by the Commander, Second Naval
Construction Brigade (COMSECONDNCB), and
Commander, Third Naval Construction Brigade
(COMTHIRDNCB), which are issued in their joint
1500.1 (series). This instruction identifies and defines
the skills required to meet peacetime and contingency
operations and specifies the required number of
personnel that must be trained in each skill.
2. Individual Rating Skills (PRCP 100-760).
These are primarily manipulative skills associated with
one of the seven Seabee ratings. Some examples areas
follows: pipe welding (PRCP 612), for the Steelworker
rating; cable splicing (PRCP 237), for the Construction
Electrician rating; and shore-based boiler operation
(PRCP 720), for the Utilitiesman rating.
NOTE: A “skill” is a specific art or trade. For
PRCP purposes, skills are described as either a
“manipulative” or “knowledge” skill.
3. Individual Special Skills (PRCP 800-830).
These are technical skills performed by personnel in
several ratings, including personnel that are not
Occupational Field 13 (Seabees). Examples are as
follows: forklift operation (PRCP 800), ham radio
operation (PRCP 804), and typing (PRCP 803).
Skills required by the PRCP have been classified
into five major categories as follows:
4. Military Skills (PRCP 901-981). Military skills
are divided into three subcategories: mobilization,
disaster recovery, and Seabee combat readiness.
battalion safety program and provides technical
guidance. Overall guidance comes from the Navy
Occupational Safety and Health Program Manual
(NAVOSH), OPNAVINST 5100.23 (series). If you
have any questions concerning safety on the jobsite,
the safety office is the place to get your questions
Examples are aircraft embarkation (PRCP 902), M-16
rifle use and familiarization, disaster recovery, and
heavy rescue (PRCP 979).
5. Crew Experience Skills (PRCP 1000A1010A). These skills are attained by working with
others on specific projects. Most of these projects are
related to advanced base construction, such as an
observation tower (PRCP 1002A), fire fighting (PRCP
1009A), and bunker construction (PRCP 1008A).
It is not the responsibility of the safety office to
prevent you from doing something you know or
suspect is unsafe, but they do have the authority to stop
any operation where there is impending DANGER of
injury to personnel or damage to equipment or
property. Safe construction is your responsibility, and
ignorance is no excuse. It is your responsibility to
construct safely.
A skill inventory has three principal steps. First,
each skill is accurately defined and broken down into
task elements. Second, a standard procedure for
obtaining the information is developed. This
procedure helps to ensure that the information,
regardless of where it is collected or by whom, meets
standards of acceptability. The third step is the actual
collection of the skill data and includes the procedures
for submitting the data to the data bank.
The safety organization of the NMCB provides for
(1) the establishment of safety policy and (2) control
and reporting. As shown in figure 1-6, the Battalion
Safety Policy Organization is made up of the policy
committee, supervisors’ committee, equipment, shop,
and crew committees. The SAFETY POLICY
COMMITTEE is presided over by the executive
officer. Its primary purpose is to develop safety rules
and policy for the battalion. This committee reports to
the commanding officer, who must approve all
changes in safety policy.
When you become a crew leader, it will be your
responsibility to your crew members to provide them
with the opportunity to learn new skills. This can be
done through training or by assigning your crew to
various types of work whenever possible. You and
your crew members can gain a higher skill level by
determining the training requirements needed and
satisfying them. Then you, as the crew leader, should
report these newly acquired skills to the PRCP
coordinator, who will add them to your other skills and
to the skills of each crew member. It is your
responsibility to see that this skill information is kept
current and accurate. For additional information on
the PRCP program, interview techniques, and
procedures, refer to the NCF/SEABEE 1 and C,
presided over by the battalion’s safety chief and
includes safety supervisors assigned by company
commanders, project officers, or officers in charge of
detail. This committee provides a convenient forum
for work procedures, safe practices, and safety
suggestions. Its recommendations are sent to the
policy committee.
As a petty officer, you must be familiar with the
safety program at your activity. You cannot perform
effectively as a petty officer unless you are aware of
the importance of the safety program. You should
know who (or what group) comprises and establishes
the safety policies and procedures you must follow.
You should also know who provides guidelines for
safety training and supervision. Every NCF/NMCB
unit and shore command are required to implement a
formal safety organization.
COMMITTEES are assigned as required. Each
In the Seabees, everyone is responsible for safety.
According to the NCF Safety Manual, C O M SECONDNCB/COMTHIRDNCBINST 5100.1
(series), the battalion safety office administers the
Figure 1-6.—The Safety Organization Chart of the NMCB.
COMTHIRDNCB units and also covers many
areas useful to PHIBCBs.
committee is usually presided over by the company or
project safety supervisor. The main objective of the
committee is to propose changes in the battalion’s
safety policy to eliminate unsafe working conditions
or prevent unsafe acts. These committees are your
contact for recommending changes in safety matters.
In particular, the equipment committee reviews all
vehicle mishap reports, determines the cause of each
mishap, and recommends corrective action. As a crew
leader, you can expect to seine as a member of the
equipment, shop, or crew safety committee. Each
committee forwards reports and recommendations to
the Safety Supervisors’ Committee.
2. General Safety Requirements Manual, Corps of
Engineers, EM 385. This field manual contains
guidance primarily concerning construction.
3. Occupational Safety and Health Standards for
the Construction Industry (29 CFR 1926).
Safety Procedures/Standards
Major safety procedures/standards that are
required on a jobsite that apply to both construction
sites and construction/repair of pontoon structures are
as follows:
The work involved in construction and
maintenance/repair is inherently dangerous, and many
of the functions that must be performed contain
elements hazardous to personnel. The type of work
performed on construction sites is broad and
encompasses are as for which substantial material on
safety has been written.
1. Hard hats must be worn by all personnel in the
area, including visitors.
2. Post the site with a hard hat area sign and
warning signs (red for immediate hazards and yellow
for potential hazards).
3. The safety manuals, EM 385 and the 29 CFR
1926, are required to be kept on the jobsite.
General Safety Concerns
4. Housekeeping is important. Keep materials well
sorted, stacked, and accessible. Remove excess items.
Keep discarded items and trash picked up. Watch and
remove hipping hazards.
This chapter addresses the major areas of general
safety concerns and references other publications that
are used by NCF/PHIBCB safety and supervisory
5. Designate and mark vehicle/forklift traffic lanes
and areas.
“Safety is everybody’s responsibility.” This is a
rule that must be adhered to during all phases of
construction, maintenance and repair, and battalion
operations. Training at all levels and enforcement of
safety regulations during all types of work is the
ongoing responsibility of each Seabee.
6. Each jobsite must have emergency plans posted,
containing the location of the nearest phone, the
telephone numbers, and the reporting instructions for
the ambulance, the hospital, the physician, the police,
and the fire department personnel.
Safety at the construction site has elements of
general construction, steel erection, high work, and
rigging and weight handling. Specialized and detailed
areas of safety include weight-handling operations,
construction and use of scaffolding, and welding and
cutting. Numerous safety manuals and publications
provide detailed procedures and regulations for these
types of work.
7. If a medical facility is not readily accessible
(due to time or distance), two crew members must be
both first aid and CPR qualified.
8. For every 25 personnel or less, one first-aid kit
must be on site and checked weekly for consumable
9. If toilet facilities are not readily available, you
must provide portable facilities,
Safety References
10. Drinking water must be provided from an
approved source and labeled for “drinking only.”
Common use cups are not allowed.
Some of the more useful manuals and handbooks
applicable to tasks performed on construction sites
and maintenance shops are as follows:
11. Temporary fencing is required as a safety
measure to keep unauthorized personnel away from
potential hazards if the jobsite is in an area of active use.
1. Naval Construction Force Safety Manual. This
manual is applicable to COMSECONDNCB/
Welding and Cutting
12. Eyewash stations are required on all jobsites.
A significant part of construction and
maintenance/repair work is welding and cutting.
Safety was addressed in volume 1 of this manual and
is addressed here as a part of general on-site safety
concerns. Safety precautions required for this work are
extensive and specialized. The importance be shown
by the extent of guidance on welding safety provided
in references (1), (2), and (3). One point to bear in
mind is that welding safety must be concerned with
other personnel on the jobsite as well as the people
performing the work. A list of some of the more basic
precautions and procedures welders must be aware of
or adhere to should include the following:
Fire Extinguishers
An adequate number of fire extinguishers are
required to be on site. The number required is
determined by the types of extinguisher required to
extinguish the various types of materials, such as
paint, corrosives, and other flammables, on the jobsite.
Also, the size of the jobsite must be considered, and
there must be one extinguisher at each welding station.
Refer to the EM 385 for further guidance.
• Material Safety Data Sheets are required to be
on site for all hazardous material. (MSDS will
be discussed in this chapter.)
Eye injury.
• All high work is serious business. Work above 5
feet in height must be particularly well planned
and personnel safety constantly enforced.
Toxic vapors.
Electric shock (when applicable).
Fire and explosion.
All welding equipment should be inspected
daily. Remove the defective items immediately
from service.
Accidents occur when high work becomes so
routine that safety measures become lax and
inspection of scaffolds is not performed. A healthy
respect for the hazards must be maintained.
References (1) and (3) contain detailed safety
information on scaffolds, and additional safety
guidance can be found in reference (2). Scaffold safety
is also discussed in chapter 6 of this manual. Some of
the more general precautions are the following:
Work above 5 feet must have scaffolding
People working above 12 feet and not on
scaffolding must have a safety belt and lifeline.
Ground personnel must be kept clear of high
Never use makeshift, expedient scaffolding.
Inspect scaffold members and equipment daily
before work is started. Keep all members in good
repair without delay.
Do not use scaffolds for storage space.
Use handlines for raising and lowering objects
and tools.
Do not paint scaffolds since painting can conceal
personnel protective equipment and clothing
must be considered an integral part of the work
and must be inspected and maintained
accordingly. No compromises in the protection
of welders is allowed.
Areas should be marked with Danger - Welding
and Eye Hazard Area signs.
Welders working above 5 feet must be protected
by railings or safety belts and lifelines.
When welding any enclosed space or pontoons,
ensure that a vent opening is provided and that
the space is free of flammable liquids and
Do not weld where flammable paint or coating
can cause a fire hazard.
After welding is completed, mark the area of hot
metal or provide some means of warning other
Figure 1-7 shows the Battalion Safety Control and
Reporting Organization. As a crew leader, you will
report to the safety supervisor, who directs the safety
program of a project. Duties of the safety supervisor
Figure 1-7.—Battalion Safety Control and Reporting Organization.
the latest techniques in maintenance and operational
safety and then pass them onto your crew members.
Keep them informed by holding daily standup safety
meetings. As crew leader, you are responsible for
conducting each meeting and for passing on
information that the safety supervisor has organized
and assembled. Information (such as the type of safety
equipment to use, where to obtain it, and how to use
it) is often the result of safety suggestions received by
the Safety Supervisors’ Committee. Encourage your
crew members to submit their ideas or suggestions to
this committee.
include indoctrinating new crew members, compiling
mishap statistics for the project, reviewing mishap
reports submitted to the safety office, and comparing
safety performances of all crews.
The crew leader is responsible for carrying out
safe working practices under the direction of the safety
supervisor or others in position of authority (project
chief, project officer, safety chief, and safety officer).
You, as the crew leader, must be sure each crew
member is thoroughly familiar with these working
practices, has a general understanding of pertinent
safety regulations, and makes proper use of protective
clothing and safety equipment. Furthermore, be ready
at all times to correct every unsafe working practice
you observe and report it immediately to the safety
supervisor or the person in charge. When an unsafe
condition exists, the safety supervisor (or whoever is
in charge) has the power to stop work on the project
until the condition is corrected.
At times, you will hold a group discussion to pass
the word on specific mishaps that are to be guarded
against or have happened on the job. Be sure to give
plenty of thought to what you are going to say
beforehand. Make the discussion interesting and urge
the crew to participate. The final result should be a
group conclusion as to how the specific mishap could
have been prevented.
In case of a mishap, you must ensure that anyone
injured gets proper medical care as quickly as
possible. Investigate each mishap involving crew
members to determine its cause. Remove or
permanently correct defective tools, materials, and
machines as well as environmental conditions that
contribute to the cause of a mishap. Afterwards, you
are required to submit the required written reports.
Your daily standup safety meetings also give you
the chance to discuss matters pertaining to safe
operation and any safety items, such as riding in the
back of a vehicle, prestart checks, and maintenance of
automotive vehicles, assigned to a project. Since these
vehicles are used for transporting crew members as
well as cargo, it is important to emphasize how the
prestart checks are to be made and how the vehicles
are to be cared for.
New methods and procedures for safely
maintaining and operating equipment are constantly
being developed. Therefore, you must keep abreast of
In addition to standup safety meetings, you are
also concerned with day-to-day instruction and
on-the-job training. Although it is beyond the scope
therefore, it is a good practice to have a sign-off sheet
on the actual MSDS. Additionally, the MSDS must be
posted conspicuously, and all hands are aware of its
location-at the jobsite, shop spaces, and any other
approved hazardous material storage area.
of this manual to describe teaching methods, a few
words on your approach to safety and safety training
at the crew level are appropriate. Getting your crew to
work safely, like most other crew leader functions, is
basically a matter of leadership. Therefore, do not
overlook the power of personal example in leading
and teaching your crew members. Soon you will
discover that they are quick to detect differences
between what you say and what you do. It is
unreasonable to expect them to maintain a high
standard of safe conduct if you do not. As a crew leader
you must be visible at all times and show your sincere
concern for the safety of your crew. Although it is not
the only technique you can use, leadership by example
has proven to be the most effective of those available
to you.
The Hazardous Material Control Program is a
Navy-wide program to administer the correct storage,
handling, usage, and disposition of hazardous
material. Steel workers are tasked with monitoring and
complying with this program. Hazardous waste
disposal has become a serious concern for the Naval
Construction Force today. Cleaners, acids, fluxes,
mastics, sealers, and even paints are just a few of the
hazardous materials that can be present in your
shop/jobsite. As a crew leader, you are responsible for
the safety and protection of your crew. You are equally
responsible for the protection of the environment.
There are stiff fines and penalties that apply to NCF
work as well as civilian work for not protecting the
environment ! You are not expected to be an expert in
this area. You should, however, immediately contact
the environmental representative or the safety office
in case of any environmental problem (spill, permits,
planning, and such).
Various materials are used in shops and jobsites
throughout the NCF, some of which can be hazardous.
The key to the NAVOSH program is to inform the
workers about these hazards and the measures
necessary to control hazardous materials. To track all
hazardous materials, the Department of Defense
(DoD) has established the Hazardous Material
Information System (HMIS), OPNAVINST 5100.23
(series), which is designed to obtain, store, and
distribute data on hazardous materials procured for
use. This information is readily available through
every supply department.
Specific hazards can be determined at a glance
by referring to warning markings and labels that
identify hazardous materials. Hazardous warning
markings and labels are necessary to show clearly
the hazardous nature of the contents of packages or
containers at all stages of storage, handling, use, and
disposal. When unit packages (marked packages
that are part of a larger container) are removed from
shipping containers, the continuity of the specific
hazard warning must be preserved. This is normally
done by applying the appropriate identifying
hazardous label to the hazardous material container
or package.
A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), OSHA
Form 174 or an equivalent form (fig. 1-8), shall be
completed for each hazardous item procured and shall
be submitted to the procuring activity by the
Upon drawing any hazardous material, MLO
provides the crew leader with an MSDS. The MSDS
identifies all hazards associated with exposure to that
specific material. It also will identify any personnel
protective equipment or other safety precautions
required as well as first-aid/medical treatment
required for exposure. The crew leader is required by
federal law to inform crew members of the risks and
all safety precautions associated with any hazardous
material present in the shop or on the jobsite. This can
be done during each daily safety lecture as the material
is drawn and delivered to the jobsite/shop. All hands
must be informed before the material can be used;
The Department of Transportation (DOT) labeling
system shown in figure 1-9 is a diamond-shaped
symbol segmented into four parts. The upper three
parts reflect hazards relative to health, fire, and
reactivity. The lower part reflects the specific hazard
that is peculiar to the material.
Figure 1-8A.—Material Safety Data Sheet (front).
Figure 1-8B.—Material Safety Data Sheet (back).
Figure 1-9.—Hazardous Code Chart.
The four specific hazards that the labels are
designed to illustrate are as follows:
0 = no hazard
The example shown in figure 1-10 describes the
hazards of methyl ethyl ketone. Methyl ethyl ketone
is usually found mixed with paints, oils, and greases
from solvent cleaning, paint removers, adhesives, and
cleaning fluid residues. The numbers on the label
identify this chemical compound as follows:
Health Hazard—the ability of a material to either
directly or indirectly cause temporary or permanent
injury or incapacitation.
Fire Hazard—the ability of a material to bum
when exposed to a heat source.
Reactivity Hazard—the ability of a material to
release energy when in contact with water. This term
can be defined as the tendency of a material, when in
its pure state or as a commercially produced product,
to polymerize, decompose, condense, or otherwise
become self-reactive and undergo violent chemical
Health Hazard 2, “Hazardous”
Fire Hazard 4, “Flash point below 73°F,
extremely dangerous material”
Reactivity 3, “Shock or heat may detonate,
dangerous material”
Specific Hazard, “None”
Specific Hazard—this term relates to a special
hazard concerning the particular product or
chemical that was not covered by other labeled
hazard items.
The degree of hazard is expressed in numerical
codes as follows:
4 = extremely dangerous material
3 = dangerous hazard
2 = moderate hazard
Figure 1-10.—Hazard warning lahel for methyl ethyl ketone.
1 = slight hazard
Other specific labeling requirements are provided
in the NAVSUPINST5100.27 (series). All supervisors
should carefully review the contents of this
There are Special Construction Battalion Training
classes (SCBT) specifically for Steelworker P&E as
well as C-1 Advanced P&E school (NEC 5915) for
NOTE: There are various techniques for
planting, estimating, and scheduling. The procedures
described herein are suggested methods that have been
proved with use and result in effective planning and
The safest practice concerning hazardous material
is to draw only the amount of material that can be used
that day. Storing hazardous materials on the jobsite
requires the use of approved storage containers. These
containers must be placed a minimum of 50 feet away
from any ignition device or source. Plan for the
delivery of proper storage equipment before having
hazardous materials delivered to the jobsite. Since
many hazardous materials require separate storage
containers (as an example, corrosives and flammables
cannot be stored together), consult your safety office
Planning is the process of determining
requirements and devising and developing methods
and actions for constructing a project. Good
construction planning is a combination of many
elements: the activity, material, equipment, and
manpower estimates; project layout; project location;
material delivery and storage; work schedules; quality
control; special tools required; environmental
protection; safety; and progress control. All of these
elements depend upon each other. They must all be
considered in any well-planned project. Proper
planning saves time and effort, making the job easier
for all concerned.
Any excess material must be disposed of through
an authorized hazardous material disposal facility.
Proper labeling of hazardous materials is critical.
Properly labeled, waste can be disposed of for a
relatively low price. Unidentified material must first
be analyzed, which is extremely expensive. Anytime
you turn-in hazardous material, an MSDS must
accompany the material and ensure the MSDS is
ledgeable. This will save valuable time and expense
and make the job easier for supply.
Estimating is the process of determining the
amount and type of work to be performed and the
quantities of material, equipment, and labor required.
Lists of these quantities and types of work are called
Avoid mixing unlike types of waste. Do not mix
waste paint thinner in a waste oil drum. The Navy sells
uncontaminated waste oil for a profit. If only minor
amounts of any other substance are present in the
waste oil, the Navy must pay high prices for analysis
and disposal. The best method for disposal is properly
labeling the materials and returning them, unmixed, to
the supply department. Each container must be clearly
labeled, preferably with the BM line item or other
supply tracking documentation. It is always best to
check with the battalion MLO staff or safety office for
proper disposal procedures.
Preliminary Estimates
Preliminary estimates are made from limited
information, such as the general description of
projects or preliminary plans and specifications
having little or no detail. Preliminary estimates are
prepared to establish costs for the budget and to
program general manpower requirements.
Detailed Estimates
Good construction planning and estimating
procedures are essential for any Seabee. This section
is intended to give crew leaders helpful information
for planning, estimating, and scheduling construction
projects. This material is designed to help you
understand the concepts and principles and is NOT
intended to be a reference or establish procedures.
Detailed estimates are precise statements of
quantities of material, equipment, and manpower
required to construct a given project. Underestimating
quantities can cause serious delays in construction and
even result in unfinished projects. A detailed estimate
must be accurate to the smallest detail to quantify
requirements correctly.
10-hour day when the Facilities Planning Guide,
NAVFAC P-437, is used.
Activity Estimates
An activity estimate is a listing of all the steps
required to construct a given project, including
specific descriptions as to the limits of each clearly
definable quantity of work (activity). Activity
quantities provide the basis for preparing the material,
equipment, and manpower estimates. They are used to
provide the basis for scheduling material deliveries,
equipment, and manpower. Because activity estimates
are used to prepare other estimates and schedules,
errors in these estimates can multiply many times. Be
careful in their preparation!
Battalions set their own schedules, as needed, to
complete their assigned tasks. In general, the work
schedule of the battalion is based on an average of 55
hours per man per week. The duration of the workday
is 10 hours per day, which starts and ends at the jobsite.
This includes 9 hours for direct labor and 1 hour for
Direct labor (“Timekeeping” as previously
discussed) includes all labor expended directly on
assigned construction tasks, either in the field or in the
shop, that contributes directly to the completion of the
end product. Direct labor must be reported separately
for each assigned construction item. In addition to
direct labor, the estimator must also consider overhead
labor and indirect labor. Overhead labor is considered
productive labor that does not contribute directly or
indirectly to the product. It includes all labor that must
be performed regardless of the assigned mission.
Indirect labor includes labor required to support
construction operations but does not, in itself, produce
an end product.
Material Estimates
A material estimate consists of a listing and
description of the various materials and the quantities
required to construct a given project. Information for
preparing material estimates is obtained from the
activity estimates, drawings, and specifications. A
material estimate is sometimes referred to as a Bill of
Material (BM) or a Material Takeoff (MTO) Sheet.
Equipment Estimates
Equipment estimates are listings of the various
types of equipment, the amount of time, and the
number of pieces of equipment required to construct
a given project. Information, such as that obtained
from activity estimates, drawings, specifications, and
an inspection of the site, provides the basis for
preparing the equipment estimates.
Scheduling is the process of determining when an
action must be taken and when material, equipment,
and manpower are required. There are four basic types
of schedules: progress, material, equipment, and
Progress schedules coordinate all the projects of a
Seabee deployment or all the activities of a single
project. They show the sequence, the starting time, the
performance time required, and the time required for
Manpower Estimates
The manpower estimate consists of a listing of the
number of direct labor man-days required to complete
the various activities of a specific project. These
estimates will show only the man-days for each
activity, or they can be in sufficient detail to list the
number of man-days for each rating in each
activity—Builder (BU), Construction Electrician
(CE), Equipment Operator (EO), Steelworker (SW),
and Utilitiesman (UT). Man-day estimates are used in
determining the number of personnel and the ratings
required on a deployment. They also provide the basis
for scheduling manpower in relation to construction
Material schedules show when the material is
needed on the job. They can also show the sequence
in which materials should be delivered.
Equipment schedules coordinate all the
equipment to be used on a project. They also show
when it is to be used and the amount of time each piece
of equipment is required to perform the work.
Manpower schedules coordinate the manpower
requirements of a project and show the number of
personnel required for each activity. In addition, the
number of personnel of each rating (Steelworker,
Builder, Construction Electrician, Equipment
Operator, and Utilitiesman) required for each activity
for each period of time can be shown. The time unit
When the Seabee Planner’s and Estimator’s
Handbook, NAVFAC P-405, is used, a man-day is a
unit of work performed by one person in one 8-hour
day or its equivalent. One man-day is equivalent to a
request to MLO, a request can be required 2 to 3 weeks
in advance.
shown in a schedule should be some convenient
interval, such as a day, a week, or a month.
6. Control resources. As the crew leader, you are
also responsible for on-site supervision of all work
performed. Productive employment of available
resources to accomplish assigned tasking is your
greatest challenge.
In the late 1950s, a new system of project
planning, scheduling, and control came into
widespread use in the construction industry. The
critical path analysis (CPA), critical path method
(CPM), and project evaluation and review technique
(PERT) are three examples of about 50 different
approaches. The basis for each of these approaches is
the analysis of a network of events and activities. The
generic title of the various networks is network
Progress control is the comparing of actual
progress with scheduled progress and the steps
necessary to correct deficiencies or to balance
activities to meet overall objectives.
The network analysis approach is now the
accepted method of construction planning in many
organizations. Network analysis forms the core of
project planning and control systems and is
accomplished by completing the following steps:
In planning any project, you must be familiar with
construction drawings and specifications. The
construction of any structure or facility is described
by a set of related drawings that gives the Seabees a
complete sequential graphic description of each phase
of the construction process. In most cases, a set of
drawings shows the location of the project,
boundaries, contours, and outstanding physical
features of the construction site and its adjoining
areas. Succeeding drawings give further graphic and
printed instructions for each phase of construction.
1. Develop construction activities. After careful
review of the plans and specifications (specs), your first
step is to break the job down into discreet activities.
Construction activities are generally less than 15 days
in duration and require the same resources throughout
the entire duration.
2. Estimate construction activity requirements.
Evaluate the resource requirements for each
construction activity. Identify and list all of the
materials, tools, equipment (including safety-related
items), and manpower requirements on the
Construction Activity Summary (CASS) Sheet.
Drawings are generally categorized according to
their intended purposes. Some of the types commonly
used in military construction are discussed in this
3. Develop logic network. List the construction
activities logical] y from the first activity to the last,
showing relationships or dependencies between
Master Plan Drawings
4. Schedule construction activities. Determine
an estimated start and finish date for each activity based
on the sequence and durations of construction activities.
Identify the critical path. This will help focus attention
of management on those activities that cannot be
delayed without delaying the project completion date.
used in the architectural, topographical, and
construction fields. The y show sufficient features to
be used as guides in long-range area development.
They usually contain section boundary lines,
horizontal and vertical control data, acreage, locations
and descriptions of existing and proposed structures,
existing and proposed surfaced and unsurfaced roads
and sidewalks, streams, right-of-way, existing
utilities, north point indicator (arrow), contour lines,
and profiles. Master plan and general development
drawings on existing and proposed Navy installations
are maintained and constantly upgraded by the
5. Track resources. As the crew leader, you must
be sure the necessary resources are available on the
project site on the day the work is to be performed. For
materials on site, this will be as easy as submitting a
material request, NAVSUP Form 1250-1, to the
material liaison office (MLO) several days in advance.
For local purchase requirements, such as a concrete
resident officer in charge of construction (ROICC) and
by the Public Works Department (PWD).
provides a check on the accuracy of the design and
detail drawings and often discloses errors.
Shop Drawings
Red-lined Drawings
SHOP DRAWINGS are drawings, schedules,
diagrams, and other related data to illustrate a
material, a product, or a system for some portion of
the work prepared by the construction contractor,
subcontractor, manufacturer, distributor, or supplier.
Product data include brochures, illustrations,
performance charts, and other information by which
the work will be judged. As an SW, you will be
required to draft shop drawings for minor shop and
field projects. You can draw shop items, such as doors,
cabinets, and small portable structures (prefabricated
berthing quarters, and modifications of existing
buildings), or perhaps you will be drawing from
portions of design drawings, specifications, or from
freehand sketches given by the design engineer.
Working Drawings
A WORKING DRAWING (also called project
drawing) is any drawing that furnishes the information
required by a Steelworker to manufacture a part or a
crew to erect a structure. It is prepared from a freehand
sketch or a design drawing. Complete information is
presented in a set of working drawings, complete
enough that the user will require no further
information. Project drawings include all the drawings
necessary for the different Seabee ratings to complete
the project. These are the drawings that show the size,
quantity, location, and relationship of the building
RED-LINED DRAWINGS are the official
contract drawings that you will mark up during
construction to show as-built conditions. Red-lined
drawings are marked in color “red” to indicate either
a minor design change or a field adjustment.
As-built Drawings
AS-BUILT DRAWINGS are the original contract
drawings (or sepia copies) that you will change to
show the as-built conditions from the red-lined
drawings. Upon the completion of the facilities, the
construction contractor or the Naval Military
Construction Force (NMCB) is required to provide the
ROICC with as-built drawings, indicating
construction deviations from the contract drawings.
All of the as-built marked-up prints must reflect exact
as-built conditions and must show all features of the
project as constructed. After the completion of the
project, as-built marked-up prints are transmitted by
the ROICC to the engineering field division (EFD).
Project drawings for buildings and structures are
arranged in the following order:
specific project title and an index of drawings.
(Used only for projects containing 60 or more
2. SITE or PLOT PLANS-Contain either site or
plot plans or both, as well as civil and utility
plans. For small projects, this sheet should
include an index of the drawings.
A complete set of project drawings consists of
general drawings, detail drawings, and assembly
drawings. General drawings consist of “plans” (views
from above) and “elevations” (side or front views)
drawn on a relatively small defined scale, such as 1/8
inch = 1 foot. Most of the general drawings are drawn
in orthographic projections, although sometimes
details can be shown in isometric projections. Detail
drawings show a particular item on a larger scale than
that of the general drawing in which the item appears,
or it can show an item too small to appear at all on a
general drawing. Assembly drawings are either an
exterior or a sectional view of an object showing the
details in the proper relationship to one another.
Usually, assembly drawings are drawn to a smaller
scale than are detail drawings. This procedure
3. L A N D S C A P E A N D I R R I G A T I O N ( i f
4. ARCHITECTURAL (including interior design
as applicable).
6. MECHANICAL (heating, ventilation, and air
Title Blocks
Drawing Revisions
The title block identifies each sheet in a set of
drawings. (See fig. 1-11.) Generally, the title block is
located at the bottom right comer of the drawing
regardless of the size of the drawing (except for
vertical title block). For further information on the
layout of title blocks, refer to the Engineering Aid 3.
A Revision block contains a list of revisions made
to a drawing. The Revision block is located in the
upper right-hand corner. The Revision block can
include a separate “PREPARED BY” column to
indicate the organization, such as an architectural
engineering firm, that prepared the revision. Like title
blocks, revision blocks can vary in format with each
The information provided in the title block is
important information that a Steelworker MUST
understand. The information includes the following:
Graphic Scales
Architect’s name
Graphic scales are located in the lower right-hand
comer of each drawing sheet, with the words Graphic
Scales directly over them. The correct graphic scales
must be shown prominent y on each drawing because,
as drawings are reduced in size, the reductions are
often NOT to scaled proportions. Remember, scaling
a drawing should be done as a “last resort.”
Architect’s seal
Drawing title
Date prepared
Designed by
Drawing Notes
Checked by
Drawing numbers
NOTES are brief, clear, and explicit statements
regarding material use and finish and construction
methods. Notes in a construction drawing are
classified as specific and general.
Name of local activity
Code ID number (80091 NAVFAC)
Letter designation
SPECIFIC notes are used either to reflect
dimensional information on the drawing or to be
explanatory. As a means of saving space, many of the
terms used in this type of note are often expressed as
Size of drawing
Scale of drawing
ABFC drawing number (if applicable)
Approved by
GENERAL notes refer to all of the notes on the
drawing not accompanied by a leader and an
arrowhead. As used in this book, general notes for a
set of drawings covering one particular type of work
are placed on the first sheet of the set. They should be
There are many variations to title blocks.
Depending on the preparing activity (NAVFAC, NCR,
NMCB, etc.), all title blocks should contain the same
information listed above.
Figure 1-11.—Title block.
• Water supply units (that is, pumps and wells)
placed a minimum of 3 inches below the space
provided for the revision block when the conventional
horizontal title block is used. When the vertical title
block is used, you can place the general notes on the
right side of the drawing. General notes for
architectural and structural drawings can include,
when applicable, roof, floor, wind, seismic, and other
loads, allowable soil pressure or pile-bearing capacity,
and allowable unit stresses of all the construction
materials used in the design. Notes for civil,
mechanical, electrical, sanitary, plumbing, and similar
drawings of a set can include, when applicable,
references for vertical and horizontal control
(including soundings) and basic specific design data.
Depending on the size of the construction project,
the number of sheets in a set of civil drawings can vary
from a bare minimum to several sheets of related
drawings. Generally, on an average-size project, the
first sheet has a location map, soil boring log, legends,
and it sometimes has site plans and small civil detail
drawings. (Soil boring tests are conducted to
determine the water table of the construction site and
classify the existing soil.) Civil drawings are often
identified with the designating letter C on their title
General notes can also refer to all of the notes
grouped according to materials of construction in a
tabular form, called a SCHEDULE. Schedules for
items, like doors, windows, rooms, and footings, are
somewhat more detailed. Their formats will be
presented later in this chapter.
A SITE PLAN furnishes the essential data for
laying out the proposed building lines. It is drawn from
notes and sketches based upon a survey. It shows the
contours, boundaries, roads, utilities, trees, structures,
references, and other significant physical features on
or near the construction site. The field crews
(Equipment Operators) are able to estimate and
prepare the site for conduction and to finish the site
(including landscaping) upon completion of
construction by showing both existing and finished
contours. As an SW, you should be familiar with the
methods and the symbols used on maps and
topographic drawings.
Generally, working or project drawings can be
divided into the following major categories: civil,
architectural, structural, mechanical, electrical, and fire
protection. In Seabee construction, however, the major
categories most commonly used are as follows: CIVIL,
and ELECTRICAL sets of drawings.
Site plans are drawn to scale. In most instances,
the engineer’s scale is used, rather than the architect’s
scale. For buildings on small lots, the scales normally
used are 1 inch = 10 feet.
Regardless of the category, working drawings
serve the following functions:
• They provide a basis for making material, labor,
and equipment estimates before construction begins.
• They give instructions for construction, showing
the sizes and locations of the various parts.
The intent of this section is to acquaint you with
the basic concepts and principles of project
management and is NOT intended to be a reference
but also to make you familiar with the contents of a
project folder.
• They provide a means of coordination between
the different ratings.
• They complement the specifications; one source
of information is incomplete without the others.
The project folder, or package, consists of nine
individual project files. These files represent the
project in paper format-a type of project history from
start to finish.
• Civil working drawings encompass a variety of
plans and information to include the following:
• Site preparation and site development
File No. 1-General Information File
• Fe ricing
File No. 1 is the General Information File and
contains the following information:
• Rigid and flexible pavements for roads and
LEFT SIDE—The left side of the General
Information File basically contains information
• Environmental pollution control
• Deployment calendar.
authorizing the project. The file should have the
following items:
• Preconstruction conference notes.
• Project scope sheet.
• Predeployment visit summary.
• Tasking letter (fig. 1-12).
File No. 2—Correspondence File
• Project planning checklist.
File No. 2 is the Correspondence File and consists
of the following items:
• Project package sign-off sheet.
RIGHT SIDE—The right side of the General
Information File contains basic information relating
to coordinating the project. The file should have the
following items:
LEFT SIDE—The left side contains outgoing
messages and correspondence.
RIGHT SIDE-The right side of the file contains
incoming messages and correspondence.
• Project organization.
From: Operations Officer
Company is tasked as the prime contractor for the subject project. Project planning
and estimating should be accomplished by the crew leader and/or project crew, in accordance with current
battalion procedures. Plans, specs, and master activity description (if applicable) are available from S3QC.
2. The CBPAC manday estimate for NMCB-74’s tasking is
3. Project scope:
4. The folowing dates are established as milestones to be met for your project planning:
Familiarization with project
Establish Detail Activities
Complete Front of cas Sheets
Prepare MTO
Finalize Mini Computer Input
Prepare Level II
Safety Plan
Quality Control Plan
Final Package Review
5. Sub-contractor (s) for the subject project is/are
6. Regress will be monitored by S3 at short informal meetings. Contact S3 or S3A, if you have any questions.
copy to:
Figure 1-12.—Project tasking letter.
Figure 1-13._Level II
File No. 5 is the Material File. It contains the
following information:
File No. 3—Activity File
File No. 3, the Activity File, contains the
following information:
LEFT SIDE—The left side contains the work
sheets that you, as a project planner, must assemble.
THe list includes the following items:
LEFT SIDE—The left side contains the
Construction Activity Summary Sheets of completed
• List of long lead items (fig. 1-16).
• 45-day material list.
RIGHT SIDE-The right side of the file contains
the following form sheets:
• Master Activity Sheets.
• Level II. A general schedule for each project
prepared for the operations officer by the company. It
contains a general schedule for each project and
contains all of the major work elements and a schedule
for each prime contractor or project manager based
upon major work (fig. 1-13).
Material transfer list.
Add-on/reorder justification forms.
Bill of Material/Material Takeoff Comparison
Work Sheet (fig. 1-17).
• Material Takeoff Work Sheet (fig. 1-18).
• Level II Precedence Diagram.
RIGHT SIDE—The right side of the Material File
contains the Bill of Material (including all
add-on/reorder BMs) supplied by the Naval
Construction Regiment.
• Master Activity Summary Sheets (fig. 1-14).
File No. 6—Quality Control File
• Construction Activity Summary Sheets (fig.
File No. 6, the Quality Control File, contains the
following information:
File No. 4—Network File
LEFT SIDE-The left side of this file contains
various quality control forms and the field adjustment
File No. 4 is the Network File. It contains the
following information:
RIGHT SIDE—The right side of the Quality
Control File contains the daily quality control
inspection report and the quality control plan.
LEFT SIDE—The left side contains the following
• Computer printouts.
File No. 7—Safety/Environmental File
• Level III is a detailed schedule fore each project,
developed by the company selected as prime contractor
and assisted by the companies selected as subcontractor.
The Level III not only serves as stool in which the prime
contractor and subcontractor manage their projects but
it also provides important data, enabling the operations
officer to redistribute or reschedule assignments and to
arrange for extra personnel, equipment, or special
training required for the task. Level III shows such
details as crew sizes, material delivery dates, and
periods where special tools/equipment will be required
on the project.
File No. 7 is the Safety/Environmental File and
consists of the following information:
LEFT SIDE—The left side of the Safety/
Environmental File contains the following items:
• Required safety equipment.
•Standup safety lectures.
• Safety reports.
• Accident reports.
RIGHT SIDE—The right side of the Safety/
Environmental File contains the following:
• Level III Precedence Diagram.
• Safety plan, which you must develop.
RIGHT SIDE—The right side of the Network File
contains the following items:
• Highlighted EM 385.
• Environmental plan (if applicable).
• Resource leveled plan for manpower and
File No. 8—Plans File
• Equipment requirement summary.
File No. 8 is the Plans File and contains the
following information:
File No. 5—Material File
Figure 1-14.—Master Activity Summary Sheet.
LEFT SIDE—The left side contains the following
planning documents:
RIGHT SIDE—The right side of the Plans File
contains the actual project plans. Depending on
thickness, plans should be either rolled or folded.
Site layout.
File No. 9—Specifications File
• Shop drawings.
• Detailed slab layout drawings (if applicable).
File No. 9 is the Specifications File; it contains the
following information:
• Rebar bending schedule.
Figure 1-15.—Construction Activity Summary Sheet
RIGHT SIDE—The right side of the Specifications
File has highlighted project specifications.
LEFT SIDE—The left side of this File is reserved
for technical data.
Figure 1-16.—Long Lead Time Item Work Sheet.
Figure 1-17.—Bill of Material/Material Takeoff Comparison Work Sheet.
Figure 1-18.—Material Takeoff Work Sheet.
If you require information on blueprints, you will find
chapters 1-3 and 8 of Blueprint Reading and
Sketching, NAVEDTRA 10077-F1, an excellent
As a Steelworker you are required to operate
sheet-metal tools and to apply basic sheet-metal layout
techniques. In many Naval Construction Force (NCF)
projects, sheet metal is used to protect the exterior of
buildings by using flashing, gutters, and at times,
complete sheet-metal roofing systems. Other items
made from sheet metal are dust collection systems,
machinery guards, lockers, and shelving.
Layout tools are used for laying out fabrication
jobs on metal. Some of the more common layout tools
that you will use in performing layout duties are as
follows: scriber, flat steel square, combination square,
protractor, prick punch, dividers, trammel points, and
circumference rule.
Although many of the parts and fittings used in
sheet-metal work are stock items, which are simply
installed or assembled, Steelworkers are required to
fabricate parts and fittings frequently in the shop or to
modify them to fit irregularities in the project design.
Therefore, you must have knowledge not only in
laying out patterns but also have the skills required to
cut, bend, shape, assemble, and install the finished
sheet-metal products. This chapter describes some of
the methods of measuring, marking, cutting, forming,
and joining as well as installing sheet-metal sections,
duct systems, and fiber-glass ducts. In addition, the
use of various hand tools and power tools required in
sheet-metal layout and fabrication is provided.
Lines are scribed on sheet metal with a SCRATCH
AWL, coupled with a STEEL SCALE or a
STRAIGHTEDGE. To obtain the best results in
scribing, hold the scale or straightedge firmly in place,
and set the point of the scriber as close to the edge of
the scale as possible by tilting the scriber outward.
Then exert pressure on the point and draw the line,
tilting the tool slightly in the direction of movement
(fig. 2-1). For short lines, use the steel scale as a guide.
For longer lines, use a circumference rule or a
straightedge. When you have to draw a line between
two points, prick punch each point. Start from one
prick punch mark and scribe toward the center.
Numerous types of layout tools, cutting tools, and
forming equipment are used when working with sheet
metal. This section will describe the uses of the layout
and cutting tools and the operation of the forming
The LAYOUT of metal is the procedure of
measuring and marking material for cutting, drilling,
or welding. Accuracy is essential in layout work.
Using erroneous measurements results in a part being
fabricated that does not fit the overall job. This is a
waste of both time and material. In most cases, you
should use shop drawings, sketches, and blueprints to
obtain the measurements required to fabricate the job
being laid out. Your ability to read and work from
blueprints and sketches is paramount in layout work.
Figure 2-1—Scribing a line.
Complete the line by scribing from the other prick
punch mark in the opposite direction.
Flat Steel Square
The FLAT STEEL SQUARE is a desirable tool for
constructing perpendicular or parallel lines. In the
method of layout, known as parallel line development,
the flat steel square is used to construct lines that are
parallel to each other as well as perpendicular to the
base line. This procedure is shown in figure 2-2.
Simply clamp the straightedge firmly to the base line.
Slide the body of the square along the straightedge,
and then draw perpendicular lines through the desired
Before using the flat steel square or at least at
periodic intervals, depending on usage, see that you
check it for accuracy, as shown in figure 2-3. When
the square is off, your work will be off
correspondingly no matter how careful you are.
Figure 2-4.—Using the combination square
delicate instruments and are of little value if you
handle them roughly. Store your squares properly
when you have finished using them. Keep them clean
and in tiptop shape, and you will be able to construct
90-degree angles, 45-degree angles, and parallel lines
without error.
Combination Square
The COMBINATION SQUARE can be used to
draw a similar set of lines, as shown in figure 2-4. An
edge of the metal upon which you are working is used
as the base line, as shown in the figure. One edge of
the head of the combination square is 90 degrees and
the other edge is 45 degrees. Combination squares are
To construct angles other than 45 degrees or 90
degrees, you will need a PROTRACTOR. Mark the
vertex of the angle of your base line with a prick
punch. Set the vertex of your protractor on the mark
and then scribe a V at the desired angle (assume 700).
Scribe the line between the vertex and the point
located by the V, and you have constructed an angle
of 70 degrees.
Figure 2-2.—Using a swuare to cinstruct perpendicular and
parallel lines.
Prick Punch
When you locate a point and mark it with the PRICK
PUNCH, be sure to use alight tap with a small ball peen
hammer, ensuring it is on the precise spot intended to
mark. The smaller the mark you make (so long as it is
visible), the more accurate that mark becomes.
You should use DIVIDERS to scribe arcs and
circles, to transfer measurements from a scale to your
layout, and to transfer measurements from one part of
the layout to another. Careful setting of the dividers is
of utmost importance. When you transfer a
Figure 2-3.—Checking a square for accuracy.
need a right angle for a layout. Breakout your dividers,
a scriber, and a straightedge. Draw a base line like the
one labeled AB in figure 2-8. Set the dividers for a
distance greater than one-half AB; then, with A as a
center, scribe arcs like those labeled C and D. Next,
without changing the setting of the dividers, use B as
a center, and scribe another set of arcs at C and D.
Draw a line through the points where the arcs intersect
and you have erected perpendiculars to line AB,
forming four 90-degree, or right, angles. You have also
bisected or divided line AB into two equal parts.
measurement from a scale to the work, set one point
of the dividers on the mark and carefully adjust the
other leg to the required length, as shown in figure 2-5.
To scribe a circle, or an arc, grasp the dividers
between the fingers and the thumb, as shown in figure
2-6. Place the point of one leg on the center, and swing
the arc. Exert enough pressure to hold the point on
center, slightly inclining the dividers in the direction
in which they are being rotated.
To scribe a circle with a radius larger than your
dividers, you should select TRAMMEL POINTS. The
method of adjusting the points, as shown in figure 2-7,
is to set the left-hand point on one mark, slide the
right-hand point to the required distance, and tighten
the thumbscrew. The arc, or circle, is then scribed in
the same manner as with the dividers.
Constructing a right angle at a given point with a
pair of dividers is a procedure you will find useful
when making layouts. Figure 2-9 shows the method
for constructing a right angle at a given point.
Constructing a 90-degree, or right, angle is not
difficult if you have a true, steel square. Suppose that
you have no square or that your square is off and you
Figure 2-7.—Setting trammel points.
Figure 2-5.—Setting the dividers
Figure 2-8.—Constructing a 90-degree angle by bisecting a
Figure 2-9.—Constructing a 90-degree angle at a given point
Figure 2-6.—Scribing an acr/circle with dividers
Imagine that you have line XY with A as a point
at which you need to fabricate a perpendicular to form
a right angle. Select any convenient point that lies
somewhere within the proposed 90-degree angle. In
figure 2-9 that point is C. Using C as the center of a
circle with a radius equal to CA, scribe a semicircular
arc, as shown in figure 2-9. Lay a straightedge along
points B and C and draw a line that will intersect the
other end of the arc at D. Next, draw a line connecting
the points D and A and you have fabricated a
90-degree angle. This procedure may be used to form
90-degree comers in stretch-outs that are square or
rectangular, like a drip pan or a box.
Laying out a drip pan with a pair of dividers is no
more difficult than fabricating a perpendicular. You
will need dividers, a scriber, a straightedge, and a sheet
of template paper. You have the dimensions of the pan
to be fabricated: the length, the width, and the height
or depth. Draw a base line (fig. 2-10). Select a point
on this line for one comer of the drip pan layout. Erect
a perpendicular through this point, forming a
90-degree angle. Next, measure off on the base line
the required length of the pan. At this point, erect
another perpendicular. You now have three sides of the
stretch-out. Using the required width of the pan for the
other dimensions, draw the fourth side parallel to the
base line, connecting the two perpendiculars that you
have fabricated.
Now, set the dividers for marking off the depth of
the drip pan. You can use a steel scale to measure off
the correct radius on the dividers. Using each comer
for a point, swing a wide arc, like the one shown in the
second step in figure 2-10. Extend the end and side
lines as shown in the last step in figure 2-10 and
complete the stretch-out by connecting the arcs with a
scriber and straightedge.
Figure 2-10.—Laying out a drip pan with dividers.
Bisecting an arc is another geometric construction
that you should be familiar with. Angle ABC (fig.
2-11) is given. With B as a center, draw an arc cutting
the sides of the angle at D and E. With D and E as
centers and a radius greater than half of arc DE, draw
arcs intersecting at F. A line drawn from B through
point F bisects angle ABC.
Two methods used to divide a line into a given
number of equal parts are shown in figure 2-12. When
the method shown in view A is to be used, you will
need a straightedge and dividers. In using this method,
draw line AB to the desired length. With the dividers
set at any given radius, use point A as center and scribe
an arc above the line. Using the same radius and B as
center, scribe an arc below the line as shown. From
Figure 2-11.—Bisecting an arc.
Continue to step off in this manner until you have
divided the circle into six equal parts. If the points of
intersection between the arcs and the circumference
are connected as shown in figure 2-13, the lines will
intersect at the center of the circle, forming angles of
60 degrees.
If you need an angle of 30 degrees, all you have
to do is to bisect one of these 60-degree angles by the
method described earlier in this chapter. Bisect the
30-degree angle and you have a 15-degree angle. You
can construct a 45-degree angle in the same manner
by bisecting a 90-degree angle. In all probability, you
will have a protractor to lay out these and other angles.
But just in case you do not have a steel square or
protractor, it is a good idea to know how to construct
angles of various sizes and to erect perpendiculars.
Figure 2-12.—Two methods used to divide a line into equal
Many times when laying out or working with
circles or arcs, it is necessary to determine the
circumference of a circle or arc. For the applicable
mathematical formula, refer to appendix II of this text.
point A, draw a straight line tangent to the arc that is
below point B. Do the same from point B. With the
dividers set at any given distance, start at point A and
step off the required number of spaces along line AD
using tick marks-in this case, six. Number the tick
marks as shown. Do the same from point B along line
BC. With the straightedge, draw lines from point 6 to
point A, 5 to 1, 4 to 2, 3 to 3, 2 to 4, 1 to 5, and B to
6. You have now divided line AB into six equal parts.
Circumference Rule
Another method of determining circumference is
by use of the circumference rule. The upper edge of
the circumference rule is graduated in inches in the
same manner as a regular layout scale, but the lower
edge is graduated, as shown in figure 2-14. The lower
edge gives you the approximate circumference of any
circle within the range of the rule. You will notice in
figure 2-14 that the reading on the lower edge directly
below the 3-inch mark is a little over 9 3/8 inches. This
When the method shown in view B of figure 2-12
is used to divide a line into a given number of equal
parts, you will need a scale. In using this method, draw
a line at right angles to one end of the base line. Place
the scale at such an angle that the number of spaces
required will divide evenly into the space covered by
the scale. In the illustration (view B, fig. 2-12) the base
line is 2 1/2 inches and is to be divided into six spaces.
Place the scale so that the 3 inches will cover
2 1/2 inches on the base line. Since 3 inches divided
by 6 spaces = 1/2 inch, draw lines from the 1/2-inch
spaces on the scale perpendicular to the base line.
Incidentally, you may even use a full 6 inches in the
scale by increasing its angle of slope from the baseline
and dropping perpendiculars from the full-inch
graduation to the base line.
Figure 2-13.—Dividing a circle into six equal parts
To divide or step off the circumference of a circle
into six equal parts, just set the dividers for the radius
of the circle and select a point of the circumference for
a beginning point. In figure 2-13, point A is selected
for a beginning point. With A as a center, swing an arc
through the circumference of the circle, like the one
shown at B in the illustration. Use B, then, as a point,
and swing an arc through the circumference at C.
Figure 2-14.—Circumference rule.
that are 4 inches long with an overall length of 34 1/2
reading would be the circumference of a circle with a
diameter of 3 inches and would be the length of a
stretch-out for a cylinder of that diameter. The
dimensions for the stretch-out of a cylindrical object,
then, are the height of the cylinder and the
CIRCLE SNIPS (fig. 2-15, view E) have curved
blades and are used for making circular cuts, as the
name implies. They come in the same sizes and
capacities as straight snips and either right- or
left-hand types are available.
HAWK’S BILL SNIPS (fig. 2-15, view F) are
used to cut a small radius inside and outside a circle.
The narrow, curved blades are beveled to allow sharp
turns without buckling the sheet metal. These snips are
useful for cutting holes in pipe, in furnace hoods, and
in close quarters work. These snips are available with
a 2 1/2-inch cutting edge and have an overall length
of either 11 1/2 or 13 inches and have a 20 gauge mild
steel capacity.
are used for cutting and notching sheet metal. Hand
snips are necessary because the shape, construction,
location, and position of the work to be cut frequently
prevents the use of machine-cutting tools.
Hand snips are divided into two groups. Those for
straight cuts are as follows: straight snips,
combination snips, bulldog snips, and compound lever
shears. Those for circular cuts are as follows: circle,
hawk’s bill, aviation, and Trojan snips. These snips are
shown in figure 2-15. The following is a brief
description of each type of snip.
AVIATION SNIPS (fig. 2-15, view G) have
compound levers, enabling them to cut with less
effort. These snips have hardened blades that enable
them to cut hard material. They are also useful for
cutting circles, for cutting squares, and for cutting
compound curves and intricate designs in sheet
metal. Aviation snips come in three types: right
hand, left hand, and straight. On right-hand snips,
the blade is on the left and they cut to the left.
Left-hand snips are the opposite. They are usually
color-coded in keeping with industry
standards-green cuts right, red cuts left, yellow
cuts straight. Both snips can be used with the right
hand. The snips are 10 inches long and have a 2-inch
cut and have a 16 gauge mild steel capacity.
STRAIGHT SNIPS (fig. 2-15, view A) have
straight jaws for straight line cutting. To ensure
strength, they are not pointed. These snips are made
in various sizes and the jaws may vary from 2 to 4 1/2
inches. The overall length will also vary from 7 to 15
3/4 inches. The different size snips are made to cut
different thicknesses of metal with 18 gauge steel as a
minimum for the larger snips. These snips are
available for right- or left-hand use.
COMBINATION SNIPS (fig. 2-15, view B) have
straight jaws for straight cutting but the inner faces of
the jaws are sloped for cutting curves as well as
irregular shapes. These snips are available in the same
sizes and capacities as straight snips.
TROJAN SNIPS (fig. 2-15, view H) are
slim-bladed snips that are used for straight or curved
cutting. The blades are small enough to allow sharp
turning cuts without buckling the metal. These snips
can be used to cut outside curves and can also be used
in place of circle snips, hawk’s bill snips, or aviation
snips when cutting inside curves. The blades are
forged high grade steel. These snips come in two sizes:
one has a 2 1/2-inch cutting length and a 12-inch
overall length and the other has a 3-inch cutting length
and a 13-inch overall length, They both have a 20
gauge capacity.
BULLDOG SNIPS (fig. 2-15, view C) are of the
combination type, They have short cutting blades with
long handles for leverage. The blades are inlaid with
special alloy steel for cutting stainless steel. Bulldog
snips can cut 16 gauge mild steel. The blades are 2 1/2
inches long and the overall length of the snip varies
from 14 to 17 inches.
COMPOUND LEVER SHEARS (fig. 2-15, view
D) have levers designed that give additional leverage
to ease the cutting of heavy material. The lower blade
is bent to allow the shears to be inserted in a hole in
the bench or bench plate. This will hold the shear in
an upright position and make the cutting easier. The
cutting blades are removable and can be replaced. The
capacity is 12 gauge mild steel. It has cutting blades
Modern snips are designed to cut freely with
a minimum curling of the metal. The snips are
generally held in the right hand at right angles to
the work (fig, 2-16). Open the blades widely to
obtain maximum leverage. Do not permit the ends
to close completely at the end of a cut or a rough
Figure 2-15.—Hand snips.
Figure 2-16.—Proper method of cutting with snips.
edge will result. Cut circular sections from the right
side (fig. 2-17).
Figure 2-18.—Making an internal circular cut.
When making internal circular cuts, you make a
small opening near the center of the opening, insert the
snips, and cut from the upper side, gradually
increasing the radius of the cut until the opening is
completed (fig. 2-18).
Large sheet-metal sections are cut on SQUARING
SHEARS that are discussed later in this chapter.
SHEAR (fig. 2-19) is ideal for notching corners or the
edge of sheet metal. The blades are adjustable for
conventional notching or for piercing, starting inside
the blank.
PORTABLE POWER SHEARS make it possible
to do production work. They are designed to do
straight or circular cutting (fig. 2-20).
Small diameter openings can be made with a
Figure 2-19.—Combination notcher, coper, and shear.
(fig. 2-22). Locate the position of the hole; select the
correct size punch and hammer; then place the metal
section on a lead cake or on the end grain of a block
of hard wood (fig. 2-23). Strike the punch firmly with
Figure 2-17.—Making a circular cut.
Figure 2-20.—Portable power shears
Figure 2-21.—Solid punch.
Figure 2-24.—Foot-actuated squaring shears.
Figure 2-22.—Hollow punch.
the hammer. Turn the punched section over so the
burred section is up, then smooth it with a mallet.
2-24) make it possible to square and trim large sheets.
Do not attempt to cut metal heavier than the designed
capacity of the shears. The maximum capacity of the
machine is stamped on the manufacturer’s
specification plate on the front of the shears. Check
the gauge of the metal against this size with a
SHEET-METAL GAUGE (fig. 2-25). This figure
shows the gauge used to measure the thickness of
metal sheets. The gauge is a disc-shaped piece of
metal, having slots of widths that correspond to the
U.S. gauge numbers from O to 36. Each gauge number
is marked on the front and the corresponding decimal
equivalent marked on the back.
Do NOT cut wire, band iron, or steel rods with the
squaring shears.
Figure 2-23.—Correct method of backing sheet metal for making a hole with a punch.
Figure 2-26.—Ring and circular shears
METAL STAKES allow the sheet-metal
craftsman to make an assortment of bends by hand
Stakes come in a variety of shapes and sizes. The work
is done on the heads or the horns of the stakes. They
are machined, polished, and, in some cases, hardened
Stakes are used for finishing many types of work;
therefore, they should NOT be used to back up work
when using a chisel. The following is an assortment of
the most common stakes that are used within the NCF
and Public Works Departments (fig. 2-27):
Figure 2-25.—Sheet-metal guage.
The length of the cut is determined by the position
of the BACK GAUGE when the metal is inserted from
the front of the shears. The FRONT GAUGE controls
the length of the cut when the metal sheet is inserted
from the rear. The front gauge is seldom used and is
usually removed from the shears. A BEVEL GAUGE
permits angular cuts to be made.
1. SQUARE STAKES (fig. 2-27, view A) have
square-shaped heads and are used for general work
Three types are used: the coppersmith square stake with
one end rounded, the bevel edge square stake that is
offset, and the common square stake. Some of the edges
are beveled and this allows them to be used for a greater
variety of jobs.
To make a cut, set the back gauge to the required
dimension by using the graduated scale on the top of
the extension arms or on the graduated section on the
bed top. Hold the piece firmly against the SIDE
GAUGE with both hands until the HOLD-DOWN
comes into position, and apply pressure to the FOOT
2. The CONDUCTOR STAKE (fig. 2-27, view B)
has cylindrical horns of different diameters and is used
when forming, seaming, and riveting pieces and parts
of pipes.
3. The HOLLOW MANDREL STAKE (fig. 2-27,
view C) has a slot in which a bolt slides allowing it to
be clamped firmly to a bench. Either the rounded or the
flat end can be used for forming, seaming, or riveting.
There are two sizes available with an overall length of
either 40 or 60 inches.
intended for cutting inside and outside circles in sheet
metal. The CLAMPING HEAD is positioned for the
desired diameter and the blank is inserted. Lower the
CUTTING DISC and make the cut.
4. The BLOW HORN STAKE (fig. 2-27, view D)
has two horns of different tapers. The apron end is used
for shaping blunt tapers and the slender-tapered end is
used for slightly tapered jobs.
5. The BEAKHORN STAKE (fig. 2-27, view E)
is a general-purpose stake. The stake has a
round-tapered horn on one end and a square-tapered
horn on the other end. This stake is used for riveting and
shaping round or square work
Sheet metal is given three-dimensional shape and
rigidity by bending. Sheet metal can be formed by
hand or with various special tools and machines.
several techniques are described in the following
view F) has two shanks and either one can be installed
Figure 2-27.—Metal stakes
in a bench plate, allowing the stakes to be used vertically
or horizontally. This stake is used for double seaming
large work of all types and for riveting.
7. The HAND DOLLY (fig. 2-27, view G) is a
portable anvil with a handle that is used for backing up
rivet heads, double seams, and straightening.
Other Forming Tools
Figure 2-30.—Wood mallet
Stakes are designed to fit in a BENCH PLATE
(fig. 2-28). The bench plate is a cast-iron plate that is
affixed to a bench. It has tapered holes of different
sizes that support the various stakes that can be used
with the plate. Additionally, there is another type of
bench plate that consists of a revolving plate with
different size holes which can be clamped in any
desired position.
The SETTING HAMMER (fig. 2-29) has a
square, flat face and the peen end is single-tapered.
The peen is for setting down an edge. The face is used
to flatten seams. Setting hammers vary in size from 4
ounces to 20 ounces and their use is determined by the
gauge of the metal and the accessibility of the work.
Figure 2-31.—Hand seamer.
Forming and Bending Machines
Many machines have been designed to perform
precise sheet-metal bending operations. They include
the bar folder, several types of brakes, roll forming
machines, and combination rotary machines. These
machines are described next.
A WOOD MALLET (fig. 2-30) provides the
necessary force for forming sheet metal without
marring the surface of the metal.
Narrow sections can be formed with the HAND
SEAMER (fig. 2-31). Its primary use is for turning a
flange, for bending an edge, or for folding a seam. The
width of the flange can be set with the knurled knobs
on the top of the jaw.
BAR FOLDER.— The BAR FOLDER (fig. 2-32)
is designed to bend sheet metal, generally 22 gauge or
lighter. Bar folders are used for bending edges of
sheets at various angles, for making channel shape
(double-right angle folds), and for fabricating lock
seams and wired edges. Narrow channel shapes can be
formed but reverse bends cannot be bent at close
distances. The width of the folder edge is determined
by the setting of the DEPTH GAUGE (fig. 2-33). The
sharpness of the folded edge, whether it is to be sharp
for a hem or seam or rounded to make a wire edge, is
determined by the position of the WING (fig. 2-34).
Right-angle (90°) and 45-degree bends can be made
by using the 90-degree and 45-degree ANGLE STOP.
Figure 2-28.—Bench plate.
Hemmed edges are made in the following manner
(fig. 2-35):
1. Adjust the depth gauge for the required size, and
position the wing for the desired fold sharpness.
2. Set the metal in place, setting it lightly against
the gauge fingers.
Figure 2-29.—Setting hamer.
4. Place the folded section on the beveled section
of the blade, as close to the wing as possible. Flatten the
fold by pulling the handle forward rapidly.
BRAKES.— Large sheet-metal sections are
formed by using bending brakes. These machines
produce more uniform bends than can be made by
hand and require significantly less effort. The two
most commonly used brakes are the cornice brake and
the finger brake.
Figure 2-32.—Bar folder.
A CORNICE BRAKE is shown in figure 2-36.
Two adjustments have to be made before using the
vertically for the gauge of sheet metal to be bent. The
clamping device holds the work solidly in position,
provided it is correctly adjusted. For example, if the
clamping device is set for 18 gauge sheet metal and you
Figure 2-33.—Fold size depth gauge.
3. With the left hand holding the metal, pull the
handle as far forward as it will go. Return the handle to
its original position.
Figure 2-36.—Cornice brake.
Figure 2-34.—Wing setting determines the tightness of fold.
Figure 2-35.—Making a hemmed edge.
feature is useful when you have to fabricate a large
number of pieces with the same angle. After you have
made your first bend to the required angle, set the stop
gauge so that the bending leaf will not go beyond the
required angle. You can now fabricate as many bends
as you need.
bend 24 gauge sheet metal at that setting, the sheet will
slip and the bend will be formed in the wrong position.
When you try to bend 18 gauge sheet metal when the
machine is set for 24 gauge sheet metal, you can break
the clamping bar handle. The pressure to lock the
clamping bar should NEVER be too strong. With a little
practice you will be able to gauge the pressure correctly.
The cornice brake is extremely useful for making
single hems, double hems, lock seams, and various
other shapes.
2. Adjust the upper jaw horizontally to the correct
position for the thickness of the metal and for the radius
of the bend to be made.
It is impossible to bend all four sides of a box on a
conventional brake. The FINGER BRAKE, sometimes
referred to as a BOX AND PAN BRAKE (fig. 2-37), has
been designed to handle this exact situation . The upper
jaw is made up of a number of blocks, referred to as
“fingers.” They are various widths and can easily be
positioned or removed to allow all four sides of a box to
be bent. Other than this feature, it is operated in the same
manner as a cornice brake.
If the upper jaw is adjusted to the exact
thickness of the metal, the bend will be sharp
or it will have practically no bend radius. If it
is set for more than the thickness of the metal,
the bend will have a larger radius; if the jaw is
set for less than the thickness of the metal, the
jaws of the machine may be sprung out of
alignment and the edges of the jaws may be
cylinders and conical shapes are being formed, no
sharp bends are obviously required; instead, a gradual
curve has to be formed in the metal until the ends meet.
Roll forming machines have been invented to
accomplish this task. The simplest method of forming
these shapes is on the SLIP ROLL FORMING
MACHINE (fig. 2-38). Three rolls do the forming
(fig. 2-39). The two front rolls are the feed rolls and
can be adjusted to accommodate various thicknesses
of metal. The rear roll, also adjustable, gives the
section the desired curve. The top roll pivots up to
permit the cylinder to be removed without danger of
distortion. Grooves are machined in the two bottom
After these two adjustments have been made, the
machine is operated as follows:
1. Scribe a line on the surface of the sheet metal to
show where the bend will be.
2. Raise the upper jaw with the clamping handle
and insert the sheet in the brake, bringing the scribed
line into position even with the front edge of the upper
3. Clamp the sheet in position. Ensure that the
scribed line is even with the front edge of the upper jaw.
The locking motion will occasionally shift the
4. Once you are satisfied that the metal is clamped
correctly, the next step is to lift the bending leaf to the
required angle to form the bend. If you are bending soft
and/or ductile metal, such as copper, the bend will be
formed to the exact angle you raised the bending leaf.
If you are bending metal that has any spring to it, you
will have to raise the bending leaf a few degrees more
to compensate for the spring in the metal. The exact
amount of spring that you will have to allow for depends
on the type of metal you are working with.
5. Release the clamping handle and remove the
sheet from the brake.
The brake is equipped with a stop gauge,
consisting of a rod, a yoke, and a setscrew. You use
this to stop the bending leaf at a required angle. This
Figure 2-37.—Finger brake.
Figure 2-38.—Slip roll forming machine.
Figure 2-40.—Combination rotary machine with extra
forming rolls.
Figure 2-39.—Forming cylinders on rolling forms.
rolls for the purpose of accommodating a wired edge
when forming a section with this type edge or for
rolling wire into a ring.
Preparing sheet metal for a wired edge, turning a burr,
beading, and crimping are probably the most difficult
of sheet-metal forming operations to perform. When
production dictates, large shops will have a machine
for each operation. However, a COMBINATION
ROTARY MACHINE (fig. 2-40) with a selection of
rolls will prove acceptable for most shop uses.
Wiring an Edge.—The wire edge must be applied
to tapered shapes after they are formed. This is
accomplished by turning the edge on the rotary
machine. Gradually, lower the upper roll until the
groove is large enough for the wire. The edge is
pressed around the wire with the rotary machine (fig.
The wire edge can be finished by hand if a rotary
machine is not available. The edge is formed on the
Figure 2-41.—Turning a wire edge with a rotary machine.
bar folder and forced into place around the wire with
a setting hammer or pliers (fig. 2-42).
Turning a Burr.— A BURR, in sheet-metal
language, is a narrow flange turned on the circular
section at the end of a cylinder (fig. 2-43). Before you
cut the section, remember that additional material
must be added to the basic dimensions of the object
for the burr. Figure 2-44 shows how to calculate the
additional material.
After the rotary machine has been adjusted to turn
the proper size burr, the work is placed in position and
the upper roll lowered. Make one complete revolution
of the piece, scoring the edge lightly. Lower the upper
roll a bit more, creating more pressure, and make
another turn. Continue this operation, raising the disc
slightly after each turn until the burr is turned to the
required angle (fig. 2-45).
This procedure is also used to turn the burr on the
bottom of the cylinder for a double seam (fig. 2-46).
The two pieces are snapped together, the burr set
down, and the seam completed (fig. 2-47).
Figure 2-44.—Calculating the material needed for a double
NOTE: Because turning a burr is a difficult
operation, you should turn several practice pieces to
Figure 2-45.—Turning a burred edge.
Figure 2-42.—Setting a wire edge with a setting hammer or
Figure 2-46.—Fitting burred sections together.
develop your skill before turning the burr on the actual
piece to be used.
Figure 2-43.—Burrs turned on a cylindrical section.
Figure 2-47.—Making a double seam on a cylindrical section.
Beading. — BEADING (fig. 2-48) is used to give
added stiffness to cylindrical sheet-metal objects for
decorative purposes, or both. It can be a simple bead
or an ogee (S-shaped) bead. They are made on the
rotary machine using beading rolls.
In sheet-metal development work, some
fabrication or repair jobs can be laid out directly on
sheet metal. This development procedure, known as
SCRATCHING, is used when the object to be made
requires little or no duplication.
Crimping.— CRIMPING (fig. 2-49) reduces the
diameter of a cylindrical shape, allowing it to be
slipped into the next section. This eliminates the need
for making each cylinder with a slight taper.
When a single part is to be produced in quantity,
a different development procedure is used. Instead of
laying out directly on the metal, you will develop a
PATTERN, or TEMPLATE, of the piece to be
fabricated and then transfer the development to the
metal sheet. The second development procedure is
what we are primarily concerned with in this section.
Special attention is given to the three primary
procedures commonly used in developing sheet-metal
patterns. They are parallel line, radial line, and
triangular development. We will also discuss the
fabrication of edges, joints, seams, and notches.
Parallel line development is based upon the fact
that a line that is parallel to another line is an equal
distance horn that line at all points. Objects that have
opposite lines parallel to each other or that have the
same cross-sectional shape throughout their length are
developed by this method
Figure 2-48.—Turning a bead with a rotary machine.
To gain a clear understanding of the parallel line
method, we will develop, step by step, a layout of a
truncated cylinder (fig. 2-50). Such apiece can be used
Figure 2-49.—A crimped section.
Figure 2-50.—Truncated cylinder.
4. Divide the stretch-outline into twice the number
of equal parts equal to each division of the
circumference on the half circle of the orthographic
view (fig. 2-51, view C).
as one half of a two-piece 0degree elbow. This piece
of sheet metal is developed in the following
1. First, draw a front and bottom view by
5. Erect perpendicular lines at each point, as
shown in figure 2-51, view C.
orthographic projection (fig. 2-51, view A).
2. Divide half the circumference of the circle
(fig. 2-51, view A) into a number of equal parts. The
6. Using a T-square edge, project the lengths of the
elements on the front view to the development
(fig. 2-51, View D).
parts should be small enough so that when straight lines
are drawn on the development or layout between
division points, they will approximate the length of the
arc. Project lines from these points to the front view, as
shown in figure 2-51, view B. These resulting parallel
lines of the front view are called ELEMENTS.
7. Using a curve (french or other type), join the
resulting points of intersection in a smooth curve.
When the development is finished, add necessary
allowances for warns and joints, then cut out your
3. Lay off the base line, called the
STRETCH-OUT LINE, of the development to the right
of the front view, as shown in figure 2-51, view C.
The radial line method of pattern development is
used to develop patterns of objects that have a tapering
form with lines converging at a common center.
The radial line method is similar in some respects
to the parallel line method. Evenly spaced reference
lines are necessary in both of these methods. But, in
parallel line development, the reference lines are
parallel—like a picket fence. In radial line
development, the reference lines radiate from the
APEX of a cone—like the spokes of a wheel.
The reference lines in parallel line development
project horizontally. In radial line development, the
reference lines are transferred from the front view to
the development with the dividers.
Developing a pattern for the frustum of a right
cone is a typical practice project that will help you get
the feel of the radial line method. You are familiar with
the shape of a cone. A right cone is one that, if set
big-side-down on a flat surface, would stand straight
up. In other words, a centerline drawn from the point,
or vertex, to the base line would form right angles with
that line. The frustum of a cone is that part that remains
after the point, or top, has been removed.
The procedure for developing a frustum of a right
cone is given below. Check each step of the procedure
against the development shown in figure 2-52.
1. Draw a cone ABC with line ED cutting the cone
in such a way that line ED is parallel to the base line
BC. EDCB is called a frustum.
2. With center O and radius OB, draw the
half-plan beneath the base line BC. Divide the
Figure 2-51.—Development of a truncated cylinder.
triangles as in radial Line development. However, there
is no one single apex for the triangles. The problem
becomes one of finding the true lengths of the varying
oblique lines. This is usually done by drawing a true,
length diagram.
half-plan into an equal number of parts and number
them as shown.
3. With vertex A as a center and with dividers, set
a distance equal to AC and draw an arc for the
stretch-out of the bottom of the cone.
An example of layout using triangulation is the
development of a transition piece.
4. Set the dividers equal to the distance of the
step-offs on the half-plan and step off twice as many
spaces on the arcs as on the half-plan; number the
step-offs 1 to 7 to 1, as shown in the illustration (fig.
The steps in the triangulation of a warped
transition piece joining a large, square duct and a
small, round duct are shown in figure 2-53. The steps
are as follows:
5. Draw lines connecting A with point 1 at each
end of the stretch-out. This arc, from 1 to 7 to 1, is equal
in length to the circumference of the bottom of the cone.
1. Draw the top and front orthographic views
(view A, fig. 2-53).
6. Now, using A for a center, set your dividers
along line AC to the length of AD. Scribe an arc through
both of the lines drawn from A to 1.
2. Divide the circle in the top view into a number
of equal spaces and connect the division points with AD
(taken from the top part of view D, fig. 2-53) from point
A. This completes one fourth of the development. Since
the piece is symmetrical, the remainder of the
development may be constructed using the lengths from
the first part.
The area enclosed between the large and small arcs
and the number 1 line is the pattern for the frustum of
a cone. Add allowance for seaming and edging and
your stretch-out is complete.
It is difficult to keep the entire development
perfectly symmetrical when it is built up from small
triangles. Therefore, you may check the overall
symmetry by constructing perpendicular bisectors
of AB, BC, CD, and DA (view E, fig. 2-53) and
converging at point O. From point O, swing arcs a
and b. Arc a should pass through the numbered
points, and arc b should pass through the lettered
Triangulation is slower and more difficult than
parallel line or radial line development, but it is more
practical for many types of figures. Additionally, it is
the only method by which the developments of warped
surfaces may be estimated. In development by
triangulation, the piece is divided into a series of
There are numerous types of edges, joints, seams,
and notches used to join sheet-metal work. We will
discuss those that are most often used.
Edges are formed to enhance the appearance of the
work, to strengthen the piece, and to eliminate the
cutting hazard of the raw edge. The kind of edge that
you use on any job will be determined by the purpose,
by the sire, and by the strength of the edge needed.
The SINGLE-HEM EDGE is shown in figure
2-54. This edge can be made in any width. In general,
the heavier the metal, the wider the hem is made. The
allowance for the hem is equal to its width (W in fig.
Figure 2-52.—Radial line development of a frustum of a cone.
Figure 2-53.—Traingular development of a transition piece.
The DOUBLE-HEM EDGE (fig. 2-55) is used
when added strength is needed and when a smooth
edge is required inside as well as outside. The
allowance for the double-hem edge is twice the width
of the hem.
Figure 2-55.—Double-hem edge
A WIRE EDGE (fig. 2-56) is often specified in the
plans, Objects, such as ice-cube trays, funnels,
garbage pails, and other articles, formed from sheet
metal are fabricated with wire edges to strengthen and
Figure 2-54.—Single-hem edge.
stiffen the jobs and to eliminate sharp edges, The
Figure 2-56.—Development of a truncated cylinder.
Figure 2-57.—Making a grooved seam joint.
allowance for a wire edge is 2 1/2 times the diameter
of the wire used As an example, you are using wire
that has a diameter of 1/8 inch. Multiply 1/8 by 2 1/2
and your answer will be 5/16 inch, which you will
allow when laying out sheet metal for making the wire
The GROOVED SEAM JOINT (fig. 2-57) is one
of the most widely used methods for joining light- and
medium-gauge sheet metal. It consists of two folded
edges that are locked together with a HAND
GROOVER (fig. 2-58).
Figure 2-58.—Hand groover.
When making a grooved seam on a cylinder, you
fit the piece over a stake and lock it with the hand
groover (fig. 2-59). The hand groover should be
approximately 1/16 inch wider than the seam. Lock
the seam by making prick punch indentions about
1/2 inch in from each end of the seam.
The CAP STRIP SEAM (fig. 2-60, view A) is
often used to assemble air-conditioning and heating
ducts. A variation of the joint, the LOCKED CORNER
SEAM (fig. 2-60, view B), is widely accepted for the
assembly of rectangular shapes.
Figure 2-59.—Locking a grooved seam with a hand groover.
Figure 2-60.—(A) Cap strip seam, (B) Locked corner seam
A DRIVE SLIP JOINT is a method of joining two
flat sections of metal. Figure 2-61 is the pattern for the
drive slip. End notching and dimensions vary with
application and area practice on all locks, seams, and
“S” joints are used to join two flat surfaces of
metal. Primarily these are used to join sections of
rectangular duct. These are also used to join panels in
air housings and columns.
Figure 2-62 shows a flat “S” joint. View A is a
pattern for the “S” cleat. View B is a perspective view
of the two pieces of metal that form the flat “S” joint.
In view C, note the end view of the finished “S” joint.
Figure 2-63.—Double “S’ joint (cleat) pattern.
the simple flat “S” and it does not require an overlap
of metals being joined.
Figure 2-63 shows a double “S” joint. View B is
the pattern for the double “S” cleat. View A is one of
two pieces of metal to be joined. Note the cross section
of a partially formed cleat and also the cross section
of the finished double “S” joint. his is a variation of
Figure 2-64 shows a standing “S” joint. View B is
the pattern for the standing “S” cleat. View A is one of
the two pieces of metal to be joined. Note the cross
section of the finished standing “S” cleat and standing
“S” joint.
Many kinds of seams are used to join sheet-metal
sections. Several of the commonly used seams are
shown in figure 2-65. When developing the pattern,
ensure you add adequate material to the basic
dimensions to make the seams. The folds can be made
by hand; however, they are made much more easily on
a bar folder or brake. The joints can be finished by
soldering and/or riveting.
When developing sheet-metal patterns, ensure
you add sufficient material to the base dimensions to
make the seams. Several types of seams used to join
sheet-metal sections are discussed in this section.
Figure 2-61.—Drive slip pattern and connections
There are three types of lap seams: the PLAIN
LAP seam, the OFFSET LAP seam, and the CORNER
LAP seam (fig. 2-66). Lap seams can be joined by
drilling and riveting, by soldering, or by both riveting
and soldering. To figure the allowance for a lap seam,
you must first know the diameter of the rivet that you
plan to use. The center of the rivet must be set in from
the edge a distance of 2 1/2 times its diameter;
therefore, the allowance must be five times the
diameter of the rivet that you are using. Figure 2-67
shows the procedure for laying out a plain lap and a
comer lap for seaming with rivets (d represents the
diameter of the rivets). For comer seams, allow an
additional one sixteenth of an inch for clearance.
Figure 2-62.—“S” joint or slip pattern and connections.
Figure 2-64.—Standing “S” cleat pattern.
Figure 2-65.—Common sheet-metal seams.
Figure 2-66.—Lap seams
Figure 2-68.—Grooved seams
Figure 2-67.—Layout of lap seams for riveting.
GROOVED SEAMS are useful in the fabrication
of cylindrical shapes. There are two types of grooved
seams-the outside grooved seam and the inside
grooved seam (fig. 2-68). The allowance for a grooved
seam is three times the width (W in fig. 2-68) of the
lock, one half of this amount being added to each edge.
For example, if you are to have a 1/4-inch grooved
seam, 3 x 1/4 = 3/4 inch, or the total allowance; 1/2 of
3/4 inch = 3/8 inch, or the allowance that you are to
add to each edge.
Figure 2-69.—Pittsburgh lock seam.
consists of only two pieces. The two parts are the
flanged, or single, edge and the pocket that forms the
lock The pocket is formed when the flanged edge is
inserted into the pocket, and the extended edge is
turned over the inserted edge to complete the lock. The
method of assembling and locking a Pittsburgh seam
is shown in figures 2-70 and 2-71.
The PITTSBURGH LOCK SEAM (fig. 2-69) is a
comer lock seam. Figure 2-69 shows a cross section
of the two pieces of metal to be joined and a cross
section of the finished seam. This seam is used as a
lengthwise seam at comers of square and rectangular
pipes and elbows as well as fittings and ducts. This
seam can be made in a brake but it has proved to be so
universal in use that special forming machines have
been designed and are available. It appears to be quite
complicated, but like lap and grooved seams, it
The allowance for the pocket is W + W + 3/16
inch. W is the width or depth of the pocket. The width
of the flanged edge must be less than W. For example,
if you are laying out a 1/4-inch Pittsburgh leek seam
(fig. 2-72), your total allowance should be 1/4 + 1/4 +
3/16 inch, or 11/16 inch for the edge on which you are
laying out the pocket and 3/16 inch on the flanged
Figure 2-71.—Closing a Pittsburgh lock seam
Figure 2-70.—Assembly of a Pittsburgh lock seam
Figure 2-72.—Layout of a 1/4-inch Pittsburgh lock seam.
STANDING SEAMS are used for joining metals
where extra stiffness is needed, such as roofs, air
housing, ducts, and so forth. Figure 2-73 is a cross
section of the finished standing seam. Dimensions and
rivet spacing will vary with application.
Standing seams used when stiffening is required
are as follows: The SPREADER DRIVE CAP, the
2-74) are seams frequently used in large duct
construction where stiffeners are required.
Figure 2-73.—Cross section of a standing seam.
The DOVETAIL SEAM is used mainly to join a
round pipe/fitting to a flat sheet or duct. This seam can
be made watertight by soldering. Figure 2-75 shows
the pattern for forming a dovetail seam and an example
of its use.
a job. Before you can mark a notch, you will have to
lay out the pattern and add the seams, the laps, or the
stiffening edges. If the patterns are not properly
notched, you will have trouble when you start
forming, assembling, and finishing the job.
No definite rule for selecting a notch for a job can
be given. But as soon as you can visualize the
assembly of the job, you will not have any trouble
determining the shape and size of the notch required
Notching is the last but not the least important step
to be considered when you are getting ready to lay out
Figure 2-74.—Miscellaneous seam.
Figure 2-75.—Dovetai1 lock seam
for the job. If the notch is made too large, a hole will
be left in the finished job. If the notch is too small or
not the proper shape, the metal will overlap and bulge
at the seam or edge. Do not concern yourself too much
if your first notches do not come out as you
expected—practice and experience will dictate size
and shape.
A SQUARE NOTCH (fig. 2-76) is likely the first
you will make. It is the kind you make in your layout
of a box or drip pan and is used to eliminate surplus
material This type of notch will result in butt comers.
Take a look around the shop to see just how many
different kinds of notches you can see in the
sheet-metal shapes.
Figure 2-78.—V notch.
SLANT NOTCHES are cut at a 45-degree angle
across the comer when a single hem is to meet at a
90-degree angle. Figure 2-77 shows the steps in
forming a slant notch.
Figure 2-79.—Modified V notch.
A WIRE NOTCH is a notch used with a wire edge.
Its depth from the edge of the pattern will be one wire
diameter more than the depth of the allowance for the
wire edge (2 1/2 d), or in other words, 3 1/2 times the
diameter of the wire (3 1/2 d). Its width is equal to 1
1/2 times the width of the seam (1 1/2 w). That portion
of the notch next to the wire edge will be straight. The
shape of the notch on the seam will depend on the type
of seam used, which, in figure 2-80, is 45 degrees for
a grooved seam.
A V NOTCH is used for seaming ends of boxes.
You will also use a full V notch when you have to
construct a bracket with a toed-in flange or for similar
construction. The full V is shown in figure 2-78.
When you are making an inside flange on an angle
of less than 90 degrees, you will have to use a
modification of the full V notch to get flush joints. The
angle of the notch will depend upon the bend angle. A
modified V notch is shown in figure 2-79.
Most of your work will require more than one type
of notch, as shown in figure 2-80, where a wire notch
was used in the forming of a cylindrical shape joined
by a grooved seam. In such a layout, you will have to
notch for the wire edge and seam.
After the sheet metal has been cut and formed, it
has to be joined together. Most sheet-metal seams are
locked or riveted but some will be joined by torch
brazing or soldering. Lock seams are made primarily
by the forming processes that have already been given.
Figure 2-76.—Square notch.
Figure 2-80.—Wire notch in a cylindrical layout.
Figure 2-77.—Slant notch.
Torch brazing and soldering are discussed in
Steelworker, volume 1, chapter 6. This section deals
only with joining sheet-metal seams by either metal
screws or rivets.
Figure 2-83.—Drive screws.
Different types of metal screws are available for
sheet-metal work. The most common type in use is the
MACHINE SCREW. Machine screws are normally
made of brass or steel. They will have either a flathead
or a roundhead and are identified by their number size,
threads per inch, and length; for example, a 6 by 32 by
1 inch screw indicates a number 6 screw with
32 threads per inch and 1 inch in length.
DRIVE SCREWS (fig. 2-83) are simply
hammered into a drilled or punched hole of the proper
size to make a permanent fastening.
Rivets are available in many different materials,
sizes, and types. Rivets, made of steel, copper, brass,
and aluminum, are widely used. Rivets should be the
same material as the sheet metal that they join.
another common type of screw. Most screws of this
type will be galvanized and are identified by their
number size and length. These screws form a thread
as they are driven (fig. 2-81), as the name implies.
TINNERS’ RIVETS of the kind shown in figure
2-84 are used in sheet-metal work more than any other
type of rivet. Tinners’ rivets vary in size from the
8-ounce rivet to the 16-pound rivet. This size
designation signifies the weight of 1,000 rivets. If
1,000 rivets weigh 8 ounces, each rivet is called an
8-ounce rivet. As the weight per 1,000 rivets increases,
the diameter and length of the rivets also increase. For
example, the 8-ounce rivet has a diameter of 0.089
inch and a length of 5/32 inch, while the 12-pound
rivet has a diameter of 0.259 inch and a length of 1/2
inch. For special jobs that require fastening several
layers of metal together, special rivets with extra, long
shanks are used. Table 2-1 is a guide for selecting
rivets of the proper size for sheet-metal work.
different from self-tapping screws in that they actually
cut threads in the metal. They are hardened and are used
to fasten nonferrous metals and join heavy gauge sheet
Figure 2-81.—Self-tapping sheet-metal screws
Figure 2-84.—Tinners’ rivets.
Table 2-1.—Guide for Selecting Rivet Size for Sheet-Metal
Figure 2-82.—Thread-cutttng screws.
After you have determined the size and spacing of
the rivets, mark the location of the centers of the rivet
holes. Then make the holes by punching or by drilling.
If the holes are located near the edge of the sheet, a
hand punch, similar to the one shown in figure 2-85,
can be used to punch the holes. If the holes are farther
away from the edge, you can use a deep-threaded
punch (either hand operated or power driven) or you
can drill the holes. The hole must be slightly larger
than the diameter of the rivet to provide a slight
When you are joining sheet metal that is greater than
two thicknesses, remember that the shank of the rivet
should extend 1 1/2 times the diameter of the rivet.
This will give you adequate metal to form the head.
Rivet spacing is given on the blueprint or drawing
you are working from. If the spacing is not given,
space the rivets according to the service conditions the
seam must withstand. For example, if the seam must
be watertight, you will need more rivets per inch than
is required for a seam that does not have to be
watertight. No matter how far apart the rivets are, there
must be a distance of 2 1/2 times the rivet diameter
between the rivets and the edge of the sheet. This
distance is measured from the center of the rivet holes
to the edge of the sheet.
Riveting involves three operations-drawing,
upsetting, and heading (fig. 2-86). A rivet set and a
riveting hammer are used to perform these operations.
The method for riveting sheet metal follows:
1. Select a rivet set that has a hole slightly larger
than the diameter of the rivet.
2. Insert the rivets in the holes and rest the sheets
to be joined on a stake or on a solid bench top with the
rivet heads against the stake or bench top.
3. Draw the sheets together by placing the
deep hole of the rivet set over the rivet and striking
the head of the set with a riveting hammer. Use a
light hammer for small rivets, a heavier hammer
for larger rivets.
4. When the sheets have been properly drawn
together, remove the rivet set. Strike the end of the rivet
LIGHTLY with the riveting hammer to upset the end of
the rivet. Do not strike too hard a blow, as this would
distort the metal around the rivet hole.
5. Place the heading die (dished part) of the
rivet set over the upset end of the rivet and form
the head. One or two hammer blows on the head of
the rivet set will be enough to form the head on the
Figure 2-85.—Hand punch.
Figure 2-86.—Drawing, upsetting, and heading a rivet.
Pop rivets provide simplicity and versatility. ‘hey
are simple and easy to use in complicated installations.
Expensive equipment or skilled operators are not
required. Just drill a hole, insert, and set the pop rivet
from the same side, and high riveting quality and
strength are easily and quickly accomplished.
Two basic designs of pop rivets are used: closed
end and open end. The closed-end type fills the need
for blind rivets that seal as they are set. They are
gastight and liquidtight, and like the open-end type,
they are installed and set from the same side. As the
rivet sets, a high degree of radial expansion is
generated in the rivet body, providing effective
hole-filing qualities.
Figure 2-87.—Correct and incorrect riveting.
A correctly drawn, upset, and headed rivet is
shown in the top part of figure 2-87. The lower part of
this figure shows the results of incorrect riveting.
An addition to sheet-metal rivets are the pop
rivets shown in figure 2-88. These pop rivets are
high-strength, precision-made, hollow rivets
assembled on a solid mandrel that forms an integral
The open-end type of pop rivet resembles a hollow
rivet from the outside. Because the mandrel head stays
in the rivet body, the mandrel stem seals to a certain
degree, but it is not liquidtight.
part of the rivet. They are especially useful for blind
fastening-where there is limited or no access to the
reverse side of the work.
Figure 2-89 shows two of the tools used for setting
the pop rivets. These tools are lightweight and very
easily used. For example, when using the small hand
tool, you need only to insert the mandrel of the rivet
in the nosepiece, squeeze the handle (usually three
times), and the rivet is set. To operate the scissors-type
tool, fully extend the lever linkage or gatelike
mechanism and insert the rivet mandrel into the
nosepiece of the tool. Insert the rivet into the piece
being riveted. Apply firm pressure to the tool,
ensuring that the nosepiece remains in close contact
with the rivet head. Closing the lever linkage retracts
the gripping mechanism, which withdraws the
mandrel. The rivet is set when the mandrel head
Figure 2-88.—Pop rivets.
Figure 2-89.—Pop rivet toots.
Before inserting another rivet in the tool, be sure
that the broken mandrel has been ejected from the tool.
This can be done by fully extending the lever linkage
and allowing the mandrel to fall clear.
Figure 2-91 shows the patterns for constructing a
lapped and riveted comer seam. View A is the pattern
for one piece and view B is the other. Note the cross
section through the completed seam.
The scissors or expandable type of tool is unique
because it can reach hard-to-get-at areas and can set
the rivets with ease. This tool is particular] y useful for
installing ventilation ducting.
Frequent use is made of lapped and riveted seams
in joining round pipe sections.
With the advent of high-tech equipment, such as
computers and other specialized electronic
equipment, air-conditioning systems are incorporated
more than ever into many Naval Construction Force
(NCF) construction projects. Many of the structures
are designed for long-life usage instead of temporary
buildings with a short time use. There are also some
advanced base functional components (ABFC) which
incorporate heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning
systems (HVAC) within the facility design.
Riveted seams are used for joining metals and
have numerous applications.
Figure 2-90 shows the pattern of one of two pieces
to be joined by lap and rivet. Note the cross section of
the finished seam.
HVAC systems require close coordination
between ratings. Air conditioning, air handling, and
heating units are normally installed by an
Utilitiesman, and the electrical connections are
accomplished by a Construction Electrician. These
items must be installed before the ductwork
installation phase begins. The Steelworker must also
coordinate with the Builder assigned to the project to
ensure that all openings in walls and floors are
sufficient to accommodate ducts, diffusers, and vents.
Sheet-metal HVAC systems require knowledgeable
workers to fabricate and install the various ducts and
Figure 2-90.—Pattern for riveted lap seam.
Figure 2-91.—Riveted seam for tapped and riveted corner seam.
fittings needed in a complete heating, ventilating, and
air-conditioning system. The Steelworker must be
very versatile because the most difficult part of
sheet-metal work is the installation of a product that
has been built in a shop and is installed on a site at a
later time.
Metal sheets, wire, band iron, and angle iron are
the most widely used materials in sheet-metal
fabrication. The types of metal sheets are plain, flat
sheets and ribbed sheets or corrugated sheets. The
sheets are made of such materials as black iron,
galvanized iron, tin plate, copper, aluminum, stainless
steel, or Monel. Galvanized and black iron sheets are
the most commonly used material in sheet-metal
All of the variables and problems that occur
during the installation process cannot be covered here;
however, this section will cover some of the different
hanging and connecting systems used by the
sheet-metal worker. The type of connecting system
used depends upon where the duct system is installed,
its size, how many obstructions there are, and also,
what type of structure the system is hanging from or
connected to.
The thickness of a sheet is designated by a series
of numbers called gauges. Iron and steel sheets are
designated by the U.S. standard gauge which is the
accepted standard in the United States.
The small sheet metal shops in the NCF or in a
Public Works Department are normally tasked with
single fabrication jobs for an NCF project or small
repair projects. These shops usually employ a small
number of Steelworkers as part of a multi-shop
environment. The senior Steelworker assigned to a
shop is tasked with the plan development and
estimating of materials. The layout Steelworker makes
up most of the fittings in the shop and is responsible
for stockpiling patterns and tracings on standard
fittings used for sheet-metal duct systems.
The recommended gauge thicknesses of sheet
metal used in a standard ventilating and
air-conditioning system with normal pressure and
velocities are shown in table 2-2. Where special
rigidity or stiffness is required, ducts should be
constructed of metal two gauges heavier than those
given in the table. All insulated ducts 18 inches or
greater on any flat side should be cross broken, as
shown in figure 2-92. Cross breaking maybe omitted
if the duct is insulated with approved rigid type of
insulation and sheet metal two gauges heavier is used.
NOTE: You should fabricate an entire job at the
shop, rather than deliver an incomplete system to the
The maximum length of any section of ductwork
will not exceed 7 feet 10 inches; this measurement
allows individual sections to be fabricated from an
8-foot sheet of metal with a 2-inch allowance for
connection tabs. If lengths of 7 feet 10 inches are
considered too long for a specific job, it is
recommended that the duct system be constructed
with sections of 3-foot 9-inch multiples.
A shop drawing is a plan view or an elevation view
of a fitting, duct, or other object that is drawn either
by the freehand sketch method or by using drafting
instruments. It maybe useful to get assistance from an
Engineering Aid for complex duct systems or fittings.
One of the better methods is to draw a complete set of
standard fittings and then add the required dimensions
to fit the job.
Many duct systems run into unplanned
obstructions, particularly in renovation work, such as
electrical connections and wiring, structural members,
The dimensions shown on the views of a shop
drawing are finished dimensions. Once the finished
dimensions have been determined, one-half inch must
be added to each end to obtain the raw size of the
pattern. This dimension produces a cut size
dimension. The type of material, gauge number, and
type of seam may be added to the shop drawing if
desired. Usually these are specified on the drawings
and on the pattern sheets.
Figure 2-92.—Cross-broken flat surfaces
Table 2-2.—Recommended Gauges for Sheet-Metal Duct Construction
and piping systems. These obstructions must be
avoided by fabricating the duct system to go around
the obstacles. Do NOT run obstructions through duct
systems because it creates turbulence that reduces the
efficiency of the system. When the obstruction is an
electrical obstruction, you should ensure all power is
off and safety checked. When running the duct
through an obstruction is absolutely unavoidable, the
turbulence can be reduced by enclosing the
obstruction in a streamlined collar (fig. 2-93).
Figure 2-93.—Easement around an obstruction in ducts.
Most duct systems are connected to either a
heating or a cooling system. These systems are
general] y electric motor driven to move air through the
duct system. Therefore, all inlet and outlet duct
connections to all fans or other equipment that may
create vibration should be made with heavy canvas, as
shown in figure 2-94.
The most common method of making connections
between duct sections and fittings is the method of
Figure 2-96.—Placing S slips for S-and-drive connection.
Figure 2-94.—Flexible duct connection.
combining two S slips and two drive slips (fig. 2-95).
S slips are first placed on two opposite edges of one
of the sections or fittings to be joined. These S slips
are applied to the widest dimension of the duct (fig.
2-96). The second section or fitting is then inserted
into the slips, and the two sections are held together
by inserting drive slips along the opposite sides [fig.
2-97). After the drive slips are driven home, they are
locked in place by bending the ends of the drive slip
over the comer of the S slips to close the comer and
leek the drive slips in place (fig. 2-98), completing the
joint shown in figure 2-99.
Figure 2-97.—Inserting drive slips.
Most of the ductwork Steelworkers install,
modify, or repair are in pre-engineered buildings or
repairs to more permanent type of ducting in
buildings, such as barracks and base housing.
The most common installation method is hanging
the duct from purlins or beams in the hidden area of a
Figure 2-98.—Bending drive slips to complete the Joint.
roof or below a ceiling. Figure 2-100 shows one such
system when the duct is running parallel to the
structural member. These systems require that angle
be installed between the beams so that the hanger
straps can be installed on both sides of the duct.
Normally, 2-inch by 2-inch by 1/8-inch angle is
Figure 2-95.—Methods of connecting ducts,
Figure 2-99.—Completed S-and-drive connection.
Figure 2-100.—Duct running parallel to purlins or beams.
all edges, as illustrated in the figure which shows that
the duct system hanging from angle rails and that all
angles be either bolted or tack-welded to purlins or
sufficient. However, if the duct is of a very large size,
a larger angle may be required.
The straps that are used as hangers may be
fabricated from 1/8-inch plate. In a normal
installation, a 1 inch by I/S-inch strap will suffice. All
straps must be connected to the ductwork with
sheet-metal screws. On all government work, it is
required that the screws be placed 1 1/4 inches from
Strap hangers may be hung directly on purlins or
beams when the duct is running transverse] y or across
the purlins or beams, as shown in figure 2-101.
However, the strap hangers must be twisted to turn 90
Figure 2-101.—Strap hangers from purlins.
degrees onto the flange of the beam or purlin. Again,
the standard 7 feet 10 inches maximum span required
between hangers applies. Also, the hanger screws
standard will apply. The hanger span may be shortened
to fit the job requirements.
Throughout the Naval Construction Force (NCF)
fiber-glass duct is becoming common on jobsites. It
has the advantage of added insulating value, ease of
fabrication and handling, as well as installation, and
making it useful where traffic and handling/abuse are
For heavier or larger systems, an installation
similar to that shown in figure 2-102 maybe required.
This system is hung entirely on angle rails and the
straps are fabricated into one-piece units. This system
is by far the neatest looking and is normally used when
the duct system is exposed.
Fiber-glass ducts are manufactured of molded
fiber-glass sheets covered with a thin film coating of
aluminum, although thin vinyl or plastic coatings are
sometimes used. In the NCF, we are primarily
concerned with aluminum coated duct. Because it is
fabricated of glass fibers, it is inherently insulated;
therefore, it is used where insulation is a requirement.
Installing a duct system under a built-up steel roof
(fig. 2-103) is accomplished by hanging the duct
system with all-thread bolts and 2-inch by 2-inch by
1/8-inch angles. The all-thread bolt protrudes through
the steel decking and is bolted from the top with a large
washer and bolt, which extends down alongside the
duct into the 2-inch by 2-inch angles which is also
bolted from under the angle. This system allows for
adjustment of height. Also notice that the all-the ad
bolt extends into the top flat of the apex of the steel
roof decking. This is required because connecting the
all-thread bolt to the bottom valley of the steel deck
will reduce the structural strength of the decking and
may also cause water leaks.
Fiber-glass ducts can be molded into various
shapes for special applications. The desired shapes can
be ordered from the manufacturer’s stock In the NCF,
for all but special purposes, the duct is supplied in the
flat form of a board that has V grooves cut into the
inner surfaces to allow folding to fabricate rectangular
sections (fig. 2-104, view A). The ends of the board is
molded so when a rectangular/square duct is formed
two sections of the same size will fit together in a
shiplap joint (fig. 2-104, view C). This joint ensures a
tight connection coupled with a positive alignment.
Figure 2-102.—Duct system with strap hangers from angle rails transverse to purlti
Figure 2-103.—Duct installed to a built-up steel roof.
Figure 2-104.—Fabricating rectangular/square fiber-glass duct from duct board.
Of extreme importance is the selection of the
inside diameter of the duct is the determining
proper board size to fabricate the duct before
factor of the board size. Use table 2-3 to determine
cutting and grooving. In all applications the
board size.
Table 2-3.—Duct Board Length Selection Chart
1. Sheet metal can cause serious cuts. Handle it
with care. Wear steel reinforced gloves whenever
NOTE: Within a heating system, the use of
fiber-class duct is restricted by the adhesive
used to affix the protective outer coating to the
fiber glass. Check the specifications and ensure
that it will not fail when exposed to heat over
250 degrees.
2. Treat every cut immediately, no matter how
3. Remove all burrs from the metal sheet before
attempting to work on it further.
4. Use a brush to clean the work area. NEVER
To fabricate a rectangular/square duct, you must
first measure the duct board accurately. Next, the
grooves must be cut. Ensure they are at the proper
locations and cut straight because this allows the board
to be folded to create the desired rectangular/square
shape. When cutting the board, you will need to leave
an overlapping tab that is pulled tight and stapled (fig.
2-104, view A). Tape is then applied and the joint is
heat-sealed (fig. 2-104, view B). Joints between
sections are fabricated by pulling the shiplap end
sections together and finished by stapling, taping, and
heat sealing the joint (fig. 2-104, view C).
brush metal with your hands.
5. Use tools that are sharp.
6. Keep your hands clear of the blade on all
squaring shears.
7. A serious and painful foot injury will result if
your foot is under the foot pedal of the squaring shears
when a cut is made.
8. Do not run your hands over the surface of sheet
metal that has just been cut or drilled. Painful cuts can
be received from the burrs.
9. Get help when large pieces of sheet metal are
The very nature of fiber-glass duct requires that it
be supported with 1-inch by 1/16-inch galvanized
steel strap hangers. These must be supplied or
fabricated to fit the duct precisely whether the duct be
rectangular/square or round. Rectangular/square ducts
up to 24 inches (span) can be supported on 8-foot
centers. Ducts larger than 24 inches must be supported
on 4-foot centers. For round ducts the supports must
not be less than 6-foot centers.
being cut. Keep your helper well clear of the shears
when you are making the cut.
10. Keep your hands and fingers clear of the rotating
parts on forming machines.
11. Place scrap pieces of sheet metal in the scrap
12. Always remember to keep a clean shop. GOOD
HOUSEKEEPING is the key to a safe shop.
13. Do not use tools that are not in first-class
Some of the safety precautions applicable to
sheet-metal tools and equipment have been mentioned
throughout this chapter. Here are a few additional
precautions that should be carefully observed when
you are working with sheet metal.
condition-hammer heads loose on the handle, chisels
with mushroomed heads, power tools with guards
removed, and so forth.
14. Wear goggles when in the shop.
Structural steel is one of the basic materials used
in the construction of frames for most industrial
Your work will require the use of various
structural members made up of standard structural
shapes manufactured in a wide variety of shapes of
cross sections and sizes. Figure 3-1 shows many of
these various shapes. The three most common types
of structural members are the W-shape (wide flange),
the S-shape (American Standard I-beam), and the
C-shape (American Standard channel). These three
types are identified by the nominal depth, in inches,
along the web and the weight per foot of length, in
pounds. As an example, a W 12 x 27 indicates a
W-shape (wide flange) with a web 12 inches deep and
a weight of 27 pounds per linear foot. Figure 3-2
shows the cross-sectional views of the W-, S-, and
C-shapes. The difference between the W-shape and
buildings, bridges, and advanced base structures.
Therefore, you, as a Seabee Steelworker, must have a
thorough knowledge of various steel structural
members. Additionally, it is necessary before any
structural steel is fabricated or erected, a plan of action
and sequence of events be set up. The plans,
sequences, and required materials are predetermined
by the engineering section of a unit and are then drawn
up as a set of blueprints. This chapter describes the
terminology applied to structural steel members, the
use of these members, the methods by which they are
connected, and the basic sequence of events which
occurs during erection.
Figure 3-1.—Structural shapes and designations.
An ANGLE is a structural shape whose cross
section resembles the letter L. Two types, as illustrated
in figure 3-3, are commonly used: an equal-leg angle
and an unequal-leg angle. The angle is identified by
the dimension and thickness of its legs; for example,
angle 6 inches x 4 inches x 1/2 inch. The dimension
of the legs should be obtained by measuring along the
outside of the backs of the legs. When an angle has
unequal legs, the dimension of the wider leg is given
first, as in the example just cited. The third dimension
applies to the thickness of the legs, which al ways have
equal thickness. Angles may be used in combinations
of two or four to form main members. A single angle
may also be used to connect main parts together.
Figure 3-2.—Structural shapes.
Steel PLATE is a structural shape whose cross
section is in the form of a flat rectangle. Generally, a
main point to remember about plate is that it has a
width of greater than 8 inches and a thickness of 1/4
inch or greater.
the S-shape is in the design of the inner surfaces of the
flange. The W-shape has parallel inner and outer
flange surfaces with a constant thickness, while the
S-shape has a slope of approximately 17’ on the inner
flange surfaces. The C-shape is similar to the S-shape
in that its inner flange surface is also sloped
approximately 17’.
Plates are generally used as connections between
other structural members or as component parts of
built-up structural members. Plates cut to specific
sizes may be obtained in widths ranging from 8 inches
to 120 inches or more, and in various thicknesses. The
edges of these plates may be cut by shears (sheared
plates) or be rolled square (universal mill plates).
The W-SHAPE is a structural member whose
cross section forms the letter H and is the most widely
used structural member. It is designed so that its
flanges provide strength in a horizontal plane, while
the web gives strength in a vertical plane. W-shapes
are used as beams, columns, truss members, and in
other load-bearing applications.
Plates frequently are referred to by their thickness
and width in inches, as plate 1/2 inch x 24 inches. The
length in all cases is given in inches. Note in figure 3-4
that 1 cubic foot of steel weighs 490 pounds. his
weight divided by 12 gives you 40.8, which is the
weight (in pounds) of a steel plate 1 foot square and 1
inch thick The fractional portion is normally dropped
and 1-inch plate is called a 40-pound plate. In practice,
you may hear plate referred to by its approximate
weight per square foot for a specified thickness. An
example is 20-pound plate, which indicates a 1/2-inch
plate. (See figure 3-4.)
The BEARING PILE (HP-shape) is almost
identical to the W-shape. The only difference is that
the flange thickness and web thickness of the bearing
pile are equal, whereas the W-shape has different web
and flange thicknesses.
The S-SHAPE (American Standard I-beam) is
distinguished by its cross section being shaped like the
letter I. S-shapes are used less frequently than
W-shapes since the S-shapes possess less strength and
are less adaptable than W-shapes.
The designations generally used for flat steel have
been established by the American Iron and Steel
Institute (AISI). Flat steel is designated as bar, strip,
The C-SHAPE (American Standard channel) has
a cross section somewhat similar to the letter C. It is
especially useful in locations where a single flat face
without outstanding flanges on one side is required.
The C-shape is not very efficient for a beam or column
when used alone. However, efficient built-up
members may be constructed of channels assembled
together with other structural shapes and connected by
rivets or welds.
Figure 3-3.—Angles.
Figure 3-5.—Bars.
Figure 3-4.—Weight and thickness of steel plate.
somewhat, depending on the type of structure being
sheet, or plate, according to the thickness of the
material, the width of the material, and (to some
extent) the rolling process to which it was subjected.
Table 3-1 shows the designations usually used for
hot-rolled carbon steels. These terms are somewhat
flexible and in some cases may overlap.
Anchor bolts (fig. 3-6) are cast into the concrete
foundation. They are designed to hold the column
bearing plates, which are the first members of a steel
frame placed into position. These anchor bolts must
be positioned very carefully so that the bearing plates
will be lined up accurately.
The structural shape referred to as a BAR has a
width of 8 inches or less and a thickness greater than
3/16 of an inch. The edges of bars usually are rolled
square, like universal mill plates. The dimensions are
expressed in a similar manner as that for plates; for
instance, bar 6 inches x 1/2 inch. Bars are available in
a variety of cross-sectional shapes—round,
hexagonal, octagonal, square, and flat. Three different
shapes are illustrated in figure 3-5. Both squares and
rounds are commonly used as bracing members of
light structures. Their dimensions, in inches, apply to
the side of the square or the diameter of the round.
The column bearing plates are steel plates of
various thicknesses in which holes have been either
drilled or cut with an oxygas torch to receive the
Now that you have been introduced to the various
structural members used in steel construction, let us
develop a theoretical building frame from where you,
the Steelworker, would start on a project after all the
earthwork and footings or slab have been completed.
Remember this sequence is theoretical and may vary
Figure 3-6.—Anchor bolts.
Table 3-1.—Plate, Bar, Strip, and Sheet designation
anchor bolts (fig. 3-7). The holes should be slightly
larger than the bolts so that some lateral adjustment of
the bearing plate is possible. The angle connections,
by which the columns are attached to the bearing
plates, are bolted or welded in place according to the
size of the column, as shown in figure 3-8.
After the bearing plate has been placed into
position, shim packs are set under the four comers of
each bearing plate as each is installed over the anchor
bolts, as shown in figure 3-9. ‘The shim packs are 3- to
4-inch metal squares of a thickness ranging from 1 1/6
to 3/4 inch, which are used to bring all the bearing
Figure 3-9.—Leveled bearing plate.
plates to the correct level and to level each bearing
plate on its own base.
The bearing plates are first leveled individually by
adjusting the thickness of the shim packs. This
operation may be accomplished by using a 2-foot level
around the top of the bearing plate perimeter and
diagonally across the bearing plate.
Upon completion of the leveling operation, all
bearing plates must be brought either up to or down to
the grade level required by the structure being erected
All bearing plates must be lined up in all directions
with each other. This may be accomplished by using
a surveying instrument called a builder’s level. String
lines may be set up along the edges and tops of the
bearing plates by spanning the bearing plates around
the perimeter of the structure, making a grid network
of string lines connecting all the bearing plates.
Figure 3-7.—Column bearing plate.
After all the bearing plates have been set and
aligned, the space between the bearing plate and the
top of the concrete footing or slab must be filled with
a hard, nonshrinking, compact substance called
GROUT. (See fig. 3-9.) When the grout has hardened
the next step is the erection of the columns.
Wide flange members, as nearly square in cross
section as possible, are most often used for columns.
Large diameter pipe is also used frequentl y (fig. 3-10),
even though pipe columns often present connecting
difficulties when you are attaching other members.
Columns may also be fabricated by welding or bolting
a number of other rolled shapes, usually angles and
plates, as shown in figure 3-11.
If the structure is more than one story high, it may
be necessary to splice one column member on top of
another. If this is required, column lengths should be
Figure 3-8.—Typical column to baseplate connections.
Figure 3-12.—Column splice with no size change.
Figure 3-10.—Girder span on pipe columns.
Figure 3-11.—Built-up column section.
such that the joints or splices are 1 1/2 to 2 feet above
the second and succeeding story levels. This will
ensure that the splice connections are situated well
above the girder or beam connections so that they do
not interfere with other second story work.
Column splices are joined together by splice
plates which are bolted, riveted, or welded to the
column flanges, or in special cases, to the webs as well.
If the members are the same size, it is common practice
to butt one end directly to the other and fasten the
splice plates over the joint, as illustrated in
figure 3-12. When the column size is reduced at the
joint, a plate is used between the two ends to provide
bearing, and filler plates are used between the splice
plates and the smaller column flanges (fig. 3-13).
Figure 3-13.—Column splice with change in column size.
column and are usually connected on top of the
columns with CAP PLATES (bearing connections), as
shown in figure 3-14. An alternate method is the
seated connection (fig. 3-15). The girder is attached to
the flange of the column using angles, with one leg
extended along the girder flange and the other against
the column. The function of the girders is to support
Girders are the primary horizontal members of a
steel frame structure. They span from column to
the intermediate floor beams.
Figure 3-16.—Column splice with no size change
Figure 3-14.—Girder span on a wide flange column.
Figure 3-17.—Coped and blocked beam ends.
Bar joists form a lightweight, long-span system
used as floor supports and built-up roofing supports,
as shown in figure 3-18. Bar joists generally run in the
same direction as a beam and may at times eliminate
the need for beams. You will notice in figure 3-19 that
bar joists must have a bearing surface. The span is
from girder to girder. (See fig. 3-20.)
Prefabricated bar joists designed to conform to
specific load requirements are obtainable from
commercial companies.
Figure 3-15.—Seated connections.
Beams are generally smaller than girders and are
usually connected to girders as intermediate members
or to columns. Beam connections at a column are
similar to the seated girder-to-column connection.
Beams are used generally to carry floor loads and
transfer those loads to the girders as vertical loads.
Since beams are usually not as deep as girders, there
are several alternative methods of framing one into the
other. The simplest method is to frame the beam
between the top and bottom flanges on the girder, as
shown in figure 3-16. If it is required that the top or
bottom flanges of the girders and beams be flush, it is
necessary to cut away (cope) a portion of the upper or
lower beam flange, as illustrated in figure 3-17.
Steel trusses are similar to bar joists in that they
serve the same purpose and look somewhat alike.
They are, however, much heavier and are fabricated
almost entirely from structural shapes, usually angles
and T-shapes. (See fig. 3-21.) Unlike bar joists,
trusses can be fabricated to conform to the shape of
almost any roof system (fig. 3-22) and are therefore
more versatile than bar joists.
The bearing surface of a truss is normally the
column. The truss may span across the entire building
from outside column to outside column. After the
trusses have been erected, they must be secured
between the BAYS with diagonal braces (normally
Figure 3-18.—Clearspan bar joists (girder to girder) ready to install roof sheeting.
Figure 3-19.—Bar joists seat connection.
round rods or light angles) on the top chord plane (fig.
3-23) and the bottom chord plane (fig. 3-24). After
these braces are installed, a sway frame is put into
place. (See fig. 3-25.)
Purlins are generally lightweight and
channel-shaped and are used to span roof trusses.
Purlins receive the steel or other type of decking, as
shown in figure 3-26, and are installed with the legs
of the channel facing outward or down the slope of the
roof. The purlins installed at the ridge of a gabled roof
are referred to as RIDGE STRUTS. The purlin units
are placed back to back at the ridge and tied together
with steel plates or threaded rods, as illustrated in
figure 3-27.
The sides of a structure are often framed with girts.
These members are attached to the columns
horizontally (fig. 3-28). The girts are also channels,
generally the same size and ‘shape as roof purlins.
Siding material is attached directly to the girts.
Figure 3-20.—Installing bar Joists girder to girder.
Figure 3-21.—Steel truss fabricated from angle-shaped members.
Figure 3-26.—Roof purlin.
Figure 3-22.—Different styles of truss shapes.
Figure 3-27.—Ridge struts.
Figure 3-23.—Diagonal braces-top chord plane.
Figure 3-28.—Wall girt.
Another longitudinal member similar to purlins
and girts is an cave strut. This member is attached to
the column at the point where the top chord of a truss
and the column meet at the cave of the structure. (See
fig. 3-29.)
There are many more steelworking terms that you
will come across as you gain experience. If a term is
Figure 3-24.—Diagonal braces-bottom chord plane.
Figure 3-29.—Eave strut.
Figure 3-25.—Sway frame.
used that you do not understand, ask someone to
explain it or look it up in the manuals and publications
available to you.
Steelworkers are required to lay out and fabricate
steel plate and structural steel members. Assignments
you can expect to be tasked with include pipe layout
and fabrication projects of the type required on a tank
farm project. Plate layout procedures are similar to
those for sheet metal (see chapter 2). There are some
procedures of plate fabrication however, that are
fundamentally different, and they are described in this
chapter. Steelworkers are also tasked to construct and
install piping systems designed to carry large
quantities of liquids for long distances.
using soapstone or a similar marker is your only
option, be sure to use a punch and a ball peen hammer
to make marks along the cut lines. By “connecting the
dots,” you can ensure accuracy.
Plan material usage before starting the layout on
a plate. An example of proper plate layout and material
usage is shown in figure 3-30. Observe the material
used for the cooling box. It will take up slightly more
than half of the plate. The rest of the material can then
be used for another job. This is only one example, but
the idea is to conserve materials. An example of poor
layout is shown in figure 3-31. The entire plate is used
up for this one product, wasting material, increasing
the cost and layout time of the job.
The layout person must have a straight line or
straightedge that he or she refers all measurements to.
This straightedge or line can be one edge of the work
that has been finished straight; or it can be an outside
straight line fastened to the work, such as a
straightedge clamped to the work. Once the reference
line has been established, you can proceed with the
layout using the procedures described in chapter 2.
Steel plate is much thicker than sheet steel and is
more difficult to work with and form into the desired
shapes. Before fabricating anything with steel, you
must take into consideration certain factors and ensure
they have been planned for. First, ensure adequate
lighting is available to enable you to see the small
marks you will be scratching on the steel. Second,
ensure all tools you need are available and accessible
at the work area. Also, ensure you have an accurate
field sketch or shop drawing of the item to be
When the layout is complete, the work should be
checked for accuracy, ensuring all the parts are in the
When laying out steel plate, you should have the
following tools: an adequate scale, such as a
combination square with a square head, an accurate
protractor, a set of dividers, a prick punch, a center
punch, and a ball peen hammer.
When layout marks are made on steel, you must
use a wire brush to clean them and remove the residue
with a brush or rag. Then paint the surface with a
colored marking compound. Aerosol spray is very
good because it allows the paint to fall only in the areas
to be laid out and also because it produces a thin coat
of paint that will not chip or peel off when lines are
being scribed.
Figure 3-30.—Proper plate steel cooling box layout.
When appropriate, the layout lines can be drawn
on steel with a soapstone marker or a similar device.
However, remember that the markings of many of
these drawing devices can burn off under an oxygas
flame as well or be blown away by the force of oxygen
from the cutting torch. These conditions are
undesirable and can ruin an entire fabrication job. If
Figure 3-31.—Improper plate steel cooling box layout.
The size of the cope is determined by dividing the
flange width of the receiving beam in half and then
subtracting one half of the thickness of the web plus
1/16 inch. This determines how far back on beam A
the cope should be cut.
layout and the measurements are correct. After
determining that the layout is accurate, the layout person
should center punch all cutting lines. This ensures
accurate cutting with either a torch or shears. The work
can be checked after cutting because each piece will have
one half of the center punch marks on the edge of the
material. Remember, always cut with the kerf of the
torch on the outside edge of the cutting lines.
When two beams of different sizes are connected,
the layout on the intersecting beam is determined by
whether it is larger or smaller than the intersected
beam. In the case shown in figure 3-33, the
Structural shapes are slightly more difficult to lay
out than plate. This is because the layout lines may not
be in view of the layout person at all times. Also, the
reference line may not always be in view.
Steel beams are usually fabricated to fit up to
another beam. Coping and slotting are required to
accomplish this. Figure 3-32 shows two W 10 x 39
beams being fitted up. Beam A is intersecting beam B
at the center. Coping is required so beam A will butt
up to the web of beam B; the connecting angles can be
welded to the web, and the flanges can be welded
A cut 1 1/8 inches (2.8 cm) long at 45 degrees at
the end of the flange cope will allow the web to fit up
under the flange of beam B and also allow for the fillet.
Figure 3-33.—Typical framed construction, top flange flush.
Figure 3-32.—Fabrication and fit-up for joining two beams of the same size.
intersecting beam is smaller; therefore, only one
flange is coped to fit the other. The top flanges will be
flush. Note that the angles on this connection are to be
bolted, rather than welded.
The distance from the heel of the angle to the first
gauge line on the web leg is termed the web leg gauge.
This dimension has been standardized at 2 1/4 inches
The distance from the heel of the angle to the first
gauge line on the outstanding leg is called the
outstanding leg gauge. This dimension varies as the
thickness of the member, or beam, varies. This
variation is necessary to maintain a constant
5 1/2-inch-spread dimension on the angle connection.
A very common connection with framed
construction is the connection angle. The legs of the
angles used as connections are specified according to
the surface to which they are to be connected. The legs
that attach to the intersecting steel to make the
connections are termed web legs. The legs of the
angles that attach to the supporting or intersected steel
beam are termed outstanding legs. The lines in which
holes in the angle legs are placed are termed gauge
lines. The distances between gauge lines and known
edges are termed gauges. An example of a completed
connection is shown in figure 3-34. The various terms
and the constant dimensions for a standard connection
angle are shown in figure 3-35.
The outstanding leg gauge dimension can be
determined in either one of the following two ways:
1. Subtract the web thickness from 5 1/2 inches
(13.8 cm) and divide by 2.
2. Subtract 1/2 of the web thickness from 2 3/4
The distance between holes on any gauge line is
called pitch. This dimension has been standardized at
3 inches (7.5 cm).
The end distance is equal to one half of the
remainder left after subtracting the total of all pitch
spaces from the length of the angle. By common
practice, the angle length that is selected should give
a 1 1/4-inch (3-cm) end distance.
All layout and fabrication procedures are not
covered in this section. Some examples are shown in
figure 3-36. Notice that the layout and fabrication yard
has a table designed to allow for layout, cutting, and
welding with minimum movement of the structural
members. The stock materials are stored like kinds of
Figure 3-34.—gauge lines.
The table holds two columns being fabricated out
of beams with baseplates and cap plates. Angle clips
for seated connections (fig. 3-37) should be installed
before erection,
At times, the fabricator will be required to split a
beam to make a tee shape from an I shape. This is done
by splitting through the web. The release of internal
stresses locked up in the beams during the
manufacturer’s rolling process causes the split parts to
bend or warp as the beams are being cut unless the
splitting process is carefully controlled.
The recommended procedure for cutting and
splitting a beam is first to cut the beam to the desired
length and then proceed as follows:
Figure 3-35.—Standard layout for connection angle using
4-inch by 4-inch angle
Figure 3-36.—Prefab table and steel storage.
2. After splitting cuts have been made and the
beam cooled, cut through the metal between the cuts,
starting at the center of the beam and working toward
the ends, following the order shown in figure 3-38.
The procedure for splitting abeam also works very
well when splitting plate and is recommended when
making bars from plate. Multiple cuts from plate can
be made by staggering the splitting procedure before
cutting the space between slits. If this procedure is
used, ensure that the entire plate has cooled so that the
bars will not warp or bend.
Figure 3-37.—Seated connection.
When a part must be produced in quantity, a
template is made first and the job laid out from the
template. A template is any pattern made from sheet
metal, regular template paper, wood, or other suitable
material, which is used as a guide for the work to be
done. A template can be the exact size and shape of
the corresponding piece, as shown in figure 3-39,
1. Make splitting cuts about 2 feet (60 cm) long,
leaving 2 inches (5 cm) of undisturbed metal between
all cuts and at the end of the beam (fig. 3-38). As the cut
is made, cool the steel behind the torch with a water
spray or wet burlap.
Figure 3-38.—Cuttiug order for splitting a beam.
views 1 and 2, or it may cover only the portions of the
piece that contain holes or cuts, as shown in views 3
and 4. When holes, cuts, and bends are to be made in
a finished piece, pilot holes, punch marks, and notches
in the template should correspond exactly to the
desired location in the finished piece. Templates for
short members and plates are made of template paper
of the same size as the piece to be fabricated.
Templates for angles are folded longitudinal] y, along
the line of the heel of the angle (fig. 3-39, view 3).
They may also be handled separately with the template
for each connection being clamped to the member
after spacing, aligning, and measuring.
In making templates, the same layout tools
discussed earlier in this chapter are used. The only
exception is that for marking lines, a pencil or
Patternmaker’s knife is used. When punching holes in
a template, keep in mind that the purpose of the holes
is to specify location, not size. Therefore, a punch of
a single diameter can be used for all holes. Holes and
cuts are made prominent by marking with paint.
Accurate measurements in making templates
should be given careful attention. Where a number of
parts are to be produced from a template, the use of
inaccurate measurements in making the template
obviously would mean that all parts produced from it
will also be wrong.
Each template is marked with the assembly mark
of the piece it is to be used with, the description of the
material, and the item number of the stock material to
be used in making the piece.
Template paper is a heavy cardboard material with
a waxed surface. It is well adapted to scribe and
divider marks. A combination of wood and template
paper is sometimes used to make templates. The use
of wood or metal is usually the best choice for
templates that will be used many times.
In laying out from a template, it is important that
the template be clamped to the material in the exact
position. Holes are center punched directly through
the holes in the template (fig. 3-40), and all cuts are
marked. After the template is removed, the marks for
cuts are made permanent by rows of renter punch
For long members, such as beams, columns, and
truss members, templates cover only the connections.
These templates may be joined by a wooden strip to
ensure accurate spacing (fig. 3-39, views 1 and 2).
It is important that each member or individual
piece of material be given identifying marks to
Figure 3-39.—Paper and combination templates.
identified during fabrication and fitting up with other
pieces to form a finished member.
Figure 3-40.—Use of template in laying out a steel channel.
correspond with marks shown on the detail drawing
(fig. 3-41).
The ERECTION MARK of a member is used to
identify and locate it for erection. It is painted on the
completed member at the left end, as shown on the
detail drawing, and in a position so that it will be right
side up when the member is right side up in the
finished structure.
Lack of templates, charts, and mathematical
formulas need not hinder you in pipe layout. In
emergencies, welded pipe of equal diameter can be
laid out in the field quickly and easily. By using the
methods described here and a few simple tools, you
can lay out branches and Y connections as well as
turns of any angle, radius, and number of segments.
The few simple tools required are both readily
available and familiar to the Steelworker through
almost daily use. A framing square, a bevel protractor
with a 12-inch (20-cm) blade, a spirit level, a spring
steel wraparound (or tape), a center punch, a hammer,
and a soapstone will meet all needs. (A stiff strip of
cardboard or a tin sheet about 3 inches [7.5 cm] wide
also makes a good wraparound.) For purposes of our
discussion, the long part of the framing square is
referred to as the BLADE and the short part as the
Two methods of pipe layout are commonly used.
They are the one-shot method and the shop method.
The ONE-SHOT method is used in the field. With this
An ASSEMBLY MARK is painted on each piece
on completion of its layout so that the piece can be
Figure 3-41.—Erection and assembly marks.
method, you use hand tools and make your layout on
the pipe to be cut. The one-shot method is so named
because you only use it once. In the SHOP METHOD
you will make templates for pieces that are going to
be duplicated in quantity. As an example, a job order
comes into the shop for 25 pieces of 6-inch (15-cm)
pipe-all cut at the same angle. Obviously, it would
be time consuming to use the one-shot method to
produce 25 pieces; hence the shop method is used for
laying out. Patterns can be made of template paper or
thin-gauge sheet metal. The major advantage of
thin-gauge sheet metal templates is when you are
finished with them they can be stored for later use.
Keep in mind that all pipe turns are measured by
the number of degrees by which they turn from the
course set by the adjacent straight section. The angle
is measured between the center line of the intersecting
sections of pipe. Branch connections are measured in
angle of turnaway from the main line. For example, a
60-degree branch is so-called because the angle
between the center line of the main pipe and the center
line of the branch connection measures 60 degrees.
Turns are designated by the number of degrees by
which they deviate from a straight line.
Inlaying out any joint, the first step is to establish
reference points or lines from which additional
measurements or markings can be made. This is done
by locating a center line and dividing the outside
circumference of the pipe into 90-degree segments, or
quarters. The framing square, the spirit level, and the
soapstone are used in these procedures in the
following manner: Block the pipe so it cannot move
or roll; then place the inside angle of the square against
the pipe and level one leg. One point on the centerline
is then under the scale at a distance of half the outside
diameter of the pipe from the inside angle of the square
(fig. 3-42). Repeating at another part of the pipe will
Figure 3-42.—Locating the top and side quarter points.
locate two points and hence the center line. By this
same method, the quarter points also may be located
This operation is a must before any layout with the
field method.
If you are using a long piece of pipe and are going
to cut both ends in addition to the square, you wiIl need
a piece of carpenter’s chalk line with a plumb bob on
each end and two 24- or 36-inch (60- or 90-cm)-flat
steel rules (depending on the diameter of the pipe) to
locate the top and the bottom center lines. Figure 3-43
shows a plumb bob and rules being used to locate the
top and the bottom center lines.
Another one-shot method of quartering pipe is to
take a strip of paper and wrap it around the pipe and
tear or cut the part that overlaps. The ends should
touch. Remove the paper from the pipe and fold it in
half, as shown in figure 3-44, view A. Then double the
strip once again, as shown in view B. This will divide
your strip into four equal parts. Place the strip of paper
around the pipe. At the crease marks and where the
ends meet, mark the pipe with soapstone and your pipe
will be quartered.
The fact that a length of pipe with square ends can
be fabricated by wrapping a rectangular section of
plate into a cylindrical form makes available a method
(known as parallel forms) of developing pipe surfaces,
and hence developing the lines of intersection between
Figure 3-44.—Folding a tip of paper for use in quartering
pipe walls. Based on this principle, wraparound
templates can be made for marking all manner of pipe
fittings for cutting preparatory to welding.
The development of a template is done in practice
by dividing the circumference (in the end view) of the
pipe into a specific number of equal sections. These
sections are then projected onto the side view of the
desired pipe section. The lengths of the various
segments that make up the pipe wall may then be laid
out, evenly spaced, on a base line. This line is, in
effect, the unwrapped circumference (fig. 3-45). If the
template developed in figure 3-45, view C, is wrapped
around the pipe with the base line square with the pipe,
the curved line, a-b-c-d-e-f-, and so forth, will locate
the position for cutting to make a 90-degree, two-piece
turn. Draw a circle (fig. 3-45, view A) equal to the
outside diameter of the pipe and divide half of it into
equal sections. The more sections, the more accurate
the final result will be. Perpendicular to the centerline
and bisected by it, draw line AI equal to the O.D. (view
B). To this line, construct the template angle (TA)
equal to one half of the angle of turn, or, in this case,
45 degrees. Draw lines parallel to the centerline from
points a, b, c, and so forth, on the circle and mark the
points where these lines intersect line a-i with
corresponding letters. As an extension of AI but a little
distance from it, draw a straight line equal to the pipe
circumference or that of the circle in view A. This line
(view C) should then be divided into twice as many
equal spaces as the semicircle, a-b-c-, and so forth, and
lettered as shown. Perpendiculars should then be
erected from these points. Their intersections with
lines drawn from the points on a-i in view B, parallel
to the base line in view C, determine the curve of the
After quartering the pipe, proceed to make a
simple miter turn. Locate the center of the cut (fig.
3-46, point c) in the general location where the cut is
to be made. Use a wraparound to make line a-b
completely around the pipe at right angles to the center
Figure 3-43.—Locating the top and the bottom center lines.
Figure 3-45.—Principles of template layout.
Figure 3-46.—Simple miter turn.
and quarter lines. This establishes a base line for
further layout work.
degrees desired. After you have the correct setting,
lock the blade. Place the protractor on the square with
the bottom blade on the outside diameter of the pipe.
Now read up to the cutback on the vertical blade of the
square. You must be sure that the flat surface of the
protractor is flush against the blade of the square (fig.
3-47). The outside radius of the pipe should have been
determined during the quartering operation.
When you are measuring, treat the surface of the
pipe as if it were a flat surface. Use a flat-steel rule or
tape, which will lie against the surface without kinks,
even though it is forced to follow the contour of the
pipe. These angles can also be checked for accuracy
by sighting with the square.
Use the protractor and square to determine the
proper cutback for the desired angle of the miter turn.
Start with the protractor scale set at zero so that the
flat surface of the protractor and the blade are parallel.
You can now set the protractor for the number of
After you have obtained the cutback
measurement, mark one half of this measurement off
along the center line on top of the pipe. From the
opposite side of the base line, measure off the same
Figure 3-47.—Finding the cutback.
Figure 3-48.—To locate cut on a pipe for any angle two-piece
distance along the bottom quarter line. Make punch
marks with the center punch on each side of the line,
along the side quarter lines. These marks will make it
easy to align the pipe for welding after the joint is cut.
Use the spring steel wraparound and pull the loop to
the cutback point. Next, draw a chalk line over the top
half of the pipe through the first cutback point.
(NOTE: Do not allow the wraparound to twist or
kink, and hold the chalk at a right angle to the
wraparound while marking the pipe.) Now roll the
pipe one-half turn and mark a chalk line in the same
way around the bottom half of the pipe.
Spacing should be slightly greater at the inside of the
To lay out the template for cutting the branch and
header for a 90-degree tee with header and branch of
equal diameter, draw the side and end view, as shown
in figure 3-49, views A and B.
In making the template for the branch in figure
3-49, view A, draw lines 1-5 at 45 degrees to the center
line. Lay off distance 1-P equal to twice the thickness
of the pipe wall and draw the smooth curve s-P-s. Now,
project point P from view A to view B and draw the
lines P-t radially. At a distance above point t equal to
the thickness of the header wall, draw a-t horizontally,
and vertical lines a-a and t-t. With lower points a as
center, swing arcs r-s. Using the intersections of these
arcs as centers and with the same radius, draw the
curved lines a-be-d-e arid e d-c-b-a.
If a template is not available, you may determine
the dimensions and markings for the cut necessary for
a two-piece welded turn of any angle between 1 degree
and 90 degrees by making a full-sized drawing, as
shown in figure 3-48.
Draw the center lines intersecting at b by using the
angle of turn T and then draw the outlines of the pipes
by using the center lines and the diameter D. These
will intersect at a and c. By laying the pipe over the
drawing so that point b will coincide with that
determined by construction details, you can draw the
lines a-b and c-b in preparation for miter cutting and
Divide the outside circumference of the branch
top into equal parts and draw the vertical lines b-b, c-c,
and so forth. Also, draw the horizontal base line a-a.
Lay off the unwrapped circumference (fig. 3-49,
view D), and divide each half of it into the same
number of equal parts as the branch
semicircumference. In view D, you should plot the
distances a-a, b-b, and so forth, from view B. This
gives the distances from the base line to the branch
curve of the intersection and determines the location
of the branch template.
After being prepared for welding, one section of
pipe should be rotated through 180 degrees to form the
desired angle, and then it should be tack-welded.
Figure 3-49.—90-degree tee.
To make the template for the hole in the header,
divide the circumference of the header into equal
parts, as at points 1, 2, 3, and so forth. Next, project
these points across to view A (fig, 3-49), as shown. As
in view C, lay off the line 1-5-1 equal to one half of
the circumference of the header, and divide it into the
same number of equal parts as was done on the header.
Locate point P, a distance from 1 in view C equal to
1-P in view B. With this point P and the distances 5-5,
4-4, and so forth, in view A, plotted as shown in view
C, the curve of the template is located.
Branch to header connections (fig. 3-50) at any
angle of 45 degrees to 90 degrees can be fabricated in
equal diameter pipe by the following procedures.
(Note that angles less than 45 degrees can be made,
but a practical limitation is imposed by the difficulty
of welding the crotch section.)
First, quarter both sections of pipe as before. hen
locate the center line of the intersection (point B) on
the header and draw line GF around the pipe at this
One of the best types of joint for a 90-degree
branch connection where the branch is smaller than
the header is obtained by inserting the smaller branch
pipe through the wall down to the inner surface of the
header. The outside surface of the branch intersects the
inside surface of the header at all points. When the
header is properly beveled this type of intersection
presents a very desirable vee for welding. In ease
templates or template dimensions are not available,
the line of cut on both header and branch can be
located by other methods, but the use of templates is
Figure 3-50.—Branch connections
point. Set the diameter FG on the blade of the square.
Set and lock the protractor atone fourth of the number
of degrees of turnaway from the header (in the
example, 1/4 of 60° = 15°). With the blade along FG,
the frost cutback measurement, FA, will be indicated
on the tongue of the square. Measure off this distance
along the center line of the header from line FG and
mark point A. As described before, join point A with
the points of intersection of line FG and the two side
In the first method, the square end of the branch
should be placed in the correct position against the
header and the line of intersection marked with a flat
soapstone pencil (fig. 3-51). Since radial cutting is
used in this case and since the outer branch wall should
intersect the inner header wall, point B should be
located on both sides of the branch a distance from A
equal to slightly more than the header wall thickness.
A new line of cut is then marked as a smooth curve
through the points, tapering to the first line at the top
of the header. Following radial cutting, the joint
should then be beveled
quarter lines to outline the first cut.
With the same protractor setting, flip the square
and mark point H. Distance FH is equal to FA. FH is
the first portion of the second cutback measurement.
With the same settings and with the square upside
down (as compared to before), locate point I the same
way you located point H.
The branch should be slipped into the hole until
even with point B to locate the line of cut on the
branch. A soapstone pencil may then be used to mark
the line for radial cutting. No beveling is necessary.
Now, set the protractor to one half of the number
of degrees of turnaway from the header (in the
example, 1/2 of 60° = 30°). With the blade set to the
diameter, the second portion, HD, of the second
cutback measurement will be indicated on the tongue.
The second cutback measurement is the total distance
FC. Connect points C and B and connect C with the
point, which corresponds to B, on the quarter line on
the opposite side of the header. This outlines the
second cut and completes the marking of the header.
A second method for larger diameter pipe is
shown in figure 3-52. After the centerlines have been
drawn, the branch should be placed against the header,
as shown. By means of a straightedge, the distance
between A and the header wall is determined, and this
measurement above the header is transferred to the
branch wall, as represented by the curved line a-b-c.
Use the same two cutback measurements to lay out
the end of the branch. Branch cutback distance DA is
equal to header cutback distance FA. Branch cutback
distance EC is equal to header cutback distance FC. If
the branch end is square, make cutback measurements
from the end, rather than marking in a circumferential
line. Make all cuts as before, and level and join the
branch and header by welding.
Figure 3-51.—Method where the line of cut is first marked on
After this line is radially cut, the branch maybe used
to locate the line of cut on the header, allowing for the
intersection of the outer branch wall and inner header
wall as before. This line should be radially cut,
followed by beveling.
In making an eccentric branch connection the
extreme case being where the side of the branch is
even with the side of the header, a similar procedure
is followed, as shown in figure 3-53.
The entire procedure for fabrication of an equal
diameter, three-piece Y connection is based on
individual operations already described. As the first
step, quarter the end of the three pieces of pipe and
apply circumferential lines. When the three pieces are
welded together to form the Y, there will be three
center lines radiating from a common point.
Figure 3-54.—Three-piece Y connection.
The open angle between each pair of adjacent
center lines must be decided, for each of these angles
will be the angle of one of the branches of the Y. As
shown in figure 3-54, these open angles determine the
angle of adjoining sides of adjacent branches. Thus
half of the number of degrees between center lines A
and B are included in each of the adjoining cutbacks
between these two branches. The same is true with
respect to the other angles and cutbacks between
center lines, Moreover, each piece of pipe must have
a combination of two angles cut on the end.
To determine the amount of cutback to form an
angle of the Y, set the protractor at one half of the open
angle between adjacent branch center lines. Place the
protractor on the square, crossing the outside radius
measurement of the pipe on the tongue of the square,
and read the cutback distance off the blade of the
square. Mark off this distance on one side quarter line
on each of the two pieces that are to be joined. Then
mark the cutback lines. Repeat this procedure for the
other two angles of the Y, taking care to combine the
cutbacks on each pipe end. Three settings of the
protractor determine all cutbacks.
An alternate method for determining each cutback
is to treat two adjacent branches as a simple miter turn.
Subtract the number of degrees of open angle between
center lines from 180 degrees and set the protractor at
one half of the remaining degrees. Cross the outside
radius measurement on the tongue. Mark one side of
each adjoining pipe section. Repeat for the other two
branches. Take care to combine the proper cutbacks
on each pipe end. Set the protractor for each open
angle of the Y connection.
Figure 3-52.—Line of cut is first marked on branch with this
The computations and measurements for the
layout (fig. 3-54) are shown in table 3-1. The pipe is
12 inches in diameter and has a radius of 6 inches (15
Figure 3-53.—Marking cut on branch for eccentric branch
Table 3-2.—Computations and Measurement for a Y Connection.
the same essential methods as for other templates
are followed. Note that here it is suggested the
equally divided semicircumferences are more
conveniently placed directly on the base line. The
distances from the base line to the line of
intersection plotted on the unwrapped base line
determine the template.
A number of different types of heads are used in
welded pipe construction. Here, we are interested in
one general type, the ORANGE PEEL, since it will
often concern you in your work. A main advantage of
the orange peel is that it has high strength in resisting
internal pressure.
Figure 3-55.—True Y.
If templates or tables are not available for making
an orange peel head, a reasonably accurate marking
can be secured by the following procedure for laying
out a template.
In laying out pipe for the fabrication of a true Y
without the use of templates or tables, a full-sized
drawing of the intersection (fig. 3-55) should be made.
‘he intersection of the center lines of the three pipes
will locate point B, and lines from B to the
intersections of the pipe walls will locate points A, C,
and D. From these points the pipe maybe marked for
cutting. Miter cutting, followed by suitable beveling,
is necessary in preparing the pipe for welding.
The number of arms to make an orange peel head
should be the minimum number which can be easily
bent over to form the head. Five arms and welds are
the recommended minimum for any pipe; this
number should be increased for larger sizes of pipe.
Dividing the circumference by 5 is a good method
for deciding the number of arms, provided, there are
at least 5.
To lay out the template, draw the side and end
views (fig. 3-57). Divide the pipe circumference in
view B into the same number of equal parts as it is
planned to have welds, and draw the radial lines o-a,
o-b, and so on. Project the points a, b, and so on, in
this view.
Inlaying out a template for a true Y, a drawing of
the intersection should be made, as shown in figure
3-56, view A. After drawing the lines of intersection,
Figure 3-56.—Template for true Y branches and main of equal diameter.
Figure 3-57.—Orange peel head.
values can be determined by a simple computation. All
cutting should be radial followed by a beveling cut.
Now, divide x-o-x into equal parts-in this case, 6.
Then draw the lines x1-x1 and x2x2. These represent
the concentric circles in view B. In laying out the
template, the distances a-b, b-c, a1-b1, a2-b2, and
so on, are taken from view B. The distances x+,x-xl,
x-x2, b-b1, and so on, are taken from view A. It is not
actually necessary to draw views A and B since all the
A one-shot field method of making an orange peel
is shown in figure 3-58. This method can be used when
you are going to make only one orange peel.
Incidentally, the tables shown in figure 3-58 will help
to lineup your template better.
Figure 3-58.—A field method of making an orange peel.
Cutting pipe is not much different than cutting
structural shapes, except that you must always keep in
mind that the cut will either be radial or miter. The gas
cutting torch is used to cut pipe fittings for welding.
Procedures relating to the use of the cutting torch are
given in volume 1, chapter 4. The torch maybe hand
operated, or it maybe mounted on a mechanical device
for more accurate control.
Figure 3-60.—Miter cutting.
Cutting machines may be used to prepare many
fittings without the use of templates. These machines
cut and bevel the pipe in one operation-the bevel
extending for the full pipe wall thickness. When the
pipe is cut by hand, beveling is done as a second
Any piping system of consequence will have
bends in it. When fabricating pipe for such a system,
you can make bends by a variety of methods, either
hot or cold, and either manual] y or on a power-bending
machine. Cold bends in pipe are usually made on a
bending machine. Various types of equipment are
available, ranging from portable handsets to large
hydraulically driven machines that can cold bend pipe
up to 16 inches (40.64 cm) in diameter. You will be
concerned primarily with hot bending techniques,
using a bending slab or using a method known as
wrinkle bending.
For many types of welded fittings, a RADIAL cut
is required before beveling. Radial cutting simply
means that the cutting torch is held so it is
perpendicular to the interior center line at all times. In
other words, the cutting orifice always forms a
continuation of a radius of the pipe, making the cut
edge square with the pipe wall at every point. Figure
3-59 shows radial cutting. Except in the case of the
blunt bull plug, for which the radial cut provides the
proper vee, the radial cut should be followed by a
beveling cut for pipe with 3/1 6 inch (4.8 mm) or more
wall thickness.
Whatever method you use to bend pipe, you
should normally have some pattern that represents the
desired shape of the bend. Templates made from wire
or small, flexible tubing can be invaluable in preparing
new installations as well as in repair work, When
properly made, they will provide an exact guide to the
bend desired.
In MITER cutting the torch tip is held so that the
entire cut surface is in the same plane. The miter cut
is followed by a beveling cut, leaving a 1/32- to
1/16-inch (.8 to 1.6-mm) nose at the inner wall. Figure
3-60 shows miter cutting.
One of the simple types of bend template is the
center line template. A centerline template is made to
Figure 3-59.—Radial cutting.
cross-sectional area of the pipe and restrict the flow of
fluid through the system.
conform to the bend or bends of the pipe to be made.
It is used to lay off the bend area on the pipe and as a
guide during the pipe or tube bending operation.
Figure 3-61 shows the use of a center line template.
These templates are made of wire, or rod, and are
shaped to establish the center line of the pipe to be
installed. The ends of the wire are secured to special
clamps, called flange spiders. A clearance disc, which
must be the same diameter as the pipe, is used if there
is any doubt about the clearance around the pipe.
Drive a tapered, wooden plug into one end of the
pipe. Place the pipe in a vertical position with the
plugged end down, and fill it with dry sand. Leave just
enough space at the upper end to take a second plug.
To ensure that the sand is tightly packed, tap the pipe
continually with a wooden or rawhide mallet during
the filling operation. The second plug is identical with
the first, except that a small vent hole is drilled through
its length; this vent permits the escape of any gases
(mostly steam) that may form in the packed pipe when
heat is applied. No matter how dry the sand may
appear, there is always a possibility that some
moisture is present. This moisture will form steam that
will expand and build up pressure in the heated pipe
unless some means of escape is provided. If you do
not provide a vent, you will almost certainly blow out
one of the plugs before you get the pipe bent.
Hot bends are accomplished on a bending slab
(fig. 3-62). This slab requires little maintenance
beyond a light coating of machine oil to keep rust in
As a preliminary step in hot bending, pack the pipe
with dry sand to prevent the heel or outside of the bend
from flattening. If flattening occurs, it will reduce the
When you have packed the pipe with sand, the
next step is to heat the pipe and make the bend. Mark
the bend area of the pipe with chalk or soapstone, and
heat it to an even red heat along the distance indicated
from A to B in figure 3-63. Apply heat to the bend area
frost on the outside of the bend and then on the inside.
When an even heat has been obtained, bend the pipe
to conform to the wire template. The template is also
used to mark the bend area-on the pipe. -
Figure 3-61.—Center line template.
Figure 3-63.—Heating and bending pipe to conform to wire
Figure 3-62.—Bending on a slab.
results. The following hints for bending different
materials should prove helpful:
The main problem you will have in bending
copper tubing and pipe is preventing wrinkles and flat
spots. Wrinkles are caused by compression of the pipe
wall at the throat (inside) of the bend. Flat spots are
caused by lack of support for the pipe wall, by stretch
in the heel (outside) of the bend, or by improper
WROUGHT IRON—Wrought iron becomes
brittle when hot, so always use a large bend radius.
Apply the torch to the throat of the bend instead of to
the heel.
BRASS—Do not overbend, as brass is likely to
break when the bend direction is reversed.
If the pipe is properly packed and properl y heated,
wrinkles and flat spots can be prevented by bending
the pipe in segments so that the stretch is spread evenly
over the whole bend area. When a pipe is bent, the
stretch tends to occur at the middle of the bend. If the
bend area is divided into a number of segments and
then bent in segments, the stretch will occur at the
center of each segment and thus be spread more evenly
over the bend area. Another advantage of bending in
segments is that this is almost the only way you can
follow a wire template accurately.
COPPER—Hot bends may be made in copper,
although the copper alloys are more adaptable to cold
bending. This material is one that is not likely to give
any trouble.
bending do not harm aluminum, but because there is
only a small range between the bending and melting
temperature, you will have to work with care. Keep
the heat in the throat at all times. You will not be able
to see any heat color, so you must depend on “feel” to
tell you when the heat is right for bending. You can do
this by keeping a strain on the pipe while the bend area
is being heated. As soon as the bend starts, flick the
flame away from the area. Play it back and forth to
maintain the bending temperature and to avoid
When bending steel and some other piping
materials, you can control wrinkles and flat spots by
first overbending, the pipe slightly and then pulling the
end back (fig. 3-64).
Hot bends are made on a bending slab (fig. 3-64).
The pull to make the bend is exerted in a direction
parallel to the surface of, the bending slab. The
necessary leverage for forming the bend is obtained
by using chain falls, by using block and tackle, or by
using a length of pipe that has a large enough diameter
to slip over the end of the packed pipe. Bending pins
and hold-down clamps (dogs) are used to position the
bend at the desired location.
CARBON-MOLYBDENUM and CHROMIUMMOLYBDENUM—These maybe heated for bending,
if necessary, but caution must be exercised so as not
to overheat the bend area. These types of metal are
easily crystallized when extreme heat is applied. Pipes
made from these materials should be bend cold in
manual or power-bending machines.
Be sure to wear asbestos gloves when working on
hot bending jobs. Pins, clamps, and baffles often have
to be moved during the bending operation. These
items absorb heat radiated from the pipe as well as
from the torch flame. You cannot safely handle these
bending accessories without proper gloves.
It may seem odd that after describing precautions
necessary to keep a bend free of wrinkles, we next
describe a method which deliberately produces
wrinkles as a means of bending the pipe. Nevertheless,
you will find the wrinkle-bending technique a simple
and direct method of bending pipe, and perhaps in
man y pipe-bending situations, the only convenient
method. This would particularly be the case if no
bending slab were available or if time considerations
did not permit the rather lengthy sand-packing
Each material has its peculiar traits, and you will
need to know about these traits to get satisfactory
Basically, wrinkle bending consists of a simple
heating operation in which a section of the pipe is
heated by a gas welding torch. When the metal
becomes plastic (bright red color), the pipe is bent
SLIGHTLY, either by hand or by means of tackle
Figure 3-64.—Overbending to correct flattening of pipe.
Wrinkle bending has been successful on pipe of
more than 20 inches in diameter. Experience has
shown that, for 7-inch-diameter pipe and over, more
complete and even heating is accomplished using two
welding torches, rather than one. In any event, the
heating procedure is the same-the torch or torches
being used to heat a strip approximately two thirds of
the circumference of the pipe (fig. 3-66). The heated
strip need not be very wide (2 to 3 inches, or 5.08 to
7.62 cm, is usually sufficient) since the bend will only
be through 12 degrees at most. The heated portion, as
we have noted, is the part which will compress to
become the inside of the bend. The portion which is
not heated directly will form the outside of the bend.
rigged for that purpose. The unheated portion forms
the heel (outside) of the bend, while the wrinkle is
formed at the throat (inside) of the bend due to
It should be understood that the pipe should not be
bent through very large angles (12 degrees being
considered the maximum for one wrinkle) to avoid the
danger of the pipe buckling. The procedure in making
a large bend is to make several wrinkles, one at a time.
If, for example, you want to produce a bend of
90 degrees, a minimum of eight separate wrinkles
could be made. Figure 13-65 shows a 90-degree bend
made with ten separate wrinkles. The formula to
determine the number of wrinkles is to divide the
degrees per wrinkle required into the degrees of the
bend required.
The technique most often used to bend the pipe,
once it has been heated, is simple and straightforward.
The pipe is merely lifted up by hand (or by tackle),
while the other end is held firmly in position.
Figure 3-65.—90-degree bend made with ten separate
Figure 3-66.—Part of pipe heated before wrinkle bending.
Chapter 4
the line. Manila line is generally the standard item of
issue because of its quality and relative strength.
Starting with this chapter, we explore another
major area of steelworking skills-the erection and
assembly of steel structure. Steelworkers require
tools to hoist and maneuver the steel members into
place to erect a structure of any magnitude. These
hoisting tools range from uncomplicated devices,
such as tripods and gin poles, to more complex
mechanisms, such as cranes and motor-powered
derricks. Whatever the case, one of the most
important components of these hoisting mechanisms
is the fiber line or wire rope that must be attached to
and hold the load to be hoisted and maneuvered.
Before you, as a Steelworker, can become skilled in
the supervision of hoisting devices, you must first
understand the use and maintenance of fiber line and
wire rope.
The next best line-making fiber is sisal. It is made
from two tropical plants—sisalana and henequen.
The fiber is similar to manila, but lighter in color. It
is grown in the East Indies, Africa, and Central
America. Sisal fibers are usually 26 to 40 inches (65
cm to 1 m) long but are only about 80 percent as strong
as manila fibers. Sisal line withstands exposure to
seawater exceptionally well. It is frequently used in
towing, mooring, and similar purposes.
Hemp is a tall plant that provides useful fibers for
making line and cloth. It is cultivated in the United
States, Russia, Italy, and South America. Hemp was
used extensively before the introduction of manila.
Throughout the Navy the principal use is for small
stuff, ratline, marline, and spun yarn. Since hemp
absorbs tar much better than the hard fibers, these
fittings are invariably tarred to male them water
resistant. The term small stuff is used to describe
small cordage that a layman may call string, yarn, or
cords. Tarred hemp has about 80 percent of the
strength of untarred hemp. Of these tarred fittings,
marline is the standard item of issue.
This chapter and the next are designed to
familiarize you with the different types of fiber line
and wire rope commonly used by Steelworkers. We
also discuss knots, bends, hitches, clips, and fittings
and describe how they are used. Other topics
discussed include the handling and care of fiber line
and wire rope, making splices in fiber line, and
methods of determining safe working loads.
Vegetable fibers commonly used in the
manufacture of line include manila, sisal, hemp, coir,
and cotton.
Coir line is a light line made from the fiber of
coconut husks and is light enough to float on water. A
resilient rough line, it has about one fourth of the
strength of hemp; therefore, the use of coir is restricted
to small lines.
Manila is a strong fiber that comes from the leaf
stems of the stalk of the abaca plant, which belongs to
the banana family. The fibers vary in length from 4 to
12 feet in the natural state. The quality of the fiber and
its length give manila line relatively high elasticity,
strength, and resistance to wear and deterioration. A
good grade of manila is cream in color, smooth, clean,
and pliable. Poorer grades of manila are characterized
by varying shades of brown. In many instances, the
manufacturer treats the line with chemicals to make it
more mildew resistant, which increases the quality of
Cotton line is a smooth white line that stands much
bending and running. Cotton is not widely used in the
Navy except, in some cases, for small lines.
The operations just described are standard
procedure. The product produced is known as a
RIGHT-LAID line. The process is sometimes
reversed, then you have what is known as a
LEFT-LAID line. In either instance, the principle of
opposite twists must always be observed. One reason
for this is to keep the line tight or stable and prevent
the elements from unlaying when a load is suspended
on it. Another reason for twisting the elements of a
line in opposite directions is to prevent moisture
Although natural fiber line is normally used, a
number of synthetic fibers are also used to make line.
The synthetic fibers used to fabricate line include the
following: nylon, Kevlar, Orion, and Dacron.
Of the types of line made from synthetic fibers,
nylon is the one used the most. The primary benefit
of using nylon line is that the breaking (tensile)
strength of nylon line is nearly three times that of
manila line. An additional benefit of using nylon line
is that it is waterproof and has the ability to resume
normal length after being stretched and absorbing
shock. It also resists abrasion, rot, decay, and fungus
There are three types of lays of fiber line with
which you should be familiar. They are the
HAWSER-LAID, SHROUD-LAID, and CABLELAID lines. Each type is shown in figure 4-2.
The fabrication of line consists essentially of three
twisting operations. First, the FIBERS are twisted to
the right to form the YARNS. Second, the yarns are
twisted to the left to form the STRANDS. Third, the
strands are twisted to the right to form the LINE.
Figure 4-1 shows you how the fibers are grouped to
form a three-strand line.
Hawser-Laid Line
Hawser-laid line generally consists of three
strands twisted together, usually in a right-hand
Shroud-Laid Line
Ordinarily, a shroud-hid line is composed of four
strands twisted together in a right-hand direction
around a center strand or core. This core is usually of
the same material but smaller in diameter than the four
strands. You will find that shroud-laid line is more
pliable and stronger than hawser-laid line. You will
also find that shroud-laid line has a strong tendency to
kink. In most instances, it is used on sheaves and
drums. This not only prevents kinking but also makes
use of its pliability and strength.
Figure 4-1.—Fabrication of line.
Figure 4-2.—Lays of line.
If you ever order line, you may find that you have
to order it by diameter. The catalog may also use the
term rope (rather than line).
Cable-Laid Line
Cable-laid line usually consists of three right-hand
hawser-laid lines twisted together in a left-hand
direction. This type is especially useful in heavy
construction work, because if it tends to untwist, it will
tighten any regular right-hand screw connection to
which it may be attached; hence, its use provides an
added safety feature.
ROPE YARNS for temporary seizings,
whippings, and lashings are pulled from large strands
of old line that has outlived its usefulness. Pull your
yarn from the middle, away from the ends, or it will
get fouled.
The size of a line larger than 1 3/4 inches (44.5
mm) in circumference is generally designated by its
circumference in inches. A 6-inch (15-cm) manila
line, for instance, would be constructed of manila
fibers and measure 6 inches (15 cm) in circumference.
Line is available up to 16 inches (40 cm) in
circumference, but 12 inches (30 cm) is normally the
largest line carried in stock. Anything larger is used
only on special jobs (fig. 4-3).
If you expect the fiber line you work with to give
safe and dependable service, make sure it is handled
and cared for properly. Procedures for the handling
and care of fiber line are as follows:
• CLEANLINESS is part of the care of fiber line.
NEVER drag a line over the ground nor over rough or
dirty surfaces. The line can easily pick up sand and grit
that can work into the strands and wear the fibers. If a
line does get dirty, use water only to clean it. Do NOT
use soap because it takes oil out of the line.
Line 1 3/4 inches (44.5 mm) or less in
circumference is called SMALL STUFF, and size is
usually designated b y the number of threads (or yarns)
that make up each strand. You may find 6- to
24-thread small stuff, but the most common sizes are
9- to 21-thread (fig. 4-3). You may hear some small
stuff designated by name without reference to size.
One such type is MARLINE-a tarred, two-strand,
left-laid hemp. Marline is the small stuff you used the
most for seizing. When you need something stronger
than marline, use a tarred, three-strand, left-laid hemp,
• AVOID pulling a line over sharp edges because
the strands may break. When you have a sharp edge,
place chafing gear, such as a board, folded cardboard or
canvas, or part of a rubber tire, between the line and the
sharp edge to prevent damaging the line.
• NEVER cut a line unless you have to. When
possible, always use knots that can be untied easily.
Fiber line contracts, or shrinks, if it gets wet. If
there is not enough slack in a wet line to permit
shrinkage, the line is likely to overstrain and weaken.
If a taut line is exposed to rain or dampness, make sure
that the line, while still dry, is slackened to allow for
the shrinkage.
When nylon line is properly handled and
maintained, it should last more than five times longer
than manila line subjected to the same use. Nylon line
is also lighter, more flexible, less bulky, and easier to
handle and store than manila line. When nylon line is
wet or frozen, it loses little strength. Additional y,
nylon line is resistant to mildew, rotting, and attack by
marine borers.
If a nylon line becomes slippery because of grease,
it should be cleaned with light oils, such as kerosene
or diesel oil.
Figure 4-3.—Size designation of line.
Uncoiling Line
New line is coiled, bound, and wrapped in burlap.
This protective covering should not be removed until
the line is to be used because it protects the line during
storage and prevents tangling. To open, remove the
burlap wrapping and look inside the coil for the end
of the line. This should be at the bottom of the coil.
If it is not, turn the coil over so that the end will be at
the bottom. Pull the end of the line up through the
center of the coil (fig. 4-4). As the line comes up
through the coil, it will unwind in a counterclockwise
Figure 4-5.—Colling down line after use
Uncoiling Nylon Line
Do not uncoil new nylon line by pulling the ends
up through the eye of the coil. Avoid coiling nylon in
the same direction all the time, or you could unbalance
the lay.
and is now on top. If, for some reason, the bottom end
must go out first, you will have to turn your coil over
to free it for running.
Making Up Line
Whipping a Line
After the line has been removed from the
manufacturer’s coil, it may be MADE UP (that is,
prepared for storage or for use) by winding on a reel.
It may also be made up by cooling down, faking down,
or blemishing down.
The term whipping refers to the process of
securing the ends of a line to prevent the strands
from unlaying and the yams from separating or
fraying. It will not increase the size of the line
enough to prevent the fitting of the blocks or
openings through which it must pass. Whippings
are made with fine twine.
To COIL DOWN a line simply means to lay it in
circles, roughly one on top of the other (fig. 4-5). Line
should always be coiled in the same direction as the
lay-clockwise for right lay and counterclockwise for
left lay. When a line has been coiled down, one end
is ready to run off. This is the end that went down last
Figure 4-6 shows the steps to follow in applying
a whipping. Make a loop in the end of the twine and
place the loop at the end of the line, as shown in the
figure. Wind the standing part around the line
covering the loop of the whipping. Leave a small loop
uncovered, as shown. Pass the remainder of the
standing end up through the small loop and pull the
dead end of the twine, thus pulling the small loop and
the standing end back towards the end of the line
underneath the whipping. Pull the dead end of the
twine until the loop with the standing end through it
reaches a point midway underneath the whipping.
Trim both ends of the twine closeup against the loops
of the whipping.
Before cutting a line, place two whippings on the
line 1 or 2 inches apart and make the cut between the
whippings, as shown in figure 4-7. This procedure
prevents the ends from untwisting after they are cut.
Figure 4-4.—Uncoiling line.
sawdust-like material inside the line. The presence of
dirt or other foreign matter indicates possible damage
to the internal structure of the line. In line having a
central core, the core should not break away in small
pieces upon examination. If this occurs, it indicates
that the line has been overloaded. Additionally, a
decrease in line circumference is usually a sure sign
that an excessive strain has been applied to the line.
For a thorough inspection, a line should be
examined at several places. After all, only one weak
spot—anywhere in the line-makes the entire line
weak. As a final check if the line appears to be
satisfactory in all aspects, pull out a couple of fibers
from the line and try to break them. Sound fibers show
a strong resistance to breakage.
If an inspection discloses any unsatisfactory
conditions in a line, destroy it or cut it into small pieces
as soon as possible. This precaution will prevent the
possibility of the defective line being used for hoisting
purposes, but save the small pieces for miscellaneous
uses on the jobsite.
Figure 4-6.—Whipping a line.
As with manila, nylon line is measured by
circumference. Nylon, as manila, usually comes on a
reel of 600 to 1,200 feet, depending upon the size.
Storing Line
When fiber line is to be stored, certain precautions
must be taken to safeguard the line against
deterioration. A line should never be stored when wet.
Always dry the line well before placing it in storage.
Figure 4-7.—Cutting a line between whipping.
After being used, a line should be coiled down in
a clockwise direction (assuming it is a right-hand lay).
Should the line be kinked from excessive turns,
remove them by the procedure known as “thorough
footing.” This is accomplished by coiling the line
down counterclockwise and then pulling the bottom
end of the coil up and out the middle of the coil. If the
line is free of kinks as it leaves the coil, make it up in
the correct manner. If the line is still kinked, repeat
the process before making up the line for storage.
Inspecting Line
The exterior appearance of fiber line is not always
a good indication of its internal condition. Line
softens with use, and dampness, heavy loads, fraying,
breaking or broken strands, and dragging over rough
surfaces all contribute to line weakening and failure.
Also, overloading a line can cause it to part and heavy
damage to material, equipment, and serious injury to
personnel can result. For these reasons, line should be
inspected carefully at regular intervals to determine
whether it is safe for use.
Where you store line deserves careful consideration. Line deteriorates rapidly if exposed to prolonged
dampness; therefore, it is important that the storage
area is dry, unheated, and well-ventilated. To permit
proper air circulation, place the line in loose coils on
a wood grating platform about 6 inches ( 15 cm) above
the floor. You can also hang the line in loose coils on
a wooden peg. Avoid continuous exposure of line to
sunlight because excessive sunlight can damage the
The interior of a line can be checked by untwisting
the strands slightly. Line that is mildewed gives off a
musty odor. Broken strands or yams usually can be
spotted immediately by a trained observer. You will
want to look carefully to ensure there is no dirt or
Safe Working Load
line. Do not store nylon line in strong sunlight. Cover
it with tarpaulins.
Briefly defined, the safe working load of a line is
the load that can be applied without causing damage
to the line. Remember that the safe working load of a
line is considerably less than the breaking strength. A
wide margin of difference between breaking strength
and safe working load is necessary to allow for such
factors as additional strain imposed on the line by
jerky movements in hoisting or bending over sheaves
in a pulley block
As a final precaution, line should NEVER be
exposed to lime, acids, or other chemicals, or even
stored in a room containing chemicals. Even the
fumes may severely damage the line.
Overloading a line poses a serious safety threat to
personnel It is also likely to result in heavy losses
through damage to material and equipment. To avoid
overloading, you must know the strength of the line
with which you are working. This involves three
factors: breaking strength, safe working load, and
safety factor.
You may not always have a chart available to tell
you the safe working load for a particular size line.
Fortunately, there is a rule of thumb with which you
can determine the safe working load (SWL).
SWL = C squared x 150
SWL = the safe working load in pounds
Breaking Strength
C = the circumference of the line in inches
To determine the SWL, simply take the
circumference of the line, square it, and then multiply
by 150. For example, for a 3-inch line, here is how
the rule works:
The term breaking strengfh refers to the tension at
which the line will break apart when an additional load
is applied. The breaking strength of the various lines
has been determined through tests made by line
manufacturers, and tables have been established to
provide this information. In the absence of a
manufacturer’s table, a rule of thumb for finding the
breaking strength of manila line is as follows:
3 x 3 x 150= 1,350 lb
Thus the safe working load of a 3-inch line is 1,350
In the metric system, the rule is as follows:
C squared x 900 = BS
SWL = C squared x 10.8
In this rule, C = circumference in inches and BS =
breaking strength in pounds. The circumference is
squared and the figure obtained is then multiplied by
900 to find BS. With a 3-inch line, for example, you
will get a BS of 8,100 pounds. This was figured as
SWL = the safe working load in kilograms
C = the circumference of the line in centimeters
Substituting in the equation for a 3-inch line the
centimeter equivalent of 3 inches (3 inches = 7.5 cm),
the formula becomes the following:
3 x 3 x 900 = 8,100 lb
7.5 cm x 7.5 cm x 10.8 = 607.5 kg
Thus the safe working load of a line 7.5 cm in
circumference is equal to 607.5 kg.
When the line is measured in centimeters, the
breaking strength can be figured in kilograms. The
same equation is used with only the constant being
changed to 64.8 (vice 900). The breaking strength in
kilograms is figured as follows:
NOTE: 10.8 is the metric constant equivalent to
150 in the decimal system.
If the line is in good shape, add 30 percent to the
calculated SWL. If it is in bad shape, subtract 30
percent from the SWL. In the example given above
for the 3-inch line, adding 30 percent to the 1,350
pounds would give you a safe working load of 1,755
pounds. On the other hand, subtracting 30 percent
from the 1,350 pounds would leave you a safe working
load of 945 pounds.
7.5 cm x 7.5 cm x 64.8 = 3,645 kg
The breaking strength of manila line is higher than
that of an equal-size sisal line. This is because of the
difference in strength of the two fibers. The fiber from
which a particular line is constructed has a definite
bearing on its breaking strength.
NOTE: The constant for the metric system is
Remember that the strength of a line will decrease
with age, use, and exposure to excessive heat, boiling
water, or sharp bends. Especially with used line, these
and other factors affecting strength should be given
careful consideration and proper adjustment made in
the breaking strength and safe working load capacity
of the line. Manufacturers of line provide tables to
show the breaking strength and safe working load
capacity of line. You will find such tables useful in
your work; however, you must remember that the
values given in manufacturers’ tables apply to NEW
LINE used under favorable conditions. For that
reason, you must PROGRESSIVELY REDUCE the
values given in the manufacturers’ tables as the line
ages or deteriorates with use.
Nylon line can withstand repeated stretching to
this point with no serious effects. When nylon line is
underload, it thins out. Under normal safe working
loads, nylon line will stretch about one third of its
length. When free of tension, it returns to its normal
When nylon line is stretched more than 40 percent,
it is likely to part. The stretch is immediately
recovered with a snapback that sounds like a pistol
shot .
The safety factor of a line is the ratio between the
breaking strength and the safe working load. Usually
a safety factor of 4 is acceptable, but this is not always
the case. In other words, the safety factor will vary,
depending on such things as the condition of the line
and circumstances under which it is to be used. While
the safety factor should never be less than 3, it often
must be well above 4 (possibly as high as 8 or 10). For
best, average, or unfavorable conditions, the safety
factors indicated below are usually suitable.
The snapback of a nylon line can be as
deadly as a bullet. This feature is also true for
other types of lines, but overconfidence in
the strength of nylon may lead one to
underestimate its backlash; therefore, ensure
that no one stands in the direct line of pull when
a heavy strain is applied to a line.
The critical point of loading is 40-percent
extension of length; for example, a 10-foot length of
nylon line would stretch to 14 feet when underload.
Should the stretch exceed 40 percent, the line will be
in danger of parting.
Best condition (new line): 4.
Average condition (line used, but in good
condition): 6.
Nylon line will hold a load even though a
considerable number of strands are abraded.
Ordinarily, when abrasion is localized the line maybe
made satisfactory for reuse by cutting away the chafed
section and splicing the ends.
Unfavorable condition (frequently used line, such
as running rigging): 8.
Breaking Strength of Nylon Line
The breaking strength of nylon line is almost three
times that of manila line of the same size. The rule of
thumb for the breaking strength of nylon line is as
The term knot is usually applied to any tie or
fastening formed with a cord, rope, or line. In a
general sense, it includes the words bends and
BS = C squared x 2,400
NOTE: The symbols in this rule are the same as
those for fiber line in both the English and metric
Line Parts
A BEND is used to fasten two lines together or to
fasten a line to a ring or loop. A HITCH is used to
fasten a line around a timber or spar, so it will hold
temporarily but can be readily untied. Many ties,
which are strictly bends, have come to be known as
knots; hence, we will refer to them as knots in this
Application of the formula: determine the BS
for a 2 1/2-inch nylon line in both pounds and
Solution: BS = 2.5 x 2.5 x 2,400 = 15,000 pounds
or BS = 6.35 cm x 6.35 cm x 172.8 = 6,967
those covered in this chapter, you should find it fairly
easy to learn the procedure for other types.
Knots, bends, and hitches are made from three
fundamental elements: a bight, a loop, and a round
turn. Observe figure 4-8 closely and you should
experience no difficulty in making these three
elements. Note that the free or working end of a line
is known as the RUNNING END. The remainder of
the line is called the STANDING PART.
Overhand Knot
The OVERHAND KNOT is considered the
simplest of all knots to make. To tie this knot, pass the
hose end of a line over the standing part and through
the loop that has been formed. Figure 4-9 shows you
what it looks like. The overhand knot is often used as
a part of another knot. At times, it may also be used
to keep the end of a line from untwisting or to form a
knob at the end of a line.
NOTE: A good knot is one that is tied rapidly,
holds fast when pulled tight, and is untied easily. In
addition to the knots, bends, and hitches described in
the following paragraphs, you may have need of others
in steelworking. When you understand how to make
Figure 4-8.—Elements of knots, bends, and hitches
knot, first bring the two ends of the line together and
make an overhand knot. Then form another
overhand knot in the opposite direction, as shown in
figure 4-11.
NOTE: A good rule to follow for a square knot
is left over right and right over left.
Figure 4-9.—Overhand knot.
When tying a square knot, make sure the two
overhand knots are parallel. ‘his means that each
running end must come out parallel to the standing
part of its own line. If your knot fails to meet this
test, you have tied what is known as a “granny.” A
granny knot should NEVER be used; it is unsafe
because it will slip under strain. A true square knot
instead of slipping under strain will only draw
Figure-Eight Knot
The FIGURE-EIGHT KNOT is used to form a
larger knot than would be formed by an overhand knot
in the end of a line (fig. 4-10). A figure-eight knot is
used in the end of a line to prevent the end from
slipping through a fastening or loop in another line.
To make the figure-eight knot, make a loop in the
standing part, pass the running end around the
standing part, back over one side of the loop and down
through the loop, and pull tight.
The SHEEPSHANK is generally thought of as
merely a means to shorten a line, but, in an emergency,
it can also be used to take the load off a weak spot
in the line. To make a sheepshank, form two bights
Square Knot
The SQUARE KNOT, also called the REEF
KNOT, is an ideal selection for tying two lines of the
same size together so they will not slip. To tie a square
Figure 4-11.—Square knot.
Figure 4-10.—Figure-eight knot
(fig. 4-12, view 1). Then take a half hitch around each
bight (views 2 and 3). In case you are using the
sheepshank to take the load off a weak spot, make sure
the spot is in the part of the line indicated by the arrow
in view 2.
The BOWLINE is especially useful when you
need a temporary eye in the end of a line. It will
neither slip nor jam and can be untied easily. To tie
a bowline, follow the procedure shown in figure
The FRENCH BOWLINE is sometimes used to
lift or hoist injured personnel. When the french
bowline is used for this purpose, it has two loops
which are adjustable, so even an unconscious person
can be lifted safely. One loop serves as a se at for the
person, while the other loop goes around the body
under the person’s arms. The weight of the person
keeps both loops tight and prevents the person from
falling. The procedure to follow in making the french
bowline is shown in figure 4-14.
Figure 4-13.—Bowline.
Spanish Bowline
The SPANISH BOWLINE is useful in rescue
work, especially as a substitute for the boatswain’s
chair. It may also be used to give a twofold grip for
lifting a pipe or other round object in a sling. Many
people prefer the spanish bowline to the french
bowline because the bights are set and will not slip
Figure 4-14.—French bowline.
Figure 4-12.—Sheepshank.
back and forth (as in the french bowline) when the
weight is shifted.
To tie a spanish bowline, take a bight and bend it
back away from you (fig. 4-15, view 1), forming two
bights. Then lap one bight over the other (view 2).
Next, grasp the two bights where they cross at (a) in
view 2. Fold this part down toward you, forming four
bights (view 3). Next, pass bight (c) through bight (e)
and bight (d) through bight (f) (view 4). The complete
knot is shown in view 5.
Running Bowline
The RUNNING BOWLINE is a good knot to use
in situations that call for a lasso. To form this knot,
start by making a bight with an overhand loop in the
running end (fig. 4-16, view 1). Now, pass the running
end of the line under and around the standing part and
then under one side of the loop (view 2). Next, pass
the running end through the loop, under and over the
side of the bight, and back through the loop (view 3).
Figure 4-15.—Spanish bowline
Becket Bend
An especially good knot for bending together
two lines that are unequal in size is the type
known as the BECKET BEND. The simple
procedure and necessary instructions for tying a
becket, single and double, are given in figure
Clove Hitch
When it comes to bending to a timber or spar
or anything that is round or nearly round, the
familiar CLOVE HITCH is an ideal selection.
Figure 4-18 shows how this knot is made. A
clove hitch will not jam or pull out; however, if a
clove hitch is slack, it might work itself out, and
for that reason, it is a good idea to make a HALF
HITCH in the end, as shown in figure 4-19, view
1. A half hitch never becomes a whole hitch.
Add a second one and all you have is two half
hitches, as shown in figure 4-19, view 2.
Figure 4-16.—Running bowline.
The SCAFFOLD HITCH is used to support the
end of a scaffold plank with a single line. To make the
scaffold hitch, lay the running end across the top
and around the plank, then up and over the standing
Figure 4-17.—Becket bend.
Figure 4-18.—Clove hitch.
Figure 4-20.—Scaffold hitch.
Figure 4-19.—Half hitch.
part (fig. 4-20, view 1). Bring a doubled portion of
the running end back under the plank (view 2) to form
a bight at the opposite side of the plank. The running
end is taken back across the top of the plank (view 3)
until it can be passed through the bight. Make a loop
in the standing part (view 4) above the plank. Pass the
running end through the loop and around the standing
part and back through the loop (view 5).
Figure 4-21.—Barrel hitch.
Barrel Hitch
the sides of the bight. To complete the hitch, place the
two “ears” thus formed over the end of the barrel.
A BARREL HITCH can be used to lift a barrel or
other rounded object that is either in a horizontal or a
vertical position. To sling a barrel horizontally (fig.
4-21), start by making a bowline with a long bight.
Then bring the line at the bottom of the bight up over
To sling a barrel vertically, pass the line under the
bottom of the barrel, bring it up to the top, and then
form an overhand knot (fig. 4-22, view 1). While
maintaining a slight tension on the line, grasp the two
Four general types of splices in fiber line are
commonly used in rigging work. They are the eye
splice, short splice, long splice, and back splice. Once
you learn how to make one type, the others should not
be difficult.
Eye Splice
The principal use of an EYE SPLICE is to make
an eye in the end of a line. The eye is useful in
fastening the line to a ring or hook. It can also be made
up with a thimble. A thimble is a grooved ring that
may be set in the eye of a line to prevent chafing. The
eye splice is estimated as being 90 percent as strong
as the line itself.
To make an eye splice, you UNLAY (untwist) the
strands in the end of your line about five turns, and
splice them into the standing part of the line by
TUCKING the unlaid strands from the end into the
standing part. An original round of tucks plus two
more complete rounds is enough for an ordinary eye
With large lines, you must whip the ends of your
strands before you start; otherwise, they will frazzle
out and cause you trouble. Large lines must also be
seized at the point where unlaying stops or you will
have trouble working them. With any lineup to about
2 inches (50 mm), you can open the strands in the
standing part with your fingers.
With larger lines, you use the fid. A fid is a tapered
and pointed tool made from maple, hickory, or other
hardwood. Figure 4-23 shows you the knack of
working the fid in making an eye splice. Lay your line
out along the deck with the end to your right. Bend it
back until your eye is the size you want it, and shove
the fid through the standing part at the right spot to
raise the top strand. Shove the fid through the rope
AWAY from you with your right hand as you hold the
line with your left. Take the raised strand with your
Figure 4-22.—A vertical barrel hitch.
parts of the overhand knot (fig. 4-22, view 2) and pull
them down over the sides of the barrel. Finally, pull
the line snug and make a bowline over the top of the
barrel (fig. 4-22, view 3).
When it is necessary to join lengths of line, a
splice, rather than a knot, should be used. A properly
made short splice will retain up to 100 percent of the
strength of the line, while a knot will retain only 50
“Splicing” means the joining of two separate lines.
It also means the retracing of the unlaid strand of the
line back through its own strands in the standing part
of the line.
Figure 4-23.—Working the fid
the other one under, and under the strand just below it
(view 3).
left finger and thumb and hold it up while you pull out
the fid. Drop the fid, pick up the proper strand in the
end, and tuck it through the raised strand from
Now turn the whole thing over. You can see (view
4) that you now have only one strand from the end left
untucked, and only one strand in the standing part that
does not already have a strand under it. Be sure you
tuck your last strand also from outboard toward you,
as shown in view 5.
outboard TOWARD you, as shown in the figure.
Your first round of tucks must be taken in proper
order or you will come out all fouled up. Separate the
strands in the end and hold them up, as shown in figure
4-24, view 1. The middle strand facing you always
The first round of tucks is the big secret. The rest
is easy. Simply tuck each strand from the end over the
strand of the standing part which it is now above, and
under the next strand below that one, until you have
tucks first. Be sure you keep the right-hand strand
(view 2) on the side of the line which is toward you.
You tuck that one next, over the strand you just tucked
Figure 4-24.—Making an eye splice.
tucked each strand twice more besides the original
tuck. Three tucks to each strand in all is enough.
is that the short splice requires less line and can be
fashioned quicker than the long splice.
Short Splice
In making a short splice, unlay both ends of the
lines about seven turns (fig. 4-25, view 1) and put a
temporary whipping on each of the loose strands. The
next step involves “marrying” the ends together. In
marrying, the technique is to interlace the loose
strands of one line with the loose strands of the other
line. When this is completed properly, each loose
strand should be between the two loose strands of the
other line. With the strands in this manner, start
making the tucks, following the principle of “over one
and under one” (view 2). One side of the splice car
be made with three tucks, and then the other side will
be made identically. Three complete tucks of each
In a SHORT SPLICE, the ends of a line are joined
together or the ends of two different lines are joined,
causing an increase in the diameter of the line for a
short distance. This splice should NOT be used where
the increase in the diameter of the line would affect
operation. One purpose for which you may find the
short splice especially useful is in making endless
slings. It is also used for making straps. Slings and
straps are made of pieces of line with their own ends
short-spliced together. Where possible, a short splice,
rather than a long splice, should be used. The reason
Figure 4-25.—Making a short splice.
To make a long splice, unlay the ends about 15
turns and arrange the strands as shown in figure 4-26,
view 1. Using two opposing strands, begin unlaying
one and follow immediately laying its opposing strand
tight into the left groove (fig. 4-26, view 2). Be sure
you choose the correct pairs of strands for opposites.
This is important. To determine the correct pair, try
laying one of the tucking ends into the opposite
standing line. The strand that this tucking end tends
to push out and replace will be the correct opposing
strand. In the process of replacing one strand with its
opposing tucking end, keep a close watch on the
marriage back at the starting place. If the other loose
tucking ends are allowed too much freedom, they will
divorce themselves from the original marriage. This
creates quite a puzzle for the splicer due to the fact that
the lines do not fit up correctly, and no matter which
two strands are chosen, the splicer seems to end up
with a stranger between them or else the last tucking
ends have two strands between them. Therefore, it is
important to keep the marriage intact when replacing
strand should be sufficient to ensure a safe splice
(view 3). As a finishing touch, cut off all loose ends
and roll and pound the splice on a hard surface
(view 4).
Long Splice
In a LONG SPLICE, either the ends of a line are
joined together or the ends of two different lines are
joined without increasing the diameter of the line. The
strength of a properly made long splice will be equal
to that of the line itself. The long splice is ideal for
joining two lines where the line will be run over
pulleys in a block. A short-spliced line would not
serve this purpose since the diameter of the line at the
point of splicing is larger than that of the remaining
portion and may not pass over the pulleys in the block
properly. The long splice also has a neater appearance
than the short splice.
Figure 4-26.—Making a long splice.
one strand with another. Cut off all the remainders of
the ends close up, then roll and pound the line so the
tucks will settle in tight. As soon as you have gone far
enough with the first tucking end to have its end left
to make an overhand knot and two tucks, stop and tie
the ends together. This procedure must be done in the
correct direction; the ends must stand out away from
the standing part, not alongside.
Now, select two more opposing strands from the
marriage in the same manner as before. Be careful to
pick the correct two strands. Proceed to unlay and
replace (DOWN TIGHT) as you did the first
pair-this time in the opposite direction. When the
proper place is reached, tie a knot (view 3).
You now have two opposing strands with which
you have nothing to do but make an overhand knot. If
at this point there happens to be a standing strand
running between them, a wrong choice has been made
in choosing opposing strands (pairs) during one of the
first two steps. The solution is to bring one or the other
of these first two back and redo it with the correct pair.
When completed, the splice should look similar to the
example shown in view 4.
After all three overhand knots have been correctly
tied, then start tucking all the loose ends over one and
under one, twice each. Cut off all the remainders of
the ends close up, then roll and pound the line so the
tucks will settle in tight. When completed, the splice
will look like view 4.
Figure 4-27.—Making a back splice
same principle as with the eye and short splice—over
one and under one.
Because the back splice leaves a lump in the line,
it should not be used where there is a possibility of the
enlarged end hanging up, as might be the case if it were
run through hoisting blocks.
Back Splice
In a BACK SPLICE, the strands at the end of a
line are spliced back into its own strands. This splice
is used to prevent a line from unlaying or unraveling
when an enlargement at the end of the line is not
Nylon line can hold a load even when many
strands are abraded. Normal] y, when abrasion is local,
the line may be restored to use by cutting away the
chafed section and splicing the ends. Chafing and
stretching do not necessarily affect the load-carrying
ability of nylon line.
The back splice starts from a crown knot. The
procedure for making aback splice is shown in figure
The splicing of nylon line is similar to that of
manila; however, friction tape is used instead of
seizing stuff for whipping the strands and line.
Because it is smooth and elastic, nylon line requires at
least one tuck more than does manila. For heavy
loads, a back tuck should be taken with each strand.
After you have hauled the crown down tight by
heaving on each of the three strands, proceed to lay up
the back splice. This merely requires splicing the
three loose strands back into the line, following the
Wire rope is stronger, lasts longer, and is much
more resistant to abrasion than fiber line. Because of
these factors, wire rope is used for hoisting tasks that
are too heavy for fiber line to handle. Also, many of
the movable components on hoisting devices and
attachments are moved by wire rope.
and the proper handling procedures for wire rope are
also discussed.
NOTE: In the Navy, you may hear wire rope
referred to as wire or rope but never as line.
Wire rope is an intricate device made up of a
number of precise moving parts. The moving parts of
wire rope are designed and manufactured to maintain
a definite relationship with one another. This
relationship ensures that the wire rope has the
flexibility and strength crucial to professional and safe
hoisting operations.
Wire rope is composed of three parts: wires,
strands, and core (fig. 5-1). A predetermined number
of wires of the same or different size are fabricated in
a uniform arrangement of definite lay to form a strand.
The required number of strands is then laid together
symmetrically around the core to form the wire rope.
The basic component of the wire rope is the wire.
The wire may be made of steel, iron, or other metal in
various sizes. The number of wires to a strand varies,
This chapter discusses the construction, the
characteristics and specifications, and the criteria used
for the selection of wire rope. The related attachments
Figure 5-1.—Fabrication of wire rope
depending on what purpose the wire rope is intended.
Wire rope is designated by the number of strands per
rope and the number of wires per strand. Thus a
1/2-inch 6 by 19 wire rope has six strands with
19 wires per strand. It has the same outside diameter
as a 1/2-inch 6 by 37 wire rope that has six strands with
37 wires (of smaller size) per strand.
Figure 5-3.—Core construction.
The design arrangement of a strand is called the
construction. The wires in the strand may be all the
same size or a mixture of sizes. The most common
strand constructions are Ordinary, Scale, Warrington,
and Filler (fig. 5-2).
cushion to reduce the effects of sudden strain and act as
an oil reservoir to lubricate the wire and strands (to
reduce friction). Wire rope with a fiber core is used
when flexibility of the rope is important.
. Ordinary construction wires are all the same size.
. Scale is where larger diameter wires are used on
the outside of the strand to resist abrasion and smaller
wires are inside to provide flexibility.
. A wire strand core resists more heat than a fiber
core and also adds about 15 percent to the strength of
the rope; however, the wire strand core makes the wire
rope less flexible than a fiber core.
l Warrington is where alternate wires are large and
small to combine great flexibility with resistance to
. An independent wire rope core is a separate wire
rope over which the main strands of the rope are laid.
This core strengthens the rope, provides support against
crushing, and supplies maximum resistance to heat.
l Filler is where small wires fill in the valleys
between the outer and inner rows of wires to provide
good abrasion and fatigue resistance.
When an inspection discloses any unsatisfactory
conditions in a line, ensure the line is destroyed or cut
into small pieces as soon as possible. This precaution
prevents the defective line from being used for
The wire rope core supports the strands laid
around it. The three types of wire rope cores are fiber,
wire strand, and independent wire rope (fig. 5-3).
Wire rope may be manufactured by either of two
methods. When the strands or wires are shaped to
conform to the curvature of the finished rope before
laying up, the rope is termed preformed wire rope.
. A fiber core maybe a hard fiber, such as manila,
hemp, plastic, paper, or sisal. The fiber core offers the
advantage of increased flexibility. It also serves as a
Figure 5-2.—Common strand construction.
When they are not shaped before fabrication, the wire
rope is termed nonpreformed wire rope.
The term lay refers to the direction of the twist of
the wires in a strand and the direction that the strands
are laid in the rope. In some instances, both the wires
in the strand and the strands in the rope are laid in the
same direction; and in other instances, the wires are
laid in one direction and the strands are laid in the
opposite direction, depending on the intended use of
the rope. Most manufacturers specify the types and
lays of wire rope to be used on their piece of
equipment. Be sure and consult the operator’s manual
for proper application.
The most common type of manufactured wire rope
is preformed. When wire rope is cut, it tends not to
unlay and is more flexible than nonpreformed wire
rope. With nonpreformed wire rope, twisting produces
a stress in the wires; therefore, when it is cut or broken,
the stress causes the strands to unlay.
When wire rope is cut or broken, the almost
instantaneous unlaying of the wires and strands
of nonpreformed wire rope can cause serious
injury to someone that is careless or not familiar
with this characteristic of the rope.
The five types of lays used in wire rope are as
• Right Regular Lay: In right regular lay rope, the
wires in the strands are laid to the left, while the strands
are laid to the right to form the wire rope.
• Left Regular Lay: In left regular lay rope, the
wires in the strands are laid to the right, while the strands
are laid to the left to form the wire rope. In this lay, each
step of fabrication is exactly opposite from the right
regular lay.
The three primary grades of wire rope are mild
plow steel, plow steel, and improved plow steel.
Mild Plow Steel Wire Rope
• Right Lang Lay: In right lang lay rope, the
wires in the strands and the strands in the rope are laid
in the same direction; in this instance, the lay is to the
Mild plow steel wire rope is tough and pliable. It
can stand repeated strain and stress and has a tensile
strength (resistance to lengthwise stress) of from
200,000 to 220,000 pounds per square inch (psi).
These characteristics make it desirable for cable tool
drilling and other purposes where abrasion is
• Left Lang Lay: In left lang lay rope,
wires in the strands and the strands in the rope
also laid in the same direction; in this instance,
lay is to the left (rather than to the right as in
right lang lay).
Plow Steel Wire Rope
• Reverse Lay: In reverse lay rope, the wires in
one strand are laid to the right, the wires in the nearby
strand are laid to the left, the wires in the next strand are
laid to the right, and so forth, with alternate directions
from one strand to the other. Then all strands are laid to
the right.
Plow steel wire rope is unusually tough and
strong. This steel has a tensile strength of 220,000 to
240,000 psi. Plow steel wire rope is suitable for
hauling, hoisting, and logging.
Improved Plow Steel Wire Rope
The five different lays of wire rope are shown in
figure 5-4.
Improved plow steel wire rope is one of the best
grades of rope available and is the most common rope
used in the Naval Construction Force (NCF).
Improved plow steel is stronger, tougher, and more
resistant to wear than either mild plow steel or plow
steel. Each square inch of improved plow steel can
stand a strain of 240,000 to 260,000 pounds; therefore,
this wire rope is especially useful for heavy-duty
service, such as cranes with excavating and
weight-handling attachments.
The length of a wire rope lay is the distance
measured parallel to the center line of a wire rope in
that a strand makes one complete spiral or turn around
the rope. The length of a strand lay is the distance
measured parallel to the centerline of the strand in that
one wire makes one complete spiral or turnaround the
Figure 5-4.—Lays of wire rope.
strand. Lay length measurement is shown in
figure 5-5.
Figure 5-6.—A. 6 by 19 wire rope; B. 6 by 37 wire rope.
usual. The wires in the 6 by 37 are smaller than the
wires in the 6 by 19 wire rope and, consequently, will
not stand as much abrasive wear.
The primary types of wire rope used by the NCF
consist of 6, 7, 12, 19, 24, or 37 wires in each strand.
Usually, the wire rope has six strands laid around the
core .
The two most common types of wire rope, 6 by 19
and 6 by 37, are shown in figure 5-6. The 6 by 19 type
(having six strands with 19 wires in each strand) is the
stiffest and strongest construction of the type of wire
rope suitable for general hoisting operations. The 6 b y
37 wire rope (having six strands with 37 wires in each
strand) is flexible, making it suitable for cranes and
similar equipment where sheaves are smaller than
Several factors must be considered when you
select a wire rope for use in a particular type of
operation. Manufacture of a wire rope that can
withstand all of the different types of wear and stress,
it is subjected to, is impossible. Because of this factor,
selecting a rope is often a matter of compromise. You
must sacrifice one quality to have some other more
urgently needed characteristic.
Tensile Strength
Tensile strength is the strength necessary to
withstand a certain maximum load applied to the rope.
It includes a reserve of strength measured in a
so-called factor of safety.
Figure 5-5.—Lay length of wire rope.
Crushing Strength
Crushing strength is the strength necessary to
resist the compressive and squeezing forces that
distort the cross section of a wire rope, as it runs over
sheaves, rollers, and hoist drums when under a heavy
load. Regular lay rope distorts less in these situations
than lang lay.
Wire rope is designated by its diameter, in inches.
The correct method of measuring the wire rope is to
measure from the top of one strand to the top of the
strand directly opposite it. The wrong way is to
measure across two strands side by side.
To ensure an accurate measurement of the
diameter of a wire rope, always measure the rope at
three places, at least 5 feet apart (fig. 5-7). Use the
average of the three measurements as the diameter of
the rope.
Fatigue Resistance
Fatigue resistance is the ability to withstand the
constant bending and flexing of wire rope that runs
continuously on sheaves and hoist drums. Fatigue
resistance is important when the wire rope must be run
at high speeds. Such constant and rapid bending of the
rope can break individual wires in the strands. Lang
lay ropes are best for service requiring high fatigue
resistance. Ropes with smaller wires around the
outside of their strands also have greater fatigue
resistance, since these strands are more flexible.
NOTE: A crescent wrench can be used as an
expedient means to measure wire rope.
The term safe working load (SWL) of wire rope is
used to define the load which can be applied that
allows the rope to provide efficient service and also
prolong the life of the rope.
Abrasion Resistance
The formula for computing the SWL of a wire
rope is the diameter of the rope squared, multiplied by
Abrasion resistance is the ability to withstand the
gradual wearing away of the outer metal, as the rope
runs across sheaves and hoist drums. The rate of
abrasion depends mainly on the load carried by the
rope and the running speed. Generally, abrasion
resistance in a rope depends on the type of metal that
the rope is made of and the size of the individual outer
wires. Wire rope made of the harder steels, such as
improved plow steel, has considerable resistance to
abrasion. Ropes that have larger wires forming the
outside of their strands are more resistant to wear than
ropes having smaller wires that wear away more
D x D x 8 = SWL (in tons)
Example: The wire rope is 1/2 inch in diameter.
Compute the SWL for the rope.
The first step is to convert the 1/2 into decimal
numbers by dividing the bottom number of the
fraction into the top number of the fraction: (1 divided
by 2 = .5.) Next, compute the SWL formula: (.5 x .5
x 8 = 2 tons.) The SWL of the 1/2-inch wire rope is 2
Corrosion Resistance
Corrosion resistance is the ability to withstand the
dissolution of the wire metal that results from
chemical attack by moisture in the atmosphere or
elsewhere in the working environment. Ropes that are
put to static work, such as guy wires, maybe protected
from corrosive elements by paint or other special
dressings. Wire rope may also be galvanized for
corrosion protection. Most wire ropes used in crane
operations must rely on their lubricating dressing to
double as a corrosion preventive.
Figure 5-7.—Correct and incorrect methods of measuring
wire rope.
Do NOT downgrade the SWL of wire rope
because it is old, worn, or in poor condition.
Wire rope in these conditions should be cut up
and discarded.
Some of the common causes of wire rope failure
are the following:
Use of an improperly attached fitting
Grit being allowed to penetrate between the
strands, causing internal wear
Being subjeted to severe or continuing overload
Attachments can be put on a wire rope to allow it
to be attached to other ropes; for example, pad eyes,
chains, or equipment.
• Using incorrect size, construction or grade
• Dragging over obstacles
• Improper lubrication
Operating over sheaves and drums of
inadequate size
Overriding or cross winding on drums
Operating over sheaves and drums with
improperly fitted grooves or broken flanges
Jumping off sheaves
Exposure to acid fumes
Some end fittings that are easily and quickly
changed are wire rope clips, clamps, thimbles, wedge
sockets, and basket sockets. Generally these
attachments permit the wire rope to be used with
greater flexibility than a more permanent splice would
allow. These attachments allow the same wire rope to
be made in numerous different arrangements.
Wire Rope Clips
Wire rope clips are used to make eyes in wire rope,
as shown in figure 5-8. The U-shaped part of the clip
with the threaded ends is called the U-bolt; the other
Figure 5-8.—Wire rope clips
part is called the saddle. The saddle is stamped with
the diameter of the wire rope that the clip will fit.
Always place a clip with the U-bolt on the bitter (dead)
end, not on the standing part of the wire rope. When
clips are attached incorrectly, the standing part (live
end) of the wire rope will be distorted or have smashed
spots. A rule of thumb to remember when attaching a
wire rope clip is to “NEVER saddle a dead horse.”
Figure 5-10.—Wire rope.
After the eye made with clips has been strained,
the nuts on the clips must be retightened. Checks
should be made now and then for tightness or damage
to the rope cause by the clips.
Two simple formulas for figuring the number of
wire rope clips needed are as follows:
3 x wire rope diameter+ 1 = Number of clips
6 x wire rope diameter= Spacing between clips
Wedge Socket
Another type of wire rope clip is the twin-base
clip, often referred to as the universal or two clamp
(fig. 5-9). Both parts of this clip are shaped to fit the
wire rope; therefore, the clip cannot be attached
incorrectly. The twin-base clip allows a clear
360-degree swing with the wrench when the nuts are
being tightened.
A wedge socket end fitting (fig. 5-11) is used in
situations that require the fitting to be changed
frequently. For example, the attachment used most
often to attach dead ends of wire ropes to pad eyes, or
like fittings, on cranes and earthmoving equipment is
the wedge socket. The socket is applied to the bitter
end of the wire rope. Fabricated in two parts, the
wedge socket has a tapered opening for the wire rope
and a small wedge to fit into the tapered socket. The
loop of wire rope must be installed in the wedge
socket, so the standing part of the wire rope will form
a nearly direct line to the clevis pin of the fitting. When
a wedge socket is assembled correctly, it tightens as a
load is placed on the wire rope.
Wire Rope Clamps
Wire rope clamps (fig. 5-10) are used to make an
eye in the rope with or without a thimble; however, a
clamp is normally used without a thimble. The eye will
have approximately 90 percent of the strength of the
rope. The two end collars should be tightened with
wrenches to force the wire rope clamp to a good, snug
fit. This squeezes the rope securely against each other.
When an eye is made in a wire rope, a metal fitting,
called a thimble, is usually placed in the eye (fig. 5-8).
The thimble protects the eye against wear. Wire rope
eyes with thimbles and wire rope clips can hold
approximately 80 percent of the wire rope strength.
Figure 5-9.—Twin-base wire rope clip.
Figure 5-11.—A. Wedge socket B. Parts of a wedge socket.
Permanent eyes in wire rope slings can also be
made in 3/8- to 5/8-inch (9.5 to 15.9-mm) wire rope
by using the nicopress portable hydraulic splicing tool
and oval sleeves. The nicopress portable splicing tool
(fig. 5-14) consists of a hand-operated hydraulic pump
connected to a ram head assembly. Included as a part
of the tool kit are interchangeable compression dies
for wire sizes 3/8, 7/16, 1/2, 9/16, and 5/8 inch (9.5,
11.1, 12.7, 14.3, and 15.9 mm). The dies are in
machined halves with a groove size to match the oval
sleeve and the wire rope being spliced. The oval
sleeves (fig. 5-15) are available in plain copper or
zinc-plated copper.
N O T E : The wedge socket efficiency is
approximately two thirds of the breaking strength of
the wire rope due to the crushing action of the wedge.
Basket Socket
A basket socket is normally attached to the end of
the rope with either molten zinc or babbitt metal;
therefore, it is a permanent end fitting. In all
circumstances, dry or poured, the wire rope should
lead from the socket in line with the axis of the socket.
DRY METHOD.— The basket socket can also&
fabricated by the dry method (fig. 5- 12) when facilities
are not available to make a poured fitting; however, its
strength will be reduced to approximately one sixth of
that of a poured zinc connection.
To make an eye splice, pick an oval sleeve equal
to the size of the wire rope being spliced. Slide the
sleeve over the bitter end of the length of rope, then
form an eye and pass the bitter end through the end
again (fig. 5-16). Next, place the lower half of the
compression die in the ram head assembly. Place the
oval sleeve in this lower half and drop in the upper half
of the die. Fully insert the thrust pin that is used to hold
the dies in place when making the swage. Start
pumping the handle and continue to do so until the dies
meet. At this time the overload valve will pop off, and
a 100-percent efficient splice is formed (fig. 5-17).
Retract the plunger and remove the swaged splice.
POURED METHOD.—– The poured basket
socket (fig. 5-13) is the preferred method of basket
socket assembly. Properly fabricated, it is as strong as
the rope itself, and when tested to destruction, a wire
rope will break before it will pull out of the socket.
When molten lead is used vice zinc, the strength of the
connection must be approximate] y three fourths of the
strength of a zinc connection
Figure 5-12.—Attaching a basket socket by the dry method.
Figure 5-13.—Attaching a basket socket by the pouring method.
Figure 5-14.—Nicopress portable splicing tool.
Figure 5-16.-Starting an eye splice using an oval sleeve.
Figure 5-15.—Oval sleeve.
Figure 5-17.—Completed eye splice using an oval sleeve.
Check the swage with the gauge supplied in each
die set (fig. 5-18). This process represents a
savings in time over the eye formed by using wire
rope clips.
Additionally, lap splices can be made with
nicopress oval sleeves (fig. 5-19). Usually, two sleeves
are needed to create a full-strength splice. A short
Figure 5-18.—Swage gauge.
Figure 5-19.—Lap splice using a nicopress oval sleeve.
Figure 5-20.—Throwing a back turn.
space should be maintained between the two sleeves,
as shown. The lap splice should be tested before being
reel helps keep the rope straight. During unreeling,
pull the rope straight forward and avoid hurrying the
operation. As a safeguard against kinking, NEVER
unreel wire rope from a reel that is stationary.
To render safe, dependable service over a
maximum period of time, you should take good care
and upkeep of the wire rope that is necessary to keep
it in good condition. Various ways of caring for and
handling wire rope are listed below.
To uncoil a small coil of wire rope, simply stand
the coil on edge and roll it along the ground like a
wheel, or hoop (fig. 5-21, view B). NEVER lay the
coil flat on the floor or ground and uncoil it by pulling
on the end because such practice can kink or twist the
Coiling and Uncoiling
Once anew reel has been opened, it may be coiled
or faked down, like line. The proper direction of
coiling is counterclockwise for left lay wire rope and
clockwise for right lay wire rope. Because of the
general toughness and resilience of wire, it often tends
to resist being coiled down. When this occurs, it is
useless to fight the wire by forcing down the turn
because the wire will only spring up again. But if it is
thrown in a back turn, as shown in figure 5-20, it will
lie down proper] y. A wire rope, when faked down, will
run right off like line; but when wound in a coil, it must
always be unwound.
One of the most common types of damage
resulting from the improper handling of wire rope is
the development of a kink. A kink starts with the
formation of a loop (fig. 5-22).
A loop that has not been pulled tight enough to set
the wires, or strands, of the rope into a kink can be
removed by turning the rope at either end in the proper
direction to restore the lay, as shown in figure 5-23. If
this is not done and the loop is pulled tight enough to
cause a kink (fig. 5-24), the kink will result in
irreparable damage to the rope (fig. 5-25).
Kinking can be prevented by proper uncoiling and
unreeling methods and by the correct handling of the
rope throughout its installation.
Wire rope tends to kink during uncoiling or
unreeling, especially if it has been in service for a long
time. A kink can cause a weak spot in the rope that
wears out quicker than the rest of the rope.
Reverse Bends
A good method for unreeling wire rope is to run a
pipe, or rod, through the center and mount the reel on
drum jacks or other supports, so the reel is off the
ground (fig. 5-21, view A). In this way, the reel will
turn as the rope is unwound, and the rotation of the
Whenever possible, drums, sheaves, and blocks
used with wire rope should be placed to avoid reverse
or S-shaped bends. Reverse bends cause the individual
wires or strands to shift too much and increase wear and
fatigue. For a reverse bend, the drums and blocks affecting
Figure 5-21.—A. Unreeling wire rope; B. Uncoiling wire rope.
the reversal should be of a larger diameter than
ordinarily used and should be spaced as far apart as
Sizes of Sheaves
The diameter of a sheave should never be less than
20 times the diameter of the wire rope. An exception
is 6 by 37 wire for a smaller sheave that can be used
because this wire rope is more flexible.
Figure 5-22.—A wire rope loop.
Table 5-1.—Suggested Mininum Tread Diameter of sheaves
and Drums
secured properly, the original balance of tension is
disturbed and maximum service cannot be obtained
because some strands can carry a greater portion of the
load than others. Before cutting steel wire rope, place
seizing on each side of the point where the rope is to
be cut, as shown in figure 5-26.
Figure 5-23.—The correct way to remove a loop in a wire
A rule of thumb for determining the size, number,
and distance between seizing is as follows:
1. The number of seizing to be applied equals
approximately three times the diameter of the rope.
Example: 3- x 3/4-inch-diameter rope = 2 1/4
inches. Round up to the next higher whole number and
use three seizings.
Figure 5-24.—A wire rope kink.
2. The width of each seizing should be 1 to 1 1/2
times as long as the diameter of the rope.
Example: 1- x 3/4-inch-diameter rope= 3/4 inch.
Use a 1-inch width of seizing.
Figure 5-25.—Kink damage.
3. The seizing should be spaced a distance equal
to twice the diameter of the wire rope.
The chart shown in table 5-1 can be used to
determine the minimum sheave diameter for wire rope
of various diameters and construction.
Example: 2- x 3/4-inch-diameter rope = 1 1/2
inches. Space the seizing 2 inches apart.
Seizing and Cutting
A common method used to make a temporary wire
rope seizing is as follows:
The makers of wire rope are careful to lay each
wire in the strand and each strand in the rope under
uniform tension. When the ends of the rope are not
Wind on the seizing wire uniformly, using tension
on the wire. After taking the required number of turns,
as shown in step 1, twist the ends of the wires
Figure 5-26.—Seizing wire rope.
counterclockwise by hand, so the twisted portion of
the wires is near the middle of the seizing, as shown
in step 2. Grasp the ends with end-cutting nippers and
twist up the slack, as shown in step 3. Do not try to
tighten the seizing by twisting. Draw up on the seizing,
as shown in step 4. Again twist up the slack, using
nippers, as shown in step 5. Repeat steps 4 and 5 if
necessary. Cut the ends and pound them down on the
rope, as shown in step 6. When the seizing is to be
permanent or when the rope is 1 5/8 inches or more in
diameter, use a serving bar, or iron, to increase tension
on the seizing wire when putting on the turns.
cut and continue to operate the cutter until the wire
rope is cut.
Wire rope should be inspected at regular internals,
the same as fiber line. The frequency of inspection is
determined by the use of the rope and the conditions
under which it is used.
Throughout an inspection, the rope should be
examined carefully for fishhooks, kinks, and worn and
corroded spots. Usual] y breaks in individual wires will
be concentrated in areas where the wire runs
continually over the sheaves or bend onto the drum.
Abrasion or reverse and sharp bends cause individual
wires to break and bend back These breaks are known
as fishhooks. When wires are slightly worn but have
broken off squarely and stick out all over the rope, that
condition is usually caused by overloading or rough
handling. If the breaks are confined to one or two
Wire rope can be cut successfully by a number of
methods. One effective and simple method is to use a
hydraulic type of wire rope cutter, as shown in figure
5-27. Remember that all wire should be seized before
it is cut. For best results in using this method, place
the rope in the cutter, so the blade comes between the
two central seizings. With the release valve closed,
jack the blade against the rope at the location of the
normally caused by improper, infrequent, or no
lubrication, the internal wires of the rope are often
subject to extreme friction and wear. This type of
internal and often invisible destruction of the wires is
one of the most frequent causes of unexpected and
sudden wire rope failure. To safeguard against this
occurring, you should always keep the rope well
lubricated and handle and store it properly.
Wire rope should always be cleaned carefully
before lubrication. Scraping or steaming removes
most of the dirt and grit that has accumulated on used
wire rope. Rust should be removed at regular intervals
by wire brushing. The objective of cleaning is to
remove all foreign material and old lubricant from the
valleys between the strands as well as the spaces
between the outer wires. This allows the new lubricant
to flow into the rope.
Figure 5-27.—Types of wire rope cutters: A. Hydraulic; B.
Wire rope bending around hoist drums and
sheaves will wear like any other metal article, so
lubrication is just as important to an operating wire
rope as it is to any other piece of working machinery.
For a wire rope to work right, the wires and strands
must be free to move. Friction from corrosion or lack
of lubrication shortens the service life of wire rope.
Deterioration from corrosion is more dangerous
than that from wear because corrosion ruins the inside
wires —a process hard to detect by inspection.
Deterioration caused by wear can be detected by
examining the outside wires of the wire rope because
these wires become flattened and reduced in diameter
as the wire rope wears.
strands, then the strength of the rope maybe seriously
reduced. When 4 percent of the total number of wires
in the rope are found to have breaks within the length
of one lay of the rope, the rope is considered unsafe.
Consider the rope unsafe when three broken wires are
found in one strand of 6 by 7 rope, six broken wires in
one strand of 6 b y 19 rope, or nine broken wires in one
strand of 6 by 37 rope.
Both internal and external lubrication protects a
wire rope against wear and corrosion. Internal
lubrication can be properly applied only when the wire
rope is being manufactured, and manufacturers
customarily coat every wire with a rust-inhibiting
lubricant, as it is laid into the strand. The core is also
lubricated in manufacturing,
Overloading a rope will reduce the diameter.
Additionally, failure to lubricate wire rope will reduce
the diameter. This occurs because the hemp core will
eventually dry out and collapse or shrink. The
surrounding strands are therefore deprived of support,
and the strength and dependability of the rope are
equally reduced. Rope that is 75 percent of its original
diameter should be removed from service.
Lubrication that is applied in the field is designed
not only to maintain surface lubrication but also to
prevent the loss of the internal lubrication provided by
the manufacturer. The Navy issues an asphaltic
petroleum oil that must be heated before using. This
lubricant is known as Lubricating Oil for Chain, Wire
Rope, and Exposed Gear and comes in two types:
When wide-spread pitting and corrosion of the
wires are visible through inspection, the rope should
be removed from service. Special care should be taken
to examine the valleys and small spaces between the
strands for rust and corrosion. Since corrosion is
• Type I, Regular: Does not prevent rust and is
used where rust prevention is not needed; for example,
elevator wires used inside are not exposed to the
weather but need lubrication.
• Type II, Protective: A lubricant and an
anticorrosive that comes in three grades: grade A, for
cold weather (60°F and below); grade B, for warm
weather (between 60°F and 80°F); and grade C, for hot
weather (80°F and above).
The oil, issued in 25-pound and 35-pound buckets
and in 100-pound drums, can be applied with a stiff
brush, or the wire rope can be drawn through a trough
of hot lubricant, as shown in figure 5-28. The
frequency of application depends upon service
conditions; as soon as the last coating has appreciably
deteriorated, it should be renewed.
A good lubricant to use when working in the field,
as recommended by COMSECOND/COMTHIRD
NCBINST 11200.11, is a mixture of new motor oil and
diesel fuel at a ratio of 70-percent oil and 30-percent
diesel fuel. The NAVFAC P-404 contains added
information on additional lubricants that can be used.
Figure 5-28.—Trough method of lubricating wire rope
motion of machinery may sling excess oil around over
crane cabs and onto catwalks, making them unsafe.
Wire rope should never be stored in an area where
acid is or has been kept. This must be stressed to all
hands. The slightest trace of acid or acid fumes coming
in contact with wire rope will damage it at the contact
spot. Wire that has given way has been found many
times to be acid damaged.
Never lubricate wire rope that works a dragline or
other attachments that normally bring the wire rope in
contact with soils. The reason is that the lubricant will
pick up fine particles of material, and the resulting
abrasive action will be detrimental to both the wire
rope and sheave.
It is paramount that wire rope be cleaned and
lubricated properly before placing it in storage.
Fortunately, corrosion of wire rope can be virtually
eliminated if lubricant is applied properly and
sufficient protection from the weather is provided,
Remember that rust, corrosion of wires, and
deterioration of the fiber core will significantly reduce
the strength of wire rope. Although it is not possible
to say exactly the loss due to these effects, it is
certainly enough to take precautions against.
As a safety precaution, always wipe off any excess
when lubricating wire rope, especially with hoisting
equipment. Too much lubricant can get into brakes or
clutches and cause them to fail. While in use, the
Rigging is the method of handling materials using
fiber line, wire rope, and associated equipment. Fiber
line and wire rope were discussed in chapters 4 and 5.
We will now discuss how these materials and
equipment can be used in various tackle and lever
arrangements to form the fundamental rigging
necessary to move heavy loads. Additionally, we
discuss the makeup of block and tackle, reeving
procedures, and common types of tackle
arrangements. Information is also provided on other
common types of weight-handling devices, such as
slings, spreaders, pallets, jacks, planks and rollers,
blocking and cribbing, and scaffolds.
block. A tackle is an assembly of blocks and lines used
to gain a mechanical advantage in lifting and pulling.
The mechanical advantage of a machine is the
amount the machine can multiply the force used to lift
or move a load. The strength of an individual
determines the weight he or she can push or pull. The
ability to push or pull is referred to as the amount of
force the individual can exert. To move any load
heavier than the force you can exert requires the use
of a machine that can provide a mechanical advantage
to multiply the force you can apply. If you use a
machine that can produce a push or pull on an object
that is 10 times greater than the force you apply, the
machine has a mechanical advantage of 10. For
example, if the downward pull on a block-and-tackle
assembly requires 10 pounds of force to raise 100
pounds, the assembly has a mechanical advantage of
SAFETY is paramount in importance. You will be
briefed throughout this chapter on safety measures to
be observed as it pertains to the various operations or
particular equipment we are discussing. Also,
formulas are given for your use in calculating the
working loads of various weight-moving devices,
such as hooks, shackles, chains, and so on. SAFE
rigging is the critical link in the weight-handling
In a tackle assembly, the line is reeved over the
sheaves of blocks. The two types of tackle systems are
simple and compound. A simple tackle system is an
assembly of blocks in which a single line is used (fig.
6-2, view A). A compound tackle system is an
assembly of blocks in which more than one line is used
(fig. 6-2, view B).
The most commonly used mechanical device is
block and tackle. A block (fig. 6-1) consists of one or
more sheaves fitted in a wood or metal frame
supported by a shackle inserted in the strap of the
Figure 6-2.—Tackles: A. Simple tackle; B. Compound tackle.
Figure 6-1.—Parts of a fiber line block.
• The becket is a metal loop formed at one or both
ends of a block; the standing part of the line is fastened
to the becket.
The terms used to describe the parts of a tackle
(fig. 6-3) and various assemblies of tackle are as
• The straps inner and outer) hold the block
together and support the pin on which the sheaves
• The block(s) in a tackle assembly change(s) the
direction of pull, provides mechanical advantage, or
• The shallow is the opening in the block through
which the line passes.
• The fall is either a wire rope or fiber line reeved
through a pair of blocks to form a tackle.
• The breech is the part of the block opposite the
• The hauling part of the fall leads from the block
upon which the power is exerted.
• To overhaul means to lengthen a tackle by
pulling the two blocks apart.
• The fixed (or standing) block is the end which
is attached to a becket.
• To round in means to bring the blocks of a tackle
toward each other, usually without a load on the tackle
(opposite of overhaul).
• The movable (or running) block of a tackle is
the block attached to a fixed objector support. When a
tackle is being used, the movable block moves and the
fixed block remains stationary.
• The term two blocked means that both blocks
of a tackle are as close together as they can go. You may
also hear this term called block and block.
• The frame (or shell), made of wood or metal,
houses the sheaves.
• The sheave is a round, grooved wheel over
which the line runs. Usually the blocks have one, two,
three, or four sheaves. Some blocks have up to eleven
Blocks are constructed for use with fiber line or
wire rope. Wire rope blocks are heavily constructed
and have large sheaves with deep grooves. Fiber line
blocks are generally not as heavily constructed as wire
rope blocks and have smaller sheaves with shallow,
wide grooves. A large sheave is needed with wire rope
to prevent sharp bending. Since fiber line is more
flexible and pliable, it does not require a sheave as
large as the same size that wire rope requires,
• The cheeks are the solid sides of the frame or
• The pin is a metal axle that the sheave turns on.
It runs from cheek to cheek through the middle of the
According to the number of sheaves, blocks are
called SINGLE, DOUBLE, OR TRIPLE blocks.
Blocks are fitted with a number of attachments, such
as hooks, shackles, eyes, and rings. Figure 6-4 shows
Figure 6-3.—Parts of a tackle.
Figure 6-4.—Heavy-duty blocks.
two metal framed, heavy-duty blocks. Block A is
designed for manila line, and block B is for wire rope.
The size of a fiber line block is designated by the
length in inches of the shell or cheek. The size of
standard wire rope block is controlled by the diameter
of the rope. With nonstandard and special-purpose
wire rope blocks, the size is found by measuring the
diameter of one of its sheaves in inches.
Use care in selecting the proper size line or wire
for the block to be used. If a fiber line is reeved onto
a tackle whose sheaves are below a certain minimum
diameter, the line becomes distorted which causes
unnecessary wear. A wire rope too large for a sheave
tends to be pinched which damages the sheave. Also,
the wire will be damaged because the radius of bend
is too short. A wire rope too small for a sheave lacks
the necessary bearing surface, puts the strain on only
a few strands, and shortens the life of the wire.
Figure 6-5.—Snatch blocks.
blocks are used when it is necessary to change the
direction of pull on the line.
With fiber line, the length of the block used should
be about three times the circumference of the line.
However, an inch or so either way does not matter too
much; for example, a 3-inch line may be reeved onto
an 8-inch block with no ill effects. Normally, you are
more likely to know the block size than the sheave
diameter; however, the sheave diameter should be
about twice the size of the circumference of the line
To reeve blocks in simple tackle, you must first
lay the blocks a few feet apart. The blocks should be
placed down with the sheaves at right angles to each
other and the becket bends pointing toward each other.
To start reeving, lead the standing part of the falls
through one sheave of the block that has the greatest
number of sheaves. Begin at the block fitted with the
becket. Next pass the standing part around the sheaves
from one block to the other, making sure no lines are
crossed until all sheaves have a line passing over them.
Now secure the standing part of the falls at the becket
of the block having the fewest number of sheaves,
using a becket hitch for temporary securing or an eye
splice for permanent securing.
Wire rope manufacturers issue tables that give the
proper sheave diameters used with the various types
and sizes of wire rope they manufacture. In the
absence of these, a rough rule of thumb is that the
sheave diameter should be about 20 times the diameter
of the wire. Remember, with wire rope, it is the
diameter, rather than circumference, and this rule
refers to the diameter of the sheave, rather than to the
size of the block, as with line.
When blocks have two or more sheaves, the
standing part of the fall should be led through the
sheave closest to the center of the block. This places
the strain on the center of the block and prevents the
block from toppling and the lines from being chafed
and cut through by rubbing against the edges of the
A STANDING BLOCK is a block that is
connected to a fixed object.
Falls are normally reeved through 8-inch or
10-inch wood or metal blocks, in such away as to have
the lower block at right angles to the upper. Two
3-sheave blocks are the traditional arrangement, and
the method of reeving is shown in figure 6-6. The
hauling part has to go through the middle sheave of
the upper block or the block will tilt to the side and the
falls will jam under load.
A TRAVELING BLOCK is a block that is
connected to the load that is being lifted. It also moves
with the load as the load is moved.
A SNATCH BLOCK (fig. 6-5) is a single sheave
block fabricated so the shell opens on one side at the
base of the hook to allow a rope to slip over the sheave
without threading the end through the block. Snatch
line passing over the sheave (fig. 6-7). It has a
mechanical advantage of 1, and if a load of 50 pounds
were to be lifted, it would require 50 pounds of force
to lift it, plus allowance for friction.
A RUNNER is a single sheave movable block that
is free to move along the line for which it is rove. It
has a mechanical advantage of 2.
A GUN TACKLE is made up of two single sheave
blocks (fig. 6-8). The name of the tackle originated
when it was being used in the old days of
muzzle-loading guns. After the guns were fired and
reloaded, this tackle was used to haul the guns back to
the battery.
Figure 6-6.—Reeving two 3-sheave blocks.
A gun tackle has a mechanical advantage of 2.
Therefore, to lift a gun weighing 200 pounds requires
a force of 100 pounds without considering friction.
If a 3- and 2-sheave block rig is used, the method
of reeving is almost the same (fig. 6-6), but the becket
for the deadman must be on the lower instead of the
upper block.
By inverting any tackle, you should gain a
mechanical advantage of 1. This occurs because the
number of parts at the movable block has increased.
You reeve the blocks before you splice in the
becket thimble, or you will have to reeve the entire fall
through from the opposite end. For the sake of
appearance, if the becket block has a grommet, it is
better to take it out and substitute a heart-shaped
thimble. Splice it with a tapered eye splice, and worm,
parcel, and serve the splice if you want a sharp-looking
By inverting a gun tackle, as an example, you
should gain a mechanical advantage of 3 (fig. 6-9).
When a tackle is inverted, the direction of pull is
always difficult. This can be overcome easily by using
a snatch block, It changes the direction of pull but does
not increase the mechanical advantage.
A SINGLE-LUFF TACKLE consists of a double
and a single block (fig. 6-10). This type of tackle has
a mechanical advantage of 3.
SINGLE-WHIP tackle consists of one single
sheave block (tail block), attached to a support with a
Figure 6-8.—A gun tackle.
Figure 6-7.—A single-whip tackle.
Figure 6-9.—An inverted gun tackle.
A TWOFOLD PURCHASE tackle consists of
two double blocks (fig. 6-11). It has a mechanical
advantage of 4.
A DOUBLE-LUFF tackle consists of a triple
block and a double block (fig. 6-12). It has a
mechanical advantage of 5.
Figure 6-11.—A twofold purchase.
Figure 6-10.—A single-luff tackle.
Figure 6-12.—A double-luff tackle.
A THREEFOLD PURCHASE consists of two
triple blocks and has a mechanical advantage of 6 (fig.
Because of friction, some of the force applied to
tackle is lost. Friction develops in tackle by the lines
rubbing against each other or the shell of the block. It
is also caused by the line passing over the sheaves or
by the rubbing of the pin against the sheaves. Each
sheave in the tackle system is expected to create a
resistance equal to 10 percent of the weight of the load.
Because of fiction, a sufficient allowance for loss
must be added to the weight being moved in
determining the power required to move the load.
A COMPOUND TACKLE is a rigging system
using more than one line with two or more blocks.
Compound systems are made up of two or more
simple systems. The fall line from one simple
system is secured to the hook on the traveling block
of another simple system, which may have one or
more blocks.
As an example, you have to lift a 1,000-pound load
with a twofold purchase. To determine the total force
needed to lift the load, you take 10 percent of 1,000
pounds, which is 100 pounds. This figure is multiplied
by 4 (the number of sheaves), which gives you 400
pounds. This value is added to the load; therefore, the
total load is 1,400 pounds. This figure is divided by 4,
the mechanical advantage of a twofold purchase,
which results in 350 pounds being the force required
to move the load.
To determine the mechanical advantage of a
compound tackle system, you must determine the
mechanical advantage of each simple system in the
compound system. Next, multiply the individual
advantages to get the overall mechanical advantage. As an
example, two inverted luff tackles, each has a mechanical
advantage of 4. Therefore, the mechanical advantage of
this particular compound system is 4 x 4 = 16.
• Safety rules you should follow when using
blocks and tackle are as follows:
• Always stress safety when hoisting and moving
heavy objects around personnel with block and tackle.
• Always check the condition of blocks and
sheaves before using them on a job to make sure they
are in safe working order. See that the blocks are
properly greased. Also, make sure that the line and
sheave are the right size for the job.
• Remember that sheaves or drums which have
become worn, chipped, or corrugated must not be used
because they will injure the line. Always find out
whether you have enough mechanical advantage in the
amount of blocks to make the load as easy to handle as
• You must NOT use wire rope in sheaves and
blocks designed for fiber line. They are not strong
enough for that type of service, and the wire rope will
not properly fit the sheaves grooves. Likewise, sheaves
and blocks built for wire rope should NEVER be used
for fiber line.
Slings are widely used for hoisting and moving
heavy loads. Some types of slings come already made.
Slings may be made of wire rope, fiber line, or chain.
Figure 6-13.—A threefold purchase.
The NCF has slings and rigging gear in the
battalion Table of Allowance to support the rigging
operations and the lifting of CESE. The kits 80104,
84003, and 84004 must remain in the custody of the
supply officer in the central toolroom (CTR). The
designated embarkation staff and the crane test
director monitor the condition of the rigging gear. The
rigging kits must be stored undercover.
Figure 6-14.—Endless sling rigged as a choker hitch.
A SINGLE-LEG SLING, commonly referred to
as a strap, can be made by forming a spliced eye in
each end of a piece of fiber line or wire rope.
Sometimes the ends of a piece of wire rope are spliced
into eyes around thimbles, and one eye is fastened to
a hook with a shackle. With this arrangement, the
shackle and hook are removable.
Wire rope slings offer advantages of both strength
and flexibility. These qualities make wire rope
adequate to meet the requirements of most crane
hoisting jobs; therefore, you will use wire rope slings
more frequently than fiber line or chain slings.
The single-leg sling maybe used as a choker hitch
(fig. 6-15, view A) in hoisting by passing one eye
through the other eye and over the hoisting hook. The
single-leg sling is also useful as a double-anchor hitch
(fig. 6-15, view B). The double-anchor hitch works
Fiber line slings are flexible and protect the
finished material more than wire rope slings; however,
fiber line slings are not as strong as wire rope or chain
slings. Also, fiber line is more likely to be damaged
by sharp edges on the material being hoisted than wire
rope or chain slings.
Chain slings are frequently used for hoisting
heavy steel items, such as rails, pipes, beams, and
angles. They are also handy for slinging hot loads and
handling loads with sharp edges that might cut the
wire rope.
Chain sizes, inspection, safe working load, and
handling and care will be discussed after wire rope and
fiber line, as their characteristics have been discussed
in previous chapters.
Three types of fiber line and wire rope slings
commonly used for lifting a load are the ENDLESS,
the SINGLE LEG, and the BRIDLE slings.
An ENDLESS SLING, usually referred to by the
term sling, can be made by splicing the ends of a piece
of fiber line or wire rope to form an endless loop. An
endless sling is easy to handle and can be used as a
CHOKER HITCH (fig. 6-14).
Figure 6-15.—Methods of using single-leg slings.
well for hoisting drums or other cylindrical objects
where a sling must tighten itself under strain and lift
by friction against the sides of the object.
All slings must be visually inspected for obvious
unsafe conditions before each use. A determination to
remove slings from service requires experience and
good judgment, especially when evaluating the
remaining strength in a sling after allowing for normal
wear. The safety of the sling depends primarily upon
the remaining strength. Wire rope slings must be
immediately removed from service if any of the
following conditions are present:
Single-leg slings can be used to make various
types of BRIDLES. Three common uses of bridles are
shown in figure 6-16. Either two or more single slings
may be used for a given combination.
The bridle hitch provides excellent load stability
when the load is distributed equally among each sling
leg, the load hook is directly over the center of gravity
of the load, and the load is raised level. The use of
bridle slings requires that the sling angles be carefully
determined to ensure that the individual legs are not
• Six randomly distributed broken wires in one
rope lay or three broken wires in one strand in one lay
• Wear or scraping on one third of the original
diameter of outside individual wires
NOTE: It is wrong to conclude that a three- or
four-leg bridle will safely lift a load equal to the safe
load on one leg multiplied by the number of legs. This
is because there is no way of knowing that each leg is
carrying its share of the load.
• Kinking, crushing, bird caging, or any other
damage resulting in distortion of the wire rope structure
With a four-legged bride sling lifting a rigid load, it
is possible for two of the legs to support practically the
full load while the other two legs only balance it. COMSECOND/COMTHIRDNCB strongly recommend
that the rated capacity for two-leg bridle slings listed
11200.11 be used also as the safe working load for
three- or four-leg bridle hitches.
• Hooks that have an obviously abnormal (usually
15 percent from the original specification) throat
opening, measured at the narrowest point or twisted
more than 10 degrees from the plane of the unbent hook
• Evidences of heat damage
•1 End attachments that are cracked, deformed, or
• Corrosion of the wire rope sling or end
To avoid confusion and to eliminate doubt, you
must not downgrade slings to a lower rated capacity.
A sling must be removed from service if it cannot
safely lift the load capacity for which it is rated. Slings
and hooks removed from service must be destroyed by
cutting before disposal. This ensures inadvertent use
by another unit.
When a leg on a multi-legged bridle sling is
unsafe, you only have to destroy the damaged or
unsafe leg(s). Units that have the capability may
fabricate replacement legs in the field, provided the
wire rope replacement is in compliance with
specifications. The NCF has a hydraulic swaging and
splicing kit in the battalion Table of Allowance
(TOA). The kit, 80092, contains the tools and
equipment necessary to fabricate 3/8- through
S/S-inch sizes of wire rope slings. Before use, all
fabricated slings must be proof-tested as outlined in
All field-fabricated slings terminated by
mechanical splices, sockets, and pressed and swaged
Figure 6-16.—Multi-legged bridle stings.
SWL = SWL (of single-vertical hitch) x 2.
terminals must be proof-tested before placing the sling
in initial service.
For inclined legs:
11200.11 has rated capacity charts enclosed for
numerous wire rope classifications. You must know
the diameter, rope construction, type core, grade, and
splice on the wire rope sling before referring to the
charts. The charts provide you the vertical-rated
capacity for the sling. The test weight for single-leg
bridle slings and endless slings is the vertical-rated
capacity (V. R. C.) multiplied by two or (V.R.C. x 2 =
sling test weight).
SWL = SWL (of single-vertical hitch) x H divided
by L x 4.
Double-basket hitch (fig. 6-19):
For vertical legs:
SWL = SWL (of single-vertical hitch) x 4.
For inclined legs:
SWL = SWL (of single-vertical hitch) x H divided
by L x 4.
The test load for multi-legged bridle slings must
be applied to the individual legs and must be two times
the vertical-rated capacity of a single-leg sling of the
same size, grade, and wire rope construction. When
slings and rigging are broken out of the TOA for field
use, they must be proof-tested and tagged&fore being
returned to CTR for storage.
Single-choker hitch (fig. 6-20):
For sling angles of 45 degrees or more:
SWL = SWL (of single-vertical hitch) x 3/4 (or
Sling angles of less than 45 degrees are not
recommended; however, if they are used, the formula
is as follows:
Check fiber line slings for signs of deterioration
caused by exposure to the weather. Ensure none of
the fibers have been broken or cut by sharp-edged
SWL = SWL (of single-vertical hitch) x A/B.
Double-choker hitch (fig. 6-21):
There are formulas for estimating the loads in
most sling configurations. These formulas are based
on the safe working load of the single-vertical hitch of
a particular sling. The efficiencies of the end fittings
used also have to be considered when determining the
capacity of the combination.
For sling angle of 45 degrees or more:
SWL = SWL (of single-vertical hitch) x 3 divided
by 4 x H divided by L x 2.
Sling angles of less than 45 degrees:
SWL = SWL (of single-vertical hitch) x A divided
by B x H divided by L x 2.
The formula used to compute the safe working
load (SWL) for a BRIDLE HITCH with two, three,
or four legs (fig. 6-17) is SWL (of single-vertical
hitch) times H (Height) divided by L (Length)
times 2 = SWL. When the sling legs are not of equal
length, use the smallest H/L measurement. This
formula is for a two-leg bridle hitch, but it is strongly
recommended it also be used for the three- and
four-leg hitches.
When lifting heavy loads, you should ensure that
the bottom of the sling legs is fastened to the load to
prevent damage to the load. Many pieces of equipment
have eyes fastened to them during the process of
manufacture to aid in lifting. With some loads, though,
fastening a hook to the eye on one end of each sling
leg suffices to secure the sling to the load.
Use a protective pad when a fiber line or wire rope
sling is exposed to sharp edges at the comers of a load.
Pieces of wood or old rubber tires are fine for padding.
NOTE: Do NOT forget it is wrong to assume that
a three- or four-leg hitch can safely lift a load equal to
the safe load on one leg multiplied by the number of
Other formulas are as follows:
When using slings, remember that the greater the
angle from vertical, the greater the stress on the sling
legs. This factor is shown in figure 6-22.
Single-basket hitch (fig. 6-18):
For vertical legs:
Figure 6-17.—Determination of bridle hitch sling capacity.
The rated capacity of any sling depends on the
size, the configuration, and the angles formed by the
legs of the sling and the horizontal. A sling with two
Wire rope slings and associated hardware must be
stored either in coils or on reels, hung in the rigging
loft, or laid on racks indoors to protect them from
corrosive weather and other types of damage, such as
kinking or being backed over. Slings are not to be left
out at the end of the workday.
legs used to lift a 1,000-pound object will have 500
pounds of the load on each leg when the sling angle is
90 degrees. The load stress on each leg increases as
the angle decreases. For example, if the sling angle is
30 degrees when lifting the same 1,000-pound object,
the load is 1,000 pounds on each leg. Try to keep all
sling angles greater than 45 degrees; sling angles
approaching 30 degrees are considered extreme] y
Chains are made up of links fastened through each
other. Each link is fabricated of wire bent into an oval
and welded together. The weld usually causes a slight
hazardous and must be avoided.
fails a strand at a time, giving you warning before
failure actually occurs.
NOTE: Although chain gives no warning of
failure, it is better suited than wire rope for some jobs.
Chain is more resistant to abrasion, corrosion, and
heat. Additionally, use chains to lift heavy objects with
sharp edges that could cut wire or are hot. When chain
is used as a sling, it has little flexibility but grips the
load well.
First, you must be aware that chains normally
stretch under excessive loading and individual links
will be bent slightly. Therefore, bent links are a
warning that the chain has been overloaded and may
fail suddenly under load. Before lifting with a chain,
make sure the chain is free from twists and kinks. A
twisted or kinked chain placed under stress could fail
even when handling a light load. Additionally, ensure
that the load is properly seated in the hook (not on the
point) and that the chain is free from nicks or other
damage. Avoid sudden jerks in lifting and lowering the
load, and always consider the angle of lift with a sling
chain bridle.
Figure 6-18.—Determination of single-basket hitch sting
bulge on the side or end of the link. Chain size refers
to the diameter, in inches, of the wire used to fabricate
the chain.
The strength of any chain is negatively affected
when it has been knotted, overloaded, or heated to
temperatures above 500°F.
In the NCF, never use a chain when it is possible
to use wire rope. Chain does not give any warning
that it is about to fail. Wire rope, on the other hand,
Figure 6-19.—Determination of double-basket hitch sling capacity.
To determine the safe working load on a chain,
apply a factor of safety to the breaking strength. The
safe working load is ordinarily one-sixth of the
breaking strength, giving a safety factor of 6 (table
The capacity of an open link chain can be
approximated by using the following rule of thumb:
SWL = 8D2 x 1 ton
D = Smallest diameter measured in inches
SWL = Safe working load in tons
Using the rule of thumb, the safe working capacity
of a chain with a diameter of 3/4 inch is as follows:
SWL = 8D2 = 8 (3/4)2= 4.5 tons (or 9,000 lbs)
These figures assume the load is being applied in
a straight pull, rather than an impact. An impact load
is when an object is suddenly dropped for a distance
Figure 6-20.—Determination of single-choker hitch sling
Figure 6-21.—Determination of double-choker hitch sling capacity.
Figure 6-22.—Stress on slings at various vertical angles.
Table 6-1.—Safe Working Load of Chains
and stopped. The impact load is several times the
weight of the load.
closed, welding makes it as strong as the other links.
For cutting small-sized chain links, use bolt cutters.
To cut large-sized links, use a hacksaw.
Inspect the chain to ensure it is maintained in a
safe, operating condition. A chain used continuously
for heavy loading should be inspected frequently.
Chain is less reliable than manila or wire rope slings
because the links may crystallize and snap without
When hoisting heavy metal objects using chain for
slings, you should insert padding around the sharp
comers of the load to protect the chain links from
being cut.
Store chains in a clean, dry place where they will
not be exposed to the weather. Before storage, apply a
light coat of lubricant to prevent rust.
Examine the chain closely link by link and look
for stretch, wear, distortion, cracks, nicks, and gouges.
Wear is usually found at the ends of the links where
joining links rub together. If you find wear, lift each
link and measure its cross section.
Do NOT perform makeshift repairs, such as
fastening links of a chain together with bolts or wire.
When links become worn or damaged, cut them out of
the chain, then fasten the two nearby links together
with a connecting link. After the connecting link is
NOTE: Remove chains from service when any
link shows wear more than 25 percent of the thickness
of the metal.
Replace any link that shows cracks, distortion,
nicks, or cuts. However, if a chain shows stretching or
distortion of more than 5 percent in a five-link section,
discard and destroy the entire chain.
Remove chains from service when any link shows
signs of binding at juncture points. This binding
condition indicates that the sides of the links have
collapsed as a result of stretching.
Before lifting with a chain, first place dunnage
between the chain and the load to provide a gripping
surface. For hoisting heavy metal objects with a chain,
always use chaffing gear around the sharp comers on
the load to protect the chain links from being cut. As
chafing gear, use either planks or heavy fabric. In
handling rails or a number of lengths of pipe, make a
round turn and place the hook around the chain, as
shown in figure 6-23.
In addition to block and tackle, slings, and chains,
hooks, shackles, and beam clamps are also used for
lifting objects and material.
There are two types of hooks available: the slip
hook and the grab hook (fig. 6-24).
Figure 6-24.—Hooks: A. Slip; B. Grab.
Grab Hooks
Grab hooks have an inside curve that is almost
U-shaped so that the hook will slip over a link
edgeways and not allow the next link to slip past. Grab
hooks have a much more limited range of use than slip
hooks. They are used exclusively when the loop
formed in the chain is not intended to close around the
Mousing a Hook
Slip hooks are made so the inside curve of the
hook is an arc of a circle. They are used with wire rope,
chains, and fiber line. Chain links can slip through a
slip hook so that the loop formed in the chain can
tighten under a load.
As a rule, a hook should always be moused as a
safety measure to prevent slings or line from coming
off. Mousing also helps prevent the straightening of a
hook but does not add to the strength of the hook. To
mouse a hook (fig. 6-25) after the sling is on the hook
you should wrap the wire or small stuff 8 or 10 turns
around the two sides of the hook. Mousing is then
Figure 6-23.—Chain sting.
Figure 6-25.—Mousing a hook.
Slip Hooks
completed by winding several turns around the wire
or small stuff and tying the ends securely.
Inspection of Hooks
D 2 = 5/8 X 5/8= 25/64
SWL = 2/3 x 25/64 x 1 ton= 25/96= 0.2604 ton
0.2604 ton x 2,000 pounds/ton= 520.8 pounds
In the metric system, the formula for the safe
working load for hooks is as follows: SWL = .46 x
D 2 x 1 tonne
Hooks should be inspected at least once a month,
but those used for heavy and continuous loading
should be inspected more frequently. Attention must
be given to the small radius fillets at the neck of the
hooks for any deviation for the original inner arc.
Additionally, each hook must be examined for small
dents, cracks, sharp nicks, worn surfaces, or
distortions. If any of these defects are present, the
hook must be discarded.
Below is an example of the safe working capacity
of a hook having a diameter of 1.59 cm.
D = 1.59 cm
D 2 = 2.52 cm2
SWL= .046 x 2.52 cm2 x 1 tome = .116 tonne
Hook Strength
Hooks normally fail by straightening. If any
deviation of the inner arc of a hook is evident, it
indicates that the hook has been overloaded. Evidence
of overloading a hook is easy to detect, so it is
customary to use a hook that is weaker than the chain
it is attached to. Using this system, distortion of the
hook will occur before the hook is overloaded. Any
distorted, cracked, or badly worn hook is dangerous
and should be discarded immediately.
Shackles (fig. 6-27) should be used for loads too
heavy for hooks to handle. They provide a useful way
of attaching, hauling, and lifting a load without tying
directly to the object with a line, wire rope, or chain.
Additionally, they can be attached to wire rope, line,
or chain.
Safe Working Load of Shackles
The safe working load of a hook can be formulated
by using the following rule of thumb:
The formula for computing the safe working load
for a shackle is as follows:
SWL = 2/3 x D2 x 1 ton. D is the diameter (in
inches) of the hook where the inside of the hook starts
to arc (fig. 6-26).
SWL = 3D2 x 1 ton
Below is an example of the safe working capacity
of a hook with a diameter of 5/8 inch:
Figure 6-26.—Hook diameter.
Figure 6-27.—Two types of shackles: A. Anchor; B. Chain.
D = 5/8 (See fig. 6-28)
D 2 = 5/8 X 5/8= 25/64
SWL = 3 X 25/64 x 1 ton = 75/64 x 1 ton=1.1719
Figure 6-29.—Mousing a shackle.
The SWL in pounds = 1.1719 x 2,000 pounds =
2,343.8 pounds
In the metric system, the formula for the safe
working load
Steelworkers are required to move and handle
many steel beams and steel shapes. When off-loading
steel from vehicles and storing for further use, beam
clamps are much more practical than using slings or
chokers, especially when the flanges are the only
available parts of the load. Figure 6-30 shows three
different types of beam clamps. View A shows a clamp
designed for use on a beam with a flat flange, either
an I or an H. The clamp in view B may be used on
beams with a circular cross-sectional area or where
only one side of the flange is accessible. View C shows
a clamp that is useful for connection to a column with
a snatch block attached. The clamps shown can all be
fabricated in the shop or field.
for shackles is as follows:
SWL = .417 X D2 X 1 tonne
D= 1.59cm
D 2= 1.59 X 1.59 = 2.52
SWL = .417 x 2.52 x 1 tonne
SWL = 1.05 tomes
NOTE: A hook or a shackle can actually lift more
than these formulas allow. These formulas give you
the safe working load UNDER ANY CONDITIONS.
Hooks, shackles, and beam clamps must have the
rated capacities and SWL permanently stenciled or
stamped on them. OSHA identification tags can be
acquired at no cost from COMTHIRDNCB DET, Port
Hueneme, California, or COMSECONDNCB DET,
Gulfport, Mississippi. Metal dog tags are authorized
providing the required information is stamped onto the
Mousing Shackles
Mouse shackles whenever there is danger of the
shackles pin working loose or coming out due to
vibration. To mouse a shackle properly, you take
several turns with seizing wire through the eye of the
pin and around the bow of the shackle. Figure 6-29
shows what a properly moused shackle looks like.
Other devices used for moving equipment are as
follows: spreader bars, pallets, jacks, planks and
rollers, blocks and cribbing, and scaffolds.
Figure 6-30.—Types of beam clamps.
Figure 6-28.—Shackle diameter.
In hoisting with slings, spreader bars are used to
prevent crushing and damaging the load. Spreader
bars are short bars, or pipes, with eyes fastened to each
end. By setting spreader bars in the sling legs above
the top of the load (fig. 6-31), you change the angle of
the sling leg and avoid crushing the load, particularly
in the upper portion.
Spreader bars are also used in lifting long or
oversized objects to control the sling angle, as shown
in figure 6-32. When spreader bars are used, make sure
you do not overload the end connection. A spreader
bar has a rated capacity that is the same as hooks and
shackles. A good rule of thumb is the thickness of the
spreaders end connection should be the same as the
thickness of the shackle pin.
Cargo pallets coupled with slings are an immense
advantage on jobs that involve moving a lot of small
items (fig. 6-33). Spreader bars can be used often to
avoid damaging the pallet and the load. The pallet
supplies a small platform on which a number of items
can be placed and then moved as a whole instead of
piece by piece. Palletizing is clearly easier and faster
than moving each item by itself.
Figure 6-32.—Spreader bar used with an oversized load.
Commonly, packages of the same size are
palletized together, and when shipped, remain on the
pallet until they are used up. You may not have the
luxury of having excess pallets at your job site;
Figure 6-33.—Cargo pallet.
however, you need to have several to work efficiently.
One can be loaded as the prior loaded one is being
lifted. After each pallet is unloaded, the hoist will
return for reloading. With two pallets, you are able to
maintain a steady flow of material. One set of slings
will be able to handle any number of pallets.
To be able to place cribbing, skids, and rollers, you
need to be able lift a load a short distance. Jacks are
designed and built for this purpose. Jacks are also used
for precise placement of heavy loads, such as beams,
or for raising and lowering heavy loads a short
Figure 6-31.—Using spreader bars.
distance. There are a number of different styles of
jacks available; however, only heavy-duty hydraulic
jacks or screw jacks should be used. The number of
jacks used is determined by the weight of the load and
the rated capacity of the jacks. Ensure the jacks have
a solid footing and are not susceptible to slipping.
Jacks are available in capacities from 5 to 100
tons. Small capacity jacks are normally operated
through a rack bar or screw, and large capacity jacks
are usually operated hydraulically (fig. 6-34).
The types of jacks used by Steelworkers are as
Figure 6-35.—Use of planks and rollers.
1. Ratchet lever jacks are rack bar jacks having a
rated capacity of 15 tons. These jacks have a foot lift by
which loads close to the base of the jack can be engaged
(fig. 6-34, view A).
4. Hydraulic jacks are available in many different
capacities and are used for general purposes (fig. 6-34,
view D).
2. Steamboat ratchets (often referred to as pushing
and pulling jacks) are ratchet screw jacks of
10-ton-rated capacity with end fittings that permit
pulling parts together or pulling them apart. They are
primarily used for tightening lines or lashings and for
spreading or bracing parts in bridge construction (fig.
6-34, view B).
3. Screw jacks have a rated capacity of 12 tons.
They are approximately 13 inches high when closed and
have a safe rise of 7 inches. These jacks are used for
general purposes, including steel erection (fig. 6-34,
view C).
Planks and rollers provide you with an excellent
means of moving heavy loads across the ground on a
jobsite or the floor of a shop (fig. 6-35).
Oak planks are appropriate for most operations
involving plank skids. Planks 15 feet long and 2 to 3
inches thick should be suitable. They distribute the
weight of a load and also provide a smooth runway
surface in which to skid the load along or in which to
use rollers to ease the effort required to move the load.
Figure 6-34.—Mechanical and hydraulic jacks: A. Ratchet lever jack with foot lift; B. Steamboat ratchet; C. Screw Jack; D.
Hydraulic jack.
Timber skids (planks) are placed longitudinally
under heavy loads to distribute the weight over a
greater area. (See fig. 6-35.) The angle of the skids
must be kept low to prevent the load from drifting or
getting out of control. Skids can be greased only when
horizontal movement is involved. Extreme care must
be exercised. In most circumstances greasing is
inherently dangerous, as it can cause the load to drift
sideways suddenly, causing injuries to personnel and
damage to equipment.
Hardwood or pipe rollers can be used in
conjunction with plank skids for moving heavy loads
into position. Planks are placed under the rollers to
provide a smooth continuous surface to enable them
to roll easily. The rollers must be smooth and round to
aid in the ease of movement and long enough to pass
completely under the load. The load should be
supported by longitudinal wooden members to
provide a smooth upper surface for the rollers to roll
on. The skids placed underneath must form continuous
support. Normal practice is to place four to six rollers
under the load to be moved. Several rollers are to be
placed in front of the load and the load is then slowly
rolled onto these rollers. As the load passes the rollers
that are left clear of the load they are then picked up
and moved in front of the load. This creates a
continuous path of rollers. Turns can be made using
rollers; but, first the front rollers must be inclined
slightly in the direction of the turn and the rear of the
rollers in the opposite direction. This inclination of the
rollers can be made by striking them sharply with a
sledge hammer. Rollers can be fabricated and set on
axles in side beams as a semipermanent conveyor for
lighter loads. Permanent metal roller conveyors are
available (fig. 6-36) and are normally fabricated in
sections which can be joined together.
Figure 6-36.—Permanent metal roller conveyor.
Block timbers are commonly used to provide a
foundation for heavy loads or jacks. Cribbing must be
used when a heavy weight must be supported at a
height greater than blocking can provide. Cribbing is
made up by aligning timber in tiers that run in alternate
directions (fig. 6-37). Blocking and cribbing is often
necessary as a safety measure to keep an object
stationary to prevent accidents and injury to personnel
working near these heavy objects.
Figure 6-37.—Examples of the use of cribbing.
Additionally, it must be placed firmly on the ground
with the load (pressure) distributed evenly.
When selecting blocking as a foundation for jacks,
ensure it is sound and large enough to support the load
safely. It must be free from grease and thoroughly dry.
A firm and level foundation is a paramount
requirement where cribbing is used. Also, equally as
critical is that the bottom timbers be placed so they
rest evenly and firmly on the ground.
Cribbing is desirable when lifting loads by jacking
stages. This procedure requires blocking to be placed
under the jacks, lifting the load to the maximum height
the jacks can safely accommodate, placing the
cribbing under the load in alternating tiers, with no
personnel under the load, and then lowering the load
onto the cribbing.
When cribbing is not high enough or at the correct
height, build up the blocking under the jacks until the
jacks can bear against the load while in their lowered
position. Raise the jacks again to their maximum safe
height and lower onto the added cribbing. This
procedure can be repeated as many times as necessary
to build up the cribbing to the desired height.
The term scaffold refers to a temporary elevated
platform used to support personnel and materials, for
immediate usage, throughout the course of
construction work. You will use scaffolds in
performing various jobs which cannot be done safely
from securely placed ladders. We will take a brief look
at a few of the different types of scaffolds which you
will need from time to time on the job.
Figure 6-38.—A planking and runway scaffold.
supported near each end by iron rods, called stirrups,
which have the lower blocks of fiber line fall attached
to them. This tackle arrangement permits the platform
to be raised or lowered as required. The tackle and
platform are supported by hooks and anchors on the
roof of the structure. The fall line of the tackle must
be secured to a part of the platform when in final
position to prevent it from falling.
Planking and Runway Scaffold
A planking and runway scaffold shown in
figure 6-38 consists of single scaffold planks laid
across beams of upper floors or roofs. It is frequently
used to provide working areas or runways. Each plank
should extend from beam to beam, and not more than
a few inches of the planks should extend beyond the
end supporting beam. A short overhang is essential to
safe practice to prevent personnel from stepping on an
unsupported plank and falling from the scaffold.
Planks should be thick enough to support the load
safely and applied without excessive sagging. When
the planking is laid continuously, as in a runway, make
sure the planks are laid so that their ends overlap.
Single plank runs may be staggered with each plank
being offset with reference to the next plank in the run.
Swinging Platform Scaffold
The most commonly used type of swinging
scaffolding is the platform scaffold shown in figure
6-39. The swinging platform scaffold consists of a
frame with a deck of wood slats. The platform is
Figure 6-39.—A platform scaffold.
Needle-Beam Scaffold
A needle-beam scaffold consists of a plank
platform resting on two parallel horizontal beams,
called needle beams, which are supported by lines
from overhead. (See fig. 6-40.)
Needle-beam scaffolds should be used on-l y for the
support of personnel doing light work. They are
suitable for use by riveting gangs working on steel
structures because of the frequent changes of location
necessary and the adaptability of this type of scaffold
to different situations.
Several types of patent and independent
scaffolding are available for simple and rapid
assembly, as shown in figure 6-41. The scaffold
uprights are braced with diagonal members, and the
Figure 6-41.—Assembling prefabricated independent
working level is covered with a platform of planks. All
bracing must form triangles, and the base of each
column requires adequate footing plates for bearing
area on the ground. The patented steel scaffolding is
usually erected by placing the two uprights on the
ground and inserting the diagonal members. The
diagonal members have end fittings, which permit
easy assembly. The first tier is set on steel bases on the
ground, and a second tier is placed in the same manner
on the first tier with the bottom of each upright locked
to the top of the lower tier. A third and fourth upright
can be placed on the ground level and locked to the
first set with diagonal bracing. The scaffolding can be
built as high as desired, but high scaffolding should be
tied into the main structure.
Boatswain’s Chair
The boatswain’s chair shown in figure 6-42 also
comes under the heading of scaffolding. It is
sometimes used to provide a seat for a person working
above the ground.
The seat of the boatswain’s chair should be at least
2 feet long, 1 foot wide, and 1 1/4 inches thick (60 cm
Figure 6-40.—A needle-barn scaffold.
should extend a suffient distance beyond the edge of
the scaffold to catch any material that may fall over
the edge. A netting of screen should not be less than
No. 18 gauge, U.S. Standard Wire, with a mesh not to
exceed 1/2 inch. Screens of heavier wire or smaller
mesh should bex used where conditions are such that
the No. 18 gauge wire or 1/2-inch mesh will not suppl y
adequate protection. Personnel should NOT be
required to work underneath a scaffold. Scaffolds
erected over passageways, thoroughfares, or locations
where persons are working should be provided with
side screens and a protective covering. A side screen
is a screen paneling from the platform to an
intermediate railing or from the platform to the top
railing. Screening is formed of No. 16 U.S. gauge wire
with 1/2-inch mesh. Screen is used for the purpose of
preventing materials, loose or piled, from falling off
the scaffolds.
Figure 6-42.—A boatswain’s chair.
long, 30 cm wide, and 3.1 cm thick). Make sure you
always wear a safety belt when using a boatswain’s
chair. The safety belt should be attached to a lifeline
secured to a fixed object overhead. Use a bowline to
secure the lifeline to the person in the chair.
A safe means of access should be provided to all
scaffolds by means of standard stairs or fixed ladders.
Additionally, ensure that a scaffold is properly secured
against swaying.
Personnel should not be permitted on scaffolds
which are covered with ice or snow. In such instances,
clinging ice must be removed from all guardrails, then
the planking sanded or otherwise protected against
slipping. Workers should not be permitted on scaffolds
during a storm or high wind.
Scaffold Safety
When you are using scaffolds, SAFETY is your
NUMBER ONE PRIORITY! Failure to observe safety
precautions can result in serious injury to yourself or
coworkers. Some essential safety measures applicable
to scaffolds are given here. Use each of them routinely.
No scaffold should be used for the storage of
materials, except that required for the immediate
needs of the job. Tools should be placed in containers
to prevent their being knocked off and the containers
should be secured to the scaffold by line. Always make
a special effort to ensure that tools, equipment,
material, and rubbish do not accumulate on a scaffold
to the point where the safe movement of personnel is
Structural members, support ropes, and scaffold
equipment must be inspected carefully each workday
before using them on the job. The use of makeshift
scaffolds is strictly prohibited.
NEVER throw or drop objects or tools from
scaffolds. Handlines should be used for raising or
lowering objects when they cannot be reached easily
and safely by hand. Such things as jumping or
throwing material upon a scaffold platform are to be
avoided at all times.
When personnel are working on a scaffold with
other personnel engaged directly above, either the
scaffold must have an overhead protective covering or
the workers on the lower scaffold must wear
Navy-approved, protective hard hats. The purpose is
to provide protection against falling material. Where
the upper working level is no more than 12 feet (3.6
m) above the lower, hard hats worn by workers on the
lower level will satisfy this requirement.
Scaffolds must never be overloaded!
Furthermore, whenever possible, see that the scaffold
load is uniformly distributed and not concentrated at
the center of the platform.
An overhead protective covering consists of a roof
of lumber, heavy wire screen, or heavy canvas,
depending upon the hazard involved. The covering
Wire ropes and fiber lines used in suspension and
swinging scaffolds should be of the best quality steel,
manila, or sisal. Manila or sisal line used as lifelines
should be 1 7/8 inches (51.2 mm) in circumference.
Lifelines and safety belts must be used when working
on unguarded scaffolds at heights of 10 feet (3 m) and
above (as well as on boatswain’s chairs, as explained
earlier). If working over water, life jackets must be
power or work force to do the actual hoisting. The
three types of field-erected hoisting devices used are
gin poles, tripods, and shears. The skeleton structure
of these devices are anchored to holdfasts.
All scaffolds and scaffold equipment should be
maintained in safe condition. Avoid making repairs or
alterations to a scaffold or scaffold equipment while
in use. Rather than take a chance, NEVER permit
personnel to use damaged or weakened scaffolds!
Gin poles, shear legs, and other rigging devices
are held in place by means of guy lines anchored to
holdfasts. In fieldwork, the most desirable and
economical types of holdfasts are natural objects, such
as trees, stumps, and rocks. When natural holdfasts of
suffient strength are not available, proper anchorage
can be provided through the use of man-made
holdfasts. These include single picket holdfasts,
combination picket holdfasts, combination log picket
holdfasts, log deadmen, and steel picket holdfasts.
Because of the nature of heavy construction,
Steel workers must at times erect heavy structural
members when constructing pre-engineered
buildings, piers, bridges, and many other components
related to Advanced Base Functional Components
(ABFC). These members are usually hoisted into
position using cranes, forklifts, or other construction
equipment. In contingency/ combat operations,
however, because of operational commitments this
equipment may not be available and structural
members must be hoisted without the use of heavy
equipment. We will now discuss some of the methods
which can be used for the erection process when heavy
equipment is not available.
Natural Types of Holdfasts
When using trees, stumps, or boulders as
holdfasts, you should always attach the guys near
ground level. The strength of the tree, stump, or
boulder size is also an important factor in determining
its suit ability as a holdfast. With this thought in mind,
NEVER use a dead tree or a rotten stump or loose
boulders and rocks. Such holdfasts are unsafe because
they are likely to snap or slip suddenly when a strain
is placed on the guy, Make it a practice to lash the first
tree or stump to a second one (fig. 6-43). This will
provide added support for the guy.
The term field-erected hoisting device refers to a
device that is constructed in the field, using material
available locally, for the purpose of hoisting and
moving heavy loads. Basically, it consists of a
block-and-tackle system arranged on a skeleton
structure consisting of wooden poles or steel beams.
The tackle system requires some form of machine
Rock holdfasts are made by inserting pipes,
crowbars, or steel pickets in holes drilled in solid rock.
Using a star drill, drill holes in the rock 1 1/2 to 3 feet
apart, keeping them in line with the guy. Remember to
drill the holes at a slight angle so the pickets lean away
Figure 6-43.—Using trees as a holdfast.
picket 3 to 4 feet into the ground, slanting it at an angle
of 15 degrees opposite to the pull. In securing a single
guy line to a picket, you should take two turns around
the picket and then have part of the crew haul in on the
guy as you take up the slack. When you have the guy
taut, secure it with two half hitches. In undisturbed
loam soil, the single picket is strong enough to stand
a pull of about 700 pounds.
from the direction of pull. Make the front hole about
1 1/2 to 3 feet deep and the rear hole 2 feet deep
(fig. 6-44). After driving pickets into the holes, you
should secure the guy to the front picket. Then lash the
pickets together with a chain or wire rope to transmit
the load.
Single-Picket Holdfasts
Combination Picket Holdfast
Pickets used in the construction of picket holdfasts
may be made of wood or steel. A wood picket should
be at least 3 inches in diameter and 5 feet long. A
single picket holdfast can be provided by driving a
A combination picket holdfast consists of two or
more pickets. Figure 6-45 gives you an idea of how to
Figure 6-45.—Combination pickets.
where the pull is the greatest. The way small stuff links
each picket to the next is what divides the force of pull,
so the first picket does not have to withstand all of the
strain. Using 12- to 15-thread small stuff, clove hitch
it to the top of the first picket. Then take about four to
six turns around the first and second pickets, going
from the bottom of the second to the top of the first
picket. Repeat this with more small stuff from the
second to the third picket, and so on, until the last
picket has been secured. After this, pass a stake
between the turns of small stuff, between EACH pair
of pickets, and then make the small stuff taut by
twisting it with the stake. Now, drive the stake into the
arrange pickets in constructing a 1-1-1 and a 3-2-1
combination picket holdfast.
In constructing the 1-1-1 combination (fig. 6-46),
drive three single pickets about 3 feet into the ground,
3 to 6 feet apart, and in line with the guy. For a 3-2-1
combination, drive a group of three pickets into the
ground, lashing them together before you secure the
guy to them. The group of two lashed pickets follows
the first group, 3 to 6 feet apart, and is followed by a
single picket. The 1-1-1 combination can stand a pull
of about 1,800 pounds, while the 3-2-1 combination
can stand as much as 4,000 pounds.
The pickets grouped and lashed together, PLUS
the use of small stuff secured onto every pair of
pickets, are what make the combination picket
holdfasts much stronger than the single holdfasts.
If you are going to use a picket holdfast for several
days, it is best to use galvanized guy wire in place of
the small stuff. Rain will not affect galvanized guy
wire, but it will cause small stuff to shrink. If the small
stuff is already taut, it could break from overstrain.
The reason for grouping and lashing the first
cluster of pickets together is to reinforce the point
Figure 6-46.—Preparing a 1-1-1 picket holdfast.
Still, if you must use small stuff, be sure to slack it off
before leaving it overnight. You do this by pulling the
stake up, untwisting the small stuff once, and then
replacing the stake.
permanent deadman anchorage, it is a good idea to put
a turnbuckle in the guy near the ground to permit
slackening or tightening the guy when necessary.
In digging the hole in which to bury the deadman,
make sure it is deep enough for good bearing on solid
ground. The less earth you disturb in digging, the
better the bearing surface will be. You should undercut
the bank in the direction toward the guy at an angle of
about 15 degrees from the vertical. To increase the
bearing surface, drive stakes into the bank at several
points over the deadman.
Combination Log Picket Holdfast
For heavy loads or in soft- or wet-earth areas, a
combination log picket holdfast is frequently used.
With this type, the guys are anchored to a log or timber
supported against four or six combination picket
holdfasts. (See fig. 6-47.) The timber serves as beam
and must be placed so that it bears evenly against the
front rope of the pickets. Since the holding power of
this setup depends on the strength of the timber and
anchor line, as well as the holdfast, you must use a
timber big enough and an anchor line strong enough
to withstand the pull.
A narrow, inclined trench for the guy must be cut
through the bank and should lead to the center of the
deadman. At the outlet of the trench, place a short
beam or logon the ground under the guy. In securing
the guy to the center of the deadman, see that the
standing part (that is, the part on which the pull occurs)
leads from the bottom of the log deadman. Thus, if the
wire rope clips slip under strain, the standing part will
rotate the log in a counterclockwise direction, causing
the log to dig into the trench, rather than roll up and
out. See that the running end of the guy is secured
properly to the standing part.
A deadman provides the best form of anchorage
for heavy loads. It consists of a log, a steel beam, a
steel pipe, or a similar object buried in the ground with
the guy connected to it at its center. (See fig. 6-48.)
Because it is buried, the deadman is suitable for use as
a permanent anchorage. When you are installing a
Figure 6-47.—A combination log picket
Figure 6-48.—A deadman anchorage for a heavy load.
to heights of 10 to 50 feet where only a vertical lift is
required. The gin pole can also be used to drag loads
horizontally toward the base of the pole in preparation
for a vertical lift. It cannot be drifted (inclined) more
than 45 degrees from the vertical or seven-tenths the
height of the pole, nor is a gin pole suitable for
swinging a load horizontal y. The length and thickness
of the gin pole depends on the purpose for which it is
installed. It should not be longer than 60 times its
minimum thickness because of the tendency to buckle
under compression. A usable rule is to allow 5 feet of
pole for each inch of minimum thickness. Table 6-2
lists values for the use. of spruce timbers as gin poles
with allowance for normal stresses in hoisting
Steel Picket Holdfast
The steel picket holdfast shown in figure 6-49
consists of steel box plates with nine holes drilled
through each and a steel eye welded on the end for
attaching the guy. When you are installing this
holdfast, it is important to drive steel pickets through
the holes in such a manner that will cause them to
clinch in the ground. You will find the steel picket
holdfast especially useful for anchoring horizontal
lines, such as the anchor cable on a pontoon bridge.
The use of two or more of the units in combination
provides a stronger anchorage than a single unit.
NOTE: Safe capacity of each length shears or
tripod is seven-eighths of the value given for a gin
A gin pole consists of an upright mast which is
guyed at the top to maintain it in a vertical or nearly
vertical position and is equipped with suitable hoisting
tackle. The vertical mast can be timber, a wide-flange
steel beam section, a railroad rail, or similar members
of suffient strength to support the load being lifted.
The load can be hoisted by hand tackle or by the use
of hand- or engine-driven hoists. The gin pole is
predominately used in erection work because of the
ease with which it can be rigged, moved, and operated,
and it is suitable for raising loads of medium weight
1. Rigging. When rigging a gin pole, lay out the
pole with the base at the exact spot where it is to be
erected. To make provisions for the guy lines and tackle
blocks, place the gin pole on cribbing for ease of
lashing. Figure 6-50 shows the lashing on top of a gin
pole and the method of attaching guys. The procedure
is as follows:
Figure 6-49.—A steel picket holdfast.
Table 6-2.—Safe Capacity of Spruce Timber as Gin Poles in Normal Operations.
a. Make a tight lashing of eight turns of fiber
rope about 1 foot from the top of the pole, with two of
the center turns engaging the hook of the upper block
of the tackle. Secure the ends of the lashing with a
square knot. Nail wooden cleats (boards) to the pole
flush with the lower and upper sides of the lashing to
prevent the lashing from slipping.
b. Lay out guy ropes, each one four times the
length of the gin pole. In the center of each guy rope,
Figure 6-50.—Lashing for a gin pole.
e. Drive a stake about 3 feet from the base of
the gin pole. Tie a rope from the stake to the base of the
pole below the lashing on the leading block and near the
bottom of the pole. This is to prevent the pole from
skidding while it is being erected.
form a clove hitch over the top of the pole next to the
tackle lashing, and be sure the guy lines are aligned in
the direction of their anchors.
c. Lash a block to the gin pole about 2 feet from
the base of the pole, the same as was done for the tackle
lashing at the top, and place a cleat above the lashing to
prevent slipping. This block serves as a leading block
on the fall line which allows a directional change of pull
from the vertical to the horizontal. A snatch block is the
most convenient type to use for this purpose.
f. Check all lines to be sure that they are not
tangled. Check all lashings to see that they are made up
properly, and see that all knots are tight. Check the
hooks on the blocks to see that they are moused
properly. The gin pole is now ready to be erected.
2. Erecting. A gin pole 40 feet long can be raised
easily by hand, but longer poles must be raised by
supplementary rigging or power equipment. Figure
6-51 shows a gin pole being erected. The numbe of men
d. Reeve the hoisting tackle and use the block
lashed to the top of the pole so that the fall line can be
passed through the leading block at the base of the gin
f. When the pole is in its final position,
approximately vertical or inclined as desired make all
guys fast to their anchorages with the round turn and
two half hitches. It is often advantageous to double the
portion of rope used for the half hitches.
needed depends on the weight of the pole. The
procedure is as follows:
a. Dig a hole about 2 feet deep for the base of
the gin pole.
b. Run out the guys to their respective
anchorages and assign a man to each anchorage to
control the slack in the guy line with a round turn around
the anchorage as the pole is raised. If it has not been
done already, install an anchorage for the base of the
g. Open the leading block at the base of the gin
pole and place the fall line from the tackle system
through it. When the leading block is closed, the gin
pole is ready for use. If it is necessary to move (drift)
the top of the pole without moving the base, it should
be done when there is no load on the pole unless the
guys are equipped with tackle.
c. If necessary, the tackle system used to raise
and lower the load can be used to assist in raising the
gin pole, but the attaching of an additional tackle system
to the rear guy line is preferable. Attach the running
block of the rear guy line tackle system (fig. 6-52) to
the rear guy line end which at this point is near the base
of the gin pole. The fixed or stationary block is then
secured to the rear anchor. The fall line should come out
of the running block to give greater mechanical
advantage to the tackle system. The tackle system is
stretched to the base of the pole before it is erected to
prevent the chocking of the tackle blocks during the
erection of the gin pole.
3. Operating. The gin pole is perfectly suited to
vertical lifts. It also is used under some circumstances
for lifting and pulling at the same time so that the load
being moved travels toward the gin pole just off the
ground. When used in this manner, a snubbing line of
some kind must be attached to the other end of the load
being dragged and kept under tension at all times. Tag
lines are to be used to control loads being lifted
vertically. A tag line is a light line fastened to one end
of the load and kept under slight tension during hoisting.
d. Keep a slight tension on the rear guy line,
and on each of the side guy lines, haul in on the fall line
of the tackle system while eight men (more for larger
poles) raise the top of the pole by hand until the tackle
system can take control.
A tripod consists of three legs lashed or secured at
the top. The advantage of the tripod over other rigging
installations is its stability, and it requires no guy lines
to hold it in place. The disadvantage of a tripod is that
the load can be moved only up and down. The load
capacity of a tripod is approximately 1 1/2 times that
of shears made of the same-size material.
e. The rear guy line must be kept under tension
to prevent the pole from swinging and throwing all of
its weight on one of the side guys.
Figure 6-51.—Erecting a gin pole.
Figure 6-52.—Hoisting with a gin pole.
described below is for fiber rope 1 inch in diameter or
smaller. Since the strength of the tripod is affected
directly by the strength of the rope and the lashing used,
more turns than described below should be used for
extra heavy loads and fewer turns can be used for light
1. Rigging. There are two methods of lashing a
tripod, either of which is suitable provided the lashing
material is strong enough. The material used for lashing
can be fiber rope, wire rope, or chain. Metal rings joined
with short chain sections and large enough to slip over
the top of the tripod legs also can be used. The method
a. Select three masts of approximately equal
size and place a mark near the top of each mast to
indicate the center of the lashing.
b. Lay two of the masts parallel with their tops
resting on a skid or block and a third mast between the
first two, with the butt in the opposite direction and the
lashing marks on all three in line. The spacing between
masts should be about one half or the diameter of the
spars. Leave the space between the spars so that the
lashing will not be drawn too tight when the tripod is
Figure 6-54.—Alternate lashing for a tripod.
twice the diameter of the rope to be used. Rest the tops
of the poles on a skid so that the ends project over the
skid approximately 2 feet and the butts of the three
masts are in line.
c. With a 1-inch rope, make a clove hitch
around one of the outside masts about 4 inches above
the lashing mark, and take eight turns of the line around
the three masts (fig. 6-53). Be sure to maintain the space
between the masts while making the turns.
d. Finish the lashing by taking two close
frapping turns around the lashing between each pair of
masts. Secure the end of the rope with a clove hitch on
the center mast just above the lashing. Frapping turns
should not be drawn too tight.
Alternate procedure
c. Put a clove hitch on one outside leg at the
bottom of the position the lashing will occupy, which
should be approximately 2 feet from the end. Weave the
line over the middle leg, under and around the outer leg,
under the middle leg, over and around the first leg, and
continue this weaving for eight turns. Finish with a
clove hitch on the outer leg.
2. Erecting. The legs of a tripod in its final position
should be spread so that each leg is equidistant (fig.
6-55) from the others. This spread should not be less
than one half nor more than two thirds of the length of
the legs. Chain, rope, or boards should be used to hold
the legs in this position. A leading block for the fall line
of the tackle can be lashed to one of the legs. The
procedure is as follows:
a. An alternate procedure (fig. 6-54) can be
used when slender poles not more than 20 feet long are
being used or when some means other than hand power
is available for erection.
b. Lay the three masts parallel to each other
with an interval between them slightly greater than
a. Raise the tops of the masts about 4 feet,
keeping the base of the legs on the ground.
b. Cross the two outer legs. The third or center
leg then rests on top of the cross. With the legs in this
position, pass a sling over the cross so that it passes over
the top or center leg and around the other two.
c. Hook the upper block of a tackle to the sling
and mouse the hook.
d. Continue raising the tripod by pushing in on
the legs as they are lifted at the center. Eight men should
be able to raise an ordinary tripod into position.
e. When the tripod legs are in their final
position, place a rope or chain lashing between the legs
to hold them from shifting.
3. Erecting Large Tripods. For larger tripod
installations it maybe necessary to erect a small gin pole
to raise the tripod into position. Tripods, lashed with the
Figure 6-53.—Lashing for a tripod.
the members to be used, the load to be lifted and the
ratio of the length and diameter of the legs are the
determining factors. For heavy loads the
length-diameter (L/ d) ratio should not exceed 60,
because of the tendency of the legs to bend, rather than
to act as columns. For light work, shears can be
improvised from two planks or light poles bolted
together and reinforced by a small lashing at the
intersection of the legs.
1. Rigging. In erection, the spread of the legs
should equal about one half of the height of the shears.
The maximum allowable drift (inclination) is 45
degrees. Tackle blocks and guys for shears are essential.
The guy ropes can be secured to firm posts or trees with
a turn of the rope so that the length of the guys can be
adjusted easily. The procedure is as follows:
a. Lay two timbers together on the ground in
line with the guys with the butt ends pointing toward
the back guy and close to the point of erection.
b. Place a large block under the tops of the legs
just below the point of lashing (fig. 6-56), and insert a
small spacer block between the tops at the same point.
The separation between the legs at this point should be
equal to one third of the diameter on one leg to make
handling of the lashing easier.
c. With sufficient 1-inch rope for 14 turns
around both legs, make a clove hitch around one mast,
and take 8 turns around both legs above the clove hitch.
Wrap the turns tightly so that the lashings are made
smooth and without kinks.
Figure 6-55.—Tripod assembled for use.
three legs laid together, must be erected by raising the
tops of the legs until the legs clear the ground so they
can be spread apart. Guy lines or tag lines should be
used to assist in steadying the legs while they are being
raised. The outer legs should be crossed so that the
center leg is on the top of the cross, and the sling for the
hoisting tackle should pass over the center leg and
around the two outer legs at the cross.
d. Finish the lashing by taking two frapping
turns around the lashing between the legs and securing
the end of the rope to the other leg just below the lashing.
For handling heavy loads the number of lashing turns
is increased.
2. Erecting. Holes should be dug at the points
where the legs of the shears are to stand. In case of
placement on rocky ground, the base for the shears
should be level. The legs of the shears should be crossed
and the butts placed at the edges of the holes. With a
short length of rope, make two turns over the cross at
the top of the shears and tie the rope together to form a
sling. Be sure to have the sling bearing against the masts
and not on the shears lashing entirely. The procedures
is as follows:
Shears, made by lashing two legs together with a
rope, is well adapted for lifting heavy machinery or
other bulky loads. It is formed by two members
crossed at their tops with the hoisting tackle suspended
from the intersection. The shears must be guyed to
hold it in position. The shears is quickly assembled
and erected. It requires only two guys and is adapted
to working at an inclination from the vertical. The
shear legs can be round poles, timbers, heavy planks,
or steel bars, depending on the material at hand and
the purpose of the shears. For determining the size of
a. Reeve a set of blocks and place the hook of
the upper block through the sling. Secure the sling in
the hook by mousing. Fasten the lower block to one of
the legs near the butt, so it will be in a convenient
Figure 6-56.—Lashing for shears.
position when the shears have been raised, but will be
out of the way during erection.
the shears during erection to keep the legs from sliding
in the wrong direction.
b. If the shears are to be used on heavy lifts,
another tackle is rigged in the base guy near its
anchorage. The two guys should be secured to the top
of the shears with clove hitches to legs opposite their
anchorages above the lashing.
3. Operating. The rear guy is a very important part
of the shears rigging, as it is under a considerable strain
when hoisting. The front guy has very little strain on it
and is used mainly to aid in adjusting the drift and to
steady the top of the shears when hoisting or placing the
load. It maybe necessary to rig a tackle in the rear guy
for handling heavy loads. In operation, the drift
(inclination of the shears) desired is set by adjustment
of the rear guy, but this should not be done while a load
is on the shears. For handling light loads, the fall line of
the tackle of the shears can be led straight out of the
upper block. When heavy loads are handled, you should
lash a snatch block (fig. 6-58) near the base of one of
the shear legs to act as a leading block, The fall line
should be run through the leading block to a hand- or
power-operated winch for heavy loads.
c. Several men (depending on the size of the
shears) should lift the top end of the shear legs and
“walk” them up by hand until the tackle on the rear guy
line can take affect. After this, the shear legs can be
raised into final position by hauling in on the tackle.
Secure the front guy line to its anchorage before raising
the shear legs and keep a slight tension on this line to
control movement. (See fig. 6-57.)
d. The legs should be kept from spreading by
connecting them with rope chain, or bards. It can be
necessary, under some conditions, to anchor each leg of
Figure 6-57.—Erecting shears
6. Guide loads with a tag line when practical.
7. When using multiple-leg slings, select the
longest sling practical to reduce the stress on the
individual sling legs.
All personnel involved with the use of rigging
gear should be thoroughly instructed and trained to
comply with the following practices:
8. Attach the sling securely to the load.
9. Pad or protect any sharp comers or edges the
sling can come in contact with to prevent chaffing.
1. Wire rope slings must not be used with loads that
exceed the rated capacities outlined in enclosure (2) of
Slings not included in the enclosure must be used only
according to the manufacturer’s recommendation.
10. Keep slings free of kinks, loops, or twists.
11. Keep hands and fingers from between the sling
and the load.
2. Determine the weight of a load before
attempting any lift.
12. Start the lift slowly to avoid shock loading
3. Select a sling with sufficient capacity rating.
13. Keep slings well lubricated to prevent
4. Examine all hardware, equipment, tackle, and
slings before using them and destroy all defective
14. Do not pull slings from under a load when the
load is resting on the slings; block the load up to remove
5. Use the proper hitch.
Figure 6-58.—Hoisting with shears.
of balance (C/B). Once you have done this, simply
swing the hook over the C/B and select the length of
slings needed from the hook to the lifting point of the
15. Do not shorten a sling by knotting or using wire
rope clips.
16. Do not inspect wire rope slings by passing bare
hands over the rope. Broken wires, if present, can cause
serious injuries. When practical, leather palm gloves
should be worn when working with wire rope slings.
18. When using a multi-legged bridle sling, do not
forget it is wrong to assume that a three- or four-leg
hitch will safely lift a load equal to the safe load on one
leg multiplied by the number of legs. With a four-legged
bridle sling lifting a rigid load, it is possible for two of
the legs to support practically the full load while the
other two only balance it (fig. 6-60).
17. Center of Balance. It is very important that in
the rigging process that the load is stable. A stable load
is a load in which the center of balance of the load is
directly below the hook, as shown in figure 6-59. When
a load is suspended, it will always shift to that position
below the hook. To rig a stable load, establish the center
Figure 6-59.—Example of a load shifting when lifted.
Figure 6-60.—Multi-legged bridle sling lifting a load.
NOTE: If all the legs of a multi-legged sling are
not required, secure the remaining legs out of the way,
as shown in figure 6-61.
Figure 6-61.—Secure sling legs that are not used.
produced by using the lowest water-cement mixture
possible without sacrificing workability.
As a Steelworker, you must be able to cut, bend,
place, and tie reinforcing steel. This chapter describes
the purpose of reinforcing steel in concrete
construction, the types and shapes of reinforcing steel
commonly used, and the techniques and tools used by
Steelworkers in rebar (reinforcing steel) work. This
chapter begins with a presentation of fundamental
information about concrete to help you understand
rebar work fully.
Because concrete is plastic when it is placed
forms are built to contain and form the concrete until
it has hardened In short forms and formwork are
described as molds that hold freshly placed concrete
in the desired shape until it hardens. All the ingredients
of the mix are placed in a concrete mixer, and after a
thorough mixing, the concrete is transferred by
numerous methods, such as by bucket, by
wheelbarrow, and so forth, into the formwork in which
the reinforcing steel has already been placed.
As a Steelworker you will be primarily concerned
with reinforcing steel placement but you should to
some extent, be concerned with concrete as well.
Concrete with reinforcing steel added becomes
reinforced concrete. Structures built of reinforced
concrete, such as retaining walls, buildings, bridges,
highway surfaces, and numerous other structures, are
referred to as reinforced concrete structures or
reinforced concrete construction.
Concrete reaches its initial set in approximately 1
hour under normal conditions and hardens to its final
set in approximately 6 to 12 hours. Before the initial
set, concrete must be placed in the forms and vibrated
to consolidate it into the formwork and ensure
complete coverage of all reinforcing bars. Finish
operations, such as smooth troweled finishes, must be
performed between initial and final set. After the final
set, concrete must be protected from shock, extreme
temperature changes, and premature drying until it
cures to sufficient hardness. Concrete will be
self-supportive in a few days and attain most of its
potential strength in 28 days of moist curing. For
further information on concrete, refer to Builder 3 &
2, Volume 1, NAVEDTRA 12520.
Concrete is a synthetic construction material made
by mixing cement, fine aggregate (usually sand),
coarse aggregate (usually gravel or crushed stone),
and water in proper proportions. This mixture hardens
into a rocklike mass as the result of a chemical reaction
between the cement and water. Concrete will continue
to harden and gain strength as long as it is kept moist
and warm. This condition allows the chemical reaction
to continue and the process is known as curing.
Durable, strong concrete is made by the correct
proportioning and mixing of the various materials and
by proper curing after the concrete is placed.
As stated previously, the strength of concrete is
determined by the water-cement ratio. The strength of
ready-mixed concrete ranges from 1,500 to about
5,000 pounds per square inch (psi); and, with further
attention paid to proportioning, it can go even higher.
Under usual construction processes, lower strength
concrete will be used in footers and walls and higher
strength in beams, columns, and floors. The required
strength of concrete on a given project can be found
in the project plans and specifications for a specific
The correct proportioning of the concrete
ingredients is often referred to as the mix. The quality
of the concrete is largely determined by the quality of
the cement-water paste that bonds the aggregates
together. The strength of concrete will be reduced if
this paste has water added to it. The proportion of
water to cement is referred as the water-cement ratio.
The water-cement ratio is the number of gallons of
water per pounds of cement. High-quality concrete is
NOTE: Quality control is important to ensure
specific design requirements are met. If the design
specifications do not meet minimum standards,
structural integrity is compromised and the structure
loose or scaly rust is inferior. Loose or scaly rust can
be removed from the steel by rubbing the steel with
burlap or similar material. This action leaves only the
firm layer of rust on the steel to adhere to the concrete.
is considered unsafe. For this reason, the compressive
strength of concrete is checked on all projects.
The strength of the concrete is checked by the use
of cylindrical molds that are 6 inches in diameter and
12 inches in height. Concrete samples must be taken
on the jobsite from the concrete that is being placed.
After being cured for a time period that ranges
between 7 to 28 days, the cylinders are “broken to
failure” by a laboratory crushing machine that
measures the force required for the concrete to fail.
For further information on concrete strength and
testing, refer to Engineering Aid 3, NAVEDTRA
10696, and NAVFAC MO 330. (The MO 330 should
be maintained in a battalion’s tech library.)
NOTE: Reinforcing steel must be strong in
tension and, at the same time, be ductile enough to be
shaped or bent cold.
Reinforcing steel can be used in the form of bars
or rods that are either plain or deformed or in the form
of expanded metal, wire, wire fabric, or sheet metal.
Each type is useful for different purposes, and
engineers design structures with those purposes in
Plain bars are round in cross section. They are
used in concrete for special purposes, such as dowels
at expansion joints, where bars must slide in a metal
or paper sleeve, for contraction joints in roads and
runways, and for column spirals. They are the least
used of the rod type of reinforcement because they
offer only smooth, even surfaces for bonding with
Reinforced concrete was designed on the principle
that steel and concrete act together in resisting force.
Concrete is strong in compression but weak in
tension. The tensile strength is generally rated about
10 percent of the compression strength. For this
reason, concrete works well for columns and posts that
are compression members in a structure. But, when it
is used for tension members, such as beams, girders,
foundation walls, or floors, concrete must be
reinforced to attain the necessary tension strength.
Deformed bars differ from the plain bars in that
they have either indentations in them or ridges on
them, or both, in a regular pattern. The twisted bar, for
example, is made by twisting a plain, square bar cold.
The spiral ridges, along the surface of the deformed
bar, increase its bond strength with concrete. Other
forms used are the round and square corrugated bars.
These bars are formed with projections around the
surface that extend into the surrounding concrete and
prevent slippage. Another type is formed with
longitudinal fins projecting from the surface to
prevent twisting. Figure 7-1 shows a few of the types
of deformed bars available. In the United States,
deformed bars are used almost exclusively; while in
Europe, both deformed and plain bars are used.
Steel is the best material for reinforcing concrete
because the properties of expansion for both steel and
concrete are considered to be approximate] y the same;
that is, under normal conditions, they will expand and
contract at an almost equal rate.
NOTE: At very high temperatures, steel expands
more rapidly than concrete and the two materials will
Another reason steel works well as a
reinforcement for concrete is because it bonds well
with concrete. This bond strength is proportional to
the contact surface of the steel to the concrete. In other
words, the greater the surface of steel exposed to the
adherence of concrete, the stronger the bond. A
deformed reinforcing bar adheres better than a plain,
round, or square one because it has a greater bearing
surface. In fact, when plain bars of the same diameter
are used instead of deformed bars, approximately 40
percent more bars must be used.
The rougher the surface of the steel, the better it
adheres to concrete. Thus steel with a light, firm layer
of rust is superior to clean steel; however, steel with
Figure 7-1.—Various types of deformed bars.
rebar could be procured locally and could be metric.
Table 7-3 is given for comparison. Remember that bar
numbers are based on the nearest number of
one-eighth inch included in the nominal diameter of
the bar. To measure rebar, you must measure across
the round/square portion where there is no
deformation. The raised portion of the deformation is
not measured when measuring the rebar diameter.
Eleven standard sizes of reinforcing bars are in use
today. Table 7-1 lists the bar number, area in square
inches, weight, and nominal diameter of the 11 standard
sizes. Bars No. 3 through 11 and 14 and 18 are all
deformed bars. Table 7-2 lists the bar number, area in
square inches and millimeters, weight in pounds per foot
as well as kilograms per meter, and nominal diameter of
the 8 standard metric sizes. At various sites overseas,
Table 7-1.—U.S. Standard Reinforcing Bars
U.S. Standard Reinforcing Steel Bars
Bar Size
Weight lb
Per Foot
Area Square
Table 7-2.—Metric Reinforcing Bars
Sq. Inches
Sq. mm
Lb Per Ft
Table 7-3.—Comparison of U.S. Customary and Metric Rebar
U.S. Standard Bar
Metric Bar
Bar is:
Bar Size
Area Sq. Inches
Bar Size
Area Sq. Inches
45% larger*
20% smaller
55% larger
6.8% larger
22% smaller
30% larger
1.3% smaller
9% larger
14% smaller
22% larger
0.6% smaller
3 .5% larger
3 .0% smaller
*NOTE: % Difference is based upon area of rebar in square inches.
Reinforcing Bars
or rolled axle steel (-A-). Figure 7-2 shows the
two-grade marking system.
Reinforcing bars are hot-rolled from a variety of
steels in several different strength grades. Most
reinforcing bars are rolled from new steel billets, but
some are rolled from used railroad-car axles or
railroad rails that have been cut into rollable shapes.
An assortment of strengths are available.
The lower strength reinforcing bars show only
three marks: an initial representing the producing
mill, bar size, and type of steel. The high strength
reinforcing bars use either the continuous line system
or the number system to show grade marks. In the line
system, one continuous line is rolled into the
60,000 psi bars, and two continuous lines are rolled
into the 75,000 psi bars. The lines must run at least
five deformation spaces, as shown in figure 7-2. In the
number system, a “60” is rolled into the bar following
the steel type of mark to denote 60,000 psi bars, and a
“75” is rolled into the 75,000 psi bars.
The American Society for Testing Materials
(ASTM) has established a standard branding for
deformed reinforcing bars. There are two general
systems of bar branding. Both systems serve the basic
purpose of identifying the marker size, type of steel,
and grade of each bar. In both systems an identity mark
denoting the type of steel used is branded on every bar
by engraving the final roll used to produce the bars so
as to leave raised symbols between the deformations.
The manufacturer’s identity mark that signifies the
mill that rolled the bar is usually a single letter or, in
some cases, a symbol. The bar size follows the
manufacturer’s mark and is followed by a symbol
indicating new billet steel (-N-), rolled rail steel (-I-),
Expanded Metal and Wire Mesh
Expanded metal or wire mesh is also used for
reinforcing concrete. Expanded metal is made by
partly shearing a sheet of steel, as shown in view A
figure 7-3. The sheet steel has been sheared in parallel
Figure 7-3.—Expanded or diamond mesh steel reinforcement.
concrete pads that do not have to bear substantial
weight, such as transformer and air-conditioner pads.
Welded Wire Fabric
Welded wire fabric is fabricated from a series of
wires arranged at right angles to each other and
electrically welded at all intersections. Welded wire
fabric, referred to as WWF within the NCF. has
various uses in reinforced concrete construction. In
building construction, it is most often used for floor
slabs on well-compacted ground. Heavier fabric,
supplied mainly in flat sheets, is often used in walls
and for the primary reinforcement in structural floor
slabs. Additional examples of its use include road and
runway pavements, box culverts, and small canal
Four numbers are use-d to designate the style of
wire mesh; for example, 6 by 6-8 by 8 (sometimes
written 6 x 6 x 8 x 8 or 6 x 6 - W 2.1 x W 2.1). The
first number (in this case, 6) indicates the lengthwise
spacing of the wire in inches; the second number (in
this case, 6) indicates the crosswise spacing of the wire
in inches; the last two numbers (8 by 8) indicate the
size of the wire on the Washburn and Moen gauge.
More recently the last two numbers are a W number
that indicates the size of the cross-sectional area in the
wire in hundredths of an inch. (See table 7-4.) WWF
is currently available within the Navy stock system
using the four-digit system, 6 by 6-8 by 8, as of this
writing, but if procured through civilian sources, the
W system is used.
Figure 7-2.—American standard reinforcing bar marks.
lines and then pulled out or expanded to form a
diamond shape between each parallel cut. Another
type is square, rather than diamond shaped, as shown
in view B, figure 7-3. Expanded metal is customarily y
used during plastering operations and light reinforcing
concrete construction, such as sidewalks and small
Table 7-4—Common Stock Sizes of Welded Wire Fabric
(By Steel Wire Gauge)
(by W—Number)
Approximate lb
per 100 sq. ft.
Light fabric can be supplied in either rolls or flat
sheets. Fabric made of wire heavier than W4 should
always be furnished in flat sheets. Where WWF must
be uniformly flat when placed, fabric furnished in rolls
should not be fabricated of wire heavier than W 2.9.
Fabricators furnish rolled fabric in complete rolls
only. Stock rolls will contain between 700 to 1,500
square feet of fabric determined by the fabric and the
producing location. The unit weight of WWF is
designated in pounds per one hundred square feet of
fabric (table 7-4). Five feet, six feet, seven feet, and
seven feet six inches are the standard widths available
for rolls, while the standard panel widths and lengths
are seven feet by twenty feet and seven feet six inches
by twenty feet.
about one-sixteenth inch (1.59 mm) in depth with
holes punched at regular intends.
Tension in Steel
Steel bars are strong in tension. Structural grade
is capable of safely carrying up to 18,000 psi and
intermediate, hard, and rail steel, 20,000 psi. This is
STRESS is about triple this.
When a mild steel bar is pulled in a testing
machine, it stretches a very small amount with each
increment of load. In the lighter loadings, this stretch
is directly proportional to the amount of load (fig. 7-4,
view A). The amount is too small to be visible and can
be measured only with sensitive gauges.
Sheet-Metal Reinforcemat
At some pull (known as the YIELD POINT), such
as 33,000 psi for mild steel, the bar begins to neck
down (fig. 7-4, view B) and continues to stretch
perceptibly with no additional load.
Sheet-metal reinforcement is used mainly in floor
slabs and in stair and roof construction. It consists of
annealed sheet steel bent into grooves or corrugations
middle to the opposite side pull away from the middle.
This is similar to what happens inside the beam.
For instance, take a simple beam (a beam resting
freely on two supports near its ends). The dead load
(weight of the beam) causes the beam to bend or sag.
Now, from the center of the beam to the bottom, the
forces tend to stretch or lengthen the bottom portion
of the beam. This pad is said to be in tension, and that
is where the steel reinforcing bars are needed. As a
result of the combination of the concrete and steel, the
tensile strength in the beam resists the force of the load
and keeps the beam from breaking apart. At the exact
center of the beam, between the compressive stress
and the tensile stress, there is no stress at all-it is
In the case of a continuous beam, it is a little
different. The top of the beam maybe in compression
along part of its length and in tension along another
part. This is because a continuous beam rests on more
than two supports. Thus the bending of the beam is not
all in one direction. It is reversed as it goes over
intermediate supports.
To help the concrete resist these stresses,
engineers design the bends of reinforcing steel so that
the steel will set into the concrete just where the tensile
stresses take place. That is the reason you may have to
bend some reinforcing rods in almost a zigzag pattern.
The joining of each bar with the next, the anchoring
of the bar ends within concrete, and the anchoring by
overlapping two bar ends together are some of the
important ways to increase and keep bond strength.
Some of the bends you will be required to make in
reinforcing bars are shown in figure 7-5.
Figure 7-4.—Tension in steel bars.
Then, when it seems the bar will snap like a rubber
band it recovers strength (due to work hardening).
Additional pull is required (fig. 7-4, view C) to
produce additional stretch and final failure (known as
the ULTIMATE STRENGTH) at about 55,000 psi for
mild steel.
The drawings for a job provide all the information
necessary for cutting and bending reinforcing bars.
Reinforcing steel can be cut to size with shears or with
an oxygas cutting torch. The cutting torch can be used
in the field.
Before bending the reinforcing bars, you should
check and sort them at the jobsite. Only after you
check the bars can you be sure that you have all you
need for the job. Follow the construction drawings
when you sort the bars so that they will be in the proper
order to be bent and placed in the concrete forms. After
you have divided the different sizes into piles, label
each pile so that you and your crew can find them
The job of bending reinforcing bars is interesting
if you understand why bending is necessary. There are
several masons. Let us go back to the reason for using
reinforcing steel in concrete—the tensile strength and
compressive strength of concrete. You might compare
the hidden action within a beam from live and dead
loads to the breaking of a piece of wood with your
knee. You have seen how the splinters next to your
knee push toward the middle of the piece of wood
when you apply force, while the splinters from the
For the job of bending, a number of types of
benders can be used. Stirrups and column ties are
normally less than No. 4 bar, and you can bend them
Figure 7-5.—Typical reinforcement bends.
Figure 7-6.—Bar-bending table.
cold by means of the bending table, as shown in figure
7-6. Typical stirrup tie shapes are shown in figure 7-7.
Stirrups are used in beams; as shown in figure 7-8.
Column ties are shown in position in figure 7-9.
of the bend and pulling on the handle, you can produce
a smooth, circular bend through almost any angle that
is desired.
Bending Guidelines and Techniques
When the bars have to be bent in place, a bending
tool, like the one shown in figure 7-10, is effective. By
placing the jaws of the hickey on one side of the center
Make bends, except those for hooks, around pins
with a diameter of not less than six times the bar
diameter for No. 3 through No. 8 bar. If the bar is larger
Figure 7-7.—Stirrup and column ties.
Figure 7-9.—Column steel in place.
Figure 7-8.—Steel in place in a beam
than 1 inch (25.4 mm) (No. 9, No. 10, and No. 11 bar),
the minimum pin diameter should be eight times the
bar size. For No. 14 through No. 18, the pin diameter
should be ten times the diameter of the bar.
To get smooth, sharp bends when bending large
rods, slip a pipe cheater over the rod. This piece of pipe
gives you a better hold on the rod itself and makes the
whole operation smoother. You can heat No. 9 bars and
larger to a cherry red before bending them, but make
Figure 7-10.—Bending tool.
Bend Diameters
If you do not want your rod to crack while it is
being bent, bend it gradually, not with a jerk. Also, do
not make your bends too sharp. Bends made on a
bar-bending table or block are usually too sharp, and
the bar is somewhat weakened. Therefore, certain
sure you do not get them any hotter. If the steel
becomes too hot, it will lose strength, become brittle,
and can even crack.
minimum bend diameters have been established for
the different bar sizes and for the various types of
hooks. These bending details are shown in figure 7-11.
You can use many different types of bends. The one
you select depends on where you are to place the rods.
For example, there are bends on heavy beam and
girder bars, bends for reinforcement of vertical
columns at or near floor levels, bends for stirrups and
column ties, bends for slab reinforcement, and bends
for bars or wire for column spiral reinforcement. To
save yourself some time and extra work, try to make
all bends of one kind at one time instead of
remeasuring and resetting the templates on your
bending block for different bends.
The Iron master Portable Hydraulic
Rod Bender and Shear
The Ironmaster portable hydraulic rod bender and
shear (fig. 7-12) can cold-work reinforcing bars into
various shapes for use in concrete construction work.
The machine is capable of working reinforcing bars
up to and including No. 11 bars, which is equivalent
in a cross-sectional area to 1 1/4-inch (31.75 mm)square or 1 1/2-inch (38.1 mm)-round bar.
In addition to all sizes of reinforcing bars, the
Ironmaster will also work bars of higher carbon
content desired in the fabrication of anchor bolts, and
so forth. However, limitations must be imposed when
considering bar of 1-inch (25.4 mm) diameter or
greater that have a carbon content of greater than 0.18
percent, such as SAE 1020 cold-finished steel. Bars
under 1 inch (25.4 mm) in diameter should have a
carbon content of no greater than 0.37 percent, such
as SAE 1040 C. F. steel.
Although the Ironmaster is powered to work steels
of heavier sections than 1 1/2-inch (38.1 mm)
reinforcing bar, the manufacturer must place safety
limitations on it when considering various alloys and
shapes of steel. Users will undoubtedly adapt this
versatile machine to perform work other than common
bar bending, such as bending flats and angles.
However, the primary intention of the manufacturer
was to produce a machine for bending concrete
reinforcing steel. The manufacturer recommends that
the Ironmaster not be used on steels heavier than 1
1/4-inch (31.75 mm)-square or 1 1/2-inch (38.1
mm)-round reinforcing bar.
Figure 7-12.—Ironmaster portable hydraulic bender and
Figure 7-11.—Standard hook details
accept only the number of bars specified, suti as No.
7 roll for No. 7 bar (fig. 7-15).
Standard Hook Bending
Standard hook bending (fig. 7-13) is
accomplished on the turntable section located on top
of the machine. Before you start any bending
procedure, the turntable must be at the START
position as shown in figure 7-14. As an example,
when you desire to bend a 180-degree hook in apiece
of No. 11 reinforcing bar, setup the machine as shown,
using the following: bending cleat with cleat slide and
drive pin, main center pin, and No. 11 radius roll. As
a safeguard, the radius rolls have been designed to
1. Plain the rebar between the cleat slide upright
and the radius roll, which is placed over the center pin,
Figure 7-15.—Radius rolls for bending rebar on an
Figure 7-13.—Ironmaster bar-bending unit.
Figure 7-14.—ExampIe of bending a 180-degree hook with No. 11 rebar.
Multiple Bending
with the end of the rebar protruding a sufficient distance
for the cleat slide to be upright to engage it where you
want the bend to commence.
Multiple bending is accomplished the same way
as standard hook bending for bars up to No. 8 simply
by placing the bars in the machine one on top of the
2. Move the cleat slide to contact the rebar and
tighten the locking screws.
3. Move the positioner slide bar until the roller
contacts the rebar and tightens the T handle.
Table 7-5 shows the bars that may be bent by the
Ironmaster and the number of bars it will bend in one
4. Set the desired angle ‘of bend on the graduated
control rod which is under the right side of the working
table. This is done by placing the trigger pin of the rear
adjustable stop (toward the rear of the machine) in the
hole corresponding to the angle of bend, in this case,
180 degrees. This rod is graduated from 5 degrees to
190 degrees at 5-degree intervals.
On the side of the machine next to the shear is the
shearing support (fig. 7-16). This support holds the
bars square between the shear blades and prevents
them from “kicking up” during shearing. The upper
jaw of the shearing support is adjustable. For bars
three-fourths inch and smaller, place this jaw in the
LOWER position. For larger bars, use the UPPER
turntable will return to and stop in the START position
when retracted after the bend.
5. Advance the engine throttle to operating speed,
and move either the rear bending control lever or slide
bending control lever to the bend position. This actuates
the bend cylinder. The lever will stay in the bending
position until the bend is completed, the rack movement
disengaging the cylinder, and the levers returning to
neutral automatically.
To operate, insert the bar to be cut to the farthest
point possible toward the inside of the blades (fig.
7-15), making sure that the blades are in the fully
OPEN or RETRACT position. With light downward
pressure on the shear control lever, hold the bar in this
position until the shear grips. Continue applying
pressure downward to the full limit of the lever until
the bar is sheared To retract the shear, pull the lever
6. To remove the rebar from the machine after the
bend is completed, apply light intermittent reverse
pressure to the lever until the bar releases from the
radius roll. After removal of the hook from the machine,
move the lever to the position shown on “retract” to
return the turntable to the START position.
The same-size bar that can be bent can be sheared
Multiple shearing, however, can be accomplished only
on bars of less than 0.44-square-inch area. When
shearing more than one bar at a time, always place the
bars side by side in the shear, as shearing with bars
piled on top of each other may cause blade failure.
Table 7-5.—Single Operation Multibending
Bar #
Bar Size in Inches
Number of Bars that can be
Bent in One Operation
1 1/8 sq
1 1/4 sq
bars should be avoided because it reduces the bond
between the bars and the concrete. Use a piece of
burlap to remove rust, mill scale, grease, mud, or other
foreign matter from the bars. A light film of rust or
mill scale is not objectionable.
Bars are marked to show where they will fit. You
may work according to either one of the two
most-used systems for marking bars; however, the
system you use should agree with the marking
system which appears on the engineering or
assembly drawings. The two marking systems used
are as follows:
1. All bars in one type of member are given the
mark of that member. This system is used for column
bars, beam bars, footing bars, and so on.
Figure 7-16.—Ironmaster bar-cutting unit.
2. The bars are marked in greater detail. These
marks show exactly where the bar is to be placed. In
addition to the type member (that is, beam (B), wall
(W), column (C), and so on), the marks show the floor
on which the bars are to be placed and the size and
individual number of each particular bar. Instead of
showing the bar size by its diameter measurement, the
mark shows the bar size in code by eighths. The
examples shown below show the second type of
marking system.
Table 7-6 shows the number of bars that can be sheared
at one time.
The care and maintenance of the Ironmaster
portable hydraulic rod bender and shear consist
primarily of lubrication and cleaning. There are grease
fittings on the machine. Keep these points well
lubricated with a good grade of grease, but do not
overlubricate, as the surplus grease will collect dirt
and rust scale from the rebars. When greasing the
shear pin, work the shear arm up and down until grease
appears between the arm and the side ears. When using
the stirrup bending attachment, keep the center pin
clean and well lubricated.
2B805 2 = second floor
B = beam member
8 = 8/8- or 1 -inch (2.5 cm)-square bar
05 = part of the second floor plan designated
by the number 5
Rust scale from the rebar will accumulate in the
holes in the turntable and worktable and in the serrations
in the bending cleat and roller slide. Keep these cleaned
out, particular] y when changing over to or from the
stirrup bending attachment or changing a center pin by
means of a solvent-soaked rag or brush. Keep the
worktable as clean as possible to minimize the amount
of rust scale dropping through to the rack and gear.
2B0605 2 = second floor
B = beam member
06 = 6/8- or 3/4-inch (1.9 cm)-round bar
05 = part of second floor plan designated
by the number 5
Tie wire is used to hold rebar in place to ensure
that when concrete is placed the bars do not shift out
of position. Sixteen gauge wire is used to tie
Before you place reinforcing steel in forms, all
form oiling should be completed. Oil on reinforcing
Table 7-6.—Multishearing
Bar Size
9, 10, 11
reinforcing bars. About 12 pounds (5.4 kg) of wire is
required to tie an average ton (0.9 tome) of bars.
NOTE: Tie wire adds nothing to the strength of
the steel.
A number of different types of ties can be used
with reinforcing bars; some are more effective than
others. Figure 7-17 shows six types of ties that are
identified below according to the letters of the
alphabet used to show individual ties.
A. SNAP TIE or SIMPLE TIE. The wire is simply
wrapped once around the two crossing bars in a
diagonal manner with the two ends on top. These are
twisted together with a pair of sidecutters until they are
very tight against the bars. Then the loose ends of the
wire are cut off. This tie is used mostly on floor slabs.
B. WALL TIE. This tie is made by going about 1
1/2 times around the vertical bar, then diagonally
around the intersection, twisting the two ends together
until the connection is tight, but without breaking the
tie wire, then cutting off the excess. The wall tie is used
on light vertical mats of steel.
Figure 7-17.—Six types of ties.
variation of the simple tie. It is especially favored for
heavy work
D. SADDLE TIE. The wires pass halfway around
one of the ban on either side of the crossing bar and are
brought squarely or diagonally around the crossing bar
with the ends twisted together and cut off. This tie is
used on special locations, such as on walls.
variation of the saddle tie. The tie wire is carried
completely around one of the bars, then squarely across
and halfway around the other, either side of the crossing
bars, and finally brought together and twisted either
squarely or diagonally across. The saddle tie with twist
is used for heavy mats that are to be lifted by a crane.
of tie has the advantage of causing little or no twist in
the bars.
Figure 7-18.—Reinforcement bar accessories.
The proper coverage of bars in the concrete is very
important to protect the bars from fire hazards,
possibility of corrosion, and exposure to weather.
When not specified, minimum standards given below
and in figure 7-21 should be observed.
The proper location for the reinforcing bars is
usually given on drawings (table 7-7). In order for the
structure to withstand the loads it must carry, place the
steel in the position shown. Secure the bars in position
in such a way that concrete-placing operations will not
move them. This can be accomplished by the use of
the reinforcing bar supports shown in figures 7-18,
7-19, and 7-20.
FOOTINGS-3 inches at the sides where concrete
is cast against the earth and on the bottoms of footings
or other principal structural members where concrete
is deposited on the ground.
Figure 7-19.—Precast concrete block used for rebar support.
WALLS-2 inches for bars larger than No. 5,
where concrete surfaces, after removal of forms,
would be exposed to the weather or be in contact with
the ground; 1 1/2 inches for No. 5 bars and smaller;
3/4 inch from the faces of all walls not exposed
directly to the ground or the weather.
Figure 7-20.—Rebar hung in place.
inches (76.2 mm) of concrete between the steel and
the ground. If the concrete surface is to be in contact
with the ground or exposed to the weather after
removal of the forms, the protective covering of
concrete over the steel should be 2 inches (50.8 mm).
It maybe reduced to 1 1/2inches (38.1 mm) for beams
and columns and 3/4 inch (19.5 mm) for slabs and
interior wall surfaces, but it should be 2 inches
(50.8 mm) for all exterior wall surfaces. This
measurement is taken from the main rebar, not the
stirrups or the ties.
COLUMNS—1 1/2 inches over spirals and ties.
BEAMS AND GIRDERS—1 1/2 inches to the
nearest bars on the top, bottom, and sides.
JOISTS AND SLABS—3/4 inch on the top,
bottom, and sides of joists and on the top and the
bottom of slabs where concrete surfaces are not
exposed directly to the ground or the weather.
NOTE: All measurements are from the outside of
the bar to the face of the concrete, NOT from the main
steel, unless otherwise specified.
NOTE: Where splices in reinforcing steel are not
dimensioned on the drawings, the bars should be
lapped not less than 30 times the bar diameter nor less
than 12 inches (table 7-7). The stress in a tension bar
Footings and other principal structural members
that are against the ground should have at least 3
Table 7-7.—Length of Lap Splices in Reinforcing Steel
Size of Bars
Minimum lap equals 12 inches!
*Figured to the next larger whole inch
Figure 7-21.—Minimum coverage of rebar in concrete.
can be transmitted through the concrete and into
another adjoining bar by a lap splice of proper length.
To lap-weld wire fabric/wire mesh, you can use a
number of methods, two of which are the end lap and
the side lap. In the end lap method, the wire mesh is
lapped by overlapping one full mesh, measured from
the ends of the longitudinal wires in one piece to the
ends of the longitudinal wires in the adjacent piece,
and then tying the two pieces at 1-foot 6-inch (45.0
cm) centers with a snap tie. In the side lap method, the
two longitudinal side wires are placed one alongside
and overlapping the other and then are tied with a snap
tie every 3 feet (.9 m).
Figure 7-22.—Bars spliced by lapping.
Figure 7-23.—Correct and Incorrect placement of
reinforcement for an inside corner.
Reinforcing bars are in tension and therefore
should never be bent around an inside corner beams.
They can pull straight through the concrete cover.
Instead, they should overlap and extend to the far face
for anchorage with 180-degree hooks and proper
concrete coverage (fig. 7-23).
square, and the end of the top bar resting on it is cut
in a bevel fashion, thus permitting a butt weld. For bars
which will bear a load in a horizontal position, a fillet
weld is preferred. Usually, the two bars are placed end
to end (rather than overlapping), and pieces of flat bar
(or angle iron) are placed on either side. Fillet welds
are then made where the metals join. The welds are
The bars can also be spliced by metal arc welding
but only if called for in the plans and specifications.
For bars which are placed in a vertical position, a butt
weld is preferred. The end of the bottom bar is cut
made to a depth of one half of the bar diameter and for
a length eight times the bar diameter.
The minimum clear distance between parallel bars
in beams, footings, walls, and floor slabs should either
be 1 inch (25.4 mm) or 1 1/3 times the largest size
aggregate particle in the concrete, whichever distance
is greater. In columns, the clear distance between
parallel bars should be not less than 1 1/2 times the bar
diameter or 1 1/2 times the maximum size of the coarse
aggregate. Always use the larger of the two.
then the ties are spaced out as required by the placing
plans. All intersections are wired together to make the
assembly rigid so that it may be hoisted and set as a
unit. Figure 7-25 shows atypical column tie assembly.
After the column is raised, it is tied to the dowels
or reinforcing steel carried up from below. This holds
it firmly in position at the base. The column form is
erected and the reinforcing steel is tied to the column
form at 5-foot (4.5-m) intervals, as shown in figure
The support for reinforcing steel in floor slabs is
shown in figure 7-24. The height of the slab bolster is
determined by the required concrete protective cover.
Concrete blocks made of sand-cement mortar can be
used in place of the slab bolster. Wood blocks should
never be used for this purpose. Highchairs (fig. 7-18)
can be obtained in heights up to 6 inches (15 cm).
When a height greater than 6 inches is required, make
the chair out of No. 0, soft, annealed iron wire. To hold
the bars firmly in position, you should tie the bars
together at frequent intervals where they cross with a
The use of metal supports to hold beam
reinforcing steel in position is shown in figure 7-8.
Note the position of the beam bolster. The stirrups are
tied to the main reinforcing steel with a snap tie.
Wherever possible you should assemble the stirrups
and main reinforcing steel outside the form and then
place the assembled unit in position. Precast concrete
blocks, as shown in figure 7-27, maybe substituted for
metal supports.
The horizontal and vertical bars are wired securely
to each other at sufficiently frequent intervals to make
a rigid mat. Tying is required at every second or third
intersection, depending upon the size and spacing of
bars, but with not less than three ties to any one bar,
and, in any case, not more than 4 to 6 feet apart in
either direction.
Steel for column ties may be assembled with the
verticals into cages by laying the vertical bars for one
side of the column horizontally across a couple of
sawhorses. The proper number of ties are slipped over
the bars, the remaining vertical bars are added, and
Figure 7-24.—Steel in place in a floor slab.
Figure 7-25.—Column assembly.
Figure 7-26.—Method of holding column steel in plain in
Figure 7-28.—Steel in place on a wall form
Steel in place in a wall is shown in figure 7-28.
The wood block is removed when the form has been
filled up to the level of the block For high walls, ties
in between the top and bottom should be used.
Steel is placed in footings very much as it is placed
in floor slabs. Stones, rather than steel supports, may
be used to support the steel at the proper distance
above the subgrade. Steel mats in small footings are
generally preassembled and placed after the forms
have been set. A typical arrangement is shown in
figure 7-27. Steel mats in large footings are
constructed in place.
Figure 7-27.—Steel in place in a footing.
typical pre-engineered buildings (P.E.B.), the
K-spans, the pre-engineered towers, and the antennas.
As a Steelworker, pre-engineered metal structures
are a special interest to you; you are expected to
assemble and disassemble them. Rigid-frame
buildings, k-spans, steel towers, and antennas are
some of the more commonly used structures,
particularly at advanced bases overseas.
The basic pre-engineered metal building (fig. 8- 1)
is 40 feet wide by 100 feet long. Although the unit
length of the building is 100 feet, the length can be
increased or decreased in multiples of 20 feet, which
are called “20-foot bays.” The true building length
will be equal to the number of 20-foot bays plus 6
inches; each end bay is 20 feet 3 inches. The building
is 14 feet high at the cave and 20 feet 8 inches at the
All pre-engineered structures, discussed in this
text, are commercially designed structures, fabricated
by civilian industry to conform to the specifications of
the armed forces. The advantage of pre-engineered
structures is that they are factory-built and designed
to be erected in the shortest possible time. Each
pre-engineered structure is shipped as a complete
building kit including all the necessary materials and
instructions to erect it.
Pre-engineered buildings are ideal for use as
repair shops or warehouses because they have a large,
clear floor area without columns or other obstructions
as well as straight sidewalls. This design allows
floor-to-ceiling storage of material and wall-to-wall
placement of machinery. The column-free interior also
permits efficient shop layout and unhindered
production flow.
Various types of pre-engineered structures are
available from numerous manufacturers, such as Strand
Corporation, Pasco, and Butler; however, all are similar
because each is built to military specifications. It would
not be practical to try and include all of the structures
that each company fabricates; therefore, in this manual
a description of the basic procedures for erecting and
dismantling the 40-foot by 100-foot building is provided
as an example.
After a building is up, it can be enlarged while in
use by "bays”, providing additional space under one
roof. If desired, buildings can be erected side by side
“in multiples.” When a building is no longer needed
it can be disassembled, stored, or moved to another
location and re-erected because only bolted
connections are used. There is no field riveting or
welding. The rigid frame is strong. It is designed for
This chapter introduces you to the design, the
structure, and the procedures for the erection of the
Figure 8-l.—Completed 40-foot by 100-foot by 14-foot pre-engineered building.
Next, the forms are tied to make sure they remain
vertical. It must be stressed at this point that the proper
placement of the anchor bolts is absolutely critical in
the erection of a P.E.B. You will only have a tolerance
of plus or minus one eighth of an inch to work with.
The threads of the bolts are greased, and the nuts are
placed on them to protect the threads. Concrete is
poured into the formwork and worked carefully into
place around these bolts, so they will remain vertical
and in place. Finally, according to the plans and
specifications, the slab is poured.
working loads of 20 pounds per square foot load, plus
the dead load, and the load from a 70 mph wind.
The building can be easily modified to varying
lengths and purposes by taking out or adding bays or
by substituting various foundation and wall sections.
A bay is the distance between two column centers or
between the end wall and the first column center in
from the end wall.
Formulas used to determine the number of bays,
frames, and intermediate frames in a building are as follows:
While the foundation is being prepared, the crew
leader will assign personnel/crews to perrform various
types of preliminary work, such as uncrating and
inventorying all material on the shipping list, bolting
up rigid-frame assemblies, assembling door eaves,
and glazing windows. Box 1 contains the erection
manual, the drawings, and an inventory list and should
be opened first. If all of the preliminary work is done
correctly, the assembly and erection of the entire
building is accomplished easily and quickly.
Length divided by 20= number of bays
Bays + 1 = total number of frames
Total number of frames -2 = number of intermediate
Extensive pre-erection work is required before
you start the actual erection of a building. After the
building site is located and laid out by the Engineering
Aids, it will then be cleared and leveled by Equipment
Operators. Batter boards are set up in pairs where each
comer of the foundation is located. Builders fabricate
the forms for concrete while Steelworkers are cutting,
bending, tying, and placing reinforcing steel. If this
particular building requires underslab utilities (that is,
plumbing and electrical service), the Utilitiesman and
Construction Electricians will also be on the jobsite.
Last, all underslab work must be completed and pass
all Quality Control inspections before concrete is
placed and finished.
All material, except the sheeting, should be
uncrated and laid out in an order] y manner, so the parts
can be located easily. Do not uncrate the sheeting until
you are ready to install it. When opening the crates,
use care not to cause any undue damage to the lumber.
This is important since the lumber can be used for
sawhorses and various other items around the jobsite.
In most situations, after the building foundation
has been prepared, building materials should be placed
around the building site new the location where they
will be used (fig. 8-2). This action provides the
greatest accessibility during assembly.
Most importantly (as far as ease of erection is
concerned), before the concrete is placed, templates
for the anchor bolts are attached to the forms, and the
anchor bolts are inserted through the holes in each.
Girts, purlins, cave struts, and brace rods should
be equally divided along both sides of the foundation.
Figure 8-2.—Material layout
Panels and miscellaneous parts, which will not be used
immediately, should be placed on each side of the
foundation on pallets or skids and covered with tarps
or a similar type of covering until needed. Parts,
making up the rigid-frame assemblies, are laid out
ready for assembly and in position for raising.
the P.E.B. This phase of our discussion will introduce
you to the basic erection procedures. The reason for
these instructions is to give you a general guide to
follow. Keep in mind that the drawings provided by
the manufacturer must be followed in all cases, even
where the they might differ from information in this
training manual. The manufacturer’s standard practice
is to always pack an erection manual and a set of
drawings in the small parts box (Box 1) shipped with
each building.
Care should always be used in unloading
materials. Remember that damaged parts will cause
delays in getting the job done. To avoid damage, lower
the materials to the ground slowly and do not drop
Bolting Rigid Frames
Figure 8-3 will help you identify the structural
members of the building and their location. Each part
has a specific purpose and must be installed in the
location called for to ensure a sound structure.
members, parts, and accessories of the building is
labeled by stencil, so it is not necessary to guess which
one goes where. Refer to the erection plans to find the
particular members you need as you work.
Before bolting up the rigid-frame assembly, clean
all the dirt and debris from the top of the foundation,
Then lay out and bolt the base shoes firmly to the
concrete, using the 5/8-inch black steel washers
between the shoes and the nuts. Lay out an assembled
column and roof beam at each pair of base shoes
(fig. 8-4), using one 3/4-inch by 1 l/2-inch bolt on
each side of each base shoe to act as pivots in raising
the frame. Use driftpins, if necessary, to line up the
Frame Erection
With all pre-erection work completed, inspected,
and passed by Quality Control, as well as your
inventory completed, you are ready to start erecting
A gin pole (chapter 6) can be used to raise the end
frame of the building. To prevent distortion of the
Figure 8-3.—StructuraI members of a pre-engineered building.
Figure 8-4.—Frame assembly.
frame when it is being raised, attach a bridle securely
to each side of the frame below the splice connection
and also to the ridge on the roof beam. Drop a driftpin
in the flame, as shown in figure 8-5, to prevent the bridle
from slipping up. Set up the gin pole with a block at the
top. If a gin pole is not available, take three 2 by 6’s, 20
feet long, from the longest shipping crate and nail
them together.
Attach a tag line to the name, as shown in figure
8-5. Now, pull the end frame into the vertical position,
using a crew of four or five people on the erection line.
A tag person should have something to take a couple
Figure 8-5.—Frame erection.
of turns around, such as the bumper of a truck. Then,
if the frame should go beyond the vertical, the tag
person would be able to keep it from falling.
To get the frame started from the ground, it should
be lifted by several people and propped up as high as
practical. Bolt an cave strut to each column, as shown
in figure 8-5. The cave struts allow the frame to be
propped at every stage of the lifting. After the frame
is in a vertical position, install guy lines and props to
it so it cannot move.
Now, raise the second frame in the same way, and
hold it vertically in place by installing purlins, girts,
and brace rods.
A crane or other suitable type of power equipment
can be used to hoist the frames into place where such
equipment is available. When power equipment is
used, the suggested procedure to comply with is as
1. Raise the columns and bolt them to the base
shoes and then brace them in plain.
Figure 8-6.—Using power equipment.
2. Install all sidewall girts to keep the columns as
rigid as possible.
With the rods installed, plumb each frame column with
the carpenter’s spirit level.
3. Bolt the roof beams together and install the
gable posts and end-wall header.
Check the distance diagonally from the upper
comer of one frame to the lower comer of the adjacent
frame. When this distance is the same for each rod, the
columns will be plumb. After the sidewall rods are
installed, install the roof rods. The length of the roof
rods can be adjusted by tightening or loosening the
turnbuckle. When the two diagonal measurements are
the same, the end bay will be square.
4. Secure the guy lines, and tag lines to the roof
beams, as shown in-figure 8-6. Attach a wire rope sling
at approximately the center of each roof beam.
5. Hoist the roof beams into position on top of the
columns and bolt them in place.
6. When the second rigid-frame section is secured
in position, install all of the roof purlins, the gable
angles, and the louver angles. Attach the gable clips to
the purlins before raising into position.
After the two frames have been plumbed and
braced square with the diagonal rods (and the purlins,
the girts, and the eave struts have been installed), the
guy lines or props can be removed and the remaining
frames of the building can be erected. To raise the next
frame, attach blocks to the last frame raised.
7. Install the brace rods and align the first bay. THE
Brace Rods
Ž Do not omit the diagonal brace rods that are
required in the last bay of the building.
Brace rods must be installed in the first bay erected
(fig. 8-7). These rods are of paramount importance
since the y hold the frames in an upright position.
Ž. Be sure and bolt the girts, the purlins, and the
cave struts to the inside holes of the end frames.
Ž Install the cave struts, the girts, and the purlins
in each bay as soon as a frame is erected.
The diagonal brace rods are attached to the frames
in the roof and sidewall through the slotted holes
provided. Use a half-round brace rod washer and a flat
steel washer under the nuts at each end of the rods.
Ž Exercise care to see that the diagonal brace rods
are taut and do not project beyond the flanges of the end
frame to interfere with end-wall sheeting.
Figure 8-7.—Braoe rods.
Brace Angles and Base Angles
Sag Rods
After two or more bays have been erected, part of
the erection crew can be assigned to install the
diagonal brace angles.
Sag rods are used to hold the purlins and the girts
in a straight line. First, install the sag rods that connect
the two purlins at the ridge of the building. Each rod
To install the brace angles, lay the notched portion
against the frame flange and bend it into position (fig.
8-8). Diagonal brace angles are needed to support the
inner flange of the frame. Be sure to install them so
that they are taut.
must be attached from the’ top hole of one purlin
through the bottom hole of the adjacent purlin. Use
two nuts at each end of the sag rods-one on each side
of each purlin. Adjust the nuts on these rods, so the
purlins are held straight and rigid.
While some members of the crew are installing
brace angles, other members can be installing base
angles. When assigned this duty, first, sweep off the
top of the concrete foundation, so the base angles will
set down evenly. Bolt the base angles in place with a
flat steel washer under the nut. Leave the nuts loose to
permit later adjustments after the wall sheeting has
been applied.
Next, install the sag rods between the purlins
below the ridge with the rod attached from the top hole
of the upper purlin through the bottom hole of the
lower purlin. Use two nuts on each end-one on each
side of each purlin. Follow the same procedure with
the sidewall sag rods.
End-Wall Framing/Doors/Windows
Remember that the roof purlins should show a
straight line from end to end of the building. Do NOT
Refer to the manufacturers’ specifications for
proper assembly and installation procedures for
end-wall framing, doors (both sliding and roll-up), and
tighten the sag rods so much that the purlins are
twisted out of shape.
Figure 8-8.—Diagonal brace angles
windows, as these procedures will vary with available
building options.
helix nails or by sheet-metaI screws in holes prepared
by drilling of the structural. Or, a wood framing can
be prepared, attached to the structural, and a
hardboard insulation is nailed to the wood.
Sheeting, both sidewall and roof, must always be
started at the end of the building toward which the
prevailing winds blow. This action will ensure that the
exterior joint in the side laps is away from the blowing
of the prevailing winds. When installing roof sheeting,
always use a generous amount of mastic on the upper
side of all roof sheets just before moving them to the
roof. Turn the sheet over and put a bead of mastic on
the lip of one side of the corrugation and along one
end (near the end but never more than one 1 inch from
the end). Be sure to apply a horizontal bead of mastic
between aIl sheets in the end laps, BELOW THE LAP
HOLES. The roof sheets must be dry when mastic is
applied. Mastic is extremely important, and care
should be exercised whenever applying it to ensure a
watertight seal. Apply generous beads, especially at
the comers of the sheets. Finally, the ridge cap will be
installed ensuring proper watershed. As previous] y
stated, the information in this manual is general
information common to pre-engineered buildings.
Buildings Set Side by Side “In Multiples”
Pre-engineered buildings can easily be set upside
by side to increase the working area under one roof.
When this is done, the adjacent rigid frames should be
bolted back to back with a channel spacer at each girt
location (fig. 8-9).
The cave struts are moved up the roof beam to the
second set of 11/16-inch-diameter holes to provide a
gutter. This arrangement provides a space between
cave struts of 13 1/2 inches. A field-fabricated gutter
can be installed.
Building Insulation
Flat, unpainted galvanized steel of 24-to 26-gauge
material should be used for the gutter. A depth of 6 1/4
inches is desirable with the downspouts located as
required. Gutter ends should be lapped at least 6 inches
and should be braze-welded for watertightness. Note
that wall sheets can be used to form a gutter if the
outside corrugations are flattened and all of the end
laps are braze-welded.
The pre-engineered building can be insulated by
any of several methods. A blanket type of insulation,
in 2-foot-wide strips, to match the width of the roof
and wall sheets can be installed between the sheets and
structural at the same time the sheeting is installed.
Or, a hardboard insulation can be applied directly to
the inside surface of the structural, attaching it by
Roof sheets must be cut shorter where they
overhang the gutter. The corrugations can be closed
with the continuous rubber closure with mastic
applied to the top and bottom surfaces of the closure.
An alternate method is to flatten the corrugations at
the gutter and seal them with a glass fabric stripping
set in plastic.
Figure 8-9.—Buildings side by side.
K-span buildings (fig. 8-10) are a new form of
construction within the Seabee community. The
intended uses of these buildings are as flexible as the
pre-engineered buildings discussed earlier.
Disassembly of the pre-engineered building
should not be difficult once you are familiar with the
erection procedures. In disassembling a building, be
sure and clearly mark or number all of the parts. Then
you will know where the parts go when reassembling
The K-span building system consists of a
self-contained, metal building manufacturing plant,
known as the ABM 120 System/Automatic Building
Machine 120. This machine is mounted on a trailer,
forming a type of “mobile factory” (fig. 8-11) that is
easily towed to even the remotest construction sites. An
important aspect of this machine is that it can be
transported by air anywhere in the world easily. In fact.
the ABM System has been certified for air transport by
the U.S. Air Force in C-130, C-141, and C-5 aircraft.
the building. The main steps of the disassembly
procedures are as follows:
1. Remove the sheeting.
2. Remove the windows, the door leaves, and the
end wall.
3. Remove the diagonal brace angles and the sag
4. Remove the braces, the girts, and the purlins.
Once the machine is delivered on site, it can be set
up in minutes and turn coils of steel into structural
5. Let down the frames.
Figure 8-10.—Typical K-span building.
figure shows the main components of the trailer and
the general operating instructions. The primary
position is the operator’s station at the rear of the
trailer (fig. 8-13). The crew member, selected for this
position, must have a thorough understanding of the
machine operations and the manuals. From that
position, the operator controls all of the elements
required to form the panels. First, the operator must
run the coil stock through the machine to form the
panel shape. Next, it is cut off at the correct length.
This length is the required length for one arched panel
to run continuously from one footer to the other. Last,
after the panel is cut to length, it is run back through
the machine to give it the correct arch. The operator
must remain at the controls at all times. From the
placement of the trailer on site to the completion of
the curved panel, attention to detail is paramount as
with all of the aspects of construction.
strength arched panels. The panels are then machine
seamed together to form an economical and watertight
steel structure.
The final shape and strength of the materials used
cancels the need for columns, beams, or any other type
of interior support. All of the panel-to-panel
connections are joined using an electric automatic
seaming machine. Because of this, there are no nuts,
bolts, or any other type of fastener to slow down
construction or create leaks.
Once delivered to the jobsite, the “on-site”
manufacturing abilities of the machine give the ABM
operator complete control of fabrication as well as the
quality of the building, Training key personnel in the
operation of all related K-span equipment is essential.
These crew members, once trained, can instruct other
members of the crew in the safe fabrication and
erection of a K-span. The following section gives you
some, but not all, of the key elements associated with
K-span construction. As with all equipment, always
refer to the manufacturers’ manuals.
As you operate the panel, you will be adjusting the
various machine-operating components. Adjustments
for the thickness, the radius, and the curving machine
MUST be made according to the manuals. Do not
permit shortcuts in adjustments. Any variations in
adjustments or disregard for the instructions found in
the operating manuals will leave you with a pile of
useless material or an inconsistent building.
Operating Instructions
The main component of the K-span system is the
trailer-mounted building machine (fig. 8-12). This
Copyright ©1993 by MIC Industries, Inc.
Figure 8-11.—Automatic Building Machine 120.
Figure 8-12.—Trailer-mounted machinery.
concern as long as the bed of the trailer aligns with the
general lay of the existing surface conditions. Using
figure 8-14 as a guide when placing the machinery,
you should consider factors such as the following:
Maneuvering room for the towing of the
trailer, or leave it attached to the vehicle (as
shown at A).
The length of the unit is 27 feet 8 inches long
by 7 feet 4 inches wide (B).
Allow enough room for run-out stands to
hold straight panels. Stands have a net length
of 9 feet 6 inches each(C).
Machinery Placement
Find point X: From the center of the curve,
measure the distance equal to the radius in
line with the front of the curved frame. From
point X, scribe an arc equal to the radius.
This arc will define the path of the curved
panel. Add 10 feet for run-out stands and
legs (D).
Preplanning of the site layout is important to avoid
setup problems. Uneven or sloped ground is not a
Storage area required to store the coil stock
and access for equipment to load onto the
machine (E).
Figure 8-13.—Rear of K-span trailer.
Figure 8-14.—Machinery placement calculations.
feet long by 50 feet wide. When a different
configuration is required, forms are available from the
Direction curved panels must be carried
after being formed (F).
Level area required to lay panels on the
ground for seaming. Building will not be
consistent if panels are not straight when
seaming (G).
The actual footing construction is based, as
with all projects, on the plans and specifications.
The location of the forms, the placement of the
steel, and the psi (pounds per square inch) of the
concrete are critical. The building panels are
welded to the angle in the footer before the
concrete is placed. Because of this operation, all
of the aspects of the footer construction must be
completely checked for alignment and
squareness. Once concrete is placed, there is no
way to correct errors.
Space required for crane operations (I-I).
The design of the foundation for a K-span
building depends on the size of the building, the
existing soil conditions, and the wind load. ‘he
foundations for the buildings are simple and easy to
construct. With the even distribution of the load in
a standard arch building, the size of the continuous
strip footing is smaller and therefore more
economical than foundations for more conventional
As mentioned above, forms are provided for the
foundation. Using table 8-1 as a guide, figure 8-15
gives you a simple foundation layout by parts
designation. As noted in figure 8-15, the cross pipes
are not provided in the kit. They must be ordered when
the project is being planned and estimated.
The concrete forms and accessories provided are
sufficient to form the foundations for a building 100
Table 8-l.—Concrete Forms Included in Kit
Figure 8-15.—Simple form assembly.
are ready to place the concrete. When you are placing
the concrete, remember it is extremely important that
it be well-vibrated. This action may eliminate voids
under all embedded items. As the concrete begins to
set, slope the top exterior portion of the concrete cap
about 5 inches (fig. 8-19) to allow water to drain away
from the building. The elevation and type of the
interior floor are not relevant as long as the finish of
the interior floor is not higher than the top of the
concrete cap.
With the placement of the machinery and
forming of the building panels in progress, your next
considerations are the placement and the
weight-lifting capabilities of the crane. Check the
weight-lifting chart of the crane for its maximum
weight capacity. This dictates the number of panels
you can safely lift at the operating distance. As with
all crane operations, attempting to lift more than the
rated capacity can cause the crane to turn over.
The K-span building system is similar to other
types of pre-engineered or prefabricated buildings in
that windows, doors, and roll-up doors can be installed
only when erection is completed. When insulation of
the building is required, insulation boards (usually 4
by 8 feet) maybe of any semirigid material that can
be bent to match the radius of the building. The
insulation is installed using clips, as shown in figure
Attaching the spreader bar (fig. 8-16) to the curved
formed panels is a critical step; failure to clamp the
panel tightly can cause the panels to slip and fail with
potential harm to personnel and damage to the panel.
With guide ropes attached (fig. 8-17) and personnel
manning these ropes, lift the panels for placement.
When lifting, lift only as high as necessary, position
two men at each free end to guide them in place, and
remind crew members to keep their feet from under
the ends of the arches. Never attempt lifting any sets
of panels in high winds.
When the integrity of the end-wall panels is
continuous from ground to roof line, the end walls
become self-supporting. The installation of
windows (fig. 8-21) and aluminum doors (fig. 8-22)
presents no problem because the integrity of the wall
system is not interrupted. The installation of the
overhead door (fig. 8-23) does present a problem in
that it does interrupt the integrity of the wall system.
This situation is quickly overcome by the easily
installed and adjustable (height and width)
doorframe package that supports both the door and
end wall. This doorframe package is offered by the
Place the first set of panels on the attaching angle
of the foundation, and position them so there will be
room for the end-wall panels. After positioning the
first set of panels, clamp them to the angle, plumb with
guide ropes, and secure the ropes to previously
anchored stakes. Detach the spreader bar and continue
to place the panel sets. Seam each set to standing
panels before detaching the spreader bar.
After about 15 panels (three sets) are in place,
measure the building length at both ends (just above
forms) and at the center of the arch. This
measurement will seldom be exactly 1 foot per panel
(usually slightly more), but should be equal for each
panel. Adjust the ends to equal the center measure.
Panels are flexible enough to adjust slightly. Check
these measurements periodically during building
construction. Because exact building lengths are
difficult to predict, the end wall attaching angle on
the finishing end of the building should not be put
in place until all of the panels are set.
Shown in figure 8-24 are the fundamental steps in
constructing a K-span from start to finish.
There is another type of K-span building,
actually referred to as a Super Span by the
manufacturer, the ABM 240. Actual construction of
the ABM 240 is the same as the ABM 120 (K-span).
It can use heavier coil stock and is a larger version.
Figure 8-25 is given to show the differences
between the two.
After arches are in place, set the longest end-wall
panel in the form, plumb, and clamp it in place. Work
from the longest panel outward and be careful to
maintain plumb.
Keep in mind that the information provided in
this section on the K-span building is basic. During
the actual construction of this building, you must
consult the manufacturer’s complete set of
When all of the building panels are welded to the
attaching angle (fig. 8-18) at 12 inches on center, you
Figure 8-16.—Spreader bar attachment.
Figure 8-17.—Guide rope diagram.
Figure 8-18
Figure 8-19.—Concrete foundation.
Figure 8-20.—Insulation.
Figure 8-21.—Aluminum window installation.
Figure 8-22.—Aluminum door installation.
Figure 8-23.—Overhead doorframe.
Figure 8-24.—Steps in K-span construction.
Figure 8-25.—ABM System 120 and 240 comparison chart.
numbers are painted on all of the pieces. All of the
nuts, the bolts, and the washers are boxed and
identified by painted marks.
Airfield observation towers, harbor shipping
control towers, and radio towers are all erected by
Steelworkers. These towers are manufactured and
packaged according to military specifications. They
are shipped with all parts and with plans and
A check must be made of all of the parts and
packages received in a tower shipment. Check them
against the shipping list to be sure that no boxes or
bundles have been lost, stolen, or misplaced. Also,
check to see that none have been damaged When all
are accounted for, sort the materials. The drawings tell
you what is needed for each section. It is smart
planning to lay out all of the materials for each section
from the foundation to the top before any erection is
started. This will save a lot of time later.
The framework of the tower is made up of
fabricated structural shapes that are bolted together.
Anchor angles with baseplates are furnished for
setting in the concrete foundation, as shown in figure
8-26. In most cases, the foundation will be built by the
Builders. The manufacturer also furnishes square head
bolts, lock washers, and nuts. Spud wrenches and
driftpins are suppfied for each size of bolt. Field bolts
and shipping lists are prepared and packaged with each
shipment of a tower.
The first section of the tower is assembled on the
ground alongside the foundation. Start by assembling
the two-column legs on one side of the tower and bolt
them loosely, with one bolt each, to two foundation
stubs (anchor angle irons); these will act as pivot
points. Next, loosely join the angle and the cross
braces. Then lift the entire side. A crane or gin pole
can be used to rotate it into a vertical position or, if
necessary, it can be lifted by hand. Two people can
start by lifting the far end and start walking it up. The
two others, with handlines, can complete the upward
The tower members are bundled in the most
compact manner possible to keep shipping space to a
minimum. Erection identification marks and stock list
As the column legs fall into position, use driftpins
or spud wrenches to line up the holes with the holes in
the anchor angle irons. Then insert the bolts and
tighten them. Use spud wrenches for this job. Place
lock washers under each nut. When one side is
standing in the upright position, repeat the process for
the opposite legs. Finally, connect the cross braces on
the open sides, and add the cross braces on the inside.
When the whole first section, or bay, is in place,
tighten the bolts. Figure 8-27 shows the correct
connection of diagonal and center horizontal
members; notice the alternate connections of the
diagonal members at all points,
Use a snatch block and line to lift each piece for
the next section. Do not tighten the bolts until the
entire section is in place. Then start lifting the pieces
for the next section, shifting the snatch block as
necessary. When the whole section is in place, tighten
the bolts. Repeat this process until the whole
framework of the tower is erected. Bolts should be
hoisted by handlines in buckets or leather-bottom bolt
bags. Figure 8-28 shows a partially completed tower.
Figure 8-26.—Anchor angles in a concrete foundation.
Figure 8-27.—Connection of diagonal and center
horizontal members.
The ladder for the tower is assembled on the
ground. As the tower is erected, the sections of the
ladder are raised in place by handlines. These sections
are then bolted in place. The cabin section is made of
wood and is constructed by the Builders and raised in
place; but, Steelworkers will be called upon to assemble
rails and platforms.
Figure 8-28.—Partially erected tower.
After the tower is complete, one or two people
must go over all of the bolts, center punching them to
lock them in place. These people must also tighten all
the nuts and see to it that washers have been inserted
under each nut. This can be repeated after a few weeks
as a final check. Figure 8-29 shows the top of a
completed tower with a control room and with the guys
in place.
Steel towers can be taken down when they are no
longer needed and then be erected again at a new
location. As the first step in dismantling a tower,
remove the guy lines, the electrical conduit for the red
warning light for aircraft atop the tower, the platform,
and any other accessories. Next, set up your rigging
gear so that one leg of the section-preferably the leg
that the ladder is connected to—will serve as the gin
Figure 8-29.—Completed tower.
pole. Proceed to attach a shackle to the top vacant hole
in the gusset plate and have a snatch block in the
shackle. Open the snatch block and insert the fiber line
to be used as a hoist line. Tie a bowline in the end of
the line to keep it from slipping through the block
Take the line to be used as the tag line and secure one
end to the bowline. Now, secure a snatch block to the
base of the tower, and run the hoist line from the top
snatch block to this block. Be sure the snatch block at
the base of the tower is located in a straight line to a
source of power. The source of power can be a dump
truck, a weapon carrier, or some other vehicle.
NOTE: When using a vehicle as a source of
power, you must keep it back far enough so that as it
comes forward, it does not arrive at the base of the
tower before the load is on the ground.
The tower is dismantled by sections, and the top
and second horizontal braces are the first members of
the section to be removed. Start by tying the hoist line
and tag line to the horizontal braces. Then signal the
vehicle operator to back up and take a strain on the
hoist line. You are now ready to remove the bolts,
holding the horizontal braces in place. After all of the
bolts are removed, lower the horizontal braces to the
ground. Now, remove the diagonal braces in the same
The next step is to remove the legs of the tower
section, except the leg being used as the gin pole. First,
shinny up the leg to be dismantled and hang a shackle
at the top. Tie the hoist line to the shackle and then
come back down the leg. Signal the vehicle operator
to take a strain on the hoist line-just enough strain to
take up the slack Remove the gusset plate from one
side. Remove the remainder of the bolts that hold the
leg being removed, leaving the two top bolts in place.
Now, take the tag line and secure it with a clove hitch
and a half hitch to the bottom of the load. Also, take a
turn with the tag line around the horizontal bracing in
the section that will be removed next. You should then
remove the two top bolts as you slack off on the tag
line and take up on the hoist line until the leg is
hanging straight up and down against the gin pole.
Release the tag line to the personnel on the ground who
will guide the load, as it is lowered to the ground.
Repeat this process with all of the remaining legs until
only the ladder and the leg used as a gin pole are left.
To remove the ladder, secure the hoist line to a rung
above the center. Remove the bolts and then lower the
ladder to the ground.
hoist line from the snatch block. Secure the hoist line
to the shackle. Remove the snatch block and hang it in
your safety bit. Then come back down the leg to the
spliced connection. (Generally, at all spliced
connections, there will be horizontal brace
connections that can serve as working platforms.)
Signal the personnel on the ground to remove the hoist
line from the base snatch block; then signal the vehicle
operator to take up the slack. Remove the rivets and
the gusset plate from one side of the splice. Remove
the remaining bolts in the leg. After all of the bolts are
removed, ensure that all personnel are clear of where
the load will land Remove the top bolt, and release
the nut on the other bolt one-quarter turn. Signal the
vehicle operator to back up slowly. As the operator
backs up, the leg will pivot downward on the bolt and
fall against the leg it has been standing upon and which
will be used as the gin pole in dismantling the next
section. Now, insert the shackle in the top hole of the
gusset plate and hang the snatch block in it. Put the
hoist line back in both snatch blocks. With the hoist
line, throw a half-hitch below the center of the leg.
Now secure the tag line. Next, signal the vehicle
operator to give a slight strain to take the tension off
the bolt. You can then remove the bolt and lower the
leg to the ground. This completes the dismantling of
an entire section of the tower, so you can proceed to
the next section.
Repeat the above procedure with each section
until the tower is completely dismantled.
If the tower will be put up again, rather than
scrapped, a crew should be assigned to wire brush each
member of the tower after it is lowered to the ground
In wire brushing, all rust, loose paint, and the like,
should be removed from the member. Each member
should also be marked. After they are marked, the
members should be stored in a orderly manner.
Modem communications in different parts of the
world between ships, shore stations, and aircraft,
including the United States aerospace efforts, have
required that transmitting and receiving facilities
be erected all over the globe. Many times the
Steelworkers from battalion detachments will be
assigned to erect them. This section will describe some
of the common communications antenna towers that
are erected and the procedures for erecting them.
When you are ready to start dismantling the leg
used as the gin pole, shinny up the leg and remove the
Freestanding, or self-supporting, steel antenna
towers are characterized by heavier construction than
guyed towers and by a shape that tapers in toward the
top from a wide base. Freestanding towers exert much
greater weight-bearing pressure on foundations than
most guyed towers. Consequent y, deeper foundations
are required (because of the greater size, the weight,
and the spread of tower legs) to provide sufficient
resistance to the uplift. Each leg of a freestanding
tower must be supported by an individual foundation.
Figure 8-31 shows a typical individual foundation for
a freestanding tower, and figure 8-32 shows a
foundation plan for a triangular steel freestanding
tower. Bracing and material specifications for these
towers are the same as for guyed towers.
The most commonly used guyed towers are
fabricated from steel in untapered sections 10 to 20
feet long. These constant dimensional sections are
erected one above the other to form the desired height.
Structural stability for this type of tower is provided
by attaching guy wires from the tower to ground
Base supports for guyed towers vary according to
the type of tower to be installed. Three commonly used
base supports are the tapered tower base, the pivoted
tower base, and the composite base. All three are
shown in figure 8-30.
A tapered tower base concentrates the load from
multiple tower legs to a small area on the foundation.
The pivoted base is used primarily on lightweight
structures for ease of tower erection.
Advance planning for tower assembly and
erection is essential for completion of the project
safely and correctly. Both the installation plan and the
manufacturers’ instructions should be studied to gain
a complete understanding of the tower assembly and
erection methods to be used. The following general
procedures and practices should be observed for the
assembly and erection of towers:
A composite base is generally used with heavier
towers because it affords much greater supporting
strength than the other two types.
Sections for lightweight towers are usually
assembled before delivery, to expedite final tower
assembly, whereas heavier weight towers must be
assembled completely in the field.
1. Assemble the tower sections on well-leveled
supports to avoid building in twists or other deviations.
Any such deviations in one section will be magnified
by the number of sections in the complete assembly.
Tower bracing should include diagonal bracing
and horizontal struts in the plane of each tower face
for the full tower height.
Figure 8-30.—Base support for guyed towers.
Figure 8-31.—Square self-supporting tower and base.
2. Check all of the surface areas for proper
preservation. Cover a11 of the holes and dents in
galvanized materials with sinc chromate or another
acceptable preservative to prevent deterioration.
the bolt. Maximum torque values of several different
sizes and types of bolts commonly used in antenna
towers are listed in table 8-2.
3. When high-strength bolts are used in a tower
assembly, place a hardened steel washer under the nut
or bolt head whichever is to be turned. Care must be
exercised not to exceed the maximum torque limit of
The following paragraphs present methods that
have been successfully used to erect guyed towers.
‘Ihe most practical method for any particular tower
Table 8-2.—Bolt Torques (foot-pounds)
Figure 8-33.—Typical davit installation.
or hand winch. A tag line, secured to the base of
section being hoisted, avoids possible contact with the
erected portion of the tower.
Gin Pole Method
Light triangular guyed towers, furnished with a
pivoted base, may be completely assembled on the
ground and then raised to a vertical position with the
aid of a gin pole. Figure 8-34 shows the lower section
Figure 8-32.—Triangular tower foundation.
will be determined by the size, the weight, and the
construction characteristics of the tower and by the
hoisting equipment.
Davit Method
Lightweight guyed towers are frequently erected
with a davit hoist that is anchored to the previously
erected section, providing a pivoted hoisting arm. The
davit arm is swung away from the tower in hoisting
the added section and swung centrally over the tower
in depositing the section before bolting up the splice
plates. Figure 8-33 shows a ground assembled unit
being hoisted for connection to a previously erected
tower section. A snatch block, secured to the tower
base, transmits the hoisting line to a source of power
Figure 8-34.—Pivoted tower-hoisting preparation.
Figure 8-35.—Erection plan for a pivoted tower.
of a tower that has an attached pivoted base in a
horizontal position preparatory to hoisting. The thrust
sling shown counteracts the thrust on the base
foundation from hoisting operations. Rigging
operations and location of personnel essential to the
raising of a pivoted base tower are detailed in figures
8-35 and 8-36. Light towers in lengths of
approximately 80 feet may be raised with a single
attachment of the winch line. However, longer towers
frequently are too flexible for a single attachment, and,
in this case, a hoisting sling, furnished with a snatch
block, allows for two points of attachment. The gin pole
is mounted close to a concrete tower base and is provided
with atop sheave to take the winch line. Permanent guys,
attached to the tower at three elevations, are handled by
personnel during hoisting operations, as shown in figure
8-35. Temporary rope guys, provided with a snatch
block anchored to deadmen, furnish the necessary lateral
Figure 8-36.—Erection of a pivoted guyed tower.
stability As the mast approaches a vertical position,
the permanent guys are fastened to the guy anchors
installed before erection.
Hand Assembly
Erection, without a davit or gin pole, may be
accomplished by the assembly of the individual
members piece by piece, as the tower is erected. As
assembler, you climb inside the tower and work with the
lower half of your body inside the previously assembled
construction. You then build the web of the tower section
around you, as you progress upward. As each member
is bolted in place, you should tighten all of the
connections immediately so that at no time are you
standing on or being supported by any loose member.
Temporary guying of steel towers is always
necessary where more than one tower section is
erected. Under no circumstances should the tower be
advanced more than two sections without guying.
Permanent guys are to be installed before the
temporary ones are removed.
Figure 8-37.—Tower-guying arrangements.
that three guys are spaced 120 degrees apart at each
level of guying (fig. 8-36). Square towers require four
guys spaced 90 degrees apart at each level of guying
(fig. 8-37). Square towers require four guys spaced
90 degrees apart at each guying level. The following
general elevation requirements apply to guy
attachments for towers:
Temporary Guying
Several materials, including stranded wire, wire
rope, and fiber line, are all acceptable for temporary
guying. New manila line is the most suitable because
of its strength and ease of handling. The size of the
guyed material required is determined by the height
and weight of the structure to be guyed and by weather
conditions at the installation site.
SINGLE-GUY LAYER The cable attachments
are placed in position at approximately two thirds of
the tower height.
TWO-GUY LAYERS. For towers with two-guy
layers, cable attachments are placed in positions at
approximately 30 and 80 percent of the tower height.
Secure the temporary guys to the permanent guy
anchors to temporary type anchors or to any nearby
structure that provides the required supporting
strength. Leave the temporary guys in place until the
structure is permanent y guyed and plumbed.
THREE-GUY LAYERS. For towers with
three-guy layers, cable attachments are placed in
positions at approximately 25,55, and 85 percent of
the tower height.
Permanent Guying
Antenna structures are permanently guyed with
steel cables or fiber glass sections to pre-positioned
anchors according to the installation plan.
Tower Guy Tension
Setting guy tension and plumbing a tower are done
at the same time and only when wind forces are light.
Guy tension adjustment and tower plumbing are done
as follows:
Figure 8-37 shows two methods of guying
triangular steel towers. Guys A, B, and C are secured
to a single anchor, while guys D, E, and F are secured
to individual anchors. Both arrangements are
satisfactory. However, the anchor that terminates guys
A, B, and C must be capable of withstanding much
greater stresses than the individual guy anchor
arrangement. Triangular tower guys are arranged so
INITIAL TENSION. All of the guys should be
adjusted gradually to the approximate tensions
specified in the antenna installation details. If tensions
are not specified, guy tension should be adjusted to 10
percent of the breaking strength of the strand of the
Figure 8-38.—Final tensioning of guys.
measured with a dynamometer, as shown in figure
8-38. Carpenter stoppers or cable grips of the proper
skin, designed for the lay of the wire, must be selected
for use in the tensioning operation. Any cable grip
assembly that grips the wire by biting into the cable
guy. The tension on all of the guys is adjusted after the
tower is in a stable, vertical position.
FINAL GUY TENSION. In one procedure used
for final tensioning of tower guys, the final tension is
SCREW ANCHOR. The screw anchor shown in
figure 8-39 may be used for temporary guying and for
anchoring guys for lightweight towers. This anchor is
installed by screwing it into the ground in line with the
direction the guy will take.
EXPANSION ANCHOR. The expansion anchor
shown in figure 8-40 is suitable for practically all
guying applications where the soil is firm. This anchor
is placed with its expanding plates in the closed
position in an auger-drilled inclined hole, not less
than 3 feet deep. The plates are expanded into the firm,
undisturbed sides of the hole by striking the expanding
bar at point B with a hammer and thereby forcing the
sliding collar downward the distance D shown in
figure 8-40. The anchor installation is completed by
backfilling the hole with thoroughly tamped backfill.
Figure 8-39—Typical screw anchor.
with gripping teeth could penetrate and damage the
protective coating of guy cables and should not be
used In step A of figure 8-38, the coffing hoist is
shown in series with a dynamometer to measure the
tension. A turnbuckle is shown in position to receive
the guy tail. In step B, an additional cable grip and
hoist or tackle are attached above the cable grip shown
instep A. The lower end of this tackle is provided with
a second cable grip that is’ attached to the guy tail
previously threaded through the turnbuckle. The
second coffing hoist is operated until sufficient
tension is applied to cause the reading on the series
dynamometer to fall off. Step C shows the guy in final
position secured in place with clamps. With the tower
properly plumbed to a vertical position, only one guy
at a given level need be tested with the dynamometer.
CONCRETE ANCHORS. Poured in-place
concrete anchors are normally used for high stress
applications and where multiple guys are attached to
a single anchorage.
On some installations, other procedures for
tensioning guys may be necessary because of the type
of guys and hardware supplied with the antenna. For
example, preformed wire helical guy grips are
sometimes used for attaching guy wires to the
adjusting turnbuckles. In such cases, the techniques
used for the guy assembly, the connection of the guy
wire to the anchor, and the tension adjustments must
be determined for the detailed installation plan or the
appropriate antenna technical manual.
Guy Anchors
Antenna design and installation plans specify the
anchor type, the location, and the hole depth required.
Anchor shafts, or rods, must project above the
grade sufficiently to keep all of the connecting guy
wire attachments free of vegetation and standing
water. Shafts and connecting attachments should be
thoroughly cleaned and then coated with a petroleum
preservative to retard the effects of weather.
Figure 8-40.—Expansion anchor.
During World War II, steel tanks made possible
many operations. During large operations, especially
in forward areas, the need for rapid transport and
appropriate storage facilities were of major
importance. Steel tanks were used to store fuel, diesel
oil, gasoline, and water to meet the demand for storage
facilities. Ships and planes were supplied from secret
tank farms at overseas bases, making possible many
of the large invasions of the war in the Pacific.
re-erection kits that contain new gasket material and
extra nuts and bolts. In disassembling a tank, however,
workers should make an effort to save all of the items
of hardware that can be used again. When taking down
a tank, avoid damage to any of the members because
the number of re-erections of a tank depend largely
upon the care taken during dismantling.
This chapter will brief you on the procedures to
follow in erecting bolted steel tanks including
preparation of the foundation for a tank-
Exercise care when handling plates to
avoid bending, dropping, or otherwise
damaging the steel. Bent plates will cause
problems when the tank is erected, and when
used, the result is usually a leaking tank.
Many types of tanks are available. Besides tanks
that are constructed of standard mild steel sheets, tanks
of galvanized steel sheets and of wrought iron may
also be obtained. Tanks may be bolted, riveted, or
welded. Bolted and riveted tanks have capacities of up
to 10,000 barrels. Welded tanks may hold as many as
50,000 barrels.
Considerable care should be taken in constructing
the GRADE or finished foundation on which the tank
is to be erected. Concrete foundations are ordinarily
not necessary if the ground is reasonably hard. When
the grade is properly prepared and perfectly level, the
tank can be joined on an even surface, and, therefore,
it is easier to fit up and erect the tank Also, with proper
support, the completed tank will be less likely to leak.
Steelworkers are normally concerned with
are composed of steel sheets of a size that is easily
transported. Individual pieces are quite light. They can
be assembled quickly in the field by crews of
relatively untrained men so long as the man in charge
understands the details of their construction. Once the
tanks are assembled, they will last for 5 or 6 years or
longer. A shipment includes all of the bolts, the nuts,
the fittings, and the gasket material required for
assembly. Drawings and assembly instructions also
are provided.
The earth grade should be constructed
approximately 1 foot greater in diameter than the
diameter of the tank which is to occupy it. The earth
must be well-tamped to a firm and smooth surface.
Never fill the area for a tank foundation because
erosion will, in time, result in a faulty foundation.
Ten-thousand-barrel tanks are used to store fuel
and diesel oil at overseas bases. One-thousand-barrel
tanks are used for gasoline storage. Low 5,000-barrel
tanks are seldom used for fuel storage where large
operations are under way, but they may be used for
storage of water. Since a barrel is equal to 42 gallons,
you can see that a 10,000-barrel tank is capable of
holding 420,000 gallons.
Foundation Construction
The tank foundation should be dry, level, and
well-drained. A layer of clean gravel or sand on the
grade is ideal for this purpose. Tar paper may be spread
under the tank as a corrosion-resistant carpet.
When a layer of gravel or sand is used on a grade
of firm earth, follow these steps:
If desired, bolted steel tanks can be dismantled and
re-erected at another location. You can obtain
1. Drive a peg in the exact center.
2. Mark this center peg at a point 6 inches from the
top) and drive it down in the grade to this mark.
100-Barrel Tank
The 100-barrel tank shown in figure 9-1 is the
smallest bolted steel tank. It has a holding capacity of
4,200 gallons of liquid and is made up of preformed
and punched metal sections, fastened together with
l/2-inch-diameter bolts. The tank bottom (fig. 9-2)
consists of two semicircular halves, bolted together at
a lap joint along the center of the tank bottom. This
vertical, bolted steel tank has a 9 foot 2 3/4-inch-inside
diameter and is 8 feet 1/2 inch high at the sidewall.
3. Use a wooden straightedge with a carpenter’s
level attached to set grade stakes about 10 feet apart.
Note that, set in this manner, they will protrude 6 inches
above the earthen grade.
4. Distribute sand over the whole grade, using
shovels and rakes. When the sand just covers the top of
each of the stakes and the center peg, the proper level
has been reached.
5. Drive the stakes and the center peg all the way
down into the earth under the sand. When the tank is
filled, the sand will compact, and if the stakes are not
driven down, they may cause leaks. Mark the position
of the center peg with a temporary pin so that you will
be able to position the center of the tank bottom later.
SIDE STAVES.— The side staves consist of six
curved, vertical sections, arranged in a single ring. The
staves are chimed (flanged) at the top and bottom of
each section with the left end of each chime offset so
the vertical seams overlap. The bottom chime bolt
holes are patterned to match the outer edge bolt holes
in the tank bottom. The vertical seams have one row
of bolt holes.
6. To make the surface smooth, use a sweep with
a carpenter’s level attached. Pin the sweep to the center
peg and drag it over the sand, filling in any hollows and
smoothing out humps. The sand pad should be at least
4 inches thick and should have a crown of about 1 inch
in 10 feet of tank radius; however, the crown should not
exceed 6 inches.
When a foundation is properly prepared, many
unnecessary problems do not occur during
construction of the tank. Just imagine the problems
that might occur, both in erection and in subsequent
maintenance of a tank, if the’ foundation were to settle
unevenly, throwing the steel plates on one side of the
tank slightly out of line. Remember that the walls of
the tank—consisting merely of steel plates bolted
together-must act as bearing walls to support the
roof. So, make sure you have a good foundation before
starting to assemble a tank.
Figure 9-1.—100-barrel capacity, vertical, bolted steel tank.
Tanks are assembled by sections, consisting of
pieces of various sizes and shapes that combine to
form cylindrical structures. Among the most common
are the bolted steel tanks, having a capacity of 100,
250, or 500 barrels of liquid Many tank sections serve
the same function regardless of tank capacity.
However, the number of sections used in each
assembly will vary according to capacity. The
procedures for assembling and erecting these tanks are
Figure 9-2.—Tank bottom.
of the manhole attached to the top of the center ladder
ladder is the center support for the tank deck. The
ladder is adjustable and is used to align the deck
section bolt holes and provide the required slope to the
tank deck
OUTSIDE LADDER.— Each tank is equipped
with an outside ladder for access to the deck The
ladder is bolted to the bottom and top chimes of a side
stave and is usually located near a tank thief and vent.
The ladder consists of two ladder braces, two
ladder rails, four ladder steps, steel angles, and a
flanged manhole that supports the tank deck
250-Barrel Tank
TANK DECK— The tank deck is made up of six
sections, extending radially from the tank center
ladder support to the top chime of the single ring of
side staves. Each deck section has an integral formed
flange along its right edge when viewed from the large
end toward the small end of the deck section. The
flanged side of the deck section acts as a supporting
rafter for the deck section. A bolt retainer angle is
attached to the inside face of each deck section,
flanged to retain the radial seam joint bolts that are
installed near the right edge of each deck section.
The 250-barrel tank has a capacity of 10,500
gallons of liquid, and the fabrication is similar to the
100-barrel tank. The tank bottom consists of ten
wedge-shaped plates, assembled radially around a
one-piece center section, as shown in figure 9-4. The
inside diameter is 15 feet 4 5/8 inches and is 8 feet 1/2
inch high at the sidewall.
SIDE STAVES.— The side staves consist of ten
curved, vertical sections, arranged in a single ring. The
staves are chimed (flanged) at the top and bottom of
each section with the left end of each chime offset so
the vertical seams overlap. The bottom chime bolt
holes are patterned to match the outer edge bolt holes
in the tank bottom. The vertical seams have one row
of bolt holes.
SPECIAL SECTIONS.— The tank bottom has
one special section, fitted with a blind opening. All of
the staves are special sections (fig. 9-3). One section
is for a cleanout cover, and the other five sections are
used for pipe connections. The tank deck has three
special sections. One section is for a combination thief
hatch and vent, one section has a blind hatch, and one
section has a liquid level indicator.
TANK DECK.— The tank deck is made up of ten
sections, extending radially from the tank center
ladder support to the top chime of the single ring of
side staves. Each deck section has an integral formed
flange along its right edge when viewed from the large
EMERGENCY VENT.— Each tank is equipped
with an 8-inch emergency vent, bolted to the top cover
Figure 9-3.—Layout of the staves around the tank bottom.
Figure 9-4.—Layout of the staves around the tank bottom, 250-barrel capacity tank.
combination thief hatch and vent, and one section is
used for a liquid level indicator.
end toward the small end of the deck section. The
flanged side of the deck section acts as a supporting
rafter for the deck section. A bolt retainer angle is
attached to the inside face of each deck section,
flanged to retain the radial seam joint bolts that are
installed near the right edge of each deck section.
EMERGENCY VENT.— An 8-inch vent is
bolted to the top cover of the manhole attached to the
top of the center ladder supports.
500-BarreI Tank
SPECIAL SECTIONS.— The tank bottom has
one special section, fitted with a blind opening. Four
of the ten staves are special sections. One section is
for a cleanout cover, and the other three sections are
used for pipe connections. The tank deck has three
special sections. Two sections are used for a
The 500-barrel tank (fig. 9-5) has a capacity of
21,000 gallons of liquid and is similar to the 250barrel tank, except that the bottom consists of 14
wedge-shaped plates around a one-piece center
section, as shown in figure 9-6. This vertical, bolted
Figure 9-5.—500-barrel capacity vertical, bolted steel tank assembled.
steel tank has a 21 foot 6 l/2-inch-inside diameter and
is 8 feet 1/2 inch high at the sidewall.
Although similar in design and construction,
bolted steel tanks differ mainly in the number of parts
required for each different size tank. Therefore, the
erection procedures for the 500-barrel tank, described
here, can be applied to the other tanks regardless of
SIDE STAVES.— The side staves consist of 14
curved, vertical sections, arranged in a single ring. The
staves are chimed (flanged) at the top and bottom of
each section with the left end of each chime offset so
the vertical seams overlap. The bottom chime bolt
holes are patterned to match the outer edge bolt holes
in the tank bottom. The vertical seams have one row
of bolt holes.
Center Bottom Plate
The center bottom plate (fig. 9-7) is a circular, flat
steel plate. The tank bottom plates are attached to the
outer circumference bolting circle. Before installation
of the center bottom plate, make sure that it is not
warped or broken. Check the bolt holes for bolt
clearance. Clean the bolt holes of dirt or other foreign
material where the center plate gasket is applied. Drive
the center stake below the surface of the foundation
and backfill the hole. Place the bolt-retaining boards
around the outer circumference of the plate. Position
the plate over the center stake. Place the gasket around
the bolt circle of the center bottom plate. Insert two
1/2- by 1 l/2-inch bolts in the two bolt hole channel.
TANK DECK.— The tank deck is made up of 14
sections, extending radially from the tank center
ladder support to the top chime of the single ring of
side staves. Each deck section has an integral formed
flange along its right edge when viewed from the large
end toward the small end of the deck section. The
flanged side of the deck section acts as a supporting
rafter for the deck section. A bolt retainer angle is
attached to the inside face of each deck section,
flanged to retain the radial seam joint bolts that are
installed near the right edge of each deck section. The
bolt retainer angle acts as a stiffening member to the
deck section flange along the span of the deck section
SPECIAL SECTIONS.— The tank bottom has
one special section, fitted with a blind opening. Five
of the 14 staves are special sections. One section is for
a cleanout cover, and the other four sections are used
for pipe connections (fig. 9-6). The tank deck has three
special sections. Two sections are used for a thief
hatch and relief valve, and one section is used for a
liquid indicator.
EMERGENCY VENT.— Each tank is equipped
with a 10-inch emergency vent, bolted to the top cover
of the manhole attached to the top of the center ladder
Figure 9-7.—Installation of the gasket the bolts, and the
channels on the center bottom plate.
Figure 9-6.—Layout of the staves around the tank bottom, 500-barrel capacity tank.
Insert the channel assembly through the center bottom
plate and gasket.
applied to each end of the overlap strip to ensure a
leakproof joint.
NOTE: To prevent damage to the gasket, do not
use a sharp-edged tool or pipe to force the gasket over
the bolts. Use a well-rounded, smooth, mouth tool.
Upon the completion of the assembly, move this
plate to the approximate installation position on the
tank foundation.
Lay the center bottom plate on the bolt-retaining
boards. These boards will prevent movement of the
bolts when the bottom plates are installed.
Of the 13 intermediate plates, one is an outlet
plate, which is assembled with channels and strip
gaskets. The channels are placed under the right lap
seams. Follow the same assembly procedures as
outlined above. In addition, the outlet plate has a blind
flange set assembled on it. The above procedure does
not apply to the last bottom plate as no further
assemblies are made on it. Keep the last bottom plate
separated from all of the other plates until it is installed
in the tank bottom.
Bottom Plates
The tank bottom consists of 14 tapered, flat steel
plates. Thirteen plates are plain, and one is soecial. All
of the plates are interchangeable. When the bottom is
completely installed, the plate pattern resembles a
wheel. The first bottom plate (fig. 9-7, #7) has a bolt
channel placed under each radial lap seam with l/2by 1 l/4-inch bolts (fig. 9-8). A strip gasket is placed
along each seam. The seams are identified as right and
left, facing the large end.
Cut six one-hole gaskets from the strip gasket
material (fig. 9-8, #2). Force a one-hole gasket over
and against the head of each flange bolt. Insert the
bolts through the bolt holes in the inside flange half
from the outside face of the flange with the heads of
the bolts fitting into the cutouts provided. Lay
bolt-retaining boards on the ground. Position the
flange assembly with the bolt head resting on the
boards. Slip a gasket over the bolts and force it down
against the inside face of flange #7, using a round
smooth, mouth tool. Work from the ground face of the
plate (fig. 9-7, #7) and push the bolts through the bolt
holes of the flanged opening. Place blocking under the
bolt and flange assembly to hold it in position. Slip a
gasket over the bolts and force it down against the
inside face of the plate. Slip the outside flange half
over the bolts with the machined face of the flange
facing the gasket. Apply the nuts to the bolts. lighten
the bolts. Remove the plate from the blocking and lay
it on the tank foundation
Starting at the large end of the plate (fig. 9-7),
place a bolt channel under the right and left lap seams
of the plate. Insert the bolts through all except the end
bolt holes in the plate and channel. As the channels are
put in place, position the bolt-retaining boards to
facilitate installation of the gaskets. Install the gasket
along the full length of the right and left lap seams.
Allow a l/2-inch bolt hole overlap at each end.
NOTE: When there is a break in the gasket
material, the ends should overlap two bolt holes and
be cut squarely across the second hole. Putty must be
With the first bottom plate in the approximate
installation location on the tank foundation, lay the
remaining plates around the tank foundation. Proceed
with the installation as follows.
FIRST PLATE.— Place the small end of the plate
over the center plate bolts (fig. 9-8, #3). Apply
finger-tightened catch nuts to the bolts inside the lap
seams. Catch nuts are ordinary nuts applied to the bolts
to hold the assembled plates in position.
Wedge-shaped gaskets must be used wherever three
plates are joined together. Before installation of the
plate, you should place a wedge gasket (fig. 9-8, #4)
over the gasket (fig. 9-7, #3) at the right edge of the
first plate #7. Face the small end of the plates. Install
Figure 9-8.—Installation of bottom plates.
the plate and all of the remaining plates to the left of the
first plate or in a counterclockwise direction around the
tank foundation. Place the small end of the plate over
the bolts (fig. 9-8, #3) with the right lap seam of the plate
laid over the bolts (fig. 9-8, #1) in the left lap seam of the
plate (fig. 9-7, #7).
Apply finger-tightened catch nuts to the bolts.
Follow the same procedure as outlined above. Apply
catch nuts to the bolts in the lap seam at intervals of
approximately 18 inches.
Do not tighten the catch nuts beyond finger
tightness. Each plate must move in the adjustment of
the tank bottom to obtain the correct spacing for the
installation of the last plate.
remaining intermediate plates are installed following the
same procedure as above.
LAST PLATE.— InstaIl the last plate by spacing
the lap seams over the lap seams of the next-to-last plate
(fig. 9-9, #1) and the first plate (fig. 9-9, #2). Place the
small end over the bolts (fig. 9-8, #3). ‘Ibis is a vital point
in the tank bottom; make sure it is secure against
Figure 9-10.—Applytng sealing compound to the
bottom chimes of the staves.
which secures the side staves. Tighten all of the bolts in
the tank bottom, starting at the small end of the plates.
Apply a heavy coating of sealing compound to both faces
of the two gaskets (fig. 9-9, #3), and install them over the
bolts (fig. 9-9, #4). Use a generous amount of sealing
compound at the overlap to seal The opening under the
small end.
SEALING SEAMS.— Sweep the bottom clean after
tightening the bolts. With the bottom dry, apply a
sealing compound to all of the bottom seams (fig. 9-l0).
small end of the plates and remove all of the catch nuts.
Install a rubber gasket, a steel recessed washer, and a
nut on each of the bolts. This applies to all of the bolts in
the tank bottom with the exception of those in the outer
circumference (chime) of the tank bottom,
This is a single ring tank Place all of the center
support ladder components and the manhole dome on
the bottom just before installing the last stave. This is to
prevent them from having to be lifted over the top of the
staves later. The top and the bottom flanged edges of the
staves are called chimes, and the side edges are called
vertical seams. The staves have a single row of bolt holes
in each seam.
Side Staves
LAYOUT OF STAVES.— There are five special
and nine plain staves in the ring. Place the staves with
the opening and pipeline connections in the proper
position, then lay out the remaining staves around the
perimeter of the bottom. Place the staves with the
chimes side down for convenience in preparing them for
assembly. The staves are laid out so each straddles a
radial seam of the bottom.
Staves have an offset at the top and the bottom. The
top is determined by looking at the stave in a
Figure 9-9.—Method of installing the wedge
gaskets at the installation of the last bottom plate
inserted through the chime (outer edge) of the bottom, it
must be raised to provide clearance to insert and tighten
the bolts following installation of the staves.
Raise the chime and block it up with short lengths
of 3- by 3- or 4- by 4-inch timbers at equally spaced
intervals around the perimeter of the bottom. Set the
blocking about 16 inches from the outer edge.
Install the strip gasket to coverall of the bolt holes.
When one roll of gasket material is used up and a new
one is started, the overlap should extend over two bolt
holes. Apply putty at each end of the overlap. Insert a
wedge gasket underneath the gasket at the laps formed
by the bottom plates.
Insert 1/2- by l-inch bolts through all of the bolt
holes in the bottom and the gasket, in that order, except
in the lap seams of the bottom. Insert 1/2-by 1 l/2-inch
bolts in each lap seam.
Omit the rubber gaskets and steel recessed washers
on all of the chime bolts.
FIRST STAVE.— The first stave (fig. 9-12, #l),
installed on the bottom, must be the one fitted with a
pipe coupling of the same size as the tank supply pipe.
Figure 9-11.—Stave chimes bent.
Place the stave over the proper bolts, so the stave
straddles a radial seam in the bottom. As a result, each
subsequent stave will straddle a radial seam. Install four
equally spaced catch nuts to hold the stave in position.
Run the nuts down by hand to fasten the stave loosely.
The nuts are not tightened until the last stave in the
ring is in place.
vertical position from the outside. In proper position,
offsets are at the lower left and upper left comer.
DRESSING STAVES.— The end of the chime at
the offset and the plain section, top and bottom, must be
slightly bent for ease in installation. The end of the
chimes at the offsets (fig. 9-11) must be bent inward
(towards each other). The end of the plain chimes is bent
outward (away from each other). The bends are made
with a few sharp blows from a hammer.
Two special gaskets are needed. The wedge gasket
fills the space by the lap offset at the vertical seam, and
a radii gasket is installed underneath the gasket at the
bottom and the top chimes of the stave. Radii
Along the right seam of each stave, as it will be put
in place with the chimes out, place a strip gasket on the
outside at the row of bolt holes. The gasket material
comes in rolls and is cut to proper length for each stave.
Cut the gasket material so that it covers and projects
one bolt hole past the top and the bottom chimes.
Insert 1/2- by 1 l/4-inch bolts through the stave joint
channel, the stave, and the gasket, in that order. Omit
one bolt about 10 inches from the bottom of the stave
and other bolts at about 2-foot intervals, so the driftpins
can be inserted to align the staves with one another
before bolting them together.
BOTTOM.— AS no channels are used with the bolts
Figure 9-12.—Installing first stave.
gaskets must be placed between the chimes and the
rubber gasket material at the seams, the top, and the
bottom of all of the side sheets to ensure a leakproof
into the stave joint channels to ensure proper
tightening of the nuts.
LAST STAVE. — To assist in the installation of
this stave, push all of the bolts (fig. 9-12, #2) in the
chime of the bottom flush with the gasket to provide
clearance for sliding in the last stave. Set the stave in
position with the left seam outside the right seam of
the next-to-last stave and the right seam inside the
left seam of the first stave. Loosen the bottom chime
nuts of staves #2 and #3. Lift the first stave #3
slightly, so the bottom chime of the stave #1 slips into
place. Use driftpins and align the holes and the bolts
in staves #1, #2, and #3. Install the nuts on the bolts
in the chime of the bottom. Install 1-by 1 l/2-inch
bolts (fig. 9-13, #2) in the third and twentieth bolt
holes of the vertical seam, counting down from the
top chime of every stave. These are scaffold-mounting
bolts. Install the remaining bolts in all of the seams.
Install the gaskets and washers with the cup side
down over the gaskets
SECOND STAVE.— Install the staves in a
counterclockwise direction around the bottom. To
assist in the installation of this stave, push two or
three bolts flush with the gasket in the chime of the
bottom to the right of the first stave. Install the
rubber gaskets and steel recessed washers on all of
the vertical seam bolts.
Set the stave in position with the left seam
outside the right seam of the first stave. Use driftpins
in the open bolt holes in the stave to align the holes
in the stave. Install the nuts only at every sixth or
tenth bolt in the row. As the remaining staves are
installed, check carefully the position and the
tightness of all the radii, the strip, and the wedge
Face the outside of the second stave and install 11
staves to the right of the second stave or in a
counterclockwise direction around the bottom.
Assemble the hook ladder, and hook it over the inside
of the staves. As the staves are installed, stand on the
ladder and fit all of the bolt heads squarely into the
channels. All of the bolt heads must be fitted squarely
Figure 9-13.—I.ocation of the scaffold around
the top chime of the staves.
Figure 9-14.—Removing the timber blocking.
on all of the seam bolts. Apply the nuts with the
rounded face down to all of the bolts. Do not tighten.
Tighten all of the chime bolts uniformly. Remove
the blocking (fig. 9-14); place it under the chime of the
bottom. Use a heavy, long timber as a lever and a short
timber as a fulcrum to lift the chime. lighten all of the
seam bolts. Be careful not to crush the gaskets. Apply a
sealing compound to the inside perimeter of the bottom
chimes of the staves.
DRESSING TOP CHIME.— Use the scaffold and
install the strip gasket to coverall of the bolt holes (fig.
9-15). When one roll of gasket material is used up and
a new one is started, the overlap should extend over
two bolt holes. Apply a sealing compound at each end
of the overlap. Insert a wedge gasket underneath the
gasket at each lap, formed by adjoining staves. Insert
1/2- by l-inch bolts through the chime and gasket, in
that order. The gasket will hold the bolts in place.
Ladder Assembly
‘he ladder consists of a bolted steel angle section.
The top of the ladder is fitted with a manhole dome.
The bottom of the ladder is fitted with ladder anchors,
flanged, flat steel plates. The small end of the deck
plates is bolted to the bottom flange of the manhole
Place two ladder rails (fig. 9-16, #1 and #2) with
similar bolting legs facing each other on top of several
pieces of blocking of sufficient length to support both
rails and spaced wide enough apart to insert a ladder
Figure 9-16.—Deck support ladder.
step. Determine which end of the roils will be the
bottom. Install the steps from the bottom toward the
top of the ladder. Five steps make up the assembled
section. Insert 1/2- by l-inch bolts through the ends of
the step and rails. Install a nut on each bolt protruding
through the rails. Tighten the bolts after all of the
steps are installed.
Face the 30 bolt hole flange of the manhole dome
and slide it over the top of the rails. Use a driftpin and
Figure 9-17.—First deck plate installed.
Figure 9-15.—Dressed top chime of the staves
align the three bolt holes at the top of the rails with
similar holes in the side of the dome. Insert 1/2-by 1
Ml-inch bolts through the rails and the dome, in that
order. Apply gaskets and washers to the bolts (fig. 9-16,
#6). Make sure that the cup side of the washers is
facing down over the gaskets. Apply the nuts to the
bolts. Make sure that the rounded face of the nut is
bearing against the washer. Tighten the bolts. Install a
28 bolt hole gasket (fig. 9-17, #1) on the inside face of
the bottom flange of the dome. Insert 1/2- by 1 1/4-inch
bolts through the flange and the gasket. The gasket
will hold the bolts in place.
Install the ladder anchors (fig. 9-16, #8) at the
bottom of the rails. Place the long leg of the anchor
over the three bolt holes in the vertical leg of the rails.
The short leg of the anchor faces outward. Adjust the
outside bolting face of the short leg so it measures 9
feet 5 15/16 inches from the top flange of the dome.
Insert two bolts through each anchor and rail. Apply
the nuts to the bolts and tighten securely.
Figure 9-19.—Deck plates ready for installation.
Line up two diametrically opposite lap seams (fig
9-18) in the tank bottom. Remove a nut from each bolt
in the lap seams and the first bolt to the right and left
of each lap seam. Raise the ladder assembly and se the
anchors over the bolts. Apply the nuts and tighten
Top Deck Assembly
The assembled deck consists of 14 tapered, flat
steel plates (fig. 9-19) with an integral formed flange
along the right lap seam. The seams are identified rig
and left, facing the large end All of the plates are
Of the 14 plates, three are special. Two plates a
fitted with a tank thief and vent, and one plate is fitted
with a liquid level indicator. Each deck plate has deck
plate channel and a rafter bolt retainer angle
assembled on it. The small end of the plates is bolted to
the bottom flange of the dome. The large end bolted to
the top chime of the staves.
out the plates around the outer perimeter of the tank
foundation. Place the blocking on the ground, spaced to
fit inside the confines of the plate. Lay the inside of the
flange with the short leg facing outward. Insert four
equally spaced bolts through the angle and flange.
Apply the nuts to the bolts. Tighten the bolts. Turn the
plate over with the flange down. Install a gasket along
the full length of the right lap seam. Allow a two bolt
hole overlap at each end.
plates are assembled, raise them up and stand them
Figure 9-18.—Center support ladder installed.
bolts in the chime. Finger tighten all of the nuts. As
the deck will have to be adjusted as the plates are
installed, do not tighten any bolts until the deck is
completely installed. Raise or lower the center support
ladder as required to fit the plates in place.
against the scaffold, as shown in figure 9-19. Locate
each plate so it straddles a vertical seam of the side
staves in the approximate installation position,
LADDER— Check and adjust the ladder to the correct
height before the installation of the deck plates. ‘he
distance from the top of the tank bottom to the outer
face of the top flange of the dome is 9 feet 6 9/64 inches.
Raise or lower the ladder as required.
PLATES.— There are 12 intermediate plates. The
special plates remaining are installed to suit field
LAST DECK PLATE.— Raise the last deck plate
before the next-to-last plate is installed Raise the right
lap seam of the first deck plate (fig. 9-20, #l). This is
necessary to permit the installation of the last plate.
Place a jack under one of the ladder steps. Adjust
the ladder so that in the final position, one set of the
holes in the bottom of the rails line up with the holes in
the brace. Lock the jack Insert the bolts through the
proper bolt holes in the brace to match the top holes in
the rails. Apply the nuts to the bolts. Tighten the bolts.
Unlock and remove the jack.
When all of the deck plates have been installed on
the tank, check the height to the outer face of the top
flange of the manhole dome above the top of the tank
bottom. If not the required height, adjust the ladder
until it is the correct dimension. Insert the bolts in
aligned bolt holes and tighten the nuts.
PLATE.— The first plate installed should be a plate
with a vent (fig. 9-19, #2). The remaining plate, fitted
with a vent, must be installed directly across the tank
from the first plate with a vent. Attach two rope deck
hooks to the small end of the plate while it stands
against the scaffold (fig. 9-13). Guide the large end of
the plate and pull the plate in place by means of a haul
line. Lower the large end of the plate over the proper
bolts in the top chime of the staves, so it will straddle a
vertical seam. The small end of the plate will drop over
the proper bolts. Release the hooks. Apply four equally
spaced catch nuts to the bolts through the large end of
the plate. One catch nut will be sufficient to hold the
small end in place. Do not tighten the bolts.
Figure 9-20.—Installing last deck plate.
PLATE.— Install a gasket over the bolts at the left lap
seam of the plate (fig. 9-17, #3 and #4). Face the small
end of the plate #4. Install this plate and all of the
remaining plates to the left of the first plate or in a
counterclockwise direction around the tank Raise the
plate. Place the right lap seam of the plate over the
bolts in the left lap seam of the first plate #4 and the
large end over the proper bolts in the top chime of the
Install the nuts to six equally spaced bolts in the
lap seam of the plates. Install the nuts on all of the
Figure 9-21.—Outside ladder installed.
attached to the screen ring by two outside rings,
formed from steel bars. Flange bolts, inserted through
the manhole cover, a dust restrictor ring, and steel pipe
sleeve spacers attach the air intake to the manhole
The left lap seam of the last plate slips under the right
lap seam of the first plate. The right lap seam of the
last plate is placed over the bolts in the left lap seam
of the next-to-last plate installed.
Make the necessary adjustments in the deck if the
last plate fails to fit properly. Remove the nuts
temporarily installed on all of the bolts in the plate lap
seams. Install a rubber gasket, a steel recessed washer,
and a nut on all of the bolts except on the bolts in the
top chime of the staves. Install any missing nuts on the
chime bolts. Make sure that the rounded head of the
nut is against the plate and washers and that the cupped
side of the washer is facedown covering the rubber
gasket. Tighten the bolts. Remove the scaffold. Install
the gaskets, the washers, and the nuts to all of the bolts
in the vertical seams. Return the brackets and the posts
to the tank erection tool set.
Wrap the insect screen around the outside of the
inside screen ring. Join the ends of the screen with the
copper wire weave. Install an outside screen ring at the
top and the bottom of the insect screen to hold it in
place. Make sure the screen is not knocked out of
position. Tighten the bolts.
Install the screen ring on the top flange of the
dome (fig. 9-20, #3). Insert the flange bolts through
the cover, the dust restrictor ring, the steel pipe sleeve
spacers, and the top flange of the dome (fig. 9-20, #3),
in that order. Apply the nuts to the bolts and tighten.
Place the manhole cover gasket over the bolt holes
at the opening in the cover. Insert 1/2- by 1 l/2-inch
bolts through the two bolt hole channels. Work
through the l0-inch hole and insert the bolts through
the cover and the gasket. Install the blind hatch flange
over the bolts. Apply the nuts to the bolts. Tighten the
MANHOLE COVER— If this tank is used for
water storage, omit the emergency vent valve (fig.
9-21). Install the manhole cover with the blind flange
hatch set after installation of the manhole air intake.
Install a 30 bolt hole gasket on the top flange of
the dome. Insert 1/2- by 1 l/2-inch bolts through the
flange and gasket, in that order. The gasket will hold
the bolts in place. Install a 30 bolt hole manhole cover
(fig. 9-21, #1) over the bolts. Install the gasket, the
washer, and the nut on all of the bolts. Install the
washer and the nut as above. Tighten the bolts.
Outside Ladder
The outside ladder consists of one bolted steel
angle section. The top of the ladder is attached to the
deck by two fabricated steel handrails. Two bolted
steel angle braces support the ladder at the bottom
chime of a stave.
Emergency Vent Valve
The emergency vent valve consists of a one-piece,
flanged, round, cast steel body, fitted with lugs for a
hinged vent. The vent is a one-piece, round, cast steel
body, fitted with a lifting handle and hinge lugs. The
vent comes attached to the flanged body hinges and
seals the deck opening.
Place the left side ladder section and the right side
ladder section with similar bolting legs facing each
other on top of several pieces of blocking of sufficient
length to support both sections and spaced wide
enough apart to install a ladder step (fig. 9-21, #6).
Select the bottom end of the ladder. Seven steps
make up the assembled section. Insert 1/2- by l-inch
bolts through the ends of the step and the sections, in
that order. Install a nut on each bolt protruding through
the sections. Tighten the bolts after all of the steps are
installed. Install the braces at the bottom of the section.
Place the manhole cover gasket over the bolt holes
at the opening in the cover (fig. 9-21, #l). Insert l/2by 1 1/2-inch bolts through two bolt hole channels.
Work through the l0-inch hole and insert the bolts
through the cover and the gasket. Install the vent valve
(fig. 9-21, #2) over the bolts. Apply the nuts to the
bolts. Tighten the bolts.
The leg with three bolt holes near each end of the
braces is attached at the outside face of the vertical
legs of the sections. Insert a bolt through the end bolt
hole in the sections and the brace. Install the nuts on
the bolts. Finger tighten the bolts. Install the handrails
at the top of the sections. Insert the bolts through the
horizontal legs of the sections and the rails, in that
order. Install the nuts to the bolts. Tighten the bolts.
Manhole Air Intake
The manhole air intake consists of a one-piece,
round, flanged sheet steel dust restrictor ring, a
one-piece, round, fabricated steel bar, an inside screen
ring, and a copper insect screen. The insect screen is
Use the temporary ladder while you are installing the
outside ladder.
ladder aside. Remove the nuts from the bolts. Set the
outside ladder back over the bolts. Install the nuts on
the bolts. lighten the bolts. Tighten the bolts by
attaching the braces to the bottom of the ladder.
Remove and disassemble the temporary ladder.
Place the assembled ladder where it is convenient
to thief and vent at the outer perimeter of the deck.
Lift the ladder and set the end bolt holes of the braces
(fig. 9-21, #7 and #8) over the bolts in the bottom chime
of the staves. Mark the bolts. From the top of the
temporary ladder, mark the bolts in the outer
perimeter of the deck covered by rails. Set the outside
Water Drawoff Valve
The valve assembly consists of a commercial 2-inch
bronze valve made up in a cast-iron flange with a
gasket installed outside the tank. A one-piece, flanged
cast steel elbow with a gasket is installed inside the
tank. The valve and elbow bolt together through the
side of the tank
FLANGED ELBOW.— Install the elbow (fig. 922, #1) inside the tank on the stave. Cut four one-hole
gaskets. Force the gaskets over the bolts. Insert the
bolts through the flange of the elbow. Place the
blocking under the heads of the bolts. Force a gasket
over the bolts. Turn the inlet of the elbow toward the
tank bottom. Insert the bolts through the stave. Install
the nuts temporarily on two bolts while you are
assembling the valve. Remove the nuts before
installation of the valve.
DRAWOFF VALVE.— Hold the elbow (fig. 9-22,
#1) in position inside the tank. Install a gasket (fig. 923, #1) over the bolts. Install the outside flange over
the bolts. Install the nuts on the bolts. Tighten the
bolts. Install the made-up valve inside the flange. With
Figure 9-22.—One-piece flanged elbow installed
on the inside of the tank.
Figure 9-23.—Water drawoff valve installed on the outside of the tank.
The cleanout cover is a flat, rectangular steel
sheet. Two formed, round steel handles are welded
the outside face of the sheet.
the threads tight, the valve outlet must be facing the
Tank Outlets
channel above the cleanout opening inside the stave
(fig. 9-24, #l). Insert 1/2- by 1 l/4-inch bolts through
all of the bolt holes. Be sure the bolt heads are square
in the channel. Install the gasket along the full
length of the top seam outside the stave. Allow a one
bolt ho overlap at each end.
The outlet assembly consists of an elbow,
fabricated, made up with a flange, inside, cast iron,
and a gasket installed inside the tank An adapter,
fabricated, steel pipe, made up with a flange, outside,
cast iron, and a gasket are installed outside the tank
The outlet end of the adapter is sealed with a cap
(malleable iron), held in place by a bolted split
coupling (malleable iron). The adapter and elbow are
bolted together through the side of the tank.
VERTICAL CHANNEL.— Each side seam the
cleanout opening consists of one vertical row bolt
holes. Place a bolt channel inside the tank on each
row of bolt holes. Insert the bolts through all of the
bolt holes. Be sure the bolt heads are square in the
channels. Install the gasket along the full length each
row of bolts. Pass the gaskets over the top sea gasket.
Allow a one bolt hole overlap at each en Apply a
heavy coating of sealing putty at the overlap of the
top and vertical seam gaskets. Install the radii gasket
under the vertical seam gaskets at the bottom chime
of the stave.
Cleanout Cover and Frame
Special bolt channels are installed inside the
tank at the top and sides of the cleanout opening.
Gaskets are installed over the bolts outside the tank.
The frame is a fabricated, rectangular shaped,
flanged steel sheet that is flanged all of the way
around, both front and back. The back flanges are
radiused to fit the outside of the tank. The holes in
the bottom flange are punched to fit the tank chime.
CLEANOUT FRAME.—To assist in the
installation of the cleanout frame (fig. 9-25, #2), push
all of the chime bolts flush with the gasket on the
chime of the bottom to provide clearance for sliding
Figure 9-24.—Bolts installed at cleanout
Figure 9-25.—Cleanout cover installed.
the frame in place. Install the frame with the radiused
flanges over the bolts with the flange against the
outside of the stave. As the frame straddles a lap seam,
make sure a wedge gasket is under the gasket at the
seam. Work the bolts through the bottom flange of the
frame. Install the nuts temporarily or enough bolts to
hold the frame in place.
Install the gasket and the washer with the cup side
down over the gasket on all of the seam bolts. Omit
the gaskets and the washers on the chime bolts. Apply
the nuts with a rounded face down on all of the bolts.
Tighten them uniformly around the frame to maintain
a leakproof joint.
CLEANOUT COVER— Work from the back
and insert 1/2- by 1-inch bolts through the front
flanges of the frame. Install the gasket along the full
length of each row of bolts in the top and the bottom
flanges. Allow a one bolt overlap at each end. Install
the gasket along the full length of each row of bolts in
the side flanges. Press the gaskets over the top and the
bottom flange gaskets. Allow a one bolt hole overlap
ate each end.
Apply a heavy coating of sealing compound at the
overlap of the top and the side flange gaskets. Stand
the cover (fig. 9-25, #6) in position with plates #7 and
#8 set for direct reading, and slip the cover over the
bolts. Install the gasket and the washer with the cup
side down over the gasket on all of the bolts. Apply
the nuts with a rounded face down on all of the bolts.
Tighten the bolts uniformly around the cover to
maintain a leakproof joint.
Cleaning Site
The tank erection crew must clear out all of the
debris, paper, and any other matter of an inflammable
nature, leaving a clean and neat installation for the
pipeline crew or others. All of the tools and other
erection equipment must be picked up and returned to
the tank erection tool set.
When the United States entered World War II, our
Navy was faced for the first time with the problem of
landing and supplying large forces in areas where
traditional harbor facilities were controlled by the
enemy. Navy Lightered (N.L.) pontoons were
developed in 1942 to meet this difficult situation. They
were designed for erection by naval personnel and
shipment aboard Navy vessels. These pontoons
pro-veal to be an invaluable asset and were used
extensively in operations during World War II, the
Korean conflict, and again in Vietnam.
P-series pontoons were used throughout the
Republic of Vietnam in combat conditions. Although
originally designed to meet the requirements of the
Advanced Base Functional Component (ABFC)
System, they have been used successfully in many
other fields due to their inherent versatility and ease
of erection. Large structures are easily and quickly
disassembled then made into smaller structures, and
then the smaller structures can be quickly and easily
reassembled into larger structures. The light draft,
structural strength, mobility, and adaptability of
pontoon structures made them extremely useful for
shallow water passage and tactical deployment in the
Mekong Delta. They allowed movement of heavy
weapons and shifting of firepower throughout
otherwise remote areas. Many structures not
discussed in this manual, such as armored barges,
helicopter pads, mortar barges, and barracks barges,
were constructed in the field for use in special
situations throughout the waterways of South
hole for air, drain, or siphon connections at the top and
bottom of one of the end plates.
The P1 pontoon is cubicle in shape. (See fig.
10-1.) The deck of the P1 is 5'3/8" x 7', and the sides
are 5'3/8" high. The side, end, deck, and bottom
plating is 3/16" thick. The P1 is the most common and
widely used pontoon in the P-series. Its usage is
required in every structure of the pontoon system.
The P2 pontoon has the same depth (5'3/8") as the
PI, but it has a 7’ square deck and a straight-line
sloping bow. (See fig. 10-2.) The side, end, and deck
plates are 3/16" thick. The sloping bow plate is 3/8"
thick. P2 pontoons are used on the bow and stern of
various pontoon structures.
Figure 10-1.—P1 pontoon.
Five basic types of P-series pontoons are in use
today, designated Pl, P2, P3, P4, and P5. These
pontoons are specially designed, internally reinforced,
welded steel cubes. They are tested to withstand an
internal pressure of 20 pounds per square inch (psi).
All pontoons have plain deck plates covered with a
nonskid coating, and all are, fitted with a 2" plugged
Figure 10-2.—P2 straight-line sloping bow pontoon.
P5 pontoons consist of P2 pontoons with
quick-lock hinge connectors fixed to the bow. The
P5M is a P5 with a male connector; the P5F is a P5
with a female connector. (See fig. 10-5.) P-series 3 x
15 pontoon causeways are connected end-to-end by
alternate P5M and P5F pontoons; so are barge sections
that are used as wharves where end-to-end connection
is required. These pontoons are constructed by
welding hinge connectors to P2 pontoons that are then
assembled in male and female sequence, forming
causeways of any required length. These pontoons are
also used for enlarging or extending wharf structures.
The center section of the P5F hinge is made from a
section of extra strong pipe. When joined, these two
parts resist the torsion, compression, and vertical shear
forces in the joint.
The P3 pontoon has an inclined deck5'1 3/4" long
and 7’ wide. (See fig. 103.) The deck slopes from 4'
11 3/8"to3'8 1/4" high. The bottom is horizontal. All
plating is 3/16" thick The sloping deck is fitted with
five 1" square ribs 5/6" long, evenly spaced and
secured by welding, with a covering of nonskid paint
applied between the cleats. The P3 is used in
conjunction with the P4 to form a gradually sloped
ramp for causeway ends and ramp barge bows.
The P4 pontoon has a deck 5’1 3/4” long and 7’
wide inclined at the same angle as that of the P3
pontoon. (See fig. 10-4.) The after end is 3'6" high;
the forward end, 1’. The bottom is horizontal for 8“ on
the after end, then slopes upward. The deck, side, and
back plates are 3/16” thick; the bottom, or bilge, plate
is 3/8” thick. Five evenly spaced, 1“ square ribs are
welded to the sloped deck, and a coat of nonskid paint
is applied between the cleats. Used in conjunction with
the P3 pontoon, the P4 forms a continuous ramp for
causeway ends and ramp barge bows.
Making end-to-end connections with P5M and
P5F pontoons is not a difficult task (fig. 10-5). When
the mating ends of two causeway or wharf sections are
brought together, the male pipe connection is simply
guided into the female and held in place by pad eyes
and links. The resulting pipe joint then prevents
vertical movement of either section. A short
chain-locking device completes the connection and
secures the links in the pad eyes. Each set of hinges is
capable of withstanding 300,000 pounds of pull.
Closure plates are welded on either side of each
connection to bridge open spaces between pontoons.
A wide variety of structures-wharves, barges,
causeways, and so on-can be assembled from
pontoons. In the assembly of pontoon structures, the
pontoons are first joined into strings and the strings
are launched; the floating strings are then attached to
each other. Structures of not over three strings in width
can be entirely assembled on land and then launched
as a unit. The number of pontoons in each string and
the number of strings attached to each other depends
upon the size and type of structure being assembled.
The manner of assembly is similar in each case with
variations depending largely on the intended use of the
completed structure. The size of each pontoon
structure is designed by indicating the number of
strings in the assembly and the number of pontoons in
each string, Thus a 3 x 15 causeway section is three
strings wide and fifteen pontoons long. Pontoon gear
is usuaIIy shipped with the parts required to complete
a specific structure.
Figure 10-3.—P3 sloped deck pontoon,
Pontoon attachments, used in the basic assembly
of pontoon structures, include assembly angles, bolts,
nuts, keepers, assembly plates, and closures.
Figure 10-4.—P4 ramp-end pontoon.
Figure 10-5.—End-to-end connections for P5M and P5F pontoons.
Structural steel ASSEMBLY ANGLES in varying
are available. Figure 10-6 shows an ES 16 assembly
angle. Figure 10-7 shows assembly angles E 16L and
E 26L.
lengths are used to connect the P-series pontoons into
stings. Each is suitable for assembling a definite
number of pontoons and designated as E-series angles.
Angles are supplied in several lengths, so strings
can be made up with a minimum number of welded
joints, and they are designed so these welds fall
midway along the edges of each pontoon, rather than
between pontoons where stress is greatest. Each angle
has one or two cross-sectional sizes, 6" x 6" x 1/2"
thick or 8" x 8" x 1/2" thick. Angles with 8" legs are
used to replace 6 x6 's at the center of strings 18 to 24
pontoons long, and strings of 30 pontoons have 8"
angles throughout to resist the extra stress that their
weight imposes. Regardless of dimensions, however,
each P-series angle falls into one of two types: basic
or end-condition angles. Basic angles are those angles
used throughout the body of a structure. Their
application is not restricted to top, bottom, left, or right
The angles are positioned to each of the four edges of
a row of pontoons. Various types of assembly angles
Figure 10-6.—AII E516 assembly angle.
Figure 10-7.—Assembly angles E 16L and E 26L.
The KPl KEEPER PLATE (fig. 10-10) is made
from a plate 3 3/4” long, 2 1/8” wide, and 3/16“ thick.
The plate is cut out to fit over four of the hexagonal
flats on the A6B bolt head. After final tightening of a
bolt in a pontoon structure, the keeper plate is
positioned around the bolt head and skip-welded to the
underlying assembly plate or angle. This prevents the
bolt from working loose during operations. To reduce
maintenance problems, you should use the keeper
plate on the bottom of pontoon structures where daily
inspection is impractical. Keeper plates should not be
welded to the bolt head.
angles of the strings. On the other hand, end-condition
angles connect P2, P3, or P4 pontoons to the ends of
strings, and each is designed for a specific
orientation-top or bottom and right or left. Basic
angles can be shortened or lengthened to make up
modified configurations, and end-condition angles
can be cut and formed from basic angles to meet
abnormal operating requirements.
The A6B ASSEMBLY BOLT is a 1 1/2” diameter
x 3 3/8” long, hexagonal head, steel bolt (fig. 10-8).
Three radial grooves on the head, spaced 120 degrees
apart, are the code for grade 5 steel rated at a tensile
strength of 105,000 psi. In addition to its use in
securing assembly angles to pontoons ate each comer,
the A6B bolt is also used to connect strings into
structures, to secure deck fittings and accessories, and
to pin hinges on dry dock stabilizer towers.
Steel PLATES of various shapes are used in the
assembly of pontoon structures mostly to reinforce
those areas that are subjected to maximum stress and
shear. A number of different types of assembly plates
are shown in figure 10-11. Each of the plates shown is
designed for a specific application, as indicated below.
The forged FNl FLANGED NUT (fig. 10-9) is
designed to fit into a pontoon pocket with sufficient
clearance to allow positioning on the A6B assembly
bolt. The flange of the nut is large enough to prevent
the nut from turning in the pocket when the bolt is
tightened; it is formed near the midline of the nut to
clear welds in the pocket and allow positive se sting of
the nut boss when the A6B bolt is tight.
APl CONNECTING PLATE: The AP1 is a steel
plate with four drilled holes for A6B assembly bolts.
It reinforces the A6B bolts that hold pontoon strings
to each other in completed structures that use either 6"
or 8" angles.
pontoon structures are to be side-loaded on an LST, an
accessory known as an LA1 launching angle is
attached. The AP3 is a steel plate that is used to attach
the LA1 to the structure. The AP3 has four drilled
holes for A6B bolts, and a curved plate is attached to
form a semicylindrical pad. The pad serves as a fender
to protect the hull of the LST on which the pontoon
structure is side-loaded.
Figure 10-8.—An A6B assembly bolt.
Figure 10-10.—A KPl keeper plate being installed on an A6B
Figure 10-9.—AII FNl flanged nut.
Figure 10-11.—Assembly plates.
NOTE: As of this printing LSTs are being
decommissioned and it is undecided what platform
will transport causeways. The information on LSTs is
given because the Reserve Fleet will retain two and
the next platform used could require the same
hardware for loading and launching.
pontoon structure on an LST is attached to the
structure at the bow and stem ends with a two-hole
assembly plate, just as pontoon strings are connecteed
within the structure by the two-holed AP4A at the bow
and stem. The two driIled holes in the LA2 are for A6B
bolts. Two half-ovals are welded perpendicularly to
the upper face of the plate, on either side of the bolt
holes. These half+oval lugs serve as fenders to protect
the hull of the LST in the same way as the pad on the
AP4A TIE PLATE: The AP4A is a steel plate with
two drilled holes for A6B bolts. It is used for
connecting pontoon strings to each other at their bow
and stem ends. If necessary, an acceptable substitute
for the AP4A can be obtained by cutting an API
connecting plate in half across the narrower
dimension; two plates are produced, both of which can
be used.
AP5 END PLATE: The AP5 is a steel plate that
is welded across the gap between pontoons at the bow
and stem of adjacent strings. It is used only in certain
special cases where structures require extra
reinforcement; for example, where end connectors are
used or where the structure will be side-launched. An
LA1 launching angle used when side-loading a
Figure 10-12.—Typical fender installations.
acceptable substitute for the AP5 can be
field-fabricated, if necessary, from an API. To do so,
remove the holes from the APl by cutting 3“ inside
the two edges measuring 18 1/4”, and halve the
resulting 18 1/4" x 5" plate to produce two 9 1/8" x 5"
plates; both can be used as end plates.
causeway from damage due to sliding contact. It is
frequently used between side-lapped causeway
sections. Because the AP6 is a nonstock item, it should
be fabricated in the field when it is required.
Dimensions are not critical; halves of an APl or an
AP7 plate will serve as chafing plates when properly
AP6 CHAFING PLATE: The AP6 is a steel plate.
10” square, with two opposite edges beveled. Welded
to the sides of causeway sections, the AP6 protects the
AP7 GUSSET PLATE: The AP7 is a steel plate
cut in the form of a 9“ high trapezoid. The parallel
edges are 18" and 12" long, and the 18" edge has a 1/4"
bevel. The AP7 reinforces the end-condition angles
used at the fore and aft ends of larger structures. The
18“ edge is positioned against a tip or bottom assembly
angle so the plate bridges the gap between the
pontoons to which the angle is bolted. The 18" edge is
welded to the angle, and the two vertical edges are
welded to the adjacent pontoons. APl connecting
plates can also be used for reinforcing, welded to
end-condition angles in the same way as the AP7.
fabricated from steel plate. An 11“ x 20 1/4” rectangle
is bent to form two legs, one 8 5/8” and the other 11
5/8’’ long; each leg has two drilled holes for A6B bolts.
The AP8 is used for connecting pontoon strings at the
point where each string has a P3 sloped-deck ramp
pontoon connected to a P1 pontoon.
Various pontoon structures require a stowage
space for tools, chaining, fittings, and miscellaneous
gear when not in use. The H6 hatch cover and floor
panel assembly (fig. 10- 13) was designed to be
installed on any designated pontoon structure and
consists of a mounting frame, grating panels, hanger
rings, and a 21” diameter, quick-acting, waterproof,
flush-mounting, shipboard type of scuttle, together
with the parts required to convert a P1 pontoon into a
stowage compartment. Making the necessary cutout in
the pontoon deck and installing the hatch cover and
the other components are done in the field When
installed, the hatch cover is a string as the pontoon
deck. However, on structures normally traversed by
heavy loads, such as causeways and ramp barges, it is
advisable to locate the hatch cover away from the
regular line of travel-preferably to one side and as
far forward or aft as possible—to protect the
watertight sealing gasket under the hatch rim.
Anew rubber fendering system for use on pontoon
structures has replaced oak timber fenders. Rubber
fendering is wing-type, extrusion-shaped, styrene
butadiene composition; it is supplied in random
lengths to be cut, formed, and fitted in the field for
specific structures and operating conditions. For each
structure, the fenders, brackets, retainers, and
fasteners are furnished in the quantities required. The
new fenders absorb enough impact, upon contact with
the dock or other structure, to transfer shock from
dynamic to static load, thereby protecting both of the
impacting structures.
Deck closures are used to bridge the openings, or
slots, between pontoons while meeting the
To install rubber fenders, lay out fendering on the
deck over the position to be installed. Cut it to the
required length, bolt on the retainers and the brackets,
and ease it into position, using lines attached.
Tack-weld the brackets in place temporarily, remove
the lines, and when the entire fender is properly
positioned, weld all the brackets as shown on the
drawings. Damaged portions can be cut out and
repaired with a rubber portion of the same length. Use
odd pieces for drop fenders or bumpers. Use a
fine-tooth oil-lubricated saw, manually operated or
power-operated, for cutting wood or steel bits for
drilling holes. Various fendering arrangements and
details are shown in figure 10-12. These are subject to
change to meet local fendering needs.
Figure 10-13.—H6 hatch cover and floor panel assembly.
bolted down on the launching angle side. A typical
cleat is shown in figure 10-16. The B1 all-purpose bitt
(fig. 10-17) consists of a single 4“ diameter post that
is 13” long with a 6“ diameter cap welded to a base
that has two drilled holes for A6B assembly bolts. A
1 1/2” diameter crossarm, 16 1/2” long, runs through
the post approximately 10” above the deck. The B1
can be used on all structures requiring a single bitt and
can be welded to the deck angles opposite the
launching angle side.
requirements for fitting around plates and lift pads.
They also can be configured to provide access to
assembly angles between structures for wrapping
chains and wire rope during causeway beaching and
LST side-carry operations. Formerly, five types of
closures were needed to perform the necessary
functions. These were identified as DC1 through DC5.
The DC6 deck closure (fig. 10-14), with certain field
alterations, was designed to fulfill all closure
requirements and will replace the five closures
entirely when stocks of these have been depleted.
The B4 bitt (fig. 10-18) is the same as the B1 bitt
except for the base that has been designed for quick
positioning in the CP1 chain plate.
The H22 and H23 closure plates are used for
joining pontoons and for making bridge-to-wharf or
barge-to-wharf connections. The H17AF and H17AM
heavy-duty hinges are used to close the deck openings
formed by the hinges between the pontoon sections.
The closures (fig. 10-15), which are 20” wide and 24
1/4” long, are made from 1/2” steel plate and are used
in combinations to fit over and enclose the heavy-duty
hinges. Nonskid coating is applied on the top of the
closures to prevent slippage. The H22 and H23
closures are not included in the heavy-duty hinge set.
They are to be fabricated in the field as required.
Bitts and cleats are steel posts, or arms, to which
lines are secured. Structures to be side-carried should
have bitts and cleats, as well as all other deck fittings,
Figure 10-16.—Cleat.
Figure 10-17.—B1 all-purpose bitt.
Figure 10-14.—DC6 deck closure.
Figure 10-15.—Closure plates H22 and H23.
Figure 10-18.—B4 retractile bitt.
travel. The tail section, with the propeller, is mounted
on the vertical housing assembly that can be elevated
outward and backward to raise it out of the water for
inspection or repairs. As new equipment and
techniques for amphibious operations developed,
performance requirements for all components
increased accordingly. As a result, propulsion units
have increased in power and thrust capability.
The M147 double bitt (fig. 10-19) consists of two 8"
steel pipe posts, 20" long, welded to a 13" x 40" base
and capped on the upper ends.
Self-propelled pontoon barges and tugs are
powered by outboard propulsion units. These units
have been specially designed for this purpose and
readily installed on tugs or barges of any size. The
propulsion unit shown in figure 10-20 is essentially a
heavy-duty outboard motor, consisting of a propulsion
mechanism and a marine diesel engine mounted on a
heavy structural base. Propulsion power is carried
from the engine through a right-angle housing and a
vertical-drive housing to the propeller. Steering is
affected by shifting the propulsion-force direction; the
propeller can be turned around a vertical axis in either
direction through a complete circle. Each unit has a
steering wheel and an indicator that show direction of
After the first two assembly angles have been
placed on the ways, the pontoons are placed in the
angles (figs. 10-21 and 10-22). The pontoons are
positioned on their sides with all deck surfaces on the
same side. The first pontoon will ordinarily be placed
in the center of the angles with the assembly bolt holes
aligned; placement of the remaining pontoons from the
center toward each end can be accomplished without
Bolting Lower Angles
As each pontoon is placed in the assembly angles,
the A6B assembly bolt holes in the pontoon nut
receptacles are aligned with those in the angles, using
spud wrenches or driftpins as necessary. The A6B bolts
are then inserted through the assembly angles
Figure 10-19.—M147 double bitt.
Figure 10-21.—Pontoon positioned on assembly
Figure 10-20.—Model L-295 diesel outboard
propulsion unit.
the same manner as the bottom pair of angles.
Spreader jacks, come-alongs, or heavy-duty pinch bars
can be used to align holes for the top angles.
Tightening Bolts
After all of the A6B assembly bolts have been
installed, final tightening is accomplished with an
impact wrench or 48" ratchet wrench in those locations
where accessories or assembly plates are not bolted to
the structure.
NOTE: The proper setting of A6B bolts requires
tightening to a 2,400-foot-pound torque. (The
applicable rule is to draw the bolt or nut up tight and
then add another half turn.)
CP1 chain plates, LA1 launching angles, or other
accessories that attach to the outer edge of the
particular structure under construction can be
installed on the string at this time, if desired. Strings,
requiring the addition of a launching angle, should be
so assembled on the way that the launching angle can
be installed on the top of the string. After installation
of the chain plates, the A6B assembly bolts that attach
the parts are tightened, and the chain plates or other
accessory items are welded, as required. KPl keeper
plates can be installed at this time in all locations for
which they are specified for the one string of the
structure being built. After all fittings are in place and
the assembly bolts tightened, the assembly should be
inspected for security of bolts and fittings. After the
first string has been launched, the same assembly
procedures are followed for assembly of the second and
additional strings, as applicable.
Figure 10-22.—P1 pontoons on assembly angles
and started by hand to thread the FN1 nut (fig. 10-23).
The bolts should be snugly tightened, then backed off
about one turn.
Positioning Upper Angles
The second pair of assembly angles is placed on
the top of the pontoons and positioned and bolted in
If the pontoon string has been assembled along the
edge of a dock, it can be tilted into the water by means
of jacks or a crane. If it has been assembled on a way,
the anchorage is released and the string is allowed to
glide head-on into the water. Note that adequate
freeboard will be required for this method of launching.
End launchings can be accomplished from flat or
nearly flat ways by pushing the string with a
bulldozier or pulling it with a tug or M-boats. Strings
also have been assembled inland and pulled to the
shoreline by a bulldozer. A line, secured to the string
before launching, should be made fast ashore to keep
the string from drifting away in either side launching
Figure 10-23.—Positioning of A6B bolt and FN1
nut to connect pontoon to assembly angle.
As each pontoon string is launched, it is brought
up alongside the other string(s), lined up, and clamped
together with JT2 top angle clamps (fig. 10-24). Insert
the A6B bolts by hand through the holes in the vertical
legs of the top assembly angles located in spaces
between the pontoons, and secure them with the heavy
nuts. This is done at every space, starting in the middle
and working toward each end. Connections are
threaded snug only, at this time, to be tightened later.
or end launching and can be used to assure that the
string rights itself when launched.
A new method for securing pontoon strings
together, referred to as the bolt and nut attachment, has
been implemented throughout the pontoon system and
completely replaces the heavy tie rod assemblies
formerly used. It consists of an A6B bolt and heavy
nut connection through holes in the vertical legs of
adjoining assembly angles between strings. Special
wrenches have been designed to facilitate bilge angle
connections while working from the deck, and a
two-piece aligning tool is used when hole alignment
restricts passage of the bolt. Detailed instructions for
using the bolt and nut method of connection to
assemble a pontoon structure are presented below.
After the top bolts and nuts are in place, the bottom
angle connections are started. The hole locations and
bolting pattern are the same as for the top angles,
except that here the special wrenches are used for
inserting the bolt, holding nut, and tightening, which
is accomplished from the deck side.
Using the JT7 drive wrench, insert the A6B bolt
in the holes through the adjoining bottom angles and
make contact with the nut being held in position with
the JT8 backup wrench. When thread contact has been
made, draw up snug but do not tighten until all the
bottom bolts have been installed. Again, work from
the center out to both ends. (If only one special wrench
set is used, start in the center and work each side
alternately toward the ends.) When all the bolts have
been installed, reverse the wrenches so that JT8 holds
the bolt while JT7 drives the nut, and tighten all the
nuts to the bolts, top and bottom, to the required torque
of 2,400 foot-pounds. Note that the applicable rule is
to draw the nut up tight, then turn it about another half
turn. (See fig. 10-25.)
The JT13, a two-piece aligning tool, should be
used when differences in the hole alignment between
angles restrict easy passage of the A6B bolts. The
Figure 10-24.—Angle clamp for assembly of pontoon strings
Figure 10-25.—Lower angle attachment details using bolt and nut connections instead of tie rods.
JT13 is inserted anywhere along the strings
(preferably in the center) and drawn together tightly,
using the JT7 and JT8 drive and backup wrenches.
Leave the aligning tool installed, remove the JT7 and
JT8 wrenches, and complete connections of the bolts
and the nuts, after which remove the aligning tool and
replace it with a bolt and nut. Lanyard rings, provided
on wrenches and two-piece aligning tools, must
always be used to safeguard against loss.
As each string is secured with the bolt and the nut
to the preceding string(s), installation of AP4A plates,
pad eyes, chocks, cleats, and other accessories
required for the structure and not previously installed
on the strings are welded or bolted in position as
specified in the detailed drawing. To complete the
assembly, skip-weld the deck closures in the slots of
the deck.
Assembly of a complete structure on land is begun
in the same manner as construction of strings, except
that the structure is assembled parallel to the shoreline
on rails perpendicular to the shoreline. Structures up
to three strings wide can be built in this manner by
assembling the second and third strings on top of the
first. When built this way, the bolt and nut attachment
previously described and the assembly plates are
installed as the work progresses. KPl keeper plates are
welded on the bottom A6B assembly bolts and
accessories. They will not interfere with launching and
can be attached to the assembly. Portable scaffolding,
fabricated in the field and similar to that shown in
figure 10-26, is attached to the pontoon assembly
angles and can be moved to other locations on the
structure to meet construction progress. The
completed structure can be side-launched by sliding it
out to the ends of the rails and tipping it into the water.
A barge is any of several pontoon string
assemblies connected together to form a complete unit
used for transporting cargo, including vehicles and
personnel, and used primarily in their transfer from
landing craft to amphibious vehicles or for lighterage
duties in ship-to-shore movement of cargo. Barges,
designed for lighterage operations, either
self-propelled or towed, can be built in various sizes
and, with modifications as required, can be used as a
diving platform for salvage operations, as a tugboat,
as a gate vessel, for fuel storage, or for mounting
The intended use of the barge determines the
length of the strings, the number of strings needed, and
the pontoon configuration of each string. Seven
standard-size barges in the P-series equipment include
Figure 10-26.—PortabIe scaffolding used in assembly of structures on a pier.
The 4x12 pontoon barge is a general-purpose
structure that can be used in lighterage operations
either by towing or as a self-propelled structure by the
addition of propulsion.
the following: 3x7, 3x12, 4x7, 4x12, 5x12, 6x18, and
10x30 barges. The conventional pontoon barge, in sizes
up to and including the 6x18 barge, is designed to
carry its rated load with 1’ of freeboard or a load
concentrated at the center point that is heavy enough
to bring the deck awash.
The 5x12 pontoon barge is one string wider than
the 4x12 barge but similar in all other respects. It is
particularly suitable for mounting a crawler crane with
a lifting capacity ranging from 20 tons at a 12’ radius
to 7 tons at 55'. This barge can also be used as a
general-purpose structure and can be used in
lighterage operations as a self-propelled structure by
the addition of propulsion units.
The 3x7 pontoon barge is a general-purpose
structure that can be used as necessary in lighterage
and ferrying operations. Cargo transport can be
accomplished by tow, or the barge can be self-propelled
by mounting a propulsion unit on the end without
fenders. A 3x7 barge with a propulsion unit is shown in
figure 10-27.
The 6x18 pontoon barge is the second largest
barge in the P-series pontoon system. Installation of
propulsion units permits its use in lighterage
operations for transporting loads (cargo, vehicles, and
personnel) up to 250 tons. By the addition of
accessories and equipment, the barge can be converted
into a 1,500-barrel fuel storage barge (fig. 10-28). Also,
by installing heavy-duty hinges, the barge can be
converted into a wharf or used for outfitting and repair
of smaller structures when placed on its deck.
The 3x12 pontoon ramp barge is ordinarily used
for transporting cargo and equipment and has proved
suitable for general use in amphibious operation. The
sloping bow end with ramps attached permits beaching
the barge under its own power. And also it helps to
unload tractors and equipment that will be used to
assist in forming a causeway pier. Four 3x12 barges
can be side-loaded on an LST for side-carry to the
assault area, or the barges can be loaded in the well
deck of an LSD or deck-loaded on an LST.
The 10x30 pontoon barge is the largest barge in
the pontoon system. It was developed primarily for
mounting a 100-ton derrick (See fig. 10-29.) The barge,
however, is adaptable to other uses. With propulsion
units attached, it can serve as a lighterage barge in
transporting over 800 tons of cargo at one time from
ship to shore or dock. The barge can also be
The 4x7 pontoon barge is similar in all respects to
the 3x7 barge, except it is one string wider. Although
this is a general-purpose barge used principally for
lighterage operations, it is suitable for any
transportation task within its capacity.
Figure 10-27.—A 3x7 pontoon barge with a propulsion unit.
Figure 10-28.—A 1500 barrel , 6x18 fuel storage barge.
used as a pier or wharf or, by installing heavy hinges,
could be connected to any existing pontoon wharf to
enlarge or extend that structure.
anchors, salvage operations, assisting in the
installation and recovery of fuel systems, and other
Essentially, tugs are barges equipped with
outboard propulsion units and the accessories required
for the operations to be performed. The P-series
equipment tugs are widely adaptable and can be used
for towing, causeway tending, placing and retrieving
The 3x14 warping tug shown in figure 10-30 is
equipped with two outboard propulsion units. The
after end of the center string incorporates an anchor
housing to accommodate the 2,500-pound mooring
anchor and also holds the anchor wire away from the
propulsion screws. An A-frame, mounted on the bow
of the tug, stands approximately 13' above the deck of
the barge. A double-drum winch is mounted near the
center of the barge. A line from the after drum is
fairlead to the deck and back to the anchor astern,
while the line from the forward drum is run over a
sheave in the top of the A-frame and is used for lifting
over the bow or pulling from the bow of the warping
tug. The winch is mounted on a welded steel
cross-braced frame. Standard equipment for the tug
also includes M147 double bitts and navigation lights.
The warping tug is approximately 90' long and 21'
wide, has a stem draft of 48", a bow draft of 18", and
a speed of 6 1/2 knots. The 3x14 warping tug replaces
the 3x12 tug throughout the pontoon system. The
only difference in these two is that the 3x14 tug is
longer by two P1 pontoons and incorporates new style
winches with lines feeding off horizontally laid
Figure 10-29.—100-ton derrick mounted on a 10 x 30 barge.
Figure 10-30.—3x14 warping tug.
A PONTOON CAUSEWAY consists of an inshore
section, an offshore section, and as many intermediate
sections as necessary to make up the desired length.
Lengths up to 1 mile are considered possible. Each
section is a 3x15 structure designed to support a load
of 105 tons with a freeboard of 12".
Each string of the offshore (fig. 10-31) and inshore
sections (fig. 10-32) is made up of 12 P1 pontoons
with a P3 sloped deck pontoon and a P4 ramp-end
pontoon at one end At the other end is an end-to-end
connection pontoona—a P5F (female) end connection
pontoon on the offshore section and a P5M (male) end
connection pontoon on the inshore section. Strings of
the intermediate sections (fig. 10-33) are made up of
13 P1 pontoons with a P5F at one end and a P5M at
the other.
Causeways, as well as binges, normally are
transported to the combat area side-loaded on an LST.
To facilitate this, you should weld a hinge rail or shelf
bracket on each side of the LST. An LA1 launching
angle is bolted to one of the outboard strings of the
barge or causeway (fig. 10-34).
The LST is listed far enough to the side being
loaded to permit the hinge bar of the pontoon structure
to be hoisted onto the shelf bracket. Then the structure
is hoisted upright, either by a crane or by the winch(es)
on the LST. The hoisting sequence can vary,
depending on the gear used and the LST involved.
Regardless of the method use&personnel from an
amphibious construction battalion, usually with a
SWC or BMC in charge, bring the required gear
aboard and do the job. The ship’s company make
necessary preparations aboard ship and provide
whatever assistance is required of them.
Floating pontoon dry docks are structures
consisting principally of a main wharf-like deck and
vertical side towers constructed of P-series pontoon
units. Pontoon dry docks are submerged by admitting
a controlled amount of water into the deck pontoons
and raised by expelling the water with compressed air.
The tower pontoons act as stabilizers to keep the dry
dock level when the deck is under waler. Dry docks
require 18' of water in which to submerge the decks
12", the maximum safe submergence, and should be
moored in sheltered, quiet water 18' to 20' deep, in an
area with a smooth bottom, devoid of large rocks or
other obstacles. Two sizes of pontoon dry docks are
presently in the ABFC System. This is identified as
the 4 x 15 (l00-ton capacity) dry dock. Figure 10-35
shows a 6 x 30 pontoon dry dock installation.
The assembly method of erecting pontoon strings
for the dry docks is the same as those used for other
pontoons structures. Only P1 pontoons are used and
figure 10-31
figure 10-32
figure 10-33
Figure 10-34.—An LA1 launching angle.
Figure 10-35.—6 x30, 400-ton pontoon dry dock.
are made up into strings, launched, and joined in the
water the same as with other structures. However,
before pontoon string construction, dry dock drawings
should be prepared in detail to show the type and the
location of parts, together with field erection
information. It is important to make available the
applicable drawings of the dry dock to be erected at
all times during the initial construction stage. This will
ensure that parts are properly located, positioned, and
secured and will facilitate erection during the final
The elevated causeway pier facility (ELCAS)
provides a link between lighterage and the beach by
bridging the surf zone. The standard ELCAS consists
of six 3x15 approach or roadway sections and six
3x15 pierhead sections (fig. 10-36). The pierhead is
two sections wide by three sections long. Since the
facility is modular, it may be expanded by enlarging
the pierhead and/or adding approach sections. The
basic component of the ELCAS is the 3 x 15
intermediate causeway section that is converted to the
elevating mode by the addition of spudwells.
Spudwells provide the attachment between the
causeway deck and the supporting piling. Internal
spudwells (fig. 10-37) are used where the full width
of the causeway section is required for traffic and to
support the fender piles along the fender side of the
pierhead. The internal spudwell incorporates four
grooved connection pins that are inserted into four
receiver boxes attached to the side of the causeway.
Two guillotines are lowered into the pin grooves
behind the receiver boxes to secure the spudwell to the
section. A steel-angled locking key is used to lock the
guillotine into place. External spudwells (fig. 10-38)
figure 10-36
Figure 1O-37—Internal spudwell.
Figure 10-38.—External Spudwell.
are used in the outboard strings of pierhead sections,
container handling crane. The external spudwell is
where side to aide connection with another section is
fabricated into a frame having the same overall
required, and at load-bearing points, such as under the
dimensions as a PI pontoon. It is interchangeable with
Figure 10-39.—Types and positions of causeway sections in the ELCAS.
the PI pontoon and uses the same attaching hardware.
The ELCAS consists of four distinct parts as follows:
join these sections side to side with type 3 pierhead
Ž The PIERHEAD is made up of four types of
sections. It is the offshore section of the ELCAS and
supports cargo unloading functions. The pierhead
includes a crane installation for off-loading Iighterage
and a turntable for turning trucks around on the
The type 2 pierhead section contains six internal
spudwells. Support brackets for side connectors are
also used in this type. Additionally, the type 2 section
contains six reinforced PI pontoons.
Ž The FENDER SECTIONS provide an
interface between the pierhead and the lighterage.
The type 3 pierhead section uses four internal and
three external spudwells. Support brackets must be
also added to support the side connectors.
Ž The ROADWAY provides for two-way traffic
between the pierhead and the beach.
Ž The BEACH RAMP provides access from the
beach to the ELCAS.
The types of sections used and their locations are
shown in figure 10-39.
The type 1 pierhead section makes use of four
internal spudwells. This section is also equipped with
support brackets to receive the side connectors used to
Figure 10-40.—ELCAS fender system details
The type 4 pierhead section, which supports the
container handling crane, contains seven internal and
three external spudwells. Six reinforced PI pontoons
are also included.
A fender section is a 1’x15’ structure incorporating
three fender spudwells (fig. 10-40). Fender piles are
driven through the fender spudwells after the
causeway is elevated (fig. 10-41). The fender section
can then rise and fall on’ the piling. A series of
foam-filled fenders are strung on the outboard side of
the fender system to absorb impact from lighterage.
Since it is only one pontoon wide, the fender system
uses P5 pontoons as end-to-end connections instead of
the P8.
Figure 10-41.—ELCAS fender system.
information is also provided on the installation and
repair and removal of AM-2 mating.
The Short Airfield for Tactical Support (SATS) is
a rapidly constructed expeditionary airfield that can
be erected near a battle area to provide air support for
amphibious Marine forces. In any land-and-sea
military/contingency operation, the rapid assembly of
a temporary airfield provides ground units with the
distinct advantage of continuous air support on foreign
soil. Because of this, the Marine Corps has been trying
several types of expeditionary airfields since early in
World War II. Initial research used wooden planking
for the runway surface. Later, during the Korean
Conflict, aircraft actually landed on pierced steel mats,
known as “Marston matting.”
A SATS field incorporates numerous parts. We
will not attempt to cover all the parts of a SATS
installation but will cover enough to make you
familiar with the function of each of the major parts
that make a SATS field an effective system.
The AM-2 mat (fig. 1 l-l) is a fabricated
aluminum panel, 1 1/2 inches thick that contains a
hollow, extruded, one-piece main section with
extruded end connectors welded to each end. (AM-2
mats may also be fabricated in two- and three-piece
main panel extrusions that, when welded
longitudinally, form the same size and shape as the
one-piece extrusion.) The AM-2 mat comes in full
sheets and half sheets and is painted Marine Corps
green. The top surface is coated with a nonskid
material of the same color. For runways and taxiways,
the mats are installed in a brickwork type of pattern.
The staggered joint arrangement provides the required
stability across the runway and the necessary
flexibility in the direction of aircraft travel.
One of the more important breakthroughs in SATS
research was the development of Short Expeditionary
Landing Field (SELF). SELF, a bulky predecessor of
SATS, was a 4,000-foot runway that served as the
landing area. In earlier expeditionary arresting
operations, the Marine Corps had been successful with
the M-2 Mobile Arresting Gear (MOREST).
However, the weight of this gear (74,000 pounds)
decreased its usefulness as a portable unit.
In 1956, the Commandant of the Marine Corps
established exact specifications for the development
of a portable expeditionary airfield. This proposed
airfield was to be 1,000 feet long, construction
completed in 5 days, and capable of accommodating
one squadron of aircraft for 30 days. Additionally, the
Marine Corps required that the field be designed to
allow both launch and recovery (arresting) operations.
These standards included the development of a
land-based catapult and lighter arresting gear to
replace the M-2 MOREST. In 1958, the runway
specification was expanded to 2,000 feet and received
official SATS designation. However, because the
catapult and arresting gear are no longer available in
the ABFC (Advanced Base Functional Components)
System, they are not discussed in this chapter.
Because Steelworkers can be assigned to crews
assigned to place airfield matting, we will discuss the
important parts of SATS. Also, the proper placement
procedures for AM-2 matting are discussed and
Figure 11-1.—AM-2 mat.
The sides of the mat panels are constructed to
interlock with a rotating motion. The end connectors
are arranged with the prongs up on one end and down
on the other (fig. 11-1, section A-A). By placing the
end connector of one mat properly over the end
connector of the previous mat, you can form a
continuous layer of matting. A flat-locking bar is then
inserted into the slot common to the two mats to form
a nonseparable joint.
As a Steelworker, you can be assigned to a project
placing AM-2 mats for airfield surfaces; therefore,
you need to be familiar with the procedures used for
installing mats. Primary operations involving site
preparation and pallet staging are also discussed.
Additionally, information on manpower requirements
and the organizational structure of the installation
crew is presented.
The physical characteristics of AM-2 matting are
shown in table 11-1.
Site Preparation
AM-2 mats are packaged in two standard pallet
loads for storage and shipment. One pallet assembly,
designated F11, consists of 11 full-length mats, 2
half-length mats, and 13 locking bars (fig. 11-2). The
other mat pallet, designated F15, contains 16 full-length
mats, 4 half-length mats, and 20 locking bars
(fig. 11-3). The pallets are fabricated end frames that
are held together by tie rods or strapping. The end
frames fit around the ends of the mats and become the
storage place for the locking bars.
‘he soil and subbase materials of the site selected
as the SATS field must be suitable for use with the
AM-2 landing mats. The subbase material must have
a minimum compaction of 95 percent, and the
engineering staff will provide you further guidance
based on their analysis of the soil type and the
available base materials.
The operations that are part of the site preparation
that must be completed before mats are installed are
as follows:
The quantity of mats found in the standard pallet
assembly (F11) provides a width of two rows (4 feet)
on a runway or taxiway that is 72 feet wide. For widths
other than 72 feet, more or less coverage (in terms of
strip length) is obtained. Since the parking and storage
areas need not have a specific mat pattern, as is
required on the runways and taxiways, the “extra”
half-length of full-length mats that result from the
runway construction may be used in these areas. The
use of a guide rail and/or keylocks will not affect the
amount of coverage to any great extent.
1. The terrain in the area to be used must be
cleared, leveled, and rolled to provide the designated
compaction for the matting base. Grading must provide
adequate drainage of water away from the field area and
the soil must be disturbed as little as possible in
obtaining the prescribed finish. These operations will
provide a soil having a maximum bearing capacity.
2. The soil in any area under the matting, requiring
installation of service, drainpipes, or other objects, must
be backfilled and thoroughly compacted
Table 11-1.—Physical Characteristics of AM-2 Matting
Figure 11-2.—F11 AM-2 full-length pallet.
rail installed, only the center line of the guide rail is
established by transit.
3. The final grading operation must be adequately
level so mats, when laid, do not vary more than l/4inch
in height over a 12-foot distance.
NOTE: Site preparation may not be required if
there is an existing concrete or asphalt runway because
matting can be laid over the existing hard surface.
4. Hand raking is necessary to remove small rocks
and other debris that would hinder this task as well as
the connecting of mats.
Pallet Staging
5. The overall field configuration must be staked
out in its entirety. Accurate longitudinal and transverse
center lines must be established to ease the staging of
the pallets. When no guide rail is used, both lateral
runway edges must be accurately marked to ensure
smooth linear edges from which to lay the mat field. The
line for the edges of the runway is determined by using
a transit and marking them clearly with a chalk line or
stakes. This type of survey is also required when
taxiways and parking areas are installed. When a guide
Under combat/contingency operations, pallets
must be staged in a manner to keep manual handling
to a minimum. Additionally, staging should maximize
all available equipment and manpower coupled with
consideration for the climatic conditions in which the
construction is started
Different methods are used for the staging of
pallets. The most efficient method is the staging of
Figure 11-3.—Fl5 AM-2 full-length pallet.
handling vehicle, the 4K forklift is designed primarily
for the rough-terrain handling and warehousing of
materials. The 4K forklift can lift and carry loads up
to a maximum of 4,000-pound capacity and is the ideal
equipment to use for staging pallets. The hydraulically
operated forklift mechanism, mounted on the extreme
front of the vehicle, eases the lifting, reaching, tilting,
and sliding of loads during material-handling
pallets by rough-terrain forklifts. This method is the
most eflicient because the forklift can deliver the
pallets directly to the mat-laying crews who
disassemble the pallets on the forklift. Pallet
disassembly is done at the work area, rather than the
storage point, because the mats could be dropped and
damaged while being moved if they are uncrated and
moved in a loose configuration. The forklift remains
on site until the pallet load has been installed. This
method presumes that an adequate number of forklifts
are available to resupply the laying crews
continuously. Round-trip time between the work area
and the pallet storage area must be considered to keep
the work flowing smoothly and completed in a time] y
AM-2 matting in its palletized configuration is
vulnerable to damage resulting from improper
handling. Lifting eyes are contained in the pallet end
frames to receive the sling lifting hooks. Under NO
circumstances should “choker” type of slings be used
because these damage matting side connectors.
Normal cargo-handling precautions must be used
during AM-2 pallet assembly handling.
The primary rough-terrain forklift used in the
NCF is the 4K rough-terrain forklift (fig. 11-4). A
diesel engine-driven, self-contained, material-
Figure 11-4.—4K rough-terrain forktlift.
looks like. When a catapult facility is used with a
SATS installation, a guide rail is needed to provide
stability to the dolly and the aircraft during the launch.
The guide rail is supplied in 9- and 10-foot lengths and
has connectors on both sides to mate with the mat end
connectors. A l/8-inch rubber seal is installed between
each section to provide for thermal expansion and to
prevent debris and soil from coming up between the
rail sections. Dowel pins are used between two holes
in the mats at each end of the guide rails to maintain
alignment of the sections. The guide rail is installed
concurrently with the mat field, and standard
mat-locking bars are used to secure it to the mats.
PaIlet components are vulnerable to damage by
misuse of tools, such as cutting torch, bolt cutters, and
sledge hammers. Therefore, extreme care must be
used during pallet disassembly. No spare components
are packaged in the pallet.
Installation Crew
Field experience dictates that a 16-man crew
provide maximum efficiency and flexibility when
laying a runway 96 feet in width. Two crews can be
used inlaying a runway and additional crews used for
laying other areas simultaneously. A typical crew of
16 would include 1 petty officer in charge, 1 alignment
person, 2 pry bar crew members, and 12 (six 2-person
teams) mat installation personnel.
NOTE: The catapult and arresting system is not
available currently in the ABFC System. However, it
was originally designed for the ABFC System and
could be used in the future; therefore, information on
guide rails is provided.
The alignment person ensures the field is aligned
by adjusting the first mat in each transverse row, so it
is flush with the presurveyed lateral boundary before
the rest of the mats in that row are laid.
The pry bar crew members adjust individual mats,
using a pry bar to provide maximum allowance for
thermal expansion and insert the mat-locking bars.
The installation pesonnel, working with partners,
take a mat from the pallet, carry it to the installation
point, and then install the mat in place.
SATS Field Installation Sequence
The sequence of laying matting for a runway
where a guide rail for a catapult system is not required
is not the same as for a runway where a guide rail is
required. Figure 11-5 shows you what a guide rail
Figure 11-5.—Guide rail.
Figure 11-6.—AM-2 mat installation sequence without a guide rail.
The general sequence of laying matting for any
length of installation where a guide rail is not required
is to start at the transverse centerline and work toward
each end simultaneously. The starter keylock section
is laid, and then individual mats are laid in a brickwork
type of pattern from left to right when facing the
working area. The left-to-right sequence is dictated by
the mat interlock design which is such that reversing
the procedure is difficult and inefficient. The coated
side is always “up,” and the interlocking prongs on the
2-foot edge are always to the right and up. Survey lines
are present to guide at least one edge of the section
being laid to maintain proper longitudinal
alignment. Other sections of the site maybe laid in
the same reamer and at the same time if survey lines
have been established, pallet staging has been
accomplished, and sufficient personnel are available.
A typical keylock section is laid every 100 feet,
starting with the 100-foot mark on either side of the
starter keylock.
The general sequence of laying mating for the
runway with the guide rail installed is to start at one
end (at the approach apron) and work toward the
opposite end. The guide rail divides the runway into
two sections, 18 feet and 78 feet (or 18 feet and 30 feet
for a 48-foot runway). Individual mats are laid in a
brickwork type of pattern from the guide rail to the
outer edge in each section when facing the working
area. The starter keylock is not used when laying a
runway with a guide rail. Instead, typical keylocks are
laid at 100-foot intends on the runway, and other
sections of the SATS field are laid as explained in the
previous paragraph.
Figure 11-7.—Starter keylock.
are furnished in 3-foot, 9-foot, and 12-foot lengths to
allow for the staggering of joints in matting patterns.
The starter keylock is coated with a nonskid material.
It is not used in installations having a guide rail.
Be sure to inspect visually upturned sides and end
connectors of AM-2 matting for foreign matter before
placing them in position. The presence of dirt, chips,
stones, and so on, can prevent proper interlocking of
the mats. Brooms or brushes can be used to clean
foreign matter from the connectors.
TYPICAL KEYLOCK.— A typical keylock (fig.
11-8) is inserted every 100 feet in the pattern to permit
the easy removal of sections of the matting for a
multiple-mat replacement. For this reason, only a
maximum of 50 feet of any one section needs to be
removed to replace mats that could not economically
be replaced as individual units by replacement mats.
Typical keylocks are furnished in 3-foot, 9-foot, and
12-foot lengths to allow the staggering of joints of
matting patterns. The typical keylock is coated with a
nonskid material.
Mat-Laying Procedure without
a Guide Rail
The sequence for installing AM-2 mats and related
components where a guide rail is not required is shown
in figure 11-6. The sequence can be modified, so work
proceeds on only one row of mats at any given time;
IMPORTANT. The sequence, as shown in figure 11-6,
allows the use of at least two crews with six 2-man
teams on each crew carrying and placing mats and
FEMALE KEYLOCK.— A female keylock (fig.
11-9) is used to join two adjacent male mats. The
female keylock is coated with a nonskid material.
When placing AM-2 mats, you should have three
types of keylocks: starter, typical, and female. You
should use a step-by-step procedure to place the AM-2
STARTER KEYLOCK.— The starter keylock is
a narrow mat that is used to decrease runway
installation time by approximately one half (fig. 11-7).
Previous mat installation methods required
assembling the runway at one extremity and working
to the other end. The starter keylock is installed in the
middle of the runway only and enables two mat-laying
teams to start together and work simultaneously
toward each end of a runway, section. Starter keylocks
Figure 11-8.—Typica1 keylock.
3. Repeat laying six more 12-foot sections and one
3-foot section of starter keylocks to complete the
96-foot width of the runway.
NOTE: Initially, lay several transverse rows of
AM-2 matting in one direction only from the starter
keylock row. If matting is started on both sides of the
starter keylock, a seesaw force could result, disturbing
the alignment of the entire field.
Figure 11-9.—Female keylock.
Steps for Laying AM-2 Mats and Keylocks
The procedure for laying AM-2 mats and keylocks
is shown in figures 11-10 through 11-18 and consists
of the following steps:
1. Lay starter keylocks on the transverse center
line of the runway. (See fig. 11-10.) A 9-foot starter
keylock is laid at the outer edge of the runway. Remove
the socket head screws from the keylock to allow for
extending the locking bars into the next keylock section.
2. Place a 12-foot starter keylock next to, and
aligned with, the 9-foot section. Move the 12-foot
section against the 9-foot section, and adjust the locking
bar so the socket head screws secure the locking bar in
each section this procedure secures the 9-foot starter
keylock and the 12-foot starter keylock, as shown in
detail “A” of figure 11-10.
4. With the nonskid side of the mat turned up and
the upturned prongs on the right, align the first mat (half
mat) on the left side with the starter keylock (fig. 11-11).
Align the downturned prongs with the runway edge.
Hook the female edge of the mat into the groove on the
starter keylock (fig. 11-12) while holding the mat in an
angular position. Rotate the mat downward to form the
joint. (See fig. 11- 12.)
5. Lay the second and all successive mats the same
way as the first mat (fig. 11-11) in relation to the starter
keylock. The downturned prongs of the second mat
should mate with the upturned prongs of the first mat,
as shown in figure 11-13. When the mats are properly
engaged, a rectangular slot is formed by the engagement
of the end connectors.
6. Lock the first and second mats together, as
shown in figure 11-14, by inserting the locking bar (fig.
NOTE: The first two mats and all mats in the first
row should be aligned accurately before inserting the
locking bar. Misalignment of mats will prevent proper
installation of the second row. Locking bars may stick
Figure 11-10 —Placing starter keylocks on a transverse center line.
Figure 11-11.—Placing first and second mats
Figure 11-12.—Engaging first half mat (half length) to starter keylock.
procedure as described for installation of the second
mat. (See step 5.)
because of the natural waviness in the manufacture of
the mat end connectors and the locking bars. A few
light taps of a hammer should drive the bar into the
proper position.
NOTE: The first row of mats on the opposite side
of the starter keylock row are all full mats (fig. 11-6).
7. Place the third mat at the start of the second row,
as shown in figure 11-16. Ensure that the third mat is
aligned on the left side with the mat in the preceding
row. Refer to figure 11-12 and step 4 for the engagement
procedure, which is the same for the engagement of the
third mat with the first and second mats.
Align the first row accurately with stakes
or guidelines delineating the extent of matting.
As work progresses, periodically check the
alignment of mats already installed. Any
misalignment causes a displacement of the
runway from the planned position at the far end
of the field.
NOTE: The first row of mats and each alternate
row thereafter is laid using half mats at the outer edges
of the runway and full mats in between (fig. 11-6). The
second row of mats and each alternate row thereafter
is laid using full mats only. This method provides a
staggered joint for greater matting strength.
9. Install the second and succeeding rows
according to the procedure for the third mat (first mat
in the second row) with one notable exception. The
second mat in each row must first be hooked to the
8. Complete the first row, installing six more
full-length mats and finally a half mat, using the same
Figure 11-13.—Engagement of the first and second mats.
Figure 11-14.—Locking first and second mat, using locking bar.
Figure 11-15.—Insertion of the locking bar.
Figure 11-16.—Placing of third mat (full-length).
preceding row while being held at an angle (fig. 11-12).
The mat must then be aligned so when it is rotated
downward, the end connectors mate properly, as shown
in figure 11-13.
NOTE: The mats are designed with an apparent
‘loose fit.” This is to allow for expansion and also to
allow for the natural waviness inherent in the extruded
mat sections. Because of this, it is possible to have a
row of mats “installed” but misaligned so as to prevent
the proper engagement of one or more of the mats in
the following row. (Such a condition in exaggerated
form, and the method of corrections, is shown is figure
11-17.) Locking bars may be used as temporary
spacers between the rows to prevent this. Place a
locking bar on edge where the ends of two mats join
and as the row ends. After three or four rows have been
laid using locking spacers, proceed with the remainder
of the runway or taxiway by removing the spacers
from the furthest row and using them in the row just
If it becomes necessary to adjust matting
with a sledge, always place a wooden block
Figure 11-17.—Correction of mat misalignment.
against the mat edge before striking, as shown
in figure 11-17.
keylock is aligned. Then secure the socket head screw
in the 9-foot keylock, using the socket head screw
10. Every 100 feet, install a row of typical keylocks
in the matting field (fig. 11-6). Place a 9-foot typical
keylock at the outer edge of the runway with the female
end of the keylock aligned with the first mat of the
preceding row (fig. 11-1 8). Engage the female edge of
the typical keylock with the male edge of the mat in the
preceding row (similar to fig: 11-12 and step 4).
11. Place a 12-foot typical keylock next to the
installed 9-foot typical keylock. Move the 12-foot
section against the 9-foot section after first engaging the
female edge of the keylock with the male edge of the
first twoo mats in the preceding row. Raise the socket
head screw in the male end of the 9-foot keylock until
the threaded hole in the female end of the 12-foot
See detail “A” of figure 11-18 that shows the
typical keylocks secured together. Repeat laying of six
more 12-foot sections and one 3-foot section of the
typical keylocks to complete the 96-foot width of the
NOTE: After the laying of a row of typical
keylocks every 100 feet, continue laying AM-2
matting, according to steps 4 through 9, to the ends of
the runway.
Runway APPROACH APRONS are required at
each end of the main runway. These aprons are ramps
made of mats placed to prevent the tail hook of a low
Figure 11-18.–Placing typical keylocks in a matting field.
incoming aircraft from engaging or hooking onto the
edge of the runway. (See fig. 11-19.)
When installing mat end ramps, you should use
the following procedure:
The aprons are constructed in a brickwork type of
pattern but may be entirely of half-length mat units
and extend across the full width of the runway. The
free end of the apron should fall a distance of 18 to 24
inches below the normal ground level. The ground
surface beneath each mat should be shaped to provide
full contact across the bottom of the mat. After
installation of the ramp, the excavation should be
backfilled (ramp covered to the normal ground level).
The backfill should be tamped and compacted.
1. Install the first ramp at the right-hand corner,
looking toward the opposite end of the runway. Place
the next ramp adjacent to it, ensuring that holes in the
overlapping plate on the ramp line up with threaded
inserts on the matting ramp. Insert five flathead screws
in each ramp, using the Allen wrench provided in the
toolbox. Apply antiseize compound to the screw
Installation of the ramp at the starting end of the
runway can be readily accomplished although the
installation procedure is slightly different. Place the
side connector under the overhanging lip of the first
row of mats and lift until contact is made. The mat is
then rotated downward while keeping the two mats in
contact. Locking bars are installed as described
MAT END RAMPS are used at the ends of the
runways, laid on a hard surface (concrete), to smooth
the passage from one surface to the other. The edge
connection between the ramp and mat sections is the
same as between two rows of matting. The ramp is
fabricated from aluminum extrusions and is provided
with welded inserts and extension plates, drilled and
tapped to allow the ramp sections to be joined and
anchored. (See fig. 11-20,)
2. Next, use the locking baron the edge between
the ramps and edges of the mats to assure the alignment
is straight.
3. As the ramps are placed and screwed together,
drill holes in the concrete for lag screw shields, using
the holes in each ramp as a template. Drill holes to
5/8-inch diameter and 3 inches deep with the drill bit
from the toolbox. Insert an expansion shield in each hole
drilled in the concrete. Insert a lag bolt and washer in
each counterbored hole. Tighten the lag bolts with the
offset, square box-end wrench provided in the toolbox.
4. Complete the end ramp installation, as shown in
figure 11-21.
Mat-Laying Procedure with a Guide Rail
The sequence for installing AM-2 mats and related
components where a guide rail for a catapult system is
required is shown in figure 11-22. The guide rail
divides the runway into an 18-foot and a 78-foot
Figure 11-19.—Laying of runway approach apron
Figure 11-20.—Mat end ramp.
Figure 11-21.—Placememt of mat end ramps.
NOTE: As the guide rails and mats are being laid,
any visible depressions in the grade should be filled in
and raked with the applicable hand tools.
section. The laying of matting should proceed in one
direction only, from one end of the runway. Laying of
the guide rail, mats, and related components is as
4. Insert the transit target, NAEC Part No.
NOTE: The instructions presented here are for a
96-foot runway, but they are also applicable for a
48-foot runway.
1. Establish the guide rail center line, using a
2. Install the first guide rail with dowel pins facing
aft (opposite the direction of laying the guide rails). The
first guide rail should be 9 feet in length, NAEC (Naval
Air Engineering Center) Part No. 6125354, to prevent
alignment of the guide rail joint with the mat joint.
3. Install the next four guide rails (10-foot rail)
using spacer seals, NAEC Part No. 414233-1, and gap
gauges, NAEC Part No. 414219-1, between the guide
rail joints before driving the dowel pins. Check for
proper position of the pins in the guide rails, using a pin
gauge, NAEC Part No. 414212-1.
414691-1, in the center slot of the guide rail and
preliminary alignment of each rail.
5. Lay the 18-foot section of AM-2 matting, as
shown in figure 11-22. Insert the mat-locking bars
between the guide rail and the mat. (See fig. 11-23.)
6. Insert the transit target, NAEC Part No.
414691-1, in the center slot of the guide rail and make
the final alignment by shifting the five guide rails and
attached mats. The guide rails and mats maybe shifted
by pounding the edge of the guide rail or mat with a
wooden block and a mallet. The guide rail center line
should not vary more than 1/4 inch in 50 feet in the
horizontal direction nor more than 1/8 inch in 12 feet in
the vertical direction as determined by a 12-foot
straightedge. The straightedge should be moved in
6-foot increments.
Figure 11-22.—AM-2 mat installation sequence (with guide rails—96-foot-wide runway).
7. Begin laying the 78-foot side of matting for the
length of the guide rail and matting as aligned in step 6.
Transverse mat joints should not vary more than 3
inches between the 18-foot and 78-foot-wide section of
the runway where joints meet the guide rail and the mat.
Installation of the 78-foot side may lag behind the guide
rail and the 18-foot side but should never be installed
beside the guide rails that have not yet been aligned
according to step 6.
8. Install the next five guide rails. Guide rail joints
should never be closer than 3 inches in reference to the
transverse mat joints. (See fig. 11-23.) To ensure the
3-inch distance between the mat and guide rail joints,
substitute a 9-foot length of guide rail for a 10-foot
guide rail. Lay matting on the 18-foot side and then the
78-feet side. (See steps 5,6, and 7.) Continue installing
the runway until 100 feet of the matting has been laid.
NOTE: A minimum of ten gap gauges should
remain installed to the rear of the guide rail dowel pins
being installed.
9. Every 100 feet, install typical keylocks across
the runway. Typical keylocks cannot be secured to the
guide rail. Cut keylocks in 6-foot sections, as necessary,
to ease installation on the 18-foot and the 78-foot sides
of the guide rail. Refer to the section discussed
previous] yin this chapter on “Mat-Laying Procedures
Figure 11-23.—Laying of guide rails and mats.
without a Guide Rail,” steps 10 and 11, for typical
installation of keylocks in the field
are 12-foot-long aluminum “H” sections that allow
relative movement and slight misalignment between the
adjoining sections of matting.
10. Install approach aprons at both ends of the
runway. Use 90-degree connectors to join the approach
Field-Laying Procedure
aprons to the field matting. (See fig. 11-24.) Connectors
The sequence for laying an entire field is as
1. The main runway
2. The lateral taxiways
3. The taxiway that is parallel to the runway
4. The parking stands and storage areas
Figure 11-24 .—90-degree connector.
The above sequence may be modified in the
interest of gaining time in the overall installation by
laying the main runway and the parallel runway at the
same time. Then the lateral taxiways and parking area
can be installed.
The two procedures for installing 90-degree
connectors are as follows:
If the latter procedure is to be used the
distance between the runway and its parallel
taxiway must be carefully controlled Since the
mat width is 2 feet, a gap of almost 1 foot could
occur at each end of the interconnecting lateral
taxiway. The gap between the lateral taxi way
and the long taxiway and runway should not
exceed 2 inches.
Install W-degree connectors on the edge of the runway
at the point where the lateral taxiways will connect
with the runway. The 90-degree connectors may be
used at other points where two mat-laying patterns, at
90 degrees to each other, are to be joined.
adjoining pattern has not been laid, install a sufficient
number of 90-degree connectors along the 2-foot edge
of matting, such as the edge of the runway, equal to
the width of the taxi way or other section to be joined.
Lay a half-length mat into the first 90-degree
connector, so the end of the mat matches the end of the
connector. Engage the prongs of a full-length mat into
the prongs of the half-length mat previously laid and
push into engagement with the 90-degree connector.
Continue to lay mats in the above manner until the first
row is completed to the length of the 90-degree
connectors. Additional mats may then be laid in the
usual manner. (See fig. 11-25.)
NOTE: The 90-degree connectors can be used to
connect the end of the lateral taxiway with the long
taxiway also.
adjoining mat pattern has already been laid, adjust the
last few rows of matting (of the taxiway), so the space
Figure 11-25.—Procedure No.1, 90-degree connectors.
Figure 11-26.—Procedure No. 2, 90-degree connectors.
between the runway and the taxiway is between 1 and
2 inches. Place a 90-degree connector in position, as
shown in figure 11-26. Using a sledge hammer and a
wooden block, drive it into position. The most
efficient method is to drive the 90-degree connectors
from either edge toward the center of the taxiway.
Place a mark at or near the midpoint of the 12-foot
length of the mat. Drive the first connector to this
mark. The positions of the remaining 90-degree
connectors are then automatically established. Care
must be maintained while driving the connectors not
to allow debris to be scooped up by the forward edges
of the connectors.
The-downs are provided for aircraft anchorage. (See
fig. 11-27.) They are shipped in a package or
container, as shown in figure 11-28. An individual
container contains 120 tie-downs, plus the screws,
drilling, and tapping equipment necessary to install
the tie-downs.
When tie-downs are to be installed, start by
drilling and tapping the AM-2 matting on the
prongs-down connector. Drill two holes for each
tie-down ring retainer, using tools from the tie-down
container. The procedure for drilling is as follows:
1. Secure the sleeve, 412131-1, to the 5/16-inch
drill with the setscrew, using the drill fixture, 509044-1,
as shown in operation 1, figure 11-29. Orient the sleeve
to ensure seating of the setscrew on the body diameter
of the drill.
2. Position the drill fixture, as shown in operation
2 (fig. 11-29), and drill one hole, as shown. Proper depth
is obtained when the sleeve contacts the bushing.
3. Insert the pilot, 4121301, through the drill
bushing into the drilled hole, and drill the second hole,
as shown in operation 3 (fig. 11-29).
Figure 11-27.—Tiedowu
Figure 11-28.—Tie-down container.
4. Tap two holes 3/8 inch, 16 threads per inch,
unified national coarse class 3B fit. Finish with the
bottom tap to obtain 9/16-inch minimum full-thread
5. Store the sleeve and the pilot in the holes
provided and secure with setscrews.
After the drilling is completed, secure the ring
retainer with two socket head screws.
parking and storage areas should be installed next.
Mats and locking bars are installed in the same manner
as the runway and taxi ways, except that the staggered
joint pattern is not mandatory. This means that the area
can be built up in any random pattern and that all
leftover half-length or full-length mats can be used.
The 90-degree connectors should be installed between
these parking and storage areas and taxiways
according to the procedure outlined earlier. Install
tie-downs on the matting in these areas, as shown in
figure 11-30.
shield the ground area around taxiways and parking
areas from the blast effects from aircraft, install blast
deflectors as required. Assemble blast deflector
adapters to the boundaries of matting that will be
Figure 11-29.—Drilling jig for installing tiedowns
Figure 11-30.—Installing tie-downs in AM-2 matting.
either male edges, female edges, prongs-down ends,
or prongs-up ends. Three types of adapters are
supplied to fit anyone of the joints. Erect AM-2 mats
to the exposed upturned edge of the adapters to
provide the blast shield. Use the adapters to support
each AM-2 mat. (See fig. 11-31.)
During use in the field, matting may become
damaged and require repair or overhaul. Some of the
repairs that may be necessary are covered here. If you
are called upon to make repairs other than those
Figure 11-31.—Installation of blast deflector (adapters and mats).
covered below, consult your leading petty officer for
If an individual mat is damaged and cannot be
satisfactorily repaired, damaged AM-2 mats may be
cut out of the installation and replaced with a
replacement mat assembly. A replacement mat is
shown in figure 11-32. Replacement mats allow the
replacement of damaged mats with a replacement item
that duplicates the original installation. These mats are
complete with a nonskid coating. Replacement mats
are prepared from AM-2 mats by cutting off the
prongs-up edge and the male connector edge and
welding on adapters. Additional adapters must be
bolted on at the time of installation.
To replace a damaged mat with a replacement mat
assembly, follow the procedure below.
1. Cut out the damaged mat so complete removal
can be affected without damage to surrounding mats.
this can best be accomplished using a portable circular
saw, set for a 2-inch depth of cut. The cut should be
made along the male edge and prongs-up connector.
(See fig. 11-33.)
Figure 11-32.—Replacement mat
Figure 11-33.—Mat cutting for removing mat.
2. Ensure that all recesses in the mats surrounding
the repair area are clean. Use a broom or brush to
remove any debris.
3. Remove the male connector and adapters from
the replacement mat, using socket head screw wrenches
taped to the pallet. Be careful to retain the dowel pin in
the lower adapter. (See view A of fig. 11-34.)
4. Place the lower adapter prong under the lower
prong of the prongs-down end of the adjacent mat A,
keeping the dowel pin up. (See view A of fig. 11-34.)
5. Place the middle and upper adapters on the
lower adapter, using the dowel pin as a locating device.
Ensure that the locking bar tongue on the middle adapter
is in the locking bar slot of mat A and the upper adapter
prong mates with the upper prong of the prongs-down
end of the adjacent mat A. (See view B of fig. 11-34.)
6. Place the male connector into the female
connector of adjacent mats B and C. (See view C of fig.
7. Place the female connector edge of the
replacement mat over the grooves of the male connector
edges of adjacent mats E and F (fig. 11-34) in the same
manner that AM-2 mats are connected. Gently lower the
replacement mat into place, being careful to lift the
dowel pin into the hole in the connector adapter and the
male connector adapter into the groove in the male
connector. (See views A and C of fig. 11-34.)
8. Align the holes between the upper, middle, and
lower adapters and the connector adapter. The dowel
pin will provide at least approximate alignment,
although some minor shifting of the replacement mat
with a pry bar maybe necessary. Insert and tighten the
four socket head cap screws with the 5/16-inch box
wrench provided. (See view B of fig. 11-34.)
9. Place a clamp over the male connector.
Alignment of holes can be accomplished by sliding the
clamp in the adapter grooves. Insert and tighten the ten
socket head screws with the 5/16-inch wrench. (See
view C of fig. 11-34.)
Figure 11-34.—Replacement mat installation.
7/1 6 inch). The screw should not be removed further
since it is designed to be self-retaining and reassembly
can be affected from this position.
10. Using the 5/32-inch socket head screw wrench,
loosen the two setscrews retaining the locking bar.
Insert a screwdriver or similar instrument in the holes
next to the setscrews, and force the locking bar toward
mat D as far as possible. This will lock the replacement
mat and clear the setscrew holes. Bottom the setscrews
so that the locking bar remains in plain. (See view D of
fig. 1 1-34.)
2. Insert the prong of the removal tool under the
turned down lip of the female connector and slide the
keylock from its position, as shown in figure 11-35.
NOTE: The initial 3-foot or 6-foot keylock
section will have to be pried out since the exposed end
is merely an unfinished cross-sectional cut and will
not accept the removal tool.
3. Loosen the next and subsequent connectors, as
described previously, and remove the remaining
keylock sections. If mat distortion is minimal, you may
be able to remove more than one keylock section at a
A section of runway replacement maybe required
when groups of mats are damaged beyond repair or
when excessive mat deflection and roughness, due to
cavities under the mats, must be corrected.
The procedure for replacing a section of runway
is essentially the same with or without a guide rail
installation. However, with a guide rail installed,
removal of typical keylock sections will proceed from
the outer edge of the runway regardless of which side
of the guide rail the repair is to take place. Without a
guide rail and when starter keylocks are used, typical
keylocks must be removed from the right-hand edge
of the runway (or taxi way) when facing the end of the
runway from the transverse center line. This edge of
the runway exposes the female end of the keylock into
which the special removal tool must be inserted.
The replacement of a section of the runway is
accomplished in the following manner:
1. Remove the first typical keylock action by
loosening the socket head screw at the first inboard
connection. This screw only needs to be loosened until
it is free of the male end of the adjoining keylock (about
4. Use blocking and pry bars to lift the first row of
mats high enough to allow the locking bars to clear.
Each mat has one pry bar. All pry bars should be
operated at the same time for the full width of the
runway (or taxi way) to prevent warping of the mats. The
mats will readily hinge at the first longitudinal mat joint.
NOTE: If a guide rail has been installed, the
adjacent mat maybe cut parallel to the guide rail. ‘This
cut must be made so it severs the locking bar to allow
the locking bar and the end connector to be removed
from the guide rail.
5. With the row of mats raised, insert a bent rod or
wire in the locking bar hole and remove each locking
bar including the bars securing the cut piece of the guide
rail. The first row of matting may then be disassembled
and removed. (See fig. 11-36.)
Figure 11-35.—Typical keylock removal tool.
Figure 11-36.—Removal of locking bar.
6. With the clearance now provided, removal of
the remainder of the matting and additional guide rail,
as necessary to affect the repair, may be readily
accomplished Remove the cut piece of guide rail aft of
the repair area by removing locking bars and
disconnecting the guide rail pins, using a pin remover,
NAEC Part No. 414223-1. Slide the guide rail out of the
7. Repair the ground surface, as necessary, before
installing the guide rail and new or refurbished matting.
8. The installation procedure must be the same as
that for the original installation. Replace the locking
9. Reinstall matting over the repair area until the
last row of matting is in place. At this point, this row of
matting must be raised in unison with pry bars to permit
installation of locking bars.
1. Remove all mats that show excessive wear and
deformation according to the instructions given earlier.
2. Fill all cavities under the mats and cover cavity
areas with old matting. Areas should be reinforced with
any available matting: M9M1, M9M2, AM-1, or
damaged AM-2 mats. The mats in the bottom layer need
not be joined together to save material and manpower.
It is advisable to have the reinforcing mats touching, but
it is not imperative that the mats in the bottom layer be
interlocked. The mats in the bottom layer must be
placed with the long dimension of the mats at right
angles to the mats in the top layer. A double layer of
matting should be considered in all cases where sandy
areas can cause excessive mat roughness due to
movement of the sand
3. Replace the top layer of matting according to the
instructions given earlier.
Before proceeding, note that a heavy-duty mat, as
shown in figure 11-37, has been developed
NOTE: It will not be possible to insert locking
bars between the guide rail and adjacent mats for this
row. Therefore, a replacement mat should be installed
next to the guide rail. A locking bar is built into the
replacement mat.
10. Insert the typical keylocks in the reverse order
in which they were taken out. Always use wood
blocking between the hammer and connector if force is
necessary to drive the sections into place.
Excessive mat deflection and roughness, which
can be attributed to cavities under the mats, can be
repaired in the following manner:
Figure 11-37.—Heavy-duty mat.
To straighten male and female integrally extruded
edges of AM-2 mats, you use a mat connector repair
edge tool, 510827-1. Edges that are slightly damaged
during shipping and handling can be straightened with
the edge tool to allow the edges to be interlocked
during installation.
Figure 11-38 shows the use of the edge tool for the
lower female edge of the mat, figure 11-39 shows the
use of the edge tool for the upper female edge of the
mat, and figure 11-40 shows the use of the edge tool
for the male edge of the mat.
Figure 11-38.—Straightening of lower female edge.
The procedure to follow in straightening the edges
of AM-2 mats is given below.
1. To straighten the edges of a mat, place it on
blocks to raise it off the ground and provide sufficient
clearance to use the edge tool.
Figure 11-39.—Straightening of upper female edge.
2. Orient the mat properly; that is, place the top of
the mat faceup, as shown in figure 11-40, and place the
bottom of the mat faceup, as shown in figures 11-38 and
11-39, as required to allow the edge tool to be used in
an upright position.
3. Engage the tool with the mat edge, as shown in
figures 11-38, 11-39, or 1140, at the beginning of the
bent area,
4. To straighten the edge, apply a lateral form on
the tool handle to bend the edge lip toward a
straightened position. Be certain that the tool fully
engages the mat edge lip by applying a constant force
on the tool handle toward the mat.
Figure 11-40.—Straightening of male edge.
Heavy-duty mats are used under arresting cables to
5. Move the tool into the bent area in small
increments and straighten gradually until the entire
length of the bent section has been straightened Do not
attempt to straighten the bent section in one pass; make
several passes with minimum bending per pass until the
area has been straightened
eliminate excessive dents and other external damage
that occurs to regular matting during aircraft
Care should be taken during bending to
prevent cracking.
arrestment procedures. These mats are only used on
the end of the runway where aircraft touch down.
Heavy-duty mats are 6 feet in length and 18 inches
wide after connectors are attached. They are painted
Marine Corps green, color No. 23; the top surface is
also coated with a nonskid material of the same color.
Locking bars used to secure heavy-duty mats together
are approximately 6 feet in length.
Disassembled pallets should be distributed in the
same pattern that was used for installation of the field
mats to facilitate repackaging, as the various
components are removed With the use of typical
keylock sections, disassembly can be done at several
points simultaneously consistent with the available
personnel and handling equipment. Speed of removal
of matting will be considerable y greater if disassemble y
takes place in the opposite direction of assembly; that
is, the female connector is removed from the male
In a SATS system where a guide rail is not used,
matting removal at points other than exposed ends of
matting requires removal of typical keylock sections
as the initial step.
The procedure for removal is composed of the
following steps:
1. Remove typical keylocks by loosening the
socket head screw at the first joint until it is free of the
lower thread (about 7/1 6 inch). Do not remove further
as this screw is self-retaining, and disassembly and
future assembly are accomplished from this position. If
the exposed end of the typical keylock is a cut end, that
particular section must be pried out or pulled out. If the
female end is exposed, the section may be removed
using the special removal tool. (See fig. 11-35.)
2. The backfill must be removed from the runway
approach aprons that may be accomplished as the center
portions of the runway are being disassembled.
3. The 90-degree connectors are independently
removable by sliding individual connectors lengthwise.
However, the mat disassembly procedure should be
planned so that the matting engaged on the 12-foot edge
is removed first. This cccurs, for example, where the
lateral taxiway matting (12-foot edge) meets the runway
(fig. 11-26), then 90-degree connectors can be removed
more easily than by sliding connectors lengthwise.
4. Tie-downs must be removed before parking area
5. Disassembly of a mat row may proceed from the
end with the overlapping mat. Remove the locking bar
from the adjaent mat by inserting a bent rod or wire
into the hole in the locking bar and pulling it straight
out. (See fig. 11-35.) The most efficient procedure
requires disassemble y in reverse order of assembly.
Therefore, starter keylocks will be the last component
removed from the runway. Remove the starter keylocks
by removing the socket head screws from each
adjoining starter keylock Insert the connector bar in the
starter keylock just removed to the second hole (the bar
will protrude 1 inch), and tighten the screw. Replace and
tighten the screw in the adjacent keylock.
In a SATS system where a guide rail is used,
portions of the installation, other than the runway, may
be disassembled in the same manner as described
previously. However, the presence of the guide rail
prevents the removal of matting other than from one
end. Runway aprons that do not include guide rail
sections are an exception. These portions may be
removed at any convenient time after the backfill has
been removed. Removal of the runway matting and
guide rail must start at the same end at which the
runway was completed. In addition to the removal of
locking bars between the mats, the locking bars
connecting the mats to the guide rail must also be
removed. Removal of guide rail locking bars is
accomplished in the same manner as for mats. (See fig.
In the shop and out on a jobsite, you will be using
grinders, portable power drills, compressors, saws,
and various other tools. As a Steelworker you need to
be thoroughly familiar with the operation and
maintenance of these tools as well as all applicable
safety precautions.
The common bench and pedestal grinders are the
simplest and most widely used grinding machines.
The grinding work done with them is called
OFFHAND GRINDING. Offhand grinding is used for
work on pieces that can be held in the hands and
controlled until ground to the desired shape or size.
This work is done when the piece king ground does
not require great precision or accuracy.
The bench grinder (fig. 12-1) is attached to a
bench or table. The grinding wheels mount directly
onto the motor shaft. One wheel is coarse for rough
grinding, and the other is fine for finish grinding.
Figure 12-2.—The pedestal grinder (dry type).
The pedestal grinder, inmost cases, is larger than
the bench grinder and is equipped with a base and
pedestal fastened to the floor. The DRY TYPE (fig.
12-2) has no arrangement for cooling the work while
grinding other than a water container into which the
piece can be dipped to cool it. The WET TYPE
(fig. 12-3) is equipped with a built-in coolant system
that keeps the wheels constantly drenched with fluid.
The coolant washes away particles of loose abrasive
material, as well as metal, and keeps the piece cool.
Figure 12-3.—Pedestal grinder (wet type) wttb a built-in
coolant system
Bench and pedestal grinders are dangerous if they
are not used correctly They must never be used unless
fitted with guards and safety glass EYE SHIELDS
(fig. 12-4). Even then you must wear goggles or safety
glasses. A TOOL REST is furnished to support the
work while grinding. It should be adjusted to come
within one eighth of an inch from the wheels. This will
Figure 12-1.—The bencb grinder, Eye shields have not been
Figure 12-6.—Mechanical wheel dresser.
remove the glaze that occurs after heavy use. This is
done by holding the dresser firmly against the wheel
with both hands, using the tool rest for support.
Then, as the wheel turns, move the dresser back and
forth across the surface (fig. 12-7). For maximum
efficiency and safety in operating the grinder, you
should observe the following rules:
Figure 12-4.—Eye shields for bench and
pedestal type of grinders.
1. Use the face of the wheel, never the sides.
prevent work from being wedged between the tool
rest and the wheel. Turn the wheel by hand after
adjusting the tool rest to ensure there is satisfactory
clearance completely around the wheel (fig. 12-5).
2. Move the work back and forth across the face
of the wheel. Even wear results because this action
prevents the wheel from becoming grooved.
3. Keep the wheel dressed and the tool rest
properly adjusted.
The grinding wheels themselves can be sources
of danger and should be examined frequently, based
upon usage, for irregularities and soundness. You can
test a new wheel by suspending it on a string or wire
and tapping the side of the wheel with a light metal
rod. A solid wheel will give off a distinct ringing
sound, A wheel that does not give off such a sound
must be assumed to be cracked and should be
discarded. Under no circumstances should it be used.
Since it is not practical to check the wheels by this
manner every time you use the grinder, make it a
habit never to stand in front of a grinder when it is
first turned on. A cracked wheel can disintegrate and
become projectiles quickly.
Do not shape soft metals, like aluminum, brass,
and copper, that tend to load (clog) the abrasive
wheel. These metals should be shaped by other
methods, such as tiling, sanding, and chipping.
The portable power tools that are available for use
are either powered by electric motors or by air
(pneumatic) motors. Whether powered by electricity
or compressed air, the tools are basically the same
and the procedures for using them are the same. This
section will deal with pneumatic tools since these
require unique maintenance and servicing on the
jobsite or in the shop.
The wheel must also run true and be balanced on
the shaft. A WHEEL DRESSER (fig. 12-6) should be
used to bring abrasive wheels back to round and
NOTE: All low-pressure compressed air systems
should have a filter, a regulator, and a lubricator
assembly installed at the outlet. This assembly will
ensure delivery of clean, regulated mist lubricated
compressed air for the operation of pneumatic tools.
Figure 12-7.—Using a wheel dresser.
Figure 12-5.—Properly spaced tool rest.
can also punch holes. The size of the angles and plates
that can be safely handled by the machine depends
upon its capacity. It is manufactured in various sizes
and capacities, and each machine has a capacity plate
either welded or riveted on it. This guide should be
strictly adhered to. The pressure and power the
machine develops demand extreme caution on the part
of the operator.
Before operating a pneumatic tool, inspect
the air hose and check it for leaks or damage.
Blow air through the air hose to free it of foreign
material before connecting it to the tool. Keep
the air hose clean and free from lubricants.
Never point the air hose at another person.
Pneumatic tools must have complete lubrication.
The moving parts of pneumatic tools are fitted very
closely, and they must be lubricated correctly or they
will wear quickly and fail to work.
While the vertical band saw is designed primarily
for making curved cuts, it can also be used for straight
cutting. Unlike the circular saw, the band saw is
frequently used for freehand cutting.
Valves and pistons on pneumatic hammers require
a light machine oil. Since the compressed air comes
directly in contact with these parts, it has a tendency
to drive the lubricant out through the exhaust.
The band saw has two large wheels on which a
continuous narrow saw blade, or BAND, turns, just as
a belt is turned on pulleys. The LOWER WHEEL,
located below the WORKING TABLE, is connected
to the motor directly or by means of pulleys or gears
and serves as the driver pulley. The UPPER WHEEL
is the driven pulley.
When working continuously with a pneumatic
tool, you should regularly check the lubricator to
ensure there is ample lubricant available. Next, empty
the filter assembly as needed.
The saw blade is guided and kept in line by two
sets of BLADE GUIDES: one fixed set below the
table and one set above with a vertical sliding
adjustment. The alignment of the blade is adjusted by
a mechanism on the back side of the upper wheel.
TENSIONING of the blade—tightening and
loosening-is provided by another adjustment located
just back of the upper wheel.
On low-pressure compressed air systems that do
not have the filter, the regulator, and the lubricator
assembly installed, you should disconnect the air hose
every hour or so and squirt a few drops of light oil into
the air hose connection. Do NOT use heavy oil
because the oil will cause precision parts to either fail
or to have operating troubles. If this occurs, you have
to clean your tool in cleaning solvent to loosen the
gummy substance that results. Blow out the tool with
air, lubricate it with light oil, and go back to work.
Cutoff gauges and ripping fences are sometimes
provided for use with band saws. However, you will
do most of your work freehand with the table clear
because accurate cuts are difficult to make with a band
saw when gauges or fences are used.
Keep your pneumatic tools clean and lubricated
and you will have few operating problems.
The size of a band saw is designated by the
diameter of the wheels. Thus the 14-inch model (fig.
12-9) has 14-inch wheels. Common sizes are 14-, 16-,
18-, 20-, 30-, 36-, 42-, and 48-inch machines. The
14-inch size is the smallest practical band saw. With
the exception of capacity, all band saws are much alike
in maintenance, operation, and adjustment.
Prefabrication of steel parts and assemblies is
typically accomplished in a steel shop where heavy
steel working machinery is accessible. The steel shop
is tasked with manufacturing and fabricating items,
such as sheet-metal ducts, pipeline section fittings,
plates, and angles. In the following sections, we will
discuss some of the common types of machinery found
in a well-equipped steel shop.
Blades, or bands, for bandsaws are designated by
POINTS (tooth point per inch), THICKNESS (gauge),
and WIDTH. The required length of the blade is found
by adding the circumference of one wheel to twice the
distance between the wheel centers. Length can vary
within a limit of twice the tension adjustment range.
The combination iron worker is likely the most
valuable and versatile machine in a shop. The
combination punch, shear, and coper (fig. 12-8) is
capable of cutting angles, plates, and steel bars, and it
Vertical band saws are comparatively simple
machines to operate. Each manufacturer publishes a
technical manual for their machine. Refer to the
Figure 12-8.—Combination punch, shear, and coper.
manufacturer’s manual for detailed information
concerning the structure, operation, maintenance, and
repair of the individual machine.
Keep the top guide down close to the work at all
times. When sawing curves or straight lines (outlines),
you guide the stock along the lines marked on the face
of the stock. When more than one piece is to be sawed,
several can be tack-welded together before sawing.
Tack-weld from the side on which the outline is
marked so the welds will be visible to the saw operator.
Be careful not to exceed the rated capacity of the
One of the key parts of the vertical band saw is its
blade that must be sharp and accurately set to cut in a
straight line. The radius of the curve, or circle, to be
cut determines the size of the saw blade to be used.
Use a narrow blade to cut curves of small radii. A
l/8-inch blade will cut a l-inch curve; a 3/16-inch
blade, a 1 l/2-inch curve; a l/4-inch blade, a 2-inch
curve; and a 3/8-inch blade, a 2 l/2-inch curve;
provided, in each instance, the teeth have the correct
amount of set.
Do not force the material too hard against the
blade. A light contact with the blade permits easier
following of the line and prevents undue friction and
overheating of the blade.
After turning on the power, see that the blade is
operating at full speed before you start a cut. It is
advisable to true up one face or edge of the stock
before taking a cut with the saw. Also, start the cut in
the waste stock and do not crowd or cramp the blade.
By keeping the saw blade well sharpened, you
need to apply very little forward pressure for average
cutting. Move stock steadily against the blade, but no
faster than required to give an easy cutting movement.
BAND SAW teeth are shaped like the teeth in a
hand ripsaw, which means that their fronts are filed at
90 degrees to the line of the saw. Reconditioning
procedures are the same as they are for a hand ripsaw,
except that very narrow band saws with very small teeth
must usually be set and sharpened by special machines.
A broken band saw blade must be BRAZED when
no accessory welder is available. The procedure for
brazing is as follows:
1. SCARF the two ends to be joined with a file so
that they may be joined in a SCARFJOINT(fig. 12-10).
2. Place the ends in a brazing clamp, or some
similar device, that will permit them to be brought
together in perfect alignments.
3. Coat the filed surfaces with soldering flux.
4. Cut a strip of silver solder the length of the scarf
and the width of the blade. Coat it with flux and insert it
between the filed surfaces.
5. Heat a pair of brazing tongs bright red and clamp
the joint together. The red-hot tongs wiIl heat the blade
and melt the solder. Keep the tongs clamped on the joint
until they turn black.
Figure 12-9.—14-inch band saw.
6. Smooth the joint on both sides with a flat file, and
finish it with fine emery cloth.
Avoid twisting the blade by trying to turn sharp
corners. Remember that you must saw around comers. If
you want to saw a very small radius, use a narrow blade.
Figure 12-11 shows band ends being joined by using
the butt welder-grinder unit. The entire procedure for
joining is as follows:
If you find that a saw cut cannot be completed, it is
better to saw out through the waste material to the edge
of the stock than to back the blade out of the curved cut.
This will prevent accidentally drawing the blade off the
1. Trim both ends of the band square; clean them
thoroughly. Butt the ends together in the jaws of the
welder-grinder unit; make sure that the ends are aligned
and that the seam is centered between the welder jaws.
First, set the resistance knob to agree with the dial for
the width of band you are going to weld Then press and
Figure 12-10.—Rejoining a broken band saw blade.
absence of sufficient set, (5) excessive tension on the
blade, (6) top guide set too high above the work being
cut, and (7) using a blade with a lumping or improper] y
finished braze or weld. When a saw blade breaks, shut
off the power immediately, and then wait until the
wheels stop turning before replacing the blade.
Replacing Saw Blades
To replace a bandsaw blade, open the wheel guard
on each wheel. Raise the guide to the top position.
Remove the throat plate from the table. Release the
tension on the blade by turning the top wheel adjusting
screw. Remove the blade and install the replacement.
A relatively new metal-cutting band saw is shown
in figure 12-12. This HORIZONTAL BAND
CUTOFF SAW is being used in shops to replace the
reciprocating type of power hacksaw. The continuous
cutting action of the blade provides greater speed,
accuracy, and versatility for metal-cutting jobs.
Figure 12-11.—Butt welder-grinder unit.
hold the WELD button until the blade ends fuse
together. Let the weld cool for a few seconds and then
press the ANNEAL button until the welded area heats
to a dull cherry red. Hold the welded area at that
temperature momentarily by jogging the button, and
then allow the temperature to fall off slowly and
gradually by increasing the time between jogs. (Allow
about 10 seconds for this last phase.)
Good results from the use of any metal-cutting
band saw depend upon careful choice of blade, speed,
rate of feed, and feed pressure. The primary
consideration in selecting the blade is the tooth pitch.
Tooth pitch should be considered in relation to the
hardness and toughness of the material being worked
and the thickness of the workpiece. At lease two teeth
should be in contact with the work. When cutting thick
material, do not select a tooth pitch that will allow too
2. After the band has been annealed, take it out of
the welder jaws and grind the weld bead with the small
grinder. Grind the weld area to the same thickness as the
rest of the band. Check the back edge of the band for
burrs and misalignment; grind off irregularities. After
the grinding is completed, place the band in the butt
welder-grinder unit and reanneal the welded areas to
destroy any hardness that may have developed. See the
technical manual furnished with each machine.
Causes of Blade Breakage
A number of conditions may cause a band saw
blade to break. Breakage is unavoidable when it is the
result of the peculiar stresses to which such saws are
subjected. The most common causes of blade
breakage that may be avoided by good judgment on
the part of the operator are as follows: (1) faulty
alignment and adjustment of the guides, (2) forcing or
twisting a wide blade around a curve of short radius,
(3) feeding too fast, (4) dullness of the teeth or the
Figure 12-12.—HorizontaI band Cutoff saw.
many teeth to be in contact with the material. The more
teeth in contact, the greater the feed pressure required
to force them into the material. Excessive feed
pressure will cause off-line cutting.
3. Gravity feed, which provides for weights on the
saw frame. These weights can be shifted to increase or
decrease the pressure of the saw blade on the material
being cut.
All three types of feed mechanisms lift the blade
clear of the work during the return stroke.
The POWER HACKSAW is found in all except
the smallest shops. It is used for cutting bar stock, pipe,
tubing, or other metal stock. The power hacksaw (fig.
12- 13) consists of a base, a mechanism for causing the
saw frame to reciprocate, and a clamping vise for
holding the stock while it is being sawed. Two types
of power hacksaws are in use today: the direct
mechanical drive and the hydraulic drive.
Hacksaw Blades
The blade shown in figure 12-14 is especially
designed for use with the power hacksaw. It is made
with a tough alloy steel back and high-speed steel
teeth-a combination which gives both a strong blade
and a cutting edge suitable for high-speed sawing.
The capacity designation of the power hacksaw
shown is 4 inches by 4 inches. This means that it can
handle material up to 4 inches in width and 4 inches
in height.
These blades vary as to the pitch of the teeth
(number of teeth per inch). The correct pitch of teeth
for a particular job is determined by the size of the
section and the material to be cut. Use coarse pitch
teeth for wide, heavy sections to provide ample chip
clearance. For thinner sections, use a blade with a pitch
that will keep two or more teeth in contact with the
work so that the teeth will not straddle the work. Such
straddling will strip the teeth. In general, you select
blades according to the following information:
Three types of feed mechanisms are in use today.
They are as follows:
1. Mechanical feed, which ranges from 0.001 to
0.025 inch per stroke, depending upon the class and type
of material being cut.
2. Hydraulic feed, which normally exerts a
constant pressure but is so designed that when hard
spots are encountered, the feed is automatically stopped
or shortened to decrease the pressure on the saw until
the hard spot has been cut through.
1. Coarse (4 teeth per inch—for soft steel, cast
iron, and bronze.
2. Regular (6 to 8 teeth per inch)—for annealed
high carbon steel and high-speed steel.
3. Medium (10 teeth per inch)—for solid brass
stock, iron pipe, and heavy tubing.
4. Fine (14 teeth per inch)—for thin tubing and
sheet metals.
Speeds and Coolants
Speeds on hacksaws are stated in strokes per
minute—counting, of cm-use, only those strokes that
cause the blade to come in contact with the stcck.
Speed changing is usually accomplished by means of
a gearshift lever. There maybe a card attached to your
equipment or near it, stating recommended speeds for
Figure 12-13.—Power hacksaw.
Figure 12-14.—Power hacksaw blade.
cutting various metals. The following speeds,
however, can usually be used:
1. Cold rolled or machine steel, brass, and soft
metals—136 strokes per minute.
2. Alloy steel, annealed tool steel, and cast
iron-90 strokes per minute.
3. High-speed steel, unannealed tool steel, and
stainless steel—60 strokes per minute.
Cast iron should be cut entirely dry, but a coolant
should be used for cutting all other materials. A
suitable coolant for cutting most metals is a solution
of water and enough soluble oil to make the solution
white. The coolant not only prevents overheating of
the blade and stock but also serves to increase the
cutting rate.
Using the Power Hacksaw
Place the workpiece in the clamping device,
adjusting it so the cutting-off mark is in line with the
blade. Turn the vise lever to clamp on the material in
place, being sure that the material is held tightly, and
then set the stroke adjustment.
Figure 12-15.—Sensitive drill press.
Ensure the blade is not touching the workpiece
when you start the machine. Blades are often broken
when this rule is not followed. Feed the b] blade slowly
into the work, and adjust the coolant nozzle so it
directs the fluid over the saw blade.
The RADIAL DRILL PRESS (fig. 12-16) has a
movable spindle that can be adjusted to the work. This
type of machine is convenient to use on large and
heavy work or where many holes are to be drilled since
the work does not have to be readjusted for each hole.
NOTE: Safety precautions to be observed while
operating this tool are posted in the shop. READ and
Check occasionally to make sure that all locking
handles are tight and that the V-belt is not slipping.
Before operating any drill press, visually inspect
the drill press to determine if all parts are in the proper
place, secure, and in good operating condition. Check
all assemblies, such as the motor, the head, the pulleys,
and the bench, for loose mountings. Check the
adjustment of the V-belt and adjust as necessary
according to the manufacturer’s manual. Make sure
that the electric cord is securely connected and that the
insulation is not damaged, chafed, or cracked.
Many sizes and styles of drilling machines or
DRILL PRESSES are in use today-each designed for
a particular type of work. Only the drill presses not
covered in Tools and Their Uses, N A V E D T R A
10085-B2, are discussed here.
One type of upright drill press is the SENSITIVE
DRILL PRESS (fig. 12-15). This drill is used for
drilling small holes in work under conditions where
the operator must “feel” what the cutting tool is doing.
The drill bit is fed into the work by a very simple
device—a lever. These drill presses are nearly always
belt driven because the vibration caused by gearing
would be undesirable.
While the drill press is operating, be alert for any
sounds that may be signs of trouble, such as squeaks
or unusual noises. Report any unusual or
unsatisfactory performance to the petty officer in
charge of the shop.
Figure 12-17.—Comparison of a twist drill for
plastic and a twist drill for metal.
The number sizes run from No. 80 to No. 1 (0.0135 inch
to 0.228 inch).
Before putting a drill bit away, wipe it clean and
then give it a light coating of oil. Do not leave drill bits
in a place where they maybe dropped or where heavy
objects may fall on them. Do not place drill bits where
they will rub against each other.
A drill bit should be reground at the first sign of
dullness. The increased load that dullness imposes on
the cutting edges may cause a drill bit to break.
Cutting Fluids
When drilling steel and wrought iron, use a cutting
oil. Cast iron, aluminum brass, and other metals may be
drilled dry; therefore, at high-drilling speeds it is
advisable to use some medium for cooling these metals
to lessen the chances of overheating the drill bit with
the resultant loss of the cutting edge. Compressed air
may be used for cast iron; kerosene for aluminum; oleic
acid for cooper; sulphurized mineral oil for Monel metal;
and water, lard, or soluble oil and soda water for
ferrous metals. (Soda water reduces heat, overcomes
rust, and improves the finish.)
Figure 12-16.—Radial drill press.
After operating a drill press, wipe off all dirt, oil,
and metal particles. Inspect the V-belt to make sure no
metal chips are embedded in the driving surfaces.
Common drill bits are known as TWIST DRILLS
because most of them are made by forging or milling
rough flutes and then twisting them to a spiral
configuration. After twisting, the drill bits are milled to
the desired size and heat-treated.
Sharpening Drill Bits
A drill bit becomes dull with use and must be
resharpened. Continued use of a dull drill bit may cause
it to break or bum up as it is forced into the metal.
Improper sharpening will cause the same difficulties.
The general-purpose twist drill is made of highspeed steel. Figure 12-17 shows a typical plastic-cutting
drill bit and a typical metal-cutting drill bit. Notice the
smaller angle on the drill bit used for drilling plastics.
Remove the entire point if it is badly worn or if the
margins are burned or worn off near the point. If, by
accident, the drill bit becomes overheated during
grinding, do NOT plunge it into the water to cool. Allow
it to cool in still air. The shock of sudden cooling may
cause it to crack.
Drill bit sizes are indicated in three ways: by
inches, by letter, and by number. The nominal inch
sizes run from 1/16 inch to 4 inches or larger. The letter
sizes run from “A” to “Z” (0.234 inch to 0.413 inch).
Three factors must be considered when repainting
a drill bit:
1. LIP CLEARANCE (fig. 12-18). The two
cutting edges or lips are comparable to chisels. To cut
effectively, you must relieve the heel or that part of the
point back to the cutting edge. Wh.bout this clearance,
it would be impossible for the lips to cut. If there is too
much clearance, the cutting edges are weakened. Too
little clearance results in the drill point merely rubbing
without penetration. Gradually increase lip clearance
toward the center until the line across dead center stands
at an angle of 120 to 135 degrees with the cutting edge
(fig. 12-19).
Figure 12-20.—Unequal drill point angles.
material to be drilled determines the proper point angle.
The angles, in relation to the axis, must be the same.
Fifty-nine degrees has been found satisfactory for most
metals. If the angles are unequal, only one lip will cut
and the hole will be oversize (fig. 12-20).
CENTER (fig. 12-21). Equal angles but lips of different
lengths results in oversize holes and the resulting
“wobble” places tremendous pressures on the drill press
spindle and bearings.
Figure 12-21.—Drill point off center.
A combination of both faults can result in a broken
drill bit, and if the drill bit is very large, permanent
damage to the drilling machine. The hole produced
(fig. 12-22) will be oversize and often out-of-round.
The web of the drill bit increases in thickness
toward the shank (fig. 12-23). When the drill bit has
been shortened by repeated grindings, the web must
Figure 12-18.—Lip clearance.
Figure 12-22.—Drill point with unequal point angles and with
the drill point sharpened off center.
Figure 12-19.—Angle of the dead center.
3. Stand so the centerline of the drill bit will be at
a 59-degree angle with relation to the centerline of the
wheel (fig. 12-25), and lightly touch the drill lip to the
wheel in approximately a horizontal position.
4. Use the left hand as a pivot point and slowly
lower the shank with the right hand. Increase the
pressure as the heel is reached to ensure proper
Figure 12-23.—The web of the drill bit and how the drill
point is relieved by grinding.
be thinned to minimize the pressures required to make
the drill bit penetrate the material. The thinning must
be done equally to both sides of the web, and care must
be taken to ensure that the web is centered.
The DRILL POINT GAUGE (fig. 12-24) is the
tool most frequently used to check the drill point
during the sharpening operation.
Use a coarse wheel for roughing out the drill point
if much metal must be ground away. Complete the
operation on a fine wheel.
5. Repeat the operation on each lip until the drill
bit is sharpened. DO NOT QUENCH HIGH-SPEED
6. Check the drill tip frequently with the drill point
gauge to assue a correctly sharpened drill bit.
Secure a drill bit that is properly sharpened and
run through the motions of sharpening it. When you
have acquired sufficient skill, sharpen a dull drill bit.
To test, drill a hole in soft metal and observe the chip
formation. When proper] y sharpened, the chips will
come out of the flutes in curled spirals of equal length.
The tightness of the chip spiral is governed by the
RAKE ANGLE (fig. 12-26).
Many hand sharpening techniques have been
developed. The following are recommended:
1. Grasp the drill shank with the right hand and the
rest of the drill bit with the left hand.
2. Place the fingers of the left hand that are
supporting the drill bit on the grinder tool rest. The tool
rest should be slightly below center (about 1 inch on a
7-inch wheel).
Figure 12-25.—The correct position of the drill bit at the start
of the grinding operation. View is looking down on the
Figure 12-26.—Rake angle of drill bit for ordinary work.
Figure 12-24.—Using a drill point gauge.
An attachment for conventional tool grinders is
shown in figure 12-27. In a shop where a high degree
of hole accuracy is required and a large amount of
sharpening is to be done, a machine or attachment is a
A compressor is a machine for compressing air
from an initial intake pressure to a higher exhaust
pressure through reduction in volume. A compressor
consists of a driving unit, a compressor unit, and
accessory equipment. The driving unit provides power
to operate the compressor and may be a gasoline or
diesel engine. Compressors are governed by a pressure
control system adjusted to compress air to a maximum
pressure of 100 psi.
transmission of compressed air over longer distances.
This system is called air manifolding (fig. 12-28). An
air manifold is a pipe having a large diameter used to
transport compressed air from one or more
compressors over a distance without detrimental
friction line loss. In construction work, air manifolds
are usually constructed of 6-inch diameter pipe. A
pipe of this size can carry 1,200 cubic feet per minute
(cfm) of air (output from two 600 cfm air compressors)
at 100 psi with less than .035 pound pressure loss per
100 linear feet. One or more compressors pump air
into the manifold and eventually “pressurize” it at 100
psi; then air may be used at any point along the
manifold by installing outlet valves and connecting air
lines and pneumatic tools.
Compressor Operation and Maintenance
The following paragraphs will give generaI
instructions on operating and maintaining air
compressor units.
Compressed Air System
A compressed air system consists of one or more
compressors, each with the necessary power source,
control of regulation, intake air filter, aftercooler, air
receiver, and connecting piping, together with a
distribution system to carry the air to points of use.
The object of installing a compressed air system
is to provide sufficient air at the work area at pressures
adequate for efficient operation of pneumatic tools
being used.
Many construction projects require more cubic
feet of air per minute than any one compressor will
produce. Terrain conditions often create problems of
distance from the compressor to the operating tool.
Since the air line hose issued with the compressor
causes considerable line loss at distances farther than
200 feet, a system has been devised for efficient
Figure 12-27.—A drill bit sharpening attachment mounted on
a conventional bench grinder.
A compressor must be located on a reasonably
level area. Most compressors permit a 15-degree
lengthwise and a 15-degree sidewise limit on
out-of-level operation. The limits are placed on the
engine, not the actual compressor. When the unit is to
be operated out-of-level, it is important to do the
following: (1) keep the engine crankcase oil level near
the high-level mark (with the unit level) and (2) have
the compressor oil gauge show nearly full (with the
unit on the level).
An instruction plate, similar to the one shown in
figure 12-29, is attached to all compressors. Notice
that this plate refers you to the manufacturer’s engine
and compressor manuals for detailed instructions.
STARTING THE UNIT.— Take the following
steps when starting the engine during mild weather:
Figure 12-28.—Methods of manifolding compressors.
1. Open the service valves about one quarter-not
wide open.
NOTE: The reason for starting with the service
valves partly open is that they aid in quicker warm-up
of the compressor oil.
2. Position the low-pressure, engine-oil-system
safety knob to ON (fig. 12-30).
3. Turn the ignition switch to the START position.
Immediately after the engine starts, release the ignition
switch. If the engine fails to fire within 30 seconds,
release the ignition switch and allow the starting motor
to cool off for a few moments before trying the starter
4. With the engine running, check the engine oil
pressure gauge. If no pressure is indicated, turn the
engine off. When the oil pressure goes above 22 psi,
continue to operate the engine and check the
low-pressure engine oil switch. The knob on this switch
should be in the RUN position.
NOTE: The engine oil pressure gauge indicates
erratically until the engine oil warms up.
5. Open the side curtains on both sides of the
engine enclosure and leave them open. The flow of air
through the oil cooler and engine radiator will be
impeded if the side curtains are closed while the engine
is running.
Figure 12-29.—Operating Instruction plate.
6. After the engine has run about 3 minutes, check
the engine coolant temperature gauge. The gauge
should indicate less than 210°F. If the gauge is showing
more than 210°F, SHUT OFF THE ENGINE.
Figure 12-30.—Instrument panel.
7. After 5 minutes of operation, close the service
valve and attach the hose or service line of the tool or
device to be operated.
Before servicing the compressor air system
or compressor oil system, open the service
valves to the atmosphere to relieve all pressure
in the systems.
8. Open the service valves fully and start the work.
After start-up, the unit automatically provides
compressed air at the discharge service valves. Only
periodic checking of the gauges on the instrument panel
is then required.
9. When the engine is started during the day, after
the first daily start-up, the above warm-up steps maybe
STOPPING THE UNIT.— When stopping the
unit at the end of the day, you should take the
following steps:
two-stage, dry type of air cleaner, installed inside the
engine enclosure at the right rear, falters the intake air
(fig. 12-31). Air is drawn into a first-stage element that
causes nearly all the dust in the air to drop into a bin.
Air then enters the second-stage element, a paper
cartridge, where more dust is trapped and collected.
The dustbin should be removed by hand and
emptied daily. Some models have a self-emptying
dustbin that is piped into an aspirator in the exhaust
pipeline, just beyond the muffler. When the aspirator
is used, no alterations are allowed to be made to the
engine muffler or exhaust pipe.
1. Close the service valves and permit the engine
to run at idle for 5 minutes. This will allow the engine
coolant temperature to level off and the entire unit to
cool down.
2. Turn the ignition switch to the OFF position.
A service indicator is mounted on the side of the
air cleaner housing. As the paper cartridge clogs with
dust, a red indicator flag gradually rises in the window.
When the cartridge is completely loaded, the window
will show all red, and the flag will be locked in place.
It is time to replace the paper cartridge, Discard the
old cartridge and reset the red flag so that the window
shows clear. Cleaning used paper cartridges is not
steps should be completed during cold-weather
1. Start the engine using the heater switch and
priming pump according to the engine manual.
2. Warm the engine until the engine coolant
temperature reaches 120°F. Leaving the side curtains
closed for a few minutes helps the engine to warm up.
3. Turn the ignition switch to OFF.
4. When the engine has stopped, start the engine
again with the service valves partly open. Be sure the
side curtains are open.
5. When the compressor has run for several
minutes and the gauges indicate normal operating
conditions, connect up the tools and go to work.
LUBRICATING THE UNIT.— The lubrication
chart in the operator’s manual for the particular make
and model of compressor you are operating will show
you where the unit should be lubricated, how often to
lubricate, and what lubricant to use. The frequency
will vary depending upon operating conditions and
usage. Operating under abnormal conditions requires
more frequent service.
Figure 12-31.—Air cleaner.
BLOCK— One or more sheaves fitted in a wood or
metal frame supported by a hook or shackle
inserted in the strap of the block.
MOUSING— technique often used to close the
open section of a hook to keep slings, straps, and
so on, from slipping off the hook.
BREECH— The part of the block opposite the swallow.
OVERHAUL— To Lenghten a tackle by pulling the
two blocks apart.
BURR— The sharp edge remaining on metal after
PLASTICITY— The ability of a material to permanently deform without breaking or rupturing.
CHOKER— A chain or wire rope so fastened that it
tightens on its load as it is pulled.
ROUND IN— To bring the blocks of a tackle toward
each other.
developed within a material when forces tend to
compress or crush the material.
SCAFFOLD— A temporary elevated platform used
to support personnel and materials in the course
of any type of construction work.
COPE—The notch or shape to fit or conform to the
shape of another member.
SEIZE— To bind securely the end of a wire rope or
strand with seizing wire.
DUCTILITY— The property that enables a material
to withstand extensive permanent deformation
due to tension.
SHEARING STRESSES— The stresses developed
within a material when external forces are applied
along parallel lines in opposite directions.
ELASTICITY— The ability of a material to return to
its original form after deformation.
SNATCH BLOCK— A single sheave block made so
the shell on one side opens to permit the line to be
placed over the sheave.
FALL— A line reeved through a pair of blocks to form
a tackle.
SHELTERING— TO attach a socket to wire rope by
pouring hot zinc around it.
FATIGUE— The tendency of a material to fail after
repeated stressing at the same point.
STRESS— External or internal force applied to an
FATIGUE STRENGTH— The ability of a material
to resist various kinds of rapidly alternating
SWALLOW— The opening in the block through
which the line passes.
GUY LINE—The fiber line or wire rope used for
holding a structure in position.
TACKLE— An assembly of blocks and lines used to
gain a mechanical advantage in lifting or pulling.
IMPACT STRENGTH— The ability of a metal to
resist suddenly applied loads; measured in
foot-pounds of force.
TENSILE STRENGTH— The resistance to being
pulled apart.
TENSION STRESSES— The stresses developed
when a material is subjected to a pulling load.
LAY— Refers to the direction in which wires are
twisted into strands or strands into rope.
TWO-BLOCKED— Both blocks of a tackle are as
close together as they wilI go.
LAYOUT— The process of measuring and marking
materials for cutting, bending, drilling, or welding.
ULTIMATE STRENGTH— The maximum strain
that a material is capable of withstanding.
MALLEABILITY— The property that enables a
material to withstand permanent deformation
caused by compression.
WHIPPING— The process of securing the ends of a line
to prevent the strands from unlaying or separating.
AI- 1
The purpose of this mathematics section is twofold:
first, it is a refresher for the Steelworker who has encountered a time lapse between his or her schooling in
mathematics and the use of this subject in sheet metal
work; second, and more important, this section applies
mathematics to steelworking tasks that can not be accomplished without the correct use of mathematical
To change feet and inches to inches, multiply the
number of feet by 12 and add the number of inches. The
result will be inches.
The mathematics problems described in this section
are examples only and are not converted into the metric
system. However, if you so desire, you can convert all
of the problems by using the metric conversion tables in
appendix 111 of this manual. If you need more information on metrics, order The Metric System, NAVEDTRA
475-01-00-79, through your Educational Services Officer (ESO)..
To change inches to feet in decimal form, divide the
number of inches by 12 and carry the result to the
required number of places.
Measurements in sheet metal are most often made
in feet (ft) and inches (in.). It is necessary that a sheet
metal worker know how to make computations involving feet and inches. In addition, it is necessary to become
familiar with the symbols and abbreviations used to
designate feet and inches, such as the following:
12 inches = 1 foot; 12 in. = 1 ft; 12” = 1’
Answer: 9.67
To change inches to feet and inches, divide inches
by 12. The quotient will be the number of feet, and the
remainder will be inches.
To change feet in decimal form to inches, multiply
the number of feet in decimal form by 12.
A sheet metal worker often finds it necessary to
combine or subtract certain dimensions which are given
in feet and inches.
Arrange in columns of feet and inches and add
separately. If the answer in the inches column is more
than 12, change to feet and inches and combine feet.
In the changing inches column, we have
NOTE: On occasion it might be necessary to multiply feet and inches by feet and inches. To do this, either
change to inches or change to feet using decimals.
Arrange in columns with the number to be subtracted below the other number. If the inches in the lower
number is greater, borrow 1 foot (12 in.) from the feet
column in the upper number.
Two problems may require the sheet metal worker
to know how to divide feet and inches. An example of
one problem is the division of a piece of metal into an
equal number of parts. The other problem is to determine the number of pieces of a certain size which can
be made from a piece of metal of a given length.
Subtract as in any other problem.
In dividing feet and inches by a given number, the
problem should be reduced to inches unless the number
of feet will divide by the number evenly.
A sheet metal worker maybe required to determine
the total length of metal required to make eight pieces
of duct 1’ 8“ long. To do this, you should be able to
multiply feet and inches by the number of pieces.
Arrange in columns. Multiply each column by the
required number. If the inches column is greater than 12,
change to feet and inches then add to the number of feet.
The answer should then be changed to feet and inches
To divide feet and inches by feet and inches, change
to inches or feet (decimals).
Same problem as above by use of ft (decimals).
Observe that two straight lines have been drawn to
form four right angles.
In order to have a way to measure angles, a system
of angle-degrees has been established. Assume that each
of the four right angles is divided into 90 equal angles.
The measure of each is 1 angle degree; therefore, in the
four right angles, there are 4 x 90°, or 360 angledegrees. For accurate measurement, degrees have been
subdivided into minutes and minutes into seconds.
It will divide 4 times with .33 ft remainder.
1 degree= 60 minutes (’). 1 minute= 60 seconds (“).
When two lines are drawn in different directions
from the same point, as shown below, an angle is
formed. /is the symbol for angle, and this angle is
described as Z ABC or simply L B. B is the vertex of
the angle. AB and CB are the sides of the angle.
Angles are of four types:
1. Right angle-a 90° angle.
2. Z DAC and Z CAB are complementary angles
and their total is a right angle or 90°.
2. Acute angle-an angle less than 90°.
3. Obtuse angle-an angle greater than 90°, but
less than 180°.
L ZOY and L ZOX are supplementary angles
and their total measure in degrees is equal to
180°. When one straight line meets another, two
supplementary angles are formed. One is the
supplement of the other.
Two angles whose sum is 90° are said to be complementary, and one is the complement of the other.
4. Reflex angle—an angle greater than 180°.
3. L MOP and Z RON are a pair of vertical
angles and are equal.
MOP and
PON are a pair of vertical angles
and are equal.
When two straight lines cross, two pairs of vertical
angles are formed. Pairs of vertical angles are equal.
Construct an angle L PMN equal to Z ABC.
To bisect an angle merely means to divide the angle
into two equal angles. his may be done by use of a
Bisect Z ABC.
Step 1. From B, draw an arc with a convenient
radius which intersects AB and CB at points
X and Y.
Step 2. Using the same radius, draw an arc from M
intersecting MN at point O.
Step 3. With X as center, set the compass to a radius
which will pass an arc through Y.
Step 4. Using this radius (Step 3) and O as center,
draw an arc that will intersect the arc drawn
from M in Step 2 at point P.
Step 5. Draw PM completing PMO.
Step 1. Draw an arc with the radius less than the
shorter of AB or BC intersecting AB and BC
at points X and Y.
Step 2. From X and Y using the same radius, draw
arcs intersecting at point F.
Lines are said to be perpendicular when they form
a right angle (90°).
Step 3. Draw BF which will bisect L ABC.
A perpendicular may be drawn to a line in several
1. Using an object which has a right angle, such as
a drawing triangle.
It is often necessary in sheet metal layout to construct an angle that equals a given angle.
2. Using a compass from a point on a line.
Construct a perpendicular to AB at point C.
Step 1. From B, swing an arc with any convenient
radius intersecting AB at O and continuing
in a clockwise direction at least 120°.
Step 1. Draw an arc from C as a center, using any
convenient radius cutting AC and CB at X
and Y.
Step 2. From O, using the same radius, draw an arc
intersecting the arc drawn in Step 1 and X.
Step 2. Increase the size of the radius and from X
and Y, draw arcs which intersect at point F.
Step 3. From point X, draw an arc with the same
radius intersecting the arc drawn in Step 1
at Y.
Step 3. Draw CF which is perpendicular to AB at
point C.
3. Using a compass, from a point outside the line.
Step 4. From X and Y, draw arcs using the same
radius intersecting at F,
Step 5. Draw FB perpendicular to AB at B.
Draw a perpendicular to AB from C.
Two lines are said to be parallel if they are equidistant (equally distant) at all points.
Facts about parallel lines:
Two straight lines lying in the same plane either
intersect or are parallel.
Through a point there can be only one parallel
drawn to a given line.
If two lines are perpendicular to the third, and in the
same plane, they are parallel.
Step 1. From C, draw an arc using any convenient
radius, intersecting AB at X and Y.
Step 2. Using the same radius, draw arcs from X
and Y intersecting at F.
It is often necessary to find the midpoint of a line.
This may be found by measuring, or by using dividers
and finding it by trial and error. A much simpler way is
by the use of a compass.
Step 3. Draw CF, which is perpendicular to AB.
4. Using a compass from a point at the end of a line.
To bisect a line AB by using a compass:
Draw a perpendicular to AB from B.
Step 1. Using A as a center and a radius more than
1/2 of AB, but less than AB, draw an arc.
Lines can be divided into equal parts by a number
of methods. Four of these methods are (1) by using
Step 2. Using B as a center and the same radius as
Step 1, draw an arc intersecting the arc
drawn in Step 1. Mark intersecting points X
and Y. Draw XY.
parallel lines, (2) by transferring angles, (3) by using
equal segments on the side of an angle, and (4) by using
a scale.
1. Using parallel lines
NOTE: That E also represents the midpoint of XY
and that XY is perpendicular to AB. XY is termed the
perpendicular bisector of AB,
Divide AB into 5 equal parts.
Construct parallel lines 2“ apart.
Step 1. Assume any angle ABD and draw BD.
Step 2. At A construct Z BAC equal to Z ABD.
Now BD and AC are parallel.
Step 3. Assume a radius so that 5 times the radius
will fall within the BD, Swing arcs using
this radius on BD and AC.
Step 1. Draw a base line and lay out two points A
and B 2" apart.
Step 2. Construct perpendiculars AC and BD to
AB at A and B.
AC is parallel to BD.
Step 4. Connect B with the last arc swung from A
and connect corresponding points.
Lines drawn in Step 3 divide AB into 5 equal parts.
Perpendiculars to the same line are parallel.
NOTE: Horizontal parallel lines can be drawn by
the same procedures.
2. Transferring angles
Divide AB into 5 equal parts.
Step 1. Draw a line AC at any assumed angle to AB.
Step 1. At A draw a line perpendicular to AB.
Step 2. Step off with compass 5 equal parts on AC.
Step 2. Place the scale at an angle so that the
distance on the scale will divide easily into
6 parts. In the above, we have selected 3“
which will divide into 6 equal parts of 1/2”
Step 3. At Q (the end of 5 parts), draw line BQ.
Step 4. At points M, N, O, and P, construct angles
equal to L BQA.
Step 3. Draw lines from 1/2"; each division is
perpendicular to AB.
Where sides of angles constructed in Step 4 meet AB,
they will divide AB into equal parts.
3. Equal segments on the side of an angle
Divide AB into 5 equal parts.
The perpendiculars drawn will divide AB into 6 equal
A plane shape is a portion of a plane bounded by
straight or curved lines or a combination of the two.
Step 1. At any assumed angle draw AC.
Step 2. Step off 5 equal parts on AC.
The number of different types of plane shapes is
infinite, but we are concerned with those which are of
importance to you as a sheet metal craftsman. We will
cover the circle, triangle, quadrilateral, other polygons,
and ellipses.
Step 3. At Q (the end of 5 parts), draw line BQ.
Step 4. Draw lines through P, O, N, and M parallel
to BQ.
Where parallel lines intersect AB, AB will be divided
into 5 equal parts.
Note the similarity of methods 3 and 2.
4. Use of a scale
Divide line AB, which is 29/16” long, into 6 equal parts.
A CIRCLE is a closed curved line in which any
point on the curved line is equidistant from a point called
the center. (Circle O).
A RADIUS is a line drawn from the center of a
circle to a point on a circle. (As OA, OB, OX, and OY.)
A DIAMETER is a line drawn through the center
of a circle with its ends lying on the circle.
A DIAMETER is twice the length of a radius. (AB
is a diameter of circle O.)
A CHORD is a line joining any two points lying on
a circle. (CD is a chord of circle O.)
Step 1. Using a radius of the circle, begin at any
point, and step off chords equal to the
radius. If done accurately, this will make 6
divisions of the circle.
An ARC is a portion of the closed curved lines
which forms the circle. It is designated by CD. An arc
is said to be subtended by a chord. Chord CD subtends
arc CD.
3. Divide a semicircle into 6 equal parts.
A TANGENT is a straight line which touches the
circle at one and only one point. (Line MZ is a tangent
to circle O.)
A CENTRAL ANGLE is an angle whose vertex is
the center of a circle and whose side are radii of the
circle. (As XOY, YOA, and XOB.)
CONCENTRIC CIRCLES are circles having the
same center and having different radii.
The CIRCUMFERENCE of a circle is the distance
around the circle. It is the distance on the curve from C
to A to X to Y to B to D and back to C.
Step 1. At O erect a perpendicular to AB.
Some examples of problems involving circles applicable to sheet metal work are as follows:
Step 2. With point A as the center and radius equal
to AO, swing an arc cutting the circle at E.
1. Construct a tangent to circle O by use of a
Step 3. With point B as the center and the same
radius as in step 2, swing an arc cutting the
circle at F.
Step 4. With the same radius, and point C as the
center, swing arcs cutting the circle at points
G and H,
AG = GE = EC = etc.
4. Divide a circle into 8 equal parts.
Step 1. Place the square in a position so that one
side touches the center and the other side
touches the circle.
To divide circle O into 8 equal parts.
A line drawn along the second side will be tangent to the
2. Divide a circle into 6 equal parts.
Step 1. Draw diameter AB. Draw CD perpendicular
to AB, thus dividing the circle into 4 equal
Step 2. Bisect the central angle COB. Mark the
point of the intersection of the bisector and
circle O.
1. The altitude of a triangle is a line drawn from the
vertex, perpendicular to the base.
Step 3. From B swing an arc equal to BP and from
this intersection with the circle, draw the
diameter, thus dividing circle O into 8 equal
2. The median of a triangle is a line drawn from the
vertex to the midpoint of the base.
A triangle is a plane shape having 3 sides. Its name
is derived from its three (tri) angles.
Other facts help define a triangle.
1. The sum of the angles in any triangle equals
2. A triangle is the only plane shape which maybe
defined in terms of its sides only; in all others
one or more angles must be stated.
Construction of Triangles
Types of Triangles
There are four kinds of triangles. They are classified
according to the size of their sides and angles as follows:
1. Equilateral-all sides are equal-all angles are
equal-all angles are 60°
There are many ways to construct a triangle, depending upon what measurements are known to you.
The following examples will assist you. Select the appropriate method according to the information given
about the triangle.
2. Isosceles—two sides equal-two angles equal
1. A triangle may be constructed if the lengths of
three sides are known.
3. Scalene—all sides unequal-all angles unequal
4. Right—one right angle
Construct a triangle.
Three sides of a triangle: 2“, 1“, 1 1/2”.
Altitudes and Medians
The altitude and median of a triangle are not the
same; the difference is pointed out in the following
Z A, Z B and line AB 2 1/8" long.
Step 1. Draw a base line equal to one of the sides.
Mark the ends of lines A and B.
Step 2. Set the compass equal to the second side (l”
in the above) and swing an arc from A.
Step 3. Set the compass equal to the third side (1
1/2" in this case) and swing an arc.
The intersection of these two arcs will be the vertex C
and will complete triangle ABC.
2. A triangle maybe constructed if two sides and
the included angle (angle between the sides) are
Step 1. Draw line AB.
To construct a triangle with two sides and the included
Step 2. At point A, transfer angle A.
angle known.
Step 3. At point B, transfer angle B.
Step 4. Where sides of ~ A and ~ B intersect, mark
point C.
TWO sides 1 1/2" and 2 1/4" and the included angle.
Triangle ABC has been constructed with two angles and
the included side given.
4. A right triangle may be constructed if the two
sides adjacent to the right angle are known.
Construct a right mangle whose sides adjacent to the
right angle are 1 1/2" and l".
Step 1. Draw the base equal to one side.
Step 2. Construct an angle equal to the given angle.
Step 3. Measure the second side on the side of the
angle and connect the ends of the given
sides BC.
Triangle ABC has been constructed with two sides and
the included angle given.
3. A triangle maybe constructed if two angles and
the included side are given.
Step 1. Draw AB 1 1/2" long.
Step 2. At A, erect a perpendicular to AB.
Step 3. Locate point C 1" from AB and complete
the triangle.
Construct a triangle.
2. A PARALLELOGRAM is a quadrilateral having opposite sides parallel.
Triangle ABC is a right triangle,
5. A right triangle maybe constructed by making
the sides 3", 4", and 5" or multiples or fractions
Construct a right triangle with sides of 1 1/2", 2", and 2
1/2" (1/2 of 3,4, and 5).
Step 1. Draw line
= 2".
a. AB is parallel to CD.
b. AC is parallel to BD.
Step 2. From A, draw an arc equal to 1 1/2".
c. AD and CB are diagonals.
Step 3. From B, draw an arc equal to 2 1/2".
d. Diagonals bisect each other so CO = OB and
AO = OD.
Triangle ABC is a right triangle,
e. Opposite angles are equal ACD = DBA and
f. If two sides of a quadrilateral are equal and
parallel, the figure is a parallelogram.
A parallelogram may be constructed if two
adjoining sides and one angle are known.
3. A RECTANGLE is a parallelogram having one
right angle.
A quadrilateral is a four-sided plane shape. There
are many types, but only the trapezoid, parallelogram,
rectangle, and square are described here.
1. A TRAPEZOID is a quadrilateral having only
two sides parallel. If the other two sides are
equal, it is an isosceles trapezoid. BF is the
altitude of the trapezoid.
a. ABCD is a parallelogram having one right
angle. This, of course, makes all angles right
b. AC and BD are diagonals.
c. O is the midpoint of AC and BD and
OB = OC = OD = OA.
d. O is equidistant from BC and AD and is also
equidistant from AB and CD.
e. A rectangle may be constructed if two
adjoining sides are known.
into equal arcs or by dividing the circle into equal central
4. A SQUARE is a rectangle having its adjoining
sides equal.
Dividing a circle into a given number of parts has
been discussed, so construction should be no problem.
Since there are 360 degrees around the center of the
circle, you should have no problem in determining the
number of degrees to make each equal central angle.
a. ABCD is a square.
What is the central angle used to inscribe a pentagon in
b. AC and BD are diagonals.
a circle?
c. O is the geometric center of the square.
AO = OC = OB = OD.
= 72° in each circle
5 slides
d. O is equidistant from all sides.
e. A square may be constructed if one side is
Methods for Constructing Polygons
A polygon is a many-sided plane shape. It is said to
be regular if aIl sides are equal and irregular when they
are not. Only regular polygons are described here.
The three methods for constructing polygons described here are the pentagon, the hexagon, and the
The PENTAGON is a method to develop the length
of a side and departs from the rule given. Radius PB has
been bisected to locate point O. Radius OC has been
used to swing an arc CE from the center O. E is the
intersection of arc CE with diameter AB. Chord CE is
the length of the side and is transferred to the circle by
arc EF using chord CE as radius and C as center.
Regular Polygons
The HEXAGON has been developed by dividing
Triangles and quadrilaterals fit the description of a
polygon and have been covered previously. Three other
types of regular polygons are shown in the illustration.
Each one is inscribed in a circle. This means that all
vertices of the polygon lie on the circumference of the
the circumference into 6 equal parts.
The OCTAGON method has been developed by
creating central angles of 90° to divide a circle into 4
parts and bisecting each arc to divide the circumference
into 8 equal parts,
Note that the sides of each of the inscribed polygons
are actually equal chords of the circumscribed circle.
Since equal chords subtend equal arcs, by dividing the
circumference into an equal number of arcs, a regular
polygon may be inscribed in a circle. Also note that the
central angles are equal because they intercept equal
arcs. This gives a basic rule for the construction of
regular polygons inscribed in a circle as follows:
To inscribe a regular polygon in a circle, create
equal chords of the circle by dividing the circumference
Consider triangle ABC.
Circumscribing a Regular
Polygon about a Circle
Distance (D) around triangle ABC is equal to the
sum of a, b, and c.
Expressed as a formula,
Circumscribe a hexagon about a given circle.
D = a + b + c
This formula would express the distance around a
triangle regardless of conditions.
Step 1. Divide the circumference into a given
number of parts.
Step 2. At each division point draw a tangent to the
circle. The intersection of the tangents
forms vertices of the circumscribed polygon.
1. The sum of any two symbols, a and b, is written
An ellipse is a plane shape generated by point P,
moving in such a manner that the sum of its distances
from two points, F1 and Fz, is constant.
2. The difference of any two symbols, a being the
greater and b being the smaller, is written a -b.
1. The product of any two symbols, a and b, is
written as a x b or ab.
2. The sum of any number of like symbols, such as
a+ a + a + a, may be combined and written once,
preceded by a numeral designating the number
of times the symbol occurs, as 4a.
BF1 + PFz = C = (a constant)
The quotient of any two symbols a and b where a is
the dividend and b is the divisor maybe written a/b.
AE is the major axis.
BD is the minor axis.
1. Addition
Formulas, which are in effect statements of equality
(equations), require the use of symbols to state the
relationship between constants in any given set of conditions. To illustrate:
a + b = sum
2. Subtraction
a – b = difference
3. Multiplication
a x b = ab = product
a + a + a + a = 4a
4. Division
a ÷ b = a/b = quotient
Occasionally a combination of symbols must be
treated as a single symbol. When this occurs, the group
is set apart by use of parentheses.
In order to symbolize 5 times the sum of a + b, you
should write 5(a + b).
Perimeter and circumference have the same meaning; that is, the distance around. Generally, circumference is applied to a circular object and perimeter to an
object bounded by straight lines.
The perimeter of a triangle, quadrilateral, or any
other polygon is actually the sum of the sides.
The quotient of a + b divided by 2 is written
In the expression 2a + 2b + 2c: the common factor
may be removed and the remainder combined in parentheses: 2(a + b + c) or in the following: 4ab + 2ac + 6ax.
Write an equation for the perimeter(P) of the quadrilateral above.
All the terms contain the factor 2a. The expression
may be changed to read 2a(2b + c + 3x).
If this figure were a rectangle,
Since the parentheses indicate that each term within
is to be multiplied by the factor outside the parentheses,
the parentheses may be removed by multiplying each
term by the common factor.
Expression: 2x(2y + 3Z + m)
Multiply: 4 x y + 6 x z + 2 x m
the formula P= a + b + c + d would still apply, but since
opposite sides are equal, we could substitute a for c and
b ford and write
P = 2a + 2b
Consider the expression:
5(a + b)
This means to first: add a and b. Second: multiply the
sum by 5. Third: divide the product by 2.
Assign numerical values to a and b.
If the figure were a square, the formula would
We may, by the same reasoning, establish that the
formula for the perimeter of any regular polygon of n
sides having a sides is:
P = n(s)
Let a = 4 and b = 2.
Definition of Pi: Mathematicians have established
that the relationship of the circumference to the diameter
of a circle is a constant called Pi and written Z. The
numerical value of this constant is approximately
3.141592653. For our purpose 3.1416 or simply 3.14
will suffice.
The size of flat sheet necessary to form pipe.
By formula the circumference of the end is nD. If this
were rolled out, the stretchout would be xD.
The formula for the circumference of a circle is
C = nD where C is the circumference and D is the
diameter since D = 2R where R is the radius, the
formula may be written C = 27cR.
Diameter of circle O is 4".
Compute the circumference.
Formula C = nD
C = 3.1416 X 4"
C = 12.5664’
The stretchout of a right circular cone will be a
portion of a circle whose radius (S) is equal to the slant
height of the cone.
To determine how much of the circle will be required for the cone, you measure on the circumference
of this circle the circumference of a circle of radius R.
Diameter of the round pipe= D
Length of the round pipe= 1
All areas are measured in squares.
Let one side of a square be s.
This is a square s or s2.
Ifs equals 1 inch then this would be 1 square inch.
Ifs equals 1 foot then this would be 1 square foot, etc.
The cross section of an object is a plane figure
established by a plane cutting the object at right angles
to its axis. The area of this cross section will be the area
of the plane figure produced by this cut.
The area of the cross section is L x W.
The most common units are square inches, square
feet, square yards and in roofing, “squares.”
Consider the area of the above. The area of A is one
square s or Sz; of B is s~, etc. The area of the whole is
A+ B+ C+ D = s2+ sz+ s2 + s2 = 4s2. What is the length
of one side? It is obviously 2s, so in the above the area
is 2s x 2s = 4s2.
The area of a square is the product of two of its sides
and since both sides are equal, it may be said to be the
square of its side.
NOTE: The area of any plane surface is the measure
of the number of squares contained in the object. The
unit of measurement is the square of the unit which
measures the sides of the square.
Establish a side of the small square as s and write
the formula 3s x 4s = Area. But L = 4s and W = 3s, so
our formula becomes
= LxW
= area of a rectangle
= length of a rectangle
= width of a rectangle
1 square foot
= 144 square inches
1 square yard
= 9 square feet
1 square of roofing = 100 square feet
The above demonstrates that a circle divided into a
number of parts maybe laid out as a parallelogram. As
the number of parts is increased, the longer side approaches 1/2 of the circumference; if divided into an
indefinite number of parts, it would be equal to 1/2 the
circumference. As the number increases, h approaches
r and would be equal if the circle was divided into an
infinite number of parts.
1. To convert square inches to square feet, divide
square inches by 144.
2. To convert square feet to square inches, multiply
by 144.
3. To convert square feet to square yards, divide by
The areas of the parallelogram is
4. To convert square yards to square feet, multiply
by 9.
5. To convert square feet to squares, divide by 100.
The formula for the area of a circle
1. Convert 1,550 square inches into square feet.
2. Convert 15 square feet to square inches.
Since r = cY2 where d is the diameter of a circle, the
formula for the area of a circle in terms of its diameter
3. Convert 100 square feet to square yards.
4. Convert 10.3 square yards to square feet.
10.3 square yards x 9 square feet= 92.7 square feet
5. Convert 17,250 square feet to squares.
In describing plane shapes, you use only two dimensions: width and length; there is no thickness. By adding
the third dimension, you describe a solid object.
Consider the solids shown below.
Development of Formula:
1. A PRISM is a figure whose two bases are
polygons, alike in size and shape, lying in parallel planes
and whose lateral edges connect corresponding vertices
and are parallel and equal in length. A prism is a right
prism if the lateral edge is perpendicular the base. The
altitude of a prism is the perpendicular distance between
the bases.
2. A CONE is a figure generated by a line moving
in such a manner that one end stays fixed at a point called
the “vertex.” The line constantly touches a plane curve
which is the base of the cone. A cone is a circular cone
if its base is a circle. A circular cone is a right circular
cone if the line generating it is constant in length. The
altitude of a cone is the length of a perpendicular to the
plane of the base drawn from the vertex.
3. A PYRAMID is a figure whose base is a plane
shape bounded by straight lines and whose sides are
triangular plane shapes connecting the vertex and a line
of the base. A regular pyramid is one whose base is a
regular polygon and whose vertex lies on a
perpendicular to the base at its center. The altitude of a
pyramid is the length of a perpendicular to the plane of
the base drawn from the vertex.
4. A CIRCULAR CYLINDER is a figure whose
bases are circles lying in parallel planes connected by a
curved lateral surface. A right circular cylinder is one
whose lateral surface is perpendicular to the base. (Note:
Any reference in this text to a cylinder will mean a
circular cylinder.) The altitude of a circular cylinder is
the perpendicular distance between the planes of the two
when one side of the cube is equal in length to some unit
of linear measure.
All factors in the formulas must be in the same linear
units. As an example, one term could not be expressed
in feet while other terms are in inches.
Volume of a Rectangular Prism
v = 1 xwxh
v = Volume in cubic inches
w = width of the base in linear units
l = length of base in linear units
h = altitude of the prism in linear units
Find the number of cubic inches of water which can be
contained by a rectangular can 5" x 6" x 10" high.
Volume of a Cone
Volume is measured in terms of cubes,
V = Volume of a cone in cubic units
This represents a cube of sides. The volume of this
may be represented by S3. Ifs equals l“, then the volume
would be 1 cubic inch, and ifs equals 1’, then the volume
would be 1 cubic foot, etc.
It can be said that the volume of an object is measured by the number of cubes contained in the object
A = Area of the base in square units
h = Altitude of a cone in linear units
r = Radius of the base
d = Diameter of the base
Volume of the Frustum of
a Right Circular Cone
Find the volume of a cone whose altitude is 2'6" and
whose base has a radius of 10".
= 3141.6 cubic inches
Volume of a Pyramid
The frustum of a cone is formed when a plane is
passed parallel to the base of the cone. The frustum is
the portion below base CD. The altitude of the frustum
is the perpendicular distance between the bases.
V = Volume in cubic units
A = Area of a base in square units
h = Altitude in linear units
h = Altitude in linear units
Find the volume of a rectangular pyramid whose base is
3" x 4" and whose altitude is 6".
r = Radius of the upper base in linear units
Area of the base= 3 x 4 = 12 square inches
R = Radius of the lower base in linear units
Find the volume of a conical shaped container whose
dimensions are indicated in the drawing.
Volume of a Cylinder
V = l/3nh(# + R2 + Rr)
V = Volume in cubic units
A = Area of the base in square units
= l/3n15(62 + 122 + 6 x 12)
= Altitude in linear units
V = 5n(36 + 144 + 72)
= Radius of the base
V = 5x(252)
V = 3956.4 cubic inches
d = Diameter of the base
Find the volume of a cylindrical tank whose diameter is
9’6“ and whose height is 11' 6".
Volume of a Frustum of a Regular Pyramid
A frustum of a pyramid is formed when a plane is
passed parallel to the base of the pyramid. The frustum
1 U.S. gallon (liquid measure) = 231 cubic inches
is the portion below plane MN. The altitude is the
perpendicular distance between the bases.
1 bushel (dry measure) = 2,150.42 cubic inches
1. How many cubic feet are there in 4,320 cubic
= l/3h(B + b + ~)
To convert cubic inches to cubic feet, divide by
V = Volume of the frustum in cubic units
2. How many cubic inches are there in 3.5 cubic
h = Altitude in linear units
B = Area of the lower base in square units
b = Area of the upper base in square units
Find the volume of a frustum of a square pyramid if one
side of its upper base is 2" and one side of the lower base
is 8". The distance between the bases is 10".
To convert cubic feet to cubic inches, multiply by
The area of the bases will be
3. How many cubic yards are there in 35 cubic
B = ( 8 )2
b = (2)2
V = 1/3 X 10(82 +22+~)
V = l/3x10[64+4+(8+2)]
V = l/3x10(64+4+16)
V = 1/3x10x84
To convert cubic feet to cubic yards, divide by 27.
To convert cubic yards to cubic feet, multiply by 27.
V = 280 cu in.
4. How many gallons are contained in a tank
having a volume of 25 cubic feet?
Conversion of Units of Cubic Measure
It is often necessary to convert from one cubic
measure to another. The conversion factors used are as
187.00 gallons
1 cubic foot = 1,728 cubic inches
1 cubic yard= 27 cubic feet
To change cubic feet to,gallons, multiply by 7.48.
1 cubic foot = 7.48 U.S. gallons (liquid measure)
To change gallons to cubic feet, divide by 7.48.
The ratio of one number to another is the quotient
of the first, divided by the second. This is often expressed as a:b, which is read the ratio of a to b. More
commonly, this is expressed as the fraction a/b.
1/8” = 1'0" or a ratio of (1/96) or (1 to 96)
Ratio has no meaning unless both terms are expressed in the same unit by measurement.
3/8 = 1'0" or a ratio of (1/32) or (1 to 32)
1/4 = 1'0" or a ratio of (1/48) or (1 to 48)
3 = 1'0" or a ratio of (1/4) or (1 to 4)
What is the ratio of the diameter of circle O to circle
M? This ratio is D:d or D/d. If the diameter of O is 3
inches and the diameter of M is 1.5 inches, then the ratio
of the diameters of circle O and circle M would be 3/1.5
or 2/1 (read “ratio of two 1 to one”).
What is the ratio of the diameter of circle M to the
diameter of circle O?
Since it is not always possible to make a drawing
full size, the size of the drawing maybe made in a given
ratio to the full size of the object.
The above illustration shows a portion of a circumference rule. This is an example of the application of a
ratio. The upper edge of the rule is graduated in such a
manner that one inch on the upper scale is in the ratio of
3.1416 to 1 on the lower scale. This is in the ratio of the
circumference of a circle to its diameter, so that any
diameter can be converted to a circumference or vice
versa by reading directly across the rule.
In sheet metal pattern development, effective use
can be made of the circumference rule. By using the
circumference side, you can lay out the development of
large objects. After making the layout, you can make the
development of the pattern full size.
Percentage (%) is a way of expressing the relationship of one number to another. In reality, percentage is
a ratio expressed as a fraction in which the denominator
is always one hundred.
The ratio of 6 to 12, expressed as %:
The ratio of 6 to 12 may be expressed as .5 or 1. To
change to %, move the decimal two places to the right.
In the above example, A represents the object in its
full size and B represents a drawing one-half size. The
ratio of the drawing B to object A is one to two. (1/2)
This means there are 50 parts to 100.
Drawings may be commonly “scaled down” by the
use of the following ratios:
From a galvanized iron sheet weighing 46 1/4
pounds, an "ell" and one section of pipe were produced
which weighed 30 pounds. Find the percentage of the
squares of the two legs. It is expressed by the formula
a 2 + b 2 = c2 .
1. RIGHT TRIANGLE— triangle having one
right angle.
2. HYPOTENUSE— The hypotenuse of a right
triangle is the side opposite the right angle.
3. LEG— The leg of a right triangle is a side
opposite an acute angle of a right triangle.
A ABC is a right triangle.
Proportion is a statement of two ratios which are
1/3=5/15 or 1:3=5:15
L C is a right angle.
Given the proportion:
c is side opposite L C and is the hypotenuse.
a is side opposite L A and is a leg.
by cross multiplying: a x d = b x c
b is side opposite L B and is a leg.
According to the Law of Pythagoras:
If 50 sheets of galvanized iron weigh 2,313 pounds, how
much will 39 sheets weigh?
a 2 + b2 = c2
or by subtracting b2 from both sides
Let W = weight of 39 sheets
a 2 = c2 – b2
or by subtracting a2 from both sides
b 2 = c2 – a2
The Law of Pythagoras is the square of the hypotenuse of a right triangle equals the sum of the
Prove that the area of a circle of a diameter of side c is
equal to the sum of the areas of circles whose diameters
are sides a and b.
1. Given: a = 10; b= 7
Problem: find c.
area circle diameter c = area circle diameter a + area
circle diameter b.
2. Given: C = 50; b = 40
Problem: find a
3. Proof of a 3,4,5 triangle.
A right triangle can be constructed by making the
sides 3, 4, and 5. We can prove it by the Law of
Since this is the rule of the right triangle, the above
statement is true.
In the Y branch shown, the areas of the two branches
must equal the area of the main. By the above proof, if
the two known diameters are considered to be legs of a
right triangle, the hypotenuse will be the diameter of the
Since values of 3,4, and 5 satisfy the equation, we
may conclude that the statement above is correct.
4. Application of the Law of Pythagoras
Given a right triangle ABC:
Figure AIV-l.—Hand signals.
Figure AIV-1.—Hand signals—Continued.
F]gure AIV-1.—Hand signals.—Continued.
Figure AIV-l.—Hand signals—Continued.
Chapter 1
Crew Leader’s Handbook, 5200X, Commander, Naval Construction Battalions, U.S.
Pacific Fleet, Pearl Harbor, HI, 1992.
General Safety Requirements Manual, EM 385, Department of the Army, U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC, 1992.
Naval Construction Force Manual, NAVFAC P-315, Naval Facilities Engineering
Command, Alexandria, VA, 1985.
Naval Construction Force Safety Manual 5100.23 series, Commander, Naval
Construction Battalions, U.S. Atlantic Fleet, Norfolk VA, 1992.
Occupational Safety and Health for the Construction Industry (29 C F R ,
1926/1910), 1985.
Operations Officer’s Handbook, COMCBPAC/COMCBLANTINST 5200.2A,
Commander, Naval Construction Battalions, U.S. Pacific Fleet, Pearl Harbor,
HI, and Commander, Naval Construction Battalions, U.S. Atlantic Fleet,
Norfolk, VA, 1988.
Personnel Readiness Capability Program Standards and Guides, Naval Facilities
Engineering Command, Alexandria, VA, 1983.
Seabee Planner's and Estimator’s Handbook, NAVFAC P-405, Change 3, Naval
Facilities Engineering Command, Alexandria, VA, 1983.
Seabee Supply Manual, COMCBPAC/COMCBLANTINST 4400.3A Ccmmander,
Naval Construction Battalions, U.S. Pacific Fleet, Pearl Harbor, HI, and
Commander, Naval Construction Battalions, U.S. Atlantic Fleet, Norfolk, VA
Chapter 2
Blueprint Reading and Sketching, NAVEDTRA 12014, Naval Education
Training Program Management Support Activity, Pensacola FL, 1988.
Budzik Richard, S., ‘Fittings Used Today that Require Triangulation Including the
‘Theory of Triangulation” Practical Sheetmetal Layout, Practical Publications,
Chicago, IL, 1971.
Budzik, Richard, S., "Round Fittings Used Today including Methods and
Techniques of Fabricating Round Work” Practical Sheetmetal Layout,
Practical Publications, Chicago, IL, 1971.
Budzik, Richard, S., “Today’s 40 Most Frequently-Used Fittings, ” Practical
Sheetmetal Layout, Practical Publications, Chicago, IL, 1971.
Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Sheetmetal Work, TM-745,
Headquarters Department of the Army, Washington, DC, 1968.
Johnston, Philip, M., Sheet Metal, Volumes 1-4, Delmar Publishers Inc., Albany,
NY, 1966.
Tools and Their Uses, NAVEDTRA 10085-B2, Naval Education and Training
Program Management Support Activity, Pensacola, FL, 1988.
Walker, John, R., Modern Metalworking, Goodheart-Wilcox Company Inc., South
Holland, IL, 1973.
Chapter 3
Frankland, Thomas, W., The Pipefitter's and Pipe Welder’s Handbook, Glenco
Publishing Company, Encino, CA, 1969.
Nelson, Carl, A., Millwright’s and Mechanic's Guide, 2d ed., Theodore Audel and
Company, Indianapolis, IN, 1972.
The Oxy-Acetylene Handbook, 2d ed., Linde Company, New York NY, 1960.
Walker, John, R., Modern Metalworking, Goodheart-Wilcox Company Inc., South
Holland, IL, 1973.
Chapter 4
Rigging, TM 5-725, Headquarters Department of the Army, Washington, DC, 1968.
Rigging Manual, 1lth ed., Construction Safety Association of Ontario, Toronto,
Canada, 1990.
Chapter 5
Rigging, TM 5-725, Headquarters Department of the Army, Washington, DC, 1968.
Rigging Manual, 1lth ed., Construction Safety Association of Ontario, Toronto,
Canada, 1990.
Chapter 6
Rigging, TM 5-725, Headquarters Department of the Army, Washington, DC, 1968.
Rigging Manual, 1lth ed., Construction Safety Association of Ontario, Toronto,
Canada, 1990.
Chapter 7
Builder 3 and 2, NAVEDTRA 10646, Volume 1, Naval Education and Training
Program Management Support Activity, Pensacola FL, 1985.
Consolidated Cross-Reference, TA13, Department of the Navy, Navy Facilities
Engineering Command, Alexandria, VA, 1989.
Concrete and Masonry, FM-742, Headquarters Department of the Army,
Washington, DC, 1989.
Construction Print Reading in the Field, TM 5-704, Headquarters Department of
the Army, Washington, DC, 1969.
Placing Reinforcing Bars, 5th ed., Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute,
Schaumburg, IL, 1986.
Reinforcing Bar Detailing, 3d ed., Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute,
Schaumburg, IL, 1988.
Safety and Health Requirements Manual, EM 385-1-1, Department of the Army,
Washington, DC, 1987.
Chapter 8
Facilities Planning Guide, NAVFAC P-437, Naval Facilities Engineering
Command, Alexandria, VA, 1990.
Naval Construction Battalion Table of Allowance, TA-01, Department of the Navy,
Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Alexandria, VA, 1987.
MIC-120 ABM (K-Span), Training and Operator Manuals, MIC Industries, Reston,
VA, 1993.
Chapter 9
Facilities Planning Guide, NAVFAC P-437, Volume 2, Naval Facilities
Engineering Command, Alexandria, VA, October 1982.
Naval Construction Battalion Table of Allowance, TA-01, Department of the Navy,
Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Alexandria, VA, 1987.
Tank, Steel Vertical Bolted Knockdown Sealed Openings Standard Bottom and Roof
TM 5-9788-1, Headquarters Department of the Army, Washington, DC, 1956.
Chapter 10
Pontoon System Manual, NAVFAC P-401, Department of the Navy, Naval Facilities
Engineering Command, Alexandria, VA, 1982.
Chapter 11
AM-2 Airfield Landing Mat and Accessories, NAVAIR 51-60A-1, Change 5,
Commander, Naval Air Systems Command, Washington, DC, 1993.
Chapter 12
Steelworker 3 &2, NAVEDTRA 10652-F, Naval Education and Training Program
Management Support Activity, Pensacola FL, 1977.
ABM 120 system, 8-8
Causeways, 10-15
ABM 240 system, 8-15
Chain slings, 6-10
AM-2 matting, installation of, 11-2
Columns, 3-4
installation sequence, 11-16
Column assembly, 7-18
pallets, 11-4
Concrete materials, 7-1
Anchors. 8-35
Connections, Branch, 3-20
Construction activity summary sheet, 1-27
Bar folder, 2-12
Construction administration 1-1
Bar joist structural steel, 3-7
Cutting and splicing beams, 3-12
Beam clamps, 6-16
Cutting tools, and equipment, 2-6
Beams, structural steel, 3-6
Bearing plates, structural steel, 3-3
Bending reinforcing bars, 7-8
Drawings, Construction, 1-19
master plan, 1-19
bar bending table, 7-8
shop, 1-20
bend diameters, 7-9
working (project), 1-20
guidelines arid techniques, 7-8
multiple bending, 7-12
Bending sheet metal by machine, 2-10
Bends, 3-26
hot, 3-26
wrinkle, 3-27
becket, 4-12
Bill of Material Work Sheet, 1-29
Block and tackle, types of, 6-3
construction of, 6-2
Bolt torques, 8-30
Dressing staves, 9-8
Dry docks, 10-15
Duct, fiber-glass, 2-36
Duct material, 2-32
Duct Board Length Selection Chart 2-38
Duct systems, sheet metal, 2-31
ELCAS, 10-22
Elevated causeway sections, 10-19
Eye splice, 4-15
Blocking and cribbing, 6-19
Buildings, pre-engineered, 8-1
Boatswain’s chair, 6-21
Fiber line, 4-1
Bowline, 4-10
fabrication of line, 4-2
Brace angles, 8-7
handling and care of lines, 4-4
Brace rods, 8-6
inspecting line, 4-5
Brakes, 2-13
safe working load of, 4-6
Fiber line--Continued
Layout of steel plate, 3-10
strength of, 4-6
Layout tools, 2-1
uncoiling line, 4-4
Lifting equipment, 6-14
whipping line, 4-4
size designation of line, 4-3
types of line, 4-1
types of lay, 4-2
Folders, 1-22
Manhole cover, 9-13
Master activity summary sheet, 1-26
Material Takeoff Worksheet, 1-30
Mathematics, AII-l to AII-25
Frame assembly, 8-4
angles, AII-3,
bisecting angles, AII-4
measurement of angles, AII-3 to AII-4
Gin pole, hoisting devices, 6-27
relationship of angles, AII-4
Girders, structural steel, 3-5
transferring angles, AII-4
Girts, eaves, and purlins, 8-7
areas, AII-16 to AII-18
Guying, 8-33
common conversions, AII-17 to AII-l8
Guy anchors, 8-35
geometric solids, AII-l 8 to AII-21
common volume formulas, AII-19 to AII-21
Hazardous material, 1-13
conversion of units of cubic measure, AII-21
Hitches, knots, and bends, 4-7
volume of a cylinder, AII-20
Hoisting devices, field erected, 6-23
volume of a frustrum of a regular pyramid, AII-21
Hook bending, 7-11
volume of a pyramid, AII-20
Hot bends, 3-27
measurement of volume, AII-19
Law of Pythagoras, AII-23 to AII-5
linear measurement, AII-1 to AII-3
Ironmaster portable hydraulic rod bender,
NAVFAC P-458, 1-7
NAVFAC P-437, 1-18
Keylocks, 11-7
NCF Level II, 1-24
KPl keeper plate, 10-4
Notches, 2-25
Knots, bends, and hitches, 4-7
Network analysis, 1-19
K-span buildings, 8-8
K-span construction, steps in, 8-24
Orange peel head, 3-25
Labor, categories of, 1-5
Pallets, 6-17
Lap splices, 7-15
Plates, pontoon assembly, 10-5
Personal Readiness Capability Program, 1-7
SATS matting, 11-1
Pipe bending, 3-26
installation sequence, 11-5
Planks and rollers, 6-18
mat-laying procedures with a guide rail, 11-13
Pontoons, 10-1
matting tie downs, 11-19
assembly angles, 10-3
matting repair, 11-20
assembly plates, 10-5
mat replacement, 11-21
attachments for, 10-2
runway replacement, 11-24
bitts and cleats, 10-8
Scaffolds, 6-20
deck closures, 10-7
Screws, 2-28
fender installations, 10-6
Seams, 2-23
launching a string of, 10-10
Shackles, 6-15
P-series, types of, 10-1
propulsion units, 10-9
rubber fenders for, 10-7
structures, 10-11
uses of, 10-12
Shears, 6-33
Sheet-metal bending and forming equipment,
Sheet-metal gauge, 2-10
Sheet metal development, 2-17
Project folders, 1-22
Sheet metal fabrication, 2-19
Project tasking letter, 1-23
Site plans, 1-22
Skill categories, 1-8
Slings, 6-7
Quartering pipe, 3-16
Snips, 2-7
Spreader bars, 6-17
Rebar chart, 7-4
Reinforcing bars, 7-3
Reinforcing steel, 7-2
Rigging, 6-1
Rivets, 2-28
Splicing fiber line, 4-14
Splicing nylon line, 4-18
Spudwells, 10-21
Stakes, 2-11
Storage tanks, 9-1
Rods, 8-5
bolted steel tank assemblies, 9-2
Roll-forming machine, 2-14
Rotary machine, 2-15
erection of, 9-5
Structural shapes, 3-1
Struts, 3-8
Safety, iv
block and tackle, 6-6
rigging operating procedures, 6-35
scaffold, 6-22
Tackle, types of, 6-4
sheet metal tools and equipment, 2-39
Tanks, steel, 9-1
Safe working load of chains, 6-13
Template, layout of, 3-23
Templates, 3-13 and 3-18
Templates, pipe bending, 3-26
Timekeeping, 1-4
Trailer-mounted machinery, 8-11
Tools and equipment, 12-1
Warping tug, 10-15
Welded Tee, 3-21
Welded wire fabric, 7-6
Wire rope, 5-1
air compressors, 12-12
attachments, 5-6
band saws, 12-3
cleaning and lubrication of, 5-14
bits, 12-9
construction of, 5-1
grinders, 12-1
lays, 5-3
hacksaws, 12-7
classification, 5-4
pneumatic power tools, 12-2
handling and care of, 5-10
presses, 12-8
inspection of, 5-13
Tool Kits, 1-3
measuring, 5-5
Towers, 8-26
safe working load, 5-5
Tripods, 6-31
storage of, 5-15
Assignment Questions
Information: The text pages that you are to study are
provided at the beginning of the assignment questions.
Textbook Assignment:
“Technical Administration,” pages 1-1 through 1-30.
Learning Objective:
Identify the
principles and techniques a crew
leader applies in job planning,
supervision, and production.
When you become a petty officer,
you take on which of the following
Company clerk
Project manager
Project estimator
Crew leader
To plan, organize, supervise,
manage, and document
To apply their technical
knowledge in directing
To ensure their subordinates
work as efficiently as possible
To set training goals for newly
assigned supervisors
A tool kit contains the hand tools
required for a crew of what size?
To pass on to the operations
officer the details of getting
the job done
To ensure your crew understands
what is expected of them
To establish daily work goals
for your crews
To determine whether equipment
for the job is appropriate
Order extra equipment
Conduct training
Demand quality work
Encourage teamwork and
establish goals
Which of the following forms is a
crew leader most likely to use when
ordering materials?
As a crew leader, you must schedule
tool kit inventories at what time
To ensure a job is completed on
schedule, you should take which
of the following actions?
Rotating work assignments
Giving proper instruction
and training
Criticizing them openly
Scheduling projects
Learning Objective:
the procedures for tool kit
maintenance, inspection, and
material requisitioning.
You are assigned duty as a petty
officer in charge of a crew. What
is your first responsibility before
you make any work assignments?
Order extra equipment
Conduct training
Demand quality work
Encourage teamwork and
establish goals
Many young Seabees ignore danger
or think a particular regulation
is unnecessary. You , as a crew
leader, can correct this problem
by taking which of the following
Administration is the mechanical
means petty officers use to
accomplish which of the following
To ensure a job is completed on on
schedule, you should take which of
the following actions?
DD Form 1148
DD Form 1250
NAVSUP Form 1149
NAVSUP Form 1250
Of the following rate training
manuals, which one offers
information on the National Stock
Number System?
Military Requirements for Petty
Officer Third Class
Blueprint Reading and Sketching
Tools and Their Uses
Identify the
Learning Objective:
purpose of reporting labor hours
used on given projects, the
categories of labor, and the type
of information that is entered on
the daily labor distribution
company chief
platoon commander
assistant company commander
company commander
The daily labor distribution
reports from each company are
compiled and tabulated by what
organizational unit?
Labor that contributes to the
product but does not produce an
end product itself.
Disaster control operations
After a daily labor distribution
report form is filled out, it
should be initialed by what person?
Figure 1A
Refer to textbook figure 1-4. The
2 hours shown for Aaron represent
time spent in what labor category?
When you attend a leadership school
at Port Hueneme, your time is
reported on the daily time card
under what labor code?
A labor accounting system is
required to measure the man-hours
that a unit spends on various
What is the labor code for an
The Supply Department
The Management Department
of the Operations Department
The Training Department
The Engineering and P&E
Labor that does not contribute
directly or indirectly to the end
product, but includes all labor
that must be performed regardless
of the assigned mission.
Information from the daily labor
distribution report serves as a
feeder report to the operations
officer, as well as a construction
management analysis source
document, for which of the
following personnel?
1. A
2. B
3. c
4. D
Labor that contributes directly to
the completion of the end product.
Crew leaders
Platoon leaders
The company chief
Each of the above
Learning Objective: Recognize
the principles of the Personnel
Readiness Capabilities Program
(PRCP), the Safety Program, and
the responsibilities of key
PRCP provides for collecting
information on which of the
following subjects?
Predeployment planning
Readiness of an NCF unit
Training publications available
to the NCF
Prior military service
Newly acquired skills are reported
to which of the following
safety chief
company chief
administration officer
executive officer
To develop a safety doctrine
and policy for a battalion
To discipline personnel
involved in an accident
To elect a battalion safety
chief and members of the
To review all vehicle accident
reports and determine the
causes of accidents
It maintains safety programs
for each project
It collects and exchanges
safety information and policies
between projects
It advises the safety division
on safety procedures
It investigates accidents that
occur on the job
Vehicle safety
Prestart checks
Equipment maintenance
All of the above
What is one of the most practical
safety techniques that you, as a
crew leader, can apply?
Stand-up meetings
Reprimanding violators in front
of their peers
Designating a crew member as a
safety representative
Leadership by example
Learning Objective: Recognize the
procedures and documentation for
hazardous material warnings,
handling, and turn-in procedures.
Recommendations for improving
safety on the job should be
forwarded to the safety policy
committee via the safety
supervisors’ committee.
Safety chief
Safety officer
Crew leader
Company chief
In addition to discussing project
safety during stand-up safety
meetings, which of the following
topics of concern should be
Training your crew members
Correcting unsafe practices and
Executing certain procedures
when a crew member is involved
in an accident
All of the above
What person is responsible for
conducting short stand-up safety
The safety supervisors’ committee
serves what primary purpose?
Safety division
Supervisors' safety committee
Safety policy committee
Crew safety committee
As a leader of a crew working on a
construction project, you are
responsible for which of the
following duties?
What is the primary objective of
the safety policy committee?
The company commander
The educational services
The PRCP coordinator
The company clerk
What person directs the safety
policy committee?
What safety group should you, as a
crew leader, contact when
recommending changes in safety
A material safety data sheet (MSDS)
is required to be on site for all
hazardous material.
A material safety data sheet does
NOT contain which of the following
All hazards associated with
exposure to the material
Applicable laws governing use
Personnel protective
equipment/safety precautions
First-aid/medical treatment for
Concerning the use of hazardous
material, you should practice what
safety rule?
Health hazard
Fire hazard
Specific hazard
Draw all material needed for an
entire project
Draw material between each
phase of a project
Draw only daily requirements
Draw weekly requirements
Hazardous material must be stored
in approved containers and stored
what distance from an ignitable
Figure 1B
In a hazardous code chart, what
does the top diamond indicate?
1. 1
2. 2
3. 3
4. 4
Learning Objective:
principles and techniques for
planning and estimating projects.
In the hazardous code chart, what
does the bottom diamond indicate?
According to NAVFAC P-405, Seabee
Planner’s and Estimator’s Handbook,
a man-day is based upon how many
3. 10
4. 12
The degree of hazard is indicated
on the code chart numerically from
O through 4. As the number
increases, the threat decreases.
All of the above
Activity quantities provide the
basis for preparing the material,
equipment, and manpower estimates.
In the hazardous code chart, what
does the left diamond indicate?
In planning a construction project,
you should be concerned with which
of the following estimates?
In the hazardous code chart, what
does the right diamond indicate?
When turning in hazardous
materials, you must submit a
legible MSDS with the material.
According to NAVFAC P-437,
Facilities Planning Guide, a manday consists of how many hours?
3. 10
4. 12
A “material takeoff” is also known
by what other term?
A material estimate
An equipment summary
A work element
A takeoff
Equipment estimates do NOT contain
which of the following information?
Types of equipment
Number of equipment required
Fuel required
Time required on site
As an estimator for a construction
project, manpower estimates must
contain sufficient detail to list
man-days for all ratings assigned
to each activity.
What type of drawings contains
size, quantity, location, and
relationship of building
What type of drawings consists of
boundary lines, acreage, locations,
and descriptions of existing and
proposed structures, existing
utilities, north point indicator
(arrow), and contour lines?
Master plan drawings
Project drawings
Red-lined drawings
As-built drawings
Master plan drawings
Project drawings
Red-lined drawings
As-built drawings
To give dimensional information
To be explanatory
To save space
Each of the above
Working drawings do NOT serve which
of the-following functions?
What is the purpose of “specific
notes” on a project?
During construction, you should
mark up what type of drawing to
indicate a minor change or a field
Graphic scales must be shown
prominently on each drawing,
because when drawings are reduced
in size, the reductions are often
not scaled to proportion.
Top left corner
Bottom left corner
Top right corner
Bottom right corner
A revision block contains what type
of revisions?
Master plan drawings
Project drawings
Red-lined drawings
As-built drawings
The revision block is at what
location on the drawing?
Identify the
Learning Objective:
different types of construction
drawings and their uses.
Title blocks may vary in format but
contain the same information.
Master plan drawings
Project drawings
Red-lined drawings
As-built drawings
The order of project drawings is
always the same.
What type of drawing is made to
indicate changes to a completed
Provide a basis for making
material, labor, and equipment
Complement the specifications;
one is complete without the
Provide a means of coordination
between ratings
Provide extensive environmental
and pollution control
Civil working drawings do NOT
include which of the following
plans and information?
Site prep and site development
Comprehensive instructions for
Water supply units
Learning Objective:
Identify the
BASIC concepts and principles of
project management (project
packages) .
A project package consists of a
total of how many files.
At what location in a project
package should you find the master
activity sheets and the level II?
left side
left side
right side
right side
The construction activity summary
sheets are contained in what file?
right side
left side
right side
left side
Project level IIIs are located in
what file?
General information
Safety plan
Highlighted EM 385
Environmental plan
Each of the above
The left side of the specifications
file contains technical data for
the project.
What file contains all authorizing
and coordinating information about
a project?
The right side of the
Safety/Environmental file contains
which of the following information?
In a project package, the safety
plan is kept in what file?
A list of long lead items is filed
in the left side of what file?
4. 10
Quality control
The project specifications are
found in what file?
In what file are field adjustment
requests filed?
Textbook Assignment:
“Layout and Fabrication of Sheet Metal and Fiber-glass Duct,”
pages 2-1 through 2-39.
Learning Objective:
the tools and equipment needed
for measuring and fabricating
sheet metal and recognize their
The procedure for measuring and
marking material for the cutting,
drilling, and/or welding of metal
is known by the term “layout.”
Prick punches
Trammel points
Scratch awls
To construct parallel lines in
layout work, you should first clamp
tool A to the base line of your
work. What other tools in figure
2A do you need to complete the job?
Which of the tools is required to
scribe a circle having a radius of
22 inches?
Figure 2A
What layout tool should you use
to mark a point on your work?
What type of tool is most
frequently used to scribe lines
on sheet metal?
You need to draw a line that cuts
the base line of your layout work
at an angle of 45 degrees. Of the
tools in the figure, which one is
quickest and easiest to use in
constructing this angle?
To construct a right angle by
bisecting a base line, you must set
the dividers for what distance?
To exactly one half of the
length of the base line
To less than one half of the
length of the base line
To more than one half of the
length of the base line
Equal to the length of the base
In a simple drip pan layout, the
radius of a corner arc is equal to
what dimension of the pan?
diagonal cross section
Figure 2B
To construct a 90 degree or right
angle using steps A through D
shown in the figure, you should
perform the steps in what sequence?
Refer to figure 2-11 in the
To find point F in
bisecting angle ABC, you must set
the dividers for what distance?
After line B is divided into
12 equal parts, what is the
approximate length of each part?
To less than one half of the
line BD
To twice the length of EB
To greater than the total
length of arc DE
To greater than one half of
the length of arc DE
You set dividers for the radius
of a circle and strike off this
distance on the entire circumference.
Into how many equal arcs
have you divided the circumference?
Into how many equal parts
circumference of a circle
if the lines intersecting
center of the circle form
of 30 degrees?
is the
at the
3. 12
4. 18
Figure 2C
Base line B is 10 inches long and
you want to divide it into 12 equal
Using a rule after drawing
line A perpendicular to the base
line, you should orient the ruler
in which of the following ways?
Set the 12-inch mark at (e)
and the 0-inch mark at (f)
Set the 12-inch mark at (e)
and the l-inch mark at a point
4 1/2 inches above (d)
Set the 9-inch mark at the
midpoint of base line B and
the 3-inch mark at the midpoint of line A
Set the 9-inch mark at the
midpoint of line A
Your next step in dividing base
line B into equal parts is to drop
perpendiculars to B from what mark
on the ruler?
1. 1
What is the approximate circumference of a circle that has a
diameter of 18 inches?
3/4 inch
1/2 inch
1/4 inch
What is the mathematical formula
for determining the area of the
stretchout of a cylinder?
Learning Objective:
uses and operation of tools and
equipment used in fabricating
sheet metal.
Blunt and slender
tapered jobs
Riveting and shaping
round and square work
1. 1
2. 2
3. 3
4. 4
What part of the bar-folding
machine is used to make right
angles and 45-degree bends?
Wire rope
Steel rods
Sheet metal
Fiber line
Metal stakes are used to make an
assortment of bends by hand and to
finish many types of work.
Forming, seaming,
and riveting
pieces and
parts of pipe
Squaring shears are designed to cut
which of the following materials?
Internal openings,
such as rings or
Compound curves
and intricate
clamping device
balancing weight
stop gauge
mold clamps
The box and pan brake is often
referred to as a finger brake.
What feature on the cornice brake
enables you to make as many
duplicate bends as required?
depth gauge
bar handle
angle stop
A total of how many adjustments
must be made on a cornice brake
before you can use the machine
to bend sheet metal?
When forming a curved shape, you
can fabricate the most accurate
bend by using what piece of
slip-roll forming machine
What method of pattern development
should you use to develop a pattern
for an object that has a tapering
form with lines converging at a
common center?
Radial line
Parallel line
The slip-roll forming machine is
designed to allow one end of the
top front roll to be released
quickly so you can perform what
task easily?
Removal of the work
Cleaning operations
Repairs on the machine
Adjustments to the machine
What operation of the combination
rotary machine is used to reduce
the size of the end of a cylinder?
Learning Objective: Recognize
the methods of pattern development
and identify types of edges, seams,
and notches used in fabricating
sheet metal.
Instead of scribing directly on the
metal when a single piece is being
made in quantity, you can make a
pattern or template and transfer it
to the metal.
Assume that the cylinder shown in
textbook figure 2-51 has a diameter
of 8 1/2 inches. Excluding the
seam, what is the length of the
A patternmaker decides to divide a
half plan or top view into 12 equal
What number of divisions
will be required for the stretchout line?
Figure 2D
2. 12
3. 24
4. 48
What stretchouts are developed by
the radial-line method?
1. A
2. C
3. D
4. E
The radial line method is used to
develop a frustrum of a right cone.
The stretchout pattern of the
frustrum has been stepped off into
how many spaces?
When fabricating a wired edge to
a cylinder, you must add how much
edging to a pattern?
The length of the numbered line
on the stretchout from 1 to 1
is equal to what measurement?
Swing length D5 from point 5
Swing an arc of radius A2 from
point A
Swing arcs A and B from point O
Swing arcs from point G that
will intersect at point O
Learning Objective:
the various sheet-metal joints
and locking methods used in the
fabrication of sheet-metal
Height of the frustrum
Circumference of the base
of the cone
Radius of the top of the
Slant height of the frustrum
1. A
2. B
3. C
4. D
What type of notch is used on a
corner when a single-hemmed edge
is to meet a 90-degree angle?
Pittsburgh lock
When laying out a pattern, you
consider what feature last?
What view of the transition piece
should you draw first?
1 1/2 times the thickness
of the metal
2 1/2 times the diameter
of the wire to be used
Twice the diameter of the
upper burring roller
One half of the diameter
of the wire to be used
In the fabrication of rectangular
duct, what seam is used most often?
FIGURE 2-53.
5 or C7 and 8
1 or B2 and 1
What pattern will ultimately fold
or roll into a cylinder?
3. 12
4. 14
1. A
2. C
3. D
4. E
You have constructed perpendicular
bisectors of AB, BC, CD, and DA in
E and have established the location
of point 00 What step should you
perform next in order to check the
overall symmetry of your transition
Triangulation is used to develop
what pattern?
What triangle should you develop
first in E?
What type of connection is used
to join a flat sheet and a round
Dovetail seam
Drive slip
Pocket slip
Standing seam
You are to construct a duct of
24 gauge sheet metal.
Each section
If the
is 7 feet 10 inches long.
total system length is 60 feet, you
should place the bracing angles at
what location?
Learning Objective:
the various joints, installation
procedures, metal requirements,
and connections used in sheet-metal
duct systems.
What type of screw is most often
used in sheet-metal work?
Drive screws are simply driven into
sheet metal.
Tinners are designated by their
weight per 1,000 rivets.
1. 1
2. 1 1/2
3. 2
4. 2 1/2
What gauge of aluminum sheet metal
is required to construct a duct
62 inches wide at the top and
28 inches high on the sides?
Light-gauge sheet metal
Heavy canvas
When “S” slips and drive slips are
used on a duct system, you lock the
joint into position in what way?
The correct method for riveting
using tinner rivets is to draw,
upset, and head the rivet.
The duct is installed in the
vertical position
The material used is at least
reinforced at the edges of each
duct segment
The duct is insulated with
approved materials
The duct is insulated with
rigid insulation and the sheet
metal used is 2 gauges heavier
When securing duct systems to
heating and cooling units, you
should use what material to
fabricate the flexible connections?
The distance from the center of the
rivet to the edge of the sheet must
equal how many rivet diameters?
on center along the
of the duct
on center along the
of the duct
from each joint
from each joint
The cross breaking of a duct having
a flat side of 18 inches or greater
can be omitted under which of the
following conditions?
2 feet
4 feet
2 feet
4 feet
By bending the “S” slip over
the drive slip
By bending the drive slip over
“S” slip
By cutting off the drive slip
even with the “S” slip and
welding each corner
By center punching the “S” slip
Learning Objective:
material requirements, fabrication,
and installation procedures used
in fiber-glass duct systems.
Fiber-glass duct has which of the
following advantages?
Added insulating value
Ease of fabrication and
Ease of installation
Each of the above
In all applications, the inside
diameter is the determining factor
of the duct size.
Fiber-glass duct must not be used
in a heating system in which the
heat generated exceeds what
What are the dimensions of the
galvanized steel straps used to
support fiber-glass duct?
3/4-inch diameter by l/8-inch
l-inch diameter by l/8-inch
l-inch diameter by l/16-inch
1 l/8-inch diameter by
1 l/16-inch thick
You have fabricated a fiber-glass
duct system that has a 30-inch
At what distance should
the supports be placed?
Textbook Assignment:
“Structural Steel Terms/Layout and Fabrication of Steel and Pipe,”
pages 3-1 through 3-29.
Learning Objective:
structural steel members by
appropriate terminology and
recognize steel structural
erection rocedures.
A 10-foot piece of steel that is
3/8-inch thick and 2 inches wide
is classified as a
What sequence is the proper order
you should follow for the erection
of structural members?
Figure 3A
What structural shape does the
designation W6 x 13 fit best?
Standard beam
Tee shapes
Wide flange beam
What structural steel member is
used primarily to span from column
to column horizontally?
installing shim packs
welding the plates to
the bearing plates
forcing the grout under
the bearing plates
using locknuts
What structural shapes are most
often used in columns?
A piece of steel plate 3 feet
square weighs 180 pounds. What is
the classification of this plate?
To allow for height adjustment
To permit lateral adjustment
To compensate for angle
To allow space for welding
of columns
Bearing plates are brought to their
proper levels by
What structural shape does
the classification S15 x 42.9
Girders, bearing plates, anchor
bolts, columns, beams
Anchor bolts, column plates,
girders, bearing plates, beams
Anchor bolts, bearing plates,
columns, girders, beams
Bearing plates, anchor bolts,
columns, girders, beams
When cutting the holes in bearing
plates to receive anchor bolts, you
cut the holes larger than the bolts
for what reason?
Column splices
Which of the following members form
a lightweight, long-span system
used as floor supports and built-up
roofing supports?
Angle ties
Sway frame
Diagonal locking bars
Bottom chord extensions
Up toward the center or apex
of the roof
Flat with the face of the
channel face directly toward
the truss
Downward with both legs welded
to the truss
Outward or down toward the
slope of the truss system
Learning Objective:
methods of fabricating plate
and structural shapes and the
procedures for cutting, forming,
and joining plate steel and
structural steel shapes.
As the webs of the girder W 10 x 39
and beam S 8 x 23 are connected and
welded, what beam connection layout
must be used for the beam S 8 x 23?
(The top flange is flush.)
Learning Objective:
the procedures for laying out
structural members.
When laying out a plate with many
parts, you must consider which of
the following factors?
The beam S 12 x 35 encloses the
girder W 10 x 39, and it extends
above the girder 2 inches. The
beam butts the girder together
at the center line of the girder.
The bottom flange is flush with
the bottom of the girder flange.
What layout is required?
Eave struts
Ridge plates
Cut them with a torch on
the inside of the kerf
Center punch, then cut them
with the kerf on the outside
edge of the reference lines
Transfer to patterns before
cutting them so the work can
be checked after cutting
Lightly paint them to preserve
the layout lines
When a 10-inch beam is connected
to a 10-inch girder with the web
of one end butted to the side of
the other, the required layout is
indicated by what letter?
What structural members are used to
frame the sides of a building which
are attached to the outside
perimeter columns?
A job has been laid out and is
determined to be accurate. At
this time, what modification should
be made to all cutting lines?
When using purlins to span roof
trusses, you should ensure the
legs face in what direction?
Bar joist
Workers have installed diagonal
braces between bays of a truss
Their next step is to
secure the roof system with what
structural members?
Time required
Economic use of material
Accuracy of measurements
All of the above
Which of the following conditions
must exist before you lay out steel
members ?
Adequate lighting
All required tools are on hand
An accurate field drawing or
All of the above
Structural shapes are more
difficult to lay out than plate
because the reference lines are
not always visible.
A template is to be used as the
pattern for the construction of
a large number of precision metal
This template should be
made of what material?
connection legs
web legs
fit-up legs
Graph paper
Plain white paper
Template paper
When using templates to help lay
out a steel member, you should make
sure the identifying marks on the
templates and the member correspond
to which of the following plans or
What information does the erection
mark on a member provide?
On what part of a connection angle
does the distance from the heel of
the angle to the first gauge line
remain constant?
Cap plate
Direct insert
Slotted angle
Learning Objective:
procedures for laying out proposed metalwork.
The lines in which holes in the
angle legs are drilled are known
as what type of lines?
by dividing the flange width
by 1/8, then adding 1/16 inch
by dividing the flange width
by 1/2, then subtracting 1/2
of the thickness of the web
and adding 1/16 inch
by dividing the flange width
by 1/4, then adding 1/8 inch
by dividing the flange width
by 1/2, then adding 1/2 of
the thickness of the web
and subtracting 1/16 inch
leg gauge
web leg gauge
dimension angle
When a beam is joined to the flange
of a vertical member, you should
use what type of connection?
Outstanding legs are the legs
of the angles that attach the
supporting angle or intersected
steel beam.
The legs used to attach to
intersecting steel to make a
connection are referred to as
The standard 3-inch distance
between the holes on any gauge
line is known as
When two beams of equal dimensions
are fitted together, coping is
required so one will butt up
against the web of the other.
You can determine the size of
cope needed
The location of the member
during erection
Date of fabrication
The sequence of erection
The erection completion date
Learning Objective:
pipe layout operations, procedures
in constructing design patterns
for pipe, and methods of joining
pipe into different arrangements.
Web leg gauge
Outstanding leg
Gauge line
Top flange
To fabricate 25 pieces of pipe
of the same diameter and layout
dimensions, you should use the
shop method of making templates.
Leveling one leg of the
framing square
Blocking one leg of the
framing square
Blocking the pipe
Leveling the pipe
Drawing a circle equal to the
outside diameter of the pipe
Constructing the template angle
equal to twice the angle of the
Dividing the circumference of
the projected view by one half
Bisecting the template angle
Measure one half of the
distance to the cutback on
the vertical plane
Mark one half off the cutback
measurement along the center
line on top of the pipe
Lock the protractor blade
Determine the outside radius
of the pipe
At an angle equal to the
degree of turnaway
At half of the angle of
At one third of the angle
of turnaway
At one fourth of the angle
of turnaway
In textbook figure 3-50, the
cutback measurements for laying
out the end of the branch are
the distances represented by
what letters?
In makinq a simple miter turn, you
perform what step after determining
the cutback measurement?
the diameter of the pipe
the radius of the pipe
the thickness of the pipe wall
double the thickness of the
pipe wall
In what position should the
protractor be locked to show the
number of degrees of turnaway from
the header to fabricate a branchto-header connection of equal
diameter pipe?
by spacing the perpendicular
line in view C to equal the
outside dimension of view A
by extending the line a-i in
view C
by basing the length of the
perpendicular lines in view C
on 1/2 of the length of the
outside diameter of view A
by joining in a smooth curve
the set of points formed by the
intersection of perpendicular
lines drawn from the base line
with parallel lines drawn from
the point on a-i
lay the pipe over the drawing
so its center line will
intersect point b
lay the pipe over the drawing
so its edges will intersect
points d and e
draw lines a-b-c-d
draw the outlines of the pipes
In view A of textbook figure 3-49,
the distance 1-P is equal to
The curve in view C of textbook
figure 3-45 is determined
Assume you are making a full-sized
drawing to determine the cut
necessary for a two-piece welded
turn where the angle of turn of
the pipe is 60 degrees.
First, you
should draw the center lines to
intersect as shown in textbook
figure 3-46. Then you should
What is the first step in developing a template layout for pipe?
When quartering a pipe before
proceeding to lay out a joint,
you should place the inside angle
of the framing square against the
pipe after taking what action?
Refer to textbook figure 3-51.
Where a branch is welded to a large
header, what should be the distance
on each side of the branch between
points A and B?
Same as or a little more than
the thickness of the branch
Same as or a little less than
the thickness of the branch
Same as or a little more than
the thickness of the header
Same as or a little less than
the thickness of the header
What are the flange spiders of a
center line template made of wire
used for in pipe bending?
Of the following paired cutback
measurements, which belongs to
angle ACG?
1. AB
2. AB
3. FE
4. FE
1/16 inch and
6 inches
1 1/16 inches and
4 1/8 inches
6 inches and
4 1/8 inches
1/16 inches and
6 inches
Pack it with wet sand
Pack it with dry sand
Pack it with wet packing
What is the technique for applying
heat to the bend area of the pipe
shown in textbook figure 3-62?
By determining the vertex
of the triangle ABC
By constructing a perpendicular
line from point D to bisect
line AC
By intersecting the center
lines of the three pipes
By intersecting lines AB and BC
To clamp the ends of the wire
To maintain a constant
clearance around the pipe
To indicate pipe clearance
To indicate the center line
of the pipe
Before heating a pipe, what action,
if any, should you take to prevent
a reduction in the cross-section
area of a hot-bend pipe?
Refer to textbook figure 3-54.
Without the use of templates or
tables, how do you locate point
B of the true Y?
Learning Objective:
procedures for pipe bending,
including heat bending and
wrinkle bending.
To determine the position
of the center lines
To determine the angle of the
adjoining sides of adjacent
To quarter the ends of the
three pieces of pipe
To apply circumferential lines
to each piece of pipe
B-C and A1-B1
A-B and B-B1
B-B1 and X-Xl
A1-B1 and X-X2
When cutting a pipe with a hand
torch, you use what type of cutting
process to hold the cutting torch
perpendicular to the interior
center line of the pipe at every
In fabricating a three-piece
connection of equal diameter pipe,
you must decide upon the size of
the open angle between each pair
of center lines for what reason?
In the preparation of an orange
peel template, such as the one
shown in textbook figure 3-57,
which of the following projection
lines are taken from view A?
First, heat ends A and B,
then the part in between
First, heat the area midway
between A and B, then the ends
First, heat the outside (heel)
of the bend, then the inside
First, heat the inside (throat)
of the bend, then the outside
Flat spots in hot-bent copper
pipe are caused by which of the
following factors?
Improper heating
Not enough support for
the pipe wall
Stretch in the outside
(heel) of the bend
All of the above
When using the wrinkle-bending
technique to make a 60-degree bend
in a pipe, you should make a total
of how many wrinkles to keep from
buckling the pipe?
The use of which of the following
bending techniques should prevent
wrinkles and flat spots in properly
packed and heated copper pipe?
What technique should you use to
wrinkle-bend a 12-inch-diameter
In hot bending aluminum pipe with a
torch, you should use which of the
following techniques?
Keep the flame on the throat
while the pipe is being bent
Heat only the throat of the
bend and avoid overheating
Notice changes in heat color
to determine the proper bending
Overheat then remove heat when
bending starts
With one torch, heat a strip
about 2 feet long and 2 to
3 inches wide along the throat
of the planned bend
With one torch, heat a strip
about 2 feet long and 2 to
3 inches wide along the heel
of the planned bend
With more than one torch, heat
a strip about 2 feet long and
2 to 3 inches wide along the
throat of the planned bend
With more than one torch,
heat a strip about 2/3 of the
circumference of the pipe, and
2 to 3 inches wide along the
throat of the planned bend
When bending a heated pipe, you
should use what technique, if any?
Pipe made of what material is
likely to break if overbent and
then pulled back?
In bending steel pipe, you can
control wrinkles and flat spots
at the throat of a bend by overbending, then pulling the end back
to round out the flat spot.
Bending so all the stretch
takes place at the center of
the bend area, none on the ends
Bending so all the stretch
takes place at the ends of the
bend area, none at the center
Bending so more of the stretch
takes place at the center of
the bend area than at the other
Dividing the bend area into
segments, then bending one
segment at a time so stretching
is evenly spread over the
entire area
One or two
Two or three
Three or four
Five or more
While holding one end of the
pipe firmly in position, lift
the other end
While holding the midpoint of
the pipe on the ground, lift
both ends at the same time
While holding the midpoint of
the pipe on the ground, lift
one end then the other
Textbook Assignment:
“Fiber Line” and “Wire Rope,”
pages 4-1 through 5-15.
Learning Objective:
types, fabrication of, size
designations, and proper handling
and care of fiber line.
You may have to order line by
diameter, rather than
circumference, and refer to it as
What is the primary reason manila
line is preferred for use as
standard issue line?
Its resistance to wear
It is waterproof
Its quality and relative
It is easy to handle
is waterproof
is resistant to abrasion
resumes normal length after
being stretched
has a breaking strength that is
nearly 3 times greater than
that of manila line
Fiber line is fabricated in three
twisting operations.
Hawser laid
Shroud laid
Cable laid
None of the above
Storage room containing
Direct sunlight
Each of the above
When stowing wet line, you should
always select a heated wellventilated space to promote rapid
Which of the following agents can
cause damage to a line that is hard
to detect by visual examination?
What is the maximum size of fiber
line normally carried in stock?
Rope yarn
When nylon line is properly handled
and maintained, it should last five
times longer than manila line
subjected to the same use.
The circumference of a 1 1/4-inch
manila line is equal to about how
many millimeters?
Acetone only
Either kerosene or diesel fuel
Alcohol or gasoline
Gasoline only
Which of the following fabrics
should you use to apply whippings
to a line?
Which, if any, of the following
types of line is formed from three
twisting operations in a righthand direction?
it shrinks the line
it creates abrasion
it causes deterioration of
it takes the oil out of the
When nylon line becomes slippery
with grease or oil, it should be
cleaned with what solvent(s)?
Soap is not used to clean fiber
line because
The primary reason for the use of
nylon line is that it
A line that is kinked from
excessive turns should be given a
thorough footing by
It is very smooth and slips
through the hands easily
It may part when stretched more
than 30%
The snapback is severe when a
heavy strain is released
Freezing produces a slight loss
of stretch
The free or working end of a line
is known as the
Learning Objective: Recognize the
fundamentals of making knots,
bends, and hitches.
running end
tag end
open end
What type of knot is best used to
tie two lines of the same size
together so they will not slip?
What is the breaking strength of a
2 l/2-inch fiber line?
Although nylon line is superior in
many ways to manila line, what
characteristic can cause it to be
The different applications of
pressure due to load sizes
The strain imposed by bending
over sheaves in a block
Excessive vibration
Exposure to moisture
Nylon line can be stretched what
percentage of its length before it
will part?
Visual inspection
Smell test
Fiber break test
Each of the above
Nylon has a breaking strength
approximately three times greater
than that of manila line. What is
the breaking strength of a 2-inch
nylon line?
You are going to use a new 2-inch
manila line to hoist a load, and
you do not have tables to use to
determine the safe working load
(SWL) of the line. This situation
requires you to use the “rule of
thumb” formula to calculate the SWL
for the 2-inch line. By doing so,
you determine the SWL for the line
The safety factor of a line is the
ratio between the breaking strength
and the safe working load.
The breaking strength of a line is
considerably higher than its safe
working load to account for what
coiling the line down clockwise
and then pulling the bottom end
of the coil up and out of the
middle of the coil
coiling the line down
counterclockwise and then
pulling the bottom end of the
coil up and out of the middle
of the coil
taking an end at the inside
bottom of the coil and after
pulling it free, coiling the
line down clockwise
taking an end at the inside
bottom of the coil and after
pulling it free, coiling the
line down counterclockwise
Which of the following methods of
inspecting fiber line for safety is
Figure eight
Which of the following types of
knots is used to take a load off a
weak section out of line and can
also be used to shorten a line?
Figure eight
When tying lines together that are
unequal in size, you should use
what type of knot?
A free-running lasso that will not
tighten up on the standing part of
the line is provided by what knot?
When tying up timber or anything
that is round or nearly round, you
should use what type of hitch?
A properly made short splice will
retain up to 50% of the strength of
the line, while a properly tied
knot will retain 100% of its
What type of tape is used for
whipping the strands and lines in
nylon line instead of seizing stuff
as in manila line?
What type of rope should you select
for a job that requires wire rope
of great flexibility while
maintaining adequate strength?
Learning Objective: Recognize how
wire rope is fabricated and
identify the different grades,
lays, and types of wire rope.
Learning Objective: Recognize the
fundamentals of splicing fiber
A back splice should be used to
prevent a line from unlaying or
unraveling at the end of a line.
When there is not much overlap for
splicing, you should use what type
of splice?
Running bowline
Spanish bowline
French bowline
What type of splice should be used
to run freely through a block?
Becket bend
Running bowline
Half hitch
Because nylon line is smooth and
elastic, at least how many extra
tucks are required when splicing
by 7 fiber core
by 19 wire strand core
by 24 wire rope core
by 37 fiber core
What type of wire rope should you
select for use on a permanent hoist
in which the rope runs through
several sheaves and onto a smalldiameter drum?
Hot-dipped galvanized wire rope
with a fiber core
Electroplated wire rope with an
independent wire rope core
Plain wire rope with a fiber
Hot-dipped galvanized wire rope
with a wire strand core
Wire rope that withstands crushing
the best has which of the following
Wires that are uncoated
Is made of improved plow steel
An independent core
A galvanized wire core
The ability of a wire rope to
withstand the compressive and
squeezing forces that can distort
its cross section when running over
sheaves, rollers, and drums is
known by what term?
How does preformed wire rope
compare to nonpreformed wire rope?
It is harder to splice
It is more flexible
It is likely to fly apart when
cut or broken
It is less flexible
The three grades of plow steels
used in manufacturing wire rope can
have a variation in tensile
strength of
The outer wires of each strand of
wire rope contribute to the fatigue
resistance or abrasion resistance
of the wire. This factor makes
which of the following service
applications correct?
When looking at a wire rope, you
observe that the wires in the
strands are laid to the right and
the strands are laid to the left.
This wire rope has what type of
Regular right lay
Lang right lay
Lang left lay
Left regular lay
Which of the following actions does
NOT help to prevent wire rope
Learning Objective:
various factors to consider in
selecting a method of measuring
wire rope and for computing safe
working loads.
Compute the safe working (SWL) of a
2-inch wire rope.
8 strand, consisting of 6, 7,
12, 19, 24, or 37 wires in each
6 strand, consisting of 4, 8,
16, 24, or 36 wires in each
6 strand, consisting of 6, 7,
12, 19, 24, or 37 wires in each
8 strand, consisting of 4, 8,
16, 24, or 36 wires in each
Use large wires when high
abrasion resistance only is
Use small wires when high
abrasion resistance only is
Use large wires when high
fatigue resistance only is
Use small wires when both high
fatigue and abrasion resistance
are required
The correct way to measure wire is
to measure from the top of one
strand to the top of the strand
directly opposite it.
What type of wire rope is most
often used by the Construction
Battalions (Seabees) of the Naval
Construction Force?
Abrasion resistance
Fatigue resistance
Crushing strength
Tensile strength
Checking for overriding or
crosswinding of drums
Lubricating with heavy-duty
Inspecting fitting attachments
Ensuring correct size,
construction, and grade are
Learning Objective: Recognize the
fundamentals of wire rope handling.
In what manner should right and
left lay wire rope be coiled down?
Both clockwise
Both counterclockwise
Left lay, clockwise; right lay,
Right lay, clockwise; left lay,
When wire rope or fiber line is
received from the manufacturer on a
reel, it should be unwound instead
of pulled off in bights in order to
keep the rope or line from
Before cutting wire rope, you
should apply a total of how many
seizings to each side of the area
being cut?
When putting on the turns of
seizing wire, you use a serving bar
or iron to increase the tension on
the seizing wire when what
conditions exist?
When a loop forms in wire rope and
it is pulled into a kink, you
should take what action?
Uncross the ends and push them
Cut out the kinked portion
Pull it out by stretching one
end of the rope
Pound it out with a wooden
Use smaller diameter rope than
is ordinarily used
Lubricate the rope at more
frequent intervals than usual
Reduce the space between the
blocks and drums being used
Use larger blocks and drums
than are ordinarily used and
space them as far apart as
Sheave diameter should not be less
than 20 times the diameter of the
wire rope, EXCEPT in the case where
wire rope has which of the
following properties?
The exposure of worn parts
The prevention of corrosion on
exposed ends
An increase in the service life
of the rope
A change in the tension
direction of the rope core
While inspecting a wire rope, you
come across individual wires that
are broken and bent back
What situation caused
this condition to develop?
An independent core
Electroplated wire strands
6 by 37 with a fiber core
6 by 24 with a steel core
The diameter of the wire rope
Twice the diameter of the wire
Three times the diameter of the
wire rope
Four times the diameter of the
wire rope
What advantage is gained by cutting
back or reversing ends of wire rope
The seizing is only temporary,
or the diameter of the wire
rope is 1/2 inch
The seizing is only temporary,
or the diameter of the wire
rope is 1 inch
The seizing is to be permanent,
or the diameter of the wire
rope is 1 1/2 inches or more
The seizing is permanent, or
the diameter of the wire rope
is 1 5/8 inches or more
Seizing is placed at intervals from
each other that equal what
In those cases where reverse bends
cannot be avoided, you should take
what action to help decrease wear
and fatigue in wires and strands?
Damaged drum
Incorrect sheave size
Reverse and sharp bends
Improper fleet angle
Overloading a rope will decrease
its diameter. A rope should be
removed from service when its
diameter is reduced to what
percentage of its original size?
Learning Objective:
Identify the
techniques used for special
attachments for wire rope.
To make a temporary eye splice with
a 1 1/2-inch rope, you need a total
of how many wire rope clips?
You have to change the fitting on
the end of a wire rope several
times during a job and the fitting
must bear a heavy load without
slipping or failing. What type of
fitting meets your needs best?
A poured socket
A wedge socket
A wrapped and mule-tailed
A spliced fitting
Molten lead is used vice zinc for a
basket socket. This socket has
approximately what fraction of the
strength of a zinc connection?
A basket socket, fabricated by the
dry method, has one sixth of the
strength of a poured zinc
Wrap securely in waterproof
Rotate to prevent damage to
bottom coils
Always place out of direct
Clean and lubricate well
Fishhooks, kinks, abrasion, and
corrosion in wire rope are causes
to remove it from service. Wire
rope is unsafe when what percentage
of the total number of wires within
the length of one lay of the rope
is broken?
When making an eye in wire rope
with the Nicopress, you are
primarily saving what resource?
Of all the protective actions you
should take when storing wire rope,
which one is of prime importance?
One fourth
One half
Three fourths
Seven eighths
Textbook Assignment:
“Rigging” and “Reinforcing Steel,” pages 5-1 through 6-37.
Learning Objective: Recognize
block-and-tackle arrangements
used by Steelworkers.
If you wish to rig a tackle using
1/2-inch wire rope, you should
select blocks that have a sheave
that are of what size, in diameter?
The most important operation
in rigging is safety.
The mechanical advantage of a
machine is the amount a machine
can multiply the force used to
lift or move a load.
What term is used when blocks of
a tackle are as close together as
they can go?
A “sheave” is a round grooved wheel
over which the line runs.
running block
standing block
The “cheeks” are the solid sides
of the frame or shell.
The “becket” holds the block
together and supports the pins.
What is a block called when it is
attached to an object to be moved?
Adding a snatch block does NOT
increase the mechanical advantage,
of a tackle system.
Running block
Standing block
When it is necessary to change the
direction of pull on a line, you
should use what type of block?
The “breech” is the opening through
which the line passes.
Figure 5A
In reeving a tackle with the blocks
shown in figure 5A, you should
first insert the standing end of
the fall as shown by what arrow?
1. A
2. B
3. C
4. D
If the load on the tackle weighs
150 pounds, what force must be
applied at arrow A to hoist the
load if the effects of friction
are not considered?
twofold purchase
single luff
double luff
What is the mechanical advantage
of gun tackle when it is inverted?
Single luff tackle
Gun tackle
Single whip tackle
In what type of tackle is the
running block usually rigged
with its sheaves at a right
angle to the sheaves of the
standing block?
If the load is 900 pounds, what
total pull must be applied at
arrow A to overcome the friction
in the blocks and lift the load?
What type of tackle is used to lift
the weight shown in figure 5B?
A threefold purchase is made of two
triple sheave blocks and provides a
mechanical advantaqe of what value?
4. 10
Determine the mechanical advantage
of a compound tackle using two .
inverted luff tackles.
1. 8
2. 12
3. 16
4. 20
When the necessary allowance for
friction is made, what is the safe
working load (SWL) of a double-luff
tackle reeved a with line that has
a SWL of 3 tons?
Learning Objective:
the various means used to lift,
move, or support heavy loads.
Figure 5B
What are the primary advantages
of wire rope slings?
Resiliency and strength
Strength and hardness
Flexibility and weight
Flexibility and strength
When compared to wire rope
slings, fiber line slings offer
the advantage of protecting the
finished material; however, they
are not as strong as wire rope and
are easily damaged by sharp edges
on material.
Chain slings offer which of the
following advantages?
Resistance to abrasion
Best for slinging hot loads
Best for handling loads with
sharp edges
All of the above
“Strap” is the term commonly used
when referring to what type of
When the weight is evenly distributed among the slings, how many
1/2-inch chain slings will you
need to hoist a 5-ton load safely?
They have less resistance
to stress and strain
They have welded links
Their links may crystallize
and snap without warning
They cannot be protected
from rust
When using rope yarn or wire
to mouse a hook, you should
make how many wraps?
Why are chain slings less reliable
than fiber line or wire rope
What is the safe working load (SWL)
of a 3/4-inch-diameter hook?
spreader bar
Slightly opposite the direction
of the turn
The front rollers slightly
opposite to the direction of
the turn with the rear rollers
pointing slightly in the
direction of the turn
Both slightly in the direction
of the turn
The front rollers must be
slightly, inclined in the
direction of the turn with
the rear of the rollers in
the opposite direction
Blocking and cribbing are often
necessary as a safety measure
to keep an object stationary in
This action can prevent
accidental injury to personnel who
must work near these heavy objects.
to 14
to 10
t0 7
t0 5
When making a turn with a load on
rollers, you should point the front
and rear rollers in what direction?
What jack is used for tightening
lines and bracing parts on bridge
Single leg
Fiber line
Wire rope
What is the small platform called
that is used to store small lot
items that can then be moved as one
large item instead of piece by
What is the SWL of a 1/2-inchdiameter shackle?
Learning Objective:
the procedures for the construction, placement, and application
of various types of scaffolding.
Learning Objective: Describe
the various types of fielderected hoisting devices.
Load capacity and stability
Load capacity and cost
No guy lines required and
load capacity
Stability and no guy lines
The strength of a tripod is
directly affected by the strength
of the rope and the lashings used.
What is the maximum height limit
for an 8-inch-diameter gin pole?
When shears are used to lift heavy
loads, the length to diameter (L/D)
ratio should not exceed what
What are the primary advantages of
using the tripod over other rigging
Handlines should be used to raise
and lower objects from scaffolding
when they cannot be reached easily
by hand.
When a gin pole is being erected,
the rear guy line must be kept
under tension to prevent the pole
from swinging and throwing all of
its weight on one of the side guys.
To what depth should the hole be
dug for the base of a gin pole?
How long should the guy ropes
be for a 15-foot gin pole?
If secured properly, the material
used by a crew working on a
scaffold can be stored on another
feet 6 inches
feet 6 inches
A boatswain’s chair should be used
only if no other scaffolding means
are not available.
On a swinging platform, at what
distance from the ends of each
beam are the stops located?
What is the maximum length of a
swinging platform equipped with
reinforcing under rails?
What is the safe capacity of a
40-foot spruce timber gin pole
that has a 10-inch diameter?
What is the maximum allowable
drift (inclination), in degrees,
for shears?
On what part of rebar are diameter
measurements taken?
When shears are erected, the spread
of the legs should equal what
The round/square where there
are no deformations
Across the deformations where
the diameter is greatest
The diagonal of its widest
The diameter of the deformation
plus the height of the
One fifth of the length
of the legs
One fourth of the length
of the legs
One third of the length
of the legs
One half of the length
of the legs
Learning Objective:
Identify the
purpose, types, and uses of
reinforcing steel in concrete.
What is the primary factor that
determines the strength of
Steel adds compressive strength
The expansion properties of
both steel and concrete are
approximately the same
Steel is easily bent to fit
all shapes of forms
Steel adheres well to concrete
What types of rebar are rolled axle
Clean and smooth
Loose or scaly rust
Light firm layer of rust
What types of rebar are equal
in size, type, and grade in both
bar-branding systems?
What type of surface condition on
rebar provides the best adherence
with concrete?
The identifying marks of bar D
indicate what grade of rebar?
Which of the following factors
make steel the best material
for reinforcing concrete?
Water-to-cement ratio
Type of steel reinforcement
Concrete is strong in tension but
weak in compression.
Figure 5C
When the number designation
8x8x1Ox1O is used, what do these
numbers indicate about a roll of
wire mesh?
The wire gauge is 8 and the
crosswise spacing is 10 inches
The wire gauge is 10 and
crosswise and lengthwise
spacing is 8 inches
The wire gauge is 8 and the
length spacing is 8 inches
The crosswise spacing is
10 inches and the wire gauge
is 10
A bar marked 1 B0409 is to be bent
into a 180-degree S-shape that is
considered a standard bend. What
is the minimum diameter of the pin
around which the bar can be bent?
Learning Objective:
the fundamentals of bending,
tying, and placing reinforcing
What size pin diameter is required
when a bend is made on a #9 bar?
8 1/2 inches
3. 11 1/4 inches
4. 18
What is the maximum capacity for
cold working rebar?
The bend angle which is set on
the control rod is graduated
into (a) what range of degrees
at (b) what intervals?
(a) 10° to 360°
(a) 5° to 180°
(a) 5° to 190°
(a) 5° to 180°
What is the purpose of the shearing
In checking the building plans,
you notice that six rebars marked
3C0205 are to be bent with standard
180-degree hooks at one end.
Distance A should equal
To prevent the bars from
kicking up during shearing
To prevent the breaking of bars
after bending past 190 degrees
To allow the table to back off
slightly after bending
To disengage the bending
cylinder and return the rack
to neutral
1 1/2 inches
2 1/2 inches
3 1/2 inches
In footings between the ground
and steel, what minimum thickness
of concrete should be provided?
Figure 5E
What tie is most often used in
floor slabs?
What type is tie #l?
Double-strand single strand
Saddle tie with a twist
Figure eight tie
Saddle tie
What tie will cause the LEAST
amount of twisting action on rebar?
In concrete, proper coverage of the
bars is required to prevent what
condition(s) from developing?
Fire, weather, and corrosion
Bars expanding and breaking
through the concrete
Rust seeping to the surface
of the concrete
Loss of tensile strength
in the bars
When a column assembly of rebar is
raised into place, the reinforcing
steel is tied to the column form
at intervals of what distance?
When splicing 1/2-inch-thick rebar
of reinforcing steel without the
benefit of drawing specifications,
what is the minimum distance that
you should lap the bar?
Textbook Assignment:
“Pre-engineered Buildings, K-spans, Towers, and Antennas” and “Preengineered Storage Tanks,” pages 8-1 through 9-13.
Learning Objective:
Identify the
construction characteristics of
pre-engineered metal structures and
procedures for erection and
What is the true length of a preengineered building (P.E.B.) that
consists of four bays?
There are a total of how many
intermediate frames in a P.E.B.
that is 100 feet long?
Earthwork placement
Forms placement
Concrete placement
Anchor bolt placement
At what location is the erection
manual and a set of drawings for a
P.E.B. to be erected and
With the plans and
In the battalion tech library
In the small parts box (Box 1)
At the quality control office
You are ready to begin the erection
of a P.E.B. at a selected site. At
what location(s) should the girts,
purlins, cave struts, and brace
rods be staged?
Keep the line taut
Allow some slack in the line
Keep the frame in balance just
beyond the vertical position
Take a few turns of the tag
line around the bumper of a
truck previously positioned for
this purpose
How do you determine whether the
erected columns of the frame for a
P.E.B. are plumb and square?
In the center of the site
At each end of the site
At the designated locations
around the site where they will
be used
Only at one end of the site
A driftpin should be dropped
into the frame
A block should be mounted to
the top of the gin pole
A tag line should be attached
to the frame
A bridle should be attached
securely on each side of the
frame below the splice
connection and to the ridge of
the roof beam
A gin pole is being used to raise
an end frame of a P.E.B. What
action can the tagman take to
maintain control of the frame if it
moves beyond the vertical position?
The doors only
The assembled columns and roof
The girts only
The purlins and struts
When a gin pole is being used to
raise the end frame of a P.E.B.,
what action should you take to
prevent distortion of the frame as
it is being raised into place?
What is the most important step in
pre-erection work that increases
the ease of erecting a P.E.B.?
After all foundation work is
completed and cleaned off, the base
shoes are bolted in place. What
component(s) is/are laid out next?
By checking each corner with a
carpenter’s level
By checking each corner with a
carpenter’s square
By checking the horizontal
distance from the upper corner
of one frame to the upper
corner of the adjacent frame
By checking the diagonal
distance from the upper corner
of one frame to the lower
corner of the adjacent frame
When should a construction team
install the cave struts, girts, and
purlins in the bays of a P.E.B.?
After the building is completed
After all the frames are
As soon as each frame is
As soon as the diagonal brace
rods are installed
When the base angles are installed,
you can take what action that will
permit adjustments after the wall
sheeting has been applied?
Bolt the base angles in place
Sweep the concrete foundation
Place a flat steel washer under
each nut
Leave the nuts loose
Purl ins
After the sheeting has been removed
from a P.E.B., you can proceed to
disassemble the building by
removing what parts first?
Girts and purlins
Windows, doors, and end walls
Diagonal brace angles and sag
side form panels
end wall caps
cross pipes
A loose clamp can cause panels
to slip and fall, resulting in
injury to personnel and damage
to the panel
A loose clamp can cause damage
to the crane
Guide ropes are not required
with a spreader bar
It allows panels to be placed
in high winds
How many inches “on center” do you
weld the panels to the attaching
2. 10
3. 12
4. 14
It is not necessary to seam each
set of standing panels before
detaching the spreader bar.
Learning Objective:
erecting procedures for K-span
buildings (ABM 120).
Why is attaching the spreader bar a
critical step in erecting panels?
All material for the forms is
provided for with the exception of
When disassembling a P.E.B., you
remove what structural member
The running of the stock
through to form the panel shape
The cutting of the stock to the
correct length
The selection of the site
Putting the arch in the panel
Concrete forms and accessories are
provided for a K-span building of
what size?
Hardboard insulation that is
applied directly to the inside
surface of the structural
Blanket-type insulation
installed between the sheets
and structural
Hardboard secured to wood
Sheet board to the outside
The machine operator does NOT
control which of the following
Helix nails or sheet-metal screws
are recommended for attaching what
type of P.E.B. insulation material
to the building?
The K-span building machine turns
coils of steel into structural
strength arched panels which are
machine seamed together. This
process eliminates the need for
nuts, bolts, or other types of
Which of the following building
characteristics determine the
foundation design of a K-span?
Wind load only
Building size only
Soil conditions only
Each of the above
Where are the actual footing
details for a K-span building
erection manual
plans and specifications
construction drawings
When do you install the end wall
attaching angle?
Although there are some differences
between the ABM 120 and the ABM
240, the actual construction steps
are the same for both buildings.
Learning Objective:
erecting and dismantling procedures
for prefabricated steel towers.
tightened with
center punched
fitted with lock
The securing of one end of the
tag line to one end of the
The securing of the snatch
block to the base of the tower
The lining up of the snatch
block with the power source
The attaching of a shackle to
the gusset plate and hanging a
snatch block in the shackle
To remove the legs of a tower
section, you remove the first
gusset plate to accomplish what
They are
They are
They are
They are
When dismantling a tower, you
should insert the fiber line in the
snatch block after what steps have
been accomplished?
Each leg is connected to the
foundation stub
Two legs are connected to the
foundation stub, then the angle
and cross braces are joined
Two legs are connected to the
foundation stubs, the angle and
braces are joined, and the side
is then erected as a unit
The whole section is assembled
and fitted to the foundation
stubs , and then connected
How are the bolts used in
assembling a steel tower locked in
place after the tower has been
The Super Span (ABM 240) uses
heavier coil stock, has a larger
minimum and maximum span, and has a
panel profile than that used for
the K-span building (ABM 120) .
After the first three panels
are set
When the exact building length
has been determined
After the first set of panels
is set
After all panels are set
How many inches is the top exterior
portion of the concrete sloped
after all of the panels are welded
to the attaching angle?
What is the correct method for
assembling a side of the first
section of a tower?
The securing of the tag line
with a clove hitch
The cutting out of all of the
rivets that hold the leg
The taking up of the slack in
the hoist line
The tightening of the two
inserted machine bolts
You are dismantling the leg of a
tower structure section that has
served as a gin pole in the
dismantling operation. You should
remove the top machine bolt and
loosen the other machine bolt onequarter turn before taking what
By guy wires attached to ground
By external braces fastened to
the base of the tower
By use of oversized base
By use of a composite base or
Heavy construction
Guyed, light construction
Pivot type, light construction
Tapered, light construction
The 60- and
The 60- and
The 160- and
The 100- and
When the guy tension is not
specified in the tower installation
plans, the tension is adjusted at
first to what percentage of the
breaking strength of the guy
For a 200-foot tower with two guy
layers, cable attachments should be
positioned at approximately what
You are fastening parts of an
antenna tower with high strength
steel bolts that are 3/4 inch by 10
inches in size. What is the
maximum torque that you should
apply to tighten the bolts?
By a hoisting line attached to
a single point near the tower
By a snatch block and hoisting
sling attached to the tower at
two points
By a snatch block and tag line
attached to the tower base
By a snatch block attached at
the top of the tower
At least how many sections of a
tower are erected before temporary
guying becomes necessary?
To maintain a fixed distance
between the hoisting line and
the upper end of the davit
To help tower sections being
hoisted from touching sections
already in place
To direct the hoisting line to
a winch
To fasten the tower base to the
concrete foundation
How is a lightweight, pivoted 120foot tower raised with a gin pole?
When level, the supports for an
antenna tower can help keep
sections of the tower from
Cutting the remaining rivets
from the leg
Signaling the vehicle operator
to back up slowly
Removing the gusset plate from
one side of the splice
Signaling the crew to remove
the hoist line from the base
snatch block
What type of antenna tower requires
a composite base?
Refer to textbook figure 8-33 which
shows a davit hoist used for
erecting a lightweight guyed tower.
Why is a snatch block attached to
the tower base?
How is an untapered antenna tower
made structurally stable?
After an antenna tower is erected
and plumbed, you should test the
tension of how many of its guy
lines with a dynamometer?
One guy in each direction of
One guy only at each level to
which guys are clamped
The uppermost guys only
All of the guys
What size bolted steel tank will
you need to store 10,000 gallons
1.00 barrel
250 barrel
500 barrel
900 barrel
After the bottom plates of a 250 or
500 barrel tank have been
installed, their pattern should
resemble what shape?
What advantage is gained from the
spreading of a layer of clean sand
or gravel over the foundation for a
tank ?
What characteristic should the ends
of gasket material that you have
broken or cut exhibit to ensure a
leakproof joint?
Good drainage is ensured
Corrosion is prevented
Oxidation is increased
Erosion is prevented
The two bottom plates of a 100
barrel tank are what shape?
What size earth pad is required for
a tank with an outside diameter of
15 feet 5 inches?
center ladder support
flanged side
radial seam joint
bolt retainer angle
The bottom of what size tank
consists of 14 wedge-shaped plates
that connect to a one-piece centerring section?
What is the total capacity, in
gallons, of a 250 barrel tank?
Learning Objective:
Identify the
principles and methods of
assembling and erecting prefabricated bolted steel tanks.
What part of the deck section acts
as a supporting rafter for the top
of the tank?
They should overlap at least
two bolt holes and be squarely
across the second hole
They should be cut squarely and
bolted close together over two
bolt holes
They should be laid over each
other in a crosswise fashion
They should extend at least one
bolt hole and be folded back
under the cutoff piece
What part of the tank erection kit
do you use to make the tank deck
slope properly?
After the first intermediate plate
has been installed on the bottom of
a 500 barrel tank, the remaining
plates are installed in a
counterclockwise direction.
A bolt retainer angle
A flanged manhole
A top chime
The center ladder
What is the reason that all catch
nuts for the bolts on the bottom
plates of a tank should be fingertightened only?
Of the 14 deck plates used for the
500 barrel tank, 2 are fitted with
what components?
Liquid level indicators
A tank thief and vent
Cross-braced flanges
Left-side lap seams
The outside ladder assembly of a
500 barrel tank has how many steps?
right and lower left
right and upper left
left and upper left
right and upper left
Cut the short end around the
manhole with a torch
Raise or lower the center
support ladder until all deck
section bolt holes are aligned
Raise the outside or top chime
section and pull the vertical
staves out or in as required
Increase the size of the holes
by drilling
If a tank is to used for other than
water storage, the emergency vent
valve can be omitted.
The special stave, fitted with a
pipe coupling of the same size as
the tank supply pipe, must be the
first stave to be installed.
Just before the bottom bolts
are tightened
Just before the last stave is
Just after the deck has been
Just after sealing compound has
been applied to all bottom
As the deck plates are being
installed, you find that the ends
of some of them will not align with
the bolt holes on the manhole or
the top chime bolts. What action
should you take to eliminate this
To determine which end of a stave
is the top, you look at the stave
from the outside while it is in the
vertical position.
If the stave is
in the proper position, offsets are
at what corners?
So each plate can be adjusted
to allow the last plate to fit
So the wedge gussets fit under
So caulking can be applied
under all gaskets
So the gaskets are not damaged
during assembly
At what point during construction
should the center support ladder
components and manhole dome be
placed inside the tank?
Textbook Assignment:
“Pontoons” and “Pre-engineered Structures:
Short Airfield for
Tactical Support,” pages 10-2 through 11-27.
Learning Objective:
Identify the
design and construction features of
P-series pontoons and attachments.
What types of pontoons are used to
form a continuous ramp for causeway
ends and barge bows?
to bridge openings or slots
between pontoons
to bridge the space between
adjacent causeway sections
being set up
to make a bridge to wharf
to make a barge to wharf
B1 all-purpose bitt
MI147 double bitt
B4 retractable bitt
LK12 utility bitt
Learning Objective:
Identify the
fundamentals of assembling pontoons
to form a string, launching the
string, and joining launched
strings to form barges and
A cotter pin
Keeper plates
Flanged nuts
What bitt is desiqned for quick
positioning in the chain plate of a
causeway section?
What device is used to prevent an
A6 assembly bolt from working out
of assembly angles?
Horizontal fender connections
Corner installations
Drop fender installations
Diagonal fender installations
The DC6 deck closure is used
as basic condition angles on
the edges of the pontoon
as basic condition angles
anywhere on the pontoon strings
as end condition angles on left
and right edges, respectively,
of the pontoon strings
as basic condition angles only
to be used on topside of the
continuous angles
ramp-end bent plate
gusset plate
chafing plate
end plate
The H6 hatch cover and floor panel
assembly are primarily used to
convert what type of pontoon into a
storage compartment?
4 pontoons, each 12 feet square
several 4-foot by 12-foot
4 pontoon strings in width and
12 pontoons long
4 pontoon strings, each 12 feet
When installing RF1 rubber fenders,
you use the RF4 fender bracket for
what purpose?
Assembly angles E16L and E26R are
designed to be used
A 4 by 12 pontoon assembly consists
What pontoon number does a P2
become when quick-lock connectors
are fixed to-its bow?
What accessory is used for
connecting pontoon strings at the
point where each string has a P3
sloped-deck ramp pontoon connected
to a P1 pontoon?
At what location should you
position the first and succeeding
pontoons after the first two
assembly angles are installed in a
causeway section?
P1 and P5M
P1, P2, and P3
P1 only
P4 only
Learning Objective:
Identify the
design, use, and features of the
Elevated Causeway Sections (ELCAS).
What pontoon barge was designed for
mounting a crawler crane?
What type(s) of pontoons are used
to form dry docks?
P5M, and P4
P2, P3, and P4
P5F, and P5M
P3, P4, and P5M
To submerge the decks of a dry dock
to its maximum depth of 12 feet,
you need a sheltered area with a
smooth bottom with how many feet of
quiet water?
JT7 drive wrench
JT8 backup wrench
JT13 two-piece aligning tool
JT2 top angle clamp
Causeway sections are normally
deployed on what type of ship?
One inshore and one offshore
with as many intermediate
sections as required for length
One inshore, one intermediate,
and two offshore
Two inshore, two offshore, and
two intermediate
One inshore and two offshore
What types of pontoons make up an
inshore section of a causeway?
The JT13 aligning tool should be
used when the differences in the
hole alignment between angles
restrict easy passage of A6B bolts.
After being launched, what special
tool is used to clamp together a
series of pontoon strings?
The first pontoon is placed in
the center of the angle and
succeeding pontoons on each
side of the first one
The first pontoon is placed on
the bow and succeeding pontoons
on the stern, working forward
The first pontoon is placed on
the bow, the second on the
stern, the third on the bow,
and the fourth on the stern
The first pontoon is placed on
the stern then succeeding
pontoons work outward and
To connect strings into
To secure assembly angles to
pontoons at each corner
To secure deck fittings and
All of the above
A pontoon causeway consists of what
In which of the following ways are
A6B bolts used in the construction
of pontoon systems?
What is the primary use of the 10
by 30 barge?
The ELCAS is used to bridge the
surf zone.
As a 1,500 barrel fuel storage
As a mount for a 100-ton
As a heavy-duty wharf structure
As a warping tug
A standard ELCAS consists of three
3 by 15 approach/roadway sections
nine 3 by 15 pierhead sections
six 3 by 15 pierhead sections
three 3 by 15 pierhead sections
four 3 by 15 pierhead sections
What unique component of the ELCAS
system gives it the ability to
P1 pontoons
Supporting pilings
3 by 15 intermediate causeway
Why are AM-2 mats installed with
their joints staggered in a
brickwork fashion?
Internal spudwells are used in the
inboard string of pierhead
The ELCAS consists of a total of
how many parts?
What are the contents of one full
pallet assembly of AM-2 matting?
How many spudwells are required to
construct a type 3 pierhead
Three internal and four
Four internal and four external
Four internal and three
Three internal and three
The fender system uses P8 pontoons
as end-to-end connections instead
of P5 pontoons since it is only one
pontoon wide.
Learning Objective:
Identify the
construction features and functions
of the major components of the
Short Airfield for Tactical Support
2 half mats, 4 full mats, and
10 locking bars
2 half mats, 8 full mats, and
20 locking bars
4 half mats, 20 full mats, and
24 locking bars
4 half mats, 16 full mats, and
20 locking bars
The standard pallet assembly (F11)
provides a width of two rows (4
feet) on a runway or taxiway that
is how many feet wide?
AM-2 matting is manufactured from
what type of metal?
11 half mats, 2 full mats, and
2 locking bars
2 half mats, 11 full mats, and
2 locking bars
4 half mats, 8 full mats, and
12 locking bars
2 half mats, 11 full mats, and
13 locking bars
What does one F15 pallet assembly
of AM-2 matting contain?
To stabilize the runway across
its width and in the direction
of aircraft travel
To stabilize the runway across
its width and to make it
flexible in the direction of
aircraft travel
To make the runway flexible
across its width and to
stabilize it in the direction
of aircraft travel
To make the runway flexible
across its width and in the
direction of aircraft travel
Learning Objective: Recognize the
general principles and procedures
for installing AM-2 runway mats.
When a SATS site for placement of
AM-2 mats is being prepared, the
surface must be leveled and graded
so that over a span of 12 feet, the
maximum variation in height of the
mats is
1. 1
3/4 inch
1/2 inch
1/4 inch
For which of the following reasons
should accurate longitudinal and
transverse center lines be
established before a SATS
A motorized rough-terrain crane
A helicopter
A 4K forklift
A 6,000-pound rough-terrain
pry bar
When AM-2 mats are being installed,
the installers can prevent
misalignment due to the “loose fit”
design by taking what action?
pry bar
pry bar
Lay several transverse rows of
matting initially in opposite
Initially lay several
transverse rows of matting in
one direction only
Lay several longitudinal rows
of matting in one direction
pry bar
The pry bar men of the installation
crew are responsible for which of
the following tasks?
What action, if any, is recommended
to prevent a seesaw force from
disturbing the alignment of the
matting when a keylock section is
placed and aligned at the center
1 alignment man, 12 mat
installation men, and 2
2 alignment men, 12 mat
installation men, and 2
2 alignment men, 24 mat
installation men, and 2
2 alignment men, 12 mat
installation men, and 4
To guide the crew in the
installation of the AM-2 matting,
you should install keylocks every
100 feet.
In addition to the POIC, the
typical installation crew assigned
to lay a 96-foot-wide runway
consists of what personnel?
To ensure there is enough room
for the airfield
To ensure that the site meets
CBR requirements
To make the deployment of
pallets easier
All of the above
The approach apron
The transverse center line
The longitudinal center line
The end opposite the approach
In an installation requiring a
guide rail system, starter keylocks
are used for laying runway mats.
What equipment is best suited for
handling pallets of AM-2 airfield
What is used as the starting point
for laying runway mats in an
installation not requiring a guide
rail system?
Adjusting the first mat in each
transverse row
Spacing the mats to allow for
thermal installation and
insertion of the mat-locking
Taking the mats from a pallet
and installing them in place
All of the above
What devices are used to secure
typical 9-foot and 12-foot keylocks
Using locking bars as temporary
spacers between the rows
Installing rubber spacers
between the longitudinal rows
Installing rubber spacers
between the transverse rows
Installing gap gauges between
the transverse rows
Male-female edges
Locking bars
Socket head screws
Binding straps
On what type of surface should mat
ends be laid?
Crushed rock
Packed dirt
At what depth should the free end
of the approach apron be buried?
When guide rails and mats are being
laid, any depression in the grade
that is not within specifications
can be disregarded.
What total number of gap gauges
should remain installed after the
guide rail pins have been
To speed up the installation of AM2 mats, you should assume that no
two parts are laid at the same
For the field-laying
procedure, what is the order of
sequence of installation, first to
Lateral taxiway, main runway,
parallel taxiway, and parking
Main runway, parallel taxiway,
parking areas, and lateral
Main runway, lateral taxiways,
parallel taxiways, and parking
and storage areas
Lateral taxiway, parallel
taxiway, main runway, and
parking and storage areas
The attachment of a clamp over
the male connector
The bottoming of the setscrew
The tightening of the socket
head screws
The insertion of the dowel pins
Pry the keylock out halfway
Insert the keylock removal tool
Remove the socket head screw
Loosen the socket
When replacing a SATS runway
section, you remove the initial 3foot and 6-foot keylock section by
A section of SATS runway must be
To remove the typical
keylock section, you should ensure
what step is taken first?
Female (b) prongs-up
Male (b) prongs-down
Female (b) prongs-down
Male (b) prongs-up
What action is taken to lock in
place the locking bar of the
replacement mat shown in figure 1134 of the textbook?
In the lower adapter, the dowel pin
functions as (1) a locating device
in the placement of the upper and
middle adapters on the lower
adapter, and (2) a means of keeping
the holes in the upper, middle,
lower, and connector adapters in
approximate alignment.
As described in the text for
taxiway procedure #2, the space
between the taxiway and the runway
should fall within what size range,
in inches?
When cutting out a damaged AM-2
mat, you should make a cut along
(a) what edge and (b) what
1. 10
Learning Objective:
Identify the
procedures for repairing damaged
matting and for disassembling and
removing the matting from the
Parking and storage areas may be
laid with leftover mats in any
random pattern.
hammering it out with a sledge
prying it with a bar
pulling it with a keylock
removal tool
cutting it with a portable saw
The first row of runway mats can be
disassembled and removed by lifting
the entire row evenly with lifting
blocks and pry bars and by pulling
out the locking bars.
In the procedure for replacing
damaged mats with new or
refurbished mats, the last row of
matting is raised in unison for
what purpose?
Dry sand
Crushed rock
Damaged AM-2 mats
Restored AM-2 mats
To give the tool clearance,
place them on blocks that have
the height to do this
When straightening male edges,
place the tops of the mats face
When straightening lower and
upper female edges, place the
bottoms of the mats face up
All of the above
What components do you remove last
when using the most efficient
procedure for disassembling a SATS
runway (no guide rail)?
level the ground surface
attach end connectors
insert locking bars
install the guard rail
In which of the following ways
should you position mats-so their
edges can be straightened with the
edge repair tool?
What material should be used to
reinforce filled cavities under
2 matting?
Typical keylocks
Female keylocks
Starter keylocks
Starter locking bars
When disassembling a guide rail
equipped SATS runway, you should
start removing mats from the end of
the runway that was assembled last.
Textbook Assignment:
“Steelworker Tools and Equipment,” pages 12-1 through 12-15.
Learning Objective: Describe the
principles and techniques for
operating and maintaining tools
used by Steelworkers in the shop
and field.
Work that does not require great
accuracy and is accomplished on a
bench or pedestal grinder is known
as what type of grinding?
Free hand
Off hand
The wheel will not become
The chips and cracks are made
easy to find
Fire hazards are totally
The wheel and work are kept
cool and clean
Tool rests on a grinder must always
be used and properly adjusted to
prevent what problem from
Work becoming wedged between
the rest and the wheel
Fingers being caught in the
Clothing getting caught in the
Sparks and dust obscuring the
view of the work
Inspect the air hose for leaks
or damage
Blow air through the air hose
to free it of foreign material
before connecting it to the
Keep the air hose clean and
free of lubricants
All of the above
Compressed air comes directly in
contact with valves and pistons in
pneumatic hammers and causes which
of the following conditions to
Grinding wheels can be sources of
danger and must be checked
periodically for irregularities and
To test the wheel, you
suspend it on a string or wire and
tap it with a metal rod. A solid
wheel gives off a clear ringing
Gray cast iron
High carbon steel
Which of the following actions
should you take before using a
pneumatic tool?
Remove the glaze from the wheel
True the wheel
Put the flat surfaces on the
sides of the wheel
Bring the wheel back to round
Because doing so will clog the
wheel, you should never shape which
of the following metals on an
abrasive wheel?
What advantage is gained by
flooding the wheel on a wet type of
When using a wheel dresser, you
should never take which of the
following actions?
Rust formations in the valves
Lubricants evaporate from the
Lubricants are driven out of
the exhaust
Lubricants become contaminated
with moisture
Which of the following steps must
be taken when working continuously
with a pneumatic tool on a
compressed air system not equipped
with a filter, a regulator, and a
lubricator assembly?
the supervisor’s checklist
designated sites
the capacity plate
the material handling cards
Off hand
Twice the distance between the
wheel centers
The distance between the wheel
Twice the tension adjustment
Tooth points per inch by
thickness by gauge
The number of teeth per inch of
The thickness of the material
being cut
The speed of the blade
The width of the blade
Put them in a jig
Clamp them together
Tack-weld them together
Increase the blade speed
Which of the following blades can
be reconditioned by the same
procedures that are used for a band
saw blade?
When making identical cuts on
multiple pieces at the same time on
a band saw, you must follow what
The vertical band saw is primarily
used to make curved cuts; however,
it is frequently used for what
other type of cutting?
blade guides
lower wheels
upper wheels
What factor determines the size of
the radius of the curves and
circles you can cut with a vertical
band saw?
Straightening bends
Punching holes
Cutting circles
Bending rebar
Which of the following values do
you add to the circumference of one
wheel to determine the required
length of a vertical band saw
Cleaning solvent
Diesel fuel
What is the smallest size band saw
The maximum capacity of a material
that can be safely handled by a
combination iron worker is found at
what location?
Stop hourly, disconnect the
hose, and squirt a few drops of
heavy oil into the hose
Stop twice daily, disconnect
the hose, and squirt a few
drops of light oil into the
hose connection
Every morning before starting,
squirt as much oil as you can
into the hose connection
Disconnect the hose every hour
or so and squirt a few drops of
light oil into the hose
What other task does the
combination iron worker perform in
addition to shearing, coping,
notching, and mitering?
On a band saw, the mechanism that
adjusts and controls the alignment
and tensioning of the blade is at
what location?
What lubricant must be used to
clean a pneumatic tool that has
become gummed up and dirty from
heavy oil?
circular saw
hand ripsaw
chain saw
Which of the following processes do
you use to repair a broken band saw
blade when there is no accessory
welder available?
To achieve uniform thickness
To remove burrs and correct
To remove any hardness that has
developed while grinding
To retemper the band saw blade
Which of the following materials
can be cut with a power hacksaw?
Bar stock
All of the above
What are the two types of power
High speed and low speed
Forward and reverse action
Mechanical and hydraulic drive
Vertical and horizontal feed
Solid brass
Rolled aluminum
Cast iron
Cold rolled steel
Gears cause excessive vibration
which eliminates the “feel”
Belts are stronger than gears
Belts require little
Gears are too heavy
Which of the following factors
makes a radial drill press
convenient to use on work where
many holes must be drilled?
Count the forward strokes
Count the reverse strokes
Count the strokes per minute
Count the strokes per minute
that contact the material
Why are belts almost always used
instead of gears on a sensitive
drill press?
Which of the following materials
can be cut without using a coolant?
vertical band saw
reciprocating power hacksaw
power shear
How can you determine the speed of
a power hacksaw?
Step clear of the machine
Pull the piece clear you are
working on
Attempt to guide the broken
piece out of the machine
Immediately shut off the power
The forward and reverse angle
of the teeth
The number of teeth per inch
The width of the cutting area
The distance the blade can
twist without affecting the cut
You are using a reciprocating power
What feed on the hacksaw
will shut off automatically if a
hard spot is hit?
What is the minimum number of teeth
that should be in contact with the
work when band sawing metals?
What shop tool is gradually being
replaced by the horizontal band
cutoff saw due to its increased
speed, accuracy, and versatility?
What does “the pitch of the teeth”
mean in relation to the selection
of band saw blades or hack saw
When working on a band saw and the
blade breaks, you should take what
action first?
Why must you anneal a band saw
blade again after grinding the weld
bead off a butt-welded blade?
The ease the chuck can be swung
out of the way
The work does not have to be
readjusted for each hole
Adjust the drill base easily to
drill all holes
Drill holes horizontally
You have completed a preoperational
safety inspection of a drill press;
however, after it is started, you
still should be alert for
Inches in diameter
Each of the above
Mineral oil
Soda water
Motor oil
What results when you bore holes
with a drill bit whose lip length
and lip angles are improper?
Tapered holes
Angled holes
Oversized holes
Undersized holes
What shape are the chips that come
from a hole that has been drilled
in soft metal with a drill bit that
was sharpened properly?
Long curled chips of unequal
Long straight chips of equal
Short tightly curled spirals
Curled spirals of equal length
When operating an air compressor,
you must keep it within the
15-degree out-of-level limits for
what reason?
A manifold compressor system that
has a pipe 6 inches in diameter and
100 feet long can carry a total of
how many cubic feet of air per
It will rub without penetration
It will gouge material
Its cutting action is increased
It will break easily
The terrain or activity on a
construction site may not allow a
compressor to be placed near the
actual work.
For this reason, you
should remember that air line hoses
suffer a considerable loss in
pressure beyond what distance?
Dip it in cool water
Cool it with compressed air
Dip it in oil
Cool it in still air
Reduction in volume
Pumping action
Flow reduction
Air compressors in the field have a
pressure control system that is
governed to allow how many pounds
of pressure?
What results when you use a drill
bit you repointed but allowed too
little lip clearance on it?
When reshaping a badly worn drill
bit that has become overheated by
accident, you should take which of
the following actions?
Air compressors have a system for
taking in air and exhausting it at
a much higher pressure.
This is
accomplished by compressing the air
through a process known by what
Which of the following cutting
oils/cooling fluids reduces heat,
overcomes rust, and improves the
finish on ferrous metals?
frayed v-belts
loose locking handles
frayed electric cords
squeaks or unusual noises
The size of a drill bit can be
indicated by which of the following
To prevent stress on the
compressor drive shaft
To prevent it from rolling
without blocking
To prevent the starting torque
from turning over the
To maintain the proper engine
crankcase and compressor oil
When starting the engine of an air
compressor, you should open the
service valves to what position to
hasten the warm-up of the
compressor oil?
The one-quarter OPEN position
The half-OPEN position
The three-quarters OPEN
The fully OPEN position
To help detect engine
To maintain an air flow through
the oil cooler and radiator
To place the engine preheat
switch within easy reach
To simplify mechanical
For how many minutes should the
engine and compressor operate
before you close the service valve
and connect the tool hoses?
Run it wide open for a couple
of minutes
Open the service valves wide
Leave the side curtains closed
for a few minutes
Close all valves for 5 minutes
You must lubricate an air
compressor according to the
instructions maintained in what
The crew leader’s instruction
or SOP book
On the instruction plate or in
the operator’s manual
Notices and instructions
maintained by the mechanic
Your own notes from past
drain excess oil
relieve air pressure
drain condensation
expel dust
Eliminates the
bolting crew
Eliminates the
Eliminates the
Eliminates the
drilling crew
need for a
need for
need for tag
need for a
What type of action does the blind
rivet installation tool produce to
compress the blind rivets after
they are inserted into their holes?
In cold weather conditions, what
should you do to aid the warm-up of
an air compressor?
In addition to shortening
construction time, what is another
advantage of using a blind rivet on
pre-engineered metal buildings?
1. 10
The drain cocks on all air
compressor field units must be
opened for what reason?
For what reason are both side
curtains of the engine enclosure of
an air compressor kept in the OPEN
position when the engine is
A combined holding and
hammering action
A combined clamping and
crimping action
A combined vibrating and
crushing action
A combined reciprocating and
pulling action
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