Part 32 - cd3wd432.zip - Offline - Renewable Sources of Energy: Biogas

Part 32 - cd3wd432.zip - Offline - Renewable Sources of Energy: Biogas
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Biosas
Volume II;
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RENEWAl#E
SOtiRGESii
ASIA
ECONOMIC AND TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION
AMONG DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
AND
T
1
ST/ESCAP/WO
1
The designations employed and the presentation of the material
in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning
the legal status of any country, territbry, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The
mention of any firm or licensed process does not imply endorsement by
the United Nations.
CONTENTS
Page
(0
Preface ........................................................
1
....................................................
Introduction
...................
I.
Biogas plants installed in the ESCAP region
II.
Use of the products of biogas plant
III.
Methods of improving plant productivity
IV.
Activities in the ESCAP region
v.
Economic, social and environmental aspects
VI.
Scope for ECDC and TCDC
15
.............................
..................
................
II.
Some methodological problems
III.
Some approaches to methodological problems
IV.
Conclusion
- ...........
............................
.................
Subject index - by projects
..................
............................
........................................
....................................................
2s
48
53
63
...................................................
Alphabetical list of experts and institutions
2s
58
...........................................
Key to numbers in entries under experts and institutions
18
22
...............................
Cost-benI% analysis and some empirical results .....
Bibliography
14
.....................
I.
Abbreviations
11
.........................
Cost-benefit analysis of Indian biogas system: a case study
I
65
69
231
245
PREFACE
The current volume is the second in a series of sectoral directories on renewable
sources of energy to be issued under the ESCAP publications programme on co-operation among developing countries. With this volume the title of the series has been
changed from TCDC to ECDC-TCDC to reflect the expanding scope and contents of
the volumes intended to promote and support economic as well as technical cooperation among developing countries.
The present volume, like the preceeding one on solar energy and the others to
follow, carries not only inventories of experts and institutions and the projects undertaken by them but also technological as well as economic details of the designs, prototypes and hardware developed in ESCAP member countries in Asia and the Pacific.
While it is hoped that more details will be made available, the information contained
in these volumes may be found adequate for initiating programmes of co-operation
among developing countries.
In preparing the roster of experts and institutions, the ESCAP secretariat has
relied on the information provided by the experts and institutions concerned and
expresses its appreciation of the co-operation extended by them. While every endeavour has been made to include as many experts and institutions as possible the
coverage may not be exhaustive. The secretariat will greatly welcome suggestions for
improving the coverage of this volume as well as material for publications in the series
now under preparation on wind energy and mini-hydro plants and the others envisaged.
It is hoped that all the volumes in the series will be found particularly useful in connexion with the forthcoming United Nations Conference on New and Renewable
Sources of Energy.
Like the earlier publications issued in the TCDC series, funds for the present
volume have been made available by the Netherlands Government as extrabudgetary
assistance to ESCAP. This exemplifies “triangular co-operation” under which developed countries contribute to a joint undertaking to promote co-operation among
developing countries.
INTRODUCTION
The decay of organic matter, particularly human, animal and plant wastes, in
the absence of air produces an inflammable gas which consists mainly of methane
(CH,) and carbon dioxide (CO,). The gas is known as biogas and the process as anaerobic digestion or fermentation. This process can be used to the great benefit of the
rural community for a nu,mber of reasons. First, it produces a smoke-free fuel. Secondly, it produces anexcellent fertilizer. Thirdly, it destroys most of the disease-carrying
pathogens and parasites. Fourthly, the raw materials needed in the construction of
the digestion and in its operations are available in rural areas. Finally, the biogas technology is appropriate to rural conditions as comparatively sophisticated devices and
highly qualified expertise are not involved.
The main handicap in biogas application is the relatively high capital cost which
small-scale farmers cannot afford on an individual basis. Besides, as with any new technology, it needs well-planned programmes for promotion and extension.
The present introduction is meant to give a brief account of the stage of development of and of the economic, social and environmental issues in biogas technology in
developing countries in the ESCAP region. Several more comprehensive technical
reviews of the subject have been published.’ * 3 4 ’
I. BIOGAS PLANTS INSTALLED
IN THE ESCAP REGION
There are two main types of biogas plant that have been developed in this
region; the fixed-dome digester, which is commonly called the “Chinese digester’
(see figure 1) and the floating gas holder digester known as the Indian (KVIC) digeste.
(see figure 2). The digesters used in the other developing .countries in the ESCAP
region, with the exception of the bag digester, are slightly modified forms of one or
the other of these two main types.
1 A Chinese Biogas Manual, translated from the Chinese by Michael Crook and edited by Ariane van Buren
from the original by the Office of the Leading Group for the Propagation of Marshgas, Sichuan Province, China
(London, Intermediate Technology Publications, 1979)
2 “Guidebook on biogas development*‘, Energy Resources Development Series, No. 21 (United i4ations
publication. Sales No. E.80.II.F.10).
3 Sichuan Rovincial Office of Biogas Development, “Biogas technology and utilization” (Chengdu Seminar,
China, 1979).
4
Sichuan Provincial Institute of Industrial Buildings Design, “Construction
@igesters)in simple ways”.
c;f marsh-gas-producing tanks
5 Simplified Biogas Digester Drawings. Compiled by the South-west Engineering Institute, Beijing, China, 1979
(in Chiiese).
1
.
A. THE BIOGAS DIGESTER
1. Fixed dome digester (China)
This digester which was developed and is widely used in China runs on a continuous-batch basis (see figure 1). Accordingly, it could digest plant waste as well as
human and animal wastes. It is usually built below ground level; hence it is easier to
insulate in a cold climate. The digester can be built from several materials, e.g. bricks,
concrete, lime concrete and lime clay. This facilitates the introduction and use of local
materials and manpower. The variable pressure inside the digester was found to cause
no problems in China in the use of the gas.
2. Floating gas holder digester (India)
This type was developed in India and is usually made of masonry (see figure 2).
It runs on a continuous basis and uses mainly cattle dung as input material. The gas
holder is usually made of steel, although new materials such as ferrocement and bamboo-cement have already been introduced. The original version of this floating gas
holder digester was a vertical cylinder provided with partition wall except for the small
sizes of 2 and 3 m3 of gas per day. The main characteristic of this type is the need for
steel sheets and welding skill.
3. Flexible bag digester
This digester is made usually of Hypalen-Neoprene (see figure 3). It is portable,
could be easily erected and has low capital cost. It has, however, a short lifespan in
view of its low resistivity to ultraviolet rays and rodents.
4. Other types of digesters
(a) Taper digester with floating gas holder (Nepal)
This digester (see figure 4) is more suitable than the vertical type digester in sites
with a high water-table.
(b) Floating gas holder with water seal (Pakistan)
This type (see figure 5) eliminates the smell and decreases gas leakage and corrosion of the gas holder. It is, however, considered more expensive than the original
model.
(c) Two-chamber digester (Philippines)
Clogging problems hindered the widespread use of this digester (see figure 6),
requiring more appropriate designs of the inlet and outlet.
(d) Oil drum digester (Indonesia)
This digester has been used for research purposes (see figure 7). The oil drum
tends to rust out within a few years.
2
Gas pipe,
Removable
--.
~.------
Slurry
--
manhole cover
__-
~
-
Figure 1. Common circular fured dome digester (China)
I
,,Gas
‘y-/#-
pipe
Partition
wall
Figure 2. Common circular digester with floating gasholder
and no water seal (India)
Figure 3. Flexible bag type combined digester/gasholder
/Gas
pipe
Outlet
Gas holder
- --5
-
d’
--0
-
*
II
,,
--
‘I
I
--cl --
‘I
II
--0
“-.
cl
I ,
I
I’
0
e
--
L
11
-
--
e.
*
c
-
---
J -0
4
Q
---
----
-_.~
-
R D
a
s
I
_
u
r
_
d
0
-
--
a
.--
U--
‘Y,
0
--
4
___
-cl
-
c
--_
0
-.--D M
1
0
Figure 4. Taper digester with floating gasholder (Nepal)
4
3
Exteyal
water seal
c
___-.
--
+
II
II
#TV
/
Figure 5. Digester with floating gas holder and water seal (Pakistan)
,Outlet
Inlet\
I
Figure 6. Twcxhamber rectangular digester with floating gas holder
and water seal (Philippines)
5
lrll
. _/
--hp
LL
Inlet
\
utle t
L7\
Figure 7. Oil drum digester (‘Indonesia)
(e) Jar digester with separate gas holdc;nrt”l”hailand)
This type (see figure 8) is cheaper than the floating gas digester and is easier to
construct and maintain. However, it tends to leak and fails easily owing to cracking.
Cement inlet pipe
r
Water for leak detection
Perforated steel pipe
---Gas holder guide
Plastic pipes
K-l
--
Siurry --
--
-
-
I--
4 cement
water jars
II
Re inforccd
ISteel
concrete
base
pipe
Figure 8. Jar digesterwith separategasholder (ThaAand)
(f) Fixed dome digester with separate gas holder (China)
The digester (see figure 9) in this plant is subjected to a less but more constant
pressure. Additional work and cost are, however, involved in building the water tank
and the gas holder.
6
Gas Pipe -j
-.I
Bamboocement -
Figure 9. Fixed dome digester with separate gas holder (Sichuan, China)
B. THE REST OF THE BIOGAS PLANT
1. Gas removing system
This usually consists of a flexible pipe made of rubber or plastic (see figure 10).
A hooked pipe or a pipe passing through the gas holder could be also used.
Gas PW
9
Figure 10. Gas Iemoving system through a flexible pipe
7
2. Gas holder support system
This system is necessary only in the floating gas holder types. The most common
systems are the internal and the external ones (see figure 11). The other systems like
the wheel and the counter balance systems are not trouble-free.
I law
level
.+/, I.1// I..\P
arms
walls
Figure 1la. Gasholder internal guidesystem
Partltion
wall---,
/
+
k
Figure 1lb. Gasholder external guidesystem
Figure 1lc. Gas holder external guide system
fxed to digester wall
fmed to the earth (for large sizes)
8
3. Monometer
This device is one of the typical attachment of the fixed dome (Chinese) digester
(see figure 12). In addition to its use as indicator of pressure, and thus of the amount
of the gas in the digester, it functions also as a safety device in case of excess increase
of the gas pressure.
Bottle
” B “-
Excess
through
i
gas escapesthis pipe
Gas from plant
B iogas
for use
1
-
-Glass tube
-
- Scale
I
-
-Colouted
water
Sd-
-Rubber
hose
Figure 12. Monometerand safetyvalvecombined
4. Biogas stoves
Biogas can be used like any other inflammable gas; LPG or natural gas. Air must
be thoroughly mixed with the gas before it reaches the flame ports. In order to burn,
the air to biogas ratio should be in the range of 1: 1 to 4: 1. The optimum area of the
flame ports to the gasjet is between 80: 1 and 200: 1. There are many different types of
stoves usually locally made from cast iron, mild steel or clay (see figure 13).
9
(i ) Shower heod burner
,-Flame
ports
LG.s
‘Goda~r
inld
(ii)
Figure 13.
Drum
nlxiq
chambw
, but.ncr
Clay burners (China)
5. Biogas lamps
The most efficient use of biogas in lighting is by generating electricity and using
an electric bulb: I m3 of biogas can generate 1.25 kWh and would be sufficient to
ignite a 60 W electric bulb for 20 hours. The same amount of biogas will ignite a
mantle gas lamp, equivalent to 60 W for about seven hours only. -In most cases,however, the cost of the engine and generator may not be justified; hence a simple gas lamp
can be used in spite of its low efficiency. There are also different types of biogas lamps;
some are commercially made and others are village made (see figure 14).
ALUUIWIUM
REFLECTOR
*
I%54
11’
I ) Section
elevotlon
of the Iomp osoembly
IS2
II.
CLAY
VE W”RI
ii)
Detollo
of lamp parts
Figure 14. Simple biogas lamp (China)
10
k,
rlL”YINialN*E
s-l-r
5. Composting around the digester
The idea is to use the heat generated in aerobic digestion to heat the digester by
constructing cornposting pits around and against the digester sides. It is important to
empty and refill the compost pits regularly in rotation to avoid temperature fluctuation of the slurry.
B. MECHANICAL
METHODS
The mechanical methods include stirring (mixing) and recycling of slurry.
1. Stirring (mixing)
Stirring is effective in helping to bring the bacteria closer to the digestion sites.
A few minutes of stirring several times a day is desirable. Stirring also helps to break up
any scum and to release the trapped gas bubbles. A number of mechanisms has been
suggested for different digesters. A simple manual one with a minimum number of
moving parts is desirable.
2. Recycling of slurry
In this method about 2 litres of old slurry are added to the new slurry in order
to seedit with bacteria and increase gas production.
C. CHEMICAL
AND MICROBIOLOGICAL
METHODS
In these methods urine, urea fertilizer, morasses, sugar waste products etc. are
added to increase gas production. One litre of urine per 1.4 m3 of ‘digester volume may
be added every day. If urea is used a teaspoon per 3 m3 of digester volume per day
will be sufficient. About 70 grams per m3 of molasses or sugar waste may also be
added per m 3 of digester volume per day. Chopped water hyacinths and algae were
also found to give significant increase in gas production.
IV.
ACTIVITIES
IN THE ESCAP REGION
Several countries in the region are undertaking and/or initiating projects on the
research, development, demonstration and promotion of biogas. The information
available is summarized below.6
1. Plant construction and operation
In Bangladesh research and development is being carried out on both the fixed
dome and the floating gas holder digester. Investigation is also going on for optimizing
the cost and efficiency of the different designs.
in China an extensive programme for testing different types of digesters including floating gas holder digester, separate gas holder and fixed dome digester are being
undertaken. At present more than 8 million biogas units have been constructed in the
6
For full details see the entries under individual expert and institution.
15
various provinces with more than 4 million units in Sichuan Province. The present goal
is to bring the total number of the plants to 100 million units, thus utilizing the major
part of human, animal and plant wastes in the country. In addition, the units that are
out of function are under repair; the reasons for their malfunctioning are being investigated and the digesters are being renovated.
In Fiji research and development work is being undertaken by the University of
the South Pacific. About 20 units have already been constructed. Small digesters utilizing animal, agricultural and vegetable waste are being investigated.
In Indonesia biogas plants are being considered as part of village energy development studies being undertaken by seven universities and one research institute, covering approximately 400 villages.
In India a major programme of biogas development has been underway for a
number of years under the auspices of the Khadi and Village Industries Commission.
Several educational and research institutions have been engaged on various aspects of
biogas plant design, simpler construction, installation and maintenance techniques and
cheaper materials such as ferrocement for gas holders etc. Two types of designs - one
floating drum type and the other fixed dome type - are being pursued. So far approximately 80,000 plants of the floating drum type designs have been installed and about
2000 fixed dome type designs have also been introduced mainly in the northern provinces. A few community type biogas plants have also been set up and more of such
types are envisaged. During the next five years India plans to reach a target of 500,000
plants.
In Malaysia a movable gas holder digester is being tested.
In Pakistan, plans have been drawn up for providing 160 villages with compact
(community-type) biogas systems as part of the rural energy project, on which work
has been initiated. Prefabricated ferrocement biogas plants are under investigation.
In Papua New Guinea large biogas systems have been designed for the conversion
of human waste and coffee pulp into fuel and fertilizer.
In the Philippines industrial-size batch and continuous digesters with floating gas
holders are being designed and constructed. Small biogas plants with separate digesters
and gas holders are also being constructed. Regional biogas demonstration plants are
being established for promotion purposes.
In the Republic of Korea about 24,000 family size biogas plants were built
from 1969 to 1975. Owing to problems arising from low temperature, modified designs
of underground digesters are under consideration.
In Sri Lanka the fixed dome digester is under investigation in view of its comparatively low cost. In addition promotional work for biogas plant is also continuing.
In Thailand about 600 biogas plants of the floating gas holder type have been
constructed. Jar and fixed dome type digesters are also being experimented with.
16
2. Gas production and utilization
In Bangladesh gas yield from animal, agricultural and vegetable wastes is under
study.
In China the gas is being used in cooking, for lighting, for running tractors,
trucks and buses, for running engines and for electricity generation. The biogas after
being compressed in bottles and put in the buses is released to a large neoprene balloon
usually placed on the bus roof, then connected to the engine. A wide range of biogas
lamps and stoves has been developed and manufactured in villages.
In India biogas is mainly used for cooking and lighting and for running engines
for water pumping in agriculture, drinking water supply and in small agro-industries.
Research is progressing on the use of biogas in welding and on increasing gas yield
through techniques of maintaining optimum temperature conditions in the digester.
In Indonesia the utilization
studied.
of biogas in refrigeration and for cooling is being
In ‘the Philippines biogas is being used in engines for pumping water, electricity
generation and processing of meat.
In the Republic of Korea biogas is used in the rural areas mainly for cooking and
space heating.
In Samoa, Sri Lanka and Thailand the gas is used mainly for cooking.
In Thailand a study on gas production
undertaken.
using different plant wastes is being
3. Microbiological aspects
In Bangladesh a study is planned for the identification
methanogenic bacteria.
and isolation of active
In China various microbiological studies are being undertaken in a number of
institutions, e.g. bacteria production for village hiogas plants, fermentation kinetics,
use of enzymes, bacterial decomposition and use of additives to increase biogas production etc.
In India various microbiological studies involving fermentation kinetics in the
mesophillic and thermophyllic ranges, isolation of specific microbiological strains,
development of techniques for production and maintenance of enriched cultures of
methanogenic bacteria and on enzyme hydroly sis of hynocellulosic materials etc. are
being carried out.
In the Philippines studies are being undertaken on the microbial actions on
biodegradable materials for improving the gas yield.
In the Republic of Korea microbiological research on isolation of specific
bacteria and improving their effectiveness with particular reference to low temperature
operations are being undertaken.
17
In Thailand studies are planned and/or being undertaken on the effluent from
biogas plant as a source for single cell protein production and kinetic and population
studies of methanogenic micro-organisms.
4. Effluent and its uses
In China the aspects being investigated include fertilizing efficiency and effectiveness of the bio-plant effluent and sludge, and potentiality of various uses of biogas
plant fermentation residue.
In India investigations are being carried out on the effluent for enhancing its
manuriaI value and on aspects relating to slurry handling and application as farm
manure.
In the Philippines and Thailand the use of effluent for mushroom production is
being studied. The utilization of digested slurry with local rock phosphate to increase
crop yield is also being investigated in Thailand.
V.
ECONOMIC,
SOCIAL
AND
ENVIRONMENTAL
ASPECTS7
Like any renewable source of energy, socio-economic evaluation of biogas
systems faced problems in quantification, particularly of indirect costs and benefits
of the economic, social and environmental aspects of biogas technology.
A.
SOCIAL
FACTORS
The socio-economic aspects of biogas economy included:
(a)
Employment created in biogas construction work and related industries;
(b)
Improving facilities in villages, thus decreasing migration to urban areas;
Positive effects on the health of the farmers by improving hygiene in the
(c)
village, providing better lighting and decreasing smoke hazards;
Income redistributive effects, where access to biogas technology utiliza(d)
tion is limited to comparatively affluent farmers;
(e)
Costs involved in promotion and extension of biogas technology.
B.
l.TNlTlD~NlUEXlT
JAI.
. LI\“L.I.J.Ld.
A 1
I AL,
0 A m/\D
I iaL+,
“I,”
Q
The main environmental factor associated with the biogas is the introduction
of a substitute to firewood which could mean conservation of forests and decrease in
air pollution.
7
For full discussion, see “Guidebook on biogas development”, op cit., chap. XV, pp. 95-97. For actual
cations in a specific country’s context, see the following chapter.
18
appli-
II.
USE OF PRODUCTS OF BIOGAS PLANT
As was mentioned before the main products of the biogas plant are the gas and
the slurry. Both products are valuable and arrangements should be made to make use
of both of them.
A. USE OF BIOGAS
A summary of the possible uses of the biogas is given in figure 15.
1. Cooking and lighting
A brief account was given in the last chapter on biogas stoves and lamps. Cooking and lighting represent over 90 per cent of the main uses of the biogas in developing
ESCAP countries. The use of biogas in engines for motive power and electricity generation and for refrigerators will be considered briefly in what follows.
Can illuminate
mantle
lamp equivalent
to 60 watt
for about 7 hours
0
tfr.cl
0
0
0
&
‘, lI I\ :
L
0
‘I
Can run 2 horse power
G(
engine far one hour
[
\
I
Can run 300
far
litre
Can generate
electricity
refrigerator
3 hours
I .25 kW
Figure 15. Possible applications of biogas
2. In engines
A petrol engine can run on 100 per cent biogas. It is common, however, to use a
little petrol for starting up. The biogas is simply supplied to the intake pipe either
through a venturi (see figure 16), without tiny modifications in the carburettor, or by
replacing it by the gas carburettor shown in figure 17 if the engine is to run continuously on petrol.
11
hS\
Venturi mode from
G. 1. sheat
/
, Flanged
pipe
-
-
I
I
Figure 16. Gas venturi (Pakistan)
Butterfly
air control
valve
Control
spring
35
-zL-
I
666
K5
i--F
.ii
4
~~~~~
xTf~Pdengine
v
Valve
60 B wire
netting balls
Dimensions in mm
3
25d
t
Gas inlet
Figure 17. Carburettor for 10 bhp petrol engine running on biogas
In diesel engines the temperature at the end of the compression stroke is usually
not more than 7OO*C, whereas the ignition temperature of the biogas/air mixture is
8 14OC. I-Ience the injection of a little diesel fuel just before the end of the compression
stroke, to ignite the gas mixture, can ensure the normal running of the engine. Arrangements to take care of this are already included, as all types of diesel engines are normally set with an advance injection angle. Accordingly, it is usually enough to connect
the biogas pipe to the air intake of the diesel engine (see figure 18). Some users in the
Philippines have noticed that diesel engines run more smoothly on dual fuel when the
compression ratio is lowered. Others in China added spark plugs. These optional solutions may increase the amount of the biogas used but will also decrease the rated
power of the engine. Two connexions are given in figures 18 and 19 for the biogas
pipe to the engine intake pipe.
12
-Inlet
pipe
Cross pipe
Figure 18. Direct connexion of biogas pipe
to inlet pipe (China)
Figure 19. Cross flow connexion (China)
3. In refrigerators
Absorption type refrigerators can be run on biogas by adjusting a modified
burner, e.g. Bensin or Telcu, to give the correct amount of heat.
B. USE OF SLURRY
In the floating gas holder digester the slurry consists of the effluent that comes
out from the outlet pit. In the fixed dome digester, where plant wastes are usually
added, the slurry consists of the effluent and the sludge which precipitates at the
bottom of the digester and is formed mostly of the solid substances of plant wastes.
1. Use of effluent
The effluent car: be used directly as fertilizer on plants. In China, it is sometimes
diluted by irrigation water which carries it to the field. In India it is often used in
cornposting. This is done as follows: a layer of straw or plant waste is first put-in the
pit then a layer of effluent. Again a layer of plant waste or straw is added followed by
another layer of effluent and so on until the pit is full. In the Philippines a part of the
effluent is recycled and mixed with the feed of the pigs as it contains vitamin B16.
2. Use of sludge
The sludge which is obtained twice, or more frequently from the fixed dome
digester, is usually composted as above or mixed with chemical fertilizers as it contains
a higher percentage of parasite and pathogens than the effluent.
13
HI.
METHODS OF IMPROVING
PLANT PRODUCTIVITY
The methods that are generally adopted for improving plant productivity could
be divided into thermal, mechanical, chemical and microbiological.
A. THERMAL
METHODS
Gas production increases significantly when the temperature of the slurry is
raised. The optimum temperature for the types of plant discussed earlier is about
35OC. At temperatures lower than 10°C gas production is insignificant. It is also
necessary to maintain the temperatures constant within + lo C, as the bacteria cannot
tolerate fluctuating temperatures.
1. Insulation of the digester
In this method the whole plant is insulated, including the gas holder. Insulating
materials such as straw are usually used and they should be kept dry. The thickness of
the insulating layer is about 5 to 8 cm. Experimental work on this subject was undertaken in India.
2. Heating of input slurry
In this method the input material is heated either by solar energy or by using a
part of the gas produced. Excessive heating of the slurry, which would kill the bacteria,
should be avoided. This technique was experimented with in different countries.
3. Glasshouse
In this method, a plastic tent is erected over the gas plant. This gives a greenhouse effect, provided the joints are made airtight. Plastic sheets deteriorate usually
after one year due to aging under sunlight conditions. In some reports from Pakistan
it is mentioned that this method increases gas production by about 50 per cent.
4. Solar heating of digester
Attempts to incorporate a solar water heater and heating coil in the digester
were made in China and India. The idea is technically feasible and could be adopted if
economically justifiable. One example of this technique, which has been tried in India,
is illustrated in figure 20.
Figure 20. Solar-heateddigester
14
C, METHODS OF QUANTIFYING
SOCIO-ENVIRONMENTAL
FACTORS
The social and environmental factors mentioned above are difficult to quantify
at the level of the individual farmer. However, in carrying out comprehensive studies
at the community or country level they should be taken into account. A few methods
have already been suggested to quantify these factors. For example, the environmental
factors may be accommodated by adding the capital cost to the costs of devices etc.,
needed in the case of conventional resources, in order to obtain the same environmental conditions prevailing when the biogas plants are used. Also, the cost of reforestation of an area that would have been deforested had firewood been used instead
of biogas may be added to the capital costs.
Methods of quantifying the social factors may be also introduced by evaluating
the possible social expenditure on non-employment should the labourers who are
engaged in the construction work remain unemployed. Also the possible savings in
foreign currency resulting from decreasing fossil fuel imports may be evaluated and
taken into account.
As mentioned earlier these factors may be taken into account only in a largescale comprehensive analysis. If the only interest is an analysis seen from the farmer’s
point of view, it would be enough to enumerate these factors in addition to a simple
economical analysis.
D. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
The two products of the biogas plant that should be evaluated at the individual
farmer’s level are the biogas and the fertilizer. There exist different approaches for the
evaluation of the products of the biogas plant. A review of some of these methods
may be found in the literature. One possible way of carrying out this analysis will be
described below: the figures usec! are for illustrative purposes only.
1. Value of biogas
The gas should be compared with the fuels that it substitutes. Thus, in cooking
it may be compared with firewood, butane, or charcoal. In lighting it may be compared
with kerosene. It may be taken that 12.3 kg of dried dung cakes is equivalent to 6 1.5
kg wet dung, assuming 20 per cent solids in the wet dung.
If this dung were processed in a gas plant, it would be expected to produce 2 m3
of gas (calorific value about 20 MJ/m3 ) which is double the amount of heat obtained
from the dung cakes (calorific value about 8.8 MJ/kg), taking into account the efficiency of the biogas stove which is about 60 per cent in comparison to the efficiency
of the cattle dung stove (open hearth) which is usually less than 10 per cent. Besides,
there is the further direct advantage of the subsequent fertilizer value of the effluent.
A few assumptions that simulate the conditions in rural areas and simplify the
calculations will be made with illustrative figures to compare the cost against the
benefits.1
19
It will be assumed that the farmer obtains a loan for building the plant. The
interest on the loan will be calculated using the annuity factor, but the effect of inflation will be ignored. The method. can be illustrated with numerical examples.
(a) &pita1 cost
The total cost of the floating gas holder digester in India was from $US 50 to
60 per m3 of digester volume. The volume of a 3 m3 /day biogas plant is about 8.5 m3.
Thus the total cost of the plant could be about $US 500.
Assuming that the farmer receives a loan at 10 per cent interest to be repaid over
10 years, the annual payment may be calculated from the formula:
Where:
c,
=
C
22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...(l)
a
a
=
the annuity factor, and is calculated from:
a
=
1 - (l+i)-”
i
i
=
interest rate (percentage)
n
=
repayment period in years
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (2)
Substituting i = 10 per cent and n = 10 in equation (2).
We find
a
=
6.14
Therefore
ca =
500
6.14
=
$US 81
The total cost of the loan including the interest will be 81 x 10 = $US 810.
(b) Annual cost
Assuming that the life of the gas plant is 20 years and that the repairs and
maintenance costs are about 2 per cent of the capital cost, the annual cost will be
slo
20
+
2x500
100
=
sus 50
(c) Cost of energy
It will be assumed that 70 per cent of the gas will be used, instead of wood, for
cooking and 30 per cent, instead of kerosene, for lighting. Using the figures given in
(a) for the calorific value of biogas (20 MJ/m3 ), kerosene (38 MJ/litre) and firewood
(20 MJ/kg), and assuming stove efficiencies of 60 per cent for the biogas and 10 per
cent for the firewood and the same lamp efficiency for biogas and kerosene it is
possible to arrive at the figures of the effective heat equivalent to 1 m3 biogas. For
firewood in cooking this will be 6 kg and for kerosene in lighting 0.53 litre.
20
Assuming further an average cost of $US 0.20/litre for kerosene and $US 0.02/
kg for firewood, the cost of equivalent effective heat using 1 m3 of biogas will be
and
0.2 x 0.53 = $US 0.10 for kerosene
6.0 x 0.02 = $US 0.12 for firewood.
From these figures it is easy now to calculate the annual benefits of using biogas
instead of kerosene and firewood as follows:
= $US 32.80
= $US 92
= $US 124.80
Kerosene 0.1 x 3 x 0.3 x 365
Firewood 0.12 x 3 x 0.7 x 365
Total benefits of biogas as energy source
2. Value of fertilizer
In order to set a value for the effluent as fertilizer in comparison to the raw or
the coke dung, it will be assumed that (a) all elements except nitrogen remain constant
no matter how they are used; (b) the fresh dung has initially 0.12 per cent nitrogen and
that for each m3 of biogas produced 32 kg of cattle dung is used per day, i.e. 11,700
kg/y=r.
Accordingly, in 11,700 kg dung at 0.12 per cent nitrogen there is 14.1 kg nitrogen. This is equivalent to about 3 1 kg of urea fertilizer which has normally about 46
per cent nitrogen. If urea costs about $US 0.20/kg and contains 46 per cent nitrogen
then 1 kg nitrogen is NJS 0.44.
From the above it follows that in the example of the last section the value of
nitrogen in cattle dung for 3 m3 /day biogas plant = 14.1 x 3.0 x 0.44 = $US
18.60/year.
In the current method of making manure (piling the dung for 30 days before
use) the manure value of nitrogen decreases by about 50 per cent, hence the value of
nitrogen = 18.6 x 0.5 = SUS 9.3O/year.
If the new practice of drying the effluent is adopted, then only 15 per cent of
the nitrogen will be lost. Accordingly, the value of nitrogen = 18.6 x 0.85 = NJS 15.80.
The improved nitrogen value of the manure = 15.8 - 9.3 = $US 6SO/year.
3. Benefit/cost ratio
Continuing with the preceeding example the benefits to total cost ratio can be
calculated:
Total benefit = 124.8 + 6.5 = $US 13 1.3O/year
Total cost
= $US50
Benefit/cost
= 131.3
= 2.611
50
21
It is clear in the above example that the benefits from using biogas instead of
firewood was the main factor affecting the above analysis. In many casesin the rural
areas of the region all the firewood or part of it is being collected by family members,
making it rather difficult to fix a value for it, even excluding the cost of the damage
caused by deforestation to the society which is much higher than the value of the
fuelwood given above. The benefits of not using firewood in the farmer’s view in the
above example may thus vary between $US 0 and 92/year. Consequently the benefit/
cost ratio may accordingly vary between 0.77/l and 2.611 depending on the ratio of
firewood collected by family members to that purchased.
4. Case studies
Some comprehensive studies on biogas economics are being undertaken in the
region. A survey of cost-benefit evaluation techniques as carried out in a developing
ESCAP country is given in the next chapter, illustrative of their practical application
in the context of a developing mixed economy, and of the methodological problems
faced not only in a particular context ‘but of general interest. It is hoped that more case
studies will be available for other developing ESCAP countries, providing an expanding
basisfor interchange of knowledge and experience in this vital area.
VI.
SCOPE FOR ECDC AND TCDC
Biogas technology has evolved as a mature technology in the developing countries largely as a result of their own efforts and under conditions obtaining in their
rural areas. Hence there can be ample scope for fostering TCDC and ECDC activities
among interested developing countries. Significant developments in biogas technology
have taken place in developing ESCAP member countries, notably in China and India
where its application has already become quite widespread. Considerable interest in it
exists in Fiji, Indonesia, Nepal, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan, the Philippines and
Thailand. A series of co-operative activiti.es among developing countries can be envisagedand some illustrations are provided below.
There can be sharing of knowhow in areas such as biogas plant design, construction techniques, alternative construction materials, operation with different feedstocks
and under different agro-climatic conditions, techniques for enhancement of gas production, and maintenance. This could be facilitated through:
(a) Interchange of drawings, specifications, design details, technical and socioeconomic reports and other relevant information;
(b)
Exchange of scientific and technical personnel;
(c) Offer of consultancy services under concessional terms for adaptation of
existing designs to suit individual country’s skills and raw materials;
(d)
Mutual sharing of training facilities and training programmes.
Areas for mutual extension of technical assistance can include:
22
(a) Strengthening planning and programming capabilities at various levels including socio-economic evaluation techniques of biogas systems;
(b)
Developing appropriate schemes for popularization
(c)
Strengthening of local institutions responsible for implementation;
(d) Developing appropriate
subsidies and other incentives.
financial
institutions
of biogas pr’ogramme;
for a.dministering loans,
Economic co-operation in this field can take place through grants for purchase
of hardw.are such as biogas stoves, lighting mantles, biogas engines, biogas-cperated
tractors equipped with plastic bags (for storing biogas), valves and fittings, paints and
others. There can also be promotion of trade in such hardware.
Joint ventures can be established among developing countries for production of
prefabricated components for the construction of biogas plants, and for the manufacture of biogas stoves and other appliances such as space heaters, ovens, lighting mantles, plastic sheets and bags, repair and maintenance kits. small engines and other
accessories.
There can be technical and economic assistance for setting up facilities for the
testing, standardization and quality control of hardware/materials used for construction of biogas plants, for the measurement of the performance of gadgets for using
biog.:.z such as stoves, heating and lighting de-rices and engines, and for the study of
fermentation kinetics, microbiological aspects etc. Biogas experimental stations can
also be established through such co-operation.
In addition to regional workshops/seminars and other group meetings for interchange of knowledge and experience, joint research and development programmes
either on a bilateral or multilateral basis can be developed. A regional network can be
established of leading agencies, institutions and field-level organizations for exchange
of experiences on plant operation with different feedstocks, maintenance problems etc.
for coilection and dissemination of information on scientific and technical developments and for facilitating exchange of technical personnel. Regional demonstration
projects can be usefully evolved, involving village-level biogas plants supplying energy
for cooking, lighting, agricuitural pumping and agro-industries.
23
COSVBENEFIT
ANALYSIS
OFINDIAN
BIOGAS
SYSTE: A CASESTUDY*
I. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS
AND SOME EMPIRICAL
A. USEFULNESS OF COST-BENEFIT
RESULTS
ANALYSIS
In recent times there has been increasing emphasis in discussion among researchersof the development and expansion of not only commercial fossil fuel sources
but also of new and renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biogas, wind and
tidal power, mini-hydro electric plants and power alcohol.
The use of biogas (popularly known as gobar gas in India) plants to generate
methane gas from animal and plant wastes has been studied in India for over thirty
years. The Government of India has been promoting biogas plants as alternative technology for energy supply in rural India through such measures as government subsidy
and institutional credit. Until recently, the biogas technologqr being extended in India
has been a simple KVIC (Khadi and Village Industries Commission) design named
Gramalaxmi. To date about 70,000 small, family-size biogas plants, with a capacity
range of 60-400 cu ft of gas per day, have been installed around the country. So far
the very few large-size community plants installed have been for use in organized
institutions. It is only recently that the Government of India has undertaken a programme to install large-size community plants is actual village situations on a pilot basis
with a view to their popularization. During the last two to three years there have been
attempts to popularize the fixed-dome biogas plant, popularly known as the “Janata”
model.
The various studies made in India on the cost-benefit analysis of biogas plants
are basically related to the small, family-size technology of KVIC design. Similar
analysis of village-community plants as well as of Janata plants are constrained by a
lack of adequate field data. However, even with the limited available data, some attempts are made to develop a framework of cost-benefit analysis of large-size community plants.
Broadly speaking, the cost-benefit analysis is an integral part of the process of
project planning for decision-making over time. In essence, however, it examines the
stage of feasibility in the project cycle limiting the alternatives to a few of the most
promising ones. Thus, the cost-benefit analysis is an evaluation process for elimination
in order to maximize the benefits by choosing the best alternatives for investment and
minimize the incidence of unproductive and nonviable investments.
* Based on a study, prepared for this publication, by T.K. Moulik, Professor, Centre for Management in Agriculture, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
25
Theoretically. a project is identified during the planning process itseif. In the
planning exercise a set of output targets for various sector-wise commodities, such as,
energy, can be projected over the next five-year period considering the expected rate
of growth of the economy and the pattern of income distribution. With sectoral targets
known, the investment plan is determined in relation to domestic production or
imports. It is this sectoral target which forms the basis of project identification. I-lowever, a mere identification of a project does not help in making final investment decisions. There are always several alternatives in terms of choice of technology, location,
size, foreign exchange requirement, allocation of skilled manpower and other resources
and welfare effects etc., which need to be examined before a final decision for investment is made. Even when there is only a single version of a project, there are two
implicit alternatives: to do or not to do the project. The cost-benefit analysis is one of
the most commonly used methodologies to determine the economic and financial
viabilities of various alternatives of a project.
In general, any developmental project assumes a complex nature, particularly, in
resource-constrained developing countries. With the help of cost-benefit studies, a
project’s viability and efficiency with respect to the economy-wide use of resources
can be conveniently established. The next stage in the project cycle in terms of final
investment decisions, implementation of the project and monitoring can follow after
the feasibility of the project is evaluated and established through cost-benefit analysis.
A caveat should be added here about the use of cost-benefit analysis as the sole
crite,ion for investment decision. The cost-benefit analysis is basically an exercise in
predicting outputs and inputs in quantitative terms, which are more often than not
subject to margins of error due to various assumptions, the nature of data base and
other unforeseen circumstances. Nevertheless, the cost-benefit analysis provides some
useful messages for investment decisions. A high internal rate of return (IRR), for
example, signifies a good investment. An IRR somewhat below but approaching the
opportunity cost of capital deserves tolerance since there are several other secondary
benefits of social importance that cannot be measured. Low and very low IRRs, however, may signal an ineffective project, wrong priorities and the possibility of nonviability.
B. APPROACH OF COST-BENEFIT
ANALYSIS
The cost-benefit analysis as conventionally applied to appraise a project investment is basically concerned with calculating costs and benefits. The enumeration and
quantification of costs and benefits, however, differ according to the point of view
from which profitability is being considered. “Primary benefits and costs” refer to
project outputs and inputs. “Secondary costs and benefits” are related to more efficient alternative uses of resources.
Financial, economic and social evaluation are the three basic aspects of project
appraisal. While the financial analysis deals with the profitability of the project at
market prices, economic analysis is concerned with the determination of a set of
prices reflecting “efficiency” benefits to the nation, that is, an analysis at efficiency
26
prices. Social analysis refers to social profitability in terms of weIke implications,
such as, equity and distribution of income. The basic parameter in all the three aspects
of cost-benefit analysis is to work out actual flows of income and expenditure in order
to determine the financial, economic and social rates of returns out of the project
investment.
Operationally, the conventional cost-benefit analysis is broken down to a number of measures of investment performances, such as:
(a)
stream;
Financial cash flow or economic net benefit stream or social net benefit
(b)
Net present value (NPV) or the discounted net benefits;
(c)
IRR;
(d)
The payback period or capital recovery;
(e)
The present value of capital or the benefit-cost ratio (PV/K).
C. APPLICATION
The performance measures in cost-benefit analysis, given above, are applied here
to the small, family-size, KVIC-design biogas plants. The data for this analysis were
obtained through a field survey of 173 small individual biogas plants of varying sizes
distributed over four States of India, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and
Andhra Pradesh.’
1. Analysis of costs
Following the usual tradition, the costs of biogas plants are broken down into
investment and operating cost components. The investment (or capital) costs of a
biogas unit cover capital expenditure items, such as, cost of land and compost pits, cost
of civil construction of the digester well, and costs of gasholder, pipes and appliances.
The operating costs of a biogas unit are divided into variable and fixed components,
the former covering items like cost of cowdung used as major inputs, the cost of labour
for dung collection and for operating the plant, and cost of water, while the latter
includes the cost of painting, repairs and replacement of the component parts.
In calculating the cost streams of the sample biogas units, the KVIC estimates2
are used with necessary modifications derived from field observations. In the KVIC
estimates, the capital costs of a biogas unit cover only the cost of gasholder, the cost
of civil construction and the cost of pipeline and appliances. All the three items of
capital costs are derived through component-wise break-down. Since the land area
.
required for biogas installation and for compost pit construction is small (e.g. only
342 sq ft of land area for a 60 cu ft plant), it is assumed that it would have insignificant alternative economic use and therefore its cost can be taken’as zero. Similarly,
’ T-K.
Mod&,
UK.
Sriva~tava
and P.M. Shingi, Eiogas System in In&a: .4 Socio-Economic Evaluation (AhmeIndian Institute of Management, l??&
&bad,Centiefor Management
in Agriculture,
2 Khadi and Wlage Industries Commission, Gobar Gas Hen&
27
Why rmd How (Bombay, KVIC, 1975).
Table 1. Capital costs of biogas plants (in Rs)
Plant she
cost of
gasholder
cost of civil
construction
Cost of pipeline
and appliances
Total initial
cost
60
932
1 143
256
2 331
100
1 207
1478
331
3 016
150
1 344
1 646
370
3 360
200
1670
2 055
450
4 175
250
1 920
2 352
528
4 800
300
2 000
2 450
550
5 000
500
3 400
4 165
935
8 500
the cost of compost pit construction is taken as zero assuming that the cost of cement
and labour used for this purpose would be the same as in the case of the usual process
of cornposting manure without a biogas unit.
The major components of the operating costs of biogas plants are: the costs of
cowdung, the labour costs for collecting cowdung and for operating and maintaining
the plant, and the repair and replacement costs of various components of the plant.
Using the KVIC estimate of conversion ratio, 1.3 cu ft of gas to 1 kg of wet dung, the
total annual requirement of wet dung for a biogas unit is estimated. The values of this
wet dung are assessedon the basis of its use as farmyard manure (FYM). Taking the
estimated price of FYM as Rs 40 per ton, the cost of dung is included into the cost
stream. Since the villagers do not usually hire labour exclusively for biogas plant
operation, it is difficult to calculate the labour cost for maintenance and operation.
However, following the KVIC estimate, Rs 100 per annum is taken as the labour cost
for maintenance and operation. The costs for repair and replacement are calculated
on the basis of the following observations in the field:
(a) Biogas plants are usually painted to prevent corrosion and rust every second
year. The average cost of paint for each size is taken into the cost stream.
(b) The gasholder is repaired every fifth year and finally replaced after eight
years. Thus, the average life of a gasholder before it becomes corroded beyond repair
is taken to be eight years as against the KVIC estimate of 10 years. Similarly, hosepipes
are replaced every third year and the pipelines are repaired during the third year. The
central guide-pin is replaced every third year and burners every fifth year. The market
prices for the repair and replacement of the component parts are included in the cost
stream of the economic life of the plants.
(c) The KVIC estimate of the economic life of the plants is 40 years.
However, the economic life of digester, pipelines and appiiances vary between 20
28
and 40 years. For the purpose of our analysis, the economic life of the plant is taken as
30 years.
The cost stream taking into account both capital costs and operating costs of
various sizes of biogas plants over the economic life of 30 years is presented in table 2.
Table 2. The cost stream of varying plant sizes (in Rs/year)
F,conomic
iife
Size of plant in cu ftjday
60
100
150
200
250
300
350
500
0
1
2
3
4
5
2 332
368
268
401
272
447
3 016
487
381
517
385
564
3 360
648
521
668
525
714
4 175
850
662
839
666
885
4 800
1018
802
993
806
1040
5 000
1 188
942
1 148
946
1 195
6 100
1 375
1 083
1312
1087
1 359
8 500
1 861
1 504
1 766
1508
1812
6
7
8
9
i0
494
322
268
1 334
297
607
438
381
1 724
410
748
589
521
2 012
550
888
760
662
2 509
691
1028
802
2 913
831
1168
1069
942
3 148
971
1 309
1 233
1 083
3 752
1112
1730
1 687
1504
5 166
1533
11
12
13
14
15
461
351
427
268
.A
1?
-?Li
577
464
542
381
542
727
604
693
521
693
899
745
865
662
865
1 053
885
1019
802
1018
1 208
1 025
1 174
942
1 173
1372
1 166
1 338
1083
1 337
1 825
1 587
1 791
1504
1791
16
17
18
19
20
415
i 251
351
322
293
528
1641
464
438
406
668
1 929
604
589
546
809
2 426
745
760
687
949
2 830
885
914
827
1 089
3 065
1 025
1069
967
1 230
3 669
1 166
1 233
1 100
1 651
5 083
1 58,:
1 A87
1529
21
22
23
24
25
791
272
318
351
1 280
764
385
434
464
1670
915
525
585
604
1 958
1086
666
756
745
2 455
1 240
806
910
885
2 859
1395
946
1 065
1025
3 094
1559
1087
1 229
1 166
3 698
2 013
1 508
1683
1687
5 112
26
27
28
29
30
411
401
272
318
268
524
517
385
434
381
664
668
525
585
521
805
839
666
756
662
945
993
806
910
802
1 085
1 148
946
1 065
942
1 226
1312
1087
1 229
1 083
1647
1 766
1 508
1682
1504
25
9i4
2. Analysis of benefits
Quantification of the benefits of a biog,as system is a crucial step in the costbenefit analysis. It is equally a difficult process given the existing situations in villages
in India. The two major outputs of the biogas unit, the biogas and digested manure, are
not usually traded commodities in Indian villages and therefore no market prices are
readily available. Hence, it becomes essential to find an alternative way to evaluate
these two benefits. In addition, there are genuine problems of quantifications of
various secondary or indirect benefits of the biogas system, just as in the case of
various indirect costs. For the present, however, let us consider the benefits from a
small, family-size plant in relation to two major outputs, biogas and manure.
The average rate of manure production from a biogas unit is an imputed figure
from the average input-output data in KVIC research stations.
According to the KVIC estimate, the manure obtained through the biogas plant
is about 45 per cent more than the quantity obtained from the compost pit. With this
assumption, the total value of annual manure production through a biogas unit is
calculated in monetary terms at the average price of manure per cartload (i.e. 0.5 ton)
as observed in the survey area.
In the valuation of biogas, the first problem is the seasonal variation in the rate
of gas production. Taking into account the seasonal variation, the total quantity of
gas produced by a biogas unit is converted into fuewood equivalent using the conversion factor as given by KVIC3 Taking an average price of firewood as 20 paise per
kilogram, as observed in some parts of the survey area, the estimated annual value of
biogas from various sizes of plants are calculated.
Table 3. Seasonal variation in the rate of gas production
Average rate of gas production
Cmpercentage of plant capacity)
seasons
Summer (122 days)
100
winter (120 days)
78
Monsoon (123 days)
86
It is now possible to present the estimated streams of benefits derived from the
two major outputs of biogas plants.
3
The KVIC estimate is: 1 kg firewood = 3.474 m3 biogas.
30
Table 4. The benefit stream of varying plant sizes (in Rs/yea.r)
Value of gas
(at Rs 0.20/kg of
firewood equivalent
of gas)
Size of plant
(ii cu ft/day)
60
100
150
200
250
3hJ
350
500
Value of
manure
316.00
526.00
Total annual
revenue (ii Rs)
379.36
632.29
948.44
1 264.58
790.00
1053.00
695.36
1 158.29
1 738.44
2 317.58
1580.73
1 896.88
1316.00
1 579.00
2 896.73
3 475.88
2 213.03
1 843.00
4 056.03
3 161.47
2 632.00
5 793.47
It should be pointed out here that in a large part of rural India, firewood is still
obtained at zero private cost; the villagers do not purchase firewood and therefore
there is no available market price for firewood in many villages. The price of 20 paise
per kg of firewood used in the present analysis is, in fact, the observed average price of
firewood prevailing in or around the survey areas, mostly in the nearby towns. Yet the
social cost of indiscriminate cutting of firewood is certainly greater than the market
price used in the analysis although many may not realize this. It may perhaps be more
rational to use a varying level of prices of firewood starting from zero considering the
private individuals’ villager’s point of view of investment decisions for biogas plants.
The implication of the varying firewood prices on the benefit stream of biogas units
is quite obvious.
3. Cash flow
Having worked out the inflow of income (benefit stream) and outflow of expenditure (cost stream), the financial cash flow stream of varying sizes of biogas plant
can be analysed, taking the economic life of the plants as 30 years. The cash flow for
60 cu ft size plants is shown as an example.
4. Net present value (NPV)
Having established the financial or net economic flows, as shown ii1 table 5 in
relation to a 60 cu ft plant size, the problem now is to derive a present value by discounting all items in the net cash flow back to year 0. Denoting PO for the present
value and P, , 3, . . . , P, for the stream of payments accruing from years 1 to t, the
general form of the discounting expression becomes:
NPV =
z
P&l + R)’
=
t
0
31
Table 5. Cash flow for biogas plants of 60 cu ft (in Rs)
costs
Revenue
Cash flow
0
1
2
3
4
5
2 332
368
268
401
272
447
0
695.36
695.36
695.36
695.36
695.36
-2 332.00
327.36
427.36
294.36
423.36
248.36
6
7
8
9
10
494
322
268
1 334
297
695.36
695.36
695.36
695.36
695.36
201.36
373.36
427.36
-638.64
398.36
11
12
13
14
15
461
351
427
268
427
695.36
695.36
695.36
695.36
695.36
234.36
344.36
26836
427.36
268.36
16
17
18
19
20
415
1 251
351
322
293
695.36
695.36
695.36
69536
695.36
28036
-555.64
344.36
373.36
402.36
21
22
23
24
25
791
272
318
351
1 280
695.36
695.36
695.36
695.36
695.36
-95.64
423.36
377.36
344.36
-584.64
26
27
28
29
30
411
401
272
318
268
695.36
695.36
695.36
69536
695 36
284.36
294.36
42336
377.36
427.36
Yt%I
What is important to remember here is that the use of a single discounting parameter,
R, assumes that the time value of benefits falls at a constant rate, where R is an annual
rate of interest. For fmancial analysis, the discount rate is normally the interest rate at
which bank loans are available, that is, the opportunity cost. However, for the present
analysis, three different discount rates, 10 per cent, 13 per cent and 15 per cent, are
considered in view of the effect of likely inflation rates. It is assumed that the inflation
rate is identical for costs and benefits.
The calculation of NPV at different discount rates can be shown by considering
the cash flow stream for a 60 cu ft bicgas plant.
32
Table 6. Discounted cash flowa and NPV for 60 cu ft plant (in Rs.)
Discounted cash
flow (13 per cent)
Discounted cash
flow (15 per cent)
-2 332.00
297.57
352.99
221.06
289.15
154.23
-2 332.00
289.71
334.62
203.99
259.52
134.86
-2 332.00
284.80
323.08
193.69
242.16
123.43
201.36
373.36
427.36
-638.64
398.36
113.57
191.53
199.58
-270.78
153.77
96.65
158.68
160.69
-212.67
117.52
86.99
140.38
139.75
-181.37
98.39
11
12
13
14
15
234.36
344.36
268.36
427.36
268.36
82.03
109.85
77.82
112.40
64.14
61.17
79.55
54.75
77.35
42.94
50.39
64.40
43.74
60.26
33.01
16
17
18
19
20
280.36
-555.64
344.36
373.36
402.36
61.12
-110.02
61.98
61.23
59.95
39.53
-69.45
38.22
36.59
35.00
30.00
-51.67
27.89
26.13
24.54
21
22
23
24
25
-95 -64
423.36
377.36
344.36
-584.64
-12.91
52.07
42.26
35.12
-53.79
-7.36
28.79
22.64
18.25
-27.78
-5.07
19.47
15.09
12.05
-17.54
26
27
28
29
30
284.36
291.36
423.36
377.36
427.36
23.89
22.37
29.21
23.77
24.36
11.94
10.89
13.97
10.94
11.11
7.39
6.77
8.47
6.41
6.41
Yeat
cash flow
0
1
2
3
4
5
-2 332.00
327.36
427.36
294.36
423.36
248.36
6
7
8
9
10
NPV
Discounted cash
flow (10 per cent)
137.52
-294.32
-5 12.56
a The discounted rwh flow at interest rates of 10, 13 and 15 per cent over 30 years are obtained by multiplying
the cashflow figures in colume 1 by the multipliers in any standard set of discount tables.
Following the above example, the NPV for different sizes of biogas plants are
worked out at 10, 13 and 15 per cent discount rates as shown in table 7.
The NPV provides a very simple investment decision rule which is to “accept if
NPV > 0”. In other words, an investment in a biogas plant of particular size is deemed
acceptable if the value of NPV is positive.
33
Table 7. Net present values of investment in plants of various sizes
Discount
rate
(percentage)
NW (without deducting
subsidy from initial
cost) (its)
60
10
13
15
137.64
-299.40
-512.50
524.20
105.95
-98.38
100
10
13
15
2 558.28
1497.38
938.80
3 166.82
2 103.96
1589.51
150
10
13
15
6 204.33
4 332.35
3 427.98
6 876.33
5 004.35
4 099.98
200
10
13
15
9 108.66
6 488.7 1
5 223.48
9 943.65
5 004.35
4 099.98
250
10
13
15
12 362.90
8 960.89
7 318.53
13 323.5
9 921.29
8 278.83
300
10
13
15
16 157.8
11 939.2
9 903.62
17 157.8
12 939.2
10 903.6
350
10
13
15
18 748.9
13 796.8
11407.0
19 950.3
15 000.6
12 612.0
500
10
13
15
27 883.2
20 621.4
17 117.0
29 583.2
22 321.4
18 817.0
Size of
the plant
(cu WaY)
NPV (20 per cent subsidy
deducted from initial
cost) (Rs)
Considering the government subsidy towards the cost of biogas plant installation, the whole analysis is done into two ways:
(a) - Economic analysis, in which the entire cost of the biogas plant is entered
into the cost stream;
(b) The financial analysis in which the government subsidy of 20 per cent is
deducted from the initial cost.
In terms of an investment decision, it is clear that except in the case of 60 cu ft
plant, the NPV is positive for all other plant sizes at varying discount rate. For a 60
cu ft plant, the NPV is negative at 13 per cent and 15 per cent discount rates in the
case of economic analysis (without subsidy) and at the 15 per cent discount rate in
the case of financial analysis (with subsidy). Even at a 10 per cent discount rate, the
34
NPV for a 60 cu ft plant, even though positive, comparatively smaller than in the ca;L
of other plant sizes. It is also clear from the analysis that the value of NW increases
with the increase in size of the biogas plants. One more significant point from the
policy point of view is the observation that both the economic and financial analyses
(with and without subsidy) show a similar trend in NPV. That raises the question of
the rationale for giving a subsidy, particularly for a flat rate of subsidy. Since the
valuation of biogas is at firewood equivalent, it would be relevant to find out the
opportunity cost of firewood at which the NPV turns positive indicating the financial
via.bility of the investment.
The IRR value implies that if the investor perceives the opportunity cost of
firewood below the break-even level, the investment in a biogas plant does not seem
financially viable for him. Yet it is clear from table 8 that except for a 60 cu ft plant,
the larger size plants remain viable at an opportunity cost of firewood less than the
market price of 20 paise per kg. In fact, the required opportunity cost of firewood at
which NPV turns positive decreases with the increase in the size of plants. Following
the trend it was observed4 that a plant size of 3000 cu ft or above is viable even at
zero opportunity cost of firewood at varying discount rates. If the perception of an
investor about the opportunity cost of firewood is zero, as is most often the case in
the rural areas, then a smaller size biogas plant does not seem to be viable for investment. It is on this basis that the case for a large-size, community plant and a subsidy
for small family-size plants rest.
5. Internal rate of return (IRR)
Being a “pure number”, IRR is widely used in project appraisal allowing projects
of different size to be compared directly.
To define operationally, IRR is that discount rate at which NPV for a project
is exactly zero. The decision rule corresponding to IKR is to accept the project if
IRR is greater than the cost of capital (R > C).
Like NPV, IRR also shows a similar pattern in the sense that the values of IRR
increase with the increase in plant size. Thus, even using IRR as criterion for making
a decision for investment, the relatively larger plant sizes get preference over the
smaller ones. Again, whether with or without considering the subsidy into the cost
stream, the trend of IRR values remain the same except the fact that IRR with a
subsidy (financial analysis) are greater in values than their corresponding values without a subsidy (economic analysis).
6. Capital recovery
One of the commonly used criteria for assessingthe relative desirability of two
or more projects is the payback period or the capital recovery criterion; the decision
rule is to choose that project which recovers its capital costs in the shortest period.
4 T.K. Moulik, U.K. Srivastava and P.M. Singi, op. cit.
35
Table 8. Opportunity cost of fitewood at which NPV turns positive
Plant size
(m fa
Discount rate
(percentage)
opportunity cost of
firewood @&e/kg)
60
10
13
15
20
Not even at 20
Not even at 20
100
10
13
15
12
14
16
150
10
13
l!i;
7
8
9
200
10
13
15
250
10
13
15
300
10
13
15
350
10
13
15
3
4
5
500
10
13
15
3
4
5
Table 9. Internal rates of return (IRR) for plants of various sizes Cmpercentages)
Size of the plant
(a fw
Economic analysis
(without subsidy)
Financkl analysis
(with subsidy)
60
100
150
200
10.82
20.14
32.13
13.98
26.63
40.76
45.09
250
35.75
40.03
300
47.10
350
45.28
47.52
500
36
50.36
59.09
56.02
59.59
The calculation of the payback period of a project investment is normally done by
dividing the capital cost by the cumulative sum of the undiscounted net cash flow.
However, for the present analysis the discounted cash flow is used, which does not
after the ranking of the projects except that it leads to longer payback periods.
As table 10 indicates, the payback period also reveals a scale economy. This
means that the capital recovery period is shorter as the size of the plant increases. The
most interesting aspect is that the recovery period for a small, family size plant of 60
cu ft is too long to be recovered in the life of the plant, particularly at the discount
rates of 13 per cent and 15 per cent in the case of economic analysis (without subsidy)
and 15 per cent in the case of financial analysis (with subsidy). However, with the
exclusion of subsidy into the cost-stream (financial analysis), the payback period
reduces slightly.
Table 10. Payback period for biogas plants of varying sizes (in years)
Size of the plant
(cu ft)
Discount rate
(percentage)
Payback period
(without subsidy)
Payback period
(with subsidy)
60
PO
13
15
23
13
20
-
100
10
13
15
7
8
8
5
5
6
150
10
13
15
4
4
5
200
10
13
15
4
4
4
250
10
13
15
300
10
13
15
2
2
3
350
10
13
15
2
2
3
500
10
13
15
2
2
3
37
7. Benefitcost ratio (PV/K)
Another crude index of investment efficiency, popularly used by the economic
planners is output-capital ratio, defined as the average (undiscounted) value-added
produced per unit of capital expenditure. The PV/K or benefit-cost ratio is simply a
discounting version of the above. The benefit-cost ratio compares the discounted net
revenue stream with the discounted capital costs. Thus, the numerator (PV) does not
include initial capital costs and may be taken as a gross rather than a net present
value. The decision rule in this case is to accept the project if PV/K > 1. However, it
must be noted that any project with a positive NPV will automatically have PV/K
greater than unity. Hence, the criterion of benefit-cost ratio does not provide any extra
information except that it may be additionally useful as a capital rationing device
where the available public funds do not get exhausted at the discount rate used for
planning purpose.
As expected, the PV/K ratios given in table 11 also confirm the scale economy
for investment in biogas plants.
Table 11. Benefitcost ratio of biogas plantsof various sizes
Size of the plant
(cu ft)
Rate of discount
(Percentage)
60
10
13
15
1 AI2
0.94
0.89
100
10
13
15
1.30
1.20
1.14
150
10
13
15
1.60
1.49
1.42
200
10
13
15
1.71
1.59
1.52
250
10
13
15
1.82
1.70
162
300
10
13
15
1.96
1.83
1.74
350
10
13
15
1.96
1.83
1.74
500
10
13
15
2.04
1.90
1.81
38
8. Sensitivity analysis
In the preceding section the measures of cost-benefit analysis, such as NPV,
IRR and PV/K, are obtained under some specific valuation of some important parameters under certain assumptions. It is likely that the estimates of the key parameters
used in the foregoing cost-benefit analysis will vary according to location, time-period,
technological development and various other extraneous factors. Hence it is useful to
analyse the effect of varying the key parameter values on the social profitability of
a biogas unit.
It will be noted that the measures of cost-benefit analysis as presented above are
calculated by varying the plant sizes and depreciation rates. However, in order to
provide a more realistic basis for making an investment decision, the results of varying
other key parameter values need to be examined to take account not only of differential impacts of optimistic and conservative assumptions, but also of the likely impact
of the ongoing research and developm.ent efforts. To illustrate, an earlier study5 carried
out its analysis by valuing biogas at the market price of kerosene equivalent (instead of
firewood equivalent as used in the present case) and using separately the KVIC estimates and observed sample estimates. The results of the analysis are shown in tables
12,13 and 14.
It is interesting to note that the results obtained with kerosene equivalent
valuation of biogas are similar to those obtained with fiiewood equivalent price used in
the present case. However, there are some differences in the results obtained with
KVIC data and the sample data. With the KVIC data, the payback period for various
sizes of biogas units, for example, is shorter than those estimated with the sample
data. Similarly, NPVs are smaller with the sample data as compared to those estimated
with the KVIC data. Thus, the results indicate clearly the optimistic estimates of KVIC
as compared to those obtained in the field situations.
One of the most crucially important sensitivity analyses should be in relation to
the capital costs of biogas technology. There is considerable research and development
effort going on to reduce: the capital costs of biogas technology. The use of ferrocement or polythene bag instead of mild steel for gasholder has direct effect on capital
costs of the plants. Similarly, the use of fixed-dome Chinese-type Janata plant has
direct bearing on the capital cost structure of biogas plants. By replacing the movable
steel gasholder of the KVIC model by the fixed dome of brick and cement, the Janata
model of biogas plant is reported to reduce the costs (both capital and maintenance
costs) by as much as 20 to 40 per cent. The effect of this cost reduction on the results
of cost-benefit analysis is quite apparent. Bhatia6 carried out a sensitivity analysis
under two assumptions: 20 per cent and 30 per cent reduction of capital costs of
biogas units. Bhatia observed that, “even if capital costs were reduced by 30 per cent,
investment in a biogas unit would continue to be socially unprofitable if gas is mainly
5 TX. Moulik and U.K. Srivastava, Biogas PIrmts at the Vilhge Level: Problems and prospects in Gujamt
(Ahmedabad, Indian Institute of Management, 1975).
6 Ramesh Bhatia, “Economic appraisal of biogas units in India: framework for social benefit cost analysis”,
Economic and Political Weekly (Bombay), vol. XII, Nos. 33-34, August 1977.
39
Table 13. Internal rate of return on investment for plants of various sizes
Economic analysis
Size of
the plant
(cu ft)
Using KVIC
estimates
Financial analysis
(in percentage)
Using KVIC
using
Ushg sample data
sample data
estimates
(with 25 per cent
(with 25 per cent
subsidy on initial
subsidy on initial cost)
cost)
60
19.99
13.53
23.53
19.04
100
26.39
21.45
35.57
29.35
150
38.23
33.34
51.15
44.95
200
41.65
37.53
55.63
50.44
250
46.04
40.53
61.43
5438
300
53:80
50.90
71.67
68.04
350
51.66
45.66
68.85
61.12
500
53.97
52.15
71.93
69.71
Table 14. Benefit-cost ratio of plants of various sizes
Size of the plant
(cu fi)
Rate of discount
(percentage)
Using KVIC
data
Using sample
data
60
10
13
15
1.23
1.12
1.05
1.10
1.01
0.96
100
10
13
15
1.55
1.42
1.32
134
1.24
1.17
150
10
13
15
1.87
1.73
1.64
1.66
154
1.47
200
10
13
15
197
1 .a2
1.72
1.78
1.65
157
250
10
13
15
2.07
1.92
1.82
1 .a4
1.71
163
300
10
13
15
2.23
2.07
1.98
2.07
1.94
1.86
350
10
13
15
2.21
2.05
1.95
1.96
1.83
1.75
10
13
15
2.29
2.12
2.02
500
41
_
2.16
2.02
193
Table 15. Comparative estimated costs of biogas plants (in Rs)
Sizeofplant
(cu fit)
KVIC model
Janata model
60
2 332.00
1 650.00
100
3 016.00
2 250.00
150
3 360.00
2 910.00
200
4 175.00
3 760.00
Source: K.C. Kandelwal, Janata Gobar Gas Plant (New Delhi, Directorate of Extension, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation).
consumed for cooking purposes. Thus, in areas where electricity is already available for
lighting, there is no case for providing subsidy for investment in biogas unit.”
Bhatia7 also did a sensitivity analysis using the varying delivered costs of soft
coke and the calorific values of biogas and soft coke in determining the profitability
of biogas units. Similarly, Susan Dee* used varying efficiency rates of gas production
with the assumption of modification of the technology in the sensitivity analysis of
biogas plants. All these exercises indicate the necessity to do sensitivity analysis with
varying estimates of key parameters in order to arrive at a relevant and practical
criterion for decision making. Such analysis assumes a critical role not merely in relation to the estimated values of required inputs (costs) but also, and perhaps more
importantly, the estimated values of outputs (benefits). The results of such analysis
may change drastically in favour of investments if and when reliable estimates of some
of the secondary or indirect benet3s could be imputed to the benefit streams.
9. Janata plants
As mentioned earlier, there are currently two common types of biogas plants
which are being popularized in India - the KVIC model and the Janata model. The
Janata plant is a drumiess (no steel gasholder), fixed-dome, closed-type biogas unit
made entirely of brick and motar, similar to those being used in China. The cost difference between the KVIC and Janata models is quite substantial. Since the Janata
model does not require the steel gasholder the KVIC model does, the former is about
40 per cent cheaper than the latter (see table 15). It is also interesting and equally
important to note that since 1978, the cost of constructing the KVIC model plant has
gone up by as much as 20 per cent as against 10 per cent in the case of the Janata
model.
The advantages of a reduction in the construction cost of a biogas plant as
happens in the case of the Janata model are obvious for a third world country like
India. Considering the cost factor alone, the Janata model may be more suitable to
7 Ramesh Bhatia, lot. cit.
8 Susan Ruth Rothrock Deo, “An economic analysis of biogas technology for a hypothetical village in rural
India” (MSc. Thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana, 1980).
42
the large masses of the economically weaker sections for whom the KVIC model plant
is mostly beyond reach. Considering the cost factor, the Government of India has been
making special efforts since 1979 to popularize the Janata plants through the Ministry
of Agriculture and irrigation, New Delhi. and the Planning Research and Action
Division, Uttar Pradesh.g In fact, it is hoped that about 50 per cent of Indian farmers
will opt for the KVIC model, while the rest of the farmers will opt for the Janata
model. In Uttar Pradesh alone already 7000 such plants have been set up.
In a recent study done for the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, the
Agricultural Finance Corporation, Bombay, compared the economic and financial
viability of the KVIC and PRAD (Janata) modelslo It was found in the study that the
2 cu m and 3 cu m plants of KVIC models were not economical, while the 3 cu m plant
of PRAD design (Janata model) was economically feasible. On account of cost reduction, the benefit cost ratios were found to be comparatively higher in the case of
Janata plants than the benefit cost ratios of the KVIC models. The results as shown in
table 16 clearly indicate that the financing of 2 cu m biogas plants would be uneconomical irrespective of models. In respect of a 3 cu m plant, the KVIC model would
become financially feasible only at a 4 per cent rate of interest and with a subsidy of
50 per cent of the cost. It was also observed that the benefit cost ratios increased with
the increase in size of the plants irrespective of the models. The study, however,
concluded that under the existing subsidy the biogas plants of both KVIC and PRAD
(Janata) models would be economical.
Tabl: 16. Benefit-cost ratio, KVIC and Janata models (by size)
Model
Beneficiary group
2
KVIC
Janata
(size in cu m)
Benefit-cost ratio
4
3
6
(a) General (at 11 per cent rate of interest)
(b) Weaker section (at 4 per cent rate of interest)
0.70
0.74
0.98
1.03
1.15
1.22
1.35
1.43
(a) General (at 11 per cent rate of interest)
0.88
0.94
1.25
1.35
1.42
1.53
1.60
1.70
(b) Weaker section (at 4 per cent rate of interest)
Some mention about the technical problems of the Janata plants must be
mentioned here. First, considering the design and the building materials used. the
economic life of the Janata plant is very likely to be shorter than the conventional
KVIC model. In the absence of any reliable data and based on field observation, the
economic life of a Janata plant can be assumed to be not more than 15 years as compared io 30-40 years in the case of KVIC plants. Secondly, it has been generally
observj;d under field conditions that the rate of gas production fluctuates more widely
between summer and winter months in the Janata plant than in the KVIC plant. Again,
9 In this connedon, see Janata Biogas Model I Nirman Pusti Ku (Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, Planning Research
and Action Division (PRAD), 19783 and P.B. Ghate and K.K. Singh, Action Research in Biogas Development
(Lucknow, PRAD, 1978).
19 Agricultural Finance Corporation, A Draft Note on National BiogasProject (1980-85) (Bombay, September
1980).
43
there are no established scientific data to confirnl w reject ihis impression. Lastly,
and perhaps more serious, is the complaint usually made against tht: Janata plant that
its gas yield is about 30 to 40 per cent lower than is the case with the KVlC model.
Whether or not the lower yield is a scientificaliy established fact, it is a fact that the
Janata plant suffers more from the leakages as compared to the KVIC model. Of late,
there have been some successful experiments in tackling the leakage problem in biogas
plants (both for KVIC and Janata models) by using a specially formulated paint.
However, in a few years time many of the technical problems of Janata plants
will likely have been verified and scientifically established under varying field conditions in India. Meanwhile, the Government of India, the ,Ministry of Agriculture and
PRAD in particular, have worked out plans to promote Janat:j. plants on the same scale
as the conventional KVIC units simply because of cost considi;:ra.tions.
10. Summary analysis
To recapitulate, the results to the cost-benefit analysis as presented above
indicates that biogas units of higher than 60 cu ft. size were viable and there were
scale-economies. In the economic analysis, the payback period for the 60 cu ft plant
is found to be 23 years at 10 per cent, but at 13 and 15 per cent rate of discount,
payback is not achieved during the life of the plant. In the financial analysis, at 10 per
cent the payback is 13 years while at 15 per cent payback is not obtained during the
life of the plant. The economic analysis shows a range of net present values from
Rs 299.40 (for a 60 cu ft plant at 13 per cent) to Rs 27,883.20 (for a 500 cu ft plant
at 10 per cent). The internal rates of return range from 10.82 per cent (for a 60 cu ft
plant) to 47.52 per cent (for a 500 cu ft plant).
The corresponding range of values of NPV and IRR in the financial analysis are
Rs 98.38 (for a 60 cu ft plant at 15 per cent) to Rs 29,583.20 (for a 500 cu fit plant at
10 per cent), and 13.98 per cent (for a 60 cu ft plant) to 59.59 per cent (for a 500 cu
fit plant) respectively. The results are similar to those obtained when biogas is valued
at kerosene equivalent market price.
It is also observed in the analysis that if the price of firewood (biogas was valued
in firewood equivalent) is less than 20 paise per kg, even some of the larger biogas
plants become less viable. At a 13 per cent discount rate, for example, the price of
firewood has to be 14 paise per kg for the 100 cu ft plant to remain viable, while the
500 cu ft plant requires a price of only 3 paise per kg. Thus, the bigger sizes of plants
can withstand quite low prices of firewood and still maintain their economic viability.
From these results, it can be concluded that the small, family-size plants can be promoted only with massive subsidy, while the large-size, community plants can be a
worthwhile viable investment even without subsidy, ignoring the problems of organization.
In its methodological approach and assumptions, the present analysis is to some
extent different from many other studies made on the economic aspects of biogas units
in India. The present analysis is largely at micro level in the sense that the costs and
benefit streams are estimated from the point of view of individual private villagers.
44
Hardly any attempt has been made to concern itself with macro level societal or national considerations except that a subtle difference has been made between economic
and financial analysis in relation to government subsidy. The economic analysis in the
present study, by including the subsidy amount i~i the cost stream, also has covered
part of the costs and benefits accruing to society or nation at large. However. financial
analysis has been done mainly from the point of view of the villagers and only the cash
inflows and outflows accruing to the villagers have been considered, the subsidy being
treated as a reduction in cost. Even if such distinctions between economic and financial
analysis, as in the study, are not conceptually and methodologically rigorous, the
study has attempted to take into account a significant fact of life in terms of government policy concerning the subsidy.
At the same microlevel, the present analysis also differs from many other studies
in three important aspects. First, all the costs and benefits of biogas plants have been
estimated in relation to domestic market price rather than the “shadow price” or the
foreign exchange equivalent price. Secondly, the present study deliberately used firewood equivalent and kerosene equivalent prices of biogas for the simple reason that
these two are the most likely alternative fuels in rural India; alternatives in the form
of electricity, soft-coke and other commercial fuel have been thus neglected. Lastly,
the present analysis has been done by considering only one kind of functional use of
biogas, that is, cooking or heating for which the dungcake and firewood are reported
to be the most commonly used fuel in rural India. Hence the use of biogas for cooking
or heating could save cowdung and firewood for better alternative uses and other social
benefits, such as prevention of deforestation, provision of sanitation, and soil improvement through increased use of dung manure.
The methodological approach as followed in the present analysis has both
advantages and limitations. How some of these limitations could be overcome have
been referred to in the other cost-benefit studies of biogas systems. For the present,
however, it would be interesting to compare the findings of the present study with
some important similar studies on biogas systems in India.
One of the first detailed cost-benefit analyses was done by Parikh.‘l He evaluated the costs and benefits accruing to the national economy. The benefits were
measured in terms of increase in foodgrain yield due to the use of digested manure and
firewood saved. The value of the biogas was determined in relation to diesel and
gasoline. Parikh also used costs of six different village situations: the 60 cu ft size with
50 plants at one plant per family; 10 plants at one plant for 5 families and 20 plants
at one plant for 5 families; two 2500 cu ft plants for 50 families; one 1000 cu ft plant
for 50 families and one 2000 cu ft plant for 100 families. As in the present study,
Par&h also found that the larger size plants were less expensive. In another study,
Parikh12 observed that for a private owner of a biogas unit, it yielded “a gross return
of 14 to 18 per cent purely in financial terms.” His analysis showed that, with an
l1 K-S. Parikh, “Benefit cost analysis of biogas plants in India”, (Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, January 196 3).
l2
KS. Parikh, Second India
Studies: Energy (New Delhi, MacMillan, 1976).
45
investment of Rs 2000 on a 2 cu m plant, the annual saving due to a biogas plant over
the alternative of burning dung as cakes was Rs 298. The corresponding saving was Rs
364 when the alternative was the use of the entire dung for cornposting. However, it
should be noted that the results of Parikh’s studies were highly dependent on assumptions regarding the increase in the nitrogen-content in digested manure and the price
of dung cake.
Prasad, Prasad and Reddy13 compared the costs and benefits of biogas plants
with that of rural electrification in order to meet the energy demands for cooking,
irrigation pumping, industries and lighting. They estimated that a 5000 cu ft plant with
a capital cost of Rs 41,000 excluding cost of pipelines, compressors etc., would have an
annual cost of Rs 12,206 and an annual benefit of Rs 19,160 from the use of 4450
cu ft gas per day and they also estimated indirect benefits in terms of 22 tons of
additional foodgrains due to the use of digested manure, foreign exchange saving on 2
tons of napththa, saving of 0.4 acres of forest per year and improvement in sanitation
and health.
The results of the cost-benefit analysis as presented in an ICAR study14 were
overwhelmingly positive in favour of investment in biogas plants. Ascribing cash value
to dung fuel, manure and cowdung, the ICAR study found the NPVs, in all the 18
casesunder consideration, positive for all sizes of biogas unit. The report also analysed
the private cost-benefit of a biogas unit from the farmer’s point of view, in which the
additional comforts and the saving of fuel costs from the use of gas were non-monetized. The study concluded that, “from the individual farmers’s point of view also, the
cowdung gas plant is an economically viable proposition.”
Si.r~hi~~ one of the authors of the ICAR report, further extended the analysis to
observe that the commercial benefit-cost ratio (at 10 per cent rate of interest) for a 70
cu ft plant was estimated to be 1.388 for North India and 1.504 for South India.
However, considering the partly monetized benefit cost ratio, he concluded “that the
monetized benefits of the gobar gas plant are not sufficient to cover the cost of gobar
gasplant in the longrun.”
Sanghi and Day l6 did a cost-benefit analysis by separately evaluating benefits
in terms of coal and electricity (both subsidized and non-subsidized). They concluded
that “the monetary benefits do not outweigh the cost incurred by an individual household that constructs a 100 cu ft plant.” However, they were emphatic to mention that
if all the indirect social benefits could be quantified and taken into account, benefits
would outweigh costs.
13 C.R. Prasad, K.K. Prasad and A.K.N. Reddy, “Biogas plants: prospects, problems and tasks”, Economic and
Political Weekly, vol. IX, Nos. 32-34, August 1974.
l4 Indian Council of Agricultural Research, The Economics
1976).
of Cowdung Gus Plants:
A Report (Delhi, ICAR,
15 A.S. Sirohi, “Economics of gobar gas plant”, National Symposium on Biogas Technology and Usage, Delhi,November 1977.
16 A.K. Sanghi and Dekle Day, “A cost-benefit of biogas production in rural India: some policy issues”. in
N. Lock Heretz (ed),Proceedings of the Conference on Energy 2nd Agriculture (New York, Academic Press, 1977).
46
Bhavani17 published a detailed social cost-benefit study of the small 2 cu m
plant. She listed the outputs of fuel and manure as benefits and the capital and operating (including the opportunity cost of dung in terms of nutrient content of FYM) as
costs. Biogas was valued in terms of soft-coke. An important point made in this study
was that th.e results of such analysis were contingent on the previous uses of the raw
materials. Bhavani analysed three alternatives for previous use of dung: one third fuel
and two thirds manure, all manure and all fuel. The results of the analysis indicated
that if any of the dung was used previously for fuel the use of a biogas plant was costeffective. Yet, if all the dung was used previously for manure the benefit-cost ratios
were found to be lower than with other alternatives.
Bhatia18 made a significant contribution in the cost-benefit analysis of biogas
plants in India by providing an outline of the range of costs and benefits to be considered and how they should or should not be included in an analysis. He also provided
an illustration of how different uses of the products from biogas plants could vary
in value. In his analysis, Bhatia reviewed a long list of primary and secondary benefits
and direct and indirect costs of installing small biogas plants. He assumed 20 years
plant’s life and valued gas for lighting as kerosene equivalent and for cooking as softcoke equivalent. He chose two cases for the value of manure: the same nutrient content as compost and a value greater than compost. With all these estimates, Bhatia
found that the benefit-cost retios for a 70 cu ft plant at a social rate of discount of
10 per cent were less than 1. At a reduction of 30 per cent in investment cost this
became 1.33 for the case where additional value of manure was assumed and. 20 cu
ft gas used for lighting and the remaining 5O.c~ ft used for cooking. Bhatia made two
significant observations in his analysis. He concluded, for example, that the investment
in a biogas unit would “continue to be socially unprofitable if gas is mainly consumed
for cooking purposes.” Secondly, on the basis of some specific assumptions he also
found that the investment in a biogas unit to run an irrigation pump was not economic
from the point of view of the society. However, he concluded that the profitability
of biogas units could improve if gas was utilized both for cooking as well as for powering other machines.
Ghatelg analysed the advantages of large-size, community biogas plants over
smaller, family-size plants. Based on the ongoing experimental data on two pilot large,
community-size plants (35 cu m and 45 cu m) in Uttar Pradesh, Ghate observed that
“biogas based energy system is socially profitable when credit is taken for uses other
than cooking and lighting.” Following Bhatia, Ghate valued biogas is soft-coke equivalent for cooking and kerosene or electriciey equivalent for lighting, i.e. without considering any credit for the manurial value. It turned out in the analysis tha.t the direct gas
lighting alternative was socially more profitable than the use of a generator. He, how17 S. Bhavani, “Biogas for fuel and fertilizer in rural India: a social benefit cost analysis”, Indian Journal of
Agricultural Economics, vol. 3 1, July-September 1976.
18 Ramesh Bhatia, foe. cit.
19 P.B. Ghate, “Biogas: a decentralized energy system: a pilot investigation project”, Economic and Political
Weekly (Bombay), vol. XIV, No. 27, July 1979.
47
ever, rightly cautioned about the unreliability of the assumptions fcr much of the data
used in the analysis.
In her recent study, Susan Deo2’ observed that the costs and benefits of community biogas plants were more consistently favourable than those of individual plants.
Economies of size were substantial. She concluded that, “if the societal benefits,
including improved health, less strain on dwindling forest resources and increased local
and national energy self-sufficiency, were also incorporated the value of benefits might
surpass costs in even the more questionable cases.”
In, two recent studies by Dandekar” and Kelkar, Malhans and Sanghera,
several social economic and cultural problems were evaluated in relation to popularization of niogas plants in rural India, with special reference to the fixed-dome Janata
plant. These two studies were important in the sense that they gave insight into the
socio-cultural factors that contributed to non-adoption of biogas plants at the village
level.
A comparative review of the above mentioned studies via-a-v& the cost benefit
analysis presented here clearly indicates that the profitability of biogas plants was
crucially dependent on the various assumption of estimates of costs and benefits. However, all these studies seemed to confirm that inspite of various bottlenecks and substantiai room for technical improvements, the investment in biogas plants even at the
present level of technology was largely viable and attractive.
II.
SOME METHODOLOGICAL
PROBLEMS
Some basic conceptual as well as theoretical problems arise in the application of
conventional cost-benefit analysis to renewable sources of energy like biogas systems,
as is evident from the empirical analysis above. In comparison, many of these problems
are either non-existent or are easier to solve in the caseof alternative conventional nonrenewable sources of energy, such as electricity generation and petroleum oil production.
Basically, the problems arise as the cost-benefit analysis is based on limited
information to make predictions about the future. Any energy project and for that
matter any project, involves one or more outputs and a whole series of inputs. Hence,
the result of a cost-benefit analysis of a project is entirely dependent on the accuracy
of a stream of calculations based on projected physical quantities and prices. It is unwise to rely excessively on the reasoning that overestimates in one place will be balanced by underestimates in another. For, there are variations in the importance of
some variables in influencing the ultimate results. This means that the result of cost20 Susan Ruth Rothrock deo, op. cit.
21 H. Dandekar, “Gobar gas plants: how appropriate are they”, Economic and Political Weekly (Bombay), vol.
XV, No. 20, May 1980.
22 G. Kelkar, N. Malhans and J. Sanghera, “Showpice of Saidqpura”. Economic and Political Weekly (Bombay), vol. 16, No. 9, February 1981.
48
benefit analysis is limited to the extent of reliability of available information, particul.arly about the key variables. While working on cost-benefit analysis of a project on
-..
.
^ .
,.,“hl-- ‘cl
th
renewaulc
energy
sources like biogas plants, one reels more consirameu-I \i;iLli
Llle prnblems of accurate measurements of inputs and output than in the case.of a project on
non-renewable conventional energy sources like, say, thermal power stations. Comparatively speaking the problems of measurement of cost and revenue streams are of lesser
magnitude in the case of conventional non-renewable energy sources simply because
of the long tradition of experience in this sector providing a reliable basis of past
trends under varying regional conditions and the far more advanced technological
development aiding in reliable quantification of data based on technical judgement.
A. TECHNOLOGICAL
DATA GAP
As noted earlier, many crucial technical data about the operation of biogas
systems are yet to be standardized beyond any doubt. To illustrate, no clear scientific
results are confirmed yet about the quality and quantity of digested manure from
biogas systems as compared with compost or farm-yard-manure (FYM). It is claimed
by KVIC23 and ICARX that the “manure obtained from a gas plant is about 45 per
cent more in quantity” and contains “nearly twice as much N as compared with
FYM per unit weight of dry matter.” These claims have been equally forcefully contested: Sanghi and Day,X for example, have referred to the results of tests reported
by Hart, which clearly indicates that the total nitrogen content of the dung does not
change during digestion, even though there is a qualitative change in nitrogen.
The quality and rate of production of both digested manure and gas are affected
significantly by various factors, such as, the composition of feeding materials used and
its quality, the weather and temperature. Although ICAR and KVIC provide some
average estimates, they do not take into account the wide-ranging situational variations.
As a result, any calculations done on the basis of the above mentioned available
estimates remain merely a “second best” assumption in the absence of accurate and
propery quantified scientific information.
As compared to the biogas system, the technical data on inputs and outputs of
non-renewable energy sources are fairly standardized technologically. Also they are not
affected by varieties of largely uncontrollable extraneous. factors as is the case of
renewable sources of energy. Hence, to the extent the data on non-renewable sources
of energy are technologicaily standardized with less margin of variations, its costbenefit analysis is easier for predicting more reliable results.
23 Khadi and Viage Industries Commission, op. cit.
24 Indian Council of Agricultural Research, op. cit.
25
AX.
Sanghi and Dekle Day, op. cit.
49
B. ECONOMIC
LIFE
A problem which often causes concern is the question of how to calculate the
economic life of a project, particularly in relation to renewable energy projects due to
lack of data under varying conditions. Although KVIC claims the economic life of a
biogas plant is of the order of 40 years, the field observations of various researchers
(e.g. Moulik and Bhatia) differ. The same is true concerning the timing of repair and
the replacement of various components of the biogas plant. This variation has a definite bearing on the results of any economic and financial analysis.
A project on non-renewable energy sources is usually made up of sophisticated
engineering machinery, high value capital items. The economic life is simply determined at a point when borrowing money to replace it is cheaper than repairing it. As
the sophisticated engineering machinery is widely used all over the world, there are
sufficient data available to determine the point at which it becomes cheaper to replace
equipment. However, even in this case the calculation of the economic life is becoming
increasingly difficult because of the obsolescence of the old technologies by rapid
technological change.
C. DECENTRALIZED
VERSUS CENTRALIZED
SYSTEM
Unlike the non-renewable energy sources (e.g. thermal power), which are basicalIy a centralized operational units, the renewable sources of energy (e.g. biogas plants)
are operated, by and large, at a decentralized level. Thus, assuming that there is no
bottleneck on the supply side of the inputs, it is easy to estimate on the basis of technical and cost information, the input-output parameters of a non-renewable source of
energy and its capacity in a fairly controlled manner. In the case of, say, a biogas plant
owned by a villager, the input-output parameters will depend largely on the kinds of
food eaten by his animals and their age, size and general health; whether latrines are
connected with the plant; whether agricultural waste is used; the handling practices of
collection of feed-stock of digesters and biogas slurry; and lastly the operating conditions and practices followed by the owner of the biogas plant. Since it is difficult to
predict accurately the supply-response factors in such uncontrolled decentralized
operations, the input-output parameters are usually estimated at the ideal experimental
conditions, which most often are far away from the actual field situations.
Thus, for a renewable energy source like a biogas unit, the results of cost-benefit
analysis tend to be more based on controlled ideal conditions than those that can be
obtained in the real field situations.
D. PRICING
Like the quantification of physical input and output, the quantification of prices
needs to be based on accurate prediction in order to work out a realistic cost-benefit
analysis of a project. It is on this question of pricing, that those concerned with renewable energy sources face the most crucial and major problems. Interestingly, by its
very technological nature, the problem of pricing in the case of non-renewable sources
50
of energy is relatively more difficult
seemingly insurmountable issues.
for both inputs and outputs. ‘1”ltre are various
In doing financial analysis, for example, which is mainly concerned with the
profitability of a project at market prices, one will take into account domestic market
prices. There are two broad questions to be resolved in relation to the domestic market
prices. First, whether the project itself is likely to have an impact on prices and if so,
how does one take it into account. Secondly, there are likely to be price movements
in the future under the influence of various extraneous factors. This is a question of
price forecasting, in which the problem of inflation is one aspect since one would
like to know how prices of inputs and outputs are likely to change relative to each
other in relation to some base year.
In the case of economic analysis, one is concerned with that set of prices which
best reflects “net efficiency” benefits to the nation. In a broader sense, the “efficiency” measure of a project output is related to the question of its contribution
(actual or potential) to foreign exchange earnings (import or export). Likewise, the
opportunity cost of any project input is concerned with its contribution to or claim on
foreign exchange. In other words, for economic analysis, the world price rather than
the domestic market price becomes relevant.
Within this broad framework of price-related issues, the most immediate and
crucial problem with the cost-benefit analysis of renewable energy sources like a biogas
system (in relation to both production and use) is the fact that in a large part of the
rural areas in a country like India, there are no organized and stable markets for the
major inputs (animal and plant waste) or outputs (biogas and digested manure). In
other words, this is a typical problem of non-traded items, which also includes labour,
partica!ar!y , unskihed labour. As mentioned earlier, in most Indian rural areas the
inputs and outputs of a biogas plant, cowdung, plant waste, manure and cooking fuel,
are obtained at zero private cost. Thus the perceived opportunity cost of these inputs
and outputs for an Indian villager may be zero, while from the nation’s point of view
it could be substantial depending upon the way in which they are considered, such as,
saving of commercial energy, of plant nutrients, of forests and also of foreign exchange.
Almost the same question arises about the valuation of the unskilled labour
which again in the labour-surplus sit,uation of Indian villages has zero opportunity cost.
Yet, in principle, the economic cost of employing labour in the cost-benefit analysis
is most often taken as the foreign exchange equivalent of labour consumption.
In short, the problem of pricing inputs and outputs in the renewable energy
sources like biogas systems is more acute than in the case of non-renewable energy
sources, like, a thermal power station, due to the preponderance of non-traded items.
It is a complex question of rational and relevant estimates of “shadow prices” for most
of the inputs and outputs. It must, however, be pointed out that the use of world
prices as “shadow prices” in the new social cost-benefit analysis (SCBA), brings the
51
considerations of trade efficiency and distribution
critical questions just as it answers many others.
E. SECONDARY
to the forefront,
raising many
COSTS AND BENEFITS
Tracing through the various secondary costs and benefits of a project, irrespective of whether it is in the field of renewable or non-renewable sources of energy, is
often exceedingly difficult. The problem is often ins-urmountable if one wants to
quantify them for inclusion in the cost-benefit streams of the project. What is involved
is the total imp-act of the project on the economy which cannot be readily identified
and easily priced. To illustrate, the impact of an energy project on the generation of
extra employment in the service sector, on the quality of life and environment, on the
current distribution of personal incomes and on the foreign exchange situation, are
important parameters for social cost-benefit analysis. Yet, in actual practice it becomes
extremely difficult to obtain reliable quantified estimates.
In case of biogas units, for example, there are a number of indirect benefits one
can identify, such as, improving environmental pollution and hygienic conditions,
saving forests by preventing indiscriminate felling of firewood, preventing erosion and
flood, making available pollution-free energy, making cooking more convenient and
less laborious, saving the economic life of cooking utensils and reducing the uncertainty of commercial fuel supply. Ideally, a special premium should be attached to such
benefits in cost-benefit analysis.
Similarly, on the cost side, there are indirect cost elements like the cost of benefiting the rich farmers and thereby increasing the income disparity, the likely cost of
depriving the landless labourers and poorer-sections from the availability of cowdung
and employment in collection of cowdung. These are broad social costs which would
vary between regions. Again, for SCBA, these costs in quantified terms should ideally
be incorporated.
Because of the lack of data, many of these indirect costs and benefits are ignored
in the conventional cost-benefit analysis. This is perhaps one of the problems which is
encountered almost with equal degrees of difficulty both in the case of renewable and
non-renewable sources of energy.
F. RISK AND UNCERTAINTY
In many cost-benefit analysis exercises, often a single estimate of NPV or IRR is
presented on the basis of which an “accept-reject” decision has to be made. One must
bear in mind that this estimate of NPV or IRR is only one value amongst all possible
values of outcomes. It is obvious, therefore, that some outcomes are more likely than
others, given a particular set of assumption and estimates of variates entering the
calculation of NPV. Thus, there is an implicit risk of reaching a particular outcome in
cost-benefit analysis, which is formally known as “quantifiable uncertainty”. Since the
critical parameters of a project on energy sources, particularly renewable sources, are
widely varying and are often estimated on the basis of some assumptions rather than
52
empirical-evidence, it is perhaps imperative to present a probability distribution of
outcomes, P (NPV), rather than a single point estimates of profitability, in which the
variables assume various values.
G. MULTIPLE
USES OF OUTPUT
Any project on energy sources, be it renewable or non-renewable, has the potentiality of its energy output being used for multiple purposes. This means apportioning
the evailable energy for using it into the best possible combination of functions in
order to maximize benefits. For a biogas plant, for example, depending on the size
of the plant, biogas can be used for cooking, lighting, operating irrigation pumps and
for generating power for, say, running various small industries. The same is true for
commercial non-renewable sources of energy. This point is often overlooked. For a
realistic cost-benefit analysis, however, the patterns of potential multiple use of energy
output should be assessedand alternative possibilities generated.
III.
SOME APPROACHES TO METHODOLOGICAL
PROBLEMS
The methodological problems of cost-benefit analysis as outlined above encounter varying degrees of difficulties to solve. Some of them require more research in
order to generate reliable data, while others can be reasonably solved with the help
of the existing state of knowledge and data. What follows are some suggested approaches to solving scientifically the methodological problems of cost-benefit analysis
related to renewable sources of energy, particularly biogas system. It must be noted,
however, that similar approaches are equally applicable to non-renewable energy
sources.
A. TECHNOLOGICAL
DATA GAP
As referred to earlier, there are conflicting claims about the quality and quantity
of gas and digested manure production from biogas plants. In addition, there is still
some confusion about the calorific value of biogas and cowdung cake. As a result,
various estimates of values of these important parameters are used in different studies.
Similarly, the knowledge about the quantified estimates of various social and economic
impacts of biogas units is limited.
it is not that there are no data or estimates available for the many variables
mentioned, but that there is confusion about the authenticity and source of such
estimates. Given the varying experimental and field conditions in a decentralized
technology system this is not totally unexpected. What is necessary is to co-ordinate
and generate sufficient reliable data on the relevant variables by setting up carefully
planned experiments in the fieid under varying conditions. For secondary costs and
benefits, however, it is necessary to trace through the impact over a period of time in
different field conditions.
Until such time as reliable technological data become available, one of the following approaches could be used by the analysts:
53
(a) Work o:*t separate cost-benefit analysis with all available alternative estimates of the technologica! data or even with some reasonable hypothetical data. To
illustrate, Bhatia did the analysis separately: first assuming that there was no significant
additional benefit in terms of quantity and quality of digested manure from a biogas
plant; secondly, by ~SJUIII~II~
_--_.- ‘--- ~1.
-A A*L~I~L
ant: increase in digested manure was 46 per cerli--(i.e..
taking the KVIC estimate) and the nitrogen content of the digested manure was 1.6 per
cent as compared to 1 per cent in compost manure.
(b) In the case where there are various conflicting estimates available for a
particuiar variabie, as in the case of calorific value of biogas, then one may do the
analysis taking the average value. Bhavani, for example, used the median value (112
kil/cu ft) of a range of calorific values of biogas reported by Sathianathan.
B. ECONOMIC LIFE OF BIOGAS PLANTS
Bhatia, for example, assumed a 20-year plant life, while KVIC claimed 40 years
and Moulik et al assumed 30 years. Again, given the effects of varying tt.xternal conditions in which biogas plants are installed and operated, it is difficult to establish an
accurate and consistent life of plant and equipment. One way to tackle this problem is
to take the estimates of life of plant and equipment as observed under different conditions and then work out cost-benefit analysis separately for each assumption. A more
prudent approach would be to use different rates of discount rate. In fact, if the set
of discount rates used is realistic, it will make little difference to the net economic
profitability with varying assmmptions of economic life of the plant. The only caution
one has to keep in mind in the last approach is the fact that iower discount rates, the
results of the cost-benefit analysis will be more sensitive to the changes in the estimates
of economic life.
C. PRICING
First is the problem of inflation. The crucial question here is whether the cost
and benefit streams are given in current prices while discounting the net cash flow of
a project. One way to tackle this problem is to estimate the rate of inflation and then
add it to the relevant discount rate. Here the assumption is that a particular rate of
inflation affects the cost and revenue of a project identically, which is hardly the case
in a real situation. It is therefore a general and preferred practice to express all prices
in constant terms for the purposes of financial analysis with domestic market prices.
Likely movements in constant prices over time can then be determined by analysing
the trend data. The most widely used prediction technique in this regard is the simple
regression analysis with the historical time series data on prices. In other words, there
are statistical techniques available which can solve even more complex problems encountered in price forecasting, which can be worked out by the statistician. What is,
however, suggested here is that the key task of a project analyst is to properly utilize
these statistical techniques for improving the financing analysis of a project.
54
Secondly, a more serious pricing problem is encountered in the case of economic
analysis wherein it is now broadly accepted that the input and output prices of a project should be set in relation to their contribution to or claim on foreign exchange. In
other words, the analysis of economic profitability is increasingly understood in relation to world price-relations rather than domestic price-relations indicating trade
efficiency against which actual investment performance should be measured. In operational terms, this means the use of the shadow exchange rate (SER) to value the
foreign exchange equivalent of the input and output prices expressed in home currency. SER is broadiy that rate of exchange which accurately reflects the worth of an
extra dollar in terms of one’s own currency.
In determining the shadow prices, inputs and outputs need to be broken down
into traded, potentially traded, and non-traded goods and basic factors of production
including labour (both skilled and unskilled). Most projects will have these three types
of goods in their input-output stream. In the case of a biogas plant in India, for example, inputs like cement, steel and bricks are easily recognised as the traded goods,
whereas cowdung as input and digested manure as output can be treated at best as
potentially traded goods. The agricultural wastes, if used as input, and biogas output
are non-traded goods.
The practical difficulties encountered in setting the price for all the three categories of inputs and outputs can be illustrated, beginning with the case of traded
goods. Traded goods are defined using the principle that the opportunity cost of any
commodity, as long as it can be traded under present or predicted future conditions,
is its border price. The difficulty in valuation of traded goods is solved by various
methodological approaches:
(a) If the input or output is actually to be purchased from or sold abroad,
price data can be obtained directly from the foreign supplier or buyer;
(b) If the input or output is domestically purchased or sold and a perfectly
similar traded item cannot be found in the domestic markets, a useful approximation
is to take the border price of the nearest equivalent traded goods and multiply it by
the ratio of the domestic price of the home variety to the domestic price of the imported variety;
(c) Where there is a wide gap between the f.o.b. (export) and c.i.f. (import)
prices of a commodity, a convenient shortcut is to take an average of f.o.b. and c.i.f.
prices;
(d) In dealing with the problems of tariffs, taxes and subsidies of traded
goods, the most common practice preferred is to use accounting ratios (AR) following
World Bank conventions.X
Various methods have been applied in the different studies cited to estimate the
price of traded goods in relation to biogas units. In the present case study on the
26 M.F.G. Scott, J. MacArthur and D.M.G. Newbery,Project Appraisal in Practice: The Little-Mirrlees Method
Applied in Kenya (London Heinemann, 1976).
55
Indian biogas system, for example, the land, labour and capital costs are taken directly
from the KVIC estimates, which seem to be based on prevalent ( 1975) domestic prices
and therefore not adjusted to foreign exchange equivalents at future time periods.
Bhatia estimated in 1977 the price of cement and steel by giving a 20 per cent premium on market price, but at the same time suggesting a method of calculating the
true shadow price of the two traded goods, cement and steel, by taking the f.o.b. price
adjusted for a premium on foreign exchange and adding to it the transport and distribution costs. In the same study Bhatia used a zero “shadow wage rate” for unskilled
lnhnllr
* ---...
*, the
-ma- exiptipu
*‘_.%..,__ =a market
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-- -------,
cost
fcr
land required for installing biogas units. Verma, however? in 1976 included the cost of
lonrl
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at
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thP
. ..L..
markpt
a..-aaa--
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9~
UY
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the
iand.
The valuation of potentially traded goods depends on the view taken as to how
the situation will hold in future. In general, the potentially traded goods should be
treated as fully traded goods if there is any indication that they will develop into this
category in the foreseeable future, or as non-traded goods if the opposite is the case. It
is with this consideration in mind that most of the cost-benefit analysis studies on
biogas plants have so far considered cowdung and digested manure from biogas units as
potentially traded goods. In the case of cowdung as an input to a biogas unit, the
opportunity cost is taken to be its use as FYM and/or dung-cake as fuel. With the slowly developing market for FYM and dungcake (in fact, this trend can already be observed in many parts of India, particularly, ir I view of the green revolution), one may
value cowdung by some local market price of FYM and cowdung cake. This was the
approach used in the present case study on Indian biogas plants. A still better approach
is to value the opportunity cost of cowdung in terms of plant nutrient contents (NPK)
of FYM. Bhavani used this method and ana!jrsed three alternatives for previous use of
cowdung: one third fuel and two thirds manure, all manure and all fuel. She used the
same approach in valuing digested manure from a biogas plant assuming increases in
nutrient contents. Many other studies (ICAR; Prasad, Prasad and Reddy; and Bhatia)
used a similar approach. The important merit of this methodological approach is that
such valuation can easily be converted into a foreign exchange equivalent of commercial fertilizers and therefore fulfils the criterion of the trade efficiency of the economic
analysis as discussed earlier.
Lastly, concerning the valuation of non-traded goods, that is, those goods which
do not enter into trade by their very nature, a useful approach could be to work out
a long-term average AR for non-traded goods and then determine a suitable range of
AR values sensitive to cost-benefit analysis. In the case of a biogas plant, the nontraded goods to be considered is biogas. It has been argued that the value of biogas is
best determined by using the market price of an equivalent amount of the next best
alternative fuel. The difficulty arises because of the differing views about the next
best aite~lat~~e fuel. Many studies (e.g. iCAR; rv:--.l’l,-1 @----,L--.-.
UUI~
~IIU
JIIV~JL~V~,
anu2 l-b-L,.L\
~~I~IIJ -.--_1
ubtx
the kerosene equivalent price of biogas, while an earlier case study and Susan Deo
calculated the value of biogas in terms of firewood equivalent. Bhavani and Bhatia
valued biogas in terms of soft coke, while Prasad, Prasad and Reddy used electricity
equivaient prices of biogas. For macro ievei nationai pianning, it is quite reasonabie
56
to use soft coke or electricity equivalent values of biogas, but from the villagers’ point
of view at micro level such valuation perhaps has no direct relevance. The major
sources of domestic fuel in rural India still remain to be dung cake, agricultural waste,
firewood and kerosene. Thus, there is the divergence of interests and perceptions
between the micro level villagers (beneficiaries) and the macro level planners. The
task becomes still more difficult owing to extreme variation among the villages in
relation to available energy sources and use patterns. The best methodological a.ppreach, therefore, could be to work out independent cost-benefit analysis taking all
possible alternative fuels’ equivalent values as a pricing mechanism for biogas and using
the one relevant to a specific region or villages suited to its available energy resource
position and use pattern.
D. MULTIPLE
USE AND COST-BENEFIT
ANALYSIS
The problems are directly related to the size of the plant or more specifically to larger than family-size plants. Very few studies have been done on biogas plants
wherein the use of biogas is assumed to be for multiple functions, such as, cooking,
lighting and generating power. Bhatia did a fairly detailed analysis for 70 cu ft and 105
cu ft per day size plants assuming various proportions of biogas being used for cooking
and lighting. In a recent study by Susan Deo an interesting analysis was done by working out a total energy demand of a hypothetical village in relation to cooking, pumping
water, lighting homes and industry. Taking the estimate of total energy demand of a
village, she worked out the sizes most appropriate for the village and the cost-benefit
ratios for combinations of community biogas systems. There is hardly any difference
in methodologies for cost-benefit analysis of such systems except the higher capital and
distribution costs. It is necessary to work out the basic parameters of cost-benefit
analysis for such a large syst em based on direct observations under varying field conditions.
E. INDIRECT
COSTS AND BENEFITS
The data required to predict various indirect costs and benefits, which is conventionally termed as secondary costs and benefits, particularly those related to social or
welfare parameters, are formidable to collect. It is essentially a methodological problem of quantification of such data, which can either be collected over a period of time
under fairly controlled conditions or at best can be hypothetical estimates. To illustrate, the effects of biogas plants constituting secondary costs and benefits would
require baseline data against which the effects are to be measured and quantified. Even
then, these quantified effects would have to be statistically explained in terms of the
contribution due to biogas plants. Not that this is methodologically impossible, but the
task is enormous and therefore in most analyses so far the substitution possibilities of
these parameters are ignored. However, Prasad, Prasad and Reddy reported some of
these secondary benefits in evaluating biogas plants versus rural electrification to meet
the rural energy demand for cooking, irrigation pumping, industries and lighting. They
estimated that a 5000 cu ft per day biogas plant would have an extra benefit stream of
22 tons of additional foodgrain from 4.4 tons of nitrogen, a foreign exchange saving
57
on 2 tons of naphtha for fertilizers, and a reduction of deforestation saving 0.4 acres
forest per year.
In view of the reservation about the reliable estimates of variious secondary costs
and benefits, it is methodologically prudent to concentrate solely on those parameters
for which a reliable set of quantified estimates a.re available. However, conscious
efforts need to be made to carry out a comprehensive survey of villages and regions
over a period of time where biogas plants have been installed in order to generate
reliable estimates of secondary costs and benefits. Short of this survey, there cannot be
any other alternative approach to tackle this particular methodological problems of
social cost-benefit analysis.
F. CHOICE UNDER RISK AND UNCERTAINTY
All the above-mentioned alternative methodological approaches lead us to the
problem of the probability of a particular outcome of cost-benefit analysis under &ifferent assumptions, to the problems of choice under risk and uncertainty. The calculations of cost-benefit analysis, or more precisely the values of NPV or IRR, depend
iargely on various assumptions under which the estimates of inputs and outputs are
quantified. Given the nature of the project, particularly for a project like a biogas plant
the operational parameters of which vary widely under equally varying exogenous
factors, the assumptions and estimates are bound to vary. One of the most commonly
used methodological approach to tackle this problem is sensitivity analysis, through
essentially varying key parameter values, preferably one at a time but sometimes in
combination, and then calculating a large number of NPVs. One can then assessthe
effect of changes in parameters on the central tendency estimate of profitability of
the project. The decision rule for such analysis is to use the mean expected value as a
criterion of central tendency of the probability distribution of NPV, that is, P(NPV),
for project evaluation.
The application of sensitivity anaiysis in the case of cost-benefit analysis of biogas plants can be illustrated from almost all the studies cited. The resulting NPVs
taking various fuel equivalent values of biogas, different depreciation rates, sizes of
plants, different valuations on inputs and outputs, and considerations of costs with
and without subsidy, are some examples of such attempts.
IV.
CONCLUSION
In the foregoing analysis several conceptual and methodological issues have been
raised about the cost-benefit studies of biogas plants as an alternative source of energy.
Given the energy crisis these issues assume added relevance and importance, particularly for the net oil-importing third world countries. Under the circumstances, for most of
the third world developing countries, the biogas technology appears to offer a logical
alternative source of energy with considerable potential since both a more efficient
fuel and a good quality organic fertilizer can be obtained from the system.
.
58
The results of various cost-benefit studies and the arguments presented earlier
have suggested that the case for investment in biogas plant lies, in general, in the
probable private profitability. Also, from the point of view of social benefit-cost,
biogas plants seem to be an even more attractive and viable investment, given the
import content and the general scarcity of fertilizers and commercial energy. However,
there has been a strong indication of substantial economies of size of biogas plants
when comparing the large plants with the smaller, family-size ones.
The enormous difficulty in quantifying all the benefits of a biogas system is
amply demonstrated in the foregoing analysis. Since there is hardly any direct cash
flow of benefits, it is difficult for many, particularly, the villagers, to see the advantages of installing biogas plants.In spite of this difficulty, it is shown in the present
study how reasonable attempts can be made at quantifying the major benefits, with
particular reference to the micro-level individual villager’s point of view. However, the
difficulty for quantification of benefits increases many times when one attempts to
quantify macro-level societal benefits of biogas system, such as, improved health and
sanitation, prevention of deforestation, improved soil structure and agricultural production due to additional use of digested manure, increased local and national energy
self-sufficiency leading to saving of scarce foreign exchange, increased female labour
efficiency etc. From the national point of view, these long-term, macro-level benefits
are crucially important in determining national plan priorities. The present study
concluded that if all the societal benefits are incorporated in the cost-benefit analysis,
even the most questionable cases for investment in biogas plants will become viable.
Considering such possibilities, both micro- and macro-level analyses are highly useful
in order to determine the private as well as the social profitability of biogas plants.
One of the critical aspects for evaluating the potentiality of biogas plants is the
appropriate uses for biogas. Since fuel for cooking is by far the greatest demand for
energy in rural India, and the fact that the use of biogas for cooking immediately
replaces cowdung cake and firewood, the two most important fuels used for cooking,
and having a more profitable and worthwhile alternative use, many cost-benefit studies
have considered the use of biogas mainly for the purpose of cooking. This is quite
logical and appropriate. However, various studies referred to in the report have clearly
demonstrated other more profitable uses of biogas energy such as, running engines,
pumping water and powering small-scale industrial operations. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that the optimum use of a biogas system should be a package of
multiple functions like cooking, pumping water, lighting, powering industrial operations etc. rather than simply cooking.
The present study also brings out various methodological uncertainties and
limitations of cost-benefit analysis of biogas systems. It is, therefore, suggested that the
resuits oi‘ iiie cost-benefit ~iiEdjf%iS siimiid be used with caution for taking investment
decisions for postponement or rejection of biogas programmes until priorities are
sorted out, and various uncertainties and limitations are overcome. Keeping these
limitations in mind, the study concluded with some suggestions for some methodological improvements of cost-benefit analysis and some future research needs.
59
It would be worthwhile briefly to recapitulate here some of the suggested future
research needs which have larger policy implications for third world countries.
First, it has been consistently and clearly established that there is a scale economy for biogas plant sizes indicating popularization of large, communitysize plants.
This. calls for setting up a number of pilot community plants under varying conditions
and then comparing them more accurately with those of the family plants. Also, it is
in these pilot projects, the management and organizational parameters of the community plants are to be worked out.27
Secondly, irrespective of large or small biogas plants, there is a clear and urgent
need to conduct field experinrents under varying conditions and regions in order to
standardize or to arrive at realistic values of input and output parameters of biogas
system. These field experiments should take into consideration alternative biogas
technologies (e.g. KVIC and Chinese-type Janata models), use of different types of
raw materials, various combinations of biogas use patterns, different plant size, different management and organizational patterns for community plants etc. It is through
these field experiments under varying conditions that appropriate designs’and distribution systems can be developed apart from realistically establishing the viability of the
system.
Thirdly, if large-scale adoption of biogas technology is projected in the third
world countries, there has to be a detailed analysis of the nation-wide changes in
resource allocation, as well as, a comparative assessment of various other alternative
energy sources, including a solar system, tidal and wind power, energy from forests,
improving efficiency of burning current fuels etc., is required. A correct analytical
comparison between various alternative energy technologies would provide the basis
for choosing a particular combination of energy technologies suitable for specific communities leading to optimum available resources within the community. In other
words, any future research on biogas technology should be undertaken keeping the
broader objectives of rural development and energy needs in mind in which the biogas
system is merely a part. In this context a most relevant question to be researched is
whether allocating the current construction materials for massive development of
biogas systems is an optimum use. There is, therefore, the urgent necessity for research
on reduction of the use of expensive construction materials, to reduce the cost of biogas plants and to bring them within the economic reach of a wider section of the population than at present. It is in this context, the importance of the Chinese-type Janata
model as compared to the KVIC model needs to be understood.
Lastly, there is an urgent need for a detailed analysis and quantification of the
various secondary costs and benefits related to biogas systems. In fact, there has been
a consensus among all concerned that there are important and significant secondary
benefits both at private and societal levels to the extent that if properly assessedand
27
The Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, has recently sponsored about 20 such
pilot community plants to be set up and studied for three-year period. The present author has taken up 10 of the
20 pilot plants for action research studies. Some analytical results should be available from these pilot plants after
a year.
60
incorporated into the conventional analysis, a biogas system becomes viable even under
seriously questionable assumptions. In spite of consensus about the importance of the
secondary benefits, most of them have so far remained qualitative and unmeasured.
Whatever few attempts were made to quantify these benefits and incorporate them in
the analysis, they were largely based on hypothetical assumptions rather than actual
field observations. The problem of measuring these secondary costs and benefits lies
in the fact that it requires a fairly well-planned time series data on the basis of “before
and after” surveys of the project areas. Such research effort is undoubtedly costly,
but equally invaluable to planners and decision makers. In fact, there has been some
deliberate attempts in China to collect these kinds of data on secondary benefits and
to use them in persuading the villagers to opt for a biogas popularization programme in
the communes.** Similar research efforts are needed in order to measure realistically
all the secondary costs and benefits of biogas systems under varying field conditions.
In conclusion, it must be emphasized again that the major decisions regarding a
future biogas programme in third world countries need not necessarily wait until the
concept and methodology of cost-benefit analysis and its parameters are realistically
developed. Even if there are various limitations, the present stage of analysis does
certainly indicate significant pointers for decision making in relation to the investments
in biogas programmes. While the attempts to overcome the conceptual and methodological limitations continue, it is essential for all nations to make concerted efforts for
collaborative research and development on a long-term basis for mutual sharing of information and experiences related to use of alternative energy technologies, including
biogas technology.
28
TX. Moulik, “Biogas system and rural energy supply”, m
’ the author’s forthcoming book, China After Mao
(Bombay, Somaiya Publications, 1981).
61
ABBREVIATIONS
ADB
AFPRO
AIT
ASEAN
Asian Development Bank
Action for Food Production
Asian Institute of Technology
Association of South-East Asian Nations
BCSIR
BUET
Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology
CIAE
CIDA
CSIR
CSIRO
cuso
Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering
Canadian International Development Agency
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Orgaaation
Canadian University Services Overseas
ESCAP
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
FAO
FCIC
FIE
FIIPHE
FRDI
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Fellow, Chemical Institute of Canada
Fellow, Institution of Engineers
Fellow, Indian Institute of Public Health Engineers
Fellow, Resources Development Institute
IARI
ICAR
IDRC
IIT
Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Indian Council of Agricultural Research
International Development Research Centre
Indian Institute of Technology
KSCST
KVIC
Karnataka State Cotmcil for Science and Technology
Khadi Village Industries Commission
MASE
MIDC
MIE
MIME
MIPE
MISAE
Member,
Member,
Member,
Member,
Member,
Member,
American Society of Engineers
International Dairy Congress (London)
Institution of Engineers
Institute of Military Engineers
Institute of Power Engineering
Indian Society of Agricultural Engineers
63
I
MISCA
MISES
MIWWE
MRIC
MSDT
Member,
Member,
Member,
Member,
Member,
In&an Science Congress Association
International Solar Energy Society
Institute of Water Works Engineers
Royal Institute of Chemistry (London)
Society of Dairy Technology (London)
NDRI
NEA
NIST
NRCP
NSDB
National
National
National
National
National
Dairy Research Institute
Energy Administration
Institute of Science and Technology
Research Council of the Philippines
Science Development Board
PAAS
PPS
PSM
Philippine -4ssociation for Advancement of Science
Philippine Phytopathological Society
Philippine Society for Microbiology
SAR
SATA w
SIDA
SPATF
SPC
SWD
Society for the Advancement of Research
Swiss Association for Technical Assistance
Swedish International Development Agency
South Pacific Appropriate Technology Foundation
South Pacific Commission
Steering Committee on Wind Energy for Developing Countries
TERI
Tata Energy Research Institute
UNDP
UNEP
UNESCO
UNIDO
UPCA
USAID
USP
United Nations Development Programme
United Nations Environment Programme
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
United Nations Industrial Development Organization
University of the Philippines College of Agriculture
United States Agency for International Deveioplment
University of the South Pacific
VITA
Volunteers in Technical Assistance
64
KEY TO NUMBERS IN ENTRIES UNDER EXPERTS AND INSTITUTIONS
Experts
National of
Date of birth
Academic and professional qualifications
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Languages
Employment record
Primary fields
Other fields
Projects
Publications*
Address
Institutions
I. Information on institutions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
c;
V.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
*
Address; phone no.; cable address; telex no.
Established in
Chief executive
Officers concerned
(a) Number of technical staff
(b) Number of digesters constructed/operated
Field station
Formal linkages with other institutions
Nature of work
Fields of work
Services
Training courses
Publications*
Projects
Where publications are included in the bibliography
65
.,)
II.
A.
Information on biogas plants
Digester type and design
1. Gas holder
(a) Fixed
(b)
Movable
(b)
Batch
2. . Digester size (m3 )
3. Materials used in constructing:
(a) Digester body
(b) Gas holder
(c) Inlet
(d) Outlet
B.
Digester feed
1. Type of feed
(a) Continuous
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
”
Feed material most common
Pretreatment and mixing of feed
Daily quantity of feed for continuous digester
Quantity of feed and frequency of feeding for batch type
Water to feed ratio
C.
Use of digester products
1. Quantity of gas
(a) Volume of gas produced/day (m3 )
(b) Main uses
2. Use of effluent and the amount of effluent used in each of the following
purposes:
(a) Direct fertilizer on soil (kg/day)
(b) Composting (kg/day)
(c) Aquaculture (kg/day)
(d) Recycling to digester (kg/day)
(e) Recyciing as feed to animais (kg/day)
(0 Waste (kg/day)
(g) Other applications (kg/day)
3. Effluent treatment for disease control
D.
Other information
1. Cost of the plant in $US
2. Outside average temperature
(a) Summer (“C)
(b)
66
Winter (OC)
3. Position of plant
(b) Sun
(a) Shadow
4. Additional heating of slurry and method used
5. Troubles in digester operation, their sources and methods of overcoming
them
6. Percentage of digesters in operation to the total number of digesters constructed
7. Other comments on design to assist in trouble-free operation of plants
67
EXPERTS
1.
2.
3.
4.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Philippines
Sri Lanka
India
Indonesia
Romeo V. ALICBUSAN
M. AMARATUNGA
Y .P. ANAND
Muchidin APANDI
B
5.
6.
7.
a.
9.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Switzerland
Philippines
India
India
Thailand
Andreas BACHMANN
Julian BANZON
Ajit Kumar BASU
T.D. BISWAS
Piyawat BOON-LONG
C
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
China
China
China
Thailand
China
Malaysia
Bangladesh
Mr. CA0 Guo-Qiang
Mr. CA0 Ze-Xi
Mr. CHAI Chang-Da
Mr. Sompongse CHANTAVORAPAP
Mr. CHEN Sheng-Geng
Mr. CHONG Chok-Ngee
Mr. M. Yusuf CHOWDHURY
D
Thailand
India
India
17. Mrs. Revadee DEEMARK
18. Mr. A.K. DHUSSA
19. Mr. J .A. D’SOUZA
E
20. Mr. Muhammad EUSUF
Bangladesh
F
China
Canada
21. Mr. FENG Wei-Cheng
22. Mr. Nigel FLORIDA
69
.,““
G
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
India
India
India
China
India
Mr. H.P. GARG
Mr. K.V. GOPALAKRISHNAN
Mr. K.P. GOSWAMI
Mr. GU ZhenCang
Mr. Chaman L. GUPTA
H
Japan
C.hina
India
28. Mr. Kiyonori HAGA
29. Ms. HU Li-Na
’ 30. Mr. Ishrat HUSSAIN
I
3 1. Mr. S.G. ILANGANTILEKE
32. Mr. M.M. ISLAM
Sri Lanka
Bangladesh
33.
34.
35.
36.
India
India
India
India
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
R.C. JAIN
SC. JAIN
D.S. JOSH1
Vishnu JOSH1
K
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
India
Nepal
India
Pakistan
Republic of Korea
Thailand
India
Thailand
Mr. Jagdish Chandra KAPUR
Mr. Amrit Bahadur KARKI
Mr. KC. KHANDELWAL
Mr. Ghulam KIBRIA
Mr. Kyun Uk KIM
Mr. Suchart KLINSUWAN
Mr. C.P. KOTHANDARAMAN
Mr. Savang KULAPATRAPA
China
China
China
45. Mr. LI Chang-Sheng
46. Mr. LI Fang-Qiang
47. Mr. LI Niar,-Guo
70
China
China
China
48. Mr. LING Dai-Wen 2
49. Mr. LIU Ke-Xin
50. Mr. LIU Ting-Wei
nn
5 1.
52.
53.
54.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Philippines
China
India
India
Felix D. MARAMBA, Sr.
ME1 He-Xiao
T.K. MOULIK
Raymonds M. MYLES
N
5 5.
56.
57.
58.
Fiji
India
India
Thailand
Mr. Ram Krishnan NAIDU
Mr. V.P. NARAYANASWAMY
Mr. S. NEELAKANTAN
Ms. Watana NOPAKOON
0
Philippines
59. Mr. Enrico D. OBIAS
P
6C.
6 1.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
India
India
India
India
India
China
Thailand
India
Mr. V. PADMANABHAN
Mr. Mohan PARIKH
Mrs. P.P. PARIKH
Mr. G.L. PATANKAR
Mr. T.M. PAUL
Mr. PENG Wu-Hou
Mr. Chongrak POLPRASERT
Mr. G.G. PURI
Q
China
68. Mr. QIAN Ze-Shu
R
Sri Lanka
India
69. Mr. SK. RAJAPAKSE
70. Mr, M.A. Sethu RAO
71
India
-Thailand
China
7 1. Mr. P. Sreenivasa RAO
72. Mr. Sermpol RATASUK
73. Mr. REN Yuan-Cai
S
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
8 1.
82.
83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
91.
92.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
India
India
Pakistan
India
Thailand
Thailand
Indonesia
Australia
United Kingdom
New Zealand
China
Philippines
Thailand
Thailand
India
India
China
China
Thailand
M.A. SATHIANATHAN
B.R. SAUBOLLE, S.J.
Iqbal Hussain SHAH
J.B. SINGH
Ongart SITTHICHAROENCHAI
Pichit SKULBHRAM
Koentoro SOEBIJARSO
Richard K. SOLLY
W. Robert STANTON
D.J. STEWART
SUN GuoChao
Calixto C. TAGANAS
Morakot TANTICHAROEN
Boontham TESNA
Y.R. TIPNIS
Hiroji Narayan TODANKAR
TSE ShuChien
TU Jia-Bao
Somthcp TUMWASORN
W
93.
94.
95.
96.
97.
98.
99.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
China
China
China
Burma
Republic of Korea
China
China
WANG Da-Si
WANG Meng-Jie
WANG Xin-Quan
Myo WIN
Dong Han WOOK
WU Chang-Lun
WU Jin-Peng
X
China
China
100. Ms. XIAO YingChang
10 1. Mr. XU Jie-Quan
72
China
China
China
102. Mr. XU Ke-Nan
103. Mr. XU Yi-Zhong
104. Mr. XU Zeng-Fu
Z
105.
106.
107.
108.
109.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
Mr.
China
China
China
China
China
ZHANG Chang-Ming
ZHANG Guo-Zheng
ZHANG Wei
ZHOU Meng-Jin
ZOU Yuan-Liang
ADDITIONS
United Kingdom
Pakistan
India
China
India
110. Mr. J.H. FINLAY
110(a). Mr. M. Sohail QURESHI
110(b). Mr. P. RAJABAPAIAH
110(c). Mr. TIAN Feng
110(d). Mr. B.V. UMESH
73
INSTITUTIONS
Bangladesh
111. Bangladesh Agricultural University
112. Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Institute of Fuel Research and Development
China
113. Artificial Biogas Experimental Station, Nanhui County
114. Beijing Academy of Agricultural Scienw; P.esearch Institute for Soil and Fertilizer
115. Chengdu Biogas Research Institute
116. Chengdu Biogas Scientific Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture
117. Chengdu Biological Research institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences
118. Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
119. China Research and Designing Institute of Agricultural Engineering
120. Chongqing Teachers Training College
121. Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences
122. Hangzhou City Biogas Extension Office
123. Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
124. Jiangsu Province Wujin Biogas Research Institute
125. The Office of National Leading Group for Biogas Development, Ministry of
Agriculture
126. Research Institute for Soil and Fertilizer, Academy of Agricultural Science
127. Shandong Province Energy Resource Research Institute
128. Shanghai Institute of Industrial Microbiology
129. Shanghai Science and Technology Association
130. Xinan Teachers Training College, Biogas Research Institute
131. Zhejiang Agricultural University, Laboratory of Soil Microbiology
132. Zhejiang Biogas and Solar Energy Scientific Research Institute
Fiji
133. University of the South Pacific, Institute of Natural Resources
75
134.
135.
136.
137.
138.
139.
140.
141.
142.
143.
144.
145.
146.
147.
148.
149.
150.
15 1.
152.
153.
154.
155.
156.
157.
158.
159.
Action for Food Production (AFPRO)
Agricultural Tools Research Centre
Centre of Science for Villages
Delhi Water Supply and Sewage Disposal Undertaking
Gobar Gas Research and Training Centre
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Division of Soil Science and Agricultural
Chemistry
Indian Institute of Management
Indian Institute of Technology (Bombay)
Indian Institute of Technology (Madras)
Indian Institute of Technology (New Delhi), Centre of Energy Studies
Kapur Solar Farms
Khadi and Village Industries Commission Gobar Gas Research and Development
Centre
L.G. Balakrishnan and Brothers Limited
Maharashtra Gandhi Smarak Nidhi
Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture and Co-operation
Municipal Corporation of Greater Bombay, Dadar Sewage Treatment Plant
National Dairy Research Institute, Indian Council of Agricultural Research
National Institute of Waste Recycling Technology
Orissa Cement Limited
PSG College of Technology
Punjab Agricultural University
Resources Development Institute
Sobic Industrial Consultants
Sri Parasakthi College for Women
Structural Engineering Research Centre
Tata Energy Research Institute, Field Research Unit
Indonesia
160. Development Technology Centre, Institute of Technology Bandung (DTC-ITB)
16 1. Industrial Research Institute, Centre for Chemical Industry.
Japan
162. Ministry of Agriculture,
Husbandry
Forestry and Fisheries, National Institute of Animal
76
Malaysia
163. Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM)
New Zealand
164. Invermay Agricultural Research Centre
Pakistan
165. Appropriate Technology Development Organization, Government of Pakistan
166. Merin Limited
167. Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources, Energy Resources Cell
Philippines
168. Liberty Flour Mills, Inc., Maya Farms Division
169. Ministry of Energy, Centre for Nonconventional Energy Development
170. National Institute of Science and Technology
Republic of Korea
171. Office of Rural Development
Samoa
172. University of the South Pacific, School of Agriculture
Sri Lanka
173. University of Peradeniya, Department of Civil Engineering
Thailand
174.
175.
176.
177.
178.
179.
180.
181.
182.
Asian Institute of Technology (AIT)
Department of Health, Ministry of Public Health
Kasetsart University, Faculty of Agriculture
King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology
Maejo Institute of Agricultural Technology
Mahidol University
Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Department of Agriculture
National Energy Administration
Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research
77
ADDITIONS
India
183. IndiaI; Institute of Science, Centre for the Application of Science and Technol;>gy to Rural Areas (ASTRA)
184. Shri A.M.M. Murugappa Chettiar Research Centre, Photosynthesis and Energy
Division
Nepal
185. Development and Consulting Services
78
1. Mr. Romeo V. ALICBUSAN
1.
Philippines
3.
B.Sc. [Agriculture), M.Sc. (Plant Pathology)
4.
Filipino, English
5.
1972 to-date
Supervising Scientist (1972-l 974) and then Science Research
Supervisor, Microbiological Research Department, National Institute of Science
and Technology, Manila
2. 28 February 1930
1955-197I
Assistant Instructor (1955-l 960), Instructor ( 196 l-l 965) and
then Assistant Professor, University of the Philippines College of Agriculture
6.
Cultivation of edible mushrooms. Biogas production
7.
Fermentation of food products. Alcohol production
8.
Research and development towards establishing mushroom industry in the
Philippines. Biogas production utilizing food wastes (ASEAN)
9.
*
10.
Microbiological Research Department, National Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 774, Pedro Gil Street, Ermita, Manila, Philippines
2. Mr. M. AMARATUNGA
1.
Sri Lanka
3.
B.Sc. (Engineering), Ph.D.; C. Eng., FIE (Sri Lanka)
4.
English, SinhaIese
5.
1963 to-date
Lecturer, Senior Lecturer, Associate Professor and then Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
1968-1969 and 1972-1973 Lecturer in civil engineering, Kingston Polytecnic,
UK
1962-1963
Engineer, Felix J. Samuely & Partners, London
6.
Civil engineering structures. Biogas technology
7.
Low-cost housing. Solar energy
8.
Development of biogas digesters for integrated systems. Development of gas
burners
9.
*
10.
2. 9 February 1936
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri
Lanka
79
3. Mr. YS. ANAND
1.
India
3.
BSc. (Hons.) (Civil Engineering)
4.
English, Hindi, German, Urdu, Punjabi
5.
Assistant Engineer, Executive Engineer, Deputy Director
1957 to-date
(Research), Joint Director (Research), Deputy Chief Engineer (Construction),
Divisional Superintendent, Additional Chief Engineer and then Chief Engineer,
Indian Railway Service of Engineers
Assistant Engineer (Design), PWD, Chandigarh
1956-1957
6.
Railway engineering (track, bridges, structures, management)
7.
Studies in various aspects of energy with special emphasis on solar energy and
bioconversion
8.
Biogas plants for disposal and recycling of domestic and vegetable wastes
9.
Design, instruction sheets and drawings
10.
3 1, N.E. Railway Colony, Gorakhpur 273 00 1, India
4. Mr. Muchidin APANDI
2. 14 January 1927
1.
Indonesia
3.
M.Sc. (Food Technology), Ph.D. (Animal Husbandry)
4.
Indonesian, Dutch, German, English
5.
1975 to-date
Centre, Institute
1967-1975
1955-1967
6.
Animal husbandry. Food technology
7.
Biogas technology
8.
Projects on microbial enzymes for high fructose syrups, alcohol, proteins. Biogas
10.
Development Technology Centre, Institute of Technology Bandung, P.O. Box
276, Bandung, Indonesia
Senior Lecturer and staff member, Development Technology
of Technology Bandung
Senior Lecturer, University Padjadj aran Bandung
Lecturer, Institute of Agriculture, Bogor
80
5. Mr. Andreas BACHMANN
2. 24 February 1946
1.
Switzerland
3.
Dipl. San. Inst.; Member: International Solar Energy Society; Swiss Solar Energy
Society
4.
German, French, English
5.
Advisor. Swiss Association for Technical Assistance (SATA),
1974 to-date
Nepal
Technician, Swiss Association for Technical Assistance (SATA),
1969-1971
Cameroon, Africa
6.
Sanitary installations
7.
Appropriate technology.
energy, biogas
8.
Information dissemination: Biogas Newsletter, Nepal
10.
I
Renewable energy resources for rural areas: s:jlar
c/o Swiss Association for Technical Assistance, P.O. Box 113, Kathmandu,
Nepal
6. Mr. Julian BANZON
2. 25 March 1908
1.
Philippines
3.
Ph.D. (Chemistry)
4.
English, Filipino
5.
1973 to-date
1977 to-date
1959-l 964
1930-l 959 and
Maya Farms Division, Liberty Flour Mills, Inc.
Philippine Coconut Research and Development Foundation
Philippine Atamic Energy Commission
1964-l 973 University of the Philippines
6.
Chemistry. Biochemistry
7.
Fermentative processes
8.
Fermentative/chemicaI processes for energy concentration
10.
University of the Philippines at Los Banos, College, Laguna, Philippines; or c/o
Maya Farms Division, Liberty Flour Mills, Inc., Liberty Building, Pasay Road,
Makati, Metro Manila, Philippines
81
7. Mr. Ajit Kumar BASU
2. 1 January 1932
3.
D.Sc. (University of Liege, Belgium); FCIC, MIIChemF, FIIPHE
4.
English, Spanish, French, Bengali
5.
1956 to-date
Scientist-inCharge, NEERI Zonal Laboratory, Calcutta
Pollution Expert, FAO
Senior Consultant, UNEP Regional Office, Bangkok
Expert (pollution and waste water management), Asian Devel-
opment Bank
.
6.
Treatment of waste water and water pollution
7.
Environmental impact assessment. Air pollution. Solid waste water treatment.
Environmental planning. Teaching environmental studies
8.
Recycling of agricultural wastes, with particular reference to piggery waste water
treatment in the Laguna de Bay, Philippines. A demonstration biogas plant,
constructed with concrete and steel with movable gas holder, continuous feed of
pig manure of 5000 kg per day, 145 m3 of gas produced per day to be used for
heating, cooking and lighting purposes; effluent used for fish culture, algae production and animal feed
9.
About 95 scientific publications
10.
Official: NEERI Zonal Laboratory, 23 R.N. Mukherjee Road, Calcutta-l, India
Residence: 59 Lake Road, Apartment No. 8C (2nd Block), Calcutta 700 029,
India.
Tel: 46-7753,42-4191
8. Mr. T.D. BISWAS
1,
India
3.
MSc., Ph.D.
4.
English, Hindi, Bengali
5.
1946 to-date
Research Assistant (1946-l 956), Assistant Soil Survey Officer
(1956-1958), Soil Scientist (1958-1968), Professor of Soil Science and Agricultural chemistry (1968-1972) and then Head, Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi
6.
Research in soil science (soil physics, soil chemistry, soil genesis, micronutrient)
7.
Biogas technology and usage
2. 3 November 1920
82
8.
Production of fuel gas and mitlure by anaerobic fermentation of agricultural
wastes and other organic materials. Soil productivity and soil physical conditions
as influenced by long term and intensive crop management practices.
9.
*
10.
Division of Soil Science and Agricultural
search Institute, New Delhi 110 012, India
Chemistry, Indian Agricultural
Re-
9. Mr. Piyawat BOON-LONG
2. 1951
1.
Thailand
3.
Ph.D. (Engineering)
4.
Thai, English
5.
Present
Mai
Lecturer, Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Chiang
Visiting Assistant Professor, Kansas State University, USA
6.
Heat transfer. Renewable energy resaurces
8.
Solar-heated biogas digesters
10.
Faculty of Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
10. Mr. CA0 GuoQiang
2. 26 June 1941
1.
China
3.
Graduate, Shanghai Tongji University (specialization in applied mechanics)
4.
English, Chinese
5.
Chengdu Biogas Scientific Research Institute, Ministry of Agri1980 to-date
culture
July - August 1980 FAO Advisor to the Philippines (Middle Lu Song University) for establishment and management of a small-scale biogas plant, with
15 m3 round-shaped water pressure style bio-digester and production capacity
of 0.75 m3 per day.
Sichuan Construction Science and Research institute, Structure
1964-l 979
Department
1977
Biogas digester construction
in Sichuan
1
6.
Designing and conducting experimental research on housing structure including
biogas digester, its design, construction and mtierials; provision of techniques
involving material mechanics, structural mechanics, shell mechanics etc; theory
of elasticity; reinforced concrete; prestressed concrete; knowledge and capability
for initiative in planning and designing various kinds of structure.
83
7.
Further pursuit of experience in construction with regard to biogas plant structure.
8.
Among the important projects completed at Sichuan Construction Science and
Research Institute: improvement in light crane beam; plastic-coated pump for
apertures and its practical application in structures; research test with arched
crane beam; research in hoisting of structure; pdticipation in the compilation of
specifications for reinforced concrete; improvement of factory structure; reports on research on various aspects in the construction of biogas plants, as
follows: (a) synthesis of the techniques of biogas plant construction; (b) synthesis of the conclusions of engineering techniques in biogas plant construction; (c)
publication of rural scientific magazines introducing often used materials in
construction of biogas plants; (d) publication of correspondence and writings on
construction and use of round hydraulic-pressure-type biogas plant; (e) simplified diagram for making biogas plants; (f) research on chemical preparation for
medium-sized medium temperature digester; and (g) research on casing of reinforced concrete with less reinforced steel.
9.
Compilation of Biogas technology study (2nd volume), for publication by
United Nations University and in China. Lectures and teaching materials for the
Joint UNEPChinese State Department Environment Office Study Group on
Biogas in 1979 at Chengdu.
10.
Chengdu Biogas Scientific Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu,
Sichuan, China
11. Mr. CA0 Ze-Xi
1.
China
3.
South-West Airforce Pre-University Contingent, 5th Aviation School, (specialization in aviation machinery) (June 1950 - May 195 1)
4.
Ordinary ability to understand and write Russian(eiementary),
5.
1959 todate
Engineer, Chief, farm power and hydraulic machine, 3rd Research Office, Sichuan Province Agricultural Machinery Research Institute
2. June 1934
speak Japanese.
1950-1951
Mechanical Engineer, Chief, Armament Contingent, 3rd Middle
Contingent, 34th Regiment, 12th Army, Airforce
6.
Research on techniques of practical application of biogas as motive power in
rural areas.
7.
Research on small-scale internal-combusion engine
8.
Research on utilization rate on north-west Sichuan grasslands of waste gas
propelled turbo weight attached to a tractor.
84
9.
10.
For the National Science Commission, chief editor of teaching materials on
biogas for the United Nations University. “Views concerning some practical
aspects of combustible fuel for farm machinery”.
Sichuan Province Agricultural
chuan, China
Machinery Research Institute
(3rd office), Si-
12. Mr. CHAI Chang-Da
2. 12 March 1943
1.
China
3.
Graduate, Hangzhou Agricultural College, Agriculture Department (196 1)
4.
English (elementary), Chinese
5.
Technician, Hangzhou City Biogas Extension Office
1974 to-date
Technician, agricultural microbiology, Agricultural
1962-1973
Research Institute, Hangzhou City
science
6.
Biogas fer,mentatior I. Biogas digester construction techniq-ues
7.
Agricultural science
8.
Design and construction of separable type gas holder for rural households
Constructional technique improvements in the moulding and hauling of biogas
plants. Synthesized use of the biogas fermentation remainder in mushroom
cultivation, rearing of earthworm, feeding of pig, chicken, fish etc. Experimentation on fertilizer efficiency of fermentation remainder.
9.
“Effective way of extension work regarding agricultural energy resources”;
Energy Resources Journal, 1980 first issue. Popular Science Book on Biogas,
published by Zhejiang People’s Publishing House. “Report on experiment on
biogas production with movable gas holder”, Means of Production, collected
edition, vol. 4.
’
10.
Biogas Extension Office, Hangzhou city. China
13. Mr. Sompongse CHANTAVORAPAP
2. 1935
1.
Thailand
3.
B.Eng. (Hons.) (Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok), M.Eng. (SEATO Graduate
School of Engineering, Bangkok); Engineering Professional License in the
category of Fellow Engineer from the Board for the Control of the Engineering
Pof’ession
4.
‘Ihai, English
5.
1976 to-date
Special grade engineer, in charge of Design and Energy Research
Section; Chief, alternative energy study and development project; and Assistant
85
Director, USAID-Thai Government nonconventional renewable energy project,
National Energy Administration., Bangkok
First grade engineer, in charge of Design Section and Assistant
1970-1975
Director, Lam Dom Noi hydro electric construction project, National Energy
Administration
Seconded by National Energy Administration to work as
1967-l 969
System Analysis Engineer at the Mekong Secretariat
Third grade engineer (196 l-1963) and the second grade engi1961-1966
neer, Design Section, National Energy Administration
6.
Civil engineering
7.
System analysis. Development planning, sectoral planning and project analysis.
8.
Alternative energy study and development project in which biogas/biomass
energy is included.
9.
“Utilization of biogas digesters in Thailand”, presented at the Expert Group
Meeting on Biogas Development, ESCAP, Bangkok, 20-26 June 1978. Biogas
Handbook (Thai version), 1978. “Cement water jars as a biogas digester for
Thailand”, 1979.
10.
National Energy Administration,
Pibultham Villa, Bangkok 5, Thailand
14. Mr. CHEN ShengCeng
2. July 1938
1.
China
3.
Graduate, Fudan University ( 1964)
4.
Chinese
5.
1979 to-date
Technology
1974-1979
1964-1974
Shanghai Biogas Laboratory,
for Science and
Shanghai Biogas Research and Co-ordination Group
Shanghai Association for Science and Technology
6.
Bio-fermentation. Biogas construction
8.
Small and medium sized digesters. Automation
mentation digesters.
9.
Biogas (in Chinese)
.-lo.
Association
of multi-stage mesophillic fer-
Science and Technology Commission, 47 Nan Zhong Road, Shanghai, China
86
15. Mr. CHONG Chok-Ngee
2. 30 June 1943
1.
Malaysia
3.
B.Sc. (Hons.) (Chemistry), B.Ed., Ph.D.; AMIC, MRIC, C. Chem.
4.
English
5.
Head, Research Unit, Standards and Industrial Research InstiPresent
tute of Malaysia (SIRIM)
6.
Chemistry of biologically active compounds
8.
Supervise a range of projects in the fields of ceramics technology, building
materials, energy technology and pollution technology.
9.
10.
Technical papers/reports covering the above fields.
Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM), P.O. Box 35,
Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
16. Mr. M. Yusuf CHOWDHURY
1.
Bangladesh
3.
MSc. (Applied Chemistry) (Dacca), M.S. (Chemistry) (New York State University), Ph.D. (Agricultural Chemistry)
4.
Bengali, English, German
5.
1964 todate
Senior Lecturer (1964), Associate Professor (1973) and then
Head, Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Bangladesh Agricultural University
1958-1964
Lecturer in chemistry (1958) and then Professor and Head,
Department of Chemistry, AM College
6.
Agricultural chemistry with special interest in utilization of agricultural wastes
7.
Organic wastes in plant nutrition and fish production. Water chemistry. Fertilizer technology and chemical instrumentation.
8.
Biogas production (since 1971). Effect of organic manures with and without
supplemental chemical fertilizers on the yield and qualities of the agricultural
produce.
__-.
10.
2. 1 April 1934
Department of Agricultural
Mymensingh, Bangladesh
.
Chemistry,
Bangladesh Agricultural
17. Mrs. Revadee DEEMARK
1.
Thailand
3.
B.Sc. (Chemistry), M.Sc. (Agriculture) (College of Sweden)
2. 17 August 1940
87
University,
4.
English, Thai
5.
Scientist/Chief, Fertilizer Research Section, Agricultural ChePresent
mistry Division, Department of Agriculture, Bangkok
6.
Study of organic fertilizer including digested slurry from biogas production.
7.
Chemistry and technology and chemical fertilizers.
8.
Studies on the manurial value of digested slurry from biogas plant. Examination
of the nitrogen balance of dung during anaerobic digestion. Studies on the
manurial value of digested slurry from biogas plant on sandy loam soil. Study on
industrial waste for fertilization. Utilization of biogas as alternative source of
energy. (completed)
Study on low-cost biogas digester. Biogas production from various plant wastes.
Biogas production in dome digester. Biogas production ‘by using slurry and
combination plants. (ongoing)
Cost reduction of small-scale biogas plant. Utilization of organic waste other
than animal waste.. Biogas-based integrated farming system. Utilization of
digester manure with local rock phosphate. (planned)
10.
Fertilizer Research Section, Division of Agricultural
of Agriculture, Bar&hen, Bangkok, Thailand
Chemistry, Department
18. Mr. A.K. DHUSSA
1.
India
3.
B.Sc., B.E. (Chemical)
4.
English
5.
Present
Research Officer/Senior
search Station, Ajitmal
6.
Fermentation technology. Reaction kinetics and plant design.
7.
Training
8.
Designing gas generation and distribution systems for large communities.
9.
Janata biogas plants: introduction
Hindi language
10.
2. 3 March 1955
Scientific Associate, Gobar Gas Re-
and design and a construction manual in
Gobar Gas Research and Training Centre, Ajitmal206
88
12 1, Etawah, India
19. Mr. J.A. D’SOUZA
2. 21 February 1931
1.
India
3.
B.Sc.
4.
English
5.
1968 to-date
1972-1974
Refining Superintendent, Madras Reiineries Ltd.
Deputation to Sri Lanka
1966-1968
1954-1966
Senior Engineer, Cochin Refineries Ltd.
Manufacturing Assistant, Burmah-Shell Refineries Ltd., Bombay
6.
Energy conservation
7.
Alternate sources of energy: solar, biomass and wind energy.
8.
Solar water heater. Solar cooker. Biogas plant. Windmill for pumping water.
10.
5V. N.G. Road, Madhavaram Milk Colony, Madras 60005 1f TamiI Nadu, India
20. Mr. Muhammad EUSUF
1.
Bangladesh
3.
M.Sc. (Chemistry) (Dacca), Ph.D. (Chemistry) (Ottawa)
4.
English, German, Bengali, Urdu, Arabic
5.
1977 to-date
BCSIR, Dacca
1966- 1977
search, BCSIR
1964-l 976
fic Officer, Fuel
2. 11 October 1936
Project Director, Institute of Fuel
ReSiSidi
and Deveiopment,
Editor, Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial ReSenior Research Officer (1964-l 973) and then Principal ScientiResearch Division, BCSIR Laboratories, Dacca
6.
Fuel and energy.
7.
Activated carbon. Petrochemicals.
8.
Increasing gas yield. Reduction in seasonal variation of gas yield. Cost reduction.
Slurry making from agricultural wastes. Development of low-cost burners and
lamps.
9.
*
10.
Institute of Fuel Research and Development, Bangladesh Council of Scientific
and Industrial Research (BCSIR), Dacca, Bangladesh
89
21. Mr. FENG WeiCheng
2. December 1932
1.
China
3.
Graduate, Air Force School No. 6 (1952)
4.
Chinese, English (can read periodicals and manuals in own area of specialization)
5.
1964 to-date
Institute
1953-l 964
1952
Engineer, Sichuan Province Agricultural
Machinery Research
Instructor (engines), Air Force School No. ,lO
Teaching Assistant (engines), Air Force School No. 6
6.
Research on techniques of biogas as motive power
7.
Research on biogas and speed-adjustor in diesel engine moving parts
8.
Research on S195 biogas and diesel engine.
9.
“Practical application of biogas as motive power”
10.
Sichuan Province Agricultural
chuan, China
Machinery Research Institute
(3rd Office), Si-
22. Mr. Nigel FLORIDA
1.
Canada
3.
Diploma in Technical Education (Queen’s University, Canada), Diploma in
Electronics Technology (Ryerson Polytechnical Institute, Toronto)
4.
English
5.
1977 to-date
Associate Director, South Pacific Appropriate Technology
Foundation (SPATF). Organized and directed the Foundation. Initiated a nine
point programme for an integrated appropriate technology development package.
1974-l 977
Technical Officer, Technical Team, Canadian University Services Overseas (CUSO), Ottawa. Responsible for the selection and placement of
prospective business and technical volunteers in CUSO overseas programmes.
1972-l 974
Recipient of international development scholarship, sponsored
by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). Research topic
on village or appropriate technology. Studied and implemented a number of
ideas of an appropriate technology nature in a small village in rural India.
1969-1971
Instructor, Commission for Technical Education and Vocational
Training, Zambia. CUSO contract to start Zambia’s first radio and TV repair
course. Entailed design and building of workshop, ordering equipment and
drafting syllabus.
6.
Appropriate technology administration
2. 7 June 1942
90
8.
Small-scale industry in Ghana, a potential for CIDA support. Small agricultural
tool production unit, under USAID/VITA in Zaire. Reconstruction project to
the district of Totonicapan following the 1976 Guatemala earthquake, involving
housing, mobile medical services and groundwater surveys. Collect and coordinate information on appropriate technology under CUSO in Canada.
9.
*
10.
c/o P.O. Box 6937, Boroko, N.C.D., Papua New Guinea (Permanent: c/o 38 St.
Claire, Ottawa, Canada K2G 2A2)
23. Mr. HJ’. GARG
1.
India
3.
M.Sc. (Physics), Ph.D. (Solar Energy); MISES
4.
Hindi, English
5.
6.
1979 to-date
Professor, Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi
1972-1978
Physicist and then Senior Physicist, Central Arid Zone Research
Institute, Jodhpur
1965-l 972
Scientist, Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee
1964-1965
Lecturer, MMH College, Ghaziabad
Solar energy applications for domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes
7.
Wind power utilization and bioconversion. Biogas and energy conservation.
8.
Design and optimization of family size biogas plants.
9.
*
10.
Central of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New
Delhi 110 016, India
24. Mr. K.V. GOPALAKRISHNAN
1.
India
3.
Ph.D. (Mechanical Engineering)
4.
English, German, TamiI
5.
1962 to-date
Lecturer (1962-l 972) and then Assistant Professor, Department
of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
Development of biomass - biogas energy for rural areas of developing countries.
Development of alcohols and hydrogen as alternative fuels for internal combustion engines
6.
2. 25 November 1936
91
7.
Control of air pollution from internal combustion engines
8.
Investigator: project on combustion of alcohols and biogas, financed by the
National Science Foundation, Was,hington, D.C. Alternative fuels for internal
combustion engines, supported by the German Academic Exchange Service
(DAAD), Federal Republic of Germany
9.
*
10.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
600 036, India
25. Mr. K.P. GOSWAMI
1.
India
3.
B.Sc. (Agriculture), M.Sc. (Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi),
Ph.D. (University of Hawaii, USA)
4.
English, Hindi, Spanish, Bengali, Punjabi
5.
Associate Professor in soil microbiology, Soils Department,
1974 to-date
Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana
Junior Soil Scientist, Agronomy and Soils Department, Univer1971-1973
sity of Hawaii
Senior Research Fellow ( 196 l-l 964) and then Senior Scientifio
1961-1967
Officer, Central Fuel Research Institute, Dhanbad
1960-1961
Research Assistant, Agricultural Chemistry Laboratory, Udaipur
6.
Soil science and agricultural chemistry. Soil microbiology
Biogas production from fibrous plant wastes.
7.
CO, - fertilization. Decomposition of organic matter. Nitrogen fixation.
8.
Development of a kachara-gas plant for biogas and manure production from
fibrous plant wastes.
9.
*
10.
2. 2 April 1938
and biochemistry.
Soils Department, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, 14 1004, India
26. Mr. GU ZhenCang
1.
China
3.
Graduated from the Aviation Special School, from the Mathematics Department
in a university and then from a class for training teachers
4.
Learnt English many years ago
2. February 1936
92
5.
Artificial Biogas Experimental qtation of Nanhui County
1978 to-date
1970-1978
1964-1970
Worked in a machine tool plant
In-charge, Section of Food Processing, County Grain Bureau
1950-1964
Mechanist, Chief Mechanic and then Deputy Squadron Leader
6.
Mechanical engineering
7
I.
Artificial biogas prod*uction
8.
Utilization of waste heat from biogas power generation and design for heat preservation. Design and research for a biogas digester with integral fermentation.
Mechanical unloading of the residue out of a digester.
10.
The Artificial Biogas Experimental Station of Nanhui County, Shanghai, China
27. Mr. Chaman L. GUPTA
2. 27 March 1933
1.
India
3.
B.Sc. (Hons.) (Physics), M.Sc. (Applied Mathematics), Ph.D. (Heat Transfer)
4.
English, Hindi
5.
Professor, Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education,
1968 to-date
Pondicherrjl
1975 to-date
Director, Tata Energy Research Institute, Field Research Unit,
Pondicherry
Visiting Scientist (thermal optimization), CSIRO, Division of
1968-1970
Building Research, Melbourne
Scientist and then Head of Section, Central Building Research
1954-l 968
Institute, Roorkee
6.
Solar energy systems including domestic, industrial and agricultural applications.
Thermal designing of buildings. Mathematical modelling
7.
Biogas and integrated energy systems
8.
Solar communities. Solar ponds. &tssive solar heating
*
9.
10.
Sri Aurobindo Ashram, Pondicherry 605 002, India
28. Mr. Kiyonori HAGA
1.
Japan
3.
M.S.
4.
Japanese,English
2. 8 October 1948
93
5.
Laboratory of Animal Waste Management, National Institute of
1973 to-date
Animal Industry, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Japan
6.
Biogas production from animal wastes
7.
Animal waste management
8.
Biogas production from animal wastes and its utilization
9.
*
10.
Laboratory of Animal Waste Management, National Institute of Animal Industry, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tsukuba Norindanchi, P.O.
Box 5, Ibaraki 305, Japan
29. Ms. HU Li-Na
2. 28 December 1932
1.
China
3.
Graduate, Beijing Agricultural University (1954)
4.
English, Chinese
5.
In-charge, Fertilizer Research Office and Chief, Biogas Office,
1958 to-date
Beijing Academy of Agricultural Science, Beijing
1956-1958
Assistant, Pesticides Teaching Group, Beijing Agricultural
University
1954-1956
Technician, Plant Disease Quarantine Station, Shanxi Province
6.
Biogas techniques (biogas fertilizer and fermentation)
7.
Soil fertili::er science. Agricultural environmental protection. Botanical chemical
protection
8.
Farmer househr>ld-fuel biogas experimental station and consultancy and extension, Beijing suburban district. Small-scale experimental pig farm biogas power
station. Research on biogss fermentation process and important changes in fertilizer effectiveness and composition. Research on the efficiency of the biogas
fermentation remainder as fertilizer and its use in soil improvement. Research on
types of feeding materials and the amount of gas produced.
9.
Study Df Biogas Techniques (under publishing process)
10.
Beijing Academy of Agricultural Science, Ban Jin Village, Beijing, China
30. Mr. Ishrat HUSSAIN
1.
India
4.
Hindi, English
2. 15 July 1940
94
5.
Supervisor, demonstration-cum-training of Janata biogas plants
Present
scheme, Action for Food Production (AFPRO), New Delhi
Gobar Gas Technician, Gobar Gas Research Station, U.P.
Government
6.
Biogas plants
7.
Drafting and civil structure (rural latrines)
8.
Biogas training and extension scheme for Janata plant
9,
Drawings and sketches
10.
Action for Food Production (AFPRO), C-17 Community
Development Area, New Delhi, 110 016, India
Area, Safdarjang
31. Mr. S.G. iLANGANTILEKE
2. 26 October 1944
1.
Sri Lanka
3.
B.Sc. (Agriculture) (Ceylon), M.S., Ph.D. (Agricultural
State University)
4.
English, Sinhalese
5.
Head, Department of Agricultural
1970 to-date
Sri Lanka, Peradeniya
6.
Post-harvest technology and energy development for rural technology
7.
8.
Farm machinery design for intermcdiaie rural technology
Construction of biogas unit as a demonstrational unit for secondary schools.
Evaluation of locally available materials to enhance biogas production. Determining the pressure losses in conveyance of biogas to the lighting point.
Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Sri Lanka, Peradeniya,
Sri Lanka
10.
Engineering) (Michigan
Engineering, University of
32. Mr. MN. ISLAM
2. 1 August 1946
1.
Bangladesh
3.
B.Sc. (Chemical Engineering), Ph.D.
4.
Bengali, English
5.
1973 to-date
Assistant Professor (1973-l 977) and then Associate Professor,
Deparfment of Chemical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and
Technology, Dacca
i 972-l 973
Senior Research Associate, University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne
1968
Lecturer in chemical engineering, EPUET, Dacca
95
*
1
6.
Chemical engineering
7.
English engineering. Environmental engineering.
8.
Design, construction and operation of a biogas plant suitable for the rural area
of Bangladesh (1977-1979), sponsored by the University Grants Commission,
Bangladesh. Social and economic evaluation of biogas technoloa in Bangladesh
(1978-1980), sponsored by IDRC, Ottawa, Canada
9.
*
10.
Department of Chemical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and
Technology, Dacca 2, Bangladesh
33. Mr. R.C. JAIN
2. 5 January 1950
1.
India
.3 .
B.E. (Mechanical Engineering) (Bhopal University); Member (Scholar) Director,
Resources Development Institute
4.
Hindi, English
5.
General Manager, Small-scale Industries, Chindwara District,
1979-1980
Government of Madhya Pradesh
Industries Promotion Officer, Jorhat, Assam
1978-1979
Junior Engineer, Design Research and Computorized Inventory
1974-1978
Centre, Irrigation Department
1974-1979
Part-time Research Scholar, Resources Development Institute,
Bhopal (Honorary)
6.
Mechanical engineering. Computer
industries.
7.
Biogas technology. Solar energy
8.
Biogas technology: portable biogas plant; small biogas turbine; biogas filter,
biogas conversion kit etc. Solar energy: cheap solar cookers; solar pump; aqua
ammonia-absorber turbine system; reflected concentrator modified Stirling
engine system.
9.
*
10.
systems and programming.
c/cl Resources Development Institute,
4620 16, India
96
Small-scale
E6-00, 1100 Quarters Area, Bhopal
34. Mr. S.C. JAIN
1.
Yndia
3.
B.Sc. (University of Delhi),’ AIC (equivalent to M.Sc. in Chemistry) (Medical
College, Calcutta)
Hindi, English, Urdu, German
Assistant Chemist ( 1959- 196 1), Assistant Superintendent-cum1959 to-date
Chemist (1961-1969) and then Assistant Chief Water Analyst, Delhi Water
Supply and Sewage Disposal Undertaking, Municipal Corporation of Delhi
Research Chemist, CSIR Scheme attached to Delhi Water Sup1958-1959
PlY
6.
Water treatment and sewage treatment including biogas
7.
Industrial waste water treatment
8.
-wastewater treatment. Biogas (town supply)
Sewage treat men t. XIIUustrial
tncl
*
9.
10.
Sewage Disposal Works, Okhla, New Delhi 110 020, India
35. Mr. D.S. JOSM
1.
India
3.
B.Sc. (Bombay University); Certificate in Chromatography and Library Science.
Ccmpleted short-term course conducted by Central Public Health Engineering
Research Institute. William D. Hatfield Award winner (Water Pollution Control
Federation, United States of America)
English, Marathi, Hindi
.
Present
Superintending
boratory, Bombay
22 years experience of sewage,
Dadar Sewage Treatment Plant
and also past experience in ink
road materials analysis
Chemist, Dadar Sewage Treatment Plant Laindustrial effluents, sludge and gas analysis at
of Muricipal Corporation of Greater Bombay
analysis, pathological analysis and asphalt and
6.
Analysis of sewage, sludge, grit and gas for the control of activated sludge plant,
trickling filter and biogas digesters. Administration and management of laboratory
8.
Tertiary treatment. High-rate digestion. H,O removal from sludge gas. Infiltration of sea water.
97
9.
“Performance of activated sludge plant”, Indian Journal of Environmental
Health, 1976. “Use of Orsat apparatus in gas analysis”, SGEMA Souvenir, 1976.
“Upsets in biological treatment plant” (contribution to a course on industrial
waste treatment). “Air pollution control in industries”, Seminar on Air Pollution
Control.
10.
1/4,Dadar Sewage Treatment Plant, Senapati Bapat Marg, Dadar, Bombay 400
028, India
36. Mr. Vishnu JOSH1
2. 14February 1927
1.
India
3.
B.E. (Bombay University). Post-graduate in structural engineering (Cambridge
University). Member of Institution of Civil Engineers, London
4.
English, German
5.
Self-employed for development of appropriate technology and
1973 to-date
asa part-time consultant to Stein and Associates, New Delhi
Architect, engineer and town planner, Stein and Associates
1960-1973
Consulting Engineer, Felix Samudy and Partners, London
1956-1960
Construction, design, planning of National Defence Academy
1949-1955
of India
6.
Structural engineering planning and design. Civil engineering. Project planning
and co-ordination. Construction management.
7.
Development and application of ferrocement technology especially for benefit
of rural population.
8.
Rural employment in the manufacture of ferrocement, water tanks, septic tanks,
grain storage bins, biogas plants and fishing boats. Agro service centre
10.
Sarang, Post Pen, Kolaba District, Maharashtra 402 107, India
37. Mr. Jagdish Chandra KAPUR
1.
India
3.
B.Sc. (Mechanical Engineering and Electrical Engineering) (Punjab University);
M.S. (Engineering) (Cornell University). Post-graduate studies in aeronautical
engineering (Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore). Industrial and labour
relations studies (Cornell University). Fellow: Nuclear Energy Society; Indian
Standards Institute. Life Member, Indian Science Congress. Member: Intemational Solar Energy Society; American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Airconditioning Engineering; World Future Society.
4.
English, Hindi, Punjabi
2. 16 February 1920
98
5.
Founder-Proprietor, Kapur Solar Farms. Chairman, Denfoss
Present
(India) Ltd., New Delhi and Kapcompany General Ltd., New Delhi. President,
All India Council of Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Industry
General Manager, Larsen and Toubro Ltd., Bombay
1972
Founder-Director, York (India) Ltd., and Taylor Instrument
1966
Co., Ltd. President and Chief Executve Officer, Air-conditioning Corporation
Ltd.
6.
Refrigeration and air-conditioning.
tion and control technology
7.
Bioconversion systems
8.
Integrated solar energy and bioconversion projects at Kapur Solar Farms
10.
Heat exchange. Solar energy. Instrumenta-
Kapur Solar Farms, Bijwasan Najafgarh Road, P.O. Kapas Hera, New Delhi
110 037, India
38.
Mr. Amrit Bahadur KARKI
1.
Nepal
2. 10 March 1940
3.
Ph.D. (Soil Microbiology)
4.
Nepali, English, French, Hindi
5.
Reader/Chairman, Plant Science Instruction Committee, InstiPresent
tute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuwan University, Kathmandu
April - June 1980 FAO Consultant on biogas in Guinea
1962-1977
Soil Scientist, in charge of soil microbiology organic manure
and biogas programme, Department of Agriculture, Government of Nepal
Senior Consultant in resource conservation and utilization project and alternate energy and appropriate technology under Agricultural Project
Service Centre (APROSC), Lazimpat, Kathmandu
6.
Soil microbiology. Soil fertility
7.
Biogas. Compost. Blue green algae.
8.
Energy needs of food system (HMG/Nepal in collaboration with USAID). Resource conservation and utilization project. Alternate energy and appropriate
technology - rural development project (APROSC, Lazimpat, Kathmandu)
9.
*
10.
c/o Biogas Newsletter, P.O. Box 1309, Kathmandu, Nepal
99
39.
Mr. K.C. KHANDELWAL
2. 1 January 1948
1.
India
3.
B.Sc. (Agriculture), M.Sc. (Microbiology), Ph.D. (specialization in soil organic
matter). Participated in FAO/UNDP Study Tour on Cold Weather Biogas Plants
to the Republic of Korea, May 1980.
4.
English, Hindi, Russian (elementary)
5.
Assistant Commissioner (Biogas) (1976-l 979) and then Spe1976 to-date
cialist, Department of Agriculture and Co-operation, Ministry of Agriculture,
New Delhi
Assistant Professor (Microbiology),
Haryana Agricultural
1970-1976
University, Hissar.
6.
Biogas fermentation.
7.
Bio-fertilizer. Soil organic matter.
8.
National project on developent and promotion of biogas technology.
9.
*
10.
Department of Agriculture and Co-operation, Ministry of Agriculture, 112, ‘B’
Wing, Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi 110 00 1, India
40.
Mr. Ghulam KIBFUA
1.
Pakistan
3.
B-SC. (Engineering); President, Pakistan Association of Electrical and Mechanical
Engineers ( 1967-l 968)
4.
English, Urdu, Punjabi, Hindi, German
5.
Present
Development Consultant, Karachi
1974-1978
Chairman, Appropriate Technology Development Organization,
Government of Pakistan, Islamabad
1953-1959
Senior Executive, Gillanders Arbuthnot & Co. (Pakistan) Ltd.
1952-1953
Training abroad: Foster Gwynnes Ltd., Lincoln, United Kingdom; Brush Group Ltd., Loughbrough, United Kingdom; Kl&,kner Humbiilt
Deutz, Kiiln, Federal Republic of Germany
1948-1951
Junior Executive, Volkart Brothers, Lahore
1946- 1948
Lecturer in mechanical engineering, Muslim University, Aligarh,
India
6.
Development consultancy
2.
100
1 April 1926
7.
Biogas technology and low-cost hydro technology for Pakistan
8.
Biogas and low-cost hydroelectric projects.
9.
*
10.
5-E, 7th Central Street, Defence Housing Society, Karachi, Pakistan
41. Mr. Kyun Uk KIM
:.
Republic of Korea
3.
M.S., Ph.D.
4.
Korean, English
5.
1974 todate
Associate Professor, Seoul National University, College of Agri,’
culture
January-July 1974 Food Research Institute, University of Wisconsin
6.
Food and fermentation microbiology
7.
Fermented foods
8.
Growth and resistance of lactic acid bacteria. Bioconversion of biomass.
9.
*
10.
College of Agriculture, Seoul National University, Suwon 170, Republic of Korea
42. Mr. Suchart KL~NSUWAN
1.
Thailand
3.
B. Eng. (Institute of Technology and Vocational Education, Bangkok)
4.
English, Thai
5.
Alternative energy study and development project, National
1979 to-date
Energy Administration, Bangkok
6.
Machine design and heat transfer
7.
Auto-mechanics
8.
Alternative energy study and development (biogas energy)
9.
Report on experiment on engine fuelled by biogas
10.
National Energy Administration,
2. 1955
Pibultham Villa, Bangkok 5, Thailand
101
43.
Mr. C.P. KOTHANDARAMAN
2. 10 August 1933
1.
India
3.
B.E. (Hons) (Mechanical Engineering), M.S. (Heat Power), Ph.D. (Metal Fatigue)
4.
English, Tamil
5.
1958 to-date
6.
Heat power engineering.
7.
Refrigeration. Solar energy. Biogas
8.
Development of a turbo charger for a 100 hp diesel engine. Development of a
500 W wind power generator. Gobar gas utilization in I.C. engines. Development
of devices like solar water heater, solar still and solar air heaters. CSIR research
scheme on thermal fatigue. Development of refrigeration plant.
9.
*
10.
Teaching and research, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore
PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 004, Tamil Nadu, India
44.
Mr. Savang KULAPATRAPA
1.
Thailand
3.
B. Eng. (Chulalongkom University, Bangkok), M.S. (Oklahoma State University,
USA)
4.
Thai, English
5.
Engineer, in-charge of Biomass Energy Unit, Alternative Energy
1976 to-date
Study and Development Project, National Energy Administration, Bangkok
1972-1974
Engineer, in-charge of Telephone Repair Section, Workshop
Division, Telephone Organization of Thailand
6.
Industrial engineering. Energy planning and development. Biomass energy research and development.
7.
Systems planning and analysis. Engineering economics analysis. Renewable
energy planning and development.
8.
Biomass energy development, sub-project of alternative energy study and development project. Demonstration and promotion of biogas energy in rural areas.
Pilot scale production of biogas and fertilizer from pineapple cannery waste.
Biogas pumping station.
9.
Numerous working papers and unpublished reports on new and renewable
sources of energy.
10.
National Energy Administration,
2. 6 January 1949
Pibultham Villa, Bnagkok 5, Thailand
102
45.
Mr. LI Chang-Sheng
2. 1941
1.
China
3.
Graduate, Nanjing Agricultural College, Farm Mechanization Department ( 1964)
4.
English, Chinese
5.
1978 to-date
Engineer, Research on bio-energy resources, China Research
and Designing Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Beijing
Scientific Researcher, China Agricultural Mechanization Science
1964
Research Institute
6.
Engineering. Biogas energy resource.
7.
Agricultural mechanization. Hydraulic pressure techniques.
8.
Participation in a project on the state of national tractor technology: inspection
techniques without dismantling. Country-wide management of design of smallscale ORBIT hydraulic pressure motor set. Currently research on large-scale
design of biogas power station in Mou Mou County and on increasing the effectiveness of biogas products.
10.
China Research and Designing Institute
China
of Agricultural
Engineering, Beijing,
46. Mr. LI Fang-Qiang
2. 1944
1.
China
3.
Graduate, China Chengdu Science and Technology College ( 196 1)
4.
1979 to-date
Chengdu Biogas Scientific Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu
1971-1978
Sichuan Provincial Biogas Office
1961-1971
Sichuan Provincial Agricultural Science College
6.
Combining techniques of manufacture with use of biogas
7.
Agricultural soil chemistry
9.
Chief editor: “Production and utilization of biogas for villages”, Sichuan Provincial Publishers. “Building biogas plants in the villages”, China National Science
Publisher. “Questions and answers in establishing biogas in the village” (3
volumes), China National Agriculture Publisher (one of the volumes translated
into English by the British Intermediate Technology Publishing Company)
10.
Chengdu Biogas Scientific Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu
City, Sichuan Province, China. Tel: 7737
103
47.
Mr. LI Nian-Guo
2. May 1930
1.
China
3.
Advanced education in College of Agriculture, Lingnan University, Guangdong
4.
Chinese, English
5.
Head, Information Division, Guangzhou Institute
Present
Conversion, CbuneseAcademy of Sciences
Teacher, Fujian Pedagogic College
6.
Information collection and evaluation for energy from biomass, geothermal,
solar, ocean, wind and other renewable sources, as well as energy storage and
conservation.
7.
Foreign affairs. Editor-in-chief of publications
8.
Foshan biogas pilot power plant. Fengshun goethermal pilot power plant.
Hainan solar-distill pilot power plant.
9.
In English, on digesters for developin g countries; design, construction and
operation of digesters in China; fermentation technology for Chinese rural
digesters etc.
10.
of Energy
8 1 Martyrs Road, C.P.O. Box 1254, Guangzhou, China
48.
Mr. LING Dai-Wen
2. 25 March 1934
1.
China
3.
Graduate, Beijing Agriculture University, Department of Microbiology
4.
English, Chinese
5.
1957-1980
Research Associate, Department of Bacteriology, Institute of
,
Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing
6.
Taxonomy of bacteria
8.
Studies on taxonomy of bacillus, lactobacillus and coryform bacteria; taxonomy
of microbes in the biogas digester (in progress)
9.
Ling Dai-Wen. Identification of lactobacilli, Acta Microbiologica Sinica, 1 l(4):
600-605, 1965.
-A
new species of cellulomonas - cellulomonas variants. Acta MicrobioZogicaZSinica (to be published)
Ling Dai-Wen and Wang Da-Si. Two new species of corynebacterium -- corynebacterium thermophilum and corynebacterium deparaffmicum. Acta
Microbiologica Sinica (to be published)
104
Ling Dai-Wen, Jiang Shu-Qin and Fu Ta-Fuh. Identity of aerobic sporeforming
bacteria. Acta Microbiologica Sinica, 2(6):275-288, 1960.
Wang Da-Si, Ling Dai-Wen, Zhen Like and Hond Jun-Hua. Numerical taxonomy
of gram positive rod-shaped bacteria from Tianshan and other sources. Acta
Microbiologica Sinicu (to be published)
10.
Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
49. Mr. LIU Ke-Xin
2. October 1936
1.
China
3.
University of Wuhan (specialization in microbiology)
4.
Russian, English, Chinese
5.
196 1 to-date
Engineer, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of
Sciences. Research in microbiology and biogas fermentation
6.
Micro biology
7.
Biogas fermentation
8.
Technology of biogas fermentation. Enrichment,
methanogenesis. Improvement of anaerobic digester
10.
isolation
and culture of
Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan,
China
50. Mr. LIU ‘ring-Wei
1.
China
3.
Graduate, Beijing Mechanical Engineering College ( 1960)
4.
English, Chinese, Russian
5.
Engineer, China Research and Designing Institute of Agricul1979 to-date
tural Engineering, Beijing
1978
Design Engineer, Luoyang Area Machine Factory
6.
Mechanical engineering
8.
Research and testing of medium temperature village biogas fermentation engineering
10.
2. October 1932
China Research and Designing Institute of Agricultural
China
105
Engineering, Beijing,
51.
Mr. Felix D. MARAMBA,
Sr.
3. 7 January 1897
1.
Philippines
3.
B.S. (University of IlF.iiois), N.S. (Iowa State University), DSc. (Honoris causa)
(Gregorio Araneta rT~liv*rcity
tirl,LT_ _ Fc undation). Registered Professional Agricultural
Engineer; Registered Profcs<ionai Mechanical Engineer
4.
English, Filipino, Spanish
5.
President and Director, Liberty Flour Mills, Inc.
Dean of engineering and graduate studies, Gregorio Araneta University Foundation
Professor of mechanical engineering, Far Eastern University
Manager, Land Settlement and Development Corporation
Director, Bureau of Plant Industry
Chief, Industrial Enginering Division, Bureau of Science
Assistant Professor, University of the Philippines, College of Agriculture
6.
Bio-energy. Farm mechanization. Indigenous sources of energy.
7.
Processing of agricultural products. Waste recycling.
8.
Biogas works at Maya Farms. Producer gas as fuel for internal combusion engines. Straight hydrous alcohol as fuel for internal combustion engines. Biogas
and waste recycling. Coconut oil as motor fuel. Recycling system for farming.
9.
*
10.
Official:
Residence:
.Philippines
Liberty Building, Pasay Road, Makati, Metro Manila, Philippines
9 Magallanes Avenue, Magallanes Village, Makati, Metro Manila,
52.
Mr. ME1 He-Xiao
2. 15 May 1937
1.
China
3.
Graduate, Xian Architectural
neering
4.
Russian, English, Japanese
5.
1980
Wujin Biogas Research Institute, Jiangsu Province
1960-1980
After advanced study at Fudan University, engaged in construction and design
6.
Construction. Design
8.
Research and construction of modernized biogas plants in villages
Engineering Institute, Department of Civil Engi-
106
10.
Provincial Biogas Research Institute,
Province, China
53.
Ben Niu Zhen, Wujin County, Jiangsu
Mr. T.K. MOULIK
2. 11 March 1936
1.
India
3.
M-SC. and Ph.D. (Agricultural Development Extension) (Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Delhi)
4.
Bengali, Hindi, English Pidgin
5.
Proftiqc:.jL, Centre for Management in Agriculture, Indian Insti1974 to-date
tute of Management, Ahmedabad
Senior Fellow, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian
1970-1974
National University, Canberra
Associate Professor, Indian Agricultural Research Institute,
1969- 1970
Delhi
Programme Analyst, USAID, Delhi
1967-1969
Assistant Professor, Indian Agricultural Research Institute,
1965-l 967
Delhi
.1Lgricultural Extension Office, Department of Agriculture, West
1958-l 960
Bengal, India
6.
Development economics
7.
Sociology. Organization behaviour
8.
Co-ordinator of the action research project on rural development for rural poor.
Rural energy projects. Transfer of technology for backward area development
9.
*
10.
Indian Institute of Management, Vastrapur, Ahmedabad 380 015, Gujarat, India
54.
Mr. Raymond
M. MYLES
2. 3 1 July 1943
1.
India
3.
B.Sc. (Agricultural Engineering) University of Allahabad), M.Sc. (Agricultural
Engineering) (University of Guelph, Canada); MASE, MISAE
4.
English, Hindi
5.
Senior Specialist (appropriate technology), Action for Food
Present
Production, Nzw Delhi. Involved in the promotion of biogas plants.
About 17 years experience, in different capacity as engineer,
specialist, consultant and manager in the field of agricultural engineering
107
6.
Farm power and machinery. Agro engineering services and appropriate/rural
technology. Utilization of alternative energy under rural conditions. Biogas
technology.
7.
Extension and training in agriculture and rural development field
8.
Extension and systematic promotion of Janata biogas r,-lant, through demonstration-cum-training. Field evaluation of small tractor (self helper-7 hp) under different agro-climatic conditions in India
9.
“Promotion of biogas plants for small and marginal farmers on individual and
community basis”. “Construction of a 2 cu m (70 ft) demonstration-cumtraining model Janata biogas plant in the Union Territory of Delhi”. “Biogas
technology: a review of approach adopted by AFPRO in the systematic promotion of Janata plant”. “Field evaluation cf Hinomotor tractor (7 hp)“.
10.
Action for Food Production (AFPRO), C-l 7 Community
Developmerit Area, New Delhi 110 0 16, India
55. Mr. Ram Krishnan
Centre, Safdarjung
NAIDU
2. 7 July 1927
I.
Fiji
3.
B.Sc. (Agriculture) (Massey), B.Sc. (Agriculture) (Allahabad)
4.
English, Hindi, Fijian, Tamil
5.
Present
Secondment to South Pacific Commission, as consultant on
integrated farming
Agriculture Department, Government of Fiji
1976-1978
1965.-1975
Self-employed as farmer
1953-l 958 and 1961-l 964 Agriculture Department, Government of Fiji
6.
Animal husbandry. Tree crops.
7.
Agriculture in general and fresh water fish raising (livestock and crops)
8.
South Pacific Commission has projects in Tonga, Cook Islands, Tahiti, Fiji,
Samoa, Solomon Islands - a total of 23 digesters
10.
c/o South Pacific Commission, Department of Agriculture, Box 358, Suva, Fiji
56. Mr. V.P. NARAYANASWAMY
1.
India
3.
B-E. (Civil Engineering), M.Sc. (Structural Engineering), Ph.D. (Structural Engineering)
4.
English, Tamil, Hindi, German
2. 26 April 1941
108
5.
Scientist, Structural Engineering Research Centre, Roorkee
1968 to-date
July - November 1978 Fellow, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok
Associate Lecturer, Sri Venkateshwara University, Tirupati
1963- 1964
6.
Structural engineering.
7.
Biogas technology
8.
Development of ferrocement gas holder for biogas plants (completed). Development of ferrocement components for biogas plants (ongoing).
9.
*
10.
Structural Engineering Research Centre, Roorkee (U.P.) 247 672, India
57.
Mr. S. NEELAKANTAN
1.
India
3.
B.Sc. (Agriculture), M.Sc. (Agriculture), Ph.D.
4.
English, Tarnil, Hindi
5.
Scientist, Dairy Bacteriology Division, National Dairy Research
1972 to-date
Institute, Kamal
Assistant Microbiologist, Haryana Agricultural University
1968-1972
6.
Microbiology and chemistry of anaerobic digestion into biogas. Soil microbiology - legume inoculants. Silage microbiology - lactic fermentation
7.
Cornposting of cattle manure. Blue green algae inoculation to rice fields.
8.
Isolation of efficient rhizobium for fodde; legume. Microbial and nutritional
studies of some silages. Cornposting of dairy farm wastes with desirable fermentation. Biogas production during winter and utilization of slurry. Improved and
efficient dairy farming through harnessing locally available energy sources.
9.
*
1U.
2. 11 March 1941
Dairy Bacteriology Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Kamal 132 001,
India
5%. Miss Watana NOPAKOON
I
.I.
Thailand
**
;i.
B-SC.(Chulalongkom University)
4.
Thai, English
2. 1949
109
5.
Scientist, Alternative Energy Study and Development Project,
1976 to-date
National Energy Administration, Bangkok
Scientist, Energy Research and Development Section, National
1972-1976
Energy Administration, Bangkok
6.
Chemical technology
7.
Food technology
a.
Experiment on: solid fuels from waste materials; biogas production from agricultural waste; analysis of solid fuels.
10.
Technical Division, National
kok 5, Thailand
Energy Administration,
Pibultham Villa, Bang-
Mr. Enrico D. OBIAS
59.
2. 3 October 1933
1.
Philippines
4.
English, Filipino
5.
1960 to-date
Chief Chemist (1960-197 l), Assistant Vice President for Research and Development and Quality Control (197 l-l 975) and then Vice President for Operations, Maya Farms Division, Liberty Flour Mills, Inc., Manila
1959-1960
Researcher, H.G. Henares and Sons
1958-1959
Instructor, University of the Philippines
6.
Food processing
7.
Waste recycling
8.
Biogas works at Maya Farms.
9,
Co-author: “Biogas and Waste Recycling”,
1978. “The Small Biogas Plants”,
!97?
10.
5 1 Fordham Street, White Plains, Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines; or
c/o Maya Farms Division, Liberty Flour Mills Inc., Liberty Building, Pasay Road,
Makati, Metro Manila, Philippines
60.
Mr. V. PADMANABHAN
1.
India
3.
Graduate in science, trained in village industries
4.
English, Tamil
5.
1976 to-date
Trust
2. 19 September 1923
Secretary (1976-1978) and then Managing Trustee, Gandhigram
110
Special Officer (village industries), Khadi and Village Industries
1972-1976
Commission, Bombay
Secretary, Tamil Nadu Khadi and Village Industries Board
1960-1972
1956-1960
Deputy Director, Industries and Commerce, in charge of village
industries of the Tamil Nadu State
Personal Assistant to Project Executive Officer, Assistant Pro1952-1956
ject Officer and Block Development Officer of Community Development Programme of Periyar Division, Madurai District, Tamil Nadu
Secretary, Gandhigram
1947-1952
6.
Village industries. Village reconstruction and training. Village industries including biogas and other occupations like spinning, weaving, soap manufacture,
leather manufacture, carpentry and blacksmithy, lime manufacture, processing
of cereals and pulses, oil extraction, bee-keeping etc.
7.
Agriculture. Animal husbandry. Silk-worm rearing.
8.
Ferrocement digester and gas holder with the gas drawn from below. Ferrocement digester and gas holder with water jacket system. Ferrocement digester and
mild steel gas holder, square type. Brick masonry digester with high density
polyethylene gas holder. Chinese design of biogas plant with fixed dome. Conventional Khadi and Village Industries Commission design with movable floating
drum.
9.
Articles on rural development and village industries in Commerce, Khudi Cmmodyog, The Mail and other journals
10.
Gandhigram Trust, Madurai District, Gandhigram 624 302, TamiI Nadu, India
61.
1.
India
4.
English, Hindi, Gujarati
5.
Present
Mr. Mohan
PARIKH
i
Director, Agricultural Tools Research Centre, Bardoli
Director, Yantra Vidyalaya, Bardoli (an institute for rural
development)
Managing Trustee, Suruchi Chhapshala, Bardoli (a school of
printing technology)
6.
Social service and rural development. Improved agricultural hand tools and
bullock - driven implements for small and marginal farmers.
7.
Biogas energy - cow dung gas plant; garbage gas plant; gas plant with fixed
R.C.C. roof. Solar energy utilization - solar cooker.
111
8.
Design and development of about 60 improved agricultural tools and implements. Prototype experimental garbage gas plant with different raw materials.
Design and development of a gas plant with fixed R.C.C. roof on Chinese pattern. Conversion of conventional gas plants with iron dome to store gas into
fixed R.C.C. roof gas plant.
9.
*
10.
Agricultural Tools Research Centre, Suruchi Campus, Post Box 4, Bardoli 394
601, India
62.
Mrs. P.P. PARIKH
1.
India
3.
Ph.D. (Mechanical Engineering); MIE (India), MAIE (India)
4.
English
5.
Present
Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian
Institute of Technology, Bombay
6.
In temal combustion engines
7.
Environmental engineering. Combustion engineering
8.
Utilization of biogas in diesel engines. Environmenta! aspects of biogas engines
9.
10.
Monogram on recent developments in gobar gas technology
Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay
400 076, India
63.
Mr. G.L. PATANKAR
1.
India
3.
B.Sc. (Chemistry - Physics); A.I.C. (Fuels and Gas Water and Sewage); Diploma
in advertising and public relations.
4.
English, Hindi, Marathi
5.
1962 to-date
Laboratory Supervisor (1962-l 963), Fuel Chemist ( 1963-l 973),
Assistant Director (1973-1976) and then Deputy Director, Gobar Gas Scheme,
Khadi and Village Industries Commission
6.
Biogas technology
7.
Solar energy for village uplift
8.
Simplification in the design of biogas plant (domestic). Problems of corrosion
of biogas plant. Design of community gas plant. Development of commercial
112
gas appliances. Gas plant for cold region. Fermentation kinetics and environment.
9.
10.
*
Gobar Gas Research and Development Centre, Kora Gramodyog Kendra, Borivli
(West), Bombay 400 092, India
64.
Mr.T.M.PAUL
1.
India
2. 10 September 1916
3.
B.Sc. (Chemistry), M.Sc. (Chemistry), Ph.D. (Dairy Science); MISCA,
MIDC, MSDT
4.
English, French, Malayalam, Hindi, Tamil, Telugu
5.
Present
Director, National Institute of Waste Recycling Technology.
Consultant to the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, on community development and integrated rural development
Consultant to FAO on recycling of agricultural and animal
1977-1978
wastes, Bangkok
?dRIC,
February-July 1977 Regional Adviser on biogas, Natural Resources Division,
ESCAP, Bangkok
1976-1977
Consultant to the South Pacific Commission on rural development based on integrated farming system
1967- 1976
Head, National Dairy Research Institute, Bombay
1965-1967
Head, Division of Dairy Extension, National Dairy Research
Institute, Kamal
Chief, Quality Control Officer, Delhi Milk Chem, New Delhi
1962-1965
6.
Environmental pollution control through biogas and compost. Waste-recycling
for energy as biogas and rural agricultural production and sanitation. Biogas and
compost production from human and animal waste. Intensive mixed farming
through use of liquid compost plants for biogas production and compost.
7.
Dairy farming, biogas and compost production. Waste-land reclamation for
increased agricultural production. Integrated rural development through mixed
farming.
8.
Rural development based on dairy-farming through integrated farming systems.
Workshop on biogas for the Pacific island community. Recycling agricultural
and animal wastes in the south and south-east Asian countries. Developed a
system of intensive farrning based on recycling of all wastes, solid, liquid and
gaseous, making all agricultural practices independent of all outside-supplies
of energy, chemical fertilizer etc. Developed a system for co-operative urban and
rural habitation in and around cities and towns to make use of all waste-mater113
ials generated in urban areas, to develop a green-belt around, to make use of all
city wastes, solid, liquid and gaseous, to produce all perishable agricultural
commodities needed in the urban-ten tres.
. 9.
*
10.
National Institute of Waste Recycling Technology, A-18, Juhu Apartments,
Juhu Road, Bombay 400 049, India
65. Mr. PENG Wu-Hou
2. 21 July 1939
1.
China
3.
Graduate, Shanghai Science and Technology University (specialization in biochemistry and physical chemistry-) (1963)
4.
English, Chinese
5.
In-chaige, Comprehensive Research Office, Shanghai Institute
1966 to-date
of Industrial Microbiology, Shanghai
R,:search on fermentation for industries, Shanghai Light In1963-1966
dustry Research Institute, Shanghai
6.
Biochemistry
.7.
Microbiological fermentation
8.
Research on biogas fermentation and on utilization of waste heat from power
generation. Research on potential raw materials for biogas fermentation. Research on disposal of urban waste for biogas fermentation.
9.
“Approaches to some aspects of increasing the volume of biogas production”,
Energy Resources No. 3, 1979. “Research on the effect of acetic acid, sodium,
cellulose enzymes etc. in biogas fermentation”. “Chemicals to stop formation
of mildew”, Chemical World No. 5, 1980. “Research on artificial biogas”, parts
I and II, Industrial Microbiology, December 1979 and 1980. “Report on utilization of waste heat from biogas power generation”, IDjWG 32 l/4, June 1980.
10.
Shanghai Institute of Industrial Microbiology, Shanghai, China
66.
Mr. Chongrak
POLPRASERT
1.
Thailand
3.
4.
5.
Ph.D. (Civil Engineering)
English, Thai
1977 to-date
Assistant Professor of environmental engineering, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok
Sanitation. Waste recycling.
6.
2. 25 October 1949
114
7.
Environment
8.
Recycling rural and urban nightsoil in Thailand, a two-year research project
sponsored by the International Development Research Centre, Canada
10.
Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 2754, Bangkok, Thailand
67. Mr. G.G. PURI
I
2. 16 August 1924
1.
India
3.
BSc. (Electrical and Mechanical Engineering). Director, Institute of Regional
Analysis. Technical Member, NWWA, USA. Chairman, Institute of Engineers,
Madhya Pradesh Centre
4.
Hindi, English, Marathi, French, Urdu, Gujarati
5.
1974 to-date
Founder/Executive Director (honorary), Resources Development Institute, Bhopal
1973 to-date
Chief Engineer, Irrigation Department, Government of Madhya
Pradesh
1977- 1978
Managing Director, M.P. Lift Irrigation Corporation
August-October 1979 Consultant, Asian Development Bank, Mission IV, agriculture credit project, Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Director, ground water surveys and tubewells, Government of
1970-1973
Madhya Pradesh; also Expert, World Bank
Superintending Engineer, Directorate tube wells, Madhya
1968-l 970
Pradesh; also Consultant, Development Resources Corporation, USA
Executive Engineer, EIM, Irrigation Department, Government
1958-1968
of Madhya Pradesh
Consultant to Chief Engineer, Irrigation Department, Madhya
1958-1960
Pradesh
Assistant Engineer, Public Works and Irrigation Department and
1950-1958
Bhilai Steel Plant
Engineer (power), Empress Mills, Nagpur
1949-1950
6.
Construction machinery, workshops, stores, projects construction and mechanization. Ground water development: wells, tube wells, drilling and pumping
machinery
7.
Resource development: all aspects including biogas technology and solar energy.
8.
Research and research guidance on resource development projects, including
biogas and solar energy technology. Auto-lift impulse pumps.
10.
Resources Development Institute, E-3/76, Arera Colony, Bhopal, M.P., India
115
~
68.
Mr. QIAN
Ze-Shu
1925
1.
China
4.
Chinese, English
5.
Associate Professor of Microbiology,
Present
University, Zhejiang
6.
Soil microbiology
7.
Biogas (methane fermentation)
8.
Nitrogen ftiation. Methane fermentation
9.
“Studies of observation on methane fermentation
China”. (in English)
10.
2.
Zhejiang Agricultural
in farmyard digesters in
Zhejiang Agricultural University, Zhejiang, China
69.
Mr. SK
RAJAPAKSE
2. i9 June 1952
1.
Sri Lanka
3.
National Diploma in Technology (Chemical Engineering); Specially trained in
China on small and large scale biogas technology.
4.
English
5.
Chemical Engineer, Industrial Development Board, Katubedda,
Present
Moratuwa, Sri Lanka
6.
Biogas and other alternate sources of energy.
8.
Promotion of biogas in Sri Lanka in collaboration with World Vision [email protected] Organization. Training of technicians for construction of biogas works.
Undertaking of design and construction works.
10.
Industrial Development Board of Ceylon, 6 15, Galle Road, Katubedda, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka
70.
Mr. M.A. Sethu IL40
2. 27 September 1924
1.
India
4.
English, Kannada
5.
Present
Joint Secretary, Karnataka State Council for Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
Reader in chemistry, University of Mysore, Kamataka
6.
Physical chemistry
116
7.
1.0.
Science and technology. Planning. Popularization of science.
Karnataka State Council for Science and Technology, Indian Institute of
Science, Bangalore 5600 12, India
7 1. Mr. P. Sreenivasa RAO
5 July 1931
1.
India
3.
M.Sc., Ph.D.
4.
English
5,
Scientist (1961-1976) and then Assistant Director, Central Salt
196 1 to-date
and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar
Lecturer, M.R. College, Vijayanagaram
1958-1961
Lecturer, A.C. College
1957-1958
Demonstrator, Hindu College
1950-1957
1970-1971
Reader in bioscience, Saurashtra University, Bhavnagar
6.
Marine algae
7.
Marine microbiology and marine biomedicals
All-India co-ordinated project on algae - energy from sea weeds and other
organic wastes
8.
10.
2.
Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Waghawadi Road, Bhavna
gar 364 002, India
72.
Mr. Sermpol
RATASUK
2. 18 October 1943
1.
Thailand
3.
B.Sc. (Hons.) (Chemical Engineering) (Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok),
M.Eng. (Environmental Engineering) (AIT, Bangkokj, Ph.D. (Environmen’til
Engineering) (University of Newscastle-upon-Tyne)
4.
Thai, English
5.
Present
Environment and Development Department, Thailand Institute
of Scientific and Technological Research, Bangkok
6.
Chemical engineering. Environmental engineering.
8.
Evaluation of treatment alternatives for molasses distillery stillage
9.
On anaerobic filter treatment of strong organic wastes; anaerobic filter for biogas
production
10.
Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, 196 Paholyothin
Road, Bangkhen, Bangkok 9, Thailand
117
73. Mr. REN Yuan-Cal
2. December 1933
1.
China
3.
Graduate, Chongqing Architectural Engineering Special School (1955) and
Architectural Construction Special Night University (third year) ( 1959)
4.
Self-educated in English
5.
Chief, Biogas Digester Scientific Research Group, Chengdu
1980
Biogas Scientific Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu
In-charge, Central Experimental and Research Institute, Minis1976
try of Construction, Third Bureau, responsible for environmental protection and
scientific research, Division of Science and Technology, Urban Construction
Commission, Chengdu, Sichuan
Chief, Scientific Research Group, Office of Structures, Xix-ran
1965
Construction Science and Research Institute, Ministry of Construction, Chengdu, Sichuan
Head, refining factory for reinforced concrete, Mao Ming City,
1959
Guandong Province
6.
Scientific research and management of biogas digester construction
7.
Techniques of welding reinforcing bars. Techniques of practical application of
concrete
8.
Design and construction of standardized small biogas plants for farm households
and research on collective or decentralized gas supply. Design and construction
of medium-scale (60-200 m3 ) biogas plants. Research on power station for coordinated electricity generation and refining of by-products of agriculture.
Design and construction of large-scale (300-1200 m3 ) biogas plants. Biogas
fermentation techniques at general and medium temperatures. Research on a
complete set for electricity generation.
9.
“Collected fruitful scientific research results”, Ninth information collection on
digester construction, Sichuan Province Biogas Office compilation and publication. Biogas techniques: design and construction of digesters, Book II, textbook
and reference for United Nations University, 1980.
10.
Chengdu Biogas Scientific Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Ren Min
Nan Lu, Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, China
74.
Mr. M.A. SATHIANATHAN
1.
India
4.
English, Hindi, Malayalam, French
2. 5 January 1924
118
5.
Co-ordinator, Energy and Environment Centre of Science for
-1978 to-date
Villages; and also Director, Eco-Living Centre
Secretary, Progressive Education Association; and also Vice1969-1978
Chairman, Village Industrialization Association
Director, Sevagram Rural Technical Training Centre (an Indo1967-i 969
German project)
President, Rural Higher Education Institute, Sevagram
1965-1967
Field work in Kerala and Gwalior as a village worker
1955-1964
1947-1955
Head, . Science and Handicrafts
Mahatma Gandhi’s Village Headquarters.
Department
at Sevagram,
6.
Education. Biogas technology. Rural industrialization
7.
Taking science to the villages
8.
Studies on: equipment design engineering and improvement of digesters; digestion process engineering studies; feed stock processing and plant design, selection
of biogas system for its use in rural industries; systems approach to biogas
utilization (ongoing)
9.
*
10.
Kakawadi, Wardha 442 001, India
75.
Mr. B.R. SAUBOLLE,
1.
India
3.
Jesuit priest
4.
Hindi, English, French, Nepali, Latin
5.
196 5 to-date
Experirmented in solar energy
1953-1980
Experimented in biogas
Education
Parish work in India
1951-1980
1940-1950
S.J.
2. 1 October 1904
6.
Priesthood. Education, Primary and middle school
7.
Biogas. Solar energy. Appropriate technology.
8.
Introduction of biogas and solar water heaters in Nepal. Member of Editorial
Board of Siogas Newsletter [email protected] Consultant member of periodical Shakti
(Energy). Development of smokeless stoves.
9.
On, fuel gas from cow dung, home brew, mini-technology
10.
Post Box 50, Kathmandu, Nepal
119
76.
Mr. Iqbal Hussain SHAH
2. 11 November 1934
1.
Pakistan
3.
B.Sc. (Mechanical Engineering), MME (Colorado State University), M.Sc. (Thermo) (University of Birmingham), Post Graduate Diploma (Industries) (Norway)
4.
English, Pashto, Urdu, Persian
5.
7
Dean/Director Research, Faculty of Engineering, University of
1978 to-date
Peshawar, Pakistan
Affiliated Professor, Colorado State University
1976
Visiting Professor, Sri Lanka, under UNESCO
Senior Lecturer (1956-1961), Reader (1961-1969),
1956-1969
Professor, Engineering College, University of Peshawar
’ 1975
1955-1956
and then
Assistant Engineer, Hydro-electric Project, Warsak
6.
Mechanical engineering. Croyogenic engineering. Thermodynamic
general. Refrigeration. Air-conditioning. Solar energy. Biogas
7.
Appropriate technology research projects. Solar energy. Biogas
8.
Design and construction of sealed type, variable pressure biogas plant. Determination of heat of temperature on biogas production. Conversion of 5 hp petrol
engine to run on biogas (tested for 2 years and can be directly started with
biogas). Conversion of 6 hp diesel engine to run on biogas and diesel. Design and
construction of vertical type biogas pump. Utilization of solar energy in production of biogas. Biogas as a fuel for power production on agricultural farm.
9.
*
10.
power in
Faculty of Engineering, University of Peshawar, P.O. Peshawar University,
N.W.F.P., Pakistan
I
77. Mr. J.B. SINGH
1.
India
2. 23 May 1926
3.
M.Sc. (Agriculture) (Agro-economics)
4.
English, Hindi
5.
6.
Present
Executive Director, Action for Food Production
New Delhi
Agricultural economics and extension. Community development
7.
Appropriate/rural
technology. Biogas technology
120
(AFPRO),
8.
Chief coordinator: extension and systematic promotion of Janata plant through
demonstration-cum-training of Janata plants scheme; field evaluation of small
tractor (self helper - 7 hp) under different agro-climatic conditions in India
9.
Promotion of biogas plants for small and marginal farmers on individual and
community basis
10.
Action for Food Production (AFPRO), C-17 Community
Development Area, New Delhi 110 0 16, India
78.
Mr. Ongart
SITTHICHAROENCHAI
1.
Thailand
3.
B.Sc. (Sanitation), MPH (Environmental Health)
4.
English, Thai
5.
1970 to-date
6.
Environmental sanitation
7.
Environmental health
10.
Centre, Safdarjang
Department of Health, Ministry of Public Health, Bangkok
Sanitation Division, Department of Health, Ministry of Public Health, Bangkok,
Thailand
79.
Mr. Pichit
SKULBHRAM
1.
Thailand
3.
B.Sc. (Sanitary Science) (Mahidol
(University of Minnesota)
4.
English, Thai
5.
1957 to-date
Instructor (1957), Assistant Professor (197 1) and then Associate Professor, Sanitary Science Department, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol
University, Bangkok
6.
Environmental health, majoring in water and wastewater
7.
Teaching in general sanitation
8.
Biogas production from various organic matters; two research projects completed at Sanitation Region Centre 1, Prabhudtabat District, Saraburi Province.
9.
Two final reports on biogas research published in the Journal of the National
Research Council of Thailand (in Thai)
10.
Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, 420/l Rajavithi Road, Bangkok 4,
Thailand
University), MPH (Environmental
121
Health)
80.
Mr. Koentoro
SOEBUARSO
3. 17 October 1944
1.
Indonesia
3.
Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Gajah Mada University
4.
English, Indonesian
5.
Research staff, Laboratory of Industrial Gases, Industrial Re1976 todate
search Institute, Centre for Chemical Industry, Indonesia
Research staff, Laboratory of Microbiology, Indonesian Leather
1973-1976
Research Institute, Indonesia
6.
Industrial gases.
8.
Research and development of biogas and its prototype
10.
Industrial Research Institute, Centre for Chemical Industry, Jalan Karanganyar
55, Jakarta, Indonesia
81.
Mr. Richard K. SOLLY
1.
Australia (resident of Fiji)
3.
B.Sc., M-SC., Ph.D.; ARACI
4.
English
5.
Present
Suva, Fiji
6.
Investigation of mass and energy flows in the biogas system as a function of the
system parameters. Development of biogas systems appropriate to the rural areas
of developing countries
7
#.
Utilization of 11egetable matter in biogas systems
8.
Investigation of rural digesters in the South Pacific. Installation and operation of
polymer rubber biogas digesters in appropriate locations in the South Pacific.
Development of simple durable biogas digesters. Utilization of water hyacinth
and vegetable matter in biogas digesters. Development of integrated biogas
systems
9.
*
10.
Senior Lecturer in chemistry, University of the South Pacific,
University of the South Pacific, P.O. Box 1168, Suva, Fiji
82.
Mr. W. Robert
1.
United Kingdom
3.
B.Sc., Ph.D. (London); FIBiot, FIFST
STANTON
2. 24 February 1923
122
French, German, Italian, Malay, English
I
5.
Professor of Botany, University of Malaya, Malaysia
Consultant and Member, UNEP/UNESCO,@CRO Panel for Applied Microbiology
in south-east Asia
Head, Microbiology Section, Tropical Products Institute, London
Senior Botanist, Nigeria
UK Research Institutions
6.
Processing tropical and equatorial crops and by-products
7.
Fermented foods
8,
Vegetable oil recovery from vegetable oil processing wastes. Equatorial starches
for establishment of food and gasohol industries - palm starches and sugar. Biogas plant, constructed with mild steel and with digester volume of 2 x 3000 m2
at a cost of approximately US$ 600,000, with continuous feed of about 400
tons/day of effluent and palm oil processing, producing 9 tons/day methane, at
present utilized for hot air drying with the effluent used as direct fertilizer on
soil.
346 Lorong lOC, United Gardens, Old Klang Road, KuaIa Lumpur, Malaysia
83.
Mr.DJ.
STEWART
2. March 1942
1.
New Zealand
3.
B.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.D.
4.
English, French
5.
1972 to-date
1970-1971
1968
Canada
1967
New Zealand
Scientist, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, New Zealand
Assistant Professor, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S., Canada
Post-Doctoral Fellow, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S.,
Junior Lecturer in chemistry, Victoria University, Wellington,
6.
Chemistry. Biochemistry
7.
Physics. Engineering.
8.
Effects of industrial pollution on agriculture. Production of biogas from crops
and wastes. Energy farming. Energy in agric,_ture. Farm scale biogas and ethanol
plants.
9.
*
123
10.
Section Leader, Energy and Environment Section, Invermay
search Centre, Private Bag, Mosgiel, New Zealand
84.
Agricultural
Re-
Mr. SUN Guo-Chao
2. January 1941
1.
China
3.
Graduate, Nanjing Agricultural
tion in agriculture)
4.
English, Chinese
5.
Lecturer and Deputy Chief, Biogas Group, Chengdu Biological
1968 to-date
Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences
6.
Microbiology
7.
Biogas fermentation and biochemical analysis
8.
Microbiological biogas fermentation. Biogas fermentation techniques
10.
College, Department of Agriculture (specializa-
Chengdu Biological Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu
City, Sichuan China
85.
Mr. Calixto C. TAGANAS
2. 21 October 1921
1.
Philippines
3.
B.S.C.E., S.E.
4.
English, Filipino
5.
Assistant Vice President, Liberty Flour Mills, Inc., in charge of biogas works
design, construction and operations and civil works
Administrative Officer and Officer-in-Charge, Civil Department, Liberty Flour
Mills, Inc.
Head MiBer, Liberty Flour Mills, Inc.
General Superintendent, Ysmael Wood Industries
Shift Miller, Liberty Flour Mills, Inc.
Assistant Civil Engineer, Liberty Flour Mills. Inc.
Construction Inspector, National Power Corporation
Engineer Aide, Ministry of Public Works and Communication
Instructor, Aurora College (formerly Baler Institute)
6.
Design, construction and operation of biogas works. Construction of multi-rise
structures
7.
Flour milling, veneer and plywood manufacturer
124
f
8.
Biogas works at Maya Farms and other stock farms
9.
“Biogas and waste recycling”. “The small biogas plant”.
10.
Official: Liberty Flour Mills, Inc., Liberty Building, Pasay Road, Makati, Metro
Manila, Philippines
Residence: 149 K-6 Kamias, Quezon City, Philippines
86.
Mr. Morakot
TANTICHAROEN
2. 13 October 1947
1.
Thailand
3.
Ph.D. (Microbiology) (University of Rhode Island)
4.
English, Thai
5.
Head, Department of Microbiology, King Mongkut’s Institute of
1978 to-date
Technology, Thonburi Campus, Bangkok
Teaching and Research Assistant, University of Rhode Island,
1972-1977
USA
Research Assistant, SEATO Medical Research Laboratory,
1968-1971
Bangkok
6.
Microbiology
7.
Renewable energy (bio-energy conversion)
8.
Biogas mechanism generated from plant materials. Isolation I of cellulolytic
micro-organism from soil and digester sludge
10.
King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology, Thonburi Campus, 48 Suksawad Road,
Rajburana, Bangkok 14, Thailand
87.
Mr. Boontham
TESNA
2. 19 June 1928
1.
Thailand
3.
B-SC. (Agriculture) (Kasetsart University), M.S. (Agricultural Education) (Oklahoma State University), Ph.D. (Co-operative Extension)
4.
English, Thai
5.
Government official, serving as an instructor in vocational agriculture school for
nine years and lecturer, assistant professor, associate professor for ten years both
at Khan Kaen University and Maejo Institute of Agricultural Technology
6.
Agricultural education
7.
Interested in biogas primarily in the mterests of manure collection, sanitation
and gas for cooking
125
8.
Has encouraged many rural and farm population to’build biogas units with different designs; with or without gas tanks, different shapes-round, rectangular,
cubic, square; with inside outlet and outside for draining spent manure. Good
units for showtig to interested groups or individuals; 10 in Chieng Mai, 1 in
Lumpang, 2 in Pitsanulok and 2 in Lampoon
9.
A paper presented to Universiti Pertanian Malaysia about social-economic outcome of the extension of biogas technology
10.
Dean, Faculty of Agricultural Business, Maejo Institute of Agricultural Technology; Maejo, Chieng Mai, Thailand. Tel: 236-602
88.
Mr. Y.R. TEPNIS
1.
India
3.
B.A., B.Sc., B.E. (Civil Engineering); Life Member: Indian Institu,te of Geehydrologists, Calcutta; FIE, FRDI, MIWWE, MIPE, MIME
4.
English, Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati
5.
1970 to-date
Trustee and Director, Rayalaseema Development Trust, Anantapur (during October 1975 - December 1976, with Pentajen Engineering as coordinating sales engineer for indented equipment)
1970-1969
Adviser, Udain Engineering Co. (contractors and builders)
1967-1970
Consultant
1965-l 967
Chief Engineer, Sikkim P.W.D., Ganjtole, Sikkim
1962-1965
Chief Engineer, Indian Institute of Petroleum Research
1959-1962
Chief Civil Engineer, Gantrati Refinery Noomati, Assam
1957-1959
Chief Plant Engineer, Hindustan, Bangalore
6.
Composite civil engineering and indential projects
7.
Water supply survey, planning implementation, conservation and replenishment.
Agro-oriented projects like biogas plants and solar cooker. Social work with
emphasis on experience of work and rural education
8.
Among others, construction of biogas plants and cheap solar cookers.
10.
2. 19 December 1907
c/o Resources Development Institute,
India
89.
1100 Quarters Area, Bhopal, 462016,
Mr. Hiroji Narayan
TODANKAR
1.
India
3.
Practical experience with nightsoil and cattle dung gas plants over the past 22
years; also learned the technique of constructing inexpensive hygenic latrines for
Indian villages.
2. 7 December 1918
126
’
4.
Marathi (mainly), Hindi and English (working knowledge)
5.
Organizer of the Bhangi Mukti (improved rural hygene scheme
1959 to-date
without the hired services of scavangers) under the aegies of Gandhi Memorial
Fund for the State of Maharashtra (India).
Social worker in Government-sponsored Sarvodaya (integrated
1949-1959
rural development organization) at Gopuri.
6.
Rural hygene. Biogas
7.
Rural education
8.
Introduction in villages of improved, inexpensive hygenic latrines and nightsoil
gas plants. During the past 20 years constructed over 56,000 latrines and over
100 nightsoil biogas plants. Earlier organized 14 schools on Gandhijis model of
occupation oriented t-asic education.
9.
One informative handout on nighsoil gas plant (in English)
10.
Gandhi Bhavan, Kothrud, Pune 411 029, Maharashtra: India
90.
Mr. TSE Shu-Chien
1.
China
4.
English, Chinese
5.
Present
Head, Department of Soils and Agricultural Chemistry, Zhejiang
Agricultural University
6.
Soil microbiology
7.
Biogas
9.
Experimental reports
10.
Laboratory of Soil Microbiology,
Zhejiang, China
91.
Zhejiang Agricultural
University, Hangzhou,
Mr. TU Jia-Bao
2. March 1939
1;
China
3.
Graduate, Beijing Agricultural University ( 1964)
4.
Chinese
5.
1978 to-date
19641977
equipments
Planning and managing biogas research and implementation
Planning and managing agricultural scientific instruments and
127
6.
Biogas research, planning and managing
7.
Biogas implementation and administration
8.
Programmes under National Biogas Office
9.
Reports at’UNDP/ESCAP 1978, UNAPDI 1978, FAO 1980 and UNIDO 1980
10.
National Biogas Office, Ministry of Agriculture, Ho Pin Lee, Beijing, China
92.
1.
Thailand
4.
English, Thai
5.
1978 to-date
sity , Bangkok
1977
Mr. Somthep
TUMWASORN
2. 25 July 1951
Junior Lecturer, Animals Science Department, Kasetsart UniverResearch Assistant, Rockefeller Foundation
6.
Animal breeding and production
7.
Agricultural waste management
8.
Integration of biogas with agricultural system under village conditions
10.
Animal Science Department, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 9, Thailand
93.
Mr. WANG
Da-Si
2. 23 April 1923
1.
China
3.
Graduate, Catholic University
College (1949)
4.
English, Chinese
5.
1959 to-date
1949-l 959
6.
Bacteriology
7.
Industrial bacteriology
8.
Bacterial taxonomy. Bacteria in biogas production
9.
“Foundation for bacterial taxonomy”, Science Press, 1977
10.
(1945). Post-graduate, Peking Union Medical
Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Institute of Forestry and Soil, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
128
94.
Mr. WANG
Meng-Jie
2. 1935
China
3.
Ilniversity graduate, Herbin North-east Agricultural University ( 1957-l 962)
4.
Chinese, Japanese
5.
Engineer/Chief, Energy Sources Engineering Office, China Re1978 to-date
search and Designing Institute of Agricultural Engineering
Engineer, Farm Machinery Repairing and Research Institute,
1962-l 978
Heilongjiang Province
6.
Mechanical engineering. Energy resources engineering
7.
Farm mechanization. Utilization of plasma as arc heat source
8.
Medium temperature biogas engineering. Standardization of small-scale biogas
plants. Utilization of solar energy for seeing biogas plants through winter. New
energy sources for village construction
“Norms for farm machinery maintenance”. “Renovation of old tractors”.
China Research and Designing Institute of Agricultural
China
95.
Mr. WANG
Engineering, Beijing,
Xin-Qaan
2. July 1940
1.
China
3.
Graduate, Shanghai Special School for Electrical Industry (specialization in
manufacture of steam turbine)
4.
Can translate written texts into English, with the help of dictionary.
5.
Chief Engineer (power machinery), Sichuan Agricultura! Ma1963 to-date
chinery Research Institute, Sichuan
6.
Researchon practical applications of biogas as motive power for agriculture
7.
Research on forming a complete set machinery for biogas. Research on small
horsepower diesel machine
8.
Research on installation for stirring in biogas plant and on small horsepower
diesel engine
“Practical applications of biogas as motive power in agriculture”, in the study
compiled for United Nations University on biogas engineering
10.
Agricultural Machinery Research Institute, Sichuan Province, China
129
96. Mr.Myo
WJN
1.
Burma
3.
4.
B.E. (Agriculture), M.Eng.Sc. (Melb)
5.
Lecturer, Agricultural Engineering Department, University of
1979 to-date
the South Pacific, Alafua, West Samoa
Instructor (1965-1971), Assistant Lecturer (1971-1978) and
1965-1979
then Lecturer (1978-1979), Mechanical Engineering Department, RIT
6.
Mechanical and agricultural engineering
7.
Soil and water conservation
8.
Supervised undergraduate and post-graduate theses. Testing of small farm implements
10.
c/o Agricultural Engineering Department, University of the South Pacific Alafua,
Samoa
Burmese, English
97. Mr. DongHan WOOK
1.
Republic of Korea
3.
B.S. and M.S. (Agricultural Chemistry) (Korea University), Ph.D. (Agricultural
Science) (Hokkaido University, Japan)
4.
English, Japanese
5.
Agricultural Senior Researcher/Chief, Rural Energy Resources
Present
Research Division, Institute of Agricultural Science, Office of Rural Development
6.
Biogas production and utilization
8.
Studies on material resources for biogas production. *Development of biogas
plant types and biogas utilization
9.
Studies on biogas generation from animal wastes. A feasibility study of village
scale biogas plant during winter season
10.
Institute of Agricultural
public of Korea
Science, Office of Rural Development, Suweon, Re-
98.
Mr. WU Chang-Lun
2.; December 1937
11.
china
3.
Graduate, Beijing Agricultural Mechanization Institute ( 1959)
130
5.
Engineer, China Research and Designing Institute of AgriculPresent
tural Engineering, Beijing
Mechanization Research Institute,
Engineer, Agricultural
1978
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science
6.
Agricultural mechanization
8.
Currently, on aspects of area energy resource planning for villages in China
10.
China Research and Designing Institute
China
99.
of Agricultural
Engineering, Beijing,
Mr. WU Jin-Peng
2. July 1931
1.
China
3.
Graduate, Zhejiang Agricultural
4.
Chinese, English
5.
1973 to-date
1964- 1973
1955-1964
6.
General microbiology
7.
Biogas (methane fermentation). Industrial fermentation
8.
Methane fermentation
9.
“Studies of observation on methane fermentation in the farmyard digesters in
China” (in English)
_-- 1
Zhejiang Agricuitural University, Zhejiang, China
10.
University ( 1955). Lecturer in microbiology
.
Zhejiang Agricultural University
Zhejiang Light Industrial Research Institute
Zhejiang Chemical Industrial Research Institute
100.
Ms. XL40
Ying-chang
2. December 1933
1.
China
3.
Graduate in biology, Northwest University (1956)
4.
Can use English for translating technical documents and reference materials
5.
Chief of Microbiology Teaching Group, Chongqing Teachers
197 1 to-date
College, Chongqing
Teaching botany, Chongqing Teachers College
1961-1971
1956-1961
* Teaching botan y, Shandong .4gricultural College
6.
Microbiology. Biogas
131
7.
Botany
8.
Laser induced mixing of bacteria at low temperature biogas plant. Addition of
formaldehyde, acetone acid to raise the effect of the rate of gas production. Experiment with putting in bacteria. Plants as a source of energy - water hyacinth.
Research on water hyacinth, green grass increasing the volume of biogas. Research on potentiality of water hyacinth for producing biogas and on methods of
introducing feed materials. Comparison of results of single stage and multistage fermentation with respect to biogas production. Separate appraisal of
methane bacteria
9.
“Flora in Shandong economy”, Shandong People’s Publishing House ( 1978).
“Water hyacinth and green grass are good raw materials for fermentation”,
Chongqing Microbiology Society (1979). “Production at dew point low temperature (reddish brown requirement, 9.2): a summing up”, Sichuan Microbiology in
Agriculture, second anthology
10.
Microbiology Department, Chongqing Teachers College, Chongqing, Sichaun
Province, China
101.
Mr. XU Jie-Quau
2. March 1945
1.
China
3.
Graduate, University of Fudan (specialization in microbiology
4.
English, Chinese
5.
Engineer, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of
1968 to-date
Sciences, research in biogas fermentation
6.
Biochemistry
7.
Biogas fermentation
8.
Two-phase anaerobic digestion
10.
- biochemistry)
Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan,
China
102.
Mr. XU Ke-Nan
2. September 1927
1.
China
3.
Graduate, Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Sichuan University (specialization in biochemistry) (1952)
4.
English (reading), Chinese
5.
Technician, Agricultural Technician, Deputy Chief, Research
1952 todate
Office, Research Institute for Soil and Fertilizer, Academy of Agricultural
Science, Sichuan
132
6.
Agricultural chemistry
8.
Accelerated composting. Manufacturing granulated fertilizer from urban garbage.
Ground phosphate rock. Fertilizer nutrition survey. Nitrogenous and phosphatic
nutrition for rapeseed and fertilizer application for high yield. Techniques of
application, effectiveness and utilization of biogas fertilizers
9.
“Acceleration in cornposting”, Sichuan People’s Publishing House ( 1956).
“Methods of manufacture and use of granulated fertilizer”, Sichuan People’s
Publishing House ( 195 5). “Ammonia water and hydro carbonic acid”, joint
publication of Sichuan Province Agricultural Bureau, Fertilizer Division and
Sichuan Province Agricultural Investment Corporation ( 1974). “Simplified
method of measuring content of humic acid and carbonic acid in rational application of fertilizers for raising its effectiveness”, Sichuan Provincial Information
Centre for Chemical Industry Techniques (1976). “Anthology on means of production”, Research and Utilization of Biogas Fertilizer, Sichuan Provincial
Biogas Office (1979). “Severe toxic gas formation during decomposition process: examination of early signs”, Sichuan Agricultural Science and Technology,
No. 4 (1980)
10.
Research Institute for Soil and Fertilizer, Academy of Agricultural
Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, China
103.
Science,
Mr. XU Yi-Zhong
2. 15 October 1934
1.
China
3.
University graduate (biology)
4.
Chinese
5.
Present
Engineer, Chengdu Biogas Scientific Research Institute, Sichuan
July - August 1980 UNDP biogas consultant in the Philippines
6.
Biology. Biogas digestion. Biogas fermentative bacteria
8.
Some conclusions from biogas experiments (1974). Investigation of general
conditions for use of biogas in the village in spring (1975). Experiments to
strengthen management and increase the rate of biogas production (1975).
Tests of rules for fermentation (1976). Relation between different siting of
biogas plants and increase in production (1976). Experiments with production
rates at various pressures (1977). Relations between different fermentation
materials and fertilizers (1978). Research on absence of oxyg in the digester
(1980). Use of pig manure (1980)
9.
Eight articles on biogas published in Chinese biogas magazines
10.
Chengdu Biogas Scientific Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu,
Sichuan, China
133
,
104.
Mr. XU Zeng-Fu
2. 1921
1.
China
3.
Fudan University, Shanghai ( 1946)
4.
English, Japanese, Chinese
5.
Vice-director, Zhejiang Biogas and Solar Energy Scientific
Present
Research Institute, Hangch.ow
6.
Biogas technology and economy
7.
Solar energy application
8.
Biogas drying technique. New type of mesophillic biogas plant
9.
Siogas Technology, to be published by United Nations University, Tokyo
10.
Zhejiang Biogas and Solar Energy Scientific Research Institute, Hangchow City,
China
105.
Mr. ZHANG
Chang-Ming
2. November 1936
1.
China
3.
Graduate, Sian Communication
tion engines) ( 196 1)
4.
Chinese, English, Russian
5.
Technician, internal-combustion engine (196 l-l 965) and then
196 1 to-date
Engineer, internal-combustion engine, Sichuan Protince Agricultural Machinery
Research and Design Institute
6.
Biogas application for energy in agriculture
7,.
Gas engines. Diesel engines
8.
Gas fuelled engine. Research and manufacture of S195 - small-scale model
10.
Sichuan Province Agricultural
Sichuan, China
106.
University (specialization in internal-combus-
Machinery and Design Institute
Mr. ZHANG
Guo-Zheng
2. lOMarch 1936
1.
China
3.
Graduate in biology, China South-rvest Normal College ( 196 1)
4.
Chinese, English
134
(3rd office),
5.
Assistant in botany (1959-1962)., Assistant in microbiology and
1959 to-date
Lecturer (1963-1980), Chief of Biogas Research Section (1974-1978) and then
Head of Bio-energy Research Institute, China South-west Normal College
6.
Specialist in microbiology and fermentation research
8.
Research on mixture ratio among fermentation materials, fermentation conditions, fermentation bacteria, fermentation materials in the city and in the
village. Scientific management of small digesters
9.
Experiments with activities of micro-organisms. Research on ratio of feed
materials for digester. Pretreatment of feed materials. Survey of biogas development inside and outside the country
10.
China South-west Normal College, Biogas Bio+nergy Research Institute, Xinan,
China
107.
Mr. ZHANG
Wei
2. October 1922
1.
China
3.
Graduate, University of Chongqing, Department of Architectural
4.
Chinese, English
5.
1952 to-date
Engineering
Architect, S.W. Institute of Building Design, Chengdu, Sichuan
Lecturer, Chengdu Biogas Seminar
1979
Participant in Bremen Biogas Workshop, 1979 and in Indo/Sino/German
Biogas Group
Joint
6.
Architecture
7.
Planning. Biogas (in co-operation with National Biogas Office)
8.
Information and translation of materials concerning biogas study
9.
“Construction of biogas digester in Sichuan, China”, Agricultural Waste, November 1979 (in English)
10.
S.W. Institute of Building Design, 168 Jin Hwa Street, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
108.
Mr. ZHOU
IMeng-Jin
2.
25 February 1935
1.
China
3.
Graduate, Department of Biology, Beijing Teacher’s College ( 196 1)
4.
Chinese, English
5.
196 1 todate
6.
Microbiology
Teacher, Department of Biology, Beijing Teacher’s College
135
8.
10.
Pure cultural isolation of methanogenic bacteria. Study of kinetic of methane
fermentation
Department of Biology, Beijing Teacher’s College, Beijing, China
109.
Mr. ZOU Yuang-Liang
2. August 1937
1.
China
3.
Graduate, Shandong University, Biology Department (specialization in microbiology) ( 1960)
4.
Chinese, Russian
5.
1978 to-date
search Institute,
1966-1978
College
1960-1966
Engineer, Deputy Chief, Biolog&al Energy Office, Energy ReShandong Academy of Sciences
Chief, Chemistry Teaching Group: Shandong Special Teachers
Assistant Professor, Biology Faculty, Shandong University
6.
Microbiology
7.
General chemistry
8.
Screening and breeding of anti-cancer antibiotics. Marine actinomyces. Breeding
of actinomyces 2321 amino acidic nourishment defective type. Research on
management of biogas plant through winter. Biogas seeding. Research on potential of digester materials for gas production and the optimum combination of
materials.
10.
Shandong Province Energy Resources Research Institute, Jinan City, Shandong
Province, China
110.
Mr. J.H. FINLAY
1.
United Kingdom
3.
C. Eng., MI Prod. E.
4.
English
5.
1974 to-date
Biogas Consultant, Development and Consulting Services,
Butwal, Nepal
1980
Consultant, compilation of UN ESCAP Guidebook on Biogas
Development, 1980
6.
Biogas plant design, Biogas appliances designs
7.
Engineering
2. 3 July 1938
136
8.
Design and construction of floating gas holder drum type gas pla.ut, cu ft per
day of 100, 200, 350 and 500; drumless gas plants of 10, 15, 20 and 50 m3 ; gas
production equipment; hard gobar mixer; 1300 mm water pressure gauge.
(comLleted)
;
Gas taps; tunnel plant; attaching small generator to biogasldiesel engine water
pump for lighting 15 lamps in ,village. (ongoing)
Gas lamp; large gas store; pressure regulator. (planned)
9.
*
10.
Development and Consulting Services, Butwal, Nepal
110(a).
Mr. M. Sohail QURESHI
1.
Pakistan
3.
B.Sc. (Hons.) (Punjab), B.Sc. (Non-med) (Punjab), M.Sc. (Chemical Engineering)
(Birmingham), M.Sc. (Hans.) (Punjab)
4.
English, Urdu, Punjabi
5.
1978 to-date
Director-General (Energy Resources), Ministry of Petroleum
and Natural Resources, Government of Pakistan
1973-1978
Principal Officer to Vice-Chairman, BIM & State Petroleum
Board
1973-l 976
Secretariat
2. 16 September 1934
Chief, in charge of Economic Wing in the Prime Minister’s
6.
Chemical engineering. Petroleum refinery. Development and management of
energy resources
7.
Marketing development. Management development
8.
Installation 100 family biogas units for demonstration. Rural energy project.
Rural electrification project. Solar energy development project. Conservation of
energy. Biogas development project (1,200 biogas plants)
10.
Energy Resources Cell, Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources, Govemment of Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan
110(b).
Mr. P. R.AJABAPAIAH
1.
India
3.
B.Tech. (Chemical Engineering). At present doing research for the doctoral
degree in the biogas field.
4.
English, Telugu, Hindi, Kannada
137
5.
Staff Member and investigator, project on further studies in
1978 to-date
biogas technology, AS-IRA (Centre for the Application of Science and Technology to the Rural Areas), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
Worked for (two years in the research project on development of biogas technology and five years in small-scale chemical industries in Andhra Pradesh, India
6.
Chemical engineering. At present specializing in the biogas fields such as process,
production, construction, utilization (burners, lamps, engines and electricity
generation), environmental improvement etc.
7.
Interested in the treatment of wastes such as sewage wastes, alternative energies
such alcohol, solar and wind energies; low-cost appropriate techno!ogies for the
rural development of India
8.
Studies in biogas technology: performance of the conventional Indian biogas
plant; optimization of plant dimensions; thermal analysis of biogas plants and
innovation of a novel solar-heate;? biogas plant (completed).
Further studies in biogas technplogy (improvement of the solar-heated biogas
plant, gas production from alternative materials for dung such as water hyacinth,
recycling of water in biogas plants etc.); community biogas systems for villages
(production and distribution of biogas, viz. fertilizer and water including hot
water, electricity generation and small-scale industries using biogas as energy
source); design and construction of ultra low-cost rural-oriented biogas plants
(modified Indian and Chinese biogas plants) (ongoing).
Modelling of lowest biogas reactors (continuous, semi-continuous and batch
reactors using all materials available in rural areas such as animal, human and
agricultural wastes as well as industrial wastes such as from the sugar factories,
fermentative industries and sewage wastes); low-cost biogas appliances (burners,
lamps, engines etc) (planned).
9.
*
10.
ASTRA (Centre for the Application for Science and Technology to the Rural
Areas), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India
110(c).
Mr. TIAN
Feng
1.
China
3.
Graduate, Nan Jing University (formerly
Languages Faculty (Russian)
4.
Can read reference materials in Japanese and English
5.
1980 to-date
2. February 1927
Zhong Yang University),
Foreign
Director, Sichuan Province Biogas Office
May 1980
Director, Joint FAO-China study group on biogas technology
February 1979 In charge, Sichuan Province Biogas Office
138
*4ugust I ??4
Supervising design and operation of biogas plant, Sichuan Province Biogas Office
6.
Administration of biogas extension work
7.
Research on biogas plant design and operation
9.
“Construction of biogas plants”, Rural Biogas: Questions and Answers. Sichuan
People’s Publishing House, Agricuiturai Publications, 1979. pp. 4-50.
“Popularization of biogas plant construction with common materials”, Biogas,
VoLIII:23-25. Science and Technology Documentation Publishing House, Chong
qing Branch.
“Greater efforts for biogas”, Farming Techniques, 20 July, 24 July, 27 July,
31 July, 3 August, 7 August, 10 August, 1980.
“Biogas and its utilization”. A statement at UNIDO discussion group on largescale
biogas, Beijing, J?!iY 1980.
10.
Sichuan Province Biogas Office, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China
110(d).
Mr. B.V. UMESH
2. 22 Feburar-J :i955
i.
India
3.
English, Tamil, Kannada
4.
Post-graduate in chemical engineering, University of Madras (1979)
5.
1979 todate
6.
Low-cost designs for construction of biogas plants with major emphasis on
utilizing the locally available materials and skills. Studies on anaerobic digestion
of water-hyacinth without the loss of protein value
7.
Mass culture of algae for food and feed purposes. Construction of solar cookers
and dryers. Comfort conditioning by dehumidification process.
8.
Implementation of biogas plants of the Centre’s latest design. Performance data
regarding gas production, life of the plant, use of the gas in diesel engines.
Further studies in making a low-cost digester.
10.
Shri A.M.M. Murugappa Chettiar Research Centre, Photosynthesis and Energy
Division, Tharamani, Madras 600 042, India
Shri A.M.M. Murugappa Chettiar Research Centre, Madras
139
111.
Bangladesh Agricultural
University
I
1. Mymensingh, Bangladesh
Tel: PBK-2 19 l-93
Cable: AGRIVARSlTY
2. 1961
3. Vice-chancellor
4. Dr. M. Yusuf Chowdhury, Associate Professor and Head, Department of Agricultural Chemistry
5. (b) 6/5
8. Teaching, research and extension of biogas in the rural areas.
II
A.
1. (a) fixed
(b) movable
2. 2-8 m3
3. (a) bricks, cement sand and gravel
(b) MS. sheet
(c) M.S. pipe, br+ke
and gravel
--^a-)rPTnP.nt
VWa-----, qand
(d) pipe, bricks, cement, sand and gravel
B.
1. (a) continuous
(b) batch
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Cow dung
Frequently lime is added to control pH.
40-50 kg
40-55 kg every 2-5 days
Almost 1: 1 (green weight)
C.
1. (a) 6-9 m3
(b) domestic and laboratory
2. (a) 30-50 kg/day
D.
1. $US 500-700 depending on the size and design
2. (a) summer 35OC
(b) winter 10°C
3. (a) shadow
(b) sun
4. None
5. Investigation is going on to optimize cost md efficiency of biogas piants of
different designs for the farmers.
6. Almost all of the biogas plants for the purpose of investigation are in operation. Those constructed for the farmers are not in constant use due to scarcity
of cow dung resulting from low cattle population during certain time of the
year.
7. A survey on cattle population among the farmers in neighbouring areas is
being undertaken.
112.
Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Res,earch,
Institute of Fuel Research and Development
I
1. Dacca, Bangladesh
Tel: 315116-19/246
Cabk: CONSEARCH
2. i976
3. Dr. M. Eusuf, Project Director
4. 4
5. (a) 2
(b) 4;:
8. Research and development work on fuel, energy and allied subjects
9. Fuel, energy and allied subjects
10. Dissemination and demonstration of new technology developed through research
11. Training towards M. Phil and Ph.D. is provided.
12. Over 50 publications on fuel, energy and allied subjects; three publications on
biogas and six other are unozr preparation.
13. Gas yield from cow dung under various conditions. Plant studies utilizing cow
dung. Gas yeild from water hyacinth. (completed)
Increasing gas yield. Reduction in seasonal variation in gas yeild. Cost reduction
alternatives. Slurry making from agricultural wastes. Development of cost burners
and lamps. (ongoing)
Identification and isolation of active methanogenic bacteria and studies on their
performances. Biogas-based integrated farming systems. (planned)
141
II
1. (a) fixed (one)
(b) movable (three)
2. 220 cu ft (each)
3. (a) brick,‘cement and sand
(b) mild steel for movable and reinforced concrete for fixed holder
(c) and (d) RCC pipe
B.
1. (a) continuous
2. Cow dung
3. Mixing with water
4. 58 kg
6. 1:l
C.
1. (a) varies from 50 cu ft in winter to 90 cu ft in summer
(b) laboratory, cooking and experimental study
B.
1. $US650
2. (a) summer 30.4OC (fortnightly averagej
(b) winter 16.6OC (fortnightly average)
5. Leakage in fmed holder
6. 75 per cent
7. Further work on fixed gas holder to make it leak-proof needed
113.
Artificial
Biogas Experimental
Station, Nanhui County
I
1. The County Town of Nanhui County, Shanghai, China
Tel: 987660
2. 1977
3. Mr. Gu Ming-Long
4. 3
5. (a) 10
(b) 40/35
6. The County Town of Nanhui Ccunty, Shanghai, China
142
7. Tlne Shanghai Research Institute of Industrial Microbiology. The Shanghai Research Institute of Plastics. The Shanghai Research Institute of Diesel Engine
8. Research and experiment on biogas production
9. Designs four types of biogas digester. Experiments for fermentation. Study on
unloading the residue mechanically from the digester. Experiment in manure.
Better biogas power generation. Experiment on solar energy.
10. Stress on improving the technology of household biogas digesters and small-sized
biogas power stations in rural areas. Experiments on methane production from
municipal wastes.
12. Research for Biogus Production in Nanhui County, Shanghai, China Issue No. 1
and No. 2. In the= two issues some major articles are: “Effect of some additives
on the rate of decomposition in biogas fermentation”. “Effect of pressure and
stirring on giogas productivity under ambient temperature”. “Exploration of
biogas productivity from conventional materials in the rural area of Shanghai
suburbs”. “Biogas fertilizer and experiment on its effect”.
13. Household biogas digester of spherical type in rural areas. Biogas digester with a
movable floating cover. Utilization of wastes from a pharmaceutical factory to
produce biogas. Research on additives for biogas production. (completed)
Research on a 56 m3 mesophilic ground biogas digester. Continuous improvement
in the property of the biogas digester sealed airtight. Experiment on fertilizer
effect of the fermented waste. Research on a biogas digester on integral fermentation. (ongoing)
Two-phase fermentation method. Experiment on different kinds of concentration
of the material fed into the digester. Research on the ratio of carbon to nitrogen
to the digester. (planned)
II
A.
1. (a)
(b)
fixed
movable
2. 8 m3, 56 m3, 200 m3 etc.
3. (a) concrete, brick vault, soil mixed with lime
(b) concrete, brick vault, steel plate
(c) concrete, steel tube
(d) concrete, brick wall
B.
1. (a) continuous
(bj batch
2. Animal wastes, stalks, weeds etc.
3. First cutting stalk into pieces then making compost
143
4. For a 8 m3 digester feeding 10 kg a day
5. For a 56 m3 digester feeding 5 tons a week, i.e. 5,000 kg per week, every
seven days
6. About 80 per cent
C.
1. (a) for a 8 m3 digester 1.6 m3 gas being produced each day
(b) for daily use and to generate electricity
2. When crops in the field need fertilizer to be applied, the residue in the digester
has to be discharged. Generally speaking, farmers carry the fertilizer into the
fields on a large-scale three times a year.
D.
1. About $US80 (8 m3 digester)
2. (a) summer 27OC
(b) winter 4O - 5OC
3. (a) shadow
(b) sun
4. Through solar energy
5. Leaks sometimes occur; but the digester can still be used by fixing and maintaining it.
6. 87 per cent
7. Summing up and interchange of experiences once a year
114.
Beijing Academy of Agricultural Science, Research Institute
Soil and Fertilizer
for
I
1. Ban Jin Cun, Beijing, China
Tel: Beijing 811431-38
2.
1978
3. Mr. Hu Li-Na
4. Mr. Zhang Chun-Mei, Mr. Yuang Qing-Liang, Mr. Jiang Xiao-Xu
5. (a) 7
6. Laboratory within the organization. Experimental pond at Beijing village centre.
7. Part of National Biogas Science and Research Co-ordination Group. One of the
units responsible for research on special problems of biogas fertilizer
8. At present, mainly, research on biogas fermentation techniques and use of biogas
fertilizer
9. Biogas fermentation techniques. Biogas fertilizer application techniques
144
10. Practical application of biogas in Beijing suburban district. Research on crucial
technical problems and consultancy service
11. Annual biogas training courses in the a;a. Responsibility for important lectures.
12. Internal materials; not formally published.
13. Beijing suburb farmer household - fuel biogas experimental station (clcmentary
engineering design, basic fermentation technique, hygiene design for comprehensive technical innovation). Research on organic fertilizer stored up in biogas plant,
important changes in its effectiveness, composition and growth. (completed)
Research on the efficiency as fertilizer of biogas fermentation remainder and its
use in soil improvement (ongoing)
Research for fermentation at normal temperature to increase the rate of biogas
production. (planned)
II
A.
1. (a) fixed
2. 10 or 100 m3
3. Cement mixed with congealed mud or brick arch, mortar
(a) cylindrical or circular
(b) hydraulic type
(c) slanting type
(d) outlet at middle layer inverted pipe and hydraulic type or vertical shaft
hydraulic pressure type
B.
1. (a)
(b)
continuous
batch
2. Wheat straw, corn straw; pig, human and ox waste
3. Barnyard straw and waste materials mixed or barnyard straw wetted with
biogas fermented liquor
4. Because of variations in season and in materials, research on appropriate
volume under way
5. As above
6. 8 per cent
C.
because of the changes in the seasons, \.ariety of feed materials and differences in their volume, the volume at ordinary temperature can reach
0.8 m3 but, in general, 0.1 m3 to 0.3 m3
(b) directly, as Fdel for daily life; research under way for its use as power
1. (a)
145
’/
2. (a) about 30,000 kg/hectare
(b) mostly, for demonstration, no regular quantity
(d) to be used for straw digestion
3. For the middie ievei effluent, no need of hygienic treatment. Addition, of’
liquid ammonia is recommended for sedimentary dregs; however, in many
cases,this is not compiled with.
D.
1. About $US 50
2. (a) summer 36OC
(b) winter -16°C
3, (a) shadow
4. At present, the methods being popularized do not heat zhe digester. Research
is being undertaken on the use of solar energy and heat preservation in winter.
5. (i) After a few years of use the plant made in part of mortar develops cracks
in the vault and the gas leaks due to the following reasons: late feeding at
materials, no cover and effect of severe drought.
(ii) At many plants, the mixers cannot stir after the start of fermentation.
6. If there is a systematic way and there are men specific for the operations,
more than 90 per cent in the rate of utilization can be reached.
7. (i) As set out by the realities of farm practices in China and as testified by
the experience already gained, among the most important in the
management of biogas is the synthesizing of its utilization. The most
required is paying special and simultaneous attention to fertilizers and
energy sources. Otherwise biogas energy cannot take firm root or devel(ii)
E be assured of the technique and its reliability it is required that the
design be standardized, spare parts be supplied from stock and commercialized, and installation be specialized.
115.
Chengdu Biogas Research Institute
I
1. Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
Tel: 7737 Telex: 3049
2. 1978
3. Mr. Zheng Shou-Zhou
5. (a) 40
(b) 19117
6. Chengdu
7. State and provincial biogas offices. Related research institutes
146
I*
1:., /
, ;’
8. Biogas research
12. Drawings - small rural digesters construction
13. 17 (completed), 2 (ongoing), 36 (planned)
II
A.
1. (a) fixed
(b) movable
2. 6-300 m3
3. (a) concrete, masonry, lime-clay
(b) fixed, bamboo-cement
(c) and Cd) cement, concrete
B.
1. (a)
continuous
1. (a)
(b)
0.15 -0.3 m3
domestic use; power
C.
D.
1. $US 20-40 (materials cost) (for 10 m3 )
2. (a) summer 26OC
(b) winter 12OC
3. (a) shadow
(b) sun
4. Common method. Heated to 35OC. Mixed
5. Leakage
6. 98 per cent
116.
Chengdu Biogas Scientific Research Institute,
Ministry of Agricubwe
I
1. Ren Min Nan Lu, Chengdu City, Sichuan, China
Tel: 7737 Cable: 3049
2. 1978
3. Mr. Xue Bin-Kui, Director
4. Mr. Zheng Shou-Zhu, Mr: Zhang Geng-Xin, Deputy Directors
147
5. (a) 42
(b) In Sichuan Province, over 4 million, of which more than 70 per cent are in
operation
6. At Ren Min Nan Lu, Chengdu City
7. With digester construction throughout the country. Two assistance groups for biogasfermentation
8. Speciaiized research institute for biogas scientific research
9. Scientific research on digester construction, biogas fermentation, all-purpose
agricultural machinery. Information on means of production.
10. Priority to biogas research. Technical series. Specialized supplementary instruction on techniques
11.’ Within the country four times, to more than 120 persons. Twice for the United
Nations, to more than 40 persons
12. Biogas, fourth issue, 1980. Biogas Scientific Technique, first issue, 198 1
13. Medium and small scale biogas plants for farm households. Medium-sized biogas
plants in Sichuan Province. A popular handbook on biogas fermentation: relationship between pressure and biogas production. (completed)
Collection of standard diagrams for medium-sized biogas plants for farm households in the whole country. Technological process and techniques for mediumtemperature fermentation with large and medium scale horizontal type digester.
(ongoing)
Experiments on potential digester materials. Survey of experimental norms.
(planned)
II
A.
1. (a) fixed
(b) movable
2. 6, 8, 10 m3
3. Concrete, standard brick
(a) about 80 per cent capacity (height/diameter l/2.5)
(b) 20 per cent gas holder (height/diameter l/5.5)
(c) straight pipe with the dipper-inserted type (25 cm diameter)
(d) straight pipe with hydraulic-pressure operated opening (with a volume at
1/ 10 of the volume of the digester)
B.
1. (a) continuous
(b) batch
2. Stems; pig, ox, human waste; partly wheat straw
3. Stems and waste, made into wet compost
148
4. 20 kg
5. 300-500 kg two times a year
6. Fresh waste, human to pig 1: 1
C.
1. (a)
at ordinary temperature: 0.2 m3 /I m3 liquid feed; at medium temperature: 1.O m3 / i m3 iiquid feed
(b) small plants!: lighting, cooking; medium and big plants: electricity
generation and processing
2. (a) direct fertilizer on soil
(b) cornposting
(c) aquaculture
3. To the sediments and dross add ammonia water or ground phosphate rock etc.
After cornposting, use as field manure
D.
1. $US 30-40 (exclusive of wage payment to about 30 workers)
2. (a) summer 23-27OC
(b) winter 7’ - 5OC
3. (a) shadow
(b) sun
4. Additional heating by steam, hot water, solar energ/, waste heat from electrical machinery
5. Gas leakage. At- present studying the use of coating. More closely knitting the
gas holder. Feed decomposition rate rather low; presently improving the
design of digester.
6. 60-94 per cent (in Sichuan)
7. Interchange of detailed information on construction, meetings for interchange
of positive results. Area-wise co-operative working groups for construction,
design of new types of digesters. A proposal for the establishment of a cooperative experimental station in Thailand for comparative experiments and
conclusions with regard to the Indian and the Chinese small type digesters.
117.
Chengdu Biological
Research Institute,
I
1. Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, China
Tel: 7080 Cable: 0406
2. 1958
3. Mr. Deng Guo-Biao
149
Chinese Academy af Sciences
4. Mr. Hou Yong-Sheng
5. (a) 105
(6) 10
6. .At the Institute
8. Botany. Zoology. Microbiology etc.
’
9. Theory and application
10. Extension of successful results of scientific research
13. Research on biogas fermentation techniques in villages in China. Research on
bacteria production for village biogas plants. (completed)
Research on fermentation techniques in villages in China. Research on microbiological biogas fermentation. (ongoing)
II
A.
1. (a) fixed
2. 27 - 6m3
3. (a) (b) (c) and (d) brick and cement
B.
1. (a) continuous
2. Human and animal wastes. Stems
3. Management of wet compost
C.
1. (a)
0.2 - 0.5 m3
D.
2. (a) summer 24’ - 28OC
(b) winter 8O - 16OC
3. (b) sun
4. Materials which will add heat. Preserving the heat of haystack. Construction
of biogas plant facing the sun and out of the wind
118.
Chengdu Institute
of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
I
1. Chengdu, Sichuan, China
Tel: 7080 Cable: 0416
2. 1958
3. Mr. Deng Guo-Biao
4. Mr. Hou Yong-Sheng
150
5. (a) 103
@I 10
6. Chengdu, Sichuan
8. Research and application
9. Animal, plant and microbiology
II
A.
1. (a) fixed
(b) movable
2. 2-3.3m3
3. (a) (b) (c) and (d) brick
B.
1. (a)
(5)
continuous
batch
2. IManure and straw
3. Pretreatment
c.
’
1. (a)
0.2 - 0.4 m3
2. (a)
(b)
summer 33OC
winter -2OC
D.
3. (b) sun
119.
China Research and Designing Institute
of Agricultural
Engineering
I
1. Beijing, China
Tel: 59496 1
2. 1978
3. Mr. Tao Ding-Lai
4. Mr. Zhang JiCao
5. (a) 50
6. Beijing
7. Farm mechanization. Utilization of plasma as arc heat source
8. Research, designing and installation of large and medium sized biogas plants
9. Biogas engineering, design and servicing
151
10. Biogas servicing team inside and outside the country
11. Training courses on biogas plants at ordinary temperature
12. On Chinese agricultural engineering
13. Research, d .:signing and installation of medium tempeature biogas plants. Designing of biogas plants at Beijing ordinary temperature. (ongoing)
II
A.
1. (a) fixed
2. loom”, 10m3
3. Brick, cement
B.
1.
2.
4.
6.
(a) continuous
Barnyard straw, waste
Depends on the volume, which is not uniform
6 per cent
C.
1. (a)
(b)
POm3 (small pond at normal temperature)
cooking, lighting
D.
.
2. (a) summer 35OC
(b) winter -2OOC
3. (b) sun
4. Gas, solar energy, heat left from the generator
5. (i) in the north, during winter the raising of temperature and heat preservation ;
(ii) sealing up of the materials
120.
Chongqing
Teachers Training
I
1. Sha Ping Ba, Chongqing, Sichuan, China
Tel: 61275
2. 1954
3. Mr. Wang Hou-Fu
4. Mr. Jiang Dai; Mr. Lui Ping-Zhi
5. (b) 2,000
152
College
6. Sha Ping Ba, Chongqing
7. National Co-ordination Group for Biogas Research
8. Academic institution
9. Teaching. Research
10. For the villages
11. For the administrative division and the communes in it
12. On use of water hyacinth and green grass for fermentation; application to cellulose of peptone and acetaldehyde and its influence on formation of methane
13. Laser induced mixing of bacteria at low temperature biogas plant. Experiment
with putting in bacteria. Addition of formaldehyde, acetone acid to raise the
effect of the rate of gas production. Application to cellulose of peptone and
acetaldehyde and its influence on methane formation. (completed)
Research on potentiality of water hyacinth producing biogas and on methods of
introducing feed materials. Comparison of results of single stage a.nd multi-stage
fermentation with respect to biogas production. Separate appraisal of methane
bacteria. (ongoing)
II
A.
2. 0.25 m3
3. Brick
(c) direct pipe
(d) valve switch
i
B.
1. (a) continuous
(b) batch
2. Water hyacinth often used. Pig and ox manure
3. 2 per cent limewash to the cellulose nature of the wet compost in the digester
4. 4 kg
6. 50 - 88 per cent
C.
1. (a)
(b)
287 litre/day
laboratory lighting; boiling and developing culture medium; cooking
D.
3. (b) sun
5. In two experimental plants the movabie cover leaked gas because of lack of
adhesiveness of the mud plaster. After it was pasted with cement, the leak
stopped at once
153
6. Nearly 100 per cent
7. (i) select a good foundation for the gas holder;
(ii) for the construction site to preserve the quality of materials, it is important that it conforms to the norm - no leakage of water or gas;
(iii)’ the digester feed should be adequate;
(iv) strengthen management;
(v) practicable economic policy regarding biogas
121.
Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion,
Chinese Academy of Sciences
I
1. 8 1 Martyrs’ Road, C.P.O. Box 1254, Guangzhou, China
Tel: 76042 Cable: 0508
2. September 1978
3. Dr. Wu Wen, Director
4. Mr. Kuang Zhe-min, Deputy Director Mr. Chen Ru-Chen, Head of EIiomass
Division
5. (a) 90
6. Foshan Biogas Pilot Power Plant; Xinfu Production Brigade (experimental spot)
etc.
7. National Leading Group of Biogas Utilization; United Nations University etc.
8. Research and development on renewable energy conversion
9. Biomass, geothermal, solar, ocean wind energy. Energy storage and conservation.
10. Resources and development
11. Short courses for biomass and solar energy conversion techniques
12. “Renewable Energy Conversion” Prompt reports on energy
13. Foshan biogas pilot power plant and rural family digesters. Hainan solar-distill
site. (completed)
Renewable energy village from biogas and solar energy. Hairran solar dryer for
rubber production. (ongoing)
Slaughterhouse heating from biogas and solar energy. Solar-heated swimming
pool. Solar refrigerator. (planned)
II
A.
1. (a)
(b)
fixed (family digesters)
movable (power plant)
154
2. 4-10 m3 (family digesters)
47 m3 x 28 = 1316 m3 (power plant)
3. (a) brick and cement
(b) PVC film (power plant)
(c) and (d) brick and cement
B.
1. Semi-continuous
2. Night-soil (family digestersj Pigsty ,waste and waste water (power p!ant)
4. 50 kg (family digesters) 60,000 kg (including water) (power plant)
C.
1. (a) l-l .2 m3 (family digesters) 363 m3 (power plant)
(b) cooking and lighting (family digesters). Power generation (power plant)
2. (a) 50 kg/day (family digesters) 60,000 kg/day (power plant)
3. Germ and parasite egg killing by heating in the digesters up to 50°C or higher
D.
1. Family digesters: $US 30-50 (purchased material). Power plant: $US200,000
(estimated)
2. (a) summer 26-27OC
(b) winter 12-13OC
3. (a) shadow (family digesters)
(bj sun (power plant)
5. Family digesters: Low gas production rate with sludge and scum accumulating
(also in power plant). Power plant: Acidic gas corrosion after H,S ignited
through engine. To be solved by injection stirring of sludge and scum and gas
purification by desulfurization
6. Around 93 per cent
7. The only economically available way for stirring sludge and scum in family
digesters is to re-inject supernatant from the digester back through the inlet
pipe with agricultural artificial shower plus a plastic or rubber tube attached
to its spray nozzle
122.
Hangzhou
City Biogas Extension
I
1. Yuan Sha Lu, Hangzhou, China
Tel: 26828
2. 1976
3. Mr. Zhang Jia-Zhi
155
Office
4. Mr. Cai Chang-Da, Mr. Zhan Ju-Xian, Mr. Zhu Cai-Fu, Mr. Xu ShunCa .i, Mr.
Huang Shu-Nan
5. (b) 59744/5 1193
8. Consultancy. Training of technicians
9. Biogas extension work in Hangzhou City suburb, village and the eight countries
allied to it
10. Design and construction of biogas plants in villages
11. !n construction of biogas plants and management of technicians
12. Technical materials
13. Design and construction of household biogas plants with movable type gas holders. Constructional technique improvements in the moulding and hauling of biogas plants. (completed)
Synthesised use of biogas plant fermentation residue. Experimentation
lizer efficiency of fermentation remainder. (ongoing)
Research on coating to seal up biogas plant (planned)
on ferti-
II
A.
i. 6-10m3
3. Reinforced concrete materials
B.
1. (a) continuous
(b) batch
2. Human, pig, sheep and ox waste; green grass; rice and wheat straw
3. Rice straw and grass cut to pieces and wet-composted for ten to fifteen days,
then mixed with human and animal waste to make feed material
4. 20 kg (pig waste)
5. Animal waste padded wity straw, 250 kg once in 15 days
6. 1: 1 (new waste to water)
C.
1. (a)
(b)
2. (a)
(e)
1.5 m3/day
cooking and lighting
40 kg/day (8 m3 biogas plant)
at present, at the experimental stage
(f-l rearing earthworm
(g) cultivation of mushrooms
3. At the time of over-all change of feed materials, clear the sediments. For every
100 kg and 2 grams of dipterex for killing insect eggs.Wet-compost should be
used only after being stirred for 24 h ~rs
156
1. $US40(8m”)
2. Monthly average:
(a) summer 28OC
(b) winter 8’ C
5. Where the gas holder part is not tightly sealed there is seepage, overcome at
once by plastering afresh or by pasting up by a coasting paint
6. 85 per cent
123.
Institute
of Microbiology,
Chinese Academy of Sciences
I
1.
2.
3.
4.
8.
9.
Zhongguancum, Beijing, China
1959
Mr. Xue Yue-Gu
(a) 230
Research work
Research taxonomy, physiology, biochemistry, economy, cytology and genetics
of microbiology.
124.
Jiangsu Province Wujin Biogas Research Institute
I
1. Ben Niu Zhen, Wujin County, Jiangsu Province, China
Tel: 265
2. 1978
3. Mr. Zhu Bin
4. Mr. Ehen Jie-Sheng, Mr. Gao Ya-Ping
5. (a) 18
(b) 1l/9
7. Electric Construction Institute, Ministry of Electric Power. Guangzhou Energy
Resources Institute. Nanjing Soil Institute, Academy of Sciences. Jiangsu Province Agricultural Science Institute. Sichuan Agricultural Machinery Institute
8. Scientific research on biogas application
9. Jiangsu Province
10. For the villages, to provide farmers with new types of biogas plants, new designs
and fermentation techniques
157
13. Research on techniques of utilizing biogas in manufacturing Ccl, . Research on oil
gas for dynamo battery. (completed)
Designing of modernized biogas plants for villages. Research and manufacture of
biogas fired dynamo battery. Research on improving the effects of fermentation
materials. Research on techniques of raising the rate of biogas production. (ongoing)
II
A.
1. (a) fixed
2. 8, 10, 12 m3
3. (a) (b) (c) and (d) cement and brick
B.
1. (a) continuous
2. Human, animal wastes. Stems of crops
3. Wet-composting of stems of crops, before feeding
4. 50 kg
6. 1:7
C.
1. (a) 0.15 - 0.2m3
(b) in households, as fuel; big plants’ gas used for lighting
2. (a) about 80 per cent
(b) about 15 per cent
(g) a small amount for cultivation mushrooms
3. Apply ammonium bicarbonate to the wet compost
D.
2. (a) summer 28’ -3OOC
(b) winter 10°C
3. (a) shadow
I
125.
The Office of National Leading Group for Biogas Development
Ministry of Agriculture
I
1. Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China
Tel: 463652
2. 1976
,.
3. Mr. Zhang Chen-Yao, Director
158
7. All related biogas offices and research institutes
8. Administration and management
126.
Research Institute for SoiI and Fertilizer,
Academy of Agricultural Science
.
1
1. Chengdu, Sichuar China
Tel: 7761 Cable: 2814
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
11.
12.
13.
1949
Mr. Zhou Jing-Ying, Director
Mr. Chu Ti-Yun, Mr. Liao Si-Zhang, Deputy Directors
(a) 8 (biogas fertilizer)
At the Institute, at Congqing County and at Ren Shou County Village Centre
(concerning biogas fertilizer)
Sichuan Provincial Biogas Extension Office. Biogas extension offices at Chongqing
County and Ren Shou County
Experiment. Demonstration.
Co-ordination of biogas extension work in the province. Launching of biogas
fertilizer and development of its effectiveness. Research on its application techniques and concerned consultancy work
Jointly with the United Nations and at province and county level
“Experiments on effectiveness of biogas fertilizers”, Soil and FettiZizer Science,
3rd issue, 1975. “Biogas application and research”, Biogas, Chongging Branch of
the Scientific and Technological Information Institute of China, 3rd monthly
issue, 1979. “Examination of biogas fertilizer effectiveness”, Journal of Soil, 2nd
issue, 1979.
Effectiveness of biogas fertilizer (completed)
Biogas fertilizer application techniques (ongoing)
Establishment of a system to give priority to organic fertilizer (planned)
127.
Shandong Province Energy Resource Research Institute
I
1. Jican City, Shandong Province, China
Tel: 43449
2. 1979
3. Mr. Dong Xian-Jun, Deputy Director
159
4. Mr. Zou Yuan-Liang, Deputy Chief, Biological Energy Research Group
5. (a) 5
(b) 41/41
6. Jinan City
7. Guangzhou Energy, Source Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Chengdu Biogas Resear.chInstitute, Ministry of Agriculture.
8. Scientific research
9. Research and utilization of new energy sources
13. Research on m.nagement of biogas plant through winter. (completed)
Breeding of fermentation seeding. Research on the potential of feed materials for
optimum gas production. (ongoing)
Research on household biogas plants. (planned)
II
A.
Underground. Hydraulic pressure type. Stone plate structure.
1. (a) fixed
2. 2m3
3. Stone plate and some cement
B.
1.
2.
3.
5.
(b) batch
Wheat straw. Human, pig manure
After mixing, pilling up and soaking for 9 days at 1O” -20° C
1350 kg. every 170-180 days (nearly every half-year change of feed once; 90
per cent change and the rest for seeding)
6. Strictly maintain solid content density with water at 10 per cent
C.
1. (a) winter: 0.6 m3 /day
summer: 1.5 m3 /day
(b) fuel
2. (a) on an average, 7 kg/day
* D.
1. $US30
2. (a) summer 25OC
(b) winter 10°C
3. (b) sun
6. 100 per cent
160
128.
Shanghai Institute
of Industrial
Microbiology
I
1. Shanghai, China
Tel: 565411
2. 1966
3. Mr. Shen Tien-yi
4. Mr. Tao Yi-Wen, Mr. Ru Zhung-Wei
8. Industrial fermentation
9. Research assignments by the ministry, bureau and departments
10. Research and development
13. Amino acid, organic acid, fermentation. Research on enzymes. Comprehensive
research on anti-mildew formation industry and in biogas.
II
A.
1. (a) Fixed
2. 56m3
3. (a) steel reinforced cement
09 materials reinforced by steel and retempered
(d and (d) brick and cement
B.
1. (W batch
2. Pig, ox waste
5. 6000 kg. every seven days
C.
1. (a)
(bj
20-30m3
lighting
129.
Shanghai Science and Technology
I
1. 47 Nan Zhong Road, Shanghai China
2. 1958
3. Mr. Jiang Zheng-Fan
5. (a) 230
161
Association
II
A.
1. (a)
(b)
fixed
movable
2. 4.5 - 129 m3
3. (a) concrete
(b) steel, ferrocement, porcelain
B.
1. (a) continuous
(b) batch
2. Human and animal waste; crops
C.
1 (a) 0.25 - 0.8 m3
(b) domestic use, sewerage treatment
D.
1. US$ 70-1000
2. (a) summer 26OC
(b) winter 13OC
3. (a) shadow
(b) sun
4. Heating from generators (using steam)
130.
Xinan Teachers College, Biogas Research Institute
I
1. Xinan, China
3. Mr. Zhang Guo-Zheng, Head
5. (a? 4
(b) 16
8. Research, experiment and extension
9. Research office and agricultural production experimental station
:3. Extension of small-scale rural biogas pkrts, provision of research data for use and
demonstration of ways of increasing biogas production
11. Can provide training courses and lectures
13. Experiments: on biogas fermentation conditions; with sieving of activated mud
before its insertion in the biogas plant; on additions to raise the rate of biogas
162
production. Communications on experiments with the rate ot utilization of biogas
feed materials. (completed)
Research on: increasing the rate of production of small rural biogas plants; on
gas production potential of all kinds of organic materials; on bacteria decomposition. (ongoing)
131.
Zhejiang Agricultural
University,
Laboratory
of Soil Microbiology
I
1. Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
4. Prof. Tse Shu-Chien, Head, Department of Soil and Agricultural Chemistry
II
A.
1. (a) fixed
(b) movable
2. 8-10m3
3. All concrete
B.
1. (b) batch
2. Stable manure and nightsoil
5. 3,500 kg every 180 days
6. 1: 1 (about 90 per cent water content)
C.
1. (a) 1.6 m3/day
(b) as fuel
2. (a) direct fertilizer on soil
D.
1. $US 30-40
2. (a) summer 30°C
(b) winter 10°C
3. (a) shadow
6. 83 per cent (in Chekiang province)
163
132.
Zhejiang Biogas and Solar Energy Scientific
Research Institute
1
1. Hangchow, China
Tel: 229 1 Ext. 459
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
11.
1980
Mr. Mie Wen-Hai (Director, Zhejiang Biogas Development Office)
Mr. Xu Zeng-Fu, Vice-Director
(a) 40
(b) 364900/32500
Zhejiang Province
United Nations University, Use and Management of Natural Resources Programme
Office
Research and Development
Information. Research. Training
Biogas technique training
12. Biogas, Zhejiang Press and Publishing Commission. Biogas Technology, United
Nations University.
13. Biogas drying technique of crops. New type of mesophilic biogas plant
II
A.
1. (a)
fixed
movable and separated
2. 8-10m3
3. (a) and (b) brick and cement or lime-clay with soil
(c) and (d) cement tube
(b)
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
(b) batch
Swine, human feces
Feed material pretreatment in various ways such as composting etc.
The amount of raw material added and fermentation circle greatly vary.
Every 40 days
1:9
C.
1. (a)
(b)
0.15 - 0.3 m3
cooking; power for fabricating agriculture products; generating electricity for lighting
164
D.
1. $US 35-40
2. (a) summer 350 - 39°C
(b) winter O” - 5OC
3. (a) shadow
0-9 sun
4. Solar energy. The vast heat from dual-fuel engine
5. There is more attention paid to digester building, but less to management. A
lot of digesters do not yield sufficient gas. Scientific research also has not
been followed up.
6. 88 per cent
133.
University
of the South Pacific, Institute
of Natural Resources
1
1. P.O. Box 1168, Suva, Fiji
Tel: Suva 3 13900
Cable: UNIVERSITY SUVA
Telex: FJ 2276
2. 1969
3. Vice-Chancellor
4. Dr. Richard K. Solly
5. (a) approx. 48 (whole University)
(b) 17 (all-Fiji)
6. University is adjacent to rural areas
7. Associated with University campuses in 11 South Pacific countries and respective
Departments of Agriculture
8. Development of biogas technology’
9. Laboratory and field investigation of biogas systems
10. Information Research and development. Advisory. Consultancy. Education.
Training. Problem solving.
11. Run under the sponsorship of international organizations
12. Installation and operation of biogas bag digesters. A study of methane digesters
in the South Pacific region. Biogas production from water hyacinth
13. Manual for installation and operation of biogas bag digesters. Investigation of field
digesters in the South Pacific region. (completed)
Biogas production from water hyacinth and other vegetable matter. Development
of low-cost durable biogas systems. (ongoing)
165
Manual for livestock food production
(planned)
from the effluent from biogas systems.
II
1. (a) fixed (one or two)
(b) movable (main type)
2. 5 - 25 m3
3. (a) largely concrete brick, some polymer rubber
(b) largely welded steel, some concrete brick, some polymer rubber
(c) and (d) generally PVC pipe
1. (a) continuous (mostly)
(b) batch (one Or two experimental)
2. Pig wastes
3. Washings of pig pens
4. Variable
5. Variable
1. (a) 0.1 m3 per pig per day
(b) ring burner
2. (a) a few digesters
(c) none viable
(0 most digesters
j. None except exodation ponds
1. $US 500 to 3,000
2. (a) summer 28O - 32OC
(b) winter l$O - 22OC
5. Two problems predominate: blockage of the digester inlet pipes and leakage
of the gas holds
6. Approximately 70 per cent in Fiji; O-l 0 per cent in the other South Pacific
island countries
7. A reliabie low-cost durable digester is not generally available, especially for
the digestion of vegetable matter
166
134.
Action
for Food Production
(AFPRO)
1
1. C-17 Community Centre? Safdarjang Development Area, New Delhi 110 016,
India
Tel: 667445,6603 19
Cable: AFPRO
2. 1966
3. Mr. J.B. [email protected], Executive Director
4. Mr. J.B. Singh, Chief Co-ordinator, Biogas Programme, Mr. Raymond M. Myles,
Co-ordinator, Biogas Programme
5. (a) 7
(b) 9
7. AFPRO provides technical assistance to its several grass-root level voluntary
agencies operating throughout India, in biogas and other agricultural and rural
development fields.
8. Construction of demonstration-cum-training Janata plants and training of rural
masons, selected by AFPRO related voluntary agencies operating throughout India.
9. Technical Services in the field of agriculture, livestock, water resources and
appropriate/rural technology
10. Information. Advisory. Consultancy. Extension. Training. Promotion. Seminars
etc.
11. All-India course on biogas technology - with special emphasis on the construction of Janata biogas plant, 1979, for senior project staff. Regional courses on
biogas technology for grass-root level workers of voluntary agencies. Training of
masons on the construction of Janata
at the time of construction of demonstration-cum-training Janata plants. Several training workshops for rural masons
during 1980 and 198 1 in different regions of India.
12. A Janata model
.e- . 0~obar gas p’-I&. Community biogas piant. Promotion of biogas
plant for small and marginal farmers on individual and community basis. A
2 cu m ( 70 cu ft) Janata plant conr rutted in Union Territory of Delhi. Biogas
technology: a review of approach adopted by AFPRO in the systematic promotion of Janata plant.
13. Nine demonstration-cum-training Janata plants (2,3,4,6 and 15 cu m capacities)
(completed). Two Janata plants one 6 cu m (2 10 cu ft) and another 2 cu m
(70 cu ft) using stones (ongoing). Six more by 1980 (planned).
Pitt
11
.A.
1.
Fixed
2. 2,3,4,6,9
and 15 m3
3. (a) (b) (c) and (d) bricks and cement
(a)
167
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
(a) continuous
Cattle dung
Dung mixed with water in the ratio of 1: 1
Average quantity of dung ;.equired for different size of Janata plants:
Size of plant (gas
production per day)
Approximate
number of cattle
Daily requirement
of wet dung
cu m (cu ft!
*fd
Gas utilization
for cooking
(number of persons)
2 (70)
3-
4
45 -
50
2 (105)
4 (140)
45-
5
7
70 75 -
75
90
10 - 12
12 - 16
7 - 10
14 - 18
100 - 120
140 - i80
16 -20
30 - 35
25 -30
250 - 300
SO -60
6 (210)
9 (315)
15 (525)
6-
8
6. 1: 1 (for cattle dung)
C.
1. (b) Cooking and sometimes lighting
2. (c) composting
D.
1. All the Janata plants constructed by AFPRO so far are 30 to 40 per cent
cheaper than the conventional plants with movable steel gas holder, according
to AFPRO.
5. The main trouble reported is leakage of gas because of faulty construction.
Proper training of masons can correct the situation; supervision and right type
of con&ruction material is also necessary.
6. 100 percent
_
135.
Agricultural
Tools Research Centre
I
1. Suruchi Campus, Post Box 4, Bardoli 394601, India
Tel: 95258
2. 1959
3. Mr. Mohan Par&h, Director
4. Mr. Rahul Parikh
5. (a) 3
(b) 4
168
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Suruchi Campus, Bardoli
Gujarat State Khadi Board
Appropriate technology. Rural development. Training centre.
Agricultural tools and implements. Solar energy. Biogas energy.
Youth training for rural development work. Technical advisory and consultancy
service
12. On agriculicural tools, design of a flat-plate solar cooker, garbage gas plant, biogas,
fertilizer gas plant, agricultural hand tools for small and marginal farmers
13. Frototype experiments on garbage gas plant with different feed stock. Gas plant
with fixed RCC roof - prototype. Double digester gas plant with fixed RCC roof.
II
A.
1.’ (b) movable
2. 17m3
3. (a)
(b)
(c)
RCC
iron
and (d) cement pipe
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
(a) continuous
Cow dung
Homogeneous mixture of cow dung and water with a churner
12Okg
4500 kg every 60-90 days
1:l
c.
1. (a) 4m3
(b) cooking
2. (a) direct fertilizer on soil
D.
1. $US 500 (in March 1979)
2. (a) summer 32OC
(b) winter 20°C
3. (b) sun
6. 95 per cent
7. Application of some anticorrosive paint or bituminous paint on outer surface
of iron gas holder gives trouble-free operation for longer periods.
169
136.
Centre of Science for Villages
I
1. Magawadi, Wardha 442 001, India
Tel: 2412 Cab!e : GRAM VlGY AN
2. 1976
3. Mr. Devendra Kumar, Director
4. Mr. M.A. Sathianathan, Co-ordinator, Energy and Environment Department
5. (a) 17
(b) 76 in the area
6. Dattapur with eight plants. Four more under construction
7. All other Gandhian Institutions. The Department of Science and Technology,
Government of India
9. Biogas system. Animal and manpowered devices for rural industries. Solar energy
and wind power energy balance studies on rural industries and designing of appropriate energy systems
10. Information. Research and development. Advisory. Consultancy. Education.
Training.
11. In biogas technology, pulp and paper from agricultural residues, construction
techniques, construction materials and heavy pottery.
12. Monthly bulletin Science for the ViZibges.Occasional publications
13. Studies on equipment design engineering and improvement of digesters; digestion
process engineering studies; feed stock processing and plant design, selection of
biogas system for its use in rural industries, systems approach to biogas utilization
(ongoing).
137.
Delhi Water Supply and Sewage Disposd
Undertaking
I
1. M.C.D. Link House, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi 110002, India
Tel: 274333
Cable: WATER
2. 1938 (Delhi Sewage Disposal Works, Okhla)
3. Mr. M.N. Jain, Chief Engineer
4. Mr. Jai Narain, Superintending Engineer
5. (a) 3 engineers and 7 assistants
(b) 15/10
6. SewageDisposal Works, Okhla, India
7. Central Public Health Environmental Engineering Organization (CFHEEO),
Ministry of Works and Housing, Government of India. National Environmental
170
Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur. Central Board for Prevention and Control
of Water Pollution.
8. Sewage system
9. Collectioni treatment and disposal of city waste water
10. Information. Advisory. Education. Training
11. Sewage supervisors training courses, sponsored by CFHEEO, Ministry of Works
and Housing, Government of India
13. 125 MGD - complete .sewage treatment plant. Biogas for domestic use, 1000
families. 66 MGD sewage treatment plant. Biogas for 501) fami!ies. 22 MGD
primary sewage treatment plant (comp!etedj
Biogas for 1000 families. 125 MGD - complete sewage treatment plant. (ongoing)
Biogas for 10,000 families (planned).
II
A.
1. (b) movable
2. 200,000 cu ft
3. (a)
(b)
(4
RCC structure
mild steel plates 8 mm thick
and (d) cast iron pipes range 6 in to 10 in diameter
B.
1.
2.
5.
6.
(b) batch
Sludge from primary sedimentation of raw-sewage
0.3412 x 1O6 kg in every 3 days in each digester
94-95 per cent moisture at 105OC
C.
1. (a)
(bj
2. (a)
(fj
14300 m3
domestic fuel supply and power generation (standbyj
136.5 x lo6 kg/day
204.7 x lo6 kg/day
D.
1. $US 2.5 million
2. (a) summer 40°C
(b) winter 20°C
3. (b) sun
5. Frequent chockages due to incoming grit. Grit chamber flow to be regulated
every day. Application of back pressure with raw sewage to remove chockages
6. 66 per cent
171
7. To have at least 8 in to 10 in diameter C.I. pipe for withdrawal of digesters
sludge and one central screw pump for mixing effectively.
138.
Gobar Gas Research and Training
Centre
I
1. Ajitmal, Etawah, India 206 121
2. 1957
3. Director, Planning Research and Action Division, Government of Uttar Pradesh,
Lucknow
4. Senior and other research officers
5.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
(a) over 20
Planning, research and extension ,of biogas technology
,
Biogas
Research and development. Training
On constructional methodology and technical details of biogas digesters.
On action research in biogas technology; design and introduction of Janata biogas
plants; Janata biogas plants; biogas.
13. A community biogas plant completed. Three ongoing. More planned.
II
A.
1. (a) fixed
2. 6-18 m3 (common range)
3. (a) (b) (c) and (d) brick and cement
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
(a) continuous
Cattle dung
Mixed with same quantity of water
25 kg/m3 of gas
1:l
C.
1. For family-size digesters
(a) 2-10 m3
(b) cooking and lighting
2. (b) (c) and (d) composted, and applied twice a year
172
D.
2. (a)
(b)
summer 35*C
winter 15OC
3. (b)
sun
5. As long as digesters are fe d with requisite quantity of dung fixed with water it
runs trouble free. If feeding is not proper and other things (agricultural wastes
etc.) are also fed then the problems of scum formation and sedimentation
arise.
6. Over 90 per cent.
139. Indian Agricultural Research Institute,
Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry
I
1. New Delhi 110 012, India
Tel: 58 1494 Cable: KRISHIFUSA
2. 1905
3. Dr. T.D. Biswas, Head
4. Drs. R.K. Chibber, M.C. Jain, F.K. Chhonkar, O.F. Chawla, Sushi1 Kumar
5. (a) 6
(b) 6 in farmers premises and 6 in institutions
6. Delhi
7. Co-ordination of research on biogas in universities and institutes, including pilot
studies and feed back
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Research on biogas technology and usage
Chemical, biological engineering and extension
Research and development. Information. Advisory. Consultancy. Training
For individual scientists. Seminar etc. Extension
*
13. Kinetics of gas production in relation to different physical, chemical and biochemical parameters. Screening of various additives for stimulating production etc.
(completed)
Survey and possibility of utilization of various cellulosic waste materials for better
production and investigations on the biochemical changes in the substrate, particularly the extent of cellulose decomposition to be taken up in the second phase.
Detailed investigations on the residual slurry for enhancing its manurial value and
easier handling will then be carried out in the third phase. Microbiological aspects:
(a) Development of techniques for production and maintenance of enriched cultures of methanogenic bacteria. (b) Production of enriched culture of metha173
nogenic bacteria from various habitats including hilly areas for naturally selected
cold adapted strains. These above experiments will be carried out in the first year.
(c) Development of techniques for monitoring methane producing efficiency of
enriched cultures and physiological investigations on selected strains for thermal
sensitivity and identification of stimulatory parameters will follow in the second
phase. (dj invesiigaiioiis on cornmensural relationship between nc:n-methanogenic
cultures and fermentation kinetics of various celltllosic waste materials, will be
taken up in the third phase. (Ongoing)
Installation of a community gas plant in Holombi Kalan Village of Delhi and
study of the various socio-economic parameters. (planned)
II
A.
1. (b) movable
2. 3 m3 and 9 m3
3. (a) bricks and cement
(b) mild steel sheet
(c) cast iron pipe
(d) brick lined channel at the top
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
(a) continuous
Cow dung
Dung and water in equal volume thoroughly mixed to form uniform slurry
SO/l50 kg
1: 1 (by volume)
C.
1. (a) 3m3 and9m3
(b) cooking, lighting and running engines
2. (b) 40-100 kg (wet)/day
D.
1. $US 300 for 3 m3 and
$US 500 for 9 m3
2. (a) summer 33OC
(b) winter 17OC
3. (b) sun
5. During summer, whenever the slurry dries out to form a hard scum on the
surface, a few buckets of water are directly added to the thickened slurry
around the gas holder and stirred well with a pole. Dirt and straw which form
scum should be removed from the dung slurry. Precaution should be taken slj
174
that scrapings of earth from the cowshed are not introduced in the digester
otherwise there may be a silting up of the digester.
6.
100 per cent
7. Twice a week or more frequently the condensed moisture in the gas pipe must
be removed; otherwise the burner flame will flicker. Once in a year, preferably
after the monsoon, the gas holder and other iron components must be painted
with anti-corrosive paint.
i40.
Indian Institute
of Management
I
1. Vastrapur, Ahmedabad-380015, Gujarat, India
Tel: 450041
Cable: INDINMAN
Telex: 012-35 1 IIMA IN
1962
3. Prof. V.S. Vyas
4. Four faculty members
5. (a) 100 (faculty), 50 (research staff)
2.
6. Action programmes in Dharampur Taluka of Gujarat and Jawaja Block and
Deogarh Blocks of Rajasthan
8. Post-graduate teaching, training, research and consultancy in the field of management
9. Agriculture and rural development. Industrial development. Industrial management. Flanning and control system in private and public sectors etc.
10. Information. Research and development. Advisory. Consultancy. Education.
Training.
11. Apart from regular post-graduate courses, the Institute offers about 50 different
training course in a year for various levels of functionaries in various field of
activities.
12. Reports on project completed.
13. Biogas: a socio-economic evaluation for Gujarat State. Biogas in India: a socioeconomic evaluation (completed). Socioadministrative aspect of community size
biogas plants. Rural energy demand/supply balance (ongoing).
175
141.
Indian Institute
of Technology
(Bombay)
I
1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Powai, Bombay 400076, Mahrashtra,
India.
.._
Tel: 581421, 584141
2. 1959
3. Prof. A.K. De, Director
4. Dr. (Mrs.) P.P. Farikh
5. (aj i (bj 1
6. At the Institute
7. In contact with KVIC, Gobar Gas Research Centre, Ajitmal, Itawa; NDRI
8. Investigations of parameteric influence on generation of biogas and its utilization
in engines and otherwise, research aspects
10. Research and development. Advisory. ConsuItancy. Education.
11. The topic of biogas is given full coverage in the energy courses for B.Tech. students.
13. Utilization of biogas in small diesel engines: conversion of existing machine (completed). Study of biogas cum kerosene engine (ongoing). Use of heavy fuels
(residual fuels) with biogas in compression ignition engines (planned).
II
A.
KVIC design
1. (b) movable
2. For 35 m3
3. (a) cement concrete
(b) mild steel
(c) and (d) cement pipe
B.
1.
2.
4.
5.
(a) continuous
Cow dung and sometimes water hyacinth
500 kg
1:l
C.
1. (a)
(b)
2. (b)
35 m3
in engine and for cooking canteen
composting
176
1. $US 500
2. (a) summer 32°C
(b) winter 28OC
3. (a)
shadow
6. Only one digester
142.
Indian Institute
of Technology
(Madras)
I
1. Madras 600 036, TamiI Nadu, India
Cable: TECHNOLOGY
Tel: 414342 Ext. 236
Telex: TECHMAS-MS (041)7362
MADRAS
2. 1959
3. Prof. P.V. Indiresan, Director
4. Dr. S. Radhakrishna, Department of Physics, Dr. K.V. Gopalakrishnan, Department of Mechanical Engineering
5.
6.
8.
9.
(b) 2
Taramani House, IIT, Madras; Narayanapuram, 10 km from the Institute.
Research and development. Extension of biogas technology
Development of biogas engines. Design and development of biogas digesters.
Development of comprehensive biomass biogas energy systems.
10. Research and development. Extension of biogas technology
11. Graduate and post-graduate degree courses
13. Improvement of dual-fuel engines using biogas. Demonstration and popularization
of different implements working with biogas. (completed)
Cultivation of water hyacinth as biomass for biogas. Design and development of
new digesters. (ongoing)
Development of comprehensive biomass systems. (planned)
II
A.
1. (b) movable
2. 8m3 and50m3
3. (a)
(b)
(c)
brick and cement
mild steel
and (d) asbestos cement pipe
177
B.
1. (a) continuous
2. Cow dung and water hyacinth
3. Solid impurities are removed, an equal amount of water added and a smooth
slurry prepared.
4. 100 kg of wet dung (for 8 m3 )
500 kg of wet dung (for 50 m3 )
6. 1: 1 (by volume)
C.
1. (a)
(b)
2. (a)
(c)
(d)
4 m3 (for 8 m3 ) and 20 m3 (for 50 m3 )
to run engine, lamps and pumpsets
60-70 kg/day (for 8 m3 ) and 200-300 kg/day (for 50 m3 )
30-40 kg/day for (50 m3 )
lo-20 kg/day (for 8 m3 ) and 40 kg/day (for 50 m3 )
D.
1. $US 500 (for 8 m3 ) and $US 1,250 (for 50 m3 )
2. (a) summer 35OC
(b) winter 25OC
3. (b) sun
5. Blocking, cleared with bamboo pc;les
6. 100 per cent
7. The inlet and outlet passagesshould be made much larger in diameter
143.
Indian Institute of Technology (New Delhi)
Centre of Energy Studies
I
1. Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016, India
Tel: 654054
Cable: TECHNOLOGY
2. 1962
3. PJof. O.P. Jain, Director
4. Prof. H.F. Garg
5. (a) 10
W 3
8. Research and development
10. Research and development. Education. Consultancy
11. M. Tech. Course in Energy Studies
12. Several
178
II
1. (b)
3. (a)
(b)
(c)
movable
masonry
steel
and (d) cement pipe
B.
1. (b) batch
2. Cow dung
4. 100 kg
5. 100 kg/day
6. 1:l
C.
1. (a) 3 m3 /day
(b) cooking and lighting
2. (a) direct fertilizer on soil
D.
1. tus
300
2. (a) summer 33OC
(b) winter 17OC
3. (b) sun
4. In winter slurry was made with solar heated water
5. Gas holder corrosion is a problem. Cleaning of digester well is required because of the settling of other things like small stones, sand etc.
6. 100 per cent
7. Gas holder should be made of some cheaper but durable material. Suitable
trap for the moisture in the gas line should be designed. Cleaning of digester is
a problem. In winter some simple and effective heating of slurry arrangement
should be devised.
144.
Kapur Solar Farms
I
1. Bijwasan Najafgarh Road, F.O. Kapas Hera, New Delhi 110 037, India
Tel: 391747
2.
1968
3. Mr. J.C. Kapur
179
5. (a) 5 (b) 1
6. New Delhi
8. Solar energy and bioconversion systems
9. Integration of solar energy and bioconversion systems
10. Research and development
13. Integrated sol.ar energy and bioconversion systems
-
_ .._ I
II
A.
1. (b)
movable
2. 3-20 cu ft
3. (a) brick lined with cement plaster on both sides. Insulated with 2” insulating materials
(b) mild steel drum
(c)
and(d)
RCC pipe
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
(a) continuous
Cow dung, at present
Feed being mixed with water in mixing tank before feeding
125 kg
1:l
C.
1. (a)
(b)
2. (b)
200-250 cu ft
cooking of food
composting
D.
1. Nearly $US 8000 (including instrumentation)
2. (a) summer 40° C
(bj winter 5OC
3. (b) sun
4. Heating of slurry in winter by passing hot water from solar conductors
through Gheat exchanger
180
145.
Khadi and Village Industries Commission,
and Devekopment Centre
Gobar Gas Research
I
1. Kora Gramodyog Kendra, Borivli (West), Bombay 400 092, India
Tel: 662485
2. July 1962
3. Mr. G.L. Patankar, Deputy Director
5. (a) 5
(b) 80,000 (In India)
7. National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur. Bhabha Atomic
Research Centre, Bombay. Planning Research and Action Institute, Lucknow.
Indian Agriculture Research Institute, New Delhi
8. Research and development on biogas
10. Advisory on biogas (India and other developing countries)
11. On biogas plant construction.
12. Recent Development in Gobar Gas Technology (monogram)
13. Designing of domestic gas appliances including gas lamps, conversion kits for
engines (completed).
Light weight gas holders (plastic and galvanised iron). Liquid jacked gas holder.
(ongoing)
Designing of prefabricated domestic biogas plant, digester and gas holder.
(planned).
II
A.
1. (b)
movable
2. 3m3
3. (a) bricks, stones
(b) mild steel (galvanized iron, PVC on small scale)
(c) and (d) cement asbestos
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
(a) continuous
Cattle dung, human excreta
Mixing the feed in 1: 1 proportion by weight with water
80 kg
1: 1 or 1: 1.25 for 16 per cent, 18 per cent solids respectively
I81
C.
1. (a) 3 m3
(b) cooking and lighting
2. (a) 50% 60 kg/day (limited scale)
(b) 50% 100 kg/day (limited scale)
D.
1. $US 550
2. (a) summer 30°C
(b) winter 20°C
3. (a)
shadow
(b) sun
5. The digester works normally unless there is heavy acidity due to a particular
type of feed
6. Exact number is not known, but 10 per cent of the 80,000 plants might be
working
7. Prefabricated design of gas plant will solve a number of problems. Proper laying of gas pipe-line requires careful consideration. Technicians should be
trained properly, so that accumulation of water condensate should not become a frequent source of trouble in operation.
146.
L.G..Baiak.rishnan
and Brothers
Limtied
I
1. India House, Trichy Road, Coimbatore 641 018, India
Tel: 30355 (10 lines)
Cable: CONVEYANCE
Telex: 085-222
2. 1956
3. Mr. L.G. Varadaraj, Managing Director
5. (a) 16
6. Coimbatore
8. Promotion of information on biogas, assistance in developing low-cost plants and
encouraging use of plants to conserve ener,py.
10. Research and development
II
A.
1. (a) fixed (one plant)
(b) movable (three plants)
2. 6 m3 (fixed). 15 m3 , 11.5 m3 and 3.5 m3 (movable)
182
3. (a)
(b)
(c)
bricks
bricks for .fixed type mild steel for movable type
and (d) asbestos pipes
B.
1. (a) continuous
2. Cattle dung
3. Mixed with water
4. 75 kg for fixed typr
6. 1: 1 (by weight)
C.
1. (a)
(b)
2. (a)
:b)
2.5 m3 for fixed type. 4.3 m3, 4.5 m3 and 2.15 m3 for movable type
experimental
686 kg/day of wet slurry
147 kg/day of wet sluge
1. $US
$US
2. (a)
(b)
108 (fixed)
500,365 and 259 (movable)
summer 27OC
winter 20°C
D.
3. (b)
4.
5.
6.
7.
sun
For a small 60 cu ft/day Indian (movable) type of plant (3.5 m3 is the digester volume), solar heating method is being tried.
(i) movable type: scum formation, which is taken by rotating the gas holder.
Corrosion which is minimized by painting very often. (ii) Fixed type: sealing
inside the dome (using gas proofing compound), painting etc. Moisture in gas,
with water forming in pipe-lines and trapping of water.
100 per cent
(i) Movable type: Ferrocement gas holders may solve to some extent the
corrosion problems. Moisture removal from gas is an important problem.
(ii) Fixed type: Perfect sealing inside the plant to prevent gas leakage.
Pressure should be maintained uniformly at least in a certain definite
range.
147.
Mahdtra
Gandhi Smarak Nidhi
I
1. Gandhi Bhavan, Kothrud, Pune 411 029, Maharashtra, India
Tel: 56905
2. In 1949 as a branch of Central Gandhi Smarak Nidhi; in 1969 as an autonomous
body
183
3. 8’ _T.S. Bharde, Chairman
4. Mrs. Savitribai Madan, Executive Member; Mr. H.N. Todankar, Organizer
5. (a) 28 technical assistants all over the State of Maharashtra
(b) 100 night soil and cattle dung gas plants constructed. In operation 95. 56,000
latrines constructed
6. In 16 districts of Maharashtra
7. Grant-in-aid from the Government of Maharashtra. Collaboration with Khadi
and Village Industries Commission
8. Gandhi Smarak Nidhi itself is an organization engaged in propagating the Gandhian philosophy. Propagation of rural hygiene and biogas. Also village industries
with special emphasis on training-cum-production programme
10. Consultancy. Training. Publication of Gandhian literature
11. Short-courses of one month each in construction of biogas plant and inexpensive
hygienic rural latrines. Training for self-employment in village industries
12. Over 60 publications in Marathi on Gandhian philosophy, and small booklets on
biogas and rural latrines
13. Construction of 56,000 rural latrines and 110 biogas plants. (completed)
Survey of the village oil-pressing industry in Maharashtra and Rajasthan. Establishment of rural industrial estate near Poona. (ongoing)
Establishment of dairy for breeding of cows. (planned)
II
A.
Digester is constructed underground with a steel or fibre-glass collector floating
on the digesting slurry. Water jacketed to avoid odour.
3. (a) bricks in cement mortar, duly plastered
(b) steel or fibre-glass and piping GI or PVC
(c) and (d) asbestos cement pipes
B.
1. (a) continuous
2. Night soil and cattle dung
3. With night soil no mixing is done. With cattle dung water and dung are handmixed in the proportion of 5:4.
4. Will vary according to number of latrines and cattle. Most common sizes require night soil of 40 persons and droppings of 1 l-1 2 animals. There are
smaller and bigger sizes also. Per cubic meter of gas requires cattle dung equal
to 18 kg or night soil of 30 persons per day.
C.
1. (a)
(b)
according to size of plant, 2 m3 to 35 m3 per day
Gas from smaller-size plants is used mainly for kitchen. Occasionally also
for lighting. From large plants gas is used for fuel in industry.
184
2. Used as such in the farm along with irrigation water or converted with other
vegetable to refuse
D.
1. $US 375, the smallest (2 m3 ) plant
2. (a) summer 40°C
(b) winter 8OC
3. (b)
sun
5. Occasionally the pH of the slurry goes down and use of lime to correct the
pH is required. In winter, owing to low temperature gas production is
depressed some time to even less than half the normal quantity. No simple
remedy has so far been found.
7. Water jacketed plants are necessary to avoid odour and flies in case of night
soil gas plants. Rapid rusting of steel gas holders could be avoided with the use
of glass fibre reinforced polyester gas holders
148.
Ministry
of Agriculture, Department
Co-operation (India)
of Agriculture
and
I
1. Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi 110 00 1, India
Cable: AGRINDIA
Tel: 388911
2. 1947
3. The Honourable Minister of Agriculture
4. Commissioner (Fertilizer Promotion), Specialist (Biogas).
5. (a) 4
(b) over 80,000
6. A large number under the auspices of State Governments and Khadi a.nd Village
Industries Commission
7. State Governments, Khadi and Vollage Industries Commission
8. Planning, programming, co-ordination and monitoring of biogas programme at
national level
9. Planning, financing in the form of subsidy, arranging of finances from banks,
supply for raw materials etc.
10. Information. Advisory. Consultation.
11. Regional training courses are being organized in collaboration with the Directorate of Extension, New Delhi.
12. A Gobar Gas Plant for You (1978). Janata Gobar Gas Plant (1979). Organic
Recycling in Agriculture ( 1979).
185
About 80,000 biogas plants have been set up in the country. Programme for the
year 1980-81 with a target of setting up of 40,000 plants is in progress. A national
project on development and promotion of biogas for years 1980-85 is being
planned.
II
A.
1. (a) fixed
(b) movable
2. Fixed gas holder: 2, 3, 4 and 6 m3 ; Movable gas holder 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 to
85 m3
3. (a) bricks, stone slabs.
(b) steel
(c) and (d) bricks, stone slabs
B.
1. Semi-continuous
2. Cattle dung
4. Minimum of 50 kg/day for a small size i.e. 2 m3 gas production
plant.
6. 1:l.
capacity
C.
1: (a) 2 to 85 m3 depending upon size.
(b) cooking
2. (b) 85-95 kg/day (including water)
(g) sun drying and its use as compost: 15-20 kg/day
D.
1. $US 200 to 10,000 depending upon size
2. (a) summer 30-35OC
(b) winter 10-20°C
3. (b) sun
5. Accumulation of water in the pipe-line which can be overcome by installation
of a tape at the lowest level in the pipe-line and its periodic use to remove
water. Corrosion of gas holders can be overcome by painting of gas holder at
least once in two years.
6. It is estimated that about 80-90 per cent of 80,000 plants installed in the
country are in operation at any one given time.
7. In gas plants having steel gas holder, designing for insultation and heating may
be included. In gas plants having fixed dome, designing should be perfected
to make it gas-leak proof.
186
149.
Municipal Corporation of Greater Bombay,
Dadar Sewage Treatment Plant
I
1. Senapati Bapat Road, Dadar, Bombay 400 028, India
Tel: 451158
vrrrsugu, Wnn+am
.I ClDLWAII
“La”
2 Executive Engineer (Mechanical) S~~x~p~*n=
Q~Ihurbs
d.
4. Assistant Engineer (Mechanical); Superintending Chemist (Purification)
5. (a) 35
(b) 2t2
6. Dadar, Bombay
8. Sewagetreatment
9. Gas distribution and sewage treatment. Manure production
II
A.
2. Two
type
3. (a)
(b)
(c)
digestion tanks having 63’ diameter and total depth 70’ hopper bottom
- 4700 CL m of each unit.
RCC
mild steel
and (d) cast iron
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
(a) continuous
Raw sludge (primary sludge having 5 per cent to 6 per cent solids)
Consolidation for increasing the solids contents
12,500 kg
19:l
C.
1. (a)
(bj
3000-3500 m3
domestic fuel, fuel for running hospitals, and fuel for running hotels
2. (f)
70 million litres per day
D.
1. $USlmillion
2. (a) summer 33-34OC
(b) winter 18-20°C
5. Pipe choking and screw pump jamming overcome by water recirculation.
Scum formation, by- moving the screw pump in forward and backward directions.
6. 100 per cent
187
150. National Dairy Research Institute,
Indian Council of Agricultural Research
I
1. Karnal 132 001, Haryana State, India
fi‘.Ll.-..
D rlll,* lPVSEARCH,
LclUlG.
).
Tel; 2851
KARNAL
2. 1923 (formerly known as Imperial Dairy Research Institute, Indian Dairy Research Institute.)
3. Dr. D. Sundaresan, Director
4. Joint Director, Heads of Divisions, Scientists.
5. (a) 240 scientists
(b) 3
6. Regional stations in the south (Bangalore), west (Bombay) and east (Kalyani).
7. The Dairy Science College attached with NDRI is affiliated to Kurukshetra University and offers B.Sc. (Dairy Science), M.Sc. and Ph.D. degree. Recognized as
centre of excellence for dairy production and processing by UNDP.
8. Research on dairy production with cattle, buffalo and goats, dairy processing and
dairy management. Teaching for B.Sc. (Dairy Sciencej, M.Sc. and Ph.D. and
guidance for research. Collaborative research with national and international
institutions.,
9. Increasing milk yield of cattle. Production of good quality milk and milk products. Better management of dairy farm and mixed recycling of dairy farm wastes
and of farms for fodder cultivation.
10. Research. Education. Training. Advisory
11. In addition to degree courses, short term courses: 13 in dairy production, 10 in
dairy processing, and 4 in dairy management
12. Annual Report. Quarterly Newsletter. Research and Technical Bulletins and
Monthly Documentation on Dairy Science.
13. 393 (completedj and 52 (ongoing).
II
A.
Khadi and Village Industries Commission design
1. (bj movable
2. 7m3
3. (a) cement, brick
(bj galvanized iron
(cj and (d) cement brick and asbestos cement pipe
188
1. (a)
continuous
2. Cattle dung
3. Mixed dung with water in inlet trough
4. 125 kg (dung)
6. 1:1
C.
1. (a)
(b)
2. (a)
3-7 m3 (winter and summer months)
cooking and lighting
250 litres digested slurry/day
D.
1. $US 600
2. (a) summer 28-33OC
(b) winter 13-i 5OC
3. (b) sun
5. Less gas yield during winter. The gas yield can be slightly increased by charging the dung during winter months with warm water at noon. Besides 20 per
cent urine addition will supplement nutrient deficiency
6. 100 per cent
151.
National Institute
of Waste Recycling
Technology
I
1. A-l 8, Juhu Apartments, Juhu Road, Bombay 400 049, India
Cable: RECYCLING BOMBAY, Scz. 400 049
Tel: 543517
2. 1978 (Registration in the process)
3. Dr. T.M. Paul, Executive Directory (Honourary)
4. A band of honourary, part-time technical officers, both Indian and foreign.
5. (a) 12 Indian and 12 foreign
(b) 1
7. The Bharathiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay. The Kosbad Agricultural
Maharashtra. The Municipal Corporation, Bombay.
Institute,
8. Designing and operating a pollution - free system of waste-recycling, to produce
compost for manurial use, biogas for energy and reclaimed water for irrigation,
industrial and domestic uses of flushing and washing and for rearing fish etc.
9. Redesign of a pollution free septic tank (completed and is under application, for
a patent in India and UK). Designing a simple biogas plant, without any metallic
or domeshaped gas holder, but pollution-free (completed and under issue of a
patent in India and UK)
189
10. Research and development. Consultancy, on non-profit basis
12. Liquid Compost Plant for Rural Sanitation: Part A: Basic Principles and Objectives (Under publication in International Reference Centre for Waste Disposal
News No. 15, WHO.) Part B will publish the design of the new plant, after the
patent is issued.
13. Pollution free septic tank. Liquid compost plant. drumless and domeless biogas
plant (completed).
Field trials of the designs (ongoing).
II
A.
1. (b)
movable
2. 35 m3
3. (a)
(b)
(c)
brick and cement
brick, cement and mild steel
and (d) 3 in size asbestoes pipe
B.
1. (a) continuous
(b) batch
2. Cow dung (other wastes also under trial)
3. Only mixing
4. Up to 5000 kg (approximately)
5. 10 kg every 30 days
6. 1:l
C.
1. (a)
(b)
2. (b)
100m3
running an irrigation pump, on a fodder farm, for about 8 years.
up to 5000 kg/day (used for feeding chicks and calves)
3. Only compost (treatment) making is recommended
D.
1. $US 625 (in 1967) (approx.)
2. (a) summer 35OC
(b) winter 25OC
3. (b) sun
Not necessary
5. None experienced in Bombay, where the annual rainfall has been about
100 in compost making could be carried out even in the rainy season.
7. Drum-free and dome-free digester will be trouble-free, but needs field trials
which are under consideration.
4.
190
152.
Orissa Cement Ltd.
I
1. Rajgangpur 770 0 17, District Sundargarh, Orissa State, India
Cable: ORISACEMENT
Tel: 3 2-RGP
Telex: ‘0635 240
2. Gobar gas plant established in 1977
3. Mr. M.L. Chand, General Manager
4. Mr. K.S. Singh, Horticulture Officer
5. (a) 2 (b)
3/2
Rajgangpur
7. Khadi Village Industries Commission, Bombay. Khadi Research Institute, Sewapuri, Varanasi.
8. Industry
9. Rural development and welfare
6.
10. Researchand development
13. 2 (completed),
1 (ongoing) and 1 (planned).
Il
A.
1. (b j
movable
2. 1000 cu ft and 300 cu ft
3. (a) brick, cement and sand
(b) steel sheet
(c) and (d) brick, sand, cement and asbestos pipe
B.
1. (b) batch
2. Co;v dung, cutgrass, waste cattle feed, fodder etc.
3. Mixing water, chopping grass in small
5. 1000 kg every day
6. 1: 1 + 10 per cent
C.
1. (a)
(b)
13OOcuft
cooking food, boiling water etc.
2. (b) 1000 kg/day
(g) as fertilizer for flower pots, lawns etc.
191
-,.
:
I ‘i
;;.> L
:.
D.
.2. (a) summer 40°C
(b) winter 15OC
3. (a) shadow
(b) sun
4. During winter, use of hot water and covering gas holder with jute gunny bags
5. The 300 cu ft plant was blocked due to silting of cement and stone chips. This
trouble was removed by lifting gas holder, pumping slurry out and cleaning
the waste manually.
6. 100 per cent
7. To avoid stone chips, brickbats etc. get in through inlet, the inlet must be
fitted with a steel strainer.
153. PSG CoBege of Technology
I
1. Coimbatore 641 004, India
Tel: 24177
Telex:
PSGCB/0855/26 1
2. 1951
3.
4.
5.
6.
Dr. R. Subbayyan, Principal
Dr. C.P. Kothandaraman, Mr. P.R. Thiyagarajan
(a) 2*(b) 1
Coimbatore
7. PSG Industrial Institute under the same management provides special fabrication
facilities.
8.
9.
10.
12.
Investigative
Teaching. Research
Research and development. Consultancy. Education. Training.
Papers dealing with biogas application to engines were presented in the NitC:or:di
Conference on I.C. Engines and Combustion.
13. Use of biogas in I.C. engines (completed). Gas production using wee& leaves, bio
wastes (ongoing). Construction of a fixed volume type (masonry) plant (pL:zmeci).
II
-2
A.
1. (b)
movable
,Y
2. 12m3
192
3. (a)
brick masonry
(b) MS.
(c) and id) stoneware pipe
B.
1. (b)
batch
2. Cow dung
150 kg every 7 days
7. 1:lO
5.
C.
1. (a) 8 m3
(b) running of diesel/petrol engines
2. (b) 40 kg/week
D.
1. $US 1200
2. (a) summer 35OC
(b) winter 30° C
3. (a) shadow
7. The inlet and outlets should be of adequate size. Sand, stones etc. should be
removed from the feed.
154.
Punjab Agricultural
University
I
1. Ludhiana, Punjab 14 1 004, India
Cable: AGRIVERSITY LUDHIANA
Tel: 22960 Ext. 242
2. 1962
3. Vice-Chancellor
4. Associate Professor, Soil Microbiology
5. (a) 3 (b) 1
3
6. In the University
7. Recognized by the University Grants Commission and the Indian Council of Agricultural R.esearch,Government of India.
8. Research, teaching and extension
9. Agricultural, veterinary and animal science. Horticulture. Forestry etc.
10. Teaching. Research and extension.
11. B.Sc., B-Tech. B.V.Sc. M.Sc. M.Tech. Ph.D.
12. *
13. Two ongoing in biogas: Development of kachara-gas plant; cheaper materials for
construction of biogas plants.
II
A.
1. (b)
movable
2. 20m3
3. (a) bricks and cement mortar
(b) and (c) mild steel sheet 18 gauge
(d) masonry tank
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
(a) continuous
Dry paddy straw, wheat straw
Straw is chopped to less than 8 cm pieces.
10kg
18: 1 (water:straw)
C.
1. (a) 1 m3
(b) farm iabour makes tea and cooks food; rest is just burnt off.
2. (a) 200 kg used for an experiment.
D.
1. $US 1,000
2. (a) summer 27.5OC
(b) winter 14OC
3. (b) sun
5. The plant design can use any material that is of non-iiquified plant origin,
chopped to 8 cm size. The digester has stirring arrangement. The load on the
stirrer needs to be reduced. The installation cost is higher than the KVIC
design. It requires more space than the KVIC design.
6. Constructed: two. Operating: two
155.
Resources Development
Institute
I
1. 1100 Quarters Area, Arera Colony, Bhopa1462 016, India
Tel: 62361
Cable: SADHANVIKAS
2. 1974
3. Mr. G.G. Puri, Executive Director
194
4. Board of Directors (Chairman: Shri R.P. Norohna; Secretary: Professor SD.
Dube)
5. (a) 7 researchers, 3 technicians, 3 coordinators.
(b) 5 constructed (one high pressure, portable, one overground on rock, one
conventional, one all clay, and one in concrete)
6. Bhopal
7. Independent, voluntary society, recognized by the University Grants Commissions
and Bhopal University as research centre
8. Research and development. Extension and application of technology to rural
poor. Consultancy
9. Biogas technology. Solar energy. Rural - housing. Appliance and tools
10. Researchand development. Information and training. Extension. Consultancy
12. Propose to publish a quarterly or technique which will be a journal of the RDI
dealing with research, resource developmen-,+ technology extension and integrated
development
13. Biogas - conversion kit for diesel engines Biogas filter. Substitution of acetylene
by biogas in welding. Biogas turbine. High pressure portable biogas plants. (completed)
Cheap solar cookers - clay and local materials costing $US 2 to 3. Solar pumps reflection concentrator modified Sterling engine system. Rural cold storage aqua-amonia-absorber- and gas turbine system. Solar-cum-wind energy converter.
Compiete clay biogas plants. Clay ring wells for small farmers. (nearly completed) r
Baked clay - pre-fab houses for rural poor. Strain - relieving and effort boosting
mechanism for hand carts. (ongoing)
Fibre from plantain stalks. Solar cycle. Chemical storage of solar energy. Development of cheap solar cells. I-, ilow-burnt clay bricks. Fertilizer and soil fertility
boosters from manganese wastes. (planned)
II
A.
1. (b)
2. 4m3
3. (a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
movable
baked clay: rings assembled
baked clay
clay - pipe
rubber or plastic pipe - secured in clay
B.
1. $US 50
2. (a) summer 40°C
(b) winter 25OC
3. (b) sun
195
156.
Sobic Industrial
Consultants
I
1. 5, V.N. G. Road, Madhavaram Milk Colony, Madras 60005 1, Tamil NarJu, India
Tel: 647 102
2. 1979
3. Ms. L.M. D’Souza, Director
4. Ms. Christine D’Souza, Farm Manager
5. (b) lo/2
6. 5, V.N.G. Road, M.M.C., ML, ras 600 061
10. Research and development. Advisory. Consultancy. Education. Training
11. Non-formal training to village children mainly in the form of exposure by joining
in the operation of feeding the plant and using effluent.
13. Biogas plant, one for S.O.S. children’s village, one for Mother Teresa’s orphanage,
three for poor educational institutions and five for individuals (completed).
12 biogas plants for a rural housing project based on a radial design. (ongoing)
Biogas plant for a factory having 2000 workers. Low-cost biogas plants for village
applications. (planned)
II
A.
1. (b) movable
2. 7.8 m3
3. (a) brick and cement mortar
(b) mild steel
(c) 4 in AC. pipe, bottom entry, seperated by partition wall
(d) 6 in A.C. pipe, bottom exit, seperated by partition wall
B.
1. (a) continuous
2. Night soil, chicken dung, cowdung pig dung, chicken entrails, kitchen peelings, straw, cut grass, banana plant stalks, spoiled fodder, chicken deep litter
4. 25 kg approx.
6. Average 1: 1
C.
1. (a)
(b)
2. (a)
(b)
(d)
2.8 to 3.0 m3
cooking
30 kg/day approx.
very marginal
10 kg/day approx.
196
3. Have tried it and found to be effective for vegetable e.g. brinjals, cluster beans
etc.
D.
1. $US 500
2. (a) summer 4O*C
(b) winter 27OC
3. (b) sun
5. Setting up of inlet lines due to sand accumulation at digester bottom. Light
component of feed floating due to poor feed slurry mixing. High rates of
water to feed where digester is connected to sewage system. Cracks in digester
feed lines and digester walls.
100 per cent
7. Development of a good feed slurry mixer is very important. Arrangements to
be made for removing sand from feed. At least the digester will silt in course
of 2-4 years. Arrangements should be made to desilt without taking digester
out of service. Good follow-up is necessary at construction stage to make sure
that digester and associated pipes/lines are leak-tight.
Larger digesters to be provided with a stirrer to provide agitation which will
promote good digestion.
6.
157.
Sri Parasakthi College for Women
I
1. Courtallam 627 802,Tamil Nadu, India
2. 1970
3. The Principal
5. (b) 5
6. Courtdam
11. Five batches of training courses
13. Indian Council of Agricultural Research scheme on biogas technology
II
A.
1. (b)
movable
2. 2.9,4, 14.5, 10 and 17 m3
3. (a) brick and cement
(b)
Cc) and (d) steel
B.
1. (b) continuous
2. Cow dung, urine, waterhyacinth
197
4. 200 kg of dung
6. 1:l
c.
1. (a)
(b)
20 m3
cooking, lighting and laboratory uses.
2. (b)
(c)
150 kg/day
100 kg/day
D.
1. $US 445c
;5 plants)
2. (a) summer 39OC
(b) winter 31°C
3. (b) sun
5. The gas holders often get corroded due to the gas contaminants in the biogas.
Hydrogen sulphide has to be eliminated from the constituents of biogas
’
6. 100 per cent
7. The design should be modified in such a way that it should work even during
titer.
158.
Structural
Engineering
Research Centre
I
1. Roorkee, U-P., India
Tel: 480
2.
Cable: SERCENTER
1965
3. Dr. S.P. Sharma, Scientist-in-charge
4. Dr. S.P. Sharrna, br. V.P. Narayanaswamy, Dr. G.V.S. Kumar, Dr. P.C. Sharma
and Dr. S.S. Jain
5. (a) 4 (b) 6
7. Through the All-India Coordinated Project o.- - igas sponsored by Department
of Science and Technology, Government of India
8. Research and development relating to structural engineering and construction
technology
9. Structural analvsis and design. Construction materials and technology.
10. Information. I\. Gzarch and development. Consultancy . Training
11. On ferrocement technology in June 1979
12.
*
13. On biogas, one completed and one ongoing
198
A.
B.
1. (b) movable
2. 3.6 m3
3. (a) brick in cement mortar
(b) ferrocement
(c) and (d) brick in cement mortar
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
(a) continuous
Cattle dung
Mixing of dung and water manually
66 kg
1: 1 {by weight)
C.
1. (a)
(b)
D.
2 m3 (average)
demonstration of use for cooking and lighting
1. !§us 250
2. (a) summer 35OC
(bj winter 15OC
3. (a) shadow
6. 50 per cent
159. Tata Energy Research Institute, Field Research Unit
I
1. 7 rue Suffren, Pondicherry 605 001, India
Cable: AUROBINDO
Tel: 3483
2. 1975
3. Dr. CL. Gupta, Director
5. (aj 12
(b) 4 constructed; 3 designs finished; construction to start
6. 1 (10 km away)
7. IIT, Delhi, Centre of Energy Studies and TERI Headquarters, Bombay
8. Research in alternative sources of energy
9. In biogas field: small-scale biogas plants
10. Research and development. Consultant:;!. Education. Advisory
13. Cook stoves and small biogas systems (ongoing). Biogas system for field station
(planned)
‘>
199
160. Development Technology Centre, Institute of Technology Bandung
(DTC - ITB)
I
1. ITB Campus, Jalan Ganesha no. 10, P-0. Box 276, Bandung, Indonesia
Telex: 28262 DTCITB BD
Tel: 83307 and 82768
3. Dr. Filino Harahap, Director
4. 8
5. (a) 20 (b) 10
6. 2
8. Extension service in appropriate technology
10. Information. Research and development. Advisory. Consultancy . Training.
11. Several
12. “Biogas development in Indonesia”, presented at ESCAP meeting 1978. “Biogas
and fishculture”, presented at the UNESCO training course on microbiology in
service of an environmental management based rural development. Three publications in the Indonesian language on technology of biogas, biogas from city waste
and biogas and animal husbandry.
13. Biogas from city waste (ongoing).
II
A.
B.
1. (b) movable
2. Drum size: 5 m3 and 15 m3
3. (a) concrete and ferrocement
(b) metal
(c) and (d) pralon and metal
n
1.
2.
4.
6.
(a) continuous
Cow dung and buffalo dung
Retention time 30 days
1:l
C.
1. (a) l/6 - l/3 digester volume
(b) cooling
2. (a) direct fertilizer on soil
(c) aquaculture
D.
1. $US 500(5m’),
$US 1,000(15m”)
2. (a) summer 25O - 30°C
3. (b) sun
6. 50 per cent
161. Industrial Research Institute, Centre for Chemical Industry
I
1. Jalan Karanganyar 55, Jakarta, Indonesia
Tel: 625980
2. 1938
3.
4.
5.
6.
8.
’ 9.
10.
12.
13.
lr. Koentoro Soebijarso
lr. Karsini
(a) 10 (b) 2
Jakarta, Central Java and East Java
A five-year development plan project
Design and constxuciion of small and medium biogas plants
Research and development
Annilal reports. Research papers.
A biogas digester at West Jakarta, with a capacity of 1.50 m3 (completed).
A biogas digester at Semarang (Central Java), with a capacity of 10 m3 (ongoing).
A biogas digester at Klaten (Central Java), with a zapacity of 20 m3 and a biogas
digester at East Java, with a capa.city of 30 m3 (planned).
A.
1. (a) fmed
2. 1.5 zn3
3. (a)
(b)
(c)
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
concrete tube
steel plate (3 mm thick”
and (d) concrete tube
.
(a) continuous
Pig excrement and eichhornia crassipes.
Putrefaction of eichhomia crassipes by soaking in water (30 days)
20 kg.
1:l
201
c.
1. (a)
(b)
1 m3
lighting and cooking
2. (a)
10 kg/day
2. (aj
summer 35°C
D.
3. (b) sun
6. 100 per cent
7. A sprayer for cleaning biogas digester and a stirrer for homogenizing sludge,
both of them constructed together with biogas dome.
162. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries,’
National Institute of Animal Industry
I
1. Tsukuba Norindanchi, P.O. Box 5, lbaraki 305, Japan
Tel: 02975-6-8600
2. 1916
3. Dr. Takeo Abe
4. 236 (Researchers: 118, biogas 3)
5. (a) 67 (biogas: 1) (b) 1
7. Other governmental research institutes. (For biogas, with Fermentation Research
Institute, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology, Ministry of International
Trade and Industry)
8. Basic research
9. Animal science. Animal husbandry. Animal waste management. Animal. products
processing.
10. Research and development.
12. Research papers in “Bulletin of National Institute of Animal Industry” and other
scientific journals: “J. Anim. ,Sci.“, “J. Nutr.“, “J. Sci. Food Agric.“, “Jpn. J.
Zootech. Sci.“, “Endocrinol. Jpn.“, Agric. Wastes”, “J. Dairy Sci.“, “Agric. Biol.
Chem.” and the f&e.
13. On animal waste management: Activated sludge process for swine wastewater;
High-rate animal wastewater treatment by contact aeration. (completed)
Biogas production from animal wastes and its utilization. Aerobic composting of
animal wastes. Control of odours from animal wastes. (ongoing)
System analysis and standardization of animal waste management. More efficient
utilization of biological resources including animal wastes. (planned)
202
II
A.
1. (b) movable (separated from the digester)
2, 0.2 m3
3. (a) FRP (Fibre-glass reinforced plastic)
(b) iron
(c) FRP pipe
(d) vinyl pipe
B.
1. (a) continous
2. Swine wastes
4. 1Okg
6. 3:4
C.
1. (a)
(b)
0.2 m3
fuel
2. (a)
10 kg/day
D.
2. (a) summer 27OC
(b) winter 4’ C
3. (a) shadow
4. A submersible pump in the digester stirs and heats slurry simultaneously.
5. Main trouble is clogging of the submersible pump by gross organic residues
such as straw mixed in the wastes. The method of overcoming is the removal
of these residues before feeding digester.
163. Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SWIM)
I
1. Lot 10810 Phase 3, Federal Highway, P.0. Box 35, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
Cable: SIRIMSEC
Tel: 3626014
2. 1975
3. Mr. Abdullah bin Mohd Yusof, Controller
4. 2
5. (a) 156 (b) 1
6. Selangor
8. Standards and industrial research
203
10. Information. Research and development. Advisory. Consultancy .
12. Malaysian Standards. Technical Report (research and development)
13. On biogas: one completed and two ongoing.
l-l
A.
1. (b)
movable
2. 4m3
3. (a) concrete - bricks and cement
(b) mild steel
(c) and (d) PVC pipe
B.
1.
2.
5.
6.
(b) batch
Chicken droppings
30 kg every 7 days
1:l
C.
1. (a)
(b)
lOOft
cooking and lighting
2. (a)
10 kg/day
D.
1.
2.
3.
5.
$US400 1
(a) summer31°C
(b) sun
Due to a defect in the design, difficulty was encounterd in the discharge of
the digested by-products. To overcome this problem an outlet pipe of a bigger
diameter was used together with an inclined concrete screed to ease flow.
6. About 50 per cent
7. In the present design adopted, feeding is done manually, hence it is necessary
that the opening of the inlet (or feed) pipe be within reach of the operator.
With this, a digester embedded in the ground is found most fitting besides the
fact that the digested material can be maintained at a constant temperature.
164. lnvermay Agricultural Research Centre
I
1. Private Bag, Mosgiel, New Zealand
Tel: Mosgiel4 132
Telex:
204
INV
2. 1950
3. Dr. A.J. Allison, Director
4. Dr. D.J. Stewart, Mr. M. Badger and Mr. M. Bogue
5. (a) 2
(b) i farmscale
6 laboratory
6. At the Centre
8. Research and development
10. Information. Research and development. Advisory
13. Effects of industrial pollution on agriculture. Production of biogas from crops
and wastes. Energy farming. Energy in agriculture. Farm-scale biogas and ethanol
plants
II
A.
1. (b) fixed
2. 45 m3
3. (a) steel frame holding insulating panels, rubber liner
(b) butyi rubber bag, steel frame
(4 ad (8 pump
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
(a) continuous
Crops: maize, oats, kale, straw
Storage as silage (chopped) and mixed with recycled effluent
200 kg
250 kg DM every day
No water added
C.
1. (a) 75 m3
(b) vehicle fuel
2. (a) 50 per cent at 1500 kg/day at 2 per cent T.S.
(b) 50 per cent at 1500 kg/day at 2 per cent T.S.
D.
1. %US 17,500
2. (a) summer 14OC
(b) winter 6OC
3. (b) sun
4. Gas heating/water heat exchange or electric hot water heating/heat exchanger
205
6. In New Zealand, 7 operating, 8 constructed and 5 under construction
7. Design of mixing system must suit material to be used.
165. Appropriate Technology DevelopI,
Government of Pakistan
t
Ccrganization
I
1. 1-A,, 47 Street, F-7/1, Islamabad, Pakistan
II
A.
1. (a) fixed
2. 10,50and 100m3
3. (a), (b), (c) ant! d..i) cement, steel bars, bricks
B.
1. (b) batch
3. Cow and buffalo dung
5. 50 to 70 kg every day
6. 50 per cent
C.
1. (b)
2. (4
cooking
50 kg/day
D.
3. (b) sun
166. Merin Limited
I
1. Dada Chambers, M .A. Jinnah Road, Post Box 4145, Karachi 2, Pakistan
Cable ORGANISE
Tel: 221783,231332,233595
Telex: PAK 24675
2. 1948
3. Mr. Mahmood Futehally, Managing Director
4. Miss Shama Futehally, Adviser; Mr. S.A. Rahman, Manager
5. (a) 2 (b) 2
6. Sohana Bagh, Block 2, Gulshan-e-lqbal, Karachi
206
7. Appropriate Technology Development Organization, Ministry of Science and
Technology, Government of Pakistan; Intermediate Technology Development
Group, Ltd., London; SWD Steering Committee on Wind Energy for Developing
Countries DHV Consulting Engineers, Amersfoort, the Netherlands
8. Manufacture and sale of windmills, prefabricated biogas plants and propagation of
productive plants and trees
9. Manufacture, sale, publicity, plant nursery services
10. Information. Research and development. Training
12. Paper presented at the 19th All Pakistan Annual Science Conference, 1979
13. Seven 12ft diameter windmills installed at various places in Pakistan. (completed)
Repair of old windmills belonging to the Government at various parts of Pakistan.
(ongoing)
Development, manufacture and sale of 10 ft, 12 ft, 18 ft and 24 ft windmills.
Development, manufacture and sale of prefabricated biogas plants of 10 cu m
capacity. Development of water-proof fabric for construction of water-storage
ponds. Development of “lpil” forests along the roads and streets of Karachi.
(planned)
II
A.
Experiments are being made with the construction of ferrocement digesters made
of prefabricated sections which can be easily transported to site, quickly assembled and sharged with feed within a day or two. One of the important requirements is to have a very impervious plastering substance which would make the
whole structure leak-proof with only a single coat. A plaster has been produced
and a small experimental plant constructed wherein this type of plaster has been
used, and which has been producing since the last six months. A bigger plant of
10 m3 capacity is shortly to be installed. When this also has proved successful, its
manufacture on a commercial scale is planned.
C.
So far the sole use of effluent has been for fertilizer.
167. Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources, Energy Resources Cell
I
1. H. No. 3, St. 88, G-6/3, lslamabad, Pakistan
Tel: 21416
2. 1973
3. Director General
4. Director, Deputy Director, Assistant Director, Research Investigators
5. (a) 13 (b) 100 family biogas units and two community biogas plants
6. lslamabad
207
8. Recommendation on national energy policy. Development and demonstration of
renewable sources of energy. Conservation of energy
13. Installation of 100 family units for demonstration purposes and two community
biogas plants (45 m3 gas/day xnd 90 m3 gas/day) (completed).
Projects on rural energy, rural electrification and solar energy development (ongoh3).
Installation of 1200 biogas plants (planned).
II
A.
1. (b) movable
2. 18 m3
3. (a) bricks, cement and sand
(b) M.S. sheet
(c) and (d) bricks, cement and sand
B.
1. (a) continuous
2. Dung
3. Dung is mixed with water in the form of slurry in the inlet tank
4. 90 kg
6. 1:l
C.
1. (a) 4.3 m3
(b) cooking
2. (a.) 80 kg/day
D.
1. $US80
2. (a) summer 35OC
(b) winter 20°C
3. (b) sun
6. A few units were out of operation because of defective masonry work
168. Liberty Flour Mills, Inc., Maya Farms Division
I
1. Liberty Building, Pasay Road, Makati, Metro Manila, Philippines
Tel 86-50-l 1
Cable: LIBFLOUR
2. 1972
208
3. Dr. Felix D. Maramba, Sr.
4. Dr. F.D. Maramba, Sr., Dr. E. Obias, Dr. C. Taganas, Dr. J. Banzon
5. (a) 18
(b)
68
6. Angono, Riza& Philippines
8. Integrated animal raising - meat processing - waste processing/recycling - and
biogas energy utilization
9. Design, construction and operation of biogas works. Operation of integrated farming
10. Consultancy. Research and development
,
12. On small biogas plant; biogas and waste recycling
13. Design, construction, testing of 2 sets of industrial-size batch-fed digesters.
Design, construction, testing of 4 sets of industrial continuous digesters with gas
holder and sludge conditioning systems. (completed)
Design, construction of industrial-size (set of 6) digesters for continuous operation with gas holder and sludge conditioning system. (ongoing)
II
A.
1. (a) movable
2. Total volume 2753 m3
3. (a) concrete, hollow blocks, reinforcing bars
(b) concrete, reinforcing bars, steel sheet, pipes
(c) and (d) concrete or polyethelene pipes
B.
1. (a) continuous
(b) batch
2. Hog waste
3. Admixture with water
4. 20,000 kg (total)
5. Total 10,000 kg every day, but 2 out of 48 batch digesters charged each day
6. About 2: 1
C.
1. (a)
(b)
1700m3
pumping water, generation of electricity, needs of meat processing and
canning plants
2. (e) 3,000 kg/day
3. Prolonged aeration and settling
.
209
D.
1. $US 266,000 (total)
2. (a) summer 30-34OC
(b) winter 24-28’ C
3. (b) sun
6. 100 per cent
169. iklinistry of Energy, Centre for Nonconventional Energy Development
I
1. PNPC Complex, Merritt Road, Fort Bonifacio, Metro Manila, Philippines
Tel: 85-38-l 1 or 89- 19-66
Telex: 2660 (RCA)
2. 1977
3. Dr. Ernest0 N. Terrado, Administrator
8. Research and development. Demonstration
10. Information. Research and development. Advisory. Consultancy. Training
11. Biogas seminars and workshops. Seminars on alternative energy sources.
13. Cow manure biogas production and utilization in an integrated farm system.
Regional biogas demonstration plants. Practical application of producer gas from
agricultural wastes residues as alternative fuel for diesel engine. Application of
alternative sources of energy in an integrated village food processing system
(completed)
Pyrolysis of wastes. Communal biogas system for San Jose, Batangas. Technoeconomic study of a communal biogas system using human wastes. Alternative
energy system in a development model for a rice producing community. Communal system for converting waste to energy. Pilot dendrothermal plant for rural
power. Domestic biogas promotion in human settlements. Biogas production from
swine manure at the Reliable Farms Development Corporation. Integrated research on selected renewable energy systems. (ongoing)
A.
1. (b)
2. 2
3. (a)
(b)
(c)
movable
units of 14.5 m3
cement, sand gravel bars
gauge 16 G.I. sheets
and (d) cement pipe
1. (a)
continuous
B.
2. Cattle manure
210
3. Wastesand washings only
4. 200 kg/digester
6. I:2
C.
1. (a)
(b)
~, 2. (a)
6
(cl
(e)
(f)
10-21.5 m3
1 gas range, 1 gas burner and 1 refrigerator
1 kg/day/plant (for vegetables)
8 WW
5,000 kg/day/algae seeding
0.2 kg/day/animal (sludge as animal feed)
D.
3. (b) sun
5. Lack of sufficient manure coming from the dairy parlor. Cattle manure is
being collected from animals in the cattle shed, the wastes placed in drums
and mixed with water to form a slurry.
7. The split designs offer more trouble than the continuous integrated ones
&
170. National Institute of Science and Technology
I
1. Pedro Gil Street, Ermita, Metro Manila, Philippines
Tel; 50-30-41
-:s
3. Commissioner
.,4.
Project Leader
& ‘5. (a) 6 (b) 72
6. :3 regional offices of NSDB
7. Technical support to Bureau of Animal Industry and Human Settlement in their
biogas project.
8. Research and development. Extension
9. Designs and construction. Operation and utilization
IO. Researchand development. Information. Consultancy. Training
11. Biogas and mushroom production
12. On biogas technology with emphasis on microbial actions on the substrata to
improve the yield and quality of gas produced.
13. Four projects (completed). One big project supported by ASEAN (ongoing)
211
II
B.
1. (a) continuous
2. Hog manure
3. 3 days of aerobic fermentation prior to changing
4. 20 kg
6. 3:l
C.
1. (a) 1.5 m3
(b) cooking
2. 60
(cl
(0
10 kg/day
5 kg/day
3 kg/day
D.
1. $US 470
2. (a) summer 33OC
(b) winter 28’C
3. (b) sun
5. Leaks in the joints of sidings and flooring. Poured monolitic
advised.
6. 95 per cent
concrete
is
171. Office of Rural Development
I
1. Rural Energy Resources Research Division, Institute of Agricultural Science,
Suweon, Republic of Korea
Tel: Suweon 6- 1057
2. 1977
3. Dr. Young Dae Park
5. (a) 9 (b) 3/3
6. Yu Name Livestock technical College
7. Farm Machinery Institute. Livestock Experiment Station. Horticultural Experiment Station.
8. Study feasibility of village scale biogas plant in the Republic of Korea
9. Gas production, utilization of effluent, reduction methods of BOD in effluent.
10. Research and development
212
12. Studies on biogas generation from animal wastes. A feasibility study of village
scale biogas plant during winter season.
13. Studies on material resources for biogas production. Development of biogas plant
types and biogas utilization. Solar energy utilization. (ongoing)
Integrated biogas research. (planned)
II
A.
1. (b) movable
2. lOJIm
3. (a) cement concrete
(b) iron made
(c) and (d) cement concrete
B.
1. (a) continuous
2. Animal manures (pig)
3. Pretreatment: manure mixed with small amount of water and keeping it as it
is for one day for melting the manures
4. 1900 kg/day
6. Manure 2: water 3
C.
1. (a)
(b)
185 m3
cooking and heating the rooms
D.
1. About $US 23,450 in 1979
2. (a) summer 19OC
(b) winter -8OC
3. (b) sun
4. Digester temperature was controlled at 35OC as much as possible by heating
with biogas produced
6. This digester is operating as prototype-village scale biogas plant
172. University of The South Pacific, School of Agriculture
1. Alafua Campus, P.O. Box 890, Apia, Western Samoa
2. 1977
3. Dean and Head of School
213
4. Lecturer in Agricultural Engineering
5. (b) 1
7. As a regional university linkages with many institutions worldwide.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Degree and diploma training. Research and extension
Agriculture and related fields
Education. Training. Research. Extension
Degree in Agriculture. Diploma in Tropical Agriculture.
II
A.
1. (b)
movable
2. 1.57 m3
3. (a) reinforced concrete tank
(b) G.I. sheet
(C)
and (d) ceramic pipe
B.
1. (a)
2.
3.
4.
6.
continuous
Pig waste
Wastes washed down and screened to prevent big lumps going into digester.
30 kg
15 : 1 (including washing water)
C.
1. (b) cooking
2. (g) fish/duck pond
D.
2. (a)
(b)
summer 85OC
winter 80°C
3. (b) sun
4. Not necessary
1
5. This digester was constructed in 1977, but no record is available about its
performance. It has recently been repaired-by students as part of their project.
It has started to operate in April 1980 and the gas is coming out fairly well.
6. Only one digester in USP.
7. The inlet and outlet pipes need to be modified. Excess water going into the
digester should be properly regulated.
214
173. University of Peradeniya, Deparlrnent of Civil Engineering
I
1. Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
Tel: 38-8029
2.
3.
4.
5.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
13.
1950
Head of the Department
Professor M. Amaratunga
(4 1 W 4
Ceylon Electricity Board; In-service Training Centre, Department of Agriculture
Research. Teaching
Development of burners. Integrated systems
Consultancy. Education
A short course on biogas technology is taught in B.Sc. (Engineering)
Collaboration with In-service Training Centre, Department of Agriculture in
establishing an integrated system. Survey of biogas potential of a district in Sri
Lanka. (completed)
Setting up biogas units in Matale District based on the survey. (ongoing)
II
A.
B.
1. (a) fixed (This type is now being used in view of prohibitive costs of steel
movable holders.)
3, (a) and (b) brick work
(c)
and (d) clay pipes
1. (a) continuous
2. Cattle dung
4. Depends on digester. Usually 1 lb of cattle dung is used to obtain 0.5 cu ft of
gasproduced.
6. 1:l
C.
1. (b) cooking
3. A layer retention time (about 60 days) is often used in the design for purposes
of disease control.
D.
1. About $US 200 for a 10 m3 fixed-dome unit
2. (a) summer 25OC
215
3. (b) sun
5. Gas leaks. Inadequate feeding and attention to maintenance
6. Only about 50 have been constructed in the country. Of these about 20 per
cent may be said to be working.
174. Asian Institute of Technology (AIT)
I
1. P,O. Box 2754, Bangkok, Thailand
Cable: AIT BANGKOK
Tel: 5 1683 1l-5
3. Dr. Robert B. Banks, President
4. Dr. Chongrak Polprasert
5. (a) 3 (b) 4
6. AIT Campus
7. With various local and international institutions
8. Teaching graduate levels and research
9. Civil engineering
10. Education. Research and development. Advisory. Consultancy
13. Recycling rural and urban nightsoil in Thailand (ongoing)
II
A.
1. (a) fixed
2. 3.5 m3
3. (a) and (b) ferrocement
(c) and (b) PVC pipe
B.
1. (a) continuous
2.
3.
4.
6.
Nightsoil with water hyacinth and straw
Mixing twice a day
5.8 kg (mixture dry weight)
11.5:1
C.
1. (a)
* 2. (c)
1.5 m3
270 kg/day (4 fish ponds)
216
D.
1. $US 200
2. (a)
(b)
summer 35OC
winter 20°C
3. (b)
sun
175. Department of Health, Ministry of Public Health
I
1. Sanitation Technique 2, Sanitation Division, Department of Health, Ministry of
Public Health, Bangkok
Tel: 2828117,2819461
3. Mr. Chit Chaiwong
4. Mr. Udom Churnoi
5. (a) 10
6. Sanitation centre, Region l-9
7. Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University. The National Institute of Energy.
Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agricultural and Co-operatives
8. Environmental sanitation
9. Public health
10. Demonstration of biogas plant in public, health centers, temples and schools.
Technical assistance. Equipment: casing molds.
11. Training local health officials
12. The production of biogas from animal excreta.
13. Support for construction of 5 17 biogas plants (completed). Experimental project
on fixed-dome type, as earlier designs leaked gas (ongoing). Research on production of biogas by anaerobic digestion of human wastes and other organic materials
(planned).
II
A.
1. (b) movable
2. 3.4-9.4 m3
3. (a) concrete tank
(b) metal
(c) and (d) asbestos pipe
B.
1. Semi-continuous
2. Pig excreta
217
4. 20 kg (for semi-continous digester)
6. 1:l
C.
1. (a) depend on excreta used
(b) cooking
2. (a) 20 kg/day
3. No effluent treatment, because the digestion of excreta in the biogas tank
greatly reduces the health hazard by killing pathogenic bacteria, parasite eggs
and so on.
D.
1. $US 250
2. (a) summer 37OC
(b) winter 25OC
3. (b) sun
5. There are several problems in digester operation: pH, toxicity, temperature
and mixing.
6. 68.9 per cent digesters are in operation to the total number of digesters
constructed (5 17 units)
7. Movable design is too expensive for rural people
176. Kasetsart University, Faculty of Agriculture
I
1. Animal Science Department, Bangkhen, Bangkok, Thailand
Tel: 5790113 Ext. 350
2. 1978
3. Prof. Phaitoon Ingkasuwan, Rector
4. Dr. Pravee Vijchulata
5. (a) 2
(b) 44 (big scale 2, medium 4, small 38)
6. Kamphaeng Saen
7. Division of Chemical Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Technology,
Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives
8. Applied research for development
9. Biological science
10. Information. Education. Consultancy. Training.
11. Provided for undergraduate, graduated students and others interested.
13. Ongoing and planned.
218
II
A.
1. (b) movable
2. 200 m3
3. (a) brick, cement and sand
(b) metallic and bamboo sheet
(c) and (d) cement
B>
1. (a) continuous
2. Manure
4. 800 kg
5. 10, 50, 100 kg/m3 every 1 and 3 days
6. Cattle and buffalo = 1; Chicken and swine = 3
C.
1. (a) 30 m3
W electricity
2. (a) 400 kg/day
0) 100 kg/day
50 kg/day
(4
50 kg/day
(d)
W 100 kg/day
k) 100 kg/day (gardening)
D.
1.
2.
3.
7.
$US900
(a) summer 3 lo C (b) winter 23OC
(a) shadow
Gas outlet should be connected at the digester wall itself. For the small scale
say 6-8 m3 of digester volume, bamboo sheet should be used as container.
This will certainly be well adapted for the low income small farmers.
177. King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology
I
1. Thonburi Campus, Bangkok 14, Thailand
Tel: 462-5719 Ext. 73
2. 1978
3. Dr. Morakot Tanticharoen
5. (a) 4 (b) 1
6. King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology, Thonburi
219
8. Basic research. Research and development. Pilot testing
9.
10.
12.
13.
Microbiology. Engineering design of digester.
Research and development. Education.
Biogas from plant material
Biogas from plant material. Microbial populations in methanegenesis (ongoing)
Effluent from biogas digester as a source of single cell protein production (planned).
II
A.
’
1. (a) fixed
2. 2.40 m3
3. (a) fibre-glass reinforced plastic
@I FR.P
(c) PVC pipe with brassgate valve
(d) FRP cover bolts.
B.
1. (b) batch
2. Aquatic weeds
3. Mechanical mixer
5. 80(dry) kg every 2 1 days
6. 20: 1 (dryweight of weed)
C.
1. and 2. under investigation
‘.
D.
1. $US 350
2. (a) summer 40’ C
(b) winter 30°C
3. (a) shadow
5. Leakage and seepage of gas through joints of tank and materials. These problems may be overcome by vacuum injection method in fabrication of tank.
178. Maejo Institute of Agricultural Technology
I
1. Maejo, Chiangmai, Thailand
Tel: 236602
2. 1934
220
3. Prof. Vipata Boonsri Wangsai, Rector
5. (a) 3 part-time voluntary
(b) 20
6. At the Institution
10. Training. Demonstration. Servicing directly. Advisory.
11. Integrated agricultural technologies like mushroom culture, crops etc.
12. Many in Thai, as handouts
13. Ongoing.
II
A.
1. (a) fixed: 3 (b) movable: 17
2. 10-12 m3
3. (a) brick and cement
(b) iron sheet
(c) and (d) cement tube or brick and cement
B.
1.
2.
4.
5.
6.
(a) continuous (b) batch
Swine or cow-buffalo dung
one to four buckets
10-30 kg every day and other days
Half and half generally
C.
1. (a) 3-12 m3
(b) cooking
3. No, the process already kills everything, except the thriving anaerobic bacteria
D.
2. (a) summer 30°C
(b) winter 22OC
3. (a) shadow (b) sun
6. 85 per cent
7. No design is trouble-free. The design without gas holder is most trouble-free
but less efficient in thorough turn-over of old spent manure than design with
gas holder but the latter is more expensive.
221
179. Mahidol University
I
1. Faculty of Public Health, 420/l Rajavithi Road, Bangkok 4, Thailand
Tel: 2827827
2. 1949
3.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
12.
13.
Dr. Debhanom Muangman, Dean
(a) 148
Phyathai, Bangkok
Providing technical advice to the Health Department and Provincial Health Offices. To do research projects with Sanitation Divisions.
Teaching and research in public health science
Environmental health science. Sanitary science
Teaching. Advisory. Consultancy. Research and development
Environmental sanitation. School health environment. Biogas from animal manures. Biogas from various organic materials. Fibre-glass - sanitary utensils
Biogas from animal manures and from various organic materials. Fibre-glass sanitary utensils. (completed)
Biogas engine. (ongoing)
Socioeconomic survey of digesters in rural areas of Thailand. (planned)
II
A.
1. (b) movable
2. 1.50 - 2.00 m3
3. (a) concrete, casing rings and masonry
(b) iron sheet, galvanized iron sheet, fibre-glass cement
(c) 4 in diameter as minimum
(d) 2 in diameter for over flow and 3 in diameter for sludge drainage pipe
with gate valve
B.
1. (a) continuous
(b) batch (for research project in some aspects)
2. Animal manures
3. None for animal manures, cutting and grinding or pounding for grass and
water-hyacinth
4. 30-80 kg (for 2.5 m3 digester)
5. l/3 0 of total volume of digester (daily feeding)
6. 1: 1 by volume
222
(a)
(b)
2 m3 (from 2.5 m3 digester volume)
cooking
2. (a) 30-80 kg/day
3. The human excreta had been used as feeding material for research project in
1979. The over flow liquid was treated by sand filter before use. The digested
sludge, after completed digestion (about 2 months), was put in the sun for 2-3
days for drying on sand beds before use.
D.
1. $US 150-200
2. (a) summer 33.88OC
(b) winter 24.44OC
3. (a) shadow
5. Slurry feeding must be loaded to desirable amount. Space between digester
and gas holder must be optimum (1” as min.), if smaller than 1” it will cause
clogjng. The digested sludge remaining at the bottom of the digester must be
drained out periodically to provide the optimum volume for slurry as food of
the organisms to produce biogas.
6. 100 per cent
71. The fibre-glass cement is being used as the new approach to solve corrosion
problem and cheaper material. Chinese dome design is being used to get more
and more experience. The Chinese dome type may be useful for the biogas
project in rural areas in Thailand
180. Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives,
Department of Agriculture
I
1. Bangkhen, Bangkok 9, Thailand
Tel: 5790159, 5791994
2. Biogas research work in 1975
3. Mr. Paderm Titatan
4. Mrs. Revadee Deemark
5. (a) 4 (b) 11
6. Rice experimental stations at Supanburi, Rajburi, Sanpatong (Chiengmai), Konw
7. National Research Council. National Energy Administraion. Health Department.
Agricultural Extension Department.
8. Organic fertilizer production and utilization for farmers’ self-sufficient and better
crop yield
223
9. Research on appropriate technology: biogas application from crop waste and as
manure
10. Information. Research and development. Consultancy. Advisory
12. B&monthly publication by the Department of Agriculture. Annual reports.
13. Studies on manurial value of digested flurry from biogas plants and from plant on
sandy loam soil. Examination of the nitrogen balance of dung during anaerobic
digestion. Utilization of biogas as alternative source of energy. (completed)
Study on low-cost biogas digester. Biogas production from various plant wastes.
Biogas production in dome digester. Biogas production by using slurry as seeding
with plant wastes. (ongoing)
Utilization of organic waste other than animal waste in biogas plant. Utilization of
digested slurry with local rock phosphate to increase crop yield. (planned)
II
A.
1. (a) fixed (b) movable
2. 6 m3 (fmed); 4,5,7 m3 (movable)
3. (a) brick masonry (fnqed) concrete (movable)
(b) brick masonry (fixed); galvanized iron sheet, ferrocement (movable)
(c) and (d) precast concrete pipe (fixed and movable)
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
Semi-continuous
Cow dung, buffalo dung, pig and water-hyacinth
No pretreatment, completely mixed with water
10 kg fresh dung/m3
1: 1 by volume
C.
1. (a) 0.3 - 0.5 m3/m3 digester
(b) cooking
2. (a) direct fertilizer on soil
(b) 1: 1 by weight
(d) on trial
3. Ammonium fertilizer addition
D.
1. Movable 5 m3 digester: $US 200 (excluding labour cost);
Fixed type 6 m3 digester: $USlOO (excluding labour cost)
2. (a) summer 32OC (b) winter 28OC
3. (b) sun
224
5. Scum formation: attach stirrer for breaking scum and stir daily.
Too low gas pressure for thin iron sheet gas holder: need to be loaded with
heavy stone on top.
Ferrocement gas holder leak: proper plastering and covering needed.
6. 100 per cent
7. Ferrocement gas holder is more advantageous due to lower cost and durability
for movable gas holder. The Chinese fixed dome type is most convenient and
inexpensive but laborious, requiring demonstration.
181. National Energy Administration
I
1. Pibultham Villa, Bangkok 5, Thailand
Cable:
Tel: 223-002 1
NATPOWER
2. 1953
3. Mr. Pravit Ruyabhorn, SecretaryGeneral, Mr. Prapath Premmani, Deputy Secretary-General
4. Mr. Phol Songpongs, Director, Technical Division. Mr. Sompongse Chantavorapap,
Chief, Design and Energy Research Section. Mr. Savang Kulapatrapa, Chief,
Biomass Energy Unit, Alternative Energy Study and Development Project
5. (a) biogas: 4 (b) 44
6. Technical Centre for Natural Energy and Fuel Test
7. Local universities and institutions through the Subcommittee for Co-ordination of
Natural Energy Research under the arrspices of National Research Council of
Thailand and through the Subcommittee for Co-ordination of Study and Develop
ment of Alternative Energy under the auspices of National Energy Administration. USAID-Thai Nonconventional Renewable Energy Project in which biogas is
included. Institute for Food Research and Product Development through Subcommittee on Management and Utilization of Food Waste Materials.
8. Resource assessment. Need assessment. Research and development. Development
and demonstration. Demonstration and promotion or extension. Promotion or
extension and popularization of biogas energy.
9. Biogas energy for lighting, cooking, pumping and driving engine
10. Information. Research and development. Technical service
12. “Thai cement water jar as a biogas digester of Thailand” (1979). “Utilization of
biogas digesters in Thailand” (1978). “Manure on operation and maintenance of
a biogas plant” (1978). “Report of experiment on engine fuelled by biogas”.
13. Development of a low-cost biogas digester and a biogas engine system. Demonstration and promotion of biogas plants in rural areas. (ongoing)
225
Microbiology of methanization. Integrated system. Biogas pumping station.
Popularization of rural biogasification. (planned)
182. Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research
I
1. 196 Paholyothin Road, Bar&hen, Bangkok 9, Thailand
Cable: RESCORP BANGKOK
Tel: 5791121-30
2. 1964
3. Dr. Samith Kampempool
5.
7.
8.
10.
12.
(a) 5 (b) 2
Department of Health
Research and development
Information. Research and development. Advisory. Consultancy
Pre-feasibility study of the biogas application in rural areas of Thailand. Production of biogas from wastes using anaerobic packed digester. Anaerobic filter for
biogas production
13. Production of biogas from animal wastes using anaerobic packed digester. Prefeasibility study of the biogas technology application in rural areas of Thailand.
(completed)
Production of biogas using horizontal plug-flow digester. (ongoing)
II
A.
1. (b) movable
2. 0.2 m3
3. (a) 200 1 oil drum
(b) galvanized sheet
(cj and (d) steel pipe
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
Semi-continuous
Pig waste
Screened and diluted
1.34 kg (semi-continuous digester)
14 litres
C.
1. (a) 0.1 m3
(b) lighting
226
1. SUS 35
2. (a) summer 34OC
(b) winter 25OC
3. (a) shadow
5. There were, a few times, blockage problems due to the solid accumulation at
the bottom part of the digester. The problems were overcome by opening the
drainage pipe at the digester bottom.
7. Feed materials should be free from sand and soil
183. Indian Institute of Science, Centre for the Application of Science and
Technology to Rural Areas (ASTRA)
I
1. Bangalore 560 012, India
Tel: 3441 Ext. 447
Cable: 043 326
2. 1974
3. Professor A.K.N. Reddy
4. Mr. P. Rajabapaiah
5. (a) 10 (b) 4
6. Bangalore, India and Ungra village (extension centre), Kamataka, India
8. Research
9. Development of appropriate biogas systems for Indian villages. Low-cost modified
Indian and Chinese type of plants. Community and family size plants. Usage of all
possible materials for biogas production. Proper utilization of biogas process
development (optimum gas production)
10. Research and development. Advisory. Consultancy. Information. Education.
Training
11. In the formulation stage
12. *
13. Studies on biogas technology: performance of the conventional Indian biogas
plant; optimization of plant dimensions; thermal analysis of biogas plants and
innovation of a novel solar-heated biogas plant. (completed)
Further studies on biogas technology: improvement of the solar-heated biogas
plant, gas production from alternative materials for dung such as water hyacinth,
recycling of water in biogas plants etc. Community biogas systems for villages
(production and distribution of biogas, viz. fertilizer and water, including hot
water, electricity generation and small-scale industries using biogas as energy
source). Design and construction of ultra low-cost rural-oriented biogas plants
(modified Indian and Chinese biogas plants). (ongoing)
227
II
A.
1. (a)
fixed
(b) movable
2. 3.5 to 100 m3
3. (a) bricks, cement, sand etc.
(b) mild steel, ferrocement etc.
w and (d) bricks, cement, sand, AC. pipes etc.
B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
(a) continuous (b) batch
Cattle dung
Mixing of water and dung, pretreatment for feed such as water hyacinth
Depends upon the size
6. 1: 1 (by weight) for cattle dung
C.
1. (a)
(b)
depends upon the size
mainly for laboratory use; in the extension centre, for cooking, lighting,
engines etc.
D.
1. Floating type: $US 300
Fixed type: $US 125 (family size)
2. (a) summer 30°C
(b) winter 20°C
3. (b) shadow
4. Solar heating
5. Floating type: corrosion is minimized by proper painting.
Fixed type: leakage is overcome by proper scaling.
6. 100 per cent
184. Shri A.M.M. Murugappa Chettiar Research Centre
Photosynthesis and Energy Division
I
1. Tharamani, Madras 600 042, India
Cable:: WELDABLE
Tel: 41 19 37
Telex: MCRC CARE TUBEIND 041 301
2. 1977
3. Dr. C.V. Seshadri
228
,’
/
4. Dr. B.V. Urn&h, Dr. C.V. Seshadri
5. (a) 5 (b) 8/5
6. Tharamani, Madras
7. With other institutions involved in the development of biogas plants
8. Research and development, fabrication and field level demonstration of biogas
plants
9. Solar, wind and biomass for village level self-reliance
10. Research and development. Consultancy. Training
11. 2-week programme under consideration
12. A monograph on MCRC design of biogas plant is under preparation
13. Field testing of the present design. (ongoing)
Incorporation of water-hyacinth utilization in the present design.
(planned)
II
A.
1. (a)
2. 6m3
3. (a)
(b)
(c)
fixed
bricks, cement, sand and blue-mental jelly
wooden geodesic frame, low density polyethylene sheet 1000 gauge
and (d) ceramic pipe
B.
1.
2.
4.
6.
(a) continuous
Cattle dung
1OOkg
1: 1 when the dung is fresh or 2: 1 to 3: 1 depending on the age of the dung
C.
1. (a)
(b)
2. (b)
(g)
4m3
laboratory purposes and cooking for staff
50 kg/day
50 kg/day (for algal ponds)
D.
1. $US 250
2. (a) summer 30-38OC
(b) winter 20-28OC
3. (b) sun
5. (i) The LDPE sheet is vulnerable for damages especially from playful child229
ren in villages. This requires protective cover over the balloon and can be
of thatched or bamboo structure.
(ii) Removal of scum is required once in 8 or 10 months. However the simplicity with which the gas holder can be removed does not make it a
problem. The whole process of cleaning and replacing the dome.hardly
takes 2 hours and again by evening the plant is ready for supplying the
gas.
(iii) Punctures caused accidentally can be easily located with soap water and
patched up with any self-adhesive tapes available in the market.
6. 62. 5 per cent
7. (i) It is desirable to remove any fibrous material prior to charging the
digester.
(ii) Proper protection of the LDPE sheet would save plenty of trouble in
locating the punctures and can give trouble-free service for a long time
185. Development and Consulting Services
I
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
9.
10.
11.
12
13.
Butwal, Nepal
Cable: DSC BUTWAL
1971
Mr. Martin Amhom, Director
Mrs. M. Wong, Mr. D. Fulford, Mr. A. Bulmer, Mr. J. Finlay
(a) 2 (b) 500
Butwal
Butwal Technical Institute; United Mission to Nepal
Biogas. Small turbines. Solar water heaters Grain processing. Village electrification
Information. Research and development. Advisory. Consultancy. Education.
Training
As requested
+
Design and construction of floating gas holder drum type gas plant, cu ft per day
of 100, 200, 350 and 500; drumless gas plants of 10, 15, 20 and 50 cu m; gas
production equipment; hard gobar mixer; 1300 m water pressure gauge. (completed)
Tunnel plant. Maximizing gas production in village gas plants. Gas taps for high
pressure gas. Attaching small generator to biogas/diesel engined water pump for
lighting 15 lamps in village. (ongoing)
Gas lamp. Large gas store. Pressure regulator. (planned)
230
SUBJECT INDEX - BY PROJECTS
(numbers refer to the serial number of the entries)
Acetic acid, ..............................
Acetone acid, .............................
65
100,120
Activated-sludge plant,
control and performance, ................
35
Agricultural waste,
management, .........................
utilization, ...........................
Algae production, ..........................
Anaerobic digesters, ........................
improvement, in, ......................
two-phase, ...........................
Anaerobic digestion, ........................
Anaerobic fermentation, ....................
Anaerobic filter, ...........................
treatment of strong organic waste, .........
Animal waste management, ..................
utilization, ...........................
Application of biogas,
domestic use, ‘cooking, ..................
electricity generation, ...................
fuel, ................................
laboratory, ...........................
lighting, .............................
motive power, ........................
power generation, ......................
pumping, ............................
sewerage, ............................
231
92
8, 26
7,
103, 182
49
101
57,175
8
72
72
28, 162
8
115, 116, 119, 120, 121,
123, 129, 132, 134, 135,
141, 143, 144, 145, 147,
149, 150, 152, 154, 146,
161, 163, 165, 167, 169,
171, 173, 175, 178, 179,
115, 116, 119, 121, 132,
114, 124, 127, 130, 131,
147, 149, 162, 164, 171.
111, 112, 146, 157.
116, 119, 120, 121, 122,
124, 128, 134, 138, 139,
143, 145, 150, 157, 161,
182.
13,21,95,139,141,142,153.
115, 116, 121, 132, 137.
142, 151, 168.
129
122,
139,
148,
157,
170,
180.
137.
137,
123,
142,
163,
Agriculture,
..............................
16
Artificial biogas production, ..................
Automation of mesophillic digester, ............
Bacteria,
’
in biogas production, ...................
Bioconversion, ............................
Biogas, ..................................
combustion, ..........................
digesters, .............................
drying techniques of crops, ..............
engines, .............................
energy, ..............................
fermentation, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
fermentation techniques, ................
filter, ...............................
implementation and administration, ........
Biogas plant, ..............................
construction of, .......................
construction materials for, ...............
construction techniques, ................
Biogas plant design, ........................
large size, ............................
family size, ...........................
farmsize, ............................
medium size, .........................
rural area, ............................
Biogas plant operation, ......................
Bilgas plant optimization, ....................
Biogas power production, ....................
Biogas power station, .......................
waste heat utilization, from, ..............
Biogas production, .........................
agricultural wastes, ....................
animal wastes, ........................
cow dung, ............................
chemistry and microbiology of, ...........
fibrous plant waste, ....................
232
26,65
14
93, 103, 117, 139.
33,37,41,86
38,43,59,89,90
24
35,73
104,132
42,105,179,181
8, 23, 24, 42, 60, 61, 64, 83,
180.
11, 14, 39, 49,50,65,84,
101,
117
29,73,114, 118
35,155
91
19,30,36,53, 54
18, 32, 51, 52, 69, 73, 76, 86,
88
10
10, 11, 14,69, 123
18,76,86, 119
73
23,123,145,167
83
59,73
32,46,52,81,87,97,124
32,51,86
23,111
76
29,45,47
65
1, 16,44,46,57,64
58
28,97,112,162,179,182
61,169
57
25
food waste, ...........................
increasing rate of, ......................
increasing volume of, ...................
organic matter, ........................
pig manure, ..........................
plant waste, ..........................
slurry and combination plants, ........
vegetable matter, ......................
winter in, ............................
:I: ..
Biogas research and planning, .................
Biogas seeding, ............................
Biogas system development, ..................
1
100,103,114,124
20,65,100, 103
79,179, 180
103, 169, 170
86,177
17,180
81
57,79,94, 127
91,175
109
32,53
Biogas system selection,
for rural use, ..........................
Biogas pumping station, .....................
Biogas technology, .........................
Biogas turbine, ............................
Biogas usage, .............................
Biogas utilization,
1
systems approach, .....................
Biogas water heaters, .......................
Biogas yield
increasing of, .........................
reduction in seasonal variations, ...........
Biological active compounds, .........
: .......
Blue-green algae, ...........................
Burners, biogas, ...........................
Carbondioxide,
absorber, ............................
fertilization, ..........................
removal, .............................
Chinese design biogas plants, .................
with R.C.C. roof, ......................
C:N.ratio, ...............................
Community plant design, ....................
Collective gas supply,
for farm households, ...................
74
44,181
8, 24, 29, 33, 40, 53, 54, 66,
74,77,104
33
8,46,97
74
75
21,112
21,112
15
38,57
2,20, 112,133, 169
7
25
8
60
61,135
113
63,138, 139,141, 167
73
233
Compost, ..................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..............
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..............
liquid, .................
38
64
Cornposting,
accelerated, ............
. . . . . . . . . . . . ..............
............
cattle waste, . . . . . . . . . . . . ..............
dairy farm waste, ........
. . . . . . . . ..............
Corrosion in biogas plant, ......
. . . . . . ..............
Coryform bacteria, ...........
. . . . . . . . . . . ..............
Cost reduction, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..............
in small biogas plants, . . . . . ..............
102
57
57
63
48
112
17
Cow dung,
assessmentand availability, ..............
gasplant, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..............
57
8
Diesel engine,
coversion to biogas, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Development of biogas,
commercial appliances, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
digester, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
plants, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
projects, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
technology, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Digester,
construction, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
design, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
design with integral fermentation, . . . . . . . . .
Digester body, constructjon materials for,
. ..... . . . . . ...*..
brick, ..............
cement, ..................
. . . . . . . . . .
clay, baked, ..........................
concrete, ............................
ferrocement, ..........................
234
21, 62, 76, 95, 105, 141,
155.
153,
63
2,81
32,97,106
12
39
73,107
73
26
111, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117,
118, 119, 120, 121, 132, 133,
134, 138, 139, 141, 142, 143,
144, 146, 147, 148, 150, 151,
152, 154, 156, 158, 160, 163,
164, 167, 173, 176, 178, 180.
111, 112, 114, 117, 119,121,
132, 134, 138, 14.2, 147, i50,
151, 152, 154, 156, 157, 164,
167, 169,176, 178.
155
113, 115, 116, 129, 130, 141,
161,168,171,175,179,180.
160,174
fibre-glass reinforced plastic, .............
lime clay, ............................
polymer rubber, .......................
R.C.C., ..............................
sand, ................................
steel, ................................
stone, ...............................
Digester feed,
batch type, ...........................
continuous type, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
162,177
115,132
133
119, 122, 128, 135, 137,
172
111, 112,152,167, 169
128,164,165
127,148
.
111, 113, 114, 116, 118,
122, 128, 129, 130, 132,
143, 151, 152, 153, 163,
168,177,178, 179.
111, 112, 113, 114, 115,
117, 118, 119, 120, 122,
129, 133, 134, 135, 138,
141, 142, 144, 145, 146,
149, 151, 154, 156, 157,
160, 161, 162, 164, 16’7,
169, 170, 171, 172, 173,
176, 178, 179
Digester size,
medium,.............................
small, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14,116
14,116
Digester slurry,
manurial value, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dome-shape biogas plant, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
39
Economics of biogas, .......................
Effectiveness of biogas products, ..............
Effluent use,
algae production, ......................
animal feed, ..........................
aquaculture, .........................
120,
137,
165,
116,
124,
139,
147,
158,
168,
174,
32,83,104
45,126
composting, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,
direct fertilizer,
149,
.......... .............
235
7
7,133,168,169,176
16, 111, 115, 116,
157,169,170,176
111, 116, 126, 134,
144, 148, 151, 152,
157
111, 116, 126, 130,
142, 143, 154, 156,
163, 165, 167, 169,
‘179
126, 142,
141, 142,
153, 156,
133, 135,
161, 162,
170, 176,
fertilizer, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
fish culture, ..........................
recycling to digester, ...................
waste, ...............................
Effluent value, ............................
Effluents, ................................
Electric generating set, ......................
Energy farming, ...........................
Environmental effects,
biogas engines, ........................
Evaluation of materials,
biogas production, .....................
11, 16, 17, 114, 126, 152, 166
7, 11, 172
111, 113, 126, 142, 156, 165,
176
111,133,170
11, 17,29
17
73
82
62
31,171
:.
Farm size biogas plant, ....................
Farm waste for fuel and manure, ..............
Feed materials, ............................
agricultural waste, .....................
animal waste, .........................
cattle dung, ..........................
cowdung,............................
human waste, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
horsedung, ...........................
manure, .............................
method of introducing, .................
municipal waste, .......................
night soil, ............................
pig waste, ............................
poultry waste, ........................
ratioof, .............................
vegetable matter, ......................
water hyacinth, .......................
weeds, ..............................
wheat straw, ..........................
236
23
25
29,100,127
164
113, 117, 124, 129, 171,
122, 134, 138, 145, 146,
148, 150, 158, 160, 169,
111, 112, 114, 116, 120,
135, 139, 141, 142, 143,
151, 152, 153, 156, 157,
178,180
114, 116, 117, 122, 124,
129,145
119
118, 130
’
100
160
121,130,147,156,174
114, 116, 119, 120, 121,
127, 133, 161, 162, 168,
172, 175, 178, 180, 182.
156,163
106
81,124
81, 100, 141, 142, 157,
180
113,122,177
127,154
179
147,
173.
122,
144,
165,
127,
122,
170,
174,
Fermentation,
bacteria, .............................
materials and fertilizers relations, ..........
material mixing ratio, ...................
microbiology, .........................
processes, ............................
single and multi-stage, ..................
technology, ..........................
test rules, ............................
Fertilizer,
application technique, ..................
composition, .........................
effectiveness, .........................
utilization, ...........................
Fertilizer production,
pineapple and cannery waste, .............
urban garbage, ........................
Ferrocement, .............................
digester, .............................
gas holder and components, ..............
gas holder with water jacket, .............
Fish culture, ..............................
Formaldehyde addition,
effect on rate of biogas production, ........
Fuel,
from agricultural wastes, ................
from animal waste and grass, .............
106
103
106
41
6
100,120
18
103
102
29
11,29,102
102
42
102
36,166
60
56
60
11,55,172
100,120
25
83
Garbage gas plant, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gas holder,
fued, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
movable type, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
237
.
I
,. . .
25,61,135
111,
117,
128,
146,
174,
111,
121,
141,
148,
155,
163,
175,
112, 113, 114,
118, 119, 121,
129, 130, 133,
148, 161, 164,
177,178, 180
112, 113, 115,
129, 130, 133,
142, 143, 144,
150, 151’, 152,
156, 157, 158,
167, 168, 169,
176, 178, 179,
115,
124,
134,
165,
116,
127,
138,
173,
116,
135,
145,
153,
160,
171,
180,
118,
137,
146,
154,
162,
172,
182.
Gas holder, construction materials for,
brick,...............................
butyl rubber bag, ......................
cement, .............................
clay, baked, ..........................
concrete, ...........................
ferrocement, ..........................
fibre-glass, ...........................
galvanized iron, .......................
lime clay, ............................
mild steel sheet, .......................
polymer rubber, .......................
P.V.C., ..............................
R.C.C., ..............................
steel plate, ...........................
stone, ................................
Gas generation and distribution system, .........
Gobar gas,
as an engine fuel, ......................
development in technology, ..............
disposal of slurry, ......................
113, 115, 116, 117,
120, 132, 134, 138,
151, 165, 173.
164,
115, 117, 132, 134,
165
155
113, 116,119,130,168
129,158,160,174,180
147,177
145, 147, 150, 169,
180, 182
132
111, 112, 135, 139,
144, 146, 149, 150,
154, 156, 162, 163,
171, 178,179.
I32
121,145,147
112,122,128
113, 129, 133, 137,
148, 157, 161.
127
18
Gobar gas diesel oil dual fuel engine, ...........
combustion characteristics, ..............
performance, .........................
test, ................................
Gobar plants, .............................
corrosion in, .........................
24
63
64
62,142
24
24,43
24
23,25,39,61,63,64
63
High rate digestion, ......................
Hydraulic pressure type biogas plant, ...........
Hydrogen sulfide, removal of, ................
35
10
35
238
118, 119,
144, 146,
138, 151,
172, 179,
141, 142,
152, 153,
167, 169,
143, 147,
Inlet pipe, material of,
brick, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
castiron, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
cement, asbestos, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ceramic pipe, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
clay-pipe, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
concrete, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
fibre-glass, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
M.S., ................................
P.V.C., ..............................
R.C.C., ..............................
sand, ................................
steel, ................................
stone, ...............................
Integrated biogas system, ....................
Integrated farming system, ...................
111, 116, 117, 118,
128, 134, 138, 148,
158,160, 165,170
137,139,149
111, 115, 117, 119,
132, 135, 138, 141,
145, 146, 147, 150,
156, 165, 167, 169,
178.
172
155,173~.
113, 115, 116, 130,
, 171, 180.
123
37,144
92
Jar, cement water, .........................
Jar digester, ..............................
12
12
Kinetic methane fermentations, ...............
KVIC design, .............................
with movable floating drum, .............
108
60,141,142,150
60
Lactic acid bacteria,
growth and resistance, ..................
Lactic fermentation, ........................
41
64
i3j3ij43,
62
153
57
20,112,142,145
239
121,
142,
151,
175,
128,
143,
152,
176,
134, 161,
111,154
133, 163, 168, 174,177
112,122,144
lli
113,157,182
153
2,81, 171, 181
17, 112,169
Integrated solar and bioconversion projects, ......
Integration of biogas with agricultural system, ....
Intensive mixed farming, ....................
Internal combusion engines, ..................
prospects and problems, .................
Lamp, biogas, .............................
119, 121,
150, 152,
Laser induced mixing of bacteria, ..............
Leakage of gas, ............................
Liquid cornposting, ........................
Low-cost biogas digester, ....................
Low temperature biogas plant, ................
100,120
116, 133, 173, 177
64, 151
17, 180, 181
100
Manure,
collection, ...........................
production from fibrous plants, ............
Mass and energy flow in biogas systems, .........
Marine algae, .............................
81
71
Mechanical unloading of digester residue, ........
Medium temperature biogas plant, .............
Mesophillic digester, ........................
26
10,94,119
14,113,132
87
25
Methane,
bacteria, .............................
fermentation, .........................
Microbial fermentation, .....................
Mild-dew formation, ........................
Mild steel square gas holder, ..................
Mixed farming, use of liquid compost in, ........
Multi-state mesophillic fermentation digester,
automation of, ........................
Mushroom cultivation using biogas effluent,
.....
100, 108, 139
68,99
65
65,128
60
64
14
l,ll,
122,124
Night soil biogas plant, ......................
Nitrogen fixation, ..........................
89
25,68
Optimization of digester materials, .............
Organic fertilizer, ..........................
Organic wastes
decomposition of, .....................
utilizationof, .........................
Outlet pipe, materials, for,
brick, ...............................
109
17, 126
240
6,25
16,17,180
111, 113, 116, 117, 118, 119,
121, i28, i34, i38, 139, 148,
150, 152, 158,160, 165, 167.
cast-iron, ............................
cement, asbestos, .....................
ceramic, .............................
clay pipe, ............................
concrete, ............................
gravel, ...............................
fibre-glass reinforced plastic, .............
plastic, ..............................
P.V.C., .............................
R.C.C., ..............................
rubber, ..............................
sand, ................................
steel, ................................
stone, ...............................
vinyl pipe, ...........................
Petrol engine,
conversion to biogas, ...................
pH control,. ..............................
Piggery waste water treatment, ................
Planning in biogas plant, ......................
Plant position,
.
........
shadow, . . . . .
sun, . . . . . . .
........
137,149
111, 117, 119, 121, 128,
134. 135, 138, 141, 142,
145, 146, 147, 150, 155,
156, 165, 167, 169, 175,
178.
172
173
113, 115, 116, 130, 161,
180
111
162
155
133, 162,163, 168,174
112,122,144
155
111, 152, 167
157,182
153
162
132,
143,
152,
176,
171,
76, 153
111
7,162
107
. . . . . . . .
.........
Plastics for gobar gas plants, ..................
Pollution control,
through biogas and compost, .............
Polyethylene gas holder, .....................
l-b-l..-- . ,..tt,,
t-uiogas G&Ski,
rwymc~
IUUUCI
...............
Portable biogas plant, .......................
241
111, 113, 114,
141, 145, 152,
176, 177, 182
111, 113, 117,
127, 129, 132,
142, 143, 145,
152, 154, 155,
167, 168, 169,
174,175
63
64
60
8i
33,155
124, 129, 132,
153, 158, 162,
118,
135,
146,
156,
170,
119,
138,
147,
163,
171,
120,
139,
151,
165,
173,
31
Pressure lossesin conveyance of biogas, .........
Pretreatment of feed materials, . . . . . . .........
Raw materials for biogas production, . . . . . . .
Recycling,
agricultural waste, . . . . . . . . . . . . .........
animal waste, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .........
night soil, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .........
106
. . . .
65
7,44
64
66
Research and development in biogas, . .
21,80,91
Sludge,
digester, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
168
Sluny,
making from agricultural waste, . . . . . . . . . . .
utilization in biogas production, . . . . . . . . . . .
Small-scale biogas plant, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
management, . _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
standardization, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20,112
57
22
106
94
Sodium cellulose enzymes,
effect on biogas fermentation,
65
............
Solar energy utilization in biogas production, . . . .
Solar heated biogas digester, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
76,94
9
Taxonomy,
of bacteria, ...........................
of baciius, ...........................
of microbes in biogas digester, ............
Temperature effect on biogas production, .......
Toxic gas formation, .......................
48,93
48
48
57
102
Urban waste disposal for biogas fermentaiton, . . . .
[Jtilization of biogas digesters, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65
12
Variable pressure biogas plant,
design and construction of, ..............
Vertical biogas pump, ......................
Village level biogas plant, ....................
76
76
53
242
/ ,~“,
_i
;,
.i,
;.
.
‘.
.
Waste,
p*anagPp’n
t . ........................
Y .&“A..,
recycling, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Waste heat utilization, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Water hyacinth, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
92
6, 51,59,64,66
65
24, 100, 112, 121, 157, 174,
180.
.
243
BIBLIOGRAPHY*
Page
A.
Theory and practice of anaerobic digestion
B.
Biogas plant construction
C.
Biogas plant operation
D.
Biogas utilization
E.
Utilization of effluent and sludge recycling
F.
Social, environmental and economic aspects
......................
....................................
......................................
247
256
261
263
..........................................
......................
266
.....................
268
*
This bibliography is not intended to be comprehensive. Along with the entries under experts and institutions, it
is aimed at indicating current trends in research and development of biogas in regional member countries of
%.
ESCAP.
A, Theory and Practice of Anaerobic Digestion
(General background and theory of anaerobic digestion, factors affecting biogas
production, type of materials used as feed, with the basic
information on type of processes)
Acharya, C.N. Decomposition of plant substances of varying composition. Biochemical Journal 29: 1459-1467, 1935.
Decomposition of rice straw under anaerobic, aerobic and practically aerobic
conditions. Biochemical Journal 29(5): 1116-i 120, 1935.
Preparation of fuel gas and manure by anaerobic fermentation of organic
materials. Indian Council of Agricultural Research Series No. 15, New Delhi, 1958.
Some factors influencing the anaerobic decomposition of rice straw. Biochemical Journal 29(4):953-960, 1935.
Studies on the anaerobic decomposition of plant materials. Biochemical
Journal 29(3):528-541, 1935.
Your home needs a gas plant. Indian Farming (New Delhi) 6( 2):27-30, 1956.
Acharya, C.N. and P.L. Juneja. Studies on the production of combustible gas and
manure from cattle dung. Proceedings, 41st Indian Science Congress 3:246, 1954.
Alicbusan, R.V. Microbiology of fe.rmenting organic wastes in biogas production.
Paper presented during Second International Workshop on Biogas Technology and
Utilization, Manila, 13-i 8 October 1975.
Amaratunga, M. Integrated biogas systems. RCEHMT and UNESCO Workshop on
Energy from Biomass and Wastes, Peradeniya, November 1979.
On a scientific approach to the popularization of biogas technology. Expert
Group Meeting on Biogas, Bangkok, June 1978
A rational approach to biogas technology based on the concept of an integrated farming system. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Society of Sri Lanka
1(1):615, July 1977.
Anand, K.M. and SK. Sampath. Effective utilization of cow dung in organized form :
a case study. Seminar on Utilization of Farm Wastes for Rural Industrial Growth,
NDRI, Bangalore, December 1975.
Badger, D.N., M.J. Bogue and D.J. Stewart. Biogas production from crops and
organic wastes: result of batch digestion. New Zealand Journal of Science 22:
1i-20, 1979.
247
Banerjee, M.K. and L. Jayprakash. Community factor in community
Urja (New Delhi) 6(1,2):53-55, 28 July 1979.
biogas plant.
Bansal, M.L. and others. Biogas production during anaerobic digestion of livestock
excreta. Indian Journal of Dairy Science (Bangalore) 30(4):338-340, 1977.
Bhattacharyya, B.C. Improvements in or relating to gobar gas or biogas plant. Indian
Patent No. 142363.
Biogas plants: performance and prospects in India. Science Technology Bulletin (New
Delhi) 1(4):25-26, 32, 1975
&was, T.D. Cow dung gas plant for energy and manure. Fertilizer News 19(9):3-7,
33, 1974.
Utilization of animal excreta and other agricultural wastes for manure and
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273
ESCAP ECDC-TCDC PUBLICATIONS
In its efforts to promote and support co-operation among deve!oping countries,
the ESCAP secretariat continues to produce a numt^UGr of publications as listed below,
General series
Training courses available in developing ESCAP countries (first and second editions,
out of stock), third edition, 1979
ConsLltancy services available in developing ESCAP countries (first edition, out of
stock), second edition, 1977
Experts of developing ESCAP countries, 1978; Supplement (mimeographed),
1979
Identification of opportunities for interregional ECDC TCDC: report of consultations
between India and Latin American countries, 1979
Inter-country institutional arrangements for economic and technical co-operation
among developing Asian and Pacific countries
Vol. I :
Vol. II :
Vol. III:
Intergovernmental institutions, 1980 (TCDC/IIA/ 1)
Nongovernmental and national institutions, 1980 (TCDC/IIA/2)
Pacific institutions, 198 1 (TCDC/‘IIA/3)
Technological research and development institutions in Asia and the Pacific (under
preparation)
Sectoial serks
National standards bodies in the ESCAP region, 1980 (ESCAP/TCDC/SRD/l,
stock)
out of
ECDC-TCDC directories on renewable sources of energy:
Vol.
Vol.
Vol.
Vol.
I :
II :
III:
IV:
Solar energy, 1980
Biogas, 198 1
Wind energy, 1981
Mini-hydro plants, 198 1
ECDC-TCDC directory: Machine tools (under preparation)
ECDC-TCDC directory: Leather technology (under preparation)
ECDC-TCDC directory: Industrial utilization of agro-wastes (under preparation)
The above publications can be obtained, subject to availability, from ECDCTCDC Services, ESCAP secretariat, The United Nations Building, Rajadamnern
Avenue, Bangkok 2, Thailand.
Printed in Thailand
ST/ESCAP/160(TCDC/SRD/3)
July 1981
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