FormCalc User Reference

FormCalc User Reference
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FormCalc User Reference
Adobe® LiveCycle® Designer ES2
November 2009
Version 9
© 2009 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved.
Adobe® LiveCycle® Designer ES2 (9.0) FormCalc User Reference for Microsoft® Windows®
Edition 4.0, November 2009
This reference guide is licensed for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 3.0 License. This
License allows users to copy, distribute, and transmit the guide for noncommercial purposes only so long as (1) proper attribution to
Adobe is given as the owner of the guide; and (2) any reuse or distribution of the guide contains a notice that use of the guide is governed
by these terms. The best way to provide notice is to include the following link. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/.
Adobe, Adobe logo, Adobe Reader, Acrobat, and LiveCycle are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States and/or other countries. Microsoft and Windows are either trademarks or registered trademarks of Microsoft
Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Adobe Systems Incorporated, 345 Park Avenue, San Jose, California 95110, USA.
3
Contents
Preface
What’s in this guide?
.......................................................................................................................4
Who should read this guide?
Related documentation
...............................................................................................................4
....................................................................................................................4
1. Introducing FormCalc
2. Building blocks
Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Variables
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Reference Syntax
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Property and method calls
Built-in function calls
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3. Alphabetical Functions List
4. Arithmetic Functions
5. Date and Time Functions
6. Financial Functions
7. Logical Functions
8. Miscellaneous Functions
9. String Functions
10. URL Functions
Index
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
4
Preface
Adobe® LiveCycle® Designer ES2 provides a set of tools that enables a form developer to build intelligent business documents. The form
developer can incorporate calculations and scripting to create a richer experience for the recipient of the form. For example, you might use
simple calculations to automatically update costs on a purchase order, or you might use more advanced scripting to modify the appearance
of your form in response to the locale of the user.
To facilitate the creation of calculations, Designer ES2 provides users with FormCalc. FormCalc is a simple calculation language created by
Adobe, and is modeled on common spreadsheet applications. FormCalc is simple and accessible for those with little or no scripting
experience. It also follows many rules and conventions common to other scripting languages, so experienced form developers will find their
skills relevant to using FormCalc.
What’s in this guide?
This guide is intended for form developers using Designer ES2 who want to incorporate FormCalc calculations in their forms. The guide
provides a reference to the FormCalc functions, which are organized into chapters according to function category. The guide also provides
an introduction to the FormCalc language and the building blocks that make up FormCalc expressions.
Who should read this guide?
This guide provides information to assist form developers interested in using the FormCalc language to create calculations that enhance
form designs created in Designer ES2.
Related documentation
For additional information on using FormCalc calculations in your forms, see Creating Calculations and Scripts in Designer ES2 Help.
If you require more technical information about FormCalc, refer to the Adobe XML Forms Architecture (XFA) Specification, available from
http://partners.adobe.com/public/developer/xml/index_arch.html.
5
1. Introducing FormCalc
FormCalc is a simple yet powerful calculation language modeled on common spreadsheet software. Its purpose is to facilitate fast and
efficient form design without requiring a knowledge of traditional scripting techniques or languages. Users new to FormCalc can expect,
with the use of a few built-in functions, to create forms quickly that save end users from performing time-consuming calculations, validations, and other verifications. In this way, a form developer is able to create a basic intelligence around a form at design time that allows the
resulting interactive form to react according to the data it encounters.
The built-in functions that make up FormCalc cover a wide range of areas including mathematics, dates and times, strings, finance, logic,
and the web. These areas represent the types of data that typically occur in forms, and the functions provide quick and easy manipulation
of the data in a useful way.
“About scripting in Designer ES2” on page 5
“Alphabetical Functions List” on page 25
About scripting in Designer ES2
Within Designer ES2, FormCalc is the default scripting language in all scripting locations, with JavaScript™ as the alternative. Scripting takes
place on the various events that accompany each form object, and you can use a mixture of FormCalc and JavaScript on interactive forms.
However, if you are using a server-based process, such as Forms ES2, to create forms for viewing in an internet browser, FormCalc scripts
on certain form object events do not render onto the HTML form. This functionality is to prevent Internet browser errors from occurring
when users work with the completed form.
6
2. Building blocks
The FormCalc language consists of a number of building blocks that make up FormCalc expressions. Each FormCalc expression is a
sequence of some combination of these building blocks.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
“Literals” on page 6
“Operators” on page 7
“Comments” on page 8
“Keywords” on page 9
“Identifiers” on page 9
“Line terminators” on page 10
“White space” on page 10
Literals
Literals are constant values that form the basis of all values that pass to FormCalc for processing. The two general types of literals are
numbers and strings.
Number literals
A number literal is a sequence of mostly digits consisting of one or more of the following characters: an integer, a decimal point, a fractional
segment, an exponent indicator (“e” or “E”), and an optionally signed exponent value. These are all examples of literal numbers:
• -12
• 1.5362
• 0.875
• 5.56e-2
• 1.234E10
It is possible to omit either the integer or fractional segment of a literal number, but not both. In addition, within the fractional segment,
you can omit either the decimal point or the exponent value, but not both.
All number literals are internally converted to Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 64-bit binary values. However, IEEE
values can only represent a finite quantity of numbers, so certain values do not have a representation as a binary fraction. This is similar to
the fact that certain values, such as 1/3, do not have a precise representation as a decimal fraction (the decimal value would need an infinite
number of decimal places to be entirely accurate).
The values that do not have a binary fraction equivalent are generally number literals with more than 16 significant digits prior to their
exponent. FormCalc rounds these values to the nearest representable IEEE 64-bit value in accordance with the IEEE standard. For example,
the value:
123456789.012345678
rounds to the (nearest) value:
123456789.01234567
However, in a second example, the number literal:
99999999999999999
rounds to the (nearest) value:
100000000000000000
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Building blocks
FormCalc User Reference
This behavior can sometimes lead to surprising results. FormCalc provides a function, “Round” on page 33, which returns a given number
rounded to a given number of decimal places. When the given number is exactly halfway between two representable numbers, it is rounded
away from zero. That is, the number is rounded up if positive and down if negative. In the following example:
Round(0.124, 2)
returns 0.12,
and
Round(.125, 2)
returns 0.13.
Given this convention, one might expect that:
Round(0.045, 2)
returns 0.05.
However, the IEEE 754 standard dictates that the number literal 0.045 be approximated to 0.0449999999999999. This approximation
is closer to 0.04 than to 0.05. Therefore,
Round(0.045, 2)
returns 0.04.
This also conforms to the IEEE 754 standard.
IEEE 64-bit values support representations like NaN (not a number), +Inf (positive infinity), and -Inf (negative infinity). FormCalc does
not support these, and expressions that evaluate to NaN, +Inf, or -Inf result in an error exception, which passes to the remainder of the
expression.
String literals
A string literal is a sequence of any Unicode characters within a set of quotation marks. For example:
"The cat jumped over the fence."
"Number 15, Main street, California, U.S.A"
The string literal "" defines an empty sequence of text characters called the empty string.
To embed a quotation mark (") character within a literal string, you must insert two quotation marks. For example:
"The message reads: ""Warning: Insufficient Memory"""
All Unicode characters have an equivalent 6 character escape sequence consisting of \u followed by four hexadecimal digits. Within any
literal string, it is possible to express any character, including control characters, using their equivalent Unicode escape sequence. For
example:
"\u0047\u006f\u0066\u0069\u0073\u0068\u0021"
"\u000d" (carriage return)
"\u000a" (newline character)
Operators
FormCalc includes a number of operators: unary, multiplicative, additive, relational, equality, logical, and the assignment operator.
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FormCalc User Reference
Several of the FormCalc operators have an equivalent mnemonic operator keyword. These keyword operators are useful whenever
FormCalc expressions are embedded in HTML and XML source text, where the symbols less than (<), greater than (>), and ampersand (&)
have predefined meanings and must be escaped. The following table lists all FormCalc operators, illustrating both the symbolic and
mnemonic forms where appropriate.
Operator type
Representations
Addition
+
Division
/
Equality
== eq
<> ne
Logical AND
& and
Logical OR
| or
Multiplication
*
Relational
<
>
<=
>=
Subtraction
-
Unary
+
not
lt (less than)
gt (greater than)
le (less than or equal to)
ge (greater than or equal to)
Comments
Comments are sections of code that FormCalc does not execute. Typically comments contain information or instructions that explain the
use of a particular fragment of code. FormCalc ignores all information stored in comments at run time.
You can specify a comment by using either a semi-colon (;) or a pair of slashes (//). In FormCalc, a comment extends from its beginning to
the next line terminator.
Character name
Representations
Comment
;
//
For example:
// This is a type of comment
First_Name="Tony"
Initial="C" ;This is another type of comment
Last_Name="Blue"
Commenting all FormCalc calculations on an event
Commenting all of the FormCalc calculations for a particular event generates an error when you preview your form in the Preview PDF tab
or when you view the final PDF. Each FormCalc calculation is required to return a value, and FormCalc does not consider comments to be
values.
To prevent the commented FormCalc code from returning an error, you must do one of the following actions:
•
•
Remove the commented code from the event
Add an expression that returns a value to the FormCalc code on the event
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To prevent the value of the expression from producing unwanted results on your form, use one of the following types of expressions:
•
A simple expression consisting of a single character, as shown in the following example:
//
//
//
//
//
0
•
First_Name="Tony"
Initial="C"
Last_Name="Blue"
The simple expression below sets the value of the event to zero.
An assignment expression that retains the value of the object. Use this type of expression if your commented FormCalc code is located
on the calculate event to prevent the actual value of the object from being altered, as shown in the following example:
// First_Name="Tony"
// Initial="C"
// Last_Name="Blue"
//
// The assignment expression below sets the value of the current
// field equal to itself.
$.rawValue = $.rawValue
Keywords
Keywords in FormCalc are reserved words and are case-insensitive. Keywords are used as parts of expressions, special number literals, and
operators.
The following table lists the FormCalc keywords. Do not use any of these words when naming objects on your form design.
and
endif
in
step
break
endwhile
infinity
then
continue
eq
le
this
do
exit
lt
throw
downto
for
nan
upto
else
foreach
ne
var
elseif
func
not
while
end
ge
null
endfor
gt
or
endfunc
if
return
Identifiers
An identifier is a sequence of characters of unlimited length that denotes either a function or a method name. An identifier always begins
with one of the following characters:
•
•
•
•
Any alphabetic character (based on the Unicode letter classifications)
Underscore (_)
Dollar sign ($)
Exclamation mark (!)
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FormCalc User Reference
FormCalc identifiers are case-sensitive. That is, identifiers whose characters only differ in case are considered distinct.
Character name
Representations
Identifier
A..Z,a..z
$
!
_
These are examples of valid identifiers:
GetAddr
$primary
_item
!dbresult
Line terminators
Line terminators are used for separating lines and improving readability.
The following table lists the valid FormCalc line terminators:
Character name
Unicode characters
Carriage Return
#xD
U+000D
Line Feed
#xA
&#x000D;
&#D;
White space
White space characters separate various objects and mathematical operations from each other. These characters are strictly for improving
readability and are irrelevant during FormCalc processing.
Character name
Unicode character
Form Feed
#xC
Horizontal Tab
#x9
Space
#x20
Vertical Tab
#xB
Expressions
Literals, operators, comments, keywords, identifiers, line terminators, and white space come together to form a list of expressions, even if
the list only contains a single expression. In general, each expression in the list resolves to a value, and the value of the list as a whole is the
value of the last expression in the list.
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FormCalc User Reference
For example, consider the following scenario of two fields on a form design:
Field name
Calculations
Returns
Field1
5 + Abs(Price)
"Hello World"
10 * 3 + 5 * 4
50
Field2
10 * 3 + 5 * 4
50
The value of both Field1 and Field2 after the evaluation of each field’s expression list is 50.
FormCalc divides the various types of expressions that make up an expression list into the following categories:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
“Simple” on page 11
“Assignment” on page 13
“Logical OR” on page 13
“Logical AND” on page 13
“Unary” on page 14
“Equality and inequality” on page 14
“Relational” on page 15
“If expressions” on page 16
“While expressions” on page 16
“For expressions” on page 17
“Foreach expressions” on page 17
“Break expressions” on page 18
“Continue expressions” on page 18
Simple
In their most basic form, FormCalc expressions are groups of operators, keywords, and literals strung together in logical ways. For example,
these are all simple expressions:
2
"abc"
2 - 3 * 10 / 2 + 7
Each FormCalc expression resolves to a single value by following a traditional order of operations, even if that order is not always obvious
from the expression syntax. For example, the following sets of expressions, when applied to objects on a form design, produce equivalent
results:
Expression
Equivalent to
Returns
"abc"
"abc"
abc
2 - 3 * 10 / 2 + 7
2 - (3 * (10 / 2)) + 7
-6
10 * 3 + 5 * 4
(10 * 3) + (5 * 4)
50
0 and 1 or 2 > 1
(0 and 1) or (2 >1)
1 (true)
2 < 3 not 1 == 1
(2 < 3) not (1 == 1)
0 (false)
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As the previous table suggests, all FormCalc operators carry a certain precedence when they appear within expressions. The following table
illustrates this operator hierarchy:
Precedence
Operator
Highest
=
(Unary) - , + , not
*,/
+,< , <= , > , >= , lt , le , gt , ge
== , <> , eq , ne
& , and
Lowest
| , or
Promoting operands
In cases where one or more of the operands within a given operation do not match the expected type for that operation, FormCalc promotes
the operands to match the required type. How this promotion occurs depends on the type of operand required by the operation.
Numeric operations
When performing numeric operations involving non-numeric operands, the non-numeric operands are first promoted to their numeric
equivalent. If the non-numeric operand does not successfully convert to a numeric value, its value is 0. When promoting null-valued
operands to numbers, their value is always zero.
The following table provides some examples of promoting non-numeric operands:
Expression
Equivalent to
Returns
(5 - "abc") * 3
(5 - 0) * 3
15
"100" / 10e1
100 / 10e1
1
5 + null + 3
5 + 0 + 3
8
Boolean operations
When performing Boolean operations on non-Boolean operands, the non-Boolean operands are first promoted to their Boolean equivalent.
If the non-Boolean operand does not successfully convert to a nonzero value, its value is true (1); otherwise its value is false (0). When
promoting null-valued operands to a Boolean value, that value is always false (0). For example, the expression:
"abc" | 2
evaluates to 1. That is, false | true = true, whereas
if ("abc") then
10
else
20
endif
evaluates to 20.
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FormCalc User Reference
String operations
When performing string operations on nonstring operands, the nonstring operands are first promoted to strings by using their value as a
string. When promoting null-valued operands to strings, their value is always the empty string. For example, the expression:
concat("The total is ", 2, " dollars and ", 57, " cents.")
evaluates to "The total is 2 dollars and 57 cents."
Note: If during the evaluation of an expression an intermediate step yields NaN, +Inf, or -Inf, FormCalc generates an error exception and propagates that error for the remainder of the expression. As such, the expression's value will always be 0. For example:
3 / 0 + 1
evaluates to 0.
Assignment
An assignment expression sets the property identified by a given reference syntax to be the value of a simple expression. For example:
$template.purchase_order.name.first = "Tony"
This sets the value of the form design object “first” to Tony.
For more information on using reference syntax, see “Reference Syntax” on page 19.
Logical OR
A logical OR expression returns either true (1) if at least one of its operands is true (1), or false (0) if both operands are false (0). If both
operands are null, the expression returns null.
Expression
Character representation
Logical OR
|
or
These are examples of using the logical OR expression:
Expression
Returns
1 or 0
1 (true)
0 | 0
0 (false)
0 or 1 | 0 or 0
1 (true)
Logical AND
A logical AND expression returns either true (1) if both operands are true (1), or false if at least one of its operands is false (0). If both
operands are null, the expression returns null.
Expression
Character representation
Logical AND
&
and
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These are examples of using the logical AND expression:
Expression
Returns
1 and 0
0 (false)
0 & 0
1 (true)
0 and 1 & 0 and 0
0 (false)
Unary
A unary expression returns different results depending on which of the unary operators is used.
Expression
Character representation
Returns
Unary
-
The arithmetic negation of the operand, or null if the operand is null.
+
The arithmetic value of the operand (unchanged), or null if its operand is null.
not
The logical negation of the operand.
Note: The arithmetic negation of a null operand yields the result null, whereas the logical negation of a null operand yields the Boolean result
true. This is justified by the common sense statement: If null means nothing, then “not nothing” should be something.
These are examples of using the unary expression:
Expression
Returns
-(17)
-17
-(-17)
17
+(17)
17
+(-17)
-17
not("true")
1 (true)
not(1)
0 (false)
Equality and inequality
Equality and inequality expressions return the result of an equality comparison of its operands.
Expression
Character representation
Returns
Equality
==
eq
True (1) when both operands compare identically, and false (0) if they do not compare identically.
Inequality
<>
ne
True (1) when both operands do not compare identically, and false (0) if they compare identically.
The following special cases also apply when using equality operators:
•
If either operand is null, a null comparison is performed. Null-valued operands compare identically whenever both operands are null,
and compare differently whenever one operand is not null.
•
If both operands are references, both operands compare identically when they both refer to the same object, and compare differently
when they do not refer to the same object.
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•
FormCalc User Reference
If both operands are string valued, a locale-sensitive lexicographic string comparison is performed on the operands. Otherwise, if they
are not both null, the operands are promoted to numeric values, and a numeric comparison is performed.
These are examples of using the equality and inequality expressions:
Expression
Returns
3 == 3
1 (true)
3 <> 4
1 (true)
"abc" eq "def"
0 (false)
"def" ne "abc"
1 (true)
5 + 5 == 10
1 (true)
5 + 5 <> "10"
0 (false)
Relational
A relational expression returns the Boolean result of a relational comparison of its operands.
Expression
Character representation
Returns
Relational
< lt
True (1) when the first operand is less than the second operand, and false (0) when the first
operand is larger than the second operand.
> gt
True (1) when the first operand is greater than the second operand, and false (0) when the
first operand is less than the second operand.
<=
le
True (1) when the first operand is less than or equal to the second operand, and false (0) when
the first operand is greater than the second operand.
>=
ge
True (1) when the first operand is greater than or equal to the second operand, and false (0)
when the first operand is less than the second operand.
The following special cases also apply when using relational operators:
•
If either operand is null valued, a null comparison is performed. Null-valued operands compare identically whenever both operands are
null and the relational operator is less-than-or-equal or greater than or equal, and compare differently otherwise.
•
If both operands are string valued, a locale-sensitive lexicographic string comparison is performed on the operands. Otherwise, if they
are not both null, the operands are promoted to numeric values, and a numeric comparison is performed.
These are examples of using the relational expression:
Expression
Returns
3 < 3
0 (false)
3 > 4
0 (false)
"abc" <= "def"
1 (true)
"def" > "abc"
1 (true)
12 >= 12
1 (true)
"true" < "false"
0 (false)
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If expressions
An if expression is a conditional statement that evaluates a given simple expression for truth, and then returns the result of a list of expressions that correspond to the truth value. If the initial simple expression evaluates to false (0), FormCalc examines any elseif and else conditions for truth and returns the results of their expression lists if appropriate.
Expression
Syntax
Returns
If
if ( simple expression ) then
list of expressions
elseif ( simple expression ) then
list of expressions
else
list of expressions
endif
The result of the list of expressions associated with any valid conditions stated
in the if expression.
You are not required to have any elseif(...) or else statements as part of your if
expression, but you must state the end of the expression with endif.
These are examples of using the if expression:
Expression
Returns
if ( 1 < 2 ) then
1
endif
1
if ( "abc" > "def") then
1 and 0
else
0
endif
0
if ( Field1 < Field2 ) then
Field3 = 0
elseif ( Field1 > Field2 ) then
Field3 = 40
elseif ( Field1 == Field2 ) then
Field3 = 10
endif
Varies with the values of Field1 and Field2. For example, if Field1 is 20 and Field2
is 10, then this expression sets Field3 to 40.
While expressions
A while expression is an iterative statement or loop that evaluates a given simple expression. If the result of the evaluation is true (1),
FormCalc repeatedly examines the do condition and returns the results of the expression lists. If the result is false (0), then control passes
to the next statement.
A while expression is particularly well-suited to situations in which conditional repetition is needed. Conversely, situations in which unconditional repetition is needed are often best dealt with using a for expression.
Expression
Syntax
Returns
While
while ( simple expression ) do
The result of the list of expressions associated with the do condition.
expression list
endwhile
In the following example, the values of the elements are added to a drop-down list from an XML file using the addItem method for all of the
XML elements listed under list1 that are not equal to 3:
var List = ref(xfa.record.lists.list1)
var i = 0
while ( List.nodes.item(i+1).value ne "3")do
$.addItem (List.nodes.item(i).value,List.nodes.item(i+1).value)
i = i + 2
endwhile
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For expressions
A for expression is a conditionally iterative statement or loop.
A for expression is particularly well-suited to looping situations in which unconditional repetition is needed. Conversely, situations in which
conditional repetition is needed are often best dealt with using a while expression.
The value of the for expression is the value of the last evaluation list that was evaluated, or false (0).
The for condition initializes a FormCalc variable, which controls the looping action.
In the upto variant, the value of the loop variable will iterate from the start expression to the end expression in step expression increments.
If you omit the step expression, the step increment defaults to 1.
In the downto variant, the value of the loop variable iterates from the start expression to the end expression in step expression decrements.
If the step expression is omitted, the step decrements defaults to -1.
Iterations of the loop are controlled by the end expression value. Before each iteration, the end expression is evaluated and compared to the
loop variable. If the result is true (1), the expression list is evaluated. After each evaluation, the step expression is evaluated and added to the
loop variable.
Before each iteration, the end expression is evaluated and compared to the loop variable. In addition, after each evaluation of the do
condition, the step expression is evaluated and added to the loop variable.
A for loop terminates when the start expression has surpassed the end expression. The start expression can surpass the end expression in
either an upwards direction, if you use upto, or in a downward direction, if you use downto.
Expression
Syntax
Returns
For
for variable = start expression
(upto | downto ) end expression
(step step expression ) do
expression list
endfor
The result of the list of expressions associated with the
do condition.
The start, end, and step expressions must all be simple expressions.
In the following example, the values of the elements are added to a drop-down list from an XML file using the addItem method for all of the
XML elements listed under list1:
var List = ref(xfa.record.lists.list1)
for i=0 upto List.nodes.length - 1 step 2 do
$.addItem (List.nodes.item(i).value,"")
endfor
Foreach expressions
A foreach expression iterates over the expression list for each value in its argument list.
The value of the foreach expression is the value of the last expression list that was evaluated, or zero (0), if the loop was never entered.
The in condition, which is executed only once (after the loop variable has been declared) controls the iteration of the loop. Before each
iteration, the loop variable is assigned successive values from the argument list. The argument list cannot be empty.
Expression
Syntax
Returns
Foreach
foreach variable in( argument list )do
expression list
endfor
Use a comma (,) to separate more than one simple
expression in the argument list.
The value of the last expression list that was evaluated, or zero(0), if
the loop was never entered.
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In the following example, only the values of the “display” XML elements are added to the foreach drop-down list.
foreach Item in (xfa.record.lists.list1.display[*]) do
$.addItem(Item,"")
endfor
Break expressions
A break expression causes an immediate exit from the innermost enclosing while, for, or foreach expression loop. Control passes to the
expression following the terminated loop.
The value of the break expression is always the value zero (0).
Expression
Syntax
Returns
Break
break
Passes control to the expression following the terminated loop.
In the following example, an if condition is placed in the while loop to check whether the current value is equal to “Display data for 2”. If
true, the break executes and stops the loop from continuing.
var List = ref(xfa.record.lists.list1)
var i=0
while (List.nodes.item(i+1).value ne "3") do
$.addItem(List.nodes.item(i).value,List.nodes.item(i+1).value)
i = i + 2
if (List.nodes.item(i) eq "Display data for 2" then
break
endif
endwhile
Continue expressions
A continue expression causes the next iteration of the innermost enclosing while, for, or foreach loop.
The value of the continue expression is always the value zero (0).
Expression
Syntax
Returns
Continue
continue
When used in a while expression, control is passed to the while condition. When used in a for expression, control is
passed to the step expression.
The object of the following example is to populate the drop-down list with values from the XML file. If the value of the current XML element
is “Display data for 3,” then the while loop exits via the break expression. If the value of the current XML element is “Display data for 2”, then
the script adds 2 to the variable i (which is the counter) and immediately the loop moves on to its next cycle. The last two lines are ignored
when the value of the current XML element is “Display data for 2”.
var List = ref(xfa.record.lists.list1)
var i = 0
while (List.nodes.item(i+1).value ne "5") do
if (List.nodes.item(i) eq "Display data for 3") then
break
endif
if (List.nodes.item(i) eq "Display data for 2" then
i=i+2
continue
endif
$.addItem(List.nodes.item(i).value,List.nodes.item(i+1).value)
i=i+2
endwhile
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Variables
Within your calculations, FormCalc allows you to create and manipulate variables for storing data. The name you assign to each variable
you create must be a unique “Identifiers” on page 9.
For example, the following FormCalc expressions define the userName variable and set the value of a text field to be the value of userName.
var userName = "Tony Blue"
TextField1.rawValue = userName
You can reference variables that you define in the Variables tab of the Form Properties dialog box in the same way. The following FormCalc
expression uses the Concat function to set the value of the text field using the form variables salutation and name.
TextField1.rawValue = Concat(salutation, name)
Note: A variable you create using FormCalc will supersede a similarly named variable you define in the Variables tab of the Form Properties
dialog box.
Reference Syntax
FormCalc provides access to form design object properties and values using a reference syntax. The following example demonstrates both
assigning and retrieving object values:
Invoice_Total.rawValue = Invoice_SubTotal.rawValue * (8 / 100)
In this case the reference syntax Invoice_Total assigns the value of Invoice_SubTotal * (8 / 100) to the field Invoice_Total.
In the context of form design, a fully qualified reference syntax enables access to all the objects on a form design.
To make accessing object properties and values easier, FormCalc includes shortcuts to reduce the effort required to create references. The
following table outlines the reference syntax shortcuts for FormCalc.
Notation
Description
$
Refers to the current field or object, as shown in this example:
$ = "Tony Blue"
The above example sets the value of the current field or object to Tony Blue.
$data
Represents the root of the data model xfa.datasets.data. For example,
$data.purchaseOrder.total
is equivalent to
xfa.datasets.data.purchaseOrder.total
$event
Represents the current form object event. For example,
$event.name
is equivalent to
xfa.event.name
$form
Represents the root of the form model xfa.form. For example,
$form.purchaseOrder.tax
is equivalent to stating
xfa.form.purchaseOrder.tax
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Notation
Description
$host
Represents the host object. For example,
$host.messageBox("Hello world")
is equivalent to
xfa.host.messageBox("Hello world")
$layout
Represents the root of the layout model xfa.layout. For example,
$layout.ready
is equivalent to stating
xfa.layout.ready
$record
Represents the current record of a collection of data, such as from an XML file. For example,
$record.header.txtOrderedByCity
references the txtOrderedByCity node within the header node of the current XML data.
$template
Represents the root of the template model xfa.template. For example,
$template.purchaseOrder.item
is equivalent to
xfa.template.purchaseOrder.item
!
Represents the root of the data model xfa.datasets. For example,
!data
is equivalent to
xfa.datasets.data
*
Selects all form objects within a given container, such as a subform, regardless of name, or selects all objects that have
a similar name.
For example, the following expression selects all objects named item on a form:
xfa.form.form1.item[*]
You can use the ‘*’ (asterisk) syntax with JavaScript if it used with the resolveNode method. For more information
about the resolveNode method, see Designer ES22 Help, or see LiveCycle Designer ES2 Scripting Reference.
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Notation
Description
..
You can use two dots at any point in your reference syntax to search for objects that are a part of any subcontainer of
the current container object, such as a subform. For example, the expression Subform_Page..Subform2 means
locate the node Subform_Page (as usual) and find a descendant of Subform_Page called Subform2.
Using the example tree above,
Subform_Page..TextField2
is equivalent to
Subform_Page.Subform1[0].Subform3.TextField2[0]
because TextField2[0] is in the first Subform1 node that FormCalc encounters on its search. As a second
example,
Subform_Page..Subform3[*]
returns all four TextField2 objects.
You can use the ‘..’ (double period) syntax with JavaScript if it used with the resolveNode method. For more information about the resolveNode method, see Designer ES22 Help, or see LiveCycle Designer ES2 Scripting Reference.
#
The number sign (#) notation is used to denote one of the following items in a reference syntax:
•
An unnamed object. For example, the following reference syntax accesses an unnamed subform:
xfa.form.form1.#subform
•
Specify a property in a reference syntax if a property and an object have the same name. For example, the following
reference syntax accesses the name property of a subform if the subform also contains a field named name:
xfa.form.form1.#subform.#name
You can use the ‘#’ (number sign) syntax with JavaScript if it used with the resolveNode method. For more information
about the resolveNode method, see Designer ES22 Help, or see LiveCycle Designer ES2 Scripting Reference.
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Notation
Description
[ ]
The square bracket ([ ]) notation denotes the occurrence value of an object. To construct an occurrence value reference, place square brackets ([ ]) after an object name, and enclose within the brackets one of the following values:
•
[ n ], where n is an absolute occurrence index number beginning at 0. An occurrence number that is out of
range does not return a value. For example,
xfa.form.form1.#subform.Quantity[3]
refers to the fourth occurrence of the Quantity object.
•
[ +/- n ], where n indicates an occurrence relative to the occurrence of the object making the reference. Positive
values yield higher occurrence numbers, and negative values yield lower occurrence numbers. For example,
xfa.form.form1.#subform.Quantity[+2]
This reference yields the occurrence of Quantity whose occurrence number is two more than
the occurrence number of the container making the reference. For example, if this
reference was attached to the Quantity[2]object , the reference would be the same as
xfa.template.Quantity[4]
If the computed index number is out of range, the reference returns an error.
The most common use of this syntax is for locating the previous or next occurrence of a
particular object. For example, every occurrence of the Quantity object (except the first)
might use Quantity[-1] to get the value of the previous Quantity object.
•
[*] indicates multiple occurrences of an object. The first named object is found, and objects of the same name
that are siblings to the first are returned. Note that using this notation returns a collection of objects. For example,
xfa.form.form1.#subform.Quantity[*]
•
This expression refers to all objects with a name of Quantity that are siblings to the first occurrence of
Quantity found by the reference.
In language-specific forms for Arabic, Hebrew, Thai, and Vietnamese, the reference syntax is always on the right (even
for right-to-left languages).
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Notation
FormCalc User Reference
Description
[ ]
(Continued)
Using the tree for reference, these expressions return the following objects:
•
Subform_Page.Subform1[*] returns both Subform1 objects.
•
Subform_Page.Subform1.Subform3.TextField2[*] returns two TextField2 objects.
Subform_Page.Subform1 resolves to the first Subform1 object on the left, and TextField2[*] evaluates
relative to the Subform3 object.
•
Subform_Page.Subform1[*].TextField1 returns both of the TextField1 instances.
Subform_Page.Subform1[*] resolves to both Subform1 objects, and TextField1 evaluates relative to
the Subform1 objects.
•
Subform_Page.Subform1[*].Subform3.TextField2[1] returns the second and fourth TextField2
objects from the left. Subform_Page.Subform1[*] resolves to both Subform1 objects, and
TextField2[1] evaluates relative to the Subform3 objects.
•
Subform_Page.Subform1[*].Subform3[*] returns both instances of the Subform3 object.
•
Subform_Page.* returns both Subform1 objects and the Subform2 object.
•
Subform_Page.Subform2.* returns the two instances of the NumericField2 object.
You can use the ‘[ ]’ (square bracket) syntax with JavaScript if it used with the resolveNode method. For more information about the resolveNode method, see Designer ES22 Help, or see LiveCycle Designer ES2 Scripting Reference.
Property and method calls
Designer ES2 defines a variety of properties and methods for all objects on a form design. FormCalc provides access to these properties and
methods and allows you to use them to modify the appearance and behavior of objects on your form. Similar to a function call, you invoke
properties and methods by passing arguments to them in a specific order. The number and type of arguments in each property and method
are specific to each object type.
Note: Different form design objects support different properties and methods. For a complete list of the properties and methods objects support,
see Designer ES2 Scripting Reference.
Built-in function calls
FormCalc supports a large set of built-in functions with a wide range of capabilities. The names of the functions are case-insensitive, but
unlike keywords, FormCalc does not reserve the names of the functions. This means that calculations on forms with objects whose names
coincide with the names of FormCalc functions do not conflict.
Functions may or may not require some set of arguments to execute and return a value. Many functions have arguments that are optional,
meaning it is up to you to decide if the argument is necessary for the particular situation.
FormCalc evaluates all function arguments in order, beginning with the lead argument. If an attempt is made to pass less than the required
number of arguments to a function, the function generates an error exception.
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Each function expects each argument in a particular format, either as a number literal or string literal. If the value of an argument does not
match what a function expects, FormCalc converts the value. For example:
Len(35)
The “Len” on page 70 function actually expects a literal string. In this case, FormCalc converts the argument from the number 35 to the
string “35”, and the function evaluates to 2.
However, in the case of a string literal to number literal, the conversion is not so simple. For example:
Abs("abc")
The “Abs” on page 28 function expects a number literal. FormCalc converts the value of all string literals as 0. This can cause problems in
functions where a 0 value forces an error, such as in the case of the “Apr” on page 51 function.
Some function arguments only require integral values; in such cases, the passed arguments are always promoted to integers by truncating
the fractional part.
Here is a summary of the key properties of built-in functions:
•
•
•
•
Built-in function names are case-insensitive.
The built-in functions are predefined, but their names are not reserved words. This means that the built-in function “Max” on page 30
never conflicts with an object, object property, or object method named Max.
Many of the built-in functions have a mandatory number of arguments, which can be followed by a optional number of arguments.
A few built-in functions, “Avg” on page 28, “Count” on page 29, “Max” on page 30, “Min” on page 31, “Sum” on page 33, and “Concat”
on page 67, accept an indefinite number of arguments.
For a complete listing of all the FormCalc functions, see the “Alphabetical Functions List” on page 25.
25
3. Alphabetical Functions List
The following table lists all available FormCalc functions, provides a description of each function, and identifies the category type to which
each function belongs.
Function
Description
Type
“Abs” on page 28
Returns the absolute value of a numeric value or expression.
Arithmetic
“Apr” on page 51
Returns the annual percentage rate for a loan.
Financial
“At” on page 66
Locates the starting character position of a string within another string.
String
“Avg” on page 28
Evaluates a set of number values and/or expressions and returns the average of
the non-null elements contained within that set.
Arithmetic
“Ceil” on page 29
Returns the whole number greater than or equal to a given number.
Arithmetic
“Choose” on page 59
Selects a value from a given set of parameters.
Logical
“Concat” on page 67
Returns the concatenation of two or more strings.
String
“Count” on page 29
Evaluates a set of values and/or expressions and returns the number of non-null
elements contained within the set.
Arithmetic
“CTerm” on page 52
Returns the number of periods needed for an investment earning a fixed, but
compounded, interest rate to grow to a future value.
Financial
“Date” on page 43
Returns the current system date as the number of days since the “Epoch” on
page 35.
Date and Time
“Date2Num” on page 43
Returns the number of days since the “Epoch” on page 35, given a date string.
Date and Time
“DateFmt” on page 44
Returns a date format string, given a date format style.
Date and Time
“Decode” on page 67
Returns the decoded version of a given string.
String
“Encode” on page 68
Returns the encoded version of a given string.
String
“Eval” on page 62
Returns the value of a given form calculation.
Miscellaneous
“Exists” on page 59
Determines whether the given parameter is a reference syntax to an existing
object.
Logical
“Floor” on page 30
Returns the largest whole number that is less than or equal to the given value.
Arithmetic
“Format” on page 68
Formats the given data according to the specified picture format string.
String
“FV” on page 52
Returns the future value of consistent payment amounts made at regular intervals at a constant interest rate.
Financial
“Get” on page 79
Downloads the contents of the given URL.
URL
“HasValue” on page 60
Determines whether the given parameter is an accessor with a non-null, nonempty, or non-blank value.
Logical
“IPmt” on page 53
Returns the amount of interest paid on a loan over a set period of time.
Financial
“IsoDate2Num” on page 45
Returns the number of days since the “Epoch” on page 35, given an valid date
string.
Date and Time
“IsoTime2Num” on page 45
Returns the number of milliseconds since the “Epoch” on page 35, given a valid
time string.
Date and Time
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Alphabetical Functions List
FormCalc User Reference
Function
Description
Type
“Left” on page 69
Extracts a specified number of characters from a string, starting with the first
character on the left.
String
“Len” on page 70
Returns the number of characters in a given string.
String
“LocalDateFmt” on page 45
Returns a localized date format string, given a date format style.
Date and Time
“LocalTimeFmt” on page 46
Returns a localized time format string, given a time format style.
Date and Time
“Lower” on page 70
Converts all uppercase characters within a specified string to lowercase characters.
String
“Ltrim” on page 71
Returns a string with all leading white space characters removed.
String
“Max” on page 30
Returns the maximum value of the non-null elements in the given set of
numbers.
Arithmetic
“Min” on page 31
Returns the minimum value of the non-null elements of the given set of
numbers.
Arithmetic
“Mod” on page 32
Returns the modulus of one number divided by another.
Arithmetic
“NPV” on page 54
Returns the net present value of an investment based on a discount rate and a
series of periodic future cash flows.
Financial
“Null” on page 62
Returns the null value. The null value means no value.
Miscellaneous
“Num2Date” on page 47
Returns a date string, given a number of days since the “Epoch” on page 35.
Date and Time
“Num2GMTime” on page 47
Returns a GMT time string, given a number of milliseconds from the “Epoch” on
page 35.
Date and Time
“Num2Time” on page 48
Returns a time string, given a number of milliseconds from the “Epoch” on
page 35.
Date and Time
“Oneof” on page 60
Returns true (1) if a value is in a given set, and false (0) if it is not.
Logical
“Parse” on page 71
Analyzes the given data according to the given picture format.
String
“Pmt” on page 54
Returns the payment for a loan based on constant payments and a constant
interest rate.
Financial
“Post” on page 79
Posts the given data to the specified URL.
URL
“PPmt” on page 55
Returns the amount of principal paid on a loan over a period of time.
Financial
“Put” on page 80
Uploads the given data to the specified URL.
URL
“PV” on page 56
Returns the present value of an investment of periodic constant payments at a
constant interest rate.
Financial
“Rate” on page 56
Returns the compound interest rate per period required for an investment to
grow from present to future value in a given period.
Financial
“Ref” on page 63
Returns a reference to an existing object.
Miscellaneous
“Replace” on page 72
Replaces all occurrences of one string with another within a specified string.
String
“Right” on page 73
Extracts a number of characters from a given string, beginning with the last character on the right.
String
“Round” on page 33
Evaluates a given numeric value or expression and returns a number rounded to
the given number of decimal places.
Arithmetic
“Rtrim” on page 73
Returns a string with all trailing white space characters removed.
String
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Alphabetical Functions List
FormCalc User Reference
Function
Description
Type
“Space” on page 74
Returns a string consisting of a given number of blank spaces.
String
“Str” on page 74
Converts a number to a character string. FormCalc formats the result to the specified width and rounds to the specified number of decimal places.
String
“Stuff” on page 75
Inserts a string into another string.
String
“Substr” on page 75
Extracts a portion of a given string.
String
“Sum” on page 33
Returns the sum of the non-null elements of a given set of numbers.
Arithmetic
“Term” on page 57
Returns the number of periods needed to reach a given future value from periodic constant payments into an interest-bearing account.
Financial
“Time” on page 49
Returns the current system time as the number of milliseconds since the “Epoch”
on page 35.
Date and Time
“Time2Num” on page 49
Returns the number of milliseconds since the “Epoch” on page 35, given a time
string.
Date and Time
“TimeFmt” on page 50
Returns a time format, given a time format style.
Date and Time
“UnitType” on page 63
Returns the units of a unitspan. A unitspan is a string consisting of a number
followed by a unit name.
Miscellaneous
“UnitValue” on page 64
Returns the numeric value of a measurement with its associated unitspan, after
an optional unit conversion.
Miscellaneous
“Upper” on page 77
Converts all lowercase characters within a string to uppercase.
String
“Uuid” on page 76
Returns a Universally Unique Identifier (UUID) string to use as an identification
method.
String
“Within” on page 61
Returns true (1) if the test value is within a given range, and false (0) if it is not.
Logical
“WordNum” on page 77
Returns the English text equivalent of a given number.
String
28
4. Arithmetic Functions
These functions perform a range of mathematical operations.
Functions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
“Abs” on page 28
“Avg” on page 28
“Ceil” on page 29
“Count” on page 29
“Floor” on page 30
“Max” on page 30
“Min” on page 31
“Mod” on page 32
“Round” on page 33
“Sum” on page 33
Abs
Returns the absolute value of a numeric value or expression, or returns null if the value or expression is null.
Syntax
Abs(n1)
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n1
A numeric value or expression to evaluate.
Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number
literals” on page 6.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Abs function:
Expression
Returns
Abs(1.03)
1.03
Abs(-1.03)
1.03
Abs(0)
0
Avg
Evaluates a set of number values and/or expressions and returns the average of the non-null elements contained within that set.
Syntax
Avg(n1 [, n2 ...])
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FormCalc User Reference
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n1
The first numeric value or expression of the set.
n2 (optional)
Additional numeric values or expressions.
Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number
literals” on page 6.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Avg function:
Expression
Returns
Avg(0, 32, 16)
16
Avg(2.5, 17, null)
9.75
Avg(Price[0], Price[1], Price[2], Price[3])
The average value of the first four non-null occurrences of Price.
Avg(Quantity[*])
The average value of all non-null occurrences of Quantity.
Ceil
Returns the whole number greater than or equal to a given number, or returns null if its parameter is null.
Syntax
Ceil(n)
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n
Any numeric value or expression.
The function returns 0 if n is not a numeric value or expression.
Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number
literals” on page 6.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Ceil function:
Expression
Returns
Ceil(2.5875)
3
Ceil(-5.9)
-5
Ceil("abc")
0
Ceil(A)
100 if the value of A is 99.999
Count
Evaluates a set of values and/or expressions and returns the count of non-null elements contained within the given set.
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Arithmetic Functions
FormCalc User Reference
Syntax
Count(n1 [, n2 ...])
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n1
A numeric value or expression.
n2 (optional)
Additional numeric values and/or expressions.
Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number
literals” on page 6.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Count function:
Expression
Returns
Count("Tony", "Blue", 41)
3
Count(Customers[*])
The number of non-null occurrences of Customers.
Count(Coverage[2], "Home", "Auto")
3, provided the third occurrence of Coverage is non-null.
Floor
Returns the largest whole number that is less than or equal to the given value.
Syntax
Floor(n)
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n
Any numeric value or expression.
Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number
literals” on page 6.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Floor function:
Expression
Returns
Floor(21.3409873)
21
Floor(5.999965342)
5
Floor(3.2 * 15)
48
Max
Returns the maximum value of the non-null elements in the given set of numbers.
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FormCalc User Reference
Syntax
Max(n1 [, n2 ...])
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n1
A numeric value or expression.
n2 (optional)
Additional numeric values and/or expressions.
Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number
literals” on page 6.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Max function:
Expression
Returns
Max(234, 15, 107)
234
Max("abc", 15, "Tony Blue")
15
Max("abc")
0
Max(Field1[*], Field2[0])
Evaluates the non-null occurrences of Field1 as well as the first occurrence of Field2, and
returns the highest value.
Max(Min(Field1[*], Field2[0]), Field3, Field4)
The first expression evaluates the non-null occurrences of Field1 as well as the first occurrence
of Field2, and returns the lowest value. The final result is the maximum of the returned value
compared against the values of Field3 and Field4.
See also “Min” on page 31.
Min
Returns the minimum value of the non-null elements of the given set of numbers.
Syntax
Min(n1 [, n2 ...])
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n1
A numeric value or expression.
n2 (optional)
Additional numeric values and/or expressions.
Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number
literals” on page 6.
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Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Min function:
Expression
Returns
Min(234, 15, 107)
15
Min("abc", 15, "Tony Blue")
15
Min("abc")
0
Min(Field1[*], Field2[0])
Evaluates the non-null occurrences of Sales_July as well as the first occurrence of
Sales_August, and returns the lowest value.
Min(Max(Field1[*], Field2[0]), Field3, Field4)
The first expression evaluates the non-null occurrences of Field1 as well as the first occurrence of
Field2, and returns the highest value. The final result is the minimum of the returned value
compared against the values of Field3 and Field4.
See also “Max” on page 30.
Mod
Returns the modulus of one number divided by another. The modulus is the remainder of the division of the dividend by the divisor. The
sign of the remainder always equals the sign of the dividend.
Syntax
Mod(n1, n2)
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n1
The dividend, a numeric value or expression.
n2
The divisor, a numeric value or expression.
If n1 and/or n2 are not numeric values or expressions, the function returns 0.
Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number
literals” on page 6.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Mod function:
Expression
Returns
Mod(64, -3)
1
Mod(-13,3)
-1
Mod("abc", 2)
0
Mod(X[0], Y[9])
The first occurrence of X is used as the dividend and the tenth occurrence of Y is used as the divisor.
Mod(Round(Value[4], 2), Max(Value[*]))
The first fifth occurrence of Value rounded to two decimal places is used as the dividend and the highest of
all non-null occurrences of Value is used as the divisor.
See also “Max” on page 30 and “Round” on page 33.
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Round
Evaluates a given numeric value or expression and returns a number rounded to a given number of decimal places.
Syntax
Round(n1 [, n2])
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n1
A numeric value or expression to be evaluated.
n2 (optional)
The number of decimal places with which to evaluate n1 to a maximum of 12.
If you do not include a value for n2, or if n2 is invalid, the function assumes the number of decimal places is 0.
Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number
literals” on page 6.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Round function:
Expression
Returns
Round(12.389764537, 4)
12.3898
Round(20/3, 2)
6.67
Round(8.9897, "abc")
9
Round(FV(400, 0.10/12, 30*12), 2)
904195.17. This takes the value evaluated using the FV function and rounds it to two decimal places.
See also “FV” on page 52.
Rounds off the value of Total_Price to two decimal places.
Round(Total_Price, 2)
Sum
Returns the sum of the non-null elements of a given set of numbers.
Syntax
Sum(n1 [, n2 ...])
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n1
A numeric value or expression.
n2 (optional)
Additional numeric values and/or expressions.
Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number
literals” on page 6.
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Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Sum function:
Expression
Returns
Sum(2, 4, 6, 8)
20
Sum(-2, 4, -6, 8)
4
Sum(4, 16, "abc", 19)
39
Sum(Amount[2], Amount[5])
Totals the third and sixth occurrences of Amount.
Sum(Round(20/3, 2), Max(Amount[*]), Min(Amount[*]))
Totals the value of 20/3 rounded to two decimal places, as well as the largest and smallest nonnull occurrences of Amount.
See also “Max” on page 30, “Min” on page 31, and “Round” on page 33.
35
5. Date and Time Functions
Functions in this section deal specifically with creating and manipulating date and time values.
Functions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
“Date” on page 43
“Date2Num” on page 43
“DateFmt” on page 44
“IsoDate2Num” on page 45
“IsoTime2Num” on page 45
“LocalDateFmt” on page 45
“LocalTimeFmt” on page 46
“Num2Date” on page 47
“Num2GMTime” on page 47
“Num2Time” on page 48
“Time” on page 49
“Time2Num” on page 49
“TimeFmt” on page 50
Structuring dates and times
Epoch
Date values and time values have an associated origin or epoch, which is a moment in time from which time begins. Any date value and any
time value prior to its epoch is invalid.
The unit of value for all date functions is the number of days since the epoch. The unit of value for all time functions is the number of milliseconds since the epoch.
Designer ES2 defines day one for the epoch for all date functions as Jan 1, 1900, and millisecond one for the epoch for all time functions is
midnight, 00:00:00, Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). This definition means that negative time values can be returned to users in time zones
east of GMT.
Date formats
A date format is a shorthand specification of how a date appears. It consists of various punctuation marks and symbols that represent the
formatting that the date must use. The following table lists examples of date formats.
Date format
Example
MM/DD/YY
11/11/78
DD/MM/YY
25/07/85
MMMM DD, YYYY
March 10, 1964
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The format of dates is governed by an ISO standard. Each country or region specifies its own date formats. The four general categories of
date formats are short, medium, long, and full. The following table contains examples of different date formats from different locales for
each of the categories.
Locale identifier and description
Date format (Category)
Example
en_GB
DD/MM/YY (Short)
08/12/92
English (United Kingdom)
08/04/05
fr_CA
YY-MM-DD (Medium)
92-08-18
D. MMMM YYYY (Long)
17. Juni 1989
EEEE, ' le ' D MMMM YYYY (Full)
Lundi, le 29 Octobre, 1990
French (Canada)
de_DE
German (Germany)
fr_FR
French (France)
Time formats
A time format is a shorthand specification to format a time. It consists of punctuations, literals, and pattern symbols. The following table
lists examples of time formats.
Time format
Example
h:MM A
7:15 PM
HH:MM:SS
21:35:26
HH:MM:SS 'o''clock' A Z
14:20:10 o’clock PM EDT
Time formats are governed by an ISO standard. Each nation specifies the form of its default, short, medium, long, and full-time formats.
The locale identifies the format of times that conform to the standards of that nation.
The following table contains some examples of different date formats from different locales for each of the categories.
Locale identifier and description
Time format (Category)
Example
en_GB
HH:MM (Short)
14:13
HH:MM:SS (Medium)
12:15:50
HH:MM:SS z (Long)
14:13:13 -0400
HH ' h ' MM Z (Full)
14 h 13 GMT-04:00
English (United Kingdom)
fr_CA
French (Canada)
de_DE
German (Germany)
fr_FR
French (France)
Date and time picture formats
The following symbols must be used to create date and time patterns for date/time fields. Certain date symbols are only used in Chinese,
Japanese, and Korean locales. These symbols are also specified below.
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Note: The comma (,), dash (-), colon (:), slash (/), period (.), and space ( ) are treated as literal values and can be included anywhere in a pattern.
To include a phrase in a pattern, delimit the text string with single quotation marks ('). For example, 'Your payment is due no later
than' MM-DD-YY can be specified as the display pattern.
Date symbol
Description
Formatted value for English (USA) locale where the localesensitive input value is 1/1/08 (which is January 1, 2008)
D
1 or 2 digit (1-31) day of the month
1
DD
Zero-padded 2 digit (01-31) day of the month
01
J
1, 2, or 3 digit (1-366) day of the year
1
JJJ
Zero-padded, three-digit (001-366) day of the year
001
M
One- or two-digit (1-12) month of the year
1
MM
Zero-padded, two-digit (01-12) month of the year
01
MMM
Abbreviated month name
Jan
MMMM
Full month name
January
E
One-digit (1-7) day of the week, where (1=Sunday)
3 (because January 1, 2008 is a Tuesday)
EEE
Abbreviated weekday name
Tue (because January 1, 2008 is a Tuesday)
EEEE
Full weekday name
Tuesday (because January 1, 2008 is a Tuesday)
YY
Two-digit year, where numbers less than 30 are considered to fall after the
year 2000 and numbers 30 and higher are considered to occur before 2000.
For example, 00=2000, 29=2029, 30=1930, and 99=1999
08
YYYY
Four-digit year
2008
G
Era name (BC or AD)
AD
w
One-digit (0-5) week of the month, where week 1 is the earliest set of four
contiguous days ending on a Saturday
1
WW
Two-digit (01-53) ISO-8601 week of the year, where week 1 is the week
containing January 4
01
Several additional date patterns are available for specifying date patterns in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean locales.
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Japanese eras can be represented by several different symbols. The final four era symbols provide alternative symbols to represent Japanese
eras.
CJK date symbol
Description
DDD
The locale’s ideographic numeric valued day of the month
DDDD
The locale’s tens rule ideographic numeric valued day of the month
YYY
The locale’s ideographic numeric valued year
YYYYY
The locale’s tens rule ideographic numeric valued year
g
The locale’s alternate era name. For the current Japanese era, Heisei, this pattern displays the ASCII letter H (U+48)
gg
The locale’s alternate era name. For the current Japanese era, this pattern displays the ideograph that is represented by the Unicode
symbol (U+5E73)
ggg
The locale’s alternate era name. For the current Japanese era, this pattern displays the ideographs that are represented by the
Unicode symbols (U+5E73 U+6210)
g
The locale’s alternate era name. For the current Japanese era, this pattern displays the full width letter H (U+FF28)
g g
The locale’s alternate era name. For the current Japanese era, this pattern displays the ideograph that is represented by the Unicode
symbol (U+337B)
Time symbol
Description
Locale-sensitive input value
Formatted value for
English (USA) locale
h
One- or two-digit (1-12) hour of the day (AM/PM)
12:08 AM or 2:08 PM
12 or 2
hh
Zero-padded 2 digit (01-12) hour of the day (AM/PM)
12:08 AM or 2:08 PM
12 or 02
k
One- or two-digit (0-11) hour of the day (AM/PM)
12:08 AM or 2:08 PM
0 or 2
kk
Two-digit (00-11) hour of the day (AM/PM)
12:08 AM or 2:08 PM
00 or 02
H
One- or two-digit (0-23) hour of the day
12:08 AM or 2:08 PM
0 or 14
HH
Zero-padded, two-digit (00-23) hour of the day
12:08 AM or 2:08 PM
00 or 14
K
One- or two-digit (1-24) hour of the day
12:08 AM or 2:08 PM
24 or 14
KK
Zero-padded, two-digit (01-24) hour of the day
12:08 AM or 2:08 PM
24 or 14
M
One- or two-digit (0-59) minute of the hour
2:08 PM
8
2:08 PM
08
2:08:09 PM
9
2:08:09 PM
09
Note: You must use this symbol with an hour symbol.
MM
Zero-padded, two-digit (00-59) minute of the hour
Note: You must use this symbol with an hour symbol.
S
One- or two-digit (0-59) second of the minute
Note: You must use this symbol with an hour and minute symbol.
SS
Zero-padded, two-digit (00-59) second of the minute
Note: You must use this symbol with an hour and minute symbol.
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Time symbol
Description
Locale-sensitive input value
Formatted value for
English (USA) locale
FFF
Three- digit (000-999) thousandth of the second
2:08:09 PM
09
Note: You must use this symbol with an hour, minute, and seconds
symbol.
A
The part of the day that is from midnight to noon (AM) or from noon to midnight
(PM)
2:08:09 PM
PM
z
ISO-8601 time-zone format (for example, Z, +0500, -0030, -01, +0100)
2:08:09 PM
-0400
2:08:09 PM
-04:00
2:08:09 PM
EDT
Note: You must use this symbol with an hour symbol.
zz
Alternative ISO-8601 time-zone format (for example, Z, +05:00, -00:30, -01,
+01:00)
Note: You must use this symbol with an hour symbol.
Z
Abbreviated time-zone name (for example, GMT, GMT+05:00, GMT-00:30, EST,
PDT)
Note: You must use this symbol with an hour symbol.
Reserved symbols
The following symbols have special meanings and cannot be used as literal text.
Symbol
Description
?
When submitted, the symbol matches any one character. When merged for display, it becomes a space.
*
When submitted, the symbol matches 0 or Unicode white space characters. When merged for display, it becomes a space.
+
When submitted, the symbol matches one or more Unicode white space characters. When merged for display, it becomes a space.
Locales
A locale is a standard term used when developing international standards to identify a particular nation (language, country or region). For
the purposes of FormCalc, a locale defines the format of dates, times, numeric, and currency values relevant to a specific nation or region
so that users can use the formats they are accustomed to.
Each locale is comprised of a unique string of characters called a locale identifier. The composition of these strings is controlled by the international standards organization (ISO) Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a working group of the Internet Society (www.isoc.org).
Locale identifiers consist of a language part, a country or region part, or both. The following table lists valid locales for this release of
Designer ES2.
Language
Country or Region
ISO Code
Arabic
Algeria
ar_DZ
Arabic
Bahrain
ar_BH
Arabic
Egypt
ar_EG
Arabic
Iraq
ar_IQ
Arabic
Jordan
ar_JO
Arabic
Kuwait
ar_KW
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Language
Country or Region
ISO Code
Arabic
Lebanon
ar_LB
Arabic
Libya
ar_LY
Arabic
Morocco
ar_MA
Arabic
Oman
ar_OM
Arabic
Qatar
ar_QA
Arabic
Saudi Arabia
ar_SA
Arabic
Sudan
ar_SD
Arabic
Syria
ar_SY
Arabic
Tunisia
ar_TN
Arabic
United Arabian Emirates
ar_AE
Arabic
Yemen
ar_YE
Armenian
Armenia
hy_AM
Azerbaijani-Cyrillic
Azerbaijan
az_Cyrl_AZ
Azerbaijani-Latin
Azerbaijan
az_Latn_AZ
Basque
Spain
eu_ES
Bosnain
Bosnia and Herzegovina
bs_BA
Bulgarian
Bulgaria
bg_BG
Catalan
Spain
ca_ES
Chinese
People’s Republic of China (Simplified)
zh_CN
Chinese
Hong Kong S.A.R., China
zh_HK
Chinese
Taiwan (Traditional)
zh_TW
Croatian
Croatia
hr_HR
Czech
Czech Republic
cs_CZ
Danish
Denmark
da_DK
Dutch
Belgium
nl_BE
Dutch
Netherlands
nl_NL
English
Australia
en_AU
English
Belgium
en_BE
English
Canada
en_CA
English
Hong Kong S.A.R., China
en_HK
English
India
en_IN
English
Ireland
en_IE
English
New Zealand
en_NZ
LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 41
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Language
Country or Region
ISO Code
English
Philippines
en_PH
English
Singapore
en_SG
English
South Africa
en_ZA
English
United Kingdom
en_GB
English
United Kingdom Euro
en_GB_EURO
English
United States of America
en_US
English
U.S. Virgin Islands
en_VI
Estonian
Estonia
et_EE
Finnish
Finland
fi_FI
French
Belgium
fr_BE
French
Canada
fr_CA
French
France
fr_FR
French
Luxembourg
fr_LU
French
Switzerland
fr_CH
German
Austria
de_AT
German
Germany
de_DE
German
Luxembourg
de_LU
German
Switzerland
de_CH
Greek
Greece
el_GR
Hebrew
Israel
he_IL
Hungarian
Hungary
hu_HU
Indonesian
Indonesia
id_ID
Italian
Italy
it_IT
Italian
Switzerland
it_CH
Japanese
Japan
ja_JP
Kazakh
Kazakhstan
kk_KZ
Khmer
Cambodia
km_KH
Korean
Korea
ko_KR
Korean
Korea Hanja
ko_KR_HANI
Lao
Laos
lo_LA
Latvian
Latvia
lv_LV
Lithuanian
Lithuania
lt_LT
Malay
Malaysia
ms_MY
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Language
Country or Region
ISO Code
Norwegian - Bokmal
Norway
nb_NO
Norwegian - Nynorsk
Norway
nn_NO
Persian
Iran
fa_IR
Polish
Poland
pl_PL
Portuguese
Brazil
pt_BR
Portuguese
Portugal
pt_PT
Romanian
Romania
ro_RO
Russian
Russia
ru_RU
Serbian-Cyrillic
Serbia and Montenegro
sr_Cyrl_CS
Serbian-Latin
Serbia and Montenegro
sr_Latn_CS
Slovak
Slovakia
sk_SK
Slovenian
Slovenia
sl_SI
Spanish
Argentina
es_AR
Spanish
Bolivia
es_BO
Spanish
Chile
es_CL
Spanish
Columbia
es_CO
Spanish
Costa Rica
es_CR
Spanish
Dominican Republic
es_DO
Spanish
Ecuador
es_EC
Spanish
El Salvador
es_SV
Spanish
Guatemala
es_GT
Spanish
Honduras
es_HN
Spanish
Mexico
es_MX
Spanish
Nicaragua
es_NI
Spanish
Panama
es_PA
Spanish
Paraguay
es_PY
Spanish
Peru
es_PE
Spanish
Puerto Rico
es_PR
Spanish
Spain
es_ES
Spanish
United States of America
es_US
Spanish
Uruguay
es_UY
Spanish
Venezuela
es_VE
Swedish
Sweden
sv_SE
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Language
Country or Region
ISO Code
Tagalog
Philippines
tl_PH
Thai
Thailand
th_TH
Thai
Thailand Traditional
th_TH_TH
Turkish
Turkey
tr_TR
Ukrainian
Ukraine
uk_UA
Vietnamese
Vietnam
vi_VN
Usually, both elements of a locale are important. For example, the names of weekdays and months, in English, for Canada and Great Britain
are formatted identically, but dates are formatted differently. Therefore, specifying an English language locale is insufficient. Also, specifying
only a country as the locale is insufficient. For example, Canada has different date formats for English and French.
In general, every application operates in an environment where a locale is present. This locale is known as the ambient locale. In some
circumstances, an application might operate on a system, or within an environment, where a locale is not present. In these rare cases, the
ambient locale is set to a default of English United States (en_US). This locale is known as a default locale.
Date
Returns the current system date as the number of days since the epoch.
Syntax
Date()
Parameters
None
Examples
The following expression is an example of using the Date function:
Expression
Returns
Date()
37875 (the number of days from the epoch to September 12, 2003)
Date2Num
Returns the number of days since the epoch, given a date string.
Syntax
Date2Num(d [, f [, k ]])
Parameters
Parameter
Description
d
A date string in the format supplied by f that also conforms to the locale given by k.
f (optional)
A date format string. If f is omitted, the default date format MMM D, YYYY is used.
k (optional)
A locale identifier string that conforms to the locale naming standards. If k is omitted (or is invalid), the ambient locale is used.
The function returns a value of 0 if any of the following conditions are true:
LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 44
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• The format of the given date does not match the format specified in the function.
• Either the locale or date format supplied in the function is invalid.
Insufficient information is provided to determine a unique day since the epoch (that is, any information regarding the date is missing or
incomplete).
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Date2Num function:
Expression
Returns
Date2Num("Mar 15, 1996")
35138
Date2Num("1/1/1900", "D/M/YYYY")
1
Date2Num("03/15/96", "MM/DD/YY")
35138
Date2Num("Aug 1,1996", "MMM D, YYYY")
35277
Date2Num("96-08-20", "YY-MM-DD", "fr_FR")
35296
Date2Num("1/3/00", "D/M/YY") - Date2Num("1/2/00", "D/M/YY")
29
DateFmt
Returns a date format string, given a date format style.
Syntax
DateFmt([n [, k ]])
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n (optional)
An integer identifying the locale-specific time format style as follows:
•
1 (Short style)
•
2 (Medium style)
•
3 (Long style)
•
4 (Full style)
If n is omitted (or is invalid), the default style value 0 is used.
k (optional)
A locale identifier string that conforms to the locale naming standards. If k is omitted (or is invalid), the ambient locale is used.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the DateFmt function:
Expression
Returns
DateFmt(1)
M/D/YY (if en_US locale is set)
DateFmt(2, "fr_CA")
YY-MM-DD
DateFmt(3, "de_DE")
D. MMMM YYYY
DateFmt(4, "fr_FR")
EEEE D' MMMM YYYY
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IsoDate2Num
Returns the number of days since the epoch began, given a valid date string.
Syntax
IsoDate2Num(d)
Parameters
Parameter
Description
d
A valid date string.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the IsoDate2Num function:
Expression
Returns
IsoDate2Num("1900")
1
IsoDate2Num("1900-01")
1
IsoDate2Num("1900-01-01")
1
IsoDate2Num("19960315T20:20:20")
35138
IsoDate2Num("2000-03-01") - IsoDate2Num("20000201")
29
IsoTime2Num
Returns the number of milliseconds since the epoch, given a valid time string.
Syntax
IsoTime2Num(d)
Parameters
Parameter
Description
d
A valid time string.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the IsoTime2Num function:
Expression
Returns
IsoTime2Num("00:00:00Z")
1, for a user in the Eastern Time (ET) zone.
IsoTime2Num("13")
64800001, for a user located in Boston, U.S.
IsoTime2Num("13:13:13")
76393001, for a user located in California.
IsoTime2Num("19111111T131313+01")
43993001, for a user located in the Eastern Time (ET) zone.
LocalDateFmt
Returns a localized date format string, given a date format style.
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Syntax
LocalDateFmt([n [, k ]])
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n (optional)
An integer identifying the locale-specific date format style as follows:
•
1 (Short style)
•
2 (Medium style)
•
3 (Long style)
•
4 (Full style)
If n is omitted (or is invalid), the default style value 0 is used.
k (optional)
A locale identifier string that conforms to the locale naming standards. If k is omitted (or is invalid), the ambient locale is used.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of the LocalDateFmt function:
Expression
Returns
LocalDateFmt(1, "de_DE")
tt.MM.uu
LocalDateFmt(2, "fr_CA")
aa-MM-jj
LocalDateFmt(3, "de_CH")
t. MMMM jjjj
LocalDateFmt(4, "fr_FR")
EEEE j MMMM aaaa
LocalTimeFmt
Returns a localized time format string, given a time format style.
Syntax
LocalTimeFmt([n [, k ]])
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n (Optional)
An integer identifying the locale-specific time format style as follows:
•
1 (Short style)
•
2 (Medium style)
•
3 (Long style)
•
4 (Full style)
If n is omitted (or is invalid), the default style value 0 is used.
k (Optional)
A locale identifier string that conforms to the locale naming standards. If k is omitted (or is invalid), the ambient locale is used.
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Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the LocalTimeFmt function:
Expression
Returns
LocalTimeFmt(1, "de_DE")
HH:mm
LocalTimeFmt(2, "fr_CA")
HH:mm:ss
LocalTimeFmt(3, "de_CH")
HH:mm:ss z
LocalTimeFmt(4, "fr_FR")
HH' h 'mm z
Num2Date
Returns a date string, given a number of days since the epoch.
Syntax
Num2Date(n [,f [, k ]])
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n
An integer representing the number of days.
If n is invalid, the function returns an error.
f (Optional)
A date format string. If you do not include a value for f, the function uses the default date format MMM D, YYYY.
k (Optional)
A locale identifier string that conforms to the locale naming standards. If you do not include a value for k, or if k is invalid, the function
uses the ambient locale.
The function returns a value of 0 if any of the following conditions are true:
• The format of the given date does not match the format specified in the function.
• Either the locale or date format supplied in the function is invalid.
Insufficient information is provided to determine a unique day since the epoch (that is, any information regarding the date is missing or
incomplete.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Num2Date function:
Expression
Returns
Num2Date(1, "DD/MM/YYYY")
01/01/1900
Num2Date(35139, "DD-MMM-YYYY", "de_DE")
16-Mrz-1996
Num2Date(Date2Num("Mar 15, 2000") - Date2Num("98-03-15", "YY-MM-DD", "fr_CA"))
Jan 1, 1902
Num2GMTime
Returns a GMT time string, given a number of milliseconds from the epoch.
Syntax
Num2GMTime(n [,f [, k ]])
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Parameters
Parameter
Description
n
An integer representing the number of milliseconds.
If n is invalid, the function returns an error.
f (Optional)
A time format string. If you do not include a value for f, the function uses the default time format H:MM:SS A.
k (Optional)
A locale identifier string that conforms to the locale naming standards. If you do not include a value for k, or if k is invalid, the function
uses the ambient locale.
The function returns a value of 0 if any of the following conditions are true:
• The format of the given time does not match the format specified in the function.
• Either the locale or time format supplied in the function is invalid.
Insufficient information is provided to determine a unique time since the epoch (that is, any information regarding the time is missing or
incomplete.
Examples
The following expressions illustrate using the Num2GMTime function:
Expression
Returns
Num2GMTime(1, "HH:MM:SS")
00:00:00
Num2GMTime(65593001, "HH:MM:SS Z")
18:13:13 GMT
Num2GMTime(43993001, TimeFmt(4, "de_DE"), "de_DE")
12.13 Uhr GMT
Num2Time
Returns a time string, given a number of milliseconds from the epoch.
Syntax
Num2Time(n [,f [, k ]])
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n
An integer representing the number of milliseconds.
If n is invalid, the function returns an error.
f (Optional)
A time format string. If you do not include a value for f, the function uses the default time format H:MM:SS A.
k (Optional)
A locale identifier string that conforms to the locale naming standards. If you do not include a value for k, or if k is invalid, the function
uses the ambient locale.
The function returns a value of 0 if any of the following conditions are true:
• The format of the given time does not match the format specified in the function.
• Either the locale or time format supplied in the function is invalid.
Insufficient information is provided to determine a unique time since the epoch (that is, any information regarding the time is missing or
incomplete.
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Examples
The following expressions illustrate using the Num2Time function:
Expression
Returns
Num2Time(1, "HH:MM:SS")
00:00:00 in Greenwich, England and 09:00:00 in Tokyo.
Num2Time(65593001, "HH:MM:SS Z")
13:13:13 EST in Boston, U.S.
Num2Time(65593001, "HH:MM:SS Z", "de_DE")
13:13:13 GMT-05:00 to a German-Swiss user in Boston, U.S.
Num2Time(43993001, TimeFmt(4, "de_DE"), "de_DE")
13.13 Uhr GMT+01:00 to a user in Zurich, Austria.
Num2Time(43993001, "HH:MM:SSzz")
13:13+01:00 to a user in Zurich, Austria.
Time
Returns the current system time as the number of milliseconds since the epoch.
Syntax
Time()
Parameters
None
Examples
The following expression is an example of using the Time function:
Expression
Returns
Time()
71533235 at precisely 3:52:15 P.M. on September 15th, 2003 to a user in the Eastern Standard Time (EST) zone.
Time2Num
Returns the number of milliseconds since the epoch, given a time string.
Syntax
Time2Num(d [, f [, k ]])
Parameters
Parameter
Description
d
A time string in the format supplied by f that also conforms to the locale given by k.
f (Optional)
A time format string. If you do not include a value for f, the function uses the default time format H:MM:SS A.
k (Optional)
A locale identifier string that conforms to the locale naming standards. If you do not include a value for k, or if k is invalid, the function uses
the ambient locale.
The function returns a value of 0 if any of the following conditions are true:
• The format of the given time does not match the format specified in the function.
• Either the locale or time format supplied in the function is invalid.
Insufficient information is provided to determine a unique time since the epoch (that is, any information regarding the time is missing or
incomplete.
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Examples
The following expressions illustrate using the Time2Num function:
Expression
Returns
Time2Num("00:00:00 GMT", "HH:MM:SS Z")
1
Time2Num("1:13:13 PM")
76393001 to a user in California on Pacific Standard Time, and
76033001 when that same user is on Pacific Daylight Savings Time.
Time2Num("13:13:13", "HH:MM:SS") - Time2Num("13:13:13 GMT", "HH:MM:SS
Z")) / (60 * 60 * 1000)
8 to a user in Vancouver and 5 to a user in Ottawa when on Standard
Time. On Daylight Savings Time, the returned values are 7 and 4,
respectively.
Time2Num("13:13:13 GMT", "HH:MM:SS Z", "fr_FR")
47593001
TimeFmt
Returns a time format, given a time format style.
Syntax
TimeFmt([n [, k ]])
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n (Optional)
An integer identifying the locale-specific time format style as follows:
•
1 (Short style)
•
2 (Medium style)
•
3 (Long style)
•
4 (Full style)
If you do not include a value for n, or if n is invalid, the function uses the default style value.
k (Optional)
A locale identifier string that conforms to the locale naming standards. If k is omitted (or is invalid), the ambient locale is used.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the TimeFmt function:
Expression
Returns
TimeFmt(1)
h:MM A (if en_US locale is set)
TimeFmt(2, "fr_CA")
HH:MM:SS
TimeFmt(3, "fr_FR")
HH:MM:SS Z
TimeFmt(4, "de_DE")
H.MM' Uhr 'Z
51
6. Financial Functions
These functions perform a variety of interest, principal, and evaluation calculations related to the financial sector.
Functions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
“Apr” on page 51
“CTerm” on page 52
“FV” on page 52
“IPmt” on page 53
“NPV” on page 54
“Pmt” on page 54
“PPmt” on page 55
“PV” on page 56
“Rate” on page 56
“Term” on page 57
Apr
Returns the annual percentage rate for a loan.
Note: Interest rate calculation methods differ from country to country. This function calculates an interest rate based on U.S. interest rate
standards.
Syntax
Apr(n1, n2, n3)
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n1
A numeric value or expression representing the principal amount of the loan.
n2
A numeric value or expression representing the payment amount on the loan.
n3
A numeric value or expression representing the number of periods in the loan’s duration.
If any parameter is null, the function returns null. If any parameter is negative or 0, the function returns an error.
Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number
literals” on page 6.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Apr function:
Expression
Returns
Apr(35000, 269.50, 360)
0.08515404566 for a $35,000 loan repaid at $269.50 a month for 30 years.
Apr(210000 * 0.75, 850 + 110, 25 * 26)
0.07161332404
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Expression
Returns
Apr(-20000, 250, 120)
Error
Apr(P_Value, Payment, Time)
This example uses variables in place of actual numeric values or expressions.
CTerm
Returns the number of periods needed for an investment earning a fixed, but compounded, interest rate to grow to a future value.
Note: Interest rate calculation methods differ from country to country. This function calculates an interest rate based on U.S. interest rate
standards.
Syntax
CTerm(n1, n2, n3)
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n1
A numeric value or expression representing the interest rate per period.
n2
A numeric value or expression representing the future value of the investment.
n3
A numeric value or expression representing the amount of the initial investment.
If any parameter is null, the function returns null. If any parameter is negative or 0, the function returns an error.
Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number
literals” on page 6.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the CTerm function:
Expression
Returns
CTerm(0.02, 1000, 100)
116.2767474515
CTerm(0.10, 500000, 12000)
39.13224648502
CTerm(0.0275 + 0.0025, 1000000, 55000 * 0.10)
176.02226044975
CTerm(Int_Rate, Target_Amount, P_Value)
This example uses variables in place of actual numeric values or expressions.
FV
Returns the future value of consistent payment amounts made at regular intervals at a constant interest rate.
Note: Interest rate calculation methods differ from country to country. This function calculates an interest rate based on U.S. interest rate
standards.
Syntax
FV(n1, n2, n3)
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Parameters
Parameter
Description
n1
A numeric value or expression representing the payment amount.
n2
A numeric value or expression representing the interest per period of the investment.
n3
A numeric value or expression representing the total number of payment periods.
The function returns an error if either of the following conditions are true:
• Either of n1 or n3 are negative or 0.
• n2 is negative.
If any of the parameters are null, the function returns null.
Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number
literals” on page 6.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of the FV function:
Expression
Returns
FV(400, 0.10 / 12, 30 * 12)
904195.16991842445. This is the value, after 30 years, of a $400 a month investment growing at 10% annually.
FV(1000, 0.075 / 4, 10 * 4)
58791.96145535981. This is the value, after 10 years, of a $1000 a month investment growing at 7.5% a quarter.
FV(Payment[0], Int_Rate / 4, Time)
This example uses variables in place of actual numeric values or expressions.
IPmt
Returns the amount of interest paid on a loan over a set period of time.
Note: Interest rate calculation methods differ from country to country. This function calculates an interest rate based on U.S. interest rate
standards.
Syntax
IPmt(n1, n2, n3, n4, n5)
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n1
A numeric value or expression representing the principal amount of the loan.
n2
A numeric value or expression representing the annual interest rate of the investment.
n3
A numeric value or expression representing the monthly payment amount.
n4
A numeric value or expression representing the first month in which a payment will be made.
n5
A numeric value or expression representing the number of months for which to calculate.
The function returns an error if either of the following conditions are true:
•
•
n1, n2, or n3 are negative or 0.
Either n4 or n5 are negative.
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If any parameter is null, the function returns null. If the payment amount (n3) is less than the monthly interest load, the function returns 0.
Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number
literals” on page 6.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the IPmt function:
Expression
Returns
IPmt(30000, 0.085, 295.50, 7, 3)
624.8839283142. The amount of interest repaid on a $30000 loan at 8.5% for the three months between the
seventh month and the tenth month of the loan’s term.
IPmt(160000, 0.0475, 980, 24, 12)
7103.80833569485. The amount of interest repaid during the third year of the loan.
IPmt(15000, 0.065, 65.50, 15, 1)
0, because the monthly payment is less than the interest the loan accrues during the month.
NPV
Returns the net present value of an investment based on a discount rate and a series of periodic future cash flows.
Note: Interest rate calculation methods differ from country to country. This function calculates an interest rate based on U.S. interest rate
standards.
Syntax
NPV(n1, n2 [, ...])
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n1
A numeric value or expression representing the discount rate over a single period.
n2
A numeric value or expression representing a cash flow value, which must occur at the end of a period. It is important that the values
specified in n2 and beyond are in the correct sequence.
The function returns an error if n1 is negative or 0. If any of the parameters are null, the function returns null.
Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number
literals” on page 6.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the NPV function:
Expression
Returns
NPV(0.065, 5000)
4694.83568075117, which is the net present value of an investment earning 6.5% per year that will
generate $5000.
NPV(0.10, 500, 1500, 4000, 10000)
11529.60863329007, which is the net present value of an investment earning 10% a year that will
generate $500, $1500, $4000, and $10,000 in each of the next four years.
NPV(0.0275 / 12, 50, 60, 40, 100, 25)
273.14193838457, which is the net present value of an investment earning 2.75% year that will
generate $50, $60, $40, $100, and $25 in each of the next five months.
Pmt
Returns the payment for a loan based on constant payments and a constant interest rate.
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Note: Interest rate calculation methods differ from country to country. This function calculates an interest rate based on U.S. interest rate
standards.
Syntax
Pmt(n1, n2, n3)
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n1
A numeric value or expression representing the principal amount of the loan.
n2
A numeric value or expression representing the interest rate per period of the investment.
n3
A numeric value or expression representing the total number of payment periods.
The function returns an error if any parameter is negative or 0. If any parameter is null, the function returns null.
Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number
literals” on page 6.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Pmt function:
Expression
Returns
Pmt(150000, 0.0475 / 12, 25 * 12)
855.17604207164, which is the monthly payment on a $150,000 loan at 4.75% annual interest, repayable over 25
years.
3403.82145169876, which is the annual payment on a $25,000 loan at 8.5% annual interest, repayable over 12
Pmt(25000, 0.085, 12)
years.
PPmt
Returns the amount of principal paid on a loan over a period of time.
Note: Interest rate calculation methods differ from country to country. This function calculates an interest rate based on US interest rate
standards.
Syntax
PPmt(n1, n2, n3, n4, n5)
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n1
A numeric value or expression representing the principal amount of the loan.
n2
A numeric value or expression representing the annual interest rate.
n3
A numeric value or expression representing the amount of the monthly payment.
n4
A numeric value or expression representing the first month in which a payment will be made.
n5
A numeric value or expression representing the number of months for which to calculate.
The function returns an error if either of the following conditions are true:
•
n1, n2, or n3 are negative or 0.
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• Either n4 or n5 is negative.
If any parameter is null, the function returns null. If the payment amount (n3) is less than the monthly interest load, the function returns 0.
Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number
literals” on page 6.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the PPmt function:
Expression
Returns
PPmt(30000, 0.085, 295.50, 7, 3)
261.6160716858, which is the amount of principal repaid on a $30,000 loan at 8.5% for the three months between
the seventh month and the tenth month of the loan’s term.
PPmt(160000, 0.0475, 980, 24, 12)
4656.19166430515, which is the amount of principal repaid during the third year of the loan.
PPmt(15000, 0.065, 65.50, 15, 1)
0, because in this case the monthly payment is less than the interest the loan accrues during the month, therefore,
no part of the principal is repaid.
PV
Returns the present value of an investment of periodic constant payments at a constant interest rate.
Note: Interest rate calculation methods differ from country to country. This function calculates an interest rate based on U.S. interest rate
standards.
Syntax
PV(n1, n2, n3)
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n1
A numeric value or expression representing the payment amount.
n2
A numeric value or expression representing the interest per period of the investment.
n3
A numeric value or expression representing the total number of payment periods.
The function returns an error if either n1 or n3 is negative or 0. If any parameter is null, the function returns null.
Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number
literals” on page 6.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the PV function:
Expression
Returns
PV(400, 0.10 / 12, 30 * 12)
45580.32799074439. This is the value after 30 years, of a $400 a month investment growing at 10% annually.
PV(1000, 0.075 / 4, 10 * 4)
58791.96145535981. This is the value after ten years of a $1000 a month investment growing at 7.5% a quarter.
PV(Payment[0], Int_Rate / 4, Time)
This example uses variables in place of actual numeric values or expressions.
Rate
Returns the compound interest rate per period required for an investment to grow from present to future value in a given period.
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Note: Interest rate calculation methods differ from country to country. This function calculates an interest rate based on U.S. interest rate
standards.
Syntax
Rate(n1, n2, n3)
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n1
A numeric value or expression representing the future value of the investment.
n2
A numeric value or expression representing the present value of the investment.
n3
A numeric value or expression representing the total number of investment periods.
The function returns an error if any parameter is negative or 0. If any parameter is null, the function returns null.
Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number
literals” on page 6.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Rate function:
Expression
Returns
Rate(12000, 8000, 5)
0.0844717712 (or 8.45%), which is the interest rate per period needed for an $8000 present value to
grow to $12,000 in five periods.
Rate(10000, 0.25 * 5000, 4 * 12)
0.04427378243 (or 4.43%), which is the interest rate per month needed for the present value to grow
to $10,000 in four years.
Rate(Target_Value, Pres_Value[*], Term * 12)
This example uses variables in place of actual numeric values or expressions.
Term
Returns the number of periods needed to reach a given future value from periodic constant payments into an interest bearing account.
Note: Interest rate calculation methods differ from country to country. This function calculates an interest rate based on U.S. interest rate
standards.
Syntax
Term(n1, n2, n3)
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n1
A numeric value or expression representing the payment amount made at the end of each period.
n2
A numeric value or expression representing the interest rate per period of the investment.
n3
A numeric value or expression representing the future value of the investment.
The function returns an error if any parameter is negative or 0. If any parameter is null, the function returns null.
Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number
literals” on page 6.
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Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Term function:
Expression
Returns
Term(475, .05, 1500)
3.00477517728 (or roughly 3), which is the number of periods needed to grow a
payment of $475 into $1500, with an interest rate of 5% per period.
Term(2500, 0.0275 + 0.0025, 5000)
1.97128786369, which is the number of periods needed to grow payments of
$2500 into $5000, with an interest rate of 3% per period.
Rate(Inv_Value[0], Int_Rate + 0.0050, Target_Value)
This example uses variables in place of actual numeric values or expressions. In this
case, the first occurrence of the variable Inv_Value is used as the payment
amount, half a percentage point is added to the variable Int_Rate to use as the
interest rate, and the variable Target_Value is used as the future value of the
investment.
59
7. Logical Functions
These functions are useful for testing and/or analyzing information to obtain a true or false result.
Functions
•
•
•
•
•
“Choose” on page 59
“Exists” on page 59
“HasValue” on page 60
“Oneof ” on page 60
“Within” on page 61
Choose
Selects a value from a given set of parameters.
Syntax
Choose(n, s1 [, s2 ...])
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n
The position of the value you want to select within the set. If this value is not a whole number, the function rounds n down to the
nearest whole value.
The function returns an empty string if either of the following conditions is true:
•
n is less than 1.
•
n is greater than the number of items in the set.
If n is null, the function returns null.
s1
The first value in the set of values.
s2 (Optional)
Additional values in the set.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Choose function:
Expression
Returns
Choose(3, "Taxes", "Price", "Person", "Teller")
Person
Choose(2, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1)
9
Choose(Item_Num[0], Items[*])
Returns the value within the set Items that corresponds to the position defined by the first
occurrence of Item_Num.
Choose(20/3, "A", "B", "C", "D", "E", "F", "G", "H")
F
Exists
Determines whether the given parameter is a reference syntax to an existing object.
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Syntax
Exists(v)
Parameters
Parameter
Description
v
A valid reference syntax expression.
If v is not a reference syntax, the function returns false (0).
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Exists function:
Expression
Returns
Exists(Item)
True (1) if the object Item exists and false (0) otherwise.
Exists("hello world")
False (0). The string is not a reference syntax.
Exists(Invoice.Border.Edge[1].Color)
True (1) if the object Invoice exists and has a Border property, which in turn has at least one Edge
property, which in turn has a Color property. Otherwise, the function returns false (0).
HasValue
Determines whether the given parameter is a reference syntax with a non-null, non-empty, or non-blank value.
Syntax
HasValue(v)
Parameters
Parameter
Description
v
A valid reference syntax expression.
If v is not a reference syntax, the function returns false (0).
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the HasValue function.
Expression
Returns
HasValue(2)
True (1)
HasValue(" ")
False (0)
HasValue(Amount[*])
Error
HasValue(Amount[0])
Evaluates the first occurrence of Amount and returns true (1) if it is a non-null, non-empty, or non-blank value.
Oneof
Determines whether the given value is within a set.
Syntax
Oneof(s1, s2 [, s3 ...])
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Parameters
Parameter
Description
s1
The position of the value you want to select within the set. If this value is not a whole number, the function rounds s1 down to the
nearest whole value.
s2
The first value in the set of values.
s3 (Optional)
Additional values in the set.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Oneof function:
Expression
Returns
Oneof(3, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1)
True (1)
Oneof("John", "Bill", "Gary", "Joan", "John", "Lisa")
True (1)
Oneof(3, 1, 25)
False(0)
Oneof("loan", Fields[*])
Verifies whether any occurrence of Fields has a value of loan.
Within
Determines whether the given value is within a given range.
Syntax
Within(s1, s2, s3)
Parameters
Parameter
Description
s1
The value to test for.
If s1 is a number, the ordering comparison is numeric.
If s1 is not a number, the ordering comparison uses the collating sequence for the current locale. For more information, see “Locales”
on page 39.
If s1 is null, the function returns null.
s2
The lower bound of the test range.
s3
The upper bound of the test range.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Within function:
Expression
Returns
Within("C", "A", "D")
True (1)
Within(1.5, 0, 2)
True (1)
Within(-1, 0, 2)
False (0)
Within($, 1, 10)
True (1) if the current value is between 1 and 10.
62
8. Miscellaneous Functions
Functions in this section do not fit within any other particular function category and are useful in a variety of applications.
Functions
•
•
•
•
•
“Eval” on page 62
“Null” on page 62
“Ref ” on page 63
“UnitType” on page 63
“UnitValue” on page 64
Eval
Returns the value of a given form calculation.
Syntax
Eval(s)
Parameters
Parameter
Description
s
A valid string representing an expression or list of expressions.
The Eval function cannot refer to user-defined variables and functions. For example:
var s = "var t = concat(s, ""hello"")"
eval(s)
In this case, the Eval function does not recognize s, and so returns an error. Any subsequent functions that make reference to the
variable s also fail.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Eval function:
Expression
Returns
eval("10*3+5*4")
50
eval("hello")
error
Null
Returns the null value. The null value means no value.
Definition
Null()
Parameters
None
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Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Null function:
Expression
Returns
Null()
null
Null() + 5
5
Quantity = Null()
Assigns null to the object Quantity.
Concat("ABC", Null(), "DEF")
ABCDEF
See also “Concat” on page 67.
Ref
Returns a reference to an existing object.
Definition
Ref(v)
Parameters
Parameters
Description
v
A valid string representing a reference syntax, property, method, or function.
If the given parameter is null, the function returns the null reference. For all other given parameters, the function generates an error
exception.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Ref function:
Expressions
Returns
Ref("10*3+5*4")
10*3+5*4
Ref("hello")
hello
UnitType
Returns the units of a unitspan. A unitspan is a string consisting of a number followed by a unit name.
Syntax
UnitType(s)
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Parameters
Parameter
Description
s
A valid string containing a numeric value and a valid unit of measurement (unitspan). Recognized units of measurement are:
•
in, inches
•
mm, millimeters
•
cm, centimeters
•
pt, points
•
pc, picas
•
mp, millipoints
If s is invalid, the function returns in.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the UnitType function:
Expression
Results
UnitType("36 in")
in
UnitType("2.54centimeters")
cm
UnitType("picas")
pc
UnitType("2.cm")
cm
UnitType("2.zero cm")
in
UnitType("kilometers")
in
UnitType(Size[0])
Returns the measurement value of the first occurrence of Size.
UnitValue
Returns the numerical value of a measurement with its associated unitspan, after an optional unit conversion. A unitspan is a string
consisting of a number followed by a valid unit of measurement.
Syntax
UnitValue(s1 [, s2 ])
Parameters
Parameters
Description
s1
A valid string containing a numeric value and a valid unit of measurement (unitspan). Recognized units of measurement are:
s2 (optional)
•
in, inches
•
mm, millimeters
•
cm, centimeters
•
pt, picas, points
•
mp, millipoints
A string containing a valid unit of measurement. The function converts the unitspan specified in s1 to this new unit of measurement.
If you do not include a value for s2, the function uses the unit of measurement specified in s1. If s2 is invalid, the function converts
s1 into inches.
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Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the UnitValue function:
Expression
Returns
UnitValue("2in")
2
UnitValue("2in", "cm")
5.08
UnitValue("6", "pt")
432
UnitValue("A", "cm")
0
UnitValue(Size[2], "mp")
Returns the measurement value of the third occurrence of Size converted
into millipoints.
UnitValue("5.08cm", "kilograms")
2
66
9. String Functions
Functions in this section deal with the manipulation, evaluation, and creation of string values.
Functions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
“At” on page 66
“Concat” on page 67
“Decode” on page 67
“Encode” on page 68
“Format” on page 68
“Left” on page 69
“Len” on page 70
“Lower” on page 70
“Ltrim” on page 71
“Parse” on page 71
“Replace” on page 72
“Right” on page 73
“Rtrim” on page 73
“Space” on page 74
“Str” on page 74
“Stuff ” on page 75
“Substr” on page 75
“Uuid” on page 76
“Upper” on page 77
“WordNum” on page 77
At
Locates the starting character position of a string within another string.
Syntax
At(s1, s2)
Parameters
Parameter
Description
s1
The source string.
s2
The search string.
If s2 is not a part of s1, the function returns 0.
If s2 is empty, the function returns 1.
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Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the At function:
Expression
Returns
At("ABCDEFGH", "AB")
1
At("ABCDEFGH", "F")
6
At(23412931298471, 29)
5, the first occurrence of 29 within the source string.
At(Ltrim(Cust_Info[0]), "555")
The location of the string 555 within the first occurrence of Cust_Info.
See also “Ltrim” on page 71.
Concat
Returns the concatenation of two or more strings.
Syntax
Concat(s1 [, s2 ...])
Parameters
Parameter
Description
s1
The first string in the set.
s2 (Optional)
Additional strings to append to the set.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Concat function:
Expression
Returns
Concat("ABC", "DEF")
ABCDEF
Concat("Tony", Space(1), "Blue")
Tony Blue
See also “Space” on page 74.
Concat("You owe ", WordNum(1154.67, 2), ".")
You owe One Thousand One Hundred Fifty-four Dollars And Sixty-seven Cents.
See also “WordNum” on page 77.
Decode
Returns the decoded version of a given string.
Syntax
Decode(s1 [, s2 ])
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Parameters
Parameter
Description
s1
The string to decode.
s2 (Optional)
A string identifying the type of decoding to perform. The following strings are valid decoding strings:
•
url (URL decoding)
•
html (HTML decoding)
•
xml (XML decoding)
If you do not include a value for s2, the function uses URL decoding.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Decode function:
Expression
Returns
Decode("&AElig;&Aacute;&Acirc;&Aacute;
&Acirc;", "html")
ÆÁÂÁÂ
Decode("[email protected]#$%^&amp;*()_+|`{&quot;}[]
&lt;&gt;?,./;&apos;:", "xml")
[email protected]#$%^&*()_+|`{""}[]<>?,./;':
Encode
Returns the encoded version of a given string.
Syntax
Encode(s1 [, s2 ])
Parameters
Parameter
Description
s1
The string to encode.
s2 (Optional)
A string identifying the type of encoding to perform. The following strings are valid encoding strings:
•
url (URL encoding)
•
html (HTML encoding)
•
xml (XML encoding)
If you do not include a value for s2, the function uses URL encoding.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Encode function:
Expression
Returns
Encode("""hello, world!""", "url")
%22hello,%20world!%22
Encode("ÁÂÃÄÅÆ", "html")
&#xc1;&#Xc2;&#Xc3;&#xc4;&#xc5;&#xc6;
Format
Formats the given data according to the specified picture format string.
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String Functions
FormCalc User Reference
Syntax
Format(s1, s2 [, s3 ...])
Parameters
Parameter
Description
s1
The picture format string, which may be a locale-sensitive date or time format. See “Locales” on page 39.
s2
The source data to format.
For date picture formats, the source data must be either an ISO date-time string or an ISO date string in one of two formats:
•
YYYY[MM[DD]]
•
YYYY[-MM[-DD]]
For time picture formats, the source data must be either an ISO date-time string or an ISO time string in one of the following formats:
•
HH[MM[SS[.FFF][z]]]
•
HH[MM[SS[.FFF][+HH[MM]]]]
•
HH[MM[SS[.FFF][-HH[MM]]]]
•
HH[:MM[:SS[.FFF][z]
•
HH[:MM[:SS[.FFF][-HH[:MM]]]]
•
HH[:MM[:SS[.FFF][+HH[:MM]]]]
For date-time picture formats, the source data must be an ISO date-time string.
For numeric picture formats, the source data must be numeric.
For text picture formats, the source data must be textual.
For compound picture formats, the number of source data arguments must match the number of subelements in the picture.
s3 (Optional)
Additional source data to format.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Format function:
Expression
Returns
Format("MMM D, YYYY", "20020901")
Sep 1, 2002
Format("$9,999,999.99", 1234567.89)
$1,234,567.89 in the U.S. and 1 234 567,89 Euros in France.
Left
Extracts a specified number of characters from a string, starting with the first character on the left.
Syntax
Left(s, n)
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Parameters
Parameter
Description
s
The string to extract from.
n
The number of characters to extract.
If the number of characters to extract is greater than the length of the string, the function returns the whole string.
If the number of characters to extract is 0 or less, the function returns the empty string.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Left function:
Expression
Returns
Left("ABCDEFGH", 3)
ABC
Left("Tony Blue", 5)
"Tony "
Left(Telephone[0], 3)
The first three characters of the first occurrence of Telephone.
Left(Rtrim(Last_Name), 3)
The first three characters of Last_Name.
See also “Rtrim” on page 73.
Len
Returns the number of characters in a given string.
Syntax
Len(s)
Parameters
Parameter
Description
s
The string to examine.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Len function:
Expression
Returns
Len("ABDCEFGH")
8
Len(4)
1
Len(Str(4.532, 6, 4))
6
See also “Str” on page 74.
Len(Amount[*])
The number of characters in the first occurrence of Amount.
Lower
Converts all uppercase characters within a specified string to lowercase characters.
Syntax
Lower(s, [, k ])
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Parameters
Parameter
Description
s
The string to convert.
k (Optional)
A string representing a valid locale. If you do not include a value for k, the function uses the ambient locale.
See also “Locales” on page 39.
This function only converts the Unicode characters U+41 through U+5A (of the ASCII character set) as well as the characters U+FF21
through U+FF3A (of the fullwidth character set)
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Lower function:
Expression
Returns
Lower("ABC")
abc
Lower("21 Main St.")
21 main st.
Lower(15)
15
Lower(Address[0])
This example converts the first occurrence of Address to all lowercase letters.
Ltrim
Returns a string with all leading white space characters removed.
White space characters include the ASCII space, horizontal tab, line feed, vertical tab, form feed, carriage return, and the Unicode space
characters (Unicode category Zs).
Syntax
Ltrim(s)
Parameters
Parameter
Description
s
The string to trim.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Ltrim function:
Expression
Ltrim("
Ltrim(Rtrim("
Returns
ABCD")
"ABCD"
Tony Blue
"))
"Tony Blue"
See also “Rtrim” on page 73.
Ltrim(Address[0])
Parse
Analyzes the given data according to the given picture format.
Parsing data successfully results in one of the following values:
Removes any leading white space from the first occurrence of Address.
LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 72
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•
•
•
•
•
FormCalc User Reference
Date picture format: An ISO date string of the form YYYY-MM-DD.
Time picture format: An ISO time string of the form HH:MM:SS.
Date-time picture format: An ISO date-time string of the form YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS.
Numeric picture format: A number.
Text pictures: Text.
Syntax
Parse(s1, s2 )
Parameters
Parameter
Description
s1
A valid date or time picture format string.
For more information on date and time formats, see “Structuring dates and times” on page 35.
s2
The string data to parse.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Parse function:
Expression
Returns
Parse("MMM D, YYYY", "Sep 1, 2002")
2002-09-01
Parse("$9,999,999.99", "$1,234,567.89")
1234567.89 in the U.S.
Replace
Replaces all occurrences of one string with another within a specified string.
Syntax
Replace(s1, s2 [, s3 ])
Parameters
Parameter
Description
s1
A source string.
s2
The string to replace.
s3 (Optional)
The replacement string.
If you do not include a value for s3, or if s3 is null, the function uses an empty string.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Replace function:
Expression
Returns
Replace("Tony Blue", "Tony", "Chris")
Chris Blue
Replace("ABCDEFGH", "D")
ABCEFGH
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FormCalc User Reference
Expression
Returns
Replace("ABCDEFGH", "d")
ABCDEFGH
Replace(Comments[0], "recieve", "receive")
Correctly updates the spelling of the word receive in the first occurrence of Comments.
Right
Extracts a number of characters from a given string, beginning with the last character on the right.
Syntax
Right(s, n )
Parameters
Parameter
Description
s
The string to extract.
n
The number of characters to extract.
If n is greater than the length of the string, the function returns the whole string.
If n is 0 or less, the function returns an empty string.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Right function:
Expression
Returns
Right("ABCDEFGH", 3)
FGH
Right("Tony Blue", 5)
" Blue"
Right(Telephone[0], 7)
The last seven characters of the first occurrence of Telephone.
Right(Rtrim(CreditCard_Num), 4)
The last four characters of CreditCard_Num.
See also “Rtrim” on page 73.
Rtrim
Returns a string with all trailing white space characters removed.
White space characters include the ASCII space, horizontal tab, line feed, vertical tab, form feed, carriage return, and the Unicode space
characters (Unicode category Zs).
Syntax
Rtrim(s )
Parameters
Parameter
Description
s
The string to trim.
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Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Rtrim function:
Expression
Rtrim("ABCD
Returns
")
Rtrim("Tony Blue
"ABCD"
")
"Tony Blue"
Removes any trailing white space from the first occurrence of Address.
Rtrim(Address[0])
Space
Returns a string consisting of a given number of blank spaces.
Syntax
Space(n )
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n
The number of blank spaces.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Space function:
Expression
Returns
Space(5)
"
Space(Max(Amount[*]))
A blank string with as many characters as the value of the largest occurrence of Amount.
"
See also “Max” on page 30.
Concat("Tony", Space(1), "Blue")
Tony Blue
Str
Converts a number to a character string. FormCalc formats the result to the specified width and rounds to the specified number of decimal
places.
Syntax
Str(n1 [, n2 [, n3 ]])
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n1
The number to convert.
n2 (Optional)
The maximum width of the string. If you do not include a value for n2, the function uses a value of 10 as the default width.
If the resulting string is longer than n2, the function returns a string of * (asterisk) characters of the width specified by n2.
n3 (Optional)
The number of digits to appear after the decimal point. If you do not include a value for n3, the function uses 0 as the default precision.
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Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Str function:
Expression
Returns
Str(2.456)
"
Str(4.532, 6, 4)
4.5320
Str(234.458, 4)
" 234"
Str(31.2345, 4, 2)
****
Str(Max(Amount[*]), 6, 2)
Converts the largest occurrence of Amount to a six-character string with two decimal places.
2"
See also “Max” on page 30.
Stuff
Inserts a string into another string.
Syntax
Stuff(s1, n1, n2 [, s2 ])
Parameters
Parameter
Description
s1
The source string.
n1
The position in s1 to insert the new string s2.
If n1 is less than one, the function assumes the first character position. If n1 is greater than length of s1, the function assumes the last
character position.
n2
The number of characters to delete from string s1, starting at character position n1.
If n2 is less than or equal to 0, the function assumes 0 characters.
s2 (Optional)
The string to insert into s1.
If you do not include a value for s2, the function uses the empty string.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Stuff function:
Expression
Returns
Stuff("TonyBlue", 5, 0, " ")
Tony Blue
Stuff("ABCDEFGH", 4, 2)
ABCFGH
Stuff(Address[0], Len(Address[0]), 0, "Street")
This adds the word Street onto the end of the first occurrence of Address.
See also “Len” on page 70.
Stuff("[email protected]", 0, 0, "cc:"
Substr
Extracts a portion of a given string.
cc:[email protected]
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Syntax
Substr(s1, n1, n2 )
Parameters
Parameter
Description
s1
The source string.
n1
The position in string s1 to start extracting.
If n1 is less than one, the function assumes the first character position. If n1 is greater than length of s1, the function assumes the
last character position.
n2
The number of characters to extract.
If n2 is less than or equal to 0, FormCalc returns an empty string. If n1 + n2 is greater than the length of s1, the function returns the
substring starting at position n1 to the end of s1.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Substr function:
Expression
Returns
Substr("ABCDEFG", 3, 4)
CDEF
Substr(3214, 2, 1)
2
Substr(Last_Name[0], 1, 3)
Returns the first three characters from the first occurrence of Last_Name.
Substr("ABCDEFG", 5, 0)
""
Substr("21 Waterloo St.", 4, 5)
Water
Uuid
Returns a Universally Unique Identifier (UUID) string to use as an identification method.
Syntax
Uuid([n ])
Parameters
Parameter
Description
n
A number identifying the format of the UUID string. Valid numbers are:
•
0 (default value): UUID string only contains hex octets.
•
1: UUID string contains dash characters separating the sequences of hex octets at fixed positions.
If you do not include a value for n, the function uses the default value.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of the Uuid function:
Expression
Returns
Uuid()
A value such as 3c3400001037be8996c400a0c9c86dd5
Uuid(0)
A value such as 3c3400001037be8996c400a0c9c86dd5
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Expression
Returns
Uuid(1)
A value such as 1a3ac000-3dde-f352-96c4-00a0c9c86dd5
Uuid(7)
A value such as 1a3ac000-3dde-f352-96c4-00a0c9c86dd5
Upper
Converts all lowercase characters within a string to uppercase.
Syntax
Upper(s [, k ])
Parameters
Parameter
Description
s
The string to convert.
k (Optional)
A string representing a valid locale. If you do not include a value for k, the ambient locale is used.
See also “Locales” on page 39.
This function only converts the Unicode characters U+61 through U+7A (of the ASCII character set) as well as the characters U+FF41
through U+FF5A (of the fullwidth character set).
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Upper function:
Expression
Returns
Upper("abc")
ABC
Upper("21 Main St.")
21 MAIN ST.
Upper(15)
15
Upper(Address[0])
This example converts the first occurrence of Address to all uppercase letters.
WordNum
Returns the English text equivalent of a given number.
Syntax
WordNum(n1 [, n2 [, k ]])
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Parameters
Parameter
Description
n1
The number to convert.
If any of the following statements is true, the function returns * (asterisk) characters to indicate an error:
n2 (Optional)
•
n1 is not a number.
•
The integral value of n1 is negative.
•
The integral value of n1 is greater than 922,337,203,685,477,550.
A number identifying the formatting option. Valid numbers are:
•
0 (default value): The number is converted into text representing the simple number.
•
1: The number is converted into text representing the monetary value with no fractional digits.
•
2: The number is converted into text representing the monetary value with fractional digits.
If you do not include a value for n2, the function uses the default value (0).
k (Optional)
A string representing a valid locale. If you do not include a value for k, the function uses the ambient locale.
See also “Locales” on page 39.
As of this release, it is not possible to specify a locale identifier other than English for this function.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the WordNum function.
Expression
Returns
WordNum(123.45)
One Hundred and Twenty-three Dollars
WordNum(123.45, 1)
One Hundred and Twenty-three Dollars
WordNum(1154.67, 2)
One Thousand One Hundred Fifty-four Dollars And Sixty-seven Cents
WordNum(43, 2)
Forty-three Dollars And Zero Cents
WordNum(Amount[0], 2)
This example uses the first occurrence of Amount as the conversion number.
79
10. URL Functions
These functions deal with the sending and receiving of information, including content types and encoding data, to any accessible URL
locations.
Functions
•
•
•
“Get” on page 79
“Post” on page 79
“Put” on page 80
Get
Downloads the contents of the given URL.
Note: Adobe Acrobat® and Adobe Reader® cannot verify that the form is certified until after the initialize event initiates. To use the Get
function on certified forms prior to the form rendering, use the docReady event.
Syntax
Get(s)
Parameters
Parameter
Description
s
The URL to download.
If the function is unable to download the URL, it returns an error.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Get function.
Expression
Returns
Get("http://www.myweb.com/data/mydata.xml")
XML data taken from the specified file.
Get("ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/GPL")
The contents of the GNU Public License.
Get("http://intranet?sql=SELECT+*+FROM+
projects+FOR+XML+AUTO,+ELEMENTS")
The results of an SQL query to the specified website.
Post
Posts the given data to the specified URL.
Note: Acrobat and Adobe Reader cannot verify that the form is certified until after the initialize event initiates. To use the Post function on
certified forms prior to the form rendering, use the docReady event.
Syntax
Post(s1, s2 [, s3 [, s4 [, s5 ]]])
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Parameters
Parameter
Description
s1
The URL to post to.
s2
The data to post.
If the function cannot post the data, it returns an error.
s3 (Optional)
A string containing the content type of the data to post. Here are valid content types:
•
application/octet-stream (default value)
•
text/html
•
text/xml
•
text/plain
•
multipart/form-data
•
application/x-www-form-urlencoded
•
Any other valid MIME type
If you do not include a value for s3, the function sets the content type to the default value. The application ensures that the data to post uses
the correct format according to the specified content type.
s4 (Optional)
A string containing the name of the code page used to encode the data. Here are valid code page names:
•
UTF-8 (default value)
•
UTF-16
•
ISO-8859-1
•
Any character encoding listed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
If you do not include a value for s4, the function sets the code page to the default value. The application ensures that encoding of the data to
post matches the specified code page.
s5 (Optional)
A string containing any additional HTTP headers to be included with the posting of the data.
If you do not include a value for s5, the function does not include an additional HTTP header in the post.
SOAP servers usually require a SOAPAction header when posting to them.
Examples
The following expressions are examples of using the Post function:
Expression
Returns
Post("http://tools_build/scripts/jfecho.cgi",
"user=joe&passwd=xxxxx&date=27/08/2002",
"application/x-www-form-urlencoded")
Posts some URL encoded login data to a server and returns that server's acknowledgement
page.
Post("http://www.nanonull.com/TimeService/
TimeService.asmx/getLocalTime", "<?xml version='1.0'
encoding='UTF-8'?><soap:Envelope><soap:Body>
<getLocalTime/></soap:Body>
</soap:Envelope>", "text/xml", "utf-8",
"http://www.Nanonull.com/TimeService/getLocalTime")
Posts a SOAP request for the local time to some server, expecting an XML response back.
Put
Uploads the given data to the specified URL.
Note: Acrobat and Adobe Reader cannot verify that the form is certified until after the initialize event initiates. To use the Put function on
certified forms prior to the form rendering, use the docReady event.
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FormCalc User Reference
Syntax
Put(s1, s2 [, s3 ])
Parameters
Parameter
Description
s1
The URL to upload.
s2
The data to upload.
If the function is unable to upload the data, it returns an error.
s3 (Optional)
A string containing the name of the code page used to encode the data. Here are valid code page names:
•
UTF-8 (default value)
•
UTF-16
•
ISO8859-1
•
Any character encoding listed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
If you do not include a value for s3, the function sets the code page to the default value. The application ensures that encoding of the data
to upload matches the specified code page.
Examples
The following expression is an example of using the Put function:
l
Expression
Returns
Put("ftp://www.example.com/pub/fubu.xml",
"<?xml version='1.0'
encoding='UTF-8'?><msg>hello world!</msg>")
Nothing if the FTP server has permitted the user to upload some XML data to the pub/fubu.xml file.
Otherwise, this function returns an error.
Note: This example only works in the server environment and not in Acrobat or Adobe Reader. For forms displayed in Acrobat and
Adobe Reader, use the HTTP, HTTPS, and FILE protocols.
82
Index
financial 51
symbols to create patterns for 36
A
Abs (arithmetic function) 28
Date2Num function 43
alphabetical functions, FormCalc list of 25
DateFmt function 44
function calls, FormCalc 23
ambient locale 43
Decode (string function) 67
FV (financial function) 52
Apr (financial function) 51
default locale 43
arithmetic functions, FormCalc 28
downloading URL contents 79
array referencing 22
URL 79
G
Get (URL function) 79
assignment expressions, FormCalc 13
E
At (string function) 66
empty string 7
H
Avg (arithmetic function) 28
Encode (string function) 68
HasValue (logical function) 60
epoch, FormCalc 35
B
equality expressions, FormCalc 14
I
blank spaces, string 74
escape sequence, Unicode 7
identification, unique 76
Boolean operations 12
Eval (miscellaneous function) 62
identifiers, FormCalc 9
break expressions, FormCalc 18
Exists (logical function) 59
if expressions, FormCalc 16
expressions
inequality expressions, FormCalc 14
FormCalc 10
C
Ceil (arithmetic function) 29
characters
IPmt (financial function) 53
IsoDate2Num function 45
IsoTime2Num function 45
F
converting case 70, 77
financial functions, FormCalc 51
extracting from a string 69, 73
Floor (arithmetic function) 30
J
removing white space from a string 71, 73
for expressions, FormCalc 17
joining strings 67
starting position 66
foreach expressions, FormCalc 17
Choose (logical function) 59
Format (string function) 68
K
comments, FormCalc 8
FormCalc
keywords, FormCalc restricted 9
Concat (string function) 67
about 5
conditional statements, FormCalc 16, 17, 18
built-in functions 23
L
continue expressions, FormCalc 18
comments 8
Left (string function) 69
converting
expressions 10
Len (string function) 70
character case 70, 77
function calls, FormCalc 23
line terminators, FormCalc 10
numbers to a string 74
identifiers 9
literals, FormCalc 6
numbers to text 77
line terminators 10
LocalDateFmt function 45
time strings to numbers 49
literals 6
locales
Count (arithmetic function) 29
logical expressions 13
CTerm (financial function) 52
logical functions 59
LocalTimeFmt function 46
about 39
operators 7
logical expressions, FormCalc 13
D
reference syntax shortcuts 19
logical functions, FormCalc 59
date formats
restricted keywords 9
Lower (string function) 70
about 35
variables 19
Ltrim (string function) 71
FormCalc 36
white space characters 10
string 44, 45
FormCalc functions
M
Date function 43
alphabetical list 25
mathematical functions, FormCalc 28
date/time field object
arithmetic 28
Max (arithmetic function) 30
date and time 35
Min (arithmetic function) 31
FormCalc functions 35
83
Mod (arithmetic function) 32
S
modulus 32
scripting, about 5
shortcuts, reference syntax 19
N
simple expressions, FormCalc 11
NPV (financial function) 54
Space (string function) 74
Null (miscellaneous function) 62
Str (string function) 74
null values 29
string functions 66
Num2Date function 47
string literals, FormCalc 7
Num2GMTime function 47
string operations 12
Num2Time function 48
Stuff (string function) 75
number literals, FormCalc 6
Substr (string function) 75
numbers
Sum (arithmetic function) 33
converting to a string 74
symbols for date and time patterns 36
converting to text 77
syntax, referencing 19
numeric operations 12
T
O
Term (financial function) 57
Oneof (logical function) 60
terminators, line, FormCalc 10
operands, promoting 12
time formats
about 36
operators, FormCalc 7
FormCalc 36
string 46, 50
P
Parse (string function) 71
Time function 49
patterns
time functions. <Italic>See FormCalc functions
date and time 36
picture formats
Time2Num function 49
TimeFmt function 50
applying 68
date and time 36
U
parsing according to 71
unary expressions, FormCalc 14
Pmt (financial function) 54
Unicode escape sequence 7
Post (URL function) 79
UnitType (miscellaneous function) 63
posting data to URLs 79
UnitValue (miscellaneous function) 64
PPmt (financial function) 55
Universally Unique Identifier (UUID) 76
Put (URL function) 80
uploading data to URLs 80
PV (financial function) 56
Upper (string function) 77
URL FormCalc functions 79
Uuid (string function) 76
R
Rate (financial function) 56
Ref (miscellaneous function) 63
V
reference syntax
variables
FormCalc 19
about 19
shortcuts 19
shortcuts for FormCalc 19
W
relational expressions, FormCalc 15
while expressions, FormCalc 16
removing white space characters 71, 73
white space
Replace (string function) 72
about 10
Right (string function) 73
removing from string 71, 73
Round (arithmetic function) 33
Within (logical function) 61
Rtrim (string function) 73
WordNum (string function) 77
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