appleton guide for use of electrical products in hazardous locations

appleton guide for use of electrical products in hazardous locations
ARMOURED
CABLE GLANDS
GUIDE
FOR USE&OFNON-ARMOURED
ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS
IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
"ELECTRICAL ENERGY EXPLAINED."
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
HAZARDOUS ATMOSPHERES
G:2
G:3-4
EXAMPLES OF HAZARDOUS AREAS
G:5
MAIN INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
G:6
IEC/CENELEC/NEC COMPARISON
ATEX EUROPEAN DIRECTIVES
G:7-8
G:9
EUROPEAN DIRECTIVE 94/9 CE
G:10
DEFINING HAZARDOUS AREAS
G:11
DEFINING HAZARDOUS AREAS FOR GAS AND VAPORS
G:12-13
ILLUSTRATION OF GAS AND VAPOR ENVIRONMENT
G:14-15
EXAMPLE OF FRENCH REGULATION FOR LIQUID HYDROCARBON STORAGE
G:16-17
SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT FOR GAS AND VAPOR ENVIRONMENTS
G:18-19
GAS SUBSTANCES LIKELY TO FORM EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES
G:20-23
GAS AND VAPOR CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO IEC/CENELEC
G:24
GAS AND VAPOR CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NEC
G:25
PRACTICAL EXAMPLES IN DUST ENVIRONMENTS
G:26
CLASSIFICATION OF EQUIPMENT WHERE DUST IS PRESENT
G:27
DUST WHICH MAY CAUSE POTENTIALLY EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES
G:28
CLASSIFICATION OF DUST - GENERAL INFORMATION
G:29
SELECTING EQUIPMENT IN DUST ENVIRONMENT
G:30-31
PROTECTION INDEX
G:32-33
EMC - ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY
G:34
PROTECTION MODES
G:35
FLAMEPROOF "d" EQUIPMENT
G:36-37
INCREASED SAFETY "e" EQUIPMENT
G:38-39
INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT
G:40
INSTALLATION METHODS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD
G:41
SELECTING CABLE
G:42
INSTALLATION METHOD FOR GABLE GLANDS
G:43-46
INSTALLATION RECOMMENDATIONS
G:47-49
APPLETON QUALITY CONTROL
G:50-51
PHOTOMETRY
SELECTION TABLE FOR APPLETON LUMINAIRES DEPENDING ON LAMP TYPE
G:52
G:53-54
INSPECTION AND SERVICE
G:55
MOUNTING RECOMMENDATION
G:56
REQUEST FOR LIGHTING DESIGN
G:57
G:1
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
OPTIMIZE PRODUCTIVITY OF HAZARDOUS
LOCATIONS WITH HIGHLY ENGINEERED ELECTRICAL
PRODUCTS.
For over 80 years, Appleton’s ATX line of electrical products has been the international choice for
hazardous and industrial locations. This comprehensive product line is specifically engineered to
the strict requirements these locations demand for safe and efficient operations. Our full range
of cable glands is no exception, delivering confidence to electrical connections throughout your
facility.
BETTER UNDERSTANDING LEADS TO BETTER CHOICE
Appleton developed the Guide to better inform all persons
involved in explosionproof selection, such as designers,
procurement departments, engineers, site managers, risk or
maintenance managers, authorized bodies controlling the
security on site, distributors' sales forces, etc...
APPLETON'S ADVICE FOR INSTALLING ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IN AREAS WITH EXPLOSION RISKS
Process for installing electrical equipment in areas with explosion risks.
The manager of the installation is solely responsible for :
1234-
Determine hazardous areas.
Defining Zone boundaries - volumes.
If necessary, delimiting Zones.
Knowing the characteristics of flammable substances
present on the site.
5- Defining the temperature class and the explosion
group of the equipment.
6- Choosing equipment depending on :
• the temperature class and the explosion group,
• environmental constraints specific to the site corrosion, exposure to UV, mechanical strength
• protection indexes.
7- Installing equipment.
8- Commissioning.
9- Checking the installation.
G:2
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
HAZARDOUS ATMOSPHERES
Electrical energy plays an important role in your daily life whether
you are involved in studying, designing or implementing installations.
This energy can become a danger to daily life. This can occur when
energy is used in any industry or warehouse which stores, processes
and manufactures products such as : hydrocarbons, gases, paints,
varnishes, glues, resins, perfumes, cleaning products, rubber, textiles,
plastics, powders, grains, dusts from various origins... There is
thus a high explosion risk with serious consequences for personnel,
equipment and the environment. We talk about an atmosphere with
an explosion hazard.
WHAT CONDITIONS WILL CREATE AN EXPLOSION ?
Three elements are required :
1- Oxygen in the air.
2- An inflammable substance, mixed with air. This substance
can be :
• gas (methane, acetylene),
• liquid (petrol, solvent),
• solid (sulphur, wood dust, sugar dust, grains dust...).
3- An ignition source :
• with sufficient energy, an electrical arc or a spark,
• and/or a rise in temperature.
WHAT IS MINIMUM IGNITION ENERGY ?
The minimum quantity of energy which must be introduced locally
(in the form of a flame, spark, shock, friction, etc) to cause ignition of
an explosive atmosphere. The majority of industrial ignition sources
contain much higher energy levels than this minimum ignition
energy, which is always low (from tens of microjoules for gas and
vapors to hundreds of millijoules for dusts).
WHAT IS THE SELF-IGNITION TEMPERATURE ?
The self-ignition temperature or spontaneous ignition temperature
is the minimum temperature at which an explosive atmosphere can
spontaneously ignite. The energy required to start a flame can be
changed to thermal form by an increase in the temperature of the
mixture.
WHAT IS THE EXPLOSIVE LIMIT OF AN INFLAMMABLE PRODUCT ?
The ignition of a product depends on its concentration in the air.
It can be produced within a range between two limits :
1- lower explosive limit (LEL) of a gas, vapor or dust in the air is
the minimum concentration above which the mixture could
ignite.
2- upper explosive limit (UEL) of a gas, vapor or dust is the
maximum concentration under which the mixture could ignite.
WHAT IS AN EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE ?
WHAT IS THE FLASH POINT OF A LIQUID ?
An explosive atmosphere results from a mixture of inflammable
substances in the form of gas, vapors, mist or dust with air in such
proportions that excessive temperature, an electrical arc, spark or any
other energy ignition source produces an explosion.
The flash point is the minimum temperature at which an inflammable
liquid emits sufficient vapors to reach the LEL in the gaseous phase in
equilibrium with the explosive atmosphere.
WHAT IS A POTENTIALLY EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE ?
WHAT TYPES OF SUBSTANCES, GASES, LIQUIDS OR VAPORS CAN
PRODUCE AN EXPLOSION ? IN GENERAL, THESE ARE :
An atmosphere is defined as potentially explosive when its usual
composition is not explosive, but due to unforeseen circumstances, it
can vary to such an extent that it becomes explosive (the danger exists
as a potential state). Foreseeable circumstances are as follows :
• various stages of a manufacturing process,
• incidents or accidents (rupture of a pipe-line, leak, supply loss),
• meteorological conditions (high ambient temperature, air
movements).
DUSTS
•
•
•
•
•
heating gas,
hydrocarbons,
glue and adhesive solvents,
varnishes and resins,
manufacturing additives for pharmaceutical products, artificial
dyes, aromas and perfumes,
• manufacturing agents for the following materials :
plastics, rubbers, man-made textiles and chemical cleaning
products,
• products used in the treatment and manufacturing of alcohols
and derivatives...
> Gas and Vapor Classification : see pages G:24-25.
GAS AND VAPORS
To produce an explosion, three elements are required simultaneously: oxygen in the air, one or several flammable substances and a
source of ignition.
G:3
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
HAZARDOUS ATMOSPHERES
WHAT TYPES OF DUSTS CAN PRODUCE AN EXPLOSION ?
Organic and metallic products which create powder and dust form
can also in certain conditions become active agents of an explosion.
These are powders and dust of :
• magnesium,
• aluminium,
• sulphur,
• cellulose,
• corn starch,
• epoxy resins,
• polystyrenes,
• dust of plastic,
• coal,
• wood,
• medick,
• sugar (icing sugar),
• corn (flour)...
> Dust classification : See pages G:28-29.
OFFSHORE SITE
(APPLETON LIGHTING FIXTURES ON TOTAL GIRASSOL PLATFORM)
WHERE MAY EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE FORM ?
Any location where these products are made, stored, and processed
may contain a potentially explosive atmosphere.
> Substances that may form explosive atmospheres : see pages G:21-23.
WHO KNOWS ?
Local authority who delivers operating permits, "bodies" such as
firemen, inspectors from insurance companies are normally aware of
the risks of explosion.
CHARACTERISTICS OF FLAMMABLE GAS/VAPORS EXAMPLES
GAS/VAPOR
Benzene
BOILING
TEMPERATURE
SELF-IGNITION
TEMPERATURE
FLASH POINT
LEL-UEL
(% OF THE MIXTURE
WITH AIR)
80 °C
-11 °C
498 °C
1,3 - 7,9 %
Ammonia - 33 °C
- 33 °C
gaz
650
15 - 28 %
Methane - 162 °C
- 162 °C
gaz
535
5 - 15 %
Butane
2 °C
gaz
287 °C
1,8 - 8,4 %
Pentane
36 °C
<- 40 °C
260 °C
1,5 - 7,8 %
Octane
126 °C
13 °C
260 °C
1 - 6,5 %
CHARACTERISTICS OF FLAMMABLE DUSTS EXAMPLES
SIZE OF
PARTICLES
SELF-IGNITION TEMPERATURE
MINIMAL CONCENTRATION (9/μ3)
400μ
550 °C
60
Ascorbic acid
39μ
490 °C
60
Paracetamol
120μ
––
30
Extract of rosemary
30μ
380 °C
30
Powder of Valerian
78μ
––
100
DUSTS
Acetylsalicylic acid
G:4
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
EXAMPLES OF HAZARDOUS AREAS
Following informations are given just as an example to explain the
French rules on those subjects : please identify in your country the
equivalent and remember, if there is no rule, that gas, vapor and dust
have no nationality : the way to explode or protect yourselves are the
same everywhere.
Using the description for installations classified for protection of the
environment in France, in accordance with the decree of May 20,
1953, modified on December 28, 1999.
Non-exhaustive list extracted from the typical orders for which
installations requiring a declaration should satisfy the provisions of the
ministerial order of March 31, 1980.
Decree relating to electrical installations in establishments regulated
under the legislation governing installations classified as likely to
present a risk of explosion.
Many countries produce similar documents.
PREMISES OR LOCATION
Alcohols (production by distillation)
Batteries (charging workshops)
Acetylene (storage or use of)
Acetylene (manufacture of)
Use or storage of toxic substances or preparation
Acids (use or storage of)
Steeping lighters (deposits of)
Flammable amines, storage
Workshops for repair and servicing of motor vehicles
Wood or similar combustible materials (workshops where these are worked on)
Wood, paper, cardboard or similar combustible materials (deposits of)
Candles or other wax objects, etc. (moulding of)
Grinding, crushing, etc., of vegetable substances and all organic products
Polymer processing
Easily flammable solids
Charcoal (deposits or warehouses of)
Heating (processes)
Shoes or leather/skin products (manufacture of)
Oxidising substances (manufacture, use, storage of)
Detergent (manufacture of products)
Fibres of vegetable or animal origin, artificial or synthetic fibres (processing of)
Fruit or vegetables (ripening, degreening, whitening, disinfestation rooms)
Gasometers and compressed gas tanks
Liquefied fuel gases (filling stations, or distribution of)
Tar, pitch, resins, etc. (mixture or hot processing of)
Coal, coke, etc (warehouses and deposits of)
Vegetable oils (extraction of)
Gaseous hydrogen (storage, use of)
Flammable liquids (storage and manufactured tank of)
Flammable liquids (installations for blending, processing or use of)
Flammable liquids (filling or distribution stations)
Leather goods (workshops)
Plastics, plastomers or elastomers (manufacture of)
Ammonium nitrate (deposits of)
Blended ammonium nitrate (deposits of)
Processing of vegetable fibres
Liquid oxygen (deposits of)
Covered car parks
Organic peroxides (use, manufacture, storage of)
Refrigeration or compression (installations)
Sugar factories, sugar refineries, malt houses
Silos and storage installations for cereals, grain, food products or any organic products releasing flammable dust
Textile dyeing and printing
Fabrics, knitted articles, tulles, guipure lace, etc (manufacturing workshops)
Varnishes, paints, primers, glues, rendering (application, baking, drying of)
G:5
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
MAIN STANDARDS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD
The worldwide electrotechnical standard for electrical equipment for
explosive atmospheres is covered by two major "standards" :
1- IEC/ATEX/CENELEC (common standard following agreement
in 1991 on procedures for developing standards)
IEC : International Electrotechnical Commission
ATEX : ATmospheres EXplosibles
CENELEC : European Committee of Electrotechnical
Standards
2- NEC, CEC (products approved by UL, FM, CSA...).
NEC : National Electrical Code
CEC : Canadian Electrical Code
Products which conform to IEC/ATEX/CENELEC or NEC
standards have identical protection, even though they are designed
differently to meet specific installation regulations.
IEC can be considered as the "international standard" accepted in
nearly every country.
Since 1996, NEC, Article 505, uses the IEC names of gas groups,
equipment temperature classes and area definitions.
> To obtain more detailed information, contact the national
laboratories : LCIE, INERIS , PTB, DEMKO, CSA, UL, KEMA,
DNV, LOM.....
IECEx
The aim of the IECEx Scheme is to facilitate international trade in
electrical equipment intended for use in explosive atmospheres (Ex
equipment) by eliminating the need for multiple national certification
while preserving an appropriate level of safety.
The IEC Ex Scheme provides the means for manufacturers of EX
equipment to obtain certificates of conformity that will be accepted at
national level in all participating countries. A certificate of conformity
may be obtained from any certification body accepted in the Scheme.
The certificate will attest that the equipment design conforms to
the relevant IEC standards and that the product is manufactured
under a quality plan assessed by an Accepted Certification Body.
Manufacturers holding certificates of conformity may affix the
IECEx Mark of Conformity to equipment that thy have verified as
complying with the certified design.
An application for a country to participate in the IECEx Scheme is
made on a standard by standard basis by the candidate Member Body
of the IECEx Scheme for that country. The application is made to the
Secretary of the Ex Management Committee. There are currently 17
Accepted Certification Bodies (ACBs) in 22 countries participating in
the IECEx Scheme.
NEC mandatory
ATEX/CENELEC members
ATEX/CENELEC affiliates
A number of admissible standards
(IEC, CENELEC, NEC, others)
CEC mandatory
G:6
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
IEC/CENELEC/NEC COMPARISON
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
(www.iec.ch)
GAS AND VAPOR CLASSIFICATION
The IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission), created in
1904 in Geneva (Switzerland) establish the IEC regulations.
Gases are divided into four groups by the CEC and the NEC (with
some additional gases).
The IEC also defines different groups of gases and vapors.
In 1947, with the creation of the International Standards
Organization (ISO) by the United Nations, the IEC became
responsible for the organization of the electrical division, while still
remaining independent.
The IEC has defined three categories of hazardous Zones (see page
G:11) :
• Zone 0 : the explosive atmosphere is continuously present.
• Zone 1 : the explosive atmosphere is often present.
• Zone 2 : the explosive atmosphere may accidentally be
present.
GAS AND VAPOR CLASSIFICATION
The IEC and North American groups are viewed as fundamentally
the same, apart from the fact that there are three groups in the IEC
and four for the NEC (see table below).
TEMPERATURE CLASSIFICATION
IEC defined a temperature classification for materials used in
hazardous areas.
Following this, CEC and NEC have also been modified to include a
temperature classification.
(see table below).
TEMPERATURE CLASSIFICATION
GROUP
CLASSIFICATION
IEC
NEC
(NORTH AMERICA)
II C
II C
II B
II B
II B
II B
II A
II A
II A
II A
II A
II A
II A
II A
II A
II A
A
B
C
C
C
C
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
GAS OR VAPOR
Acetylene
Hydrogen
Ethylene
Ethyl ether
Cyclopropane
Butadene 1-3
Propane
Ethane
Butane
Benzéne
Pentane
Heptane
Acetone
Methyl Ethyl
Methyl Alcohol
Ethyl Alcohol
TEMPERATURES
IN °C
IEC
NEC
(NORTH AMERICA)
450
300
280
260
230
215
200
180
165
160
135
120
100
85
T1
T2
T2
T2
T2
T2
T3
T3
T3
T3
T4
T4
T5
T6
T1
T2
T2A
T2B
T2C
T2D
T3
T3A
T3B
T3C
T4
T4A
T5
T6
Group 1 - underground working mine
Group 2 - surface industry
EQUIPMENT TYPES IEC, EN, UL CORRESPONDENCES
EQUIPMENT
IEC
CENELEC
Fixed luminaires for general use
UL (NEC)
• UL 844
Portable equipment
• UL 844
• UL 781
• UL 844
• UL 783
• UL 844
• UL 1570
• UL 844
• UL 1571
• IEC 60079-0
• IEC 60079-1 and/or 60079-7
• IEC 60598-1
• EN 60079-0
• EN 60079-1 and/or 60079-7
• EN 60598-1
Power outlets
• IEC 60079-0
• IEC 60079-1 and/or 60079-7
• IEC 60309-1 (IEC 60309-2)
• EN 60079-0
• EN 60079-1 and/or 60079-7
• EN 60309-1 (EN 60 309-2)
• UL 1010
• UL 1682
Switches
• IEC 60079-0
• IEC 60079-1 and/or 60079-7
• IEC 60947-1
• IEC 60947-3
• EN 60079-0
• EN 60079-1 and/or 60079-7
• EN 60947-1
• EN 60947-3
• UL 508
• UL 98
• UL 1087
• UL 894
Floodlights and lamps
Luminaires with fluorescent lamps
Luminaires with incandescent lamps
G:7
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
IEC/CENELEC/NEC COMPARISON
IEC/CENELEC
INFLAMMABLE MATERIAL
PROTECTION
ZONE
Acetylene
d-e
1,2
Hydrogen
d-e
NEC
GROUP
SUBDIVISION
CLASS
DIVISION
GROUP
II
C
I
1-2
A
1,2
II
C
I
1-2
B
d-e
1,2
II
B
I
1-2
B
d-e
1,2
II
B
I
1-2
C
d-e
1,2
II
A
I
1-2
D
GASES AND VAPORS
Propylene
Oxide
Ethyl oxide
Butadiene
Cyclopropane
Ethyl Ether
Ethylene
Acetone
Benzene
Butane
Propane
Hexane
Paint Solvents
Natural Gas
IEC/CENELEC
INFLAMMABLE MATERIAL
PROTECTION
NEC
ZONE
CLASS
DIVISION
GROUP
COMBUSTIBLE DUSTS
Magnesium
Aluminium
or metallic dusts with
IEC / CENELEC / NEC
Comparison
21-22
II
1
E
D/DIP
21-22
II
1
F
D/DIP
21-22
II
2
G
III
1 - 2(1)
R ≤ 105 Ohms x cm
Coal
Floor
Non metallic dusts with
R > 105 Ohms x cm
FIBERS AND FLYINGS
Rayon
Cotton
Linen
Wood
Hemp
Flax bast
IEC /
CENELEC
/ NEC
Comparison
Tow
Coconut fiber
Oakum
(1) Division 1 : manufacturing location
Division 2 : storage location
G:8
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
ATEX EUROPEAN DIRECTIVES
TWO EUROPEAN DIRECTIVES
On July 1, 2003, two important European directives concerning
electrical equipment for potentially explosive atmospheres, introducing
part of the new approach, came into force :
• Directive 94/9 CE concerns more specifically manufacturers who
are obliged to offer their customers ATEX products from June
30, 2003 onwards.
• Directive 99/92 CE concerns all users (specifiers, investors,
contractors, OEMs or distributors) of equipment for potentially
explosive atmospheres.
Both of these result from articles 100 A and 118 A of the Treaty of
Rome (1957).
1- DIRECTIVE 94/9 EC
Directive 94/9 EC defines the minimum requirements aimed at
improving protection, in terms of health and safety, for workers likely
to be exposed to risks of potentially explosive atmospheres.
It also defines the equipment capable of ensuring the desired safety
and the resources to be employed in selecting, installing, using and
maintaining this equipment.
This specifies safety requirements for both electrical and non-electrical
equipment, designed for use in hazardous locations as a result of the
presence of gas or dust.
As of July 1, 2003, all electrical equipment for potentially explosive
atmospheres sold within the European area must have ATEX
certification, as a result, they must bear the standard ATEX marking
on the product certification plate, in accordance with the new
European classification of products.
2- DIRECTIVE 99/92 EC
From July 1, 2003, it is mandatory to comply with the minimum
safety regulations described in the directives which need to be followed
routinely in hazardous locations.
The obligations on the employer or site manager are mainly :
• risks of explosion analysis; identification, assessment and record
keeping (article 8),
• classification of hazardous areas (or Zones),
• training of workers,
• validation of the conformity of the installation,
• procedure for maintenance of the installation,
• procdure in case of Alert and Evaluation.
ATEX/CENELEC members
ATEX/CENELEC affiliates
EU neighbouring countries
G:9
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
EUROPEAN DIRECTIVE 94/9 CE
ATEX EQUIPMENT CLASSIFICATION
ATEX PRODUCT MARKING
Directive 94/9 CE defines a new of hazardous Zones, with a
distinction between gas (G) or dust (D) atmospheres. As a result,
it introduces the existence of Zones 20, 21 and 22 corresponding
to dust environments and the concept of categories 1, 2 and 3 for
equipment.
As of July 1, 2003, all electrical equipment for potentially explosive
atmospheres sold within the European area must have "ATEX"
certification and, as a result, bear the standard ATEX marking
on the product nameplate, in accordance with the new European
product classification.
ATEX CLASSIFICATION
ZONES
TYPE OF ATMOSPHERE
Potentially explosive atmosphere
0
20
G
D
1
21
G
D
2
22
G
D
Continuous presence
Intermittent presence
Occasional presence
1
2
3
Equipment category
CHARACTERISTICS OF PRODUCT MARKINGS (FOR EXAMPLE, FLUORESCENT CAT. NO FEB236BUSN)
ENVIRONMENT
GAS
Marking
0081
DUST
II2G
ATEX/IEC marking
Ex de IIC
Temperature class
T4 or T5
EC type-examination certificate
LCIE 07 ATEX 6017
IEC certificate
IECEx LCI 04.0017
Ambient temperature
-40°C≤ Ta ≤ 55 °C
Protection index
IP66/67 / IK10
0081
II2D
Ex tD A 21 T 75 °C
EXAMPLES OF MARKING
LABEL FOR "e" FLUORESCENT LAMP CAT. NO. FEB236BUSN
Type FLe
Amiens - FRANCE
0081
II 2 GD
E.O.L
110 / 254V
LCIE 07 ATEX 6017
Ex de IIC T4 - Ex tD A21 IP66/67
IECEx LCI 04.0017 imax=0.65A
+/-10% 0-50-60Hz G13/Fa6
FEB236BUSN
(091655) - (096555)
-40°C≤ Ta ≤ +55°C
T = 75 °C
T5 (-40°C≤ Ta ≤ +40°C)
Approved
F

AVERTISSEMENT  WARNING
APRES MISE HORS TENSION, ATTENDRE 60 MINUTES AVANT L'OUVERTURE
(Uniquement pour Zone poussière)
IK10
AFTER DE-ENERGIZING, WAIT 60 MINUTES BEFORE OPENING
(only for dust areas)
G:10
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
DEFINING HAZARDOUS AREAS
WHAT IS SAID IN OFFICIAL TEXTS ?
FRONTIERS BETWEEN ZONES
The IEC international regulation (standard IEC/EN 60079/10)
makes a distinction between the following hazardous Zones :
• Zone 0,
• Zone 1,
• Zone 2.
These Zones are geographic, but the frontiers between them are
never precisely determined, because a Zone can move for several
reasons : product warm-up, faulty ventilation of the room, climate
variations, handling mistake, air movement.
THREE TYPES OF ZONE
Since July 1, 2003, with the new Directives ATEX, there are three
types of Zone :
• Zone 0 - 20,
• Zone 1 - 21,
• Zone 2 - 22.
ZONE 0 - 20
Zone in which an explosive mixture of gas, vapor or dust is
continuously present (the gaseous phase inside a receptacle or a
closed-off chamber constitutes a Zone "0").
ZONE 1 - 21
Zone in which an explosive mixture of gas, vapor or dust is likely to
occur during normal operation.
ZONE 2 - 22
Zone in which an explosive mixture is not likely to occur in normal
operation, and if it occurs will only exist for a short time (leaks or
negligent use).
THE THREE TYPES OF ZONE
EX
Continuous danger
DUST
22
21
Potential danger
20
0
1
2
Accidental danger
GAS & VAPOURS
G:11
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
DEFINING HAZARDOUS AREAS FOR GAS AND VAPORS
HOW TO DETERMINE THE ZONES ?
The plant manager or his employees, controlled by external accredited
advisers, are the only people authorized to determine hazardous areas
in a location where gas and vapor are present.
There are 4 types of opening :
1- TYPE A OPENINGS.
• Open passages : conduits, piping through walls, ceilings
and floors,
• Fixed ventilation outlets installed in rooms and buildings,
opened frequently or for long periods.
To determine these Zones, 4 essential questions have to be solved.
1- WHAT IS THE EMISSION LEVEL OF MY RELEASE SOURCE ?
These are the emission points of inflammable substances into the
atmosphere.
2- TYPE B OPENINGS.
• Normally closed (example : automatic closing), rarely open,
and difficult to adjust.
Three levels of release source can be distinguished :
1- CONTINUOUS EMISSION LEVEL.
The release source is the surface of an inflammable liquid :
• In an enclosed receptacle,
• In an open receptacle,
• Inside enclosed manufacturing or mixing equipment.
3- TYPE C OPENINGS.
• Type B openings, with watertightness in addition to that,
equipped with independent automatic closing,
• Two type B opening in series.
4- TYPE D OPENINGS.
• Can only be opened using a special device or in an
emergency,
• Completely weatherproof openings,
• Combination of a type B and a type C opening, in series
(joined together).
2- FIRST LEVEL EMISSION.
Release during normal operation. The main release sources
are the following :
• Open manufacturing or mixing equipment,
• Vents on enclosed receptacles,
• Hydraulic guard venting holes,
• Extremities of articulated loading arms for tankers and
containers,
• Apparatus loading bungs and emptying valves,
• Sampling and venting valves,
• Pump and compressor gaskets, where leaks persist
(example: cable gland operating leaks),
• Non-watertight switches and conduits.
3- WHAT IS THE VENTILATION AVAILABILITY ?
The efficiency of ventilation in dispersing or maintaining the explosive
atmosphere depends on its quality and level, as well as its design. An
artificial ventilation system is therefore :
VERY GOOD
• Operates almost continuously and therefore backed up.
GOOD
2- SECOND LEVEL EMISSION.
Release during abnormal operation. The main release sources
are the following :
• Flanges, connections, vents and pipe joints,
• Glass inspection holes or level indicators,
• Gaskets in pumps or compressors, designed to prevent leaks,
• Fragile apparatus such as glass, ceramic, graphite, etc...,
• Breathing holes in pressure reduction valve membranes,
• Retaining sumps.
• Operated while the site is operating.
POOR
• Does not operate continuously or during normal site operation,
it operates without any interruption for long periods.
4- WHAT LEVEL IS THE VENTILATION ?
2- WHAT TYPE OF OPENING DO I HAVE ?
Evaluation of the ventilation level requires a knowledge of the
maximum gas or vapor release rate at the release source, either by
controlled tests, by calculation, or by established hypotheses. There are
three levels of ventilation :
All openings (doors, windows, ventilation outlets, etc) between two
geographical locations should be considered as possible release sources.
HIGH
The release level depends on the following :
• The type of Zone of the adjoining geographical area,
• The frequency and duration of opening,
• The pressure difference between the geographical areas,
• The effectiveness of the gaskets or joints.
• Ventilation reduces the concentration at the release source and
reduces it to a level below the LEL value (lower explosive limit).
AVERAGE
• Ventilation controls the concentration, leading to a stable
situation.
WEAK
• Ventilation cannot control the concentration during release
and/or cannot prevent the explosive atmosphere continuing
after release is over.
APPLETON ADVICE FOR DESIGNING A VENTILATION SYSTEM
Here are the important points to remember for designing a
ventilation system * :
• Air for ventilation should be taken from a non hazardous area.
• Artificial ventilation should be controlled and monitored.
• As gases and vapors often have different densities to that of
air, they have a tendency to accumulate where air movement is
likely to be reduced.
• Obstacles can reduce the movement of air. Therefore the
« topography » of geographical locations should be taken into
account (inside and/or outside).
* See standards IEC 60079-10.
G:12
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
DEFINING HAZARDOUS AREAS FOR GAS AND VAPORS
DOWNSTREAM EFFECT ON THE DEGREE OF RELEASE OF THE OPENING
TYPES OF OPENINGS
PROBABLE ZONES IN
UPSTREAM OF THE OPENING
A
B
C
D
(Continuous)
Zone 0
Continuous
Second
No release
First
(First)
(Second)
Zone 1
First
No release
Second
No release
(Second)
Zone 2
Second
No release
No release
No release
Note : for the release emission levels between parenthesis, it is advised to consider the opening frequency of the doors when at the design stage.
Continuous emission release usually leads
to classification as Zone 0
First level emission release usually leads
to classification as Zone 1
Second level emission usually leads
to classification as Zone 2
SUMMARY TABLE FOR GAS AND VAPORS
The table below corresponds to IEC standard 60079-10 which can determine the type of Zone according to three criteria :
the release emission level, the ventilation level and the ventilation availability.
VENTILATION LEVEL
WEAK
AVERAGE
RELEASE
EMISSION
LEVEL
GOOD OR
VERY GOOD
POOR
GOOD
CONTINUOUS
Zone 0
FIRST
SECOND
HIGH
VENTILATION AVAILABILITY
POOR
Zone 0
Zone 0
Zone 1
Zone 2
Zone 0
Zone 1
Zone 1
Zone 1
Zone 2
Zone 2
Zone 2
Zone 2
Zone 0
Zone 1
VERY GOOD
POOR
GOOD
Zone 0
Zone 1
Zone 2
Zone 1
Zone 2
Zone 2
Zone 2
Zone 2
Non-hazardous
VERY GOOD
Zone 0 (NE)*
Non-hazardous
Zone 1 (NE)*
Non-hazardous
Zone 2 (NE)*
Non-hazardous
Zones in which "e" increased safety (page G:38) or flameproof "d" (page G:36) material can be installed.
* NE = negligible extent
APPLETON ADVICE FOR INSTALLING ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IN AREAS WITH EXPLOSION RISKS
Process for installing electrical equipment in areas with explosion risks.
The manager of the installation is solely responsible for :
1234-
Determine hazardous areas.
Defining Zone boundaries - volumes.
If necessary, delimiting Zones.
Knowing the characteristics of flammable substances present
on the site.
5- Defining the temperature class and the explosion
group of the equipment.
6- Choosing equipment depending on :
• the temperature class and the explosion group,
• environmental constraints specific to the site - corrosion,
exposure to UV, mechanical strength,
• protection indexes.
7- Installing equipment.
8- Commissioning.
9- Checking the installation.
G:13
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
ILLUSTRATION OF GAS AND VAPOR ENVIRONMENT
MODIFICATIONS OF ZONES RELATED TO APPROPRIATE EQUIPMENT
EXAMPLE 1
• The mixing tank is in the open air.
• The room is not ventilated mechanically.
• The products are always present in the
workshop.
• All operations are manual.
EXAMPLE 2
Ho
• A hood has been fitted above the tank.
• The room is ventilated.
• The products in stock are separated from
the rest of the workshop.
• Part of the work is manual.
Storage
EXAMPLE 3
Solenoid
Valves
Control
console
• The tank is closed off.
• The room is ventilated mechanically
• The products are stored outside.
• All operations are controlled via a console
outside the Zone.
— The only risk that remains is when tank is
opened for inspection or maintenance.
G:14
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
ILLUSTRATION OF GAS AND VAPOR ENVIRONMENT
ZONE 0
ZONE 1
ZONE 2
NON-HAZARDOUS ZONE
Definition of Zones : see page G13.
TYPICAL GUIDE FOR LIQUID HYDROCARBON STORAGE
3m
3
m
3m
TANKER TRUCK UNLOADING STATION.
MOBILE TANK FILLING DEVICE
COMPULSORY PROTECTION MEASURES
The risk of explosion must be safe guarded by the concurrent use of
specific protection measures :
• Internal overpressure in the room,
• Continuous dilution,
• Intake at the source.
The latter two measures are only possible when the maximum
discharge flow is known accurately.
Measures must be taken to compensate for a possible failure in the
particular measures used :
• Light and/or sound alarm,
• Measures necessary to repair and restart the protection device as
quickly as possible,
• Automatic power off device controlled by :
– A tester that checks that overpressure, dilution or ventilation
devices are working correctly,
– Or an atmosphere tester (fixed explosion meter with
continuous operation) that switches power off at a control
threshold set to 25% of the LEL (lower explosive limit) if
no personnel are present and 10% of the LEL if there are
personnel present.
APPLETON ADVICE
The additional measures are difficult and expensive, so that Zone 1
equipment is frequently used over entire sites.
This equipment covers explosion risks at all times, regardless of
uncontrollable environmental variations.
This position was adapted by same significant oil companies.
G:15
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
EXAMPLE OF FRENCH REGULATION FOR LIQUID HYDROCARBON STORAGE
BEFORE PROTECTION
BEFORE PROTECTION
BEFORE PROTECTION
AFTER PROTECTION
AFTER PROTECTION
AFTER PROTECTION
Inert
Gas
Solvants
Solvants
Pump
THE WORKSHOP CLASSIFIED AS ZONE 1 BECOMES
ZONE 2 BY INSTALLING A CLOSED CIRCUIT
PROCESS : USING A CLOSED TANK SUPPLYING
REAGENTS AND EMPTYING THE FINISHED PRODUCT
VIA PIPING.
THE CONTROL STATION OF A WORKSHOP
CLASSIFIED AS ZONE 1 CAN BE DERATED TO ZONE
2 BY INSTALLING AN OVER-PRESSURE CUBICLE.
THE WORKSHOP BECOMES ZONE 2 BY
INTRODUCING AN INERT GAS WHICH PREVENTS THE
FORMATION OF AN EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE.
PROTECTION BY CLOSED CIRCUIT
OPERATION
PROTECTION BY OVER-PRESSURE
PROTECTION BY INERT GAS
The entry of inflammable gases or vapors into
an enclosure containing ordinary electrical
equipment or any other ignition source, is
prevented by maintaining, in this enclosure,
a gas pressure (usually air) higher than the
pressure outside (e.g. in the control room).
By adding an inert gas, the oxygen content
of the air in an enclosure is reduced to
such a weak value that the atmosphere
would no longer be explosive, whatever the
concentration of inflammable gases and
vapors.
Over-pressure may be static after the initial
sweep, the apertures in the enclosure are
closed and the air flow provides simple
counteraction to natural leaks.
The inert gas generally used is nitrogen, but
carbon dioxide is used on some occasions.
When this method can be used it is the safest
way to limit risks. The explosive atmosphere
is confined to the interior
of one or several storage receptacles.
The electrical equipment can easily be
installed outside.
Over-pressure may also be of a dynamic
nature : an air-flow is deliberately created
across apertures of a chosen cross-section.
G:16
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
EXAMPLE OF FRENCH REGULATION FOR LIQUID HYDROCARBON STORAGE
ZONE 0
ZONE 1
ZONE 2
NON-HAZARDOUS ZONE
Definition of Zones : see page G:11.
BEFORE PROTECTION
BEFORE PROTECTION
PROTECTION BY UNDER-PRESSURE
The diffusion of inflammable gases or vapors
outside an enclosure is prevented by the
maintenance therein of a pressure lower than
that of the surrounding Zone.
Closed drums of solvants
AFTER PROTECTION
AFTER PROTECTION
The surrounding Zone, which is not
hazardous, can also contain without risk
conventional electrical equipment or any
other inflammable sources.
PROTECTION BY CONTINUOUS DILUTION
The inflammable gas and vapor content is
reduced to a value below that of the lower
explosive limit(1) by adding a protective gas
which is continuously fed into the required
Zone. The protective gas is, in general, air.
Closed drums of solvants
A ZONE 1 CLASSIFIED WORKSHOP BECOMES ZONE
1 (IN PART) AND ZONE 2 (FOR THE REMAINDER) BY
INSTALLING A SUCTION DEVICE AT SOURCE.
A ZONE 2 CLASSIFIED WAREHOUSE CAN BECOME
A NON HAZARDOUS ZONE BY INSTALLING A VERY
GOOD QUALITY GENERAL FORCED VENTILATION
SYSTEM.
PROTECTION BY SUCTION AT SOURCE
PROTECTION BY GENERAL SUCTION
The creation of a localized depression by
means of ducting diverts the inflammable
gases and vapors to a Zone carrying no risk of
explosion when in operation.
The inflammable gas and vapor content is
maintained at a level below that of the lower
explosive limit in a large Zone by a general
suction device.
This type of protection is essentially used
in workshops where there are few discharge
points.
This type of protection is very delicate to
operate because hazardous concentrations
of inflammable gases and vapors generally
remain at their point of discharge and in dead
Zones.
Inside the suction Zone safety type electrical
equipment should be used.
APPLETON ADVICE
What should be done in order to prevent if possible failure in one of the
types of protection ?
These types of protection use equipment that is often very
complex (inerting, over-pressure, suction devices, etc), which could
malfunction. If a malfunction occurs, the room reverts to its initial
classification.
* Switch-off threshold set at 25% of the LEL. if
personnel are absent and at 10% if personnel
are present.
It is therefore necessary, for each device, to define additional safety
measures to be taken, to guarantee, in the event of failure, the safety
of workers.
For example : the disruption of energy sources (such as electricity,
water, inert gas, etc) can cause a failure in the mode of protection.
It is therefore necessary to study the room from the start, to provide
for built-in backup energy circuits to ensure total safety.
G:17
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT FOR GAS AND VAPOR ENVIRONMENT
CRITERIA OF SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT
WHICH EQUIPMENT GROUP SHOULD BE CHOSEN ?
The criteria of selection are the following :
• Gas and vapors classification,
• Protection indexes,
• Protection modes,
• Industrial environment (corrosion).
This table indicates the equipment groups which can be used
depending on the gas and vapor classification (see page G:19).
A distinction is made between two groups of electrical equipment :
GROUP I
The table below indicate the equipment groups which can be used
depending on the gas and vapor subdivision.
• Electrical equipment intended for underground work in
mines with explosive atmospheres.
GROUP II
• Electrical equipment designed for surface industry.
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT WHICH CAN BE USED
EQUIPMENT GROUPS WHICH CAN BE USED
FLAMEPROOF
ASSOCIATED PROTECTION MODES
"d"
"d" + "e"
GAS/VAPOR
SUBDIVISION
INCREASED SAFETY
"e"
A
II
IIA - IIB - IIC
IIA - IIB - IIC
B
II
IIB - IIC
IIB - IIC
C
II
IIC
IIC
WHICH TEMPERATURE GROUP SHOULD BE CHOSEN ?
According to the spontaneous ignition temperature of the gases, this
table indicates the temperature class of the equipment which can be
used (see page G:20-23).
• The temperature class of the equipment must always be
lower than the spontaneous ignition temperature of the
gases.
• Equipment must never be used in an atmosphere capable
of ignition at the temperature indicated on the marking
(temperature class).
TEMPERATURE CLASS OF THE EQUIPMENT
SPONTANEOUS IGNITION
TEMPERATURE OF THE GASES (T°)
T6
(85°)
T5
(100°)
TEMPERATURE CLASS OF THE EQUIPMENT
T4
T3
(135°)
(200°)
T2
(300°)
T1
(450°)
85°≤ T° ≤100 °C
100° < T° ≤ 135 °C
135° < T°≤ 200 °C
200° < T°≤ 300 °C
300° < T° ≤ 450 °C
450 °C < T°
Danger : explosion
Acetaldehyde spontaneous ignition temperature 175 °C
Equipment which can be used.
Class of equipment which can be used : T4, T5 or T6.
G:18
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
CLASSIFICATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR GAS AND VAPOR ENVIRONMENT
SUBDIVISIONS
GAS AND VAPORS
SUBDIVISION
(WITH SELF-IGNITION TEMPERATURE,
ACCORDING,
TO THE IRNS DOCUMENT)
SELF-IGNITION
TEMPERATURE
OF THE SITE °C
The most explosive gas is ethylene oxide
(subdivision B). The installed electrical
equipment should be at least class II or IIB.
465 °C Acetone
535 °C Industrial methane
425 °C Ethyl acetate
385 °C Methanol
287 °C Butane
450 °C Propane
223 °C Hexane
650 °C Ammoniac
605 °C Carbon monoxide
260 °C Pentane
204 °C Heptane
530 °C Iso-octane
A
●
●
● ● ●
● ● ●
●
●
● ●
● ●
●
●
● ●
● ●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
● ●
●
● ● ●
● ● ● ● ● ● ●
●
● ● ●
●
Knowing that the most dangerous gas is the
gas with the lowest ignition temperature, in
this case butanol (343 °C), we can deduce
that the electrical equipment installed on this
site must be kept at a temperature below 343
°C, and therefore should be in class T2, T3,
T4, T5 or T6.
T3
T6
T2
T3
T2
T2
T6
T6
T2
T2
T1
T2
T3
T6
T3
T2
Consider the example of a varnish making
workshop. Dots in the following table
indicate the presence of acetone, ethyl acetate,
benzene, ethyl/methyl ketone, methyl acetate,
n-butyl acetate, amyl acetate, butanol and
ethylene oxide.
II or II B
II or II C
II or II A
II or II C
II or II A
II or II A
II or II A
II or II C
II or II B
II or II B
II or II A
II or II A
II or II C
II or II C
II or II C
II or II C
HOW TO READ THIS TABLE ?
245
90
385
300
375
375
90
90
343
343
465
343
300
90
300
500
Note : Temperatures in this table are
given in °C. Gas mixtures are given for
information only.
• See pages G:20-23 for list of substances likely
to create an explosive atmosphere.
APPLICATION AREA OF THE
SITE (1)
The following table can be used to determine
gases which may be present, their subdivision
and self-ignition temperature, for each type of
site. The classification of the equipment to be
used can thus be determined.
Cleaning product industry
Pharmaceutical industry
Dye industry
Artificial rubber industry
Perfumery
Spirits
Artificial fruit flavourings
Artificial textile manufacture
Paint manufacture
Varnish manufacture
Grease solvent
Resin solvent
Plastic manufacture
Hydrocarbons
Gas used as a fuel
Fertiliser manufacture
The various regulations have taken into
account a certain number of the most widely
used gases.
205 °C Decane
498 °C Benzene
460 °C Xylene
245 °C Cyclohexane
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
510 °C Ethyl/Methyl ketone
454 °C Methyl acetate
●
420 °C n-butyl acetate
●
●
●
●
●
● ● ●
● ● ●
●
● ●
450 °C n-propyl acetate
360 °C Amyl acetate
343 °C Butanol
●
●
90 °C Ethyle nitrate
●
420 °C Butadene 1.3
B
● ●
●
●
450 °C Ethylene
●
●
●
425 °C Ethylene oxide
●
●
●
●
500 °C Hydrogen
C
●
●
●
● ●
●
90 °C Carbon disulphide
300 °C Acetylene
G:19
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
GAS SUBSTANCES LIKELY TO FORM EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES
It is important to be familiar with inflammability characteristics of
substances that could form explosive atmospheres - this includes
the flash point and self-ignition temperature in °C for gases, selfignition temperature in layers or in clouds for dust. Furthermore,
the practical safety guide published by the CNPP contains lists of all
data sheets for dangerous products.
SUBSTANCES
1 - Bromobutane
1 - Bromopentane
32
-
-
-
1 - Butanol
29
343
1,4
11,2
gaz
380
1,6
10
diff. infl.
537
7,5
12,5
1 - Butene
The table opposite indicates the flash points, the self- ignition
temperatures and the inflammability limits in the air of the usual
gas and vapors.
1,1,1-Trichloroethane
Gas and vapor inflammability characteristics (limits of
concentration, flash points, inflammation temperatures) differ
depending on the method used to determine them. Therefore,
slightly different values (flash points, inflammability limits) or
significantly different values (inflammation temperatures) may be
found in other sources.
1,1-Diethoxyethane
1,1-Dimethylhydrazine
1,2,3-Propanetriol
Flash points were determined in a closed dish, unless mentioned
otherwise (open dish "O.D.").
FLASH POINT
18
INFLAMMABILITY LIMITS BY
VOLUME % MIXED WITH AIR
SELF-IGNITION
TEMPERATURE
IN °C
LOWER
UPPER
265
0,6(at 111 °C) 5,8(at155 °C)
1,1-Dichloroethane
-6
-
5,6
-
1,1-Dichloroethylene
-28
565
6,5
15,5
-21
230
1,6
10,4
-15
249
2
95
199
370
-
-
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene
105
571
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene
44
500
0,9
1,2-Diaminopropane
33 O.D.
416
-
-
1,2-Dichlorobenzene
66
645
2,2
9,2
1,2-Dichloroethane
13
410
6,2
16
1,2-Dichloroethylene
2
460
5,6
12,8
1,2-Dichloropropane
15
555
3,4
14,5
1,2-Propanediol
98
370
2,6
12,5
1,3 - Benzenediol
127
608
1,4(at 200 °C)
-
1,3 - Butadiene
2,5(at 150 °C) 6,6(at 150 °C)
6,4
gaz
420
2
12
1,3,5-Trioxan
45 O.D.
414
3,6
29
1,3-Diaminopropane
24 O.D.
-
-
-
1,3-Dioxolanne
1 O.D.
-
-
-
1,4 - Benzenediol
165
515
-
-
1,4-Dichlorobenzene
65
-
-
-
1,4-Dioxanne
12
180
2
22
175 °C and 275 °C
> 70
254
0,58
4,45
185 °C and 330 °C
> 70
259
0,52
4,09
1-Chloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethylene
gaz
-
8,4
16
1-Chloro-2 methylpropane
< 21
-
2
8,8
1-Chloro-2,3-epoxypropane
31 O.D.
411
3,8
21
127
-
-
-
1-Chlorobutane
-9
240
1,8
10,1
1-Chloropentane
12,8 O.D.
260
1,6
8,6
1-Chloropropane
<- 18
520
2,6
11,1
1-Chloro-4 nitrobenzene
1-Chloropropene
<- 6
-
4,5
16
1-Hexene
<- 7
253
-
-
1-Naphtylamine
157
-
-
-
1-Nitropropane
36
420
2,2
-
21 O.D.
230
-
-
1-one
84
460
0,8
3,8
1-Pentanol
32
300
1,2
10 (at 100 °C)
1-Pentene
8,7
1-Octene
- 18 O.D.
275
1,5
1-Phenylethanone
77
570
-
-
1-Propanol
15
370
2,1
13,5
2 - Aminoethanol
85
410
-
-
2 - Butanone
-9
404
1,4(at93 °C)
11,4(at93 °C)
APPLETON ADVICE
2 - Butene
gaz
320
1,7
9
Following informations are given just as an example to explain the
French rules on those subjects : please identify in your country the
equivalent and remember, if there is no rule, that gas, vapor and
dust have no nationality: the way to explode or protect yourselves
are the same everywhere.
2 - Butene-1-ol
27
349
4,2
35,3
2,2’,2"-Nitrilotriethanol
196
-
-
-
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane
-12
415
1,1
6
2,2,5-Trimethylhexane
13 O.D.
-
-
-
-47
405
1,2
7
2,2-Dimethylbutane
G:20
Classified on first number
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
GAS SUBSTANCES LIKELY TO FORM EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES
INFLAMMABILITY LIMITS BY
VOLUME % MIXED WITH AIR
INFLAMMABILITY LIMITS BY
VOLUME % MIXED WITH AIR
FLASH POINT
gaz
SELF-IGNITION
TEMPERATURE
IN °C
450
2,2’-Iminodiethanol
172 O.D.
660
-
-
4-Heptanone
49
-
-
-
2,3-Dimethylbutane
-29
405
1,2
7
4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone
64
600
1,8
6,9
2,3-Dimethylhexane
7 O.D.
435
-
-
4-Methyl-1,3-pentadiene
-34
-
-
-
2,3-Dimethylpentane
<-7
335
1,1
6,7
4-Methyl-2-pentanol
41
-
1
5,5
2,4- Toluylene diisocyanate
127
-
0,9
9,5
4-Methyl-2-pentanone
2,4,4-Trimethyl-1-pentene
-5
390
0,8
4,8
4-Methylpyridine
2,4,4-Trimethyl-2-pentene
2 O.D.
305
-
-
35
235
1,3
2,4-Dimethylhexane
10 O.D.
-
2,4-Dimethylpentane
-12
SUBSTANCES
2,2-Dimethylpropane
2,4,6-Trimethyl-1,3,5-trioxanne
2,4-Pentanedione
LOWER
1,4
UPPER
7,5
SUBSTANCES
3-Pentanone
FLASH POINT
12
SELF-IGNITION
TEMPERATURE
IN °C
450
LOWER
1,6
UPPER
-
16
448
1,2(at 93 °C)
8(at 93 °C)
56 O.D.
-
-
-
4-Nitrotoluene
106
-
-
-
-
Acetaldehyde
-37
175
4
60
-
-
Acetanilide
169 O.D.
530
-
-
-
-
-
Acétic acid
39
463
4
20
33
340
-
-
Acetic anhydride
49
315
2,7
10,3
85 O.D.
-
-
-
Acetone
-20
465
2,6
13
2,5-Hexanedione
78
499
-
-
Acetonitrile
2
520
3
16
2,6-Dimethyl-4-heptanol
74
-
0,8(at 100 °C) 6,1(at 100 °C)
Acetyle chloride
4
390
-
-
2,6-Dimethyl-4-heptanone
49
396
0,8(at 93 °C)
7,1(at 93 °C)
Acetylene
gaz
300
2,5
81
Acrolein
2,5-heptadiéee-4-one
210 °C and 365 °C
> 70
263
0,45
3,71
-26
220
2,8
31
2-Chloro-1,1-dimethoxyethane
43
232
-
-
Acrylic acid
49 O.D.
438
2,4
8
2-Chloro-1,3-butadiene
-20
-
4
20
Acrylonitrile
0 O.D.
480
3
17
2-Chloro-2-butene
-19
-
2,3
9,3
Adipic acid
196
420
-
-
2-Chloroethanol
60
425
4,9
15,9
Allyl and vinyl oxide
< 20 O.D.
-
-
-
2-Chlorophenol
64
-
-
-
gaz
650 (*)
15
28
2-Chloropropane
-32
590
2,8
10,7
Aniline
70
615
1,3
11
2-Ethoxyethanol
43
235
Anthracene
121
540
0,6
-
2-éthoxyéthyle acetate
47
380
1,7
-
Anthraquinone
185
-
-
-
2-Furaldehyde
60
315
2,1
19,3
a-Pinene
32
255
-
-
2-Hexanone
25
423
-
8
Benzaldehyde
63
190
-
-
2-hydroxybenzoïc acid
157
540
1,1(at 200 °C)
-
Benzene
-11
498
1,3
7,9
2-Methyl-1,3-butadiene
-54
395
1,5
8,9
Benzoic acid
121
570
-
-
2-Methyl-1-pentanal
20 O.D.
-
-
-
Benzoyl chloride
72
-
-
-
2-Methylacrylaldehyde
1 O.D.
-
-
-
Benzyl acetate
90
460
-
-
2-Methylbutane
<- 51
420
1,4
7,6
Benzyl chloride
67
585
1,1
-
2-Methylfuranne
-30
-
-
-
Biphenyl
112
540
2-Methylhexane
<- 18
-
1
6
Bis (2-hydroxyethyl) oxide
123
224
-
-
2-Methylpentane
<- 29
264
1
7
Bromobenzene
51
565
-
-
2-Methylpropanal
-18
196
1,6
10,6
Bromomethane
diffic. inflam.
510
6,7
11
2-Methylpropene
gaz
465
1,8
9,6
Butane
8,4
2-Methylpyridine
38 O.D.
535
-
-
Butyl and vinyl oxide
2-Naphtol
152
-
-
-
Butylamine
2-Nitropropane
24
428
2,6
11
2-Octanone
52
-
-
-
2-Pentanone
7
452
1,5
8,2
2-Phenylpropene
58
489
0,7
11
2-Propanol
11
395
2
2-Propene-1-ol
21
375
2-Propenylamine
-29
370
3 - Bromo - 1 - propéne
-1
3 - Butene-2-one
-7
1,7(at 93 °C) 15,6(at 93 °C)
Ammonia
0,6(at 111 °C) 5,8(at 155 °C)
gaz
287
1,8
- 9 O.D.
255
-
-
-12
310
1,7
9,8
Butylbenzene
71 O.D.
410
0,8
5,8
Butyraldehyde
-22
218
1,9
12,5
Butyric acid
72
443
2
10
Camphor (oil)
47
-
-
-
12
Carbon disulphide
-30
90
1,3
50
2,5
18
Carbon oxide
gaz
605
12,5
74
2,2
22
Carbon oxysulphide
gaz
-
12
29
295
4
7,3
Castor (Oil)
229
445
-
-
491
2,1
15,6
Chlorobenzene
28
593
1,3
9,6
3,6-Diazaoctane-1,8-diamine
135
335
-
-
Chlorodinitrobenzene
194
-
2
22
3-Azapentane-1,5-diamine
98
358
2
6,7
Chloroethane
-50
515
3,8
15,4
3-Chloropropene
3-Hexanone
3-Methyl-1-butene
Classified on first letter
-32
485
2,9
11,1
Chloromethane
gaz (- 50)
630
8,1
17,4
35 O.D.
-
~1
~8
Crotonaldehyde
12
230
2,1
15,5
<- 7
365
1,5
9,1
Crotonic acid
87 O.D.
396
-
G:21
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
GAS SUBSTANCES LIKELY TO FORM EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES
SUBSTANCES
FLASH POINT
36
Cumene
SELF-IGNITION
TEMPERATURE
IN °C
424
INFLAMMABILITY LIMITS BY
VOLUME % MIXED WITH AIR
LOWER
0,9
UPPER
6,5
SUBSTANCES
Ethyl formate
FLASH POINT
-20
SELF-IGNITION
TEMPERATURE
IN °C
455
INFLAMMABILITY LIMITS BY
VOLUME % MIXED WITH AIR
LOWER
2,8
UPPER
16
Cyanogene
gaz
-
6,6
32
Ethyl lactate
46
400
1,5(at 100 °C)
-
Cyclohexane
-20
245
1,3
8
Ethyl nitrite
-35
90(dÉcomp.)
4
50
Cyclohexanol
67
300
-
-
Ethyl propionate
Cyclohexanone
43
420
1,1(at100 °C)
9,4
Cyclohexene
Ethylamine
12
440
1,9
11
<- 18
380
3,5
14
6,7
<-7
244
-
-
Ethylbenzene
15
430
1
Cyclohexyl acetate
57
330
-
-
Ethylcyclobutane
<- 16
210
1,2
7,7
Cyclohexylamine
31
290
-
-
Ethylcyclohexane
35
238
0,9
6,6
Cyclopentane
<-7
361
1,5
-
Ethylcyclopentane
< 21
260
1,1
6,7
Cyclopentanone
26
-
-
-
Ethylene
gaz
450
2,7
36
Cyclopropane
gaz
495
2,4
10,4
Decahydronaphtalene
57
250
Deuterium
gaz
-
5
75
Di (2-ethylhexyl) phtalate
215 O.D.
390
0,3(at 245 °C)
-
Diallyl oxide
- 7 O.D.
-
-
-
Dibutyl oxidee
25
194
1,5
7,6
Dibutyl phtalate
157
400
0,5(at 235 °C)
-
Furane
Dibutyl Sebacate
178 O.D.
365
0,4(at 243 °C)
-
Furfurylic alcohol
Dichlorine oxide
gaz
-
23,5
100
Hexanoïc acid
Dichloromethane
diffic. inflam.
556
13
22
70-120
250-280
0,6
-
-45
160
1,9
Diethyl phtalate
163 O.D.
-
Diethylacetaldehyde
21 O.D.
-
Diesel Fuel
Diethyl oxide
Ethylene oxide
- 17,8 O.D.
425
3
100
Ethyleneglycol
111
398
3,2
28
Formaldehyde
gaz
424
7
73
Formamide
154 O.D.
-
-
-
Formic acid
46,5
480
14,3
34
<0
-
2,3
14,3
65
490
1,8
16,3
101
380
-
-
Hydrazine
38
23-270(*)
2,9
100
Hydrogen
gaz
500
4
75
3
Hydrogen cyanide
-17
535
6
41
-
-
Hydrogen sulphide
gaz
260
4
44
1,2
7,7
Isobutane
gaz
460
1,8
9,8
0,7(at100 °C) 4,9(at100 °C)
Fuels distilling between :
Diethylamine
-23
310
1,8
10,1
Isobutanol
27
415
Diethylcyclohexane
48
240
0,8(at 60 °C)
6(at110 °C)
Isobutyl acetate
17
420
1,3
Diisopropylbenzene
76 O.D.
445
0,9
5,6
Isobutylamine
-9
375
-
-
Dimethoxymethane
- 32 O.D.
235
2,2
13,8
Isobutylbenzene
55
425
0,8
6
Dimethyl phtalate
146
490
0,9(at 180 °C)
-
Isopentanol
42
345
1,2
9(at 100 °C)
Dimethyl sulphide
<- 18
205
2,2
19,7
Isopentyl acetate
25
360
1 (at 100 °C)
7,5
gaz
400
2,8
14,4
Isopropyl acetate
2
460
1,8
8
95 O.D.
215
2,6
42
Isopropyl and vinyl oxide
-32
270
-
-
gaz
350
3,4
27
Isopropyl formate
-6
485
-
-
Dipentyl oxide
57
170
-
-
- 37 O.D.
400
-
-
Diphenyl oxide
112
615
0,8
1,5
Jet engine fuel JP1 (TRO)
38
255
0,67
4,96
Dimethylamine
Dimethylsulfoxyde
Dimthyl oxide
Isopropylamine
1,7(at 51 °C) 10,6(at 94 °C)
10,5
Diphenylamine
152
630
-
-
Jet engine fuel JP3 (TR3)
-20
251
0,9
6,15
Diphenylmethane
130
485
-
-
Jet engine fuel JP4 (TR4)
-20
249
0,8
5,63
Dipropyl oxide
21
188
1,3
7
Jet engine fuel JP5 (TR5)
Dipropylamine
17 O.D.
299
-
-
Kerosene (lamp oil)
-28
440
1,4
7,9
Disulphur Dichloride
118
230
-
-
Divinyl oxide
<- 30
360
1,7
27
Lubricating oil
76 O.D.
-
1,1
6,2
Maleic anhydride
Dodecane
73
203
0,6
-
Mesityl oxide
Ethane
gaz
472
3
12,5
Methane
<- 18
295
2,8
18
Methanol
Ethanol
12
363
3,3
19
Methoxylbenzene
Ethyl acetate
-4
425
2
11,5
Ethyl acrylate
9
372
1,4
14
Ethyl and Methyl oxide
-37
190
2
Ethyl and propenyl oxide
<- 7 O.D.
-
<- 46
24
Disopropyl oxide
Divinylbenzene
Ethanethiol
Ethyl and Vinyl oxide
Ethyl butyrate
Limonene
Linseed (oil)
58
246
0,6
4,53
43-72
210
0,7
5
45
235
0,7(at 150 °C) 6,1(at150 °C)
220
340
-
150-225
260-370
-
-
102
475
1,4
7,1
30
344
1,4
7,2
gaz
535
5
15
11
385
6,7
36
52 O.D.
475
-
-
Methyl acetate
-10
454
3,1
16
Methyl acrylate
-3
468
2,8
25
10,1
Methyl formate
-19
449
4,5
23
-
-
Methyl lactate
49
385
2,2(at 100 °C)
-
200
1,7
28
Methyl metacrylate
10 O.D.
-
1,7
8,2
460
-
-
Methyl propionate
-2
465
2,5
13
G:22
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
-
GAS SUBSTANCES LIKELY TO FORM EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES
INFLAMMABILITY LIMITS BY
VOLUME % MIXED WITH AIR
FLASH POINT
gaz
SELF-IGNITION
TEMPERATURE
IN °C
430
Methylcyclohexane
-4
250
Methylcyclopentadiene
48
445
Methylcyclopentane
<- 7
258
1
Methyldichlorosilane
-9
316
Methylhydrazine
-8
Metyl butyrate
LOWER
4,9
UPPER
20,7
Petrol A
1,2
6,7
Petrol B
<0
Petrol C
<0
8,3
Petrol E
<0
6
55
Petrol F
194
2,5
92
13
-
-
Mixed with water (10% alcohol)
49
-
Mixed with water (20% alcohol)
36
-
Mixed with water (30% alcohol)
29
SUBSTANCES
Methylamine
SELF-IGNITION
TEMPERATURE
IN °C
230-240
INFLAMMABILITY LIMITS BY
VOLUME % MIXED WITH AIR
LOWER
1
UPPER
6,5
245
1
6,5
230-260
1
6,5
230-260
1
6,5
<0
230-260
1
6,5
Petrol G (ether petrol)
<0
245
1
6,5
-
Petrol H
<0
230-260
1
6,5
-
-
Phenol
79
715
1,8
-
-
-
Phenylhydrazine
88
-
-
-
-
-
-
Phosphoru trihydride
gaz
100
2
-
151
570
1,7
10,5
-
273
1,3(at 100 °C) 7,6(at 100 °C)
SUBSTANCES
FLASH POINT
<0
Mixed with water (40% alcohol)
26
-
-
-
Phtalic anhydride
Mixed with water (5% alcohol)
62
-
-
-
Pinane
Mixed with water (50% alcohol)
24
-
-
-
Piperidine
16
-
-
-
Mixed with water (60% alcohol)
22
-
-
-
p-Isopropyltoluene
47
435
0,7(at 100 °C)
5,6
Mixed with water (70% alcohol)
21
-
-
-
Propane
gaz
450
2,2
10
Mixed with water (80% alcohol)
20
-
-
-
Propanol
-30
205
2,6
17
Mixed with water (95% alcohol)
17
-
-
-
Propene
gaz
455
2
11,1
Propionic acid
52
465
2,9
12,1
Propionic anhydride
63
285
1,3
9,5
m-or p-Cresol
0,7(at 160 °C) 7,2(at 160 °C)
86
555
1,1(at150 °C)
-
37 O.D.
290
1,4
11,2
m-Xylene
27
525
1,1
7
Propionyl chloride
12
-
-
-
N,N-Diethylaniline
85
630
-
-
Propylamine
-37
315
2
10,4
N,N-Dimethylaniline
62
370
-
-
Propylbenzene
30
450
0,8
6
N,N-Dimethylformamide
57
445
2,2(at 100 °C)
15,2
Propylene oxide
-37
449
2,3
37
Naphtalene
78
525
0,9
5,9
p-Xylene
27
525
1,1
7
n-butyl acetate
22
420
1,7
7,6
Pyridine
20
480
1,8
12,4
Morpholine
N-butyle formate
17
320
1,7
8,2
Silane
gaz
n-Decane
46
205
0,8
5,4
Soya (Oil)
280
440
-
-
n-Heptane
-5
204
1,05
6,7
Stéaric acid
196
395
-
-
n-Hexane
-22
223
1,2
7,4
Styrene
31
490
1,1
7
Nicotine
-
240
0,7
4
Tartric acid
210 O.D.
425
-
-
Nitrobenzene
87
480
1,8(at 93 °C)
-
Tetradecane
100
200
0,5
-
Nitroethane
27
414
3,4
-
Tetrahydrofuranne
-14
320
2
11,8
Nitromethane
35
415
7,3
-
Tetrahydronaphtalene
71
380
Nonane
31
205
0,8
2,9
Tetrahydropyranne
-20
-
-
-
n-pentyl acetate
16
360
1,1
7,5
Tetramethylpentane
< 21
430
0,8
4,9
n-propyl acetate
13
450
1,7(at 100 °C)
8
Toluene
4
480
1,2
7,1
N-propyl formate
-3
455
-
-
Tributyl Phosphate
146 O.D.
-
-
-
Tributylamine
86 O.D.
-
-
-
Trichloroethylene
diff. infl.
410
8(at 25 °C)
10,5(at 25 °C)
0,8(at 100 °C) 5(at 150 °C)
N-propyl nitrate
20
175
2
100
o-Cresol
81
595
1,4(at149 °C)
-
Octane
13
206
1
6,5
Triethylamine
- 7 O.D.
249
1,2
8
Octyl acetate
71
268
0,7
8
Triethyleneglycol
176 O.D.
370
0,9
9,2
Olive (oil)
225
340
-
-
Trimethylamine
gaz
190
2
11,6
o-Toluidine
85
480
-
-
Tri-o-tolyl phosphate
225
385
-
-
o-Xylene
32
460
1
7
Tripentylbenzene
132 O.D.
-
-
-
Paraformaldehyde
70
300
7
73
Triphenyl phosphate
220
-
-
-
Peanut oil
282
445
-
-
Tripropylamine
40
-
-
-
0,4
-
Turpentine
35
250
0,8
-
Pentaboron
Pentane
<- 40
260
1,5
7,8
Vinyl acetate
-8
402
2,6
13,4
Pentanol
12 O.D.
222
-
-
Vinyl butyrate
20 O.D.
-
1,4
8,8
Pentylamine
-1
-
2,2
22
Vinyl chloride
gaz
470
3,6
33
Petrol (octane number 100)
-38
456
1,4
7,4
Vinyl propionate
1 O.D.
-
-
-
Petrol (octane number 115 at 145)
-46
440
1,2
7,1
White-spirit
30-65
230-260
1,1
6,5
Petrol (octane number 50 at 60)
-43
280
1,4
7,6
G:23
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
GAS AND VAPOR CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO IEC/CENELEC
EN/IEC 60079-12 STANDARDS
These gases or vapors are classified in three subdivisions : A, B and
C, depending on their experimental safety gap (IEMS) and their
minimum inflammation current (CMI).
SUBDIVISION A
SUBDIVISION B
HYDROCARBONS
COMPOUNDS CONTAINING OXYGEN
COMPOUNDS CONTAINING HALOGENS
HYDROCARBONS
ALKANES :
ACIDS :
COMPOUNDS WITH NO OXYGEN :
Allylene (Propyn)
Butane
Acetic acid
Bromoethane
Butadiene
Cyclobutane
ALCOHOLS ET PHENOLS :
Bromobutane
Cyclopropane
Cycloheptane
Butanol
Chlorobenzene
Ethylene
Cyclohexane
Cresol
Chlorobutane
COMPOUNDS CONTAINING NITROGEN :
Cyclopentane
Cyclohexanol
Chloroethane
Hydrocyanidric acid
Decahydronaphtalene
Diacetone-alcohol
Chlorethylene
Acrylonitrile
(decaline)
Ethanol
(Vinyl chloride)
Isopropyl nitrate
Decane
Heptanol
Chloromethane
COMPOUNDS CONTAINING OXYGEN :
Ethane
Hexanol
Chloropropane
Acrolein
Ethylcyclobutane
Methanol
Allyl chloride
Ethyl acrylate
Ethylcyclohexane
Methylcyclohexanol
Benzyl chloride
Methyl acrylate
Ethylcyclopentane
Monanol
Methylene chloride
Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol
Heptane
Octanol
Dichlorobenzene
Crotonaldehyde
Hexane
Pentanol
Dichloroethane
Dioxalan
Methane
Phenol
Dichloroethylene
Dioxan
Methylcyclobutane
Propanol
Dichloropropane
Epoxy-propane
Methylcyclohexane
ALDEHYDES :
Benzyl trifluoride
Butyl ether of hydroxyacetic acid
Methylcyclopentane
Acetic Aldehyde
COMPOUNDS CONTAINING OXYGEN :
Butyl ether
Nonane
Metaldehyde
Chloroethanol
Ethylic ether
Octane
KETONES :
Acetyl chloride
Ethyl méthyl ether
Pentane
Acetone
COMPOUNDS CONTAINING SULPHURS :
Méthylic ether
Propane
Amyl-methyl-ketone
Ethyl mercaptan
Furane
ALKANES :
Butyl-methyl-ketone
Propyl-mercaptan
Ethylene oxide (epoxyethane)
Propene (propylene)
Cyclohexanone
Tetrahydrothiophene
Tétrahydrofuran
Aromatic
Ethyl-methyl-ketone
Thiophene
Trioxane
HYDROCARBONS :
2,4 - Pentanedione
COMPOUNDS CONTAINING SULPHURS :
Mixtures
Methylstyrene
(acetylacetone)
Ammonia
Gas from a coke furnace
Styrene
Propyl-methyl-ketone
Acetonitrile
COMPOUNDS CONTAINING HAOGENS :
Benzenic
ESTERS :
Nitroethane
Propane, 1 chloro, 2,3 epoxy
HYDROCARBONS :
Methyl acetate
Nitromethane
(épichlorhydrin)
Benzene
Ethyl acetate
AMINES :
Tétrafluorethylene
Cumene
Propyl actate
Amphetamine
Cymene
Butyl acetate
Aniline
…thylbenzene
Amyl acetate
Butylamine
Acetylene
Naphtalene
Vinyl acetate
Cyclohexylamine
Carbon disulphide
Toluene
Ethyl Acetylacetate
Diaminoethane
Hydrogen
Trimethylbenzene
Methyl formate
Diethylamine
Ethyl nitrate
Xylene
Ethyl formate
Diethylaminoethanol
MIXTURES OF HYDROCARBONS :
Ethyl methacrylate
Dimethylamine
Benzol for cars
Methyl methacrylate
Dimethylaniline
Gas-oil
OXIDES (INCLUDED ETHERS) :
Methylamine
Kerosene
Dipropyl ether
Mono-ethanolamine
Fuel oil
Carbon monoxide (2)
Propylamine
Industrial methane (1)
Pyridine
Oil naphta
Toluidine
Petroleum naphta
Triethylamine
Petroleum (included
Trimethylamine
SUBDIVISION C
petroleum spirits)
Dry cleaning solvents
Turpentine
G:24
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
GAS AND VAPOR CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO NEC
STANDARD NEC 500
Appleton is our premium line of industrial electrical products under
EGS Electrical Group, a division of Emerson Industrial Automation.
ACCORDING TO NEC 500
CLASS I
CLASS II
GROUP A
GROUP E, F, G
Acetylene
Combustible Dusts
GROUP B
Butadiene
Hydrogen
Ethylene oxyde
Propylene oxyde
GROUP C
Acetaldehyde
Cyclopropane
Diethyl ether
Ethylene
Dimethyl hydrazine
GROUP D
Acetane ethyl
Butyl acetate
Vinyl acetate
Isobutyl acetate
Acetone
Acrylonitrile
Amyl alcohol
Butylalcohol
Tertiary butyl alcohol
Butyl-2 alcohol
Ethyl alcohol
Isoamyl alcohol
CLASS III
Fibers and Flyings
Every three years the National
Fire Protection Association
(NFPA) updates the standards
in the National Electrical Code.
The NEC covers installation of
electrical products in the United
States and their applications.
Appleton published the
"Appleton NEC 2008 Code
Review" in English, which, in
line with the ATX Guide on IEC
and CENELEC standards, aims
to provide a better understanding
of North American standards
(National Electric Code).
"NEC 2008 CODE REVIEW" BY
APPLETON ELECTRIC, LLC
This detailed technical reference
covers the use of electrical products and the changes made in the
NEC covering the hazardous location Articles applicable to Appleton
products. All the information required to study and set up electrical
installations in an industrial context is contained in this document,
including hazardous areas and their classifications, with strict
adherence to NEC 2008 standards with useful explanations helping
you select the right material for each application.
The NEC 2008 Code Review is considered a reference worldwide,
and is available on request. For more information, contact your local
representative or visit the website at www.appletonelec.com.
Isobutyl alcohol
Isopropyl alcohol
Nonhazardous
location
Propyl alcohol
Benzene
Butane
Ethylene Chloride
Vinyl chloride
5 ft.
5 ft.
10 ft.
Arc-producing equipment
used in this location must
be designed to prevent
escape of sparks per
Section 513.7(A).
5 ft.
Class I,
Div. 2
5 ft. Class I,
Div. 2
Class I,
Div. 2
5 ft.
Nonhazardous
location
Petrol
Ethane
18-in. hazardous area—Class I, Div. 2
Class I, Div. 1
18 in
Pit
Class I, Div. 1
Ammonia gas
Heptane
EXTRACTS FROM APPLETON GUIDE
Hexane
Isoprene
Methane
Methanol
Methylisobutyl ketone
Petroleum naphta
Octane
Pentane
Propane
Propylene
Styrene
Toluene
Xylene
G:25
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
PRACTICAL EXAMPLES IN DUST ENVIRONMENTS
EXTRACT FROM THE "SILO GUIDE" *
HAZARDOUS ZONES IN SILOS
From 30th July 1985, a specific heading has been devoted to silos for
storing cereals, grain, food products or any organic product which
releases flammable dust :
The Guide provides a useful insight into the determination of
hazardous locations in atmospheres containing potentially explosive
dust.
IN SILO OR STORAGE INSTALLATION
ZONE 20
a) If the storage volume is more than 15,000 m3, requirement of
authorization (previous classes 1 and 2) in 3 Km radius area
where notification of the hazard is mandatory.
b) If the total storage volume is more than 5,000 m3, but no more
than 15,000 m3, requirement of declaration (previous class 3).
• Location where a potentially explosive atmosphere in the form
of a cloud of combustible dust is continuously present in the air
for long periods or on frequent occasions.
ZONE 21
• Location where a potentially explosive atmosphere in the form
of a cloud of combustible dust may occur occasionally during
normal operation.
UNDER AN INFLATABLE STRUCTURE OR IN A TENT
a) If the total volume of the inflatable structure or the tent is more
than 100,000 m3: requirement of authorization (old classes 1
and 2), display radius 3 km.
b) If the total volume of the inflatable structure or the tent is more
than 10,000 m3 but no more than 100,000 m3: requirement of
declaration (previous class 3).
ZONE 22
• Location where a potentially explosive atmosphere in the form
of a cloud of combustible dust is not likely to occur during
normal operation or, if it does occur, only lasts for a short time.
THE FOLLOWING PROCEDURE SHOULD BE OBSERVED :
• The end-user draws up the inventory of fixed machines involved
in the operation of installations with an indication of the power
rating for each one. He systematically identifies those which
perform:
a) Operations directly related to product storage (conveyors,
elevators, etc)
b) Work on products (grinding, cleaning, sieving, etc)
c) Packaging of products (weighing, bagging, pulverizing, etc)
d) Ventilation of storage cubicles and bins in addition to suction of
dust-filled gases for purification prior to discharge and suction of
dust-free gases prior to discharge into the atmosphere.
On the basis of this inventory, the combined power ratings at b)
and c), wherever they are located within the facilities, should then be
taken into account.
ZONE CLASSIFICATION
ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS
Filters - Pipes for dust-filled air
Elevators
Grain dispenser onto conveyor belt (alongside the spout) (the efficiency of suction is critical here)
Chain conveyor system: where the grain is discharged only
Chain conveyor system: in the conveyor body
Cleaner-separator and similar appliances
Receiving tank: in the tank, above the grille behind the grain chute (if it is a confined space)
Closed cubicles during filling (due to possible deposits of dust)
Bottom of boxes or cubicles during drainage by ventilation. The other parts of the silo should not be classified as Zones
at risk of explosion. For example: open areas during filling, conveyor belts (except during grain feed). Top of silo: tops of
open cubicles, gangways, unconfined external receiving tanks."
Depending on its location in the silos, the appropriate electrical equipment should be classified Zone 20, 21 or 22.
ZONE
CLASSIFICATION
20
20 or 21
21 or 22
21
22
20 or 21
22
21 or 22
21 or 22
APPLETON ADVICE
Following informations are given just as an example to explain the
French rules on those subjects : please identify in your country the
equivalent and remember, if there is no rule, that gas, vapor and
dust have no nationality: the way to explode or protect yourselves
are the same everywhere.
* Guide produced in France by the members of the FFCAT technical
commission and various authorities (Apave, Véritas, INRS, Groupama,
CRAM, etc), summarizing standards EN 50281-1-1 and 2.
G:26
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
CLASSIFICATION OF EQUIPMENT WHERE DUST IS PRESENT
These tables define the types of product required in premises where
potentially explosive dust is present.
APPLETON’S RECOMMENDATION
It is essential to select ATEX-certified equipment for Zones 21 and
22 to prevent any likelihood of risks of explosion in premises where
potentially explosive dust is present.
TYPES OF PRODUCT ACCORDING TO ZONES
TYPE OF ZONE
Group (surface- mounted appliance)
Product categories 1,2,3 dust
D for dust
Identification in accordance with Directive 94/9/EC
CE marking
Protection index
Surface temperature (1) (2)
ZONE 21 OR ZONE 22
WITH CONDUCTING
ZONE 20
DUST (3)
ZONE 22
II
II
II
1D (4)
2D (4)
3D (4)
II 1 D
II 2 D
II 3 D
CE xxx
CE xxx
CE xxx
IP 6x
IP 6x
IP 5x
to be checked according to product or dust
SELF-IGNITION TEMPERATURES
SELF-IGNITION TEMPERATURE °C
DUST
LAYER
380
240
520
210
250
450
340
Peanuts (husks)
Cocoa
Unprocessed cotton
Cork
Malt
Rice
Soya (flour)
CLOUD
400
510
–
460
400
510
550
MINIMUM EXPLOSION
CONCENTRATION
(CLOUD) (G/M3)
45
75
190
35
55
85
60
MAXIMUM PRESSURE
BUILD-UP SPEEDS
(BAR/S)
560
85
30
500
300
50
55
(1) Note for France : Value given by the Silo Guide cereal producers: + 125 °C.
(2) For all dust products, refer to the INRS tables: Manual due to be reprinted. 1st half of 2004.
(3) Conductive dust = R ≤ 103 Ω m.
(4) with non-conductive dust
APPLETON : A COMPLETE RANGE FOR ZONES 21 & 22
G:27
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
DUST WHICH MAY CAUSE POTENTIALLY EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES
Following informations are given just as an example to explain the
French rules on those subjects : please identify in your country the
equivalent information.
SELF-IGNITION
TEMPERATURE °C
DUST
LAYER
Cellulose
Cocoa
Cork
Corn starch
Dextrin
Flour/wheat
Malt
Milk powder
Peanuts (husks)
Rice
Soya (flour)
Starch (wheat)
Sugar
Unprocessed cotton
Wheat (bulk)
Wood/pine (sawdust)
Aluminium flakes (*)
Aluminium powder (*)
Antimony
Cadmium
Copper
Electrolytic chromium
Ferro-silicon (88% Si)
Ferro-titanium
Ground aluminium (*)
Ground magnesium
Iron pentacarbonyl
Iron reduced with hydrogen
Magnesium-aluminium
(Dow metal)
Manganese
Pulverised lead
Silicon
Thorium
Thorium (hydride)
Tin
Titanium
Titanium (hydride)
Uranium
Uranium (hydride)
Vanadium
Zinc
Zirconium
Zirconium (hydride)
1,4-benzenediamine
2,2’ -Azobis (isobutyronitrile)
2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-cresol
Acetylsalicylic acid
(aspirin)
Adipic acid
Benzoic acid
Biphenyl
Bisphenol A
Diallyl phthalate
Dicumyl peroxide
Dimethyl isophthalate
Fumaric acid
Hexamethylenetetramine
Hydroxyethylcellulose
Mannitol
Pentaerythritol
Phenyl-ß-naphthylamine
Phthalic anhydride
Soap
Sulphur
Terephthalic acid
Vitamin B1 nitrate
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
Zinc stearate
CLOUD
AGRICULTURAL DUST
270
480
240
510
210
460
380
390
410
440
440
250
400
200
490
210
460
450
510
340
550
380
400
400
370
520
220
500
260
470
METALLIC DUST
400 to 900
600 to 700
490 to 700
550 to 800
330
415
250
570
900
400
580
860
400
370
460 to 900
550 to 700
430
560
310
320
290
320
MINIMUM
IGNITION
ENERGY
(CLOUDS)
(MJ)
MINIMUM
EXPLOSION
CONCENTRATION
(CLOUDS)
(G/M3)
80
100
35
30
40
60
35
50
50
100
100
25
30
100
60
40
55
75
35
40
40
50
55
50
45
85
60
25
45
190
65
35
10 to 100
15 to 160
1 900
4 000
40
400
80
50 to 120
40
20
80
40 to 60
40 to 140
420
230
425
140
45 to 120
30
105
120
480
240
270
950
280
20
430
510
540
100
20
490
540
300
270
CHEMICALS
430
350
-
430
460
710
780
270
260
630
330
480
20
20
500
690
350
350
80
305
96
5
3
80
25
60
45
5
60
960
120
60
20
125
160
75
80
190
45
70
60
60
220
460
45
85
380
430
470
15
25
20
20
15
20
melts
melts
180
500
220
280
melts
660
550
620
630
570
480
560
580
520
410
410
460
450
680
650
640
190
680
360
460
510
25
60
20
20
15
20
30
15
35
10
40
40
10
25
15
120
15
20
60
60
10
50
35
30
15
20
30
45
25
85
15
25
65
30
25
15
83
35
50
35
70
20
SELF-IGNITION
TEMPERATURE °C
DUST
Asphalt
Bituminous coal
Charcoal
Coal (anthracite)
Reference coal (Pittsburgh)
Tar
Carbon black
Graphite
Lignite
Smoke black
Polycarbonate
Polyvinyl butyral
Polyvinyl chloride
A.B.S. (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene)
Carboxymethylcellulose
Cellulose acetate
Rubber containing chlorine
LAYER
CLOUD
CARBONATED MATERIALS
550
510
180
610
180
530
730
170
610
630
900
no ignition
580
200
450
730
PLASITCS, RUBBERS
710
390
400
660
480
310
460
420
290
940
MINIMUM
IGNITION
ENERGY
(CLOUDS)
(MJ)
MINIMUM
EXPLOSION
CONCENTRATION
(CLOUDS)
(G/M3)
40
30
20
100
60
25
30
-
35
50
140
65
55
45
30
-
25
25
10
20
flame on hot surface
20
25
140
60
15
40
350
340
-
370
560
360
480
flame on hot surface
10
25
40
15
30
20
30
430
460
360
380
500
-
500
510
540
500
440
450
440
420
500
390
20
20
1 600
20
50
30
20
30
15
10
30
35
345
-
500
440
30
35
35
25
490
390
470
320
350
550
690
550
550
20
30
50
160
no ignition
10
15
30
30
25
40
-
810
320
85
270
580
500
15
120
25
155
Non-flameproof polyurethane foam
440
460
510
80
20
85
30
Petroleum resin (blown
asphalt)
Phenol-2-furaldehyde resin
Pure epoxy resin
Sodium resinate
Viscose (rayon)
500
220
250
510
530
540
350
520
25
10
15
60
240
25
25
20
40
55
Ethylcellulose
Ground polystyrene
Methylcellulose
Methyl polymethacrylate
Nylon
(hexamethylene polyadipamide)
Poly-2-propylene-1-ol
Poly-2-propylene-1-ol + glass fiber
Polyacrylonitrile
Polyester (styrene-glass fibre)
Polyethylene
Polyformaldehyde
Polypropylene
Polystyrene (latex)
Shellac
Styrene-acrylonitrile
copolymer
Styrene-butadiene copolymer
Styrene maleic anhydride
copolymer
Synthetic rubber (33% sulphur)
Unprocessed rubber
Vinyl polyacetate
Vinyl polyacetochloride
Coumarin-indene resin
Flameproof polyurethane foam
Formic
melamine-aldehyde resin
Formic
phenol-aldehyde resin
Ground alkyl resin
Ground formic urea-aldehyde
resin
G:28
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
45
20
35
20
20
15
flame on hot surface
15
25
CLASSIFICATION OF DUST – GENERAL INFORMATION
RULES FOR TEMPERATURE LIMITATION
a) Cloud of dust
Temperature limitation due to the presence of a cloud of dust.
The maximum surface temperature of the equipment must not
exceed two-thirds of the ignition temperature, in degrees Celsius,
of the dust/air mixture under consideration :
T°max = 2/3 Tci.
• Tci being the ignition temperature of a cloud of dust.
b) Layer of dust
Temperature limiting due to the presence of a layer of dust of less
than 5 mm :
T°max = 5 mm - 75 K.
• 5 mm being the ignition temperature of a layer of dust no
more than 5 mm thick.
• 75 K being the safety factor equal to + 75 °C.
c) If the layer is more than 5 mm thick, the maximum permissible
surface temperature should be reduced.
DUST IGNITION CHARACTERISTICS
CLOUD OF DUST
5 MM LAYER OF DUST
MAXIMUM
SURFACE
MAXIMUM SURFACE
TEMPERATURE °C
TEMPERATURE °C
AVERAGE
SELF-IGNITION
OF THE
SELF-IGNITION
OF THE
PARTICLE SIZE
TEMPERATURE °C
EQUIPMENT
TEMPERATURE °C
EQUIPMENT
μm
(T1)
(2/3 OF T1)
(T2)
(T2-75 °C)
Unprocessed cotton
< 75
–
–
+ 520
+ 445
Rice
< 75
+ 510
+ 340
+ 450
+ 375
Wheat flour
< 75
+ 440
+ 293
+ 440
+ 365
Dextrin
< 75
+ 410
+ 273
+ 390
+ 315
Starch (wheat)
< 75
+ 400
+ 267
+ 380
+ 305
Soya (flour)
< 75
+ 550
+ 367
+ 340
+ 265
Corn starch
< 75
+ 380
+ 253
–
–
Sugar
< 75
+ 370
+ 247
+ 400
+ 325
Cellulose
< 75
+ 480
+ 320
+ 270
+ 195
Wood/pine (sawdust)
< 75
+ 470
+ 313
+ 260
+ 185
Malt (Barley)
< 75
+ 400
+ 267
+ 250
+ 175
Cocoa
< 75
+ 510
+ 340
+ 240
+ 165
Wheat (bulk)
< 75
+ 500
+ 333
+ 220
+ 145
Cork
< 75
+ 460
+ 307
+ 210
+ 135
Peanuts (husks)
< 75
+ 460
+ 307
+ 210
+ 135
Milk powder
< 75
+ 490
+ 327
+ 200
+ 125
Important: the characteristics may vary according to the humidity and the grading size of the sample under consideration.
The optimum values must therefore be taken into account when calculating the maximum surface temperature.
MAXIMUM
SURFACE
TEMPERATURE °C
–
+ 340
+ 293
+ 273
+ 267
+ 265
–
+ 247
+ 195
+ 185
+ 175
+ 165
+ 145
+ 135
+ 135
+ 125
APPLETON ADVICE
Following informations are given just as an example to explain the
French rules on those subjects : please identify in your country the
equivalent and remember, if there is no rule, that gas, vapor and
dust have no nationality: the way to explode or protect yourselves
are the same everywhere.
G:29
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
SELECTING EQUIPMENT IN DUST ENVIRONMENT
The various regulations have taken account of a certain number of
dusts, most commonly found in clouds or layers. The tables on these
two pages can be used to determine, for each type of site, the type of
dust likely to be present and their self-ignition temperatures. This will
enable you to determine the equipment classification to be used.
340
400
550
370
SUGAR
450
510
SOYA (FLOUR)
250
400
RICE
210
460
MALT
200
490
COK
380
MILK POWDER
CORN STARCH
440
440
WHEAT FLOUR
390
410
DEXTRIN
270
480
CELLULOSE
520
-
UNPROCESSED COTTON
240
510
COCOA
260
470
WOOD/PINE (SAWDUST)
220
500
WHEAT
210
C
460
PEANUTS
380
STARCH
L
400
SELF-IGNITION
TEMPERATURE °C DUST
TABLE OF FOOD PROCESSING DUST
125
L
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Heading 2225: Sugar factories, sugar refinery, malt house 175
L
Heading 2410: Wood or similar material
185
L
Heading 2271: Manufacture of dextrin
315
L
Heading 2311: Processing of vegetable fibres, etc
195
C
Heading 2226: Starch mill
305
C
FIELD OF APPLICATION OF PREMISES
Heading 2160: Silos and Installations for storage of
cereals, grain, food products or any organic products, etc
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
"L" = layer
"C" = cloud
Highest temperature of the installation including the equipment
(according to the calculation on page G:29).
If any of the elements are not present in the installation, use the most
restrictive that is actually present.
TABLE OF DUST FOUND IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY
DUST
PARTICLE SIZE
SELF-IGNITION TEMPERATURE
MINIMUM CONCENTRATION (9/μ3)
Acetylsalicylic acid
400μ
550 °C
60
Ascorbic acid
39μ
490 °C
60
Paracetamol
120μ
–
30
Extract of rosemary
30μ
380 °C
30
Valerian powder
78μ
–
100
Tests conducted in a laboratory are used to assess the risks of explosion of products used in the pharmaceutical industry.
G:30
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
SELECTING EQUIPMENT IN DUST ENVIRONMENT
PRODUCT SELECTION CRITERIA ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF DUST
SELF-IGNITION
TEMPERATURE °C
OF DUST IN A LAYER
MAX. SURFACE
TEMPERATURE °C
= T-75°
SELF-IGNITION
TEMPERATURE °C
OF DUST IN A CLOUD
MAX. SURFACE
TEMPERATURE °C
= 2/3 T°
Starch (Wheat)
+ 380
+ 305
+ 400
+ 267
Wheat (bulk)
+ 220
+ 145
+ 500
+ 333
Wood/Pine (sawdust)
+ 260
+ 185
+ 470
+ 313
Cellulose
+ 270
+ 195
+ 480
+ 320
Flour/wheat
+ 440
+ 365
+ 440
+ 293
Corn starch
–
+ 125
+ 380
+ 253
Milk powder
+ 200
+ 125
+ 490
+ 327
Sugar
+ 400
+ 325
+ 370
+ 247
DUST
Important: for dust, the temperature is clearly indicated according to the type of dust and whether it is in clouds or layers.
G:31
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
PROTECTION INDEX
PROTECTION AGAINST ELECTRIC SHOCKS
CLASS 2
This relates to the risk of so-called indirect contact as a result of a
fault in the insulation between the active parts and the earth of the
load.
• Double insulation or reinforced insulation identified by two
concentric squares (international symbol)
CLASS 3
The EN/IEC 61140 standard defines the following four classes :
• Equipment supplied at a voltage not exceeding the limits of
extra low voltage (ELV) and not having any internal or external
circuits operating at a voltage above these limits.
CLASS 0
• Single functional insulation, no possibility of connecting metal
earths to a protective conductor (this kind of equipment is
prohibited even in non hazardous Zones).
CLASS 1
• Single functional insulation, obligatory presence of an ear thing
terminal for the earths.
Moreover, article 15 of the EN/IEC 60079-0 standard stipulates,
for all equipment for explosive atmospheres, at least one connection
element for the protective conductor or the conductor for the
equipotential earth connection.
NB : classes 2 and 3 do not provide any additional protection with
regard to the risk of explosion.
ELECTRICAL CLASSES
CLASS
PROTECTION
Class 0
Insulation by construction without connection to earth
Class 1
Double insulation without connection to earth
Class 2
Adapted to extra low voltage (< 50V)
The electrical class defines the protection of people against indirect electrical contacts
PROTECTION INDEXES FOR ELECTRICAL ENCLOSURES IN ACCORDANCE WITH EN/IEC 60529 STANDARDS
1ST FIGURE: PROTECTION AGAINST SOLID BODIES
2ND FIGURE: PROTECTION AGAINST LIQUIDS
IP
TESTS
IP
TESTS
0
No protection
0
No protection
1
Protected against solid bodies larger than
50 mm (e.g. accidental contact with the
hand)
1
Protected against vertically-falling drops of
water (condensation)
2
Protected against solid bodies larger than
12.5 mm (e.g. finger of the hand)
2
Protected against drops of water falling at
up to 15˚ from the vertical
3
Protected against solid bodies larger than
2.5 mm (tools, wires)
3
Protected against drops of rainwater at up
to 60˚ from the vertical
4
Protection against solid bodies larger
than 1mm (fine tools, small wires)
4
Protected against projections of water
from all directions
5
Protected against dust (no harmful
deposit)
5
Protected against jets of water from all
directions
6
Completely protected
6
Completely protected against jets of water
of similar force to heavy seas
7
Protected against the effects of temporary
immersion
8
Protected against effects of prolonged
immersion under specified conditions
IP
LETTER
H
DESCRIPTION
High voltage apparatus
M
Motion during water test
S
Stationary during water test
W
Weather conditions
G:32
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
PROTECTION INDEX
PROTECTION AGAINST MECHANICAL SHOCKS
The table below gives the impact (in joules) for Group II equipment.
It is an extract from the EN/IEC 60079-0 standard.
N.B. : When an item of electrical equipment is subjected to tests
corresponding to a low risk of mechanical danger, it must be marked
with the symbol « X » in accordance with article 26.4.2 and 29.2i.
The indication « X » placed at the end of the certificate number can
also indicate particular conditions of use.
ATX products are designed and certified to resist to high mechanical
shock.
GROUP II EQUIPMENT
SHOCK ENERGY (IN JOULES)
RISK OF MECHANICAL DANGER
HIGH
LOW
1. Grids, protective covers, protective caps for fans, cable entries
7
4
2. Plastic enclosures
7
4
3. Lightweight alloy or cast-iron enclosures
7
4
4. Enclosures of a material other than with walls 3 mm thick
- less than 3 mm for Group I
- less than 1 mm for Group II
7
4
5. Translucent parts without protective device
4
2
6. Translucent parts with grid (tests to be carried out without the grid)
2
1
IK TABLE
IK CODE
IK 00
IK 01
IK 02
IK 03
IK 04
IK 05
IK 06
IK 07
IK 08
K 09
IK 10
Shock energy
(in joules)
0
0.15
0.20
0.35
0.50
0.70
1
2
5
10
20
By way of comparison : protection against mechanical shocks in accordance with article 4.2 of EN/IEC 62262.
G:33
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
EMC - ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY
With respect to EMC (Electromagnetic compatibility), equipment
must comply with the EMC Directive 89/336 EC, modified by
directives 92/3, 93/68 and 93/97 EC, which stipulate 2 main
requirements :
1- EMISSION
The appliance must not emit interference or disturbance likely to
affect other equipment.
2- IMMUNITY
The appliance must be resistant to the effects of surrounding
electrical equipment (for example, starting of motors or pumps,
variable speed drives, etc.).
DIRECTIVES 89/336, 92/31, 93/68 AND 93/97 CE
EMISSION
IMMUNITY
IN ACCORDANCE WITH NF EN 50081-2
IN ACCORDANCE WITH NF EN 50082-2
EMISSION TESTS
IMMUNITY TESTS
EN/IEC 55015
Insertion loss (C)
Conducted interference (C)
Radiated interference (R)
EN/IEC 61547
EN/IEC 61000-4-2 Electromagnetic discharges (C)
EN/IEC 61000-4-3 Immunity to radiated fields (R)
EN/IEC 61000-4-8 Power frequency magnetic fields (C)
EN/IEC 61000-4-4 Fast transient/burst (C)
EN/IEC 61000-4-6 Induced conducted interference (C)
EN/IEC 61000-4-5 Lighting surges (C)
EN/IEC 61000-4-11 Voltage dips and interruptions (C)
(C) ==> Conduction
(R) ==> Radiated
G:34
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
PROTECTION MODES
There are several protection modes recognized by the IEC.
ZONE
IDENTIFICATION
LETTERS
EN/IEC
STANDARDS
PROTECTION METHODS
GAS AND VAPORS
Zone 0
Zone 1
Zone 2
ia
60079-11
Intrinsically safe
ma
60079-18
Encapsulated
op Is
60079-28
Intrinsically safe optical radiation
d
60079-1
Flameproof
e
60079-7
Increased safety
ib
60079-11
Intrinsically safe
mb
60079-18
Encapsulated
o
60079-6
Immersed in oil
p
60079-2
Internal over-pressure
q
60079-5
Filled with powder
ic
60079-11
Intrinsically safe
mc
60079-18
Encapsulated
nA
60079-15
Non sparking equipment
nC
60079-15
Equipment glittering sparks but contacts protected by enclosure other than nR, nL or nZ
nL
60079-15
Equipment with limited energy
nR
60079-15
Enclosure with restricted breathing
nZ
60079-15
Enclosure with simple internal over-pressure
iD
61241-11
Intrinsically safe
mD
61241-11
Encapsulated
pD
61241-4
Over pressurization
lD
61241-1
Protection by enclosure
DUSTS
Zone 21
G:35
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
FLAMEPROOF « d » EQUIPMENT
DEFINITION
CABLE ENTRIES
A flameproof enclosure must be able to fulfil three criteria :
• Contain an internal explosion without permanent distortion.
It is necessary to lubricate the thread and to ensure that at least 5
threads are engaged for metric thread and at least 3.5 threads are
engaged for NPT threads.
• Guarantee that the explosion cannot be transmitted to the
surrounding atmosphere.
Holes which are not used for cable entries must be blanked using the
appropriate blanking plugs.
• Exhibit a temperature at all points on the surface which is lower
than the spontaneous ignition temperature of the surrounding
gases or vapors.
EXPLOSION GROUP OF A FLAMEPROOF ENCLOSURE
Experimental studies of explosions has shown that there are values
for the flange width (L) and for the gap (i) which make it impossible
for an explosion to spread outside an enclosure which is not perfectly
tight.
These values are directly linked to the explosive capacity of the
atmosphere in question, and are classed in 4 groups :
I, II A, II B or II C (see « Marking »).
L
I
• For example, the value of the gap « i» for a flange 12.5 mm
long and for a volume < 100 cm3, dependent on the explosion
group, is as follows :
I
: ≤ 0.4 mm (flanged path)
II A
: ≤ 0.3 mm (flanged path)
II B
: ≤ 0.2 mm (flanged path)
II C
: ≤ 0.15 mm (spigot path)
II
Surface industry.
2
Category 2 corresponding to Zone 1.
G
Gas.
All the values for the gap « i » as a function of the seal « L » are given
in the EN/IEC 60079-1 standard.
Ex
Equipment designed to operate in an explosive
atmosphere.
(Products certified ATEX are marked EEx and marked Ex
for the products certified IEC).
d
This letter designates the mode of protection by
flameproof enclosure.
The construction of this enclosure must be such that it
withstands the pressure of a possible internal explosion
and prevents it from spreading to the exterior. It is
characterized in particular by the dimensions of its seals
and gaps.
II
This is the electrical equipment group according to its
destination. There are two groups :
• Group I
Electrical equipment intended for underground
work in mines with explosive atmospheres.
• Group II
Electrical equipment intended for surface work.
B
Subdivision of gases (see page G:24) taken into account
for the dimensions of flamepath.
T6
It is the temperature class of the equipment. It indicates
the maximum surface temperature during operation
(while respecting a safety margin in the event of an
accident involving the air-conditioning or ventilation).
• There are six temperature classes (see chart left).
II2G Ex d IIB T6
TEMPERATURE CLASS
The flameproof enclosure must not exhibit temperatures on its
external surface which are capable of becoming sources of spontaneous
ignition. Equipment is therefore classified according to their
maximum external temperature. There are six temperature classes :
T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 (see « Marking »).
MARKING
The marking of flameproof « d » must bear the information stipulated
by the 94/9 CE ATEX Directive for Europe and IEC 60079-0 for the
rest of the world.
TEMPERATURE CLASS
MAXIMUM SURFACE
TEMPERATURE °C (MST)
T1
450
T2
300
T3
200
T4
135
T5
100
T6
85
G:36
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
FLAMEPROOF « d » EQUIPMENT
CONNECTION TERMINALS
The certificate of conformity does not stipulate the type of terminals
to be used in a flameproof enclosure. Only the connection precautions
given in the technical data sheets need to be followed.
Extract from article 4 in the December 20, 1988 order, modified
by the January 10, 1992 order (Interval between inspections is fixed
at one year in rooms and work positions at which there are risks of
degradation fire or explosion, etc...)
LIGHTING
In lighting equipment use only lamps of the type and power specified
for that equipment.
LUBRICATION OF FLAMEPATH
The equipment is supplied with the joint flanges lubricated. When the
equipment is installed, the path must be lubricated to keep them in
good condition. Use a non-hardening, anti-corrosive grease.
• For the flange and spigot path on boxes and enclosures : multipurpose grease, for use at temperatures - 30 to + 130 °C, such as
Antar multi-purpose, ELF multi, ELF epexelf, Loctite GR 125.
• For the flange and spigot path on the luminaires : silicone paste,
for use at temperatures - 40 to + 200 °C, such as RhÙne-Poulenc
Rhodorsil 408 etc.
• For threaded path : graphitic mineral grease, for use at
temperatures - 30 to + 150 °C, such as : Loctite GR 135,
Molydal M 03.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ASSEMBLY
In order to successfully retain the flameproof character of the
equipment :
• Care must be taken before starting up to ensure that all the
screws for closing the covers and cable entries are firmly
tightened.
• Modification of the original predrilled holes is prohibited.
MAINTENANCE
APPLETON ADVICE
• Always read the installation and user’s instructions provided
with the equipment before starting installation work.
• Always use Appleton original spare parts for repair work, in
order to keep the equipment in good working condition and
to maintain the protection mode.
• For a good maintenance, keep the technical data sheets and
the EC declarations of conformity.
G:37
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
INCREASED SAFETY « e » EQUIPMENT
DEFINITION
CABLE ENTRIES
Method of protection applicable to electrical equipment such as
light fittings, sockets, switches, etc, which consists of preventing the
occurrence of any accidental ignition.
These are created by screwing the cable gland directly onto the
enclosure or, for untapped holes, by fixing with a locknut. Holes
which are not used for cable entries must be blanked using the
appropriate blanking plugs.
The construction principles for increased safety « e » equipment are as
follows :
• Use of high-quality insulation materials
• Specially dimensioned air line leakage distance and creepage
distance
• Electrical connection which cannot become loose
• Minimum IP54 weatherproof protection of the enclosure
• Respect of the temperature classes
• Conformity of cable entries
• Labelling.
USE
All increased safety « e » equipment is designed such that it does not
cause arcs or excessive temperatures capable of likely to ignite an
explosive atmosphere. It is therefore suitable for all gas groups (A, B
and C). These groups do not appear on the equipment labelling.
CABLE ENTRY BY SCREWING DIRECTLY ONTO
ENCLOSURE.
TEMPERATURE CLASS
For increased safety « e » equipment, the temperature to be taken into
account is that of the hottest point of the equipment as a whole, and
not the external temperature.
There are six temperatures classes: T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6
(see « Marking »).
MARKING
The marking of increased safety « e » equipment must bear
information stipulated by the 94/9 CE ATEX Directive for Europe
and IEC 60079-0 for the rest of the world.
JBEL1N4P16G
(096105)
-40 °C ≤ Ta ≤ +55 °C
IP66/67
Amiens - FRANCE
LCIE 02 ATEX 6058 - LCIE Ex 02.008
Ex de IIC T6 - Ex tD A21 T = 75 °C
II 2 GD
Un= 800V max. / Un= 780V / In maximum 30A
AVERTISSEMENT  WARNING  ACHTUNGAVIGO
NE PAS OUVRIR SOUS TENSION  DO NOT OPEN WHEN ENERGIZED
NICHT UNTER SPANNLING OFFNEN  NO ASRIR CON TENSION
Type BJe1
0081
TEMPERATURE CLASS
MAXIMUM SURFACE
TEMPERATURE (MST)
T1
450 °C
T2
300 °C
T3
200 °C
T4
135 °C
T5
100 °C
T6
85 °C
II2G Ex e II T6
II
Surface industry.
2
Category 2 corresponding to Zone 1.
G
Gas.
Ex
Equipment designed to operate in an explosive
atmosphere.
(Products certified ATEX are marked EEx and marked Ex
for the products certified IEC).
e
This letter refers to the increased safety protection mode.
II
This is the electrical equipment group according to its
destination. There are two groups :
• Group I
Electrical equipment intended for underground
work in mines with explosive atmospheres.
• Group II
Electrical equipment intended for surface work.
T6
It is the temperature class of the equipment. It indicates
the maximum surface temperature during operation
(while respecting a safety margin in the event of an
accident involving the air-conditioning or ventilation).
• There are six temperature classes (see chart left).
G:38
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
INCREASED SAFETY « e » EQUIPMENT
WEATHERPROOF SEAL
PRODUCTS MARKED « de »
The equipment has a protection index of at least IP 54 ; it is therefore
important to ensure that the weatherproof seal is in good condition
when the product is installed.
Certain appliances such as power sockets, switches, etc, whose design
creates arcs and sparks in normal operation, cannot be produced with
protection mode « e » only.
Defective seals must be systematically replaced.
Protection modes therefore have to be combined. « d » and « e »
technologies are the most commonly used.
1) The part where the electric arc is produced is enclosed in a small
flameproof chamber.
2) The connection terminals are « e » increased safety.
3) The assembly is mounted in an « e » increased safety enclosure
and has a certificate of conformity with CENELEC standards.
4) Appliances marked « de » demonstrate the subdivision of gases
(A, B, or C) which is linked to the « d » part of the equipment.
WEATHERPROOF SEAL
CONNECTION TERMINALS
Each certificate of conformity indicates the type of terminals to be
used in each type of junction box.
The connection must be performed according to current regulations
and any additional instructions in the product documentation, such
as :
• Maximum current density,
• Maximum connection capacity.
STRIPPING AND CONNECTION
The conductors should only be stripped back to the edge of the metal
part of the terminal connection, to ensure correct insulation.
CORRECT STRIPPING
Core of
conductor
Insulation
INCORRECT STRIPPING
TOO SHORT
TOO LONG
APPLETON ADVICE
• Always read the installation and user’s instructions provided
with the equipment before starting installation work.
• Always use Appleton original spare parts for repair work, in
order to keep the equipment in good working condition and
to maintain the protection mode.
• For a good maintenance, keep the technical data sheets and
the EC declarations of conformity.
G:39
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT
REQUIREMENTS IN STANDARDS
Standard A 91-011 defines three different types of atmospheric
environments :
TROPICAL ENVIRONMENT
• An environment corresponding, as the definition suggests,
to the most severe conditions of heat and humidity - regions
known as « tropical » and « equatorial ».
This environment concerns products to be dispatched
all over the world. This environment implies the strongest
protection against corrosion currently in use for a metallic
finish.
SALINE MIST CORROSION TEST IN OUR LABORATORIES.
INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT
• An environment corresponding to factory and related
atmospheres but without these atmospheres having a particular
character requiring special protection, the main increase in
corrosion arising from a substantial sulphur content in the
atmosphere.
MARINE ENVIRONMENT
• An environment corresponding to atmospheres on the coast or
at sea, excluding actual attack by sea water, the main increase
in corrosion arising from the continuous presence of high
relative humidity and of a certain content of sea salt in the air.
CORROSION ON A NON-TREATED
PRODUCT.
TREATMENT AT SOURCE TO WITHSTAND THE 3 ATMOSPHERIC
ENVIRONMENTS
In order to ensure the most efficient corrosion resistant treatment
possible, Appleton has chosen to carry out on all products in
this catalogue a treatment that satisfies all three atmospheric
environments :
• 672 hours saline mist test in accordance with IEC 60068-2-11,
Ka test.
The test corresponds to a period of 4 weeks at a saline concentration
of 5 %.
PRODUCT TREATED AGAINST
CORROSION.
In addition to the saline mist test the products undergo climatic
tests defined by the IEC 60068-2-30 standard, that is 5 climatic
cycles of 24 hour from 25 °C to 55 °C with a relative humidity of
50 to 95 %.
COMPOSITION OF MATERIALS USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF
ENCLOSURES
All ATX plastic enclosures (polyester, polycarbonate, polyamid),
used in the construction of enclosures are conform to the article 7 of
the EN/IEC 60079-0 standard.
All main alloys are conform to the AFNOR french codification.
APPLETON ADVICE
Care should be taken to ensure that the materials chosen for the
equipment are compatible with your industrial environment.
Example : polyester in the presence of benzene.
G:40
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
INSTALLATION METHODS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD
PREDOMINANT IN : UNITED STATES, CANADA, PART OF SOUTH AMERICA, MIDDLE EAST, FAR EAST
Threaded
conduit
Flag
CONDUCTORS PLACED IN A RIGID THREADED CONDUIT : CONNECTION VIA A FIRE BARRIER.
This installation method is widely used by specifiers, investors and installers in the USA
and Canada, as well as part of South America and the Middle and Far East, where the
National Electrical Code NEC is used.
Sealing
compound
Conduit
nipples or
threaded
conduit
Special seals are required, known as fire barrier connections which are filled with an
appropriate « compound ».
Fibre dam
Casing
PREDOMINANT IN : UNITED KINGDOM, COMMONWEALTH COUNTRIES, SPAIN AND OFFSHORE APPLICATIONS
Outer
sheath
Grip nut
Grip nut
ARMOURED BRAID, WIRE OR STEEL TAPE CABLE : CONNECTION VIA CABLE GLAND EARTH CONTINUITY.
This installation method is widely used by specifiers, investors and installers in the United
Kingdom and Commonwealth countries where the « British influence » and wiring practice
is used.
Armour lock
cone and
earth clamp
Armour
Weatherproof
gasket
Casing
Body
Weatherproof
sheath
PREDOMINANT IN : FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY, EASTERN EUROPE COUNTRIES, PART OF AFRICA, MIDDLE EAST, FAR EAST
NON ARMOURED CABLE : CONNECTION VIA CABLE GLAND.
This installation method is used when there is little risk of mechanical damage and earth
continuity is not compulsory.
Half flanges
Weatherproof
gasket
Head
Body
Design engineers, investors and contractors mainly used this due to its flexibility.
Casing
G:41
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
SELECTING CABLES
SELECTION OF CABLES INTENDED FOR USE IN HAZARDOUS AREAS
ITS USE
Cables come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes and new designs,
e.g. those with optical fibres, are regularly being introduced.
External or internal. In normal service, a cable exhibits a rise in
temperature on the surface which must be taken into account in
Zones where there is a risk of explosion. This rise in temperature
stems from a Joule effect of the current passing through the cable.
In normal use, the maximum permissible current must therefore be
limited to 85 % of the permissible intensity for the Zones without
explosion risks (required in NF C 15-100 standard, IEC 60364).
The issue of correctly sealing these cables as they enter hazardous area
electrical equipment is a worldwide
problem, and not confined purely to local conditions in any one
particular place.
Although there are no IEC construction standards for
the cables intended for use in flammable atmospheres,
according to IEC 60079-14, 10.4.2(b), if a cable gland with an
elastomeric flameproof sealing ring is to be used, when connecting
cables to Ex d equipment enclosures, the cable should be :
i.
Substantially compact and circular (i.e. especially the part of
the cable entering the enclosure),
ii. Have an extruded bedding (without any gaps),
iii. Have fillers, if any are used, which are Non-Hygroscopic.
Effectively, the cable should be physically assessed, taking into
account the protection method and configuration of the equipment,
to verify its suitability, before any cable gland with an elastomeric
sealing ring can be selected.
ITS METHOD OF INSTALLATION
Overhead, underground, in cable ducts or guttering.
In fixed installation (rigid cable), for mobile equipment (flexible
cable).
ITS CHARACTERISTICS
The use of category C1 and CR1 is even recommended :
• Flexible cables, series H07 RNF.
• Non-armoured rigid cables, series U 1000 RO 2V.
• Rigid armoured cables, series U1000 RGP FV.
All these cables can be used for voltages up to 1000 V, except flexible
cables whose operating voltage is limited to 750 V.
TYPICAL IEC CABLE TYPES
ARMOURED
Steel tape armoured (STA)
Wire braided armoured (SWB)
UNARMOURED
Single wire armoured (SWA)
Normal unarmoured
Conductors
Inner sheath with or without filler
Armour
Outer sheath
G:42
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
INSTALLATION METHOD FOR CABLE GLANDS
AN EXPLANATION OF CABLE GLAND TYPES AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR
PROPER SELECTION
EQUIPMENT SELECTION PROCESS
Generally, electrical safety is ensured by the implementation of one
of two considerations, i.e. that electrical apparatus be located where
reasonably practicable outside hazardous areas, and that electrical
apparatus be designed, installed and maintained in accordance with
measures recommended for the area in which the apparatus is located.
The selection of equipment for use in hazardous areas will depend
upon a number of variable factors including but not limited to the
Zone of Use, the Hazard Category, the Gas Group or Combustible
Dust data, the rating of equipment for the operating conditions, the
Temperature Classification requirement of the equipment (determined
by the T Rating of the flammable mixture), any construction material
considerations including reliability against chemical attack, the
Ingress Protection Rating required, the protection against possible
damage from vibration, reduction in the risk of thermite sparking, the
possibility of static charge formation, and perhaps several other factors
related to the electrical characteristics of the installation.
In order to ensure that the preferred type of equipment is used on
a plant or project, the responsible engineers may prefer to specify
the apparatus by make and model or generic type. Bearing in mind
that the most progressive and forward thinking manufacturers are
continuously developing their products the task of specification must
also be a continuous process.
Here are a few of the basic factors which may affect specification of
electrical equipment for hazardous areas :
• Clear definition of the acceptable form(s) of certification,
• Acceptable Certification Standards,
• Acceptable Gas Groups,
• Zone of Use requirement,
• Form of Protection preferred,
• Temperature Classification,
• Any environmental conditions,
• Any particular material requirements,
• Minimum Ingress Protection,
• Additional Deluge Test Certification, if required,
• Additional Marine approvals, if required,
• Minimum and Maximum Ambient Temperature rating.
Prior to selection being finalised and equipment being earmarked
for purchase the relevant engineering personnel should review the
availability of the preferred or specified equipment, verifying that it
has the necessary hazardous area certification to meet the conditions
prevailing. This review of certification should cover any special
conditions for safe use that may be included in the certification
documents to avoid subsequent non-conformities arising when the
equipment is ready to be installed, commissioned, operated, inspected
or maintained.
CABLE GLANDS FOR HAZARDOUS AREAS
Under EN/IEC Standards (EN/IEC 60079-0 & EN/IEC 60079-1) three main types of cable glands exist for hazardous area applications, for
either armoured or non-armoured cables.
FORM OF EQUIPMENT
PROTECTION/CABLE TYPE
NON-ARMOURED CABLES
ARMOURED CABLES
Increased Safety – Ex e (EN/IEC 60079-7)
Flameproof – Ex d (EN/IEC 60079-1)
Zone 2 – Ex n (EN/IEC 60079-15)
Flameproof Compound Barrier – Ex d
(EN/IEC 60079-1)
When it comes to Zone 2 equipment form of protection Type « n » , the picture is not so clear as it may first appear. As there are special
requirements which apply to the sealing of cables entering form of protection type « nR » (Restricted Breathing Enclosure) apparatus, it should
not automatically be assumed that cable glands with Ex d or Ex e certification can be used.
G:43
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
INSTALLATION METHOD FOR CABLE GLANDS
AN EXPLANATION OF CABLE GLAND TYPES AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR PROPER SELECTION
IEC PROTECTION CONCEPTS Ex d, Ex e, Ex n — CABLE GLAND FOR CABLES ENTERING Ex e APPARATUS
THE MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR Ex e CABLE GLANDS
•
•
•
•
•
Impact Strength – 7 Joules,
I.P. Rating – IP54 Gas / Vapor – IP6X Dust,
Sealing Washer at Cable Entry Interface is Recommended,
Single (Outer) Seal as a Minimum,
Trend is to Use Double (Inner/Outer) Seal.
ENTRY THREAD SEALING WASHER
OUTER SEAL
Note : Whilst the minimum Ingress Protection rating is said required
to achieve Ex e certification under EN/IEC 60079-7 is IP54, it should
be considered that the cable gland is required to maintain the integrity
of the equipment enclosure which is invariably higher.
It can also be noted that EN/IEC 60079-14, section 11.3 states that
threaded cable entry devices connected into threaded cable entry plates
or enclosures of 6 mm or greater thickness need no additional
sealing between the cable entry device and the entry plate or enclosure,
providing the axis of the cable entry device is perpendicular to the
external surface of the cable entry plate or enclosure.
However we recommend the use of an ATX Entry Thread Sealing
Washer, which when installed at the cable entry interface,
between the equipment enclosure and the cable entry device
offers I.P. protection in excess of IP66. These components have been
independently 3rd party tested in Ingress Protection tests
to EN/IEC 60529.
CABLE GLAND FOR ARMOURED CABLES ENTERING Ex d APPARATUS
OPTIONAL ENTRY THREAD SEALING WASHER
INNER & OUTER SEALS
THE MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR Ex d CABLE GLANDS
•
•
•
•
•
•
Screwed Entry Threads Must Maintain Flameproof Path,
Minimum 5 Full Thread Engagement With Mating Equipment,
Inner Seal Must be Flameproof & Gas Tight,
Trend Has Been to Use Dual Certified Ex d / Ex e,
Limitations Of Safe Use Usually Exist,
Users Must Also Carefully Follow EN/IEC 60079-14.
CABLE GLAND FOR ARMOURED CABLES ENTERING Ex n APPARATUS
ESSENTIAL ENTRY THREAD SEALING WASHER
THE MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR Ex n CABLE GLANDS
• Cable Gland / Equipment Interface Seal is Essential,
• Restricted Breathing Enclosure Features Must be Maintained –
Apparatus Maker Responsibility,
• Special Test Under EN/IEC 60079-15 Applies For Ex nR
Apparatus & Cable Entry,
• Some Flameproof Cable Glands Do Not Comply,
• Inner Seal Must be Air Tight in Two Directions.
G:44
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
INSTALLATION METHOD FOR CABLE GLANDS
AN EXPLANATION OF CABLE GLAND TYPES AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR PROPER SELECTION
SELECTION PROCESS FOR HAZARDOUS AREA CABLE GLANDS ACCORDING TO IEC
SELECTION OF CABLE GLANDS FOR FLAMEPROOF TYPE d
ENCLOSURES TO EN/IEC 60079-14
Concerning the subject of cable glands to maintain integrity of type
of protection Flameproof Enclosures “d” using direct cable entry
into the flameproof enclosures, special selection criterions have to be
considered as defined in Section 10 of EN/IEC Standard EN/IEC
60079-14 “Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres Part 14:
Electrical installations in hazardous areas (Other than mines)”.
In order to achieve compliance with the prevailing Installation Code
of Practice and in particular EN/IEC 60079-14, it is necessary to
evaluate the function of the equipment, the cable gland, and the
cable, and in order to satisfy the conditions of the applicable standards
compatibility of all three with each other must be verified. Section 10
of EN/IEC 60079-14 “Additional requirements for type of protection
“d” - Flameproof enclosures” for the selection of cable glands is
required to be followed, and this sets out some specific rules to ensure
integrity and safe operation of the installed equipment.
CABLE ENTRIES INTO EX d ENCLOSURES
Two situations can be considered, direct cable entry and indirect cable
entry:
DIRECT CABLE ENTRY – EX d
INDIRECT CABLE ENTRY – EX de
INDIRECT CABLE ENTRIES INTO EX d ENCLOSURES
In the case of indirect cable entry, this may be achieved by a separate
terminal chamber, where the cable entries can be found and only the
(looping) cable conductors are terminated in the terminal block, where
no source of ignition exists in this terminal chamber. The terminal
chamber may offer Ex d or Ex e form of protection, and is separated
from the main enclosure, with the internal wiring passing through
line barriers or bushings before connecting to the equipment side of
the terminal block. The termination and wiring of the incoming field
cables would thereby not normally require the adoption of compound
sealing cable glands in this case, unless there is a risk of gas migration
through the interstices of the cable and the transmission of gas to the
opposite end of the cable needs to be prevented. An example of this
type of equipment configuration is shown in the photograph to the
left.
G:45
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
INSTALLATION METHOD FOR CABLE GLANDS
SELECTION PROCESS – ACCORDING TO EN/IEC 60079-14
The following flow chart can only be followed as part of the EN/IEC selection process after physical evaluation of the cable 10.4.2 Selection
THE CABLE ENTRY SYSTEM SHALL COMPLY WITH THE FOLLOWING:
a) Cable entry device in compliance with EN/IEC 60079-1 “Construction and verification test of flameproof enclosures
of electrical apparatus” and particular type of cable intended for use with that device,
b) thermoplastic, thermosetting or elastomeric cable which is substantially compact and circular, has extruded bedding and fillers, if any, are
non-hygroscopic, may utilize flameproof cable entry devices, incorporating a sealing ring selected in accordance with below selection guide.
SELECTION GUIDE
Selection of cable entry for Ex d flameproof enclosure according to electrical installations EN/IEC 60079-14.
Ex d cable entry
compound sealing
(Apply 10.4.2 d or e
according to
EN/IEC 60079-14)
Ex d cable entry
with sealing ring
Start
Yes
Yes
Does the enclosure contain
an internal source of ignition?
Does the hazardous gas
require IIC apparatus?
Yes
No
Is the area of
installation Zone 1
Yes
Is the volume of the enclosure
greater than 2 dm3?
✩
No
No
No
On condition the cable gland is not certified as part of the equipment but tested and certified as a separate component and the used cable is
substantially compact and circular the selection chart above taken from section 10 of EN/IEC 60079-1 can be used.
G:46
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
INSTALLATION RECOMMENDATIONS
1- GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
SCHEME TYPE TT
Electrical installations must comply with the requirements concerning
installations in both non hazardous and hazardous locations :
• NF C15-100, with condition BE3, for France, (ß 512-2-20),
• CEI 60364, internationally.
A system having one point of the source of energy directly earthed,
the exposed conductive parts of the installation being connected to
earth electrodes, electrically independent of the earth electrodes of the
source.
2- EQUIPMENT SELECTION (EXCEPT CABLE ENTRIES)
The intensity of the phase to earth fault current is less than the
intensity of the short circuit current, but may be sufficient to cause
dangerous voltages.
• It must be protected by a residual current device if it is used in
Zone 1 hazardous locations.
• Equipment for use in Zone 0 :
– ia Intrinsic safety.
• Equipment for use in Zone 1 :
– d protection mode,
– p protection mode,
– q protection mode,
– o protection mode,
– e protection mode,
– i protection mode,
– m protection mode.
• Equipment for use in Zone 2 :
– Equipment with specific protection mode
(EN/IEC 60079-15) (see page G:35).
3. SELECTION AS A FUNCTION OF THE EQUIPMENT GROUP
• Protection modes e, m, o, p and q are marked "Group II" and
may be used in all subgroups A, B, C.
• Protection modes d and i are marked "Group IIA, IIB or IIC"
and must not be used in subgroups higher than marked. IIB
must not be used in IIC but can used in IIA.
4- EXTERNAL INFLUENCES
• The material must be selected and installed so that it is protected
against external, chemical, mechanical, thermal and electrical
influences, vibrations, humidity, etc., which are likely to
counteract the protection modes provided.
SCHEME TYPE IT
• The source of the supply is either connected to earth through a
deliberately introduced earthing impedance or is isolated from
earth. Exposed conductive parts of the installation are connected
directly to earth at the consumer end of the installation.
• Current resulting from a single phase to earth fault has a
sufficient low intensity so that it is impossible to develop a
dangerous contact voltage.
• Monitoring device must be provided in hazardous Zones to
indicate the first fault.
6- EQUALIZATION OF POTENTIALS
• In TN, TT and IT schemes, all exposed conductive parts
and all extraneous metallic parts must be connected to the
equipotential connection system.
• The connection system may comprise protective conductors,
metal pipes in metal cable ducts and metallic structural elements,
but must not include the
neutral conductor.
• It must be impossible for connections to come loose by
themselves.
7- CABLES
5- PROTECTION AGAINST DANGEROUS SPARKS
Limitation of earth fault currents. It is difficult to cover all systems,
but the following methods represent general cases.
These systems can be used in Zones 1 and 2 up to 1 000 V~/1 500 V...
(DBT Directive 73/23/CEE modified by Directive 93/68/CEE).
SCHEME TYPE TN
• The earthing system must be connected to the source of energy
directly earthed by protective conductors (PE*), which have to
be earthed near each energy transformer.
• The source of energy directly earthed and the neutral conductor
are the same.
• Any permanent phase to earth fault current becomes a short
circuit current.
• Cables and accessories should be installed such that they are
not exposed to mechanical damage and corrosive or chemical
influences, for example due to solvents, and the effects of heat.
• When this type of exposure is inevitable, protective measures
must be taken to install or to select appropriate cables. For
example, in France, the risk of mechanical damage can be
minimized by using reinforced cables with shielding inside a
seamless aluminium conduit, or cables with a mineral insulation
casing or a semi-rigid metal casing.
• When cable or conduit systems are subject to vibrations, they
must be designed to resist these vibrations without damage.
• It is also important to take precautions to avoid damage to
materials making up the insulation or casings of PVC cables
installed in Zones in which temperatures may drop below -5 °C.
8- CABLE JOINTING
SCHEME TN. C
• The neutral conductor (PE*) and the protective conductor are
the same.
SCHEME TN. S
• Whenever possible, complete cable lengths shall be installed in
hazardous locations. Where this is impossible, a cable joint must
be made to the mechanical, electrical or chemical constraints ;
it must also be enclosed in an enclosure in which the protection
mode is appropriate for the Zone.
• The neutral conductor (PE*) and the protective conductor are
separate.
• In dangerous area the scheme TN. S must be used.
• Whenever there is a transition from TN. C to TN. S (nonhazardous Zone to a hazardous Zone), the PE conductor must
be connected to the equipotential connection system in the nonhazardous location.
* Protective Earth
G:47
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
INSTALLATION RECOMMENDATIONS
9- WIRING SYSTEMS FOR ZONES 1 AND 2
CABLE FOR EQUIPMENT INSTALLED IN FIXED POSITION
• Cables with thermoplastic sheaths, or thermosetting sheaths, or
elastomer sheaths or metallic sheaths with mineral insulation may
be used.
CABLE FOR PORTABLE AND REMOVABLE MATERIAL
• Portable and removable equipment must be equipped with cables
with a high strength polychloroprene or equivalent synthetic
elastomer casing, cables with high strength rubber casings, or
cables with an equally robust construction.
• Conductors must have a minimum cross-sectional area of
1.0 mm2.
• If the cable includes a flexible metal shield or reinforcement, this
cable must not be used as the only protective earth conductor.
FLEXIBLE CABLES
Flexible cables must be selected from the following cable types :
• Flexible cables with an ordinary tough rubber sheath,
• Flexible cables with an ordinary polychloroprene sheath,
• Flexible cables with a high strength rubber sheath,
• Cables with a high strength polychloroprene sheath,
• Insulated plastic cables with a construction as robust as
flexible cables with high strength rubber sheath.
CONDUIT SYSTEMS (TUBES)
• Conduit must be equipped with a fire break if used less than 450
mm from any enclosure containing a source of
ignition
during normal operation.
• The thickness of the filling material in the fire break must be at
least equal to the inside diameter of the conduit, but never less
than 16 mm.
• Cables with one or more insulated conductors without a casing
may be used in conduit.
However when the conduit contains at least three cables, the crosssection of these cables shall not exceed 40% of the inside cross-section
of the conduit.
10- ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS ABOUT PROTECTION MODE
« d » EXPLOSIONPROOF ENCLOSURES
SOLID OBSTACLES
When installing equipment, make sure that the flamepath exit is
placed at a distance exceeding the distance defined below from
any solid object that does not form part of the equipment, such as
steel reinforcement, walls, protection devices against the weather,
installation supports, tubes or other electrical equipment, unless the
equipment has actually been tested at smaller distances.
USE OF CABLES
The surface temperature of a cable increases during normal service,
and an allowance should be made for this increase in Zones with a
risk of explosion. This temperature increase is due to the Joule effect
caused by the passage of currents.
GAS-VAPOR
SUB-GROUP
MINIMUM
DISTANCE (MM)
IIA
10
IIB
30
IIC
40
Therefore during normal conditions, the maximum allowable current
should be limited to 85% of the acceptable intensity for Zones in
which there is no explosion risk :
COMMENTS
The December 19, 1988 French ministerial order taken in application
of the November 14, 1988 decree, imposes the use of category C2
cables according to NEC 32070 for Zones with risks of explosion.
These cables do not propagate flames when taken separately and
ignited. It is even recommended that category C1 and CR1 cables are
used :
• Flexible cables, series H07 RNF,
• Rigid non-reinforced cables, series U 1000 R0 2V,
• Reinforced rigid cables, series U 1000 RGP FV.
PROTECTION OF FLAMEPATH SURFACES
All these cables may be used at a voltage of up to 1000 V, except for
the flexible cables that may not be used at more than 750 V.
CONDUIT SYSTEMS
• Enclosures in the CF type range are certified with smaller
distances.
• Flamepaths must be protected against corrosion.
• The flame flange must be protected against water penetration.
• The use of sealing materials are only accepted when specified in
equipment specification documents.
• Flamepaths must not be treated by substances that harden during
use.
• The protection indexes given for the products are guaranteed
when greases specified in our Guide (page G:37) are used.
• Conduits must be chosen from the following options :
a) Threaded high strength, drawn or continuous welded steel
conduit according to IEC 60614-2-1 or
b) Metal or composite flexible conduit, for example metal
conduit with a plastic or elastomer sheath, for which the
mechanical strength is classified as "high" or "very high"
according to IEC standard 60614-2-5.
• A minimum of five threads must be provided on the conduit so
that the five threads can be engaged between the conduits and
the explosion proof enclosure or between
the conduits and
the connector (5 threads engaged for metric threaded, 3.5 threads
engaged for NPT).
• Fire breaks must be provided for distances defined by the
EN/IEC 60079-14 standard.
• A single fire break is sufficient for coupling of two « d »
enclosures, using conduit.
G:48
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
INSTALLATION RECOMMENDATIONS
11. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR INCREASED SAFETY
PROTECTION MODE « e »
• The degree of protection of enclosures containing active bare
parts shall at least be equal to IP54.
CABLE ENTRIES
• Cable entries shall also respect « e » protection mode and must
incorporate an appropriate sealing element in order to obtain
a minimum degree of protection at least equal to IP54 at the
enclosure connection.
NOTES :
1) In order to satisfy the IP54 requirement, it is sometimes
necessary to seal the cable entry and the enclosure, for example
using a seal.
2) cable entries screwed onto 6 mm thick, or thicker, enclosures do
not require any additional seal between the cable entry and the
enclosure, provided that the cable entry is perpendicular to the
drilled surface.
CONDUCTOR ENDS
• Some terminals such as split type terminals, can accommodate
several conductors.
• When several conductors are connected to the same terminal,
care must be taken that each conductor is correctly attached.
• Unless authorized by the documentation supplied with the
equipment, two conductors with different diameters must not
be connected to the same terminal, unless they have firstly been
fixed by means of a single compression sleeve.
COMMENTS
• The insulation of each conductor must be maintained as far as
the terminal metal, to prevent the risk of short circuits between
adjacent conductors in each terminal block.
NOTE :
• When a single collar clamping screw is used with a single
conductor, the conductor should be wound in a "U" around the
screw.
COMBINATION OF TERMINALS AND CONDUCTORS IN CONNECTION
BOXES AND JUNCTION BOXES
• Make sure that heat dissipated in the enclosure cannot increase
temperatures above the required temperature class for the
equipment.
This can be done by :
a) following the instructions in the drilling Guide (www.egsatx.
com) about the number of allowable terminals, as a function of
the size of the conductors and the maximum intensity, or
b) checking that the calculated dissipated power is less than the
maximum rated dissipated power. In this case, refer to our curves
and the instructions in the drilling guide.
G:49
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
APPLETON QUALITY CONTROL
CHOOSE APPLETON'S ATX BRAND
Choosing Appleton means :
• Total conformity with the standards.
• Anti-corrosion treatment and climatic protection for each
product.
• Increased protection against mechanical shocks.
• A technical sheet with each item of equipment.
• Equipment with a high level of fire resistance.
TOTAL CONFORMITY WITH THE STANDARDS
AGEING
Appleton electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres is designed
and manufactured in the strictest conformity with IEC and
CENELEC standards.
Most products on the market are now made of plastic. Therefore, the
long term behavior of these materials should be checked.
ANTI-CORROSION TREATMENT AND CLIMATIC PROTECTION FOR
EACH PRODUCT
When the manager of a hazardous area project has to determine in
advance the anti-corrosion treatment and climatic protection of the
products he is specifying, he is often faced with a difficult decision.
Appleton has tried to reduce this problem to a minimum.
INCREASED PROTECTION AGAINST MECHANICAL SHOCKS
Items of « e » and « d » equipment are classed and constructed for
« increased risk of mechanical danger » (see page G:33). They can
therefore be installed in all work and development sites without any
additional precautions.
A TECHNICAL SHEET AND AN EC DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
FOR EACH ITEM OF EQUIPMENT.
All currently sold equipment is supplied with technical data
explaining assembly and giving instructions for operation, precautions
for operation and a copy of the EC Declaration of Conformity. The
EC Declaration of Conformity guarantees the conformity of the
product linked to the samples tested or presented by the Notified
body.
EQUIPMENT WITH A HIGH LEVEL OF FIRE RESISTANCE
As well as meeting the requirements of EN/IEC 60079-0-7, Appleton
equipment has a level of fire resistance defined by the EN/IEC
60695-2 standard. It is resistant to incandescent wire from 650 °C to
960 °C.
Most of their degradation is caused by heat generated by operation,
the temperature being equal to the ambient temperature plus
temperature rises caused by electrical parameters for each product.
Depending on the equipment type, our test rooms can check the
reliability of products by means of accelerated tests that combine
voltages up to 270V and temperatures up to + 180 °C.
Plastic enclosures exposed to sunlight are artificially aged by exposure
to UV radiation for 1000 hours with a xenon lamp, according to ISO
international standard ISO 4892-2.
PROTECTION INDEX
In their scope, all product standards require that a protection index
(protection of equipment against penetration of liquid and solid
bodies) should be defined, selected from a classification system - EN/
IEC 60529.
Therefore, all electrical equipment enclosures are provided with a
protection index IP which defines the correspondence between the
place of installation and the protection offered by products.
PHOTOMETRY
The Appleton photometry laboratory is unique in France and is one
of the most modern in Europe. Equipment is tested in it at all stages
of its design.
This is how better lighting performances are achieved. Tests are
carried out according to standard NF C 71-120 (recommended
methods for photometry of lamps and for light fittings).
ENDURANCE
The durability of products depends on their suitability for repeated
operation. Appleton tests its products within temperature ranges that
can vary from - 40 °C to + 60 °C, whereas specific standards only
impose these checks at an ambient temperature of - 20 °C to + 40 °C.
G:50
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
APPLETON QUALITY CONTROL
RIGOROUS CHECKS ARE PERFORMED AT EACH STAGE OF THE MANUFACTURE OF ATX EQUIPMENT. HERE, AN INDIVIDUAL
OVER-PRESSURE TEST ON A FLAMEPROOF « d » ENCLOSURE IS BEING PERFORMED ON THE PRODUCTION LINE.
CLIMATIC TESTS -50 °C UP TO + 200 °C.
WITH 0 UP TO 100 % OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY.
IP X6 TEST
PHOTOMETRY ROOM.
G:51
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
PHOTOMETRY
WHAT ARE PHOTOMETRIC UNITS AND QUANTITIES ?
LUMINOUS FLUX : SYMBOL F
The amount of light emitted in one second by a luminous source.
• Unit : lumen (lm).
(See luminous flux charts page G53).
LUMINOUS INTENSITY : SYMBOL I
The quantity of luminous flux propagated in a given direction.
• Unit : Candela (cd). Values on photometric curves are given
in candela.
In order to make a comparison between the different types of lighting
devices, this curve is drawn for a 1000 lumen flux.
• Example : for a point placed at 30° from the luminaire’s vertical
axis, the luminous intensity is 147 cd in the lamps transverse
direction and 118 cd in the lamps longitudinal direction.
• Note : the curve « integrates » the efficiency, it is therefore not
necessary to make corrections after having read the intensity.
However, it is necessary to multiply it by the coefficient to
obtain the actual flux of the chosen source.
ILLUMINANCE : SYMBOL E
The quantity of light falling on a unit area.
• Unit : lux (lx) = 1 lm/m2.
LUMINANCE : SYMBOL L
The value characterizing the luminous aspect of an area lit by a
lighting source or device, in a given direction.
• Unit : Candela per square metre (cd/m2).
POLAR PHOTOMETRIC
CURVE, FOR A LIGHTING
FIXTURE WITH WIDE BEAM
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LUMINOUS INTENSITY AND LUMINANCE
EFFICIENCY :
It is the ratio of light emitted by a luminaire to light emitted by a
lamp.
In order to determine the luminance at a given point - A , the
following formula can be used :
luminous intensity (cd)
LUMINOUS EFFICIENCY :
l x Cos 
3
Qualifies the efficacy of a luminous source. It is a quotient of flux
propagated over the power consumed.
• Unit : lumen per Watt (lm/W).
E=
h
luminance
(Lux)
opening angle in
relation to the
vertical axis of
the luminaire
2
height between the luminaire
and the working plane (m)
COLOR RETENTION INDEX : SYMBOL CRI
The degree to which the colored aspect of an object lit by a given
light source corresponds to the aspect under a controlled luminous
source. The CRI is a number between 0 and 100 (on this scale, 50
it is a mediocre color retention level, while 80/90 is a good retention
level).
• Unit : Ra.
COLOR TEMPERATURE :
Complex idea of cold and hot light, linked to the chromatic
properties of light and to vision of the human eye.
• Unit : Kelvin (K).
• Example : 2700 K for hot-light incandescent lamps, 8000
K for metal halide discharge lamps (a colder type of light).
WORKING PLANE :
CONVENTIONALLY, FOR INTERIOR
LIGHTING, THE WORKING PLANE IS
0.85 M FROM GROUND LEVEL.
REFLECTANCE FACTOR ACCORDING TO COLOR VARIATION (1)
80 %
70 %
50 %
30 %
10 %
WHAT IS A DEPRECIATION CORRECTION FACTOR ?
80 %
70 %
50 %
30 %
10 %
In order to compensate for the decrease in the luminous flux, due to
the ageing of the lamps and to the accumulation of dust in the area.
The level of lighting (E) should be increased by multiplying it by the
depreciation coefficient (d).
80 %
70 %
50 %
30 %
10 %
80 %
70 %
50 %
30 %
10 %
80 %
70 %
50 %
30 %
10 %
Example of a value for d :
• Dust accumulation :
• Low
1,25
• Medium 1,35
• High
1,50
WHAT IS A PHOTOMETRIC CURVE ?
The photometric curve shows the luminous intensity distribution of a
lighting device. Values are given in candelas (cd).
(1) THE SURFACE REFLECTION FACTOR IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
REFLECTED LIGHT AND INSTANT LIGHT
G:52
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
SELECTION TABLE FOR ATX LUMINAIRES DEPENDING ON LAMP TYPE
LIGHT SOURCES
DESCRIPTION
APPLETON LUMINAIRES
CHARACTERISTICS
CAP
POWER (W)
40
60
75
Incandescent
lamps
• Life time : 1,000 hours
• Luminous efficiency : between 11
and 19 lm/W
E 27
100 *
150 *
200 *
Tubular
• Life time : 2,000 hours
• Luminous efficiency : between 17
and 20,5 lm/W
Halogen lamps
E 40
G 14
BA 15 d
300 *
500 *
20
50
Pk22S
70
E27
E40
Egg-shaped
Mixed discharge
lamps
Egg-shaped
Mercury vapor
discharge lamps
Tubular
• Life time : 6,000 hours
• Luminous efficiency : between 11
and 16 lm/W
• Re-ignition time : 5 min
• Color temperature : 3,500 to
3,800 K
• CRI : 50 to 60
• Operating position : 30° (E27
cap), 45° (E40 cap)
• Life time : 16,000 to 24,000 hours
• Luminous efficiency : between 50
to 56 lm/W
• Min. ignition temperature : - 25°
C
• Re-ignition time : 10 min
• Color temperature : 3,000 to
4,000 K
• CRI : 40 to 46
• Operates in all positions
71
150
500
1000
100
FLUX
(LM)
415
DESCRIPTION
Emergency lighting « d »
Tank inspection vessel light « d »
715
Oval bulkhead lamp « d »
780 Bulkhead « dust »
Handlamp « d »
950
Tank inspection vessel light « d »
1055 Bulkhead « dust »
Oval bulkhead lamp « d »
1350 Tank inspection vessel lights « d »
Round bulkhead lamp « d »
Bulkhead « dust »
1470
Wellglass luminaire « dust »
Round bulkhead lamp « e »
Round bulkhead lamp « Zone 2 »
2160
Bulkhead « dust »
Wellglass luminaire « dust »
Round bulkhead lamp « d »
3100
Wellglass luminaire « d »
???
Wellglass luminaire « d »
8400 Wellglass luminaire « d »
—
Tank inspection vessel lights « d »
—
Tank inspection vessel lights « d »
—
Portable floodlight « d »
—
Floodlight « d »
7000 Wellglass luminaire « Zone 2 »
2500 Wellglass luminaire « d »
10250 Floodlight « d »
80000 Floodlight « d »
Round bulkhead lamp « e »
1100
E 27
E 40
160
3150
250
80 Egg-shaped
125 Tubular
5300
3700
5700
E 27
125 Egg-shaped
250 Egg-shaped
E 40
250
400 Tubular
400
CERTIFIED
TYPE
FLd - BRI40
HRCd
HBOd
HBP
BLd
HRCd
HBP
HBOd
HRCd
HBRd
HBP
Ln
HBe150
HBn150
HBP
Ln
HBRd
LTd
LTd
LTd
HRC 20WH
HRC50
PJ70
PJd
Ln
LTd
PJd
PJd
HBC150
Round bulkhead lamp « e »
HBC150
Round bulkhead lamp « Zone 2 »
HBn150
Bulkhead « dust »
HBP
Round bulkhead lamp « d »
HBRd
Wellglass luminaire « d »
LTd
Wellglass luminaire « d »
Round bulkhead lamp « Zone 2 »
Wellglass luminaire « Zone 2 »
Wellglass luminaire « Zone 2 »
6700 Wellglass luminaire « d »
Round bulkhead lamp « d »
Floodlight « d »
14200 Lantern « d »
Floodlight « dust »
Floodlight « Zone 2 »
14200
Wellglass luminaire « Zone 2 »
33200
Floodlight
24200 Wellglass luminaire « Zone 2 »
Floodlight « Zone 2 »
LTd
HBn150
Ln
Ln
LTd
HBRd
PJd
LTd
PJP
PJn
Ln
PJd
Ln
PJn
Lamp data : Osram, Philips, GE Sylvania, Eye.
 Ignitor built into lamp
* After September 1, 2009, incandescent lamps over 100 watts will no longer be available in the European Union according to the Directive EUP 2005 32/EC.
G:53
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
SELECTION TABLE FOR ATX LUMINAIRES DEPENDING ON LAMP TYPE
LIGHT SOURCES
DESCRIPTION
CHARACTERISTICS
APPLETON LUMINAIRES
CAP
POWER (W)
70 Egg-shaped
FLUX
(LM)
5800
70 Egg-shaped
5800
70 Tubular
6500
100 Tubular
10000
150 Egg-shaped
15500
150 Tubular
15500 17200
250 Egg-shaped
30000
250 Tubular
33000
E 27
Egg-shaped
HP sodium
discharge lamps
• Life time : 12,000 to 24,000 hours
• Luminous efficiency : between 65
to 140 lm/W
• Min. ignition temperature : - 25°
C
• Re-ignition time : 1 to 10 min
• Color temperature : 2,000 to
2,200 K
• Operates in all positions
E 40
Tubular
48000
400 Egg-shaped
400 Tubular
54000
55500
600 Tubular
90000
1000 Egg-shaped 120000
1000 Tubular 130000
Egg-shaped
Metal halide
discharge lamps
(halogen lamps)
Tubular
• Life time : 2,000 to 6,000 hours
• Luminous efficiency : between 68
and 78 lm/W
• Min. ignition temperature : - 25°
C
• Re-ignition time : 15 min
• Color temperature 4,000 to
4,500 K
• CRI : 65 to 70
• Operating position : all position
restriction may apply based on
wattage and/or brand of lamp
E 40
150 Egg-shaped
14200
150 Tubular
14500
250
Egg-shaped &
Tubular
24500
400 Egg-shaped
400 Tubular
DESCRIPTION
Cylindrical fluorescent luminaire « d »
Round bulkhead lamp « d »
Wellglass luminaire « d »
Floodlight « Zone 2 »
Floodlight « dust »
Wellglass luminaire « Zone 2 »
Floodlight « Zone 2 »
Wellglass luminaire « Zone 2 »
Wellglass luminaire « d »
Wellglass luminaire
Floodlight
Floodlight « Zone 2 »
Floodlight « dust »
Floodlight « d »
Wellglass luminaire « Zone 2 »
Floodlight « Zone 2 »
Wellglass luminaire « d »
Floodlight « Zone 2 »
Floodlight « dust »
Wellglass luminaire « Zone 2 »
Floodlight « Zone 2 »
Floodlight « d »
Floodlight « dust »
Wellglass luminaire « d »
Floodlight « Zone 2 »
Floodlight « dust »
Wellglass luminaire « Zone 2 »
Wellglass luminaire « d »
Floodlight « Zone 2 »
Floodlight « d »
Floodlight « d »
Floodlight « Zone 2 »
Floodlight « Zone 2 »
Wellglass luminaire « Zone 2 »
Floodlight « Zone 2 »
Floodlight « d »
Wellglass luminaire « Zone 2 »
Floodlight « Zone 2 »
Floodlight « d »
Floodlight « Zone 2 »
Floodlight « dust »
Wellglass luminaire « Zone 2 »
Floodlight « d »
34000
Floodlight « Zone 2 »
35000
Floodlight « d »
35000 Wellglass luminaire « d »
Wellglass luminaire « Zone 2 »
130000 Floodlight « Zone 2 »
CERTIFIED
TYPE
FLd
HBRd
LTd
PJn
PJP
Ln
PJn
Ln
LTd
LTd
PJd
PJn
PJP
PJd
Ln
PJn
LTd
PJn
PJP
Ln
PJn
PJd
PJP
LTd
PJn
PJP
Ln
LTd
PJn
PJd
PJd
PJn
PJn
Ln
PJn
PJd
Ln
PJn
PJd
PJn
PJP
Ln
PJd
PJn
PJd
LTd
Ln
PJn
1000 Tubular
Lamp data : Osram, Philips, GE Sylvania, Eye.
 Ignitor built into lamp
* After September 1, 2009, incandescent lamps over 100 watts will no longer be available in the European Union according to the Directive EUP 2005 32/EC.
G:54
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
SELECTION TABLE FOR ATX LUMINAIRES DEPENDING ON LAMP TYPE
LIGHT SOURCES
DESCRIPTION
Compact
fluorescent
lamps with
integral power
supply
Cylindrical
compact
fluorescent
lamps
Tubular
fluorescent
lamps
APPLETON LUMINAIRES
CHARACTERISTICS
• Life time : 8,000 hours
• Luminous efficiency :
between 40 and 65 lm/W
• Color temperature : 2
700 K
• CRI : 85
• Life time : 6,000 to
9,000 hours
• Luminous efficiency :
between 41 and 87 lm/W
• Color temperature : 2
700 K
• CRI : 85
• Operates in all positions
(PLL), Mazda (Eureka L)
and others
CAP
E 27
2 G 11
• Lamps 26 mm dia.
• Life time : 6,000 to
9,000 hours
• Luminous efficiency :
between 64 and 83 lm/W
• Color temperature :
G 13 26
4,000 K
mm dia.
• CRI : 62
• Power supply :
conventional or electronic
ballast
• Operates in all positions
LENGTH POWER
(MM)
(W)
7
11
137
8
15
18
Fa6 26
mm dia.
Fa6 38
mm dia.
800
900
DESCRIPTION
CERTIFIED
TYPE
Oval bulkhead lamps « d »
HBOd
Round bulkhead lamps « d »
Round bulkhead lamps « d »
Wellglass luminaire « d »
Emergency lighting « d »
Round bulkhead lamps « d »
Wellglass luminaire « d »
HBRd
HBRd
LTd
FLd
HBRd
AB14
178
23
1500
217
18
1200
Cylindrical fluorescent luminaires « d »
FLd
417
36
2900
Cylindrical fluorescent luminaires « d »
FLd
568
80
6000
Fluorescent luminaires « Zone 2 »
FLn
590
1200
1500
• Luminous efficiency
• 26 mm dia. : between 81
& 96 lm/W
• 38 mm dia. : between 50
& 74 lm/W
• Color temperature : 4
200 K
• CRI : 85
• Instant start
FLUX
(LM)
320
600
18
36
58
Bi-pin fluorescent and recessed
luminaires « e »
1150 to Cylindrical fluorescent luminaires « d »
1400 Bi-pin self-contained fluorescent and
recessed luminaires « e »
Fluorescent luminaires« Zone 2 »
Bi-pin fluorescent and recessed
luminaires « e »
3000 to Cylindrical fluorescent luminaires « d »
3400 Bi-pin self-contained fluorescent and
recessed luminaires « e »
Fluorescent luminaires« Zone 2 »
Bi-pin fluorescent and recessed
3600 to luminaires « e »
5400 Cylindrical fluorescent luminaires « d »
Fluorescent luminaires« Zone 2 »
FLe - Re
FLd
FLe - Re
FLn - EFn
FLe - Re
FLd
FLe - Re
FLn - EFn
FLe - Re
FLd
FLn - EFn
590
18
1450
Mono-pin fluorescent luminaires
FLe
1200
36
3450
Mono-pin fluorescent luminaires
FLe
1500
58
5400
Mono-pin fluorescent luminaires
FLe
590
20
1000
Mono-pin fluorescent luminaires
FLe
1200
40
2500
Mono-pin fluorescent luminaires
FLe
1500
65
4800
Mono-pin fluorescent luminaires
FLe
Lamp data : Osram, Philips, GE Sylvania, Eye.
 Ignitor built into lamp
* After September 1, 2009, incandescent lamps over 100 watts will no longer be available in the European Union according to the Directive EUP 2005 32/EC.
G:55
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
INSPECTION AND SERVICE
ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS IN EXPLOSIVE GAS ATMOSPHERES IN
ACCORDANCE WITH STANDARD EN 60079-17
Standard EN/IEC 60079-17 stipulates strict provisions concerning
the maintenance of electrical installations in hazardous Zones:
• An initial inspection before they are commissioned.
• Regular inspections in time.
• Continuous supervision.
FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION
The time interval between inspections should be set taking into
account likely deterioration due to corrosion, the presence of
chemicals or solvents, the accumulation of dirt or dust, the risk of
water penetration, exposure to abnormal ambient temperatures or
vibrations, whether the electrical equipment is removable or portable,
but in any case this interval must not be more than 12 months.
DEGREE OF INSPECTION
• Visual inspection: faults directly visible such as missing
buttons.
• Close inspection: visual inspection and in addition
detection faults.
Close inspection does not normally require the enclosure to be
opened, nor the equipment switched off.
• Detailed inspection: such as loose connections, detected
after opening the enclosure.
EQUIPMENT Ex « d », Ex « e » AND Ex « n »
Ex "d"
Ex "e"
Ex "n"
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
EQUIPMENT
Equipment is appropriate to the Zone category
Correct group equipment
Correct equipment temperature class
Correct identification of equipment circuit
Identification of equipment circuit available
Enclosure, glass parts, gaskets and/or sealing equipment satisfactory
No unauthorized modification
Bolts, cable entry devices (direct and indirect) and protection elements of correct type, complete and
tightened
Flat sealing surfaces clean, undamaged and any gaskets satisfactory
Gaps in flat gaskets conforming to maximum authorised values
Rated characteristics, type and position of lamps correct
Electrical connections tight
State of enclosure gaskets satisfactory
INSTALLATION
Appropriate type of cable
No apparent cable damage
Satisfactory closing of bays, trunking and/or conduits
Stop boxes and cable boxes filled correctly
Integrity of conduit systems and interface with mixed systems maintained
Connections to earth satisfactory, plus any additional connections satisfactory. Example: connections tight
and conductors with large enough cross-section
Automatic electrical protection devices correctly set (automatic reset not allowed in Zone 1)
Special conditions of use (if appropriate) complied with
Cable ends not in use correctly protected
ENVIRONMENT
Equipment adequately protected against corrosion, inclement weather, vibrations and other harmful
factors
No abnormal accumulation of dirt and/or dust
•
•
•
G:56
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
MOUNTING RECOMMENDATION
CABLE ENTRIES
TERMINAL CONNECTIONS
INCREASED SAFETY « e » ENCLOSURES
Cable entries are created by screwing the cable gland directly onto the
enclosure, or for clearance holes, securing with a locknut.
Holes which are not used for cable entries must be blanked using the
appropriate blanking plugs.
INCREASED SAFETY « e » ENCLOSURES
Each approval certificate indicates the type of terminals to be used in
each type of junction box.
FLAMEPROOF « d » ENCLOSURE
Cable entries are created by screwing the cable gland
directly onto the enclosure. The thread must be
greased and the gland screwed-in to ensure that at
least 5 threads are engaged for metric threaded and 3.5
threads engaged for NPT.
The connection must be performed according to current regulations
and any additional stipulations on the certificate, such as :
• Maximum current intensity
• Maximum capacity
• Tightening torque
Unused entries must be plugged using the appropriate
certified blanking plug.
SEALS
INCREASED SAFETY « e » ENCLOSURES
The equipment has a protection index of at least IP 54. It is therefore
important to ensure that the weatherproof seal is in good condition
when the product is installed. Defective seals must be systematically
replaced.
FLAMEPROOF « d » ENCLOSURE
The approval certificate does not stipulate the type of terminal to
be used, it only states that the connection precautions given in the
technical sheet should be followed.
STRIPPING AND CONNECTIONS
The conductors should only be stripped back to the edge of the metal
part of the terminal connection, to ensure correct isolation.
MAINTENANCE
Extract from article in the October 10, 2000 order. (Interval between
inspections is fixed at one year.)
FLAMEPROOF « d » ENCLOSURE
This equipment is supplied with the flamepath greased. Once the
equipment is installed, the flamepath must be greased to keep them in
good condition.
CORRECT STRIPPING
Core of
conductor
Use a non-hardening anti-corrosive multi-purpose grease.
Do not allow silicon-based products to come into contact with the
threads, as they may stick.
• Do not modify any original entry or add entries as this is
prohibited and will forfeit certification of the product.
Insulation
INCORRECT STRIPPING
Not stripped back
far enough
Stripped back too far
G:57
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
REQUEST FOR LIGHTING DESIGN
FAX: + 33 1 48 63 77 82
ROOM SIZE (IN METRES)
NEED EMAIL
LIGHTING DEVICE TYPE (INDICATE «e» OR «d») OR ATX CAT. NO.
Length
Bi-pin fluorescent luminaire «e»
Width
Mono-pin fluorescent luminaire «e»
Height
Fluorescent luminaire «d»
LUMINAIRES MOUNTING HEIGHT (IN METRES)
Height
Compact Fluorescent luminaire «d»
Incandescent wellglass luminaire
WORKING PLANE HEIGHT (IN METRES)
Height
HP sodium wellglass luminaire
HP mercury vapor wellglass luminaire
SURFACE REFLECTANCE FACTOR (SEE G:52)
Mixed wellglass luminaire
Ceiling
Halogen floodlight
Walls
HP mercury vapor floodlight
Ground
HP sodium floodlight
LIGHTING LEVEL REQUIRED (SEE G:52)
Lux number
Metal halide floodlight
WORKING AREA DESCRIPTION (SHORT DESCRIPTION)
COLOR RETENTION INDEX- CRI (SEE G:52)
Index digit
DEPRECIATION CORRECTION FACTOR (SEE G:52)
Low
GAS GROUP
Medium
Temperature class
High
Other characteristics
PERSONAL DETAILS
Company :
Name and surname :
Address :
City :
Postal Code :
Country :
Phone :
Fax :
e-Mail :
Visit our Website for simple on-line lighting designs www.egsatx.com
G:58
GUIDE FOR USE OF ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS IN HAZARDOUS LOCATIONS
Appleton is our premium line of
industrial electrical products under EGS
Electrical Group, a division of Emerson
Industrial Automation.
EGS is organized into three focused
businesses that provide distributors
and end-users expert knowledge and
excellent service.
Emerson Industrial Automation brings
integrated manufacturing solutions to
diverse industries worldwide. Our
comprehensive product line, extensive
experience, world-class engineering and
global presence enable us to implement
solutions that give our customers the
competitive edge.
Electrical Construction Materials
This group manufactures a broad range
of electrical products including conduit
and cable fittings, plugs and receptacles,
enclosures and controls, conduit bodies
and industrial lighting. Whether the
application is hazardous location,
industrial, or commercial, the ECM group
has the products to meet your needs.
For over 150 years, our electrical
product brands have been providing a
rich tradition of long-term, practical,
high-quality solutions with applications
ranging from the construction and safe
operationof petrochemical and process
plants to the provision of quality power
that precisely controls automotive
robotic production.
Engineers, distributors, contractors,
electricians and site-maintenance
professionals around the world trust
Emerson Industrial Automation brands
to make electrical installations safer,
more productive and more reliable.
ATX/EGS Electrical Group
Espace Industriel Nord
35 rue Andre Durouchez
80084 Amiens cedex 2, France
Technical & Quotation
Tél: + 33 3 22 54 27 54
Fax: + 33 1 48 63 77 82
Customer Service
Tél: + 33 3 22 54 27 54
Fax: + 33 3 22 54 28 34
www.egsatx.com
www.appletonelec.com
The Appleton, ATX and Emerson logos are registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
All other product or service names are the property of their registered owners.
© 2009, EGS Electrical Group, LLC. All rights reserved.
Electrical Construction Materials
Power Quality Solutions
Heating Cable Systems
Power Quality Solutions
This group offers the broadest power
quality line, including UPS, power
conditioners, voltage regulators, shielded
transformers, surge protective devices
and power supplies.
Heating Cable Systems
This group offers a broad range of electrical heating cable products for residential,
commercial, and industrial applications.
Canada
Asia/Pacific
Middle East
+1.519.669.9333
+65.6745.1827
+971.4883.8831
Latin America
China
United States
+52.55.5366.6180
+86.21.5426.0668
+1.800.621.1506
ATXGBE08
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