Stable Building AND Fitting

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Stable

Building

AND

Stable

Fitting

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THE

ST.

PANCRAS IRON-WORK

CO.

;

ORIGINAL INVENTOES, PATENTEES,

AND MANUFACTUREES

OF

IMPEOVED

STABLE

FITTINGS.

Supplied to

H.M. The

Queen, H.E.H.

The

Prince of "Wales, and many other Sovereigns and

Princes

Noblemen, Gentlemen, Corporations,

Eailway

Companies, Carriers,

Tradesmen,

&c., &e.

Illustrated Priced Catalogues sent on application to

The

St.

Pangras

Iron-works, Pangras

Road, LONDON,

N.W.,

WHERE

THE SHOW-ROOMS

ARE.

Telegraphic

Address— "EQUITATION, LONDON." ii

TELEPHONE

7519.

I mill

Mill iiMi iini iiiii iiiii iiiii Mill iMM Hill iiiii iiiii mil iiiii iii

3

9090 013 407

10

STABLE BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING:

Webster Family

Library of Veterinary Medicine

Cummings

Sciiool of Veterinary

Medicine at

Tufts University

200

Westboro

Road

North

Gratton,

MA

01536

STABLE BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING:

A

HANDBOOK

FOR

THE

USE OF

ARCHITECTS,

BUILDERS,

AND

HORSE OWNERS.

BY

BYNG

GIRAUD,

ARCHITECT.

ill^

Jiftg-sijc plates anb nnrnzxarxB Jllastralions in tj^e

^txt.

B.

T.

LONDON:

BATSFORD,

52,

HIGH

HOLBORN.

1891.

r

PREFACE.

In presenting the following pages to the public, the

Author believes that he is supplying, in a convenient shape, information on the subject of stable building and fitting, much of which has hitherto been obtainable only in a broadly scattered form.

Having been largely engaged in designing buildings for stabling, he has acquired considerable experience in their construction, and in the best methods of draining, paving, lighting, and ventilating them; the result of which will be found embodied in this work.

BYNG

GIRAUD.

September

1890.

CONTENTS.

-*04

CHAPTER

I.

GENERAL

REMARKS.

Site for stabling

Iron stables

Aspect— Modern improvements

Improved fittings-

An iron homestead

Portable iron stables

Principles of arrangement

Provision for extension

Simplicity in construction

Pages 1-5

CHAPTER

II.

PLANNING

AND

ARRANGEMENT.

Circumstances regulating arrangement

Administrative block

Washingroom

Vestibule to stables

Arrangement of town stables

Rooms

Lairs and hock baths

Examples of stables

"Private over stables stables," country) stables)

Design No.

i

Design

7

No.

2

Design

Design No. 4

(Stables for hunters)

Designs Nos.

6 and

No.

3

(for

Design No.

(town and country stables) in town or

(suburban

5

Difficulties towns

Stables in mews

Design No. 8 ("inclosed")

Stables on

Dimensions of stables

Convertible stalls and boxes upper floors

Portable partitions

Loose boxes with stalls

Capacity of stables

Boxes for hunters

Covered way

Tramway and omnibus

Breeding stables stables

Racing stables

Farm stables tion

Hay and corn stores— Preparation of fodder

Distribuof fodder

Capacity of hay and corn store

Cubic capacity of hay stables

Manager's offices,

«S:c

^^

Omnibus stables

Tramway

6-20

CHAPTER

III.

CONSTRUCTION.

Shape of building

Treatment

Walls on arches of foundations

Concrete

Outside walls

Intermediate walls

Foundation walls

Relieving arches

Stone walls

Damp courses

Rounded edges

Recessed down

, viii

CONTENTS.

pipes and taps

Rough cast

Depeter work

Facing with tiles,

&c.

Smithies ings

Dressing rings

Isolation

Division walls

Fireproof build-

Fireproof floors

Concrete floors

Mr.

Hyatt's system

Wood floors

Posts for lofts

Sills

Stables on upper floors

Ventilating partitions

Roofs

Lean-to roofs

Common rafters

King-post roofs

Queen-post roofs

Duties of tie-beams

Provisional strength of members

Loft in roof

Open roofs

North London

Tramway roofs

Zinc roofs

Slating

Templates

Wrought-iron roofs

Roofs at

Ponder's

End and

Tiling

Covering for walls

Washable distemper

Pointing

Tuck pointing

Colouring brickwork

Wells

Well at

Ponder's

End

Abyssinian wells

Supply

Trough closets

Slate urinals of water

Closets and urinals

Inclosure walls

Inclosure fences

Pages 21-37

CHAPTER

IV.

DRAINAGE.

Drainage requirements gutters

Open surface channels

Wrought iron surface

Open brick channels

Channel bricks and blocks

Drainage of loose boxes

Outlets of gutters

Granite open gutters

Wrought iron covered surface gutters

Drainage in relation to paving

Slope of stalls

Steep inclines

Underground drainage

Jointing pipes in clay

Cement joints

Filling in

Velocity in pipes

Manholes

Inspection pits traps

Ventilation

Yard gullies

Iron syphon traps

Earthenware

Drainage of omnibus and tramway stables

Disposal of sewage

Cesspools

Manure-pit with cesspool

Surface drainage

Rain water

Advantage of soft water 3S-49

CHAPTER

V.

PAVING.

Requirements of paving paviors

Adamantine clinkers and paviors

Grooved

Tebbutt's "safety brick"

Vitrified bricks

Paving with stocks

Examples of paving

Herring-bone paving

Height of floor

Paving without concrete paving cost

Granite cubes

Omnibus stables

Wood paving

Advantages of good paving

Difi"ercnce in

Preparing ground

Laying

Composite

Various

Paving of smithy stone pitching

Cobble stones

50-59

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER

VI.

VENTILATION.

General considerations

Temperature

Cubic contents of stables

Requirements of various horses

Admission of air

Fanlights and louvres

Construction of louvres

Lantern ventilation

Stables at

Poplar

Ventilating tiles

Down-cast ventilation

Through ventilation

Ceilings and lofts ventilators

Perforated pipes

Head-post ventilators

Boyle's

Ventilation of upper floors

Glazed

Sheringham ventilator

Loose boxes ventilators

Cubic contents

Examples

The

Pages 60-68

IX

CHAPTER

VH.

FITTINGS

AND

DETAILS.

Separation in stables

Ramp panels pillars

Ramps and posts box doors

Cast and wrought iron details

Stall divisions

Portable partitions

Safety bars

Heel-posts and

Fixing posts

Loose box partitions

Loose

Door frames

Swing doors

Latches and locks

Locking bolt

Bales

Safety hooks—

The

Malet bale suspender

Safety catch

Cleating posts mangers fittings

Double

Hay-racks

— cleating

Loose

Hearths, bellows, &c.

Kicking-boards box sliding

Vice bars bench

Mangers

Halter tying

Harness-room

\Yrought iron mangers

Water fittings

Crib-biting

Manger

Safety

Smithy

Heating apparatus

Boilers

Open boilers

Girth stretchers

Saddle airers

Saddle-horses houses,

Clothes press— Harness warming,

&c.

Coach-house doors

Harness brackets

Coach-

Gate stops

Table

Corn-stores

Machines

Hinges and for food

— fastenings

Food supply

Corn-bins

Preparing food, motive power

Horse-power

Gas engine

Hoisting and gear

Jacob's ladder^^Hayloft doors

Hanging and sliding doors

Water supply

Washing apparatus

Valves

Gas supply

Oil lamps 69-96

( xi

)

DESCRIPTION OF

PLATES.

Plate i.

Private Stables,

Design No.

i.

Ground floor, and ist and

2nd floors.

Plate

2.

Private

Stables,

Design No.

i.

Front elevation.

Plate

3.

Private Stables,

Design No.

i.

Elevation to yard and back view of stables; section of stable, and elevation of coachhouse and corn store

; plan of corn and hay store

; general elevation to road

; and entrance gates.

Plate

4.

Private Stables,

Design No.

2.

Ground plan and elevation to road.

Plate

5.

Private Stables,

Design No.

2.

One-pair plan

; tion to yard, and transverse section through stable.

eleva-

Plate

6.

Private Stables,

Design No.

3.

Ground plan and elevation to yard

; plan of corn store, hayloft, and roof.

Plate

7.

tion.

Private

Stables,

Design No.

4.

General plan and eleva-

Plate

8.

Private Stables,

Design No.

ground plan.

5.

Front elevation and

Plate

9.

Private Stables,

Design

No.,5.

Transverse section, longitudinal section of stable, and plan of hayloft.

Plate

10.

Private Stables,

Design No.

6.

Ground floor plan, first floor plan, front elevation, and back elevation.

Plate ii.

Private

Stables.

Design No.

7.

Ground floor plan, first floor plan, front elevation, and end elevation.

Plate

12.

Private Stables,

Design No.

8.

Ground floor plan, first floor plan, and front elevation.

xii

DESCRIPTION OF

PLATES.

Plate

13.

Paving in various kinds of brick.

Plate

14.

Fig.

i.

Paving with circular grooved bricks and wrought-iron open surface gutter.

Fig.

2.

Staffordshire vitrified blue-brick paving with y-shaped grooves, and open surface gutter bricks.

Fig.

3.

special

Semicircular grooved brick paving, with open surface gutter brick.

Fig.

4.

Metallic semicircular grooved paving,

3 inches thick, with metallic open surface gutter.

Plate

15.

Fig.

i.

Heel-post secured with post with stone concrete.

Fig.

2.

Heeland Lewis bolts.

Fig.

3.

Heel-post with safety cap.

Fig.

4.

Rounded end to ramp.

Fig.

5.

Terminal to posts.

Fig.

6.

box for ramp rail.

Socket for portable heel-post.

Fig.

7.

Clutch

Plate

16.

Fig.

i.

Section of plain ramp rail and sill.

Fig.

2.

Side view of ditto.

Fig.

3.

Elevation of loose box

:

^, top rail b, centre rail

; c, sill.

Plate

17.

Fig.

i.

Elevation of loose-box pillars, and door with iron frame.

Fig.

2.

Plan of ditto.

Fig.

3.

Loose-box door at angle of

45°.

Fig.

4.

Elevation of loose-box door, with wood frame.

Fig.

5.

Wrought iron mountings for loose-box door.

Plate

18.

Fig.

i.

Strong stall partition, with cast iron column, harness brackets with ventilating and ventilating sill.

Fig.

2.

Stall division, ramp and wrought iron heel-post.

Fig.

3.

Ditto, with single safety barrier bar.

Fig.

4.

Ditto, with double safty bar and solid panel.

Plate

19.

Fig.

i.

Halter weight-box in wood, with rein guide.

Fig.

2.

Side view of shackle, with wrought iron guide bar and friction roller.

Fig.

3.

Halter weight-box of wrought iron with chain.

Fig.

4.

Stout shackle for cart horses, with wrought-iron stiffening bar.

Fig.

5.

Wrought iron halter weight-box, with friction roller and strap.

Fig.

6.

Side view of portable partition and ramp, with clutch-boxes and socket.

portable

Fig.

7.

Ditto, plain partition for cavalry stables, with manger.

Figs.

8, 9, and

10.

Designs for head-stall fasteninsTS.

;

DESCRIPTION OF PLATES.

xiii

Plate

20,

Mangers.

Fig.

i.

Method of securing wrought iron trough manger.

Fig.

2.

Portable cavalry manger.

Fig.

3.

Elm manger, with oak post and fir bearer.

Fig.

4.

Section of elm mangers without posts.

Plate

21.

Mangers— details.

Fig.

i.

Front view of ring and bolt to

Fig.

3.

manger.

Fig.

2.

Part view of front, with capping.

Side view of capping.

Fig.

4.

Section through capping.

Plate

22.

Mangers for stalls.

Fig.

i.

Water pot, corn trough, and under-head hayrack.

Fig.

2.

Corn trough and deep underhead hayrack.

Fig.

3.

Manger, with water pot and hayrack on top plate.

Fig.

4.

Ditto, but without water pot.

Fig.

5.

Wrought iron trough manger, with over-head hayrack.

Fig.

6.

Patent radial hayrack.

Plate

23.

Mangers for loose boxes.

Fig.

i.

Left-hand corner manger complete, with vertical hayrack on plate.

Fig.

2.

Manger, with under-head hayrack, for loose box or stall.

Fig.

3.

Left-hand corner manger

(complete), with under-head hayrack.

Fig.

4.

Ditto, without water pot.

Fig.

5.

Ditto, matched boarded beneath.

Fig.

6.

Ditto, right-hand corner manger, with large shallow corner hayrack on plate.

manger, with under-head rack

Fig.

7.

and

Right-hand back plate cut away.

Fig.

8.

for crib-biters.

Deep corner hayrack.

Fig.

9.

Corner manger

Fig.

10.

Corn manger or water trough.

Plate

24.

Rack and pillar chains.

Fig.

i.

Flax fastening, with spring safety hook.

Figs.

patterns.

Figs.

6, 7,

2, 3,

4, and

5.

Chains of various and

8.

Sections of water pot.

Fig.

9.

Side view of ditto.

Fig.

10.

Enlarged view of inlet and union.

Fig.

II.

Manger with water pot.

Fig.

I2.

Corner manger for water or food.

Plate

25.

Fig.

i.

Front elevation of" entrance gates and plan of ditto.

Fig.

3.

Fig.

2.

Inside elevation of

Detail in elevation.

Fig.

4.

suspended sliding doors.

The same in section.

Plate

26.

Elevation, section, plan, and details of oak fencing.

Fig.

I.

Inside view of wicket gate.

Fig.

2.

Inside view of coach-house door, with patent roller bolt and fastening.

Plate

27.

Elevation, section, plan, and details for sliding door on rollers.

xiv

DESCRIPTION

OF

PL A

TES.

Plate

28.

Hinges.

Fig.

i.

Cranked hinges, plan and outside view.

Fig.

2.

Straight hinges for flush doors, plan and outside view.

Fig.

3.

Collinge's patent hinges, top and bottom

(outside view).

Plate

29.

Brackets.

For riding harness

:

— i.

Lady's saddle bracket.

2.

Bridle ditto.

3.

Stirrup bracket.

Gentleman's ditto.

For driving

:

4.

Girth ditto.

6.

Pad ditto (for single harness).

5.

Ditto for double harness.

8.

Collar bracket.

9.

Ditto, with

7.

martingale and crupper ditto.

10.

Bridle ditto.

11.

Rein or crupper ditto12.

harness

:

Hame or bridle ditto.

Heavy cart-horse

13.

Breeching bracket, with forged hook for crupper.

Double rein hook.

14.

Bridle bracket.

15.

Collar ditto.

16.

Plate

30.

1.

Wrought iron bracket for pad, for single harness.

2.

3.

6.

Bracket for collar, showing one of two, for double harness.

Ditto.

Ditto for

4.

Ditto for pad ditto.

5.

Ditto for pad ditto.

7.

Rein or crupper holder.

bridle ditto.

Plate

31.

General requisites.

Fig.

i.

Harness-room stove.

Fig.

2.

Octagon stable hand lantern.

Fig.

3.

Safety stable lantern for candles.

Fig.

4.

Showing means of suspending sameFig.

5.

SHding lantern for oil.

Fig.

6.

Hurricane lamp.

Fig.

7.

Galvanised iron sand box.

Fig.

8.

Box of galvanised iron for brushes, leathers, &c.

Fig.

9.

Ditto, for soap.

Fig.

10.

Ditto, for stopping mixture.

Fig.

11.

Galvanised iron fork hook.

Fig.

12.

Ditto, implement hook.

Fig.

13.

Salt rack to be fixed to wall.

Fig.

14.

Galvanised iron fork and shovel hook.

Fig.

15.

Carriage setter.

Plate

32.

London

General

Omnibus Company's general plan of stables at

Poplar.

A.

Stables.

B.

Loose boxes-

C.

Surgery.

D.

Lair.

E.

Smithy.

F.

Harness makers' shop.

G.

ger's house.

H.

Entrance gates.

Mana-

L

Gullies, a, mangers b^ corn chest

; c, posts supporting hay store

; d, counter

; e, sink

;

/,

/, copper

; living g, room meter house

; rn, kitchen

;

; h, washers' store

; n, scullery

; o,

/, privy; k, office; dust

;

^, w.c.

Plate

33.

Plan of stable and drains.

Plate

34.

Longitudinal section of stable.

Plate

35.

Transverse ditto, showing kicking boards and details of roof.

;

DESCRIPTION

OF

PLATES.

xv

Plate

36.

Front elevation of stables.

Plate

37.

Plan, section, and elevation of loose boxes, and surgery.

Plate

38.

Plan of stable roof.

Plate

39.

North

London

Tramway

Company's general plan of stables at

Ponder's

End.

A.

Entrance gates.

B.

Wicket gate.

C.

Boundary fence, a, large meter connected with

Gas

Company's main in

Tramway avenue

; a, small meter for gas engine

; b^ burners

; e, gullies

;

/, valve well

; r, screw-down g^ ventilator to tap

; d, water trough

; sewer

; h, man-hole

;

/, chase for down pipes

;

7, smith's hearth

; k^ corn chest.

Plate

40.

Longitudinal section of stable.

Plate

41.

Transverse ditto.

Plate

42.

Elevations of stables, showing longitudinal section of roof of shed.

Plate

43.

Fig.

i.

Transverse section of roof of shed, and inside view of screen.

Fig.

2.

Transverse section of

Mansard roof.

Fig.

3.

Detail for fixing purlins on iron roof.

Plate

44.

Plate

45.

Details of iron roof

(Plate 43, Fig.

i)

40 feet span.

Longitudinal section of smithy, and details of hearth.

Plate

46.

Transverse section of smithy, locking bolt, and dressing ring.

Plate

47.

loft,

Ground floor and first floor engine house, and tank house.

; plan of corn store, hay

Plate

48.

Longitudinal section through corn store and engine house.

Plate

49.

Details of privy and man-hole.

Plate

50.

Cambridge Tramways Company.

General plan.

First floor plans of dwelling and corn store, and plan of roof.

Plate

51.

Ditto.

Elevation to road, and elevation of offices, smithy, loose box, &c., in yard.

Plate

52.

Ditto

:

Elevation of corn store and stables in yard.

xvi

DESCRIPTION

OF

PLA

TES.

Plate

53.

Southampton Tramway's stables.

Fig.

i.

Plan of lair at Shirley.

Fig.

2.

Plan of horse track and corn store at

Portsvvood.

Plate

54.

General details for corn stores.

Figs, i,

2, and

3.

Plan, detail, and part front view of corn bin.

Fig.

4.

Section of wooden corn chest.

Fig.

5.

Section of cast iron column.

Fig.

6.

Wrought iron corn chest.

F'g.

7.

Plan and section of cast-iron shoe for post.

Plate

55.

Part plan and transverse section of Messrs. Crosse

Blackwell's stables.

&

Plate

56.

Part plan and transverse section of Col.

Fitzwygram's design for stable.

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING

CHAPTER

L

GENERAL REMARKS.

Site for stabling

Aspect

Iron stables

Modern improvements

Improved fittings

An iron homestead

Portable iron stables

Principles of arrangement

Provision for extension

Simplicity in construction.

As one approaches mansion, the the immediate confines

' of a country

Site for stamost conspicuous object is often the clock-tower bling.

of the stables

; and the block of buildings to which it belongs, with its high enclosure walls and entrance gateway, forms an object of importance second only to the house itself

But although it forms in such case a feature in the landscape, it is of prior importance that its relation with the house shall not become, in any way, an objection to it as a dwelling.

At the same time, its aspect and construction may be of grave conse-

Aspect, quence to the animals housed in it, and where it cannot be altogether placed as the architect would desire

— on a gravel slope with a south or south-westerly aspect

— provision must be made to modify or altogether counteract the effects of an

Even in the country the aspect of a undesirable situation.

stable is not always a matter of choice

; but a building with plenty of light, well drained and ventilated, and entirely free

B

STABLE BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Modern improvements.

Improved fittings.

Iron stables.

from damp, is essential, not only to good appearance and successful grooming, but for the working capacity and health of the horse

; and, moreover, in a stable ments are complied with, an where these requireeconomy is effected even in the food.

Food supplies, in a measure, the absence of warmth and a horse which is kept in a stable sufficiently near to the temperature of his own body, will eat less, with the same beneficial result, than one which is in a cold stable

; so that, apart from all considerations of humanity, it is a commercial mistake of the gravest kind to put a valuable animal into a cold or badly ventilated stable, and is the cause of many of the diseases to which horses are liable.

"

Unless," says a writer on this subject,

" animals are placed in circumstances congenial to their habits remedy, and necessities, it is in vain to look for any and whatever plan may be designed for their improvement, nothing will be found to be of service unless it is in accordance with the natural and ascertained laws of health."

If in modern times no improvement has taken place in the breed of horses, their existence in

European countries has become one of greater comfort than in the past, and such stables as were formerly common are now only to be met with where the owner is heavily handicapped by poverty, and even in such cases there is generally an effort to do the best possible.

The drainage and improved sanitation of towns admit of stables being erected in our midst without injury to the health of the community, and at the same time tend greatly to improve the condition of the horse.

The modern fittings of stables have become in every respect more conducive to this end

; iron enamelled

— painted, galvanised, and

— being liberally used at home and abroad.

Stables have been sent out to

Egypt, and other countries infested by ants, with fittings entirely of this material

; the stalls and loose boxes being lined from the floor to the top of the manger with plates of iron, and the divisions between the stalls, instead of having the usual wood cleating, being fitted

;

GENERAL

REMARKS.

3 with steam-hammered, perfectly-fitting wrought iron plates, secured and strengthened by double-grooved pieces between the middle rails and sills of the partitions.

Whether the use of iron, especially of wrought iron, is expedient to this extent, must be a question of experience

; but as the hardest wood is often reduced to a fragile shell in a single night by a visitation of ants, it would seem, in such countries as Africa and

India, for instance, to be, in conjunction with masonry and cement, the only available material.

An iron homestead, to accommodate loo cattle, and An iron homest^^^* attached to a farm of 400 acres, has been built by Mr.

Humphreys, of Albert Gate, from a design by Mr.

Clark, and as the arrangement is unique in its way, a short description of the stables and yards may not be out of place.

The range of buildings is only one story high

; the stalls and boxes are connected with the mixing-room and chaff-house by means of covered passages, so that the animals may be fed without being disturbed, in the manner shown on

Plate i.

They are lighted from the roof by skylights, and adjoin a covered yard.

The cart, implement, and tool-house, including a workshop, are placed in immediate proximity to the stables.

The stores for hay, straw, roots,

&c., are all in close relation to the mixing floor and machinery for the preparation of food.

There are two open and two covered yards in this design, the former being, of course, provided with feeding-sheds for the cattle.

The description of roof well suited for this kind of yard will be found on

Plate

44, and by the necessary increase of its several members may be made to a much wider span, without the use of intermediate posts, and also afford ample scope for ventilation.

Galvanised corrugated iron has been in use for many years,

Portable iron for temporary and portable buildings, and has been largely used stables.

for stables.

mortised

\

These are usually constructed of fir framing, so as to be taken to pieces and re-erected without difficulty.

They are built with air spaces and filled in also

B 2

4

STABLE BUILDING

AND STABLE

FITTING.

Principles of arrangement.

Provision for extension.

with felt, which renders them warm in winter and cool in summer, and are

Hned with f or f inch match-boarding.

Buildings of this description should not be left entirely open to the apex of the roof, but should be half-ceiled with the matchboarding, and ventilated on the ridge.

In the several succeeding chapters the author has endeavoured to illustrate the various circumstances which control the principles of stable building, and regulate the provisions to be made in town and country.

The buildings, consisting of stables, separate loose boxes, coach-houses, corn as well as and hay stores,

&c., those other constructions rendered necessary where large studs business of horses are kept, either for public vehicles, for purposes, or for pleasure, have been treated as questions which have advanced in all their provisions with the progress of the times; commencing with the planning and arrangement of the buildings, and passing severally to the important questions of construction, drainage, paving, ventilation, and fittings, and the numerous details of construction.

An important consideration in the construction of stabling is the provision for its possible extension.

In large establishments it is customary to provide a separate accommodation for carriage horses, hunters, hacks, and others

; and if the possible increase of the stud is kept in view when the buildings are designed, a great deal of expense and trouble may be saved, and if planned in the form of a quadrangle this is not a difficult matter.

By means of the

Table in

Chapter

VII., the provision for fodder can also be correctly calculated and sufficient margin allowed in the bins and hay-loft for a reasonable increase.

The size of the yard can be regulated by the inclosure walls

; and in the country, whether stabling be attached to the house or situated some distance from it, a liberal area should be allowed for this purpose.

In the former case the arrangement should be such that, having set down at the entrance to the mansion, the carriage should be able to reach the stabling without passing again through the entrance gate-

GENERAL

REMARKS.

5 way

\ in this case it will be best to have a separate entrance to the stable yard.

It is unnecessary to encroach any reference to the distribution on the succeeding chapters by

Simplicity in construction.

of the buildings in the yard,

The stables for private and public uses, illustrated and described in the following pages, with the several details of their fitting, are chiefly those which have been designed or adopted by the author

; and, in carrying them out, he has sought always the simplest and most efficient methods, with the use of those fittings which, without being affected by fashion, or the promotion of some untried invention, have been found by experience to be the most moderate in cost, and to best answer their purpose.

6

STABLE BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

CHAPTER

II.

PLANNING

AND

ARRANGEMENT.

Circumstances regulating arrangement

Administrative block room

Vestibule over stables stables," country) to stables

Design No.

i

Arrangement

Lairs and hock baths

Design No.

2

— of town

Examples of stables

Design No.

3

Design No. 4

(Stables for hunters)

Design No.

5

Washingstables) in towns

Designs No. 6 and

7 stables

(town and country stables)

(for

'*

Rooms

Private town or

(suburban

Difficulties

Stables in mews

Design No. 8 ("inclosed")

Stables on upper floors

Dimensions of stables

Convertible stalls and boxes

Portable partitions

Loose boxes with stalls

Capacity of stables

Boxes for hunters

Farm stables

Covered way

Hay and corn stores

Preparation of fodder

Distribution hay of fodder

Capacity of

Tramway and omnibus stables stables

Manager's offices,

&c.

hay

Breeding and corn stables store

Omnibus

Racing

Cubic stables stables capacity

— of

Tramway

Circumstances regu atmg arrangement.

The planning contingent buildings, are but chiefly and arrangement of

.

upon the locality, the stables, dependent on with many their necessary circumstances,

.

number of horses for which accommodation is required, and the nature of their employment.

Administrative block.

Aspect is also a matter of some importance, but it does not affect the relative positions of the buildings in the yard, and cannot be considered an essential point, except for racers and brood-mares.

In order to secure the most favourable aspect, stables are sometimes closed or left open built with a door according to the at either prevailing end, to wind, and be in large stables, very doors are sometimes placed on all four sides

; a good scheme in theory, but rarely compatible with the arrangements of a convenient plan.

The administrative department, such as the residence of the

PLANNING

AND ARRANGEMENT.

7 coachman, the mess-rooms and sleeping apartments of the grooms, the harness, saddle, washing-rooms, and stores, should be in a central position, but easily accessible from the stalls and loose boxes.

Where special provision is made for washing, as in the case of hunters, the washing-room should adjoin the saddleroom, or form a part of an ante to the stable, into which the saddle-room may be made to open.

for

This room should have plenty of Hght, and a liberal provision Washing-

^°°'^' hot and cold water, but in ordinary cases the horses are either groomed in their stalls, in a box set aside or built for that purpose, or outside the stable, sometimes under cover on a paved area, as shown on

Plates i and

6.

A good arrangement is obtained by an archway entrance to

Vestibule to stables, a vestibule, with access on either side to the stalls and loose boxes, where a convenient place can be found for a boiler and sink.

This plan ensures a aspect is not a freedom from draughts, where the good one, and affords a shelter for the groom.

In the country, where the area of the yard is seldom limited Arrangement and almost any aspect can be obtained, the greatest facility g^^^^^^g^ will be found for the disposition of the several buildings

; but even in

London, where inclosed spaces have been secured, some examples of the best description of stabling exist.

In

Sackville

Street,

Piccadilly, there are some well-planned stables for a large number of horses.

In the front, on either side of the entrance gates, are two four-stall stables

; two separate coach-houses, loose boxes, a stable for two horses on night duty, washing-boxes, and harness-rooms, are arranged round the court yard.

On its right and left hand are two separate staircases, one leading to the coachman's residence, and the other to the grooms' and helpers' rooms, and sleeping apartments.

If the site allows it, stables are better without above them, unless the floors are made rooms or lofts

Rooms over

^^^"

^^' of concrete

; for if the grooms' apartments are over the horses, and divided from them by a wooden flooring only, the noise is liable to disturb their rest at night

; and if the hay-loft is over the stable, the

8

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING, forage is contaminated by the gases rising from below.

When the old-fashioned overhead hay racks were used this was still more objectionable, as the dust also fell through the trap by which the racks were supplied, on to the horses' heads, and rooms were usually approached by an open staircase, exposing the dwellers constantly passing up and down to possible

Lairs and hock contagion from a glandered horse.

A lair, or large loose box, is a useful addition to an extensive baths.

establishment.

It should be fitted up with a boiler, from which a channel the purpose of a may be carried to a portion divided off for warm bath.

A loose box, easily convertible into a hock bath, is illustrated on

Plate a cold-water tap and drain, and

39 j it is supplied with may be used as a bath by the simple expedient of boarding required

; up the doorway to the height any escape of water being provided against by a

Examples of stables.

little clay puddling.

A series of twelve plates, embracing eight separate designs,

^^^ called for the sake of distinction " Private Stables," shows a variety of arrangements varying chiefly with the required accommodation, and provided with the latest and most serviceable appliances for and useful condition.

keeping the occupants in a healthy

Design No.

i.

Private stables

The

^^gj.

aiTangement pj^tes

I,

2, and illustrated

3, is by Design No.

i, and extending a provision for a large stud of horses in the cr.untry, capable of future extension by additional stabling or the right.

The administrative block in the centre has extra provisional accommodation for attendants and stores,

SO also has the corn-store situated over the coach-house, having been designed with a view to this enlargement.

This building has boxes for hunters and a harness-room on the left, and the probationary boxes

L, to which any doubtful cases of illness can be relegated, previous to their removal to the infection wards

M, on the right.

These are cut off from all communication with the other stables, and when the attendant comes from them, he passes

PLANNING

AND

ARRANGEMENT.

9 at once into the fresh air, whilst the inmates of the sick boxes, without being disturbed, can be fed or inspected by means of the passage at the back.

This passage also forms a private entrance for the owner or superintendent of the stables, who can thus enter the yard at any time without passing through the central offices.

The first floor consists of a sitting-room or kitchen, a chamber

1

8 feet by 12 feet, which may be used as a mess-room, three bedrooms, and a bath-room.

The second floor has two bedrooms and two store-rooms, and from this floor there is a steep staircase leading to the clock-turret above.

The entrance gateway and a portion of the south inclosure wall are on

Plate

3.

shown

In the

Design the country,

No.

2, illustrated but for a smaller by

Plates

4 and

5, also for Design

No.

2.

Private stables number of horses, the hay and corn store, where the fodder is also cut, bruised, and mixed, is over the coach-house, and a shoot passing through the wall discharges the food, bin in the washer's when prepared for consumption, into a room below.

This room, provided with a copper and sink, adjoins the harness-room, in which a bench is fitted up for cleaning bits, spurs, &c., the glass case for their reception being placed in the recess adjoining the fire-place.

The transverse section is taken through the stalled portion of the stable, and looking to the left shows a partition of the loose box and the interior of the end stall in elevation.

Access to a living-room and bedroom for a groom is obtained by a staircase from the porch, and above is a clock-chamber or store.

A design will be found on

Plate cations,

6, which, with slight modifi- Design No.

^^^

^°^^'"

°^

3.

The can

11 to either town or country.

1 and washer's rooms are situated, as

1 r m the former country, harness between the coach-house and the stable, a position design, which, as it forms the centre of administration, will be found most convenient as a general rule.

There are four stalls in this stable, with a loose box opening to the air, and shut off from

10

STABLE BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

the building.

harness-room,

The hay and corn is stored and mixed over the and discharged by a shoot into the washer's room.

Design No.

4.

Stables for hunters.

it

On will

Plate

7, which shows some stabling be seen that the corn-store and designed hay-loft for are hunters, over mixing-room and archway, with a couple of rooms for the the men above the harness-room.

The ground plan of this design is

Design

No.

Suburban

5.

stables.

that of

Mr.

Walsh, better known as "

Stonehenge."

The

Design No.

5^

(shown on

Plates 8 and providing for a pair of horses only

9), is more especially suited for the suburbs, for the country, or for any site where the length of the frontage is not so much a consideration as it usually is in towns, and where space sufficient for ventilation and light is

Designs Nos.

6 and

7.

Town and country stables.

Difficulties in town.

available in the rear; ventilated in the adapted to a roof mews, or but as this particular design is also and lighted in the front, it where there is no area at may be the back, although the frontage, 40 feet, is in excess of what is usually allowed for this situation.

The stable, harness-room, and coach-house, are entered from an ante, open to the yard by an elliptic arch; a staircase the corn-store from the harness-room leading to and hay-loft above it, from which a shoot descends with the food, stable, as whence it is removed to a bin in the shown on

Plate

9.

Suburban stables, however, of limited accommodation, having stalls for only two or three horses, are most frequently built at the side of the house, and approached from the road.

The

Designs

Nos.

6 and

7

(Plates especially illustrate the difference in the

10 and

11), more arrangement of town and country stables.

In town the cost of land restricts the areas, and also reduces the frontages of stables.

This, together with the rights of the adjoining properties and the necessary Acts of Parliament, arrangement of do not leave the architect the same scope for the his plan as he possesses in the country, or even in the suburbs.

In the latter case, where perhaps only one or two horses are kept, the stabling can be built in a small inclosed

1

PLANNING

AND

ARRANGEMENT.

1 yard at the rear of the house, possible, by a lane or mews.

and should be approached, if

Where a stable is built in a mews, the length is at right- Stables in angles to, and not parallel, as it should be, to the frontage.

A

"^^ws.

reference to Plate

1 1 will show, at a glance, the advantage of the latter over the former arrangement

; more light is admitted and a thorough ventilation is obtained, which can be regulated at will.

The plan on

Plate lo is that of some stabling in a mews under the most favourable condition, having a yard at the back, and the liberal allowance of 36 feet frontage, viz.

17 feet

6 inches for the stable^ and

19 feet

3 inches for the coachhouse

', a couple of apartments over the latter, well lighted and ventilated, being thus obtained, with a hay-loft (30 feet by

17 feet

6 inches), in which the food can be prepared and passed down a shoot into the bin at

A.

The coach-house in a mews, however, is often only

8 feet

6 inches, or

9 feet in width, and if two carriages are kept, they are put one behind the other.

The minimum frontage which should be allowed for a coachhouse and stable of this description may be taken at 25 feet, measuring from centre to centre of the party walls, which allows

1

5 feet 6 inches for the width of the stables, and

8 feet 6 inches for the coach-house.

Where a small area can be obtained in the rear

(or better still, the 100 feet superficial required by the building

Act for a divelling), a much better arrangement can be devised, without which the harness-room must be lighted with a skyhght, and the groom's apartments will be limited, or entrench on the hay-loft.

It need scarcely be added that the loose box, which generally situated at the is back, the best place all things considered, being the quietest part of the stable, is often dark and difficult to ventilate, and in these respects unsuited to its purpose.

An example of a stable for the country is shown by Design

Design No.

8.

No.

8 (Plate

12), with a centre washing-house for the horses

"Inclosed."

12

STABLE BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Stables on upper floors.

and carriage, having direct access to the stable, coach-house, and harness-room

; and by means of a passage to a loose box, entirely shut off by a 9-inch wall, carried up to the roof.

The coach-house is closed to the washer's shutters, ordinary doors.

room by revolving and the stable and harness-room on either side by

The hay and corn store is reached from this central room, and has a pair of sliding doors over the entrance gateway.

The stable and loose box have a southwestern aspect.

This plan may be varied on the upper floor to provide a sleeping-room for the groom

; and the coachhouse could be also carried up to afford additional accommodation if required.

The whole is inclosed within the entrance gates.

Owing to the value of land in towns, the plan referred to in

^^ preceding chapter of having stables on upper floors is now becoming very general, and is a good substitute for the limited accommodation obtained in a mews, especially as regards the position of loose boxes.

In such a structure the ground floor can be devoted to coach-houses, with a central yard, approached through an archway, from which the upper floors are reached by the necessary slopes, provisions being made on each floor for the corn-stores, harness-room, washing-boxes,

&c., with an asphalted yard, and dwelling for the grooms upon the roof.

The stables in such a building can be well lighted and ventilated from the roadway, and from the yard.

designed for

Messrs.

Crosse

Those and

Blackwell by the late

R. C.

Roumieu, and illustrated on Plate

54, the

Builder of

April

15th,

1876: are thus described in

"These premises have a central open space

(the height from the floor to ridge being

40 feet), round which, on the ground floor, are recesses for eighteen vans and stabling for four horses, with store spaces for straw and fodder, harness-rooms, and a yard for dung, water-closets, &c., with a double inclined plane of ascent to the principal stable floor.

an easy

On the stable floor are stalls for thirty-five horses, and a loose box for a sick horse,

3

;

PLANNING

AND

ARRANGEMENT.

1 with a fodder-box and chaff-room.

In the front towards the street, in the floor above, are the stablemen's Hving and bedrooms,

&c., with windows looking into the open space above the stable, so that a view can be taken at any whole of the stable on the upper floor.

moment of the

The area is lighted by a continuous lantern, with lights to open upon centres, ensure good ventilation

; and gas is laid on for night." to

The size and general proportions of an ordinary stable may

Dimensions of stables, be pretty accurately arrived at from its cubic measurement, which ought to give from iioo to

1500 cubic feet of air per horse; a minimum width of 16 feet

6 inches, or from that to

18 feet, according to the arrangement of the plan

(which may be modified by the introduction of loose boxes), being sufficient for a stable having a single row of stalls, as shown on

Plates

4,

6, 8, 10,

II, and

12.

Taking the first-named width of

1

6 feet 6 inches, being centre of the heel-post,

9 feet

6 inches from the wall to the and

7 feet for the passage, with a width for each stall of

6 feet

2 inches from centre to centre of partitions, and a height of 12 feet to the ceiling, a cubic contents of

1

2 2

1 feet per horse is obtained.

For a stable containing a double row of stalls having a ceiled roof and passage in the centre, as much as 29 feet is sometimes allowed, as shown on

Plate 56.

Taking

9 feet

6 inches for the stalls,

10 feet for the passage, and

1

2 feet for the height, this gives a cubic capacity of 1073 feet, scarcely sufficient if there were no opening in the ceiling, which, in this case, utilises the space in the roof

The author considers that for ordinary horses, where a stable of this kind is ceiled, a width of 28 feet and a height of 13 feet, are the most desirable dimensions, giving a cubic contents of

II

2 2 feet per horse

; but that if open to the roof, as shown on

Plate

41, passage,

27 feet in width is sufficient, being

8 feet for the and

9 feet 6 inches for the stalls on either side, with a height of i o feet

6 inches to the underside of the tie-beam, or springing of the roof

This gives a cubic contents of

1260 feet but this question is largely dependent on that of ventilation,

14

STABLE BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Convertible stalls and boxes.

and is further dealt with in

Chapter V.

The length of a stable can be easily obtained by multiplying the width of the stalls

(say 6 feet 2 inches) by the number of horses to be accommodated in a single row, and by half the number to be provided for in a stable with a double row of stalls.

The stables above described are suited for carriage and coach horses, hacks, and the like, and have an available area in the stalls of 57 feet, but this would not be sufficient for racers or hunters, or the larger class of horses devoted to heavier work.

Several stalls schemes have been devised for converting two into a loose box, or a loose box into two stalls.

The middle heel-post a^

Fig.

i, consists of a column secured at the base, and also at the roof, with two revolving sockets, top and bottom

; through this the centre portion b of the two

Fig.

I.

5

PLANNING

AND

ARRANGEMENT.

1 in fact, they must be either too large or too small, and are deficient in, or overdone with, manger accommodation.

The movable parts, such as sockets and hinges, of all these designs are made in brass, to prevent their being rusted up when they are left some time without shifting.

Fig. 3 is a less costly and thoroughly practical arrangement

Portable parfor conversion, where it is desired to make temporary additional t^^^ons.

provision by putting up the movable partitions the portions gg^ removing marked h, and thus converting the two loose boxes into four stalls.*

A combination of loose boxes and stalls under the same

Loose boxes roof is the ordinary plan adopted in private gentlemen's stables,

'^^^^ stalls.

and expense is considerably lessened by this arrangement, a minimum area of 121 superficial feet (11 feet square) being given to the boxes.

On

Plate

12 will be found a plan for a small stable, having two stalls and one separate loose box with washing-place in the centre, and coach-house at the back

; but this very convenient provision for washing carriages and horses has, in many cases, to be sacrificed to contingencies of space, and the advantage of an isolated loose box is lost.

On

Plate 6 will be found a design for a than usual.

more effectually detached loose box

A cube of 12, containing 1728 cubic feet, may be taken as adequate for an ordinary loose box, which may be increased to

2000 in those built expressly for infirmaries.

The several provisions, speaking generally, which give to Capacity of each stable accommodation for twenty, twelve, or ten horses, stables, afi'ord also the greatest facility for supervision, ten allotment for one man.

being a fair

A stable, there-fore, containing twenty horses would be provided with two attendants, and they would have the advantage of mutual assistance, which is frequently required, whilst a stable containing twelve or ten would have but one man.

There is, however, the liability of a spread of epidemic with the larger more rapid number of horses in one stable, and since assistance can soon be obtained in a yard, or

*

See also Figs.

6 and

7,

Plate

19, for portable partitions.

l6

STABLE BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Boxes for hunters.

from an adjoining stable, the smaller number, as arranged on this plan (except impracticable), where the nature of the site renders it may be considered the best.

JIunters, owing to the exhausting character of their work, should have plenty of room for recruiting and repose

; boxes, as a rule, are most suitable for them, and these should be at least 12 feet square

; this gives an area of 144 feet super, whilst some authorities consider they should have double this amount, to give them plenty of room to roll.

Mr.

G.

Tattersall says they should be 22 feet long and

13 feet wide, with a

12-foot passage and height of

1

2 feet.

Four or six boxes are sufficient

Covered way,

Breeding stables.

Racing stables.

in one building, as the horses are less likely to be disturbed when housed in small numbers, and the stable is more easily kept at one temperature.

It is convenient to have some of them convertible into stalls upon the simplest principle.

A design for a stable for hunters is shown on which the stalls are 12 feet by

12 feet, and by

Plate

7, in means of a portable heel-post the and partition, can be converted into stalls of ordinary width

(6 feet), and the six marked

A can be made into closed loose boxes by putting up doors in the position of the dotted lines, and adding about

2 feet of partition, or the temporary provision of a safety bar might be used

(as shown on

Plate

18,

Figs. 3 and

4).

A covered way for exercising the horses under shelter, and passing entirely round the yard, is a common and useful provision, and helps to shade the stables in the time of extreme heat.

It should be made

7 or 8 feet wide and

9 feet high.

In breeding stables the yard should be particularly well sheltered, the boxes having a south-west aspect and a dry soil.

For barren and brood mares they should be respectively about

12 and

15 feet square, with a well-screened shed to keep them from the wet

"

Nimrod," when they writing are from allowed his to be loose.

experience of the best type of racing stables, seems to consider that the proportionate number of loose boxes to stalls should be in the ratio of about six to

PLANNING

AND

ARRANGEMENT.

17 seven

; and in a model plan arranges them on two opposite sides of a rectangular yard.

The centre of one side is occupied by a passage leading to a riding school at the back, on either side of which are situated four boxes and four stalls.

On the opposite side, and in the centre, is the coach-house, with the drying-room on one side, and the saddle and harness-room on the other

; a building with six stalls for hacks on the left-hand side of the yard, and four more loose boxes on the right, occupy the remaining spaces, thus leaving a free passage for air between the two ranges of buildings.

The rooms for the boys are placed over the drying-room, coach-house, and harnessroom, and the hay and straw loft over the stalled stable.

The stalls are 6 feet wide by

12 feet deep, with a

12-feet walk in the rear, and the boxes 10 feet wide and

18 feet in depth.

A pump occupies the centre of the yard.

On farms, the stable-buildings, in the form of a quadrangle

(a

Farm stables, shape in which all large stabling is now usually built), are a conspicuous portion of the homestead group, and a south or west aspect in the yard can generally be selected without detriment to the other buildings; in fact, where stables are built with a passage in the centre, and stalls on either side, and with windows opposite each other, to produce a through ventilation, an east and western aspect is by no means a bad one, provided the stables are well sheltered from the easterly winds.

extreme severity of the

Farm-stables, like those for omnibus and tramway horses, should be plainly and strongly built, but with the same regard to sanitary requirements, and precautions against damp, that are considered necessary for more valuable horses.

Having decided the to be number of horses for which provision has Hay and cora made, the position of the corn-store and hayloft depends

^^°^^s.

chiefly on the site, but the storage cannot be conveniently separated from the cutting, bruising, and mixing of the food especially if large quantities have to be dealt with

; and where machinery is used for this purpose the engine-house should be divided from the stores by a party wall

(as a precaution against

C

1

8

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Preparation of fodder.

Distribution of fodder.

Capacity of hay and corn fire), through which the motive power can be transmitted for working the several appHances, as shown on

Plates

47 and

48.

Even where horse-power is used, as in the case of the Southampton

Tramways

(Plate 53, Fig.

2), it is better, for obvious reasons, to have a party wall.

Like the coach-house, the corn-store building, or.

together with the grooms may be a separate apartments, form a portion of a central block.

In

Plates i, 2, and

3 it will be seen that the author has placed the corn-store and mixing-room over the coach-house, accessible for storage from the public road, but reached by a staircase only from the yard.

It is locality advisable to have the water tank in the immediate of the stores, with a stand-pipe and hose in connection with the supply, as fully described in

Chapter VII.

The hay may be stored and cut on the first floor, the corn being stored, bruised, and mixed with the cut hay, delivered by means of a shoot, on the floor below, as designed at the stables at

Portswood; or the whole operation the first floor, as may be performed on shown on

Plate 53, and the food lowered in sacks.

These operations are performed by the

London

General

Omnibus Company, principally at their central depots, and the mixed food is thence despatched in sacks by three-horse vans to the numerous stables situated in all parts of

London

; and at

Southampton the stables at Shirley are supplied from the depot attached to those at

Portswood.

In the former case the cost is minimised by the concentration, owing to the large number of stables supplied.

To obtain the area and capacity of a space to be devoted to j-j-^g storage of hay and straw, it is necessary to arrive at the cubic contents they will require.

A truss of new hay or straw occupies about ii cubic feet, a space therefore measuring

8 feet

3 inches by

8 feet by

6 feet high will give a superficial area of 66 feet, and have a cubic capacity of 396 feet

; it will hold exactly thirty-six trusses (equal to one load), which, sup-

PLANNING

AND

ARRANGEMENT.

19 posing a horse to consume

16 lbs.

a day, would afford a supply for it

135 days, and taking the same area with a height of 9 feet, would provide for one and a half loads.

On

Plate

1 1 the portion of the loft inclosed on the plan by the dotted lines and marked a, is suggested as a space to be devoted to storing hay and straw, the larger portion being for corn, machinery, and mixing, and the remainder for passage.

A truss of old hay weighs

56 lbs., and a truss of new hay

Cubiccapacity

60 lbs.; but various circumstances contribute to the fluctua- °^ hay.

tion of their cubic contents

— the character of the grass land from which the hay is cut, the size and consequent weight of the stack (which may weigh from %Z lbs.

to

200 lbs.

per cubic yard), and its age (hay is considered old after

September).

The size of the trusses vary from 7-50 to

11*25 cubic feet; the smaller measuring

3 feet by

2 feet by i foot 3 inches, and the larger 3 feet by

2 feet

6 inches by i foot 6 inches.

It is calculated that for every acre of grass made into ensilage,

300 cubic feet capacity of silo is required, and one ton of ensilage is pressed into a space of 50 cubic feet.

Tramway and omnibus stables differ materially in their

Tramway and arrangement from those already dealt with as " Private Stables," o"^^ibus additional buildings dwelling, smithy, being required, such as the foreman's workshop, harness-maker's shop, and lamproom

(which should be an isolated building), but as the harness is kept in the stables, there is no necessity for a harness-room, beyond the store in which provisional sets of harness are kept.

It is only in large establishments that a smithy is necessary, and it is generally an economy in the case of omnibus and tramway stabling to provide a fitter's and harness-maker's shop a design for a smithy will be found on

Plates

45 and

46.

The loose boxes are built in a row, and do not form part of the stables

; they should be about horses provided for.

5 per cent, on the number of

One of these is often fitted up as a surgery, as shown on

Plate 37, and is used by the veterinary surgeon on his periodical visits to the stables.

C 2

Omnibus stables.

Tramway stables.

Manager's offices,

&c.

20

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Plate

32 shows accommodation for

160 omnibus horses, with provision in dotted

Hnes for another all.

40, making

200 in

The hayloft in this plan occupies a position over two of the stables (which contain 20 horses each, and are

54 feet long by

25 feet wide).

There is also a covered shelter for omnibuses, formed with iron trusses, boarded and slated, and covering part of the space between the tvvo ranges of stables, and under which the horses are washed.

the

Plates

North

39 and

50 illustrate severally the arrangement of

London and the

Cambridge tramway stables.

The former accommodates

120 horses (12 in each stable), and the latter has eighteen stalls, a loose box, and two closed stalls for restless horses, under one roof There is also a separate loose box for isolation.

In his design for the

Southampton stables

(at

Ports wood and

Shirley), the author carried out much the same plan as in

North London, each stable being divided into twelve stalls, but the awkward shape of the land at

Portswood did not admit of so convenient buildings as at

Ponder's an arrangement of the other

End for the

North London.

In the former yard, as at shed,

Cambridge, the corn store is over the car but the loft door opens to the yard instead of to the public road, and the step ladder is placed in the mixing room, as shown on

Plate 53, Fig.

2, whereas at

Cambridge the loft is reached from the yard.

The manager's offices, or the foreman's dwelling, should be at the gateway to the yard, or at the entrance to the company's property, as on

Plates 32 and

50.

At

Ponder's

End the manager's house was built at the junction where the company's road to the stables leaves the highway

; at

Poplar it forms the first of a terrace built for the accommodation of the men.

Sufficient land is commonly taken for this purpose, and the men thus become tenants of the company, and are in the immediate vicinity of their work.

(

21

)

CHAPTER

III.

CONSTRUCTION.

Shape of building

Treatment of foundations

Concrete—

Outside walls

Intermediate walls

Foundation walls

Relieving arches—Stone walls

Walls on arches

Damp courses

Rounded edges

Recessed down pipes and taps

Rough cast

Depeter work

Facing with tiles, etc.

Smitliies

Dressing rings

Isolation

Division walls

Fireproof buildings

Fireproof floors

Concrete floors

Mr.

Hyatt's system

Wood floors

Posts for lofts

Sills

Stables on upper floors

Ventilating partitions

Roofs

Lean-to roof

Common rafters

King-post roofs of tie-beams

Provisional strength of

Queen-post roofs

Duties members

Tramway roofs

Zinc roofs

Templates

Wrought iron roofs

Roofs at

Ponder's

Loft in roof— Open roofs

Gabled roofs

North

London

End

Slating and tiling—

Covering for walls

Washable distemper

Pointing

Tuck pointing

Colouring brickwork

Wells

Well at

Ponder's

End and urinals

Abyssinian wells

Supply of water—

Closets

Trough closets

Slate urinals

Inclosure.walls

Inclosure fences.

All buildings for the purpose of stabling should be rectangu- Shape of lar

; but this is often rendered impracticable by the shape of buildmg.

the site, as shown on

Plates ranges of buildings are also

50 and

53.

Circular or oval sometimes erected for hunters, with a view of obtaining a more convenient shape for the covered ride usually attached, in the fofm of a verandah, to the front of these buildings, and supported by iron columns

; in this form they are but more costly in construction, and wholly unsuited for ordinary stables.

After setting out the will work upon the ground, the architect Treatment of be guided in the excavations by the character of his

^foundations, design and the nature of the soil

; upon these the dimensions of the trenches and the depth and proportions of the concrete

,

»

Concrete.

22

STABLE BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

will depend.

This will vary considerably in the case of stable buildings, but should never be less than 9 inches under the foundations of a corn store, for instance, or the walls of stables which are built in several floors.

A section of an ordinary stable wall,

14 inches thick, with the level of the floor, is shown on

Fig.

4 ;

Fig.

4.

but even here the depth of excavation may occasionally require exceptional treatment.

A case of this kind occurred to the author, where a peat bog occupied a considerable area of the site, with a depth of 10 feet to the gravel upon which it was proposed to build.

In this instance, holes were sunk to the gravel, and piers of concrete, 3 feet square, carried up to within a short distance of the ground-level

; arches were then thrown from pier to pier, consisting of three rings of brick in cement, rising slightly floor, great saving above the finished level of the stable and upon these the walls were built

; by this means a was effected in the brickwork, and the stalls were unusually dry.

A good concrete, giving the proportions of i in

8, is to be obtained by the use of the boxes shown in Fig.

5.

A to be filled once with cement

A

,.

twice

..

with washed sand once with screened gravel equal to cubic feet,

3*85

>>

19*3

27

;

CONSTRUCTION.

23

This is not equal to a cubic yard of concrete mixed, which takes 30 cubic feet of ballast measured dry.

and sand, and

3

J cubic feet of lime,

Thames ballast contains about two parts of gravel to one of sand.

All outside walls for stables thick, as should be one and a half brick

Outside walls, damp and cold easily penetrate through 9-inch work.

In the walls forming the divisions

14 or

18 inches wide may be used, as between stables, piers

Intermediate shown on

Plates

34 and

^^

^*

35, by which means the intermediate brickwork can be reduced to 9 inches, the piers projecting

2J inches from either the wall, but they should occur at those places only face where of the principals of the roof are sustained, and will be improved in appearance if the angles are finished with bull-nosed bricks it is better, however, to carry the 14-inch work to about

3 feet

9 inches from the level of the floor.

This is especially necessary where provision is made by brick corbelling for the support of the manger, as shown on

Plate

20, Fig.

4

; and care must be taken in construction that the sailing courses, as they are termed, consist entirely of headers built in cement

; each of the four courses

(the extreme projection of which is

4J inches), corbels should break joint with the should be executed in this way

; one below it

; all brick those for the support of wall plates, for instance, though the author does not recommend their use.

the

The brickwork in all cases should be carried through beneath Foundation openings for doors, drains, &c., and the fixing of the door-

'*^^^^^frames to the brickwork should, in the case of stables, be especially strong.

The frames should.be secured by pieces of hoop-iron screwed to three wooden bricks built firmly into the brickwork at equal distances on each side of the opening, and these, together with all other frames, bedded and pointed in lime and hair.

as

Relieving arches must also be turned over

; all the openings Relieving

^^^ ^^' shown on

Fig.

6, which illustrates the window of a corn store, swung on pivots.

24

STABLE BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Stone walls.

If the Stables are built in stone countries, of rough, irregular, or laminous materials, the external walls should be at least

20 inches thick, and built and pointed in cement up to the level of the paving when the soil is such as to require special prevention against damp.

Fig.

6.

Fig.

7.

Walls on arches.

Damp courses.

Rounded edges.

UUJUJ noon

^-'-

«—

..<»'

The walls are sometimes built on arches, with a view of cutting them off more thoroughly from damp.

Stoneware forms one of the best materials now in use for damp courses.

It is made for this purpose in the form of vitrified blocks, with groove and tongue joints, to suit any thickness of wall, as shown by

Fig.

7.

Staffordshire bricks built in cement, two thicknesses of slates also in cement, or asphalte thick, are effectual also as damp courses.

J inch

A dry area even, all round the building, may be sometimes rendered necessary in swampy districts

; in fact, the more the damp is cut off, by the intervention of space, the better

; the stoneware damp courses.

and this is the chief value of

All sharp corners, liable to injure the horses, should be avoided

; the angles in the yards, and especially the outside edges of all door jambs (where the doors are not hung flush with the outer face of the wall, in which case they should be rounded on the inner angle), are unsafe, unless carried up with rounded corners to the height of at least

8 feet, as shown in

Fig.

8, and also on

Plate

27.

This is done with a specially moulded brick

(Fig.

bull-nosed bricks." known as

"

Cliff," or " Burt's

No.

8

9),

These bricks may also be advantageously used in forming window-sills, where the windows are so low down as to render the ordinary square stone projecting sill a

CONSTRUCTION.

25 possible cause of injury to passing horses

; in this case they must be built in flush with the wall.

Cast-iron rain-water pipes, protected by being recessed in and even water taps, are best Recessed the walls, as they are necessarily

^ojj

P^P^^

Fig.

8.

Fig.

9.

more liable to be broken in stables than in other buildings.

The former should be in chases, built as the work progresses, by inserting a piece of wood of sufficient scantling for the diameter of the pipe, and building round it to the required height.

It will be seen in the accompanying designs that the down pipes, both in and outside the buildings illustrated are mostly recessed (see

/,

Plate

39).

A good effect is produced for the walls of stables and coach- Rough cast, houses lime by the use of rough castwork; the mixture for this purpose is made with washed gravel, mixed with hot hydraulic and water.

This is cast upon a prepared surface from large trowels whilst it is in a semi-liquid state.

To prepare the ground a layer of coarse stuff is

" pricked up," upon which a second layer of a similar kind is spread.

Whilst the latter is wet, and in progress, the material is thrown upon it, and forms a rough coating, which is at once coloured with lime-wash and ochre.

A still better result may be obtained by what is known as

"Depeter

^°^^*

" Depeter," consisting of small stones pressed into the material whilst soft.

Both of these operations the outer surface may be performed on of rough brickwork, or upon brick nogging,

26

STABLE BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Facing with tiles,

&c.

Smithies.

and have found considerable favour in rustic designs for stabling, especially in conjunction with ornamental tile facing.

But the character of the construction, as well as the materials used, are dependent largely on locality, and may be influenced also by the style of existing buildings.

A cheap and effective method of covering the gables, and walls of the upper floors of stable buildings, often used in union with rough cast and half timber work, is illustrated by

Fig. qa, and also shown on

Plates

6 and

7.

Fig.

9a.

The face of the timber framing is covered with oak laths and tiles, the hidden and upper part of each tile being pointed with lime and hair mortar.

The framing may be finished on the inner side with the usual lath and plaster, or treated as brick-nogging, and filled in with brickwork of the necessary thickplain or employed.

ness.

stamped with a pattern,

Ornamental concrete slabs, may be also successfully

Smithies are only used in large establishments where special buildings are required for shoeing.

Omnibus and tramway stables are usually provided with them, and also with fitters^ and harness-makers' shops.

The author has found that the design on

Plate afforded general satisfaction to the several companies for

45 has whom it has been built.

The whole of the hearth is constructed in brickwork in cement, including the hood, which is supported by a wrought angle iron

4 inches by 4 inches by i-inch, in such a manner that the weight is thrown effectually on to the outer wall.

The flues of these hearths should always be cored throughout with cow-dung mortar.

It will be seen by referring to the sections on

Plates

45 and

46, that the light, which if possible should be northerly, is admitted from a nearly vertical

;

CONSTRUCTION.

27 sash fixed at the height of

1

3 feet, immediately under the slope of the roof, and should have an available area of one-tenth of that of the walls.

A smithy of this size will afford sufficient accommodation for Dressing

200 horses, and dressing-rings are provided, as shown at

R, on ^^^S^.

Plates

45 and

46, for the shoeing of three horses at a time these are firmJy bolted through the wall, as exhibited in detail on

Plate 46,

Fig.

2.

Loose boxes, when designed for large stables, as shown on

Isolation.

Plates

I, 32, horses, and

39, or exclusively for the use of invalided can only properly fufil their purpose by being not only built as far away as possible from the other stables, but by being separated completely from each other.

The division wall should, therefore, be carried up to the Division walls, under side of the roof, or continued in inch boarding as shown on

Fig.

2,

Plate

37.

The walls should be rendered in cement or carefully pointed, and, together with the inside of the louvres in the roof and all internal woodwork, be frequently limewhited.

The walls dividing these boxes may be one brick in thickness, but ail the external walls should be built in i\ brickwork.

They are provided with eaves, gutters, or with parapet walls, double-tile creasing, and cement fillets, as shown on

Fig.

i,

Plate 37.

The roof in this case is covered with zinc, and the wall plates are partly supported by corbels of brick in cement.

The louvres are covered with close f-inch boarding and plain zinc.

The question of fireproof buildings is one which has for some years past

Fireproof exercised the ability of the profession, with, until buildings, lately, very little practical result.

It is certain that wood has often more effectually opposed the destructive progress of a conflagration than iron.

If floors cannot be constructed to made absolutely fireproof, they can be

Fireproof check the progress of fire.

Those of the hay floors, and corn stores, upon

Plates

3, lo, 11, and

12, are designed with a view of protecting the iron used in the construction as

28

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Concrete floors.

Mr.

Hyatt's system.

Wood floors.

much as possible from the action of the heat

; for the destruction of a building, in the event of fire, exposed, where iron girders are may be pretty safely anticipated.

Fig.

lo shows a longitudinal section in part,

Fig.

IO.

of a concrete floor composed of one part of Portland cement, one i.

part r of j sand, j and r four parts of broken flints or pummice-stone, sufficiently small to pass through a ring if inches in diameter; a layer,

2 inches thick, of metallic paving is spread on the top of the concrete, and the under surface covered with Hitchings* patent fireproof plaster, forming a ceiling to the floor below.

A floor of this description, or finished with i\ inch of asphalte, presents an excellent surface for mixing the food upon, and the posts of the corn-bins, shown in

Figs, i,

2, and

3,

Plate

54, can be fixed firmly into the concrete while the work is in progress.

The concrete must be perfectly set where asphalte is used, before it is laid on.

The method of constructing floors by embedding wroughtiron grills in cement or plaster of Paris (answering the purpose of our concrete*), was first used by the

French, and was adopted for the floors of the Louvre.

Mr.

Thaddeus Hyatt has gone very deeply into the use of concrete for floors, and has published a work, the result of many experiments, which shows conclusively the great strength of floors having wrought-iron cores embedded in this material.

Although preference should be given to these floors for corn stores, and where machinery is used, over those of the ordinary construction in wood, a very perfect close-jointed floor may be made of the latter material, in favour of which a strong prejudice exists, as it is reputed not only to maintain but the condition of grain.

improve

On

Plates

47 and

48 will be found

* The

Systeme Thusne, Systeme Vaux, and others.

;

CONSTRUCTION.

29 a floor of this description.

In this case the joists are

9 inches by

3 inches, and 26 feet 6 inches long

; they are supported in the centre by a longitudinal girder,

10 inches by

4

J inches,

40 feet long, and resting at either end on the stone template of a brick pier and built into the wall, with three cast-iron columns as its intermediate supports.

The joists have two rows of herring-bone strutting, one on either side of the girder, and are

15 inches from centre to centre.

The columns, which are shown in detail by

Fig.

5,

Plate 54, are 9 feet

9 inches in height, and weigh 3J cwt.

each.

Portland stone, resting

They are on concrete.

socketed

The into boards are a i block of

J inches thick, planed on the upper surface, and grooved and tongued with hoop iron.

Posts of wood are also used as supports, in many cases fitted Posts for into cast-iron sockets, as shown in Fig.

7 on the same

Plate, bedded on stone or concrete, and tenoned into the under side

^*^^^^' of the girder.

The floors of corn-stores should be made to carry a weight of

2

J cwt.

per foot super.

The floor of the corn-store and hayloft over the car-shed at boarded,

Cambridge was and

Fig.

11 shows a section of the oak sill and rolled girders carrying the floor over the gateway to the carshed at

H, on

Plate

51.

The construction of stables upon upper floors, referred to in the last chapter, may be carried out in two different ways either by means of arches built in rings, of brickwork in cement and springing from

Fig.

II.

Sills.

Stables on upper floors.

rolled or cast-iron girders

(the former are now in most frequent use), or of rolled-iron joists bedded in concrete, as previously described, the method now most commonly followed.

In those erected for Messrs.

Crosse and

Blackwell's stables, the former method was adopted.

The brick arches, carrying

30

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Ventilating partitions.

Roofs.

Lean-to roof.

Common rafters.

the first floor

(13 feet above the ground level), were filled m and levelled up with finely-broken bricks, upon which was spread a layer of Messrs.

Wilkinson's granite paving,

V'joi^^^d, in imitation of stones.

The inclined approaches, branching to the right and left, having a slope of i in

5, the ascent commencing with a single incline at the back of the yard, were covered with planks, having wood fillets firmly spiked on at every 30 inches, and the surface was tarred.

It is kept constantly and thickly strewn with tan.

The stall partitions have ventilating partitions of iron resting upon small blocks of stone, thus raising the sill about

3 inches above the level of the floor, and giving a through ventilation to all the stalls, as shown in Fig.

i,

Plate

18.

A large iron tank supplies the water-troughs, and a hose was arranged for the purpose of washing for use in the event of fire.

down the stalls, and also

A section and plan of these stables will be found on

Plate

55.

The treatment of roofs is an important part of construction in those for covering stables, as little iron as possible should be used, as it rapidly corrodes and requires constant painting.

The span is seldom sufficient in a private stable to render it necessary, for the sake of economy, that a roof framed entirely in iron shall be used, as in the case of a livery stable-yard or that of a shed for a tramway or omnibus company, where it is also requisite to dispense with intermediate supports.

That which is known as a lean-to roof is used when the span does not exceed 10 or 12 feet.

It consists of common rafters only (sometimes with an intermediate purlin), these are 12 inches apart, notched on to a wall-plate on one wall, and resting against or buflt into the other, against which the roof leans.

Above this span, and up to

20 feet, the common rafters are carried by a central ridge, from which they slope to the wallplate on either side, at an angle depending on the nature of the material with which the roof is covered

; they are braced by a collar-tie, and, when there is a ceiling, are additionally

;

CONSTRUCTION.

31 strengthened by the ceiUng joists bemg secured to the foot of the rafters.

For roofs from 20 to 30 feet span, a king-post and principal King-post

^°°^^rafters are required, which, together with the struts, form what is known as a truss, or principal, and sustain the purlins in a longitudinal direction about every 10 or 12 feet, and upon which, in their turn, the common rafters are supported, as shown on

Plate

35.

Above this span it is usual, if timber is

Queen-post

^^^

^* employed, to use a queen-post roof.

The thickness of the tie-beam for the roofs of lofts and Duties of tie

^^"^^' stables varies with the purposes it may be called on to fulfil, but in wood is rarely made so light as to perform its duties as a tie cnly.

It has often to carry the weight of shafting or of a ceiling, and to withstand the effect of machinery in motion, as shown on

Plate

48

; or it may have to support the bales and the poles from which they are suspended, as through the heel posts, shown on

Plate

35 j or, may have to resist the shocks from the vagaries of a kicking horse j it may also have to carry the floor of a loft.

A case is illustrated on Plate 41, where the members of the

Provisional roof were the made of extra (provisional) strength, with a view to niembers^ conversion of the buildings into fitter's shops for the introduction of steam tramways.

The best accommodation for the storage of fodder, when it Loft in roof, is considered desirable to utilise the space in the roof for the purpose of a loft, will be found in the method of construction illustrated on

Plate 43, Fig.

2.

The design for the open roof on

-Plates 34 and

35, and

Open roofs, that also on

Plates 40 and

41, have both been found successful examples in practice.

The interior of such roofs may be preserved and kept wholesome by being wrought and painted, or left rough and well-sized and limewhited.

The somewhat complicated construction of roof shown in the Gabled first of these designs has two gables at right angles with the

^°°^^longitudinal section of the king-post r«of, for the purpose of

32

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

lighting and ventilation, with a shutter on butt hinges in each, and a smaller gable with louvres at the opposite end.

This roof is covered with corrugated tiles.

North London

Tramways

The

Vielle roof illustrated by Plates 40 and

41 is covered with

Montagne zinc of the Italian pattern, and therefore, but for the above-named provision, might have been made lighter in some of its members.

This is laid upon i-inch diagonal boarding, wrought on the underside for painting, with wood rolls or rafters if inch wide nailed to it, the latter being rounded to receive the corrugations c^ the zinc, as shown on

Fig.

12.

Where the boarding is dispensed with, the rafters are

3 inches by ij inch.

Fig.

12.

Zinc rcofs.

Templates.

Wrought iron roofs.

The additional depth is also used with the boarding, and allows a space for air between the two materials, an advantage

(where zinc of sufficient thickness is used) in a stable or corn store.

The pole plates, purlins, and longitudinal timbers of thestables above referred to rest on small

York stone templates

9 inches by

9 inches by

3 inches, built into the walls, whilst those of the girders, to which the heel posts are tenoned, are

18 inches by

9 inches by

3 inches.

It is not a good plan to secure the heel posts to any members of the roof, the timbers of which should be made of sufficient section to transmit its weight to the external walls.

In this case the longitudinal girders do not support the principal of the roof, and a slight camber is given to the tie-beam.

For the covering of yards and sheds, where the span is over

30 feet, wrought-iron trusses are preferable to wood

; although the purlins to receive the material.

boarding should be of the latter

These may be secured to the principal rafters either

CONSTRUCTION.

33 by knees, or by small

L-irons running the entire length of the purlins.

The roofs of the car-sheds at

Ponder's

End are illustrated on

Roofs at

Plates 42, 43, and

44, and show the construction and details of

Po^^^^'^ End.

a roof with wrought-iron trusses for a span of roofs were glazed for the length of

7 2

40 feet.

These feet on either side, with

Rendall's patent glazing, putty, a which does not require the use of method not only successful in keeping out the wet, but in providing against the dripping of the from the under surface of the glass.

condensed water

The other portions of these roofs were covered, like the stables, with zinc of the

Italian pattern and No.

16 gauge.

Slates and tiles are both indifferently used for the roofs of

Slating and stable buildings, but the latter are more in harmony with the filing, style of building usually adopted for this purpose in the country.

In all well-finished stables the rough surface of the brick- Covering for work over the mangers should be rendered with cement, or

^^^^^^ covered with glazed tiles or other material of a non-absorbent nature, such as slate, to a height of at least 2 feet above the top of the manger, as of the walls, if shown on Plates 40 and

41, the remainder economy is to be considered, being carefully pointed and well whitewashed in two coats.

In private stables this space cannot be better treated than with tiles, as in Plates

5 and

9.

Where there is plenty of light, however, the highly glazed white tiles, which are a great advantage in a dark stable, have been found to try the eyesight of the horses.

This has led to the manufacture, by the

St.

Pancras Iron

Company, of a tile made of glass, which, with a slightly roughed and veined surface of green, is very effective and perfectly non-absorbent.

Under the mangers the wall is better covered with matched boarding, to correspond with the stall divisions, or rendered with cement.

If the cement, whole surfaces of the walls are covered with plaster or an agreeable tint of great durability can be given to

Washable distemper, them by the use of

Duresco distemper or Morse's water-colour,

D

34

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Pointing.

both of which can be washed without injury to the surface, and are much less expensive than paint for inside work.

The

Duresco will cover, in two coats, from

200 to

300 square yards, and for outside surfaces (such, for instance, as the dado, shown on

Plate

42) from 100 to

200 square yards.

The best description of pointing for all stable buildings is

" a neat struck and ruled joint

" for the outside work.

Tne internal walls, when prepared for whitewash only, to be finished with what is called

" a neat struck and fair joint," the walls being well cleaned down and stopped.

Tuck pointing for external work is not durable, and it is

Tuck point ing.

Colouring brickwork.

better to confine this description of pointing to the arches of doors and windows, and the decorative parts of cornices, where coloured bricks are used, to quoins, &c., and where it can be executed in putty.

The custom of colouring brickwork has become objectionably frequent, and is generally done to hide the inferior quality of

Wells.

the bricks, or to conceal defects in the work

; it has also an evil effect on the lime used in the pointing.

A great deal of importance is necessarily attached to the water supply of stables, which, if not supplied by a company, is usually drawn from a well.

There are often circumstances in which it can be obtained from a reasonable depth, and free from impregnation

; such author at

Ponder's

End.

an opportunity presented itself to the

Well at

Ponder s

End.

The water for these stables was drawn from a stratum of gj-g^yel resting on the ated between the

London clay.

The well, which was situ-

New

River and the River Lea, yielding a constant and liberal supply of pure water (which had been well filtered by its passage through

10 feet of gravel and sand), was lined with rock concrete tubes.

These tubes, shown on

Fig.

13, are silicated by the Victoria Stone

Company's process, are made of a dense cement concrete, and have been for many years in use in the

United

States.

Messrs.

Sharp,

Jones,

They are manufactured by

&

Co., for sewers from

12 to 36 inches in

CONSTRUCTION.

35 diameter, the larger size being well adapted for steining wells, and where extra strength is required on account of additional depth they can be cemented at the joints and surrounded by concrete.

Those used at

Ponder's

End

Fig.

13.

were

3 feet inside diameter^

2^ inches in thickness, and

3 feet in depth, and weighed

250 lb.

each.

They had an

O.G.

edge for joining, which can be rendered watertight with cement.

The author has also been successful in

Abyssinian wells.

obtaining an abundant supply of water by the use of Messrs.

Legrand and

Sutcliffs

Abyssinian tubes.

Three of these were sunk and connected with an horizontal cast-iron main, and the number multiplied to meet an increased demand.

may be easily

It will be clearly seen that the quantity of water supplied by

Supply of these wells does not so much depend on the diameter of the

^V^^^""tubes, as upon the character of the stratum from which the supply is drawn, and it is better in most cases to sink a series of 3-inch tubes, about 30 feet apart, and connect them as above described, than to depend on one of larger diameter.

Closets and urinals for the should be erected in a part men engaged in a stable yard

Closets and

^""^^^• where they are least in view, and be protected by a screen wall, as shown on

Plate

49

; this illustrates a closet of rather a primitive description, but of the kind which is chiefly constructed for large stable yards, consisting of a trough with 4j-inch brick in ..cement

dwarf wall as a riser, with 4j-inch by

2i-inch fir kerb built into the walls at each end, and notched into the sills of the separating screens.

The trough thick) in a is built up in concrete and rendered

(J inch

Portland cement, having a slope of i in

24 to the outfall, and is provided with a valve by which it can be freely flushed.

The walls are pointed and twice limevvhited.

The flooring is formed of 6 inches of broken brick, covered with

D

2

Trough closets.

36

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

3 inches of metallic paving.

gauge),

The roof is of zinc

(No.

i6 on

|-inch rough boarding.

The door frame has a transom, over which it is left open for ventilation.

A series of closets upon this principle, of a somewhat better description, having an earthenware trough and automatic flushing apparatus, as

Messrs. Bowes,

Scott, shown in Fig.

&

Co.

14, has been patented by

Fig.

14.

Slate urinals.

Inclosure walls.

The best description of urinals for stable yards, are those v/ith slate divisions, which should not be less than

2 feet apart,

5 feet

6 inches high, i foot 6 inches wide, inch thick.

and i^ to if

The riser forming the trough should be also of slate, paving.

and fixed at an angle of 75° with the level of the

The back may be of slate or of brickwork rendered in cement.

The inclosure walls and fences of yards may be taken at a minimum height of

Ponder's

7 feet

; an example of each, as erected at

End, will be found in the positions

A and

C, on

CONSTRUCTION,

37

Plate 39.

The wall at

A

(Plate 25) is splayed plinth and details of red brick.

built of white stocks with

The piers of the entrance gates are the same, but are chamfered, and have a red brick necking fillet and Portland stone caps.

On

Plate

26 will be found the inside view and details of the

Inclosure

^^^^^sfencing at C.

The thick black hnes on the diagrams a and b represent the saw cuts, by which the rails and vertical boarding are obtained

; butt the former are tenoned into the oak posts, the ends of which are left rough and charred up to ground level.

38

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING,

CHAPTER

IV.

DRAINAGE.

Drainage requirements gutters of loose boxes

Open surface channels

Wrought iron surface

—Open brick channels

Channel bricks and blocks

Drainage

Outlets of gutters

Granite open gutters

Wrought iron covered surface gutters stalls

Drainage in relation to paving

Slope of

Steep inclines

Underground drainage

Jointing pipes in clay

Cement joints

Filling in

Velocity in pipes

Manholes

Inspection pits

Ventilation

Yard gullies

Iron syphon traps

Earthenware traps

Drainage of omnibus and tramway stables

Disposal of sewage

Cesspools

Manure-pit with cesspool

Surface drainage

Rain water

Advantage of soft water

Remarks.

Drainage requirements.

Open surface channels.

The most perfect system of drainage for stables, is that which carries away most completely, the largest volume of sewage in the shortest space of time, and affects the surface level of the paving least.

The importance of this consideration can only be thoroughly understood in connection with the succeeding chapter.

Open surface channels are strongly to be recommended for the interior drainage of stables

; they are freer in their action than underground drains, as they are kept clean by the constant sweeping and washing of the stable, and the difficulties which arise from disturbing the surface of the ground in the event of main drain or the larger a stoppage, are confined to the tributaries in the yard.

These channels can be which the stable is paved made of the

— viz., of brick,

Wilkinwith material son's or other metallic paving, or of iron.

A good surface gutter may also be formed in granite cubes, if they are carefully selected, laid to proper falls, and pointed in cement; but

DRAINAGE.

39 this is more especially suited for the stables of the heavy kind of draught horses.

A serviceable wrought-iron

Plate

14,

Fig.

i, the open-surface gutter invention of

Mr.

is shown on Wrought

Spooner of the

Royal

^^^^^^^ iron

Veterinary

College.

It is roughed on the surface, and provided with riveted lugs for bedding on concrete

; and, owing to its shallow character, is easily kept clean.

This kind of gutter is only equalled by one of a similar curve, or slightly deeper, executed in

Wilkinson's granite asphalte, or some similar metallic paving,

Plate

14,

Fig.

4.

and grooved to form a foothold, as shown in

A gutter of this kind is more likely to keep its level if laid these materials upon concrete than upon the usual bed used for

— viz., a depth of

6 inches of broken bricks, and without the disadvantage of joints, inseparable from iron is gutters of every description.

The when ordinary formed open of the brick hard channel, shown on semi-circular

Plate

14,

Staffordshire

Fig.

2,

Open brick channels, gutter bricks, wears too slippery, and yet presents so sharp an edge in the gutter as frequently to cut the hocks of horses as they stretch their legs over it or rise to their feet.

With a view to obviate this difficulty, the author designed the form of brick, illustrated in

Fig.

15, and on

Plate

14,

Fig.

3, which has the advantage of the iron gutter, first designed by

^5-

Mr.

Spooner, but afterwards somewhat modified in shape by the

St.

Pancras Iron

Company.

Although the stable may be paved with brick, the gutter may be formed with metallic paving, and sufficiently grooyed to prevent any slipping on its rounded surface, which should form a flat curve.

Channel bricks and blocks of various sizes, to correspond Channel with the grooved, and chamfered bricks, of which the several

^^[JJ^^^^^g pavings

(more fully described in the succeeding chapter) are composed, are made by several firms.

Figs.

16 and

17, manufactured by Mr.

J.

Hamblet, are excellent shapes for the stopped

40

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Drainage of loose boxes.

ends, and junctions of surface gutters.

Fig.

i8 shows a perforated gutter brick by the same maker.

It is not

SO easy to combine a complete system of open surface drainage with the best method of paving a loose box.

Fig.

i6.

Fig.

17.

Fig.

18.

Outlets of gutters.

The most natural means would seem to be a central gully, to which the watersheds of the floor may be made to converge with the shortest gradient, and the liquid be got rid of as quickly as possible.

or

By any of the plans shown on

Plate

13,

A,

B, C,

D, the slope of the paving is reduced to the minimum, and the floor of the box when grooved can be made practically level.

But there is a great advantage, in a sanitary point of view, in having both stalls and loose boxes free from gulhes, and this the author has endeavoured to obtain in his designs shown on

Plates 10 and

11, without making the slope any longer in the loose boxes than in the stalls, by means of open surface gutters.

The drainage of the loose boxes, shown on

Plate

11, is treated in the this same way as in the stall

<5, on

Plate

13, and by means a very good system of open surface draining is obtained with presenting an easy slope to the principal drain, rean incline of i in

80.

On

Plate

10, also, a system of open surface drains is shown, and the slope of the loose box is that of the stalls

; but, as a question of paving, as giving the best foothold upon a grooved floor with the most level surface, the principle of a covered gutter with a fall, or that of a central trap, is undoubtedly the best.

as

The square openings in the wall on either side of the door, shown on

Plate 41, through which it is usual to discharge the surface drainage into the gully immediately outside, do

DRAINAGE.

41 not appear sufficiently large, nor should they be situated in positions to admit any draught to the detriment of the horses, an objection which has been raised by the advocates of covered drainage.

A good position for a gully is immediately inside the wall, if this objection is seriously entertained.

Major-

General

Sir F.

Fitzwygram, in his work, suggests that an opensurface gutter should i'.s

be carried, not less than

12 feet beyond passage through the wall, before joining the underground drain, and considers it acts as a sort of natural trap to prevent solid matter from passing into the drains, and also keeps the effluvia from reaching the stable (see Plate

56), but both these duties should be performed by an efficient trap.

The whole length of the surface gutter being well flushed in washing, the liquid should pass at once through the wall

; and, by means of a syphon trap and pipe, as shown on

Plates 8 and

9, reach the subterranean system quickly.

When open surface gutters are formed in the granite paving

Granite open of the passage, as in the tramway stables at

Southampton, g^^^^^^'s* however well the cubes may be laid, they should have a fall of not less than i in

60, the gutter starting at a level with and dividing its fall with the slope of the passage.

Wrought iron surface gutters, having perforated movable Wrought iron covered surcovers,

' shown in b

1

Ji are now much in use in stables where face gutters.

open-surface gutters are objected

^^^*

^^' to, but they are more liable to be choked, and if left uncovered are dangerous to the horse; while those of cast iron are still less desirable, as they are more liable to be broken.

The objection that the litter in open-surface gutters is not kept so dry is scarcely a vaUd one, since of the whole area of the stall, it is only will the actual surface of the gutter itself (a small one), that be especially dry, or dryer than it would be with an open surface of sufficient fall.

42

STABLE BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Drainage in relation to paving.

Slope of stalls.

The effective drainage of a stable depends a great deal upon the material and character of the paving, which is dealt with in the succeeding chapter.

The stalls should not have a greater incline than i in

80, or

\\ inch in every 10 feet, unless they are paved with granite, when it may be increased to i in

60 or

2 inches in

10 feet, as the rougher surface impedes the velocity.

On

Plate 10 it will be seen that the granite paving at the head of the stalls and loose box commences an inch lower in each as it approaches the outlet at

O, and this gives a fall of i in 60, and the same to the gutter in the passage.

On

Plate

1 1 this difference is increased to 2 inches, and the incline in stalls and loose boxes reduced to i in

80

; whilst the principal gutter has the same fall to O.

Steep inclines.

A steeper incline than that of i J stall is not only unnecessary inch in the length of a when the paving is of brick or asphalte, but it puts a strain upon the horses and affects those especially which do not lie down to sleep.

Many consider that

Underground drainage.

a stall should be perfectly level, and for use in such instances a gutter is made having a level wrought-iron perforated top with cast-iron invert for bedding on concrete, and a slope of

I or

I

J inch in the length of the stall.

The section, Fig.

19 a, is that of a gutter, manufactured by

Messrs.

Cottam and Willmore, having a fall of i in

120

(equal

Fig. 19A.

to an inch in

10 feet), and used in union with their syphon trap, shown in

Fig.

2

6a.

By the use of these gutters the paving of a stall can be made perfectly level in its length, with a fall, from either side to the centre, of and \ an inch for asphalte.

J of an inch for brick

The loose boxes can be drained in the same way.

The cover is made very strong by an iron rib running along the centre, and altogether it forms one of the best examples of surface drainage.

Vitrified stoneware pipes, with socket joints, form the best description of underground drainage.

They should be laid as straight as possible, with a uniform fall, which for

4-inch

• pipes

DRAINAGE.

43 need not exceed i in loo, giving a velocity of

3 feet per second; they should be without right-angled junctions or sharp bends, and the gradients may be regulated in long distances by a judicious use of cesspits.

These pipes are often jointed in clay, which can only be

Jointing pipes considered superior to cement in exceptional cases

; where,

^^ ^ ^^* for instance, the that ground is liable to subsequent settlement, would cause a fracture to a too rigid line of pipes.

The joints should have two layers of tarred yarn forced into the bottom socket, and the entire remaining space between the spigot and socket filled up with tempered clay, well driven home with proper tools.

The joint, externally, should also be enveloped in a band of clay.

In most cases, however, the use of Portland cement is to be Cement joints, recommended, in preference to clay, and it is sometimes necessary to take the precaution of bedding the pipes half way up in a concrete cradle.

all

The caulking should be done round with oakum or gaskin, which will prevent the cement escaping through the joints.

Wooden scrapers should also be used as the work proceeds, to remove any portions of cement that may afterwards harden and stop the passage.

All liquid should be carefully excluded from the pipes until the cement is set, nor should they be covered in until it has completely hardened.

every pipe rest

It is a good plan to let the socket of on a bedded brick that the joints may be more effectually caulked.

The cement used should consist of one part of cement and two parts of clean sharp sand.

In all cases where the ground has

"to be filled in, a liberal Filling in.

use of water by means of a hose should be allowed to run into it, so that as firm a bed as possible may be obtained for the concrete and paving.

Four-inch drain pipes, as shown on

Plates 32 and

50, will Velocity in suffice as branches from the stables and gullies, but they should

P^P^^* be of 6-inch diameter from the men's closets, and have a fall of not less than i in

150, which will give the same velocity

Manholes.

Inspection

^^^^'

44

STABLE BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

as a 4-inch drain with a fall of i in loo, viz.

3 feet per second, both pipes running half-full under the same conditions.

A

9-inch pipe would have a fall of i in 225, a

12 -inch pipe a fall of

I in 300, and an

18-inch pipe a fall of i in 450.

The size of the main drain is regulated by the number of horses, but is rarely required to be above

9 inches.

Manholes, inspection, and ventilating pits are, with few exceptions, necessary only in long lengths of drains

; but the first of these is often required at important junctions.

The author was, on one occasion, obliged by the authorities to construct a small manhole on premises where he was carrying out some stable buildings simultaneously with a drainage scheme for the

Plans town, as illustrated by the manhole h on Plate

39.

and

Sections of one of these manholes, with the angle footiron used, are illustrated on Plate 49.

It is of exceedingly simple and inexpensive construction, and was built for an eggshaped sewer,

2 feet by

3 feet.

Pits for the purpose of inspection and cleansing are built with the pipes running through them, having a 2

-foot length of pipe with a movable section, as shown on

Fig.

20

; by the

Fig.

20.

insertion of a chisel at the ends, the upper piece may be detached, covers.

and replaced.

The pits are closed in with air-tight

A drain should be ventilated at every 300 feet.

A cement-jointed vertical drainpipe built into a chamber of brick in cement is one of the simplest methods.

The outlet should have a strong cast-iron grating

(bedded on cement brickwork), as shown in

Fig

21.

The inside surface of the brickwork, at both ends of the pipe being rendered

J -inch thick cement.

with Portland

DRAINAGE.

45

Yard gullies may be made in the form shown in Fig.

22 Yard gullies.

of brickwork, built and lined with cement, having a 2-inch

York stone trap and cast-iron cover; or in stoneware up to

Fig.

21.

VENTILffTOn.

Section fi.B

1

46

STABLE BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

become now almost universal.

The old-fashioned bell which encouraged the lodgment of deposit, and was seldom properly flushed, has never been satisfactory

; it was frequently rendered useless by the removal of the bell for the purpose of sweeping refuse into the drain, the trap often being thus laid aside and not afterwards replaced.

Fig.

25 is a production in which the

Fig.

25.

Fig.

26.

Earthenware traps.

syphon fomiing the trap for the drainage of a stable is cast in one piece with the pot, and effectually prevents any tampering with its action as a water seal.

the outlet either at the bottom or the side.

It can be had with

The trap Fig.

26 is even more simple in construction, and is easily cleaned

; but more difficult to fix with the 4-inch earthenware pipes.

In this

Fig. 26a.

trap also, the syphon arrangement forms a part of the pot and cannot be separated from it.

The syphon trap illustrated in Fig.

2

6a is another example of improved stable drainage when used in connection with the gutter shown in Fig.

19A.

The latter passes through the stable wall at h^ dispensing with horse and mare pots and all underground dramage m the

''^\^'>i>?:'\^X^is--''^^ stable.

Fig. 27 is an earthenware syphon trap, shown also in plan on

Plate

8, where it is built into the wall of the stable.

These traps are made with the outlet connection at the side or the

DRAINAGE.

47 back, as shown by the dotted

Hnes.

The ordinary size measures

8 inches square on the outside at the top, but they can be also obtained in other sizes, and fitted either with iron gratings or perforated earthenware covers.

Plates

^$, 34, and omnibus and tramway

35, illustrate stables, the covered drainage of

Drainage of omnibus and containing a large number of tramway stables.

Fig.

27.

Fig.

28.

horses in each building.

contains twenty horses,

The stable illustrated on

Plate

^$ and has an area of

1350 feet super.

It is built trapped in by two brick gullies

(14 feet from each end wall)

4^inch brickwork and also rendered inside with cement

; they are

1 2 inches square, their depth being regulated by their position on the line of pipes.

The pot is of strong cast iron, are shown in Fig.

28.

The each drained in the centre loose boxes shown on

Plate

37 by a similar gully, the paving having a uniform fall of i in 50 from all sides.

These boxes are

10 feet by

10 feet, and have, therefore, an area to be drained of

100 feet.

The ultimate disposal of the sewage, after its passage through

Disposal of the pipes, depends upon whether it is taken to a cesspool, often sewage.

the case with stables in the country, or to a system of public sewers.

In the designs numbered i and

4, on

Plates i and

7, it will Cesspools, be seen that the drainage is taken to a central cesspool.

It will be necessary to describe the construction of the first of these cesspools only, cesspool which acts in the double capacity of and dung-pit, and is marked

K on the plan.

This cesspool, designed to receive the drainage from the surrounding buildings, is

6 feet in diameter and

9 feet deep, and contains

48

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

9 cubic yards.

It is built in brick in cement in two half-brick rings, well grouted, and resting on a bottom of

Portland cement concrete, which projects 6 inches beyond the external radius of the wall, the latter having a posed of well-tempered clay.

backing of

9 inches of puddle, com-

The interior is rendered throughout in

Portland cement ij inch thick.

The top is domed over with concrete, the upper surface sloping funnel-shape to a central iron grating

2 feet

6 inches in diameter, acting also as a manhole, through which the manure is drained into the cesspool.

Mnnure-pit with cesspool,

The c^^j-j-iefi manure-pit y^^ the yard.

is 9 feet in diameter, and the walls are to a height of

2 feet

9 inches above the level of

The whole can be covered with a roof if it is considered necessary to protect the manure from being diluted by the rain which would filter into the cesspool, the more solid refuse would be removed in the ordinary manner by a

Surface drainage.

barrow.

In large stables, a separate system of drainage is sometimes added to receive the surface water, such as the washing of the yard and the rainfall, and to convey it to an adjacent ditch, and if this is done the value of the manure is considerably increased.

Rain water.

Advantage of soft water

As a large area is usually supplied by the roofing of stables, it is often worth while to collect the rain water into a submerged tank.

This may be made entirely of concrete and lined with cement, which has been done by tlie

Author in three or four cases.

fall

Earthenware pipes of 3-inch diameter with a of

I inch in

10 feet, are usually large enough for the purpose, but where the length is considerable, 4-inch pipes are necessary.

The tank must of course be of corresponding dimensions to the area of the roofs, taking the rainfall (in

London) at

24 inches per by an ordinary hand-pump.

annum

; and the water can be raised

It is unnecessary to comment upon the superiority of soft water over hard for medical purposes, and for cleaning harness.

DRAINAGE,

49 but for the former purpose it should be filtered, as it it likely to collect impurities from the roofs; sometimes, by upward filtration through sand and gravel, the tank itself may be made to perform this duty.

The Author cannot pass from this section of his subject without dwelling for a moment upon the imperative necessity of the strictest supervision whilst the pipes for drainage are being

Ir.id, for errors may be then committed which cannot always be afterwards detected, and if capable of repair, are only so at considerable inconvenience and cost, when the drains are covered in and the yard and stables are paved, and a great many, or may be all, the pipes are under concrete.

E

50

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

CHAPTER

V.

PAVING.

Requirements of paving

"safety

Adamantine clinkers and paviors

Tebbutt's brick"

Vitrified bricks

Paving with stocks

Examples of paving

Herring-bone paving

Height of floor

Paving without concrete-

Preparing ground

Laying

Composite paving

Granite cubes

Advantages of good paving

Difference in cost

Omnibus stables

Various stone pitching

Cobble stones

Wood paving

Wood flooring

Paving of smithy.

Requirements o pavmg.

All paving should fulfil the following requirements^ viz.

it should be watertight, easily cleaned, durable, and not slipper}'.

These conditions the use of the maybe said to be most nearly approached by adamantine or

Dutch clinker, when bedded on concrete.

Very few of the latter, which has been in use for centuries in

Holland, now find their way into

England, mainly owing to our improved manufacture of an article equal, if not superior in quality, and much less in cost.

The adamantine clinkers of the best quality, and in most

Adamantine clinkers and paviors.

general use for first-class stables, causeways, yards, and passages, are

6 inches long, i j inch wide, and

Fig.

29.

^

2J inches deep.

Laid flat it takes 70, on

X edge

120, and in herring-bone pattern 136, to pave a yard super, and

1000 of this in Fig.

29.

dimension weigh

18 cwt.

For stables they are also made with chamfered edges as shown

A plain orange adamantine clinker may be obtained, well suited for by

2f inches deep

; coach-houses, 6 inches of these the same number by ij inch per square

PA

VING.

51 yard are required, viz.

120, and they weigh

20 cwt.

per

1000.

The clinkers above described have a sandy surface, and a very agreeable colour, varying between a pale yellow and a deep orange.

K brown Welsh pavior is also manufactured, chamfered on all the edges for reversing, and measuring

8 inches by yard super,

2f inches by

2f inches

; and 1000 weigh

37 cwt.

60 of these will cover one

These are made of the same size in

6 panels, with semicircular grooves, but in this form they weigh only

36 cwt.

per 1000.

Other varieties of these bricks are to be obtained, composed, it is said, of the identical clay from which the

Roman pottery and bricks were made, most of them either chamfered or traversed by circular grooves as in Fig.

30.

V or semi-

The latter, where laid in a diagonal direction with a central groove, or open surface gutter, are most easily kept clear.

This is illustrated

Plate

6, and on

Plate

13, in the stall d.

on

The grooves may have a maximum slope of \ inch in their length, equal to

I in

96.

Fig.

31 exhibits a specially splayed brick to

Fig.

30.

Fig.

31.

avoid the difficulty and waste of cutting for this description of laying.

Paviors, with semicircular grooves crossing them diagonally, are also made, to facilitate this method of paving, so that, although the brick may be laid transversely with the stall, as in

A,

Plate

13, the drainage will take a diagonal course towards the centre.

The distance, grooves of a paving should not from centre to centre; but exceed

5 inches in where the smaller

E

2

Teblmtt's

" safety brick."

52

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

size grooved clinker is used, this is reduced to if inch whilst in those with a diagonal groove (the width of the brick being

3 inches), the distance will be found to work to about

4;^ inches.

All descriptions of chamfered bricks must be truly moulded, carefully laid, and well grouted, or they are open to the objection of allowing the urine and washings to soak into the foundations, as they form channels at the joints.

It is rightly considered that by the use of the semicircular grooves, the drainage is rendered more efficient, and the paving can be laid at a less inclination

2 than it would otherwise require, say, \\ instead of inches in the length of a stall.

The

V-shaped grooves and chamfered joints are frequently not only too deep and sharp, so that they secrete the refuse, and are not completely cleaned by sweeping

; but the liquid does not pass in the most direct line to the gutter, and is reduced in velocity by the diminished gradient of a zigzag course, where the grooves run at right angles with each other.

One of the strongest recommendations put forth by Mr.

Tebbutt, the inventor of an entirely new kind of stable brick, is its facility for surface drainage.

This brick has eight regular circular protuberances on its surface,

Fig,

32.

as shown on

Fig.

32, the knobs being

2

J high, inches across, an and f of an inch apart.

inch

They possess something of the appearance of the old cobble stones flattened down, and have, to a great extent, their advantage in giving a foothold, without the imperfect drainage the old system created.

The rounded surface of each protuberance is intended to guide the hoof downwards against the next knob, when foothold is required

; floor in especially the act when the hoof is placed at an angle to the of rising.

A very perfect system of drainage appears to the author to be obtained in the use of these

;

PAVING.

53 bricks

; the straw resting upon the several raised surfaces, allows the urine to be drained from beneath it, and a less amount of material, it is claimed, is necessary, than is often put less down upon a slippery pavement, to render the foothold uncertain.

The gutter brick.

^^'^•

Fig. 33, is laid in this paving

; conjunction with but the slope given to form the channel should be sufficient, with a flat surface the excrescences, to between form a good

*Jv'"'^T^

^^--^^^ open surface gutter, without the deep and narrow groove, which it may be found difficult to keep clean and free, and was objected to so strongly in the old form of cast-iron gutters.

This paving has only been lately used

; but in the stables where the author has examined it, the opinion expressed by the grooms of the ease by which it can be kept clean is in its favour.

It has taken the Silver may be added that it

Medal at the International

Inventions

Exhibition, and the

Gold and

Silver

Medals at the last two

Architectural Exhibitions.

Twenty-six will pave i yard.

Blue

Staffordshire paviors, also known as vitrified or metallic

Vitrified bricks, are made with one, two, and three transverse

V-shaped bricks.

grooves, and one longitudinal groove in the centre, thus a brick

9 inches by 4J inches is divided into

4,

6, and

8 panels

; they are also made with a single transverse groove across the centre, as shown in Fig.

2,

Plate

14, giving two panels to each^ and of sizes varying from that of a clinker to 14 inches by

9 inches by

4 inches.

use,

The with the following table

(p.

54) gives those in ordinary number required per superficial yard, and their weights per 1000.

Clinkers, 6 also inches by

2J inches by if inch on the face, are made in this material, chamfered and plain, and a useful size, 9 inches by 4J inches by

3 inches on the face, with semicircular grooves.

The bricks of this description, manufactured by Mr.

J.

54

STABLE BUILDING

ANDISTABLE

FITTING.

Length.

PAVING.

55 in the previous chapter.

C illustrates a stall paved laterally with grooved bricks, having a fall of \ inch to 3 feet

6 inches to an open surface gutter, formed of the gutter-brick shown in Fig.

Plate

14, or

3, made in granite asphalte.

The stall b could be fitted with a covered or open surface drain, stopped at the mitre, about 4 feet from the wall, where the fall from the manger brings the drainage to a central point

; in addition to this the slope, as shown in

Fig.

4,

Plate 20, may be formed under the manger.

All these principles of paving the herring

bone pattern.

Fig.

have their several merits for

Herring-bone stalls and loose boxes, but the best effect in brick paving for P^^^^S* passages, yards, causeways, and coach-houses is produced by

34, especially where clinkers are used.

Fig.

34.

The floor of a stable, at the entrance,

V^V^%/\/V/\/

^^Jght of should be at least

2 inches above the general level of the yard, at a point in a line about 10 feet at right-angles with the outer face of the wall, to which point it should fall in a uniform slope forming the paved causeway running along the front of the stables, illustrated on

Plates i and

39, and upon which the horses are usually groomed.

Bricks and granite cubes are sometimes laid in mortar on a

Paving withconcrete, bed of ashes or sand, where there is a good substratum of

*^^^ gravel, but it does not make permanent and substantial work.

Portland cement concrete forms the best bed for a floor, whether it consists of brick, granite, wood, or cement, and should be

6 inches deep, especially for heavy horses, to withstand the constant pounding of an iron-shod hoof.

Before the concrete is spread, the surface of the ground must

Preparing g^°^^*^be prepared, being made perfectly solid and levelled to the requisite falls.

The materials should be gauged dry in boxes, and mixed as described in

Chapter

III., the proportion being one of

Lias lime, or

Portland cement, to seven of ballast.

When

56

STABLE BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Laying.

Composite paving.

the concrete is set, the surface should be floated over with a mixture of clean sharp sand and cement in equal proportions, and levelled, with a straight-edge, to the thickness of about

\ of an inch, the bricks being thoroughly saturated with water and laid in this state, allowance being made for embedding them in the cement.

The

Author has before referred to the necessity of care in producing a uniform level, and regulating the joints, especially of grooved and chamfered paviors

; and this can only be done by separately adjusting them with a small trowel to a line stretched along the proposed finished surface of the paving.

When the bricks are set, a mixture of pure cement, of about the consistency of cream, should be spread over the pavement and swept backwards and forwards with a broom, well into the joints, being cleaned off at time to harden on the floor.

once with sawdust before it has

Stewart's metallic paving, and

Wilkinson's, of Newcastle, are practically of the same value as a paving, their chief ingredient being Portland cement, laid on

6 inches of cement concrete, or on a layer of 6 or 9 inches of clean broken bricks.

with semi-circular grooves they

Roughed form a good flooring, and without the grooves, are particularly suitable for corn stores and coach-houses.

When used for a stable, as shown on

Plate

6 and

Plate

14

(Fig. 4), the grooves can be deepened to their outfall after the floor is laid and set

; this can also be done when clinkers are used, and although it adds to the cost, the surface of the floor in this case can be made almost level, its fall being divided with the grooves.

Paving of this description should be laid in two thicknesses, or it cracks and peels off, and if laid on broken bricks must have an average thickness of

Granite cubes.

3J inches, to resist the effect horses.

If of the constant stamping of the properly laid it is very durable, hardens with age, and wears with a sandy surface.

Jersey or

Welsh granite cubes, as used in random paving for yards, are equal to a paving of bricks, unless they are adaman-

J

PAVING.

57 tine clinkers, where both are laid on

6 inches of concrete.

The vitrified bricks share with the granite the disadvantage of becoming slippery with wear, without the advantage possessed by the granite, which is capable of being re-roughened.

For stalls, loose boxes, coach-houses,

&c., a flooring of brick Advantages of or metallic paving is more easily washed and has a better

^^^ paving, appearance

; but no description of paving can supply the necessity for the frequent and active use of the besom, and no stable can be thoroughly clean and healthy if the bedding is not entirely taken out once a day, the stable completely swept, and the drains well flushed.

The difference in cost is in favour of granite, and where the Difference in

^^^^' traffic is heavy, it is certainly a more suitable material, if it is laid to proper currents and grouted with cement.

The

Author stables, in has frequently used granite for the conjunction with brick, metallic paving, passages of and wood in the stalls, the surface gutter being laid in purpose-made bricks, or formed in the metallic material.

The whole of the stables, loose boxes, and yards of the Omnibus

London

General

Omnibus Company, are paved with these stables, granite cubes, with the exception of the portions marked a on

Plates for

^2 and n, consisting of a strip i8 inches in width, receiving the debris from the mangers, and the areas

^, b, occupied by the corn chests.

These are paved with hard paviors, laid on concrete like the cubes, and grouted in cement.

One super yard of these cubes is equal to 3 cubic feet, and one ton will lay

6^ yards of paving.

The following is a list of the stone pitching most generally in Various use, and found to answer best for paving, with the number of

^^^ne pitching, yards super the several descriptions will cover per ton.

Rowley rags

Macclesfield stone pitching

Leicester

Neury

Mount

Sorrel (4"

X

4")

..

will pave 45 yards super per ton.

,,

,,

,,

5

4^

4I

6

>

J

J

5>

J J tl

>5

J>

> J

58

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Cobble stones.

When carefully selected, and laid by an expert, the boulders not being too small, the old cobble stones form a durable paving, and give a good foothold to the horse.

But they are unsanitary for stables, and require, owing to their irregular character, a great deal of flushing in yards and passages.

The

Shirly and Portswood stables, designed by the

Author for the engineer to the

Southampton Tramways, are paved with wood blocks

; but the passages, for the width of

7 feet

6 inches, have a granite paving with a sunk surface channel on each side, which conveys the drainage through two holes in the front wall to an outside syphon-trap.

A width of 10 feet is also laid in granite along the front of the stables.

Wood paving.

Wood has been frequently used as a paving, especially where sawdust is adopted in the place of straw

— a material much in use a short time since in many of the large

London stables even where they were paved with stone.

Its advocates contend that it is warmer, especially when laid on wood, that it is more healthy for the horse, and affords the body more uniform

Wood floonng.

repose

; it is no doubt cheaper, and can be procured where straw is difficult to obtain.

The absorbent nature of wood, however well covered with sawdust or straw, the unequal character of the cubes, and the likelihood of a flooring so laid being improperly swept and drained, and becoming impure, and its want of durability, have always appeared to the

Author insurmountable objections to its use, except in case of smithies.

The blocks used are generally of spruce, either

9 inches by

4 inches by

4 inches, or 9 inches by

4 inches by

6 inches.

Some years ago a paving was introduced, consisting of perforated planks, raised a few inches above an impervious floor which was drained from beneath.

Another description of wooden, floor was perfectly level, and consisted of fir strips

(creosoted) diagonally in

3J inches by

2 inches, laid two laps turning on centres, and meeting in a mitre, so as to give access to the receptacle beneath, a space of halfan-inch being left between the boards for the drainage.

.

The

PA

VING.

59 wooden surface thus formed was studded with nails having heads of about

\\ inch in diameter, and closely hatched to form a foothold,

Creosoted inches deep, wood blocks,

9 inches long, 3 inches wide, and

6 Paving of may be recommended, however, as the paving of

^"^^^ ^' that portion of a smithy on which the hearth is built, the remainder, where the horses stand to be shod, being laid with

4-inch granite cubes, an open surface gutter dividing the two portions is from each other, as in Plate 50, where a dotted line shown indicating the boundary of the wood paving.

The blocks should be laid in parallel courses, breaking joint, and spaced about half an inch apart, carefully cut and fitted, and finally grouted with a mixture of boiled pitch and tar.

6o

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

CHAPTER

VI.

VENTILATION.

General considerations

Temperature quirements of various horses

Cubic contents of stables

Re-

Admission of air

Fanlights and louvres

Construction of louvres

Lantern ventilation

Stables at

Poplar

Ventilating tiles

Down-cast ventilation

Through ventilation

Ceilings and

Lofts ventilators

Perforated pipes

Head-post ventilators

Boyle's

Ventilation of upper floors

Glazed ventilators

Sheringham ventilator

Loose boxes

Cubic contents

Examples.

The

General consideration.

The natural tendency of heated vitiated air to rise to the highest point in a chamber affords the greatest facility for ventilating a stable, if means are provided in the roof, or at the ceiling level, for its immediate escape

: it cools when this is not afforded, and descends, and, mixing- with the atmosphere, is breathed over again by the horses

; and as in this state it is largely impregnated with carbonic acid gas (which when heated is lighter than pure air), it is hardly necessary to point out its evil effect upon the health and working capacity of the horse.

Before so much attention was paid to the subject of ventilation it was no uncommon thing for those who had the charge of horses to shut off, as much as possible, the admission of fresh air by stuffing the openings in their stables with straw and even nailing sacking over the windows

; and a great deal of superstition still exists, which results in the sacrifice of free ventilation and light for the sake of warmth, in the endeavour to exclude what are supposed to be injurious draughts.

There is a great advantage, where the position of the building allows it, in having the windows at a sufficient height and

1

VENTILATION, 6 opposite each other, so that a through ventilation may be sustained, and the sashes closed or opened, as the direction of the wind may dictate, or the temperature of the stable necessitate.

A stable having this advantage should have the double aspect of north-west and south-east, or nearer to the north and south than to the east and west

; the entrance being towards the south, and the heads of the horses to the

N.N.W., as the light admitted from a northern direction is more uniform in chaacter than any other, and better for the sight.

The temperature of a stable should vary with the kind of Temperature, work in which a horse is engaged

; the maximum should not be over 65^ at any time, nor should it be allowed to fall below

45°.

For most horses an average between 50° and

60° is the best and most easily maintained.

As a rule, the greatest difficulty will be found in keeping it sufficiently cool.

To a great extent the automatic action of the ventilators hereafter described can be depended on

; for the rest, the aspect of the stable in relation to the prevailing wind and the infallibility of natural laws must be considered in the use of what may be called the provisional appliances.

In a well-ventilated stable maintained an even temperature may be by a daily observation of the prevailing wind, attention to the increased or lessened pressure of the atmosphere as the horses are admitted or discharged from the building, and by opening or closing the windows as the case may require.

It need scarcely be added that a barometer will greatly facilitate the necessary observations.

The conditions in a stable vary much^more than in a house.

Cubic contents though the same argument holds good with regard to the former, of stables.

viz.

that it is not sufficient to consider the cubic contents if the necessity of the constant, and at intervals, the complete change of air, is lost sight of.

It is impossible, as the best authorities admit, to establish any comparison as to the cubic contents required for a horse, with that which is necessary for a being

\ human the latter is more susceptible to change of temperature,

62

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

and, living upon animal food, gives off more noxious gases

; he requires therefore a larger cubical space, but cannot endure so low a temperature.

General

Fitzwygram considers, from his

" experience gained in barrack stables and elsewhere, that with the concomitants of good ventilation, good drainage and paving, hght, and cleanliness, i2co cubic feet, with a ground area of

87 feet super per horse are sufficient, though probably the minimum required for maintenance of health."

Requirements of various horses.

For omnibus and tramway carriers, tradesmen, &c., about horses,

1000 and cubic those feet employed by may be considered a sufficient allowance of air, but the larger description of horses belonging to contractors and brewers have a proportionate increase, owing to the larger size of the stalls they occupy, which should not be less than

7 feet wide.

Hunters and racers obtain the greatest amount, also due to the very

Admission o\ air.

large surface area it has been, perhaps falsely, considered they require for rest, which in some cases amounts to over

280 feet super

(exclusive of passages), and gives a cubic contents of from 3000 to 3400 feet.

For a great part of the year a stall of this description would require to be warmed.

Carriage horses, again, which are generally more closely confined than the ordinary working horse, should not have less than iioo to

T200 cubic feet.

The steady replace the supply of a sufficient quantity of fresh air to impure, without that spasmodic action in the form of draughts which is the result of bad ventilation, plished in stables in many ways.

is accom-

A recuperative process is always going on by the natural pressure of the atmosphere under doors, and through the smallest crevices

; but this is not sufficient, and in lofty stables especially

(stables should not have a greater height than 12 or

13 feet without the roof) the air rapidly stagnates.

an outlet in

The admission of this additional amount of fresh air, to take the place of that which is encouraged to escape from the roof, should be based the simple expedient of exhaust upon and supply, but automatic arrangements for this purpose are not to be entirely depended

VENTILA

TION.

63 upon for the thorough ventilation of stables.

Where the temperature is suddenly raised and vitiated by the introduction of horses warm from their work, something more is required, which will, especially in hot weather, aftbrd an additional impetus to the immediate escape of the foul air whilst it is heated and buoyant^ and for this purpose fanlights and louvres roof are the most effective provisions.* in the

A fanlight over the door, except in the case of a smithy or

Fanlights and

°^^^^^' washer's room, is preferable to fixed louvres, as the fresh air is admitted too much in the character of a draught, especially in the cold winter nights, found sufficient, and the when the louvres in the roof will be window over the door can be closed.

The blades, moreover, of louvres are often fixed at an im-

Constrnction proper angle, and allow a current of cold air to pass in without of louvres, impinging, as it should do, on the slats.

A draught will often strike a wall and rebound, and thus reach a part of the stable it could not otherwise affect.

This may exist to a serious extent in a gale, and often leads to louvres being rendered non-effective by a stuffing of straw.

The slats to fixed louvres should not be at a less acute angle than

55°.

They shoi.ld

be

6 inches wide, and the frames have at least five slats in every

2 feet of height

; by this arrangement they overlap each other sufficiently to give an upward direction to the air, as shown on

Fig. 35, and they arrangement, to may be open and made, close by like a simple a Venetian shutter.

The stable illustrated on

Plates 40 and 41 is, with the excep-

Lantern ventition of a fanlight over the door, entirely lighted from the roof l^tio"by eight fanUghts, which form a continuous lantern.

These

*

Supposing the air to be changed three times in every hour, a stable containing feet of air

1200 cubic feet per horse, would give to each animal 3600 cubic per hour

; being at about one fourth the velocity at which it could be removed in that time, without creating a draught, at a temperature of

60°

Fahr.

64

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Stables at

^

'

Ventilating tiles.

are hung on central pivots, and opened or closed by lines and pulleys.

By this arrangement the temperature can be lowered to any extent, and the lights are placed beyond the convenient reach of any device for darkening the stable

; in addition to which, there are two glazed ventilators of the description used in churches, in the end wall of each stable, as shown on

Plate 56.

The plates from

32 to 38 inclusive, illustrating the stabling of the

London

General Omnibus Company at

Poplar, show a system which offers great facilities for ventilation in the roof.

These stables are

54 feet long by

25 feet wide by an average height of 14 feet

6 inches, gables which gives

19,575 cubic feet.

The and the four kerbs

" a

" contain severally

460 cubic feet and

32 cubic feet, divided by

20, the making a total of 20067 cubic feet, which, number of horses in the stable, gives 1003 cubic feet per horse.

The loose boxes are

10 feet by 10 feet by an average height of 12 feet

3 inches, making

1225 cubic feet; and, allowing 20 cubic feet for the louvred ventilators

(Plate

37), gives

1245 cubic feet per horse.

In dealing with loose boxes where, as in this case, they are treated as separate buildings from the stables, on account of possible contagion, the

Author has found

12 feet by

12 feet a more convenient size, as affording greater facility for shifting operation,

&c.

a horse in the event of

The kerb a^ which opens in the form of a trap in the roof of these stables, should only be used on exceptional occasions

(as it produces a too rapid change), and be kept entirely closed during the winter.

ventilation is

This description of open to the same objection which attaches to ordinary sashes and frames, viz.

that of admitting a direct current of cold air to play they are on their admission, upon the horses when opened, as warm from their work.

An additional and not so violent a method is afforded by the use of corrugated tiles, as shown in Fig.

T^d.

The tiles being laid dry, a space is left under them through which a large portion of impure air escapes as it rises to the roof.

They are especially

VENTILA

TION.

6$ serviceable laid in this way for the roofs of smithies, as the smoke also quickly passes through the interstices

; and in washers' rooms and where a copper is used, the steam passes rapidly away.

Fig.

36.

Fig.

37.

In crowded localities, where structural arrangements render

Down-cast it impossible to obtain a supply of air direct through an external ventilation, wall, it is necessary to use a down-cast ventilator, by means of which the fresh air is driven stable

; down a vertical shaft into the an arrangement of this kind, by

Messrs.

Boyle, is illustrated by

Fig.

37.

It is constructed on the principle of a windsail, and the shaft can be recessed in the wall as a down-pipe, or the ventilator affixed at the eaves, or, in a form, on the ridge of the roof

; more or the extraction ornamental and supply shafts could be carried up in one stack together with the flue of the harness-room boiler, from which pipes for warming the stable mechanical and coach-house are fed, and the whole of the and automatic arrangements have one centre of operation.

It is a good plan, when there is an absence of through Through venventilation, to create a subsidiary circulation, by leaving a space

^i^^tion.

of about

4 inches between each partition and the wall

-, this would be kept up, without reaching the horse in the form of a draught.

Cavalry stables, built as a rule to accommodate

14 or 16 horses, with a couple of spare stalls in each stable, have usually a space under the manger passing through the partitions, and running from end to end of the stable, as shown in

Fig.

7, partition.

Plate

19, with a space also for ventilation

The latter provision is considered by below the many as a

F

66

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Ceilings and lofts.

doubtful advantage, tending to produce diseases of the hock, by creating a draught along the surface of the floor.

Few first-class stables are now constructed without being wholly, or partially ceiled

; and it not only improves the interior in appearance, but contributes largely in keeping the stable at a regular temperature, cooler in the making it warmer in the winter and summer

; in fact, in racing stables, where additional warmth has been required, a false floor has been sometimes made and strewn with stubble or straw.

The space thus created in the roof cannot be considered a good receptacle for the storage of food, if the flooring, being of wood, is not closely jointed and of unshrinking material.

It is true facilities are created in such a loft for the free passage of air over the fodder by means of a louvre in the gable at each end, and it would thus be kept in a dry and wholesome condition

; but unless the floor is of concrete, or the ventilation of the stable below complete, the noxious gases would be likely to find their way through an ordinary floor into the upper chamber, as they did in the old system of construction, where there was an open connection with the loft from the stable below.

The design on

Plates

40 and

41 can be partially ceiled, leaving the lantern in the roof open to the stable for its entire length, and although this would reduce the cubic contents nominally from

1

150 to

960 per horse, it would leave the through ventilation by means of the louvres in the gables intact, but in this case it would be improved by the addition of another

12 inches to the height.

General also

Fitzwygram's design, as shown on

Plate

56, may be either ceiled at the underside of the tie-beam at r, leaving, as wide, he suggests, a longitudinal opening about

3 feet and nearly the whole length of the stable

; or it could be left open to the roof; but in the former case the cubic contents would be largely reduced, though the space between the ceiling and the roof would be left for circulation

; or a ceiling could be attached to the underside of the principal rafters, without

VENTILA

TION.

67 materially affecting the air in the roof.

a,

The iron gratings at which extend for nearly the whole length of the stable, allow the vitiated air to escape, whilst the fresh air enters at the air bricks below the manger in every stall.

The air is sometimes admitted at this place through a per-

Perforated forated iron pipe, with inlets in the external wall running the

P^P^s.

whole length of the stable at a height of about i foot 9 inches from the ground.

At the Corporation stables of the police at

Aberdeen, the Head-post fresh air is admitted to the stables through the head-posts of ventilators, the traverses, communicating with a longitudinal duct of this description

; the foul air being carried off through openings in the ceiling, connected with Buchanan's current ventilator on the ridge of the roof.

Inventors have departed so widely from the simple laws of

Boyle's ventinature before referred to, and first applied successfully to build-

^^^ors.

ings by the

Haydens, of Trowbridge, that the success achieved by

Messrs.

Boyle in the appHcation of their air-pump exhaust and down-cast ventilators is not surprising.

By means of an ingenious bell-mouthed arrangement, a large body of external air is collected and forced into active operation.

It exhausts a central chamber which terminates the outlet pipe

; and to supply the vacuum formed by this means, the foul air from the stable rushes up the shaft, and passes from the building.

Fig.

38 shows the form of this ventilator, which can be attached to the end of a pipe, or affixed to the ridge, as illustrated on

^^'

^

'

Plate

9.

It will be seen that this system is especially adapted for the ventilation of those buildings,

.

.

,

,

already described as consistmg of more than one floor, as horizontal flues, having openings in the

11

|||| vZT/

YITt ceilings, can be carried between the floors, passed up the walls, and concentrated in these extraction ventilators on the ridge

; by means of a divisional plate, the currents from the branches are prevented from striking each other, and possibly

F

2

Ventilation of upper floors,

;

6S

STABLE BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Glazed ventilators.

The

Sheringham ventilator.

creating an adverse current

; or a central extraction shaft may be used, connected with openings in the walls, to flues between the floors, or immediately under the ceiling, and terminating above the roof, with an induced up-current cowl.

Defective vision, weakness of the sight, and (notwithstanding the ignorant belief that horses put on flesh in darkened stables) injury to health, and neglected sanitation, are the usual consequences of the absence of light.

By the use, therefore, of glazed ventilators, as

9, the shown on

Fig. 39, and on

Plates

3, 8, and double purpose of lighting and ventilating the stable may be accomplished.

Where stables are lighted from the roof, by swing sashes or other means, Sheringham's ventilators, illustrated by

Fig.

40,

Fig.

39.

Fig.

40.

Loose boxes.

Cubic contents.

Examples.

are most frequently used.

They are made of galvanised iron, and fitted with brass pulley, line, and balance weight, and an

.external grating for the admission of air, but the principle of their construction

13

J inches by

6 inches can be applied to any opening.

Loose boxes should be ceiled on the underside of the rafters, if used for infirmaries, and are improved by a separate louvre ventilator to each roof, as shown on

Plate

3.

From

1500 to

2000 cubic feet of air per horse are required for loose boxes of this kind, as the fresh air is not so freely or so frequently admitted as in a stall.

In the series of designs of

" private stables," the various methods of ventilation which the

Author has ventured to advocate in this chapter, are illustrated, many been carried into most successful operation.

of them having

(

69

)

CHAPTER

VII.

FITTINGS

AND

DETAILS.

Separation in stables

,

Ramp panels pillars

Ramps box doors

— and

Cast and wrought iron details

Stall divisions

Portable posts

— partitions

Fixing posts

Safety

— bars

Loose box

Heel-posts partitions

— and

Loose

Door frames

Swing doors

Latches and locks

Locking bolt

Bales

Safety hooks

The

Malet bale suspender—

Safety catch

Cleating

Double cleating

Kicking-boards

Mangers

Manger posts

Wrought-iron mangers

Water fittings

Crib-biting

Safety mangers

Hayracks

Loose box sliding bars

Halter tying

Smithy fittings

Hearths, bellows, &c.

Vice bench

Harness-room

Heating apparatus

Boilers

Open boilers

Girth stretchers

Saddle

Saddle-horses

Clothes press

Harness airers

Harness brackets

Coachhouses, warming,

&c.

Coach-house doors

Hinges and fastenings

Gate stops

Corn-stores

Machines for food

Food supply

Corn-bins

Preparing food, motive power

Horse-power

Gas engine

Hoisting and gear

Jacob's ladder

Hayloft doors

Hanging and sliding doors

Water supply

Washing apparatus

Valves

Gas supply

Oil lamps.

Horses are separated tions, otherwise in the stables either by boarded parti- Separation in known as traversers, by poles, chiefly used in stables, cavalry stables, or by bales.

In first-class stables the partition usually consists of an ornamental heel-post, an iron grating, or ventilating ramp, as it is called, with a top rail j and intermediate and a sill which receives the bottom ends of

^the boards, the top ends of which fit into a groove in the underside of the intermediate rail, as shown on

Plate i8.

Fig.

2

Great varieties of these details are now manufactured in Cast and wrought as well as in cast iron, and are consequently lighter and wrought iron yet stronger than cast-iron fittings.

The objection that the

yo

STABLE BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Stall divisions.

Ramp panels.

former is more easily affected by oxidation is not sufficient to outweigh the advantages gained where strength is required, as, for instance, in the heel-post

; and the ironwork in a private gentleman's stables, where the best designs are used, and where they are not likely to suffer from neglect in the matter of cleaning and painting.

On the other hand, there is less opportunity for ornamental detail in wrought iron than in cast, and it impracticable to execute is much of the work, such as nameplates and numbers, the bosses of head-stall fastenings, and the heads of posts in wrought iron.

All iron, when used in stables, is largely affected by the salts of ammonia, and breaks out in a sort of tubercular eruption, the injury to the fittings by oxidation being only a question of time or neglect.

This is considerably modified if the iron is galvanised

— an expensive process, which renders wood, where it can be used, as in roofs, a more desirable material.

Examples of a simple description of stall-divisions will be found severally on

Plates

(Fig.

i), consisting of the i6

(Figs, i and

2), and

Plate 18 ordinary boarding only, with a top and bottom rail.

In the latter illustration the deficiency of a ventilating ramp is partially supplied by spaces beneath the sill but this is not so good as the through ventilation afforded at a higher level in the partition, shown in Fig.

2 on the same

Plate.

The maximum height of the middle rail in a stall being only

4 feet 6 inches (though it is often a foot lower) brings the horse into more immediate companionship with its neighbour by the use of an open ramp.

This is not, however, always desired, and panels or solid ends, shown on

Plate 18

(Fig.

4), are often fitted into the head of the partition.

It is supposed that the horses are irritated by seeing each other whilst feeding, and if the particular combination of hayrack and manger illustrated on

Plate 22

(Figs.

3 and feeding, are used, it

4), now considered to be the best for becomes a necessity, as a horse, having eaten his own allowance, may endeavour to obtain through the

;

1

FITTINGS

AND

DETAILS.

7 open bars the food of his neighbour in the adjoining stall, and thus upset the amicable relation which should exist between companions and neighbours.

Messrs.

Barton

&

Ballard, in this case, fill in the ordinary ramp bars, for a distance of about

3 feet 6 inches, with wood, to which sheet iron is screwed, and this can be easily removed.

are

Portable partitions, such as those on

Plate

19

(Figs.

6 and

7), made with clutch boxes, to ensure their easy removal,

Portable partitions.

Fig.

7 illustrates the stable fittings the barracks on the western heights of the officers' quarters at at

Dover, as fitted up by

Messrs. Barton and

Ballard.

It will be seen in this case that a clutch is rendered necessary at both ends of the ramp rail, as the iron column which does duty for the heel-post is carried up to support the roof; but on

Fig.

6, where the post is only of the ordinary height (about 6 feet), the ball / is made to unscrew, and the end of the rail being dropped into a slot in the post, is kept in position when the ball or finial is replaced.

The ramp or top rail, as the case may be, can be thus removed for the purpose of renewing any broken boards, without injuring the wall or disturbing the heel-post.

The sills of stall divisions are also made with a movable piece near the heel-post, to facilitate repairs.

An enlarged diagram of the socket of the portable post at

K, and the clutch box and socket at/and^ will be found on Plate 15

(Figs.

6 and

7).

The safety bar is a contrivance of a temporary nature for Safety bars, shutting off the which adjoining stalls and preventing any occupant may get loose inflicting injury on the other horses.

On

Plate

18

(Fig.

3) a safety bar from its sheath in the partition.

a is

.shown

partially drawn

When required, it is pulled out and dropped into a socket fixed into the wall.

Fig.

4 shows a similar arrangement having two bars.

Thus, for instance, any of the stalls in the plan on

Plate

7 might be converted into temporary loose boxes by this means, as indicated by the dotted lines.

It is suggested by the makers that when these bars are

Heel-posts and pillars.

Ramps and posts.

72

STABLE BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

partially drawn out they may be used as temporary brackets for harness.

The pillars of loose boxes and the heel-posts of stall divisions, which vary from

3

J to

6 inches in diameter, according to the description of horse for which they are used, are manufactured also in cast and wrought iron.

St.

Pancras Iron

Of the latter, the

Company claim to be the original makers.

The posts are made of solid welded plate iron, having bases cast round them forming a plinth to the height of

6 inches above the level of the paving, and adding, by this extra thickness, materially to its strength at that part which is the weakest, and also, from its position, the most liable to be fractured.

The ornamental heads of these posts are most frequently of

^g^gj.

jj.Qj^^ those of superior manufacture being of brass, whilst the rings for pillar reins, or chains, which are fixed in front of the post, or on either side, are also of brass or wrought iron, and will be found illustrated on

Plate 15 (Fig.

5).

A design providing a temporary post hook for hanging harness has been patented which goes back into a flush recess in the post when not in use

; but it appears to the

Author an unnecessary element of danger in the event of the hook being carelessly left projecting into the passage, which is likely to happen except in the case of loose boxes where they can be placed much higher than in stalls.

That the plainer these posts are made the better, seems admitted by the manufacturers, as partitions are made dispensing even with the finials to the posts, the ramp rail finishing with a flat cap or rounded end in place of a ball, as the leg shown on

Plate

15

(Figs.

3 and

4), so that may slide off if thrown over the partition by violent kicking.

These divisions are, however, unsightly in appearance, and in the plain round ball, at the height of 6 feet from the ground, there does not appear any great element of danger.

It is very different in the case of a projecting iron hook, or the safety bar before alluded to, when partially drawn out for the same purpose, and only a little over 4 feet from the ground.

FITTINGS

AND

DETAILS.

73

A design of the Author's for bedding posts in concrete will Fixing posts, be found on

Plate

15

(Fig.

i), open spaces being left in the casting for the purpose of working the concrete into the cavity in the base, and thus forming a key which holds it firmly in position, as the concrete hardens into a solid mass.

The system of setting the posts in concrete is not so general as that in which they are secured to a stone, but is to be strongly recommended, as all the ironwork should be fixed before the paving is laid, and it is an easy matter to adjust these posts when there is nothing but the concrete to deal with.

Portland or hard

York stone is most frequently used for the purpose.

The stone is partially bedded in or beneath the concrete

(Plate 15, Fig.

2), the posts being secured by a flange fastened by Lewis bolts to the stone, and leaded.

Although this method secures to posts a perfectly immovable position, so long as the stone remains sound and in its place, it has the disadvantages which often attend the letting of iron into stone, viz.

causing it to split from corrosion of the iron, or through frost.

Of course, if it is under concrete it is safer, and with the addition of the pavement above, it is not likely to be reached, in a stable^ by the frost.

I^oose box partitions are made like those of stalls when the Loose box boxes are grouped in the same building with them, and differ

Partitions.

only in the top rail, which is horizontal instead of being ramped, as shown on

Plate 16

(Fig. 3).

Tastes vary as to the depth of the grating forming the upper portion of a loose box enclosure, but it should be made lower in the door and front than in the divisional partitions, to give the attendant an uninterrupted view of the interior

; in the former it varies betwen

2 and

4 feet.

Where it adjoins a stall, by the introduction of an inverted ramp, as loose shown on

Plate 17

(Fig.

box is

3), the middle rail of the made to correspond in height and curve to the top rail of the stall division, and in this case the ironwork is about

2 feet

8 inches in its greatest depth at the heel-post, and about

6 inches at the head of the stall

; the woodwork below having a minimum of 4 feet

8 inches.

74

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

EITTING.

Loose box doors.

Door frames.

Swing doors.

Latches and locks.

The doors of loose boxes are made to roll back upon small wheels, as shown in Fig.

41, or they are hung to open outwards, or to swing both ways, but should never be constructed to open inwards, as

Fig.

41.

a horse often takes inside the door, up his position immediately and would effectually prevent its being opened.

The door should not be less than

3 feet

8 inches in width, the posts being fixed at 3 feet of

8J inches, thus giving an inch play on either side.

A a quarter considerable amount of stiffness is added to the doorway by a wrought-iron bar connecting the posts at the top, and forming an arch, as illustrated on

Plate 17 (Fig.

i).

The framework of the door may be made of iron, or have a partial mounting only of that material, as shown on

Plate 17 (Figs.

4 and

5).

An example of a swing door manufactured by

Messrs.

Denning

&

Cook will be found on

Plate

17

(Figs, i and

2), which has also the advantage of being taken down without the removal of any bolts or screws, simply by being lifted off the pivots.

The position of the doors depends upon the plan of the stable.

On

Plate i the doors are all placed in front, and they can be hinged or made to slide.

found the elevation of a loose

On

Plate 16

(Fig.

3) will be box with the door in this position, whilst on

Plate 17 (Fig.

3) a loose box is shown, supposed to occupy a corner of a stable (as on

Plates 10 and

11), the position of the door being at an angle of

45° with the partitions.

Considerable attention has been given to the latches, locks, and handles of loose box doors, with the view of avoiding injury to the horses in passing in and out, and also to prevent their opening the door from the inside, as they have been often known to do with the tongue.

A section and front view of a mortise safety latch which falls into a recess when the door is open, is

FITTINGS

AND

DETAILS.

75 shown by

Fig.

42

;

^ shows the position of the tongue when the door is shut, the section, which will be seen also by the dotted lines and a when the door is open.

on

A mortise lock and handle is also represented by

Fig.

43, the latter being flush

Fig.

43.

S Q Fig.

42.

fTS c

Fig.

44.

76

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

for the length of about

3 feet.

They are made of elm or oak, and should not be less than

2 inches thick.

Their position and dimensions are illustrated by

Fig. 45, the upper bale being regulated to the height of i foot ij inches from the level of the paving.

Fig. 45.

-«»«— -y

£lj'i sffci-k.

-T*

•«*

N

S

..

,

,

,..-^,.v:..r

r^

::aLccr,

) i-.

B/JLES.

Safety hooks.

Although the use of bales brings the horses in nearer relation to each other

— and with this view they are frequently alternated together at with partitions, so that the two horses running day are only divided at night by a bale

— their use can only be excused on the ground of want of space, or economy.

On the other hand, being constantly knocked about, they are soon worn out and destroyed

; they are also

(unless provided with proper safety hooks) dangerous to the horses

; as -they are in the habit of getting their legs over them when kicking, and in the absence of a provision of this kind it is better to use a rope which can be severed in emergency) than a chain.

Fig.

purpose.

46 is a diagram of a hook used for this

By striking the ring a in an upward direction, the fall hook which is hinged at b is disengaged, and the bales of their own weight to the ground, and release the horse, but considerable injury may be incurred before the

FITTINGS

AND

DETAILS.

77 arrival of assistance.

The

Malet bale-suspender fulfils the

The

Malet intention the of its inventor in this respect, horse without assistance by immediately releasing

^p/^"^^^" pender.

when he is cast.

It consists of a self-acting steel spring, a a^

Fig.

47, with an opening at

Fig. 46.

Fig.

47.

c through pressure which the bale b is dropped into position, and exerted at

^releases the bale.

The bronze medal of the Inventions Exhibition was awarded Colonel

Malet for this invention, which is especially adapted for cavalry, by whom the bale is much used

; and by means of a pole it can be appHed also to the swing bale illustrated by

Fig. 45.

Another design, in some respects of a still better pattern^ Safety catch, because it is more compact and offers less opportunity of injury to the horse, is manufactured by

Messrs.

Cottam and

Willmore, of

Winsley

Street, and is shown on

Fig.

47A.

In the event of to that an accident, the ring being pushed up from its position shown at

A, the catch

C releases the bolt

B from its casing, and allows the bale and wooden roller to fall

; by lifting the bale the bolt may be replaced in its former position, and the ring, now at

A\ forced down over the catch.

The boarding of loose boxes and stalls, or the cleating, as it Cleating.

is technically called, should be made of the best well-seasoned red deals, oak, teak, or pitch pine

; and, although the boards

Double dealing.

Kickingboards.

78

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

are nearly always placed in a vertical position, they are sometimes preferred horizontal, as on

Plate 56.

In this case eight deals form a very good height for a stall division, but a strong

Fig. 47A.

cast-iron grooved frame, or wrought channel iron, must be firmly secured in the wall to receive the ends of the boards.

This method does not recommend itself as superior to the ordinary fixing, although it has been suggested that

BALE.

f r 1

1 f

^

>!

'.

^ it is tougher in resisting the heels of the horses, and less likely to open at the joints.

This latter should not happen if the wood is sufficiently seasoned, is of the necessary thickness, and is properly grooved and tongued.

For the stalls of especially powerful should be horses the partitions made in two thicknesses of i^inch deal, one placed vertically and the other horizontally, both being in the ploughed and tongued and let into the post ordinary way.

An example of an extra strong stall division with cast-iron column

4 inches in diameter, fitted with harness-bracket and hooks, will be found on

Plate 18

(Fig.

i).

The boarding, 2J inches in thickness, is let into a stout castiron ramp rail and wrought-iron sill.

The extreme height is

7 feet, which is sufficient for all horses under

16 hands.

Where the walls of stalls are unprotected, either by cement or boarding, and the brickwork is consequently exposed to the heels of the horse occupying either of the end stalls, it is necessary to provide what are known as kicking-planks, consisting of series wide, of elm or oak boards about 4 feet in height, 12 inches and

\\ inch thick.

These should be firmly spiked to

FITTINGS

AND

DETAILS.

79 bond built timbers

(4 inches into the wall, by

3 inches, and

5 feet 6 inches long) and bedded in lime and hair, with three

5-inch spikes to each plank, the buried

3 inches bottom of the boards being below the level of the paving, as shown on

Plate 35.

The chopped food which is now so universally given to

Mange

.

horses, has simplified the construction of mangers, especially in large stables where the water is provided in troughs in the yard,

A plain trough of oak or elm boards, bound on the outer edge with sheet iron and firmly secured to the wall, may be considered the best and most economic manger for farm horses and the like, and they can be made for about half the cost of the simplest ones in iron.

A manger of this description, designed by the Author, is illustrated details of on

Plate

20

(Fig.

4), the enlarged which will be found on

Plate

21.

It will be seen that by an arrangement of the washers, the bolts which help to secure the manger to the wall, and at the same time prevent the horse from tossing out his food, are made to carry the rings for halter-tying.

This kind of manger is exceedingly strong, and dispenses with the inconvenient post and cross-bearer shown on

Plate the

20

(Fig.

3), which is, however, sometimes preferred manger runs along an external wall

; when but if the brickwork is

14 inches thick, are built in with and the bolts as well as the sailing courses cement for about four courses in height, the manger will be found sufficient to resist the most eccentric antics of any horse, and is especially suited for heavy contractors'

When horses, and for those of brewers and farmers.

the wooden posts are used they should be left rough Manger posts, and bedded in concrete, after having been charred or well coated twice with tar, otherwise the moisture, by finding its way along the surface of the wood, will cause its rapid decay.

Where bales are used and divisions between the manger in the absence of partitions rendered imperative, they should be capped with sheet iron let in flush with the surface and secured

80

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

to the wood with countersunk screws.

To this division one end of the bale can be firmly secured.

In the long undivided trough, often used in farm stables, depredations will mitted be comupon each other by the horses whilst feeding, and if they are not made at least

12 inches deep the food will be thrown out.

With a view to prevent this, they are sometimes

Wrought-iron mangers.

sloped inwards towards the top, but are liable in this shape to secrete the dirt and become foul.

A very good plain wrought-iron manger can be made after

^^ pattern on

Plate 20

(Fig.

i), but it should be galvanised, and this adds about t^^)

P^^ cent, to the cost of a similar one in plain in wrought iron, but is only very slightly in excess of one enamel.

A single trough manger, about

6 feet long, with a square overhead rack

2 feet

6 inches in length, which will be also found on

Plate

22

(Fig.

plain, or galvanised iron.

5), can be obtained in enamelled,

These mangers, although admirably fulfilling the requirements of strength and economy, are not appropriate for a gentleman's private stable, and those made of iron for this purpose are manufactured in great variety and treated in several ways.

They are made plain and painted they are galvanised only, or galvanised and painted; and they

; are also to be had partly enamelled and partly painted or galvanised, the inside being enamelled.

of the water-trough and manger-pan only

Much attention has also been given to mangers with a view to protect the horses from injuring their heads with the fittings beneath, for which purpose matched boarding, as shown on

Plate

23,

Fig.

5, carried depths, is used, and a down to various manger is also sold by

Messrs.

Cottam and Willmore, in which the fittings have a guard of wrought iron bars carried with an inward slope from the under side of the manger-plate to the paving.

These arrangements also prevent the bedding from being thrown up underneath the manger instead of being properly cleared out from the stall every day.

It would be impossible in a work of this kind to illustrate the

,

FITTINGS

AND

DETAILS.

8l numerous descriptions of mangers to be obtained from the several manufacturers, but upon

Plates 22 and

23 those in most general use will be found.

An ordinary manger of simple construction is illustrated on Water fittings

Plate 24,

Fig.

11, with waterpot, manger for chopped food or corn, and shallow under-head hayrack of wrought iron.

The water can be turned on and drained away through one orifice, and carried off by a waste pipe into the drain or into a central open gutter in the stall.

It is admitted into and withdrawn from the trough by a double-action cock, through a rose or by a flush inlet in the side, and a similar outlet at the bottom of the trough, as shown on

Plate

24.

The front of this manger has a large roll to prevent the mouth of the horse being cauglit, as it may be in some mangers, and the edges are overhung on the inner side to avoid any waste of the food.

Portable enamelled water-pots are the best for racers they can be removed when it is and hunters, as considered that the horses have had sufficient

; or if fixed, they can be fitted with drop covers.

The infirmary loose boxes, Z, on

Plate i, have provision for portable quadrant mangers, and they are easily washed and replaced or removed altogether for a time, if desirable.

The vice of crib-biting, if vice it can be always called, since it

Crib-biting, often originates in pain, has been provided against by many ingenious inventions.

That of

Professor Varnel's is one of the most practical, as it leaves the horse without anything to bite.

In this arrangement, when the manger is not pulled out for use, which is done by a strap as shown in Fig. 48, it fits into a recess, leaving a perfectly smooth surfaceas in Fig. 49.

Watertroughs and hayracks are made upon the same principle.

The dotted lines in the side view, Fig.

50, illustrate the position of the latter when not in use.

The space required at the back for the action of the manger may be increased in width to form a passage, as shown at the back of the boxes

M, on

Plate i the mangers being replenished from behind without disturbing the horse by entering the stable.

G

82

STABLE BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Another method designed for the confusion of crib-biters is that of a roller forming the outer edge of the manger, which revolves when the horse attempts to grasp it with his mouth.

Fig.

48.

Fig.

49.

Fig.

50.

ftiONr vii** sioa tf/c

Safety mangers.

The

Author is indebted to the

St.

Pancras Iron

Company for the illustration, Fig.

51, which shows an arrangement the special protection of the horse, and also illustrates for some

Fig.

51.

of the most recent fittings to stalls of a superior description.

This manger is provided with a wrought iron curved front, presenting a perfectly smooth surface of considerable depth, and gradually sloping to the wall.

FITTINGS

AND

DETAILS.

^l

As objections are frequently raised to the principle of underHayracks, head hayracks, and the height of the old-fashioned rack, considerably above the manger, is equally condemned, manufacturers have turned their attention to the construction of a rack on a level with the manger which possesses the happy medium, although by its use in stalls it cuts off the through ventilation, to a great extent, from those on either side.

Plate 22, Figs.

3 and

4, and

Plate

23,

Figs, i and

6, show four racks of this description, from which through the vertical bars, it will be seen that the horse feeds and by the use of a sloping grid, the hay is brought to the front of the rack.

These grids are usually provided with a pan to receive the hay seeds, and they are thus removed from the rack by a portable tray.

In loose boxes, horses are either given their entire freedom.

Loose boxes.

or they are secured to a head-stall fastening, or permitted hmited freedom by means of a sliding bar, as shown in Fig.

52, which, being placed between the a

S^i^i'^S b^'^s.

manger in one corner and the

^^' water-pot in the other, allows them to move from side to side.

This bar, which should be countersunk in a plate securely fastened to the wall, is made about 4 feet

6 inches in the bar, and

5 feet including the plate.

It is provided with a runner and chain which travels along the bar as the horse side.

moves to either

In ordinary loose boxes, however, such as those on

Plate 39, it is not usual to provide any other head-stall fastening bolt than a wrought-iron dressing ring secured with a f

-inch through the wall, a large detail of which will be found on

Plate 46.

A few of a superior character for more ornamental fittings are also shown on

Plate

19,

Figs.

8, 9, and

10.

Halter-tying weight boxes, for fixing beside the manger of a

Halter-tyiug.

loose box, or beneath it in a stall, together with several examples of rack-and-pillar chains, are illustrated on

Plates

19 and

24; these, which are of various kinds, are fully described in the

G

2

84

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Smithy fittings.

Hearths, bellows,

&c.

"

Descriptio7i of the Plates^'' and are all for the purpose of securing the horse in the stable or whilst it is being dressed, at the same time affording it sufficient freedom when it is feeding or at rest.

The fittings of a smithy are not of a numerous kind, the hearth being the most important.

This is usually a solid construction of brickwork, and is fully described in

Chapter

III., although a very heavy hood of iron is now frequently used as a substitute for brickwork.

A portable hearth, as shown in Fig.

53, is a great conyenience where a limited number of horses are kept.

It is known as the

"

Cyclops

" hearth, and may be fitted with a blower or ordinary bellows, or with a fan a simple hand-wheel and strap.

worked by means of

The latter produces a welding heat in less time than an ordinary bellows.

The two descriptions of bellows u^ed in smithies are illustrated by

Figs.

54 and

55

;

Fig.

55.

Fig.

S3.

Fig.

54.

Vice-bench.

the latter is now in most general use, and occupies the least area.

The anvil blocks should be

3 feet by i foot 6 inches in dimension, and consist of a block of yellow timber let into the floor and bedded in concrete to the depth of at least i foot

9 inches.

The smithy should also be fitted with a vice-bench of the

FITTINGS

AND

DETAILS.

«5 height of

3 feet i inch from the floor-level, and from

8 to lo feet in length, carried upon strong

3-inch bearers wedged into the wall, and supported on legs 3 inches square firmly secured into the floor.

A series of louvre slats, at least five in number, should be fixed in the space over the door, as shown on

Plate 45.

A very important section of the fittings for stables are those Harness in connection with the harness room, and of these the first

'^^^'^' which present themselves are those for keeping the harness free from damp.

Mildew, which is now universally admitted to be of vegetable growth, springing from spores carried by the air, and finding a congenial substance for development in damp leather, rapidly spreads over harness which is left in stables or harness rooms insufficiently warmed, damp, or unventilated.

out

No harness room can therefore be considered complete with- Heating some means by which a regular temperature can be mainapparatus, tained, boiler is and as a supply of hot water should always be ready, a one of the first requirements.

"

The

Loughborough," a view of which will be found on

Plate

31, Fig.

i-, has been designed, among many more, for this purpose, and can be further made to heat a row of pipes in an adjoining coach house or washer's room.

It can be built into a fire-place, as in Plate

8, or stand out in the open, and the sockets placed either at the back or the sides as may best suit the construction of the building and the position of the coil or line of pipes.

Fig.

56.

This boiler is

25 inches in height,

17 inches wide, and

13 inches deep.

For small harness rooms a close stove

(Fig.

Hg^irrTXli

56) about

10 inches wide by 18 inches deep, either of wrought or cast iron, with a portable boiler to contain sufficient

; from one to two gallons fitted to the top is but an open grate is always more useful for drying saddles or girths.

Convertible grates of this description are made, varying from

2 feet

6 inches to

3 feet in width, which

Boilers.

86

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Open boilers.

Girth stretchers.

can be altered into a dose fire at will

; they are also made for large rooms with a boiler for supplying hot water for gruel, &c., and separate provision for feeding hot water pipes for heating purposes.

In tramway and other stables of the kind, hot water for all purposes is obtained brick in cement, in a by means of an open boiler built in room set aside for the attendants, and used by the visiting veterinary surgeon, generally situated somewhere convenient to the loose boxes, as shown on

Plates

37 and

50.

In these cases the harness brackets are fixed in the stables.

They consist of a deal board

5 feet long, about

12 inches wide, and

\\ inch thick, chamfered at the edges and fitted with two stout ash pegs, two iron harness brackets, and two rein hooks.

Girth stretchers are very necessary articles for preserving the shape of the girths whilst they are drying, and are principally made of two patterns

; of varnished wood, having straps for six girths, as iron, shown on

Fig.

57, or hinged, and of enamelled made in the form of a screen for standing before an open grate, as in

Fig. 58.

Fig.

57.

Fig.

58.

Saddle airers.

Saddle airers are also required for keeping the saddle open and in its proper shape whilst being dried before the fire or out of doors.

They can be obtained painted, enamelled, or covered with leather.

Fig.

59 shows a wooden frame for this

FITTINGS

AND

DETAILS.

87 purpose, which can be had in polished oak or well-seasoned fir, and exhibits the saddle strained in its position for drying.

One in enamelled or galvanised iron is also illustrated by

Fio"

60.

Fig.

59.

Fig.

60.

1

A combination of a table and saddle-horse is a useful article Saddle-horses.

of furniture for harness rooms, and is shown open as a table by

Fig. 61, and closed as a saddle-horse by

Fig.

62.

The

Fig.

61.

Fig. 62 lower portion is fitted up as a cupboard with two drawers above it

Another description of harness-cleaning horse, constructed like the above to receive two riding saddles, one at each end, is shown on

Fig.

62,.

This is fitted with a wrought-iron shaft, having collar, pad, and bridle hooks for single and double harness.

It has also two flaps on hinges, making temporary shelves resting on bearers which are drawn out from beneath, and when closed form cupboards for tools.

A table or counter of a larger description is also used, and

Clothes press.

makes a capacious press for clothing where there is a large stud

88

STABLE BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Harness.

of horses.

These, as well as the horses, are sometimes fitted with casters for the convenience of moving about.

Bits, curbs, spurs, and the smaller ornamental details of harness, especially those of steel, are best preserved from damp

Fig.

63.

in glass cases lined with cloth.

In some establishments, as in the Queen's stables, whole suites of harness are thus provided for.

They may be fitted up over the fireplaces or in recesses, if possible upon an inner wall, to secure them from the action of damp.

A variety of the most modern brackets

Harness brackets.

for riding and driving harness are exhibited on

Plates 29 and

30, and fully more described in the

Description of

Plates.

They are made of enamelled iron, and to admit the freest ventilation through the several parts.

These can lining of the harness be fastened to the matched boarded room, and should bear beneath them the names of the several horses to which the harness belongs.

Coach-houses, warming,

.

fhe principal fittings

^^ccmWi^ apparatus, of a coach-house which depends to are some confined extent to on its the arrangement of the several buildings, but is most generally accomplished by means of hot-water pipes in connection with the harness-room boiler.

Coach-houses should be kept to a level temperature, as variations of heat and cold are as injurious to varnish as the and harness.

damp is to the lining and leather of carriages

A stove, as shown on

Plate

8, may be made to perform the double duty of heating both the harness-room and coach-house j or, if the ment, the latter plan does not admit of this arrangemay be warmed by an arterial circulation carried beneath the floor, or concentrated in a nest of pipes from the boiler of an open grate, as on

Plates 10 and

11, or from a closed stove.

FITTINGS

AND

DETAILS.

89

As much light is not desirable in a coach-house, a light over the entrance doors, as on

Plate

8, a portion of which may be made to swing, or a single window about

8 feet above the level of the ground, will be found sufficient.

The doors may be hung on hinges or made to slide, either Coach-house

^°*^^* past each other, or to the right and left, or the entrance may be closed by revolving shutters of iron or wood as shown on

Plate

12.

Either of these is more convenient than a central movable post.

for

Collinge's hinges, coach-houses and shown on

Plate 28

(Fig. 3) are the best Hinges and entrance-gates, and are made upon the fa.stenings.

principle of the ball-and-socket, the latter forming a receptacle for oil as shown on

Fig.

64, the overhanging lip serving to exclude the wet and dust.

For jambs or piers of stone or brickwork, they are manufactured with fangs, as shown on

Fig.

65.

Fastenings are used of various kinds, one of the best and

Fig.

64.

Fig.

65.

simplest being the ordinary locking bar, supplemented, where the doors are bolts at top and bottom.

hung on hinges^ by

An ingenious combination of the

St.

two has been registered by the

Pancras Iron

Company, and is illustrated on

Plate

26

(Fig.

fixes the door

2), including also a stop when open.

which

A bolt with a wheel attached to the bottom, works up and down in a

Fig.

66.

slide to allow of the door passing over rough ground, such as the granite paving of a yard, without raising the bolt, a socket being securely

Fig.

67.

let into the ground into which the wheel drops.

This wheel can be made to carry some of the weight of the door if the course over which it has to travel is sufficiently level, and the door may be opened and closed by lifting the bolt from the socket, which can be done bv the foot.

90

STABLE BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Gate stops.

Com stores.

The ordinary

" let down " stop is represented by

Fig. 66, and a catch suited only for an entrance gate is shown in Fig. 67.

The doors of smithies should be provided with

7

-inch tower bolts and

8-inch rim locks.

The accompanying table is for the purpose of ascertaining the size of a bin required for any quantity of food.

Barley

„ new meal

,,

Beans, whole

,,

Bran

Chaff bruised

Maize, large (whole)

..

,, ,, small

,,

Oats new

,,

,, bruised

Oat meal

Peas

(bruised)

,,.

.

^^^^^^^

("16 lbs.

oats

"I

(lolbs. chaff)

1,728 cubic inches

=

42-375

39*

000

27*500

50*^75

27-875

11-125

5-750

46-000

39-625

48

-

000

33-500

31-188

20

-

000

38-000

49"J25

13*000

Per cubic foot, lbs.

Per bushel, lbs.

Cubic feet per cwt.

54-37

50-04

35-28

65-27

35-76

14-27

7-38

59-02

50-84

6i-5»

42-98

40-01

25-66

48-75

63-03

16-68

2-643

2-872

4-073

2 -201

4-018

10*067

19-478

2*435

2-826

2-333

3-343

3*591

5-600

2-947

2'28l

8-615

FITTINGS

AND

DETAILS.

QI required capacity and plan of the store, will be found on

Plate

54

(Figs.

I,

2, and

3).

The bin is

6 feet square by

2 feet 8 inches high, and

(supposing the com to be within

2 inches of the top) contains 70 bushels.

boards

(8 inches deep)

As the corn diminishes in the bin, the may be removed at pleasure from the grooves.

The advantage of bruising oats has been long admitted as an

Machines for economy in feeding

\ when thus treated they have been found

^°°^to go one-half further in measure, whilst the horse is kept in better condition.

Machines are made for this purpose which will crush from i J to 6 cwt.

course a great deal per hour by manual power, and of more when worked by a gas engine, or by steam, or horse-power.

Some of these machines are made with a steel barrel, having two cutting edges and a cutting plate of hard metal fitted on each side, so that when turned in one direction it will kibble peas, beans, and maize, and if reversed will kibble barley and oats.

Chaff-cutters and mixing-machines of various sizes and power are also manufactured.

The latter consists of an archimedean screw, by which means the chaff and bruised corn are thoroughly turned over and mixed together.

The daily supply of mixed food for horses usually consists of Food supply.

16 lbs.

of corn and

10 lbs.

of chaff, making a total of 26 lbs.

A chest, therefore, such as that represented on

Plate

54

(Fig.

4), being

3 feet by

2 feet by

4 feet, contains 24 cubic feet, and as there are chest

1

3 lbs.

of this mixture to every cubic foot, this would hold a day's supply for a stable for

1 2 horses.

A chest to contain obtained in

4 bushels, as shown on

Plate

54

(Fig.

6) can be japanned or galvanised iron, and various others of different sizes and shapes, some being made with sloping lids.*

* The

Winchester bushel, which was the former standard for

England and originally kept at

Winchester, was measured by a law of

King Edgar observed throughout the kingdom.

It contained 2150-42 cubic inches and the gallon

268|cubic inches.

contains

2218-19 cubic inches.

The

Imperial standard bushel now used

The proportion of the latter to the former therefore is about 32 to 33, viz.,

32 pecks, bushels, or quarters of the measure are equal to 33 of the

Winchester measure.

new

92

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Corn bins.

Preparing food

; motive power.

Horse power.

Gas engine.

To arrive at the contents of a bin or chest in bushels, multiply the cubic contents by

0*779.

Corn bins are sometimes marked with a gauge, which gives at a glance their contents in bushels, horizontal lines of paint being drawn at every

5 bushels, with shorter intermediate lines marking the height of every bushel, so that a close approximate of the amount in the bin can be ascertained by levelling the corn to the nearest line of the gauge.

The fittings for cutting, bruising, and mixing the materials for food, depend on the means which are used for carrying out

Fig.

68.

these operations, and whether manual, horse, or engine power.

In stables where only a few horses are kept, the chaff is cut and the corn bruised by manual power only, and is usually passed down into the stable itself)

(sometimes into the corn-chest by means of a shoot, which may be made

(if desired) as shown on

Fig.

dZ, with a contrivance after the manner of a shot-belt to measure the exact amount of food required for each horse's meal.

Where horse-power is employed a large area has feet to be devoted to the track.

super is occupied.

At the Portsvvood stables, for instance, shown on

Plate

53,

Fig.

2, where two horses are employed, an area of

600

The gear for a single horse, illustrated wheel.

by

Fig.

69, is for a machine with a 36-inch driving

The pinion shaft revolves at a speed of

7 to i, and by means of a separate intermediate motion to

^2)h horse.

to i of the

Very sufficient much preferable as a motive power, where there is work for a horse, is a small gas engine.

At the stabling designed by the

Author for

120 horses, and illustrated on

Plate 39, a small Crossley addition to lifting the gas engine of

3J horse-power, in water for all purposes to a height of

30 feet, was successfully employed in working a hoist for lifting the sacks of corn to the upper floor, a large size chaff-cutter

;

FITTINGS

AND

DETAILS.

93 and heavy bruiser, and in lifting the corn into the hopper.

engine of this description can be worked at the cost of

An

\d.

per horse-power per hour, or \d.

per hour in excess of that for steam.

It has an advantage over the latter, and especially over horse-power,

Fig.

69.

both in economy of time and space.

It is always ready for use, and only requires the ignition of the gas jets, and a turn of the wheel, to set it in motion.

For heating ordinary boilers and furnaces any kind of coal may be used.

Anthracite is the best fuel for gas engines, on account of its freedom from vapours, and greater cleanliness.

The shafting,

2

J several pulleys inches in diameter

(with the position of the and brackets), for transmitting the power to the machinery on the upper floor, is shown on

Plates

47 and 48 the chaff-cutter making about

4J cvvts., bruising from 4 to 5 bushels per hour.

and the bruising mill

The hoist before referred to, connected with the motive

Hoisting and

^^^^" power by the ordinary shafting and gear, as shown on

Plate 47, or a wheel

(illustrated on

Plate work, as

8), or a small crane for light shown on

Plate 51, are generally considered sufficient for the purposes of lifting in ordinary stables, but where several loads of hay have to be stored in a limited timiC, and steam or a large gas engine is in use, a portable Jacob's ladder is a great saving.

This contrivance consists of two endless bands of leather Jacob's ladder, running parellel with each other, but not at too great a rate to prevent a truss of hay being placed on each of the pairs of arms, which project from the straps, and convey the trusses in continuous procession to the loft.

Where sliding doors are used (and they are much more conHayloft doors, venient for haylofts than those with hinges), it will be found

94

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

Hanging and sliding doors.

the best method to suspend them from a wrought-iron or steel rail, as shown on

Plate

25, Figs.

2,

3, and

4.

It will be seen from these diagrams that the supports can be placed sufficientlyclose to save a light rail from any deflection, being only

3 feet from centre to centre for a doorway

^^^'

7°-

6 feet in width.

At the same time jrni f^ they are acting as stops, and bring require the doors to their proper position when shut

; and if secured by the locking bar

(Fig.

70) they do not any other fastening, if the supports are placed in the positions indicated, for they cannot be right or left when the bar is fast.

pushed either to the

The ordinary way of hanging with the strap suspending from

^^^ secured to one side of the door only, so that the ends of the brackets may be passed in sliding has a tendency to tip the bottom of the door inwards, as it is not in equilibrium.

Another example of a sliding door will be found on

Plate 27, with wheels running on a rail secured to a sill framed with the door posts.

This door is also provided with two sliding inspection panels a., a, for viewing the inside of a stable without disturbing the inmates.

An enlarged detail of the wheel and frame will be found on the same plate.

Water supply.

The water required for the various purposes of stabling m.ay

be drawn from a well on the premises, or supplied from without.

In either case the same system of distribution will be required, although it is usual in the latter case, and where much water is consumed, to have a meter with a stop cock

(protected by a meter house) as some check upon the supply.

In the stables illustrated on

Plate

39 the pipes are shown in thick dotted black lines, the gas supply being represented in full strong lines.

The water in this instance is raised to a wroughtiron cistern having a capacity of

2000 gallons, and placed on the top of a tank house.

This is done by double-barrel brass pump, fitted with a means of a 3j-inch common vacuum vessel

FITTINGS

AND

DETAILS.

95 and

2-inch suction and delivery pipes.

The tank is situated

20 feet above the level of the yard, giving a pressure at the valve

/ in the yard

(allowing for friction) of about

15 lb.

per square inch.

A hand nozzle, marked a on

Fig.

71, with copper-riveted Washing

^PP^ratus hose b and gun-metal union for joint r, is provided, for the purpose of washing the carriages by aid of the above pressure, at any part of the yard.

Indiarubber hose of small dimensions may be used, but they are not equal in durability to those of leather made by

Messrs.

Merryweather and others.

Fig.

71.

Fig.

72.

The valve wells shown by

Fig.

72 are built' in brick, in cement, lined with a rendering f

-inch thick of Portland cement, and for the purpose of protection have a strong hinged cover of cast iron.

The valves consist of a loose screw-down hydrant with handValves, wheel and screwed outlet to receive the hose pipe

; also fitted with a gun-metal cap and chain.

The they are most convenient place for these valves, which can be used wherever a pressure is to be obtained sufficient fo^ the purpose of washing carriages, depends upon the plan of the stabling, and the position of the carriage to be washed will be limited only by the length of the hose, the latter being also used for washing out the stable and boxes and flushing the drains.

Gas is now most generally used for lighting where it is within

Gas supply, easy reach, and in large stables is laid on upon the principle shown on

Plate

39.

It will be seen that where a gas engine is

Oil lamps.

96

STABLE

BUILDING

AND

STABLE

FITTING.

used a supplementary meter a is attached, supplied one of larger size which registers the entire amount through and is placed immediately within the boundary of the premises.

The pipes are carried diameter as they from the principal main, diminishing in approach the several burners most remote from their supply.

diameter, the

All the burners gas engine of in this case are f inch in

3

J horse-power being equal to about

25.

Where the gas works are too far removed from the site of the stabling to can be be available, oil lamps, as shown on

Plate 31, Fig.

5, made to shift from stall to stall as the groom proceeds with his work, or can be moved by the aid of runners along the whole length of a stable.

same plate, made for burning

The safety candles, lamp, can be

Fig.

3, on treated in the this way if its use is preferred to oil.

1

(

97

)

INDEX.

A.

Aberdeen Corporation stables, 67

Abyssinian wells,

35

Accommodation,

15

Administrative block, 6

Admission of air,

62

Advantage of good paving, 57 of soft water, 48

Ants, destruction by, 2

Arches, relieving, 24

Area of stalls, 14

Arrangement of buildings, 4,

6, 7

Aspect,

I,

6

Attendants, number of, 15

B.

Bale-poles, 75

Bales,

Ballast,

75

23

Bedding posts,

Bellows, 84

Bevelled bricks,

79

51

Boarding, 78

Boilers, 85

Bolts through mangers,

79

Bosses and head stall rings, 83

Bowes,

Scott,

&

Co.'s closets, 36

Boxes for concrete,

22

Boxes for hunters, 16

Boyle's ventilators, 67

Brackets for harness,

86,

88

Brass fittings, 14

Breeding stables,

16

Bricks, bull-nose,

25 grooved,

5 gutter,

39 paving,

50 stock,

54

Broken boards, 71

C.

Cambridge Tramways,

29

Capping to mangers, &c.,

76,

79

Care in paving, 56

Carriage shed,

33

Cast iron, 69

Caulking,

43

Cavalry stables,

71

Ceilings and lofts,

66

Cement, 43 rendering,

33

Central depots, 18

Cesspool,

47

Chaff-cutting, 91

Chains,

83

Chamfered bricks, 52

H

98

INDEX.

Channel bricks,

39

Choice of site, i

Chopped food,

18, 19

Cistern,

95

Clay jointing,

43

Cleating,

77,

78 double, 78 horizontal,

78

Clinkers, 50

Closets, 36

Clothes press, 87

Clutch boxes,

71

Coach house doors,

89 houses, 88

Cobble stone paving, 58

Collinge's hinges, 89

Colouring bricks,

34

Columns, 29

Combination loose box and stalls,

15

Common rafters, 30

Concrete, 22 mixing, 22 piers,

22 slabs,

26 tubes,

35

Construction, 21 of louvres, 63

Convertible grates, 85 loose boxes,

14

Corn bins,

92 bruising,

91 chamber,

91 chest, 91 shoots, 92 stores,

17,

90 store window, 24

Corner bricks, 25 mangers, 81

Corrugated tiles,

65

Cost of gas engine,

93

Cottam and Willmore's traps, 46

Crosse and Blackwell's stables,

12,

29

Cubic capacity of bins, 92 of hay, 19 of hayloft, 18 of stables,

15,

61 feet of grain per cwt., 90

D.

Damp course, 24

Depeter work,

25

Description of fodder, 18 of timber, 77 of plates, xi.

Difficulties in towns, 10

Dimensions of stables,

13

Dinning and Cook's swing door,

74

Disposal of sewage,

47

Division walls,

27

Door frames,

74

Double cleating,

78 row of stalls,

14

Doulton and

Co.'s traps,

45

Downcast ventilation, 65

Down pipes, 25

Drainage, 38 in relation to paving,

39 of loose boxes,

40

Draughts, 62

Dressing-rings, 27

Dung-pits, 48

Duresco distemper, 33

Duty of tie-beams, 31

E.

Earthenware traps,

45

Economy of piers, 23

Elm mangers,

79

Entrance gates,

37

INDEX.

99

Examples of paving, 55

— of stables,

8

Excavations, 21

Extensions,

4

F.

Fanlights,

63

Farm stables,

17

Fastenings,

75,

94

Fencing, 37

Fireproof buildings,

27 floors, 27

Fitter's shop, 19

Fittings, cast and wrought-iron,

75,

94

Fitzwygram, General, arrangement by, 41

Fixing posts,

73

Flooring of corn store,

28

Fodder,

91

Footings, 22

Foundations, 21

Framed wood floor,

59

Frames for loose-box doors,

74

G.

Gabled roof, 31

Gates,

37

Gate stops, 90

Gas burners, 96 engines,

93 meters,

96 pipes, 96

• supply, 96

Gear for preparing fodder,

93

General remarks, i,

60

Girders,

29

Girth stretchers,

86

Glass tiles,

38

Glazed tiles,

33

Glazed ventilators,

68

Granite open gutters,

41 paving, 57

Gravel, 23

Grids for hay racks, 83

Grills for floors,

28

Guard bars for mangers, 80

H.

Halter tying, 83

Hanging doors, 19

Hard paviors,

54

Harness brackets,

88 cleaning horse, 87 maker's shop, 19 room,

85

Hay, cubic capacity,

19

Hayden's principle of ventilation,

67.

Hayloft, 17 doors,

94

Hayracks, 83

Head-post ventilators, 67

Hearth for smithy, 84

Heating,

85,

88

Heel-posts and pillars,

72

Herring-bone paving, 55 strutting, 29

Hitching's plaster,

28

Hock baths, 8

Hoisting gear,

93

Homestead,

3

Hood in smithy,

84

Hoop iron, 23

Horse for cleaning harness, 95

Horse-power, 92

Horses, improvement of,

2

Hunting stables,

10,

16

Hyatt's concrete floors,

28

Hydrants, 95

1 1 lOO

I.

Inclosure fences,

37 walls,

36

Inspection pits, 44 provision for,

8

Intermediate walls,

23

Iron corn-chests,

91 homesteads,

3 mangers, enamelled, 80 galvanised, 80 and painted,

80 painted,

80 stables, 2 syphon traps,

45 wrought and cast, 69

Isolation,

45

J.

Jacob's ladder,

94

Jointing pipes,

43 in cement,

43

K.

Kicking boards, 78

King-post roofs,

31

Kirkaldy's brick tests,

54

L.

Lairs, 8

Lamps,

96

Lantern ventilation,

63

Lean-to roof, 30

Leicester granite, 58

Level of floor,

55 of stalls,

42

Light and air,

62,

68

Lime whiting,

Living

34 accommodation,

7,

9,

Locking bar,

94 bolt,

75

Locks for loose boxes, 75

13

INDEX,

Lofts,

31

London

General

Omnibus pany's stables, 57, 64

Loose boxes, 73 box doors,

74 mangers, 8 size of,

16 with stalls,

15

Loughborough stove,

85

Com-

M.

Machinery,

91

Macclesfield stone,

58

Malet's bale suspender, 77

Manager's house and office,

20

Mangers, 79 with posts,

79 wrought iron,

80

Manholes, 44

Manure pit,

48

Measurement of food, 92

Mews,

II

Mixed food,

22

Mixing concrete,

22 machine,

91

Morse's water colour,

33

Mount

Sorrel granite,

58

N.

New hay, 19

Newry granite, 58

Nimrod on stables,

16

North London

Tramway stables, 32

Number of bricks per yard,

50, 51,

53> S4>

55

O.

Oak posts to mangers,

79

Oil lamps, 96

Omnibus stables, 20,

Open brick channels,

57

39

INDEX.

Open roofs, 31 surface channels, 39

Ornamental posts, 72

Outlet of gutters, 40

Outside walls, 23

P.

Panel to ramp, 70

Partitions,

70

Paving bricks,

50 granite,

57 metallic,

56 requirements of, 50 smithy,

59 without concrete, 56 wood, 58

Paviors, 51

Peat bog, 22

Perforated pipes, 67

Piers in concrete,

22

Pillars of loose boxes, 72

Pipes

(drain),

42

.

Pitch pine,

77

Plank flooring,

59

Planning, 6

Pointing,

34

Portable hearths,

84 iron stables, partitions,

71

3

• mangers,

81 ramps,

71 water pots, 72

Portswood stables, 92

Post hook,

72

Posts to lofts, 29

Pounds of grain per cubic foot,

90 per bushel,

Preparing ground for paving,

90

56

Private stables,

8

Provisional strength for roofs,

31

Pump,

95 lOI a.

Queen-post roofs,

31

Queen's stables,

88

R.

Racing stables,

16

Rain water, 48 drains, 48 tanks, 48

Ramps,

72 pipes, 25 panels, 70 rails,

70 rounded,

Recessing

23 down pipes and taps, 25

Rendall's glazing,

33

Rendering walls,

33

Requirements of horses,

I,

62

Revolving shutters, 12

Rock concrete

Roley rags, tubes,

35 number of yards super per ton,

58

Roofs, at

30

Ponder's

End, 30 common rafter, 30 king-post, 31 lean-to, 30 lofts in,

31 open, 31 queen-post, 31 wrought iron, 32 zinc,

32

Rooms over stables, 7

Rough cast, 25

Rounded corners,

23 ramps, 72

Saddle airer,

86 horse, 87 room,

7

S.

1 1

102

INDEX.

Safety bars,

71 catch,

77 hook,

77 mangers, 82

Sailing courses,

79

Separation in stalls,

69

Shafting, &c.,

93

Shape of buildings, 2

Sherrington ventilators,

68

Shirley stables, 18

Shoot for corn, 92

Simplicity of construction,

5

Size of loose box,

36

15

Sizes of bricks, 50, 52,

Slate urinals,

54 wSliding bar,

83 doors,

74

Slope in stalls, 42, 57

Smithy, 26 fittings, 84

Soft water drains, 48 tank,

48

Southampton Tramway stables, 18

Stable doors,

94

Stables, i for hunters, 10 for racers, m mews,

1

16 in

Sackville street,

7 in the countiy,

9 in towns, 10 on upper floors, 12, 29

Stall divisions,

70

Stalls,

13,

17 with loose boxes,

Steep inclines,

"

Stonehenge,"

42

10

15

Stone walls, 24 ware damp courses, 24

Stop ends to gutters,

40

Stopping openings,

60

St.

Pancras

Iron

Company's stalls,

82

Stuart's metallic paving,

56

Suburban stables,

10

Superficial area,

14

Supervision, importance of,

49

Surface drainage,

48

Surgery, 19

Suspended doors,

94

Syphon traps,

45

T.

Table of capacity of grain,

90 of vitrified bricks,

54

Tank, 95

Tattersall,

Mr.

G., on hunting stables, 16

Temperature of stables,

61

Templates, 32

Thames ballast,

23

Thickness of walls,

23

Through ventilation,

65

Timber in roofs,

31

Town and country stables, 9,

Tramway stables, 19

Treatment of foundations, 21

Trough closets, 36

Tuck pointing,

34

10

U.

Underground drainage,

43

Upper floors,

12,

69

Urinals,

36

V.

Valves, 96

Various kinds of stone paving,

58

Velocity in drains,

43

Ventilating heel-posts, 67 partitions,

30 tiles,

65 upper floors, 67

Ventilation,

45,

60

Vestibule of stables,

Vice bench,

84

Vitrified bricks,

53

7

W.

Walls on arches,

24

Washable distemper,

Washer's room,

9

Washing carriages,

95 room,

7

Water fittings, 81 pot, 81

-^,1 supply,

95

Weight and capacity of grain,

90

Well, of stock bricks,

55 of vitrified bricks,

54

34 for value,

95

INDEX.

103

Wilkinson's paving,

Wood floors,

28

39 paving,

58

Wrought iron capping,

76,

• covered surface

79 gutters.

41 mangers, 80 roofs,

32 surface gutters,

39

Yard gullies,

45

Yards,

4

Y.

Z.

Zigzag drainage,

52

Zinc roofs, 32

LONDON

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Library of Veterinaiy

Schoci of Veterinary

IWedicine

Medicine at d

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