English - SEBU8731
SEBU8731
April 2013
Operation and
Maintenance
Manual
1106C-E70TA and 1106D-E70TA
Industrial Engines
PV (Engine)
PW (Engine)
Important Safety Information
Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as
“DANGER”, “WARNING” or “CAUTION”. The Safety Alert “WARNING” label is shown below.
The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:
Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by “NOTICE” labels on the product and in
this publication.
Perkins cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Perkins is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors have the most current information available.
When replacement parts are required for this
product Perkins recommends using Perkins
replacement parts.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.
SEBU8731
3
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Maintenance Section
Foreword.............................. ............................. 4
Refill Capacities....................... ....................... 52
Safety Section
Safety Messages....................... ....................... 5
Maintenance Recommendations.......... .......... 65
Maintenance Interval Schedule ........... ........... 67
General Hazard Information ............... .............. 7
Warranty Section
Burn Prevention........................ ........................ 8
Warranty Information ................... ................... 97
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention .... ... 9
Reference Information Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention . 10
Reference Materials ........................................ 98
Mounting and Dismounting............... ...............11
Index Section
High Pressure Fuel Lines ................ ................11
Index................................ ............................... 99
Before Starting Engine ................. .................. 13
Engine Starting ........................ ....................... 13
Engine Stopping ....................... ...................... 13
Electrical System ...................... ...................... 14
Engine Electronics..................... ..................... 15
Product Information Section
General Information.................... .................... 16
Product Identification Information.......... ......... 21
Operation Section
Lifting and Storage..................... ..................... 23
Features and Controls .................. .................. 25
Engine Diagnostics..................... .................... 35
Engine Starting ........................ ....................... 42
Engine Operation...................... ...................... 45
Cold Weather Operation................. ................ 46
Engine Stopping ....................... ...................... 50
4
SEBU8731
Foreword
Foreword
Literature Information
This manual contains safety, operation instructions,
lubrication and maintenance information. This manual
should be stored in or near the engine area in a
literature holder or literature storage area. Read,
study and keep it with the literature and engine
information.
English is the primary language for all Perkins
publications. The English used facilitates translation
and consistency.
Some photographs or illustrations in this manual
show details or attachments that may be different
from your engine. Guards and covers may have been
removed for illustrative purposes. Continuing
improvement and advancement of product design
may have caused changes to your engine which are
not included in this manual. Whenever a question
arises regarding your engine, or this manual, please
consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor for the latest available information.
Safety
This safety section lists basic safety precautions. In
addition, this section identifies hazardous, warning
situations. Read and understand the basic
precautions listed in the safety section before
operating or performing lubrication, maintenance and
repair on this product.
Operation
Operating techniques outlined in this manual are
basic. They assist with developing the skills and
techniques required to operate the engine more
efficiently and economically. Skill and techniques
develop as the operator gains knowledge of the
engine and its capabilities.
The operation section is a reference for operators.
Photographs and illustrations guide the operator
through procedures of inspecting, starting, operating
and stopping the engine. This section also includes a
discussion of electronic diagnostic information.
Maintenance
The maintenance section is a guide to engine care.
The illustrated, step-by-step instructions are grouped
by service hours and/or calendar time maintenance
intervals. Items in the maintenance schedule are
referenced to detailed instructions that follow.
Recommended service should be performed at the
appropriate intervals as indicated in the Maintenance
Interval Schedule. The actual operating environment
of the engine also governs the Maintenance Interval
Schedule. Therefore, under extremely severe, dusty,
wet or freezing cold operating conditions, more
frequent lubrication and maintenance than is
specified in the Maintenance Interval Schedule may
be necessary.
The maintenance schedule items are organized for a
preventive maintenance management program. If the
preventive maintenance program is followed, a
periodic tune-up is not required. The implementation
of a preventive maintenance management program
should minimize operating costs through cost
avoidances resulting from reductions in unscheduled
downtime and failures.
Maintenance Intervals
Perform maintenance on items at multiples of the
original requirement. We recommend that the
maintenance schedules be reproduced and displayed
near the engine as a convenient reminder. We also
recommend that a maintenance record be maintained
as part of the engine's permanent record.
Your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor can assist you in adjusting your
maintenance schedule to meet the needs of your
operating environment.
Overhaul
Major engine overhaul details are not covered in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual except for the
interval and the maintenance items in that interval.
Major repairs should only be carried out by Perkins
authorized personnel. Your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor offers a variety of options
regarding overhaul programs. If you experience a
major engine failure, there are also numerous after
failure overhaul options available. Consult with your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
information regarding these options.
California Proposition 65 Warning
Diesel engine exhaust and some of its constituents
are known to the State of California to cause cancer,
birth defects, and other reproductive harm. Battery
posts, terminals and related accessories contain lead
and lead compounds. Wash hands after handling.
5
SEBU8731
Safety Section
Safety Messages
Safety Section
i05271111
Safety Messages
There may be several specific warning signs on your
engine. The exact location and a description of the
warning signs are reviewed in this section. Become
familiar with all warning signs.
Ensure that all of the warning signs are legible. Clean
the warning signs or replace the warning signs if the
words cannot be read or if the illustrations are not
visible. Use a cloth, water, and soap to clean the
warning signs. Do not use solvents, gasoline, or other
harsh chemicals. Solvents, gasoline, or harsh
chemicals could loosen the adhesive that secures the
warning signs.
Replace any warning sign that is damaged or
missing. If a warning sign is attached to a part of the
engine that is replaced, install a new warning sign on
the replacement part. Your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor can provide new warning signs.
(1) Universal Warning
Do not operate or work on this equipment unless
you have read and understand the instructions
and warnings in the Operation and Maintenance
Manuals. Failure to follow the instructions or heed
the warnings could result in serious injury or
death.
Illustration 1
g01154807
Typical example
The Universal Warning label (1) is located on both
sides of the valve mechanism cover base.
6
SEBU8731
Safety Section
Safety Messages
Illustration 2
g03341746
(1) Universal warning
2 Hand (High Pressure)
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
Illustration 4
g03342264
(2) Hand high pressure
Illustration 3
Typical example
g01154858
The warning label for the Hand (High Pressure) (2) is
a wrap around label that is located on number 6
injector line.
7
SEBU8731
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
Ether
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
Illustration 7
g00702020
Wear a hard hat, protective glasses, and other
protective equipment, as required.
Do not wear loose clothing or jewelry that can snag
on controls or on other parts of the engine.
Illustration 5
g01154809
Typical example
The ether warning label is supplied loose for the
original equipment manufacture to install the label.
i02328435
General Hazard Information
Make sure that all protective guards and all covers
are secured in place on the engine.
Keep the engine free from foreign material. Remove
debris, oil, tools, and other items from the deck, from
walkways, and from steps.
Never put maintenance fluids into glass containers.
Drain all liquids into a suitable container.
Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.
Use all cleaning solutions with care.
Report all necessary repairs.
Do not allow unauthorized personnel on the
equipment.
Ensure that the power supply is disconnected before
you work on the bus bar or the glow plugs.
Perform maintenance on the engine with the
equipment in the servicing position. Refer to the OEM
information for the procedure for placing the
equipment in the servicing position.
Pressure Air and Water
Pressurized air and/or water can cause debris and/or
hot water to be blown out. This could result in
personal injury.
Illustration 6
g00104545
Attach a “Do Not Operate” warning tag or a similar
warning tag to the start switch or to the controls
before you service the equipment or before you repair
the equipment.
The direct application of pressurized air or
pressurized water to the body could result in personal
injury.
When pressurized air and/or water is used for
cleaning, wear protective clothing, protective shoes,
and eye protection. Eye protection includes goggles
or a protective face shield.
8
SEBU8731
Safety Section
Burn Prevention
The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be below 205 kPa (30 psi). The maximum water
pressure for cleaning purposes must be below
275 kPa (40 psi).
Fluid Penetration
Pressure can be trapped in the hydraulic circuit long
after the engine has been stopped. The pressure can
cause hydraulic fluid or items such as pipe plugs to
escape rapidly if the pressure is not relieved correctly.
Do not remove any hydraulic components or parts
until pressure has been relieved or personal injury
may occur. Do not disassemble any hydraulic
components or parts until pressure has been relieved
or personal injury may occur. Refer to the OEM
information for any procedures that are required to
relieve the hydraulic pressure.
i05302522
Burn Prevention
Do not touch any part of an operating engine. Allow
the engine to cool before any maintenance is
performed on the engine.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
NOTICE
The low-pressure fuel system can be pressurized for
a time period after the engine has stopped operating.
The operating pressure of the low-pressure fuel system can be 500 kPa (73 psi). The secondary fuel filters should be drained before any maintenance of the
low-pressure fuel system is carried out.
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 60
seconds in order to allow the fuel pressure to be
purged from the high-pressure fuel lines before any
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.
Illustration 8
g00687600
Always use a board or cardboard when you check for
a leak. Leaking fluid that is under pressure can
penetrate body tissue. Fluid penetration can cause
serious injury and possible death. A pin hole leak can
cause severe injury. If fluid is injected into your skin,
you must get treatment immediately. Seek treatment
from a doctor that is familiar with this type of injury.
Containing Fluid Spillage
Care must be taken in order to ensure that fluids are
contained during performance of inspection,
maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the
engine. Make provision to collect the fluid with a
suitable container before any compartment is opened
or before any component is disassembled.
Allow the pressure to be purged in the air system, in
the hydraulic system, in the lubrication system, or in
the cooling system before any lines, fittings, or related
items are disconnected.
Coolant
When the engine is at operating temperature, the
engine coolant is hot. The coolant is also under
pressure. The radiator and all lines to the heaters or
to the engine contain hot coolant.
Any contact with hot coolant or with steam can cause
severe burns. Allow cooling system components to
cool before the cooling system is drained.
Check that the coolant level after the engine has
stopped and the engine has been allowed to cool.
• Only use the tools that are suitable for collecting
fluids and equipment that is suitable for collecting
fluids.
Ensure that the filler cap is cool before removing the
filler cap. The filler cap must be cool enough to touch
with a bare hand. Remove the filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
• Only use the tools that are suitable for containing
fluids and equipment that is suitable for containing
fluids.
Cooling system conditioner contains alkali. Alkali can
cause personal injury. Do not allow alkali to contact
the skin, the eyes, or the mouth.
Obey all local regulations for the disposal of liquids.
SEBU8731
9
Safety Section
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention
Oils
Hot oil and hot lubricating components can cause
personal injury. Do not allow hot oil to contact the
skin. Also, do not allow hot components to contact the
skin.
Batteries
Electrolyte is an acid. Electrolyte can cause personal
injury. Do not allow electrolyte to contact the skin or
the eyes. Always wear protective glasses for
servicing batteries. Wash hands after touching the
batteries and connectors. Use of gloves is
recommended.
i04823662
Fire Prevention and Explosion
Prevention
Remove all flammable combustible materials or
conductive materials such as fuel, oil, and debris from
the engine. Do not allow any flammable combustible
materials or conductive materials to accumulate on
the engine.
Store fuels and lubricants in correctly marked
containers away from unauthorized persons. Store
oily rags and any flammable materials in protective
containers. Do not smoke in areas that are used for
storing flammable materials.
Do not expose the engine to any flame.
Exhaust shields (if equipped) protect hot exhaust
components from oil or fuel spray in a line, a tube, or
a seal failure. Exhaust shields must be installed
correctly.
Do not weld on lines or tanks that contain flammable
fluids. Do not flame cut lines or tanks that contain
flammable fluid. Clean any such lines or tanks
thoroughly with a nonflammable solvent prior to
welding or flame cutting.
Wiring must be kept in good condition. Ensure that all
electrical wires are correctly routed and securely
attached. Check all electrical wires daily. Repair any
wires that are loose or frayed before you operate the
engine. Clean all electrical connections and tighten all
electrical connections.
Eliminate all wiring that is unattached or unnecessary.
Do not use any wires or cables that are smaller than
the recommended gauge. Do not bypass any fuses
and/or circuit breakers.
Arcing or sparking could cause a fire. Secure
connections, recommended wiring, and correctly
maintained battery cables will help to prevent arcing
or sparking.
Illustration 9
g00704000
All fuels, most lubricants, and some coolant mixtures
are flammable.
Flammable fluids that are leaking or spilled onto hot
surfaces or onto electrical components can cause a
fire. Fire may cause personal injury and property
damage.
After the emergency stop button is operated, ensure
that you allow 15 minutes, before the engine covers
are removed.
Determine whether the engine will be operated in an
environment that allows combustible gases to be
drawn into the air inlet system. These gases could
cause the engine to overspeed. Personal injury,
property damage, or engine damage could result.
If the application involves the presence of
combustible gases, consult your Perkins dealer and/
or your Perkins distributor for additional information
about suitable protection devices.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
After the engine has stopped, wait for 60 seconds in
order to allow the fuel pressure to be purged from the
high-pressure fuel lines before any service or repair is
performed on the engine fuel lines.
Ensure that the engine is stopped. Inspect all lines
and hoses for wear or for deterioration. Properly route
all hoses. The lines and hoses must have adequate
support and secure clamps.
Properly install oil filters and fuel filters. The filter
housings must be tightened to the correct torque.
Refer to the Disassembly and Assembly manual for
more information.
10
SEBU8731
Safety Section
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention
Do not charge a frozen battery.Charging a frozen
battery may cause an explosion.
The batteries must be kept clean. The covers (if
equipped) must be kept on the cells. Use the
recommended cables, connections, and battery box
covers when the engine is operated.
Fire Extinguisher
Make sure that a fire extinguisher is available. Be
familiar with the operation of the fire extinguisher.
Inspect the fire extinguisher and service the fire
extinguisher regularly. Obey the recommendations on
the instruction plate.
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses
Do not bend high-pressure lines. Do not strike highpressure lines. Do not install any lines that are
damaged.
Illustration 10
g00704059
Use caution when you are refueling an engine. Do not
smoke while you are refueling an engine. Do not
refuel an engine near open flames or sparks. Always
stop the engine before refueling.
Leaks can cause fires. Consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for replacement parts.
Replace the parts if any of the following conditions
are present:
• High-pressure fuel line or lines are removed.
• End fittings are damaged or leaking.
• Outer coverings are chafed or cut.
• Wires are exposed.
• Outer coverings are ballooning.
• Flexible parts of the hoses are kinked.
• Outer covers have embedded armoring.
• End fittings are displaced.
Make sure that all clamps, guards, and heat shields
are installed correctly in order to prevent vibration,
rubbing against other parts, and excessive heat.
i02143194
Illustration 11
g02298225
Crushing Prevention and
Cutting Prevention
Gases from a battery can explode. Keep any open
flames or sparks away from the top of a battery. Do
not smoke in battery charging areas.
Support the component correctly when work beneath
the component is performed.
Never check the battery charge by placing a metal
object across the terminal posts. Use a voltmeter or a
hydrometer.
Unless other maintenance instructions are provided,
never attempt adjustments while the engine is
running.
Incorrect jumper cable connections can cause an
explosion that can result in injury. Refer to the
Operation Section of this manual for specific
instructions.
SEBU8731
11
Safety Section
Mounting and Dismounting
Stay clear of all rotating parts and of all moving parts.
Leave the guards in place until maintenance is
performed. After the maintenance is performed,
reinstall the guards.
Keep objects away from moving fan blades. The fan
blades will throw objects or cut objects.
When objects are struck, wear protective glasses in
order to avoid injury to the eyes.
Chips or other debris may fly off objects when objects
are struck. Before objects are struck, ensure that no
one will be injured by flying debris.
i04016709
Mounting and Dismounting
Do not climb on the engine or the engine
aftertreatment. The engine and aftertreatment have
not been designed with mounting or dismounting
locations.
Refer to the OEM for the location of foot and hand
holds for your specific application.
i05240750
High Pressure Fuel Lines
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
12
SEBU8731
Safety Section
High Pressure Fuel Lines
Illustration 12
(1) High-pressure line
(2) High-pressure line
(3) High-pressure line
g03342586
(4) High-pressure line
(5) High-pressure line
(6) High-pressure line
The high-pressure fuel lines are the fuel lines that are
between the high-pressure fuel pump and the highpressure fuel manifold and the fuel lines that are
between the fuel manifold and cylinder head. These
fuel lines are different from fuel lines on other fuel
systems.
This difference is because of the following items:
• The high-pressure fuel lines are constantly
charged with high pressure.
• The internal pressures of the high-pressure fuel
lines are higher than other types of fuel system.
• The high-pressure fuel lines are formed to shape
and then strengthened by a special process.
Do not step on the high-pressure fuel lines. Do not
deflect the high-pressure fuel lines. Do not bend or
strike the high-pressure fuel lines. Deformation or
damage of the high-pressure fuel lines may cause a
point of weakness and potential failure.
Do not check the high-pressure fuel lines with the
engine or the starting motor in operation. After the
engine has stopped, allow 60 seconds to pass in
order to allow the pressure to be purged before any
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.
Do not loosen the high-pressure fuel lines in order to
remove air from the fuel system. This procedure is not
required.
Visually inspect the high-pressure fuel lines before
the engine is started. This inspection should be each
day.
(7) High-pressure fuel manifold (rail)
(8) High-pressure supply line
(9) High-pressure supply line
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure in order to avoid a fluid
penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
• Inspect the high-pressure fuel lines for damage,
deformation, a nick, a cut, a crease, or a dent.
• Do not operate the engine with a fuel leak. If there
is a leak, do not tighten the connection in order to
stop the leak. The connection must only be
tightened to the recommended torque. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, “Fuel injection lines Remove and Fuel injection lines - Install”.
• If the high-pressure fuel lines are torqued correctly
and the high-pressure fuel lines are leaking, the
high-pressure fuel lines must be replaced.
• Ensure that all clips on the high-pressure fuel lines
are in place. Do not operate the engine with clips
that are damaged, missing, or loose.
• Do not attach any other item to the high-pressure
fuel lines.
• Loosened high-pressure fuel lines must be
replaced. Also removed high-pressure fuel lines
must be replaced. Refer to Disassembly and
assembly manual, “Fuel Injection Lines - Install”.
SEBU8731
13
Safety Section
Before Starting Engine
NOTICE
The low-pressure fuel system can be pressurized for
a time period after the engine has stopped operating.
The operating pressure of the low-pressure fuel system can be 500 kPa (73 psi). The secondary fuel filters should be drained before any maintenance of the
low-pressure fuel system is carried out.
i02813489
Before Starting Engine
Before the initial start-up of an engine that is new,
serviced or repaired, make provision to shut the
engine off, in order to stop an overspeed. This may
be accomplished by shutting off the air and/or fuel
supply to the engine.
Overspeed shutdown should occur automatically for
engines that are controlled electronically. If automatic
shutdown does not occur, press the emergency stop
button in order to cut the fuel and/or air to the engine.
Inspect the engine for potential hazards.
Before starting the engine, ensure that no one is on,
underneath, or close to the engine. Ensure that the
area is free of personnel.
If equipped, ensure that the lighting system for the
engine is suitable for the conditions. Ensure that all
lights work correctly, if equipped.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order to
perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Do not bypass the automatic shutoff circuits. Do not
disable the automatic shutoff circuits. The circuits are
provided in order to help prevent personal injury. The
circuits are also provided in order to help prevent
engine damage.
See the Service Manual for repairs and for
adjustments.
i02251260
Engine Starting
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
If a warning tag is attached to the engine start switch
or to the controls DO NOT start the engine or move
the controls. Consult with the person that attached
the warning tag before the engine is started.
All protective guards and all protective covers must
be installed if the engine must be started in order to
perform service procedures. To help prevent an
accident that is caused by parts in rotation, work
around the parts carefully.
Start the engine from the operator's compartment or
from the engine start switch.
Always start the engine according to the procedure
that is described in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Engine Starting” topic in the Operation
Section. Knowing the correct procedure will help to
prevent major damage to the engine components.
Knowing the procedure will also help to prevent
personal injury.
To ensure that the jacket water heater (if equipped)
and/or the lube oil heater (if equipped) is working
correctly, check the water temperature gauge and/or
the oil temperature gauge during the heater
operation.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which can be harmful to your health. Always start the
engine and operate the engine in a well ventilated
area. If the engine is started in an enclosed area, vent
the engine exhaust to the outside.
Note: The engine is equipped with a device for cold
starting. If the engine will be operated in very cold
conditions, then an extra cold starting aid may be
required. Normally, the engine will be equipped with
the correct type of starting aid for your region of
operation.
These engines are equipped with a glow plug starting
aid in each individual cylinder that heats the intake air
in order to improve starting.
i02234873
Engine Stopping
Stop the engine according to the procedure in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Stopping (Operation Section)” in order to avoid
overheating of the engine and accelerated wear of
the engine components.
Use the Emergency Stop Button (if equipped) ONLY
in an emergency situation. Do not use the Emergency
Stop Button for normal engine stopping. After an
emergency stop, DO NOT start the engine until the
problem that caused the emergency stop has been
corrected.
14
SEBU8731
Safety Section
Electrical System
Stop the engine if an overspeed condition occurs
during the initial start-up of a new engine or an engine
that has been overhauled.
To stop an electronically controlled engine, cut the
power to the engine and/or shutting off the air supply
to the engine.
i05241031
Electrical System
Never disconnect any charging unit circuit or battery
circuit cable from the battery when the charging unit is
operating. A spark can cause the combustible gases
that are produced by some batteries to ignite.
To help prevent sparks from igniting combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries, the
negative “−” cable should be connected last from the
external power source to the primary position for
grounding.
Check the electrical wires daily for wires that are
loose or frayed. Tighten all loose electrical
connections before the engine is started. Repair all
frayed electrical wires before the engine is started.
See the Operation and Maintenance Manual for
specific starting instructions.
Grounding Practices
Illustration 14
g03342706
(4) Battery to ground
(5) Ground to engine block
(6) Primary position for grounding
Correct grounding for the engine electrical system is
necessary for optimum engine performance and
reliability. Incorrect grounding will result in
uncontrolled electrical circuit paths and in unreliable
electrical circuit paths.
Uncontrolled electrical circuit paths can result in
damage to the crankshaft bearing journal surfaces
and to aluminum components.
Engines that are installed without engine-to-frame
ground straps can be damaged by electrical
discharge.
To ensure that the engine and the engine electrical
systems function correctly, an engine-to-frame
ground strap with a direct path to the battery must be
used. This path may be provided by way of a direct
engine ground to the frame.
The connections for the grounds should be tight and
free of corrosion. The engine alternator must be
grounded to the negative “-” battery terminal. The
wire used must be adequate to handle the full
charging current of the alternator.
The power supply connections and the ground
connections for the engine electronics should always
be from the isolator to the battery.
Illustration 13
(1) Ground to battery
(2) Ground to starting motor
(3) Starting motor to engine block
g03342674
SEBU8731
15
Safety Section
Engine Electronics
i05272352
Engine Electronics
Tampering with the electronic system installation
or the OEM wiring installation can be dangerous
and could result in personal injury or death and/or
engine damage.
Electrical Shock Hazard. The electronic unit injectors use DC voltage. The ECM sends this voltage
to the electronic unit injectors. Do not come in
contact with the harness connector for the electronic unit injectors while the engine is operating.
Failure to follow this instruction could result in
personal injury or death.
This engine has a comprehensive, programmable
Engine Monitoring System . The Electronic Control
Module (ECM) monitors the engine operating
conditions. If any of the engine parameters extend
outside an allowable range, the ECM will initiate an
immediate action.
The following actions are available for engine
monitoring control:
• Warning
• Derate
• Shutdown
The following monitored engine operating conditions
have the ability to limit engine speed and/or the
engine power:
• Engine Coolant Temperature
• Engine Oil Pressure
• Engine Speed
• Intake Manifold Air Temperature
• Intake Manifold Air pressure
The Engine Monitoring package can vary for different
engine models and different engine applications.
However, the monitoring system and the engine
monitoring control will be similar for all engines.
Note: Many of the engine control systems and
display modules that are available for Perkins
Engines will work in unison with the Engine
Monitoring System. Together, the two controls will
provide the engine monitoring function for the specific
engine application. Refer to the Troubleshooting for
more information on the Engine Monitoring System.
16
SEBU8731
Product Information Section
Model View Illustrations
Product Information
Section
General Information
i05241813
Model View Illustrations
The following model views show typical features of
the engine. Due to individual applications, your
engine may appear different from the illustrations.
Illustration 15
(1) Secondary fuel filters
(2) Crankcase breather hose
(3) Oil sample valve
g03343017
(4) Electronic control module
(5) Oil filter
(6) Oil gauge (dipstick)
Note: The engine can have a filtered breather (30)
installed.
(7) Oil drain plug
(8) Oil filler cap
SEBU8731
17
General Information
Model View Illustrations
Illustration 16
(9) Coolant outlet
(10) Water pump
(11) Coolant intake
g03343019
(12) Vibration damper
(13) Belt tensioner
(14) Belt
(15) Belt idler pulley
18
SEBU8731
General Information
Model View Illustrations
Illustration 17
(16) Exhaust manifold
(17) Font lifting eye
(18) Alternator
(19) Refrigerant compressor
g03343041
(20) Turbocharger
(21) Starting motor
(22) Solenoid for starting motor
(23) Flywheel
(24) Flywheel housing
(25) Rear lifting eye
SEBU8731
19
General Information
Product Description
Off Engine Parts and Options
Illustration 18
(26) Electric priming pump
(27) Primary fuel filter
g03343046
(28) Mechanical priming pump
(29) Primary fuel filter
(30) Spin on crankcase breather
i05272410
Product Description
The Perkins 1106C-E70TA and the 1106D-E70TA
Industrial Engines has the following characteristics.
• In-line 6 cylinder
• Four stroke cycle
• Turbocharged aftercooled
Engine Specifications
Note: The front end of the engine is opposite the
flywheel end of the engine. The left and the right
sides of the engine are determined from the flywheel
end. The number 1 cylinder is the front cylinder.
Illustration 19
g01127295
Cylinder and valve location
(A) Exhaust valves
(B) Inlet valves
Table 1
Engine Specifications
Operating Range (rpm)
Number of Cylinders
900 to 2800(1)
6 In-Line
Bore
105 mm (4.13 inch)
Stroke
135 mm (5.315 inch)
Aspiration
Turbocharged aftercooled
(continued)
20
SEBU8731
General Information
Product Description
Engine Cooling and Lubrication
(Table 1, contd)
Compression Ratio
Displacement
16.5:1
7.01 L (427.77 cubic inch)
Firing Order
1-5-3-6-2-4
Rotation (flywheel end)
Counterclockwise
The cooling system consists of the following
components:
• Gear-driven centrifugal water pump
Valve Lash Setting (Inlet)
0.35 mm (0.013 inch)
• Water temperature regulator which regulates the
engine coolant temperature
Valve Lash Setting (Exhaust)
0.35 mm (0.013 inch)
• Gear-driven rotor type oil pump
(1)
The operating rpm is dependent on the engine rating, the application, and the configuration of the throttle.
Electronic Engine Features
The engine operating conditions are monitored. The
Electronic Control Module (ECM) controls the
response of the engine to these conditions and to the
demands of the operator. These conditions and
operator demands determine the precise control of
fuel injection by the ECM. The electronic engine
control system provides the following features:
• Engine monitoring
• Engine speed governing
• Control of the injection pressure
• Cold start strategy
• Automatic air/fuel ratio control
• Torque rise shaping
• Injection timing control
• System diagnostics
For more information on electronic engine features,
refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Features and Controls” topic (Operation Section).
Engine Diagnostics
The engine has built-in diagnostics in order to ensure
that the engine systems are functioning correctly. The
operator will be alerted to the condition by a “Stop or
Warning” lamp. Under certain conditions, the engine
horsepower and the vehicle speed may be limited.
The electronic service tool may be used to display the
diagnostic codes.
There are three types of diagnostic codes: active,
logged and event.
Most of the diagnostic codes are logged and stored in
the ECM. For additional information, refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine
Diagnostics” topic (Operation Section).
The ECM provides an electronic governor that
controls the injector output in order to maintain the
desired engine rpm.
• Oil cooler
The engine lubricating oil is supplied by a rotor type
oil pump. The engine lubricating oil is cooled and the
engine lubricating oil is filtered. The bypass valve can
provide unrestricted flow of lubrication oil to the
engine if the oil filter element should become
plugged.
Engine efficiency, efficiency of emission controls, and
engine performance depend on adherence to proper
operation and maintenance recommendations.
Engine performance and efficiency also depend on
the use of recommended fuels, lubrication oils, and
coolants. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule” for more
information on maintenance items.
SEBU8731
21
Product Identification Information
Plate Locations and Film Locations
Product Identification
Information
i05275493
Plate Locations and Film
Locations
Illustration 21
Typical example
Illustration 20
g03343476
Perkins engines are identified by an engine serial
number.
An example of an engine number is P*****R000001X.
*****
The list number for the engine
P-
Type of engine
R
Built-in China
000001
X
Engine Serial Number
Year of Manufacture
Perkins dealers or Perkins distributors need all of
these numbers in order to determine the components
that were included with the engine. This information
permits accurate identification of replacement part
numbers.
Serial Number Plate (1)
The engine serial number plate is located on the left
side of the cylinder block to the rear of the front
engine mounting.
g02433756
22
SEBU8731
Product Identification Information
Emissions Certification Film
i05275515
Emissions Certification Film
Illustration 22
g03355218
Typical example
i05242876
Reference Information
Lubrication Oil Filter Element
Total Lubrication System Capacity
Total Cooling System Capacity
Information for the following items may be needed to
order parts. Locate the information for your engine.
Record the information in the appropriate space.
Make a copy of this list for a record. Keep the
information for future reference.
Record for Reference
Engine Model
Engine Serial number
Engine Low Idle rpm
Engine Full Load rpm
Primary Fuel Filter
Water Separator Element
Secondary Fuel Filter Element
Air Cleaner Element
Drive Belt
SEBU8731
23
Operation Section
Product Lifting
Operation Section
i04151489
Product Storage
Lifting and Storage
i02677363
Product Lifting
Perkins are not responsible for damage which may
occur when an engine is in storage after a period in
service.
Your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor can
assist in preparing the engine for extended storage
periods.
Condition for Storage
The engine must be stored in a water proof building.
The building must be kept at a constant temperature.
Engines that are filled with Perkins ELC will have
coolant protection to an ambient temperature of
−36° C (−32.8° F). The engine must not be subjected
to extreme variations in temperature and humidity.
Storage Period
An engine can be stored for up to 6 months provided
all the recommendation are adhered to.
Illustration 23
g00103219
NOTICE
Never bend the eyebolts and the brackets. Only load
the eyebolts and the brackets under tension. Remember that the capacity of an eyebolt is less as the angle
between the supporting members and the object becomes less than 90 degrees.
When it is necessary to remove a component at an
angle, only use a link bracket that is properly rated for
the weight.
Use a hoist to remove heavy components. Use an
adjustable lifting beam to lift the engine. All
supporting members (chains and cables) should be
parallel to each other. The chains and cables should
be perpendicular to the top of the object that is being
lifted.
Some removals require lifting the fixtures in order to
obtain proper balance and safety.
To remove the engine ONLY, use the lifting eyes that
are on the engine.
Lifting eyes are designed and installed for specific
engine arrangements. Alterations to the lifting eyes
and/or the engine make the lifting eyes and the lifting
fixtures obsolete. If alterations are made, ensure that
proper lifting devices are provided. Consult your
Perkins dealer for information regarding fixtures for
proper engine lifting.
Storage Procedure
Keep a record of the procedure that has been
completed on the engine.
Note: Do not store an engine that has biodiesel in the
fuel system.
1. Ensure that the engine is clean and dry.
a. If the engine has been operated using
biodiesel, the system must be drained and
new filters installed. The fuel tank will require
flushing.
b. Fill the fuel system with an acceptable fuel. For
more information on acceptable fuels refer to
this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Fluid recommendations”. Operate the engine
for 15 minutes in order to remove all biodiesel
from the system.
2. Drain any water from the primary filter water
separator. Ensure that the fuel tank is full.
3. The engine oil will not need to be drained in order
to store the engine. Provided the correct
specification of engine oil is used the engine can
be stored for up to 6 months. For the correct
specification of engine oil refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
recommendations”.
4. Remove the drive belt from the engine.
24
Lifting and Storage
Product Storage
Sealed Coolant System
Ensure that the cooling system is filled with Perkins
ELC, or an antifreeze that meets ASTM D6210
specification.
Open Cooling System
Ensure that all cooling drain plugs have been
opened. Allow the coolant to drain. Install the drain
plugs. Place a vapor phase inhibitor into the system.
The coolant system must be sealed once the vapor
phase inhibitor has been introduced. The effect of the
vapor phase inhibitor will be lost if the cooling system
is open to the atmosphere.
For maintenance procedures refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual.
Monthly Checks
The crankshaft must be rotated in order to change the
spring loading on the valve train. Rotate the
crankshaft more than 180 degrees. Visibly check for
damage or corrosion to the engine.
Ensure that the engine is covered completely before
storage. Log the procedure in the record for the
engine.
SEBU8731
SEBU8731
25
Features and Controls
Alarms and Shutoffs
Features and Controls
Intake manifold air temperature – The intake
manifold air temperature sensor indicates high intake
air temperature.
i05251301
Alarms and Shutoffs
Intake manifold pressure – The intake manifold
pressure sensor checks the rated pressure in the
engine manifold.
Shutoffs
Fuel rail pressure – The fuel rail pressure sensor
checks for high pressure or low pressure in the fuel
rail.
The shutoffs are electrically operated or mechanically
operated. The electrically operated shutoffs are
controlled by the ECM.
Engine oil pressure – The engine oil pressure
sensor indicates when oil pressure drops below rated
system pressure, at a set engine speed.
Shutoffs are set at critical levels for the following
items:
Engine overspeed – The primary speed/timing
sensor checks the engine speed. The alarm is
activated at 3000 RPM.
• Operating temperature
• Operating pressure
Air filter restriction – The switch checks the air filter
when the engine is operating.
• Operating level
User-defined switch – This switch can shut down
the engine remotely.
• Operating rpm
Water in fuel switch – This switch checks for water
in the primary fuel filter when the engine is operating.
The particular shutoff may need to be reset before the
engine will start.
NOTICE
Always determine the cause of the engine shutdown.
Make necessary repairs before attempting to restart
the engine.
Note: The sensing element of the coolant
temperature switch must be submerged in coolant in
order to operate.
Engines may be equipped with alarms in order to
alert the operator when undesirable operating
conditions occur.
Be familiar with the following items:
• Types and locations of shutoff
• Conditions which cause each shutoff to function
• The resetting procedure that is required to restart
the engine
Alarms
NOTICE
When an alarm is activated, corrective measures
must be taken before the situation becomes an emergency in order to avoid possible engine damage.
If corrective measures are not taken within a
reasonable time, engine damage could result. The
alarm will continue until the condition is corrected.
The alarm may need to be reset.
The alarms are electrically operated. The operation of
the alarms is controlled by the ECM.
Testing
The alarm is operated by a sensor or by a switch.
When the sensor or the switch is activated, a signal is
sent to the ECM. An event code is created by the
ECM. The ECM will send a signal in order to
illuminate the lamp.
Turning the keyswitch to the ON position will check
the indicator lights on the control panel. All the
indicator lights will be illuminated for 2 seconds after
the keyswitch is operated. Replace suspect bulbs
immediately.
Your engine may be equipped with the following
sensors or switches:
Refer to Troubleshooting for more information.
Coolant level – The low coolant level switch
indicates when the coolant level is low.
Coolant temperature – The coolant temperature
sensor indicates high jacket water coolant
temperature.
26
SEBU8731
Features and Controls
Gauges and Indicators
i05277329
Gauges and Indicators
Your engine may not have the same gauges or all of
the gauges that are described. For more information
about the gauge package, see the OEM information.
Gauges provide indications of engine performance.
Ensure that the gauges are in good working order.
Determine the normal operating range by observing
the gauges over a period.
Noticeable changes in gauge readings indicate
potential gauge or engine problems. Problems may
also be indicated by gauge readings that change
even if the readings are within specifications.
Determine and correct the cause of any significant
change in the readings. Consult your Perkins dealer
or your distributor Perkins for assistance.
Jacket Water Coolant Temperature –
Typical temperature range is 83° to 95°C
(181.4° to 171°F). The maximum
allowable temperature at sea level with the
pressurized cooling system at 48 kPa (7 psi) is
103 °C (217.4 °F). Higher temperatures may occur
under certain conditions. The water temperature
reading may vary according to load. The
temperature reading should never exceed 7 °C
(44.6 °F) below the boiling point for the
pressurized system that is being used.
A 100 kPa (14.5 psi) radiator cap may be installed on
the cooling system. The temperature of this cooling
system must not exceed 112 °C (233.6 °F).
If the engine is operating above the normal range and
steam becomes apparent, perform the following
procedure:
1. Reduce the load and the engine rpm.
Some engine applications are equipped with Indicator
Lamps. Indicator lamps can be used as a diagnostic
aid. There are two lamps. One lamp has an orange
lens and the other lamp has a red lens.
2. Determine if the engine must be shut down
immediately or if the engine can be cooled by
reducing the load.
These indicator lamps can be used in two ways:
3. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
• The indicator lamps can be used to identify the
current operational status of the engine. The
indicator lamps can also indicate that the engine
has a fault. This system is automatically operated
via the ignition switch.
Tachometer – This gauge indicates
engine speed (rpm). When the throttle
control lever is moved to the full throttle
position without load, the engine is running at
high idle. The engine is running at the full load
rpm when the throttle control lever is at the full
throttle position with maximum rated load.
• The indicator lamps can be used to identify active
diagnostic codes.
Refer to the Troubleshooting Guide, “Indicator
Lamps” for further information.
NOTICE
If no oil pressure is indicated, STOP the engine. If
maximum coolant temperature is exceeded, STOP
the engine. Engine damage can result.
Engine Oil Pressure – The oil pressure
should be greatest after a cold engine is
started. The typical engine oil pressure
with SAE10W40 is 350 to 450 kPa ( 50 to 65 psi) at
rated rpm.
A lower oil pressure is normal at low idle. If the load is
stable and the gauge reading changes, perform the
following procedure:
1. Remove the load.
NOTICE
To help prevent engine damage, never exceed the
high idle rpm. Overspeeding can result in serious
damage to the engine. Operation at speeds exceeding high idle rpm should be kept to a minimum.
Ammeter – This gauge indicates the
amount of charge or discharge in the
battery charging circuit. Operation of the
indicator should be to the “ +”” side of “ 0”” (zero).
Fuel Level – This gauge indicates the
fuel level in the fuel tank. The fuel level
gauge operates when the “ START/
STOP”” switch is in the “ on”” position.
Service Hour Meter – The gauge
indicates total operating hours of the
engine.
2. Stop the engine.
Indicator Lamps
3. Check and maintain the oil level.
There are four main indicator lamps that are
available.
SEBU8731
27
Features and Controls
Monitoring System
• Shutdown Lamp
• Warning Lamp
i05245144
Monitoring System
• Wait to Start Lamp
• Low Oil Pressure Lamp
For information, refer to this manual, “Monitoring
System (Table for the Indicator Lamps)” for the
sequence of operation of the shutdown lamp and the
warning lamp.
The function of the wait to start lamp is automatically
controlled at engine start-up.
The function of the low oil pressure lamp is controlled
by the engine ECM. If low oil pressure is detected, the
lamp will be illuminated. The reason for the
illumination of the low-pressure lamp should be
investigated immediately.
If the Shutdown mode has been selected and the
warning indicator activates, engine shutdown
may take as little as 20 seconds from the time the
warning indicator is activated. Depending on the
application, special precautions should be taken
to avoid personal injury. The engine can be restarted following shutdown for emergency maneuvers, if necessary.
All lamps will illuminate for 2 seconds in order to
check that the lamps are functioning when the
keyswitch is turned to the ON position. If any of the
lamps stay illuminated, the reason for illumination
should be investigated immediately.
NOTICE
The Engine Monitoring System is not a guarantee
against catastrophic failures. Programmed delays
and derate schedules are designed to minimize false
alarms and provide time for the operator to stop the
engine.
Instrument panels and Displays
The following parameters are monitored:
In order to monitor the engine a wide verity of
instrument panels are available. These instrument
panels can contain the indicator lamps and the
gauges for the application.
Also available are mini power displays and
performance monitors. These displays and monitors
can show the operator the following engine
information.
• Coolant temperature
• Intake manifold air temperature
• Intake manifold air pressure
• Oil pressure
• Pressure in the fuel rail
• The system configuration parameters
• Engine speed/timing
• The customer specified parameters
Programmable Options and
Systems Operation
• Diagnostic codes
• Event codes
• Coolant temperature
• Oil temperature
• Oil pressure
• Intake temperature
• Intake pressure
• Fuel temperature
If the Warning/Derate/Shutdown mode has been
selected and the warning indicator activates,
bring the engine to a stop whenever possible. Depending on the application, special precautions
should be taken to avoid personal injury.
The engine can be programmed to the following
modes:
28
Features and Controls
Monitoring System
“ Warning””
The “Warning” lamp and the warning signal (orange
lamp) turn “ON” and the warning signal is activated
continuously in order to alert the operator that one or
more of the engine parameters is not within normal
operating range.
“ Warning/Derate””
The “Diagnostic” lamp turns “ON” and the warning
signal (red lamp) is activated. After the warning, the
engine power will be derated. The warning lamp will
begin to flash when the derating occurs.
The engine will be derated if the engine exceeds
preset operational limits. The engine derate is
achieved by restricting the amount of fuel that is
available for each injection. The amount of this
reduction of fuel is dependent on the severity of the
fault that has caused the engine derate, typically up
to a limit of 50%. This reduction in fuel results in a
predetermined reduction in engine power.
“ Warning/Derate/Shutdown””
The “Diagnostic” lamp turns “ON” and the warning
signal (red lamp) is activated. After the warning, the
engine power will be derated. The engine will
continue at the rpm of the set derate until a shutdown
of the engine occurs. The engine can be restarted
after a shutdown for use in an emergency.
A shutdown of the engine may occur in as little as 20
seconds. The engine can be restarted after a
shutdown for use in an emergency. However, the
cause of the initial shutdown may still exist. The
engine may shut down again in as little as 20
seconds.
If there is a signal for low oil pressure or for coolant
temperature, there will be a two second delay in order
to verify the condition.
For each of the programmed modes, refer to
Troubleshooting Guide, “Indicator Lamps” for more
information on Indicator Lamps.
For more information or assistance for repairs,
consult your Cat dealer.
SEBU8731
SEBU8731
29
Features and Controls
Monitoring System
i02330192
Monitoring System
Table 2
Warning Lamp
Shutdown
Lamp
ON
ON
OFF
Lamp Status
Description of lamp status
Engine Status
Lamp check
When the engine start switch is turned to the “ON” po- The engine has not been
started.
sition both lamps will illuminate for 2 seconds only.
OFF
No faults
There are no active diagnostic faults.
ON
OFF
Active diagnostic An active diagnostic fault has been detected.
fault
ON
FLASHING
FLASHING
OFF
FLASHING
FLASHING
ON
ON
The engine is running normally.
The engine is running normally.
Active diagnostic A serious active diagnostic fault has been detected and The engine is running but the
fault
engine has been derated.
an engine derate has been invoked.
Warning
One or more of the engine protection values has been
exceeded.
The engine is running normally.
Derate and
warning
One or more of the engine protection values has been
exceeded.
The engine is running but the
engine has been derated.
Engine shutdown One or more of the engine protection values has been
exceeded or a serious active diagnostic fault has been
detected.
i05251914
Overspeed
An overspeed condition is detected by the Electronic
Control Module (ECM). The event code E190 will be
logged if the engine speed exceeds 3300 rpm. The
“DIAGNOSTIC” lamp will indicate a diagnostic fault
code. The diagnostic fault code will remain active until
the engine speed drops to 2800 rpm.
i05245147
Sensors and Electrical
Components
The illustrations within the following sections are
typical location of the sensors or electrical
components for an industrial engine. Specific engines
may appear different due to differences in
applications.
The engine is shutdown or shutdown is imminent.
30
SEBU8731
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 24
(1) Connector for the injectors
(2) Intake manifold pressure sensor
(3) Intake manifold temperature sensor
(4) Connector for glow plugs
g03344459
(5) Wastegate regulator
(6) Fuel rail pressure sensor
(7) Electronic control module
(8) Primary speed/timing sensor
(9) Oil pressure sensor
(10) Solenoid for the high-pressure fuel
pump
(11) Coolant temperature sensor
SEBU8731
31
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 25
(12) Secondary speed/timing sensor
(13) Alternator
g03344462
(14) Refrigerant compressor
(15) Starting motor and solenoid
(16) Priming pump relay
32
SEBU8731
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 26
(1) Connections for injectors
g03344866
(2) Intake manifold pressure sensor
(3) Intake manifold temperature sensor
SEBU8731
33
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 27
(4) Connector for glow plugs
(5) Wastegate regulator
(6) Fuel rail pressure sensor
g03344871
(7) Electronic control module
(8) Oil pressure sensor
(9) Primary speed/timing sensor
(10) Solenoid for the high-pressure fuel
pump
34
SEBU8731
Features and Controls
Sensors and Electrical Components
Illustration 28
(11) Coolant temperature sensor
g03344872
(12) Secondary speed/timing sensor
• Item (13) the alternator can be 12 V or 24 V
• Item (14) refrigerant compressor is an option only
• Item (15) starting motor can be 12 V or 24 V . The
starting motor can be mounted on the left side or
the right side of the engine
• Item (16) the relay for the electric priming pump is
mounted on the primary filter. The primary fuel filter
will be installed off engine.
SEBU8731
35
Engine Diagnostics
Self-Diagnostics
Engine Diagnostics
i05253179
i02651093
Self-Diagnostics
Perkins electronic engines have the capability to
perform a self-diagnostics test. When the system
detects an active problem, a diagnostic lamp is
activated. Diagnostic codes will be stored in
permanent memory in the Electronic Control Module
(ECM). The diagnostic codes can be retrieved by
using the electronic service tool. Refer to
Troubleshooting, “Electronic Service Tools” for further
information.
Some installations have electronic displays that
provide direct readouts of the engine diagnostic
codes. Refer to the manual that is provided by the
OEM for more information on retrieving engine
diagnostic codes. Alternatively refer to
Troubleshooting, “Indicator Lamps” for further
information.
Active codes represent problems that currently exist.
These problems should be investigated first.
Diagnostic Flash Code
Retrieval
“Diagnostic”” Lamp
Use the “DIAGNOSTIC” lamp or an electronic
service tool to determine the diagnostic flash code.
Use the following procedure to retrieve the flash
codes if the engine is equipped with a
“DIAGNOSTIC” lamp:
1. Move the keyswitch from the on/off two times within
3 seconds.
A flashing YELLOW lamp indicates a 3-digit code for
the engine. The sequence of flashes represents the
system diagnostic message. Count the first sequence
of flashes in order to determine the first digit of the
flash code. After a two second pause, the second
sequence of flashes will identify the second digit of
the flash code. After the second pause, the third
sequence of flashes will identify the flash code.
Any additional flash codes will follow a pause. These
codes will be displayed in the same manner. Flash
Code 551 indicates that No Detected Faults have
occurred since the ignition keyswitch has been turned
to the ON position.
Logged codes represent the following items:
• Intermittent problems
• Recorded events
• Performance history
The problems may have been repaired since the
logging of the code. These codes do not indicate that
a repair is needed. The codes are guides or signals
when a situation exists. Codes may be helpful to
troubleshoot problems.
When the problems have been corrected, the
corresponding logged fault codes should be cleared.
i02651107
Diagnostic Lamp
A diagnostic lamp is used to indicate the existence of
an active fault. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Indicator
Lamps” for more information. A fault diagnostic code
will remain active until the problem is repaired. The
diagnostic code may be retrieved by using the
electronic service tool. Refer to Troubleshooting,
“Electronic Service Tools” for more information.
For further information, assistance for repairs, or
troubleshooting, refer to the Service Manual or
consult your Cat dealer.
Table3 lists the flash codes and the table also gives a
brief description of the flash codes.
Note: Table3 indicates the potential effect on engine
performance with “ACTIVE” flash codes.
Some codes record events. Also, some codes may
also indicate that a mechanical system needs
attention. Troubleshooting is not required for code
“551” . Code 001 will not display a flash code. Some
codes will limit the operation or the performance of
the engine.
Table 3 indicates the potential effect on the engine
performance with active flash codes. Table 3 also
forms a list of Electronic diagnostic codes and
descriptions.
36
Engine Diagnostics
Diagnostic Flash Code Retrieval
SEBU8731
Table 3
Flash Codes for the Industrial Engine(1)
Diagnostic
Flash Code
Effect On Engine Performance(2)
Description
Engine
Misfire
Low Power
Suggested Operator Action
Reduced
Engine
Speed
Engine
Shutdown
Service(3)
111
No. 1 Injector Fault
X
X
X
112
No. 2 Injector Fault
X
X
X
113
No. 3 Injector Fault
X
X
X
114
No. 4 Injector Fault
X
X
X
115
No. 5 Injector Fault
X
X
X
116
No. 6 Injector Fault
X
X
X
133
Intake Manifold Air Tempera- X
ture sensor fault (5)
141
Primary Engine Speed/Timing Sensor Fault(6)
142
Secondary Engine Speed/
Timing Sensor Fault
143
Engine Timing Calibration
Fault
144
Engine Operation Mode Selector Switch Fault
X
X
151
High Air Filter Restriction
X
X
154
Throttle Position Sensor
Fault
X
X
155
Secondary Throttle Position
sensor Fault
X
X
157
Engine Oil Pressure Sensor
Fault
X
X
159
Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor
Fault
X
X
162
Fuel Rail Pressure Valve
Solenoid Fault
X
168
Engine Coolant Temperature
Sensor Faul
169
Low Engine Coolant
177
Turbo Wastegate Actuator
Fault
185
High Exhaust Temperature
X
X
197
Intake Manifold Boost Pressure Fault
X
X
199
Glow Plug Start Relay Fault
X
233
Ether Injection Control
Solenoid
X
245
Idle Validation Switch 1
X
Schedule a
Service.(4)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
(continued)
SEBU8731
37
Engine Diagnostics
Fault Logging
(Table 3, contd)
246
Idle Validation Switch 2
X
253
Engine Fuel Supply Pump
Relay
X
415
Software Mismatch
426
Machine Security Module
429
Ignition Key Switch Fault
511
ECM Power Supply Voltage
Fault
514
SAE J1939 Data Link Fault
516
5 Volt Sensor DC Power
Supply Fault
X
517
8 Volt Sensor DC Power
Supply Fault
X
527
Customer/System Parmeter
Fault
X
X
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
X
X
X
X
X
X
551
(1)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
System check
No faults detected
If warning lamps are installed, refer to this table. For installations that have electronic displays, refer to the OEM for information.
An “X” indicates that the effect on engine performance may occur if the code is active.
The operator should go to the nearest location that has a qualified service program.
Schedule Service: The problem should be investigated when the operator has access to a qualified service program.
These Flash Codes may affect the system under specific environmental conditions such as engine start-up at cold temperature and coldweather operation at high altitudes.
If the primary engine speed/timing sensor fails there is no automatic protection against reverse running. In this event, Stop the engine immediately. Turn the keyswitch to the “OFF” position. In order to check the correct operation of the sensor, refer to Troubleshooting, “Speed/Timing Test”.
i01902949
Fault Logging
The system provides the capability of Fault Logging.
When the Electronic Control Module (ECM)
generates an active diagnostic code, the code will be
logged in the memory of the ECM. The codes that
have been logged by the ECM can be identified by
the electronic service tool. The active codes that have
been logged will be cleared when the fault has been
rectified or the fault is no longer active. The following
logged faults can not be cleared from the memory of
the ECM without using a factory password:
Overspeed, low engine oil pressure and high engine
coolant temperature.
i03554534
Engine Operation with Active
Diagnostic Codes
If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine
operation, the system has identified a situation that is
not within the specification. Use electronic service
tools to check the active diagnostic codes.
Note: If the customer has selected “DERATE” and if
there is a low oil pressure condition, the Electronic
Control Module (ECM) will limit the engine power until
the problem is corrected. If the oil pressure is within
the normal range, the engine may be operated at the
rated speed and load. However, maintenance should
be performed as soon as possible.
The active diagnostic code should be investigated.
The cause of the problem should be corrected as
soon as possible. If the cause of the active diagnostic
code is repaired and there is only one active
diagnostic code, the diagnostic lamp will turn off.
Operation of the engine and performance of the
engine can be limited as a result of the active
diagnostic code that is generated. Acceleration rates
may be significantly slower. Refer to the
Troubleshooting Guide for more information on the
relationship between these active diagnostic codes
and engine performance.
38
Engine Diagnostics
Engine Operation with Intermittent Diagnostic Codes
i01902995
Engine Operation with
Intermittent Diagnostic Codes
If a diagnostic lamp illuminates during normal engine
operation and the diagnostic lamp shuts off, an
intermittent fault may have occurred. If a fault has
occurred, the fault will be logged into the memory of
the Electronic Control Module (ECM).
In most cases, it is not necessary to stop the engine
because of an intermittent code. However, the
operator should retrieve the logged fault codes and
the operator should reference the appropriate
information in order to identify the nature of the event.
The operator should log any observation that could
have caused the lamp to light.
• Low power
• Limits of the engine speed
• Excessive smoke, etc
This information can be useful to help troubleshoot
the situation. The information can also be used for
future reference. For more information on diagnostic
codes, refer to the Troubleshooting Guide for this
engine.
i05299648
Configuration Parameters
The engine electronic control module (ECM) has two
types of configuration parameters. The system
configuration parameters and the customer specified
parameters.
The electronic service tool is required in order to alter
the configuration parameters.
System Configuration Parameters
System configuration parameters affect the emissions
of the engine or the power of the engine. System
configuration parameters are programmed at the
factory. Normally, system configuration parameters
would never require changing through the life of the
engine. System configuration parameters must be
reprogrammed if an ECM is replaced. System
configuration parameters do not require
reprogrammed if the ECM software is changed.
Factory passwords are required to change these
parameters.
SEBU8731
SEBU8731
39
Engine Diagnostics
Configuration Parameters
Table 4
System Configuration Parameters
Configuration Parameters
Record
Engine Serial Number
Rating
Full Load Setting
Full Torque Setting
ECM Software Release Date
Customer Specified Parameters
Customer specified parameters allow the engine to
be configured to the exact needs of the application.
The electronic service tool is required in order to alter
the customer configuration parameters.
Customer parameters may be changed repeatedly as
operational requirements change.
Table 5
Customer Specified Parameters
Specified Parameters
Record
ECM Identification Parameters
ECM Serial Number
Software Group Part Number
Software Group Release Date
Software Group Description
Selected Engine Rating
Rating Number
Speed Control
Low Idle Speed
Engine Configuration Parameters
Ether Solenoid Configuration
Engine Idle Shutdown
Minimum Ambient Air Temperature
Maximum Ambient Air Temperature
Shutdown Enable Status
Shutdown Delay Time
Ambient Temperature Override Enable Status
PTO and Throttle Lock Parameters
Throttle Lock Feature Installation Status
PTO Mode
(continued)
40
Engine Diagnostics
Configuration Parameters
SEBU8731
(Table 5, contd)
Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed 1
Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed 2
Throttle Lock Increment Speed Ramp Rate
Throttle Lock Decrement Speed Ramp Rate
Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed Increment
Throttle Lock Engine Set Speed Decrement
Miscellaneous
Monitoring Mode Shutdowns
Monitoring Mode Derates
Limp Home Desired Engine Speed
Limp Home Engine Speed Ramp Rate
Engine Acceleration Rate
Engine Speed Decelerating Ramp Rate
Intermediate Engine Speed
Fan Control
Engine Fan Control
Engine Fan Type Configuration
Pulley Ratio
Temperature Error Increasing Hysteresis
Temperature Error Decreasing Hysteresis
Current Ramp Rate
Fan Speed (Proportional) Gain Percentage
Fan Speed (Integral) Stability Percentage
Top Fan Speed
Minimum Desired Fan Speed
Solenoid Minimum Current
Solenoid Maximum Current
Solenoid Dither Frequency
Solenoid Dither Amplitude (Peak-to-Peak)
Fan Temperatures
Charge Air Cooler Outlet Temperature Input Enable
Maximum Air Flow Charge Air Cooler Outlet Temperature
Minimum Air Flow Charge Air Cooler Outlet Temperature
Coolant Temperature Input Enable Status
Maximum Air Flow Coolant Temperature
Minimum Air Flow Coolant Temperature
(continued)
SEBU8731
(Table 5, contd)
Transmission Oil Temperature Input Enable Status
Hydraulic Oil Temperature Input Enable Status
Auxiliary #1 Temperature Input Enable Status
Auxiliary #2 Temperature Input Enable Status
Configurable Inputs
Coolant Level Sensor
Air Filter Restriction Switch Installation Status
Air Filter Restriction Switch Configuration
Water in Fuel Switch Installation Status
User Defined Switch Installation Status
Auxiliary Temperature Sensor Installation Status
Auxiliary Pressure Sensor Installation Status
Engine Charge Air Cooler #1 Outlet Temperature Sensor Installation
Status
Engine Oil Level Sensor Installation Status
J1939 Continuous Fault Handling
Remote Torque Speed Control Enable Status
System Settings
System Operating Voltage Configuration
Security Access Parameters
Customer Password #1
Customer Password #2
CAN Communication Protocol Write Security
CAN Communication Protocol Read Security
Total Tattletale
41
Engine Diagnostics
Configuration Parameters
42
SEBU8731
Engine Starting
Before Starting Engine
Engine Starting
i05298520
i02837427
Cold Weather Starting
Before Starting Engine
Perform the required daily maintenance and other
periodic maintenance before the engine is started.
Inspect the engine compartment. This inspection can
help prevent major repairs at a later date. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance
Interval Schedule” for more information.
• Ensure that the engine has an adequate fuel
supply.
• Open the fuel supply valve (if equipped).
NOTICE
All valves in the fuel return line must be open before
and during engine operation to help prevent high fuel
pressure. High fuel pressure may cause filter housing
failure or other damage.
If the engine has not been started for several weeks,
fuel may have drained from the fuel system. Air may
have entered the filter housing. Also, when fuel filters
have been changed, some air pockets will be trapped
in the engine. In these instances, prime the fuel
system. Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for more information
on priming the fuel system.
Engine exhaust contains products of combustion
which may be harmful to your health. Always start
and operate the engine in a well ventilated area
and, if in an enclosed area, vent the exhaust to the
outside.
• Do not start the engine or move any of the controls
if there is a “DO NOT OPERATE” warning tag or
similar warning tag attached to the start switch or
to the controls.
• Reset all of the shutoffs or alarm components.
• Ensure that any driven equipment has been
disengaged. Minimize electrical loads or remove
any electrical loads.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
Startability will be improved at temperatures below
−18 °C (0 °F) from the use of a jacket water heater or
extra battery capacity.
When Group 2 diesel fuel is used, the following items
provide a means of minimizing starting problems and
fuel problems in cold weather: Engine oil pan heaters,
jacket water heaters, fuel heaters and fuel line
insulation.
Use the procedure that follows for cold weather
starting.
Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control during
start-up. The electronic control module (ECM) will
control the engine speed during start-up.
Ensure that the correct oil specification, oil grade, and
the correct fuel are used before starting. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendation”.
1. Disengage any driven equipment.
2. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave the
keyswitch in the RUN position until the warning
light for the glow plugs is extinguished.
NOTICE
Do not engage the starting motor when flywheel is
turning. Do not start the engine under load.
If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release
the starter switch or button and wait two minutes to allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to
start the engine again.
3. When the warning light for the glow plugs is
extinguished, turn the keyswitch to the START
position in order to engage the electric starting
motor and crank the engine.
Note: The operating period of the warning light for the
glow plugs will change due to the temperature of the
engine.
4. Allow the keyswitch to return to the RUN position
after the engine starts.
SEBU8731
43
Engine Starting
Starting the Engine
5. Repeat step 2 through step 4 if the engine fails to
start.
Note: The engine should not be “raced” in order to
speed up the warm-up process.
6. Allow the engine to idle for 3 to 5 minutes, or allow
the engine to idle until the water temperature
indicator begins to rise. When idling after the
engine has started in cold weather, increase the
engine rpm from 1000 to 1200 rpm. This operation
will warm up the engine more quickly. Maintaining
an elevated low idle speed for extended periods
will be easier with the installation of a hand throttle.
Allow the white smoke to disperse before
proceeding with normal operation.
7. Operate the engine at low load until all systems
reach operating temperature. Check the gauges
during the warm-up period.
4. Allow the keyswitch to return to the RUN position
after the engine starts.
5. Repeat step 2 through step 4 if the engine fails to
start.
i03663103
Starting with Jump Start
Cables
Improper jump start cable connections can cause
an explosion resulting in personal injury.
Prevent sparks near the batteries. Sparks could
cause vapors to explode. Do not allow jump start
cable ends to contact each other or the engine.
i05254388
Starting the Engine
Note: Do not adjust the engine speed control during
start-up. The electronic control module (ECM) will
control the engine speed during start-up.
Starting the Engine
1. Disengage any equipment that is driven by the
engine.
2. Turn the keyswitch to the RUN position. Leave the
keyswitch in the RUN position until the warning
light for the glow plugs is extinguished.
Note: If it is possible, first diagnose the reason for the
starting failure. Refer to Troubleshooting, “Engine Will
Not Crank and Engine Cranks But Will Not Start” for
further information. Make any necessary repairs. If
the engine will not start only due to the condition of
the battery, either charge the battery, or start the
engine by using another battery with jump start
cables.
The condition of the battery can be rechecked after
the engine has been switched OFF.
NOTICE
Using a battery source with the same voltage as the
electric starting motor. Use ONLY equal voltage for
jump starting. The use of higher voltage will damage
the electrical system.
3. When the warning light for the glow plugs is
extinguished, turn the keyswitch to the START
position in order to engage the electric starting
motor and crank the engine.
Do not reverse the battery cables. The alternator can
be damaged. Attach ground cable last and remove
first.
Note: The operating period of the warning light for the
glow plugs will change due to the temperature of the
engine.
Ensure that the main power switch is in the OFF position before attaching the jump start cables to the engine being started.
NOTICE
Do not engage the starting motor when flywheel is
turning. Do not start the engine under load.
1. Turn the start switch on the stalled engine to the
OFF position. Turn off all the engine's accessories.
If the engine fails to start within 30 seconds, release
the starter switch or button and wait two minutes to allow the starting motor to cool before attempting to
start the engine again.
2. Connect one positive end of the jump start cable to
the positive cable terminal of the discharged
battery. Connect the other positive end of the jump
start cable to the positive cable terminal of the
electrical source.
Turn all electrical accessories OFF before attaching
the jump start cables.
44
SEBU8731
Engine Starting
After Starting Engine
3. Connect one negative end of the jump start cable
to the negative cable terminal of the electrical
source. Connect the other negative end of the
jump start cable to the engine block or to the
chassis ground. This procedure helps to prevent
potential sparks from igniting the combustible
gases that are produced by some batteries.
Note: The engine ECM must be powered before the
starting motor is operated or damage can occur.
4. Start the engine in the normal operating procedure.
Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Starting the Engine”.
5. Immediately after the engine is started, disconnect
the jump start cables in reverse order.
After jump starting, the alternator may not be able to
fully recharge batteries that are severely discharged.
The batteries must be replaced or charged to the
proper voltage with a battery charger after the engine
is stopped. Many batteries which are considered
unusable are still rechargeable. Refer to Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Battery - Replace” and
Testing and Adjusting Manual, “Battery - Test”.
i02330138
After Starting Engine
Note: In ambient temperatures from 0 to 60°C
(32 to 140°F), the warm-up time is approximately
three minutes. In temperatures below 0°C (32°F),
additional warm-up time may be required.
When the engine idles during warm-up, observe the
following conditions:
Do not check the high pressure fuel lines with the
engine or the starting motor in operation. If you
inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure in order to avoid a fluid
penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
• Check for any fluid or for any air leaks at idle rpm
and at one-half full rpm (no load on the engine)
before operating the engine under load. This is not
possible in some applications.
• Allow the engine to idle for three to five minutes, or
allow the engine to idle until the water temperature
indicator begins to rise. Check all gauges during
the warm-up period.
Note: Gauge readings should be observed and the
data should be recorded frequently while the engine
is operating. Comparing the data over time will help to
determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
45
SEBU8731
Engine Operation
Engine Operation
Engine Operation
• Observe the service indicator frequently. Keep the
air cleaner elements clean.
i01646252
Engine Operation
• Ensure that the turbocharger is operating correctly
so that the proper air/fuel ratio is maintained.
Clean exhaust indicates proper functioning.
• Maintain a good electrical system.
Proper operation and maintenance are key factors in
obtaining the maximum life and economy of the
engine. If the directions in the Operation and
Maintenance Manual are followed, costs can be
minimized and engine service life can be maximized.
The time that is needed for the engine to reach
normal operating temperature can be less than the
time taken for a walk-around inspection of the engine.
The engine can be operated at the rated rpm after the
engine is started and after the engine reaches
operating temperature. The engine will reach normal
operating temperature sooner during a low engine
speed (rpm) and during a low power demand. This
procedure is more effective than idling the engine at
no load. The engine should reach operating
temperature in a few minutes.
Gauge readings should be observed and the data
should be recorded frequently while the engine is
operating. Comparing the data over time will help to
determine normal readings for each gauge.
Comparing data over time will also help detect
abnormal operating developments. Significant
changes in the readings should be investigated.
i05277332
Fuel Conservation Practices
The efficiency of the engine can affect the fuel
economy. Perkins design and technology in
manufacturing provides maximum fuel efficiency in all
applications. Follow the recommended procedures in
order to attain optimum performance for the life of the
engine.
• Avoid spilling fuel.
Fuel expands when the fuel is warmed up. The fuel
may overflow from the fuel tank. Inspect fuel lines for
leaks. Repair the fuel lines, as needed.
• Be aware of the properties of the different fuels.
Use only the recommended fuels. Refer to the
Operations and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel
Recommendations”for further information.
• Avoid unnecessary idling.
Shut off the engine rather than idle for long periods of
time.
One faulty battery cell will overwork the alternator.
This fault will consume excess power and excess
fuel.
• Ensure that the belts are properly adjusted. The
belts should be in good condition. Refer to the
Specifications manual for further information.
• Ensure that all of the connections of the hoses are
tight. The connections should not leak.
• Ensure that the driven equipment is in good
working order.
• Cold engines consume excess fuel. Utilize heat
from the jacket water system and the exhaust
system, when possible. Keep cooling system
components clean and keep cooling system
components in good repair. Never operate the
engine without water temperature regulators. All of
these items will help maintain operating
temperatures.
46
SEBU8731
Cold Weather Operation
Cold Weather Operation
Cold Weather Operation
i05302610
Cold Weather Operation
Perkins Diesel Engines can operate effectively in
cold weather. During cold weather, the starting and
the operation of the diesel engine is dependent on the
following items:
• The type of fuel that is used
• The viscosity of the engine oil
• The operation of the glow plugs
• Optional Cold starting aid
• Battery condition
This section will cover the following information:
• Potential problems that are caused by coldweather operation
• Suggest steps which can be taken in order to
minimize starting problems and operating
problems when the ambient air temperature is
between 0° to−40 °C (32° to 40 °F).
The operation and maintenance of an engine in
freezing temperatures is complex . This complexity is
because of the following conditions:
Hints for Cold Weather Operation
• If the engine will start, operate the engine until a
minimum operating temperature of 80° C (176° F)
is achieved. Achieving operating temperature will
help prevent the intake valves and exhaust valves
from sticking.
• The cooling system and the lubrication system for
the engine do not lose heat immediately upon
shutdown. This means that an engine can be shut
down for a period and the engine can still have the
ability to start readily.
• Install the correct specification of engine lubricant
before the beginning of cold weather. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for the recommended
viscosity of oil.
• Check all rubber parts (hoses, fan drive belts,)
weekly.
• Check all electrical wiring and connections for any
fraying or damaged insulation.
• Keep all batteries fully charged and warm by
ensuring that the engine is allowed to operated at
normal operating temperature.
• Fill the fuel tank at the end of each shift.
• Check the air cleaners and the air intake daily.
Check the air intake more often when you operate
in snow.
• Engine applications
• Ensure that the glow plugs are in working order.
Refer to Troubleshooting, “Glow Plug Starting AidTest”.
Recommendations from your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor are based on past proven
practices. The information that is contained in this
section provides guidelines for cold-weather
operation.
Personal injury or property damage can result
from alcohol or starting fluids.
• Weather conditions
Alcohol or starting fluids are highly flammable
and toxic and if improperly stored could result in
injury or property damage.
Do not use aerosol types of starting aids such as
ether. Such use could result in an explosion and
personal injury.
• For jump starting with cables in cold weather, refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Starting with Jump Start Cables.” for instructions.
47
SEBU8731
Cold Weather Operation
Cold Weather Operation
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication
Oil
Correct engine oil viscosity is essential. Oil viscosity
affects lubrication properties and wear protection that
the oil provides for the engine. Refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”
for the recommended viscosity of oil.
Recommendations for the Coolant
Provide cooling system protection for the lowest
expected outside temperature. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for the recommended coolant
mixture.
In cold weather, check the coolant often for the
correct glycol concentration in order to ensure
adequate freeze protection.
Engine Block Heaters
Engine block heaters (if equipped) heat the engine
jacket water that surrounds the combustion
chambers. This heat provides the following functions:
• Startability is improved.
• Warm up time is reduced.
An electric block heater can be activated once the
engine is stopped. A block heater can be 110 V dc or
240 V dc. The output can be 750/1000W. Consult
your Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor for
more information.
Idling the Engine
When idling after the engine is started in cold
weather, increase the engine rpm from 1000 to 1200
rpm. This idling will warm up the engine more quickly.
Maintaining an elevated low idle speed for extended
periods will be easier with the installation of a hand
throttle. The engine should not be “raced” in order to
speed up the warm-up process.
While the engine is idling, the application of a light
load (parasitic load) will assist in achieving the
minimum operating temperature. The minimum
operating temperature is 80° C (176° F).
Recommendations for Coolant
Warm Up
Warm up an engine that has cooled below normal
operating temperatures due to inactivity. This warm
-up should be performed before the engine is
returned to full operation. During operation in very
cold temperature conditions, damage to engine valve
mechanisms can result from engine operation for
short intervals. This damage can happen if the engine
is started and the engine is stopped many times
without being operated in order to warm up
completely.
When the engine is operated below normal operating
temperatures, fuel and oil are not completely burned
in the combustion chamber. This fuel and oil causes
soft carbon deposits to form on the valve stems.
Generally, the deposits do not cause problems and
the deposits are burned off during operation at normal
engine operating temperatures.
When starting and stopping an engine many times
without being operated in order to warm up
completely, the carbon deposits become thicker. This
starting and stopping can cause the following
problems:
• Free operation of the valves is prevented.
• Valves become stuck.
• Pushrods may become bent.
• Other damage to valve train components can
result.
For this reason, when the engine is started, the
engine must be operated until the coolant
temperature is 80° C (176° F) minimum. Carbon
deposits on the valve stems will be kept at a minimum
and the free operation of the valves and the valve
components will be maintained.
The engine must be thoroughly warmed in order to
keep other engine parts in better condition. The
service life of the engine will be generally extended.
Lubrication will be improved. There will be less acid
and less sludge in the oil. This condition will provide
longer service life for the engine bearings, the piston
rings, and other parts. However, limit unnecessary
idle time to 10 minutes in order to reduce wear and
unnecessary fuel consumption.
The Water Temperature Regulator and
Insulated Heater Lines
The engine is equipped with a water temperature
regulator. When the engine coolant is below the
correct operating temperature, jacket water circulates
through the engine cylinder block and into the engine
cylinder head. The coolant then returns to the cylinder
block via an internal passage that bypasses the valve
of the coolant temperature regulator. This return
ensures that coolant flows around the engine under
cold operating conditions. The water temperature
regulator begins to open when the engine jacket
water has reached the correct minimum operating
temperature. As the jacket water coolant temperature
rises above the minimum operating temperature, the
water temperature regulator opens further allowing
more coolant through the radiator to dissipate excess
heat.
The progressive opening of the water temperature
regulator operates the progressive closing of the
bypass passage between the cylinder block and
head. This action ensures maximum coolant flow to
the radiator in order to achieve maximum heat
dissipation.
48
SEBU8731
Cold Weather Operation
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather
Note: Do not restrict the air flow. Restriction of the air
flow can damage the fuel system. Perkins
discourages the use of all air flow restriction devices
such as radiator shutters. Restriction of the air flow
can result in the following: high exhaust
temperatures, power loss, excessive fan usage and
reduction in fuel economy.
A cab heater is beneficial in very cold weather. The
feed from the engine and the return lines from the cab
should be insulated in order to reduce heat loss to the
outside air.
Recommendation for Crankcase Breather
Protection
Crankcase ventilation gases contain a large quantity
of water vapor. This water vapor can freeze in cold
ambient conditions and can plug or damage the
crankcase ventilation system. If the engine is
operated in temperatures below −25° C (−13° F),
measures must be taken to prevent freezing and
plugging of the breather system. An open breather
system will operate more effectively in temperatures
below −25° C (−13° F). In extreme weather
conditions insulating the breather hose will help to
protect the system.
Consult with your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributer for the recommended breather
components for operation from −25° to -40°C
(−13° to -72.°F).
Be aware of these facts when diesel fuel is
purchased. Consider the average ambient air
temperature for the engine's application. Engines that
are fueled in one climate may not operate well if the
engines are moved to another climate. Problems can
result due to changes in temperature.
Before troubleshooting for low power or for poor
performance in the winter, check the fuel for waxing.
Low temperature fuels may be available for engine
operation at temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F). These
fuels limit the formation of wax in the fuel at low
temperatures.
For more information on cold weather operation, refer
to the Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Cold
Weather Operation and Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather”.
i02323237
Fuel Related Components in
Cold Weather
Fuel Tanks
Condensation can form in partially filled fuel tanks.
Top off the fuel tanks after you operate the engine.
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and sediment from the bottom of the tanks.
i02685960
Fuel and the Effect from Cold
Weather
Note: Only use grades of fuel that are recommended
by Perkins . Refer to this Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.
The following components provide a means of
minimizing problems in cold weather:
• Glow plugs (if equipped)
• Engine coolant heaters, which may be an OEM
option
• Fuel heaters, which may be an OEM option
• Fuel line insulation, which may be an OEM option
The cloud point is a temperature that allows wax
crystals to form in the fuel. These crystals can cause
the fuel filters to plug.
The pour point is the temperature when diesel fuel will
thicken. The diesel fuel becomes more resistant to
flow through fuel lines, fuel filters,and fuel pumps.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe.
Some fuel tanks use supply lines that take fuel
directly from the bottom of the tank. If the engine is
equipped with this system, regular maintenance of
the fuel system filter is important.
Drain the water and sediment from any fuel storage
tank at the following intervals: weekly, service
intervals and refueling of the fuel tank. This will help
prevent water and/or sediment from being pumped
from the fuel storage tank and into the engine fuel
tank.
Fuel Filters
A primary fuel filter is installed between the fuel tank
and the engine fuel inlet. After you change the fuel
filter, always prime the fuel system in order to remove
air bubbles from the fuel system. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual in the
Maintenance Section for more information on priming
the fuel system.
The location of a primary fuel filter is important in cold
weather operation. The primary fuel filter and the fuel
supply line are the most common components that
are affected by cold fuel.
SEBU8731
49
Cold Weather Operation
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather
Fuel Heaters
Note: The OEM may equip the application with fuel
heaters. If this is the case, the temperature of the fuel
must not exceed 73 °C (163 °F) at the fuel transfer
pump.
For more information about fuel heaters (if equipped),
refer to the OEM information.
50
SEBU8731
Engine Stopping
Stopping the Engine
Engine Stopping
Emergency Stop Button
i05298681
Stopping the Engine
NOTICE
Stopping the engine immediately after it has been
working under load, can result in overheating and accelerated wear of the engine components.
Avoid accelerating the engine prior to shutting it
down.
Avoiding hot engine shutdowns will maximize turbocharger shaft and bearing life.
Note: Individual applications will have different
control systems. Ensure that the shutoff procedures
are understood. Use the following general guidelines
in order to stop the engine.
1. Remove the load from the engine. Reduce the
engine speed to low idle. Allow the engine to idle
for 5 minutes in order to cool the engine.
Illustration 29
g00104303
Typical emergency stop button
The emergency stop button is in the OUT position for
normal engine operation. Push the emergency stop
button. The engine will not start when the button is
locked. Turn the button clockwise in order to reset.
Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Features and Controls” for the location and the
operation of the emergency stop button.
i05298684
2. Stop the engine after the cool down period
according to the shutoff system on the engine and
turn the ignition keyswitch to the OFF position. If
necessary, refer to the instructions that are
provided by the OEM.
3. Allow at least 2 minutes after shutting down the
engine before you turn the battery disconnect
switch to OFF. Disconnecting the battery power too
soon will prevent purging of the diesel exhaust fluid
lines after the engine is shut down.
i03554860
Emergency Stopping
NOTICE
Emergency shutoff controls are for EMERGENCY
use ONLY. DO NOT use emergency shutoff devices
or controls for normal stopping procedure.
Ensure that any components for the external system
that support the engine operation are secured after
the engine is stopped.
After Stopping Engine
Note: Before you check the engine oil, do not operate
the engine for at least 10 minutes in order to allow the
engine oil to return to the oil pan.
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
NOTICE
The low-pressure fuel system can be pressurized for
a time period after the engine has stopped operating.
The operating pressure of the low-pressure fuel system can be 500 kPa (73 psi). The secondary fuel filters should be drained before any maintenance of the
low-pressure fuel system is carried out.
SEBU8731
51
Engine Stopping
After Stopping Engine
• After the engine has stopped, wait for 60 seconds
in order to allow the fuel pressure to be purged
from the high-pressure fuel lines before any
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel
lines. If necessary, perform minor adjustments.
Repair any leaks from the low-pressure fuel
system and from the cooling, lubrication, or air
systems. Replace any high-pressure fuel line that
has leaked. Refer to Disassembly and assembly
Manual, “Fuel Injection Lines - Install”.
• Check the crankcase oil level. Maintain the oil level
between the “MIN” mark and the “MAX” mark on
the engine oil level gauge.
• If the engine is equipped with a service hour meter,
note the reading. Perform the maintenance that is
in the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Maintenance Interval Schedule”.
• Fill the fuel tank, in order to help prevent
accumulation of moisture in the fuel. Do not overfill
the fuel tank.
NOTICE
Only use antifreeze/coolant mixtures recommended
in this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill Capacities and Recommendations” topic or in this Operation
and
Maintenance
Manual,
“Fluid
Recommendations” topic. Failure to do so can cause
engine damage.
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
• Allow the engine to cool. Check the coolant level.
• Check the coolant for correct antifreeze protection
and the correct corrosion protection. Add the
correct coolant/water mixture, if necessary.
• Perform all required periodic maintenance on all
driven equipment. This maintenance is outlined in
the instructions from the OEM.
52
SEBU8731
Maintenance Section
Refill Capacities
Maintenance Section
NOTICE
If the engine is to be stored in, or shipped to an area
with below freezing temperatures, the cooling system
must be either protected to the lowest outside temperature or drained completely to prevent damage.
Refill Capacities
i05259518
Refill Capacities
NOTICE
Frequently check the specific gravity of the coolant for
proper freeze protection or for anti-boil protection.
Lubricating Oil
Clean the cooling system for the following reasons:
Table 6
• Contamination of the cooling system
Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Crankcase Oil Sump(1)
(1)
• Overheating of the engine
Minimum
Maximum
13.5 L (14 qt)
16.5 L
(17.5 qt)
These values are the approximate capacities for the crankcase
oil sump (aluminum) which includes the standard factory installed oil filters. Engines with auxiliary oil filters will require additional oil. Refer to the OEM specifications for the capacity of the
auxiliary oil filter.
• Foaming of the coolant
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
proper operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature
regulators.
Coolant
Many engine failures are related to the cooling
system. The following problems are related to cooling
system failures: Overheating, leakage of the water
pump and plugged radiators or heat exchangers.
Table 7
Engine
Refill Capacities
Compartment or System
Engine Only
Liters
9.5 L (10 qt)
External System Per OEM(1)
(1)
The External System includes a radiator or an expansion tank
with the following components: heat exchanger and piping. Refer to the OEM specifications. Enter the value for the capacity of
the External System in this row.
Fuel
These failures can be avoided with correct cooling
system maintenance. Cooling system maintenance is
as important as maintenance of the fuel system and
the lubrication system. Quality of the coolant is as
important as the quality of the fuel and the lubricating
oil.
Coolant is normally composed of three elements:
Water, additives and glycol.
Water
Refer to the original equipment manufactory for
information on the capacity of the fuel tank.
i05271102
Fluid Recommendations
General Coolant Information
NOTICE
Never add coolant to an overheated engine. Engine
damage could result. Allow the engine to cool first.
Water is used in the cooling system in order to
transfer heat.
Distilled water or deionized water is
recommended for use in engine cooling systems.
DO NOT use the following types of water in cooling
systems: Hard water, softened water that has been
conditioned with salt and sea water.
If distilled water or deionized water is not available,
use water with the properties that are listed in Table 8
.
SEBU8731
53
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
• Boiling
Table 8
Acceptable Water
Property
Maximum Limit
Chloride (Cl)
40 mg/L
Sulfate (SO4)
100 mg/L
Total Hardness
170 mg/L
Total Solids
340 mg/L
Acidity
pH of 5.5 to 9.0
For a water analysis, consult one of the following
sources:
• Local water utility company
• Agricultural agent
• Freezing
• Cavitation of the water pump
For optimum performance, Perkins recommends a
1:1 mixture of a water/glycol solution.
Note: Use a mixture that will provide protection
against the lowest ambient temperature.
Note: 100 percent pure glycol will freeze at a
temperature of −13 °C (8.6 °F).
Most conventional antifreezes use ethylene glycol.
Propylene glycol may also be used. In a 1:1 mixture
with water, ethylene and propylene glycol provide
similar protection against freezing and boiling. Refer
to Table 9 and refer to table 10 .
Table 9
• Independent laboratory
Additives
Additives help to protect the metal surfaces of the
cooling system. A lack of coolant additives or
insufficient amounts of additives enable the following
conditions to occur:
• Corrosion
• Formation of mineral deposits
• Rust
Ethylene Glycol
Concentration
Freeze Protection
50 Percent
−36 °C (−33 °F)
60 Percent
−51 °C (−60 °F)
NOTICE
Do not use propylene glycol in concentrations that exceed 50 percent glycol because of the reduced heat
transfer capability of propylene glycol. Use ethylene
glycol in conditions that require additional protection
against boiling or freezing.
• Scale
Table 10
• Foaming of the coolant
Many additives are depleted during engine operation.
These additives must be replaced periodically.
Additives must be added at the correct concentration.
Over concentration of additives can cause the
inhibitors to drop out-of-solution. The deposits can
enable the following problems to occur:
• Formation of gel compounds
• Reduction of heat transfer
• Leakage of the water pump seal
• Plugging of radiators, coolers, and small passages
Glycol
Glycol in the coolant helps to provide protection
against the following conditions:
Propylene Glycol
Concentration
Freeze Protection
50 Percent
−29 °C (−20 °F)
To check the concentration of glycol in the coolant,
measure the specific gravity of the coolant.
Coolant Recommendations
• ELC
Extended Life Coolant
• SCA
Supplement Coolant Additive
• ASTM
Materials
American Society for Testing and
The following two coolants are used in Perkins
diesel engines:
Preferred – Perkins ELC
Acceptable – A commercial heavy-duty antifreeze
that meets ASTM D6210 specifications
54
SEBU8731
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
NOTICE
The 1200 series industrial engines must be operated with a 1:1 mixture of water and glycol. This
concentration allows the NOx reduction system to
operate correctly at high ambient temperatures.
NOTICE
Do not use a commercial coolant/antifreeze that only
meets the ASTM D3306 specification. This type of
coolant/antifreeze is made for light automotive
applications.
Perkins recommends a 1:1 mixture of water and
glycol. This mixture of water and glycol will provide
optimum heavy-duty performance as an antifreeze.
This ratio may be increased to 1:2 water to glycol if
extra freezing protection is required.
A mixture of SCA inhibitor and water is acceptable
but will not give the same level of corrosion, boiling
and, freezing protection as ELC. Perkins
recommends a 6 percent to 8 percent concentration
of SCA in those cooling systems. Distilled water or
deionized water is preferred. Water which has the
recommended properties may be used.
Table 11
Coolant Service Life
Coolant Type
Service Life (1)
Perkins ELC
6,000 Service Hours or Three
Years
ELC is available in a premixed cooling solution with
distilled water. ELC is a 1:1 mixture. The Premixed
ELC provides freeze protection to −36 °C (−33 °F).
The Premixed ELC is recommended for the initial fill
of the cooling system. The Premixed ELC is also
recommended for topping off the cooling system.
Containers of several sizes are available. Consult
your Perkins distributor for the part numbers.
ELC Cooling System Maintenance
Correct additions to the Extended Life
Coolant
NOTICE
Use only Perkins products for pre-mixed or concentrated coolants.
Mixing Extended Life Coolant with other products reduces the Extended Life Coolant service life. Failure
to follow the recommendations can reduce cooling
system components life unless appropriate corrective
action is performed.
In order to maintain the correct balance between the
antifreeze and the additives, you must maintain the
recommended concentration of ELC. Lowering the
proportion of antifreeze lowers the proportion of
additive. This will lower the ability of the coolant to
protect the system from pitting, from cavitation, from
erosion, and from deposits.
Commercial Heavy-Duty Antifreeze that meets ASTM
D6210
3000 Service Hours or Two Year
NOTICE
Do not use a conventional coolant to top-off a cooling
system that is filled with Extended Life Coolant (ELC).
Commercial SCA inhibitor and
Water
3000 Service Hours or One Year
Do not use standard supplemental coolant additive
(SCA).
(1)
Use the interval that occurs first. The cooling system must also
be flushed out at this time.
When using Perkins ELC, do not use standard SCA's
or SCA filters.
ELC
Perkins provides ELC for use in the following
applications:
• Heavy-duty spark ignited gas engines
• Heavy-duty diesel engines
• Automotive applications
The anti-corrosion package for ELC is different from
the anti-corrosion package for other coolants. ELC is
an ethylene glycol base coolant. However, ELC
contains organic corrosion inhibitors and antifoam
agents with low amounts of nitrite. Perkins ELC has
been formulated with the correct amount of these
additives in order to provide superior corrosion
protection for all metals in engine cooling systems.
ELC Cooling System Cleaning
Note: If the cooling system is already using ELC,
cleaning agents are not required to be used at the
specified coolant change interval. Cleaning agents
are only required if the system has been
contaminated by the addition of some other type of
coolant or by cooling system damage.
Clean water is the only cleaning agent that is required
when ELC is drained from the cooling system.
55
SEBU8731
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Before the cooling system is filled, the heater control
(if equipped) must be set to the HOT position. Refer
to the OEM in order to set the heater control. After the
cooling system is drained and the cooling system is
refilled, operate the engine until the coolant level
reaches the normal operating temperature and until
the coolant level stabilizes. As needed, add the
coolant mixture in order to fill the system to the
specified level.
Changing to Perkins ELC
To change from heavy-duty antifreeze to the Perkins
ELC, perform the following steps:
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that all fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and the repair of the
product. Be prepared to collect the fluid with suitable
containers before opening any compartment or disassembling any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
1. Drain the coolant into a suitable container.
2. Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations.
3. Flush the system with clean water in order to
remove any debris.
4. Use an appropriate cleaner to clean the system.
Follow the instruction on the label.
5. Drain the cleaner into a suitable container. Flush
the cooling system with clean water.
6. Fill the cooling system with clean water and
operate the engine until the engine is warmed to
49° to 66°C (120° to 150°F).
NOTICE
Incorrect or incomplete flushing of the cooling system
can result in damage to copper and other metal
components.
To avoid damage to the cooling system, make sure to
completely flush the cooling system with clear water.
Continue to flush the system until all the signs of the
cleaning agent are gone.
7. Drain the cooling system into a suitable container
and flush the cooling system with clean water.
Note: The cooling system cleaner must be thoroughly
flushed from the cooling system. Cooling system
cleaner that is left in the system will contaminate the
coolant. The cleaner may also corrode the cooling
system.
8. Repeat Steps 6 and repeat steps 7 until the system
is completely clean.
9. Fill the cooling system with the Perkins Premixed
ELC.
ELC Cooling System Contamination
NOTICE
Mixing ELC with other products reduces the effectiveness of the ELC and shortens the ELC service life.
Use only Perkins Products for premixed or concentrate coolants. Failure to follow these recommendations can result in shortened cooling system
component life.
ELC cooling systems can withstand contamination to
a maximum of 10 percent of conventional heavy-duty
antifreeze or SCA. If the contamination exceeds 10
percent of the total system capacity, perform ONE of
the following procedures:
• Drain the cooling system into a suitable container.
Dispose of the coolant according to local
regulations. Flush the system with clean water. Fill
the system with the Perkins ELC.
• Drain a portion of the cooling system into a
suitable container according to local regulations.
Then, fill the cooling system with premixed ELC.
This procedure should lower the contamination to
less than 10 percent.
• Maintain the system as a conventional Heavy-Duty
Coolant. Treat the system with an SCA. Change
the coolant at the interval that is recommended for
the conventional Heavy-Duty Coolant.
Commercial Heavy-Duty Antifreeze and
SCA
NOTICE
Commercial Heavy-Duty Coolant which contains
Amine as part of the corrosion protection system
must not be used.
56
SEBU8731
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
NOTICE
Never operate an engine without water temperature
regulators in the cooling system. Water temperature
regulators help to maintain the engine coolant at the
correct operating temperature. Cooling system problems can develop without water temperature
regulators.
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.
The size of the cooling system determines the
amount of SCA that is needed.
Use the equation that is in Table 14 to determine the
amount of SCA that is required, if necessary:
Table 14
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty Coolant For
Maintenance
Check the antifreeze (glycol concentration) in order to
ensure adequate protection against boiling or
freezing. Perkins recommends the use of a
refractometer for checking the glycol concentration. A
hydrometer should not be used.
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
Perkins engine cooling systems should be tested at
500 hour intervals for the concentration of SCA.
Table 15 is an example for using the equation that is
in Table 14 .
Additions of SCA are based on the results of the test.
An SCA that is liquid may be needed at 500 hour
intervals.
Adding the SCA to Heavy-Duty Coolant at
the Initial Fill
Use the equation that is in Table 12 to determine the
amount of SCA that is required when the cooling
system is initially filled.
Table 12
Equation For Adding The SCA To The Heavy-Duty Coolant At
The Initial Fill
V × 0.045 = X
V is the total volume of the cooling system.
V × 0.014 = X
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Table 15
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To The HeavyDuty Coolant For Maintenance
Total Volume of the
Cooling System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of SCA
that is Required (X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.014
0.2 L (7 oz)
Cleaning the System of Heavy-Duty
Antifreeze
• Clean the cooling system after used coolant is
drained or before the cooling system is filled with
new coolant.
• Clean the cooling system whenever the coolant is
contaminated or whenever the coolant is foaming.
X is the amount of SCA that is required.
Table 13 is an example for using the equation that is
in Table 12 .
Table 13
Example Of The Equation For Adding The SCA To The HeavyDuty Coolant At The Initial Fill
Total Volume of the
Cooling System (V)
Multiplication
Factor
Amount of SCA
that is Required (X)
15 L (4 US gal)
× 0.045
0.7 L (24 oz)
Adding The SCA to The Heavy-Duty
Coolant For Maintenance
Heavy-duty antifreeze of all types REQUIRE periodic
additions of an SCA.
Test the antifreeze periodically for the concentration
of SCA. For the interval, refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Maintenance Interval
Schedule” (Maintenance Section). Cooling System
Supplemental Coolant Additive (SCA) Test/Add.
i05256713
Fluid Recommendations
(Engine Oil Specification)
General Lubricant Information
Because of government regulations regarding the
certification of exhaust emissions from the engine, the
lubricant recommendations must be followed.
• API
American Petroleum Institute
• SAE
Society Of Automotive Engineers Inc.
• ECF
Engine Crankcase Fluid
57
SEBU8731
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Licensing
The Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System
by the American Petroleum Institute (API) is
recognized by Perkins . For detailed information
about this system, see the latest edition of the API
publication No. 1509. Engine oils that bear the API
symbol are authorized by API.
Illustration 30
g03360267
Typical API symbol
Terminology
Certain abbreviations follow the nomenclature of SAE
J754. Some classifications follow SAE J183
abbreviations, and some classifications follow the
EMA Recommended Guideline on Diesel Engine Oil.
In addition to Perkins definitions, there are other
definitions that will be of assistance in purchasing
lubricants. Recommended oil viscosities can be
found in this publication, “Fluid Recommendations/
Engine Oil Specification” topic (Maintenance
Section).
Engine Oil
Commercial Oils
NOTICE
Perkins require the use of the following specification of engine oil. Failure to use the appropriate
specification of engine oil will reduce the life of
your engine.
Table 16
Minimum Oil Specification for 1106C-E70TA and 1106D-E70TA Industrial Engines
Power Range
Below 168 kW (225.288 hp)
168 kW (225.288 hp) and Above
Minimum Oil specification
API CH-4
ECF 1
API CI-4
ECF-2
Engines Operating on B20 Biodiesel
Refer to this Manual Fluid Recommendations, “Fuel
Specification” for the required service interval for
operating with B20.
58
SEBU8731
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Engines Operating on High Sulfur Fuel
Aftermarket Oil Additives
Refer to this Manual Fluid Recommendations, “Fuel
Specification” for the required service interval for
operating with high sulfur fuel.
Perkins does not recommend the use of aftermarket
additives in oil. It is not necessary to use aftermarket
additives in order to achieve the engines maximum
service life or rated performance. Fully formulated,
finished oils consist of base oils and of commercial
additive packages. These additive packages are
blended into the base oils at precise percentages in
order to help provide finished oils with performance
characteristics that meet industry standards.
Lubricant Viscosity Recommendations
for Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engines
The correct SAE viscosity grade of oil is determined
by the minimum ambient temperature during cold
engine start-up, and the maximum ambient
temperature during engine operation.
Refer to illustration 31 (minimum temperature) in
order to determine the required oil viscosity for
starting a cold engine.
Refer to illustration 31 (maximum temperature) in
order to select the oil viscosity for engine operation at
the highest ambient temperature that is anticipated.
Generally, use the highest oil viscosity that is
available to meet the requirement for the temperature
at start-up.
There are no industry standard tests that evaluate the
performance or the compatibility of aftermarket
additives in finished oil. Aftermarket additives may not
be compatible with the finished oils additive package,
which could lower the performance of the finished oil.
The aftermarket additive could fail to mix with the
finished oil. This failure could produce sludge in the
crankcase. Perkins discourages the use of
aftermarket additives in finished oils.
To achieve the best performance from a Perkins
engine, conform to the following guidelines:
• See the appropriate “Lubricant Viscosities”. Refer
to the illustration 31 in order to find the correct oil
viscosity grade for your engine.
• At the specified interval, service the engine. Use
new oil and install a new oil filter.
• Perform maintenance at the intervals that are
specified in the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Maintenance Interval Schedule or Fluid
Recommendations Fuel Specification”.
Oil analysis
Some engines may be equipped with an oil sampling
valve. If oil analysis is required, the oil sampling valve
is used to obtain samples of the engine oil. The oil
analysis will complement the preventive maintenance
program.
Illustration 31
g03347115
Lubricant Viscosities
Supplemental heat is recommended for cold soaked
starts below the minimum ambient temperature.
Supplemental heat may be required for cold soaked
starts that are above the minimum temperature that is
stated, depending on the parasitic load and other
factors. Cold soaked starts occur when the engine
has not been operated for a period of time. This
interval will allow the oil to become more viscous due
to cooler ambient temperatures.
The oil analysis is a diagnostic tool that is used to
determine oil performance and component wear
rates. Contamination can be identified and measured
by using oil analysis. The oil analysis includes the
following tests:
SEBU8731
59
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
• The Wear Rate Analysis monitors the wear of the
engines metals. The amount of wear metal and
type of wear metal that is in the oil is analyzed. The
increase in the rate of engine wear metal in the oil
is as important as the quantity of engine wear
metal in the oil.
• Tests are conducted in order to detect
contamination of the oil by water, glycol, or fuel.
• The Oil Condition Analysis determines the loss of
the oils lubricating properties. An infrared analysis
is used to compare the properties of new oil to the
properties of the used oil sample. This analysis
allows technicians to determine the amount of
deterioration of the oil during use. This analysis
also allows technicians to verify the performance
of the oil according to the specification during the
entire oil change interval.
i05253328
Fluid Recommendations
(Fuel Specification)
• Glossary
• ISO International Standards Organization
• ASTM
Materials
American Society for Testing and
• HFRR
High Frequency Reciprocating Rig
for Lubricity testing of diesel fuels
• FAME
Fatty Acid Methyl Esters
• CFR
Co-ordinating Fuel Research
• RME
Rape Methyl Ester
• SME
Soy Methyl Ester
• EPA
Environmental Protection Agency of
the United States
• PPM
Parts Per Million
General Information
NOTICE
Every attempt is made to provide accurate, up-to-date
information. By use of this document you agree that
Perkins Engines Company Limited is not responsible
for errors or omissions.
NOTICE
These recommendations are subject to change without notice. Contact your local Perkins distributor for
the most up-to-date recommendations.
Diesel Fuel Requirements
Perkins is not in a position to continuously evaluate
and monitor all worldwide distillate diesel fuel
specifications that are published by governments and
technological societies.
The Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel
provides a known reliable baseline in order to judge
the expected performance of distillate diesel fuels that
are derived from conventional sources.
Satisfactory engine performance is dependent on the
use of a good quality fuel. The use of a good quality
fuel will give the following results: long engine life and
acceptable exhaust emissions levels . The fuel must
meet the minimum requirements that are stated in the
table 17 .
NOTICE
The footnotes are of the key part Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel Table. Read ALL of the
footnotes.
60
SEBU8731
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Table 17
Perkins Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel(1)
Property
UNITS
Requirements
ASTMTest
ISOTest
Aromatics
%Volume
35% maximum
D1319
ISO3837
Ash
%Weight
0.01% maximum
D482
ISO6245
Carbon Residue on 10%
Bottoms
%Weight
0.35% maximum
D524
ISO4262
Cetane Number (2)
-
40 minimum
D613/D6890
ISO5165
Cloud Point
°C
The cloud point must not ex- D2500
ceed the lowest expected
ambient temperature.
ISO3015
Copper Strip Corrosion
-
No. 3 maximum
D130
ISO2160
Density at 15 °C (59 °F)(3) Kg / M 3
801 minimum and 876
maximum
No equivalent test
ISO 3675ISO 12185
Distillation
10% at 282 °C (539.6 °F)
maximum
D86
ISO3405
D93
ISO2719
°C
90% at 360 °C (680 °F)
maximum
Flash Point
°C
legal limit
Thermal Stability
-
Minimum of 80% reflectance D6468
after aging for 180 minutes
at 150 °C (302 °F)
No equivalent test
Pour Point
°C
6 °C (42.8 °F) minimum be- D97
low ambient temperature
ISO3016
Sulfur (1)
%mass
Legal limit or up to 1% maxi- D5453 or D26222
mum in unregulated
regions.
ISO 20846 or ISO 20884
Kinematic Viscosity (4)
“MM”2“/S (cSt)”
The viscosity of the fuel that D445
is delivered to the fuel injection pump. “1.4 minimum/
4.5 maximum”
ISO3405
Water and sediment
% (VV)
0.05% maximum
D1796
ISO3734
Water
%
0.05% maximum
D1744
No equivalent test
Sediment
%
0.05% maximum
D473
ISO3735
Gums and Resins (5)
mg/100mL
10 mg per 100 mL
maximum
D381
ISO6246
Lubricity corrected wear
scar diameter at 60 °C
(140 °F). (6)
mm
0.52 maximum
D6079
ISO12156-1
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
Regional regulations, national regulations, or international regulations can require a fuel with a specific sulfur limit. Consult all applicable regulations before selecting a fuel for a given engine application. Perkins fuel systems and engine components can operate on high sulphur fuels.
Fuel sulfur levels affect exhaust emissions. High sulfur fuels also increase the potential for corrosion of internal components. Fuel sulfur levels
above 0.05% may significantly shorten the oil change interval. For additional information, refer to this manual, Sulfur section, and service interval with high sulphur fuel.
A minimum 45 cetane number is recommended for operations in cold weather below 0° C (32° F)ambient and high altitude.
“Via standards tables, the equivalent API gravity for the minimum density of 801 kg / m3 (kilograms per cubic meter) is 45 and for the maximum
density of 876 kg / m3 is 30”.
The values of the fuel viscosity are the values as the fuel is delivered to the fuel injection pumps. Fuel should also meet the minimum viscosity
requirement and the fuel should meet the maximum viscosity requirements at 40°C (104°F) of either the ASTM D445 test method or the ISO
3104 test method. If a fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of the fuel may be required to maintain “1.4 cSt”or greater viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with a high viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to lower the viscosity to “1.4 cSt” at the fuel injection pump.
Follow the test conditions and procedures for gasoline (motor).
Refer to the lubricity section within this Fuel Recommendation Section.
SEBU8731
61
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Engines that are manufactured by Perkins are
certified with the fuel that is prescribed by the
appropriate regulatory agency. Engines that are
manufactured by Perkins are certified with the fuel
that is prescribed by the European Certification.
Perkins does not certify diesel engines on any other
fuel.
Note: The owner and the operator of the engine has
responsibility of using the fuel that is prescribed by
the EPA and other appropriate regulatory agencies.
NOTICE
Operating with fuels that do not meet the Perkins
recommendations can cause the following effects:
Starting difficulty, reduced fuel filter service life, poor
combustion, deposits in the fuel injectors, significantly
reduce service life of the fuel system, deposits in the
combustion chamber and reduced service life of the
engine.
Diesel Fuel Characteristics
Cetane Number
Fuel that has a high cetane number will give a shorter
ignition delay. A high cetane number will produce a
better ignition quality. Cetane numbers are derived for
fuels against proportions of cetane and
heptamethylnonane in the standard CFR engine.
Refer to ISO 5165 for the test method.
Cetane numbers in excess of 45 are normally
expected from current diesel fuel. However, a cetane
number of 40 may be experienced in some territories.
The United States of America is one of the territories
that can have a low cetane value. A minimum cetane
value of 40 is required during average starting
conditions. A fuel with higher cetane number is
recommended for operations at high altitudes or in
cold-weather operations.
The viscosity of the fuel is significant because fuel
serves as a lubricant for the fuel system components.
Fuel must have sufficient viscosity in order to
lubricate the fuel system in both extremely cold
temperatures and extremely hot temperatures . If the
kinematic viscosity of the fuel is lower than “1.4 cSt”
at the fuel injection pump, damage to the fuel injection
pump can occur. This damage can be excessive
scuffing and seizure. Low viscosity may lead to
difficult hot restarting, stalling, and loss of
performance. High viscosity may result in seizure of
the pump.
Perkins recommends kinematic viscosities of 1.4
and 4.5 mm2/sec that is delivered to the fuel injection
pump. If a fuel with a low viscosity is used, cooling of
the fuel may be required to maintain 1.4 cSt or
greater viscosity at the fuel injection pump. Fuels with
a high viscosity might require fuel heaters in order to
lower the viscosity to 4.5 cSt at the fuel injection
pump.
Density
Density is the mass of the fuel per unit volume at a
specific temperature. This parameter has a direct
influence on engine performance and a direct
influence on emissions. This influence determines
from a heat output given injected volume of fuel. This
parameter is quoted in the following kg/m3 at 15 °C
(59 °F).
Perkins recommends a density of 841 kg/m 3 in order
to obtain the correct power output. Lighter fuels are
acceptable but these fuels will not produce the rated
power.
Sulfur
Fuel with a low cetane number can be the root cause
of problems during a cold start.
The level of sulfur is governed by emissions
legislations. Regional regulation, national regulations,
or international regulations can require a fuel with a
specific sulfur limit. The sulfur content of the fuel and
the fuel quality must comply with all existing local
regulations for emissions.
Viscosity
Lubricity
Viscosity is the property of a liquid of offering
resistance to shear or flow. Viscosity decreases with
increasing temperature. This decrease in viscosity
follows a logarithmic relationship for normal fossil
fuel. The common reference is to kinematic viscosity.
Kinematic viscosity is the quotient of the dynamic
viscosity that is divided by the density. The
determination of kinematic viscosity is normally by
readings from gravity flow viscometers at standard
temperatures. Refer to ISO 3104 for the test method.
Lubricity is the capability of the fuel to prevent pump
wear. The fluids lubricity describes the ability of the
fluid to reduce the friction between surfaces that are
under load. This ability reduces the damage that is
caused by friction. Fuel injection systems rely on the
lubricating properties of the fuel. Until fuel sulfur limits
were mandated, the fuels lubricity was generally
believed to be a function of fuel viscosity.
The lubricity has particular significance to the current
low sulfur fuel, and low aromatic fossil fuels. These
fuels are made in order to meet stringent exhaust
emissions.
62
SEBU8731
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
The lubricity of these fuels must not exceed wear scar
diameter of 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch). The fuel lubricity
test must be performed on an HFRR, operated at
60 °C (140 °F). Refer to ISO 12156-1.
NOTICE
The fuels system has been qualified with fuel having
lubricity up to 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch) wear scar diameter as tested by ISO 12156-1. Fuel with higher wear
scar diameter than 0.52 mm (0.0205 inch) will lead to
reduced service life and premature failure of the fuel
system.
Fuel additives can enhance the lubricity of a fuel.
Contact your fuel supplier for those circumstances
when fuel additives are required. Your fuel supplier
can make recommendations for additives to use, and
for the proper level of treatment.
Group 3 Biodiesel Fuel
Recommendation for Biodiesel
Biodiesel is a fuel that can be defined as mono-alkyl
esters of fatty acids . Biodiesel is a fuel that can be
made from various feedstock. The most commonly
available biodiesel in Europe is Rape Methyl Ester
(RME). This biodiesel is derived from rapeseed oil .
Soy Methyl Ester (SME) is the most common
biodiesel in the United States. This biodiesel is
derived from soybean oil . Soybean oil or rapeseed
oil are the primary feedstocks. These fuels are
together known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) .
Distillation is an indication of the mixture of different
hydrocarbons in the fuel. A high ratio of light weight
hydrocarbons can affect the characteristics of
combustion.
Raw pressed vegetable oils are NOT acceptable for
use as a fuel in any concentration in compression
engines . Without esterification, these oils solidify in
the crankcase and the fuel tank. These fuels may not
be compatible with many of the elastomers that are
used in engines that are manufactured today. In
original forms, these oils are not suitable for use as a
fuel in compression engines . Alternate base stocks
for biodiesel may include animal tallow , waste
cooking oils , or various other feedstocks. In order to
use any of the products that are listed as fuel, the oil
must be esterified .
Classification of the Fuels
Fuel made of 100 percent FAME is generally referred
to as B100 biodiesel or neat biodiesel.
Distillation
Diesel engines have the ability to burn wide variety of
fuels. The following list of typically encountered fuel
specifications that have been assessed as to their
acceptability and are divided into following
categories:
Biodiesel can be blended with distillate diesel fuel.
The blends can be used as fuel. The most commonly
available biodiesel blends are B7, which is 7 percent
biodiesel and 95 percent distillate diesel fuel. B20,
which is 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent distillate
diesel fuel.
Group 1: Preferred fuels
Note: The percentages given are volume-based.
Following fuel specifications are considered
acceptable
The U.S. distillate diesel fuel specification ASTM
D975-09a includes up to B7 (7 percent) biodiesel.
• Fuels meeting the requirements of the "Perkins
Specification for Distillate Diesel Fuel" listed in the
Table 17 .
European distillate diesel fuel specification EN590:
2010 includes up B7 (7 percent) biodiesel.
• EN590 - Grades A to F and class 0 to 4
• ASTM D975 Grade No. 1-D and 2-D
• JIS K2204 Grades 1, 2 & 3 & Special Grade 3
acceptable provides lubricity ware diameter does
not exceed of 0.46 mm (0.01811 inch)ISO 121561
• BS2869-Class A2 Off Highway Gas Oil, Red
Diesel
Note: The lubricity of these fuels must not exceed
wear scar diameter of 0.52 mm (0.02047 inch) as per
ISO 12156-1. Refer to the lubricity section within the
Fuel Recommendation Section.
Note: Engines that are manufactured by Perkins are
certified by use of the prescribed Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) and European Certification
fuels. Perkins does not certify engines on any other
fuel. The user of the engine has the responsibility of
using the correct fuel that is recommended by the
manufacturer and allowed by the EPA and other
appropriate regulatory agencies.
Specification Requirements
The neat biodiesel must conform to the latest
EN14214 or ASTM D6751 (in the USA). The
biodiesel can only be blended in mixture of up to 20%
by volume in acceptable mineral diesel fuel meeting
latest edition of EN590 or ASTM D975 S15
designation.
SEBU8731
63
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
In United States Biodiesel blends of B6 to B20 must
meet the requirements listed in the latest edition of
ASTM D7467 (B6 to B20) and must be of an API
gravity of 30-45.
In North America biodiesel and biodiesel blends must
be purchased from the BQ-9000 accredited
producers and BQ-9000 certified distributors.
In other areas of the world, the use of biodiesel that is
BQ-9000 accredited and certified, or that is
accredited and certified by a comparable biodiesel
quality body to meet similar biodiesel quality
standards is required.
Engine Service Requirements
Aggressive properties of biodiesel fuel may cause
debris in the fuel tank and fuel lines. The aggressive
properties of biodiesel will clean the fuel tank and fuel
lines. This cleaning of the fuel system can
prematurely block of the fuel filters. Perkins
recommend that after the initial usage of B20
biodiesel blended fuel the fuel filters must be replaced
at 50 hours.
Glycerides present in biodiesel fuel will also cause
fuel filters to become blocked more quickly. Therefore
the regular service interval should be reduced to 250
hours.
When biodiesel fuel is used, crank case oil and
aftertreatment systems may be influenced. This
influence is due to the chemical composition and
characteristics of biodiesel fuel, such as density and
volatility, and to chemical contaminants that can be
present in this fuel, such as alkali and alkaline metals
(sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium).
• Crankcase oil fuel dilution can be higher when
biodiesel or biodiesel blends are used. This
increased level of fuel dilution when using
biodiesel or biodiesel blends is related to the
typically lower volatility of biodiesel. In-cylinder
emissions control strategies utilized in many of the
industrial latest engine designs may lead to a
higher level of biodiesel concentration in the sump.
The long-term effect of biodiesel concentration in
crankcase oil is currently unknown.
• Perkins recommend the use of oil analysis in
order to check the quality of the engine oil if
biodiesel fuel is used. Ensure that the level of
biodiesel in the fuel is noted when the oil sample is
taken.
Performance Related Issues
Due to the lower energy content than the standard
distillate fuel B20 will cause a power loss in order of 2
to 4 percent. In addition, over time the power may
deteriorate further due to deposits in the fuel injectors.
Biodiesel and biodiesel blends are known to cause an
increase in fuel system deposits, most significant of
which are deposits within the fuel injector. These
deposits can cause a loss in power due to restricted
or modified fuel injection or cause other functional
issues associated with these deposits.
Note: Perkins T400012 Fuel Cleaner is most
effective in cleaning and preventing the formation of
deposits. Perkins Diesel Fuel Conditioner helps to
limit deposit issues by improving the stability of
biodiesel and biodiesel blends. For more information
refer to “Perkins Diesel Fuel System Cleaner”.
Biodiesel fuel contains metal contaminants (sodium,
potassium, calcium, and/or magnesium) that form ash
products upon combustion in the diesel engine. The
ash can have an impact on the life and performance
of aftertreatment emissions control devices and can
accumulate in DPF. The ash accumulation may cause
the need for more frequent ash service intervals and
cause loss of performance
General Requirements
Biodiesel has poor oxidation stability, which can result
in long-term problems in the storage of biodiesel.
Biodiesel fuel should be used within 6 months of
manufacture. Equipment should not be stored with
the B20 biodiesel blends in the fuel system for longer
than 3 months.
Due to poor oxidation stability and other potential
issues, it is strongly recommended that engines with
limited operational time either not use B20 biodiesel
blends or, while accepting some risk, limit biodiesel
blend to a maximum of B5. Examples of applications
that should limit the use of biodiesel are the following:
Standby Generator sets and certain emergency
vehicles.
Perkins strongly recommended that seasonally
operated engines have the fuel systems, including
fuel tanks, flashed with conventional diesel fuel
before prolonged shutdown periods. An example of
an application that should seasonally flush the fuel
system is a combine harvester.
Microbial contamination and growth can cause
corrosion in the fuel system and premature plugging
of the fuel filter. Consult your supplier of fuel for
assistance in selecting appropriate anti-microbial
additive.
Water accelerates microbial contamination and
growth. When biodiesel is compared to distillate fuels,
water is naturally more likely to exist in the biodiesel.
It is therefore essential to check frequently and if
necessary, drain the water separator.
Materials such as brass, bronze, copper, lead, tin,
and zinc accelerate the oxidation process of the
biodiesel fuel. The oxidation process can cause
deposits formation therefore these materials must not
be used for fuel tanks and fuel lines.
64
SEBU8731
Refill Capacities
Fluid Recommendations
Fuel for Cold Weather Operation
The European standard EN590 contains climate
dependant requirements and a range of options. The
options can be applied differently in each country.
There are five classes that are given to arctic climates
and severe winter climates . 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4.
Fuel that complies with EN590 CLASS 4 can be used
at temperatures as low as −44 °C (−47.2 °F). Refer
to EN590 for a detailed discretion of the physical
properties of the fuel.
Note: Perkins fuel cleaner is compatible with
existing and U.S. EPA Tier 3 nonroad certified diesel
engine emission control catalysts and particulate
filters. Perkins fuel system cleaner contains less
than 15 ppm of sulfur and is acceptable for use with
LSD fuel.
Service Intervals for Biodiesel and
High sulfur Fuels.
Table 18
B20 Biodiesel Engine Service
The diesel fuel ASTM D975 1-D used in the United
States of America may be used in very cold
temperatures that are below −18 °C (−0.4 °F).
First 50 hours fuel filter change
Every 250 hours fuel filter change
Aftermarket Fuel Additives
Supplemental diesel fuel additives are not generally
recommended . This recommendation is due to
potential damage to the fuel system or the engine.
Your fuel supplier or the fuel manufacturer will add the
appropriate supplemental diesel fuel additives.
Perkins recognizes the fact that additives may be
required in some special circumstances. Contact your
fuel supplier for those circumstances when fuel
additives are required. Your fuel supplier can
recommend the appropriate fuel additive and the
correct level of treatment.
Note: For the best results, your fuel supplier should
treat the fuel when additives are required. The treated
fuel must meet the requirements that are stated in
table 17 .
Perkins Diesel Fuel System Cleaner
Perkins T400012 Fuel Cleaner is the only fuel
cleaner that is recommended by Perkins .
If biodiesel or biodiesel blends of fuel are to be used,
Perkins require the use of Perkins fuel cleaner. The
use of the fuel is in order to remove deposits within
the fuel system that is created with the use of
biodiesel. For more information on the use of
biodiesel and biodiesel blends refer to “Group 3
Biodiesel Fuel”.
Perkins fuel cleaner will remove deposits that can
form in the fuel system with the use of biodiesel and
biodiesel blends. These deposits can create a loss of
power and engine performance.
Once the fuel cleaner has been added to the fuel, the
deposits within the fuel system are removed after 30
hours of engine operation. For maximum results,
continue to use the fuel cleaner for up to 80 hours.
Perkins fuel cleaner can be used on an on-going
basis with no adverse impact on engine or fuel
system durability.
Details instruction on the rate of which the fuel
cleaner must be use are on the container.
Required T400012 Fuel Cleaner
Table 19
Fuel Sulfur Content greater than 500 PPM
Every 250 hours oil and oil filter change
SEBU8731
65
Maintenance Recommendations
Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls
Maintenance
Recommendations
• ECM
• Sensors
i04103081
Welding on Engines with
Electronic Controls
NOTICE
Because the strength of the frame may decrease,
some manufacturers do not recommend welding onto
a chassis frame or rail. Consult the OEM of the equipment or your Perkins dealer regarding welding on a
chassis frame or rail.
• Electronically controlled valves
• Relays
• Aftertreatment ID module
NOTICE
Do not use electrical components (ECM or ECM sensors) or electronic component grounding points for
grounding the welder.
Proper welding procedures are necessary in order to
avoid damage to the engines ECM, sensors, and
associated components. When possible, remove the
component from the unit and then weld the
component. If removal of the component is not
possible, the following procedure must be followed
when you weld on a unit equipped with an Electronic
Engine. The following procedure is considered to be
the safest procedure to weld on a component. This
procedure should provide a minimum risk of damage
to electronic components.
NOTICE
Do not ground the welder to electrical components
such as the ECM or sensors. Improper grounding can
cause damage to the drive train bearings, hydraulic
components, electrical components, and other
components.
Clamp the ground cable from the welder to the component that will be welded. Place the clamp as close
as possible to the weld. This will help reduce the possibility of damage.
Note: Perform the welding in areas that are free from
explosive hazards.
Illustration 32
1. Stop the engine. Turn the switched power to the
OFF position.
Use the example above. The current flow from the
welder to the ground clamp of the welder will not
damage any associated components.
2. Ensure that the fuel supply to the engine is turned
off.
3. Disconnect the negative battery cable from the
battery. If a battery disconnect switch is provided,
open the switch.
4. Disconnect all electronic components from the
wiring harnesses. Include the following
components:
• Electronic components for the driven equipment
g01075639
(1) Engine
(2) Welding electrode
(3) Keyswitch in the OFF position
(4) Battery disconnect switch in the open position
(5) Disconnected battery cables
(6) Battery
(7) Electrical/Electronic component
(8) Minimum distance between the component that is being welded
and any electrical/electronic component
(9) The component that is being welded
(10) Current path of the welder
(11) Ground clamp for the welder
66
Maintenance Recommendations
Severe Service Application
SEBU8731
5. Connect the welding ground cable directly to the
part that will be welded. Place the ground cable as
close as possible to the weld in order to reduce the
possibility of welding current damage to the
following components. Bearings, hydraulic
components, electrical components, and ground
straps.
Note: If electrical/electronic components are used as
a ground for the welder, or electrical/electronic
components are located between the welder ground
and the weld, current flow from the welder could
severely damage the component.
6. Protect the wiring harness from welding debris and
spatter.
7. Use standard welding practices to weld the
materials.
i04150276
Severe Service Application
Severe service is the application of an engine that
exceeds the current published standards for that
engine. Perkins maintains standards for the
following engine parameters:
• Performance such as power range, speed range,
and fuel consumption
• Fuel quality
• Operational Altitude
• Maintenance intervals
• Oil selection and maintenance
• Coolant type and maintenance
• Environmental qualities
• Installation
• The temperature of the fluid in the engine
Refer to the standards for the engine or consult your
Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor in order to
determine if the engine is operating within the defined
parameters.
Severe service operation can accelerate component
wear. Engines that operate under severe conditions
may need more frequent maintenance intervals in
order to ensure maximum reliability and retention of
full service life.
Due to individual applications, it is not possible to
identify all of the factors which can contribute to
severe service operation. Consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor for the unique
maintenance that is necessary for the engine.
The operating environment, incorrect operating
procedures, and incorrect maintenance procedures
can be factors which contribute to a severe service
application.
Environmental Factors
Ambient temperatures – The engine may be
exposed to extended operation in cold environments
or hot environments. Valve components can be
damaged by carbon buildup if the engine is frequently
started and stopped in cold temperatures. Hot intake
air reduces engine performance.
Quality of the air – The engine may be exposed to
extended operation in an environment that is dirty or
dusty, unless the equipment is cleaned regularly.
Mud, dirt, and dust can encase components.
Maintenance can be difficult. The buildup can contain
corrosive chemicals.
Buildup – Compounds, elements, corrosive
chemicals, and salt can damage some components.
Altitude – Problems can arise when the engine is
operated at altitudes that are higher than the intended
settings for that application. Necessary adjustments
should be made.
Incorrect Operating Procedures
• Extended operation at low idle
• Frequent hot shutdowns
• Operating at excessive loads
• Operating at excessive speeds
• Operating outside the intended application
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures
• Extending the maintenance intervals
• Failure to use recommended fuel, lubricants, and
coolant/antifreeze
SEBU8731
67
Maintenance Recommendations
Maintenance Interval Schedule
i05277354
Maintenance Interval Schedule
“Engine Oil and Filter - Change”..............................83
“Fan Clearance - Check” .........................................85
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year
Oil specification will depend on the engine power.
Refer to this Manual, “Fluid Recommendation” for
more information.
Maintenance intervals will change if high sulfur fuels
are used and biodiesel. Refer to this Manual, “Fluid
Recommendation” for more information.
“Battery Electrolyte Level - Check” ..........................69
“Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add”.....................................................75
“Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator)
Element - Replace”..................................................88
When Required
“Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace” ..............90
“Battery - Replace”...................................................69
“Radiator - Clean” ....................................................94
“Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect”...................70
Every 1000 Service Hours
“Engine - Clean”.......................................................76
“Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace”......................................................79
“Engine Oil Sample - Obtain”...................................82
“Fuel System - Prime”..............................................86
Daily
“Coolant Level - Check”...........................................75
“Driven Equipment - Check” ....................................76
“Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect” .....80
“Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean” ...................81
“Engine Oil Level - Check”.......................................82
“Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator Drain” .......................................................................90
“Walk-Around Inspection” ........................................95
Every Week
“Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace”...................93
Every 50 Service Hours or Weekly
“Belt Tensioner - Check” ..........................................70
“Belt - Inspect”..........................................................71
“Engine Valve Lash - Check” ...................................85
“Water Pump - Inspect”............................................96
Every 2000 Service Hours
“Aftercooler Core - Inspect” .....................................68
“Engine Mounts - Inspect” .......................................81
“Starting Motor - Inspect” .........................................94
“Turbocharger - Inspect” ..........................................94
Every Year
“Engine - Clean”.......................................................76
Every 3000 Service Hours
“Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test”................................68
“Alternator - Inspect” ................................................68
“Alternator and Fan Belts - Replace” .......................68
“Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain” .................92
Every 3000 Service Hours or 2
Years
Initial 500 Service Hours
“Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Change” .......71
“Engine Valve Lash - Check” ...................................85
Every 6000 Service Hours or 3
Years
Every 500 Service Hours
“Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element/Canister
Type) - Clean/Replace”............................................77
“Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) Inspect/Replace”......................................................79
“Engine Crankcase Breather Element - Replace” ...81
“Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add” ..............................75
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6
Years
“Coolant (ELC) - Change”........................................73
68
Maintenance Recommendations
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test
SEBU8731
Commissioning
“Fan Clearance - Check” .........................................85
i01807350
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test
(Air-To-Air Aftercooler)
The air-to-air aftercooler is OEM installed in many
applications. Please refer to the OEM specifications
for information that is related to the aftercooler.
i04380914
After cleaning, start the engine and accelerate the
engine to high idle rpm. This will help in the removal
of debris and drying of the core. Stop the engine. Use
a light bulb behind the core in order to inspect the
core for cleanliness. Repeat the cleaning, if
necessary.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”.
Note: If parts of the aftercooler system are repaired
or replaced, a leak test is highly recommended. For
more information, refer to OEM specification for the
aftercooler.
Inspect these items for good condition: welds,
mounting brackets, air lines, connections, clamps and
seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
Aftercooler Core - Inspect
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the aftercooler for these items: damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil and other
debris. Clean the aftercooler, if necessary.
For air-to-air aftercoolers, use the same methods that
are used for cleaning radiators.
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a
protective face shield and protective clothing.
Maximum air pressure at the nozzle must be less
than 205 kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
Pressurized air is the preferred method for removing
loose debris. Direct the air in the opposite direction of
the fans air flow. Hold the nozzle approximately 6 mm
(.25 inch) away from the fins. Slowly move the air
nozzle in a direction that is parallel with the tubes.
The pressurized air will remove debris that is between
the tubes.
Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning. The
maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes must
be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurized water
in order to soften mud. Clean the core from both
sides.
Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil and
grease. Clean both sides of the core. Wash the core
with detergent and hot water. Thoroughly rinse the
core with clean water.
i02322311
Alternator - Inspect
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of the
alternator. Inspect the alternator for loose
connections and correct battery charging. Check the
ammeter (if equipped) during engine operation in
order to ensure correct battery performance and/or
correct performance of the electrical system. Make
repairs, as required.
Check the alternator and the battery charger for
correct operation. If the batteries are correctly
charged, the ammeter reading should be very near
zero. All batteries should be kept charged. The
batteries should be kept warm because temperature
affects the cranking power. If the battery is too cold,
the battery will not crank the engine. When the engine
is not run for long periods of time or if the engine is
run for short periods, the batteries may not fully
charge. A battery with a low charge will freeze more
easily than a battery with a full charge.
i05258744
Alternator and Fan Belts Replace
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly Manual,
“Alternator Belt - Remove and Install”.
SEBU8731
69
Maintenance Recommendations
Battery - Replace
i03559623
Battery - Replace
10. Turn the battery disconnect switch to the ON
position.
i02724529
Batteries give off combustible gases which can
explode. A spark can cause the combustible
gases to ignite. This can result in severe personal
injury or death.
Ensure proper ventilation for batteries that are in
an enclosure. Follow the proper procedures in order to help prevent electrical arcs and/or sparks
near batteries. Do not smoke when batteries are
serviced.
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Switch the engine to the OFF position. Remove all
electrical loads.
Battery Electrolyte Level Check
When the engine is not run for long periods of time or
when the engine is run for short periods, the batteries
may not fully recharge. Ensure a full charge in order
to help prevent the battery from freezing. If batteries
are properly charged, ammeter reading should be
very near zero,when the engine is in operation.
All lead-acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which
can burn the skin and clothing. Always wear a
face shield and protective clothing when working
on or near batteries.
1. Remove the filler caps. Maintain the electrolyte
level to the “FULL” mark on the battery.
If the addition of water is necessary, use distilled
water. If distilled water is not available use clean
water that is low in minerals. Do not use artificially
softened water.
2. Turn off any battery chargers. Disconnect any
battery chargers.
2. Check the condition of the electrolyte with the
245-5829 Coolant Battery Tester Refractometer.
3. Ensure that the battery disconnect switch is in the
OFF position.
3. Keep the batteries clean.
4. Disconnect the NEGATIVE “-” cable from the
NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
5. Disconnect the POSITIVE “+” cable from the
POSITIVE “+” battery terminal.
Note: Always recycle a battery. Never discard a
battery. Dispose of used batteries to an appropriate
recycling facility.
6. Remove the used battery.
7. Install the new battery.
Note: Before the cables are connected, ensure that
the battery disconnect switch is in the OFF position.
8. Connect the POSITIVE “+” cable to the POSITIVE
“+” battery terminal.
9. Connect the NEGATIVE “-” cable to the
NEGATIVE “-” battery terminal.
Clean the battery case with one of the following
cleaning solutions:
• Use a solution of 0.1 kg (0.2 lb) baking soda
and 1 L (1 qt) of clean water.
• Use a solution of ammonium hydroxide .
Thoroughly rinse the battery case with clean water.
Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the
terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items
until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT
remove material excessively. Excessive removal of
material can cause the clamps to not fit properly.
Coat the clamps and the terminals with 5N-5561
Silicone Lubricant, petroleum jelly or MPGM.
70
Maintenance Recommendations
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect
SEBU8731
i02323088
Battery or Battery Cable Disconnect
i04907925
Belt Tensioner - Check
The battery cables or the batteries should not be
removed with the battery cover in place. The battery cover should be removed before any servicing is attempted.
Removing the battery cables or the batteries with
the cover in place may cause a battery explosion
resulting in personal injury.
1. Turn the start switch to the OFF position. Turn the
ignition switch (if equipped) to the OFF position
and remove the key and all electrical loads.
2. Disconnect the negative battery terminal. Ensure
that the cable cannot contact the terminal. When
four 12 volt batteries are involved, two negative
connection must be disconnected.
Illustration 33
g03074016
3. Remove the positive connection.
Typical example
4. Clean all disconnected connection and battery
terminals.
Remove the belt. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, “Alternator Belt - Remove and Install”.
5. Use a fine grade of sandpaper to clean the
terminals and the cable clamps. Clean the items
until the surfaces are bright or shiny. DO NOT
remove material excessively. Excessive removal of
material can cause the clamps to not fit correctly.
Coat the clamps and the terminals with a suitable
silicone lubricant or petroleum jelly.
Ensure that the belt tensioner is securely installed.
Visually inspect the belt tensioner (1) for damage.
Check that the pulley on the tensioner rotates freely
and that the bearing is not loose. Some engines have
an idler pulley (2). Ensure that the idler pulley is
securely installed. Visually inspect the idler pulley for
damage. Ensure that the idler pulley can rotate freely
and that the bearing is not loose. If necessary,
replace damaged components.
6. Tape the cable connections in order to help prevent
accidental starting.
7. Proceed with necessary system repairs.
8. In order to connect the battery, connect the positive
connection before the negative connector.
Install the belt. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly,
“Alternator Belt - Remove and Install”.
SEBU8731
71
Maintenance Recommendations
Belt - Inspect
i04907868
Belt - Inspect
i05277504
Coolant (Commercial HeavyDuty) - Change
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling
any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations
and mandates.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Illustration 34
g03073936
Typical example
To maximize the engine performance, inspect the belt
(1) for wear and for cracking. Replace the belt if the
belt is worn or damaged.
• Inspect the belt for cracks, splits, glazing, grease,
displacement of the cord and evidence of fluid
contamination.
The belt must be replaced if the following conditions
are present.
• The belt has a crack in more than one rib.
• More than one section of the belt is displaced in
one rib of a maximum length of 50.8 mm (2 inch).
To replace the belt, refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, “Alternator Belt - Remove and Install”. If
necessary, replace the belt tensioner. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, “Alternator Belt Remove and Install” for the correct procedure.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming of the coolant is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed.
Drain
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
72
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Change
SEBU8731
4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F).
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Open the drain cock or remove
the drain plug on the engine. Open the drain cock
or remove the drain plug on the radiator. Allow the
water to drain. Flush the cooling system with clean
water.
Fill
1. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
Illustration 35
g03349949
2. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug (1)
on the engine. Open the drain cock or remove the
drain plug on the radiator.
Allow the coolant to drain.
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various
methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant
for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to reclaim the coolant.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor.
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug in the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
2. Fill the cooling system with Commercial HeavyDuty Coolant. Add Supplemental Coolant Additive
to the coolant. For the correct amount, refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for more information on
cooling system specifications. Do not install the
cooling system filler cap.
3. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
engine rpm to high idle. Run the engine at high idle
for 1 minute in order to purge the air from the
cavities of the engine block. Decrease the engine
speed to low idle. Stop the engine.
4. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant level
within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of the
pipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level in the
expansion bottle (if equipped) at the correct level.
SEBU8731
73
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant (ELC) - Change
• The engine overheats frequently.
• Foaming of the coolant is observed.
• The oil has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
• The fuel has entered the cooling system and the
coolant is contaminated.
Note: When the cooling system is cleaned, only
clean water is needed when the ELC is drained and
replaced.
Illustration 36
g00103639
Filler cap
5. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket is
not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump in
order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
6. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for correct operating temperature.
i05277508
Coolant (ELC) - Change
Note: Inspect the water pump and the water
temperature regulator after the cooling system has
been drained. This is a good opportunity to replace
the water pump, the water temperature regulator, and
the hoses, if necessary.
Drain
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
1. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling
any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to Local regulations
and mandates.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Clean the cooling system and flush the cooling
system before the recommended maintenance
interval if the following conditions exist:
Illustration 37
Typical example
g03349949
74
SEBU8731
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant (ELC) - Change
2. Open the drain cock or remove the drain plug (1)
on the engine. Open the drain cock or remove the
drain plug on the radiator.
Allow the coolant to drain.
NOTICE
Dispose of used engine coolant or recycle. Various
methods have been proposed to reclaim used coolant
for reuse in engine cooling systems. The full distillation procedure is the only method acceptable by Perkins to reclaim the coolant.
For information regarding the disposal and the
recycling of used coolant, consult your Perkins
dealer or your Perkins distributor.
Flush
1. Flush the cooling system with clean water in order
to remove any debris.
2. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug in the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
2. Fill the cooling system with Extended Life Coolant
(ELC). Refer to the Operation and Maintenance
Manual, “Fluid Recommendations” for more
information on cooling system specifications. Do
not install the cooling system filler cap.
3. Start and run the engine at low idle. Increase the
engine rpm to high idle. Run the engine at high idle
for 1 minute in order to purge the air from the
cavities of the engine block. Decrease the engine
speed to low idle. Stop the engine.
4. Check the coolant level. Maintain the coolant level
within 13 mm (0.5 inch) below the bottom of the
pipe for filling. Maintain the coolant level in the
expansion bottle (if equipped) at the correct level.
NOTICE
Do not fill the cooling system faster than 5 L
(1.3 US gal) per minute to avoid air locks.
Cooling system air locks may result in engine
damage.
3. Fill the cooling system with clean water. Install the
cooling system filler cap.
4. Start and run the engine at low idle until the
temperature reaches 49 to 66 °C (120 to 150 °F).
5. Stop the engine and allow the engine to cool.
Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap. Open the drain cock or remove
the drain plug on the engine. Open the drain cock
or remove the drain plug on the radiator. Allow the
water to drain. Flush the cooling system with clean
water.
Fill
1. Close the drain cock or install the drain plug on the
engine. Close the drain cock or install the drain
plug on the radiator.
Illustration 38
g00103639
Filler cap
5. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket is
not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump in
order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
6. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks and for correct operating temperature.
75
SEBU8731
Maintenance Recommendations
Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add
i05330512
Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add
In order for Perkins ELC to achieve 12000 hours an
extender must be added at 6000 hours. For a suitable
extender, contact your Perkins dealer or Perkins
distributor.
i04913523
Coolant Level - Check
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
Check the coolant level when the engine is stopped
and cool.
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed, the procedure must be performed with the engine on level ground. This procedure will allow you to check accurately the coolant
level. This procedure will also help in avoiding the risk
of introducing an air lock into the coolant system.
1. Remove the cooling system filler cap slowly in
order to relieve pressure.
2. Maintain the coolant level at the maximum mark
that is correct for your application. If the engine is
equipped with a sight glass, maintain the coolant
level to the correct level in the sight glass.
Illustration 39
g02590196
Typical filler cap gaskets
3. Clean the cooling system filler cap and check the
condition of the filler cap gaskets. Replace the
cooling system filler cap if the filler cap gaskets are
damaged. Reinstall the cooling system filler cap.
4. Inspect the cooling system for leaks.
i03644948
Cooling System Supplemental
Coolant Additive (SCA) - Test/
Add
Cooling system coolant additive contains alkali.
To help prevent personal injury, avoid contact
with the skin and the eyes. Do not drink cooling
system coolant additive.
Test for SCA Concentration
Heavy-Duty Coolant/Antifreeze and SCA
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended six percent supplemental coolant additive concentration.
Use a Coolant Conditioner Test Kit in order to check
the concentration of the SCA.
76
Maintenance Recommendations
Driven Equipment - Check
Add the SCA, If Necessary
NOTICE
Do not exceed the recommended amount of supplemental coolant additive concentration. Excessive supplemental coolant additive concentration can form
deposits on the higher temperature surfaces of the
cooling system, reducing the engine's heat transfer
characteristics. Reduced heat transfer could cause
cracking of the cylinder head and other high temperature components. Excessive supplemental coolant
additive concentration could also result in radiator
tube blockage, overheating, and/or accelerated water
pump seal wear. Never use both liquid supplemental
coolant additive and the spin-on element (if equipped)
at the same time. The use of those additives together
could result in supplemental coolant additive concentration exceeding the recommended maximum.
SEBU8731
4. Clean the cooling system filler cap and inspect the
gasket. If the gasket is damaged, discard the old
filler cap and install a new filler cap. If the gasket is
not damaged, use a suitable pressurizing pump in
order to pressure test the filler cap. The correct
pressure is stamped on the face of the filler cap. If
the filler cap does not retain the correct pressure,
install a new filler cap.
i00174798
Driven Equipment - Check
Refer to the OEM specifications for more information
on the following maintenance recommendations for
the driven equipment:
• Inspection
• Adjustment
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
• Lubrication
• Other maintenance recommendations
Perform any maintenance for the driven equipment
which is recommended by the OEM.
i02345750
NOTICE
When any servicing or repair of the engine cooling
system is performed the procedure must be performed with the engine on level ground. This will allow
you to accurately check the coolant level. This will also help in avoiding the risk of introducing an air lock
into the coolant system.
1. Slowly loosen the cooling system filler cap in order
to relieve the pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Always discard drained fluids according to local
regulations.
2. If necessary, drain some coolant from the cooling
system into a suitable container in order to allow
space for the extra SCA.
3. Add the correct amount of SCA. Refer to the
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill
Capacities and Recommendations” for more
information on SCA requirements.
Engine - Clean
Personal injury or death can result from high
voltage.
Moisture can
conductivity.
create
paths
of
electrical
Make sure that the electrical system is OFF. Lock
out the starting controls and tag the controls “ DO
NOT OPERATE”” .
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and oil on an engine is a fire
hazard. Keep the engine clean. Remove debris and
fluid spills whenever a significant quantity accumulates on the engine.
Periodic cleaning of the engine is recommended.
Steam cleaning the engine will remove accumulated
oil and grease. A clean engine provides the following
benefits:
77
SEBU8731
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element/Canister Type) - Clean/Replace
• Check the precleaner (if equipped) daily for
accumulation of dirt and debris. Remove any dirt
and debris, as needed.
• Easy detection of fluid leaks
• Maximum heat transfer characteristics
• Ease of maintenance
Note: Caution must be used in order to prevent
electrical components from being damaged by
excessive water when the engine is cleaned.
Pressure washers and steam cleaners should not be
directed at any electrical connectors or the junction of
cables into the rear of the connectors. Avoid electrical
components such as the alternator, the starter, and
the ECM. Protect the fuel injection pump from fluids in
order to wash the engine.
i05278929
Engine Air Cleaner Element
(Dual Element/Canister Type) Clean/Replace
(If Equipped)
• Operating conditions (dust, dirt, and debris) may
require more frequent service of the air cleaner
element.
• The air cleaner element may be cleaned up to six
times if the element has been properly cleaned
and inspected.
• The air cleaner element should be replaced at
least one time per year. This replacement should
be performed regardless of the number of
cleanings.
Replace the dirty paper air cleaner elements with
clean air cleaner elements. Before installation, check
the air cleaner elements thoroughly for tears and/or
holes in the filter material. Inspect the gasket or the
seal of the air cleaner element for damage. Maintain a
supply of suitable air cleaner elements for
replacement purposes.
Dual Element Air Cleaners
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.
NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.
The dual element air cleaner contains a primary air
cleaner element and a secondary air cleaner
element. The primary air cleaner element can be
used up to six times if the element has been properly
cleaned and inspected. The primary air cleaner
element should be replaced at least one time per
year. This replacement should be performed
regardless of the number of cleanings.
The secondary air cleaner element is not serviceable
or washable. The secondary air cleaner element
should be removed and discarded for every three
cleanings of the primary air cleaner element. When
the engine is operating in environments that are dusty
or dirty, air cleaner elements may require more
frequent replacement.
Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements
If the air cleaner element becomes plugged, the air
can split the material of the air cleaner element.
Unfiltered air will drastically accelerate internal engine
wear. Your Perkins dealer or your Perkins
distributor has the proper air cleaner elements for
your application.
Illustration 40
(1) Cover
(2) Primary air cleaner element
(3) Secondary air cleaner element
(4) Air inlet for the turbocharger
g00736431
78
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element/Canister Type) - Clean/Replace
1. Remove the cover. Remove the primary air cleaner
element.
2. The secondary air cleaner element should be
removed and discarded for every three cleanings
of the primary air cleaner element.
Note: Refer to “Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements”.
3. Cover the air inlet to the turbocharger with tape in
order to keep out dirt.
4. Clean the inside of the air cleaner cover and body
with a clean, dry cloth.
5. Remove the tape from the air inlet of the
turbocharger. Install the secondary air cleaner
element. Install a primary air cleaner element that
is new or cleaned.
6. Install the air cleaner cover.
7. Reset the air cleaner service indicator.
Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements
SEBU8731
NOTICE
Do not clean the air cleaner elements by bumping or
tapping. This could damage the seals. Do not use elements with damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Damaged elements will allow dirt to pass through. Engine
damage could result.
Visually inspect the primary air cleaner elements
before cleaning. Inspect the air cleaner elements for
damage to the seal, the gaskets, and the outer cover.
Discard any damaged air cleaner elements.
There are two common methods that are used to
clean primary air cleaner elements:
• Pressurized air
• Vacuum cleaning
Pressurized Air
Pressurized air can be used to clean primary air
cleaner elements that have not been cleaned more
than two times. Pressurized air will not remove
deposits of carbon and oil. Use filtered, dry air with a
maximum pressure of 207 kPa (30 psi).
NOTICE
Observe the following guidelines if you attempt to
clean the filter element:
Do not tap or strike the filter element in order to remove dust.
Do not wash the filter element.
Use low pressure compressed air in order to remove
the dust from the filter element. Air pressure must not
exceed 207 kPa (30 psi). Direct the air flow up the
pleats and down the pleats from the inside of the filter
element. Take extreme care in order to avoid damage
to the pleats.
Illustration 41
g00281692
Do not use air filters with damaged pleats, gaskets, or
seals. Dirt entering the engine will cause damage to
engine components.
Note: When the primary air cleaner elements are
cleaned, always begin with the clean side (inside) in
order to force dirt particles toward the dirty side
(outside).
The primary air cleaner element can be used up to six
times if the element has been properly cleaned and
inspected. When the primary air cleaner element is
cleaned, check for rips or tears in the filter material.
The primary air cleaner element should be replaced
at least one time per year. This replacement should
be performed regardless of the number of cleanings.
Aim the hose so that the air flows inside the element
along the length of the filter to prevent damage to the
paper pleats. Do not aim the stream of air directly at
the primary air cleaner element. Dirt could be forced
further into the pleats.
Use clean primary air cleaner elements while dirty
elements are being cleaned.
Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements”.
SEBU8731
79
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single Element) - Inspect/Replace
Vacuum Cleaning
Vacuum cleaning is a good method for cleaning
primary air cleaner elements which require daily
cleaning because of a dry, dusty environment.
Cleaning with pressurized air is recommended prior
to vacuum cleaning. Vacuum cleaning will not remove
deposits of carbon and oil.
Note: Refer to “Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements”.
Inspecting the Primary Air Cleaner
Elements
Illustration 43
g03376753
Typical example
Do not use paint, a waterproof cover, or plastic as a
protective covering for storage. An air flow restriction
may result. To protect against dirt and damage, wrap
the primary air cleaner elements in Volatile Corrosion
Inhibited (VCI) paper.
Illustration 42
g00281693
Inspect the clean, dry primary air cleaner element.
Use a 60w blue light in a dark room or in a similar
facility. Place the blue light in the primary air cleaner
element. Rotate the primary air cleaner element.
Inspect the primary air cleaner element for tears and/
or holes. Inspect the primary air cleaner element for
light that may show through the filter material. To
confirm the result, compare the primary air cleaner
element to a new air cleaner element that has the
same part number.
Do not use a primary air cleaner element that has any
tears and/or holes in the filter material. Do not use a
primary air cleaner element with damaged pleats,
gaskets, or seals. Discard damaged primary air
cleaner elements.
Place the primary air cleaner element into a box for
storage. For identification, mark the outside of the box
and mark the primary air cleaner element. Include the
following information:
• Date of cleaning
• Number of cleanings
Store the box in a dry location.
i01432811
Engine Air Cleaner Element
(Single Element) - Inspect/
Replace
Storing Primary Air Cleaner Elements
If a primary air cleaner element that passes
inspection will not be used, the primary air cleaner
element can be stored for future use.
Perform the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator-Inspect”
procedure and perform the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Engine Air Precleaner Check/
Clean” procedure (if equipped) before performing the
following procedure.
80
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator - Inspect
SEBU8731
NOTICE
Never run the engine without an air cleaner element
installed. Never run the engine with a damaged air
cleaner element. Do not use air cleaner elements with
damaged pleats, gaskets or seals. Dirt entering the
engine causes premature wear and damage to engine components. Air cleaner elements help to prevent airborne debris from entering the air inlet.
NOTICE
Never service the air cleaner element with the engine
running since this will allow dirt to enter the engine.
i02335405
Engine Air Cleaner Service
Indicator - Inspect
Some engines may be equipped with a different
service indicator.
Some engines are equipped with a differential gauge
for inlet air pressure. The differential gauge for inlet
air pressure displays the difference in the pressure
that is measured before the air cleaner element and
the pressure that is measured after the air cleaner
element. As the air cleaner element becomes dirty,
the pressure differential rises. If your engine is
equipped with a different type of service indicator,
follow the OEM recommendations in order to service
the air cleaner service indicator.
The service indicator may be mounted on the air
cleaner element or in a remote location.
Illustration 44
g00310664
(1) Air cleaner cover
(2) Air filter element
(3) Air inlet
1. Remove air cleaner cover (1) and remove air filter
element (2).
Illustration 45
g00103777
Typical service indicator
2. Cover air inlet (3) with tape or a clean cloth so that
debris cannot enter the air inlet.
3. Clean the inside of air cleaner cover (1). Clean the
body that holds the air cleaner element.
4. Inspect the replacement element for the following
items:damage, dirt and debris.
Observe the service indicator. The air cleaner
element should be cleaned or the air cleaner element
should be replaced when one of the following
conditions occur:
• The yellow diaphragm enters the red zone.
• The red piston locks in the visible position.
5. Remove the seal from the opening of the air inlet.
Test the Service Indicator
6. Install a clean, undamaged air filter element (2).
Service indicators are important instruments.
7. Install air cleaner cover (1).
• Check for ease of resetting. The service indicator
should reset in less than three pushes.
8. Reset the air cleaner service indicator.
• Check the movement of the yellow core when the
engine is accelerated to the engine rated speed.
The yellow core should latch at the greatest
vacuum that is attained.
SEBU8731
81
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean
If the service indicator does not reset easily, or if the
yellow core does not latch at the greatest vacuum,
the service indicator should be replaced. If the new
service indicator will not reset, the hole for the service
indicator may be restricted.
2. Clean the outside of the canister. Using a suitable
tool, remove the canister.
The service indicator may need to be replaced
frequently in environments that are severely dusty.
i02927289
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/
Clean
Illustration 47
g03348323
Typical example
3. Lubricate O ring seal (1) on the new canister with
clean engine lubricating oil.
Illustration 46
g01453058
Typical engine air precleaner
(1) Wing nut
(2) Cover
(3) Body
Remove wing nut (1) and cover (2). Check for an
accumulation of dirt and debris in body (3). Clean the
body, if necessary.
After cleaning the precleaner, install cover (2) and
wing nut (1).
4. Install the new canister. Spin on the canister until
the O ring seal contacts the base (3). Rotate the
canister ¾ of a full turn.
5. Remove the container. Dispose of the old canister
and any split oil in accordance with local
regulations.
i02323089
Engine Mounts - Inspect
Note: When the engine is operated in dusty
applications, more frequent cleaning is required.
i05277600
Engine Crankcase Breather
Element - Replace
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
Note: The engine mounts may not have been
supplied by Perkins . Refer to the OEM information
for further information on the engine mounts and the
correct bolt torque.
Inspect the engine mounts for deterioration and for
correct bolt torque. Engine vibration can be caused
by the following conditions:
• Incorrect mounting of the engine
• Deterioration of the engine mounts
• Loose engine mounts
1. Place a container under canister (2).
82
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Oil Level - Check
SEBU8731
Any engine mount that shows deterioration should be
replaced. Refer to the OEM information for the
recommended torques.
i05300117
2. Remove the oil filler cap and add oil, if necessary.
Clean the oil filler cap. Install the oil filler cap.
If an increase in the oil level is noticed, refer to
Troubleshooting, “Oil Contains Fuel”.
Engine Oil Level - Check
i01907674
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
The condition of the engine lubricating oil may be
checked at regular intervals as part of a preventive
maintenance program. Perkins include an oil
sampling valve as an option. The oil sampling valve
(if equipped) is included in order to regularly sample
the engine lubricating oil. The oil sampling valve is
positioned on the oil filter head or the oil sampling
valve is positioned on the cylinder block.
Perkins recommends using a sampling valve in order
to obtain oil samples. The quality and the consistency
of the samples are better when a sampling valve is
used. The location of the sampling valve allows oil
that is flowing under pressure to be obtained during
normal engine operation.
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis
Illustration 48
g02173847
“L” Low
“H” High
NOTICE
Perform this maintenance with the engine stopped.
Note: Ensure that the engine is either level or that the
engine is in the normal operating position in order to
obtain a true level indication.
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
In order to help obtain the most accurate analysis,
record the following information before an oil sample
is taken:
• The date of the sample
• Engine model
• Engine number
Note: After the engine has been switched OFF, wait
for 10 minutes in order to allow the engine oil to drain
to the oil pan before checking the oil level.
1. Maintain the oil level between the mark (L) and the
mark (H) on the engine oil dipstick. Do not fill the
crankcase above the “H” .
NOTICE
Operating your engine when the oil level is above the
“H” mark could cause your crankshaft to dip into the
oil. The air bubbles created from the crankshaft dipping into the oil reduces the oils lubricating characteristics and could result in the loss of power.
• Service hours on the engine
• The number of hours that have accumulated since
the last oil change
• The amount of oil that has been added since the
last oil change
Ensure that the container for the sample is clean and
dry. Also ensure that the container for the sample is
clearly labelled.
To ensure that the sample is representative of the oil
in the crankcase, obtain a warm, well mixed oil
sample.
SEBU8731
83
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
To avoid contamination of the oil samples, the tools
and the supplies that are used for obtaining oil
samples must be clean.
The sample can be checked for the following: the
quality of the oil, the existence of any coolant in the
oil, the existence of any ferrous metal particles in the
oil and the existence of any nonferrous metal
particles in the oil.
i05277625
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
Hot oil and hot components can cause personal
injury. Do not allow hot oil or hot components to
contact the skin.
Illustration 49
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling
any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
NOTICE
Keep all parts clean from contaminants.
g03350504
Typical example
1. Remove the drain plug (1) in order to allow the oil
to drain.
a. If the engine as an oil drain valve (3) installed,
install a suitable flexible hose onto the valve
(4). Turn the handle (2) counter clockwise and
allow the oil to drain.
b. When the oil has drained, turn the handle
clockwise and tighten securely. Remove the
flexible hose.
Contaminants may cause rapid wear and shortened
component life.
Do not drain the engine lubricating oil when the
engine is cold. As the engine lubricating oil cools,
suspended waste particles settle on the bottom of the
oil pan. The waste particles are not removed with
draining cold oil. Drain the oil pan with the engine
stopped. Drain the oil pan with the oil warm. This
draining method allows the waste particles that are
suspended in the oil to be drained properly.
Failure to follow this recommended procedure will
cause the waste particles to be recirculated through
the engine lubrication system with the new oil.
Illustration 50
g03350650
Drain the Engine Lubricating Oil
Typical example
Note: Ensure that the vessel that will be used is large
enough to collect the waste oil.
2. Remove O ring seal (5) and install new O ring seal.
After the engine has been run at the normal operating
temperature, stop the engine. Use one of the
following methods to drain the engine oil pan:
3. Install drain plug and tighten drain plug to a torque
of 34 N·m (25 lb ft).
84
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Oil and Filter - Change
SEBU8731
Replace the Oil Filter
4. Apply clean engine oil to the O ring seal (2) on the
new oil filter.
NOTICE
Perkins oil filters are manufactured to Perkins specifications. Use of an oil filter that is not recommended
by Perkins could result in severe damage to the engine bearings, crankshaft, etc., as a result of the larger waste particles from unfiltered oil entering the
engine lubricating system. Only use oil filters recommended by Perkins .
NOTICE
Do not fill the oil filters with oil before installing them.
This oil would not be filtered and could be contaminated. Contaminated oil can cause accelerated wear
to engine components.
1. Remove the oil filter with a suitable tool.
5. Install the engine oil filter. Spin on the new oil filter
until the O ring seal contacts the oil filter base.
Rotate the oil filter ¾ of a full turn.
Note: The following actions can be carried out as part
of the preventive maintenance program.
2. Cut the oil filter open with a suitable tool. Break
apart the pleats and inspect the oil filter for metal
debris. An excessive amount of metal debris in the
oil filter may indicate early wear or a pending
failure.
Use a magnet to differentiate between the ferrous
metals and the nonferrous metals that are found in
the oil filter element. Ferrous metals may indicate
wear on the steel and cast iron parts of the engine.
Nonferrous metals may indicate wear on the
aluminum parts, brass parts or bronze parts of the
engine. Parts that may be affected include the
following items: main bearings, rod bearings and
turbocharger bearings.
Due to normal wear and friction, it is not
uncommon to find small amounts of debris in the
oil filter.
Fill the Oil Pan
1. Remove the oil filler cap. Refer to this Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Fluid
Recommendations” for more information on
suitable oils. Fill the oil pan with the correct amount
of new engine lubricating oil. Refer to this
Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Refill
Capacities” for more information on refill
capacities.
NOTICE
If equipped with an auxiliary oil filter system or a remote filter system, follow the OEM or the filter manufactures recommendations. Under filling or over filling
the crankcase with oil can cause engine damage.
2. Start the engine and run the engine at “LOW IDLE”
for 2 minutes. Perform this procedure in order to
ensure that the lubrication system has oil and that
the oil filters are filled. Inspect the oil filter for oil
leaks.
3. Stop the engine and allow the oil to drain back to
the oil pan for a minimum of 10 minutes.
Illustration 51
g03351031
3. Clean the sealing surface of the oil filter base (1)
Illustration 52
“L” Low
“H” High
g02173847
SEBU8731
85
Maintenance Recommendations
Engine Valve Lash - Check
4. Remove the engine oil level gauge in order to
check the oil level. Maintain the oil level between
the “L” and “H” marks on the engine oil level
gauge. Do not fill the crankcase above the “H”
mark.
i05277638
Engine Valve Lash - Check
This maintenance is recommended by Perkins as
part of a lubrication and preventive maintenance
schedule in order to help provide maximum engine
life.
NOTICE
Only qualified service personel should perform this
maintenance. Refer to the Service Manual or your authorized Perkins dealer or your Perkins distributor
for the complete valve lash adjustment procedure.
Operation of Perkins engines with incorrect valve
lash can reduce engine efficiency, and also reduce
engine component life.
Ensure that the engine cannot be started while
this maintenance is being performed. To help prevent possible injury, do not use the starting motor
to turn the flywheel.
Hot engine components can cause burns. Allow
additional time for the engine to cool before measuring/adjusting valve lash clearance.
Ensure that the engine is stopped before measuring
the valve lash. To obtain an accurate measurement,
allow the valves to cool before this maintenance is
performed.
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing, and Adjusting,
“Engine Valve Lash - Inspect/Adjust” for more
information.
i02683336
Fan Clearance - Check
There are different types of cooling systems. Refer to
the OEM for information on clearance for the fan.
Ensure that the engine is stopped. Ensure that the
cooling system is full. The clearance between the
cover (1) and the fan (2) will require checking. The
gap (A) between the edge of the cover and the tip of
the fan blade must be checked in four equally spaced
positions.
86
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System - Prime
SEBU8731
Illustration 53
g01348394
Adjustment of the cover will change the clearance
(gap) between the edge of the cover and the tip of the
fan blade. Ensure that the cover is centralized to the
fan.
The maximum clearance is 12.5 mm (0.4921 inch).
The minimum clearance is 6 mm (0.2362 inch).
i05291395
Fuel System - Prime
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
Refer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual,
“General Hazard Information and High Pressure Fuel
Lines” before adjustments and repairs are performed.
Note: Refer to Testing and Adjusting Manual,
“Cleanliness of Fuel System Components” for
detailed information on the standards of
cleanliness that must be observed during ALL
work on the fuel system.
Ensure that all adjustments and repairs are
performed by authorized personnel that have had the
correct training.
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
minutes before cranking the engine again.
If air enters the fuel system, the air must be purged
from the fuel system before the engine can be
started. Air can enter the fuel system when the
following events occur:
SEBU8731
87
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System - Prime
• The fuel tank is empty or the fuel tank has been
partially drained.
• The low-pressure fuel lines are disconnected.
• A leak exists in the low-pressure fuel system.
• The fuel filter has been replaced.
• The engine has not been in use for an extended
period.
Hand Fuel Priming Pump
DO NOT loosen the high-pressure fuel lines in order
to purge air from the fuel system. This procedure is
not required.
Use the following procedures in order to remove air
from the fuel system:
1. Ensure that the fuel system is in working order to
remove air from the fuel system. Ensure that the
primary filter is clean and free from dirt.
2. Check that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is in
the ON position.
4. Operate the hand priming pump for 2 minutes.
After 2 minutes, the system should be primed and
the engine ready to be started. Lock and priming
handle by securing the handle into the body of the
pump (2). Push handle in and turn handle
clockwise to lock.
Note: Ensure priming handle (1) is locked correctly
into place . If the priming handle is not locked into
place, fuel flow to the fuel system will be obstructed.
5. Operate the engine starter and crank the engine .
After the engine has started, operate the engine at
a low idle for a minimum of 5 minutes. Operating
the engine at a low idle will help ensure that the air
has been removed from the fuel system.
6. If the engine will not start, repeat steps 2 to step 5.
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 10
minutes in order to allow the fuel pressure to be
purged from the high-pressure fuel lines before any
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.
If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair any
leaks from the low-pressure fuel system and from the
cooling, lubrication, or air systems. Replace any highpressure fuel line that has leaked. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, “Fuel Injection Lines Install”.
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure in order to avoid a fluid
penetration hazard . Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
NOTICE
The low-pressure fuel system can be pressurized for
a time period after the engine has stopped operating.
The operating pressure of the low-pressure fuel system can be 500 kPa (73 psi). The secondary fuel filters should be drained before any maintenance of the
low-pressure fuel system is carried out.
If the engine will not start, refer to Troubleshooting,
“Engine Cranks but will not Start”.
Electric Prime
Illustration 54
g03352705
3. Unlock priming pump handle (1) by turning handle
counterclockwise.
Note: During priming the hand pressure required to
prime the fuel system will increase.
NOTICE
Do not crank the engine continuously for more than
30 seconds. Allow the starting motor to cool for two
minutes before cranking the engine again.
DO NOT loosen the high-pressure fuel lines in order
to purge air from the fuel system. This procedure is
not required.
1. Ensure that the fuel system is in working order.
Check that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is in
the ON position.
88
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace
SEBU8731
4. After the keyswitch is turned to the ON position, the
relay (4) will allow operation of the electric priming
pump for 2 minutes. After 2 minutes, turn the
keyswitch in order to operate the starter and crank
the engine. If the engine does not start, turn the
keyswitch OFF and then ON again and allow 1
minutes 30 seconds before starting the engine.
5. After the engine has started, operate the engine at
a low idle for a minimum of 5 minutes. Operating
the engine at a low idle will help ensure that the air
has been removed from the fuel system.
Illustration 55
g03359890
Typical example
2. Remove the protection cap (1). Depress valve (2)
in order to purge air. Perkins recommend that a
tire inflator with a suitable length of clear hose
attached to be used. Refer to illustration 56 .
After the engine has stopped, you must wait for 10
minutes in order to allow the fuel pressure to be
purged from the high-pressure fuel lines before any
service or repair is performed on the engine fuel lines.
If necessary, perform minor adjustments. Repair any
leaks from the low-pressure fuel system and from the
cooling, lubrication, or air systems. Replace any highpressure fuel line that has leaked. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, “Fuel Injection Lines Install”.
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure in order to avoid a fluid
penetration hazard . Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
NOTICE
The low-pressure fuel system can be pressurized for
a time period after the engine has stopped operating.
The operating pressure of the low-pressure fuel system can be 500 kPa (73 psi). The secondary fuel filters should be drained before any maintenance of the
low-pressure fuel system is carried out.
If the engine will not start, refer to Troubleshooting,
“Engine Cranks but will not Start”.
i05294273
Illustration 56
g02948436
(A) Connection for clear hose
(B) Inflator
3. With tool (B) installed to valve (2) turn the
keyswitch to the ON position. When fuel has filled
the bowl at the bottom of the filter (3), the tool (B)
can be removed. Ensure that the protection cap (1)
is install.
Fuel System Primary Filter
(Water Separator) Element Replace
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
SEBU8731
89
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water Separator) Element - Replace
Note: Refer to Testing and Adjusting Manual,
“Cleanliness of Fuel System Components” for
detailed information on the standards of
cleanliness that must be observed during ALL
work on the fuel system.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
1. Turn the fuel supply valve (if equipped) to the OFF
position before performing this maintenance.
2. Place a suitable container under the water
separator Clean any spilled fuel. Clean the outside
of the water separator.
Illustration 58
g03352754
Typical example
4. Disconnect the electrical connector (8) and by
hand remove connecting bowl (7). Remove the old
O ring seal (6). Clean connecting bowl (7).
5. Use a suitable tool in order to remove the fuel filter
(5).
6. Lubricate the O ring seal (4) with clean engine oil
on the new filter. Install the new spin on fuel filter
(5). Spin on the filter until the O ring seal contacts
the filter base (3). The filter will require a ¾ of a full
turn.
Illustration 57
g03352638
Typical example
3. Install a suitable tube onto connection (2) and open
drain valve (1) and drain the filter. Allow the fluid to
drain into the container. Remove the tube.
7. Install new O ring seal (6) onto connecting bowl (7).
Lubricate the O ring seal (6) with clean engine oil
and tighten the connecting bowl by hand. When
the O ring seal contacts the filter, tighten the
connecting bowl ¾ of a full turn.
8. Install the electrical connector (8). Remove the
container and dispose of the fuel in accordance
with local regulations. If necessary, turn the fuel
supply valve to the ON position.
9. The secondary filter must be replaced at the same
time as the primary filter. Refer to the Operation
and Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System
Secondary Filter - Replace”.
90
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator - Drain
SEBU8731
i05268151
Fuel System Primary Filter/
Water Separator - Drain
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
NOTICE
The water separator can be under suction during normal engine operation. Ensure that the drain valve is
tightened securely to help prevent air from entering
the fuel system.
Illustration 59
g03352638
Typical example
1. Place a suitable container under the water
separator in order to catch fluid to be drained.
2. Install a suitable tube onto connection (2).
NOTICE
The low-pressure fuel system can be pressurized for
a time period after the engine has stopped operating.
The operating pressure of the low-pressure fuel system can be 500 kPa (73 psi).
Use the same method when draining the primary fuel
filter with a hand priming pump installed.
3. Open drain valve (1) and allow the fluid to drain
from filter.
4. When clean fuel can be seen to drain, tighten the
drain valve securely, by hand pressure only.
5. Remove the tube. and dispose of any fluid in
accordance with local regulations. Ensure that the
filter is dry before engine operation.
i05269459
Fuel System Secondary Filter Replace
Fuel leaked or spilled onto hot surfaces or electrical components can cause a fire. To help prevent
possible injury, turn the start switch off when
changing fuel filters or water separator elements.
Clean up fuel spills immediately.
SEBU8731
91
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace
Note: Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and
Adjusting, “Cleanliness of Fuel System
Components” for detailed information on the
standards of cleanliness that must be observed
during ALL work on the fuel system.
NOTICE
Ensure that the engine is stopped before any servicing or repair is performed.
2. Install a suitable tube onto connection (4). Rotate
the drain valve (3) counterclockwise. Two full turns
are required.
3. Allow the fuel to drain into the container and
remove the tube.
4. Remove the filter bowl (2) from filter body (1).
Rotate the filter bowl counterclockwise in order to
remove the assembly.
NOTICE
Do not allow dirt to enter the fuel system. Thoroughly
clean the area around a fuel system component that
will be disconnected. Fit a suitable cover over disconnected fuel system component.
NOTICE
The low-pressure fuel system can be pressurized for
a time period after the engine has stopped operating.
The operating pressure of the low-pressure fuel system can be 500 kPa (73 psi).
Note: Both fuel filter elements must be replaced.
Remove the Element
1. Ensure that the fuel supply valve (if equipped) is in
the OFF position. Place a suitable container under
the fuel filters in order to catch any fuel that might
spill. Clean up any spilled fuel.
Illustration 61
g03353105
Typical example
5. Rotate the filter element (5) counterclockwise and
remove the filter element. Clean the filter bowl.
Install the Element
Illustration 60
Typical example
g03353094
92
Maintenance Recommendations
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain
SEBU8731
i02348492
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment
- Drain
NOTICE
Care must be taken to ensure that fluids are contained during performance of inspection, maintenance, testing, adjusting and repair of the product. Be
prepared to collect the fluid with suitable containers
before opening any compartment or disassembling
any component containing fluids.
Dispose of all fluids according to local regulations and
mandates.
Fuel Tank
Illustration 62
g03353115
Typical example
1. Locate the thread (7) in the filter element onto the
threads (6). Spin on the new filter element and
tighten the drain valve (3) by hand.
2. Lubricate the seal on the filter element (5) with
clean engine oil. Do NOT fill the filter bowl (2) with
fuel before the filter assembly is installed.
3. Do not use a tool in order to install the filter
assembly. Tighten the assembly by hand. Install
the filter bowl (2). Turn the filter bowl clockwise
until the filter bowl locks into position against the
stops.
4. Filter assembly (A) is now complete. Perform the
same procedure on filter assembly (B).
5. When both filter elements have been replaced with
new filter elements the fuel system can be primed,
if the primary filter has also been renewed. If
necessary, turn the fuel supply valve to the ON
position.
6. Prime the fuel system. Refer to the Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fuel System - Prime” for
more information.
Fuel quality is critical to the performance and to the
service life of the engine. Water in the fuel can cause
excessive wear to the fuel system.
Water can be introduced into the fuel tank when the
fuel tank is being filled.
Condensation occurs during the heating and cooling
of fuel. The condensation occurs as the fuel passes
through the fuel system and the fuel returns to the
fuel tank. This causes water to accumulate in fuel
tanks. Draining the fuel tank regularly and obtaining
fuel from reliable sources can help to eliminate water
in the fuel.
Drain the Water and the Sediment
Fuel tanks should contain some provision for draining
water and draining sediment from the bottom of the
fuel tanks.
Open the drain valve on the bottom of the fuel tank in
order to drain the water and the sediment. Close the
drain valve.
Check the fuel daily. Allow five minutes after the fuel
tank has been filled before draining water and
sediment from the fuel tank.
Fill the fuel tank after operating the engine in order to
drive out moist air. This will help prevent
condensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. The fuel
expands as the fuel gets warm. The tank may
overflow.
Some fuel tanks use supply pipes that allow water
and sediment to settle below the end of the fuel
supply pipe. Some fuel tanks use supply lines that
take fuel directly from the bottom of the tank. If the
engine is equipped with this system, regular
maintenance of the fuel system filter is important.
SEBU8731
93
Maintenance Recommendations
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace
Fuel Storage Tanks
• End fittings that are damaged or leaking
Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
storage tank at the following intervals:
• Outer covering that is chafed or cut
• Exposed wire that is used for reinforcement
• Weekly
• Outer covering that is ballooning locally
• Service intervals
• Flexible part of the hose that is kinked or crushed
• Refill of the tank
This will help prevent water or sediment from being
pumped from the storage tank into the engine fuel
tank.
If a bulk storage tank has been refilled or moved
recently, allow adequate time for the sediment to
settle before filling the engine fuel tank. Internal
baffles in the bulk storage tank will also help trap
sediment. Filtering fuel that is pumped from the
storage tank helps to ensure the quality of the fuel.
When possible, water separators should be used.
i02518232
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/
Replace
• Armoring that is embedded in the outer covering
A constant torque hose clamp can be used in place of
any standard hose clamp. Ensure that the constant
torque hose clamp is the same size as the standard
clamp.
Due to extreme temperature changes, the hose will
harden. Hardening of the hoses will cause hose
clamps to loosen. This can result in leaks. A constant
torque hose clamp will help to prevent loose hose
clamps.
Each installation application can be different. The
differences depend on the following factors:
• Type of hose
• Type of fitting material
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the hose
• Anticipated expansion and contraction of the
fittings
Contact with high pressure fuel may cause fluid
penetration and burn hazards. High pressure fuel
spray may cause a fire hazard. Failure to follow
these inspection, maintenance and service instructions may cause personal injury or death.
If you inspect the engine in operation, always use the
proper inspection procedure in order to avoid a fluid
penetration hazard. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “General hazard Information”.
Inspect all hoses for leaks that are caused by the
following conditions:
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps
Refer to the OEM information for further information
on removing and replacing fuel hoses (if equipped).
The following text describes a typical method of
replacing coolant hoses. Refer to the OEM
information for further information on the coolant
system and the hoses for the coolant system.
• Loose clamps
Pressurized System: Hot coolant can cause serious burns. To open the cooling system filler cap,
stop the engine and wait until the cooling system
components are cool. Loosen the cooling system
pressure cap slowly in order to relieve the
pressure.
Replace hoses that are cracked or soft. Tighten any
loose clamps.
1. Stop the engine. Allow the engine to cool.
• Cracking
• Softness
Check for the following conditions:
2. Loosen the cooling system filler cap slowly in order
to relieve any pressure. Remove the cooling
system filler cap.
Note: Drain the coolant into a suitable, clean
container. The coolant can be reused.
94
Maintenance Recommendations
Radiator - Clean
SEBU8731
3. Drain the coolant from the cooling system to a level
that is below the hose that is being replaced.
4. Remove the hose clamps.
5. Disconnect the old hose.
6. Replace the old hose with a new hose.
7. Install the hose clamps with a torque wrench.
Note: For the correct coolant, see this Operation and
Maintenance Manual, “Fluid Recommendations”.
8. Refill the cooling system. Refer to the OEM
information for further information on refilling the
cooling system.
9. Clean the cooling system filler cap. Inspect the
cooling system filler cap's seals. Replace the
cooling system filler cap if the seals are damaged.
Install the cooling system filler cap.
10. Start the engine. Inspect the cooling system for
leaks.
i04020194
Radiator - Clean
Note: Adjust the frequency of cleaning according to
the effects of the operating environment.
Inspect the radiator for these items: damaged fins,
corrosion, dirt, grease, insects, leaves, oil and other
debris. Clean the radiator, if necessary.
Pressurized water may also be used for cleaning. The
maximum water pressure for cleaning purposes must
be less than 275 kPa (40 psi). Use pressurized water
in order to soften mud. Clean the core from both
sides.
Use a degreaser and steam for removal of oil and
grease. Clean both sides of the core. Wash the core
with detergent and hot water. Thoroughly rinse the
core with clean water.
After cleaning, start the engine and accelerate the
engine to high idle rpm. This procedure will help in the
removal of debris and drying of the core. Stop the
engine. Use a light bulb behind the core in order to
inspect the core for cleanliness. Repeat the cleaning,
if necessary.
Inspect the fins for damage. Bent fins may be opened
with a “comb”. Inspect these items for good condition:
welds, mounting brackets, air lines, connections,
clamps and seals. Make repairs, if necessary.
i02177969
Starting Motor - Inspect
Perkins recommends a scheduled inspection of the
starting motor. If the starting motor fails, the engine
may not start in an emergency situation.
Check the starting motor for correct operation. Check
the electrical connections and clean the electrical
connections. Refer to the Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting Manual, “Electric Starting System Test” for more information on the checking procedure
and for specifications or consult your Perkins dealer
or your Perkins distributor for assistance.
i04144491
Personal injury can result from air pressure.
Personal injury can result without following proper procedure. When using pressure air, wear a
protective face shield and protective clothing.
The maximum air pressure for cleaning purposes
must be reduced to 205 kPa (30 psi) when the air
nozzle is deadheaded.
Pressurized air is the preferred method for removing
loose debris. Direct the air in the opposite direction of
the air flow. Hold the nozzle approximately 6 mm
(0.25 inch) away from the fins. Slowly move the air
nozzle in a direction that is parallel with the tubes.
This movement will remove debris that is between the
tubes.
Turbocharger - Inspect
A regular visual inspection of the turbocharger is
recommended. If the turbocharger fails during engine
operation, damage to the turbocharger compressor
wheel and/or to the engine may occur. Damage to the
turbocharger compressor wheel can cause additional
damage to the pistons, the valves, and the cylinder
head.
SEBU8731
NOTICE
Turbocharger bearing failures can cause large quantities of oil to enter the air intake and exhaust systems.
Loss of engine lubricant can result in serious engine
damage.
Minor leakage of oil into a turbocharger under extended low idle operation should not cause problems
as long as a turbocharger bearing failure has not
occured.
When a turbocharger bearing failure is accompanied
by a significant engine performance loss (exhaust
smoke or engine rpm up at no load), do not continue
engine operation until the turbocharger is renewed.
A visual inspection of the turbocharger can minimize
unscheduled downtime. A visual inspection of the
turbocharger can also reduce the chance for potential
damage to other engine parts.
Removal and Installation
For options regarding the removal, installation, and
replacement, consult your Carerpillar dealer. Refer to
the Disassembly and Assembly, “Turbocharger Remove and Turbocharger - Install” and Systems
Operation, Testing and Adjusting, “Turbocharger Inspect” for further information.
Inspecting
NOTICE
The compressor housing for the turbocharger must
not be removed from the turbocharger for inspection
or removed for the cleaning of the compressor.
1. Remove the pipe from the turbocharger exhaust
outlet and remove the air intake pipe to the
turbocharger. Visually inspect the piping for the
presence of oil. Clean the interior of the pipes in
order to prevent dirt from entering during
reassembly.
2. Check for obvious heat discoloration of the
turbocharger. Check for any loose bolts or any
missing bolts. Check for damage to the oil supply
line and the oil drain line. Check for cracks in the
housing of the turbocharger. Ensure that the
compressor wheel can rotate freely.
3. Check for the presence of oil. If oil is leaking from
the back side of the compressor wheel, there is a
possibility of a failed turbocharger oil seal.
The presence of oil may be the result of extended
engine operation at low idle. The presence of oil
may also be the result of a restriction of the line for
the intake air (clogged air filters), which causes the
turbocharger to slobber.
95
Maintenance Recommendations
Walk-Around Inspection
4. Inspect the bore of the housing of the turbine outlet
for corrosion.
5. Fasten the air intake pipe and the exhaust outlet
pipe to the turbocharger housing. Ensure that all
clamps are installed correctly and that all clamps
are tightened securely.
i02678854
Walk-Around Inspection
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and
for Loose Connections
A walk-around inspection should only take a few
minutes. When the time is taken to perform these
checks, costly repairs and accidents can be avoided.
For maximum engine service life, make a thorough
inspection of the engine compartment before starting
the engine. Look for items such as oil leaks or coolant
leaks, loose bolts, worn belts, loose connections and
trash buildup. Make repairs, as needed:
• The guards must be in the correct place. Repair
damaged guards or replace missing guards.
• Wipe all caps and plugs before the engine is
serviced in order to reduce the chance of system
contamination.
NOTICE
For any type of leak (coolant, lube, or fuel) clean up
the fluid. If leaking is observed, find the source and
correct the leak. If leaking is suspected, check the fluid levels more often than recommended until the leak
is found or fixed, or until the suspicion of a leak is
proved to be unwarranted.
NOTICE
Accumulated grease and/or oil on an engine is a fire
hazard. Remove the accumulated grease and oil. Refer to this Operation and Maintenance Manual, “Engine - Clean” for more information.
• Ensure that the cooling system hoses are correctly
clamped and that the cooling system hoses are
tight. Check for leaks. Check the condition of all
pipes.
• Inspect the water pump for coolant leaks.
Note: The water pump seal is lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. It is normal for a small
amount of leakage to occur as the engine cools down
and the parts contract.
96
Maintenance Recommendations
Water Pump - Inspect
SEBU8731
Excessive coolant leakage may indicate the need to
replace the water pump seal. For the removal of the
water pump and the installation of water pump and/or
seal, refer to the Disassembly and Assembly Manual,
“Water Pump - Remove and Install” for more
information or consult your Perkins dealer or your
Perkins distributor.
• Cracks in the cylinder head
• A piston seizure
• Other potential damage to the engine
• Inspect the lubrication system for leaks at the front
crankshaft seal, the rear crankshaft seal, the oil
pan, the oil filters and the rocker cover.
• Inspect the fuel system for leaks. Look for loose
fuel line clamps and/or tie-wraps.
• Inspect the piping for the air intake system and the
elbows for cracks and for loose clamps. Ensure
that hoses and tubes are not contacting other
hoses, tubes, wiring harnesses, etc.
• Inspect the alternator belts and any accessory
drive belts for cracks, breaks or other damage.
Belts for multiple groove pulleys must be replaced as
matched sets. If only one belt is replaced, the belt will
carry more load than the belts that are not replaced.
The older belts are stretched. The additional load on
the new belt could cause the belt to break.
Illustration 63
g03364302
• Drain the water and the sediment from the fuel
tank on a daily basis in order to ensure that only
clean fuel enters the fuel system.
(A) Weep hole
(B) Vent hole
• Inspect the wiring and the wiring harnesses for
loose connections and for worn wires or frayed
wires.
Note: The water pump seals are lubricated by the
coolant in the cooling system. A small amount of
leakage will occur normally. Refer to illustration 63 for
the position of the weep hole and the vent hole.
• Inspect the ground strap for a good connection
and for good condition.
Visually inspect the water pump for leaks.
• Disconnect any battery chargers that are not
protected against the current drain of the starting
motor. Check the condition and the electrolyte
level of the batteries, unless the engine is
equipped with a maintenance free battery.
• Check the condition of the gauges. Replace any
gauges that are cracked. Replace any gauge that
can not be calibrated.
i05298898
Water Pump - Inspect
A failed water pump may cause severe engine
overheating problems that could result in the following
conditions:
Note: If engine coolant enters the engine lubricating
system, the lubricating oil and the engine oil filter
must be replaced. This operation will remove any
contamination that is caused by the coolant and this
action will prevent any irregular oil samples.
The water pump is not a serviceable item. In order to
install a new water pump, refer to the Disassembly
and Assembly Manual, “Water Pump - Remove and
Install”.
SEBU8731
97
Warranty Section
Emissions Warranty Information
Warranty Section
Warranty Information
i01903596
Emissions Warranty
Information
This engine may be certified to comply with exhaust
emission standards and gaseous emission standards
that are prescribed by the law at the time of
manufacture, and this engine may be covered by an
Emissions Warranty. Consult your authorized Perkins
dealer or your authorized Perkins distributor in order
to determine if your engine is emissions certified and
if your engine is subject to an Emissions Warranty.
98
SEBU8731
Reference Information Section
Engine Protection Plans
Reference Information
Section
www.perkins.com
NOTICE
Dependant upon engine type and application.
Reference Materials
i04224089
Engine Protection Plans
(Extended Service Contract)
Extended Service Contracts-purchased in minutes,
protected for years.
Extended Service Contracts (ESC) protect you from
the stress that unexpected repair work brings to your
life by covering the cost of getting your engine up and
running again. Unlike other extended warranties,
Perkins Platinum ESC protects you against all
component part failures.
Purchase peace of mind from only £0.03 / $0.05 /
euro 0.04 a day and let an ESC make your dreams a
reality.
Why buy an Extended Service Contract?
1. No surprises - total protection from unexpected
repair cost (parts, labor, and travel).
2. Enjoy longer lasting product support from Perkins
global network.
3. Genuine Perkins parts ensure continued engine
performance.
4. Highly trained technicians carry out all repairs.
5. Transferable coverage should you sell your
machine.
Flexible coverage provides the right level of
protection for your Perkins Engine. Coverage can be
extended to 2 years/ 1,000 hours right up to 10 year/
40,000
You can buy an ESC at any time during standard
warranty - even the last day!
Each Perkins Distributor has highly trained and
experienced Perkins Product Support Service
Technicians. The Support Service are equipped, and
available around the clock to get your engine running
again with the minimum of downtime. Buying an ESC
means that you get all this for free.
To purchase an Extended Service Contract, is quick
and simple! Contact your local Perkins Distributor
now and the distributor can provide you with a quote
in minutes. You can locate your nearest Perkins
Distributor by visiting:
SEBU8731
99
Index Section
Index
A
Cooling System Supplemental Coolant Additive
(SCA) - Test/Add............................................ 75
Add the SCA, If Necessary .......................... 76
Test for SCA Concentration ......................... 75
Crushing Prevention and Cutting Prevention .. 10
After Starting Engine........................................ 44
After Stopping Engine...................................... 50
Aftercooler Core - Clean/Test (Air-To-Air
Aftercooler) .................................................... 68
Aftercooler Core - Inspect................................ 68
Alarms and Shutoffs ........................................ 25
Alarms.......................................................... 25
Shutoffs........................................................ 25
Testing.......................................................... 25
Alternator - Inspect .......................................... 68
Alternator and Fan Belts - Replace.................. 68
D
B
E
Battery - Replace............................................. 69
Battery Electrolyte Level - Check .................... 69
Battery or Battery Cable - Disconnect ............. 70
Before Starting Engine ...............................13, 42
Belt - Inspect.................................................... 71
Belt Tensioner - Check..................................... 70
Burn Prevention................................................. 8
Batteries......................................................... 9
Coolant........................................................... 8
Oils................................................................. 9
Electrical System ............................................. 14
Grounding Practices .................................... 14
Emergency Stopping ....................................... 50
Emergency Stop Button............................... 50
Emissions Certification Film ............................ 22
Emissions Warranty Information...................... 97
Engine - Clean ................................................. 76
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Dual Element/
Canister Type) - Clean/Replace (If
Equipped) ...................................................... 77
Cleaning the Primary Air Cleaner Elements
................................................................... 78
Servicing the Air Cleaner Elements ............. 77
Engine Air Cleaner Element (Single
Element) - Inspect/Replace ........................... 79
Engine Air Cleaner Service Indicator Inspect ........................................................... 80
Test the Service Indicator............................. 80
Engine Air Precleaner - Check/Clean.............. 81
Engine Crankcase Breather Element Replace.......................................................... 81
Engine Diagnostics.......................................... 35
Engine Electronics........................................... 15
Engine Mounts - Inspect.................................. 81
Engine Oil and Filter - Change ........................ 83
Drain the Engine Lubricating Oil .................. 83
Fill the Oil Pan.............................................. 84
Replace the Oil Filter.................................... 84
Engine Oil Level - Check ................................. 82
Engine Oil Sample - Obtain ............................. 82
Obtain the Sample and the Analysis............ 82
Engine Operation............................................. 45
C
Cold Weather Operation.................................. 46
Hints for Cold Weather Operation................ 46
Idling the Engine .......................................... 47
Recommendations for Coolant Warm Up .... 47
Recommendations for the Coolant .............. 47
Viscosity of the Engine Lubrication Oil......... 47
Cold Weather Starting ..................................... 42
Configuration Parameters................................ 38
Customer Specified Parameters.................. 39
System Configuration Parameters............... 38
Coolant (Commercial Heavy-Duty) - Change .. 71
Drain ............................................................ 71
Fill................................................................. 72
Flush ............................................................ 72
Coolant (ELC) - Change .................................. 73
Drain ............................................................ 73
Fill................................................................. 74
Flush ............................................................ 74
Coolant Extender (ELC) - Add ......................... 75
Coolant Level - Check ..................................... 75
Diagnostic Flash Code Retrieval ..................... 35
“Diagnostic” Lamp........................................ 35
Diagnostic Lamp.............................................. 35
Driven Equipment - Check............................... 76
100
SEBU8731
Index Section
Engine Operation with Active Diagnostic
Codes ............................................................ 37
Engine Operation with Intermittent
Diagnostic Codes........................................... 38
Engine Protection Plans (Extended Service
Contract) ........................................................ 98
Engine Starting ...........................................13, 42
Engine Stopping .........................................13, 50
Engine Valve Lash - Check.............................. 85
Fuel System Primary Filter/Water Separator
- Drain ............................................................ 90
Fuel System Secondary Filter - Replace ......... 90
Install the Element ....................................... 91
Remove the Element ................................... 91
Fuel Tank Water and Sediment - Drain............ 92
Drain the Water and the Sediment............... 92
Fuel Storage Tanks ...................................... 93
Fuel Tank ..................................................... 92
F
G
Fan Clearance - Check.................................... 85
Fault Logging................................................... 37
Features and Controls ..................................... 25
Fire Prevention and Explosion Prevention ........ 9
Fire Extinguisher.......................................... 10
Lines, Tubes, and Hoses ............................. 10
Fluid Recommendations.................................. 52
ELC Cooling System Maintenance.............. 54
General Coolant Information........................ 52
Fluid Recommendations (Engine Oil
Specification) ................................................. 56
Engine Oil .................................................... 57
General Lubricant Information ..................... 56
Fluid Recommendations (Fuel Specification).. 59
Diesel Fuel Characteristics .......................... 61
Diesel Fuel Requirements............................ 59
General Information ..................................... 59
Service Intervals for Biodiesel and High sulfur
Fuels. ......................................................... 64
Foreword............................................................ 4
California Proposition 65 Warning ................. 4
Literature Information..................................... 4
Maintenance .................................................. 4
Maintenance Intervals.................................... 4
Operation ....................................................... 4
Overhaul ........................................................ 4
Safety............................................................. 4
Fuel and the Effect from Cold Weather............ 48
Fuel Conservation Practices............................ 45
Fuel Related Components in Cold Weather .... 48
Fuel Filters ................................................... 48
Fuel Heaters ................................................ 49
Fuel Tanks.................................................... 48
Fuel System - Prime ........................................ 86
Electric Prime............................................... 87
Hand Fuel Priming Pump............................. 87
Fuel System Primary Filter (Water
Separator) Element - Replace ....................... 88
Gauges and Indicators .................................... 26
Indicator Lamps ........................................... 26
Instrument panels and Displays................... 27
General Hazard Information .............................. 7
Containing Fluid Spillage ............................... 8
Fluid Penetration............................................ 8
Pressure Air and Water.................................. 7
General Information......................................... 16
H
High Pressure Fuel Lines .................................11
Hoses and Clamps - Inspect/Replace ............. 93
Replace the Hoses and the Clamps ............ 93
I
Important Safety Information ............................. 2
L
Lifting and Storage........................................... 23
M
Maintenance Interval Schedule ....................... 67
Commissioning ............................................ 68
Daily ............................................................. 67
Every 1000 Service Hours ........................... 67
Every 12 000 Service Hours or 6 Years ....... 67
Every 2000 Service Hours ........................... 67
Every 3000 Service Hours ........................... 67
Every 3000 Service Hours or 2 Years .......... 67
Every 50 Service Hours or Weekly .............. 67
Every 500 Service Hours ............................. 67
Every 500 Service Hours or 1 Year.............. 67
Every 6000 Service Hours or 3 Years .......... 67
Every Week.................................................. 67
SEBU8731
101
Index Section
Every Year.................................................... 67
Initial 500 Service Hours .............................. 67
When Required............................................ 67
Maintenance Recommendations..................... 65
Maintenance Section ....................................... 52
Model View Illustrations................................... 16
Off Engine Parts and Options ...................... 19
Monitoring System......................................27, 29
Programmable Options and Systems
Operation ................................................... 27
Mounting and Dismounting...............................11
Safety Section ................................................... 5
Self-Diagnostics............................................... 35
Sensors and Electrical Components ............... 29
Severe Service Application.............................. 66
Environmental Factors................................. 66
Incorrect Maintenance Procedures.............. 66
Incorrect Operating Procedures................... 66
Starting Motor - Inspect ................................... 94
Starting the Engine .......................................... 43
Starting the Engine ...................................... 43
Starting with Jump Start Cables ...................... 43
Stopping the Engine ........................................ 50
O
Operation Section............................................ 23
Overspeed....................................................... 29
P
Plate Locations and Film Locations................. 21
Serial Number Plate (1)................................ 21
Product Description ......................................... 19
Electronic Engine Features.......................... 20
Engine Cooling and Lubrication................... 20
Engine Diagnostics ...................................... 20
Engine Specifications .................................. 19
Product Identification Information.................... 21
Product Information Section ............................ 16
Product Lifting.................................................. 23
Product Storage............................................... 23
Condition for Storage ................................... 23
R
Radiator - Clean............................................... 94
Reference Information..................................... 22
Record for Reference................................... 22
Reference Information Section ........................ 98
Reference Materials ........................................ 98
Refill Capacities............................................... 52
Coolant......................................................... 52
Fuel .............................................................. 52
Lubricating Oil .............................................. 52
S
Safety Messages............................................... 5
(1) Universal Warning .................................... 5
2 Hand (High Pressure) ................................. 6
Ether .............................................................. 7
T
Table of Contents............................................... 3
Turbocharger - Inspect .................................... 94
Inspecting..................................................... 95
Removal and Installation.............................. 95
W
Walk-Around Inspection .................................. 95
Inspect the Engine for Leaks and for Loose
Connections ............................................... 95
Warranty Information ....................................... 97
Warranty Section ............................................. 97
Water Pump - Inspect ...................................... 96
Welding on Engines with Electronic Controls .. 65
102
Index Section
SEBU8731
Product and Dealer Information
Note: For
product identification plate locations, see the section “Product Identification
Information” in the Operation and Maintenance Manual.
Delivery Date:
Product Information
Model:
Product Identification Number:
Engine Serial Number:
Transmission
Serial Number:
Generator Serial Number:
Attachment Serial Numbers:
Attachment Information:
Customer Equipment Number:
Dealer Equipment
Number:
Dealer Information
Name:
Branch:
Address:
Dealer
Contact
Sales:
Parts:
Service:
Phone
Number
Hours
©2013 Perkins Engines Company Limited
All Rights Reserved
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement