VN-100 Velocity Compensation

VN-100 Velocity Compensation
VN-100 Velocity Compensation
Velocity / Airspeed Aiding for AHRS Applications
Application Note
Abstract
This application note describes how the VN-100
can be used in non-stationary applications which
require an accurate attitude estimate while a
vehicle is in constant motion. In these dynamic
environments external velocity aiding is required
to compensate for the additional vehicle
acceleration present. This document describes
the type of applications which require this
external aiding and the correct procedure for
providing the necessary velocity measurements.
Document Information
Title
VN-100 Velocity Compensation
Subtitle
Velocity / Airspeed Aiding for AHRS Applications
Document Type
Application Note
Document Number
AN014
Document Status
Released
VN-100 Velocity Compensation
Application Notes
Page 2 of 10
Contents
1 AHRS Fundamentals ..................................................................................................................... 4
1.1 AHRS Assumptions ................................................................................................................ 4
2 Measurement Sources for Velocity Aiding .................................................................................. 7
2.1 Body Velocity Measurement (Speedometer or Airspeed) .................................................... 7
2.2 Inertial Velocity Measurement (GPS) .................................................................................... 7
3 Procedure for Velocity Aiding on the VN-100.............................................................................. 7
3.1 Configuration......................................................................................................................... 7
3.1.1 Configuring the VN-100 to accept a scalar velocity measurement ................................ 8
3.2 Providing Measurements ...................................................................................................... 8
3.3 Tuning for Higher Performance............................................................................................. 9
3.3.1 Velocity Tuning ............................................................................................................... 9
3.4 Velocity Measurement Rate................................................................................................ 10
4 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................. 10
VN-100 Velocity Compensation
Application Notes
Page 3 of 10
1 AHRS Fundamentals
An Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS) is a sensor system that estimates the attitude of
a vehicle based upon the combined measurements provided by a 3-axis gyroscope,
accelerometer, and magnetometer. An AHRS sensor typically utilizes a Kalman filter to
compute the 3D orientation of the vehicle based upon the vector measurements provided from
the accelerometer and the magnetometer. The accelerometer measures the effect of both
gravity and any acceleration due to body motion. The magnetometer measures the influence
of both the earth’s magnetic field and the influence of any nearby magnetic fields created by
nearby ferromagnetic objects. The gyroscope provides an accurate short term measurement of
the relative change in the orientation of the sensor however it is not capable of providing a
measurement of the orientation itself. The absolute accuracy of the heading, pitch and roll
solution for an AHRS is ultimately derived from the accuracy of the vector measurements
provided by the accelerometer and magnetometer.
1.1 AHRS Assumptions
Without any form of external compensation an AHRS does not have by itself any means of
knowing how it is moving relative to the fixed Earth. As such it does not have any means of
knowing what the actual acceleration of the body is. Since the accelerometer measures the
effect of both gravity and the acceleration due to motion, the standard AHRS algorithm has to
make the assumption that the long-term acceleration due to motion is zero. With this
assumption in place the AHRS know has sufficient information to estimate the pitch and roll
based upon the measurement of gravity provided by the accelerometer. This assumption
works very well for applications where the sensor does not experience any long-term
acceleration such as when it is used indoors or when used on a large marine vessel.
Applications that do experience long-term accelerations due to motion however will experience
a significant error in the pitch and roll solution due to the fact that the assumption of zero body
acceleration in the AHRS algorithm is constantly being violated.
VN-100 Velocity Compensation
Application Notes
Page 4 of 10
The most common case where this acceleration becomes a significant problem for an AHRS is
when it is used on an aircraft operating in a banked turn. In straight and level flight the AHRS
will provide an accurate measurement of attitude as long as the long-term accelerations are
nominally zero. When the aircraft banks and enters a coordinated turn however, a long-term
acceleration is present which due to the centripetal force created by traveling along a curved
path. This apparent force is what makes you feel as if you are being pushed to the side when
you drive around a corner in a car.
Figure 1 - Measured Acceleration in Coordinated Turn
When an aircraft is in a banked turn the accelerometer will measure gravity plus this centripetal
acceleration which will result in a measurement vector that acts perpendicular to the wings of
the aircraft as shown in Figure 1. This will result in the AHRS estimating a roll angle of zero
while the aircraft is in fact in a banked turn and thus has a significant actual roll angle relative to
the horizon.
If the AHRS however can obtain some knowledge of this actual motion relative to the fixed
Earth then it is possible for it to subtract out the effect of the centripetal acceleration, resulting
in an accurate estimate of attitude. By providing the AHRS with the known velocity or airspeed
it is possible for the AHRS to estimate the centripetal acceleration term based upon this velocity
and the known body angular rates.
VN-100 Velocity Compensation
Application Notes
Page 5 of 10
Figure 2 - AHRS with Velocity Compensation
The above figure accurately depicts quality of attitude solution provided by three separate
types of attitude estimators while operating in a coordinated turn. The flight display on the far
left represents the actual attitude which is derived from the flight simulator. Moving from left
to right are three separate types of attitude estimators shown in order based upon the accuracy
of their derived solution. The most accurate solution is proved by the Inertial Navigation
System (INS). This type of estimator incorporates the position and velocity measurements from
a GPS along with the accelerometer, and gyroscope in an optimal fashion to simultaneously
estimate attitude and the position and velocity of the vehicle. It provides the most accurate
attitude estimate since it makes no assumptions regarding the accelerometer measurements.
VN-100 Velocity Compensation
Application Notes
Page 6 of 10
2 Measurement Sources for Velocity Aiding
In order to properly account for the centripetal acceleration the user will need to supply the
VN-100 with an external measurement of the velocity of the vehicle. The velocity of the vehicle
can be provided in one of two different reference frames Body or Inertial.
2.1 Body Velocity Measurement (Speedometer or Airspeed)
A body velocity measurement consists of a measurement of the velocity with respect to the
sensor’s measurement axes. Examples of body velocity measurements would be a
speedometer on an automobile or an airspeed measurement on an aircraft. In most cases the
velocity is only measured out the forward axis of the vehicle and it is assumed that the velocity
in directions perpendicular to the forward axes remains zero. In some cases such as when an
angle of attack and sideslip angle are also measured it might be possible to get a full 3D velocity
measurement in the sensor’s body reference frame. See section 3.1.1 for more details on how
to handle these two separate cases when providing the actual measurements to the VN-100.
2.2 Inertial Velocity Measurement (GPS)
An inertial velocity measurement consists of a measurement of velocity with respect to the
Earth’s fixed reference frame. An example of inertial velocity measurements would be
measurements based upon GPS. In the case of GPS the velocity is either provided in the North,
East, Down (NED) frame or in the Earth Centered Earth Fixed (ECEF) frame. In either case the
3D velocity components are all independent of the orientation of the sensor.
3 Procedure for Velocity Aiding on the VN-100
There are two actions that will need to be taken by the user in order to properly configure and
use velocity compensation on the VN-100. First the user must configure the type of velocity
measurement (Body or Inertial) that is used in the configuration register. Second the velocity
measurements themselves need to be provided to the velocity measurement register.
3.1 Configuration
Before you begin to use the velocity compensation feature on the VN-100 you will need to
properly setup the velocity compensation by writing to the Velocity Compensation
Configuration Register (Register 51). The layout of this register is shown in the VN-100 User
Manual and is shown in the figure below for reference.
VN-100 Velocity Compensation
Application Notes
Page 7 of 10
Figure 3 - Velocity Compensation Control Register
Velocity Compensation Control
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Serial Read
Register Response:
51
Firmware :
v1.1.140.4
Access :
Read /
Write
Provides control over the velocity compensation feature for the attitude filter.
8
$VNRRG,51,1,0.1,0.01*5A
Byte
Offset
Name
Number
Format
0
Mode
U1
-
4
VelocityTuning
F4
-
8
RESERVED
F4
-
Unit
Description
Selects the type of velocity compensation performed by the VPE. See
Figure 4 for available modes.
Tuning parameter for the velocity measurement.
This field is reserved for future use. This field should always be set to
0.01.
Figure 4 - Mode Options
Value
0
1
2
3
State
OFF
SCALAR
BODY
INERTIAL
Description
No velocity compensation performed.
Scalar velocity measurement along sensor X-axis.
3D velocity measurement in body frame.
3D velocity measurement in inertial frame.
Firmware versions v1.1.140.4 to v1.1.143.0 only supports the scalar velocity measurement (Mode 1).
Firmware version v1.1.144.0 and up support all three modes (Scalar, Body, & Inertial).
3.1.1 Configuring the VN-100 to accept a scalar velocity measurement
To setup the VN-100 to accept a scalar velocity measurement, send the following command to
the VN-100.
Figure 5 - Example Configuration Command for Register 51
Interface
Serial
SPI
Write Register – Setup Velocity Compensation Configuration Register
$VNWRG,51,1,0.1,0.01*5F
3.2 Providing Measurements
Velocity measurements are provided to the VN-100 by writing to the Velocity Compensation
Measurement Register (Register 50). The register is shown below for reference.
VN-100 Velocity Compensation
Application Notes
Page 8 of 10
Figure 6 - Velocity Compensation Measurement Register
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Serial Read
Register Response:
Byte
Offset Name
0
VelocityX
4
VelocityY
8
VelocityZ
Velocity Compensation Measurement
50
Firmware : v1.1.140.4
Access : Read / Write
Input register for a velocity measurement to be used by the filter to compensate for
acceleration disturbances.
12
$VNRRG,50,37.2,0,0*42
Number
Format
F4
F4
F4
Unit
m/s
m/s
m/s
Description
Velocity in the X-Axis axis.
Velocity in the Y-Axis axis.
Velocity in the Z-Axis axis.
The velocity measurement must be provided in the correct reference frame determine by the Mode field
in the Velocity Compensation Control Register (Register 51).
For Mode 1(Scalar measurement mode) the VN-100 will compute the vector length of the provided 3D
velocity vector and use this for velocity compensation. If you have a scalar measurement you can set
only the X-axis and set the Y & Z to zero.
3.3 Tuning for Higher Performance
In most situations the default tuning parameters for the velocity compensation will provide
adequate results without the need for manual adjustment. In the event that you have a case
where you need improved performance, there are tuning parameters provided in the Velocity
Compensation Control Register (Register 50) that provide a means to adjust the behavior of the
compensation algorithm.
3.3.1 Velocity Tuning
The velocity tuning field in the Velocity Compensation Control Register (Register 51) provides a
means to adjust the uncertainty level used for the velocity measurement in the compensation
estimation filter. The default value is 0.1. A larger value places less trust in the velocity
measurements, while a smaller number will place more trust in the velocity measurement. If
your velocity measurement is noisy or unreliable increasing this number may provide better
results. If you have a very accurate velocity measurement then lowering this number will likely
produce better results.
VN-100 Velocity Compensation
Application Notes
Page 9 of 10
3.4 Velocity Measurement Rate
The performance of the velocity compensation will be affected by both the accuracy of the
velocity measurements and the rate at which they are applied. To ensure adequate
performance the velocity should be provided at a rate higher than 1Hz. Best performance will
be achieved with update rates of 10Hz or higher.
If you stop sending velocity measurement updates for any reason, the velocity compensation will
continue indefinitely using the last received velocity measurement. If you want to stop using while the
vehicle is still in motion, be sure to turn off the velocity compensation using the Mode field in the
Velocity Compensation Control Register (Register 51).
4 Conclusion
With external velocity compensation the VN-100 AHRS is capable of providing an accurate
orientation even during periods of prolonged acceleration. Measurements can be provided to
the sensor in either the inertial or body frame and at any rate above 1Hz.
If you have any questions regarding the velocity compensation feature on the VN-100 or need
assistance determining whether the feature is required in your application, please contact our
technical support team.
Technical Support Contact Info
Email: [email protected]
Phone: +1.512.772.3615
VN-100 Velocity Compensation
Application Notes
Page 10 of 10
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement