bc FormCalc User Reference Adobe® LiveCycle® Designer ES2 November 2009 Version 9 © 2009 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All rights reserved. Adobe® LiveCycle® Designer ES2 (9.0) FormCalc User Reference for Microsoft® Windows® Edition 4.0, November 2009 This reference guide is licensed for use under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 3.0 License. This License allows users to copy, distribute, and transmit the guide for noncommercial purposes only so long as (1) proper attribution to Adobe is given as the owner of the guide; and (2) any reuse or distribution of the guide contains a notice that use of the guide is governed by these terms. The best way to provide notice is to include the following link. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/. Adobe, Adobe logo, Adobe Reader, Acrobat, and LiveCycle are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States and/or other countries. Microsoft and Windows are either trademarks or registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Adobe Systems Incorporated, 345 Park Avenue, San Jose, California 95110, USA. 3 Contents Preface What’s in this guide? .......................................................................................................................4 Who should read this guide? Related documentation ...............................................................................................................4 ....................................................................................................................4 1. Introducing FormCalc 2. Building blocks Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Reference Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Property and method calls Built-in function calls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3. Alphabetical Functions List 4. Arithmetic Functions 5. Date and Time Functions 6. Financial Functions 7. Logical Functions 8. Miscellaneous Functions 9. String Functions 10. URL Functions Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 4 Preface Adobe® LiveCycle® Designer ES2 provides a set of tools that enables a form developer to build intelligent business documents. The form developer can incorporate calculations and scripting to create a richer experience for the recipient of the form. For example, you might use simple calculations to automatically update costs on a purchase order, or you might use more advanced scripting to modify the appearance of your form in response to the locale of the user. To facilitate the creation of calculations, Designer ES2 provides users with FormCalc. FormCalc is a simple calculation language created by Adobe, and is modeled on common spreadsheet applications. FormCalc is simple and accessible for those with little or no scripting experience. It also follows many rules and conventions common to other scripting languages, so experienced form developers will find their skills relevant to using FormCalc. What’s in this guide? This guide is intended for form developers using Designer ES2 who want to incorporate FormCalc calculations in their forms. The guide provides a reference to the FormCalc functions, which are organized into chapters according to function category. The guide also provides an introduction to the FormCalc language and the building blocks that make up FormCalc expressions. Who should read this guide? This guide provides information to assist form developers interested in using the FormCalc language to create calculations that enhance form designs created in Designer ES2. Related documentation For additional information on using FormCalc calculations in your forms, see Creating Calculations and Scripts in Designer ES2 Help. If you require more technical information about FormCalc, refer to the Adobe XML Forms Architecture (XFA) Specification, available from http://partners.adobe.com/public/developer/xml/index_arch.html. 5 1. Introducing FormCalc FormCalc is a simple yet powerful calculation language modeled on common spreadsheet software. Its purpose is to facilitate fast and efficient form design without requiring a knowledge of traditional scripting techniques or languages. Users new to FormCalc can expect, with the use of a few built-in functions, to create forms quickly that save end users from performing time-consuming calculations, validations, and other verifications. In this way, a form developer is able to create a basic intelligence around a form at design time that allows the resulting interactive form to react according to the data it encounters. The built-in functions that make up FormCalc cover a wide range of areas including mathematics, dates and times, strings, finance, logic, and the web. These areas represent the types of data that typically occur in forms, and the functions provide quick and easy manipulation of the data in a useful way. “About scripting in Designer ES2” on page 5 “Alphabetical Functions List” on page 25 About scripting in Designer ES2 Within Designer ES2, FormCalc is the default scripting language in all scripting locations, with JavaScript™ as the alternative. Scripting takes place on the various events that accompany each form object, and you can use a mixture of FormCalc and JavaScript on interactive forms. However, if you are using a server-based process, such as Forms ES2, to create forms for viewing in an internet browser, FormCalc scripts on certain form object events do not render onto the HTML form. This functionality is to prevent Internet browser errors from occurring when users work with the completed form. 6 2. Building blocks The FormCalc language consists of a number of building blocks that make up FormCalc expressions. Each FormCalc expression is a sequence of some combination of these building blocks. • • • • • • • “Literals” on page 6 “Operators” on page 7 “Comments” on page 8 “Keywords” on page 9 “Identifiers” on page 9 “Line terminators” on page 10 “White space” on page 10 Literals Literals are constant values that form the basis of all values that pass to FormCalc for processing. The two general types of literals are numbers and strings. Number literals A number literal is a sequence of mostly digits consisting of one or more of the following characters: an integer, a decimal point, a fractional segment, an exponent indicator (“e” or “E”), and an optionally signed exponent value. These are all examples of literal numbers: • -12 • 1.5362 • 0.875 • 5.56e-2 • 1.234E10 It is possible to omit either the integer or fractional segment of a literal number, but not both. In addition, within the fractional segment, you can omit either the decimal point or the exponent value, but not both. All number literals are internally converted to Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 64-bit binary values. However, IEEE values can only represent a finite quantity of numbers, so certain values do not have a representation as a binary fraction. This is similar to the fact that certain values, such as 1/3, do not have a precise representation as a decimal fraction (the decimal value would need an infinite number of decimal places to be entirely accurate). The values that do not have a binary fraction equivalent are generally number literals with more than 16 significant digits prior to their exponent. FormCalc rounds these values to the nearest representable IEEE 64-bit value in accordance with the IEEE standard. For example, the value: 123456789.012345678 rounds to the (nearest) value: 123456789.01234567 However, in a second example, the number literal: 99999999999999999 rounds to the (nearest) value: 100000000000000000 LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 7 Building blocks FormCalc User Reference This behavior can sometimes lead to surprising results. FormCalc provides a function, “Round” on page 33, which returns a given number rounded to a given number of decimal places. When the given number is exactly halfway between two representable numbers, it is rounded away from zero. That is, the number is rounded up if positive and down if negative. In the following example: Round(0.124, 2) returns 0.12, and Round(.125, 2) returns 0.13. Given this convention, one might expect that: Round(0.045, 2) returns 0.05. However, the IEEE 754 standard dictates that the number literal 0.045 be approximated to 0.0449999999999999. This approximation is closer to 0.04 than to 0.05. Therefore, Round(0.045, 2) returns 0.04. This also conforms to the IEEE 754 standard. IEEE 64-bit values support representations like NaN (not a number), +Inf (positive infinity), and -Inf (negative infinity). FormCalc does not support these, and expressions that evaluate to NaN, +Inf, or -Inf result in an error exception, which passes to the remainder of the expression. String literals A string literal is a sequence of any Unicode characters within a set of quotation marks. For example: "The cat jumped over the fence." "Number 15, Main street, California, U.S.A" The string literal "" defines an empty sequence of text characters called the empty string. To embed a quotation mark (") character within a literal string, you must insert two quotation marks. For example: "The message reads: ""Warning: Insufficient Memory""" All Unicode characters have an equivalent 6 character escape sequence consisting of \u followed by four hexadecimal digits. Within any literal string, it is possible to express any character, including control characters, using their equivalent Unicode escape sequence. For example: "\u0047\u006f\u0066\u0069\u0073\u0068\u0021" "\u000d" (carriage return) "\u000a" (newline character) Operators FormCalc includes a number of operators: unary, multiplicative, additive, relational, equality, logical, and the assignment operator. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 8 Building blocks FormCalc User Reference Several of the FormCalc operators have an equivalent mnemonic operator keyword. These keyword operators are useful whenever FormCalc expressions are embedded in HTML and XML source text, where the symbols less than (<), greater than (>), and ampersand (&) have predefined meanings and must be escaped. The following table lists all FormCalc operators, illustrating both the symbolic and mnemonic forms where appropriate. Operator type Representations Addition + Division / Equality == eq <> ne Logical AND & and Logical OR | or Multiplication * Relational < > <= >= Subtraction - Unary + not lt (less than) gt (greater than) le (less than or equal to) ge (greater than or equal to) Comments Comments are sections of code that FormCalc does not execute. Typically comments contain information or instructions that explain the use of a particular fragment of code. FormCalc ignores all information stored in comments at run time. You can specify a comment by using either a semi-colon (;) or a pair of slashes (//). In FormCalc, a comment extends from its beginning to the next line terminator. Character name Representations Comment ; // For example: // This is a type of comment First_Name="Tony" Initial="C" ;This is another type of comment Last_Name="Blue" Commenting all FormCalc calculations on an event Commenting all of the FormCalc calculations for a particular event generates an error when you preview your form in the Preview PDF tab or when you view the final PDF. Each FormCalc calculation is required to return a value, and FormCalc does not consider comments to be values. To prevent the commented FormCalc code from returning an error, you must do one of the following actions: • • Remove the commented code from the event Add an expression that returns a value to the FormCalc code on the event LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 9 Building blocks FormCalc User Reference To prevent the value of the expression from producing unwanted results on your form, use one of the following types of expressions: • A simple expression consisting of a single character, as shown in the following example: // // // // // 0 • First_Name="Tony" Initial="C" Last_Name="Blue" The simple expression below sets the value of the event to zero. An assignment expression that retains the value of the object. Use this type of expression if your commented FormCalc code is located on the calculate event to prevent the actual value of the object from being altered, as shown in the following example: // First_Name="Tony" // Initial="C" // Last_Name="Blue" // // The assignment expression below sets the value of the current // field equal to itself. $.rawValue = $.rawValue Keywords Keywords in FormCalc are reserved words and are case-insensitive. Keywords are used as parts of expressions, special number literals, and operators. The following table lists the FormCalc keywords. Do not use any of these words when naming objects on your form design. and endif in step break endwhile infinity then continue eq le this do exit lt throw downto for nan upto else foreach ne var elseif func not while end ge null endfor gt or endfunc if return Identifiers An identifier is a sequence of characters of unlimited length that denotes either a function or a method name. An identifier always begins with one of the following characters: • • • • Any alphabetic character (based on the Unicode letter classifications) Underscore (_) Dollar sign ($) Exclamation mark (!) LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 10 Building blocks FormCalc User Reference FormCalc identifiers are case-sensitive. That is, identifiers whose characters only differ in case are considered distinct. Character name Representations Identifier A..Z,a..z $ ! _ These are examples of valid identifiers: GetAddr $primary _item !dbresult Line terminators Line terminators are used for separating lines and improving readability. The following table lists the valid FormCalc line terminators: Character name Unicode characters Carriage Return #xD U+000D Line Feed #xA  &#D; White space White space characters separate various objects and mathematical operations from each other. These characters are strictly for improving readability and are irrelevant during FormCalc processing. Character name Unicode character Form Feed #xC Horizontal Tab #x9 Space #x20 Vertical Tab #xB Expressions Literals, operators, comments, keywords, identifiers, line terminators, and white space come together to form a list of expressions, even if the list only contains a single expression. In general, each expression in the list resolves to a value, and the value of the list as a whole is the value of the last expression in the list. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 11 Building blocks FormCalc User Reference For example, consider the following scenario of two fields on a form design: Field name Calculations Returns Field1 5 + Abs(Price) "Hello World" 10 * 3 + 5 * 4 50 Field2 10 * 3 + 5 * 4 50 The value of both Field1 and Field2 after the evaluation of each field’s expression list is 50. FormCalc divides the various types of expressions that make up an expression list into the following categories: • • • • • • • • • • • • • “Simple” on page 11 “Assignment” on page 13 “Logical OR” on page 13 “Logical AND” on page 13 “Unary” on page 14 “Equality and inequality” on page 14 “Relational” on page 15 “If expressions” on page 16 “While expressions” on page 16 “For expressions” on page 17 “Foreach expressions” on page 17 “Break expressions” on page 18 “Continue expressions” on page 18 Simple In their most basic form, FormCalc expressions are groups of operators, keywords, and literals strung together in logical ways. For example, these are all simple expressions: 2 "abc" 2 - 3 * 10 / 2 + 7 Each FormCalc expression resolves to a single value by following a traditional order of operations, even if that order is not always obvious from the expression syntax. For example, the following sets of expressions, when applied to objects on a form design, produce equivalent results: Expression Equivalent to Returns "abc" "abc" abc 2 - 3 * 10 / 2 + 7 2 - (3 * (10 / 2)) + 7 -6 10 * 3 + 5 * 4 (10 * 3) + (5 * 4) 50 0 and 1 or 2 > 1 (0 and 1) or (2 >1) 1 (true) 2 < 3 not 1 == 1 (2 < 3) not (1 == 1) 0 (false) LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 12 Building blocks FormCalc User Reference As the previous table suggests, all FormCalc operators carry a certain precedence when they appear within expressions. The following table illustrates this operator hierarchy: Precedence Operator Highest = (Unary) - , + , not *,/ +,< , <= , > , >= , lt , le , gt , ge == , <> , eq , ne & , and Lowest | , or Promoting operands In cases where one or more of the operands within a given operation do not match the expected type for that operation, FormCalc promotes the operands to match the required type. How this promotion occurs depends on the type of operand required by the operation. Numeric operations When performing numeric operations involving non-numeric operands, the non-numeric operands are first promoted to their numeric equivalent. If the non-numeric operand does not successfully convert to a numeric value, its value is 0. When promoting null-valued operands to numbers, their value is always zero. The following table provides some examples of promoting non-numeric operands: Expression Equivalent to Returns (5 - "abc") * 3 (5 - 0) * 3 15 "100" / 10e1 100 / 10e1 1 5 + null + 3 5 + 0 + 3 8 Boolean operations When performing Boolean operations on non-Boolean operands, the non-Boolean operands are first promoted to their Boolean equivalent. If the non-Boolean operand does not successfully convert to a nonzero value, its value is true (1); otherwise its value is false (0). When promoting null-valued operands to a Boolean value, that value is always false (0). For example, the expression: "abc" | 2 evaluates to 1. That is, false | true = true, whereas if ("abc") then 10 else 20 endif evaluates to 20. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 13 Building blocks FormCalc User Reference String operations When performing string operations on nonstring operands, the nonstring operands are first promoted to strings by using their value as a string. When promoting null-valued operands to strings, their value is always the empty string. For example, the expression: concat("The total is ", 2, " dollars and ", 57, " cents.") evaluates to "The total is 2 dollars and 57 cents." Note: If during the evaluation of an expression an intermediate step yields NaN, +Inf, or -Inf, FormCalc generates an error exception and propagates that error for the remainder of the expression. As such, the expression's value will always be 0. For example: 3 / 0 + 1 evaluates to 0. Assignment An assignment expression sets the property identified by a given reference syntax to be the value of a simple expression. For example: $template.purchase_order.name.first = "Tony" This sets the value of the form design object “first” to Tony. For more information on using reference syntax, see “Reference Syntax” on page 19. Logical OR A logical OR expression returns either true (1) if at least one of its operands is true (1), or false (0) if both operands are false (0). If both operands are null, the expression returns null. Expression Character representation Logical OR | or These are examples of using the logical OR expression: Expression Returns 1 or 0 1 (true) 0 | 0 0 (false) 0 or 1 | 0 or 0 1 (true) Logical AND A logical AND expression returns either true (1) if both operands are true (1), or false if at least one of its operands is false (0). If both operands are null, the expression returns null. Expression Character representation Logical AND & and LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 14 Building blocks FormCalc User Reference These are examples of using the logical AND expression: Expression Returns 1 and 0 0 (false) 0 & 0 1 (true) 0 and 1 & 0 and 0 0 (false) Unary A unary expression returns different results depending on which of the unary operators is used. Expression Character representation Returns Unary - The arithmetic negation of the operand, or null if the operand is null. + The arithmetic value of the operand (unchanged), or null if its operand is null. not The logical negation of the operand. Note: The arithmetic negation of a null operand yields the result null, whereas the logical negation of a null operand yields the Boolean result true. This is justified by the common sense statement: If null means nothing, then “not nothing” should be something. These are examples of using the unary expression: Expression Returns -(17) -17 -(-17) 17 +(17) 17 +(-17) -17 not("true") 1 (true) not(1) 0 (false) Equality and inequality Equality and inequality expressions return the result of an equality comparison of its operands. Expression Character representation Returns Equality == eq True (1) when both operands compare identically, and false (0) if they do not compare identically. Inequality <> ne True (1) when both operands do not compare identically, and false (0) if they compare identically. The following special cases also apply when using equality operators: • If either operand is null, a null comparison is performed. Null-valued operands compare identically whenever both operands are null, and compare differently whenever one operand is not null. • If both operands are references, both operands compare identically when they both refer to the same object, and compare differently when they do not refer to the same object. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 15 Building blocks • FormCalc User Reference If both operands are string valued, a locale-sensitive lexicographic string comparison is performed on the operands. Otherwise, if they are not both null, the operands are promoted to numeric values, and a numeric comparison is performed. These are examples of using the equality and inequality expressions: Expression Returns 3 == 3 1 (true) 3 <> 4 1 (true) "abc" eq "def" 0 (false) "def" ne "abc" 1 (true) 5 + 5 == 10 1 (true) 5 + 5 <> "10" 0 (false) Relational A relational expression returns the Boolean result of a relational comparison of its operands. Expression Character representation Returns Relational < lt True (1) when the first operand is less than the second operand, and false (0) when the first operand is larger than the second operand. > gt True (1) when the first operand is greater than the second operand, and false (0) when the first operand is less than the second operand. <= le True (1) when the first operand is less than or equal to the second operand, and false (0) when the first operand is greater than the second operand. >= ge True (1) when the first operand is greater than or equal to the second operand, and false (0) when the first operand is less than the second operand. The following special cases also apply when using relational operators: • If either operand is null valued, a null comparison is performed. Null-valued operands compare identically whenever both operands are null and the relational operator is less-than-or-equal or greater than or equal, and compare differently otherwise. • If both operands are string valued, a locale-sensitive lexicographic string comparison is performed on the operands. Otherwise, if they are not both null, the operands are promoted to numeric values, and a numeric comparison is performed. These are examples of using the relational expression: Expression Returns 3 < 3 0 (false) 3 > 4 0 (false) "abc" <= "def" 1 (true) "def" > "abc" 1 (true) 12 >= 12 1 (true) "true" < "false" 0 (false) LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 16 Building blocks FormCalc User Reference If expressions An if expression is a conditional statement that evaluates a given simple expression for truth, and then returns the result of a list of expressions that correspond to the truth value. If the initial simple expression evaluates to false (0), FormCalc examines any elseif and else conditions for truth and returns the results of their expression lists if appropriate. Expression Syntax Returns If if ( simple expression ) then list of expressions elseif ( simple expression ) then list of expressions else list of expressions endif The result of the list of expressions associated with any valid conditions stated in the if expression. You are not required to have any elseif(...) or else statements as part of your if expression, but you must state the end of the expression with endif. These are examples of using the if expression: Expression Returns if ( 1 < 2 ) then 1 endif 1 if ( "abc" > "def") then 1 and 0 else 0 endif 0 if ( Field1 < Field2 ) then Field3 = 0 elseif ( Field1 > Field2 ) then Field3 = 40 elseif ( Field1 == Field2 ) then Field3 = 10 endif Varies with the values of Field1 and Field2. For example, if Field1 is 20 and Field2 is 10, then this expression sets Field3 to 40. While expressions A while expression is an iterative statement or loop that evaluates a given simple expression. If the result of the evaluation is true (1), FormCalc repeatedly examines the do condition and returns the results of the expression lists. If the result is false (0), then control passes to the next statement. A while expression is particularly well-suited to situations in which conditional repetition is needed. Conversely, situations in which unconditional repetition is needed are often best dealt with using a for expression. Expression Syntax Returns While while ( simple expression ) do The result of the list of expressions associated with the do condition. expression list endwhile In the following example, the values of the elements are added to a drop-down list from an XML file using the addItem method for all of the XML elements listed under list1 that are not equal to 3: var List = ref(xfa.record.lists.list1) var i = 0 while ( List.nodes.item(i+1).value ne "3")do $.addItem (List.nodes.item(i).value,List.nodes.item(i+1).value) i = i + 2 endwhile LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 17 Building blocks FormCalc User Reference For expressions A for expression is a conditionally iterative statement or loop. A for expression is particularly well-suited to looping situations in which unconditional repetition is needed. Conversely, situations in which conditional repetition is needed are often best dealt with using a while expression. The value of the for expression is the value of the last evaluation list that was evaluated, or false (0). The for condition initializes a FormCalc variable, which controls the looping action. In the upto variant, the value of the loop variable will iterate from the start expression to the end expression in step expression increments. If you omit the step expression, the step increment defaults to 1. In the downto variant, the value of the loop variable iterates from the start expression to the end expression in step expression decrements. If the step expression is omitted, the step decrements defaults to -1. Iterations of the loop are controlled by the end expression value. Before each iteration, the end expression is evaluated and compared to the loop variable. If the result is true (1), the expression list is evaluated. After each evaluation, the step expression is evaluated and added to the loop variable. Before each iteration, the end expression is evaluated and compared to the loop variable. In addition, after each evaluation of the do condition, the step expression is evaluated and added to the loop variable. A for loop terminates when the start expression has surpassed the end expression. The start expression can surpass the end expression in either an upwards direction, if you use upto, or in a downward direction, if you use downto. Expression Syntax Returns For for variable = start expression (upto | downto ) end expression (step step expression ) do expression list endfor The result of the list of expressions associated with the do condition. The start, end, and step expressions must all be simple expressions. In the following example, the values of the elements are added to a drop-down list from an XML file using the addItem method for all of the XML elements listed under list1: var List = ref(xfa.record.lists.list1) for i=0 upto List.nodes.length - 1 step 2 do $.addItem (List.nodes.item(i).value,"") endfor Foreach expressions A foreach expression iterates over the expression list for each value in its argument list. The value of the foreach expression is the value of the last expression list that was evaluated, or zero (0), if the loop was never entered. The in condition, which is executed only once (after the loop variable has been declared) controls the iteration of the loop. Before each iteration, the loop variable is assigned successive values from the argument list. The argument list cannot be empty. Expression Syntax Returns Foreach foreach variable in( argument list )do expression list endfor Use a comma (,) to separate more than one simple expression in the argument list. The value of the last expression list that was evaluated, or zero(0), if the loop was never entered. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 18 Building blocks FormCalc User Reference In the following example, only the values of the “display” XML elements are added to the foreach drop-down list. foreach Item in (xfa.record.lists.list1.display[*]) do $.addItem(Item,"") endfor Break expressions A break expression causes an immediate exit from the innermost enclosing while, for, or foreach expression loop. Control passes to the expression following the terminated loop. The value of the break expression is always the value zero (0). Expression Syntax Returns Break break Passes control to the expression following the terminated loop. In the following example, an if condition is placed in the while loop to check whether the current value is equal to “Display data for 2”. If true, the break executes and stops the loop from continuing. var List = ref(xfa.record.lists.list1) var i=0 while (List.nodes.item(i+1).value ne "3") do $.addItem(List.nodes.item(i).value,List.nodes.item(i+1).value) i = i + 2 if (List.nodes.item(i) eq "Display data for 2" then break endif endwhile Continue expressions A continue expression causes the next iteration of the innermost enclosing while, for, or foreach loop. The value of the continue expression is always the value zero (0). Expression Syntax Returns Continue continue When used in a while expression, control is passed to the while condition. When used in a for expression, control is passed to the step expression. The object of the following example is to populate the drop-down list with values from the XML file. If the value of the current XML element is “Display data for 3,” then the while loop exits via the break expression. If the value of the current XML element is “Display data for 2”, then the script adds 2 to the variable i (which is the counter) and immediately the loop moves on to its next cycle. The last two lines are ignored when the value of the current XML element is “Display data for 2”. var List = ref(xfa.record.lists.list1) var i = 0 while (List.nodes.item(i+1).value ne "5") do if (List.nodes.item(i) eq "Display data for 3") then break endif if (List.nodes.item(i) eq "Display data for 2" then i=i+2 continue endif $.addItem(List.nodes.item(i).value,List.nodes.item(i+1).value) i=i+2 endwhile LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 19 Building blocks FormCalc User Reference Variables Within your calculations, FormCalc allows you to create and manipulate variables for storing data. The name you assign to each variable you create must be a unique “Identifiers” on page 9. For example, the following FormCalc expressions define the userName variable and set the value of a text field to be the value of userName. var userName = "Tony Blue" TextField1.rawValue = userName You can reference variables that you define in the Variables tab of the Form Properties dialog box in the same way. The following FormCalc expression uses the Concat function to set the value of the text field using the form variables salutation and name. TextField1.rawValue = Concat(salutation, name) Note: A variable you create using FormCalc will supersede a similarly named variable you define in the Variables tab of the Form Properties dialog box. Reference Syntax FormCalc provides access to form design object properties and values using a reference syntax. The following example demonstrates both assigning and retrieving object values: Invoice_Total.rawValue = Invoice_SubTotal.rawValue * (8 / 100) In this case the reference syntax Invoice_Total assigns the value of Invoice_SubTotal * (8 / 100) to the field Invoice_Total. In the context of form design, a fully qualified reference syntax enables access to all the objects on a form design. To make accessing object properties and values easier, FormCalc includes shortcuts to reduce the effort required to create references. The following table outlines the reference syntax shortcuts for FormCalc. Notation Description $ Refers to the current field or object, as shown in this example: $ = "Tony Blue" The above example sets the value of the current field or object to Tony Blue. $data Represents the root of the data model xfa.datasets.data. For example, $data.purchaseOrder.total is equivalent to xfa.datasets.data.purchaseOrder.total $event Represents the current form object event. For example, $event.name is equivalent to xfa.event.name $form Represents the root of the form model xfa.form. For example, $form.purchaseOrder.tax is equivalent to stating xfa.form.purchaseOrder.tax LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 20 Building blocks FormCalc User Reference Notation Description $host Represents the host object. For example, $host.messageBox("Hello world") is equivalent to xfa.host.messageBox("Hello world") $layout Represents the root of the layout model xfa.layout. For example, $layout.ready is equivalent to stating xfa.layout.ready $record Represents the current record of a collection of data, such as from an XML file. For example, $record.header.txtOrderedByCity references the txtOrderedByCity node within the header node of the current XML data. $template Represents the root of the template model xfa.template. For example, $template.purchaseOrder.item is equivalent to xfa.template.purchaseOrder.item ! Represents the root of the data model xfa.datasets. For example, !data is equivalent to xfa.datasets.data * Selects all form objects within a given container, such as a subform, regardless of name, or selects all objects that have a similar name. For example, the following expression selects all objects named item on a form: xfa.form.form1.item[*] You can use the ‘*’ (asterisk) syntax with JavaScript if it used with the resolveNode method. For more information about the resolveNode method, see Designer ES22 Help, or see LiveCycle Designer ES2 Scripting Reference. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 21 Building blocks FormCalc User Reference Notation Description .. You can use two dots at any point in your reference syntax to search for objects that are a part of any subcontainer of the current container object, such as a subform. For example, the expression Subform_Page..Subform2 means locate the node Subform_Page (as usual) and find a descendant of Subform_Page called Subform2. Using the example tree above, Subform_Page..TextField2 is equivalent to Subform_Page.Subform1[0].Subform3.TextField2[0] because TextField2[0] is in the first Subform1 node that FormCalc encounters on its search. As a second example, Subform_Page..Subform3[*] returns all four TextField2 objects. You can use the ‘..’ (double period) syntax with JavaScript if it used with the resolveNode method. For more information about the resolveNode method, see Designer ES22 Help, or see LiveCycle Designer ES2 Scripting Reference. # The number sign (#) notation is used to denote one of the following items in a reference syntax: • An unnamed object. For example, the following reference syntax accesses an unnamed subform: xfa.form.form1.#subform • Specify a property in a reference syntax if a property and an object have the same name. For example, the following reference syntax accesses the name property of a subform if the subform also contains a field named name: xfa.form.form1.#subform.#name You can use the ‘#’ (number sign) syntax with JavaScript if it used with the resolveNode method. For more information about the resolveNode method, see Designer ES22 Help, or see LiveCycle Designer ES2 Scripting Reference. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 22 Building blocks FormCalc User Reference Notation Description [ ] The square bracket ([ ]) notation denotes the occurrence value of an object. To construct an occurrence value reference, place square brackets ([ ]) after an object name, and enclose within the brackets one of the following values: • [ n ], where n is an absolute occurrence index number beginning at 0. An occurrence number that is out of range does not return a value. For example, xfa.form.form1.#subform.Quantity[3] refers to the fourth occurrence of the Quantity object. • [ +/- n ], where n indicates an occurrence relative to the occurrence of the object making the reference. Positive values yield higher occurrence numbers, and negative values yield lower occurrence numbers. For example, xfa.form.form1.#subform.Quantity[+2] This reference yields the occurrence of Quantity whose occurrence number is two more than the occurrence number of the container making the reference. For example, if this reference was attached to the Quantity[2]object , the reference would be the same as xfa.template.Quantity[4] If the computed index number is out of range, the reference returns an error. The most common use of this syntax is for locating the previous or next occurrence of a particular object. For example, every occurrence of the Quantity object (except the first) might use Quantity[-1] to get the value of the previous Quantity object. • [*] indicates multiple occurrences of an object. The first named object is found, and objects of the same name that are siblings to the first are returned. Note that using this notation returns a collection of objects. For example, xfa.form.form1.#subform.Quantity[*] • This expression refers to all objects with a name of Quantity that are siblings to the first occurrence of Quantity found by the reference. In language-specific forms for Arabic, Hebrew, Thai, and Vietnamese, the reference syntax is always on the right (even for right-to-left languages). LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 23 Building blocks Notation FormCalc User Reference Description [ ] (Continued) Using the tree for reference, these expressions return the following objects: • Subform_Page.Subform1[*] returns both Subform1 objects. • Subform_Page.Subform1.Subform3.TextField2[*] returns two TextField2 objects. Subform_Page.Subform1 resolves to the first Subform1 object on the left, and TextField2[*] evaluates relative to the Subform3 object. • Subform_Page.Subform1[*].TextField1 returns both of the TextField1 instances. Subform_Page.Subform1[*] resolves to both Subform1 objects, and TextField1 evaluates relative to the Subform1 objects. • Subform_Page.Subform1[*].Subform3.TextField2[1] returns the second and fourth TextField2 objects from the left. Subform_Page.Subform1[*] resolves to both Subform1 objects, and TextField2[1] evaluates relative to the Subform3 objects. • Subform_Page.Subform1[*].Subform3[*] returns both instances of the Subform3 object. • Subform_Page.* returns both Subform1 objects and the Subform2 object. • Subform_Page.Subform2.* returns the two instances of the NumericField2 object. You can use the ‘[ ]’ (square bracket) syntax with JavaScript if it used with the resolveNode method. For more information about the resolveNode method, see Designer ES22 Help, or see LiveCycle Designer ES2 Scripting Reference. Property and method calls Designer ES2 defines a variety of properties and methods for all objects on a form design. FormCalc provides access to these properties and methods and allows you to use them to modify the appearance and behavior of objects on your form. Similar to a function call, you invoke properties and methods by passing arguments to them in a specific order. The number and type of arguments in each property and method are specific to each object type. Note: Different form design objects support different properties and methods. For a complete list of the properties and methods objects support, see Designer ES2 Scripting Reference. Built-in function calls FormCalc supports a large set of built-in functions with a wide range of capabilities. The names of the functions are case-insensitive, but unlike keywords, FormCalc does not reserve the names of the functions. This means that calculations on forms with objects whose names coincide with the names of FormCalc functions do not conflict. Functions may or may not require some set of arguments to execute and return a value. Many functions have arguments that are optional, meaning it is up to you to decide if the argument is necessary for the particular situation. FormCalc evaluates all function arguments in order, beginning with the lead argument. If an attempt is made to pass less than the required number of arguments to a function, the function generates an error exception. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 24 Building blocks FormCalc User Reference Each function expects each argument in a particular format, either as a number literal or string literal. If the value of an argument does not match what a function expects, FormCalc converts the value. For example: Len(35) The “Len” on page 70 function actually expects a literal string. In this case, FormCalc converts the argument from the number 35 to the string “35”, and the function evaluates to 2. However, in the case of a string literal to number literal, the conversion is not so simple. For example: Abs("abc") The “Abs” on page 28 function expects a number literal. FormCalc converts the value of all string literals as 0. This can cause problems in functions where a 0 value forces an error, such as in the case of the “Apr” on page 51 function. Some function arguments only require integral values; in such cases, the passed arguments are always promoted to integers by truncating the fractional part. Here is a summary of the key properties of built-in functions: • • • • Built-in function names are case-insensitive. The built-in functions are predefined, but their names are not reserved words. This means that the built-in function “Max” on page 30 never conflicts with an object, object property, or object method named Max. Many of the built-in functions have a mandatory number of arguments, which can be followed by a optional number of arguments. A few built-in functions, “Avg” on page 28, “Count” on page 29, “Max” on page 30, “Min” on page 31, “Sum” on page 33, and “Concat” on page 67, accept an indefinite number of arguments. For a complete listing of all the FormCalc functions, see the “Alphabetical Functions List” on page 25. 25 3. Alphabetical Functions List The following table lists all available FormCalc functions, provides a description of each function, and identifies the category type to which each function belongs. Function Description Type “Abs” on page 28 Returns the absolute value of a numeric value or expression. Arithmetic “Apr” on page 51 Returns the annual percentage rate for a loan. Financial “At” on page 66 Locates the starting character position of a string within another string. String “Avg” on page 28 Evaluates a set of number values and/or expressions and returns the average of the non-null elements contained within that set. Arithmetic “Ceil” on page 29 Returns the whole number greater than or equal to a given number. Arithmetic “Choose” on page 59 Selects a value from a given set of parameters. Logical “Concat” on page 67 Returns the concatenation of two or more strings. String “Count” on page 29 Evaluates a set of values and/or expressions and returns the number of non-null elements contained within the set. Arithmetic “CTerm” on page 52 Returns the number of periods needed for an investment earning a fixed, but compounded, interest rate to grow to a future value. Financial “Date” on page 43 Returns the current system date as the number of days since the “Epoch” on page 35. Date and Time “Date2Num” on page 43 Returns the number of days since the “Epoch” on page 35, given a date string. Date and Time “DateFmt” on page 44 Returns a date format string, given a date format style. Date and Time “Decode” on page 67 Returns the decoded version of a given string. String “Encode” on page 68 Returns the encoded version of a given string. String “Eval” on page 62 Returns the value of a given form calculation. Miscellaneous “Exists” on page 59 Determines whether the given parameter is a reference syntax to an existing object. Logical “Floor” on page 30 Returns the largest whole number that is less than or equal to the given value. Arithmetic “Format” on page 68 Formats the given data according to the specified picture format string. String “FV” on page 52 Returns the future value of consistent payment amounts made at regular intervals at a constant interest rate. Financial “Get” on page 79 Downloads the contents of the given URL. URL “HasValue” on page 60 Determines whether the given parameter is an accessor with a non-null, nonempty, or non-blank value. Logical “IPmt” on page 53 Returns the amount of interest paid on a loan over a set period of time. Financial “IsoDate2Num” on page 45 Returns the number of days since the “Epoch” on page 35, given an valid date string. Date and Time “IsoTime2Num” on page 45 Returns the number of milliseconds since the “Epoch” on page 35, given a valid time string. Date and Time LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 26 Alphabetical Functions List FormCalc User Reference Function Description Type “Left” on page 69 Extracts a specified number of characters from a string, starting with the first character on the left. String “Len” on page 70 Returns the number of characters in a given string. String “LocalDateFmt” on page 45 Returns a localized date format string, given a date format style. Date and Time “LocalTimeFmt” on page 46 Returns a localized time format string, given a time format style. Date and Time “Lower” on page 70 Converts all uppercase characters within a specified string to lowercase characters. String “Ltrim” on page 71 Returns a string with all leading white space characters removed. String “Max” on page 30 Returns the maximum value of the non-null elements in the given set of numbers. Arithmetic “Min” on page 31 Returns the minimum value of the non-null elements of the given set of numbers. Arithmetic “Mod” on page 32 Returns the modulus of one number divided by another. Arithmetic “NPV” on page 54 Returns the net present value of an investment based on a discount rate and a series of periodic future cash flows. Financial “Null” on page 62 Returns the null value. The null value means no value. Miscellaneous “Num2Date” on page 47 Returns a date string, given a number of days since the “Epoch” on page 35. Date and Time “Num2GMTime” on page 47 Returns a GMT time string, given a number of milliseconds from the “Epoch” on page 35. Date and Time “Num2Time” on page 48 Returns a time string, given a number of milliseconds from the “Epoch” on page 35. Date and Time “Oneof” on page 60 Returns true (1) if a value is in a given set, and false (0) if it is not. Logical “Parse” on page 71 Analyzes the given data according to the given picture format. String “Pmt” on page 54 Returns the payment for a loan based on constant payments and a constant interest rate. Financial “Post” on page 79 Posts the given data to the specified URL. URL “PPmt” on page 55 Returns the amount of principal paid on a loan over a period of time. Financial “Put” on page 80 Uploads the given data to the specified URL. URL “PV” on page 56 Returns the present value of an investment of periodic constant payments at a constant interest rate. Financial “Rate” on page 56 Returns the compound interest rate per period required for an investment to grow from present to future value in a given period. Financial “Ref” on page 63 Returns a reference to an existing object. Miscellaneous “Replace” on page 72 Replaces all occurrences of one string with another within a specified string. String “Right” on page 73 Extracts a number of characters from a given string, beginning with the last character on the right. String “Round” on page 33 Evaluates a given numeric value or expression and returns a number rounded to the given number of decimal places. Arithmetic “Rtrim” on page 73 Returns a string with all trailing white space characters removed. String LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 27 Alphabetical Functions List FormCalc User Reference Function Description Type “Space” on page 74 Returns a string consisting of a given number of blank spaces. String “Str” on page 74 Converts a number to a character string. FormCalc formats the result to the specified width and rounds to the specified number of decimal places. String “Stuff” on page 75 Inserts a string into another string. String “Substr” on page 75 Extracts a portion of a given string. String “Sum” on page 33 Returns the sum of the non-null elements of a given set of numbers. Arithmetic “Term” on page 57 Returns the number of periods needed to reach a given future value from periodic constant payments into an interest-bearing account. Financial “Time” on page 49 Returns the current system time as the number of milliseconds since the “Epoch” on page 35. Date and Time “Time2Num” on page 49 Returns the number of milliseconds since the “Epoch” on page 35, given a time string. Date and Time “TimeFmt” on page 50 Returns a time format, given a time format style. Date and Time “UnitType” on page 63 Returns the units of a unitspan. A unitspan is a string consisting of a number followed by a unit name. Miscellaneous “UnitValue” on page 64 Returns the numeric value of a measurement with its associated unitspan, after an optional unit conversion. Miscellaneous “Upper” on page 77 Converts all lowercase characters within a string to uppercase. String “Uuid” on page 76 Returns a Universally Unique Identifier (UUID) string to use as an identification method. String “Within” on page 61 Returns true (1) if the test value is within a given range, and false (0) if it is not. Logical “WordNum” on page 77 Returns the English text equivalent of a given number. String 28 4. Arithmetic Functions These functions perform a range of mathematical operations. Functions • • • • • • • • • • “Abs” on page 28 “Avg” on page 28 “Ceil” on page 29 “Count” on page 29 “Floor” on page 30 “Max” on page 30 “Min” on page 31 “Mod” on page 32 “Round” on page 33 “Sum” on page 33 Abs Returns the absolute value of a numeric value or expression, or returns null if the value or expression is null. Syntax Abs(n1) Parameters Parameter Description n1 A numeric value or expression to evaluate. Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number literals” on page 6. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Abs function: Expression Returns Abs(1.03) 1.03 Abs(-1.03) 1.03 Abs(0) 0 Avg Evaluates a set of number values and/or expressions and returns the average of the non-null elements contained within that set. Syntax Avg(n1 [, n2 ...]) LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 29 Arithmetic Functions FormCalc User Reference Parameters Parameter Description n1 The first numeric value or expression of the set. n2 (optional) Additional numeric values or expressions. Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number literals” on page 6. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Avg function: Expression Returns Avg(0, 32, 16) 16 Avg(2.5, 17, null) 9.75 Avg(Price[0], Price[1], Price[2], Price[3]) The average value of the first four non-null occurrences of Price. Avg(Quantity[*]) The average value of all non-null occurrences of Quantity. Ceil Returns the whole number greater than or equal to a given number, or returns null if its parameter is null. Syntax Ceil(n) Parameters Parameter Description n Any numeric value or expression. The function returns 0 if n is not a numeric value or expression. Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number literals” on page 6. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Ceil function: Expression Returns Ceil(2.5875) 3 Ceil(-5.9) -5 Ceil("abc") 0 Ceil(A) 100 if the value of A is 99.999 Count Evaluates a set of values and/or expressions and returns the count of non-null elements contained within the given set. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 30 Arithmetic Functions FormCalc User Reference Syntax Count(n1 [, n2 ...]) Parameters Parameter Description n1 A numeric value or expression. n2 (optional) Additional numeric values and/or expressions. Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number literals” on page 6. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Count function: Expression Returns Count("Tony", "Blue", 41) 3 Count(Customers[*]) The number of non-null occurrences of Customers. Count(Coverage[2], "Home", "Auto") 3, provided the third occurrence of Coverage is non-null. Floor Returns the largest whole number that is less than or equal to the given value. Syntax Floor(n) Parameters Parameter Description n Any numeric value or expression. Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number literals” on page 6. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Floor function: Expression Returns Floor(21.3409873) 21 Floor(5.999965342) 5 Floor(3.2 * 15) 48 Max Returns the maximum value of the non-null elements in the given set of numbers. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 31 Arithmetic Functions FormCalc User Reference Syntax Max(n1 [, n2 ...]) Parameters Parameter Description n1 A numeric value or expression. n2 (optional) Additional numeric values and/or expressions. Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number literals” on page 6. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Max function: Expression Returns Max(234, 15, 107) 234 Max("abc", 15, "Tony Blue") 15 Max("abc") 0 Max(Field1[*], Field2[0]) Evaluates the non-null occurrences of Field1 as well as the first occurrence of Field2, and returns the highest value. Max(Min(Field1[*], Field2[0]), Field3, Field4) The first expression evaluates the non-null occurrences of Field1 as well as the first occurrence of Field2, and returns the lowest value. The final result is the maximum of the returned value compared against the values of Field3 and Field4. See also “Min” on page 31. Min Returns the minimum value of the non-null elements of the given set of numbers. Syntax Min(n1 [, n2 ...]) Parameters Parameter Description n1 A numeric value or expression. n2 (optional) Additional numeric values and/or expressions. Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number literals” on page 6. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 32 Arithmetic Functions FormCalc User Reference Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Min function: Expression Returns Min(234, 15, 107) 15 Min("abc", 15, "Tony Blue") 15 Min("abc") 0 Min(Field1[*], Field2[0]) Evaluates the non-null occurrences of Sales_July as well as the first occurrence of Sales_August, and returns the lowest value. Min(Max(Field1[*], Field2[0]), Field3, Field4) The first expression evaluates the non-null occurrences of Field1 as well as the first occurrence of Field2, and returns the highest value. The final result is the minimum of the returned value compared against the values of Field3 and Field4. See also “Max” on page 30. Mod Returns the modulus of one number divided by another. The modulus is the remainder of the division of the dividend by the divisor. The sign of the remainder always equals the sign of the dividend. Syntax Mod(n1, n2) Parameters Parameter Description n1 The dividend, a numeric value or expression. n2 The divisor, a numeric value or expression. If n1 and/or n2 are not numeric values or expressions, the function returns 0. Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number literals” on page 6. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Mod function: Expression Returns Mod(64, -3) 1 Mod(-13,3) -1 Mod("abc", 2) 0 Mod(X[0], Y[9]) The first occurrence of X is used as the dividend and the tenth occurrence of Y is used as the divisor. Mod(Round(Value[4], 2), Max(Value[*])) The first fifth occurrence of Value rounded to two decimal places is used as the dividend and the highest of all non-null occurrences of Value is used as the divisor. See also “Max” on page 30 and “Round” on page 33. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 33 Arithmetic Functions FormCalc User Reference Round Evaluates a given numeric value or expression and returns a number rounded to a given number of decimal places. Syntax Round(n1 [, n2]) Parameters Parameter Description n1 A numeric value or expression to be evaluated. n2 (optional) The number of decimal places with which to evaluate n1 to a maximum of 12. If you do not include a value for n2, or if n2 is invalid, the function assumes the number of decimal places is 0. Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number literals” on page 6. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Round function: Expression Returns Round(12.389764537, 4) 12.3898 Round(20/3, 2) 6.67 Round(8.9897, "abc") 9 Round(FV(400, 0.10/12, 30*12), 2) 904195.17. This takes the value evaluated using the FV function and rounds it to two decimal places. See also “FV” on page 52. Rounds off the value of Total_Price to two decimal places. Round(Total_Price, 2) Sum Returns the sum of the non-null elements of a given set of numbers. Syntax Sum(n1 [, n2 ...]) Parameters Parameter Description n1 A numeric value or expression. n2 (optional) Additional numeric values and/or expressions. Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number literals” on page 6. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 34 Arithmetic Functions FormCalc User Reference Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Sum function: Expression Returns Sum(2, 4, 6, 8) 20 Sum(-2, 4, -6, 8) 4 Sum(4, 16, "abc", 19) 39 Sum(Amount[2], Amount[5]) Totals the third and sixth occurrences of Amount. Sum(Round(20/3, 2), Max(Amount[*]), Min(Amount[*])) Totals the value of 20/3 rounded to two decimal places, as well as the largest and smallest nonnull occurrences of Amount. See also “Max” on page 30, “Min” on page 31, and “Round” on page 33. 35 5. Date and Time Functions Functions in this section deal specifically with creating and manipulating date and time values. Functions • • • • • • • • • • • • • “Date” on page 43 “Date2Num” on page 43 “DateFmt” on page 44 “IsoDate2Num” on page 45 “IsoTime2Num” on page 45 “LocalDateFmt” on page 45 “LocalTimeFmt” on page 46 “Num2Date” on page 47 “Num2GMTime” on page 47 “Num2Time” on page 48 “Time” on page 49 “Time2Num” on page 49 “TimeFmt” on page 50 Structuring dates and times Epoch Date values and time values have an associated origin or epoch, which is a moment in time from which time begins. Any date value and any time value prior to its epoch is invalid. The unit of value for all date functions is the number of days since the epoch. The unit of value for all time functions is the number of milliseconds since the epoch. Designer ES2 defines day one for the epoch for all date functions as Jan 1, 1900, and millisecond one for the epoch for all time functions is midnight, 00:00:00, Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). This definition means that negative time values can be returned to users in time zones east of GMT. Date formats A date format is a shorthand specification of how a date appears. It consists of various punctuation marks and symbols that represent the formatting that the date must use. The following table lists examples of date formats. Date format Example MM/DD/YY 11/11/78 DD/MM/YY 25/07/85 MMMM DD, YYYY March 10, 1964 LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 36 Date and Time Functions FormCalc User Reference The format of dates is governed by an ISO standard. Each country or region specifies its own date formats. The four general categories of date formats are short, medium, long, and full. The following table contains examples of different date formats from different locales for each of the categories. Locale identifier and description Date format (Category) Example en_GB DD/MM/YY (Short) 08/12/92 English (United Kingdom) 08/04/05 fr_CA YY-MM-DD (Medium) 92-08-18 D. MMMM YYYY (Long) 17. Juni 1989 EEEE, ' le ' D MMMM YYYY (Full) Lundi, le 29 Octobre, 1990 French (Canada) de_DE German (Germany) fr_FR French (France) Time formats A time format is a shorthand specification to format a time. It consists of punctuations, literals, and pattern symbols. The following table lists examples of time formats. Time format Example h:MM A 7:15 PM HH:MM:SS 21:35:26 HH:MM:SS 'o''clock' A Z 14:20:10 o’clock PM EDT Time formats are governed by an ISO standard. Each nation specifies the form of its default, short, medium, long, and full-time formats. The locale identifies the format of times that conform to the standards of that nation. The following table contains some examples of different date formats from different locales for each of the categories. Locale identifier and description Time format (Category) Example en_GB HH:MM (Short) 14:13 HH:MM:SS (Medium) 12:15:50 HH:MM:SS z (Long) 14:13:13 -0400 HH ' h ' MM Z (Full) 14 h 13 GMT-04:00 English (United Kingdom) fr_CA French (Canada) de_DE German (Germany) fr_FR French (France) Date and time picture formats The following symbols must be used to create date and time patterns for date/time fields. Certain date symbols are only used in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean locales. These symbols are also specified below. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 37 Date and Time Functions FormCalc User Reference Note: The comma (,), dash (-), colon (:), slash (/), period (.), and space ( ) are treated as literal values and can be included anywhere in a pattern. To include a phrase in a pattern, delimit the text string with single quotation marks ('). For example, 'Your payment is due no later than' MM-DD-YY can be specified as the display pattern. Date symbol Description Formatted value for English (USA) locale where the localesensitive input value is 1/1/08 (which is January 1, 2008) D 1 or 2 digit (1-31) day of the month 1 DD Zero-padded 2 digit (01-31) day of the month 01 J 1, 2, or 3 digit (1-366) day of the year 1 JJJ Zero-padded, three-digit (001-366) day of the year 001 M One- or two-digit (1-12) month of the year 1 MM Zero-padded, two-digit (01-12) month of the year 01 MMM Abbreviated month name Jan MMMM Full month name January E One-digit (1-7) day of the week, where (1=Sunday) 3 (because January 1, 2008 is a Tuesday) EEE Abbreviated weekday name Tue (because January 1, 2008 is a Tuesday) EEEE Full weekday name Tuesday (because January 1, 2008 is a Tuesday) YY Two-digit year, where numbers less than 30 are considered to fall after the year 2000 and numbers 30 and higher are considered to occur before 2000. For example, 00=2000, 29=2029, 30=1930, and 99=1999 08 YYYY Four-digit year 2008 G Era name (BC or AD) AD w One-digit (0-5) week of the month, where week 1 is the earliest set of four contiguous days ending on a Saturday 1 WW Two-digit (01-53) ISO-8601 week of the year, where week 1 is the week containing January 4 01 Several additional date patterns are available for specifying date patterns in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean locales. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 38 Date and Time Functions FormCalc User Reference Japanese eras can be represented by several different symbols. The final four era symbols provide alternative symbols to represent Japanese eras. CJK date symbol Description DDD The locale’s ideographic numeric valued day of the month DDDD The locale’s tens rule ideographic numeric valued day of the month YYY The locale’s ideographic numeric valued year YYYYY The locale’s tens rule ideographic numeric valued year g The locale’s alternate era name. For the current Japanese era, Heisei, this pattern displays the ASCII letter H (U+48) gg The locale’s alternate era name. For the current Japanese era, this pattern displays the ideograph that is represented by the Unicode symbol (U+5E73) ggg The locale’s alternate era name. For the current Japanese era, this pattern displays the ideographs that are represented by the Unicode symbols (U+5E73 U+6210) g The locale’s alternate era name. For the current Japanese era, this pattern displays the full width letter H (U+FF28) g g The locale’s alternate era name. For the current Japanese era, this pattern displays the ideograph that is represented by the Unicode symbol (U+337B) Time symbol Description Locale-sensitive input value Formatted value for English (USA) locale h One- or two-digit (1-12) hour of the day (AM/PM) 12:08 AM or 2:08 PM 12 or 2 hh Zero-padded 2 digit (01-12) hour of the day (AM/PM) 12:08 AM or 2:08 PM 12 or 02 k One- or two-digit (0-11) hour of the day (AM/PM) 12:08 AM or 2:08 PM 0 or 2 kk Two-digit (00-11) hour of the day (AM/PM) 12:08 AM or 2:08 PM 00 or 02 H One- or two-digit (0-23) hour of the day 12:08 AM or 2:08 PM 0 or 14 HH Zero-padded, two-digit (00-23) hour of the day 12:08 AM or 2:08 PM 00 or 14 K One- or two-digit (1-24) hour of the day 12:08 AM or 2:08 PM 24 or 14 KK Zero-padded, two-digit (01-24) hour of the day 12:08 AM or 2:08 PM 24 or 14 M One- or two-digit (0-59) minute of the hour 2:08 PM 8 2:08 PM 08 2:08:09 PM 9 2:08:09 PM 09 Note: You must use this symbol with an hour symbol. MM Zero-padded, two-digit (00-59) minute of the hour Note: You must use this symbol with an hour symbol. S One- or two-digit (0-59) second of the minute Note: You must use this symbol with an hour and minute symbol. SS Zero-padded, two-digit (00-59) second of the minute Note: You must use this symbol with an hour and minute symbol. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 39 Date and Time Functions FormCalc User Reference Time symbol Description Locale-sensitive input value Formatted value for English (USA) locale FFF Three- digit (000-999) thousandth of the second 2:08:09 PM 09 Note: You must use this symbol with an hour, minute, and seconds symbol. A The part of the day that is from midnight to noon (AM) or from noon to midnight (PM) 2:08:09 PM PM z ISO-8601 time-zone format (for example, Z, +0500, -0030, -01, +0100) 2:08:09 PM -0400 2:08:09 PM -04:00 2:08:09 PM EDT Note: You must use this symbol with an hour symbol. zz Alternative ISO-8601 time-zone format (for example, Z, +05:00, -00:30, -01, +01:00) Note: You must use this symbol with an hour symbol. Z Abbreviated time-zone name (for example, GMT, GMT+05:00, GMT-00:30, EST, PDT) Note: You must use this symbol with an hour symbol. Reserved symbols The following symbols have special meanings and cannot be used as literal text. Symbol Description ? When submitted, the symbol matches any one character. When merged for display, it becomes a space. * When submitted, the symbol matches 0 or Unicode white space characters. When merged for display, it becomes a space. + When submitted, the symbol matches one or more Unicode white space characters. When merged for display, it becomes a space. Locales A locale is a standard term used when developing international standards to identify a particular nation (language, country or region). For the purposes of FormCalc, a locale defines the format of dates, times, numeric, and currency values relevant to a specific nation or region so that users can use the formats they are accustomed to. Each locale is comprised of a unique string of characters called a locale identifier. The composition of these strings is controlled by the international standards organization (ISO) Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a working group of the Internet Society (www.isoc.org). Locale identifiers consist of a language part, a country or region part, or both. The following table lists valid locales for this release of Designer ES2. Language Country or Region ISO Code Arabic Algeria ar_DZ Arabic Bahrain ar_BH Arabic Egypt ar_EG Arabic Iraq ar_IQ Arabic Jordan ar_JO Arabic Kuwait ar_KW LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 40 Date and Time Functions FormCalc User Reference Language Country or Region ISO Code Arabic Lebanon ar_LB Arabic Libya ar_LY Arabic Morocco ar_MA Arabic Oman ar_OM Arabic Qatar ar_QA Arabic Saudi Arabia ar_SA Arabic Sudan ar_SD Arabic Syria ar_SY Arabic Tunisia ar_TN Arabic United Arabian Emirates ar_AE Arabic Yemen ar_YE Armenian Armenia hy_AM Azerbaijani-Cyrillic Azerbaijan az_Cyrl_AZ Azerbaijani-Latin Azerbaijan az_Latn_AZ Basque Spain eu_ES Bosnain Bosnia and Herzegovina bs_BA Bulgarian Bulgaria bg_BG Catalan Spain ca_ES Chinese People’s Republic of China (Simplified) zh_CN Chinese Hong Kong S.A.R., China zh_HK Chinese Taiwan (Traditional) zh_TW Croatian Croatia hr_HR Czech Czech Republic cs_CZ Danish Denmark da_DK Dutch Belgium nl_BE Dutch Netherlands nl_NL English Australia en_AU English Belgium en_BE English Canada en_CA English Hong Kong S.A.R., China en_HK English India en_IN English Ireland en_IE English New Zealand en_NZ LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 41 Date and Time Functions FormCalc User Reference Language Country or Region ISO Code English Philippines en_PH English Singapore en_SG English South Africa en_ZA English United Kingdom en_GB English United Kingdom Euro en_GB_EURO English United States of America en_US English U.S. Virgin Islands en_VI Estonian Estonia et_EE Finnish Finland fi_FI French Belgium fr_BE French Canada fr_CA French France fr_FR French Luxembourg fr_LU French Switzerland fr_CH German Austria de_AT German Germany de_DE German Luxembourg de_LU German Switzerland de_CH Greek Greece el_GR Hebrew Israel he_IL Hungarian Hungary hu_HU Indonesian Indonesia id_ID Italian Italy it_IT Italian Switzerland it_CH Japanese Japan ja_JP Kazakh Kazakhstan kk_KZ Khmer Cambodia km_KH Korean Korea ko_KR Korean Korea Hanja ko_KR_HANI Lao Laos lo_LA Latvian Latvia lv_LV Lithuanian Lithuania lt_LT Malay Malaysia ms_MY LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 42 Date and Time Functions FormCalc User Reference Language Country or Region ISO Code Norwegian - Bokmal Norway nb_NO Norwegian - Nynorsk Norway nn_NO Persian Iran fa_IR Polish Poland pl_PL Portuguese Brazil pt_BR Portuguese Portugal pt_PT Romanian Romania ro_RO Russian Russia ru_RU Serbian-Cyrillic Serbia and Montenegro sr_Cyrl_CS Serbian-Latin Serbia and Montenegro sr_Latn_CS Slovak Slovakia sk_SK Slovenian Slovenia sl_SI Spanish Argentina es_AR Spanish Bolivia es_BO Spanish Chile es_CL Spanish Columbia es_CO Spanish Costa Rica es_CR Spanish Dominican Republic es_DO Spanish Ecuador es_EC Spanish El Salvador es_SV Spanish Guatemala es_GT Spanish Honduras es_HN Spanish Mexico es_MX Spanish Nicaragua es_NI Spanish Panama es_PA Spanish Paraguay es_PY Spanish Peru es_PE Spanish Puerto Rico es_PR Spanish Spain es_ES Spanish United States of America es_US Spanish Uruguay es_UY Spanish Venezuela es_VE Swedish Sweden sv_SE LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 43 Date and Time Functions FormCalc User Reference Language Country or Region ISO Code Tagalog Philippines tl_PH Thai Thailand th_TH Thai Thailand Traditional th_TH_TH Turkish Turkey tr_TR Ukrainian Ukraine uk_UA Vietnamese Vietnam vi_VN Usually, both elements of a locale are important. For example, the names of weekdays and months, in English, for Canada and Great Britain are formatted identically, but dates are formatted differently. Therefore, specifying an English language locale is insufficient. Also, specifying only a country as the locale is insufficient. For example, Canada has different date formats for English and French. In general, every application operates in an environment where a locale is present. This locale is known as the ambient locale. In some circumstances, an application might operate on a system, or within an environment, where a locale is not present. In these rare cases, the ambient locale is set to a default of English United States (en_US). This locale is known as a default locale. Date Returns the current system date as the number of days since the epoch. Syntax Date() Parameters None Examples The following expression is an example of using the Date function: Expression Returns Date() 37875 (the number of days from the epoch to September 12, 2003) Date2Num Returns the number of days since the epoch, given a date string. Syntax Date2Num(d [, f [, k ]]) Parameters Parameter Description d A date string in the format supplied by f that also conforms to the locale given by k. f (optional) A date format string. If f is omitted, the default date format MMM D, YYYY is used. k (optional) A locale identifier string that conforms to the locale naming standards. If k is omitted (or is invalid), the ambient locale is used. The function returns a value of 0 if any of the following conditions are true: LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 44 Date and Time Functions FormCalc User Reference • The format of the given date does not match the format specified in the function. • Either the locale or date format supplied in the function is invalid. Insufficient information is provided to determine a unique day since the epoch (that is, any information regarding the date is missing or incomplete). Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Date2Num function: Expression Returns Date2Num("Mar 15, 1996") 35138 Date2Num("1/1/1900", "D/M/YYYY") 1 Date2Num("03/15/96", "MM/DD/YY") 35138 Date2Num("Aug 1,1996", "MMM D, YYYY") 35277 Date2Num("96-08-20", "YY-MM-DD", "fr_FR") 35296 Date2Num("1/3/00", "D/M/YY") - Date2Num("1/2/00", "D/M/YY") 29 DateFmt Returns a date format string, given a date format style. Syntax DateFmt([n [, k ]]) Parameters Parameter Description n (optional) An integer identifying the locale-specific time format style as follows: • 1 (Short style) • 2 (Medium style) • 3 (Long style) • 4 (Full style) If n is omitted (or is invalid), the default style value 0 is used. k (optional) A locale identifier string that conforms to the locale naming standards. If k is omitted (or is invalid), the ambient locale is used. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the DateFmt function: Expression Returns DateFmt(1) M/D/YY (if en_US locale is set) DateFmt(2, "fr_CA") YY-MM-DD DateFmt(3, "de_DE") D. MMMM YYYY DateFmt(4, "fr_FR") EEEE D' MMMM YYYY LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 45 Date and Time Functions FormCalc User Reference IsoDate2Num Returns the number of days since the epoch began, given a valid date string. Syntax IsoDate2Num(d) Parameters Parameter Description d A valid date string. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the IsoDate2Num function: Expression Returns IsoDate2Num("1900") 1 IsoDate2Num("1900-01") 1 IsoDate2Num("1900-01-01") 1 IsoDate2Num("19960315T20:20:20") 35138 IsoDate2Num("2000-03-01") - IsoDate2Num("20000201") 29 IsoTime2Num Returns the number of milliseconds since the epoch, given a valid time string. Syntax IsoTime2Num(d) Parameters Parameter Description d A valid time string. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the IsoTime2Num function: Expression Returns IsoTime2Num("00:00:00Z") 1, for a user in the Eastern Time (ET) zone. IsoTime2Num("13") 64800001, for a user located in Boston, U.S. IsoTime2Num("13:13:13") 76393001, for a user located in California. IsoTime2Num("19111111T131313+01") 43993001, for a user located in the Eastern Time (ET) zone. LocalDateFmt Returns a localized date format string, given a date format style. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 46 Date and Time Functions FormCalc User Reference Syntax LocalDateFmt([n [, k ]]) Parameters Parameter Description n (optional) An integer identifying the locale-specific date format style as follows: • 1 (Short style) • 2 (Medium style) • 3 (Long style) • 4 (Full style) If n is omitted (or is invalid), the default style value 0 is used. k (optional) A locale identifier string that conforms to the locale naming standards. If k is omitted (or is invalid), the ambient locale is used. Examples The following expressions are examples of the LocalDateFmt function: Expression Returns LocalDateFmt(1, "de_DE") tt.MM.uu LocalDateFmt(2, "fr_CA") aa-MM-jj LocalDateFmt(3, "de_CH") t. MMMM jjjj LocalDateFmt(4, "fr_FR") EEEE j MMMM aaaa LocalTimeFmt Returns a localized time format string, given a time format style. Syntax LocalTimeFmt([n [, k ]]) Parameters Parameter Description n (Optional) An integer identifying the locale-specific time format style as follows: • 1 (Short style) • 2 (Medium style) • 3 (Long style) • 4 (Full style) If n is omitted (or is invalid), the default style value 0 is used. k (Optional) A locale identifier string that conforms to the locale naming standards. If k is omitted (or is invalid), the ambient locale is used. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 47 Date and Time Functions FormCalc User Reference Examples The following expressions are examples of using the LocalTimeFmt function: Expression Returns LocalTimeFmt(1, "de_DE") HH:mm LocalTimeFmt(2, "fr_CA") HH:mm:ss LocalTimeFmt(3, "de_CH") HH:mm:ss z LocalTimeFmt(4, "fr_FR") HH' h 'mm z Num2Date Returns a date string, given a number of days since the epoch. Syntax Num2Date(n [,f [, k ]]) Parameters Parameter Description n An integer representing the number of days. If n is invalid, the function returns an error. f (Optional) A date format string. If you do not include a value for f, the function uses the default date format MMM D, YYYY. k (Optional) A locale identifier string that conforms to the locale naming standards. If you do not include a value for k, or if k is invalid, the function uses the ambient locale. The function returns a value of 0 if any of the following conditions are true: • The format of the given date does not match the format specified in the function. • Either the locale or date format supplied in the function is invalid. Insufficient information is provided to determine a unique day since the epoch (that is, any information regarding the date is missing or incomplete. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Num2Date function: Expression Returns Num2Date(1, "DD/MM/YYYY") 01/01/1900 Num2Date(35139, "DD-MMM-YYYY", "de_DE") 16-Mrz-1996 Num2Date(Date2Num("Mar 15, 2000") - Date2Num("98-03-15", "YY-MM-DD", "fr_CA")) Jan 1, 1902 Num2GMTime Returns a GMT time string, given a number of milliseconds from the epoch. Syntax Num2GMTime(n [,f [, k ]]) LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 48 Date and Time Functions FormCalc User Reference Parameters Parameter Description n An integer representing the number of milliseconds. If n is invalid, the function returns an error. f (Optional) A time format string. If you do not include a value for f, the function uses the default time format H:MM:SS A. k (Optional) A locale identifier string that conforms to the locale naming standards. If you do not include a value for k, or if k is invalid, the function uses the ambient locale. The function returns a value of 0 if any of the following conditions are true: • The format of the given time does not match the format specified in the function. • Either the locale or time format supplied in the function is invalid. Insufficient information is provided to determine a unique time since the epoch (that is, any information regarding the time is missing or incomplete. Examples The following expressions illustrate using the Num2GMTime function: Expression Returns Num2GMTime(1, "HH:MM:SS") 00:00:00 Num2GMTime(65593001, "HH:MM:SS Z") 18:13:13 GMT Num2GMTime(43993001, TimeFmt(4, "de_DE"), "de_DE") 12.13 Uhr GMT Num2Time Returns a time string, given a number of milliseconds from the epoch. Syntax Num2Time(n [,f [, k ]]) Parameters Parameter Description n An integer representing the number of milliseconds. If n is invalid, the function returns an error. f (Optional) A time format string. If you do not include a value for f, the function uses the default time format H:MM:SS A. k (Optional) A locale identifier string that conforms to the locale naming standards. If you do not include a value for k, or if k is invalid, the function uses the ambient locale. The function returns a value of 0 if any of the following conditions are true: • The format of the given time does not match the format specified in the function. • Either the locale or time format supplied in the function is invalid. Insufficient information is provided to determine a unique time since the epoch (that is, any information regarding the time is missing or incomplete. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 49 Date and Time Functions FormCalc User Reference Examples The following expressions illustrate using the Num2Time function: Expression Returns Num2Time(1, "HH:MM:SS") 00:00:00 in Greenwich, England and 09:00:00 in Tokyo. Num2Time(65593001, "HH:MM:SS Z") 13:13:13 EST in Boston, U.S. Num2Time(65593001, "HH:MM:SS Z", "de_DE") 13:13:13 GMT-05:00 to a German-Swiss user in Boston, U.S. Num2Time(43993001, TimeFmt(4, "de_DE"), "de_DE") 13.13 Uhr GMT+01:00 to a user in Zurich, Austria. Num2Time(43993001, "HH:MM:SSzz") 13:13+01:00 to a user in Zurich, Austria. Time Returns the current system time as the number of milliseconds since the epoch. Syntax Time() Parameters None Examples The following expression is an example of using the Time function: Expression Returns Time() 71533235 at precisely 3:52:15 P.M. on September 15th, 2003 to a user in the Eastern Standard Time (EST) zone. Time2Num Returns the number of milliseconds since the epoch, given a time string. Syntax Time2Num(d [, f [, k ]]) Parameters Parameter Description d A time string in the format supplied by f that also conforms to the locale given by k. f (Optional) A time format string. If you do not include a value for f, the function uses the default time format H:MM:SS A. k (Optional) A locale identifier string that conforms to the locale naming standards. If you do not include a value for k, or if k is invalid, the function uses the ambient locale. The function returns a value of 0 if any of the following conditions are true: • The format of the given time does not match the format specified in the function. • Either the locale or time format supplied in the function is invalid. Insufficient information is provided to determine a unique time since the epoch (that is, any information regarding the time is missing or incomplete. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 50 Date and Time Functions FormCalc User Reference Examples The following expressions illustrate using the Time2Num function: Expression Returns Time2Num("00:00:00 GMT", "HH:MM:SS Z") 1 Time2Num("1:13:13 PM") 76393001 to a user in California on Pacific Standard Time, and 76033001 when that same user is on Pacific Daylight Savings Time. Time2Num("13:13:13", "HH:MM:SS") - Time2Num("13:13:13 GMT", "HH:MM:SS Z")) / (60 * 60 * 1000) 8 to a user in Vancouver and 5 to a user in Ottawa when on Standard Time. On Daylight Savings Time, the returned values are 7 and 4, respectively. Time2Num("13:13:13 GMT", "HH:MM:SS Z", "fr_FR") 47593001 TimeFmt Returns a time format, given a time format style. Syntax TimeFmt([n [, k ]]) Parameters Parameter Description n (Optional) An integer identifying the locale-specific time format style as follows: • 1 (Short style) • 2 (Medium style) • 3 (Long style) • 4 (Full style) If you do not include a value for n, or if n is invalid, the function uses the default style value. k (Optional) A locale identifier string that conforms to the locale naming standards. If k is omitted (or is invalid), the ambient locale is used. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the TimeFmt function: Expression Returns TimeFmt(1) h:MM A (if en_US locale is set) TimeFmt(2, "fr_CA") HH:MM:SS TimeFmt(3, "fr_FR") HH:MM:SS Z TimeFmt(4, "de_DE") H.MM' Uhr 'Z 51 6. Financial Functions These functions perform a variety of interest, principal, and evaluation calculations related to the financial sector. Functions • • • • • • • • • • “Apr” on page 51 “CTerm” on page 52 “FV” on page 52 “IPmt” on page 53 “NPV” on page 54 “Pmt” on page 54 “PPmt” on page 55 “PV” on page 56 “Rate” on page 56 “Term” on page 57 Apr Returns the annual percentage rate for a loan. Note: Interest rate calculation methods differ from country to country. This function calculates an interest rate based on U.S. interest rate standards. Syntax Apr(n1, n2, n3) Parameters Parameter Description n1 A numeric value or expression representing the principal amount of the loan. n2 A numeric value or expression representing the payment amount on the loan. n3 A numeric value or expression representing the number of periods in the loan’s duration. If any parameter is null, the function returns null. If any parameter is negative or 0, the function returns an error. Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number literals” on page 6. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Apr function: Expression Returns Apr(35000, 269.50, 360) 0.08515404566 for a $35,000 loan repaid at $269.50 a month for 30 years. Apr(210000 * 0.75, 850 + 110, 25 * 26) 0.07161332404 LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 52 Financial Functions FormCalc User Reference Expression Returns Apr(-20000, 250, 120) Error Apr(P_Value, Payment, Time) This example uses variables in place of actual numeric values or expressions. CTerm Returns the number of periods needed for an investment earning a fixed, but compounded, interest rate to grow to a future value. Note: Interest rate calculation methods differ from country to country. This function calculates an interest rate based on U.S. interest rate standards. Syntax CTerm(n1, n2, n3) Parameters Parameter Description n1 A numeric value or expression representing the interest rate per period. n2 A numeric value or expression representing the future value of the investment. n3 A numeric value or expression representing the amount of the initial investment. If any parameter is null, the function returns null. If any parameter is negative or 0, the function returns an error. Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number literals” on page 6. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the CTerm function: Expression Returns CTerm(0.02, 1000, 100) 116.2767474515 CTerm(0.10, 500000, 12000) 39.13224648502 CTerm(0.0275 + 0.0025, 1000000, 55000 * 0.10) 176.02226044975 CTerm(Int_Rate, Target_Amount, P_Value) This example uses variables in place of actual numeric values or expressions. FV Returns the future value of consistent payment amounts made at regular intervals at a constant interest rate. Note: Interest rate calculation methods differ from country to country. This function calculates an interest rate based on U.S. interest rate standards. Syntax FV(n1, n2, n3) LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 53 Financial Functions FormCalc User Reference Parameters Parameter Description n1 A numeric value or expression representing the payment amount. n2 A numeric value or expression representing the interest per period of the investment. n3 A numeric value or expression representing the total number of payment periods. The function returns an error if either of the following conditions are true: • Either of n1 or n3 are negative or 0. • n2 is negative. If any of the parameters are null, the function returns null. Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number literals” on page 6. Examples The following expressions are examples of the FV function: Expression Returns FV(400, 0.10 / 12, 30 * 12) 904195.16991842445. This is the value, after 30 years, of a $400 a month investment growing at 10% annually. FV(1000, 0.075 / 4, 10 * 4) 58791.96145535981. This is the value, after 10 years, of a $1000 a month investment growing at 7.5% a quarter. FV(Payment[0], Int_Rate / 4, Time) This example uses variables in place of actual numeric values or expressions. IPmt Returns the amount of interest paid on a loan over a set period of time. Note: Interest rate calculation methods differ from country to country. This function calculates an interest rate based on U.S. interest rate standards. Syntax IPmt(n1, n2, n3, n4, n5) Parameters Parameter Description n1 A numeric value or expression representing the principal amount of the loan. n2 A numeric value or expression representing the annual interest rate of the investment. n3 A numeric value or expression representing the monthly payment amount. n4 A numeric value or expression representing the first month in which a payment will be made. n5 A numeric value or expression representing the number of months for which to calculate. The function returns an error if either of the following conditions are true: • • n1, n2, or n3 are negative or 0. Either n4 or n5 are negative. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 54 Financial Functions FormCalc User Reference If any parameter is null, the function returns null. If the payment amount (n3) is less than the monthly interest load, the function returns 0. Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number literals” on page 6. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the IPmt function: Expression Returns IPmt(30000, 0.085, 295.50, 7, 3) 624.8839283142. The amount of interest repaid on a $30000 loan at 8.5% for the three months between the seventh month and the tenth month of the loan’s term. IPmt(160000, 0.0475, 980, 24, 12) 7103.80833569485. The amount of interest repaid during the third year of the loan. IPmt(15000, 0.065, 65.50, 15, 1) 0, because the monthly payment is less than the interest the loan accrues during the month. NPV Returns the net present value of an investment based on a discount rate and a series of periodic future cash flows. Note: Interest rate calculation methods differ from country to country. This function calculates an interest rate based on U.S. interest rate standards. Syntax NPV(n1, n2 [, ...]) Parameters Parameter Description n1 A numeric value or expression representing the discount rate over a single period. n2 A numeric value or expression representing a cash flow value, which must occur at the end of a period. It is important that the values specified in n2 and beyond are in the correct sequence. The function returns an error if n1 is negative or 0. If any of the parameters are null, the function returns null. Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number literals” on page 6. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the NPV function: Expression Returns NPV(0.065, 5000) 4694.83568075117, which is the net present value of an investment earning 6.5% per year that will generate $5000. NPV(0.10, 500, 1500, 4000, 10000) 11529.60863329007, which is the net present value of an investment earning 10% a year that will generate $500, $1500, $4000, and $10,000 in each of the next four years. NPV(0.0275 / 12, 50, 60, 40, 100, 25) 273.14193838457, which is the net present value of an investment earning 2.75% year that will generate $50, $60, $40, $100, and $25 in each of the next five months. Pmt Returns the payment for a loan based on constant payments and a constant interest rate. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 55 Financial Functions FormCalc User Reference Note: Interest rate calculation methods differ from country to country. This function calculates an interest rate based on U.S. interest rate standards. Syntax Pmt(n1, n2, n3) Parameters Parameter Description n1 A numeric value or expression representing the principal amount of the loan. n2 A numeric value or expression representing the interest rate per period of the investment. n3 A numeric value or expression representing the total number of payment periods. The function returns an error if any parameter is negative or 0. If any parameter is null, the function returns null. Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number literals” on page 6. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Pmt function: Expression Returns Pmt(150000, 0.0475 / 12, 25 * 12) 855.17604207164, which is the monthly payment on a $150,000 loan at 4.75% annual interest, repayable over 25 years. 3403.82145169876, which is the annual payment on a $25,000 loan at 8.5% annual interest, repayable over 12 Pmt(25000, 0.085, 12) years. PPmt Returns the amount of principal paid on a loan over a period of time. Note: Interest rate calculation methods differ from country to country. This function calculates an interest rate based on US interest rate standards. Syntax PPmt(n1, n2, n3, n4, n5) Parameters Parameter Description n1 A numeric value or expression representing the principal amount of the loan. n2 A numeric value or expression representing the annual interest rate. n3 A numeric value or expression representing the amount of the monthly payment. n4 A numeric value or expression representing the first month in which a payment will be made. n5 A numeric value or expression representing the number of months for which to calculate. The function returns an error if either of the following conditions are true: • n1, n2, or n3 are negative or 0. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 56 Financial Functions FormCalc User Reference • Either n4 or n5 is negative. If any parameter is null, the function returns null. If the payment amount (n3) is less than the monthly interest load, the function returns 0. Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number literals” on page 6. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the PPmt function: Expression Returns PPmt(30000, 0.085, 295.50, 7, 3) 261.6160716858, which is the amount of principal repaid on a $30,000 loan at 8.5% for the three months between the seventh month and the tenth month of the loan’s term. PPmt(160000, 0.0475, 980, 24, 12) 4656.19166430515, which is the amount of principal repaid during the third year of the loan. PPmt(15000, 0.065, 65.50, 15, 1) 0, because in this case the monthly payment is less than the interest the loan accrues during the month, therefore, no part of the principal is repaid. PV Returns the present value of an investment of periodic constant payments at a constant interest rate. Note: Interest rate calculation methods differ from country to country. This function calculates an interest rate based on U.S. interest rate standards. Syntax PV(n1, n2, n3) Parameters Parameter Description n1 A numeric value or expression representing the payment amount. n2 A numeric value or expression representing the interest per period of the investment. n3 A numeric value or expression representing the total number of payment periods. The function returns an error if either n1 or n3 is negative or 0. If any parameter is null, the function returns null. Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number literals” on page 6. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the PV function: Expression Returns PV(400, 0.10 / 12, 30 * 12) 45580.32799074439. This is the value after 30 years, of a $400 a month investment growing at 10% annually. PV(1000, 0.075 / 4, 10 * 4) 58791.96145535981. This is the value after ten years of a $1000 a month investment growing at 7.5% a quarter. PV(Payment[0], Int_Rate / 4, Time) This example uses variables in place of actual numeric values or expressions. Rate Returns the compound interest rate per period required for an investment to grow from present to future value in a given period. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 57 Financial Functions FormCalc User Reference Note: Interest rate calculation methods differ from country to country. This function calculates an interest rate based on U.S. interest rate standards. Syntax Rate(n1, n2, n3) Parameters Parameter Description n1 A numeric value or expression representing the future value of the investment. n2 A numeric value or expression representing the present value of the investment. n3 A numeric value or expression representing the total number of investment periods. The function returns an error if any parameter is negative or 0. If any parameter is null, the function returns null. Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number literals” on page 6. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Rate function: Expression Returns Rate(12000, 8000, 5) 0.0844717712 (or 8.45%), which is the interest rate per period needed for an $8000 present value to grow to $12,000 in five periods. Rate(10000, 0.25 * 5000, 4 * 12) 0.04427378243 (or 4.43%), which is the interest rate per month needed for the present value to grow to $10,000 in four years. Rate(Target_Value, Pres_Value[*], Term * 12) This example uses variables in place of actual numeric values or expressions. Term Returns the number of periods needed to reach a given future value from periodic constant payments into an interest bearing account. Note: Interest rate calculation methods differ from country to country. This function calculates an interest rate based on U.S. interest rate standards. Syntax Term(n1, n2, n3) Parameters Parameter Description n1 A numeric value or expression representing the payment amount made at the end of each period. n2 A numeric value or expression representing the interest rate per period of the investment. n3 A numeric value or expression representing the future value of the investment. The function returns an error if any parameter is negative or 0. If any parameter is null, the function returns null. Note: FormCalc follows the IEEE-754 international standard when handling floating point numeric values. For more information, see “Number literals” on page 6. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 58 Financial Functions FormCalc User Reference Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Term function: Expression Returns Term(475, .05, 1500) 3.00477517728 (or roughly 3), which is the number of periods needed to grow a payment of $475 into $1500, with an interest rate of 5% per period. Term(2500, 0.0275 + 0.0025, 5000) 1.97128786369, which is the number of periods needed to grow payments of $2500 into $5000, with an interest rate of 3% per period. Rate(Inv_Value[0], Int_Rate + 0.0050, Target_Value) This example uses variables in place of actual numeric values or expressions. In this case, the first occurrence of the variable Inv_Value is used as the payment amount, half a percentage point is added to the variable Int_Rate to use as the interest rate, and the variable Target_Value is used as the future value of the investment. 59 7. Logical Functions These functions are useful for testing and/or analyzing information to obtain a true or false result. Functions • • • • • “Choose” on page 59 “Exists” on page 59 “HasValue” on page 60 “Oneof ” on page 60 “Within” on page 61 Choose Selects a value from a given set of parameters. Syntax Choose(n, s1 [, s2 ...]) Parameters Parameter Description n The position of the value you want to select within the set. If this value is not a whole number, the function rounds n down to the nearest whole value. The function returns an empty string if either of the following conditions is true: • n is less than 1. • n is greater than the number of items in the set. If n is null, the function returns null. s1 The first value in the set of values. s2 (Optional) Additional values in the set. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Choose function: Expression Returns Choose(3, "Taxes", "Price", "Person", "Teller") Person Choose(2, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1) 9 Choose(Item_Num[0], Items[*]) Returns the value within the set Items that corresponds to the position defined by the first occurrence of Item_Num. Choose(20/3, "A", "B", "C", "D", "E", "F", "G", "H") F Exists Determines whether the given parameter is a reference syntax to an existing object. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 60 Logical Functions FormCalc User Reference Syntax Exists(v) Parameters Parameter Description v A valid reference syntax expression. If v is not a reference syntax, the function returns false (0). Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Exists function: Expression Returns Exists(Item) True (1) if the object Item exists and false (0) otherwise. Exists("hello world") False (0). The string is not a reference syntax. Exists(Invoice.Border.Edge[1].Color) True (1) if the object Invoice exists and has a Border property, which in turn has at least one Edge property, which in turn has a Color property. Otherwise, the function returns false (0). HasValue Determines whether the given parameter is a reference syntax with a non-null, non-empty, or non-blank value. Syntax HasValue(v) Parameters Parameter Description v A valid reference syntax expression. If v is not a reference syntax, the function returns false (0). Examples The following expressions are examples of using the HasValue function. Expression Returns HasValue(2) True (1) HasValue(" ") False (0) HasValue(Amount[*]) Error HasValue(Amount[0]) Evaluates the first occurrence of Amount and returns true (1) if it is a non-null, non-empty, or non-blank value. Oneof Determines whether the given value is within a set. Syntax Oneof(s1, s2 [, s3 ...]) LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 61 Logical Functions FormCalc User Reference Parameters Parameter Description s1 The position of the value you want to select within the set. If this value is not a whole number, the function rounds s1 down to the nearest whole value. s2 The first value in the set of values. s3 (Optional) Additional values in the set. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Oneof function: Expression Returns Oneof(3, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1) True (1) Oneof("John", "Bill", "Gary", "Joan", "John", "Lisa") True (1) Oneof(3, 1, 25) False(0) Oneof("loan", Fields[*]) Verifies whether any occurrence of Fields has a value of loan. Within Determines whether the given value is within a given range. Syntax Within(s1, s2, s3) Parameters Parameter Description s1 The value to test for. If s1 is a number, the ordering comparison is numeric. If s1 is not a number, the ordering comparison uses the collating sequence for the current locale. For more information, see “Locales” on page 39. If s1 is null, the function returns null. s2 The lower bound of the test range. s3 The upper bound of the test range. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Within function: Expression Returns Within("C", "A", "D") True (1) Within(1.5, 0, 2) True (1) Within(-1, 0, 2) False (0) Within($, 1, 10) True (1) if the current value is between 1 and 10. 62 8. Miscellaneous Functions Functions in this section do not fit within any other particular function category and are useful in a variety of applications. Functions • • • • • “Eval” on page 62 “Null” on page 62 “Ref ” on page 63 “UnitType” on page 63 “UnitValue” on page 64 Eval Returns the value of a given form calculation. Syntax Eval(s) Parameters Parameter Description s A valid string representing an expression or list of expressions. The Eval function cannot refer to user-defined variables and functions. For example: var s = "var t = concat(s, ""hello"")" eval(s) In this case, the Eval function does not recognize s, and so returns an error. Any subsequent functions that make reference to the variable s also fail. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Eval function: Expression Returns eval("10*3+5*4") 50 eval("hello") error Null Returns the null value. The null value means no value. Definition Null() Parameters None LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 63 Miscellaneous Functions FormCalc User Reference Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Null function: Expression Returns Null() null Null() + 5 5 Quantity = Null() Assigns null to the object Quantity. Concat("ABC", Null(), "DEF") ABCDEF See also “Concat” on page 67. Ref Returns a reference to an existing object. Definition Ref(v) Parameters Parameters Description v A valid string representing a reference syntax, property, method, or function. If the given parameter is null, the function returns the null reference. For all other given parameters, the function generates an error exception. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Ref function: Expressions Returns Ref("10*3+5*4") 10*3+5*4 Ref("hello") hello UnitType Returns the units of a unitspan. A unitspan is a string consisting of a number followed by a unit name. Syntax UnitType(s) LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 64 Miscellaneous Functions FormCalc User Reference Parameters Parameter Description s A valid string containing a numeric value and a valid unit of measurement (unitspan). Recognized units of measurement are: • in, inches • mm, millimeters • cm, centimeters • pt, points • pc, picas • mp, millipoints If s is invalid, the function returns in. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the UnitType function: Expression Results UnitType("36 in") in UnitType("2.54centimeters") cm UnitType("picas") pc UnitType("2.cm") cm UnitType("2.zero cm") in UnitType("kilometers") in UnitType(Size[0]) Returns the measurement value of the first occurrence of Size. UnitValue Returns the numerical value of a measurement with its associated unitspan, after an optional unit conversion. A unitspan is a string consisting of a number followed by a valid unit of measurement. Syntax UnitValue(s1 [, s2 ]) Parameters Parameters Description s1 A valid string containing a numeric value and a valid unit of measurement (unitspan). Recognized units of measurement are: s2 (optional) • in, inches • mm, millimeters • cm, centimeters • pt, picas, points • mp, millipoints A string containing a valid unit of measurement. The function converts the unitspan specified in s1 to this new unit of measurement. If you do not include a value for s2, the function uses the unit of measurement specified in s1. If s2 is invalid, the function converts s1 into inches. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 65 Miscellaneous Functions FormCalc User Reference Examples The following expressions are examples of using the UnitValue function: Expression Returns UnitValue("2in") 2 UnitValue("2in", "cm") 5.08 UnitValue("6", "pt") 432 UnitValue("A", "cm") 0 UnitValue(Size[2], "mp") Returns the measurement value of the third occurrence of Size converted into millipoints. UnitValue("5.08cm", "kilograms") 2 66 9. String Functions Functions in this section deal with the manipulation, evaluation, and creation of string values. Functions • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • “At” on page 66 “Concat” on page 67 “Decode” on page 67 “Encode” on page 68 “Format” on page 68 “Left” on page 69 “Len” on page 70 “Lower” on page 70 “Ltrim” on page 71 “Parse” on page 71 “Replace” on page 72 “Right” on page 73 “Rtrim” on page 73 “Space” on page 74 “Str” on page 74 “Stuff ” on page 75 “Substr” on page 75 “Uuid” on page 76 “Upper” on page 77 “WordNum” on page 77 At Locates the starting character position of a string within another string. Syntax At(s1, s2) Parameters Parameter Description s1 The source string. s2 The search string. If s2 is not a part of s1, the function returns 0. If s2 is empty, the function returns 1. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 67 String Functions FormCalc User Reference Examples The following expressions are examples of using the At function: Expression Returns At("ABCDEFGH", "AB") 1 At("ABCDEFGH", "F") 6 At(23412931298471, 29) 5, the first occurrence of 29 within the source string. At(Ltrim(Cust_Info[0]), "555") The location of the string 555 within the first occurrence of Cust_Info. See also “Ltrim” on page 71. Concat Returns the concatenation of two or more strings. Syntax Concat(s1 [, s2 ...]) Parameters Parameter Description s1 The first string in the set. s2 (Optional) Additional strings to append to the set. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Concat function: Expression Returns Concat("ABC", "DEF") ABCDEF Concat("Tony", Space(1), "Blue") Tony Blue See also “Space” on page 74. Concat("You owe ", WordNum(1154.67, 2), ".") You owe One Thousand One Hundred Fifty-four Dollars And Sixty-seven Cents. See also “WordNum” on page 77. Decode Returns the decoded version of a given string. Syntax Decode(s1 [, s2 ]) LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 68 String Functions FormCalc User Reference Parameters Parameter Description s1 The string to decode. s2 (Optional) A string identifying the type of decoding to perform. The following strings are valid decoding strings: • url (URL decoding) • html (HTML decoding) • xml (XML decoding) If you do not include a value for s2, the function uses URL decoding. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Decode function: Expression Returns Decode("ÆÁÂÁ Â", "html") ÆÁÂÁÂ Decode("[email protected]#$%^&*()_+|`{"}[] <>?,./;':", "xml") [email protected]#$%^&*()_+|`{""}[]<>?,./;': Encode Returns the encoded version of a given string. Syntax Encode(s1 [, s2 ]) Parameters Parameter Description s1 The string to encode. s2 (Optional) A string identifying the type of encoding to perform. The following strings are valid encoding strings: • url (URL encoding) • html (HTML encoding) • xml (XML encoding) If you do not include a value for s2, the function uses URL encoding. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Encode function: Expression Returns Encode("""hello, world!""", "url") %22hello,%20world!%22 Encode("ÁÂÃÄÅÆ", "html") ÁÂÃÄÅÆ Format Formats the given data according to the specified picture format string. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 69 String Functions FormCalc User Reference Syntax Format(s1, s2 [, s3 ...]) Parameters Parameter Description s1 The picture format string, which may be a locale-sensitive date or time format. See “Locales” on page 39. s2 The source data to format. For date picture formats, the source data must be either an ISO date-time string or an ISO date string in one of two formats: • YYYY[MM[DD]] • YYYY[-MM[-DD]] For time picture formats, the source data must be either an ISO date-time string or an ISO time string in one of the following formats: • HH[MM[SS[.FFF][z]]] • HH[MM[SS[.FFF][+HH[MM]]]] • HH[MM[SS[.FFF][-HH[MM]]]] • HH[:MM[:SS[.FFF][z] • HH[:MM[:SS[.FFF][-HH[:MM]]]] • HH[:MM[:SS[.FFF][+HH[:MM]]]] For date-time picture formats, the source data must be an ISO date-time string. For numeric picture formats, the source data must be numeric. For text picture formats, the source data must be textual. For compound picture formats, the number of source data arguments must match the number of subelements in the picture. s3 (Optional) Additional source data to format. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Format function: Expression Returns Format("MMM D, YYYY", "20020901") Sep 1, 2002 Format("$9,999,999.99", 1234567.89) $1,234,567.89 in the U.S. and 1 234 567,89 Euros in France. Left Extracts a specified number of characters from a string, starting with the first character on the left. Syntax Left(s, n) LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 70 String Functions FormCalc User Reference Parameters Parameter Description s The string to extract from. n The number of characters to extract. If the number of characters to extract is greater than the length of the string, the function returns the whole string. If the number of characters to extract is 0 or less, the function returns the empty string. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Left function: Expression Returns Left("ABCDEFGH", 3) ABC Left("Tony Blue", 5) "Tony " Left(Telephone[0], 3) The first three characters of the first occurrence of Telephone. Left(Rtrim(Last_Name), 3) The first three characters of Last_Name. See also “Rtrim” on page 73. Len Returns the number of characters in a given string. Syntax Len(s) Parameters Parameter Description s The string to examine. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Len function: Expression Returns Len("ABDCEFGH") 8 Len(4) 1 Len(Str(4.532, 6, 4)) 6 See also “Str” on page 74. Len(Amount[*]) The number of characters in the first occurrence of Amount. Lower Converts all uppercase characters within a specified string to lowercase characters. Syntax Lower(s, [, k ]) LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 71 String Functions FormCalc User Reference Parameters Parameter Description s The string to convert. k (Optional) A string representing a valid locale. If you do not include a value for k, the function uses the ambient locale. See also “Locales” on page 39. This function only converts the Unicode characters U+41 through U+5A (of the ASCII character set) as well as the characters U+FF21 through U+FF3A (of the fullwidth character set) Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Lower function: Expression Returns Lower("ABC") abc Lower("21 Main St.") 21 main st. Lower(15) 15 Lower(Address[0]) This example converts the first occurrence of Address to all lowercase letters. Ltrim Returns a string with all leading white space characters removed. White space characters include the ASCII space, horizontal tab, line feed, vertical tab, form feed, carriage return, and the Unicode space characters (Unicode category Zs). Syntax Ltrim(s) Parameters Parameter Description s The string to trim. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Ltrim function: Expression Ltrim(" Ltrim(Rtrim(" Returns ABCD") "ABCD" Tony Blue ")) "Tony Blue" See also “Rtrim” on page 73. Ltrim(Address[0]) Parse Analyzes the given data according to the given picture format. Parsing data successfully results in one of the following values: Removes any leading white space from the first occurrence of Address. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 72 String Functions • • • • • FormCalc User Reference Date picture format: An ISO date string of the form YYYY-MM-DD. Time picture format: An ISO time string of the form HH:MM:SS. Date-time picture format: An ISO date-time string of the form YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS. Numeric picture format: A number. Text pictures: Text. Syntax Parse(s1, s2 ) Parameters Parameter Description s1 A valid date or time picture format string. For more information on date and time formats, see “Structuring dates and times” on page 35. s2 The string data to parse. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Parse function: Expression Returns Parse("MMM D, YYYY", "Sep 1, 2002") 2002-09-01 Parse("$9,999,999.99", "$1,234,567.89") 1234567.89 in the U.S. Replace Replaces all occurrences of one string with another within a specified string. Syntax Replace(s1, s2 [, s3 ]) Parameters Parameter Description s1 A source string. s2 The string to replace. s3 (Optional) The replacement string. If you do not include a value for s3, or if s3 is null, the function uses an empty string. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Replace function: Expression Returns Replace("Tony Blue", "Tony", "Chris") Chris Blue Replace("ABCDEFGH", "D") ABCEFGH LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 73 String Functions FormCalc User Reference Expression Returns Replace("ABCDEFGH", "d") ABCDEFGH Replace(Comments[0], "recieve", "receive") Correctly updates the spelling of the word receive in the first occurrence of Comments. Right Extracts a number of characters from a given string, beginning with the last character on the right. Syntax Right(s, n ) Parameters Parameter Description s The string to extract. n The number of characters to extract. If n is greater than the length of the string, the function returns the whole string. If n is 0 or less, the function returns an empty string. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Right function: Expression Returns Right("ABCDEFGH", 3) FGH Right("Tony Blue", 5) " Blue" Right(Telephone[0], 7) The last seven characters of the first occurrence of Telephone. Right(Rtrim(CreditCard_Num), 4) The last four characters of CreditCard_Num. See also “Rtrim” on page 73. Rtrim Returns a string with all trailing white space characters removed. White space characters include the ASCII space, horizontal tab, line feed, vertical tab, form feed, carriage return, and the Unicode space characters (Unicode category Zs). Syntax Rtrim(s ) Parameters Parameter Description s The string to trim. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 74 String Functions FormCalc User Reference Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Rtrim function: Expression Rtrim("ABCD Returns ") Rtrim("Tony Blue "ABCD" ") "Tony Blue" Removes any trailing white space from the first occurrence of Address. Rtrim(Address[0]) Space Returns a string consisting of a given number of blank spaces. Syntax Space(n ) Parameters Parameter Description n The number of blank spaces. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Space function: Expression Returns Space(5) " Space(Max(Amount[*])) A blank string with as many characters as the value of the largest occurrence of Amount. " See also “Max” on page 30. Concat("Tony", Space(1), "Blue") Tony Blue Str Converts a number to a character string. FormCalc formats the result to the specified width and rounds to the specified number of decimal places. Syntax Str(n1 [, n2 [, n3 ]]) Parameters Parameter Description n1 The number to convert. n2 (Optional) The maximum width of the string. If you do not include a value for n2, the function uses a value of 10 as the default width. If the resulting string is longer than n2, the function returns a string of * (asterisk) characters of the width specified by n2. n3 (Optional) The number of digits to appear after the decimal point. If you do not include a value for n3, the function uses 0 as the default precision. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 75 String Functions FormCalc User Reference Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Str function: Expression Returns Str(2.456) " Str(4.532, 6, 4) 4.5320 Str(234.458, 4) " 234" Str(31.2345, 4, 2) **** Str(Max(Amount[*]), 6, 2) Converts the largest occurrence of Amount to a six-character string with two decimal places. 2" See also “Max” on page 30. Stuff Inserts a string into another string. Syntax Stuff(s1, n1, n2 [, s2 ]) Parameters Parameter Description s1 The source string. n1 The position in s1 to insert the new string s2. If n1 is less than one, the function assumes the first character position. If n1 is greater than length of s1, the function assumes the last character position. n2 The number of characters to delete from string s1, starting at character position n1. If n2 is less than or equal to 0, the function assumes 0 characters. s2 (Optional) The string to insert into s1. If you do not include a value for s2, the function uses the empty string. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Stuff function: Expression Returns Stuff("TonyBlue", 5, 0, " ") Tony Blue Stuff("ABCDEFGH", 4, 2) ABCFGH Stuff(Address[0], Len(Address[0]), 0, "Street") This adds the word Street onto the end of the first occurrence of Address. See also “Len” on page 70. Stuff("[email protected]", 0, 0, "cc:" Substr Extracts a portion of a given string. cc:[email protected] LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 76 String Functions FormCalc User Reference Syntax Substr(s1, n1, n2 ) Parameters Parameter Description s1 The source string. n1 The position in string s1 to start extracting. If n1 is less than one, the function assumes the first character position. If n1 is greater than length of s1, the function assumes the last character position. n2 The number of characters to extract. If n2 is less than or equal to 0, FormCalc returns an empty string. If n1 + n2 is greater than the length of s1, the function returns the substring starting at position n1 to the end of s1. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Substr function: Expression Returns Substr("ABCDEFG", 3, 4) CDEF Substr(3214, 2, 1) 2 Substr(Last_Name[0], 1, 3) Returns the first three characters from the first occurrence of Last_Name. Substr("ABCDEFG", 5, 0) "" Substr("21 Waterloo St.", 4, 5) Water Uuid Returns a Universally Unique Identifier (UUID) string to use as an identification method. Syntax Uuid([n ]) Parameters Parameter Description n A number identifying the format of the UUID string. Valid numbers are: • 0 (default value): UUID string only contains hex octets. • 1: UUID string contains dash characters separating the sequences of hex octets at fixed positions. If you do not include a value for n, the function uses the default value. Examples The following expressions are examples of the Uuid function: Expression Returns Uuid() A value such as 3c3400001037be8996c400a0c9c86dd5 Uuid(0) A value such as 3c3400001037be8996c400a0c9c86dd5 LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 77 String Functions FormCalc User Reference Expression Returns Uuid(1) A value such as 1a3ac000-3dde-f352-96c4-00a0c9c86dd5 Uuid(7) A value such as 1a3ac000-3dde-f352-96c4-00a0c9c86dd5 Upper Converts all lowercase characters within a string to uppercase. Syntax Upper(s [, k ]) Parameters Parameter Description s The string to convert. k (Optional) A string representing a valid locale. If you do not include a value for k, the ambient locale is used. See also “Locales” on page 39. This function only converts the Unicode characters U+61 through U+7A (of the ASCII character set) as well as the characters U+FF41 through U+FF5A (of the fullwidth character set). Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Upper function: Expression Returns Upper("abc") ABC Upper("21 Main St.") 21 MAIN ST. Upper(15) 15 Upper(Address[0]) This example converts the first occurrence of Address to all uppercase letters. WordNum Returns the English text equivalent of a given number. Syntax WordNum(n1 [, n2 [, k ]]) LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 78 String Functions FormCalc User Reference Parameters Parameter Description n1 The number to convert. If any of the following statements is true, the function returns * (asterisk) characters to indicate an error: n2 (Optional) • n1 is not a number. • The integral value of n1 is negative. • The integral value of n1 is greater than 922,337,203,685,477,550. A number identifying the formatting option. Valid numbers are: • 0 (default value): The number is converted into text representing the simple number. • 1: The number is converted into text representing the monetary value with no fractional digits. • 2: The number is converted into text representing the monetary value with fractional digits. If you do not include a value for n2, the function uses the default value (0). k (Optional) A string representing a valid locale. If you do not include a value for k, the function uses the ambient locale. See also “Locales” on page 39. As of this release, it is not possible to specify a locale identifier other than English for this function. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the WordNum function. Expression Returns WordNum(123.45) One Hundred and Twenty-three Dollars WordNum(123.45, 1) One Hundred and Twenty-three Dollars WordNum(1154.67, 2) One Thousand One Hundred Fifty-four Dollars And Sixty-seven Cents WordNum(43, 2) Forty-three Dollars And Zero Cents WordNum(Amount[0], 2) This example uses the first occurrence of Amount as the conversion number. 79 10. URL Functions These functions deal with the sending and receiving of information, including content types and encoding data, to any accessible URL locations. Functions • • • “Get” on page 79 “Post” on page 79 “Put” on page 80 Get Downloads the contents of the given URL. Note: Adobe Acrobat® and Adobe Reader® cannot verify that the form is certified until after the initialize event initiates. To use the Get function on certified forms prior to the form rendering, use the docReady event. Syntax Get(s) Parameters Parameter Description s The URL to download. If the function is unable to download the URL, it returns an error. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Get function. Expression Returns Get("http://www.myweb.com/data/mydata.xml") XML data taken from the specified file. Get("ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/GPL") The contents of the GNU Public License. Get("http://intranet?sql=SELECT+*+FROM+ projects+FOR+XML+AUTO,+ELEMENTS") The results of an SQL query to the specified website. Post Posts the given data to the specified URL. Note: Acrobat and Adobe Reader cannot verify that the form is certified until after the initialize event initiates. To use the Post function on certified forms prior to the form rendering, use the docReady event. Syntax Post(s1, s2 [, s3 [, s4 [, s5 ]]]) LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 80 URL Functions FormCalc User Reference Parameters Parameter Description s1 The URL to post to. s2 The data to post. If the function cannot post the data, it returns an error. s3 (Optional) A string containing the content type of the data to post. Here are valid content types: • application/octet-stream (default value) • text/html • text/xml • text/plain • multipart/form-data • application/x-www-form-urlencoded • Any other valid MIME type If you do not include a value for s3, the function sets the content type to the default value. The application ensures that the data to post uses the correct format according to the specified content type. s4 (Optional) A string containing the name of the code page used to encode the data. Here are valid code page names: • UTF-8 (default value) • UTF-16 • ISO-8859-1 • Any character encoding listed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) If you do not include a value for s4, the function sets the code page to the default value. The application ensures that encoding of the data to post matches the specified code page. s5 (Optional) A string containing any additional HTTP headers to be included with the posting of the data. If you do not include a value for s5, the function does not include an additional HTTP header in the post. SOAP servers usually require a SOAPAction header when posting to them. Examples The following expressions are examples of using the Post function: Expression Returns Post("http://tools_build/scripts/jfecho.cgi", "user=joe&passwd=xxxxx&date=27/08/2002", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded") Posts some URL encoded login data to a server and returns that server's acknowledgement page. Post("http://www.nanonull.com/TimeService/ TimeService.asmx/getLocalTime", "<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?><soap:Envelope><soap:Body> <getLocalTime/></soap:Body> </soap:Envelope>", "text/xml", "utf-8", "http://www.Nanonull.com/TimeService/getLocalTime") Posts a SOAP request for the local time to some server, expecting an XML response back. Put Uploads the given data to the specified URL. Note: Acrobat and Adobe Reader cannot verify that the form is certified until after the initialize event initiates. To use the Put function on certified forms prior to the form rendering, use the docReady event. LIVECYCLE DESIGNER ES2 81 URL Functions FormCalc User Reference Syntax Put(s1, s2 [, s3 ]) Parameters Parameter Description s1 The URL to upload. s2 The data to upload. If the function is unable to upload the data, it returns an error. s3 (Optional) A string containing the name of the code page used to encode the data. Here are valid code page names: • UTF-8 (default value) • UTF-16 • ISO8859-1 • Any character encoding listed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) If you do not include a value for s3, the function sets the code page to the default value. The application ensures that encoding of the data to upload matches the specified code page. Examples The following expression is an example of using the Put function: l Expression Returns Put("ftp://www.example.com/pub/fubu.xml", "<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?><msg>hello world!</msg>") Nothing if the FTP server has permitted the user to upload some XML data to the pub/fubu.xml file. Otherwise, this function returns an error. Note: This example only works in the server environment and not in Acrobat or Adobe Reader. For forms displayed in Acrobat and Adobe Reader, use the HTTP, HTTPS, and FILE protocols. 82 Index financial 51 symbols to create patterns for 36 A Abs (arithmetic function) 28 Date2Num function 43 alphabetical functions, FormCalc list of 25 DateFmt function 44 function calls, FormCalc 23 ambient locale 43 Decode (string function) 67 FV (financial function) 52 Apr (financial function) 51 default locale 43 arithmetic functions, FormCalc 28 downloading URL contents 79 array referencing 22 URL 79 G Get (URL function) 79 assignment expressions, FormCalc 13 E At (string function) 66 empty string 7 H Avg (arithmetic function) 28 Encode (string function) 68 HasValue (logical function) 60 epoch, FormCalc 35 B equality expressions, FormCalc 14 I blank spaces, string 74 escape sequence, Unicode 7 identification, unique 76 Boolean operations 12 Eval (miscellaneous function) 62 identifiers, FormCalc 9 break expressions, FormCalc 18 Exists (logical function) 59 if expressions, FormCalc 16 expressions inequality expressions, FormCalc 14 FormCalc 10 C Ceil (arithmetic function) 29 characters IPmt (financial function) 53 IsoDate2Num function 45 IsoTime2Num function 45 F converting case 70, 77 financial functions, FormCalc 51 extracting from a string 69, 73 Floor (arithmetic function) 30 J removing white space from a string 71, 73 for expressions, FormCalc 17 joining strings 67 starting position 66 foreach expressions, FormCalc 17 Choose (logical function) 59 Format (string function) 68 K comments, FormCalc 8 FormCalc keywords, FormCalc restricted 9 Concat (string function) 67 about 5 conditional statements, FormCalc 16, 17, 18 built-in functions 23 L continue expressions, FormCalc 18 comments 8 Left (string function) 69 converting expressions 10 Len (string function) 70 character case 70, 77 function calls, FormCalc 23 line terminators, FormCalc 10 numbers to a string 74 identifiers 9 literals, FormCalc 6 numbers to text 77 line terminators 10 LocalDateFmt function 45 time strings to numbers 49 literals 6 locales Count (arithmetic function) 29 logical expressions 13 CTerm (financial function) 52 logical functions 59 LocalTimeFmt function 46 about 39 operators 7 logical expressions, FormCalc 13 D reference syntax shortcuts 19 logical functions, FormCalc 59 date formats restricted keywords 9 Lower (string function) 70 about 35 variables 19 Ltrim (string function) 71 FormCalc 36 white space characters 10 string 44, 45 FormCalc functions M Date function 43 alphabetical list 25 mathematical functions, FormCalc 28 date/time field object arithmetic 28 Max (arithmetic function) 30 date and time 35 Min (arithmetic function) 31 FormCalc functions 35 83 Mod (arithmetic function) 32 S modulus 32 scripting, about 5 shortcuts, reference syntax 19 N simple expressions, FormCalc 11 NPV (financial function) 54 Space (string function) 74 Null (miscellaneous function) 62 Str (string function) 74 null values 29 string functions 66 Num2Date function 47 string literals, FormCalc 7 Num2GMTime function 47 string operations 12 Num2Time function 48 Stuff (string function) 75 number literals, FormCalc 6 Substr (string function) 75 numbers Sum (arithmetic function) 33 converting to a string 74 symbols for date and time patterns 36 converting to text 77 syntax, referencing 19 numeric operations 12 T O Term (financial function) 57 Oneof (logical function) 60 terminators, line, FormCalc 10 operands, promoting 12 time formats about 36 operators, FormCalc 7 FormCalc 36 string 46, 50 P Parse (string function) 71 Time function 49 patterns time functions. <Italic>See FormCalc functions date and time 36 picture formats Time2Num function 49 TimeFmt function 50 applying 68 date and time 36 U parsing according to 71 unary expressions, FormCalc 14 Pmt (financial function) 54 Unicode escape sequence 7 Post (URL function) 79 UnitType (miscellaneous function) 63 posting data to URLs 79 UnitValue (miscellaneous function) 64 PPmt (financial function) 55 Universally Unique Identifier (UUID) 76 Put (URL function) 80 uploading data to URLs 80 PV (financial function) 56 Upper (string function) 77 URL FormCalc functions 79 Uuid (string function) 76 R Rate (financial function) 56 Ref (miscellaneous function) 63 V reference syntax variables FormCalc 19 about 19 shortcuts 19 shortcuts for FormCalc 19 W relational expressions, FormCalc 15 while expressions, FormCalc 16 removing white space characters 71, 73 white space Replace (string function) 72 about 10 Right (string function) 73 removing from string 71, 73 Round (arithmetic function) 33 Within (logical function) 61 Rtrim (string function) 73 WordNum (string function) 77

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