RoNoMar - This course has been developed under Romanian Norwegian Maritime Project

RoNoMar - This course has been developed under Romanian Norwegian Maritime Project

This course has been developed under

RoNoMar -

Romanian Norwegian

Maritime Project

(2008/111922)

Supported by a grant from Norway through the

Norwegian Cooperation Programme for Economic

Growth and Sustainable Development with Romania.

MARITIME UNIVERSITY of CONSTANTA

900663, CONSTANTA, 104 Mircea cel Batrân Street, ROMÂNIA

Fax: +40-241-617260, Tel: +40-241-664740,

E-mail: [email protected], Web: www.universitateamaritima.ro

I.M.O. COURSE 1.19

PROFICIENCY IN PERSONAL

SURVIVAL TECHNIQUES

PART D

I N S T R U C T O R M A N U A L

2010

1. INTRODUCTION SAFETY and SURVIVAL

1.1. SAFETY GUIDANCE

During the period of the course, in all situations, the trainee will respect and obey to all safety rules, especially in practical demonstration with live saving equipment.

Safety precautions during drills are a major component of this course, and affect its organization. Trainees will be protected from danger at all times whilst the course is in progress.

Instructors and their assistants must strictly supervise the trainees, and will act as their safety guards.

First air supplies, including a resuscitation kit will be close on hand.

1.2 PRINCIPLES OF SURVIVAL AT SEA

The grounds of survival at sea have the following principles:

- initial familiarization on board (as per SOLAS Ch III / 19)

- evenly and realistic drills and emergency instructions for crew

- preparedness and training for any emergency situations as appropriate:

(a) types of emergencies which may occur, such as collisions, fire and foundering;

(b) types of lifesaving appliances normally carried on vessels;

(c) need to adhere to the principles of survival;

(d) value of training and drills;

(e) need to be ready for any emergency situations

(i) the information in the muster list

(f) actions to be taken in respect to lifting persons from vessels and survival craft

by helicopter;

(g) actions to be taken when called to survival craft stations, including:

- putting on suitable clothing;

- donning of lifejacket; and

- collecting additional protection such as blank etc, time permitting;

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(h) actions to be taken when required to abandon ship, such as:

- how to board survival craft from vessel and water; and

- how to jump into the sea from a height and reduce the risk of

injury when entering the water;

- actions to be taken when in the water, such as:

(i) how to survive in circumstances of:

- fire or oil on the water;

- cold conditions

- shark infested waters;

(ii)

(j) how to right a capsized survival craft; actions to be taken when aboard a survival craft, such as:

-

-

- getting the survival craft quickly clear of the vessel; protection against cold or extreme heat; using a drogue or sea anchor;

-

-

- keeping a look-out; recovering and caring for survivors; facilitating detection by others;

- checking equipment available for use in the survival craft and using it

correctly; and

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(k) main dangers to survivors and the general principles of survival, including:

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-

-

-

- remaining, so far as possible, in the vicinity; precautions to be taken in cold climates; precautions to be taken in tropical climates; exposure to sun, wind, rain and sea; importance of wearing suitable clothing; protective measures in survival craft;

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-

-

-

-

-

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- effects of immersion in the water and of hypothermia; importance of preserving body fluids; protection against seasickness; proper use of fresh water and food; effects of drinking seawater; means available for facilitating detection by others; and importance of maintaining morale;

(l) actions to be taken in respect to fire fighting:

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- the use of fire hoses with different nozzles;

- the use of fire extinguishers; knowledge of the location of fire doors; and

- the use of breathing apparatus

(m) knowledge of the main dangers to survivors

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- flushing; hypothermia

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-

-

-

-

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- dehydration inanition sunstroke chilblains swoons burning injuries

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1.3 DEFINITIONS SURVIVAL CRAFT AND APPLIANCES

“International Life-Saving Appliance Code” adopted by Maritime Safety Commission of

IMO, represent a sum of rules provide international standards for life-saving appliance required by chapter III of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea

(SOLAS) 1974

“Survival Craft” represent a craft designated to save and keep alive the survival crew after the ship’s abandon; is a main titles for lifeboat and life raft

“Rescue Boat” a boat designated saving survival crew and to alignment/group the survival craft.

“Fast Rescue Boat” a rescue boat with specified speed, designated on passenger ro-ro vessel

“”Marine Evacuation System” device designated for quickly transfer of persons from a ship’s embarkation deck level in a survival craft near the ship.

“Anti-Exposure Suit – A E S ” a protection suit designated for rescue boat crew and for marine evacuation system team.

“Immersion Suit” a protection suit, which reduce heat lost of a wearing person in cold water.

“Thermal Protective Aid – TPA ” a waterproof bag (or suit) with low thermal conductivity.

“Float - Free Launching” way to launch automatically (and be ready to use) a survival craft

(lifeboat or life raft) from a sinking ship.

“Free - Fall Launching” way to launch at sea a survival craft (lifeboat or life raft) full equipped and with all persons on board, without any restriction device

“Inflatable appliance” an object or device that can be filled with air or gas designated for keeping afloat person/s as lifejacket, life raft..

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1.4 SOLAS TRAINING MANUAL

A training manual must be provided in each crew mess room and recreation room or in each crew cabin. The training manual, which may comprise several volumes, must contain instructions and information, in easily understood terms, illustrated wherever possible, on the life-saving appliances provided in the ship and on the best methods of survival. Any part of such information may be provided in the form of audio-visual aids in lieu of the manual.

The following must be explained in detail:

(a) donning of lifejackets, immersion suits and anti-exposure suits, as appropriate;

(b) muster at the assigned stations;

(c) boarding, launching, and clearing the survival craft and rescue boats, including,

where applicable, use of marine evacuation systems;

(d) method of launching from within the survival craft;

(e) release from launching appliances;

(f) methods and use of devices for protection in launching areas, where appropriate;

(g) illumination in launching areas;

(h) use of all survival equipment;

(i) use of all detection equipment;

(j) with the assistance of illustrations, the use of radio life-saving appliances;

(k) use of drogues;

(l) use of engine and accessories;

(m) recovery of survival craft and rescue boats including stowage and securing;

(n) hazards of exposure and the need for warm clothing;

(o) best use of the survival craft facilities in order to survive;

(p) methods of retrieval, including the use of helicopter rescue gear (slings, baskets)

breeches-buoy and shore life-saving apparatus and ship's line-throwing apparatus;

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(q) all other functions contained in the muster list and emergency instructions; and

(r) instructions for emergency repair of the life-saving appliances.

Every ship fitted with a marine evacuation system must be provided with on-board training aids in the use of the system.

Instructions for on-board maintenance of life-saving appliances must be easily understood, illustrated wherever possible, and, as appropriate, must include the following for each appliance:

(a) a checklist for use when carrying out the inspections;

(b) maintenance and repair instructions;

(c) schedule of periodic maintenance;

(d) diagram of lubrication points with the recommended lubricants;

(e) list of replaceable parts;

(f) list of sources of spare parts; and

(g) log for records of inspections and maintenance.

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1.3 I.M.O. LIFE-SAVING SYMBOL

ON BOARD I.M.O SYMBOL

- Safety signs

- Direction signs

- Fire control signs

- Fire equipment signs

- Mandatory signs

- Hazard signs

- Prohibition signs

- Combination signs

- Passenger vessel & Terminal signs

- Galley & Accommodation signs

- Deck & Engine room signs

- Temporary tie signs

- IMDG & Hazard diamonds

- Hazard marking & Posters

- Posters & Mandatory placards

- Fire & Safety pictograms

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Live Saving Appliance I.M.O. Signs

Recommended symbol indicating the location of emergency equipment

and muster and embarkation stations.

Lifeboat Rescue boat Life raft Davit-launches life raft

Embarkation ladder

Evacuation slide Lifebuoy Lifebuoy with line Lifebuoy with light Lifebuoy with light and smoke

Lifejacket Child's lifejacket Immersion suit Survival craft portable radio

EPIRB

Radar transponder Survival craft pyrotechnic distress signals

Rocket parachute Line-throwing appliance

Muster station

Embarkation station

(May be used in lieu of muster station symbol when embarkation

and muster stations are the same)

Exit Emergency exit

Fasten seat belts Secure hatches Start engine Lower lifeboat Lower life raft

to water to water

Lower rescue boat Release falls Start water spray Start air supply Release gripes

to wate r

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2. EMERGENCY SITUATIONS

2.1 TYPES OF EMERGENCIES

- collision

- stranding

- fire or explosions

- foundering

- hull failure

- shifting of cargo

- man over board

- pirates attack

All the above emergencies present danger to human lives; most’ of them eventually can lead to the abandoning and loss of the ship

2.2 PRECAUTIONS

The main precaution to be taken for avoid an emergency situation is that all crew fully understand theirs duties on board and to follow them.

A happy ending of an emergency implies that the crew perform their duty with responsibility and care

2.3 FIRE PROVISIONS

Any member of crew upon outbreak of fire immediately call, direct or by telephone the duty officer on the bridge, the duty officer in the engine room or press the fire alarm.

On the ship we have different fire stations onboard. They are equipped with stuff to use during firefighting. In the fire stations we have fireman’s outfit with breathing apparatus. These BA set’s are used for smoke diving.

There are also fire hoses, axes and other stuff in the fire stations. During the drills we have to test the equipment and the equipment is checked so it’s always ready for use.

On deck we have foam monitors so we can cover the deck with foam in case of fire.

There are also hydrants and fire hoses around the ship ready for immediate use.

In the engine room CO2 are the most common way to extinguish fires; CO2 take away the oxygen from the engine room.

There can’t be any fire without oxygen. It’s also impossible for any living thing to survive CO2 so the engine room must be evacuated before release the CO2 .

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Basic rule of fire extinction:

“limit” spreading of the fire

“cool” the material afire

“quench” the fire (cut off air supply)

2.4 FOUNDERING

Mainly cause are failure of machinery or rudder in bad weather, collision due the navigation faults, damaged of ship’s deck/hatches or hull structure.

2.5 CREW EXPERIENCE

Effectiveness of life-saving equipment depends on the crew experience

2.6 MUSTER LIST AND EMERGENCY SIGNALS

MUSTER LIST

In order to cope an emergency situation in the best way it is necessary having planned ahead. The plan are called the muster list and all vessels shall be provided with this clear instructions for each crew member, which shall be followed in case of emergency.

The muster list shall be posted up in several parts of the vessel and, in particular, in the wheelhouse, the engine room and in the crew accommodation and shall include the information specified in the following paragraphs.

The muster list shall specify details of the general alarm signal and also the action to be taken by the crew when this alarm is sounded. The muster list shall also specify how the order to abandon ship will be given.

The muster list shall show the duties assigned to the different members of the crew including:

(a) closing of watertight doors, fire doors, valves, scuppers, overboard shoots, side scuttles, skylights, portholes and other similar openings in the vessel;

(b) equipping the survival craft and other life-saving appliances;

(c) preparation and launching of survival craft;

(d) general preparation of other life-saving appliances;

(e) use of communication equipment; and

(f) manning of fire parties assigned to deal with fires.

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The muster list shall specify which officers are assigned to ensure that the life-saving and fire appliances are maintained in good condition and are ready for immediate use.

The muster list shall specify substitutes for key persons who may become disabled, taking into account that different emergencies may call for different actions.

The muster list shall be prepared before the vessel proceeds to sea. After the muster list has been prepared, if any change takes place in the crew, which necessitates an alteration in the muster list, the skipper shall either revise the list or prepare a new list.

GENERAL ALARM EMERGENCY SYSTEM

The general emergency alarm system is capable of sounding the general alarm signal consisting of seven or more short blasts followed by one long blast on the vessel's whistle or siren and additionally on an electrically operated bell or klaxon or other equivalent warning system which shall be powered from the vessel's main supply and the emergency source of electrical power

EMERGENCY SIGNALS

EMERGENCY = continuous blast of the whistle for a period of not less than 10 seconds, supplemented by the continuous ringing of the general alarm bells for not less than 10 seconds.

ABANDON = a succession of seven short blasts followed by one long blast of the whistle supplemented by a comparable signal on the general alarm bells.

ABANDON signal MUST always be confirmed by word from the Master .

HANDLING THE LIFEBOATS = To lower lifeboats, one short blast.

To stop lowering the lifeboats, two short blasts.

Dismissal from boat station, three short blast

The emergency signals from the alarm bells could be verbally confirmed by the duty officer using the amplifier station.

The signals should be repeated few times, with a long enough pause in between in order not to create confusion.

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EMERGENCY DRILLS

Drills have the objective of preparing a trained and organized response to situations of great difficulty which may unexpectedly threaten loss of life at sea. It is important that they should be carried out realistically, approaching as closely as possible to emergency conditions.

Each member of the crew should participate in at least one abandon ship drill and one fire drill every month. The drills of the crew should take place within 24 hours of the vessel leaving a port if more than 25 per cent of the crew has not participated in abandon ship and fire drills on board that particular vessel in the previous muster.

2.7 CREW AND EMERGENCY INSTRUCTIONS

Each abandon ship drill should include:

- summoning of crew to muster stations with the general emergency alarm and ensuring that they are made aware of the order to abandon ship specified in the muster list;

- reporting to stations and preparing for the duties described in the muster list;

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- checking that crew are suitably dressed; checking that lifejackets are correctly donned;

- lowering of at least one lifeboat after any necessary preparation for

launching;

- starting and operating the lifeboat engine;

- operation of davits used for launching life rafts.

Each fire drill should include:

- reporting to stations and preparing for the duties in the fire muster list;

- starting of a fire pump, using at least the two required jets of water to show

that the system is in proper working order;

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-

- checking the operation of watertight doors, fire doors, fire dampers and

means of escape;

- checking of fireman’s outfit and other personal rescue equipment; checking of relevant communication equipment; checking the necessary arrangements for abandoning of the vessel

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Drills should, as far as practicable, be conducted as if there were an actual emergency.

Each lifeboat should be launched with its assigned operating crew aboard and maneuvered in the water at least once every 3 months during an abandon ship drill.

As far as is reasonable and practicable, rescue boats other than lifeboats which are also rescue boats, should be launched each month with their assigned crew aboard and maneuvered in the water. In all cases this requirement should be complied with at least once every 3 months.

If lifeboat and rescue boat launching drills are carried out with the vessel making headway, such drills should, because of the dangers involved, be practiced in sheltered waters only and under the supervision of an officer experienced in such drills.

Emergency lighting for mustering and abandonment should be tested at each abandon ship drill.

The drills may be adjusted according to the relevant equipment required by those regulations. However, if equipment is carried on a voluntary basis, it should be used in the drills and the drills should be adjusted accordingly.

ON-BOARD TRAINING AND INSTRUCTIONS

Onboard training in the use of the vessel’s lifesaving appliances, including survival craft equipment, should be given as soon as possible but not later than 2 weeks after a crew member joins the vessel. However, if the crew member is on a regularly scheduled rotating assignment to the vessel, such training should be given not later than 2 weeks after the time of first joining the vessel.

Instructions in the use of the vessel's lifesaving appliances and in survival at sea should be given at the same intervals as the drills. Individual instruction may cover different parts of the vessel's lifesaving system, but the entire vessel's lifesaving equipment and appliances should be covered within any period of 2 months.

Each member of the crew should be given instructions which should include but not necessarily be limited to:

- operation and use of the vessel's inflatable life rafts, including precautions concerning nailed shoes and other sharp objects;

- problems of hypothermia, first aid treatment for hypothermia and other appropriate first aid procedures;

- special instructions necessary for use of the vessel's lifesaving appliances in severe weather and severe sea conditions.

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Onboard training in the use of davit launched life rafts should take place at intervals of not more than 4 months on every vessel fitted with such appliances. Whenever practicable this should include the inflation and lowering of a life raft. This life raft may be a special life raft intended for training purposes only, which is not part of the vessel's lifesaving equipment; such a special life raft should be conspicuously marked.

Records

The date when musters are held, details of abandon ship drills and fire drills, drills of other life-saving appliances and on-board training should be recorded in such logbook as may be prescribed by the competent authority. If a full muster, drill or training session is not held at the appointed time, an entry should be made in the logbook stating the circumstances and the extent of the muster, drill or training session held.

SURVIVAL CRAFT DRILL

Arrangements for drills should take account of prevailing weather conditions.

Crew members taking part in lifeboat or life raft drills should muster wearing warm outer clothing and lifejackets properly secured

Where appropriate, the lowering gear and chocks should be inspected and a check made to ensure that all working parts are well lubricated

When turning out davits or when bringing boats or rafts inboard under power, seamen should always keep clear of any moving parts.

The engines on motor lifeboats should be started and run ahead and astern. Care should be taken to avoid overheating the engine and the propeller shaft stern gland. All personnel should be familiar with the engine starting procedure Hand-operated mechanical propelling gear, if any, should be examined and similarly tested.

Radio equipment should be examined and tested, by a trained person and the crew instructed in its use.-Water spray systems, where fitted, should be tested in accordance with the lifeboat manufacturer's instructions

When a drill is held in port, as many as possible of the lifeboats should be cleared and swung out. Each lifeboat should be launched and maneuvered in the water at least once every three months

When rescue boats are carried which are not also lifeboats they should be launched and maneuvered in the water every month so far as that is reasonable and practicable. The interval between such drills should not exceed three months.

Where davit-launched life rafts are carried then on-board training, including an inflation,

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must be carried out at intervals not exceeding four months. Great care should be taken to ensure that the hook is properly engaged before taking the weight of the raft. The release mechanism should not be cocked until just prior to the raft landing in the water. If the raft used for the inflation is part of the ship's statutory equipment and not a special training raft, then it MUST be repacked at an approved service station

Personnel in a rescue boat or survival craft being lowered should remain seated, keeping their hands inside the gunwale to avoid them being crushed against the ship's side.

Lifejackets should be worn. In totally enclosed lifeboats seat belts should be secured.

Only the launching crew should remain in a lifeboat being raised.

During drills, lifebuoys and lines should be readily available at the point of embarkation.

While craft are in the water, crews should practice maneuvering the vessel by oar, sail or power as appropriate and should operate the water spray system where fitted on enclosed lifeboats.

Seamen should keep their fingers clear of the long-link when unhooking or securing blocks on to lifting hooks while the boat is in the water, and particularly if there is a swell.

Before craft in gravity davits are recovered by power, the operation of the limit switches or similar devices should be checked. A portable hoist unit used to recover a craft should be provided with a crutch or have an attachment to resist the torque. These should be checked. If neither device is available, the craft should be raised by hand.

Where life rafts are carried, instruction should be given to the ship's personnel in their launching, handling and operation. Methods of boarding them and the disposition of equipment and stores on them should be explained.

The statutory scale of lifesaving appliances must be maintained at all times. If the use of a life raft for practice would bring equipment below the specified scale, a replacement must first be made available.

FIRE DRILL

A fire drills will be verifies if any participant understood and acted accordingly regarding:

- his individual tasks established through the fire drill mustering places

- the equipment to be wearied or used

- his superior;

- his reporting person

- the alarm signals on board ship

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Each fire drill has to include:

- the teams arriving to mustering places and the preparing for the actions to be

performed

- the starting of main fire pumps and the use of two fire hoses provided with nozzles,

in order to check the water pressure

- starting of emergency fire pumps and the use of two fire hoses provided with

nozzles , in order to check the water pressure

- checking the integrity of fireman equipment and of other fire equipments

- checking of communication systems functioning

- checking the functioning of different closing and sealing systems

- checking of abandon ship preparations

Efficient fire-fighting demands the full co-operation of personnel in all departments of the ship. A fire drill should be held simultaneously with the first stage of the abandon ship drill.

Fire-fighting parties should assemble at their designated stations. Engine Room personnel should start the fire pumps in machinery spaces and see that full pressure is put on fire mains. Any emergency pump situated outside machinery spaces should also be started; all members of the crew Should know how to start and operate the pump.

The fire parties should be sent from their designated stations to the selected site of the supposed fire, taking with them emergency equipment such as axes and lamps and breathing apparatus.

An adequate number of hoses to deal with the assumed fire should be realistically deployed. At some stage in the drill, they should be tested by bringing them into use, firstly with water provided by the machinery space pump and secondly with water from the emergency pump alone.

After finishing the fire drill, all equipments used must be restored to their initial position and condition and the identified deficiencies must be solved as soon as possible.

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2.8 EXTRA EQUIPMENT AND SURVIVAL

WHAT SHOULD BE TAKIEN FROM SHIP IN AN ABANDON SITUATION

Even the abandon signal has been heard, nobody will leave the ship until the Master of his deputy ordered this by his mouth.

For the situation that the ship must be abandoned, each crew member must prior known what objects, equipments or documents must carry with his in the lifeboat / life raft. These tasks are established by the Master through abandon drill.

As a rule, the following should not be forgotten:

- Ship’s documents, including the deck log book, engine room log book, radio station

log book and class certificates;

- Portable VHF stations, EPIRB and SART’s transponders;

- Charts of the abandon area ;

- International code of signs and emergency signals table;

- Individual documents of embarked personnel ( seaman’s books, passports);

- Ship’s flag and signaling flags;

- Binoculars and a sextant, if possible ;

- As many blankets as possible;

- Recipients with drinking water and provisions;

- Medicines and sanitary items.

Even all the actions must be performed in a hurry, no one should panic, but it will be act with calm and in order.

2.9 ABANDONING SHIP – COMPLICATIONS

In many cases when abandoning ship appear complications caused by:

- some of the survival craft not capable of being launched due the lack of maintenance, bad functionality, old mechanisms etc

- absence of proper lighting at the launching place, missing light ball, no power, bad maintenance of the electric equipment

- absence of trained personnel assigned to certain duties

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3. EVACUATION

3.1 ABANDONING SHIP – LAST RESORT

Having to abandon ship is a traumatic experience-gone are the comforts and security of the vessel. Exposed to the elements, either in lifeboats or rafts, or immersed in the water with only a lifejacket, survival at sea in a distress situation depends on an individual's knowledge and training in survival procedures. This is NOT a hopeless situation.

3.2 PERSONAL PREPARATION FOR ABANDONING THE SHIP

Being properly prepared is the best way to ensure survival at sea. Since it is somewhat impractical to actually sink a ship for practice, the alternative is training.

Crew members and research personnel should be thoroughly trained in all aspects of survival techniques from the Muster list to launching lifeboats. You should participate in the weekly emergency drills as if they were the real thing. Report to stations fully clothed, wear shoes, put on your lifejacket, and bring your immersion suit. In an actual emergency, you may not have time to go back to your quarters.

When the command "Prepare to Abandon Ship" is passed, along with the appropriate emergency signal, the crew instantly begins a planned series of actions similar to the following scenario:

- Muster at your assigned station; provide all equipment to the scene as assigned on the

Station Bill; come to your station fully clothed with your lifejacket on and carrying your immersion suit. If there is sufficient time before the actual evolution begins, don your immersion suit first and keep your lifejacket handy. The suit provides flotation and protects you from the elements.

- Prepare all survival craft for immediate launching. Swing out lifeboats or prepare life rafts according to standard procedures. DO NOT LAUNCH any equipment until instructed to do so by the Master. Stand by calmly at your station and await further orders.

- When the Master orders "Abandon Ship," launch all survival craft. Enter boats and rafts using ladders rather than jumping over the side. Keep calm and organized.

- Once boarded, all rafts or boats are tethered and towed away from the ship by a motor lifeboat or the rescue boat. Keep all craft together in the vicinity of the ship's last position.

- While waiting for rescue units to arrive, maintain a continuous visual and radio communication watch. Your lifeboat or life raft is well-stocked with equipment and provisions to sustain life comfortably. Use the supplies in the survival craft with care-they may have to last a while.

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3.3 NEED TO PREVENT PANIC

When the time arrives for the ultimate in survival procedure, having to abandon ship, conduct the evolution in a calm, orderly manner-without panic!

With adequate preparations and training, there should be no difficulty in carrying out a safe evacuation.

3.4 / 3.5 CREW DUTIES TO PASSENGERS & LAUNCHING SURVIVAL CRAFT

- summoning of passengers to muster stations with the alarm required announcement on the public address or other communication system and ensuring that they are made aware of the order to abandon ship;

- reporting to stations and preparing for the duties described in the muster list;

- checking that passengers are suitably dressed;

- checking that lifejackets are correctly donned;

- lowering survival craft after any necessary preparation for launching;

- starting and operating the lifeboat engine;

- a search and rescue of passengers trapped in their staterooms;

3.6 MASTER’S ORDER TO ABANDON SHIP

The order “ABANDON SHIP” will be done ONLY by master or his deputy and ABANDON signal MUST always be confirmed by word from the Master .

3.7 MEANS OF SURVIVAL

All crew should know essential methods for survival after the ship has been abandoned as followed:

- means of keeping afloat

- means of keeping warm

- drinking water and food

- means of communicating with ships or rescue

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4. SURVIVAL CRAFT AND RESCUE BOAT

4.1 LIFEBOATS

TYPES OF LIFEBOATS:

- OPEN

- PARTIALLY ENCLOSED

- SELF-RIGHTING PARTIALLY ENCLOSED

- TOTALLY ENCLOSED

- TOTALLY ENCLOSED WITH A SELF CONTAINED AIR SUPORT SYSTEM

- FIRE – PROTECTED

Passengers ships shall carry partially or totally enclosed lifeboats on each side of such aggregate capacity as well accommodate not less than 50% of the total number of person on board.

Cargo ships shall carry one or more totally enclosed lifeboats of such aggregate capacity on each side of the ship as well accommodate the total number of persons on board.

Lifeboats may be launched by davits or free-fall method

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LIFEBOATS

Materials

The materials from which the lifeboat hull, deck, and canopy are constructed shall be resistant to deterioration from: a. air temperature in the range of -30 to +65°C.; b. rot, corrosion, seawater, oil and fungus; and, c. sunlight.

Lifeboats shall be constructed of steel, aluminum or fibrous glass reinforced plastics, except other materials if such are equivalent or superior to the specified materials in physical properties and durability in a marine environment.

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Design and Construction

All lifeboats shall a. be properly constructed; b have rigid hulls; c. be of such form and proportions that they have ample stability in a seaway and sufficient freeboard when loaded with their full complement of persons and equipment; a\ d. be capable of maintaining positive stability when in an upright position in calm water and loaded with their complement and equipment and holed in any one location below the waterline, assuming no loss of buoyancy material or other damage.

Every lifeboat shall be capable of being launched and its equipment capable of being operated by persons wearing immersion suits.

All lifeboats shall be of sufficient strength to a. enable them to be safely lowered into the water when loaded with their complement and equipment; and, b. be capable of being launched and towed when the ship is making headway at a speed of 5 knots in calm water.

Hulls and rigid canopies shall be fire retardate or noncombustible.

Seating shall be provided on thwarts, benches or fixed chairs fitted as low as practicable in the lifeboat capable of supporting the number of persons each weighing 100 kg. for which spaces are provided.

Each lifeboat shall be of sufficient strength to withstand a load, without residual deflection on removal of that load: a. in the case of boats with metal hulls, 1.25 times the total mass of the lifeboat when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment; or b. in the case of other boats, twice the total mass of the lifeboat when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment.

Each lifeboat shall be of sufficient strength to withstand, when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment and with, where applicable, skates or fenders in position, a lateral impact against the ship's side at an impact velocity of at least 3.5 m/s and also a drop into the water from a height of at least 3m.

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The vertical distance between the floor surface and the interior of the canopy or enclosure over at least 50 % of the floor area shall be a. not less than 1.3 m for a lifeboat permitted to accommodate 9 persons or less; b. not less than 1.7 m for a lifeboat permitted to accommodate 24 persons or more; c. not less than the distance as determined by linear interpolation between 1.3 m & 1.7 m for a lifeboat permitted to accommodate between 10 and 23 persons.

Carrying capacity

The number of persons which a lifeboat shall be permitted to accommodate shall be equal to: a. the number of persons, all wearing immersion suits, that can be seated in a normal position with out interfering with the means of propulsion or the operation of any of the lifeboat's equipment; or, b. the number of spaces that can be provided on the seating arrangements. The shapes may be overlapped as shown, provided that footrests are fitted and there is sufficient room for legs and the vertical separation between the upper and lower seats is not less than 350 mm.

Each seating position within a lifeboat shall be clearly indicated.

Access

Every passenger ship lifeboat shall be so arranged that a. it can be rapidly boarded by its full complement of persons; and, b. rapid disembarkation can be possible.

Every cargo ship lifeboat shall be so arranged that: a. it can be boarded by its full complement of persons in not more than 3 minutes from the time that the instruction to board is given; and, b. rapid disembarkation can be possible.

Surfaces on the lifeboat on which persons might walk shall have a non-slip finish.

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Every lifeboat shall have a boarding ladder so arranged that a. it can be used on either side to enable persons in the water to board; and, b. the lowest step shall not be less than 0. 4 m below the light waterline.

Every lifeboat shall be so arranged that helpless persons can be brought on board both from the water and on stretchers.

Buoyancy

All lifeboats shall have inherent buoyancy or shall be fitted with inherently buoyant material sufficient to float the lifeboat with all its equipment on board when flooded and open to the sea.

The buoyant material used in a lifeboat shall not be adversely affected by sea water, oil or oil products. Notwithstanding the up mentioned requirements, all lifeboats shall have additional inherently buoyant material equal to 280 N of buoyant force per person for the number of persons the lifeboat is permitted to accommodate.

Buoyant material, shall not be installed external to the hull of the lifeboat.

Freeboard and Stability

All lifeboats, when loaded with 50% of the number of persons the lifeboat is permitted to accommodate seated in their normal positions to one side of the centre line, shall have a freeboard, measured from the waterline to the lowest opening through which the lifeboat may become flooded, of at least 1.5% of the lifeboat's length or 100 mm, whichever is greater.

Propulsion

Every lifeboat shall be powered by a compression ignition engine.

Every lifeboat engine shall be provided with a. a manual starting system or a power starting system with two independent rechargeable energy sources; and, b. any additional starting aids that may be required.

The engine starting systems and aids shall be capable of starting the engine at an ambient temperature of -30°C within 2 minutes of commencing the starting procedure unless, in the opinion of the Board having due regard to the particular voyages in which the ship carrying the lifeboat is constantly engaged a different temperature is appropriate.

The engine starting systems shall not be impeded by the engine casing, thwarts or any other obstructions.

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The engine shall be capable of operating: a. for not less than 5 minutes after starting from cold with the lifeboat out of the water; and b. when the lifeboat is flooded up to the centre line of the crankshaft.

The propeller shafting shall be so arranged that the propeller can be disengaged from the engine and have provision made for ahead and astern propulsion of the lifeboat.

The exhaust shall be so arranged as to prevent water from entering the engine during normal operation.

The speed of a lifeboat when proceeding ahead in calm water, when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment and with all engine powered auxiliary equipment in operation, shall at least 6 knots and at least 2 knots when towing a 50 person life raft loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment or its equivalent.

All lifeboats shall be provided with sufficient fuel, suitable for use throughout the temperature range expected in the area of operation, to run the fully loaded lifeboat at 6 knots for not less than 24 hours.

The lifeboat engine, transmission and engine accessories shall be enclosed in a fireretardant casing or other suitable arrangement providing similar protection. Such arrangements shall also protect persons from coming into accidental contact with hot or moving parts and protect the engine from exposure to weather and sea.

Engine starter batteries, where applicable, shall be provided with casings which form a watertight enclosure around the bottom and sides. The casings shall have a tight fitting top which provides for necessary gas venting.

The lifeboat engine and accessories shall be designed to limit electromagnetic emissions so that engine operation does not interfere with the operation of radio life saving appliances used in the lifeboat.

Means shall be provided for recharging all engine starting, radio and searchlight batteries while the engine is operating and from the ships power supply at a supply voltage not exceeding 55 volt which can be disconnected at the lifeboat embarkation station. Radio batteries shall not be used to provide power for engine starting.

Water-resistant instructions shall be provided for starting and operating the lifeboat engine shall be mounted in a conspicuous place near the engine starting controls.

Fittings

Every lifeboat shall be provided with at least one drain valve fitted near the lowest point in the hull, which shall a. open automatically to drain water from the hull when not waterborne; b. close automatically to prevent entry of water when waterborne;

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Each drain shall be a. provided with cap or plug to close the valve which shall be securely attached to the lifeboat by a lanyard, chain, or other suitable means; b. readily accessible from inside; and, c. clearly indicated as to its position.

Every lifeboat shall be provided with a rudder and tiller.

When a wheel or other remote steering mechanism is also provided, the tiller shall be capable of controlling the rudder in case of failure of the steering mechanism.

The rudder shall be permanently attached to the lifeboat and the tiller shall be permanently installed on, or linked to, the rudder stock; however, if the lifeboat has a remote steering mechanism, the tiller may be removable and securely stowed near the rudder stock.

The rudder and tiller shall be arranged so as not to be damaged by the operation of the lifeboat release mechanism or the propeller.

A buoyant lifeline shall be around the outside of the lifeboat, except in the vicinity of the rudder and propeller.

Lifeboats which are not self-righting when capsized, shall have suitable handholds on the underside of the hull to enable persons to cling to the lifeboat. The handholds shall be fastened to the lifeboat in such a way that, when subjected to an impact sufficient to cause them to break away, they break away without causing damage to the lifeboat.

Every lifeboat shall be fitted with sufficient watertight lockers or compartments to provide for the storage of the small items of equipment, water and provisions.

Means shall be provided for the collection and storage of rainwater.

Every lifeboat to be launched by a fall or falls shall be fitted with a release mechanism complying with the following requirements: a. the mechanism shall be so arranged that all hooks are released simultaneously; b. the mechanism shall have two release capabilities as follows

(i) a manual release which will release the lifeboat when waterborne or when there is no load on the hooks;

(ii) an "on-load" release capability which will release the lifeboat with a load on the hooks and be so arranged as to release the lifeboat under any conditions of loading from no-load with the lifeboat waterborne to a load of 1.1 times the loaded mass of the lifeboat when loaded with its complement of persons and equipment. c. the release control shall be clearly marked in a color that contrasts with its surroundings; d. the release mechanism shall be designed with a safety factor of 6 based on the ultimate strength of the materials used, assuming the mass of the lifeboat is equally distributed between the falls.

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Every lifeboat shall be fitted with a means to enable the forward painter to be released when under tension.

Every lifeboat shall be provided with a permanently installed earth connection and arrangements for adequately sitting and securing in the operating position the antenna provided with the portable radio apparatus.

Lifeboats intended for launching down the side of a ship shall have skates or fenders as necessary to facilitate launching and prevent damage.

A manually controlled lamp visible on a dark night with a clear atmosphere at a distance of at least 2 miles for a period of not less than 12 hours shall be fitted to the top of the cover of closure. If the light is designed to flash it shall initially flash at a rate of not less than 50 flashes per minute over the first 2 hours of operation of the 12 hour operating period.

Every lifeboat shall have fitted on the inside a lamp or source of light to provide illumination for not less than 12 hours to enable reading of survival and equipment instructions; however, oil lamps shall not be permitted for this purpose.

Every lifeboat shall, unless expressly provided otherwise, be provided with effective means of bailing or be automatically self-bailing.

Every lifeboat shall be constructed and fitted so that an adequate view, forward, aft, and to both sides is provided from the control and steering position for safe launching and maneuvering.

Equipment

All items of the lifeboat equipment, whether required by this section or elsewhere in this standard, with the exception of boat-hooks which shall be kept free for fending off purposes, shall be secured within the lifeboat by lashings, stored in lockers or compartments, stored in brackets or other similar mounting arrangements or other suitable means.

The equipment shall be secured in such a manner as not to interfere with any abandonment procedure.

All items of the lifeboat equipment shall be as small and of as little mass as possible and shall be packed in a suitable and compact form.

The normal equipment, unless otherwise stated, shall consist of;

(i) sufficient oars to make headway in calm seas, thole pins, crutches or equivalent arrangements attached to the boat by lanyards or chains shall be provided for each oar,

(ii) two boat hooks,

(iii) a buoyant bailer and two buckets,

(iv) a survival manual,

(v) a binnacle containing an efficient compass which is luminous or provided with a suitable means of illumination. In a totally enclosed lifeboat, the binnacle shall be

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permanently fitted at the steering position; in any other lifeboat, it shall be provided with suitable mounting arrangements,

(vi) a sea anchor of adequate size fitted with a shock resistant hawser and tripping line which provides a firm hand grip when wet. The strength of the sea anchor, hawser and tripping line shall be adequate for all sea conditions,

(vii) two painters, manila or other suitable line, having a diameter of not less than 255 mm diameter and of a length equal to not less than twice the distance from the stowage position of the lifeboat to the waterline in the lightest seagoing condition, or, 15 m, whichever is greater. One painter shall be attached to the release device at the forward end of the boat, and the other painter shall be firmly secured at or near the bow of the boat ready for use,

(viii) two hatchets, one at each end of the boat,

(ix) rustproof, watertight container or individually sealed units containing a total of 3 liters of fresh water for each person the lifeboat is permitted to accommodate, of which 1 liter per person may be replaced by an approved desalting apparatus capable of producing an equal amount of fresh water in 2 days,

(x) a rustproof dipper with lanyard, for the purpose of drawing water from the bunghole of a fresh water container, but this item may be waived in cases where the construction of the containers renders it unnecessary,

(xi) a rustproof graduated drinking vessel, marked at 30, 45 and 60 ml levels,

(xii) an approved food ration totaling not less than 10,000 kJ for each person the lifeboat is permitted to accommodate in airtight packaging and stowed in a watertight container,

(xiii) 4 rocket parachute flares,

(xiv) 6 hand flares,

(xv) 2 buoyant smoke signals,

(xvi) one waterproof electric torch suitable for Morse signaling together with one spare set of batteries and one spare bulb, in a waterproof container,

(xvii) one daylight signaling mirror with instructions for its use in signaling to ships and aircraft,

(xviii) one copy of lifesaving signals on a waterproof card or in a waterproof container,

(xix) one whistle or equivalent sound signal,

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(xx) a first aid kit,

(xxi) 6 doses of anti-seasickness medicine and one sea-sickness bag for each person,

(xxii) a buoyant safety knife,

(xxiii) 3 safety openers suitable for opening water and rations supplies,

(xxiv) two buoyant rescue quoits attached to buoyant lines each not less than 30 m long,

(xxv) a manual pump,

(xxvi) one set of fishing tackle,

(xxvii) sufficient tools to undertake minor adjustments to the engine and its accessories,

(xxviii) portable fire extinguishing equipment suitable for extinguishing oil fires,

(xxix) a searchlight capable of effectively illuminating a light colored object at night having a width of 18m, at a distance of 180m for a total period of 6 hours and of working for not less than 3 hours continuously,

(xxx) an efficient radar reflector or radar transponder,

Markings

The lifeboat shall be marked in clear permanent letters showing the dimensions, persons which it is permitted to accommodate, approval number, and serial number.

The name and port of registry of the ship to which the lifeboat belongs shall be marked on each side of the lifeboat's bow in block capitals of the Roman alphabet, of not less than 100 mm in height.

Means of identifying the ship to which the lifeboat belongs and the number of the lifeboat shall be marked in such a way that they are visible from above.

Every lifeboat shall have affixed to it retro-reflective tape that complies for the type prescribed therein with the highest level of reflectivity.

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OPEN TYPE LIFEBOATS shall comply with all requirements up mentioned

PARTIALLY ENCLOSED LIFEBOATS

Partially enclosed lifeboats shall comply with the requirements of open type and in addition shall comply with the following requirements:

Every partially enclosed lifeboat shall be a. provided with permanently attached rigid covers extending over not less than 20% of the length from the stem and not less than 20% of the length from the aftermost part of the lifeboat; and, b. fitted with a permanently attached foldable canopy witch together with the rigid covers completely encloses the occupants of the lifeboat in a weatherproof shelter and provides protection from exposure.

The canopy required under shall be so arranged a. that it is provided with adequate rigid sections or battens to permit erection; b. that it can be easily erected by not more than 2 persons; c. that it is insulated to protect the occupants against heat and cold by means of not less than 2 layers of material separated by an air gap or other equally efficient means, with provision to prevent accumulation of water in the air gap as applicable; d. that the exterior of the rigid cover and canopy, and the interior of that part of the lifeboat covered by the canopy, is of a highly visible color; e. that it has entrances at both ends and on each side, provided with efficient adjustable closing arrangements which can be easily and quickly opened and closed from the inside or outside so as to permit ventilation, but exclude seawater, wind and cold; f. that means shall be provided for holding the entrances securely in the open and closed positions; g. that with the entrances closed, it admits sufficient air for the occupants at all times; h. that it has means for the collection of rainwater; and,

i that the occupants can escape in the event of the lifeboat capsizing.

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SELF-RIGHTING PARTIALLY ENCLOSED LIFEBOATS

Self-righting partially enclosed lifeboats shall comply with all up mentioned requirements and in addition shall comply with the following requirements:

Enclosure

Every self righting partially enclosed lifeboat shall be provided with permanently attached rigid covers extending over not less than 20% of the length from the stem and not less than 20% of the length from the aftermost part of the lifeboat.

The rigid covers required shall form two shelters which shall: a. if they have bulkheads, have openings of sufficient size to permit easy access by persons, each wearing an immersion suit; and, b. be of sufficient interior height to permit persons easy access to their seats in the bow or stern of the lifeboat.

The rigid covers shall be so arranged that they include windows or translucent panels to admit sufficient daylight to the inside of the lifeboat with the openings and canopies closed so as to make artificial light unnecessary.

The rigid covers shall have railings attached to the outside of them to provide a secure handhold for persons moving about the exterior of the lifeboat.

Open parts of the lifeboat shall be fitted with a permanently attached folding canopy so arranged that it can be easily erected by not more than 2 persons in not more than 2 minutes and insulated to protect the occupants against heat and cold by means of not less than 2 layers of material separated by an air gap or other equally efficient means.

The enclosure formed by the rigid cover and canopy shall be so arranged: a. as to allow launching and recovery operations to be performed without any occupant having to leave the enclosure; b. that it has entrances at both ends and on each side, provided with efficient adjustable closing arrangements which can be easily and quickly opened and closed from the inside or outside so as to permit ventilation, but exclude seawater, wind and cold; c. means shall be provided for holding the entrances securely in the open and closed positions; d. that with the canopy erected and with the entrances closed, sufficient air is admitted for the occupants at all times;

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e. it has means for the collection of rainwater; f. that the exterior of the rigid covers and canopy and the interior of that part of the lifeboat covered by the canopy is of a highly visible color. The interior of the shelters shall be of a color which does not cause discomfort to the occupants; and g. that it is possible to row the lifeboat.

Capsizing and Re-righting

A safety belt shall: a. be fitted at each indicated seating position; and b. be so designed as to hold a person of a mass of 100 kg securely in place when the lifeboat is in a capsized position.

The stability of the lifeboat shall be such that it is inherently or automatically self-righting when loaded with its full or partial complement of persons and equipment and all entrances and openings are closed watertight, and the persons are secured with safety belts.

The lifeboat shall, in the event of capsizing, automatically attain a position that will provide an above water escape for its occupants.

The design of the engine exhaust pipes, air ducts, and other openings shall be such that water is excluded from the engine when the lifeboat capsizes and re-rights.

The lifeboat shall be automatically self-bailing.

Propulsion

The lifeboat engine and transmission be controlled from the helmsman position.

The engine and engine installation shall be capable of running in any position during capsize, and continue to run after the lifeboat returns to the upright, or, shall automatically stop on capsizing and be easily re-started after the lifeboat has returned to the upright and the water has been drained from the lifeboat.

The design of the lifeboat engine and lubricating systems shall prevent the loss of fuel and the loss of more than 250 ml of lubricating oil from the engine during capsize.

In addition a self-righting partially enclosed lifeboat shall be so constructed and fendered as to ensure that the lifeboat renders protection against harmful accelerations resulting from an impact of the lifeboat, when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment, against the ship's side at an impact velocity of not less than 3.5 meters per second.

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TOTALLY ENCLOSED LIFEBOATS

Enclosure

Every totally enclosed lifeboat shall be provided with a rigid watertight enclosure which totally encloses the lifeboat.

The lifeboat enclosure shall be constructed and fitted so that: a. it protects the occupants against heat and cold; b. access into the lifeboat is provided by hatches which can be closed to make the lifeboat watertight; c. hatches are positioned so as to allow launching and recovery operations to be performed without any occupants having to leave the enclosure; d. access hatches are capable of being opened and closed from both inside and outside and are equipped with a means to hold them securely in the open position; e. it is possible to row the lifeboat; f. it is capable, when the lifeboat is in the capsized position with the hatches closed and without significant leakage, of supporting the entire mass of the lifeboat, including all equipment, machinery and its full complement of persons; g. it includes windows or translucent panels on both sides, which admit sufficient daylight to the inside of the lifeboat with the hatches closed, to make artificial light unnecessary; h. its exterior is of a highly visible color and its interior of a color which does not cause discomfort to the occupants; i. handrails provide a secure handhold for persons moving about the exterior of the lifeboat, and aid embarkation and disembarkation; j. persons have access to their seats from an entrance without having to climb over thwarts or other obstructions; and, k. the occupants are protected from the effects of dangerous sub-atmospheric pressures which might be created by the lifeboat's engine.

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FREE-FALL LIFEBOAT

A free-fall lifeboat shall be totally enclosed. A lifeboat arranged for free-fall launching shall be so constructed that it is capable of rendering protection against harmful accelerations resulting from being launched when loaded with its complement and equipment, from at least the maximum height at which it is designed to be stowed above the waterline with the ship in the lightest seagoing condition, under unfavorable conditions of trim of up to

10° and with the ship listed not less than 20° either way.

TOTALLY ENCLOSED WITH A SELF CONTAINED AIR SUPPORT SYSTEMS

The self-contained air support system shall be so arranged that when proceeding with all entrances and openings closed, the air within the lifeboat remains safe and breathable and the engine runs normally for a period of not less than 10 minutes.

During the period described (10 min) the atmospheric pressure inside the lifeboat shall never fall below the atmospheric pressure, nor shall it exceed it by more than 20 m/bar.

The self-contained air support system shall have provided visual indicators to indicate the pressure of the air supply within the system at all times.

FIRE PROTECTED LIFEBOAT

The lifeboat, when waterborne shall be capable of protecting the number of persons it is permitted to accommodate, when subjected to a continuous oil fire that envelops the lifeboat for a period of not less than 8 minutes.

Water spray system

A lifeboat that has fitted a water spray system shall comply with the following

(a) water for the system shall be drawn from the sea by a self-priming motor pump, and it shall be possible to turn "on" and turn "off" the flow of water over the exterior of the lifeboat;

(b) the sea water intake shall be so arranged as to prevent the intake of flammable liquids from the sea surface; and,

(c) the system shall be arranged to allow flushing with fresh water, and complete draining.

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4.2 LIFERAFTS

Construction of life-rafts

A life-raft must be so constructed as to be capable of withstanding exposure for 30 days afloat in all sea conditions.

A life-raft must be so constructed that when it is dropped into the water from a height of 18 meters, the life-raft and its equipment will operate satisfactorily. If the life raft is to be stowed at a height of more than 18 meters above the water-line in the lightest seagoing condition, it must be of a type which has been satisfactorily drop-tested from at least that height.

A floating life-raft must be capable of withstanding repeated jumps on to it from a height of at least 4.5 metes above its floor both with and without the canopy erected.

A life-raft and its fittings must be so constructed as to enable it to be towed at a speed of 3 knots in calm water when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment and with one of its sea-anchors streamed.

A life-raft must have a canopy to protect the occupants from exposure which is automatically set in place when the life-raft is launched and waterborne.

The canopy must comply with the following:

(a) it must provide insulation against heat and cold by means of either 2 layers of material separated by an air gap or other equally efficient means. Means must be provided to prevent accumulation of water in the air gap;

(b) its interior must be of a color that does not cause discomfort to the occupants;

(c) each entrance must be clearly indicated and be provided with efficient adjustable closing arrangements which can be easily and quickly opened by persons clothed in immersion suits from inside and outside, and closed from inside, the life-raft so as to permit ventilation but exclude sea water, wind and cold.

A life-raft accommodating more than 8 persons must have at least 2 diametrically opposite entrances;

(d) it must admit sufficient air for the occupants at all times, even with the entrances closed;

(e) it must be provided with at least one viewing port;

(f) it must be provided with means for collecting rain water;

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(g) it must be provided with means to mount a survival craft radar transponder at a height of at least 1 meter above the sea;

(h) it must have sufficient headroom for sitting occupants under all parts of the canopy.

Minimum carrying capacity and mass of life-rafts

No life-raft will be approved which has a carrying capacity of fewer than 6 persons

The total mass of a life-raft, its container and its equipment must not be more than 185 kg.

Life-raft fittings

Lifelines must be securely around the inside and outside of a life-raft.

A life-raft must be fitted with an efficient painter of length equal to not less than 10 meters plus the distance from the stowed position to the water-line in the lightest seagoing condition or 15 meters, whichever is the greater.

The breaking strength of the painter system, including its means of attachment to the life raft, except the weak link, must be:

- not less than 15.0 kN for life rafts permitted to accommodate more than 25 persons,

- not less than 10.0 kN for life rafts permitted to accommodate 9 to 25 persons

- not less than 7.5 kN for any other life raft.

A manually controlled lamp must be fitted to the top of the life raft canopy. The light must be white and be capable of operating continuously for at least 12 hours with a luminous intensity of not less than 4.3 candela in all directions of the upper hemisphere.

However, if the light is a flashing light it must flash at a rate of not less than 50 flashes and not more than 70 flashes per minute for the 12 hour operating period with an equivalent effective luminous intensity. The lamp must light automatically when the canopy is erected. Batteries must be of a type that does not deteriorate due to dampness or humidity in the stowed life raft.

A manually controlled lamp must be fitted inside the life raft capable of continuous operation for a period of at least 12 hours. It must light automatically when the canopy is erected and be of sufficient intensity to permit reading of survival and equipment instructions. Batteries must be of a type that does not deteriorate due to damp or humidity in the stowed life raft.

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DAVID-LAUNCHED LIFE RAFT

In addition to the above requirements, a life-raft for use with a launching appliance must:

(a) when the life-raft is loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment, be capable of withstanding a lateral impact against the ship's side at an impact velocity of not less than 3.5 meters per second and also a drop into the water from a height of not less than 3 meters without damage that will affect its function; and

(b) be provided with means for bringing the life-raft alongside the embarkation deck and holding it securely during embarkation.

A passenger ship davit-launched life-raft must be so arranged that it can be rapidly boarded by its full complement of persons.

A cargo ship davit-launched life-raft must be so arranged that it can be boarded by its full of persons in no more than 3 minutes from the time the instruction to board is given.

Equipment

The normal equipment of a life-raft must consist of:

(a) a buoyant rescue quoit, attached to not less than 30 meters of buoyant line;

(b) a knife of the non-folding type having a buoyant handle and lanyard attached and stowed in a pocket on the exterior of the canopy near the point at which the painter is attached to the life-raft. In addition, a life-raft which is permitted to accommodate 13 persons or more must be provided with a second knife;

(c) for a life-raft which is permitted to accommodate:

(i) no more than 12 persons = one buoyant bailer;

(ii) 13 persons or more = 2 buoyant bailers;

(d) 2 sponges

(e) 2 sea-anchors each with a shock-resistant hawser and tripping line, one spare and other permanently attached to the life-raft in such a way that when the life-raft inflates, to lie oriented to the wind in the most stable manner. The sea-anchor must be fitted with a swivel at each end of the line and must be of a type which is unlikely to turn inside-out between its shroud lines. The sea-anchor permanently attached to davit-launched life rafts and life rafts fitted on passenger ships must be arranged for manual deployment only. All other life rafts are to have the sea-anchor deployed automatically when the life raft inflates;

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(f) 2 buoyant paddles;

(g) 3 tin openers and a pair of scissors. Safety knives containing special tin-opener blades are satisfactory for this requirement;

(h) a first-aid outfit in a waterproof case capable of being closed tightly after use;

(i) a whistle or equivalent sound signal;

(j) 4 rocket parachute flares;

(k) 6 hand flares;

(l) 2 buoyant smoke signals;

(m) a waterproof electric torch suitable for Morse signaling together with a spare set of batteries and a spare bulb in a waterproof container;

(n) an efficient radar reflector or survival craft radar transponder, and an EPIRB;

(o) a daylight signaling mirror with instructions on its use;

(p) a copy of the life-saving signals on a waterproof card or in a waterproof container;

(q) a set of fishing tackle sealed in a transparent plastic bag and must include at least:

(i) a line on a hand reel ready for use with sinker and hook fitted;

(ii) a selection of at least 6 spare hooks; and

(iii) a colored lure or spinner;

(r) a food ration of 10000 kJ;

(s) watertight receptacles containing a total of 1.5 liters of fresh water for each person the life-raft is permitted to accommodate, of which 0.5 liters per person may be replaced by a de-salting apparatus capable of producing an equal amount of fresh water in 2 days or 1 liter per person may be replaced by a manually powered reverse osmosis desalinator, capable of producing an equal amount of fresh water in 2 days;

(t) a rustproof graduated drinking vessel;

(u) 6 doses of anti-seasickness medicine and a seasickness bag for each person the liferaft is permitted to accommodate.

(v) instructions on how to survive;

(w) instructions for immediate action;

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Float-free arrangements for life-rafts:

Painter system

The life-raft painter system must provide a connection between the ship and the liferaft and must be so arranged as to ensure that the life-raft when released and, in the case of an inflatable life-raft, inflated is not dragged under by the sinking ship.

Weak link

If a weak link is used in the float-free arrangement, it must:

(a) not be broken by the force required to pull the painter from the life-raft container;

(b) if applicable, be of sufficient strength to permit the inflation of the life-raft; and

(c) break under a strain of 2.2 +/- 0.4 Kilo Newton.

HYDROSTATIC RELEASE UNIT

If a hydrostatic release unit is used in the float-free arrangements, it must:

(a) be constructed of compatible materials so as to prevent malfunction of the unit.

Galvanizing or other forms of metallic coating on parts of the hydrostatic release unit is not acceptable;

(b) automatically release the life-raft at a depth of not more than 4 meters;

(c) have drains to prevent the accumulation of water in the hydrostatic chamber when the unit is in its normal position;

(d) be so constructed as to prevent release when seas wash over the unit;

(e) be permanently marked on its exterior with its type and serial number;

(f) be permanently marked on the unit or identification plate securely attached to the unit stating the date of manufacture, type and serial number and whether the unit is suitable for use with a life raft with a capacity of more than 25 persons;

(g) be such that each part connected to the painter system has a strength of not less than that required for the painter; and

(h) if of a disposable type, indicate in a way that cannot be removed the date by which it is to be replaced.

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INFLATABLE LIFE - RAFTS

Inflatable life raft must comply with the following provisions in addition to those upmentioned.

Construction of inflatable life-rafts

The main buoyancy chamber must be divided into no fewer than 2 separate compartments, each inflated through a non-return inflation valve on each compartment.

The buoyancy chambers must be so arranged that, in the event of any one of the compartments being damaged or failing to inflate, the intact compartments are able to support, with positive freeboard over the life-raft's entire periphery, the number of persons which the life-raft is permitted to accommodate, each having a mass of 75 kg and seated in their normal positions.

The floor of the life-raft must be waterproof and must be capable of being sufficiently insulated against cold either:

(a) by means of one or more compartments that the occupants can inflate, or which inflate automatically and can be deflated and re-inflated by the occupants; or

(b) by other equally efficient means not dependent on inflation.

The life raft must be capable of being inflated by one person. The life-raft must be inflated with a non-toxic gas. Inflation must be completed within a period of one minute at an ambient temperature of between 18°C and 20°C and within a period of 3 minutes at an ambient temperature of -30°C.

After inflation the life-raft must maintain its form when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment.

Each inflatable compartment must be capable of withstanding a pressure equal to at least

3 times the working pressure and must be prevented from reaching a pressure exceeding twice the working pressure either by means of relief valves or by a limited gas supply

Carrying capacity of inflatable life-rafts

The number of persons which a life-raft is permitted to accommodate is equal to the lesser of:

(a) the greatest whole number obtained by dividing by 0.096 the volume, measured in cubic meters, of the main buoyancy tubes (which for this purpose include neither the arches nor the thwarts if fitted) when inflated; or

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(b) the greatest whole number obtained by dividing by 0.372 the inner horizontal crosssectional area of the life-raft measured in square meters (which for this purpose may include the thwart or thwarts, if fitted) measured to the innermost edge of the buoyancy tubes; or

(c) the number of persons having an average mass of 75 kg, all wearing either immersion suits and lifejackets or, in the case of davit-launched life rafts, lifejackets, that can be seated with sufficient comfort and headroom without interfering with the operation of any of the life raft's equipment.

Access into inflatable life-rafts

At least one entrance must be fitted with a semi-rigid boarding ramp, capable of supporting a person weighing 100 kg, to enable persons to board the life-raft from the sea so arranged as to prevent significant deflation of the life-raft if the ramp is damaged. In the case of a davit-launched life-raft having more than one entrance, the boarding ramp must be fitted at the entrance opposite the bowsing lines and embarkation facilities.

Entrances not provided with a boarding ramp must have a boarding ladder, the lowest step of which must be situated not less than 0.4 metres below the life-raft's light waterline.

There must be means inside the life-raft to assist persons to pull themselves into the liferaft from the ladder.

Stability of inflatable life-rafts

An inflatable life-raft must be so constructed that, when fully inflated and floating with the canopy uppermost, it is stable in a seaway.

The stability of the life-raft when in the inverted position must be such that it can be righted in a seaway and in calm water by one person.

The stability of the life-raft when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment must be such that it can be towed at speeds of up to 3 knots in calm water.

The life raft must be fitted with water pockets complying with the following requirements:

(a) the water pockets must be of a highly visible color;

(b) the design must be such that the pockets fill to at least 60% of their capacity within 25 seconds of deployment;

(c) the pockets must have an aggregate capacity of at least 220 liters for life rafts up to

10 persons;

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(d) the pockets for life rafts certified to carry more than 10 persons must have an aggregate capacity of not less than 20xN liters, where N = number of persons carried; and

(e) the pockets must be positioned symmetrically round the circumference of the life raft.

Means must be provided to enable air to readily escape from underneath the life raft.

Containers for inflatable life-rafts

A life-raft must be packed in a container that is:

(a) so constructed as to withstand hard wear under conditions encountered at sea;

(b) of sufficient inherent buoyancy, when packed with the life-raft and its equipment, to pull the painter from within and to operate the inflation mechanism should the ship sink;

(c) as far as practicable watertight, except for drain holes in the container bottom.

A life-raft must be packed in its container in such a way as to ensure, as far as possible that the waterborne life-raft inflates in an upright position on breaking free from its container.

The container must be marked with:

(a) maker's name or trade mark;

(b) serial number;

(c) name of approving authority and the number of persons it is permitted to carry;

(d) SOLAS;

(e) type of emergency pack enclosed;

(f) date when last serviced;

(g) length of painter;

(h) maximum permitted height of stowage above water-line (depending on drop-test

height and length of painter);

(i) launching instructions.

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Markings on inflatable life-rafts

A life-raft must be marked with:

(a) maker's name or trade mark;

(b) serial number;

(c) date of manufacture (month and year);

(d) name of approving authority;

(e) name and place of servicing station where it was last serviced. Such marking is to be placed on a buoyancy tube inside the raft adjacent to a doorway;

(f) number of persons it is permitted to accommodate over each entrance in characters not less than 100 millimeters in height of a color contrasting with that of the life-raft;

(g) name and port of registry of the ship to which it is to be fitted, in such a form that the ship identification can be changed at any time without opening the container.

2 retro-reflective tapes not less than 50 millimeters wide must be placed on the underside of the floor of an inflatable life-raft in such a way that the tapes form a cross at the centre of the floor :

(a) in the case of a circular inflatable life-raft of a length that is not less than half the diameter of the life-raft; or

(b) in the case of any other inflatable life-raft of lengths that are not less than half the length and width, respectively, of the life-raft.

The canopy of an inflatable life-raft must be fitted with retro-reflective tapes not less than

50 millimeters wide in such a way that:

(a) tapes not less than 300 millimeters long are spaced around the canopy so that the distance between the centre of a tape and the centre of the tape next in line is not greater than 500 millimeters and the distance between the lower edge of a tape and the lower edge of the canopy is not less than half the height of the canopy; and

(b) 2 tapes form a cross at the centre of the top of the canopy, the tapes being:

(i) on a circular life-raft of a length that is not less than half the diameter of the life-raft; and

(ii) on any other life-raft of lengths that are not less than half the length and width, respectively, of the life-raft.

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RIGID LIFE – RAFTS

Construction of rigid life-rafts

The buoyancy of a life-raft must be provided by approved inherently buoyant material placed as near as possible to the periphery of the life-raft. The buoyant material must be fire-retardant or be protected by a fire-retardant covering.

The floor of a life-raft must prevent the ingress of water and must effectively support the occupants out of the water and insulate them from the cold.

Carrying capacity of rigid life-rafts

The number of persons which a life-raft is permitted to accommodate is equal to the lesser of:

(a) the greatest whole number obtained by dividing by 0.096 the volume, measured in cubic meters, of the buoyancy material multiplied by a factor of (1-SG) where SG is the specific gravity of that material; or

(b) the greatest whole number obtained by dividing by 0.372 the horizontal cross sectional area of the floor of the life-raft measured in square meters; or

(c) the number of persons having an average mass of 75 kg, all wearing immersion suits and life-jackets, that can be seated with sufficient comfort and headroom without interfering with the operation of any of the life-rafts equipment.

Access into rigid life-rafts

At least one entrance must be fitted with a rigid boarding ramp to enable persons to board the life-raft from the sea. In the case of a davit-launched life-raft having more than one entrance, the boarding ramp must be fitted at the entrance opposite to the bowing and embarkation facilities.

Entrances not provided with a boarding ramp must have a boarding ladder, the lowest step of which must be situated not less than 0.4 meters below the life-raft's light waterline.

There must be means inside the life-raft to assist persons to pull themselves into the liferaft from the ladder.

Stability of rigid life-rafts

Unless a life-raft is capable of operating safely whichever way up it is floating, its strength and stability must be such that it is either self-righting or can be readily righted in a sea way and in calm water by one person.

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The stability of a life-raft when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment must be such that it can be towed at speeds of up to 3 knots in calm water.

Markings on rigid life-rafts

A life-raft must be marked with:

(a) name and port of registry of the ship to which it belongs;

(b) maker's name or trade mark;

(c) serial number;

(d) name of approving authority;

(e) number of persons it is permitted to accommodate over each entrance in characters not less than 100 millimeters in height of a color contrasting with that of the life-raft;

(f) SOLAS;

(g) type of emergency pack enclosed;

(h) length of painter;

(i) maximum permitted height of stowage above water-line (drop-test height); and

(j) launching instructions.

Each canopy of a rigid life-raft must be fitted with retro-reflective tapes not less than 50 millimeters wide in such a way that:

(a) tapes not less than 300 millimeters long are spaced around the canopy so that the distance between the centre of a tape and the centre of the tape next in line is not greater than 500 millimeters and the distance between the lower edge of a tape and the lower edge of the canopy is not less than half the height of the canopy; and

(b) 2 tapes form a cross at the centre of the top of the canopy, the tapes being:

(i) on a circular life-raft of a length that is not less than half the diameter of the life-raft; and

(ii) on any other life-raft of lengths that are not less than half the length and width, respectively, of the life-raft.

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MARINE EVACUATION SYSTEM

Provides fully enclosed, dry-shod evacuation directly from ship into the life rafts.

Evacuees move from the ship down the chute / slide and directly into the high-capacity life rafts.

Types:

Evacuation slide

Evacuation chute

Application

The evacuation systems are installed on board high-density passenger vessels likely to have a large number of passengers disembarked in an emergency.

Benefits

A high-capacity and dry-shod evacuation system that protects evacuees from environmental hazards.

Unmatched evacuation capacity.

Rapid and easy evacuation.

Good stability.

Controlled, rapid and safe descent.

Flexibility to sea and ship movement.

A very important fact is that this means of life-saving minimizes the number of crew because operation of the system is simple.

Access and descent

Access through the deployed chute stowage box.

Controlled and protected descent into a closed life raft.

The passive descent technique does not require special training of passengers and crew.

Training

An important aspect is the simplicity of its operation. This means that less crew hand are required to be trained / educated in using the system, 3 or 4 persons for each system.

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4.3 RESCUE BOAT

Passengers ships of 500 gross tonnage and over shall carry at least one rescue boat on each side of the ship.

Cargo ships shall carry at least one rescue boat; a rescue boat may be a lifeboat either of rigid or inflated construction or a combination of both.

General requirements

(a) be not less than 3.8 meters and not more than 8.5 meters in length; and

(b) be capable of carrying at least 5 seated persons and a person lying on a stretcher.

Unless a rescue boat has adequate sheer, it must be provided with a bow cover extending for not less than 15 per cent of its length.

A rescue boat must be capable of maneuvering at a speed of 6 knots and maintaining that speed for a period of at least 4 hours.

A rescue boat must have sufficient mobility and maneuverability in a seaway to enable persons to be retrieved from the water, marshal life-rafts and tow the largest life raft carried on a ship when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment or its equivalent at a speed of at least 2 knots.

A rescue boat must be fitted with an inboard engine or outboard motor. If it is fitted with an outboard motor, the rudder and tiller may form part of the engine.

Arrangements for towing must be permanently fitted in a rescue boat and must be sufficiently strong to marshal or tow life-rafts.

Unless expressly provided otherwise, a rescue boat must be provided with effective means of bailing or be automatically self-bailing.

A rescue boat must be fitted with weather-tight stowage for small items of equipment.

Rescue boat equipment

All items of rescue boat equipment, with the exception of boat-hooks which must be kept free for fending off purposes, must be secured within the rescue boat by lashings, storage in lockers or compartments, storage in brackets or similar mounting arrangements, or other suitable means. The equipment must be secured in such a manner as not to interfere with any launching or recovery procedures. All items of rescue boat equipment must be as small and of as little mass as possible and must be packed in suitable and compact form.

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The normal equipment of a rescue boat must consist of:

(a) a sufficient number of buoyant oars or paddles to make headway in calm seas. Thole pins, crutches or equivalent arrangements must be provided for each oar. Thole pins or crutches must be attached to the boat by lanyards or chains;

(b) a buoyant bailer;

(c) a binnacle containing an efficient compass which is luminous or provided with suitable means of illumination;

(d) a sea-anchor and tripping line with a hawser of adequate strength not less than 10 meters in length;

(e) a painter of sufficient length and strength, attached to the release device and placed at the forward end of the rescue boat;

(f) a buoyant line, not less than 50 meters in length, of sufficient strength to tow a life raft

(g) a waterproof electric torch suitable for Morse signaling, together with a spare set of batteries and a spare bulb in a waterproof container;

(h) a whistle or equivalent sound signal;

(i) a first-aid outfit in a waterproof case capable of being closed tightly after use;

(j) 2 buoyant rescue quoits, attached to not less than 30 meters of buoyant line;

(k) a searchlight with a horizontal and vertical sector of at least 6° and a measured luminous intensity of 2500 candela which can work continuously for not less than 3 hours;

(l) an efficient radar reflector;.

(m) portable fire-extinguishing equipment.

In addition to the equipment up-mentioned, the normal equipment of a rigid rescue boat must include:

(a) a boat-hook;

(b) a bucket; and

(c) a knife or hatchet.

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In addition to the equipment up-mentioned, the normal equipment of a inflated rescue boat must include:

(a) a buoyant safety knife;

(b) 2 sponges;

(c) an efficient manually operated bellows or pump;

(d) a repair kit in a suitable container for repairing punctures; and

(e) a safety boat-hook.

The following equipment, or other equally efficient means, must be fitted to assist the recovery of a lifeboat which is also a rescue boat in bad weather conditions:

(a) rope pennants attached to the lower fall blocks after launching is completed to enable the boat to be hung off, the rope pennants removed, and the lower blocks overhauled and attached to the boat so that it may be hoisted safely and expeditiously; and

(b) wire pennants attached to the davit heads to enable the boat to be brought up into its stowed position.

An inflated rescue boat must be so constructed as to be capable of withstanding exposure:

(a) when stowed on an open deck on a ship at sea; and

(b) for 30 days afloat in all sea conditions.

Inflated rescue boats must be marked with a serial number, the maker's name or trade mark and the date of manufacture. The buoyancy of an inflated rescue boat must be provided by either a single tube subdivided into at least five separate compartments of approximately equal volume or two separate tubes. The buoyancy tubes must be so arranged that the intact compartments must be able to support the number of persons which the rescue boat is permitted to accommodate, each having a mass of 75 kilograms, when seated in their normal positions with positive freeboard over the rescue boat's entire periphery under the following conditions:

(a) with the forward buoyancy compartment deflated;

(b) with the entire buoyancy on one side of the rescue boat deflated; and

(c) with the entire buoyancy on one side and the bow compartment deflated.

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The buoyancy tubes forming the boundary of an inflated rescue boat must on inflation provide a volume of not less than 0.17 cubic meters for each person the rescue boat is permitted to accommodate.

Each buoyancy compartment must be fitted with a non-return valve for manual inflation and means for deflation. A safety relief valve must also be fitted.

An inflated rescue boat must be maintained at all times in a fully inflated condition.

Marking

An inflated rescue boat must be fitted:

(a) on the outside of the boat, arranged vertically with the lower edge at the waterline, with retro-reflective tapes, each tape being not less than 150 millimeters long and not less than

50 millimeters wide, spaced so that the distance between the centre of a tape and the centre of the tape next in line is not greater than 500 millimeters;

(b) on the bow, with a vertical strip of retro-reflective tape 600 millimeters long and 50 millimeters wide and two horizontal strips of retro-reflective tape 150 millimeters long and

50 millimeters wide, these strips being placed in the form of an arrowhead;

(c) on the transom, above the water-line, with retro-reflective tapes, each tape being not less than 150 millimeters long and not less than 100 millimeters wide;

(d) on each float, with retro-reflective tapes, each tape being not less than 150 millimeters long and not less than 50 millimeters wide, spaced so that the distance between the centre of a tape and the centre of the tape next in line is not less than 500 millimeters;

(e) at the rear of each float, with a retro-reflective tape, being not less than 300 millimeters long and not less than 50 millimeters wide;

(f) on each side of the bow cover, with retro-reflective tapes forming a cross, each tape being not less than 300 millimeters long and not less than 50 millimeters wide; and

(g) on the underside of the boat, with retro-reflective tapes, each tape being not less than 300 millimeters long and not less than 50 millimeters wide, spaced so that the distance between the centre of a tape and the centre of the tape next in line is not less than 500 millimeters.

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FAST RESCUE BOAT

A fast rescue boat may be provided in place of a standard rescue boat.

General requirements

A fast rescue boat may be either of rigid, inflated or rigid/inflated construction and must:

(a) be of a length adequate for its intended use; and

(b) be capable of carrying at least five seated persons and a person lying down.

A fast rescue boat must be self-righting or capable of being readily righted by its crew.

Unless the fast rescue boat has adequate sheer, it must be provided with a bow cover extending for not less than 15% of its length, and be self-bailing or capable of being rapidly cleared of water.

A fast rescue boat must be capable of maneuvering, for at least 4 hours, at a speed of at least 20 knots in calm water with a suitably qualified and experienced crew of at least 3 persons and at least 8 knots with a full complement of persons and equipment.

A fast rescue boat must have sufficient mobility and maneuverability in a seaway to enable persons to be retrieved from the water, marshal life-rafts and tow the largest liferaft carried on the ship when loaded with its full complement of persons and equipment or its equivalent at a speed of at least 2 knots.

A fast rescue boat must be fitted with an inboard engine or engines or an outboard motor or motors commensurate with its speed, size and displacement. It should be steered by a wheel which is remote from the rudder, water jet or jets and outboard motor or motors and an approved form of emergency steering must be fitted.

Each engine or motor in a fast rescue boat must stop automatically or be stopped by the helmsman's emergency release switch should the boat capsize.

When the boat has righted, each engine or motor must be capable of being restarted, provided the helmsman's emergency release, if fitted, has been reset.

Arrangements for towing must be permanently fitted in fast rescue boats and should be sufficiently strong to marshal or tow life-rafts.

A fast rescue boat must be fitted with weather tight stowage for small items of equipment.

If a fast rescue boat is stowed on a ship, a disengaging gear must be fitted.

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Fast rescue boat equipment

All items of fast rescue boat equipment, with the exception of boat-hooks which should be kept free for fending off purposes, must be secured within the rescue boat by lashings, storage in lockers or compartments, storage in brackets or similar mounting arrangements, or other suitable means. The equipment must be secured in such a manner as not to interfere with any launching or recovery procedures. All items of fast rescue boat equipment must be as small and of as little mass as possible and must be packed in suitable and compact form.

The normal equipment of every fast rescue boat must consist of:

(a) sufficient buoyant oars or paddles to make headway in calm seas. Thole pins, crutches or equivalent arrangements must be provided for each oar and be attached to the boat by lanyards or chains;

(b) a buoyant bailer;

(c) a binnacle containing an efficient compass which is luminous or provided with suitable means of illumination;

(d) a sea-anchor with a hawser of adequate strength not less than 10 meters in length;

(e) a painter of sufficient length and strength, attached to the release device and placed at the forward end of the fast rescue boat;

(f) one buoyant line, not less than 50 meters in length, of sufficient strength to tow a liferaft;

(g) one waterproof electric torch suitable for Morse signaling, together with one spare set of batteries and one spare bulb in a waterproof container;

(h) one whistle or equivalent sound signal;

(i) a first-aid outfit;

(j) two buoyant rescue quoits, attached to not less than 30 meters of buoyant line;

(k) a searchlight capable of effectively illuminating a light-colored object at night having a width of 18 meters at a distance of 180 meters for a total period of 6 hours and of working for at least 3 hours continuously;

(l) unless a radar transponder is stowed in the fast rescue boat, an efficient radar reflector;

(m) thermal protective aids sufficient for 10% of the number of persons the rescue boat is permitted to accommodate or 2, whichever is the greater; and

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(n) portable fire-extinguishing equipment of an approved type suitable for extinguishing oil fires.

In addition to the equipment up-mentioned, the normal equipment of every rigid fast rescue boat must include:

(a) a boat-hook;

(b) a bucket; and

(c) a knife or hatchet.

In addition to the equipment up-mentioned, the normal equipment of every rigid/inflated

and every inflated fast rescue boat must include:

(a) a buoyant safety knife;

(b) two sponges;

(c) an efficient manually-operated bellows or pump;

(d) a repair kit in a suitable container for repairing punctures; and

(e) a safety boat-hook.

A fast rescue boat must be equipped with an easily operated fixed single-point suspension arrangement or equivalent.

Hooks and fastening devices for lowering and hoisting fast rescue boats must be so designed as to have a safety factor of 6 on the ultimate strength in relation to the loads occurring in a fully loaded condition.

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5. PERSONAL LIFE-SAVING APPLIANCE

5.1 LIFEBUOYS

A lifebuoy must:

(a) have an outer diameter of not more than 800 millimeters and an inner diameter of not less than 400 millimeters;

(b) be constructed of inherently buoyant material; it must not depend upon rushes, cork shavings or granulated cork, any other loose granulated material or any air compartment which depends on inflation for buoyancy;

(c) be capable of supporting not less than14.5 kilograms of iron in fresh water for a period of 24 hours;

(d) have a mass of not less than 2.5 kilograms;

(e) not sustain burning or continue melting after being totally enveloped in a fire for a period of 2 seconds;

(f) be constructed to withstand a drop into the water from the height at which it is stowed above the water-line in the lightest seagoing condition or 30 meters, whichever is the greater, without impairing either its operating capability or that of its attached components;

(g) if it is intended to operate the quick-release arrangement provided for the self activated smoke signals and self-igniting lights, have a mass sufficient to operate the quick-release arrangement;

(h) be fitted with a grab line not less than 9.5 millimeters in diameter and not less than 4 times the outside diameter of the body of the buoy in length. The grab line must be secured at four equidistant points around the circumference of the buoy to form four equal loops;

(i) be marked in block capitals of the Roman alphabet with the name and port of registry of the ship on which it is carried; and

(j) be fitted with retro-reflective tape, not less than 50 millimeters wide, around or on both sides of the lifebuoy at 4 equidistant points.

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DISTRIBUTION OF LIFEBUOY OVER THE SHIP

Lifebuoys must be:

(a) so distributed as to be readily available on both sides of the ship and as far as practicable on all open decks extending to the ship's side; at least one must be placed in the vicinity of the stern;

(b) so stowed as to be capable of being rapidly cast loose, and not permanently secured in any way.

At least one lifebuoy on each side of the ship must be fitted with a buoyant lifeline equal in length to not less than twice the height at which it is stowed above the water-line in the lightest seagoing condition, or 30 meters, whichever is the greater.

Not less than one half of the total number of lifebuoys must be provided with self-igniting lights. At least 2 of these must also be provided with self activating smoke signals and be capable of quick release from the navigating bridge provided that on tugs and similar vessels that may be required to go alongside another vessel or a drilling platform as a normal part of their duties, the lifebuoys must be positioned for ready use in an emergency. Lifebuoys with lights and those with lights and smoke signals must be equally distributed on both sides of the ship.

Each lifebuoy must be marked in block capitals of the Roman alphabet with the name and port of registry of the ship on which it is carried.

ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT ATTACHED TO LIFEBUOY

LIFEBUOY SELF-IGNITING LIGHTS

A self-igniting light must:

(a) be such that it cannot be extinguished by water;

(b) be of white color and capable of either burning continuously with a luminous intensity of not less than 2 candela in all directions of the upper hemisphere or flashing (discharge flashing) at a rate of not less than 50 and not more than 70 flashes per minute with at least the corresponding effective luminous intensity;

(c) be provided with a source of energy capable for a period of at least 2 hours;

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LIFEBUOY SELF-ACTIVATING SMOKE SIGNALS

A self-activating smoke signal must:

(a) emit smoke of a highly visible color at a uniform rate for a period of at least 15 minutes when floating in calm water;

(b) not ignite explosively or emit any flame during the entire smoke emission time of the signal;

(c) not be swamped in a seaway;

(d) continue to emit smoke when fully submerged in water for a period of at least 10 seconds;

BUOYANT LIFELINES

A buoyant lifeline must:

(a) be non-kinking;

(b) have a diameter of not less than 8 millimeters;

(c) have a breaking strength of not less than 5 Kilo Newton

A cargo ship must carry no fewer than the number of lifebuoys as specified:

Under 100 meters = 8 pieces

Under 150 meters but not under 100 meters = 10 pieces

Under 200 meters but not under 150 meters = 12 pieces

Not under 200 meters = 14 pieces

A passenger ship must carry no fewer than the number of lifebuoys as specified:

Under 60 meters = 8 pieces

Under 120 meters but not under 60 meters = 12 pieces

Under 180 meters but not under 120 meters = 18 pieces

Under 240 meters but not under 180 meters = 24 pieces

Not under 240 meters = 30 pieces

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5.2 LIFEJACKET

MARKING

All lifejackets shall be clearly and indelibly marked in English with the following:

Size designation

Department of Transport Approval Number

Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Approval

In addition, lifejackets shall be clearly and indelibly marked in English with the following:

- donning diagram

- manufacturer’s name

- lot number and date of manufacture (month and year).

The size designation marking shall be at least 25 mm on an adult size lifejacket and 20 mm on a child size lifejacket, while other markings shall be not less than 5 mm in height.

GENERAL REQUIREMENT

A life-jacket must not sustain burning or continue melting after being totally enveloped in a fire for a period of 2 seconds.

A life-jacket for an adult must be so constructed that:

(a) at least 75% of persons, who are completely unfamiliar with the lifejacket, can correctly don it within a period of one minute without assistance, guidance or prior demonstration;

(b) after demonstration, all persons can correctly don it within a period of one minute without assistance;

(c) it is clearly capable of being worn in only one way or, as far as possible, cannot be donned incorrectly;

(d) it is comfortable to wear; and

(e) it allows the wearer to jump from a height of at least 4.5 meters into the water without injury and without dislodging or damaging the life-jacket.

A life-jacket for an adult must have sufficient buoyancy and stability in calm fresh water to:

(a) lift the mouth of an exhausted or unconscious person not less than 120 millimeters clear of the water with the body inclined backwards at an angle of not less than 20° and not more than 50° from the vertical position; and

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(b) turn the body of an unconscious person in the water from any position to one where the mouth is clear of the water in not more than 5 seconds.

A life-jacket for an adult must allow the person wearing it to swim a short distance and to board a survival craft.

A life-jacket must have buoyancy which is not reduced by more than 5 per cent after 24 hours submersion in fresh water.

The minimum buoyancy after 24 hours submersion is to be 156 newtons for a life-jacket for use by a person of 32 kg body mass or more, and 67 newtons for a life-jacket for use by a person of less than 32 kg body mass.

A life-jacket must be fitted with a life-jacket light which must be fitted with a means of attachment to the life-jacket.

The light must be of white color and capable of either burning continuously 8 hours with a luminous intensity of not less than 0,75 candela in all directions of the upper hemisphere or flashing (discharge flashing) at a rate of not less than 50 and not more than 70 flashes per minute with at least the corresponding effective luminous intensity;

A life-jacket must be fitted with a whistle firmly secured by a cord.

If the material with which a life-jacket is covered is not retro-reflective material, it must be fitted with at least 400 square centimeters of retro-reflective tape, each tape being not less than 100 millimeters long and not less than 50 millimeters wide, placed as high up on the life-jacket as possible, in no fewer than 6 places on the outside and in no fewer than 6 places on the inside of the lifejacket.

No more than 2 types of life-jacket requiring different methods of adjustment may be carried on any one ship.

INFLATABLE LIFE-JACKETS

A life-jacket that depends on inflation for buoyancy must have no fewer than 2 separate compartments, must:

(a) inflate automatically on immersion, be provided with a device to permit inflation by a single manual motion and be capable of being inflated by mouth;

(b) in the event of loss of buoyancy in any one compartment be capable to keep afloat the human body

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Initial Arming Warning

An inflatable lifejacket that is not in an armed and ready-to-use condition shall be marked with a removable hangtag, which states:

WARNING

LIFEJACKET NOT ARMED!

READ INSTRUCTIONS AND ARM PROPERLY PRIOR TO USE

The characters in the warning label shall be at least 1 cm in height.

There must be provided on a ship:

(a) a life-jacket for every person on board the ship; and

(b) a number of life-jackets suitable for persons less than 32 kg equal to 10 per cent of the number of passengers on board or such number as may be required to provide a lifejacket for each person less than 32 kg, whichever is the greater.

Life-jackets must be so placed as to be readily accessible and their position must be plainly indicated

The lifejackets used in totally enclosed lifeboats, except free-fall lifeboats, must not impede entry into the lifeboat or seating, including operation of the seat belts in the lifeboat.

Lifejackets selected for free-fall lifeboats, and the manner in which they are carried or worn, must not interfere with entry into the lifeboat, occupant safety or operation of the lifeboat.

In addition a passenger ship must carry:

(a) a further 5 per cent of the number of each type of life-jacket, stowed in conspicuous places on deck or at muster stations; and

(b) a sufficient number of life-jackets stowed in working spaces for the use of crew members who may be required to remain on duty in those spaces.

Where lifejackets for passengers are stowed in staterooms which are located remotely from direct routes between public spaces and muster stations, the additional lifejackets for these passengers must be stowed either in the public spaces, the muster stations, or on direct routes between them. The lifejackets must be stowed so that their distribution and donning does not impede orderly movement to muster stations and survival craft embarkation stations.

A sufficient number of lifejackets must be stowed in the vicinity of the muster stations so that passengers do not have to return to their cabins to collect their lifejackets.

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5.3 IMMERSION SUITS

General requirements for immersion suits

An immersion suit must be constructed with waterproof materials such that:

(a) it can be unpacked and donned without assistance within 2 minutes, taking into account any associated clothing. If a life-jacket is to be donned after donning the immersion suit, both must be able to be donned within 2 minutes;

(b) it will not sustain burning or continue melting after being totally enveloped in a fire for a period of 2 seconds;

(c) it will cover the whole body with the exception of the face. Hands must also be covered unless permanently attached gloves are provided;

(d) it is provided with arrangements to minimise or reduce free air in the legs of the suit;

(e) following a jump from a height of not less than 4.5 meters into the water there is no undue ingress of water into the suit.

An immersion suit must permit the person wearing it, and also wearing a life-jacket if the immersion suit is to be worn in conjunction with a life-jacket, to:

(a) climb up and down a vertical ladder at least 5 meters in length;

(b) perform normal duties during abandonment;

(c) jump from a height of not less than 4.5 meters into the water without damaging or dislodging the immersion suit, or being injured;

(d) swim a short distance through the water and board a survival craft.

An immersion suit which has buoyancy and is designed to be worn without a lifejacket must be fitted with a life-jacket light and a whistle.

If the immersion suit is to be worn in conjunction with a life-jacket, the life-jacket must be worn over the immersion suit. A person wearing such an immersion suit must be able to don a life-jacket without assistance.

An immersion suit must be fitted with at least 400 square centimeters of retro reflective tape.

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Thermal performance requirements for immersion suits

An immersion suit made of material which has no inherent insulation must be:

(a) marked with instructions that it must be worn in conjunction with warm clothing;

(b) so constructed that, when worn in conjunction with warm clothing, and with a life-jacket if the immersion suit is to be worn with a life-jacket, the immersion suit continues to provide sufficient thermal protection, following one jump by the wearer into the water from a height of 4.5 meters, to ensure that when it is worn for a period of one hour in calm circulating water at a temperature of 5°C, the wearers body core temperature does not fall more than 2°C.

An immersion suit made of material with inherent insulation, when worn either on its own or with a life-jacket, if the immersion suit is to be worn in conjunction with a lifejacket, must provide the wearer with sufficient thermal insulation, following one jump into the water from a height of 4.5 meters, to ensure that the wearer's body core temperature does not fall more than 2°C after a period of 6 hours immersion in calm circulating water at a temperature of between 0°C and 2°C.

A person in freshwater wearing either an immersion suit, or an immersion suit with a lifejacket, must be able to turn from a face-down to a face-up position in not more than 5 seconds.

An immersion suit or an anti-exposure suit of an appropriate size must be provided for every person assigned to crew the rescue boat or assigned to the marine evacuation system party.

A passenger ship must carry for each lifeboat on the ship at least 3 immersion suits and, in addition, a thermal protective aid for every person to be accommodated in the lifeboat and not provided with an immersion suit.

A cargo ship must carry immersion suits for every person on board unless the ship:

(a) has davit-launched life-rafts; or

(b) has life-rafts served by equivalent approved appliances capable of being used on both sides of the ship and which do not require entry into the water to board the life-raft; or

(c) is exclusively engaged on voyages between 35°S and 35°N.

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ANTI-EXPOSURE SUITS

An immersion suit or an anti-exposure suit of an appropriate size must be provided for every person assigned to crew the rescue boat or assigned to the marine evacuation system party.

An anti-exposure suit must be constructed with waterproof materials such that it:

(a) provides inherent buoyancy of at least 70 N;

(b) is made of material which reduces the risk of heat stress during rescue and

evacuation operations;

(c) covers the whole body with the exception of the head and hands feet; gloves and a hood must be provided in such a manner as to remain available for use with the antiexposure suits;

(d) can be unpacked and donned without assistance within 2 minutes;

(e) does not sustain burning or continue melting after being totally enveloped in a fire for a period of 2 seconds;

(f) is equipped with a pocket for a portable VHF telephone; and

(g) has a lateral field of vision of at least 120°.

An anti-exposure suit must permit the person wearing it to:

(a) climb up and down a vertical ladder of at least 5 meters in length;

(b) jump from a height of not less than 4.5 meters into the water with feet first, without damaging or dislodging the suit, or being injured;

(c) swim through the water at least 25 meters and board a survival craft;

(d) don a lifejacket without assistance, except where the suit is classified as a lifejacket

(e) perform all duties associated with abandonment, assist others and operate a rescue boat.

An anti-exposure suit must be fitted with a light complying with regulation as per lifejacket light and a whistle.

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Thermal performance requirements for anti-exposure suits

An anti-exposure suit must:

(a) if made of material which has no inherent insulation, be marked with instructions that it must be worn in conjunction with warm clothing; and

(b)be so constructed, that when worn as marked, the suit continues to provide sufficient thermal protection following one jump into the water which totally submerges the wearer and must ensure that when it is worn in calm circulating water at a temperature of 5°C, the wearer's body core temperature does not fall at a rate of more than 1.5°C per hour, after the first half hour.

Stability requirements

A person in fresh water wearing an anti-exposure suit must be able to turn from a facedown to a face-up position in not more than 5 seconds and must be stable face-up. The suit must have no tendency to turn the wearer face-down in moderate sea condition.

5.4 THERMAL PROTECTIVE AID

A thermal protective aid must be made of waterproof material having a thermal conductance of not more than 7800 W/(m2.K) and must be so constructed that, when used to enclose a person, it will reduce both the convective and evaporative heat loss from the wearer's body.

A thermal protective aid must:

(a) cover the whole body of persons of all sizes wearing a life-jacket with the exception of the face. Hands must also be covered unless permanently attached gloves are provided;

(b) be capable of being unpacked and easily donned without assistance in a survival craft or rescue boat; and

(c) permit the wearer to remove it in the water in not more than 2 minutes, if it impairs ability to swim.

A T.P.A. must function properly throughout an air temperature range of -30°C to +20°C.

A passenger ship must carry for each lifeboat on the ship at least 3 immersion suits and, in addition, a thermal protective aid for every person to be accommodated in the lifeboat and not provided with an immersion suit.

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7. SURVIVAL AT SEA

7.1 DANGER TO SURVIVALS

SEA-SICKNESS

Seasick persons lose large quantity of fluid through vomiting and survivors should immediately protect themselves against seasickness once they have boarded a survival craft by taking anti-seasickness tablets, except, when the sea is calm. The tablets should be taken according to the instructions on the bottle. Drowsiness is normal after taking the tablets. Sufferers from seasickness should breathe fresh air and have faces wiped with a moistened towel. The survival craft must be cleared of vomit.

FROSTBITE

Hands, feet, face and ears in particular are prone to frostbite in cold weather, ulceration may occur if neglected. The affected area should be warm and lightly massaged to stimulate circulations. Prevention is most important. All normally exposed portions of the body should be protected from the cold or to be kept warm by frequent rubbing with hands. Shoes, socks and clothing should be kept dry.

SUNBURN

When exposed to strong sunshine, large area of skin can soon blister and may became septic. Ointment for burns and scalds may be applied. Long exposure to strong sunshine should be avoided using the canopy in lifeboat or life raft.

DRINKING WATER

Water is far mare important for survival than food. In tropics, lack of fresh water is the main cause of death. Healthy persons may not drink any water for the first 24 hours after boarding the survival craft as the body has sufficient water content, and drinking before that time will only cause the excess fluid to be passed quickly as urine. The injured or sick, depending on circumstances, may drink some water if thirsty.

In no case should anyone drink any sea water or sea water mixed with fresh water.

Drinking sea water even over a short period of time is fatal. For collecting rain water, before the rain, clean the salt from the part of canopy above the rain catchment’s, pour out the water with salt, and then collect rain water with as much containers as available

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HYPOTHERMIA

A prolonged immersion in cold water will result in heat-loss and low body-core temperature, and finally drop into drowsy, unconscious, vascular sclerosis, till death. The victim of cold is to be warmed up by wrapping with the thermal protective aid in the survival craft or to wear an immersion suit or covered with a blanket.

Recognizing Hypothermia

- The victim will have a blue-grey coloration with bluish lips.

- Breathing may be slow and labored.

- Movements still and uncoordinated, loss of manual dexterity.

- Violent shivering.

- Mental Disorientation – forgetfulness, confusion, personality changes, inability to make

decisions or wrong decisions.

- Low temperature and slow weak pulse.

Initial "cold shock" occurs in the first 3-5 minutes of immersion in cold water. Sudden immersion into cold water can cause immediate involuntary gasping, hyperventilation, panic, and vertigo-all of which can result in inhalation and drowning. Immersion in cold water can also cause sudden changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rhythm, which can also result in death.

Short term "swim failure" occurs 3-30 minutes following immersion in cold. The muscles and nerves in the arms and legs cool quickly. Manual dexterity, hand grip strength, and speed of movement can all drop by 60-80%. Even normally strong persons can lose the strength necessary to pull themselves out of the water or even keep their head above water. Death occurs by drowning.

Long term "immersion hypothermia" sets in after 30 minutes, at a rate depending on water temperature, clothing, body type, and your behavior in the water. Cold water robs the body of heat 25 times faster than cold air. Hypothermia occurs when your body loses heat faster than it produces it, cooling the organs in the core of your body. Hypothermia eventually leads to loss of consciousness and death, with or without drowning.

Post immersion collapse occurs during or after rescue. Once rescued, if you have been immersed in cold water you are still in danger from collapse of arterial blood pressure leading to cardiac arrest. Also inhaled water can damage your lungs, and heart problems can develop as cold blood from arms and legs is released into the core of your body.

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7.2 BEST USE OF SURVIVAL CRAFT FACILITIES

As a survivor on the open sea, you will face waves and wind. You may also face extreme heat or cold. To keep these environmental hazards from becoming serious problems, take precautionary measures as soon as possible. Use the available resources to protect yourself from the elements and from heat or extreme cold and humidity.

Protecting yourself from the elements meets only one of your basic needs. You must also be able to obtain water and food. Satisfying these three basic needs will help prevent serious physical and psychological problems. However, you must know how to treat health problems that may result from your situation.

Precautionary Measures

Your survival at sea depends upon :

- Your knowledge of and ability to use the available survival equipment.

- Your special skills and ability to apply them to cope with the hazards you face.

- Your will to live.

Points to bear in mind before jumping overboard:

- have lifejacket securely tied on and hold down by crossing the arms over the chest

- blocking off the nose and mouth with one hand

- keep your feet together, check that it is all clear below;

- look straight ahead and jump feet first

- do not look down when jumping as it makes you unstable and likely to fall forward

- do not jump into the boat or life raft

- jump into the water as close as possible to the boat or raft

While waiting for rescue:

- remain passive in the water; allow lifejacket and survival suit to support you in the best

position

- DO NOT SWIM; it will increase body heat loss and will reduce your survival time

- protect your airway from “wave slap”

HELP Position: reduce exposure by assuming the Heat Escape Lessening Position

- bring your arms close to the side of your body

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- cross your ankles

- keep your legs closed and pull your knees

- hold your hands underneath the knee joints

HUDDLE Position: if you are with more persons in the water the Huddle position help in some cases (moral, injured persons, etc)

- wrap your arms around each other form a circle facing the others

- keep bodies as close as possible together

- fill up the inner circle

- do not change anymore

HUDDLE position reduces heat loss by limiting the body surface exposed to the water and helps SAR-units in locating you

Swimming

If you have to swim than do this in most economical way. You must know that swimming cools you down extremely fast so only swim short distances to e.g. a life raft.

The most efficient method is:

- turn yourself on your back

- cross your legs at the ankles

- paddle evenly with your arms

- look behind you where your going to

Clearing the distress ship as quick as possible

When all the survivors are on board of the survival craft make a safe distance from the sinking ship immediately to avoid being sucked in by the draught.

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RESCUE OF SURVIVAL FROM WATER

If you have to go into the water from a survival craft, perhaps to tray rescue another survivor, be sure to take a line with you. A survival craft will drift far faster than you can swim, without a line to help you get back.

Persons in the survival craft should search carefully for survivors in the water. Blow a whistle and use also the electric torch to attract attention if at night time. If any survivor is sighted, make every effort to approach him throw him a rescue quoit, draw in the line attached to the quoit and help him into the craft.

USING THE SEA-ANCHOR

In order to obtain quick rescue, the survival craft should be kept in the vicinity of the abandoned ship so as to facilitate discovery by the rescue ships or aircraft. When the craft drifts fast with the wind, the sea-anchor may be streamed to reduce the drifting speed, keep the craft in position and increase the stability.

For the convenience of mutual support and assistance and for facilitating discovery, it is advisable to keep all the crafts together by joining with lines. In case of rough sea they should be kept apart from each other at the distance not less than 20-30 meters

OIL BURNING ON WATER SURFACE :

- Discard your shoes and buoyant life preserver.

- Cover your nose, mouth, and eyes and quickly go underwater.

- Swim underwater as far as possible before surfacing to breathe.

- Before surfacing to breathe and while still underwater, use your hands to push burning fluid away from the area where you wish to surface. Once an area is clear of burning liquid, you can surface and take a few breaths. Try to face downwind before inhaling.

- Submerge feet first and continue as above until clear of the flames.

If you are in oil-covered water that is free of fire, hold your head high to keep the oil out of your eyes. Attach your life preserver to your wrist and then use it as a raft.

SHARK INFESTED WATERS

Whether you are in the water or in a boat or raft, you may see many types of sea life around you. Some may be more dangerous than others. Generally, sharks are the greatest danger to you. Other animals such as whales, porpoises, and stingrays may look dangerous, but really pose little threat in the open sea.

Of the many hundreds of shark species, only about 20 species are known to attack man.

The most dangerous are the great white shark, the hammerhead, the mako, and the tiger

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shark. Other sharks known to attack man include the gray, blue, lemon, sand, nurse, bull, and oceanic white tip sharks. Consider any shark longer than 1 meter dangerous.

There are sharks in all oceans and seas of the world. While many live and feed in the depths of the sea, others hunt near the surface. The sharks living near the surface are the ones you will most likely see. Their dorsal fins frequently project above the water. Sharks in the tropical and subtropical seas are far more aggressive than those in temperate waters.

All sharks are basically eating machines. Their normal diet is live animals of any type, and they will strike at injured or helpless animals. Sight, smell, or sound may guide them to their prey. Sharks have an acute sense of smell and the smell of blood in the water excites them. They are also very sensitive to any abnormal vibrations in the water. The struggles of a wounded animal or swimmer, underwater explosions, or even a fish struggling on a fish line will attract a shark.

Sharks can bite from almost any position; they do not have to turn on their side to bite.

The jaws of some of the larger sharks are so far forward that they can bite floating objects easily without twisting to the side.

Sharks may hunt alone, but most reports of attacks cite more than one shark present. The smaller sharks tend to travel in schools and attack in mass. Whenever one of the sharks finds a victim, the other sharks will quickly join it. Sharks will eat a wounded shark as quickly as their prey.

Sharks feed at all hours of the day and night. Most reported shark contacts and attacks were during daylight, and many of these have been in the late afternoon. Some of the measures that you can take to protect yourself against sharks when you are in the water are :

- Stay with other swimmers. A group can maintain a 360-degree watch. A group can either frighten or fight off sharks better than one man.

- Always watch for sharks. Keep all your clothing on, to include your shoes.

Historically, sharks have attacked the unclothed men in groups first, mainly in the feet. Clothing also protects against abrasions should the shark brush against you.

- Avoid urinating. If you must, only do so in small amounts. Let it dissipate between discharges. If you must defecate, do so in small amounts and throw it as far away from you as possible. Do the same if you must vomit.

If a shark attack is imminent while you are in the water, splash and yell just enough to keep the shark at bay. Sometimes yelling underwater or slapping the water repeatedly will scare the shark away. Conserve your strength for fighting in case the shark attacks.

If attacked, kick and strike the shark. Hit the shark on the gills or eyes if possible. If you hit the shark on the nose, you may injure your hand if it glances off and hits its teeth.

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When you are in a raft and see sharks :

- Do not fish. If you have hooked a fish, let it go. Do not clean fish in the water.

- Do not throw garbage overboard.

- Do not let your arms, legs, or equipment hang in the water.

- Keep quiet and do not move around.

- Bury all dead as soon as possible. If there are many sharks in the area, conduct the burial at night.

When you are in a raft and a shark attack is imminent, hit the shark with anything you have, except your hands. You will do more damage to your hands than the shark. If you strike with an oar, be careful not to lose or break it.

FOOD PROCUREMENT

In the open sea, fish will be the main food source. There are some poisonous and dangerous ocean fish, but, in general, when out of sight of land, fish are safe to eat.

Nearer the shore there are fish that are both dangerous and poisonous to eat. There are some fish, such as the red snapper and barracuda, that are normally edible but poisonous when taken from the waters of atolls and reefs. Flying fish will even jump into your raft!

Fish

When fishing, do not handle the fishing line with bare hands and never wrap it around your hands or tie it to a life raft. The salt that adheres to it can make it a sharp cutting edge, an edge dangerous both to the raft and your hands. Wear gloves, if they are available, or use a cloth to handle fish and to avoid injury from sharp fins and gill covers.

In warm regions, gut and bleed fish immediately after catching them. Cut fish that you do not eat immediately into thin, narrow strips and hang them to dry. A well-dried fish stays edible for several days. Fish not cleaned and dried may spoil in half a day. Fish with dark meat are very prone to decomposition. If you do not eat them all immediately, do not eat any of the leftovers. Use the leftovers for bait.

Never eat fish that have pale, shiny gills, sunken eyes, flabby skin and flesh, or an unpleasant odor. Good fish show the opposite characteristics. Sea fish have a saltwater or clean fishy odor. Do not confuse eels with sea snakes that have an obviously scaly body and strongly compressed, paddle-shaped tail. Both eels and sea snakes are edible, but you must handle the latter with care because of their poisonous bites. The heart, blood, intestinal wall, and liver of most fish are edible. Cook the intestines. Also edible are the partly digested smaller fish that you may find in the stomachs of large fish. In addition, sea turtles are edible.

Shark meat is a good source of food whether raw, dried, or cooked. Shark meat spoils very rapidly due to the high concentration of urea in the blood, therefore, bleed it

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immediately and soak it in several changes of water. People prefer some shark species over others. Consider them all edible except the Greenland shark whose flesh contains high quantities of vitamin A. Do not eat the livers, due to high vitamin A content.

Fishing Aids

You can use different materials to make fishing aids:

- Fishing line. Use pieces of tarpaulin or canvas. Unravel the threads and tie them together in short lengths in groups of three or more threads. Shoelaces and parachute suspension line also work well.

- Fish hooks. No survivor at sea should be without fishing equipment but if you are, improvise hooks.

- Fish lures. You can fashion lures by attaching a double hook to any shiny piece of metal.

- Grapple. Use grapples to hook seaweed. You may shake crabs, shrimp, or small fish out of the seaweed. These you may eat or use for bait. You may eat seaweed itself, but only when you have plenty of drinking water. Improvise grapples from wood. Use a heavy piece of wood as the main shaft, and lash three smaller pieces to the shaft as grapples.

- Bait. You can use small fish as bait for larger ones. Scoop the small fish up with a net. If you don't have a net, make one from cloth of some type. Hold the net under the water and scoop upward. Use all the guts from birds and fish for bait. When using bait, try to keep it moving in the water to give it the appearance of being alive.

Helpful Fishing Hints

Your fishing should be successful if you remember the following important hints:

- Be extremely careful with fish that have teeth and spines.

- Cut a large fish loose rather than risk capsizing the raft. Try to catch small rather than large fish.

- Do not puncture your raft with hooks or other sharp instruments.

- Do not fish when large sharks are in the area.

- Watch for schools of fish; try to move close to these schools.

- Fish at night using a light. The light attracts fish.

- In the daytime, shade attracts some fish. You may find them under your raft.

- Improvise a spear by tying a knife to an oar blade. This spear can help you catch larger fish, but you must get them into the raft quickly or they will slip off the blade.

Also, tie the knife very securely or you may lose it.

- Always take care of your fishing equipment. Dry your fishing lines, clean and sharpen the hooks, and do not allow the hooks to stick into the fishing lines.

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USE OF VISUAL SIGNS / PYROTECHNICS

Rocket parachute flares

The rocket parachute flare shall:

- be contained in a water-resistant casing;

- have brief instructions or diagrams clearly illustrating the use of the rocket parachute

flare printed on its casing;

- have integral means of ignition; and

- be so designed as not to cause discomfort to the person holding the casing when

used in accordance with the manufacturer's operating instructions.

The rocket shall, when fired vertically , reach an altitude of not less than 300 m. At or near the top of its trajectory, the rocket shall eject a parachute flare, which shall:

- burn with a bright red color;

- burn uniformly with an average luminous intensity of not less than 30,000 candela;

- have a burning period of not less than 40 s;

- have a rate of descent of not more than 5 m/s; and

- not damage its parachute or attachments while burning.

On survival craft (lifeboat or life raft) shall be 4 rocket parachute flare

Hand flares

The hand flare shall:

- be contained in a water-resistant casing;

- have brief instructions or diagrams clearly illustrating the use of the hand flare printed on its casing;

- have a self-contained means of ignition; and

- be so designed as not to cause discomfort to the person holding the casing and not endanger the survival craft by burning or glowing residues when used in accordance with the manufacturer's operating instructions.

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The hand flare shall:

- burn with a bright red color;

- burn uniformly with an average luminous intensity of not less than15,000 candela;

- have a burning period of not less than 1 min; and

- continue to burn after having been immersed for 10 seconds under 100 mm of water.

Buoyant smoke signals

The buoyant smoke signal shall:

- be contained in a water-resistant casing;

- not ignite explosively when used in accordance with the manufacturer's operating

instructions;

- have brief instructions or diagrams clearly illustrating the use of the buoyant smoke signal printed on its casing.

The buoyant smoke signal shall:

- emit smoke of a highly visible color at a uniform rate for a period of not less than 3 min

when floating in calm water;

- not emit any flame during the entire smoke emission time;

- not be swamped in a seaway; and

- continue to emit smoke when submerged in water for 10 second under 100 mm of water.

ANY USE OF ROCKET PARACHUTE FLARE OR HAND FLARE OR BUOYANT SMOKE

SIGNAL MEAN DISTRESS SIGNAL

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8 EMERGENCY RADIO EQUIPMENT

8.1 PORTABLE RADIO APPARATUS FOR SURVIVAL CRAFT

The portable radio use very height frequency band for emission/reception communication between ship and survival crafts or between survival crafts.

Channel 16 (156,8 MHz) are used as distress channel cover a distance about 40 Nm

Another channels are used for normal communications.

The portable radio battery must be used 8 hours: 80% stand-by 10% emission 10% reception / There must be a spare battery for each portable radio

At least three approved two-way VHF radiotelephone apparatus fitted with VHF channels

6, 13, 16 and 67 must be provided on every cargo ship of 500 gross tonnage and upward.

At least 2 two-way VHF radiotelephone apparatus shall be provided on every cargo ship of 300 gross tonnage and upwards but less than 500 gross tonnage

8.2 EMERGENCY POSITION INDICATING RADIO BEACON (E.P.I.R.B.)

Purpose of equipment

A E.P.I.R.B. must be capable of transmitting on the frequencies of 406 MHz while floating in water, thereby providing a self contained means for alerting and locating in an emergency, by space satellite and over flying aircraft.

The device work with Cospas - Sarsat System (COSPAS = Space System for the Search of Vessel in Distress / SARSAT = Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided Tracking) System provides distress alert and location information to search and rescue services for aviation, maritime and land users in distress.

The equipment is to:

(a) consist of one integral unit, including the antenna;

(b) be buoyant, watertight, self righting and so designed that, when floating in water, it will maintain the antenna substantially vertical so that any variations of radio propagation caused by the effects of rough water are minimized;

(c) be finished with a highly visible orange or yellow color;

(d) be not more than 4 kilograms in mass; and

(e) be constructed so as to prevent inadvertent activation.

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Equipment reliability is to be a principal design objective.

Buoyant tether line

An E.P.I.R.B. is to be fitted with an orange colored, rot-proof, chafe resistant, buoyant line of at least 20 meters length with a breaking strain of not less than 245 Newton. The buoyant line is to be attached permanently to the equipment in such a manner that it will not adversely affect any of the other requirements of this specification.

Design and construction of an E.P.I.R.B. is to be such that:

(a) when not in operation, it has a smooth external contour with no sharp projections;

(b) it can be conveniently stowed in any approved life-raft;

(c) the possibility of internal or external damage during stowage or use is minimal;

(d) it will not cause damage to the life-raft while it is stowed or in use.

Battery requirements

The E.P.I.R.B. manufacturer is to declare the battery shelf life achievable at a steady temperature of 20°C. Shelf life is defined as the period of time after the date of manufacture that the battery will continue to meet the input power requirement of the

E.P.I.R.B. for the full operating endurance of 48 hours.

The date when the battery is to be replaced must be clearly and durably marked on the battery and on the outside of the E.P.I.R.B.

An E.P.I.R.B. battery is to:

(a) be leak proof under all conditions of stowage and operation;

(b) have a minimum shelf life of 2 years and, when activated, have an operating endurance of not less than 48 hours, with the operational criteria being met throughout the temperature range of -10°C to +55°C inclusive.

E.P.I.R.B. must operate:

(a) at an ambient temperature of between -10°C and 55°C inclusive; and

(b) continuously for a minimum period of 48 hours.

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Manual activation:

If vessel is not sinking but there is a imminent danger, then remove the EPIRB from its bracket and activate it manually as show below. Note that once activated it will flash immediately, but it will not transmit a distress call for 50 seconds. This give you a chance to turn it off if you activated it by error.

Deactivation:

If the E.P.I.R.B. was activated by mistake or if the emergency ends then the E.P.I.R.B. can be reset back to its “ready” state as follows:

- remove E.P.I.R.B. from any water and dry its sea switch contacts

- wait 8 seconds for sea switch to turn off

- if E.P.I.R.B. is still flashing then it must have been turned on manually

- slide the switch cover fully to the right

- press and release “READY” button

Hydrostatic activation:

If the ship sink, at about 4 m depth the hydrostatic release unit will free E.P.I.R.B. capsule and this will float free starting transmission

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8.3 SEARCH AND RESCUE TRANSPONDER (S.A.R.T.)

A device used in lifeboat or life raft, working in frequency of 9, 2 GHz – 9, 5 GHz. capable to show its position on a radar screen. R.A.D.A.R. (radio detection and ranging) is a device carried by most ships witch is used to determine the presence and location of an object by measuring the time for the echo of a radio wave to return from it, and the direction from which it returns. A typical ship’s radar will transmit a stream of high power pulses on a fixed frequency between 9.2GHz and 9.5 GHz. It will collect the echoes received on the same frequency using a display know as Plan Position Indicator PPI, which showed the ship itself at the centre of the screen, with the echoes dotted around it.

Echoes further from the centre of the screen are thus further from the ship and the relative or true bearing of each echo can be easily seen

The S.A.R.T. operates by receiving a pulse from the search radar and sending back a series of pulses in response, which the radar will then display as if they are normal echoes. The first return pulse, if it sent back immediately, will appear in the same place on the PPI as a normal echo would have done.

Subsequent pulses, being slightly delayed, appear to the radar like echoes from objects further away. A distinctive pattern is much easier to spot than a single echo such as from a radar reflector.

The S.A.R.T. is normally mounted in a bulkhead bracket which is used to stow the unit on the mother ship. On abandoning to a survival craft the S.A.R.T. can be carried in one hand off the stricken vessel and mounted through a port in the canopy of the survival craft using the telescopic pole.

The main body of the S.A.R.T. is high visibility orange thermoplastic, attached to the sealed replaceable battery pack by stainless steel fastening.

Operation is by switch “ON”, “OFF” and “TEST” function / the lithium battery has a five year storage life.

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9. HELICOPTER ASSISTANCE

Assistance by Helicopters

A helicopter may be used to supply equipment and rescue or evacuate persons. The radius of helicopter action usually varies up to 300 nautical miles from base, but it can be greater, especially with air-to-air refueling. Lifting capacity is between one and up to 30 persons depending on the size and type of aircraft.

Rescue operations involve helicopter crew risks, which should be minimized; it is essential to evaluate the seriousness of the situation, and to ascertain the need of helicopter assistance.

The helicopter's mass may be a factor limiting the number of survivors taken aboard each trip; it may be necessary to reduce the mass of the helicopter by removal of non-essential equipment, or using minimum fuel loads and advance bases with fuelling capabilities.

For the evacuation of persons, the end of a wincing cable may be provided with a rescue sling, basket, net, litter, or seat.

Experience has shown that when wincing a person suffering from hypothermia, especially after immersion in water, a rescue basket or stretcher should be used to keep the person in a horizontal position, since wincing in a vertical position may cause severe shock.

Rescue Sling

The most widely used means for evacuating persons is the rescue sling. Slings are suited for quickly picking up uninjured persons, but are unsuitable for persons with injuries. The sling is put on in much the same way as one puts on a coat, ensuring that the loop of the sling passes behind the back and under both armpits. The person using the sling must face the hook. Hands should be clasped in front as shown. The person must not sit in the sling, nor should the sling be unhooked.

Double Lift Method

Some SAR helicopters use the double lift method, which consists of a normal sling and. a seating belt manned by a helicopter crewmember.

This method is suitable for pick-up of incapacitated persons from land, water, or the deck of a vessel; if they are not injured badly enough so that a litter has to be used. The helicopter crewmember puts the person into the sling and conducts the wincing operation.

Rescue Basket

Use of the rescue basket does not require any special measures. To use the basket, the person merely climbs in, remains seated and holds on.

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Rescue Net

The rescue net has a conical "birdcage" appearance and is open on one side.

To use the net the person merely enters the opening, sits in the net, and holds on.

Rescue Lifter

Patients will in most cases be disembarked by means of a rescue litter. The evacuation of patients can be done in a special litter provided by the helicopter or in a litter provided at the site. Bridles are fitted to this litter and can quickly and safely be hooked on and off.

The litter provided by the helicopter should be unhooked from the winch cable while the patient is being loaded.

Rescue Seat

The rescue seat looks like a three-pronged anchor with two flat flukes or seats. Persons to be hoisted merely sit astride on one or two of the seats and wrap their arms around the shank. This device can be used to winch two persons at once.

Communications between Ship and Helicopter for Wincing Operations

It is important that information is exchanged between the vessel and helicopter, and that it is understood. A direct radio link should be established between ship and helicopter. This is usually accomplished by having the helicopter equipped with a marine VHF FM radio able to transmit and receive on at least Channel 16 and preferably on two other simplex working frequencies.

The exchange of information and instructions about rendezvous positions, etc., may be established through shore-based radio stations.

Unless other arrangements have been agreed upon in advance, the ship should monitor

VHF Channel 16 for the arrival of the helicopter.

Pick-Up From Lifeboat To Helicopter

The following hoisting signals will be used:

DO NOT HOIS: ARM EXTENDED HORIZONTALY FIGERS

CLENCHED,THUMBS DOWN

HOIST: ARMS RAISED ABOVE THE HORIZONTALLY THUMBS UP

If the survivor has to give the hoisting signal himself, he should raise only one arm to prevent slipping out of the sling

During evacuation from the lifeboat, it is crucial that those on board maintain discipline and follow instructions of the leaders.

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The operation itself is controlled from the helicopter. lf the helicopter sends down its own rescuer, he is in charge of everything that goes on in the lifeboat. lf no rescuer is sent down, the coxswain is in command. lf there is radio contact with the helicopter, procedures will be dictated from there.

Normally, injured persons are hoisted up first. In cases of major injuries and poor communication it may be necessary to send an uninjured person up to manage the situation with stretchers, etc.

The following procedure should be observed:

- No one should go up on the roof of the lifeboat everyone must sit in the lifeboat until told otherwise. Lifejackets or immersion suits should be worn.

- The lifeboat should be kept against the wind, as far as possible at test. The helicopter moves towards the lifeboat, not vice versa.

- The rescue harness is lowered preceded by a control line and weight. Let the weight drop into the sea before touching the control line. (Static electricity can give shocks.) The weight must be in the sea at all times. The control line must never be attached to the lifeboat

- When the harness is at deck, level, someone must go out in the hatch opening, grab the central line and pull in the harness. Gear should be in neutral avoid getting the line entangled in the propeller

- One person assist while the one to be rescued sits in the hatch opening and puts on t he harness as follows:

- hold the harness "Upside-Down" between yourself and the hoist line.

- put one arm through the noose of the harness. Slide the harness over

your head and one shoulder.

- then put the other arm through and slide the harness over the other

shoulder.

- pull the harness down over your back. Make sure the harness goes

around the lifejacket.

- check that the hoisting cable and hook are free in front of the chest

tighten the adjustment strap on the harness.

- The person stands up in the hatch opening. Give the alt-clear signal for "Pull Up"

- The person being rescued should remain passive until on board the helicopter

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