– MATERIALS DIVISION II SPECIAL PROVISION COPIED NOTES (SPCNs),

– MATERIALS DIVISION II  SPECIAL PROVISION COPIED NOTES (SPCNs),
Today’s Date: April 1, 2016
UPDATED Apr 1, 2016
Last Saved: 04/01/2016 2:40 PM
DIVISION II – MATERIALS
SPECIAL PROVISION COPIED NOTES (SPCNs),
SPECIAL PROVISION (SPs) and SUPPLEMENTAL
SPECIFICATIONS (SSs)
VDOT web file users (“pdf”) may obtain more information and other resources by downloading the
®
accompanying “zip” file (compressed WORD files).
http://www.virginiadot.org/business/resources/const/07ImpRev.zip
These sheets may also be found at the following locations:
Global Web Access: http://www.virginiadot.org/business/const/spec-default.asp
VDOT Only Access: https://outsidevdot.cov.virginia.gov/P0JQP/2007_Standard_Specifications/Forms/AF.aspx
________________________________________________________
TABLE OF CONTENTS
———— STANDARD 200 SERIES SPCNs, SPs and SSs ———— .................................................... 2-1
(c200b00)
CRUSHED GLASS
1-17-08c (SPCN) .............................................................................. 2-2
(c211hg0)
POLISHING AGGREGATE IN ASPHALT CONCRETE 10-7-09 (SPCN) ........................ 2-2
S208B00 - CRUSHED HYDRAULIC CEMENT CONCRETE (CHCC)
S211HP0 - SECTION 211—ASPHALT CONCRETE
1-29-16 ........................................................... 2-7
S223AG2 - CORROSION RESISTANT REINFORCING STEEL
SS20001 - SUPP. SEC. 200—GENERAL
1-14-08c ............................... 2-4
1-24-12 ......................................... 2-29
9-28-12 .......................................................................... 2-30
SS20702 - SUPP. SECTION 207—SELECT MATERIAL
2-19-14 .................................................. 2-32
SS20802 - SUPP. SEC. 208—SUBBASE & AGGREGATE BASE MATERIAL 2-19-14 .................. 2-33
SS21001 - SUPP. SEC. 210—ASPHALT MATERIALS
9-3-14 ...................................................... 2-34
SS21113 - SUPP. SEC. 211—ASPHALT CONCRETE 12-4-15........................................................ 2-41
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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SS21202 - SUPP. SECTION 212—JOINT MATERIALS
Today’s Date: April 1, 2016
6-28-11 ................................................... 2-61
SS21402 - SUPP. SEC. 214—HYDRAULIC CEMENT 1-28-08 ........................................................ 2-62
SS21501 - SUPP. SEC. 215—HYDRAULIC CEMENT CONCRETE ADMIXTURES 1-28-08 .......... 2-63
SS21706 - SUPP. SEC. 217—HYDRAULIC CEMENT CONCRETE
SS22101 - SUPP. SEC. 221—GUARDRAIL
7-29-13 .................................. 2-64
1-6-12 ........................................................................ 2-75
SS22201 - SUPP. SEC. 222—MASONRY UNITS
6-28-11.............................................................. 2-76
SS22301 - SUPP. SEC. 223—STEEL REINFORCEMENT
11-4-14................................................. 2-77
SS22401 - SUPP. SEC. 224—CASTINGS 11-15-07 ......................................................................... 2-79
SS22601 - SUPP. SECTION 226—STRUCTURAL STEEL 12-16-08 ............................................... 2-80
SS23203 - SUPP. SEC. 232—PIPE AND PIPE ARCHES
5-17-12 ................................................... 2-81
SS23401 - SUPP. SEC. 234—GLASS BEADS FOR REFLECT. TRAFF. MARKINGS 10-16-14 ...... 2-82
SS23802 - SUPP. SEC. SECTION 238—ELECTRICAL & SIGNAL COMPONENTS 3-4-08 .......... 2-83
SS24504 - SUPP. SEC. 245—GEOSYNTHETICS & LOW PERM. LINERS 9-25-15 ....................... 2-85
SS24701 - SUPP. SEC. 247— REFLECTIVE SHEETING
2-10-11 ................................................. 2-90
SS24807 - SUPP. SEC. 248—STONE MATRIX ASPHALT CONCRETE 12-2-14 ........................... 2-96
———— CNSP SELECT USE 200 SERIES SPCNs and SPs ———— ............................................ 2-105
SM-22.5 ASPHALT CONC. MIXTURE (Bristol Dist. Coal Counties Only) 10-21-08a (SPCN) ....... 2-106
THIN HOT MIX ASPHALT CONCRETE OVERLAY
7-8-14b .......................................................... 2-107
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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Today’s Date: April 1, 2016
12-
———— STANDARD 200 SERIES SPCNs, SPs and SSs ————
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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GUIDELINES — FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING CRUSHED GLASS TO BE A SEPARATE PAY ITEM. A SEPARATE
PROJECT-SPECIFIC SPCN MUST BE INCLUDED THAT SPECIFIES FOR WHAT AND WHERE THE CRUSHED
GLASS IS USED.
(c200b00-0708)
CRUSHED GLASS - When not incorporated into the measurement and payment of
other items by specification, crushed glass will be measured and paid for at the
contract unit price per ton, which shall be full compensation for furnishing, placing,
manipulating and compacting. Deliveries of crushed glass shall conform to Section
109.01(a) of the Specifications.
Payment will be made as follows:
Pay Item
Pay Unit
Crushed glass
Ton
1-17-08c (SPCN)
GUIDELINES – USE WITH ASPHALT PLANT MIX IN BRISTOL, SALEM, AND STAUNTON DISTRICTS.
(c211hg0-1209)
POLISHING AGGREGATE IN ASPHALT CONCRETE - Section 211—Asphalt
Concrete of the Specifications is amended as follows:
Section 211.02—Materials is amended by replacing (e) with the following:
Fine or coarse aggregate that tend to polish under traffic will not be
permitted in any final surface exposed to traffic except as permitted
within the limits of Section 211.04(a) and (b) of the Specifications and as
designated by the Engineer or as permitted elsewhere in these
Specifications.
Section 211.04—Asphalt Concrete Mixtures is amended by replacing (a)
and (b) with the following:
Asphalt concrete mixtures shall conform to the requirements of Table II14 and the following:
(a) Types SM-9.0A, SM-9.0D, SM-9.0E, SM-9.5A, SM-9.5D and
SM-9.5E asphalt concrete shall consist of crushed stone,
crushed slag, or crushed gravel and fine aggregate, slag or
stone screenings or a combination thereof combined with asphalt
cement.
NOTE: For all surface mixes, except where otherwise noted, no
more than 5 percent of all aggregate retained on the No. 4 sieve
and no more than 20 percent of the total aggregate may be
polish susceptible. At the discretion of the Engineer, a SM-9.5AL
may be specified and polish susceptible aggregates may be
used (without percentage limits).
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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(b) Types SM-12.5A, SM-12.5D, SM-12.5E, IM-19.0A, IM-19.0D,
and IM-19.0E asphalt concrete shall consist of crushed stone,
crushed slag, or crushed gravel and fine aggregate, slag or
stone screenings or a combination thereof combined with asphalt
cement.
NOTE: At the discretion of the Engineer, an intermediate mix
may be designated as either a SM-19.0A or SM-19.0D. For SM12.5 and SM-19.0 surface mixes, no more than 5 percent of the
aggregate retained on the No. 4 sieve may be polish susceptible.
All material passing the No. 4 sieve may be polish susceptible.
No more than 35 percent of the total aggregate composition
(polish and non-polish susceptible) shall be passing the No. 8
sieve. At the discretion of the Engineer, a SM-12.5AL may be
specified and polish susceptible aggregates may be used
(without percentage limits).
10-7-09 (SPCN)
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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GUIDELINES — USE WHEN REQUESTED BY THE DESIGNER.
S208B00-0708
VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
SPECIAL PROVISION FOR
CRUSHED HYDRAULIC CEMENT CONCRETE (CHCC)
(USED AS SUBBASE AND AGGREGATE BASE MATERIAL)
January 14, 2008c
SECTION 208—SUBBASE AND AGGREGATE BASE MATERIAL of the Specifications is amended as
follows:
Section 208.02—Materials is replaced with the following:
(a) Subbase material may consist of any mixture of natural or crushed gravel, crushed stone or
slag, crushed hydraulic cement concrete (CHCC), natural or crushed sand; with or without
soil mortar. Subbase material may be used in a stabilized or unstabilized form.
(b) Aggregate base material may be designated as Type I or Type II as follows: Type I shall
consist of crushed stone, crushed slag, crushed hydraulic cement concrete (CHCC), crushed
gravel or any combination of these material: with or without soil mortar or other admixtures.
Crushed gravel shall consist of particles of which at least 90 percent by weight of the material
retained on the No. 10 sieve shall have at least one face fractured by artificial crushing. Type
II shall consist of gravel, stone, or slag screening; fine aggregate and crushed coarse
aggregate; sand-clay-gravel mixtures; crushed hydraulic cement concrete; or any
combination of these materials; with or without soil mortar or other admixtures. Aggregate
base materials Type I or II may be used in a stabilized or unstabilized form.
(c) Crushed Hydraulic Cement Concrete shall not be used as Subbase or aggregate base
material when any subsurface drainage system, such as standard underdrains (UD-4 or UD5) and /or a stabilized open graded aggregate drainage layer (OGDL) is present, except
when the CHCC is cement stabilized.
Section 208.03(b) Atterberg Limits is amended to add the following:
Plasticity: Subbase and aggregate base materials shall be either non-plastic (PI=0) or shall
conform to the requirements of Table II-11 of the Specifications when tested in
accordance with VTM-7. If the material is classified as non-plastic (PI=0), in
accordance with VTM-7, the Liquid Limit requirement will be waived. Exceptions to
this provision are noted as follows:
1. 100% CHCC and 20% or less CHCC Blends will be tested and subject to penalty
as noted in Table II-11 of the Specifications for the plasticity index, excluding
Liquid Limit penalties.
2. Greater than 20% CHCC Blends will follow testing guidelines as set forth in
Section 208.06 (b) for Atterburg limits.
Section 208.03 is amended to add the following:
(h) Deleterious Material: The quantity of deleterious materials present in stockpiles of Crushed
Hydraulic Cement Concrete, to be used in blending with virgin aggregates or as 100 percent
CHCC, shall not exceed the following values:
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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MATERIAL
Asphalt Concrete
Glass and Metals
Wood, Plastic, Brick and other foreign matter
PERCENT BY WEIGHT (MASS)
5.0
5.0
0.5
Section 208.04—Job-Mix Formula is replaced by the following:
(a) The Contractor shall submit, or shall have the source of supply submit, for the Engineer’s
approval, a job-mix formula for each mixture to be supplied for the project prior to starting
work. The formula shall be within the design range specified in Table II-9 of the
Specifications. If unsatisfactory results or other conditions make it necessary, the Contractor
shall prepare and submit a new job-mix formula for approval.
(b) A job mix formula shall be submitted for the engineer’s approval for each category of CHCC
mixture used. Designated categories shall indicate the mixture percentage of CHCC used
according to the following criteria:
1. Category 1: 100% CHCC
Category 2: 20% or less CHCC (
20%)
Category 3: greater than 20% CHCC but less than 100% CHCC (>20%<100%)
2. The quantity of CHCC in the mix shall be expressed as a percentage of the total mix.
Section 208.06—Acceptance is replaced with the following:
(a) The Contractor shall provide the quality assurance necessary for the Engineer to determine
conformance to the required grading and Atterberg limits of subbase and aggregate base
material.
Sampling and testing for determination of grading and Atterberg limits shall be performed by
the Contractor. The Contractor shall provide copies of test results to the Department on
forms furnished by the Department and shall maintain appropriate current quality control
charts. The Department will perform independent monitor tests at a laboratory of its choice. If
there is a statistically significant difference between the two sets of results, an investigation
will be made to determine the reason for the difference. If it is determined that the material
does not conform to the requirements of the Contract, the material will be rejected or a
payment adjustment will be made in accordance with the requirements of Section 208.08 of
the Specifications.
Determination of grading and Atterberg limits will be based on a mean of the results of tests
performed on four samples taken in a stratified random manner from each 2,000-ton lot. Lots
of 4,000 tons may be used when the normal daily production of the source from which the
material being obtained is more than 2,000 tons. Unless otherwise approved, samples shall
be obtained from the approximate center of truckloads of material. Any statistically
acceptable method of randomization may be used to determine the time and location of the
stratified random sample to be taken. The Department shall be advised of the method to be
used prior to the beginning of production.
A lot will be considered acceptable for grading if the mean of the test results is within the
deviation from the job-mix formula specified in Table II-10 of the Specifications.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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A lot will be considered acceptable for Atterberg limits if the mean of the test results is less
than the maximum for the liquid limit and plasticity index specified in Table II-11 of the
Specifications.
If the liquid limit exceeds 30 or the plasticity index exceeds 6 for Type I base material or No.
19 subbase material; or the plasticity index exceeds 9 for Type II base material or subbase
materials No. 20, 21, 21A, 21B, or 22 on any individual sample; that portion of the lot from
which the sample was taken will be considered a separate part of the lot and shall be
removed from the road.
If either the amount of material in the lot is less than 2,000 tons (4,000 tons if applicable), the
job-mix formula is modified within a lot, or a portion of the lot is rejected on the basis of
individual test results, the mean test results of the samples taken will be compared to the jobmix formula with the tolerances given in Tables II-10 and II-11 of the Specifications for the
number of tests performed.
If a visual examination reveals that material in any load is obviously contaminated or
segregated, the load will be rejected without additional sampling or testing of the lot. If it is
necessary to determine grading or Atterberg limits of material in an individual load, one
sample (taken from the load) will be tested and the results compared to the job-mix formula
with the tolerances given in Tables II-10 and II-11 of the Specifications for one test. Results
obtained in the testing of a specific individual load will apply only to the load in question.
(b) The following applies specifically to the use of Crushed Hydraulic Cement Concrete (CHCC)
mixtures. All provisions for acceptance of these products shall conform to the same criteria
as in (a) herein with the following additions:
1. 100% CHCC shall conform to the requirements of this special provision.
2. 20% or Less CHCC Blends shall conform to the requirements of this special provision.
3. Greater than 20% CHCC Blends shall conform to the following:
a. The virgin aggregate portion of the blend will be tested for Atterberg limits, prior to
CHCC blending.
b. Price adjustments for Liquid Limit and the Plasticity Index of the virgin aggregates
used in the blend with CHCC shall be in accordance with Table II-11 of the
Specifications.
c.
No additional testing for Liquid Limit or Plasticity Index will be required on the final
blended product.
4. All shipments of products containing CHCC must be designated on the shipping ticket
(scale ticket) by the use of the letter “R”. Examples: [22R, 21AR and 21BR] for:
Aggregate Base material, Type I or Subbase materials.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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GUIDELINES — FOR SPECIFICALLY CHOSEN PILOT PROJECTS IN THE 2016 PLANT MIX PAVING SEASON.
INCLUDE S315HP0 SuperPave -Asphalt Conc Place.
S211HP0-0116
VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
SPECIAL PROVISION FOR
SECTION 211—ASPHALT CONCRETE
January 29, 2016
SECTION 211—ASPHALT CONCRETE of the Specifications is replaced with the following:
211.01—Description
Asphalt concrete shall consist of a combination of mineral aggregate and asphalt material mixed
mechanically in a plant specifically designed for such purpose.
An equivalent single-axle load (ESAL) will be established by the Engineer, and SUPERPAVE mix types
may be specified as one of the types listed as follows:
Mix Type
Equivalent Single-Axle Load
Minimum Asphalt
Aggregate Nominal
2
1
(ESAL) Range (millions)
Performance Grade (PG)
Maximum Size
SM-9.0A
0 to 3
64S-16
3/8 in
SM-9.0D
3 to 10
64H-16
3/8 in
SM-9.0E
Above 10
64E-22
3/8 in
SM-9.5A
0 to 3
64S-16
3/8 in
SM-9.5D
3 to 10
64H-16
3/8 in
SM-9.5E
Above 10
64E-22
3/8 in
SM-12.5A
0 to 3
64S-16
1/2 in
SM-12.5D
3 to 10
64H-16
1/2 in
SM-12.5E
Above 10
64E-22
1/2 in
IM-19.0A
Less than 10
64S-16
3/4 in
IM-19.0D
10 to 20
64H-16
3/4 in
IM-19.0E
20 and above
64E-22
3/4 in
BM-25.0A
All ranges
64S-16
1 in
BM-25.0D
Above 10
64H-16
1 in
1
Nominal Maximum Size is defined as one sieve size larger than the first sieve to retain more than 10
percent aggregate.
2
Minimum Asphalt Performance Grade (PG) is defined as the minimum binder performance grade
for the job mixes as determined by AASHTO T170 or AASHTOM332.
Note: SM = Surface Mixture; IM = Intermediate Mixture; BM = Base Mixture
Asphalt concrete shall conform to the requirements for the mix type designated on the plans or elsewhere
in the contract for use
At the Contractor’s option, an approved Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) additive or process may be used to
produce the asphalt concrete (AC) mix type designated.
211.02—Materials
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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(a) Asphalt materials shall conform to the requirements of Section 210 except asphalt cement
materials shall be performance graded (PG) in accordance with the requirements of AASHTO
M332. In addition, asphalt mixtures with the E designation shall meet the asphalt cement
requirements in Section 211.04(e)1.
(b) Coarse aggregate shall be Grade A or B conforming to the requirements, except for grading,
of Section 203 for quality. In addition, the coarse aggregate sizes retained on and above the
No. 4 sieve shall comply with the coarse aggregate requirements in Table II-12A. Flat and
elongated (F&E) particles shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of ASTM D 4791,
and coarse aggregate angularity (CAA) shall only be tested on crushed gravel in accordance
with the requirements of ASTM D 5821.
(c) Fine aggregate shall conform to the requirements, except for grading, of Section 202 for
quality and the fine aggregate requirements in Table II-12A. Fine aggregate angularity (FAA)
shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of AASHTO T 304 (Method A) and the
sand equivalent (SE) shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of AASHTO T 176.
(d) After a gradation test is performed:
1. If 10 percent or more of the material is retained on the No. 4 sieve, that portion shall be
tested in accordance with the requirements for coarse aggregate.
2. If 10 percent or more of the material passes the No. 4 sieve, that portion shall be tested for
SE.
3. If 10 percent or more of the material passes the No. 8 sieve, that portion shall be tested for
FAA.
(e) Fine or coarse aggregates that tend to polish under traffic will not be permitted in any final
surface exposed to traffic except in areas where the two-way average daily traffic is less than
750 vehicles per day and as permitted elsewhere in these Specifications.
TABLE II-12A
Aggregate Properties
Mix Type
Coarse Aggregate Properties
CAA
ASTM D4791
1 fractured
2 fractured
F & E “(5:1)
face
faces
% by weight
Fine Aggregate Properties
SE
FAA
SM-9.0 A
SM-9.0 D
SM-9.0 E
85% min.
85% min.
95% min.
80% min.
80% min.
90% min.
10% max.
1
10% max.
1
10% max.
1
40% min.
45% min.
45% min.
40% min.
45% min.
45% min.
SM-9.5 A
SM-9.5 D
SM-9.5 E
85% min.
85% min.
95% min.
80% min.
80% min.
90% min.
10% max.
1
10% max.
1
10% max.
1
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
SM-12.5 A
SM-12.5 D
SM-12.5 E
85% min.
85% min.
95% min.
80% min.
80% min.
90% min.
10% max.
1
10% max.
1
10% max.
1
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
IM-19.0 A
IM-19.0 D
IM-19.0 E
85% min.
95% min.
95% min.
80% min.
90% min.
90% min.
10% max.
1
10% max.
1
10% max.
1
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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BM-25.0 A
BM-25.0 D
80% min.
80% min.
UPDATED Apr 1, 2016
1
75% min.
75% min.
10% max.
1
10% max.
Today’s Date: April 1, 2016
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
1
10 percent measured at 5:1 on maximum to minimum dimensions
(f) Mineral filler shall conform to the requirements of Section 201.
(g) Aggregate for asphalt concrete shall be provided in sufficient sizes and amounts to produce
a uniform mixture. The Contractor shall indicate on the proposed job-mix formula the separate
approximate sizes of aggregate to be used.
Where segregation or nonuniformity is evident in the finished pavement, the Engineer reserves
the right to require the Contractor to discontinue the use of crusher run or aggregate blends
and to furnish separate sizes of open-graded aggregate material.
(h) An antistripping additive shall be used in all asphalt mixes. It may be hydrated lime or a
chemical additive from the VDOT Materials Division Approved Products List No. 7 or a
combination of both. The approved chemical additive shall be added at a rate of not less than
0.30 percent by weight of the total asphalt content of the mixture.
The mixture shall produce a tensile strength ratio (TSR) of not less than 0.80 for the design and
production tests. The TSR shall be determined in accordance with AASHTO T283, including a
freeze-thaw cycle (4-inch specimens compacted with a Marshall Hammer or 3.5 by 6-inch
specimens when compacted with a gyratory compactor); except that the 16-hour curing time
requirement and the 72 to 96-hour storage period will not be enforced.by the Department.
Design tests shall use the same materials that are to be used in the production mix and shall be
conducted in a laboratory approved by the Department.
When a chemical additive is used, it shall be added to the asphalt cement prior to the
introduction of the cement into the mix. Any chemical additive or particular concentration of
chemical additive found to be harmful to the asphalt material or that changes the original
asphalt binder performance grade (PG) shall not be used.
(i) Hydrated lime shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C977. Hydrated lime shall be
added at a rate of not less than 1 percent by weight of the total dry aggregate.
A separate bin or tank and feeder system shall be provided to store and accurately proportion
the dry or slurried lime into the aggregate.. The lime and aggregate shall be mixed by pugmill
or other Department approved means to achieve a uniform lime coating of the aggregate prior
to entering the drier. If lime is added in dry form, the aggregate shall contain at least 3 percent
free moisture. The Department will not permit the stockpiling of lime treated aggregate.
The feeder system shall be controlled by a proportioning device, which shall be accurate to
within 10 percent of the specified amount. The proportioning device shall have a convenient
and accurate means of calibration. A flow indicator or sensor shall be provided with the
proportioning device and interlocked with the plant controls, aggregate feed or weigh system,
such that production of the mixture shall be consistently maintained and, if there is a stoppage
of the lime feed, interrupted.
The method of introducing and mixing the lime and aggregate shall be subject to approval by
the Engineer prior to beginning production.
(j) Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) material may be used as a component material of
asphalt mixtures in conformance with the following:
1. Asphalt surface, intermediate and base mixtures containing RAP (but without RAS) should
use the performance grade (PG) of asphalt cement as indicated in Table II-I4A, however,
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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the choice of PG to use in the mix shall be the responsibility of the Contractor in order to
meet the requirements of Section 211.01.
2. The final asphalt mixture shall conform to the requirements for the type specified.
3. During the production process, RAP material shall not be allowed to contact open flame.
4. RAP material shall be handled, hauled, and stored in a manner that will minimize
contamination. Further, the material shall be stockpiled and used in such manner that
variable asphalt contents and asphalt penetration values will not adversely affect the
consistency of the mixture.
5. RAP shall be processed in such a manner as to ensure that the maximum top size particle
of material introduced into the mix shall be 2 inches. The Engineer may require smaller
sized particles to be introduced into the mix if the reclaimed particles are not broken down
or uniformly distributed throughout the mixture during heating and mixing.
(k) Reclaimed Asphalt Shingles (RAS) – Tear-off RAS Materials in Asphalt Concrete
1. Asphalt surface, intermediate, and base mixtures containing Tear-off RAS Materials shall
meet the requirements of Section 211.01 and 211.03 of the Specifications.
2. Tear-off RAS Materials shall be discarded shingle scrap from the re-roofing of domestic
buildings. These tear-offs shall have been produced by the manufacturing process for
roofing shingles.
Tear-off RAS materials shall contain less than 3.0 percent foreign materials such as paper,
roofing nails, wood, or metal flashing. Materials shall be shredded prior to being
incorporated in the AC mixture so that at least 99 percent of the shredded prior to being
incorporated in the AC mixture so that at least 99 percent of the shredded pieces passes
the ½ inch (12.5 mm) sieve and at least 80 percent passed the #4 (4.75 mm) sieve.
Tear-off RAS materials shall not have asbestos containing material (ACM) as defined by
the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which is less
than 1 percent asbestos. The Contractor shall furnish a certification obtained from the
recycler tat Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) tests were performed on random samples of
RAS at the rate of 1 test per 100 tons or if operating under a Virginia DEQ permit the rate
will be the 1 test per 750 tons. The test results shall reveal no detectable level of ACM.
Copies of the test results from the recycler shall be available upon request.
3. Asphalt Binder of the asphalt concrete mixture shall be Performance Grade (PG) of asphalt
conforming to the requirements specified in Section 211 of the Specifications.
4. RAS tear-offs in asphalt concrete shall be mixed mechanically in a plant specifically
designed for asphalt concrete production.
5. Contractors shall store tear-off RAS materials by stockpiling either whole or as partial
shingles which have not been shredded or shredded shingles that meet the maximum size
requirements. Stockpiled RAS shall not be contaminated by dirt or other objectionable
foreign materials. Blending of the shingles with fine aggregate may be necessary to
prevent conglomeration of shingle particles. When fine aggregate is used for this purpose,
this material shall be accounted for in the mix design.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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(l)Reclaimed Asphalt Shingles (RAS) – Tabs RAS Materials in Asphalt Concrete
1. Asphalt surface, intermediate, and base mixtures containing Tabs RAS Materials shall
meet the requirements of Section 211.01 and 211.03 of the Specifications.
2. Tabs RAS Materials shall be produced by the manufacturing process for domestic roofing
shingles. Blending or mixing of Tabs and Tear-offs shall not be permitted.
Tabs RAS Materials shall be shredded prior to being incorporated into the asphalt concrete
mixture so that one hundred percent of the shredded pieces are less than ½ inches
(12.5mm) in any dimension.
Tabs RAS Materials shall not contain asbestos fibers. The Contractor shall furnish the
Department a certification from the manufacturer of the shingles stating that the shingles
are free of asbestos. If a certification cannot be obtained then the contractor shall furnish
test results of RAS sample analysis for Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) on the shingles
which certify the material to be used is free of asbestos. Testing is required at the specified
rate of 1 per manufacturer per type of RAS prior to processing and results shall be
submitted prior to or during the stockpile approval process.
3. Asphalt Binder of the asphalt concrete mixture shall be Performance Grade (PG) of asphalt
conforming to the requirements specified in Section 211 of the Specifications.
4. Tabs RAS Materials in asphalt concrete shall be mixed mechanically in a plant specifically
designed for asphalt concrete production.
5. Contractors shall store Tabs RAS materials by stockpiling either whole or as partial
shingles which have not been shredded or shredded shingles that meet the maximum size
requirements. Stockpiled RAS shall not be contaminated by dirt or other objectionable
foreign materials. Blending of the shingles with fine aggregate may be necessary to
prevent conglomeration of shingle particles. When fine aggregate is used for this purpose,
this material shall be accounted for in the mix design.
(k)
Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) additives or processes shall be approved by the Department prior
to use and shall be obtained from the Department’s approved list which is included in the
Materials Division’s Manual of Instructions.
211.03—Job-Mix Formula
The Contractor shall submit a job-mix formula for each mixture planned for use on the project for the
Department’s evaluation and approval through the “Producer Lab Analysis and Information Details”
(PLAID) website. Paper copies of the job mix formula along with supporting documentation shall also be
submitted to the Department. The job-mix formula shall be within the design range specified. The jobmix formula shall establish a single percentage of aggregate passing each required sieve, a single
percentage of asphalt material to be added to the aggregate, a temperature at which the mixture is to be
produced, and a temperature at which the mixture is to be compacted for SUPERPAVE testing in
accordance with the requirements of AASHTO R35. Each approved job-mix formula shall remain in effect
provided the results of tests performed on material currently being produced consistently comply with the
requirements of the job-mix formula for grading, asphalt content, temperature, and SUPERPAVE
compaction results and the requirements of Section 315.
(a) SUPERPAVE mixes shall be designed and controlled in accordance with the requirements of
AASHTO R35 and as specified herein. The Contractor shall have available all of the
equipment outlined in AASHTO T312 (Section 4-6) and a Department-certified Asphalt Mix
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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Design Technician. The SUPERPAVE mixture shall be compacted in a gyratory compactor
with an internal angle of 1.16 + 0.02 degrees. The internal angle shall be measured and
calibrated using a cold (non-mix) device. The SUPERPAVE Gyratory Compactor (SGC)
shall be one from the Department’s approved list of devices found in the VDOT Materials
Division’s Manual of Instructions. The SUPERPAVE mixes shall conform to the requirements
of Table II-13 and Table II-14. Section 7.1.2 of AASHTO R30 shall be modified such that the
compaction temperature is as specified in (d) 6 herein.
(b) In conjunction with the submittal of a job-mix formula, the Contractor shall submit complete
SUPERPAVE design test data, ignition furnace calibration data in accordance with VTM-102
prepared by an approved testing laboratory, and viscosity data or supplier temperature
recommendations for the asphalt cement if different from (d) 6 herein.
(c) Three trial blends for gradation shall be run at one asphalt content
TABLE II-13
Asphalt Concrete Mixtures: Design Range
Mix Type
SM-9.0 A,D,E
SM-9.5 A,D,E
SM-12.5 A,D,E
IM-19.0 A,D,E
BM-25.0 A,D
C (Curb Mix)
1
2 in 1 1/2 in
100
Percentage by Weight Passing Square Mesh Sieves
¾ in
½ in
3/8 in
No. 4
No. 8
No. 30
1
100
90-100 90 max. 47-67
1
100
90-100
58-80
38-67 23 max
100
95-100 90 max. 58-80
34-50 23 max
100
90-100 90 max.
--28-49
90-100 90 max.
---19-38
100
92-100 70-75
50-60
28-36
1 in
No. 50 No. 200
2-10
2-10
2-10
2-8
1-7
15-20
7-9
A production tolerance of 1% will be applied to this sieve regardless of the number of tests in the lot.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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Mix Type
VTM
(%)
Production
Today’s Date: April 1, 2016
UPDATED Apr 1, 2016
TABLE II-14
Mix Design Criteria
VFA
VFA
Min.
(%)
(%)
VMA
Design
(%)
Production
Fines/Asphalt
Ratio
No. of
Gyrations
N Design
SM-9.0A
1,2
SM-9.0D
1,2
SM-9.0E
1,2
2.0-5.0
2.0-5.0
2.0-5.0
75-80
75-80
75-80
70-85
70-85
70-85
16
16
16
0.6-1.3
0.6-1.3
0.6-1.3
65
65
65
SM-9.5A
1,2
2.0-5.0
75-80
70-85
16
0.7-1.3
50
SM-9.5D
1,2
2.0-5.0
75-80
70-85
16
0.7-1.3
50
SM-9.5E
1,2
2.0-5.0
75-80
70-85
16
0.7-1.3
50
2.0-5.0
2.0-5.0
2.0-5.0
73-89
73-89
73-89
68-84
68-84
68-84
15
15
15
0.7-1.3
0.7-1.3
0.7-1.3
50
50
50
2.0-5.0
2.0-5.0
2.0-5.0
69-76
69-76
69-76
64-81
64-81
64-81
13
13
13
0.6-1.2
0.6-1.2
0.6-1.2
65
65
65
1.0-4.0
1.0-4.0
67-87
67-87
67-92
67-92
12
12
0.6-1.3
0.6-1.3
65
65
1,2
SM-12.5A
1,2
SM-12.5D
1,2
SM-12.5E
1,2
IM-19.0A
1,2
IM-19.0D
1,2
IM-19.0E
2,3
BM-25.0A
2,3
BM-25.0D
1
Asphalt content should be selected at 4.0% air voids for A & D mixes, 3.5% air voids for E mix.
Fines-asphalt ratio is based on effective asphalt content.
3
Base mix shall be designed at 2.5% air voids. BM-25A shall have a minimum asphalt content of
4.4% unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. BM-25D shall have a minimum asphalt content of
4.6% unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.
2
For SM-9.5 and SM-12.5 mixes, the minimum asphalt contents shall be based on the following
unless otherwise approved by the Engineer:
Bulk Specific Gravity of the Total
Aggregate
Less Than 2.65
2.65 - 2.74
2.74 - 2.85
Greater Than 2.85
Minimum Design AC Content Mix Type (%)
SM-9.5
SM-12.5
5.5
5.3
5.4
5.2
5.3
5.1
5.2
5.0
(d) The SUPERPAVE design test data shall include, but not be limited to, the following information:
1. Grading data for each aggregate component of three trial blends shall be submitted to the
Department. The data for the mixture shall show percent passing for the following sieves: 2
inch, 1 1/2 inch, 1 inch, 3/4 inch, 1/2 inch, 3/8 inch, No. 4, No. 8, No. 16, No. 30, No. 50,
No. 100, and No. 200. The grading shall be reported to the nearest 1.0 percent except the
No. 200 sieve shall be reported to the nearest 0.1 percent.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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2. The test data shall include, but not be limited to, the percentage of each aggregate
component as compared to the total aggregate in the asphalt mixture. The specific gravity
and aggregate properties for coarse and fine aggregates defined in Section 211.02 (b) and
(c), including flat and elongated properties, for each aggregate component or for the total
aggregates used in the mixture shall be reported. Aggregate properties, except sand
equivalent, shall be reported for RAP portions of a mixture. The aggregate specific gravity
of RAP shall be the effective aggregate specific gravity calculated from the results of tests
conducted in accordance with AASHTO T 209 and VTM-102.
3. The aggregate grading in the asphalt mixture shall be determined by igniting or extracting
the asphalt from a laboratory-prepared sample. The laboratory sample shall be batched on
the basis of component percentages as indicated in (d) 2. herein and at the proposed jobmix asphalt content. The aggregate shall be obtained in accordance with the requirements
of VTM-102 or VTM-36, when approved. Sieves specified in (d) 1. herein shall be reported,
beginning with the top size for the mix.
4. The following volumetric properties of the compacted mixture, calculated on the basis of the
mixture’s maximum specific gravity determined in accordance with AASHTO T-209, shall
be reported to the Engineer. The mixture shall be aged in accordance with AASHTO R30
and the bulk specific gravity of the specimens determined in accordance with AASHTO T166, Method A, for each asphalt content tested. Properties shall be determined and
reported in accordance with the requirements of AASHTO R35.
a. Voids in total mix (VTM)
b. Voids in mineral aggregate (VMA)
c.
Voids filled with Asphalt (VFA)
d. Fines/Asphalt ratio (F/A)
5. The value of the maximum specific gravity of the asphalt mixture used in (c) 4. herein shall
be reported to three decimal places.
6. The mixing and compaction temperature for testing shall be as follows:
a. For mixes designation A, the mix temperature shall be 300 degrees F to 310 degrees
F and the compaction temperature shall be 285 degrees F to 290 degrees F.
b. For mixes designation D, the mix temperature shall be 310 degrees F to 320 degrees
F and the compaction temperature shall be 295 degrees F to 300 degrees F.
c.
In cases involving PG 64E-22 or modified binders, the temperatures shall be based
on documented supplier’s recommendations.
7. The field correction factor as determined by subtracting the bulk specific gravity of the
aggregate from the effective specific gravity of the aggregate at the design asphalt content.
8. For surface mixes, permeability test data shall be submitted in accordance with VTM 120
using either single point verification or the regression method for each surface mix having a
different gradation. If the average of the permeability results from the single point
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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-5
verification method exceeds 150 x 10 cm/sec, or if the regression method predicts a
-5
permeability exceeding 150 x 10 cm/sec at 7.5% voids, the Contractor shall redesign the
-5
mixture to produce a permeability number less than 150 x 10 cm/sec.
(e) The SUPERPAVE design binder content test data shall be plotted on graphs as described in
AASHTO R 35 and shall show that the proposed job-mix formula conforms to the requirements of
the designated mix type.
(f) A determination will be made to verify if any asphalt concrete mixture being produced conforms to
the job-mix formula approved by the Department. The Department and Contractor will test the
mixture using samples removed from production. The following tests will be conducted to
determine the properties listed:
Property
Asphalt content
Gradation
SUPERPAVE properties
Asphalt cement material
Test
VTM-102, (VTM-36 when approved)
AASHTO T-30
AASHTO R35
AASHTO T316 or T-201
For Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA), SUPERPAVE properties for mixing and compaction temperatures
will be determined by the Department and Contractor based on the mix designations in Section
211.03(d)6.
The Department will perform rut testing in accordance with the procedures detailed in VTM-110.
If the results of the rut testing do not conform to the following requirements, the Engineer
reserves the right to require adjustments to the job-mix formula:
Mix Designation
Maximum Rut Depth, mm
A
D
E, (S)
7.0
5.5
3.5
After calibration of the gyratory compactor is completed, the Engineer may require the Contractor
to make adjustments to the job-mix formula.
If the Department determines that the mixture being produced does not conform to the approved
job-mix formula and volumetric properties specified in Table II-14 based on the Department’s or
Contractor’s test results, the Contractor shall immediately make corrections to bring the mixture
into conformance with the approved job-mix formula or cease paving with that mixture.
Subsequent paving operations using either a revised or another job-mix formula that has not
been verified as described herein shall be limited to a test run of 100 to 300 tons of mixture if
such material is to be placed in Department project work. No further paving for the Department
using that specific mixture shall occur until the acceptability of the mixture being produced has
been verified using the 100 to 300 ton constraint.
TABLE II-14A
Recommended Performance Grade of Asphalt Cement
Percentage of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in Mix
Mix Type
%RAP  25.0%
25.0% < %RAP  30%
SM-4.75A, SM-9.0A,
SM-9.5A, SM-12.5A
PG 64S-22
PG 64S-22
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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25.0% < %RAP  35%
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TABLE II-14A
Recommended Performance Grade of Asphalt Cement
Percentage of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in Mix
Mix Type
%RAP  25.0%
25.0% < %RAP  30%
25.0% < %RAP  35%
SM-4.75D, SM-9.0D,
SM-9.5D, SM-12.5D
PG 64H-22
PG 64S-22
IM-19.0A
PG 64S-22
PG 64S-22
IM-19.0D
PG 64H-22
PG 64S-22
BM-25.0A
PG 64S-22
PG 64S-22
BM-25.0D
PG 64H-22
PG 64S-22
Based on rut testing performed by the Department and/or field performance of the job mix, the
Engineer reserves the right to require the Contractor to make adjustments to the job-mix formula.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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(g) When utilizing RAS Materials (Tear-off or Tabs), the Contractor shall submit material
samples to include the RAS stockpiled tear-off shingles, reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP)
and PG Binder.
The amount of RAS material used in the recycled mixture shall be no more than five percent of
the total mixture weight. However,the combined percentages of RAS and RAP shall not
contribute more than 30 percent (by weight) of the total asphalt content of the mixture, according
to the following equation:
 


   %RAPmix  % AC RAP
 %RAS mix  % AC RAS


100
100


 
% AC
Where:
% RASmix =
% ACRAS =
% RAPmix =
% ACRAP =
% ACJMF =
 30.0%
JMF
Percent RAS in the Job Mix Formula
Average Percent AC in the RAS
Percent RAP in the Job Mix Formula
Average Percent AC in the RAP
Design AC content of the JMF
The Contractor shall determine the asphalt content of the RAS using AASHTO T-164, Method B,
or VTM-102 and report the average results to the nearest 0.1 percent. When the ignition furnace
is used, a correction factor shall be applied for the non-asphalt combustible materials in the RAS.
Unless the actual correction factor is determined by comparing the test results on paired samples
from AASHTO T-164 Method B and VTM-102, the estimated correction factor for the RAS shall
be 5 percent.
Used separately or with RAP, RAS can be used to stiffen the asphalt concrete mixture binder to
meet the requirements in Section 211.01 of Specifications. Asphalt surface, intermediate, and
base mixtures containing RAS in order to meet the asphalt concrete mixture stiffness of PG 64H16 should use PG 64S-22 asphalt cement. Further, mixes using RAS shallnot exceed the 30%
(by weight) and are required to use the maximum binder replacement criteria noted here:




5% RAS and 0% RAP
4% RAS and 5% RAP minimum
3% RAS and 10% RAP minimum
2% RAS and 20% RAP minimum
Interpolation shall be used to determine combinations between the whole number RAS/RAP
usage figures shown herein, subject to review and approval by the Engineer.
211.04—Asphalt Concrete Mixtures
Asphalt concrete mixtures shall conform to the requirements of Table II-14 and the following:
(a) Types SM-9.0A, SM-9.0D, SM-9.0E, SM-9.5A, SM-9.5D, SM-9.5E, SM-12.5A, SM-12.5D, and
SM-12.5E asphalt concrete shall consist of crushed stone, crushed slag, or crushed gravel and
fine aggregate, slag or stone screenings, or a combination thereof combined with asphalt cement.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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NOTE: For all surface mixes, except where otherwise noted, no more than 5 percent of the
aggregate retained on the No. 4 sieve and no more than 20 percent of the total aggregate may
be polish susceptible. At the discretion of the Engineer, SM-9.5AL or SM-12.5AL may be
specified and polish susceptible aggregates may be used (without percentage limits).
NOTE: Unless Type C (curb mix) is specified by the Engineer in the contract plans and
specifications, SM9.0, SM-9.5, and SM-12.5 mix types are acceptable for use in the construction
of asphalt curbing.
(b) Types IM-19.0A, IM-19.0D, and IM-19.0E asphalt concrete shall consist of crushed stone,
crushed slag, or crushed gravel and fine aggregate, slag or stone screenings, or a combination
thereof combined with asphalt cement.
NOTE: At the discretion of the Engineer, an intermediate mix may be designated as either SM19.0A, SM-19.0D or SM-19.0E. When designated as such, no more than 5 percent of the
aggregate retained on the No. 4 sieve may be polish susceptible. All material passing the No. 4
sieve may be polish susceptible.
(c) Types BM-25.0A and BM-25.0D asphalt concrete shall consist of crushed stone, crushed slag,
or crushed gravel and fine aggregate, slag or stone screenings, or a combination thereof
combined with asphalt cement.
(d) Type C (curb mix) asphalt concrete shall consist of a blend of No. 78 or No. 8 crushed
aggregate, No. 10 crushed aggregate, fine aggregate, mineral filler, and a stabilizing additive
from the Department’s approved list found in the Materials Division’s Manual of Instructions
combined with 6.0 to 9.0 percent of PG 64S-22. This mix does not require a volumetric mix
design or volumetric testing under the SUPERPAVE system.
(e) Type SM-9.5, SM-12.5, IM-19.0 and BM-25.0 asphalt concrete may be designated E (polymer
modified), or stabilized (S). Asphalt concrete mixtures with the E designation may not be
stabilized.
1. Type E designated mixtures shall consist of mixes incorporating a neat asphalt material
with polymer modification complying with the requirements of PG 64E-22 and have a rolling
thin film oven test residue elastic recovery at 77 degrees F of a minimum of 70 percent when
tested in accordance with ASTM D 6084 procedure A.. E designated mixtures shall not
contain more than 15 percent reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) material (by weight) or 3%
recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) (by weight).
2. Type (S) asphalt mixtures shall consist of mixes incorporating a stabilizing additive from the
Department’s approved list found in the Materials Division’s Manual of Instructions. These
mixes shall be designated with an (S) following the standard mix designation. The minimum
required additive shall be as specified on the Department’s approved list found in the
Materials Division’s Manual of Instructions.
3. Type L asphalt mixtures will be allowed to contain a 100 percent polishing coarse and fine
aggregate. These mixes shall be designated with a L following the standard mix designation.
211.05—Testing
The Contractor shall provide the quality control and quality assurance necessary for the Department to
determine conformance with the required grading, asphalt content, and temperature properties for asphalt
concrete.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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The Contractor shall have a Department-certified Asphalt Mix Design Technician for designing and
adjusting mixes as necessary. The Asphalt Mix Design Technician or Asphalt Plant Level II Technician
may perform testing of asphalt mixes. The Asphalt Mix Design Technician shall be responsible for
reviewing and approving the results of all testing. The Asphalt Mix Design Technician shall be available
and have direct communication with the plant for making necessary adjustments in the asphalt concrete
mixes at the mixing plant. The Asphalt Mix Design Technician and Asphalt Plant Level II Technician shall
each be capable of conducting any tests necessary to put the plant into operation; however, the Asphalt
Mix Design Technician shall be responsible for producing a mixture that complies with the requirements
of these Specifications. The Department will award certification.
The Contractor shall maintain all records and test results associated with the material production and
shall maintain appropriate current quality control charts. Test results and control charts shall be available
for review by the Engineer.
The Contractor shall execute a quality control plan of process inspections and tests, including the
determination of SUPERPAVE properties. The results of the SUPERPAVE tests shall be used, along
with the results of other quality control efforts, to achieve and maintain the quality of the mixture being
produced.
The Contractor shall perform at least one field SUPERPAVE test per day per mix or per 1,000 tons per
mix if more than 1,000 tons of a mix is produced per day. Aging as described in AASHTO R30 shall not
be performed. If less than 300 tons of asphalt mixture is produced under a single job-mix formula in a
day, field SUPERPAVE testing will not be required on that day. That day’s tonnage shall be added to
subsequent production. When the accumulated tonnage exceeds 300 tons, minimum testing frequency
shall apply. Field SUPERPAVE test results shall be plotted and displayed in control chart form in the
plant immediately following the completion of each individual test. The tests shall determine asphalt
content in percentages to the nearest 0.01 . The tests shall determine VTM, VMA, VFA, and F/A in
percentages to the nearest 0.1 percent. The Department will conduct on-site inspections so the
Contractor’s Asphalt Mix Design Technician can demonstrate knowledge of the SUPERPAVE mix design
and production requirements on Department-supplied mixtures.
Aggregate specific gravity and aggregate property tests shall be conducted by a Department-certified
Aggregate Properties Technician or Asphalt Mix Design Technician on each aggregate component
(including RAP) or total aggregate mixture once at mix design stage and once prior to beginning
production in each calendar year. Sand equivalent shall not be determined on RAP. In addition, for each
50,000 tons of each aggregate size used at each plant, aggregate specific gravity and the results of
aggregate property tests shall be reported for each aggregate component or the total aggregate mixture.
Otherwise, if the total blend (cold feed) is used to determine aggregate specific gravity and aggregate
properties, these tests shall be run for each 50,000 tons of the total blend.
Field SUPERPAVE tests shall be performed to N design gyrations as specified in Table II-14.
For surface mixes, permeability test data shall be submitted in accordance with VTM 120 using either
single point verification or the regression method for each surface mix having a different gradation.
A minimum of one permeability samples will be taken and test run in the first lot, and every other lot
thereafter, and results submitted to the District Materials Engineer.
211.06—Tests
The Department may sample materials entering into the composition of the asphalt concrete, the mixture,
or the completed pavement. The Contractor shall cooperate with the Engineer in obtaining these
samples. When samples are obtained from the pavement by coring, the resulting voids shall be filled and
refinished by the Contractor without additional compensation.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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Abson recovery samples shall be PG graded according to the requirements of AASHTO M 322-14.
Samples meeting the required grades specified in Section 211.01 shall be acceptable.
When the Department performs PG grading on the asphalt in a Contractor’s liquid asphalt storage tank,
the Engineer will notify the asphalt concrete producer and binder supplier if tests indicate that the binder
properties of the asphalt material differ from those of the approved job-mix. The asphalt concrete
producer and binder supplier shall determine what corrective action must be taken with the approval of
the Engineer.
211.07—Plant Inspection
The Department will accept the preparation of asphalt concrete mixtures under a quality assurance plan.
The Contractor shall provide a laboratory as specified in Section 106.07.
In addition, the Contractor shall have all laboratory scales and gyratory compactors calibrated once a
year by an independent source. The Contractor shall maintain the calibration records for 3 years from the
date of the last calibration.
211.08—Acceptance
Acceptance will be made under the Department’s quality assurance program, which includes the testing
of production samples by the Contractor and of monitor samples by the Department. Sampling and
testing for the determination of grading, asphalt cement content, and temperature shall be performed by
the Contractor, and the Department will perform independent monitor checks at a laboratory of its
choosing. The Contractor shall input such test results within 24 hours of sampling to the Department
through
the
“Producer
Lab
Analysis
and
Information
Details”
(PLAID)
website
https://plaid.vdot.virginia.gov, unless otherwise approved by the appropriate District Materials Engineer.
Where the Contractor’s test results indicate that the mixture conforms to the gradation, asphalt cement
content, and mix temperature requirements of the Specifications, the mixture will be acceptable for these
properties; however, nothing herein shall be construed as waiving the requirements of Section 106.06,
Section 200.02, Section 200.03, and Section 315 of the Specifications or relieving the Contractor of the
contractual obligation to furnish and install a finished functional product that conforms to the requirements
of the Contract.
If a statistical comparative analysis of the Contractor’s test results and the Department’s monitor tests
indicate a statistically significant difference in the results and either of the results indicates that the
material does not conform to the grading and asphalt cement content requirements of the Specifications,
the Department and the Contractor will make an investigation to determine the reason for the difference.
If it is determined from the investigation that the material does not conform to the requirements of the
Contract, price adjustments will be made in accordance with the requirements of Section 211.09.
Acceptance for gradation and asphalt cement content will be based on the mean of results of eight tests
performed on samples taken in a stratified random manner from each 4,000-ton lot (8,000-ton lots may be
used when the normal daily production of the source from which the material is being obtained is in
excess of 4,000 tons). , The Contractor shall take samples from the approximate center of the truckload
of material unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. Any statistically acceptable method of
randomization may be used to determine when to take the stratified random sample; however, the
Department shall be advised of the method to be used prior to the beginning of production.
A lot will be considered to be acceptable for gradation and asphalt content if the mean of the test results
obtained is within the tolerance allowed for the job-mix formula as specified in Table II-15.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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The temperature of the mixture at the plant shall be controlled to provide load-to-load uniformity during
changing weather conditions and surface temperatures. The maximum temperature of mix designations
A and D and base mixes shall not exceed 350 degrees F unless otherwise directed by the Engineer. The
maximum temperature as recommended by the supplier shall not be exceeded for a mix designated E or
(S).
If the job-mix formula is modified within a lot, the mean test results of the samples taken will be compared
to the applicable process tolerance shown in Table II-15.
Asphalt content will be measured as extractable asphalt or weight after ignition.
Field SUPERPAVE tests will be performed by the Department in accordance with the requirements of
AASHTO R35 during the production of the approved job mixes designed by the SUPERPAVE method.
Aging, as described in AASHTO R30, will not be performed. Should any field SUPERPAVE test fail with
regard to the limits specified in Table II-14, the Department may require that production be stopped until
necessary corrective action is taken by the Contractor. The Engineer will investigate and determine the
acceptability of material placed and represented by failing field SUPERPAVE test results.
Should visual examination by the Engineer reveal that the material in any load or portion of the paved
roadway is obviously contaminated or segregated, that load or portion of the paved roadway will be
rejected without additional sampling or testing of the lot. If it is necessary to determine the gradation or
asphalt content of the material in any load or portion of the paved roadway, samples will be taken and
tested and the results will be compared to the requirements of the approved job-mix formula. The results
obtained in the testing will apply only to the material in question.
TABLE II-15
Process Tolerance
Tolerance on Each Laboratory Sieve and Asphalt Content: Percent Plus and Minus
No.
Top
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
1
Tests Size
1 ½”
1”
¾”
½”
3/8”
4
8
30
50
200 A.C.
1
0.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
6.0
5.0
2.0
.60
2
0.0
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
4.3
3.6
1.4
0.43
3
0.0
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
3.3
2.8
1.1
0.33
4
5
6
7
8
12
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.0
3.6
3.3
3.0
2.8
2.3
4.0
3.6
3.3
3.0
2.8
2.3
4.0
3.6
3.3
3.0
2.8
2.3
4.0
3.6
3.3
3.0
2.8
2.3
4.0
3.6
3.3
3.0
2.8
2.3
4.0
3.6
3.3
3.0
2.8
2.3
4.0
3.6
3.3
3.0
2.8
2.3
3.0
2.7
2.4
2.3
2.1
1.7
2.5
2.2
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.4
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.30
0.27
0.24
0.23
0.21
0.17
1
Defined as the sieve that has 100% passing as defined in Table II-13.
211.09—Adjustment System
If a lot of material does not conform to the acceptance requirements of Section 211.08, the Department
will determine adjustment points as follows:
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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Adjustment Points for Each 1% the Gradation Is Outside the Process Tolerance Permitted In
Table II-15
Sieve Size
(Applied in 0.1% increments)
1 1/2 in
1 in
3/4 in
1/2 in
3/8 in
No. 4
No. 8
No. 30
No. 50
No. 200
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
3
One adjustment point will be applied for each 0.1 percent that the material is out of the process tolerance
for asphalt content.
If the total adjustment for a lot is greater than 25 points, the Contractor shall remove the failing material
from the road. If the total adjustment is 25 points or less and the Contractor does not elect to remove and
replace the material, the unit price for the material will be reduced 3 percent of the unit price bid for each
adjustment point the material is outside of the process tolerance. The Engineer will apply this adjustment
to the tonnage represented by the sample(s). If the Engineer applies adjustment points against two
successive lots, the Contractor shall ensure plant adjustment is made prior to continuing production.
The Contractor shall control the variability of the Contractor’s product in order to furnish a consistently
uniform mix. When the quantity of any one type of material furnished to a project (i.e., SMA, SM, IM, BM,
etc) exceeds 4,000 tons, the variability of the total quantity furnished will be determined on the basis of
the standard deviation for each sieve size and the asphalt content. If the standard deviation is within the
ranges specified in Table II-16, the Engineer will adjust the unit bid price for the material as indicated
herein. The Engineer will not make adjustments for standard deviation computations on more than two
job mixes for the same type of material.
TABLE II-16
Standard Deviation
Sieve Size
and A.C.
1/2 in.
3/8 in
No. 4
No. 8
No. 30
No. 50
No. 200
A.C.
Standard Deviation
1 Adjustment Point for Each
Sieve Size and A.C.
2 Adjustment Points
for Each
Sieve Size and A. C.
3 Adjustment Points
for Each
Sieve Size and A.C.
3.8-4.7
3.8-4.7
3.8-4.7
3.0-3.9
2.2-3.1
1.5-2.4
1.1-2.0
0.27-0.36
4.8-5.7
4.8-5.7
4.8-5.7
4.0-4.9
3.2-4.1
2.5-3.4
2.1-3.0
0.37-0.46
5.8-6.7
5.8-6.7
5.8-6.7
5.0-5.9
4.2-5.1
3.5-4.4
3.1-4.0
0.47-0.56
The Engineer will reduce the unit bid price by 1.0percent for each adjustment point applied for standard
deviation.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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If the standard deviation for A.C is is within the ranges of 0.0 – 0.15, and there are no adjustment points
assigned for any sieve sizes as noted in Table II-16, the Engineer will increase the unit bid price for AC
mixture by five (5) percent.
211.10—Referee System
(a) If the test results obtained from one of the eight samples taken to evaluate a particular lot appear
to be questionable, the Contractor may request in writing that the results of the questionable
sample be disregarded, whereupon the Contractor shall have either an AASHTO-accredited lab
or a Department lab perform tests on five additional samples taken from randomly selected
locations in the roadway where the lot was placed.
If the Engineer determines that one of the 8 test results appears to be questionable, the
Department will perform tests on five additional samples taken from the randomly selected
locations in the roadway where the lot was placed. The test results of the seven original, i.e.
unquestioned, samples will be averaged with the test results of the five road samples, and the
mean of the test values obtained for the twelve samples will be compared to the requirements for
the mean of twelve tests as specified in Table II-15.
(b) If the Contractor questions the mean of the eight original test results obtained for a particular lot,
the Contractor may request in writing approval to have either an AASHTO-accredited lab or a
Department lab perform additional testing of that lot.
If the Engineer determines that the mean of the eight original test results are questionable, the
Department will perform additional testing of that lot. The test results of the eight samples will be
averaged with the test results of four additional samples taken from randomly selected locations
in the roadway where the lot was placed, and the mean of the test values obtained from the
twelve samples will be compare to the requirements for the mean of twelve tests as specified in
Table II-15.
If the Contractor requests additional tests, as described in (a) or (b) herein, the Contractor shall
sample the material and have either an AASHTO-accredited lab or Department lab test the
material in accordance with Department-approved procedures. The Engineer may observe the
sampling and testing.
If the mean of the test values obtained for the twelve samples conforms to the requirements for
the mean of twelve tests, the material will be considered acceptable. If the mean of the test
values obtained for the twelve samples does not conform to the requirements for the mean result
of twelve tests, the lot will be adjusted in accordance with the adjustment rate specified in Section
211.09.
Samples of the size shown herein shall be saw cut by the Contractor for testing without the use of
liquids:
Application Rate
Minimum Sample Size
2
125 lb/yd
2
150 lb/yd
2
200 lb/yd
2
300 lb/yd
8 by 8 in
7 by 7 in
6 by 6 in
5 by 5 in
211.11—Handling and Storing Aggregates
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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Aggregates shall be handled, hauled, and stored in a manner that will minimize segregation and avoid
contamination. Aggregates shall be stockpiled in the vicinity of the plant and on ground that is denuded
of vegetation, hard, well drained, or otherwise prepared to protect the aggregate from contamination.
Placing aggregate directly from the crusher bins into the cold feed may be permitted provided the material
is consistent in gradation. When different size aggregates are stockpiled, the stockpiles shall be
separated to prevent commingling of the aggregates.
211.12—Asphalt Concrete Mixing Plant
Plants used for the preparation of asphalt concrete mixtures shall conform to the following requirements:
(a) Certification for Plant Operation and Sampling: A Certified Asphalt Plant Level I Technician
or a Certified Asphalt Plant Level II Technician shall sample material at the plant.
(b) Plant Scales: Scales shall be approved in accordance with the requirements of Section 109.01.
(c) Drier: The plant shall include a drier(s) that continuously agitates the aggregate during the
heating and drying process. The aggregate shall be dried to a point at which the moisture
content of the completed mixture does not exceed 1 percent as determined from samples taken
at the point of discharge from the mixing operation.
(d) Feeder for Drier: The plant shall be equipped with accurate mechanical means for uniformly
feeding the aggregate into the drier so that a consistent production and temperature are reached
and maintained. Where different size aggregates are required to comply with grading
specifications, they shall be proportioned by feeding into the cold elevator through a multiple
compartment feeder bin, one bin for each size used, equipped with positive action gates that can
be securely locked to maintain desired proportioning.
(e) Bins: When bins are used, adequate and convenient facilities shall be provided to make possible
the sampling of representative aggregate material from each bin. Each compartment shall be
provided with an overflow pipe of such size and location to prevent contamination of the
aggregate in adjacent compartments. Bins shall be provided with individual outlet gates that,
when closed, will allow no leakage.
(f) Thermometric Equipment: The plant shall be equipped with a thermometric instrument so
placed at the discharge chute of the drier as to register automatically or indicate the temperature
of the heated aggregate or the completed mix if a drier drum mixing plant is used.
A thermometric device shall be fixed in the asphalt feed line at a suitable location near the
charging valve at the mixer unit.
Thermometric devices shall be maintained in good working condition and shall be subject to
checking against the laboratory thermometer. Any thermometric devices that do not operate or
accurately register temperatures shall be removed and repaired or replaced.
(g) Pollution Control: Pollution control shall conform to the requirements of Section 107.16.
(h) Equipment for Preparation of Asphalt Material: Tanks for the storage of asphalt material shall
be equipped with a heating system capable of heating and holding the material at the required
temperatures. A separate storage tank or a storage tank having separate compartments shall be
available for each grade of asphalt cement being used on the project. The heating system shall
be designed to heat the contents of the tank by means of steam, electricity, or other approved
means so that no flame is in direct contact with the heating surface of the tank. The circulating
system for the asphalt material shall be designed to assure proper and continuous circulation
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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during the operating period and to minimize oxidation. Pipelines shall be steam jacketed or
insulated to prevent undue loss of heat. Storage facilities for asphalt material shall be sufficient
capacity for at least one day’s operation or an equivalent means of supply shall be provided that
will ensure continuous operation. Provisions shall be made for measuring and sampling asphalt
within storage tanks. When asphalt material is proportioned by volume, the temperature of the
asphalt material in storage shall be uniformly maintained at ±20 degrees F during operation of the
plant by means of an automatic temperature control device. A sampling valve shall be provided
for sampling of each asphalt storage tank used in production of the mix. If there are multiple
storage tanks, a dedicated valve for each tank shall be provided.
(i) Asphalt Control: Asphalt material shall be accurately proportioned by volume or weight. When
volumetric methods are used, measurements shall be made by means of meters or pumps,
calibrated for accuracy. The section of the asphalt line between the charging valve and the spray
bar shall be provided with an outlet valve for checking the meter.
When proportioned by weight, the asphalt material shall be weighed on approved scales. Dial
scales shall have a capacity of not more than 15 percent of the capacity of the mixer. The value
of the minimum graduation shall not be greater than 2 pounds.
Except when a drier-drum mixing plant is used, the asphalt material bucket and its valves and
spray bar shall be steam jacketed or heated by other Department approved means. The bucket
shall have a capacity of at least 115 percent of the weight of the asphalt material required in any
mixture and shall be supported by fulcrums.
The asphalt shall be delivered to the mixer in multiple uniform streams for the full width of the
mixer.
(j) Proportioning Aggregates: Mineral filler and any bag house fines the Contractor uses shall be
metered or introduced by means of an approved device for uniform proportioning by weight or by
volume.
The weigh hopper shall be of sufficient size to hold the maximum required weight of aggregate for
one batch without hand raking or running over. Sufficient clearance between the weigh hopper
and supporting devices shall be provided to prevent accumulation of foreign materials.
The discharge gate of the weigh hopper shall be situated in such a manner that the aggregates
will not segregate when dumped into the mixer. Gates on the bins and weigh hopper shall be
constructed to prevent leakage when closed.
(k) Drum Mixer: The aggregate shall be proportioned by a positive weight control at the cold
aggregate feed by use of a belt scale that will automatically regulate the supply of material being
fed and permit instant correction of variations in load. The cold feed flow shall be automatically
coupled with the asphalt flow to maintain the required proportions.
(l) Batch Mixer: The batch mixer shall be of a twin pugmill or other approved type, steam jacketed
or heated by other approved means, and capable of producing uniform mixtures within the
specified tolerances. It shall be equipped with a sufficient number of paddles or blades operating
at such speeds as to produce a properly and uniformly mixed batch. The number and
arrangement of the mixer paddles shall be subject to the Engineer’s approval. Worn or defective
blades shall not be used in mixing operations.
The mixer shall be provided with an approved time lock that will lock the discharge gate after the
aggregates and asphalt have been placed in the mixer and will not release the gate until the
specified time for mixing has elapsed.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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Batch-type mixing plants used to produce asphalt concrete shall be equipped with approved
automatic proportioning devices.
Such devices shall include equipment for accurately
proportioning batches of the various components of the mixture by weight or volume in the proper
sequence and for controlling the sequence and timing of mixing operations. The automated
system shall be designed to interrupt and stop the batching operation at any time batch quantities
are not satisfied for each of the materials going into the mix. A means shall be provided for
observing the weight of each material during the batching operation.
The aggregate may be proportioned by cold feed controls in lieu of plant screens provided the
cold aggregate feed conforms to the requirements specified in (j) herein.
Should the automatic proportioning devices become inoperative, the plant may be allowed to
batch and mix asphalt materials for a period of not more than 48 hours from the time the
breakdown occurs provided alternate proportioning facilities are verbally approved by the
Engineer. Written permission of the Engineer will be required for operation without automatic
proportioning facilities for periods longer than 48 hours.
(m) Continuous Mixing Plant: A continuous mixing plant shall include a means for accurately
proportioning each size of aggregate either by weighing or volumetric measurement. When
gradation control is by volume, the unit shall include a feeder mounted under the compartment
bins. Each bin shall have an accurately controlled individual gate to form an orifice for
volumetrically measuring the material drawn from each respective bin compartment. The orifice
shall be rectangular, with one dimension adjustable by positive mechanical means, and shall be
provided with a lock. Indicators shall be provided to show the individual gate opening in inches.
The plant shall be equipped with a satisfactory revolution counter.
The plant shall include a means for calibrating gate openings by weight. The materials fed out of
the bins through individual orifices shall be bypassed to a suitable test box, with each component
material confined in a separate section. The plant shall be equipped to conveniently handle test
samples weighing up to 200 pounds per bin with accurate platform scales provided for this
purpose.
Positive interlocking control shall be provided between the flow of aggregate from the bins and
the flow of asphalt material from the meter or other proportioning device. This shall be
accomplished by approved interlocking devices or other approved positive means.
Accurate control of the asphalt material shall be obtained by weighing, metering, or volumetric
measurement.
The aggregate may be proportioned by cold feed controls in lieu of plant screens provided the
cold aggregate feed conforms to the requirements specified in (j) herein.
The plant shall include a continuous mixer of an approved type that is steam jacketed or heated
by other approved means. The paddles shall be of any adjustable type for angular position on
the shafts and reversible to retard the flow of the mixture.
Interlock cutoff circuits shall be included to interrupt and to stop the proportioning and mixing
operations when the aggregate level in the plant or the asphalt material in storage falls below that
necessary to produce the specified mixture.
(n) Trucks, Truck Scales, and Automatic Printer System: These shall conform to the
requirements of Section 109.01.
211.13—Preparation of Mixture
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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The asphalt and aggregate shall be introduced into the mixer at a temperature that will produce a mixture
that conforms to the requirements of the job-mix formula.
After the required amounts of aggregate and asphalt material have been introduced into the mixer, the
materials shall be mixed until a uniform coating of asphalt and a thorough distribution of the aggregate
throughout the mixture are secured that comply with the requirements of the Ross count procedure in
AASHTO T195.
The wet mixing time, based on the procedures in AASHTO T195, shall be determined by the Contractor
at the beginning of production and will be approved by the Engineer for each individual plant or mixer and
for each type of aggregate used; however, in no case shall the wet mixing time be less than 20 seconds.
The wet mixing time is the interval of time between the start of introduction of the asphalt material into the
mixer and the opening of the discharge gate. A wet mixing time that results in fully coating a minimum of
95 percent of the coarse particles, based on the average of the three samples is acceptable, provided
that none of the three sample results has a coating less than 92 percent of the coarse particles shall be
the minimum wet mixing time requirement.
A dry mixing time of up to 15 seconds may be required by the Engineer to accomplish the degree of
aggregate distribution necessary to obtain complete and uniform coating of the aggregate with asphalt.
211.14—Storage System
If the Contractor elects to use a storage system, the system shall be capable of conveying the mix from
the plant to the storage bins and storing the mix without a loss in temperature or segregation or oxidation
of the mix. Storage time shall be limited by the ability of the bins to maintain the mix within the quality
requirements specified herein with a maximum time limit not to exceed 10 days. Material may be stored
in bins for no more than 24 hours without a Department approved heating system.
The conveyor system may be a continuous or skip bucket type. Continuous type conveyors shall be
enclosed so that the mix temperature is maintained.
The storage bins shall be designed in a manner to prevent segregation of the mix during discharge from
the conveyor into the bins and shall be equipped with discharge gates that will not cause segregation of
the mix while the mix is being loaded into the trucks.
Approval for the use of storage bins may be withdrawn by the Engineer if the amount of heat loss,
segregation, or oxidation of the mix is excessive.
211.15—Initial Production
(a) Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA): At the start of production, the Contractor shall place no more than
500 tons or up to one day’s production as directed by the Engineer at an approved site, which
may be the project site, so the Engineer can examine the process control of the mixing plant, the
Contractor’s placement procedures, surface appearance of the mix, compaction patterns of the
Contractor’s roller(s), and correlation of the nuclear density device.
(b) Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA): At the start of production of a mix not previously used on a state
roadway, the Contractor shall place 100 to 300 tons or up to one day’s production as directed by
the Engineer at an approved site, which may be the project site, so the Engineer can examine the
process control of the mixing plant, the Contractor’s placement procedures, surface appearance
of the mix, compaction patterns of the Contractor’s roller(s), and correlation of the nuclear density
device.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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The material shall be placed at the specified application rate. The Engineer will determine the disposition
of material that was not successfully produced and/or placed due to negligence in planning, production, or
placement by the Contractor.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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GUIDELINES — INCLUDE WHEN CORROSION RESISTANT REINFORCING STEEL IS DESIGNATED ON THE PLANS.
INCLUDE SS40604 Reinforcing Steel.
S223AG2-0313
VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
SPECIAL PROVISION FOR
CORROSION RESISTANT REINFORCING STEEL
January 24, 2012
SECTION 223—STEEL REINFORCEMENT of the Specifications is revised as follows:
223.02—Detail Requirements is amended to add the following
(e)
Corrosion Resistant Reinforcing Steel, Class I:
Steel shall conform to the
requirements of ASTM A1035/A1035M – Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain,
Low-carbon, Chromium, Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement; or shall conform to the
requirements of ASTM A955/A955M – Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain,
Solid Stainless Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement, UNS* Designation(s): S32101.
(f)
Corrosion Resistant Reinforcing Steel, Class II:
Steel shall conform to the
requirements of AASHTO Designation: MP 13M/MP 13-04, Standard Specification for
Stainless Steel Clad Deformed and Plain Round Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement;
or shall conform to the requirements of ASTM A955/A955M - Standard and Specification
for Deformed and Plain Solid Stainless Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement. UNS*
Designations: S24100. Stainless steel clad bars may only be provided if they are
domestically produced except for projects designated as experimental in the plans.
(g)
Corrosion Resistant Reinforcing Steel, Class III: Steel shall conform to the
requirements of ASTM A955/A955M - Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain
Solid Stainless Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement. UNS* Designations: S24000,
S30400, S31603, S31653, S31803, S32304.
* Unified Numbering System for Metals and Alloys
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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GUIDELINES — FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING ASPHALT OR CEMENT CONCRETE.
SS20001-1212
September 28, 2012
VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
2007 ROAD AND BRIDGE SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
SUPPLEMENTAL SECTION 200—GENERAL
SECTION 200—GENERAL of the Specifications is amended as follows:
200.06-Technician and Batcher Certification is replaced with the following:
Certification for technicians and batchers will be awarded by the Department upon a candidate’s
satisfactory completion of an examination.
(a) Central Mix Aggregate Technician: A Central Mix Aggregate Technician designs and
makes necessary adjustments in job mixtures at the plant based on an analysis of the
specified material. The technician also samples materials and conducts any tests
necessary to put the plant into operation and produce a mixture in accordance with the
applicable Specifications.
(b) Asphalt Plant Level I Technician:
materials.
An Asphalt Plant Level I Technician samples
(c) Asphalt Plant Level II Technician: An Asphalt Plant Level II Technician samples
material and is capable of conducting any tests necessary to put the plant into operation.
(d) Concrete Plant Technician: A Concrete Plant Technician performs necessary
adjustments in the proportioning of material used to produce the specified concrete
mixtures
(e) Concrete Batcher: A Concrete Batcher performs the batching operation. The batcher
implements adjustments only at the direction of a certified Concrete Plant Technician
unless the batcher’s certification authorizes otherwise.
(f) Asphalt Field Level I Technician: An Asphalt Field Level I Technician provides quality
control of the placement operations of Asphalt Concrete.
(g) Asphalt Field Level II Technician: An Asphalt Field Level II Technician inspects asphalt
concrete placement in accordance with applicable requirements.
(h) Concrete Field Technician: A Concrete Field Technician provides quality control of
placement operations for hydraulic cement concrete in accordance with applicable
requirements.
(i) Asphalt Mix Design Technician: An Asphalt Mix Design Technician is responsible for
designing and adjusting mixes as needed, reviewing and approving all test results,
having direct communication with the plant for making recommended adjustments and is
capable of conducting any tests necessary to put the plant into operation.
(j) Aggregate Properties Technician: An Aggregate Properties Technician conducts all
aggregate tests on aggregate used in asphalt concrete in accordance with applicable
requirements
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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(k) Slurry Surfacing Technician: A Slurry Surfacing Technician inspects the placement of
emulsified asphalt slurry seal and latex modified emulsion treatment (Micro-surfacing) in
accordance with applicable requirements.
(l) Surface Treatment Technician: A Surface Treatment Technician inspects the
placement of single seal and modified (blotted) seal coats in accordance with applicable
requirements.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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GUIDELINES — FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING SELECT MATERIAL.
SS20702-0714
February 19, 2014
VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
2007 ROAD AND BRIDGE SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
SUPPLEMENTAL SECTION 207—SELECT MATERIAL
SECTION 207—SELECT MATERIAL of the Specifications is amended as follows:
Section 207.03—Job Mix Formula for Select Material, Type I is amended to replace the first
paragraph with the following:
The Contractor shall submit or shall have the source of supply submit a job-mix formula for each
mixture for the Engineer’s approval through the “Producer Lab Analysis and Information Details”
(PLAID) website https://plaid.vdot.virginia.gov prior to starting work. The formula shall establish a
single percentage of aggregate passing each required sieve size denoted in Table II-6 and shall
be in effect until a modification is approved by the Engineer. If unsatisfactory results or other
changed conditions make it necessary, the Contractor shall prepare and submit a new formula for
the Engineer’s approval.
Section 207.05—Acceptance of Select Material, Type I is amended to replace the first and second
paragraphs with the following:
Sampling and testing for determination of grading, moisture, and Atterberg limits shall be
performed by the Contractor. The Contractor shall provide such test results within 48 hours of
sampling to the Department through the “Producer Lab Analysis and Information Details” (PLAID)
website https://plaid.vdot.virginia.gov. The Contractor shall maintain appropriate, current quality
control charts. The Department will perform independent monitor tests. If there is a statistically
significant difference between the two sets of results, an investigation will be made to determine
the reason for the difference. If it is determined that the material does not conform to the
requirements of the Contract, the material will be rejected or a payment adjustment will be made
in accordance with the requirements of Section 207.07.
Determination of gradation and Atterberg limits will be based on a mean of the results of tests
performed on four samples taken in a stratified random manner from each lot. Lots of 2000 tons or
4000 tons may be used at the discretion of the Engineer when warranted by annual plant shipping
quantity and past performance. If visual examination reveals that the material is obviously
contaminated or segregated, the material will be rejected without additional sampling or testing. If it
is necessary to determine the gradation and Atterberg limits of the material in an individual location,
one sample taken from the material in question will be tested and the results will be compared to the
job-mix formula with the tolerances specified in Table II-7 and Table II-8 for one test. The results
obtained will apply only to the material in question.
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GUIDELINES — FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING SUBBASE AND AGGREGATE BASE MATERIAL
SS20802-0714
February 19, 2014
VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
2007 ROAD AND BRIDGE SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
SUPPLEMENTAL SECTION 208—SUBBASE AND AGGREGATE BASE MATERIAL
SECTION 208—SUBBASE AND AGGREGATE BASE MATERIAL of the Specifications is amended as
follows:
Section 208.04—Job Mix Formula is amended to replace the first paragraph with the following:
The Contractor shall submit, or shall have the source of supply submit a job-mix formula for each
mixture for the Engineer’s approval through the “Producer Lab Analysis and Information Detail”
(PLAID) website https://plaid.vdot.virginia.gov prior to starting work. The formula shall be within
the design range specified in Table II-9. If unsatisfactory results or other conditions make it
necessary, the Contractor shall prepare and submit a new job-mix formula for approval.
Section 208.06—Acceptance is amended to replace the second and third paragraphs with the
following:
Sampling and testing for determination of grading, moisture, and Atterberg limits shall be
performed by the Contractor. The Contractor shall provide such test results within 48 hours of
sampling to the Department through “the Producer Lab Analysis and Information Details” (PLAID)
website https://plaid.vdot.virginia.gov. The Contractor shall maintain appropriate current quality
control charts. The Department will perform independent monitor tests at a laboratory of its
choice. If there is a statistically significant difference between the two sets of results, an
investigation will be made to determine the reason for the difference. If it is determined that the
material does not conform to the requirements of the Contract, the material will be rejected or a
payment adjustment will be made in accordance with the requirements of Section 208.08 of the
Specifications.
Determination of gradation and Atterberg limits will be based on a mean of the results of tests
performed on four samples taken in a stratified random manner from each lot. Lots of 2000 tons or
4000 tons may be used at the discretion of the Engineer when warranted by annual plant shipping
quantity and past performance. Samples shall be obtained by methods approved by the Engineer.
Any statistically acceptable method of randomization may be used to determine the time and location
of the stratified random sample to be taken. The Department shall be advised of the method to be
used prior to the beginning of production.
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GUIDELINES — FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING ASPHALT MATERIALS.
SS21001-1014
September 3, 2014
VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
2007 ROAD AND BRIDGE SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
SUPPLEMENTAL SECTION 210—ASPHALT MATERIALS
SECTION 210—ASPHALT MATERIALS of the Specifications is replaced with the following:
210.01—Description
These specifications cover the manufacturing and material requirements for asphalt material
consisting of asphalt, asphalt cement, asphalt cutback, or asphalt emulsion as defined in ASTM D8.
210.02—Materials
Asphalt material shall be homogeneous and shall conform to the following:
(a)
Rapid curing and medium curing liquid asphalts used as surface treatments shall
contain a heat-stable additive conforming to the requirements of Section 211 of the
Specifications.
(b)
Liquid asphalt material will be tested for coating ability in accordance with the
requirements of AASHTO T182, with the following modifications:
1. Material that can coat 95 percent of a shady dolomite will be classified Type I.
2. Material that can coat 95 percent of a siliceous gravel wetted with 2 percent
water by weight will be classified Type II.
(c)
Rapid curing cutback asphalts shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M81.
(d)
Medium curing cutback asphalts shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M82.
(e)
Cements shall be viscosity graded and shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO
M226, Table 2, except that the loss on heating shall be not greater than 1.0 for AC-5, 0.8
for AC-20, and 0.5 for all other grades.
(f)
Emulsions shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M208 and shall be Type I as
specified herein except that CRS-2 shall be Type II as specified herein. CRS-1h shall
conform to the requirements of AASHTO M208 for CRS-1 except that the penetration
shall be 40 to 110. Emulsions will be sampled and tested in accordance with the
requirements of AASHTO T59 except that viscosity will be tested in accordance with the
requirements of VTM-64.
(g)
Polymer Modified Cationic Emulsified Asphalt shall conform to the requirements of
AASHTO M316.
(h)
Non-tracking tack will be tested in accordance with the requirements set forth in Section
210.07 of the Specifications.
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210.03—VDOT Asphalt Acceptance Program (VAAP)
Acceptance into the VAAP
(a)
Asphalt materials will be accepted under the VDOT Asphalt Acceptance Program
(VAAP). This involves sampling, testing, documentation and certification of the product by
the manufacturer in combination with a Department monitoring effort. Performance
Graded Binder suppliers shall conform to AASHTO R-26 and Emulsion supplies shall
conform to AASHTO PP-71 to be added to the VAAP, with provisions listed below.
(b)
To have a new facility added to the VAAP, producers shall:
1. Submit a split sample of each material to be approved to VDOT Central Office
Materials Division for testing.
(c)
Approved shipping facilities from the VAAP that need to add a material to the approved
list shall:
1. Submit a split sample of the material to be approved to VDOT Central Office
Materials Division for testing.
210.04—VDOT Asphalt Acceptance Program Requirements and Compliance
The manufacturer shall ensure the following are performed:
(a)
Asphaltic materials shall be sampled at a minimum frequency of once a month and when
additional materials are added to existing material and tested in accordance with the
specified methods in Section 210.07 of the Specifications.
(b)
A file or certified test reports representing the asphaltic material shall be maintained by
the manufacturer.
(c)
A copy of the certified test report shall be provided to the VDOT Central Office Materials
Division at Elko within 30 days of sampling. Failure to comply with this requirement can
result in removal from the VAAP and the approved materials list.
(d)
Manufacturers shall supply to the Central Office Materials Division at Elko a summary
sheet of quantities shipped to state work annually in January of the following year. This
summary sheet will show the number of gallons of each type/grade of material shipped to
Virginia addresses.
(e)
The manufacturer shall submit to the Department a detailed plan of action
describing the procedures to be taken to ensure tracking of sample test
results and the material represented by these results.
210.05—Sampling
(a)
Samples shall be taken in the presence of VDOT personnel or a VDOT representative.
(b)
Samples taken for testing of asphaltic materials are to be not less than one quart (one
liter) of material (0.5 gallons (2 liters) for asphalt emulsions).
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(c)
Care is to be taken to ensure that the samples are not contaminated and the sample
containers are perfectly clean and dry before filling.
(d)
Immediately after filling, sample containers are to be tightly closed, and properly marked
for identification on the container itself.
210.06—Testing
(a)
The Manufacturer shall conduct the standard control tests on asphaltic materials as
detailed in Section 210.07 of the Specifications.
(b)
Testing for certified test reports shall be performed by the Manufacturer’s personnel in
the Manufacturer’s VDOT approved laboratory or by a VDOT approved commercial
testing facility.
(c)
The Department shall conduct acceptance testing at a frequency of a minimum of 1 test
per month per type/grade of asphaltic material that has been supplied to VDOT projects
during the previous month at the VDOT Central Office Materials at Elko. This frequency is
to be maintained during the construction season, with a lesser frequency during the
remainder of the year.
(d)
Laboratories conducting quality control must be certified by VDOT as meeting the
requirements of certification:
1. All Binder Laboratories shall hold AASHTO Accreditation and provide VDOT with
a copy of accreditation.
2. All Emulsion Laboratories shall be one of the following two levels:
a. Level I: AASHTO Accreditation
(1) Provide VDOT with a copy of accreditation.
b.
Level II: AMRL Proficiency Sample Program
(1) Provide VDOT with copies of last “Round Robin” results, with
ratings for each type of asphaltic material tested and copies of
the lab’s response for each sample.
(2) Development of a calibration program and personnel record
keeping procedure, with results being kept on file at site.
3. All laboratories under the VAAP shall be AASHTO accredited by January 1,
2016.
4. Test Reports
a. The Manufacturer shall maintain a file of certified test reports for all
asphaltic materials ultimately shipped to Contractors that perform work
for VDOT.
b. Test Reports shall indicate that the material shipped meets the
requirements for that type/grade of asphaltic material and will show the
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test results that were obtained to determine compliance with the
applicable specifications.
c.
Records shall be kept by the Manufacturer for at least 12 months and
shall be available for verification by VDOT personnel.
d. Copies of certified test results shall also be sent to the VDOT Central
Office Materials Division at ELKO.
e. Certified Test Reports shall be a company’s standard form containing the
following information:
(1) Manufacturer’s name and address
(2) Type and grade of asphaltic material
(3) Testing performed
designation)
(AASHTO
or
Virginia
Test
Method
(4) Test results and date obtained
(5) Quantity represented
(6) Tank Number
(7) Unique Report Identifier
(8) Statement indicating that the Manufacturer “certified that these
are the test results obtained on the material tested under the
VAAP program”.
210.07—Tests
(a)
PG Asphalt Binders:
1. Certified Test Reports for PG Asphalt Binders shall be based upon the results
of tests performed in accordance with AASHTO M332, Table 1. The
Manufacturer is not required to perform the Direct Tension Test, AASHTO T314.
2. Certified test results for Superpave PG Asphalt Binders are to be based upon the
results of tests performed in accordance with AASHTO R 29, as specified below:
a.
Original Material
Flash Point °C
Viscosity @ 135°C/100°C
Dynamic Shear, 10 Rad/sec
b.
AASHTO T 48
AASHTO T316
AASHTO T 315
RTFO (AASHTO T 240) Material
Mass Loss %
Dynamic Shear, 10 Rad/sec
Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) Test
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AASHTO T 240
AASHTO T 315
AASHTO T 350
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c.
Today’s Date: April 1, 2016
Pressure Aging Vessel, Residue at 100°C (AASHTO R 28)
Dynamic Shear, 10 Rad/sec
Creep Stiffness, 60 sec
M-Slope
AASHTO T 315
AASHTO T 313
AASHTO T 313
3. For asphalt binders tested in accordance with AASHTO T 350, indication of
elastic response shall be determined using Figure X1.1 Nonrecoverable Creep
Compliance Versus Percent Recovery in AASHTO M 332.
(b)
Cutback Asphalts:
1. Certified Test Reports for Cutback Asphalts shall be based upon the results of
tests performed in accordance with AASHTO M81 and M82. The Manufacturer is
not required to perform the Flash Point, Ductility, and Solubility tests unless
otherwise directed by the Engineer. VDOT shall perform Ductility and Solubility
tests on all acceptance samples. Flash Point tests will be performed by VDOT
periodically. When performed by VDOT, failure of either sample on Flash Point,
Ductility, and Solubility will be considered sufficient reason to require the
Manufacturer to perform this testing. If the Manufacturer elects to conduct these
tests to better control production, the results shall be included on the certified test
report.
2. When used in surface treatments, the Coating Ability test shall be conducted
subject to the specifications listed in Section 210.02 of the Specifications.
(c)
Emulsified Asphalts:
1. Certified Test Reports for Emulsified Asphalts shall be based upon the results
of tests performed in accordance with AASHTO M208 or AASHTO M316, as
specified below:
a.
Cationic Emulsions- Table 1, specifically
(1) Tests on Emulsions:
● Saybolt Furol Viscosity
● Sieve Test (if necessary)
● Demulsibility or Classification test
● Particle Charge Test
● Residue by Distillation
(2) Tests on residue from distillation:
● Penetration
b.
CSS-1h (Quick Set):
Same tests as Cationic Emulsions, as well as:
● Quick set Emulsified Asphalt Setting Time (VTM-89)
c.
Latex Modified Cationic Emulsions (Quick Set)
(1) CQS-1h Latex Modified (CQS-1hLM)
a) Tests on Emulsions
● Saybolt Furol Viscosity
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● Sieve Test (if necessary)
● Particle Charge Test
● Residue by Evaporation (VTM-78)
b) Tests on residue
● Penetration
● Ring and Ball Softening Point
(2) CRS-2 Latex
a) Tests on Emulsions
● Saybolt Furol Viscosity
● Sieve Test (if necessary)
● Particle Charge Test
● Residue by Distillation
b) Tests on residue by Distillation
● Penetration
● Ring and Ball Softening Point
● Elastic Recovery
2. The Manufacturer is not required to perform the Flash Point, Ductility, and
Solubility tests unless otherwise directed by the Engineer. VDOT shall perform
Ductility and Solubility tests on all independent assurance (monitor) and Q.A.
samples. Flash Point tests will be performed by VDOT periodically. When
performed by VDOT, failure of either sample on Flash Point, Ductility, and
Solubility will be considered sufficient reason to require the Manufacturer to
perform this testing. If the Manufacturer elects to conduct these tests to better
control production, the results shall be included on the certified test report.
(d)
Non-Tracking Tack:
1. Certified Test Reports for Non-Tracking Tack shall be based upon the results of
tests performed, as specified below:
a.
Tests on Non-Tracking Tack:
● Saybolt Furol Viscosity
● Residue by Distillation
b.
Tests on residue by distillation:
● Ring and Ball Softening Point
210.08—Storing and Shipping
(a)
Shipping:
1. Shipments of asphalt material shall be made in transporting media that are free
from contamination. Tank trucks or trailers shall be equipped with an Engineer
approved sampling device. The device shall have an inside diameter of 1/2 to 1
inch and a gate valve or petcock. The device shall be built into the tank or the
recirculating or discharge line so that a sample can be drawn during circulation or
discharge.
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2. All Shipping documents shall contain sufficient information such that at any point,
the material may be traceable back to the original test results. If the material is
mixed with other approved material for storage, the record system will be such as
to assure the traceability of all the material which is being mixed.
3. All shipping documents shall be accompanied by a statement similar to “We
certify that all material being shipped on this invoice/bill of lading has been tested
and approved under the Virginia Asphalt Acceptance Program and that the
material has been loaded under the supervision of our representative into
carriers that are suitable for shipment of this material.”
4. All shipping documents shall be kept by the recipient of the material for at least
12 months and are to be available for verification by VDOT personnel l.
5. Only material tested and certified in accordance with the VAAP shall be mixed
and shipped to VDOT projects.
(b)
Storing: Asphalt material shall be placed in storage tanks that are free from
contamination.
210.09—Payment Adjustment System
If the asphalt material represented by any one sample does not conform to the requirements herein
and the material is a pay item, the Engineer will reduce the contract unit price for the item by 4
percent for each property that does not conform to the Specifications for the quantity represented by
the sample that was used on the project. The Engineer will reject any unused material represented
by the failing sample.
The Engineer will consider any failed sampled asphalt material that is not a pay item unacceptable
and subject to the requirements of Section 105.18 and Section 106.10 of the Specifications.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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GUIDELINES — FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING SUPERPAVE ASPHALT CONCRETE. WHEN THIS PROVISION
APPLIES INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING IN THE PROPOSAL: SS31510 SuperPave -Asphalt Conc Place.
SS21113-1215
December 4, 2015
VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
2007 ROAD AND BRIDGE SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
SUPPLEMENTAL SECTION 211—ASPHALT CONCRETE
SECTION 211—ASPHALT CONCRETE of the Specifications is replaced with the following:
211.01—Description
Asphalt concrete shall consist of a combination of mineral aggregate and asphalt material mixed
mechanically in a plant specifically designed for such purpose.
An equivalent single-axle load (ESAL) will be established by the Engineer, and SUPERPAVE mix types
may be specified as one of the types listed as follows:
Mix Type
Equivalent Single-Axle Load
Minimum Asphalt
Aggregate Nominal
2
1
(ESAL) Range (millions)
Performance Grade (PG)
Maximum Size
SM-9.0A
0 to 3
64S-16
3/8 in
SM-9.0D
3 to 10
64H-16
3/8 in
SM-9.0E
Above 10
64E-22
3/8 in
SM-9.5A
0 to 3
64S-16
3/8 in
SM-9.5D
3 to 10
64H-16
3/8 in
SM-9.5E
Above 10
64E-22
3/8 in
SM-12.5A
0 to 3
64S-16
1/2 in
SM-12.5D
3 to 10
64H-16
1/2 in
SM-12.5E
Above 10
64E-22
1/2 in
IM-19.0A
Less than 10
64S-16
3/4 in
IM-19.0D
10 to 20
64H-16
3/4 in
IM-19.0E
20 and above
64E-22
3/4 in
BM-25.0A
All ranges
64S-16
1 in
BM-25.0D
Above 10
64H-16
1 in
1
Nominal Maximum Size is defined as one sieve size larger than the first sieve to retain more than 10
percent aggregate.
2
Minimum Asphalt Performance Grade (PG) is defined as the minimum binder performance grade
for the job mixes as determined by AASHTO T170 or AASHTOM332.
Note: SM = Surface Mixture; IM = Intermediate Mixture; BM = Base Mixture
Asphalt concrete shall conform to the requirements for the mix type designated on the plans or elsewhere
in the contract for use
At the Contractor’s option, an approved Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) additive or process may be used to
produce the asphalt concrete (AC) mix type designated.
211.02—Materials
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(a) Asphalt materials shall conform to the requirements of Section 210 of the Specifications
except asphalt cement materials shall be performance graded (PG) in accordance with the
requirements of AASHTO M332. In addition, asphalt mixtures with the E designation shall meet
the asphalt cement requirements in Section 211.04(e)1 of the Specifications.
(b) Coarse aggregate shall be Grade A or B conforming to the requirements, except for grading,
of Section 203 of the Specifications for quality. In addition, the coarse aggregate sizes retained
on and above the No. 4 sieve shall comply with the coarse aggregate requirements in Table II12A. Flat and elongated (F&E) particles shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of
ASTM D 4791, and coarse aggregate angularity (CAA) shall only be tested on crushed gravel
in accordance with the requirements of ASTM D 5821.
(c) Fine aggregate shall conform to the requirements, except for grading, of Section 202 of the
Specifications for quality and the fine aggregate requirements in Table II-12A. Fine aggregate
angularity (FAA) shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of AASHTO T 304
(Method A) and the sand equivalent (SE) shall be tested in accordance with the requirements
of AASHTO T 176.
(d) After a gradation test is performed:
1. If 10 percent or more of the material is retained on the No. 4 sieve, that portion shall be
tested in accordance with the requirements for coarse aggregate.
2. If 10 percent or more of the material passes the No. 4 sieve, that portion shall be tested for
SE.
3. If 10 percent or more of the material passes the No. 8 sieve, that portion shall be tested for
FAA.
(e) Fine or coarse aggregates that tend to polish under traffic will not be permitted in any final
surface exposed to traffic except in areas where the two-way average daily traffic is less than
750 vehicles per day and as permitted elsewhere in these Specifications.
TABLE II-12A
Aggregate Properties
Mix Type
Coarse Aggregate Properties
CAA
ASTM D4791
1 fractured
2 fractured
F & E “(5:1)
face
faces
% by weight
Fine Aggregate Properties
SE
FAA
SM-9.0 A
SM-9.0 D
SM-9.0 E
85% min.
85% min.
95% min.
80% min.
80% min.
90% min.
10% max.
1
10% max.
1
10% max.
1
40% min.
45% min.
45% min.
40% min.
45% min.
45% min.
SM-9.5 A
SM-9.5 D
SM-9.5 E
85% min.
85% min.
95% min.
80% min.
80% min.
90% min.
10% max.
1
10% max.
1
10% max.
1
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
SM-12.5 A
SM-12.5 D
SM-12.5 E
85% min.
85% min.
95% min.
80% min.
80% min.
90% min.
10% max.
1
10% max.
1
10% max.
1
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
IM-19.0 A
IM-19.0 D
IM-19.0 E
85% min.
95% min.
95% min.
80% min.
90% min.
90% min.
10% max.
1
10% max.
1
10% max.
1
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
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BM-25.0 A
BM-25.0 D
80% min.
80% min.
UPDATED Apr 1, 2016
75% min.
75% min.
1
10% max.
1
10% max.
Today’s Date: April 1, 2016
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
45% min.
1
10 percent measured at 5:1 on maximum to minimum dimensions
(f) Mineral filler shall conform to the requirements of Section 201 of the Specifications.
(g) Aggregate for asphalt concrete shall be provided in sufficient sizes and amounts to produce
a uniform mixture. The Contractor shall indicate on the proposed job-mix formula the separate
approximate sizes of aggregate to be used.
Where segregation or nonuniformity is evident in the finished pavement, the Engineer reserves
the right to require the Contractor to discontinue the use of crusher run or aggregate blends
and to furnish separate sizes of open-graded aggregate material.
(h) An antistripping additive shall be used in all asphalt mixes. It may be hydrated lime or a
chemical additive from the VDOT Materials Division Approved Products List No. 7 or a
combination of both. The approved chemical additive shall be added at a rate of not less than
0.30 percent by weight of the total asphalt content of the mixture.
The mixture shall produce a tensile strength ratio (TSR) of not less than 0.80 for the design and
production tests. The TSR shall be determined in accordance with AASHTO T283, including a
freeze-thaw cycle (4-inch specimens compacted with a Marshall Hammer or 3.5 by 6-inch
specimens when compacted with a gyratory compactor); except that the 16-hour curing time
requirement and the 72 to 96-hour storage period will not be enforced.by the Department.
Design tests shall use the same materials that are to be used in the production mix and shall be
conducted in a laboratory approved by the Department.
When a chemical additive is used, it shall be added to the asphalt cement prior to the
introduction of the cement into the mix. Any chemical additive or particular concentration of
chemical additive found to be harmful to the asphalt material or that changes the original
asphalt binder performance grade (PG) shall not be used.
(i) Hydrated lime shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C977. Hydrated lime shall be
added at a rate of not less than 1 percent by weight of the total dry aggregate.
A separate bin or tank and feeder system shall be provided to store and accurately proportion
the dry or slurried lime into the aggregate.. The lime and aggregate shall be mixed by pugmill
or other Department approved means to achieve a uniform lime coating of the aggregate prior
to entering the drier. If lime is added in dry form, the aggregate shall contain at least 3 percent
free moisture. The Department will not permit the stockpiling of lime treated aggregate.
The feeder system shall be controlled by a proportioning device, which shall be accurate to
within 10 percent of the specified amount. The proportioning device shall have a convenient
and accurate means of calibration. A flow indicator or sensor shall be provided with the
proportioning device and interlocked with the plant controls, aggregate feed or weigh system,
such that production of the mixture shall be consistently maintained and, if there is a stoppage
of the lime feed, interrupted.
The method of introducing and mixing the lime and aggregate shall be subject to approval by
the Engineer prior to beginning production.
(j) Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) material may be used as a component material of
asphalt mixtures in conformance with the following:
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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1. Asphalt surface, intermediate and base mixtures containing RAP (but without RAS) should
use the performance grade (PG) of asphalt cement as indicated in Table II-I4A, however,
the choice of PG to use in the mix shall be the responsibility of the Contractor in order to
meet the requirements of Section 211.01 of the Specifications.
2. The final asphalt mixture shall conform to the requirements for the type specified.
3. During the production process, RAP material shall not be allowed to contact open flame.
4. RAP material shall be handled, hauled, and stored in a manner that will minimize
contamination. Further, the material shall be stockpiled and used in such manner that
variable asphalt contents and asphalt penetration values will not adversely affect the
consistency of the mixture.
5. RAP shall be processed in such a manner as to ensure that the maximum top size particle
of material introduced into the mix shall be 2 inches. The Engineer may require smaller
sized particles to be introduced into the mix if the reclaimed particles are not broken down
or uniformly distributed throughout the mixture during heating and mixing.
(m) Reclaimed Asphalt Shingles (RAS) – Tear-off RAS Materials in Asphalt Concrete
6. Asphalt surface, intermediate, and base mixtures containing Tear-off RAS Materials shall
meet the requirements of Section 211.01 and 211.03 of the Specifications.
7. Tear-off RAS Materials shall be discarded shingle scrap from the re-roofing of domestic
buildings. These tear-offs shall have been produced by the manufacturing process for
roofing shingles.
Tear-off RAS materials shall contain less than 3.0 percent foreign materials such as paper,
roofing nails, wood, or metal flashing. Materials shall be shredded prior to being
incorporated in the AC mixture so that at least 99 percent of the shredded prior to being
incorporated in the AC mixture so that at least 99 percent of the shredded pieces passes
the ½ inch (12.5 mm) sieve and at least 80 percent passed the #4 (4.75 mm) sieve.
Tear-off RAS materials shall not have asbestos containing material (ACM) as defined by
the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which is less
than 1 percent asbestos. The Contractor shall furnish a certification obtained from the
recycler tat Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) tests were performed on random samples of
RAS at the rate of 1 test per 100 tons or if operating under a Virginia DEQ permit the rate
will be the 1 test per 750 tons. The test results shall reveal no detectable level of ACM.
Copies of the test results from the recycler shall be available upon request.
8. Asphalt Binder of the asphalt concrete mixture shall be Performance Grade (PG) of asphalt
conforming to the requirements specified in Section 211 of the Specifications.
9. RAS tear-offs in asphalt concrete shall be mixed mechanically in a plant specifically
designed for asphalt concrete production.
10. Contractors shall store tear-off RAS materials by stockpiling either whole or as partial
shingles which have not been shredded or shredded shingles that meet the maximum size
requirements. Stockpiled RAS shall not be contaminated by dirt or other objectionable
foreign materials. Blending of the shingles with fine aggregate may be necessary to
prevent conglomeration of shingle particles. When fine aggregate is used for this purpose,
this material shall be accounted for in the mix design.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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(n) Reclaimed Asphalt Shingles (RAS) – Tabs RAS Materials in Asphalt Concrete
6. Asphalt surface, intermediate, and base mixtures containing Tabs RAS Materials shall
meet the requirements of Section 211.01 and 211.03 of the Specifications.
7. Tabs RAS Materials shall be produced by the manufacturing process for domestic roofing
shingles. Blending or mixing of Tabs and Tear-offs shall not be permitted.
Tabs RAS Materials shall be shredded prior to being incorporated into the asphalt concrete
mixture so that one hundred percent of the shredded pieces are less than ½ inches
(12.5mm) in any dimension.
Tabs RAS Materials shall not contain asbestos fibers. The Contractor shall furnish the
Department a certification from the manufacturer of the shingles stating that the shingles
are free of asbestos. If a certification cannot be obtained then the contractor shall furnish
test results of RAS sample analysis for Polarized Light Microscopy (PLM) on the shingles
which certify the material to be used is free of asbestos. Testing is required at the specified
rate of 1 per manufacturer per type of RAS prior to processing and results shall be
submitted prior to or during the stockpile approval process.
8. Asphalt Binder of the asphalt concrete mixture shall be Performance Grade (PG) of asphalt
conforming to the requirements specified in Section 211 of the Specifications.
9. Tabs RAS Materials in asphalt concrete shall be mixed mechanically in a plant specifically
designed for asphalt concrete production.
10. Contractors shall store Tabs RAS materials by stockpiling either whole or as partial
shingles which have not been shredded or shredded shingles that meet the maximum size
requirements. Stockpiled RAS shall not be contaminated by dirt or other objectionable
foreign materials. Blending of the shingles with fine aggregate may be necessary to
prevent conglomeration of shingle particles. When fine aggregate is used for this purpose,
this material shall be accounted for in the mix design.
(k)
Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) additives or processes shall be approved by the Department prior
to use and shall be obtained from the Department’s approved list which is included in the
Materials Division’s Manual of Instructions.
211.03—Job-Mix Formula
The Contractor shall submit a job-mix formula for each mixture planned for use on the project for the
Department’s evaluation and approval through the “Producer Lab Analysis and Information Details”
(PLAID) website. Paper copies of the job mix formula along with supporting documentation shall also be
submitted to the Department. The job-mix formula shall be within the design range specified. The jobmix formula shall establish a single percentage of aggregate passing each required sieve, a single
percentage of asphalt material to be added to the aggregate, a temperature at which the mixture is to be
produced, and a temperature at which the mixture is to be compacted for SUPERPAVE testing in
accordance with the requirements of AASHTO R35. Each approved job-mix formula shall remain in effect
provided the results of tests performed on material currently being produced consistently comply with the
requirements of the job-mix formula for grading, asphalt content, temperature, and SUPERPAVE
compaction results and the requirements of Section 315 of the Specifications.
(a) SUPERPAVE mixes shall be designed and controlled in accordance with the requirements of
AASHTO R35 and as specified herein. The Contractor shall have available all of the
equipment outlined in AASHTO T312 (Section 4-6) and a Department-certified Asphalt Mix
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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Design Technician. The SUPERPAVE mixture shall be compacted in a gyratory compactor
with an internal angle of 1.16 + 0.02 degrees. The internal angle shall be measured and
calibrated using a cold (non-mix) device. The SUPERPAVE Gyratory Compactor (SGC)
shall be one from the Department’s approved list of devices found in the VDOT Materials
Division’s Manual of Instructions. The SUPERPAVE mixes shall conform to the requirements
of Table II-13 and Table II-14. Section 7.1.2 of AASHTO R30 shall be modified such that the
compaction temperature is as specified in (d) 6 herein.
(b) In conjunction with the submittal of a job-mix formula, the Contractor shall submit complete
SUPERPAVE design test data, ignition furnace calibration data in accordance with VTM-102
prepared by an approved testing laboratory, and viscosity data or supplier temperature
recommendations for the asphalt cement if different from (d) 6 herein.
(c) Three trial blends for gradation shall be run at one asphalt content
TABLE II-13
Asphalt Concrete Mixtures: Design Range
Mix Type
SM-9.0 A,D,E
SM-9.5 A,D,E
SM-12.5 A,D,E
IM-19.0 A,D,E
BM-25.0 A,D
C (Curb Mix)
2 in 1 1/2 in
100
1
Percentage by Weight Passing Square Mesh Sieves
¾ in
½ in
3/8 in
No. 4
No. 8
No. 30
1
100
90-100 90 max. 47-67
1
100
90-100
58-80
38-67 23 max
100
95-100 90 max. 58-80
34-50 23 max
100
90-100 90 max.
--28-49
90-100 90 max.
---19-38
100
92-100 70-75
50-60
28-36
1 in
No. 50 No. 200
2-10
2-10
2-10
2-8
1-7
15-20
7-9
A production tolerance of 1% will be applied to this sieve regardless of the number of tests in the lot.
Mix Type
VTM
(%)
Production
TABLE II-14
Mix Design Criteria
VFA
VFA
Min.
(%)
(%)
VMA
Design
(%)
Production
Fines/Asphalt
Ratio
No. of
Gyrations
N Design
SM-9.0A
1,2
SM-9.0D
1,2
SM-9.0E
1,2
2.0-5.0
2.0-5.0
2.0-5.0
75-80
75-80
75-80
70-85
70-85
70-85
16
16
16
0.6-1.3
0.6-1.3
0.6-1.3
65
65
65
SM-9.5A
1,2
2.0-5.0
75-80
70-85
16
0.7-1.3
50
SM-9.5D
1,2
2.0-5.0
75-80
70-85
16
0.7-1.3
50
SM-9.5E
1,2
2.0-5.0
75-80
70-85
16
0.7-1.3
50
2.0-5.0
2.0-5.0
2.0-5.0
73-79
73-79
73-79
68-84
68-84
68-84
15
15
15
0.7-1.3
0.7-1.3
0.7-1.3
50
50
50
2.0-5.0
2.0-5.0
2.0-5.0
69-76
69-76
69-76
64-81
64-81
64-81
13
13
13
0.6-1.2
0.6-1.2
0.6-1.2
65
65
65
1.0-4.0
67-87
67-92
12
0.6-1.3
65
1,2
SM-12.5A
1,2
SM-12.5D
1,2
SM-12.5E
1,2
IM-19.0A
1,2
IM-19.0D
1,2
IM-19.0E
BM-25.0A
2,3
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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2,3
1.0-4.0
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67-87
67-92
12
0.6-1.3
65
1
Asphalt content should be selected at 4.0% air voids for A & D mixes, 3.5% air voids for E mix.
Fines-asphalt ratio is based on effective asphalt content.
3
Base mix shall be designed at 2.5% air voids. BM-25A shall have a minimum asphalt content of
4.4% unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. BM-25D shall have a minimum asphalt content of
4.6% unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.
2
(d) The SUPERPAVE design test data shall include, but not be limited to, the following information:
2. Grading data for each aggregate component of three trial blends shall be submitted to the
Department. The data for the mixture shall show percent passing for the following sieves: 2
inch, 1 1/2 inch, 1 inch, 3/4 inch, 1/2 inch, 3/8 inch, No. 4, No. 8, No. 16, No. 30, No. 50,
No. 100, and No. 200. The grading shall be reported to the nearest 1.0 percent except the
No. 200 sieve shall be reported to the nearest 0.1 percent.
2. The test data shall include, but not be limited to, the percentage of each aggregate
component as compared to the total aggregate in the asphalt mixture. The specific gravity
and aggregate properties for coarse and fine aggregates defined in Section 211.02 (b) and
(c) of the Specifications,), including flat and elongated properties, for each aggregate
component or for the total aggregates used in the mixture shall be reported. Aggregate
properties, except sand equivalent, shall be reported for RAP portions of a mixture. The
aggregate specific gravity of RAP shall be the effective aggregate specific gravity
calculated from the results of tests conducted in accordance with AASHTO T 209 and
VTM-102.
3. The aggregate grading in the asphalt mixture shall be determined by igniting or extracting
the asphalt from a laboratory-prepared sample. The laboratory sample shall be batched on
the basis of component percentages as indicated in (d) 2. herein and at the proposed jobmix asphalt content. The aggregate shall be obtained in accordance with the requirements
of VTM-102 or VTM-36, when approved. Sieves specified in (d) 1. herein shall be reported,
beginning with the top size for the mix.
4. The following volumetric properties of the compacted mixture, calculated on the basis of the
mixture’s maximum specific gravity determined in accordance with AASHTO T-209, shall
be reported to the Engineer. The mixture shall be aged in accordance with AASHTO R30
and the bulk specific gravity of the specimens determined in accordance with AASHTO T166, Method A, for each asphalt content tested. Properties shall be determined and
reported in accordance with the requirements of AASHTO R35.
a. Voids in total mix (VTM)
b. Voids in mineral aggregate (VMA)
c.
Voids filled with Asphalt (VFA)
d. Fines/Asphalt ratio (F/A)
5. The value of the maximum specific gravity of the asphalt mixture used in (c) 4. herein shall
be reported to three decimal places.
6. The mixing and compaction temperature for testing shall be as follows:
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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d. For mixes designation A, the mix temperature shall be 300 degrees F to 310 degrees
F and the compaction temperature shall be 285 degrees F to 290 degrees F.
e. For mixes designation D, the mix temperature shall be 310 degrees F to 320 degrees
F and the compaction temperature shall be 295 degrees F to 300 degrees F.
f.
In cases involving PG 64E-22 or modified binders, the temperatures shall be based
on documented supplier’s recommendations.
7. The field correction factor as determined by subtracting the bulk specific gravity of the
aggregate from the effective specific gravity of the aggregate at the design asphalt content.
8. For surface mixes, permeability test data shall be submitted in accordance with VTM 120
using either single point verification or the regression method for each surface mix having a
different gradation. If the average of the permeability results from the single point
-5
verification method exceeds 150 x 10 cm/sec, or if the regression method predicts a
-5
permeability exceeding 150 x 10 cm/sec at 7.5% voids, the Contractor shall redesign the
-5
mixture to produce a permeability number less than 150 x 10 cm/sec.
(e) The SUPERPAVE design binder content test data shall be plotted on graphs as described in
AASHTO R 35 and shall show that the proposed job-mix formula conforms to the requirements
of the designated mix type.
(f) A determination will be made to verify if any asphalt concrete mixture being produced conforms
to the job-mix formula approved by the Department. The Department and Contractor will test
the mixture using samples removed from production. The following tests will be conducted to
determine the properties listed:
Property
Asphalt content
Gradation
SUPERPAVE properties
Asphalt cement material
Test
VTM-102, (VTM-36 when approved)
AASHTO T-30
AASHTO R35
AASHTO T316 or T-201
For Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA), SUPERPAVE properties for mixing and compaction temperatures
will be determined by the Department and Contractor based on the mix designations in Section
211.03(d)6 of the Specifications.
The Department will perform rut testing in accordance with the procedures detailed in VTM-110.
If the results of the rut testing do not conform to the following requirements, the Engineer
reserves the right to require adjustments to the job-mix formula:
Mix Designation
Maximum Rut Depth, mm
A
D
E, (S)
7.0
5.5
3.5
After calibration of the gyratory compactor is completed, the Engineer may require the Contractor
to make adjustments to the job-mix formula.
If the Department determines that the mixture being produced does not conform to the approved
job-mix formula and volumetric properties specified in Table II-14 based on the Department’s or
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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Contractor’s test results, the Contractor shall immediately make corrections to bring the mixture
into conformance with the approved job-mix formula or cease paving with that mixture.
Subsequent paving operations using either a revised or another job-mix formula that has not
been verified as described herein shall be limited to a test run of 100 to 300 tons of mixture if
such material is to be placed in Department project work. No further paving for the Department
using that specific mixture shall occur until the acceptability of the mixture being produced has
been verified using the 100 to 300 ton constraint.
TABLE II-14A
Recommended Performance Grade of Asphalt Cement
Percentage of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in Mix
Mix Type
%RAP  25.0%
25.0% < %RAP  30%
25.0% < %RAP  35%
SM-4.75A, SM-9.0A,
SM-9.5A, SM-12.5A
PG 64S-22
PG 64S-22
SM-4.75D, SM-9.0D,
SM-9.5D, SM-12.5D
PG 64H-22
PG 64S-22
IM-19.0A
PG 64S-22
PG 64S-22
IM-19.0D
PG 64H-22
PG 64S-22
BM-25.0A
PG 64S-22
PG 64S-22
BM-25.0D
PG 64H-22
PG 64S-22
Based on rut testing performed by the Department and/or field performance of the job mix, the
Engineer reserves the right to require the Contractor to make adjustments to the job-mix formula.
(h) When utilizing RAS Materials (Tear-off or Tabs), the Contractor shall submit material
samples to include the RAS stockpiled tear-off shingles, reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP)
and PG Binder.
The amount of RAS material used in the recycled mixture shall be no more than five percent of
the total mixture weight. However,the combined percentages of RAS and RAP shall not
contribute more than 30 percent (by weight) of the total asphalt content of the mixture, according
to the following equation:
 


   %RAPmix  % AC RAP
 %RAS mix  % AC RAS

100  
100 


% AC
 30.0%
JMF
Where:
% RASmix =
% ACRAS =
% RAPmix =
% ACRAP =
% ACJMF =
Percent RAS in the Job Mix Formula
Average Percent AC in the RAS
Percent RAP in the Job Mix Formula
Average Percent AC in the RAP
Design AC content of the JMF
The Contractor shall determine the asphalt content of the RAS using AASHTO T-164, Method B,
or VTM-102 and report the average results to the nearest 0.1 percent. When the ignition furnace
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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is used, a correction factor shall be applied for the non-asphalt combustible materials in the RAS.
Unless the actual correction factor is determined by comparing the test results on paired samples
from AASHTO T-164 Method B and VTM-102, the estimated correction factor for the RAS shall
be 5 percent.
Used separately or with RAP, RAS can be used to stiffen the asphalt concrete mixture binder to
meet the requirements in Section 211.01 of Specifications. Asphalt surface, intermediate, and
base mixtures containing RAS in order to meet the asphalt concrete mixture stiffness of PG 64H16 should use PG 64S-22 asphalt cement. Further, mixes using RAS shallnot exceed the 30%
(by weight) and are required to use the maximum binder replacement criteria noted here:




5% RAS and 0% RAP
4% RAS and 5% RAP minimum
3% RAS and 10% RAP minimum
2% RAS and 20% RAP minimum
Interpolation shall be used to determine combinations between the whole number RAS/RAP
usage figures shown herein, subject to review and approval by the Engineer.
211.04—Asphalt Concrete Mixtures
Asphalt concrete mixtures shall conform to the requirements of Table II-14 and the following:
(a) Types SM-9.0A, SM-9.0D, SM-9.0E, SM-9.5A, SM-9.5D, SM-9.5E, SM-12.5A, SM-12.5D, and
SM-12.5E asphalt concrete shall consist of crushed stone, crushed slag, or crushed gravel and
fine aggregate, slag or stone screenings, or a combination thereof combined with asphalt cement.
NOTE: For all surface mixes, except where otherwise noted, no more than 5 percent of the
aggregate retained on the No. 4 sieve and no more than 20 percent of the total aggregate may
be polish susceptible. At the discretion of the Engineer, SM-9.5AL or SM-12.5AL may be
specified and polish susceptible aggregates may be used (without percentage limits).
NOTE: Unless Type C (curb mix) is specified by the Engineer in the contract plans and
specifications, SM9.0, SM-9.5, and SM-12.5 mix types are acceptable for use in the construction
of asphalt curbing.
(b) Types IM-19.0A, IM-19.0D, and IM-19.0E asphalt concrete shall consist of crushed stone,
crushed slag, or crushed gravel and fine aggregate, slag or stone screenings, or a combination
thereof combined with asphalt cement.
NOTE: At the discretion of the Engineer, an intermediate mix may be designated as either SM19.0A, SM-19.0D or SM-19.0E. When designated as such, no more than 5 percent of the
aggregate retained on the No. 4 sieve may be polish susceptible. All material passing the No. 4
sieve may be polish susceptible.
(c) Types BM-25.0A and BM-25.0D asphalt concrete shall consist of crushed stone, crushed slag,
or crushed gravel and fine aggregate, slag or stone screenings, or a combination thereof
combined with asphalt cement.
(d) Type C (curb mix) asphalt concrete shall consist of a blend of No. 78 or No. 8 crushed
aggregate, No. 10 crushed aggregate, fine aggregate, mineral filler, and a stabilizing additive
from the Department’s approved list found in the Materials Division’s Manual of Instructions
combined with 6.0 to 9.0 percent of PG 64S-22. This mix does not require a volumetric mix
design or volumetric testing under the SUPERPAVE system.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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(e) Type SM-9.5, SM-12.5, IM-19.0 and BM-25.0 asphalt concrete may be designated E (polymer
modified), or stabilized (S). Asphalt concrete mixtures with the E designation may not be
stabilized.
1. Type E designated mixtures shall consist of mixes incorporating a neat asphalt material
with polymer modification complying with the requirements of PG 64E-22 and have a rolling
thin film oven test residue elastic recovery at 77 degrees F of a minimum of 70 percent when
tested in accordance with ASTM D 6084 procedure A.. E designated mixtures shall not
contain more than 15 percent reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) material (by weight) or 3%
recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) (by weight).
2. Type (S) asphalt mixtures shall consist of mixes incorporating a stabilizing additive from the
Department’s approved list found in the Materials Division’s Manual of Instructions. These
mixes shall be designated with an (S) following the standard mix designation. The minimum
required additive shall be as specified on the Department’s approved list found in the
Materials Division’s Manual of Instructions.
3. Type L asphalt mixtures will be allowed to contain a 100 percent polishing coarse and fine
aggregate. These mixes shall be designated with a L following the standard mix designation.
211.05—Testing
The Contractor shall provide the quality control and quality assurance necessary for the Department to
determine conformance with the required grading, asphalt content, and temperature properties for asphalt
concrete.
The Contractor shall have a Department-certified Asphalt Mix Design Technician for designing and
adjusting mixes as necessary. The Asphalt Mix Design Technician or Asphalt Plant Level II Technician
may perform testing of asphalt mixes. The Asphalt Mix Design Technician shall be responsible for
reviewing and approving the results of all testing. The Asphalt Mix Design Technician shall be available
and have direct communication with the plant for making necessary adjustments in the asphalt concrete
mixes at the mixing plant. The Asphalt Mix Design Technician and Asphalt Plant Level II Technician shall
each be capable of conducting any tests necessary to put the plant into operation; however, the Asphalt
Mix Design Technician shall be responsible for producing a mixture that complies with the requirements
of these Specifications. The Department will award certification.
The Contractor shall maintain all records and test results associated with the material production and
shall maintain appropriate current quality control charts. Test results and control charts shall be available
for review by the Engineer.
The Contractor shall execute a quality control plan of process inspections and tests, including the
determination of SUPERPAVE properties. The results of the SUPERPAVE tests shall be used, along
with the results of other quality control efforts, to achieve and maintain the quality of the mixture being
produced.
The Contractor shall perform at least one field SUPERPAVE test per day per mix or per 1,000 tons per
mix if more than 1,000 tons of a mix is produced per day. Aging as described in AASHTO R30 shall not
be performed. If less than 300 tons of asphalt mixture is produced under a single job-mix formula in a
day, field SUPERPAVE testing will not be required on that day. That day’s tonnage shall be added to
subsequent production. When the accumulated tonnage exceeds 300 tons, minimum testing frequency
shall apply. Field SUPERPAVE test results shall be plotted and displayed in control chart form in the
plant immediately following the completion of each individual test. The tests shall determine asphalt
content in percentages to the nearest 0.01 . The tests shall determine VTM, VMA, VFA, and F/A in
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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percentages to the nearest 0.1 percent. The Department will conduct on-site inspections so the
Contractor’s Asphalt Mix Design Technician can demonstrate knowledge of the SUPERPAVE mix design
and production requirements on Department-supplied mixtures.
Aggregate specific gravity and aggregate property tests shall be conducted by a Department-certified
Aggregate Properties Technician or Asphalt Mix Design Technician on each aggregate component
(including RAP) or total aggregate mixture once at mix design stage and once prior to beginning
production in each calendar year. Sand equivalent shall not be determined on RAP. In addition, for each
50,000 tons of each aggregate size used at each plant, aggregate specific gravity and the results of
aggregate property tests shall be reported for each aggregate component or the total aggregate mixture.
Otherwise, if the total blend (cold feed) is used to determine aggregate specific gravity and aggregate
properties, these tests shall be run for each 50,000 tons of the total blend.
Field SUPERPAVE tests shall be performed to N design gyrations as specified in Table II-14.
For surface mixes, permeability test data shall be submitted in accordance with VTM 120 using either
single point verification or the regression method for each surface mix having a different gradation.
A minimum of one permeability samples will be taken and test run in the first lot, and every other lot
thereafter, and results submitted to the District Materials Engineer.
211.06—Tests
The Department may sample materials entering into the composition of the asphalt concrete, the mixture,
or the completed pavement. The Contractor shall cooperate with the Engineer in obtaining these
samples. When samples are obtained from the pavement by coring, the resulting voids shall be filled and
refinished by the Contractor without additional compensation.
Abson recovery samples shall be PG graded according to the requirements of AASHTO M 322-14.
Samples meeting the required grades specified in Section 211.01 of the Specifications shall be
acceptable.
When the Department performs PG grading on the asphalt in a Contractor’s liquid asphalt storage tank,
the Engineer will notify the asphalt concrete producer and binder supplier if tests indicate that the binder
properties of the asphalt material differ from those of the approved job-mix. The asphalt concrete
producer and binder supplier shall determine what corrective action must be taken with the approval of
the Engineer.
211.07—Plant Inspection
The Department will accept the preparation of asphalt concrete mixtures under a quality assurance plan.
The Contractor shall provide a laboratory as specified in Section 106.07 of the Specifications.
In addition, the Contractor shall have all laboratory scales and gyratory compactors calibrated once a
year by an independent source. The Contractor shall maintain the calibration records for 3 years from the
date of the last calibration.
211.08—Acceptance
Acceptance will be made under the Department’s quality assurance program, which includes the testing
of production samples by the Contractor and of monitor samples by the Department. Sampling and
testing for the determination of grading, asphalt cement content, and temperature shall be performed by
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the Contractor, and the Department will perform independent monitor checks at a laboratory of its
choosing. The Contractor shall input such test results within 24 hours of sampling to the Department
through
the
“Producer
Lab
Analysis
and
Information
Details”
(PLAID)
website
https://plaid.vdot.virginia.gov, unless otherwise approved by the appropriate District Materials Engineer.
Where the Contractor’s test results indicate that the mixture conforms to the gradation, asphalt cement
content, and mix temperature requirements of the Specifications, the mixture will be acceptable for these
properties; however, nothing herein shall be construed as waiving the requirements of Section 106.06,
Section 200.02, Section 200.03, and Section 315 of the Specifications or relieving the Contractor of the
contractual obligation to furnish and install a finished functional product that conforms to the requirements
of the Contract.
If a statistical comparative analysis of the Contractor’s test results and the Department’s monitor tests
indicate a statistically significant difference in the results and either of the results indicates that the
material does not conform to the grading and asphalt cement content requirements of the Specifications,
the Department and the Contractor will make an investigation to determine the reason for the difference.
If it is determined from the investigation that the material does not conform to the requirements of the
Contract, price adjustments will be made in accordance with the requirements of Section 211.09 of the
Specifications.
Acceptance for gradation and asphalt cement content will be based on the mean of results of eight tests
performed on samples taken in a stratified random manner from each 4,000-ton lot (8,000-ton lots may be
used when the normal daily production of the source from which the material is being obtained is in
excess of 4,000 tons). , The Contractor shall take samples from the approximate center of the truckload
of material unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. Any statistically acceptable method of
randomization may be used to determine when to take the stratified random sample; however, the
Department shall be advised of the method to be used prior to the beginning of production.
A lot will be considered to be acceptable for gradation and asphalt content if the mean of the test results
obtained is within the tolerance allowed for the job-mix formula as specified in Table II-15.
The temperature of the mixture at the plant shall be controlled to provide load-to-load uniformity during
changing weather conditions and surface temperatures. The maximum temperature of mix designations
A and D and base mixes shall not exceed 350 degrees F unless otherwise directed by the Engineer. The
maximum temperature as recommended by the supplier shall not be exceeded for a mix designated E or
(S).
If the job-mix formula is modified within a lot, the mean test results of the samples taken will be compared
to the applicable process tolerance shown in Table II-15.
Asphalt content will be measured as extractable asphalt or weight after ignition.
Field SUPERPAVE tests will be performed by the Department in accordance with the requirements of
AASHTO R35 during the production of the approved job mixes designed by the SUPERPAVE method.
Aging, as described in AASHTO R30, will not be performed. Should any field SUPERPAVE test fail with
regard to the limits specified in Table II-14, the Department may require that production be stopped until
necessary corrective action is taken by the Contractor. The Engineer will investigate and determine the
acceptability of material placed and represented by failing field SUPERPAVE test results.
Should visual examination by the Engineer reveal that the material in any load or portion of the paved
roadway is obviously contaminated or segregated, that load or portion of the paved roadway will be
rejected without additional sampling or testing of the lot. If it is necessary to determine the gradation or
asphalt content of the material in any load or portion of the paved roadway, samples will be taken and
tested and the results will be compared to the requirements of the approved job-mix formula. The results
obtained in the testing will apply only to the material in question.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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TABLE II-15
Process Tolerance
Tolerance on Each Laboratory Sieve and Asphalt Content: Percent Plus and Minus
No.
Top
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
1
Tests Size
1 ½”
1”
¾”
½”
3/8”
4
8
30
50
200 A.C.
1
0.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
6.0
5.0
2.0
.60
2
0.0
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
4.3
3.6
1.4
0.43
3
0.0
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
4.4
3.3
2.8
1.1
0.33
4
5
6
7
8
12
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.0
3.6
3.3
3.0
2.8
2.3
4.0
3.6
3.3
3.0
2.8
2.3
4.0
3.6
3.3
3.0
2.8
2.3
4.0
3.6
3.3
3.0
2.8
2.3
4.0
3.6
3.3
3.0
2.8
2.3
4.0
3.6
3.3
3.0
2.8
2.3
4.0
3.6
3.3
3.0
2.8
2.3
3.0
2.7
2.4
2.3
2.1
1.7
2.5
2.2
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.4
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.30
0.27
0.24
0.23
0.21
0.17
1
Defined as the sieve that has 100% passing as defined in Table II-13.
211.09—Adjustment System
If a lot of material does not conform to the acceptance requirements of Section 211.08 of the
Specifications, the Department will determine adjustment points as follows:
Adjustment Points for Each 1% the Gradation Is Outside the Process Tolerance Permitted In
Table II-15
Sieve Size
(Applied in 0.1% increments)
1 1/2 in
1 in
3/4 in
1/2 in
3/8 in
No. 4
No. 8
No. 30
No. 50
No. 200
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
3
One adjustment point will be applied for each 0.1 percent that the material is out of the process tolerance
for asphalt content.
If the total adjustment for a lot is greater than 25 points, the Contractor shall remove the failing material
from the road. If the total adjustment is 25 points or less and the Contractor does not elect to remove and
replace the material, the unit price for the material will be reduced 1 percent of the unit price bid for each
adjustment point the material is outside of the process tolerance. The Engineer will apply this adjustment
to the tonnage represented by the sample(s). If the Engineer applies adjustment points against two
successive lots, the Contractor shall ensure plant adjustment is made prior to continuing production.
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The Contractor shall control the variability of the Contractor’s product in order to furnish a consistently
uniform mix. When the quantity of any one type of material furnished to a project (i.e., SMA, SM, IM, BM,
etc) exceeds 4,000 tons, the variability of the total quantity furnished will be determined on the basis of
the standard deviation for each sieve size and the asphalt content. If the standard deviation is within the
ranges specified in Table II-16, the Engineer will adjust the unit bid price for the material as indicated
herein. The Engineer will not make adjustments for standard deviation computations on more than two
job mixes for the same type of material.
TABLE II-16
Standard Deviation
Sieve Size
and A.C.
Standard Deviation
1 Adjustment Point for Each
Sieve Size and A.C.
2 Adjustment Points
for Each
Sieve Size and A. C.
3 Adjustment Points
for Each
Sieve Size and A.C.
3.8-4.7
3.8-4.7
3.8-4.7
3.0-3.9
2.2-3.1
1.5-2.4
1.1-2.0
0.27-0.36
4.8-5.7
4.8-5.7
4.8-5.7
4.0-4.9
3.2-4.1
2.5-3.4
2.1-3.0
0.37-0.46
5.8-6.7
5.8-6.7
5.8-6.7
5.0-5.9
4.2-5.1
3.5-4.4
3.1-4.0
0.47-0.56
1/2 in.
3/8 in
No. 4
No. 8
No. 30
No. 50
No. 200
A.C.
The Engineer will reduce the unit bid price by 0.5 percent for each adjustment point applied for standard
deviation.
211.10—Referee System
(a) If the test results obtained from one of the eight samples taken to evaluate a particular lot appear
to be questionable, the Contractor may request in writing that the results of the questionable
sample be disregarded, whereupon the Contractor shall have either an AASHTO-accredited lab
or a Department lab perform tests on five additional samples taken from randomly selected
locations in the roadway where the lot was placed.
If the Engineer determines that one of the 8 test results appears to be questionable, the
Department will perform tests on five additional samples taken from the randomly selected
locations in the roadway where the lot was placed. The test results of the seven original, i.e.
unquestioned, samples will be averaged with the test results of the five road samples, and the
mean of the test values obtained for the twelve samples will be compared to the requirements for
the mean of twelve tests as specified in Table II-15.
(b) If the Contractor questions the mean of the eight original test results obtained for a particular lot,
the Contractor may request in writing approval to have either an AASHTO-accredited lab or a
Department lab perform additional testing of that lot.
If the Engineer determines that the mean of the eight original test results are questionable, the
Department will perform additional testing of that lot. The test results of the eight samples will be
averaged with the test results of four additional samples taken from randomly selected locations
in the roadway where the lot was placed, and the mean of the test values obtained from the
twelve samples will be compare to the requirements for the mean of twelve tests as specified in
Table II-15.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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If the Contractor requests additional tests, as described in (a) or (b) herein, the Contractor shall
sample the material and have either an AASHTO-accredited lab or Department lab test the
material in accordance with Department-approved procedures. The Engineer may observe the
sampling and testing.
If the mean of the test values obtained for the twelve samples conforms to the requirements for
the mean of twelve tests, the material will be considered acceptable. If the mean of the test
values obtained for the twelve samples does not conform to the requirements for the mean result
of twelve tests, the lot will be adjusted in accordance with the adjustment rate specified in Section
211.09 of the Specifications.
Samples of the size shown herein shall be saw cut by the Contractor for testing without the use of
liquids:
Application Rate
Minimum Sample Size
2
125 lb/yd
2
150 lb/yd
2
200 lb/yd
2
300 lb/yd
8 by 8 in
7 by 7 in
6 by 6 in
5 by 5 in
211.11—Handling and Storing Aggregates
Aggregates shall be handled, hauled, and stored in a manner that will minimize segregation and avoid
contamination. Aggregates shall be stockpiled in the vicinity of the plant and on ground that is denuded
of vegetation, hard, well drained, or otherwise prepared to protect the aggregate from contamination.
Placing aggregate directly from the crusher bins into the cold feed may be permitted provided the material
is consistent in gradation. When different size aggregates are stockpiled, the stockpiles shall be
separated to prevent commingling of the aggregates.
211.12—Asphalt Concrete Mixing Plant
Plants used for the preparation of asphalt concrete mixtures shall conform to the following requirements:
(a) Certification for Plant Operation and Sampling: A Certified Asphalt Plant Level I Technician
or a Certified Asphalt Plant Level II Technician shall sample material at the plant.
(b) Plant Scales: Scales shall be approved in accordance with the requirements of Section 109.01
of the Specifications.
(c) Drier: The plant shall include a drier(s) that continuously agitates the aggregate during the
heating and drying process. The aggregate shall be dried to a point at which the moisture
content of the completed mixture does not exceed 1 percent as determined from samples taken
at the point of discharge from the mixing operation.
(d) Feeder for Drier: The plant shall be equipped with accurate mechanical means for uniformly
feeding the aggregate into the drier so that a consistent production and temperature are reached
and maintained. Where different size aggregates are required to comply with grading
specifications, they shall be proportioned by feeding into the cold elevator through a multiple
compartment feeder bin, one bin for each size used, equipped with positive action gates that can
be securely locked to maintain desired proportioning.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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(e) Bins: When bins are used, adequate and convenient facilities shall be provided to make possible
the sampling of representative aggregate material from each bin. Each compartment shall be
provided with an overflow pipe of such size and location to prevent contamination of the
aggregate in adjacent compartments. Bins shall be provided with individual outlet gates that,
when closed, will allow no leakage.
(f) Thermometric Equipment: The plant shall be equipped with a thermometric instrument so
placed at the discharge chute of the drier as to register automatically or indicate the temperature
of the heated aggregate or the completed mix if a drier drum mixing plant is used.
A thermometric device shall be fixed in the asphalt feed line at a suitable location near the
charging valve at the mixer unit.
Thermometric devices shall be maintained in good working condition and shall be subject to
checking against the laboratory thermometer. Any thermometric devices that do not operate or
accurately register temperatures shall be removed and repaired or replaced.
(g) Pollution Control: Pollution control shall conform to the requirements of Section 107.16 of the
Specifications.
(h) Equipment for Preparation of Asphalt Material: Tanks for the storage of asphalt material shall
be equipped with a heating system capable of heating and holding the material at the required
temperatures. A separate storage tank or a storage tank having separate compartments shall be
available for each grade of asphalt cement being used on the project. The heating system shall
be designed to heat the contents of the tank by means of steam, electricity, or other approved
means so that no flame is in direct contact with the heating surface of the tank. The circulating
system for the asphalt material shall be designed to assure proper and continuous circulation
during the operating period and to minimize oxidation. Pipelines shall be steam jacketed or
insulated to prevent undue loss of heat. Storage facilities for asphalt material shall be sufficient
capacity for at least one day’s operation or an equivalent means of supply shall be provided that
will ensure continuous operation. Provisions shall be made for measuring and sampling asphalt
within storage tanks. When asphalt material is proportioned by volume, the temperature of the
asphalt material in storage shall be uniformly maintained at ±20 degrees F during operation of the
plant by means of an automatic temperature control device. A sampling valve shall be provided
for sampling of each asphalt storage tank used in production of the mix. If there are multiple
storage tanks, a dedicated valve for each tank shall be provided.
(i) Asphalt Control: Asphalt material shall be accurately proportioned by volume or weight. When
volumetric methods are used, measurements shall be made by means of meters or pumps,
calibrated for accuracy. The section of the asphalt line between the charging valve and the spray
bar shall be provided with an outlet valve for checking the meter.
When proportioned by weight, the asphalt material shall be weighed on approved scales. Dial
scales shall have a capacity of not more than 15 percent of the capacity of the mixer. The value
of the minimum graduation shall not be greater than 2 pounds.
Except when a drier-drum mixing plant is used, the asphalt material bucket and its valves and
spray bar shall be steam jacketed or heated by other Department approved means. The bucket
shall have a capacity of at least 115 percent of the weight of the asphalt material required in any
mixture and shall be supported by fulcrums.
The asphalt shall be delivered to the mixer in multiple uniform streams for the full width of the
mixer.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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(j) Proportioning Aggregates: Mineral filler and any bag house fines the Contractor uses shall be
metered or introduced by means of an approved device for uniform proportioning by weight or by
volume.
The weigh hopper shall be of sufficient size to hold the maximum required weight of aggregate for
one batch without hand raking or running over. Sufficient clearance between the weigh hopper
and supporting devices shall be provided to prevent accumulation of foreign materials.
The discharge gate of the weigh hopper shall be situated in such a manner that the aggregates
will not segregate when dumped into the mixer. Gates on the bins and weigh hopper shall be
constructed to prevent leakage when closed.
(k) Drum Mixer: The aggregate shall be proportioned by a positive weight control at the cold
aggregate feed by use of a belt scale that will automatically regulate the supply of material being
fed and permit instant correction of variations in load. The cold feed flow shall be automatically
coupled with the asphalt flow to maintain the required proportions.
(l) Batch Mixer: The batch mixer shall be of a twin pugmill or other approved type, steam jacketed
or heated by other approved means, and capable of producing uniform mixtures within the
specified tolerances. It shall be equipped with a sufficient number of paddles or blades operating
at such speeds as to produce a properly and uniformly mixed batch. The number and
arrangement of the mixer paddles shall be subject to the Engineer’s approval. Worn or defective
blades shall not be used in mixing operations.
The mixer shall be provided with an approved time lock that will lock the discharge gate after the
aggregates and asphalt have been placed in the mixer and will not release the gate until the
specified time for mixing has elapsed.
Batch-type mixing plants used to produce asphalt concrete shall be equipped with approved
automatic proportioning devices.
Such devices shall include equipment for accurately
proportioning batches of the various components of the mixture by weight or volume in the proper
sequence and for controlling the sequence and timing of mixing operations. The automated
system shall be designed to interrupt and stop the batching operation at any time batch quantities
are not satisfied for each of the materials going into the mix. A means shall be provided for
observing the weight of each material during the batching operation.
The aggregate may be proportioned by cold feed controls in lieu of plant screens provided the
cold aggregate feed conforms to the requirements specified in (j) herein.
Should the automatic proportioning devices become inoperative, the plant may be allowed to
batch and mix asphalt materials for a period of not more than 48 hours from the time the
breakdown occurs provided alternate proportioning facilities are verbally approved by the
Engineer. Written permission of the Engineer will be required for operation without automatic
proportioning facilities for periods longer than 48 hours.
(m) Continuous Mixing Plant: A continuous mixing plant shall include a means for accurately
proportioning each size of aggregate either by weighing or volumetric measurement. When
gradation control is by volume, the unit shall include a feeder mounted under the compartment
bins. Each bin shall have an accurately controlled individual gate to form an orifice for
volumetrically measuring the material drawn from each respective bin compartment. The orifice
shall be rectangular, with one dimension adjustable by positive mechanical means, and shall be
provided with a lock. Indicators shall be provided to show the individual gate opening in inches.
The plant shall be equipped with a satisfactory revolution counter.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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The plant shall include a means for calibrating gate openings by weight. The materials fed out of
the bins through individual orifices shall be bypassed to a suitable test box, with each component
material confined in a separate section. The plant shall be equipped to conveniently handle test
samples weighing up to 200 pounds per bin with accurate platform scales provided for this
purpose.
Positive interlocking control shall be provided between the flow of aggregate from the bins and
the flow of asphalt material from the meter or other proportioning device. This shall be
accomplished by approved interlocking devices or other approved positive means.
Accurate control of the asphalt material shall be obtained by weighing, metering, or volumetric
measurement.
The aggregate may be proportioned by cold feed controls in lieu of plant screens provided the
cold aggregate feed conforms to the requirements specified in (j) herein.
The plant shall include a continuous mixer of an approved type that is steam jacketed or heated
by other approved means. The paddles shall be of any adjustable type for angular position on
the shafts and reversible to retard the flow of the mixture.
Interlock cutoff circuits shall be included to interrupt and to stop the proportioning and mixing
operations when the aggregate level in the plant or the asphalt material in storage falls below that
necessary to produce the specified mixture.
(n) Trucks, Truck Scales, and Automatic Printer System: These shall conform to the
requirements of Section 109.01 of the Specifications.
211.13—Preparation of Mixture
The asphalt and aggregate shall be introduced into the mixer at a temperature that will produce a mixture
that conforms to the requirements of the job-mix formula.
After the required amounts of aggregate and asphalt material have been introduced into the mixer, the
materials shall be mixed until a uniform coating of asphalt and a thorough distribution of the aggregate
throughout the mixture are secured that comply with the requirements of the Ross count procedure in
AASHTO T195.
The wet mixing time, based on the procedures in AASHTO T195, shall be determined by the Contractor
at the beginning of production and will be approved by the Engineer for each individual plant or mixer and
for each type of aggregate used; however, in no case shall the wet mixing time be less than 20 seconds.
The wet mixing time is the interval of time between the start of introduction of the asphalt material into the
mixer and the opening of the discharge gate. A wet mixing time that results in fully coating a minimum of
95 percent of the coarse particles, based on the average of the three samples is acceptable, provided
that none of the three sample results has a coating less than 92 percent of the coarse particles shall be
the minimum wet mixing time requirement.
A dry mixing time of up to 15 seconds may be required by the Engineer to accomplish the degree of
aggregate distribution necessary to obtain complete and uniform coating of the aggregate with asphalt.
211.14—Storage System
If the Contractor elects to use a storage system, the system shall be capable of conveying the mix from
the plant to the storage bins and storing the mix without a loss in temperature or segregation or oxidation
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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of the mix. Storage time shall be limited by the ability of the bins to maintain the mix within the quality
requirements specified herein with a maximum time limit not to exceed 10 days. Material may be stored
in bins for no more than 24 hours without a Department approved heating system.
The conveyor system may be a continuous or skip bucket type. Continuous type conveyors shall be
enclosed so that the mix temperature is maintained.
The storage bins shall be designed in a manner to prevent segregation of the mix during discharge from
the conveyor into the bins and shall be equipped with discharge gates that will not cause segregation of
the mix while the mix is being loaded into the trucks.
Approval for the use of storage bins may be withdrawn by the Engineer if the amount of heat loss,
segregation, or oxidation of the mix is excessive.
211.15—Initial Production
(a) Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA): At the start of production, the Contractor shall place no more than
500 tons or up to one day’s production as directed by the Engineer at an approved site, which
may be the project site, so the Engineer can examine the process control of the mixing plant, the
Contractor’s placement procedures, surface appearance of the mix, compaction patterns of the
Contractor’s roller(s), and correlation of the nuclear density device.
(b) Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA): At the start of production of a mix not previously used on a state
roadway, the Contractor shall place 100 to 300 tons or up to one day’s production as directed by
the Engineer at an approved site, which may be the project site, so the Engineer can examine the
process control of the mixing plant, the Contractor’s placement procedures, surface appearance
of the mix, compaction patterns of the Contractor’s roller(s), and correlation of the nuclear density
device.
The material shall be placed at the specified application rate. The Engineer will determine the disposition
of material that was not successfully produced and/or placed due to negligence in planning, production, or
placement by the Contractor.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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GUIDELINES — FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING JOINT MATERIALS.
SS21202-0911
June 28, 2011
VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
2007 ROAD AND BRIDGE SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
SUPPLEMENTAL SECTION 212—JOINT MATERIALS
SECTION 212—JOINT MATERIALS of the Specifications is amended as follows:
Section 212.02(h)—Gaskets for pipe is replaced with the following:
(h)
Gaskets for pipe shall conform to the following: Rubber gaskets for ductile iron pipe and
fittings shall conform to the requirements of AWWA C111; rubber gaskets for all other
pipe shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C443 and the ozone cracking resistance
described in Section 237.02.
Preformed plastic gaskets shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C990.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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GUIDELINES — FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING HYDRAULIC CEMENT (CEMENT THAT HARDENS WHEN MIXED
WITH WATER). WHEN THIS PROVISION APPLIES INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING IN THE PROPOSAL: SS21501
Hydraul Cement Conc Admixtures.
SS21402-0908
January 28, 2008
VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
2007 ROAD AND BRIDGE SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
SUPPLEMENTAL SECTION 214—HYDRAULIC CEMENT
SECTION 214—HYDRAULIC CEMENT of the Specifications is amended as follows:
Section 214.02(b) Portland cements is amended by replacing 1. with the following:
1.
The SO3 content as specified in AASHTO M85 will be permitted, provided supporting
data specified in AASHTO M85 are submitted to the Department for review and
acceptance prior to use of the material.
Section 214.02(b) Portland cements is amended by deleting 3., 4., and 5.
Section 214.02—Detail Requirements is amended by adding the following:
(c)
Expansive hydraulic cement shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C 845 Type K.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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GUIDELINES — FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING HYDRAULIC CEMENT CONCRETE ADMIXTURES.
SS21501-0908
January 28, 2008
VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
2007 ROAD AND BRIDGE SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
SUPPLEMENTAL SECTION 215—HYDRAULIC CEMENT CONCRETE ADMIXTURES
SECTION 215—HYDRAULIC CEMENT CONCRETE ADMIXTURES of the Specifications is amended as
follows:
Section 215.02(g) Fly ash is replaced with the following:
(g)
Pozzolan shall conform to Section 241 of the Specifications.
Section 215.02—Materials is amended by adding the following:
(k)
Metakaolin shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M321
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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GUIDELINES — FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING HYDRAULIC CEMENT CONCRETE. LOW PERMEABILITY
CONCRETE IS NOW INCLUDED IN THIS SS. WHEN THIS PROVISION APPLIES INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING IN
THE PROPOSAL: SS21402 HYDRAULIC CEMENT AND SS21501 HYDRAUL CEMENT CONC ADMIXTURES.
SS21706-0214
July 29, 2013
VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
2007 ROAD AND BRIDGE SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
SUPPLEMENTAL SECTION 217—HYDRAULIC CEMENT CONCRETE
SECTION 217—HYDRAULIC CEMENT CONCRETE of the Specifications is amended as follows:
Section 217.02(a) Cementitious Materials is replaced with the following:
Cementitious materials shall be a blend of mineral admixtures and Portland cement or a
blended cement. In overlay concretes, expansive hydraulic cement is permitted in lieu of
Portland cement. Portland cement (Types I, II, III) blended cements (Type IP, Type IS) or
expansive cement (Type K) shall comply with Section 214 of the Specifications. Flyash, ground
granulated iron blast-furnace slag (GGBFS), silica fume or metakaolin shall conform to Section
215 of the Specifications. As a portion of the cementitious material, Table 1 lists the minimum
percents of specific pozzolans required by mass of the cementitious material depending on the
alkali content of the cement. Any other mineral admixture or any other amount or combination of
mineral admixtures may be used if approved by the Engineer. As a portion of the cementitious
material, the fly ash content shall not exceed 30 percent for Class F, the ground granulated blastfurnace slag content shall not exceed 50 percent and the silica fume content shall not exceed 10
percent unless approved by the Engineer. Class C Flyash or other pozzolans may be used
provided the contractor demonstrates that the percent usage of Class C Flyash or other
pozzolans have a maximum expansion of 0.15% according to ASTM C227 at 56 days using
borosilicate glass as aggregate. Blended cements require no further pozzolan additions to meet
minimum pozzolan content to compensate for the alkali-silica reaction.
Up to 7 percent silica fume may be added to all combinations of cementitious materials to reduce
early permeability without approval by the Engineer. Other silica fume additions must be
approved by the Engineer.
Table 1 – Minimum percent pozzolan required by mass of cementitious material as a portion of
the total cementious materials and are based upon the alkali content of the cement.
Total Alkalies of Cement is less
than or equal to 0.75%
Class F Flyash
GGBF Slag
Silica Fume
Metakaolin
20%
40%
7%
7%
Total Alkalies of Cement is greater
than 0.75% and less than or equal
to 1.0%
25%
50%
10%
10%
TABLE II–17 Requirements for Hydraulic Cement Concrete is replaced with the following:
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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Design Min.
Laboratory Compressive
Strength at 28 Days
(f'c) (psi)
3,000
3,000
3,000
2,200
1,500
3,000
3,500
5000
4000
A3 General
A3a Paving
A3b Paving
B2 Massive or lightly
Reinforced
C1 Massive Unreinforced
T3 Tremie seal
Latex hydraulic cement
3
concrete overlay
Silica fume, silica fume
/Class F Fly Ash or silica
fume/slag concrete
4
overlay
Class F Fly Ash or slag
overlay
4,000
Class of Concrete
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*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
(See next page for notes on TABLE II-17).
1,500
1,500
1,500
1,500
1,500
1,500
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
3,500
3,500
2,000
2,000
0.5
0.5
0.5
1
1
1
2
1
1
0.5
1
(See next page for notes on TABLE II-17).
7,8 or 78
7,8 or 78
7,8 or 78
N.A.
N.A.
N.A.
3,500
3,500
3,500
2,500
2,000
A
A
A
A
B
B
A
A
A
A
A
A
658
658
658
635
423
494
N.A
564
588
635
635
635
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.49
0.71
0.58
0.49
0.49
0.49
0.45
0.45
0.40
4-7
4-7
4-6
3-6
0-3
0-4
0-3
0-3
1-5
2-5
2-4
0-4
6 2
6 2
5 2
4 2
4 2
4 2
6 2
6 2
6 2
7 2
61/2  1 1/2
4 1/2  1 1/2
UPDATED Apr 1, 2016
56 or 57
57
57
357
56 or 57
56 or 57
7,8 or 78
2,500
6
A4 Post & rails
Aggregate Size No.
56 or 57
Design Max. Laboratory
Permeability at 28 Days
5
(Coulombs)
4,000
Design Max. Laboratory
Permeability at 28 days Over tidal water
5
(Coulombs)
A4 General
Nominal Max. Aggregate
Size (in)
1
Min. Grade
Aggregate
1,500
Min. Cementitious Content
(lb./cu yd)
1,500
Max. Water /Cementitious
Mat.
(lb. Water/lb. Cement)
57 or 68
Consistency
(in of slump)
5,000 or as
specified on
the plans
Air Content
1
(percent)
A5 Prestressed and other
2
special designs
TABLE II-17
Requirements for Hydraulic Cement Concrete
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---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Today’s Date: April 1, 2016
(TABLE II-17 Notes) -------------------------------------
1
When a high-range water reducer is used, the upper limit for entrained air may be increased by
1% and the slump shall not exceed 7 inches.
2
When Class A5 concrete is used as the finishing bridge deck riding surface, or when it is to be
covered with asphalt concrete with or without waterproofing, the air content shall be 5 1/2  1 1/2
percent.
3
The latex modifier content shall be 3.5 gallons per bag of cement. Slump shall be measured
approximately 4.5 minutes after discharge from the mixer.
4
Silica fume with a minimum of 7% by weight of cementitious material; silica fume with a range of
2.5-5 % shall be combined with Class F Fly Ash in range of 15-20% and minimum cement of
77.5% by weight of cementitious material; silica fume with a range of 2.5-5% shall be combined
with Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in the range of 30-35% and a minimum cement of
67.5% by weight of cementitious material.
5
The permeability testing does not apply to small bridges identified on the bridge plans and to
concrete structures and incidental concrete as described in Sections 219, 232, 302, 415, 502,
504, 506 and 519. Curing and testing of test cylinders for permeability will be in accordance with
VTM 112.
6
The contractor may use different aggregate sizes or a combination of sizes to increase the coarse
aggregate content of the concrete as approved by the Engineer. The maximum size of the
coarse aggregate shall not exceed 2.5 inches.
Note: With the approval of the Engineer, the Contractor may substitute a higher class of concrete
for that specified at the Contractor’s expense.
Section 217.02(b) Formulated latex modifier is amended by adding the following:
For latex-modified concrete, Type I, Type II, Type III or Type K, cement shall be used without
mineral admixtures.
Section 217.04(a)4. Admixtures is replaced with the following:
4. Admixtures shall be dispensed and used according to the manufacturer’s
recommendations. They shall be added within a limit of accuracy of 3 percent, by means
of an approved, graduated, transparent, measuring device before they are introduced into
the mixer. If more than one admixture is to be used, they shall be released in sequence
rather than in the same instant. Once established, the sequence of dispensing
admixtures shall not be altered. However, when the amount of admixture required to give
the specified results deviates appreciably from the manufacturer’s recommended dosage,
use of the material shall be discontinued.
Section 217.05—Equipment is amended to replace the first paragraph with the following:
Equipment and tools necessary for handling materials and performing all parts of the work will be
approved by the Engineer and must be in accordance with one of the following procedures:
1. having a current National Ready Mix Concrete Association Plant and Truck Certification,
or
2. having a Department approved self-certification program in-place prior to the production
of concrete for the Department.
Failure to comply with one or the other of these procedures will result in the concrete production
being unapproved and work will not be allowed to proceed.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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Section 217.05(a) Batching Equipment is amended to replace the second paragraph with the following:
Scales used for weighing aggregates and cement shall be approved and sealed in accordance
with the requirements of Section 109 of the Specifications.
Section 217.05—Equipment is amended to add the following:
(d) High Performance Volumetric Mixers (HPVMs): The Contractor may produce the
specified class of hydraulic cement concrete in Table II-17 in accordance with Section
217.02(a) of the Specifications provided that the manufacturer’s equipment meets the
tolerance requirements of Section 217.04(a) of the Specifications and has a stamped plate
from the Volumetric Mixers Manufacturers Bureau stating that the equipment conforms to the
requirements in ASTM C685.
The hydraulic cement concrete shall be mixed at the point of delivery by a combination of
materials transport and mixer unit conforming to the following:
1.
The unit shall be equipped with calibrated proportioning devices for each
ingredient added to the concrete mix. The unit shall be equipped with a working
recording meter that is visible at all times and furnishes a ticket printout with the
calibrated measurement of the mix being produced. If at anytime the mixer fails
to discharge a uniform mix, production of concrete shall halt until any problems
are corrected.
2.
Each unit shall have a metal plate(s) attached in a prominent place by the
manufacturer on which the following are plainly marked: the gross volume of the
transportation unit in terms of mixed concrete, the discharge speed and the mass
calibrated constant of the machine in terms of volume.
3.
HPVMs shall be calibrated by a Department approved testing agency in
accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations at an interval of every 6
months or a maximum production of 2500 cubic yards, whichever occurs first
prior to use on the project. The yield shall be maintained within a tolerance of ±1
percent and verified using a minimum 2 cubic feet container every 500 cubic
yards or a minimum once per week.
4.
The three cubic feet initially discharged from the truck shall be discarded and not
used for concrete placement. Acceptance of the specified class of concrete shall
comply with Section 217.08 of the Specifications except that the sample secured
for acceptance testing will be taken after four cubic feet is discharged from the
delivery vehicle. During discharge, the consistency as determined by ASTM
C143 on representative samples taken from the mixer discharge at random
intervals shall not vary more than 1 inch. Acceptance tests shall be performed
on each load. If test data demonstrates that consistency of concrete properties
are being achieved, the Engineer may reduce testing requirements.
5.
The HPVM shall be operated by a person who is a certified operator by the
HPVM manufacturer. Any equipment adjustments made during the on-site
production of concrete shall be done under the direct on-site supervision of the
producer’s VDOT Concrete Plant and Field Certified Technician.
Each load of HPVM produced concrete shall be accompanied by a Form TL-28 signed by the
producer’s VDOT Certified Concrete Plant Technician or a designated company
representative working under the direct on-site supervision of the producer’s VDOT Concrete
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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Plant and Field Certified Technician. The form shall be delivered to the Inspector at the site
of the work. Loads that do not carry such information or do not arrive in satisfactory condition
shall not be used.
Section 217.07—Proportioning Concrete Mixtures is amended to replace the first paragraph with
the following:
The Contractor is responsible for having a Certified Concrete Plant Technician available during
batching operations, and a Certified Concrete Field Technician shall be present during placing
operations.
Section 217.07—Proportioning Concrete Mixtures is amended to delete the third paragraph
beginning with “A Certified Concrete Batcher”.
Section 217.07—Proportioning Concrete Mixtures of the Specifications is amended to replace the
eleventh paragraph with the following:
Except for latex hydraulic cement concrete, concrete mixtures shall be developed and/or verified by
any one of the following three options listed below.
The mix design(s) as determined by the respective option shall be valid provided there is no change
in sources of aggregate, chemical admixtures, mineral admixtures or hydraulic cement. All concrete
mixtures shall contain the minimum amount of mineral admixtures or combination thereof
expressed as a percent of the total cementitious materials in accordance with Section 217.02(a). All
quantities of materials shall be weighed in accordance with tolerances specified in Section 217.04.
Neither the quantities of coarse or fine aggregates used in concrete production shall deviate by
more than ±5% by weight from the batch weights of the approved mix design.
When low permeability concrete is specified, two 4 X 8 inch specimens shall be molded from
concrete representing the proposed mix design and tested in accordance with VTM 112 to validate
conformance. For trial batches, the tested permeability value shall be considered satisfactory
provided it is 500 coulombs less than the specified maximum value for the class of concrete
specified.
Option 1 - Prescriptive Method:
Mix proportions for normal, heavy weight, and lightweight concrete shall be established by
the methods described in ACI 211, on an absolute volume basis, for the respective aggregate
size and meeting all the requirements of Table II-17 for the class of concrete indicated.
Aggregate properties obtained from the aggregate producer shall be used for design
purposes.
Once the proposed mix design has been established, the contractor or their concrete supplier
shall produce one 3-cubic yard production verification batch using the same type of
equipment intended for use in supplying concrete to the Department. The proposed mix
design will be considered acceptable provided that the plastic properties of the concrete are
within the Department’s specification limits for the given class of concrete. Strength tests of
the verification batch must equal or exceed f’c for the intended class of concrete.
Option 2 - Trial Batch Mix Design Method:
The minimum cementitious content requirement in Table II-17 shall be waived provided that
the maximum water-cementitious ratio requirement of Table II-17 is met for the respective
class of concrete. The required grading for fine and coarse aggregate shall be waived
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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provided the coarse aggregate meets the nominal maximum size as required in Table II-17
for the respective class of concrete.
The Contractor or their concrete supplier shall prepare a minimum of 3 trial concrete batches
with differing cementitious materials contents over a range anticipated to encompass the
design strength, f’c, plus overdesign, and water-cementitious ratios encompassing the range
permitted for the classes of concrete being evaluated. Trial batches may be produced in
either;
Option 2A: Small scale laboratory batches, or
Option 2B: Truck batches with a minimum batch volume of 3 cubic yards each.
The plastic properties of the trial concrete batches shall meet the requirements for
consistency and air content in Table II-17 and meet the additional requirements listed below:
●
The concrete temperature of the trial batches, as batched and sampled, shall be a
minimum of 68 degrees F.
●
Air content of the trial batches shall within a range of -1.0 to + 1.5 percentage points
of the median design air content for the classes of concrete being evaluated.
●
Slump of the trial batches shall be within ± 1 inch of the maximum slump permitted
for the class of concrete.
Three 4 X 8 inch test specimens shall be molded from each batch, cured in accordance with
ASTM C 31 for acceptance specimens, and then compression tested at an age of 28 days.
The strength results of these tests shall be plotted on a graph to establish the relationship
between the water-cementitious ratio and the compressive strength. Alternately, the
relationship can be established between the cementitious content and the compressive
strength. The design water-cementitious ratio, or design cementitious content, can then be
derived from the graph to satisfy the required design strength plus an appropriate overdesign
to be designated as f’cr. The required cementitious materials content determined from these
tests can be interpolated from the established graph. If desired, the design watercementitious ratio or cementitious content can be determined from a polynomial regression
analysis of the plotted strength data.
Test results from prior trial concrete batches are acceptable for use provided that they
represent the same material sources proposed for the Department work, meet the
requirements for trial concrete batches as stated above and are less than 18 months old.
The required cementitious content to satisfy the strength requirement for the respective class
of concrete shall be determined in accordance with either of the two following procedures:
1. When the concrete production facility has sufficient data to establish a production
standard deviation (s), as described in Documentation of Previous Field
Experience or Production Standard Deviation (s). The cementitious content
required to meet the design strength requirement, f’cr, then the f’cr shall be based
upon the following equation:
f’cr = f’c + 3s
2. When the concrete production facility does not have a production standard deviation
established the cementitious content required to meet the design strength
requirement, f’cr, then the f’cr shall be based upon the following equation :
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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f’cr = f’c + 1700 psi.
Once the proposed mix design has been established, the contractor or their concrete supplier
shall produce one 3-cubic yard production verification batch using the same type of
equipment intended for use in supplying concrete to the Department. The proposed mix
design will be considered acceptable provided that the plastic properties of the concrete are
within the Department’s specification limits for the given class of concrete. Strength tests of
the verification batch must equal or exceed f’c for the intended class of concrete. The
requirement for a production verification batch shall be waived when the trial batching is
performed by Option 2B -Truck batches.
Option 3 - Documented Field Experience Method:
The minimum cementitious content requirement in Table II-17 shall be waived provided that
the maximum water-cementitious ratio requirement of Table II-17 is met for the respective
class of concrete. The required grading for fine and coarse aggregate shall be waived
provided the coarse aggregate meets the nominal maximum size as required in Table II-17
for the respective class of concrete.
An existing concrete mixture shall be considered acceptable for use provided that the
contractor or their concrete supplier has a satisfactory test record of pervious field experience
as described in:
Documentation of Previous Field Experience or Production Standard Deviation (s),
and that the proposed concrete mixture meets the following requirements:
1. The water cementitious ratio of the proposed concrete mixture is less than or
equal to the maximum water cementitious ratio specified for the respective class
of concrete.
2. The documented average strength, f’cr, equals or exceeds the design
compressive strength f’c for the respective class of concrete in accordance with
the following equation: f’cr = f’c + 3s
3. The proposed concrete mixture contains the same aggregate sources,
supplementary cementitious materials type, and admixture type as those used to
establish the previous field experience test record.
4. The consistency (slump) and air content are within the specification limits for the
respective class of concrete.
Documentation of Previous Field Experience or Production Standard Deviation (s)
An acceptable test record to document previous field experience and/or to establish a
production facility standard deviation shall represent a minimum of 30 consecutive
compressive strength tests results, encompass a production period of at least 45 days
and test data not more than 18 months old. A test record of less than 30 tests, but not
less than 15 tests, shall be permitted provided a modification factor is applied to the
production facility sample standard deviation as shown below:
Multiply Standard Deviation by Modification Factor
Number of Test
Modification Factor
15
1.16
20
1.08
25
1.03
30
1.00
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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The test record does not necessarily have to be based on Department projects provided
that documentation of the source(s) of concrete strength test results accompanies the
submittal.
Section 217.08—Acceptance is replaced with the following:
(a)
Air Consistency Tests: Air and consistency tests will be performed by the Department
prior to discharge of concrete into the forms to ensure that specification requirements are
consistently being complied with for each class of concrete. The sample secured for the
tests shall be taken after at least two cubic feet of concrete has been discharged from the
delivery vehicle. The two cubic feet discharged is not to be used as part of the test
sample. Any deviation from sampling and testing procedures must be approved by the
Engineer. The Contractor shall provide a receptacle conforming to the requirements of
ASTM C31, Section 5.9, for the Department’s use in obtaining the sample. If either
determination yields a result that is outside of the allowable range for air content or
consistence, the following procedure will be used:
1. The Engineer will immediately perform a recheck determination. If the results
confirm the original test results, the load will be rejected.
2. The Contractor’s representative will be immediately informed of the test results.
3. The Contractor’s representative shall notify the producer of the test results through a
pre-established means of communication.
The Engineer may perform any additional tests deemed necessary and reject all remaining
material that fails the tests.
Entrained air content will be determined in accordance with the requirements of ASTM
C231 or ASTM C173. Acceptance or rejection will be based on the results obtained from
these tests.
In general, a mixture that contains the minimum amount of water consistent with the required
workability shall be used. Consistency will be determined in accordance with the
requirements of ASTM C143. Adding cement to loads previously rejected for excessive
water content or consistency will not be permitted.
(b)
Strength Tests: The 28-day compressive strengths (f’c) specified in Table II-17 are the
strengths used in the design calculations. The Engineer will verify design strengths by
tests made during the progress of the work in accordance with the requirements of ASTM
C31 (Standard Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Field)
and ASTM C39 (Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete
Specimens) with the exception that the fresh concrete sample used for testing is to be
secured after at least two cubic feet has been discharged from the delivery vehicle. The
two cubic feet discharged is not to be used as part of the test sample. Any deviation from
sampling and testing procedures must be pre-approved by the Engineer. The use of
ASTM C42 (Standard Test Method for Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed
Beams of Concrete) will be at the Engineer’s discretion. If the 28-day design
compressive strength (f’c) test results do not conform to the strength requirements
specified in Table II-17, immediate steps shall be taken to adjust the mixture design. In
addition, the Engineer may require removal of or corrective measures be applied to any
concrete that does not meet the requirements of Table II-17. If the concrete cylinder
strength, f’cyl, is less than the specified compressive strength found in Table II-17, the
criteria in Table II-17A shall apply:
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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Table II – 17A
Price Reduction or Action Taken due to f’ cyl not meeting the
specification value f’c listed in Table II-17
Condition
Concrete is a Pay Item
Concrete is Not a Pay Item
f’cyl is greater than or equal to
98% f'c
A
A
f'cyl is greater than or equal to
90% f'c and less than 98% f'c
B
C
f'cyl is less than 90% f'c
D
D
f'cyl is not available due to the
Contractor’s
inappropriate
handling and storage of
specimens in accordance with
ASTM C31
D
D
f’c is the 28-day design compressive strength found in Table II-17.
f’cyl is the actual average tested strength of the standard-cured concrete cylinder
made and tested in accordance with ASTM C31 and ASTM C39.
A = full payment
3
B = pay reduction = [((f'c - f'cyl)/f’c) x contract unit price for concrete per yd x
3
number of yds the concrete represents] or $500, whichever is greater.
C = pay reduction = [((f'c - f'cyl)/f’c) x 5 x Contractor's invoice price for concrete per
3
3
yd x number of yds the concrete represents] or $500, whichever is greater.
D = The Contractor shall submit an investigative plan stamped by a Virginialicensed Professional Engineer outlining how the Contractor shall
demonstrate that the in-place concrete meets the structural strength
requirements of the design. For barriers, parapets, railings, etc., no reduction
in concrete strength below 0.9f’c shall be allowed. For all other applications,
the investigative plan must be approved by the Department’s Engineer prior
to the execution of the investigation. All costs associated with this
investigation shall be borne by the Contractor. After the investigation is
completed, a report shall be submitted to the Engineer showing the results of
the analysis, testing and conclusions of the Virginia-licensed Professional
Engineer and recommendations for action proposed by the Contractor to be
taken with the concrete that did not meet the strength requirements. The
Department retains all rights to determine if the action proposed with regard
to the concrete in question is acceptable. If the Department concurs with the
proposed action and the concrete meets the structural strength requirements
of the design and remains in place, any price reduction will be taken by
Method B if the concrete is a pay item or Method C if the concrete is not a
pay item. If the concrete does not meet the structural requirements of the
design, the concrete shall be removed and replaced at no cost to the
Department. The maximum penalty assessed for low strength concrete left
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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in place will be 10% as specified in Table II-17A not including the cost of the
investigation and any corrective measures taken by the Contractor.
No calculated penalty less than $500 will be assessed. The Contractor shall
have the right to remove and replace concrete failing to meet specifications at the
Contractor’s cost.
Before concrete is placed, the Contractor shall provide a storage chamber at his expense
for temporary storage of the Department’s concrete cylinders. The contractor shall be
responsible for maintaining the chamber such that the concrete test cylinders are kept in
a continuously moist condition and within a temperature range of 60 degrees F to 80
degrees F. The chamber shall be equipped with a continuously recording thermometer
accurate to ± 2 degrees F for the duration of concrete cylinder curing. The chamber shall
be located in an area where the test cylinders will not be subject to vibration and shall be
of sufficient size or number to store, without crowding or wedging, the required number of
test cylinders as determined by the Contractor based on his plan of operations. Location
of the chamber is subject to approval by the Engineer.
When use of high-early-strength hydraulic cement concrete is required, it shall conform to
the requirements specified in Table II–17 except that the 28-day strength shall be
obtained in 7 days. Up to 800 pounds per cubic yard of Type I, Type II or Type III cement
may be used to produce high-early-strength concrete.
(c)
Concrete Temperature shall be measured in accordance with the requirements of
ASTM C1064.
(d)
Quality Assurance for Low Permeability Concrete:
General:
At least two trial batches, using job materials, with permissible combination of
cementitious materials shall be prepared, and test specimens shall be cast by the
Contractor and tested by the Department for permeability and strength at least a month
before the field application. The permeability samples shall be cylindrical specimens with
a 4-inch diameter and at least 4-inches in length. Cylinders will be tested at 28 days in
accordance with VTM 112. The test value shall be the result of the average values of
tests on two specimens from each batch. Permeability values obtained from trial batches
shall be 500 coulombs below the maximum values specified in Table II-17 of the
Specifications to be acceptable.
Acceptance Tests:
For each set of cylinders made for compressive strength tests, two additional cylinders
shall be made for the permeability test. The Department will be responsible for making
and testing all permeability test specimens.
If the average permeability test result is equal to or less than the value for the specified
class of concrete in Table II-17, then full payment will be made for the lot the average
permeability test result represents. However, if the average permeability test result
exceeds the coulomb value in Table II-17, payment for that lot of concrete shall be
reduced by 0.005 percent for each coulomb above the coulomb value in Table II-17
multiplied by the bid item cost of the concrete times the number of cubic yards or cubic
meters of concrete in the lot. The reduction in price will not exceed 5 percent of the bid
price of the concrete. Any concrete with a coulomb value that exceeds the maximum
required in Table II-17 by 1000 coulomb will be rejected. However, bridge deck concrete
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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with any coulomb value exceeding the maximum required by over 1000 coulomb may be
accepted by the Engineer at 95 percent of the bid price if the concrete in question has the
required strength and meets other specification requirements, and the Contractor applies,
at his own expense, an approved epoxy concrete overlay to the top of the entire deck. In
such case deck grooving will not be required. Epoxy overlays over latex overlays will not
be permitted. The adjustment to the roadway grade shall be made as required by the
Engineer at the Contractor's expense.
Similarly, concrete in abutments and pier caps with coulomb value exceeding the
maximum required in Table II-17, by more than 1000 coulomb may be accepted at 95
percent of the bid price if it has the required strength and meets other specification
requirements, and the Contractor applies at his own expense, one coat of Type EP-3B
and one coat of EP-3T in conformance with the requirements of Section 243.02 of the
Specifications, on top of the pier cap or abutment seat.
Section 217.09(b) Ready Mixed Concrete is amended to replace the second paragraph with the
following:
Each load of transit or shrink-mixed concrete shall be accompanied by Form TL-28 signed by the
VDOT Certified Concrete Field Technician or a designated company representative working
under the direction of the VDOT Certified Concrete Field Technician. The form shall be delivered
to the Inspector at the site of the work. Loads that do not carry such information or that do not
arrive in satisfactory condition shall not be used.
Section 217.09(b) Ready-Mixed Concrete is amended to replace the fourth paragraph and the table
with the following:
Each batch of concrete shall be delivered to the site of work and discharged within 90 minutes of
the time the cement is introduced into the mixture unless approved otherwise by the Engineer.
Section 217.09(b)1. Transit mixing is amended to replace the first paragraph with the following:
1. Transit mixing: Concrete shall be mixed in a truck mixer. Mixing shall begin
immediately after all ingredients are in the mixer and shall continue for at least 70
revolutions of the drum or blades at the rate of at least 14 but no more than 20
revolutions per minute.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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GUIDELINES — PROJECTS REQUIRING GUARDRAIL.
SS22101-0412
January 6, 2012
VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
2007 ROAD AND BRIDGE SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
SUPPLEMENTAL SECTION 221—GUARDRAIL
SECTION 221—GUARDRAIL of the Specifications is amended as follows:
Section 221.02(e)2 is replaced with the following:
2. Sheet steel for fabricated shapes shall conform to the requirements of ASTM A1011, Grade
36.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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GUIDELINES — PROJECTS REQUIRING MASONRY UNITS.
SS22201-0911
June 28, 2011
VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
2007 ROAD AND BRIDGE SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
SUPPLEMENTAL SECTION 222—MASONRY UNITS
SECTION 222—MASONRY UNITS of the Specifications is completely replaced with the following:
222.01—Description
These specifications cover masonry units manufactured of regular or lightweight concrete or brick made
from clay or shale in a plant specifically designed for such a purpose.
222.02—Detail Requirements
(a)
Wall Units:
1. Hollow load-bearing units shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C90, Grade N-I.
2. Hollow non-load bearing units shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C129,
Type I.
3. Solid load-bearing units shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C145, Grade N-I.
4. Building bricks shall conform to the requirements of either
a. ASTM C62 Grade SW, or
b. ASTM C55 except that the average compressive strength of 5 bricks shall be a
minimum 3000 psi and no individual brick less than 2500 psi.
(b)
Catch Basins and Manholes:
1. Masonry blocks shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C139.
2. Bricks shall conform to the requirements of either
a. ASTM C32, Grade MS, or
b. ASTM C55 except that the average compressive strength of 5 bricks shall be a
minimum 3000 psi and no individual brick less than 2500 psi.
(c)
Sewer Brick: Sewer brick shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C32, Grade SM.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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GUIDELINES — PROJECTS REQUIRING STEEL REINFORCEMENT.
SS22301-1214
November 4, 2014
VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
2007 ROAD AND BRIDGE SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
SUPPLEMENTAL SECTION 223—STEEL REINFORCEMENT
SECTION 223—STEEL REINFORCEMENT of the Specifications is completely replaced with the
following:
223.01—Description
These specifications cover steel items designed to give added flexural strength to hydraulic cement concrete
or to control and reduce cracking.
223.02—Detail Requirements
(a) Reinforcement:
1. Deformed bars shall conform to the requirements of ASTM A615, Grade 40 or 60.
2. Plain bars shall conform to the requirements of ASTM A615, Grade 40 or 60, deformation
waived. When used as a dowel, material may be a plain bar conforming to the requirements of
ASTM A615, Grade 40 or 60, or a plain dowel conforming to the requirements of ASTM A709,
Grade 36.
3. Welded wire fabric shall conform to the requirements of ASTM A185. When used in
continuously reinforced pavement, wire fabric shall be deformed and furnished in flat sheets and
shall conform to the requirements of ASTM A497, high yield of 70,000 pounds per square inch.
4. Longitudinal bars for continuous reinforced concrete pavement shall conform to the
requirements of ASTM A615, Grade 60.
5. Structural steel shall conform to the requirements of Section 226.
6. Bar mats shall conform to the requirements of ASTM A184.
7. Spiral wire shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M32 or ASTM A82.
8. Wire mesh for use in gabions shall be made of galvanized steel wire at least 0.105 inch, 12
gage, in diameter. The tensile strength of the wire shall be at least 60,000 pounds per square
inch. Wire mesh shall be galvanized in accordance with the requirements of ASTM A641, Class
3. When PVC coating is specified, it shall be at least 0.015 inch in thickness and shall be black.
Wire shall be welded to form rectangular openings or twisted to form hexagonal openings of
uniform size. The linear dimension of the openings shall be not more than 4 1/2 inches. The area
of the opening shall be not more than 9 square inches. The unit shall be nonraveling.
Nonraveling is defined as the ability to resist pulling apart at any of the twists or connections
forming the mesh when a single wire strand in a section is cut.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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(b) Prestressing Tendons: Seven-wire stress-relieved strands, stress-relieved wire, and low-relaxation
strands shall conform to the requirements of ASTM A416, Grade 270; ASTM A421; and ASTM A416,
Supplement I, respectively, with the following modifications:
1. Strands or wires used in units of any one-bed layout shall be manufactured by the same plant.
2. A manufacturer’s certification and load-elongation curve in accordance with the requirements of
ASTM A416 or ASTM A421 shall be obtained by the prestressed concrete fabricator for each lot
of strand. The data shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval in permanent record form.
(c) Reinforcing Steel to Be Epoxy Coated: Steel shall conform to the requirements herein and shall
be coated in accordance with the requirements of ASTM A775.
1. Plants that epoxy coat reinforcing steel shall be CRSI certified for epoxy coating. CRSI
inspection reports shall be on file at the plant and shall be available to the Engineer.
2. Handling and storage of the coated bars shall conform to the requirements of ASTM A775.
3. Visible damage to the epoxy coating shall be patched or repaired with materials compatible with
the existing coating in accordance with ASTM A775.
(d) Reinforcing Steel to Be Galvanized: Steel shall conform to the requirements herein and shall
be galvanized in accordance with the requirements of ASTM A767.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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GUIDELINES — FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING ITEMS CAST FROM METAL TO A SPECIFIC DESIGN IN A
MANUFACTURING PLANT.
SS22401-0908
November 15, 2007
VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
2007 ROAD AND BRIDGE SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
SUPPLEMENTAL SECTION 224—CASTINGS
SECTION 224—CASTINGS of the Specifications is amended as follows:
Section 224.02—Materials is amended as follows:
The following is added as the first paragraph:
All casting suppliers/manufacturers shall have an approved QA/QC plan on file with the
Department. Junction boxes that are to be installed within that portion of the roadway not
protected by a guardrail or barrier shall be designed in accordance with the requirements of
AASHTO M306 and M105, Class 35B.
Section 224.02(b) is replaced with the following:
(b)
Gray iron castings used in that portion of the roadway not protected by a guardrail or
barrier shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M306 and M105, Class 35B. All
other castings shall conform to AASHTO M105, Class 35B.
Section 224.02(c) is replaced with the following:
(c)
Ductile iron castings used in that portion of the roadway not protected by a guardrail or
barrier shall conform to AASHTO M306. All other ductile iron castings shall conform to
ASTM A536, Grade 60-40-18.
Section 224.03—Detail Requirements is replaced with the following:
If castings are supplied from materials conforming to Sections 224.02 (a), (d) and (e) of the
Specifications, all tolerances and workmanship requirements for castings shall conform to
AASHTO M306. If used in that portion of the roadway not protected by a guardrail or barrier, the
load testing shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M306. When the alternate load test
is used, test bars shall be present and fully identifiable with regard to the casting lot. Each
casting in a lot must have the same markings as all of the other castings in the lot; if not, each
group of castings with the same markings within the original lot, becomes a new lot.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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GUIDELINES — FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING STRUCTURAL STEEL.
SS22601-0609
December 16, 2008
VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
2007 ROAD AND BRIDGE SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
SUPPLEMENTAL SECTION 226—STRUCTURAL STEEL
SECTION 226—STRUCTURAL STEEL of the Specifications is amended as follows:
Section 226.02(b) Other Structural Steel is replaced with the following:
(b)
Other Structural Steel: Unless otherwise specified, steel for other structural members
except H-piles shall conform to the requirements of ASTM A36. H-piles shall conform to the
requirements of ASTM A572 or ASTM A992. One copy of the mill analysis shall accompany
steel piles shipped to the project site. Three copies of the mill analysis for structural steel
members shall be submitted to the Engineer.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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GUIDELINES — FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING PIPE AND PIPE ARCHES.
SS23203-0912
May 17, 2012
VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
2007 ROAD AND BRIDGE SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
SUPPLEMENTAL SECTION 232—PIPE AND PIPE ARCHES
SECTION 232—PIPE AND PIPE ARCHES of the Specifications is amended as follows:
Section 232.02 Detail Requirements of the specifications is amended to replace the first paragraph
with the following:
Concrete, corrugated steel and polyethylene pipe shall only be supplied from manufacturers
currently having an approved Quality Control Plan on file with the Department.
Section 232.02(a)1.b.(6) is replaced with the following:
(6)
Strength tests shall be performed by the three-edge bearing method in accordance with
the requirements of AASHTO T280 or by control cylinders tested in accordance with
ASTM C31 and C39 or by the testing of cores in accordance with ASTM C42. Control
cylinders for acceptance testing shall be cured under the same conditions as the
concrete the cylinders represent. Hand cast pipe and end sections may be tested in
accordance with the requirements of ASTM C31 and C39. Concrete pipe may be
shipped after reaching 85 percent of design strength as determined by control cylinders
or cores.
Section 232.02(a)1.b.(7) is replaced with the following:
(7)
Absorption tests shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of AASHTO
T280 on specimens of broken pipe or cores.
Section 232.02(c)2. Asphalt-coated corrugated steel culvert pipe and pipe arches is deleted
entirely.
Section 232.02-Detail Requirements is amended to add the following:
(m)
Polypropylene (PP) Pipe:
1.
PP corrugated culvert and storm drain pipe shall conform to the requirements
of AASHTO MP 21-11, and shall be double wall pipe (Type S) for nominal
diameters of 12 inches through 30 inches, inclusive, and shall be triple wall pipe
(Type D) for nominal diameters of 36 inches through 48 inches, inclusive.
Polypropylene Pipe less than 12 inches and greater than 48 inches in diameter
will not be allowed. Fittings and joining systems shall also meet the requirements
of the AASHTO MP 21-11.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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GUIDELINES — FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING REFLECTORIZED TRAFFIC MARKINGS.
SS23401-1214
October 16, 2014
VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
2007 ROAD AND BRIDGE SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
SUPPLEMENTAL SECTION 234—GLASS BEADS FOR REFLECTORIZING TRAFFIC MARKINGS
SECTION 234—GLASS BEADS FOR REFLECTORIZING TRAFFIC MARKINGS of the Specifications is
completely replaced with the following:
234.01—Description
This specification covers glass beads applied on the surface or incorporated into traffic-marking materials
so as to produce a retroreflective surface.
234.02—Detail Requirements
Beads shall be manufactured from glass of a composition designed to be highly resistant to traffic wear
and weather. Glass beads shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M247, Type 1-5, except that
at least 80 percent of the beads shall be round when tested in accordance with the requirements of
ASTM D 1155, Procedure B.
The contractor shall provide a written certification that each batch of glass beads used in or on VDOT
pavement markings conform to AASHTO M247 including the total concentration limit of lead and arsenic.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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GUIDELINES — FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING ELECTRICAL AND SIGNAL COMPONENTS.
SS23802-0609
March 4, 2008
VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
2007 ROAD AND BRIDGE SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
SUPPLEMENTAL SECTION 238—ELECTRICAL AND SIGNAL COMPONENTS
SECTION 238 ELECTRICAL AND SIGNAL COMPONENTS of the Specifications is amended as follows:
Section 238.02(f) Electrical and Signal Junction Boxes is replaced with following:
(f)
Electrical and Signal Junction Boxes:
Boxes, frames and covers shall be water resistant. Covers shall be secured with stainless
steel bolts and fasteners. Covers shall be flush with surface of the junction box and not
protrude above the top of the junction box flange.
Junction box bolt attachment holes shall be drilled through to prevent debris from
collecting in the threaded bolt holes.
Junction boxes shall be tested and certified by an independent testing laboratory as
meeting the requirements indicated herein for approval for use. Independent testing
laboratory shall be approved by VDOT Materials Division prior to testing. The Contractor
shall furnish the Engineer documentation of such test results.
Testing reports shall provide complete test results for the type of design testing indicated
for the respective type of junction box.
Junction Boxes for deliberate traffic in the roadway applications:
●
Concrete shall conform to the requirements of Section 217 of the Specifications
and shall be designed to meet the provisions of AASHTO’s Standard
Specifications for Highway Bridges for HS20 loading. Concrete shall have a
design minimum compressive strength of 4000 psi.
●
Gray Iron frame and covers shall conform to the requirements of Section 224 of
the Specifications.
Junction Boxes for off roadway applications:
●
Shall conform to the requirements of ANSI/SCTE 77 2007 and tier 15 loading.
Boxes shall be open bottom.
●
Shall be Polymer concrete with straight sides or Polymer concrete with flared or
straight fiberglass sides.
●
Other materials may be submitted for the sidewalls provided they conform to the
requirements of ANSI/SCTE 77 2007 and tier 15 loading.
Junction Boxes frames and covers for bridge structures encasements shall be one
of the following types:
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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1.
Steel castings conforming to the requirements of Section 224 of the
Specifications, galvanized inside and out.
2.
Welded sheet steel having a thickness of at least 3/16 inch or 7 gage, galvanized
inside and out.
3.
Polymer concrete with fiberglass sides or all polymer concrete.
Section 238.02(h)6.f. Light Emitting Diode (LED) traffic signal head sections is amended to
replace the third paragraph with the following:
LED arrow traffic signal modules shall conform to the requirements of the ITE Vehicle Traffic
Control Signal Heads – Light Emitting Diode Vehicle Arrow Traffic issued April 3, 2006 (inclusive
of any ITE documents that amend, revise and/or supersede it).
And to replace the seventh paragraph with the following:
The LED’s shall be mounted and soldered to a printed circuit board. Modules shall be provided
with an external in-line fuse or internal fusing of the 120 VAC (+) input. The fuse shall be rated in
accordance with the LED module manufacturer. The LED signal module shall utilize the same
mounting hardware used to secure the incandescent lens and gasket assembly and shall only
require a screwdriver or standard installation tool to complete the mounting.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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GUIDELINES — PROJECTS REQUIRING SILT FENCES, SILT BARRIERS OR FILTER BARRIERS.
SS24504-1215
September 25, 2015
VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
2007 ROAD AND BRIDGE SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
SUPPLEMENTAL SECTION 245—GEOSYNTHETICS AND LOW PERMEABILITY LINERS
SECTION 245—GEOSYNTHETICS of the Specifications is completely replaced with the following:
SECTION 245—GEOSYNTHETICS AND LOW PERMEABILITY LINERS
245.01—Description
These specifications cover artificial fiber textile products to be used in transportation construction work,
and low permeability liners for stormwater management facilities.
245.02—Shipping, Handling, and Storage Requirements
Geosynthetic shall be permanently marked with a clearly legible print showing manufacturing plant or
plant Identification Code number, located on the roll edge at least every 16 feet. Rolls shall be labeled at
both ends of the outside of the roll outer wrapping and both ends of the inside of the geotextile roll core,
and labels shall list the roll number, production date, AASHTO M288 class(es) the product meets, and the
product name; if the permanent marking contains this information, the labels may be omitted.
Each geosynthetic roll shall be wrapped or otherwise packaged in a manner that will protect the
geosynthetic, including the ends of the roll, from damage due to shipment, water, sunlight, and
contaminants. The protective wrapping shall be maintained during periods of shipment and storage.
During storage, geosynthetics rolls shall be elevated off the ground and adequately covered to protect
them from the following: site construction damage; precipitation; extended ultraviolet radiation including
sunlight; strong acids or strong bases; flames including welding sparks; temperatures in excess of 160
degrees F; and other environmental conditions that may damage the physical property values of the
geosynthetic. Geosynthetics that are not properly protected may be subject to rejection.
245.03—Testing and Documentation
Each geosynthetic material provided to the project shall have a manufacture date within its current
NTPEP product 3-year evaluation cycle. The manufacturer and any subsequent private labeler facility
shall be listed as compliant by NTPEP within the current calendar year, or immediate past calendar year
with an application for audit for the current calendar year.
VDOT may sample product from a facility or project at any time for verification sampling and testing.
Failure may result in the product being rejected or removed from the Approved List.
Property values in these specifications represent minimum average roll values (MARV) in the weakest
principal direction unless direction is otherwise specified; permittivity values specified are minimum; AOS
and panel vertical strain values are maximum; or mass per unit area, UV degradation, and asphalt
retention values are typical.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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Product acceptance is determined by comparing the manufacturer test data against these specifications
and using independent assurance testing, verification sampling and testing, and facility audits.
(a) Geotextile Fabric for Use in Silt Fences: Geotextile shall be a woven fabric and function as a
vertical, permeable interceptor designed to remove suspended soil from overland water flow.
Fabric shall filter and retain soil particles from sediment-laden water to prevent eroding soil from
being transported off the construction site by water runoff.
Physical Property
Test Method
Requirements
Filtering efficiency
ASTM D5141-11 and NTPEP Erosion
Control Products Committee Work Plan
Min. 75%
Flow rate
ASTM D5141-11 and NTPEP Erosion
Control Products Committee Work Plan
Min. 0.2 gal/ft /min
2
In addition to these requirements, the geotextile shall comply with the requirements of AASHTO
M288 for temporary silt fence property requirements, Table 7, Temporary Silt Fence Property
Requirements, for grab strength and ultraviolet stability.
(b) Geotextile for Use as Riprap Bedding Material: Geotextile shall comply with the
requirements of AASHTO M288 for separation geotextile properties, Table 3, for apparent
opening size and ultraviolet stability and geotextile strength property requirements, Table 1,
Class 2, for grab strength and puncture strength.
(c) Geotextile Fabric for Use in Drainage Systems (Drainage Fabric): Drainage fabric shall be
nonwoven and clog resistant, suitable for subsurface application, and thermally and biologically
stable.
Polypropylene material is acceptable in environments with pH values between 3 and 12
inclusive; polyester material between 3 and 9 inclusive.
Physical Property
Test Method
Requirements
Permittivity
ASTM D4491
Min. 0.5 sec
Apparent opening size
ASTM D4751
Max. No. 50 sieve
-1
In addition to these requirements, the geotextile shall comply with the requirements of AASHTO
M288 for strength requirements, Table 1, Class 3, for grab strength.
(d) Geotextile for Use in Stabilization: These are geotextiles used in saturated and/or unstable
conditions to provide the functions of separation and reinforcement.
1. Subgrade Stabilization Fabric:
Physical Property
Test Method
Apparent opening size
ASTM D 4751
Requirements
Max. No. 20 sieve
In addition to this requirement, the geotextile shall comply with the requirements of
AASHTO M 288 for strength property requirements, Table 1, Class 3, for grab strength,
tear strength, and puncture strength.
2. Embankment Stabilization Fabric Up to 6 Feet High:
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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Physical Property
Test Method
Today’s Date: April 1, 2016
Requirements
Apparent opening size
ASTM D 4751
Max. No. 20 sieve
Seam strength
ASTM D 4632
90% specified grab strength
In addition to this requirement, the geotextile shall comply with the requirements of
AASHTO M288 for strength property requirements, Table 1, Class 1 for grab strength, tear
strength, and puncture strength.
(e) Prefabricated Geocomposite Pavement Underdrain: Prefabricated geocomposite pavement
underdrain shall consist of a polymeric drainage core encased in a nonwoven filter fabric
envelope having sufficient flexibility to withstand bending and handling without damage.
Prefabricated geocomposite pavement underdrain shall conform to the following:
1. Core: The drainage core shall be made from an inert, polymeric material resistant to
commonly encountered chemicals and substances in the pavement environment and shall
have a thickness of not less than 3/4 inch. Outer surfaces shall be smooth to prevent
excessive wear of bonded filter fabric.
Physical Properties
Test Method
Requirements
Compressive strength panel
vertical strain and core area
change
ASTM D1621/D2412
Min. 40 psi at 20% deflection
after 24 hrs at 0 deg F and at
125 deg F
Panel vertical strain and core
area change at 22.7 psi
ASTM D6244
Max. 10% for core area and
panel height
Water flow rate )after 100 hr at
10 psi normal confining
pressure gradient of no more
than 1.0)
ASTM D4716
Min. 15 gal/min/ft width for
12-in specimen length
2. Filter Fabric: Geotextile shall be bonded to and tightly stretched over the core. Geotextile
shall not sag or block the flow channels, shall have a life equivalent to that of the core
material, and shall conform to the requirements of (c) herein.
(f) Geocomposite Wall Drains: Prefabricated geocomposite wall drain shall consist of a
polymeric drainage core encased in a nonwoven filter fabric envelope having sufficient flexibility
to withstand bending and handling without damage. Geocomposite wall drains shall conform to
the following:
1. Core: The drainage core shall be made from an inert, polymeric material resistant to
commonly encountered chemicals and substances in the roadway. Outer surfaces shall be
smooth to prevent excessive wear of bonded filter fabric.
Physical Property
Compressive
deflection
strength
at
Test Method
20%
Water flow rate (after 100 hr at 10
psi normal confining pressure and
gradient of no more than 0.1)
Requirements
ASTM D1621/D2412
Min. 40 psi after 24 hrs at
0 degree F and at 125
degree F
ASTM D4716
Min. 15 gal/min/ft width
(for
12-in
specimen
length)
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2. Filter Fabric: Geotextile shall be bonded to and tightly stretched over both sides of the
core. Geotextile shall not sag or block the flow channels, shall have a life equivalent to that
of the core material, and shall conform to the requirements of (c) herein, except that grab
strength requirement shall meet AASHTO M288 Table 1, Class 2.
(g) Geomembrane Moisture Barrier: Geomembrane moisture barrier shall be resistant to
biological attack. geomembrane shall be constructed of PVC and shall conform to the
requirements of the PVC geomembrane Institute 1104 material specification for PVC
geomembrane (Revision #1 effective April 15, 2008) and shall meet the following additional or
more stringent requirements:
Physical Property
Test Method
Requirements
Thickness
ASTM D5199
Min. 30 mils
Tensile (1-in strip)
ASTM D882
Min. 0.80 kip/ft (ultimate)
Tear Strength (Die C)
ASTM D1004
Min. 8 lbf
Seam Seal Strength
ASTM D1004
Min. 0.18kip/ft
(h) Dewatering Bag: A nonwoven geotextile sewn together to form a bag that can be used in lieu
of a de-watering basin for the purpose of filtering out suspended soil particles. The bag shall be
capable of accommodating the water flow from the pump without leaking at the spout and
seams.
Physical Property
Test Method
Requirements
ASTM D4632
Min. 250 lb (min)
Seam strength
ASTM D4632
90% Specified grab strength
Puncture
ASTM D4833
Min. 150 lb
Flow rate
ASTM D4491
Min. 0.189 ft /sec/ft (min)
Permittivity
ASTM D4491
Min. 1.2 sec
UV resistance
ASTM D4355
Min. 70% at 500 hr
AOS
ASTM D4751
Max. 100 sieve
Grab strength @
Elongation >50%(CRE/Dry)
3
2
-1
(i) Pavement Interlayer: Paving geosynthetics shall be used as an interlayer between pavement
layers. Specific application of these paving interlayers shall be determined by the Engineer.
1. Paving Fabric: The geotextile shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M288 Paving
Fabric Property Requirements, Section 10.
2. Paving Mat: The paving mat shall meet the requirements of ASTM D7239 Geosynthetic
Paving Mat, Type 1.
(j) Low Permeability Liners for Stormwater Management Facilities: SWM liner soil shall be
classified as CL, CH or MH in accordance with ASTM D2487 and shall have a maximum
-6
coefficient of permeability of 1 x 10 cm/sec in accordance with ASTM D5084, after
compaction. The maximum particle size shall be three inches in its largest dimension. Natural
soils, which do not meet these specifications, may be blended with bentonite to provide the
specified permeability characteristics.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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-8
Geosynthetic Clay Liner shall have a maximum coefficient of permeability of 1 x 10 cm/sec in
accordance with ASTM D5887.
This specification is not intended for dam embankment material or clay core cut-off trench
material.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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GUIDELINES — PROJECTS REQUIRING REFLECTIVE SHEETING USED ON TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES TO
PROVIDE A RETROREFLECTIVE SURFACE OR MESSAGE.
SS24701-0611
February 10, 2011
VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
2007 ROAD AND BRIDGE SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
SUPPLEMENTAL SECTION 247—REFLECTIVE SHEETING
SECTION 247—REFLECTIVE SHEETING of the Specifications is completely replaced with the following:
247.01—Description
This specification covers reflective sheeting used on traffic control devices to provide a retroreflective
surface or message. The color of the reflective sheeting shall be as specified in the Contract
Documents. Reflective sheeting shall be certified in accordance with the requirements of Section
106.06 of the Specifications.
247.02—Detail Requirements
Reflective sheeting shall be selected from the Department’s Approved Products list. Reflective
sheeting products are included on the Approved Products List only after the Department determines
conformance to the Specifications and the manufacturer has supplied written information indicating
conformance to the warranty requirements of Section 247.03 of the Specifications where required.
Determination of conformance will include, but not be limited to, the evaluation of test data from
AASHTO’s National Transportation Product Evaluation Program (NTPEP) or other Departmentapproved facilities except as noted. When color test data (Chromaticity and Luminance Factor - Y%)
provided by NTPEP or other Department-approved facilities are evaluated, color must have been
maintained within the color specification limits for the full duration of the outdoor weathering test. The
sheeting and any applied coatings such as inks, overlay films, other coatings, shall be weather
resistant in accordance with ASTM D4956 after being tested by AASHTO, NTPEP or other
Department approved facilities except as noted.
(a)
Reflective sheeting used on permanent signs (except those addressed in Section
b), on object markers, nose of guardrails, permanent impact attenuators (except
sand barrels), standard road edge delineators, special road edge delineators,
barrier delineators, guardrail delineators, interstate road edge delineators, chevron
panels, bridge end panel signs (VW-13), and railroad advance warning signs
(including any supplemental plaques) vertical panels (Group 2 channelizing
devices), traffic gates, Automatic Flagger Assistance Device (AFAD) gate arms,
and the "STOP" side of sign paddles (hand signalizing device) shall conform to the
requirements of ASTM D4956 for a Type IX material and, except for the “STOP” side of
sign paddles, shall be warranted in accordance with Section 247.03 Sheeting Warranty
Class I of the Specifications.
Color shall conform to the requirements of 23 CFR, Part 655, Subpart F, Appendix
Tables 1 and 1A (non-fluorescent colors) and Tables 3 and 3A (fluorescent colors). In
Table 1A, the values for daytime luminance factor (Y%) shall be based on the colors for a
Type IV, VII, and VIII sheeting.
The minimum maintained coefficient of retroreflection of the sheeting after 3 years on the
test deck shall conform to the requirements of ASTM D4956.
1.
Reflective sheeting used on the following signs shall be Fluorescent YellowGreen conforming to the requirements of ASTM D4956 for a Type IX material
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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and shall be warranted in accordance with Section 247.03, Sheeting Warranty
Class I of the Specifications.
●
●
●
●
●
●
Bicycle Crossing sign (W11-1) including supplemental plaques
Pedestrian Crossing sign (W11-2) including supplemental plaques
Playground sign (W15-1) including supplemental plaques
DEAF CHILD AREA sign including supplemental plaques
WATCH FOR CHILDREN sign including supplemental plaques
School Signing consisting of the following:
—School Crossing sign (S1-1)
—School Bus Stop Ahead sign (S3-1)
—SCHOOL plaque (S4-3)
—School Portion of the School Speed Limit sign (S5-1)
—Supplemental plaques used with these signs
Color shall conform to the requirements of 23 CFR, Part 655, Subpart F,
Appendix Tables 3 and 3A.
The minimum maintained coefficient of retroreflection of the sheeting after 3
years on the test deck shall conform to the requirements of ASTM D4956.
(b)
Reflective sheeting used on permanent recreational and cultural interest area
guidance signs, and for the hand symbol/DON’T WALK and numerals on
permanent educational pedestrian signal signs (R10-3b thru R10-3e) shall conform
to the requirements of ASTM D4956 for a Type III material and shall be warranted in
accordance with Section 247.03, Sheeting Warranty Class I of the Specifications.
Color shall conform to the requirements of 23 CFR, Part 655, Subpart F, Appendix
Tables 1 and 1A.
The minimum maintained coefficient of retroreflection of the sheeting after 3 years on the
test deck shall conform to the requirements of ASTM D4956.
(c)
Reflective sheeting used to delineate the trailer’s back frame of Portable
Changeable Message Signs (PCMS), Automatic Flagger Assistance Device (AFAD)
gate arm, arrow boards and portable lights shall conform to the requirements of 49
CFR 571.108 for a Grade DOT-C2 truck conspicuity marking. References to ASTM
specifications therein shall be interpreted to mean the latest version of the specification at
the time of advertisement regardless of the date indicated in the reference.
Color shall conform to the requirements of 23 CFR, Part 655, Subpart F, Appendix
Tables 1 and 1A.
This reflective sheeting is not required to be tested by NTPEP.
(d)
Reflective sheeting used on Type III barricades shall conform to the following:
Observation
0.2
0.2
0.5
0.5
Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection RA
(RA =Candelas per foot-candle per square foot)
o
o
Angle ( )
Entrance Angle ( )
White
–4
400
+30
200
–4
300
+30
100
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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Orange
200
80
100
40
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–4
+30
1.0
1.0
50
15
25
10
Color and Luminance Factor (Y%) shall conform to the requirements of 23 CFR, Part
655, Subpart F, Appendix Tables 1 and 1A, for a Type IV Sheeting.
Impact Resistance shall conform to the requirements of ASTM D4956.
The minimum maintained coefficient of retroreflection of the sheeting after one year on
the test deck shall be at least 50 percent of the minimum coefficient of retroreflection
values specified.
(e)
Reflective sheeting used on orange construction and maintenance activity signs,
barrier vertical panels installed on concrete traffic barrier service, rear panel of
truck-mounted attenuators, temporary impact attenuators (except temporary sand
barrels), and the "SLOW" side of sign paddles shall conform to the requirements of
ASTM D4956 for a Type IX, Fluorescent Orange material (with the following
retroreflection exception):
Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection RA
(RA =Candelas per foot-candle per square foot)
o
Observation Angle ( )
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.5
0.5
0.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
o
Entrance Angle ( )
–4
+30
+40
–4
+30
+40
–4
+30
+40
Fluorescent Orange
140
90
24
90
50
15
10
5
3
Color shall conform to the requirements of 23 CFR, Part 655, Subpart F, Appendix
Tables 3 and 3A.
The minimum maintained coefficient of retroreflection of the sheeting after one year on
the test deck shall be at least 50 percent of the minimum coefficient of retroreflection
values specified.
(f)
Reflective sheeting used on tubular delineators, drums and temporary sand barrels
shall conform to the following:
1.
Reflective sheeting used on tubular delineators and drums shall conform
requirements of ASTM D4956 including supplementary requirement S2 for a
Type III reboundable material. Color shall conform to the requirements of Tables
1 and 1A of the USDOT specification as contained in the Appendix to 23 CFR,
Part 655, Subpart F except the minimum daytime luminance factor (Y%) for white
shall be 25 when used on tubular delineators and drums. The following
supplementary table shall apply for tubular delineators and drums:
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection RA
(Candelas per foot-candle per square foot)
(High Intensity)
Observation
o
Angle ( )
0.2
0.5
o
Entrance Angle ( )
+50
+50
White
75
35
Orange
25
10
Reflective sheeting used on tubular delineators is not required to be tested by
NTPEP.
2.
Reflective sheeting used on temporary sand barrels shall be a fluorescent
orange prismatic lens reboundable sheeting conforming to the following:
Color shall conform to the requirements of Tables 3 and 3A of the USDOT
specification as contained in the Appendix to 23 CFR, Part 655, Subpart F.
Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection RA
(Candelas per foot-candle per square foot)
(High Intensity)
Observation Angle
o
Entrance Angle ( )
Fluorescent Orange
o
()
0.2
-4
200
0.2
+30
120
0.2
+50
40
0.5
-4
80
0.5
+30
50
0.5
+50
30
Minimum maintained coefficient of retroreflection of the sheeting after one year on the
test deck shall be at least 50 percent of the minimum coefficient of retroreflection values
indicated above.
Reflective sheeting shall conform to the supplementary requirement S2 of ASTM D4956.
Please note: Beginning July 1, 2012 reflective sheeting used on Drums, Temporary
Sand Barrels and Tubular delineators for all projects shall conform to the requirements of
ASTM D4956 including supplementary requirement S2 for a Type III reboundable
material with the following retroreflection exception as shown in the chart below:
Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection RA
(RA =Candelas per foot-candle per square foot)
(Prismatic Lens)
o
o
Observation Angle ( )
Entrance Angle ( )
White
Fluorescent Orange
0.2
-4
400
175
0.2
+30
200
100
0.2
+40
135
60
0.2
+45
120
40
0.5
-4
150
70
0.5
+30
50
30
0.5
+40
45
25
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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+45
40
20
Color shall conform to the requirements of 23 CFR, Part 655, Subpart F, Appendix
Tables 1 and 1A (non-fluorescent colors) and Table 3 and 3A (fluorescent colors).
The minimum maintained coefficient of retroreflection of the sheeting after one year on
the test deck shall be at least 50 percent of the minimum coefficient of retroreflection
specified.
(g)
Reflective sheeting used on Permanent Sand Barrels and on Cones shall conform to
the requirements of ASTM D4956 including supplementary requirement S2 for a Type III
reboundable material. The following supplementary table shall also apply for cones:
Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection RA
(RA =Candelas per foot-candle per square foot)
(High Intensity)
o
o
Observation Angle ( )
Entrance Angle ( )
0.2
+50
0.5
+50
White
60
35
Color shall conform to the requirements of 23 CFR, Part 655, Subpart F, Appendix
Tables 1 and 1A.
The maintained coefficient of retroreflection of the sheeting after one year on the test
deck shall be at least 50 percent of the minimum coefficient of retroreflection specified for
permanent sand barrel sheeting.
Reflective sheeting for cones is not required to be tested by NTPEP.
(h)
Reflective sheeting used on Retroreflective Rollup Signs shall conform to the
following:
Observation
o
Angle ( )
0.2
0.2
0.5
0.5
1.0
1.0
1.5
1.5
Minimum Coefficient of Retroreflection RA
(RA =Candelas per foot-candle per square foot)
(Prismatic Lens)
Entrance
Fluorescent
White
o
Angle ( )
Orange
–4
500
200
+30
200
80
-4
225
90
+30
85
35
-4
20
10
+30
15
8
-4
5
3
+30
4
1.5
Fluorescent
Pink
200
100
100
35
10
10
2
2
Color shall conform to the requirements of 23 CFR, Part 655, Subpart F, Appendix
Tables 1 and 1A for white, and Appendix Tables 3 and 3A for fluorescent colors.
Reflective sheeting for retroreflective rollup signs is not required to be tested by NTPEP.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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247.03—Warranty Requirements
The reflective or retroreflective sheeting manufacturer shall provide the following warranty to the
Department for the respective types of sheeting furnished as specified herein:
Class I Warranty: 10-year warranty with 7 years being 100 percent full replacement covering all
material and labor costs associated with fabrication and installation of the sign or device and the final
3 years being 100 percent sheeting replacement cost.
The minimum values of retroreflectivity maintained during the warranty period shall be the same as those
required for the maintained coefficient of retroreflection values as indicated herein, or where not indicated,
shall be in accordance with those specified in ASTM D4956.
Loss of colorfastness is considered to have occurred if the color of the sheeting is not within the color
specification limits in 23 CFR, Part 655, Subpart F, Appendix during the full duration of the warranty
period.
Warranty period shall begin on the date of fabrication and shall be documented as follows:
For warranty requirements, each permanent sign shall be labeled on the reverse in a location not to
be obscured by sign supports or backing hardware, showing 1.) Month and year the sign was
fabricated, marked via punch-out numerals, 2.) Sheeting Manufacturer's name or logo and product
designation or number, and 3.) Sign fabricator's name or logo. Labels shall be made of a self
adhesive, permanent weather resistant material and shall be a minimum 4" by 4" in size. Label may
be made from permanent sign material provided the finished label meets all other aspects required
for warranty documentation.
Where the information required for the label is not furnished by punched-out numerals, it shall be
supplied by permanent means, such as sign ink, capable of resisting weathering so as to be legible
for the full duration of the warranty period.
Prior to applying the label, the area shall be thoroughly cleaned to ensure proper adhesion.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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GUIDELINES — PROJECTS REQUIRING STONE MATRIX ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXES. WHEN THIS SECTION
APPLIES INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING IN THE PROPOSAL: SS21001 Asphalt Materials SS21113 SuperPave Asphalt Concrete, SS31510 SuperPave -Asphalt Conc Place, and SS31706 SMA -Asphalt Concrete Place.
SS24807-1214
December 2, 2014
VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
2007 ROAD AND BRIDGE SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
SUPPLEMENTAL SECTION 248—STONE MATRIX ASPHALT CONCRETE
SECTION 248—STONE MATRIX ASPHALT CONCRETE of the Specifications is replaced with the
following:
248.01—Description
These specifications cover the materials used to produce stone matrix asphalt (SMA) concrete
pavement. SMA shall be in accordance to this specification and Section 211. SMA consists of a
combination of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, mineral filler, fiber additives, and liquid asphalt
binder mechanically mixed in a plant to produce a stable gap-graded asphalt concrete paving mixture.
248.02—Materials
(a)
Coarse Aggregate: Coarse aggregate shall conform to the following requirements when
tested in accordance with the specified tests:
1. Los Angeles Abrasion
AASHTO T96
40% max.
2. Flat and Elongated Particles: Measured on No. 4 VTM-121
retained,
3 to 1
20% max.
5 to 1
5% max.
3. Magnesium Sulfate Soundness Loss, 5 cycles
AASHTO T104
4. Particles retained on No. 4 sieve shall have at least
ASTM D5821
15% max.
1 fractured face
100% min.
2 fractured faces
90% min.
5. Absorption
AASHTO T 85
2% max.
Except for the determination of flat and elongated particles in (a)2 herein, the aggregate
properties specified are for each stockpile of coarse aggregate material designated on
the job mix form (Form No. TL-127). The material contained in each stockpile shall meet
the minimum or maximum criteria specified.
For flat and elongated particles, these values are based on the mathematical blend of the
coarse aggregate material designated on the job mix form (TL-127). During production,
these values are based on the SMA material sampled during the acceptance process
(QC testing).
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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SMA must contain two or more coarse aggregate sizes. At least two of the aggregate
sizes must comprise a minimum of 10 percent of the total mix composition each. At least
one cold feed bin shall be used for each aggregate size.
The Engineer will not permit the use of slag in the job mix formula.
At the Engineer’s discretion, mixes containing Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) may
be tested by VDOT for aggregate breakdown during lab compaction in accordance with
VTM-99. If the percent of the total mix passing the No. 4 sieve increases by more than
10 percent after being compacted to Ndesign then the RAP component shall be changed or
the Engineer will discontinue its use in the mix.
(b)
Fine Aggregate: Virgin fine aggregates shall consist of a blend of 100 percent crushed
aggregate. If RAP is being used as a component in SMA then the portion of the final
SMA blend passing the No. 8 sieve shall have a minimum Fine Aggregate Angularity
value of 45 percent as determined in accordance with AASHTO T 304 (Method A). The
magnesium sulfate soundness loss in 5 cycles shall not exceed 20 percent. In addition,
the liquid limit shall not exceed 25 as determined in accordance with AASHTO T89.
(c)
Asphalt Binder: Asphalt binders shall be performance graded binder PG 64H-22 or
polymer modified binder PG 64E-22 conforming to the requirements of the mix
designation (E) designated by the Department. The supplier shall certify to the
Department that the binder complies with the requirements for all properties of the grade
as specified in AASHTO M332 Table 1 for performance-graded asphalt binder. This
certification shall be based on testing performed on samples of binder provided to the
Contractor for incorporation into the mixture. The Engineer will not allow certification
based on testing performed on laboratory-produced binders.
The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for Department review the source,
formulation, and PG grading of the binder at least 15 days prior to the production of the
SMA mixture.
The Department will perform testing during mixture production to determine the binder
PG grade on samples taken from storage at the hot-mix asphalt plant at the Engineer’s
direction. The Contractor shall be responsible for obtaining the sample of binder when
requested by the Engineer. If the Department determines the binder does not comply with
the requirements of the specified PG grade, production shall be stopped until further
testing indicates that the problem has been corrected.
(d)
Mineral Filler: Mineral filler shall consist of finely divided mineral matter such as rock or
limestone dust or other suitable material. The Engineer will not permit the use of
hydrated lime and fly ash. The supplier may blend up to two mineral fillers to comply with
the mineral filler requirements. Mineral filler shall conform to the requirements of Section
201 with the following modifications. The mineral filler or mineral filler blend used in
surface and intermediate SMA shall have a minimum of 55 percent passing the No. 200
sieve. At the time of use, it shall be sufficiently dry to flow freely and be essentially free
from agglomerations.
(e)
Fiber Additive: The supplier shall use cellulose fiber in either loose or pelletized form.
The minimum dosage rate for cellulose is 0.3 percent by weight of the total mixture. The
Department may require the percentage of fiber additive to be increased during
production if visual inspection or draindown testing on plant-produced material indicates
that draindown in excess of 0.3 percent by weight of the mixture is occurring as
determined in accordance with VTM-100. Allowable tolerances of fiber dosage shall be
±10 percent of the required fiber weight.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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NOTE: When using pelletized fiber, the dosage rate shall be adjusted to comply with the
specified minimum dosage rates for cellulose fiber. Pelletized fiber consists of cellulose
fiber and a binder. The specified minimum dosage rates are based on fiber content only.
Therefore, the amount of pelletized fiber added shall typically be higher than for loose
fiber.
The Engineer will accept fibers based on the manufacturer's certification.
TABLE II-23
Cellulose Fiber Properties
Sieve Analysis
1
Method A: Alpine Sieve Analysis
Fiber Length:
0.25 inch max.
Passing
No. 100 Sieve
70% (±10%)
2
Method B: Mesh Screen Analysis
Fiber Length:
0.25 inch max.
Passing
Ash Content
pH
No. 20 Sieve
85% (±10%)
No. 40 Sieve
65% (±10%)
No. 140 Sieve
30% (±10%)
3
18% (±5%) non-volatile
4
Oil Absorption
7.5 (±1.0)
5
Moisture Content
5.0 (±1.0) (times fiber weight)
6
<5%
1
Method A: Alpine Sieve Analysis. Performed using an Alpine Air Jet Sieve (Type 200
LS). A representative 5-gram sample of fiber is sieved for 14 minutes at a controlled
vacuum of 22 inches (±3 inches) of water. The portion remaining on the screen is
weighed.
2
Method B: Mesh Screen Analysis. This test is performed using standard Nos. 20, 40,
60, 80, 100, and 140 sieves, nylon brushes, and a shaker. A representative 10-gram
sample of fiber is sieved, using a shaker and two nylon brushes on each screen. The
amount retained on each sieve is weighed and the percentage passing calculated.
3
Ash Content: A representative 2- to 3-gram sample of fiber is placed in a tared crucible
and heated between 1100 and 1200 degrees F for not less than 2 hours. The crucible
and ash are cooled in a desiccator and reweighed.
4
pH Test: Five grams of fiber is added to 3.5 ounces of distilled water, stirred, and
allowed to set for 30 minutes. The pH is determined with a probe calibrated with a pH
7.0 buffer.
5
Oil Absorption Test: Five grams of fiber is accurately weighed and suspended in an
excess of mineral spirits for not less than 5 minutes to ensure total saturation. It is then
placed in a screen mesh strainer (with a hole size of approximately 0.5 square
millimeter), and shaken on a wrist action shaker for 10 minutes (approximately 1¼-inch
motion at 20 shakes/minute). The shaken mass is then transferred without touching to a
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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tared container and weighed. Results are reported as the amount (number or times its
own weight) the fibers are able to absorb.
6
Moisture Content: Ten grams of fiber is weighed and placed in a 250 degree F forced
air oven for 2 hours. The sample is then reweighed immediately upon removal from the
oven.
(f)
Antistripping Additive: An antistripping additive shall be used in all stone matrix
asphalt mixes. It may be hydrated lime or a chemical additive from the VDOT Materials
Division Approved Products List No. 7 or a combination of both. The approved chemical
additive shall be added at a rate of not less than 0.30 percent by weight of the total
asphalt content of the mixture.
The mixture shall produce a tensile strength ratio (TSR) of not less than 0.80 for the
design and production tests. The TSR shall be determined in accordance with AASHTO
T283, including a freeze-thaw cycle (4-inch specimens compacted with a Marshall
Hammer or 3.5 by 6-inch specimens when compacted with a gyratory compactor); except
that the 16-hour curing time requirement and the 72 to 96-hour storage period will not be
enforced by the Department. Design tests shall use the same materials that are to be
used in the production mix and shall be conducted in a laboratory approved by the
Department.
When a chemical additive is used, it shall be added to the asphalt cement prior to the
introduction of the asphalt cement into the mix. Any chemical additive or particular
concentration of chemical additive found to be harmful to the asphalt material or that
changes the original asphalt binder performance grade (PG) shall not be used.
(g)
Hydrated lime shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C977. Hydrated lime shall be
added at a rate of not less than 1 percent by weight of the total dry aggregate.
A separate bin or tank and feeder system shall be provided to store and accurately
proportion the dry or slurried lime into the aggregate. The lime and aggregate shall be
mixed by pugmill or other Department approved means to achieve a uniform lime coating
of the aggregate prior to entering the drier. If lime is added in dry form, the aggregate
shall contain at least 3 percent free moisture. The Department will not permit the
stockpiling of lime treated aggregate.
The feeder system shall be controlled by a proportioning device, which shall be accurate
to within 10 percent of the specified amount. The proportioning device shall have a
convenient and accurate means of calibration. A flow indicator or sensor shall be
provided with the proportioning device and interlocked with the plant controls, aggregate
feed or weigh system, such that production of the mixture shall be consistently
maintained and, if there is a stoppage of the lime feed, interrupted.
The method of introducing and mixing the lime and aggregate shall be subject to
approval by the Engineer prior to beginning production.
(h)
RAP: The Contractor or his supplier may use Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP)
material as a component material of SMA mixtures provided it conforms to the following:
1. SMA surface and intermediate mixtures containing RAP shall use the PG grade
of asphalt cement designated by the mix specified on the plans or in the proposal
e.g. an SMA-12.5 (64E-22).
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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2. The final asphalt mixture shall conform to the requirements for the type specified.
3. During the production process, RAP material shall not be allowed to contact open
flame.
4. The Contractor or his supplier shall handle, haul and store the RAP material in a
manner that will minimize contamination.
Further, the material shall be
stockpiled and used in such manner that variable asphalt contents and asphalt
penetration values will not adversely affect the consistency of the mixture.
248.03—Composition of SMA Mixture
The Contractor or his supplier shall design and test the SMA mixture using a gyratory compactor.
The mixture shall conform to the requirements listed in Table II-24 and Table II-25. One percent
hydrated lime will be required as an antistripping additive. An alternative antistripping additive can be
used only with the Engineer’s permission.
TABLE II-24
SMA Design Range
Percentage by Weight Passing Square Mesh Sieves (in)
Type No. (See Note)
1
¾
1/2
3/8
No. 4
No. 8
No. 30
No. 200
SMA 12.5
100
83-93
80 max
22-28
16-24
15-20
9-11
SMA 9.5
100
90-100
65-75
25-32
15-25
Surface Mixes
9-11
Intermediate Mixes
SMA 19.0
100 85-95
50-60
30-45
16-24
12-16
8-10
Note: The required PG binder will be shown in parentheses as part of the mix type on the plans or
proposal, e.g., SMA 12.5 (64E-22).
TABLE II-25
SMA Mixture Requirements
VCA
VMA
VMA
Design and
Mix Type
Design Production
2
Production
(Min. %)
(Min. %)
(%)
18.0
SMA 9.5
2.0-4.0
17.0
<VCADRC
18.0
SMA 12.5
2.0-4.0
17.0
<VCADRC
17.0
SMA19.0
2.0-4.0
16.0
<VCADRC
1) Asphalt content shall be selected at the midpoint of the
minimum specified.
VTM
(%)
1
AC
Draindown Design Specimen
(Min.
3
(%)
Gyrations Height
%)
6.3
0.3 max
75
6.3
0.3 max
75
5.5
0.3 max
75
VTM range but shall not be less
115
115
115
than the
2) The voids in coarse aggregates (VCA) of the dry rodded condition (DRC) and mix shall be
determined in accordance with VTM-99.
3) Specimen height after compaction shall be between 4.33 inches (110mm) and 4.75 inches (120mm).
The fines-effective asphalt ratio shall be 1.2-2.0
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NOTE: The SUPERPAVE gyratory compactor (SGC) shall be from the Department’s approved
list maintained by the Department’s Materials Division. Gyratory procedures shall be
performed in accordance with VTM-99. Calculations for volumetrics shall be performed
in accordance with VTM-57 and VTM-58, 6-inch specimens.
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Draindown testing shall be conducted in accordance with VTM-100.
RAP Percentages are allowed as follows:
TABLE II-26
Specified Performance Grade of Asphalt and Use of RAP
Mix Type & PG
Allowable RAP Percentage in Mix
SMA-9.5 (64H-22), SMA-12.5 (64H-22) & SMA-19.0(64H-22)
SMA-9.5 (64E-22), SMA-12.5 (64E-22) & SMA-19.0 (64E-22)
0.0 to 20.0
0.0 to 15.0
248.04—Acceptance
The Engineer will consider a lot to be acceptable for gradation and asphalt content if the mean of the
test results obtained is within the tolerance allowed from the job-mix formula. The production
tolerances for the control sieves and asphalt content shall be as follows:
Process Tolerance
Tolerance on Each Laboratory Sieve and Asphalt Content: Percent Plus and Minus
No. Tests
Top Size
¾”
½”
3/8”
No. 4
No. 8
No. 30
No. 200
A.C.
1
0.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
4.0
0.60
2
0.0
5.7
5.7
5.7
4.3
4.3
4.3
2.8
0.43
3
0.0
4.4
4.4
4.4
3.3
3.3
3.3
2.2
0.33
4
0.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
2.0
0.30
5
0.0
3.6
3.6
3.6
2.7
2.7
2.7
1.8
0.27
6
0.0
3.3
3.3
3.3
2.4
2.4
2.4
1.6
0.24
7
0.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
2.3
2.3
2.3
1.5
0.23
8
0.0
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.1
2.1
2.1
1.4
0.21
12
0.0
2.3
2.3
2.3
1.7
1.7
1.7
1.2
0.17
The production tolerance for the specimen height after compaction is 4.33 inches (110mm) and 4.75
inches (120mm).
The Contractor shall check and report the VCA of the mix during production for each gyratory sample.
If the VCA of the mix exceeds the VCA of the DRC, the Contractor shall stop production and notify
the Engineer. Production shall not resume until the Contractor has taken corrective action and the
Engineer has accepted the Contractor’s means of correction.
The Contractor shall check and report the percentage of flat and elongated particles (F&E) in the
coarse aggregates of the mix design during production. When the Contractor samples the SMA
material for acceptance (gradation and AC content), two of eight sub-lots must be selected for F&E
verification in the first lot. The F&E testing shall be performed on the coarse aggregate material
retained on the #4 sieve, in accordance with the requirements of VTM-121, after the gradation is
performed. If passing results are obtained on each sample in the first lot, then F&E testing shall be
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performed on a frequency of every second lot of material produced (i.e., Lots 3, 5, 7, etc.) by
randomly selecting two sub-lots. If the F&E of the mix exceeds the specified limits, the Contractor
shall stop production and notify the Engineer. Production shall not resume until the Contractor has
taken corrective action and the Engineer has accepted the Contractor’s means of correction.
Once production has resumed, the Contractor shall determine the F&E of the mix for two consecutive
lots by randomly selecting two sub-lots per lot. If passing results are obtained for these two lots, then
the F&E testing frequency shall return to every second lot of material produced.
If the Department determines that the mixture being produced does not conform to the approved jobmix formula and volumetric properties in Table II-25 based on Department or Contractor’s test results,
the Contractor shall immediately make corrections to bring the mixture into conformance with the
approved job-mix formula or cease paving with that mixture.
The Engineer will limit subsequent paving operations, using either a revised or other job-mix formula
which has not been verified as described herein, to a test run of 300 tons maximum if such material is
to be placed in Department project work. The Engineer will not allow any further paving for the
Department using that specific mixture until the acceptability of the mixture being produced has
received the Engineer’s approval based on the 300-ton constraint.
For SMA surface mixes, permeability test data shall be submitted in accordance with VTM 120 using
either single point verification or the regression method for each surface mix having a different
gradation.
Samples will be taken in the first lot, and every other lot thereafter, and results submitted to the
District Materials Engineer.
248.05—SMA Mixing Plant
Plants used for the preparation of the SMA mixture shall conform to the following:
(a)
Handling of Mineral Filler: Adequate dry storage shall be provided for the mineral filler
that will, at a minimum, consist of a waterproof cover that shall completely cover the
stockpile at all times. Provisions shall be made for metering of the filler into the mixture
uniformly and in the desired quantities. In a batch plant, mineral filler shall be added
directly into the weigh hopper. In a drum plant, mineral filler shall be added directly onto
the cold feed belt. Equipment shall be capable of accurately and uniformly metering the
large amounts of mineral filler up to 25 percent of the total mix.
(b)
Fiber Addition: Adequate dry storage shall be provided for the fiber additive, and
provisions shall be made for accurately and uniformly metering fiber into the mixture at
plus or minus 10 percent of the desired quantities.
Introduction of loose or pelletized fiber shall require a separate system that can
accurately proportion, by weight, the required quantity of fiber in such a manner as to
ensure consistent, uniform blending into the mixture at all rates of production and batch
sizes. This supply system shall be interlocked with the other feeding devices of the plant
system, and sensing devices shall provide for interruption of mixture production if the
introduction of fiber fails.
Batch Plant: Loose fiber or pelletized fiber shall be added through a separate inlet
directly into the weigh hopper above the pugmill. The addition of fiber shall be timed to
occur during the hot aggregate charging of the hopper. Adequate dry mixing time is
required to ensure proper blending of the aggregate and fiber stabilizer. Therefore, dry
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mixing time shall typically be increased 5 to 15 seconds. Wet mixing time shall typically
be increased at least 5 seconds for cellulose fibers to ensure adequate blending with the
asphalt cement.
When fiber is used, the fiber supply system shall include low level and no flow indicators
and a printout of the date, time, and net batch weight of fiber.
Drum Mix Plant: When fiber is used, the fibers shall be added in such a manner as not
to be entrained into the exhaust gases of the drum plant. The fiber supply system shall
include low level and no flow indicators and a printout of status of feed rate in pounds per
minute.
When pelletized fibers are used, they shall be added directly into the drum mixer through
the RAP inlet or a specialized fiber inlet. Operation of the drum mixer shall be such as to
ensure complete blending of the pelletized fiber into the mix.
(c)
Hot Mixture Storage: When the Contractor does not immediately haul and place the hot
mixture on the project, it, he shall provide suitable bins for storage of the hot mixture.
Such bins shall be either surge bins to balance production capacity with hauling and
placing capacity or storage bins that are heated and insulated and that have a controlled
atmosphere around the mixture. The Engineer will impose limitations on the holding
times based on laboratory tests of the stored mixture. In no case shall the SMA mixture
be kept in storage more than 8 hours.
(d)
Mixing Temperature: The recommended plant mixing temperatures for PG 64H-22
should be 315 to 340 degrees F and at no time shall the temperature exceed 350
degrees F. For PG 64E-22, the plant mixing temperatures shall be within the limits of the
asphalt supplier’s recommendations.
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———— CNSP SELECT USE 200 SERIES SPCNs and SPs ————
The following are Select Use Special Provisions. None have been through the
Department’s complete Specifications Committee review/comment/acceptance process
and are not part of the Standard Specifications. They are to be considered as projectspecific and may be subject to modifications required to meet specific project conditions or
requirements for Federal funding. Anyone making modifications is responsible for
obtaining the appropriate expertise in the discipline applicable to the modification. If
modifications are made the date must also be changed to reflect the current date. Please
send a copy of the modified special provision with the new date and specific project
number to David.Gayle@VDOT.Virginia.gov so it may be added to the Specifications
Stockpile.
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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cu211000a SM-22_5 Asph Conc (Bris Coal Co)
GUIDELINES – FOR ASPHALT MAINTENANCE PROJECTS IN BRISTOL DISTRICT COAL COUNTIES ONLY WHEN
CALLED FOR BY THE DISTRICT MAINTENANCE ENGINEER.
SM-22.5 ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES (Bristol District Coal Counties Only) — When asphalt
concrete mix types SM-22.5 A, D, or E are specified in the Schedules, TABLE II-13—Asphalt Concrete
Mixtures: Design Range of the Specifications shall be amended to add the following to the table:
TABLE II-13
1
Asphalt Concrete Mixtures: Design Range
Mix Type
Percentage by Weight Passing Square Mesh Sieves
2 in
SM-22.5 A,D,E
1 ½ in
1 in
¾ in
½ in
95-100
Max. 90
60-84
3/8 in
No. 4
10-21-08a (SPCN)
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19-38
No. 200
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SU210000B Thin Hot Mix Asph Conc Overlay
GUIDELINES – FOR PROJECTS WHERE “THIN HOT MIX ASPHALT CONCRETE OVERLAY” IS REQUIRED.
VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
SPECIAL PROVISION FOR
THIN HOT MIX ASPHALT CONCRETE OVERLAY
July 8, 2014b
I.
DESCRIPTION
This work shall consist of the production and placement of a thin hot mix asphalt concrete overlay
in accordance with the contract requirements, this provision, and as directed by the Engineer.
II.
MATERIALS
A.
Asphalt: The asphalt cement shall be a performance graded asphalt (PG) 64H-28
conforming to the requirements of AASHTO Provisional Specification MP-1 and the
requirements of Section 210 of the Specifications or as designated by the Engineer
B.
RAP: Recycled asphalt pavement material will not be permitted.
C.
Coarse aggregate shall conform to the requirements of Section 203 of the Specifications
or as directed by the Engineer. In addition the following requirements shall be met:
Flat and Elongated Particles when tested according to ASTM D 4791 the amount
retained on and above the No. 4 sieve shall conform to the following:
3 to 1
5 to 1
Not greater than 25 percent.
Not greater than 10 percent.
Water Absorption when tested according to AASHTO T85 shall be no greater than 2
percent.
D.
Fine aggregate shall conform to the requirements of Section 202 of the Specifications,
except for grading, which shall be tested according to AASHTO TP 33 (Method A) with a
value of not less than 45 percent and a sand equivalent value of not less than 50
(AASHTO T 176).
E.
Mineral Filler shall conform to the requirements of Section 201 of the Specifications.
F.
Fiber Additive when required shall be cellulose or mineral fiber approved by the
Engineer based on supplier’s certification of properties and documentation of success in
similar applications in hot mix asphalt.
G.
Antistripping additive shall be used. It may be hydrated lime or a chemical additive from
the VDOT Materials Division Approved Products List No. 7 or a combination of both. The
approved chemical additive shall be added at a rate of not less than 0.30 percent by
weight of the total asphalt content of the mixture.
The mixture shall produce a tensile strength ratio (TSR) of not less than 0.80 for the
design and production tests. The TSR shall be determined in accordance with AASHTO
T283, including a freeze-thaw cycle (4-inch specimens compacted with a Marshall
Hammer or 3.5 by 6-inch specimens when compacted with a gyratory compactor); except
that the 16-hour curing time requirement and the 72 to 96-hour storage period will not be
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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enforced.by the Department. Design tests shall use the same materials that are to be
used in the production mix and shall be conducted in a laboratory approved by the
Department.
When a chemical additive is used, it shall be added to the asphalt cement prior to the
introduction of the asphalt cement into the mix. Any chemical additive or particular
concentration of chemical additive found to be harmful to the asphalt material or that
changes the original asphalt binder performance grade (PG) shall not be used.
(i)
Hydrated lime shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C977. Hydrated lime shall be
added at a rate of not less than 1 percent by weight of the total dry aggregate.
A separate bin or tank and feeder system shall be provided to store and accurately
proportion the dry or slurried lime into the aggregate.. The lime and aggregate shall be
mixed by pugmill or other Department approved means to achieve a uniform lime coating
of the aggregate prior to entering the drier. If lime is added in dry form, the aggregate
shall contain at least 3 percent free moisture. The Department will not permit the
stockpiling of lime treated aggregate.
The feeder system shall be controlled by a proportioning device, which shall be accurate
to within 10 percent of the specified amount. The proportioning device shall have a
convenient and accurate means of calibration. A flow indicator or sensor shall be
provided with the proportioning device and interlocked with the plant controls, aggregate
feed or weigh system, such that production of the mixture shall be consistently
maintained and, if there is a stoppage of the lime feed, interrupted.
The method of introducing and mixing the lime and aggregate shall be subject to
approval by the Engineer prior to beginning production.
III.
MIX FORMULA
The Contractor shall submit for the Engineer’s approval, a job mix formula within the following
design ranges of percent passing each sieve size as noted:
Sieve Size
Percent By Weight Passing Square
Mesh Sieves (in)
Production Tolerance
(Single Test)
1/2”
3/8”
#4
#8
#16
#30
#50
#100
#200
100
85-100
25-40
19-32
15-23
10-18
8-13
6-10
4-7
-2
+/- 5
+/- 4
+/- 4
+/- 3
+/- 3
+/- 3
+/- 2
+/- 1
Asphalt Content, %
Production Tolerance (Single Test)
5.0 – 5.5*
+/-0.2
*Target asphalt content shall result in a minimum film thickness of 9 microns.
In addition to the job mix submittal, the Contractor shall submit ignition furnace calibration data in
accordance with VTM-102 and aggregate property test results prepared by an approved testing
laboratory for the aggregate components or aggregate blend.
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Job mixes outside the above design range will be considered by the Engineer based on mix
performance documented by the supplier to eliminate or minimize flushing or visual deficiencies
and may include changes to gradation, asphalt content and/or the use of fibers. The Engineer
may require limited production of less than 300 tons for verification of an acceptable mix, prior to
the Engineer’s approval of the job mix.
IV.
SURFACE PREPARATION
Prior to the commencement of paving operations, the existing pavement surface shall be cleaned
of all accumulated dust, mud, vegetation or other debris, which may affect the bond of the thin lift
hot mix asphalt overlay by the Contractor.
Pavement cracks or joints ¼ inch or more in width shall be cleaned and filled with a sealant
material conforming to the Special Provision For Sealing Cracks in Asphalt Concrete Pavements
or Hydraulic Cement Concrete Pavement. Quantities and payment will be according to the
Special Provision For Sealing Cracks in Asphalt Concrete Pavements or Hydraulic Cement
Concrete Pavement.
Pavement markers, thermoplastic pavement marking and tape pavement markings shall be
removed prior to the commencement of paving operations. Pavement irregularities greater than 1
inch in depth shall be filled with a material designated in the contract or approved by the
Engineer. Payment for the material will be in accordance of Section 315 of the Specifications.
Utility structures shall be protected and referenced prior to paving for location and adjustment
(when necessary) after paving at no cost to the Department.
V.
TACK COAT
Unless otherwise directed in the contract, two options for placing the tack coat are available.
Option 1: A tack coat of asphalt emulsion meeting the requirements specified herein or
other emulsion approved by the Engineer shall be applied prior to placement of the asphalt
concrete. The tack coat shall be placed within 10 seconds of placement of preventive
maintenance asphalt concrete overlay unless otherwise directed by the Engineer. At no time
should any part of the paving machine come into contact with the tack coat before the overlay
applied. The emulsion shall be uniformly applied with a paver spray bar, except hand spray
equipment may be used in areas inaccessible to the paver spray bar as directed by the
Engineer inaccessible areas are exempt from the 10-second criterion. The emulsion asphalt
shall be applied at a temperature recommended by the supplier at a starting rate of 0.25
gallons per square yard +/-0.02 unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.
Test on Emulsion
Viscosity at 77° F, SSF
Sieve Test, % (Note 1)
24 hour storage stability, % (Note 2)
Residue from distillation at 400° F, % (Note
3)
Oil portion from distillation ml of oil
per 100g emulsion
Demulsibility, % 35 ml 0.02 N CaCl2 or
35 ml 0.8% dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate
Method
AASHTO T59
AASHTO T59
AASHTO T59
AASHTO T59
AASHTO T59
AASHTO T301
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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Max
100
0.05
1
2
Test on Residue From Distillation
Elastic Recovery, % (Note 4)
Min
20
—
—
63
60
Min
Max
60
—
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Penetration @ 77° F, 100 g, 5 sec. dmm.
Today’s Date: April 1, 2016
AASHTO T49
60
150
Note 1: The sieve test is waived if successful application of the material has been achieved in the
field.
Note 2: After standing undisturbed for 24 hours, the surface shall show no white, milky colored
substance, but shall be a smooth homogeneous color throughout.
Note 3: AASHTO T59 with modifications to include a 400° F +/- 10° F maximum temperature to
be held for a period of 15 minutes.
Note 4: With exception that the elongation is 20 cm and the test temperature is 50° F.
Option 2: An asphalt binder tack coat meeting the requirements specified in Special
Provision for Non-tracking Tack Coat and listed on Approved List 50.1A shall be applied prior
to placement of the preventive maintenance asphalt concrete overlay. The tack coat shall be
uniformly applied with a spray bar paver or a mechanical distributor, except hand spray
equipment may be used in areas inaccessible. The tack coat shall be applied at a
temperature recommended by the supplier at a residual rate of 0.14 gallons per square yard
+/-0.02 unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.
VI.
PLACEMENT OF HOT MIX ASPHALT
The application rates of the overlay shall range from 80 lbs/sy to 85 lbs/sy in order to result in a ¾”
compacted lift thickness.
The thin lift of hot mix asphalt shall be placed by a paver designed for the placement of thin lifts
as designated in the contract. The asphalt mix shall be delivered to the paver hopper at a
o
o
temperature of 315 F +/- 15 F measured in the paver hopper. The paver shall be capable of
0
placing the asphalt mix at a speed of 30 feet per minute. When the base temperature is 50 F or
above, placement of the asphalt concrete wearing course shall be permitted.
VII.
COMPACTION
Two steel double drum rollers weighing no less than 10 tons shall perform compaction of the
asphalt mix. No less than two passes shall be completed before the surface temperature of the
o
asphalt has reached 185 F.
VIII.
ACCEPTANCE
The Contractor shall perform a gradation, and asphalt cement content on one sample taken in a
random manner approved by the Engineer from each 500 tons of production. The material will be
considered acceptable for gradation and asphalt content, if the results obtained are within the
tolerance allowed from the job mix formula in the above table. Material represented by test
results outside the tolerance may be removed and replaced with acceptable material by the
Contractor at no additional cost to the Department at the discretion of the Engineer.
Should visual examination by the Engineer reveal that the material in any load, or portion of the
paved roadway is contaminated, segregated, or flushed with asphalt cement, that load, or portion
of the paved roadway may be rejected without additional sampling of the material.
IX.
WARRANTY
The Contractor shall provide a one-year warranty from the date of final acceptance on all thin hot
mix asphalt concrete overlay surfaces. The Department will periodically monitor the overlay
surface installed throughout the warranty period for compliance and acceptability. The Contractor
shall repair any area that fails before the end of the warranty period and shall do so within 14
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days after Department notification unless otherwise directed by the Department. Failure of the
thin hot mix asphalt concrete overlay surface is defined as the loss of adhesion of the material to
the underlying layer resulting in a pothole greater than 1 square foot of area (delamination). The
Engineer shall notify the Contractor of the date for the warranty inspection at the end of the
warranty period and the Contractor shall be present at the inspection.
X.
MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT
Thin hot mix asphalt concrete will be measured in tons and paid for at the contract unit price
per ton, which shall include tack coat, surface preparation (except crack and joint sealing), all
materials, additives, labor and equipment as described herein to install and complete the work.
Crack and joint sealing will be paid in accordance with Special Provision for Sealing Cracks in
Asphalt Concrete Pavements or Hydraulic Cement Concrete Pavement (Prior to Overlay).
Payment will be made under:
Pay Item
Thin Hot Mix Asphalt Concrete
Pay Unit
Ton
*These SPECIFICATIONS REVISIONS are subject to change on short notice.
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