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Campbell T107 Product manual
T107 Weather Station
Revision: 12/11
C o p y r i g h t © 1 9 9 3 - 2 0 1 1
C a m p b e l l S c i e n t i f i c , I n c .
Warranty
“PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED BY CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC, INC. are
warranted by Campbell Scientific, Inc. (“Campbell”) to be free from defects in
materials and workmanship under normal use and service for twelve (12)
months from date of shipment unless otherwise specified in the corresponding
Campbell pricelist or product manual. Products not manufactured, but that are
re-sold by Campbell, are warranted only to the limits extended by the original
manufacturer. Batteries, fine-wire thermocouples, desiccant, and other
consumables have no warranty. Campbell's obligation under this warranty is
limited to repairing or replacing (at Campbell's option) defective products,
which shall be the sole and exclusive remedy under this warranty. The
customer shall assume all costs of removing, reinstalling, and shipping
defective products to Campbell. Campbell will return such products by surface
carrier prepaid within the continental United States of America. To all other
locations, Campbell will return such products best way CIP (Port of Entry)
INCOTERM® 2010, prepaid. This warranty shall not apply to any products
which have been subjected to modification, misuse, neglect, improper service,
accidents of nature, or shipping damage. This warranty is in lieu of all other
warranties, expressed or implied. The warranty for installation services
performed by Campbell such as programming to customer specifications,
electrical connections to products manufactured by Campbell, and product
specific training, is part of Campbell’s product warranty. CAMPBELL
EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS AND EXCLUDES ANY IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Campbell is not liable for any special, indirect,
incidental, and/or consequential damages.”
Assistance
Products may not be returned without prior authorization. The following
contact information is for US and international customers residing in countries
served by Campbell Scientific, Inc. directly. Affiliate companies handle
repairs for customers within their territories. Please visit
www.campbellsci.com to determine which Campbell Scientific company serves
your country.
To obtain a Returned Materials Authorization (RMA), contact CAMPBELL
SCIENTIFIC, INC., phone (435) 227-2342. After an applications engineer
determines the nature of the problem, an RMA number will be issued. Please
write this number clearly on the outside of the shipping container. Campbell
Scientific's shipping address is:
CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC, INC.
RMA#_____
815 West 1800 North
Logan, Utah 84321-1784
For all returns, the customer must fill out a "Statement of Product Cleanliness
and Decontamination" form and comply with the requirements specified in it.
The form is available from our web site at www.campbellsci.com/repair. A
completed form must be either emailed to repair@campbellsci.com or faxed to
(435) 227-9579. Campbell Scientific is unable to process any returns until we
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concerns for our employees.
T107 Weather Station
Table of Contents
PDF viewers: These page numbers refer to the printed version of this document. Use the
PDF reader bookmarks tab for links to specific sections.
1. Preparation and Siting .............................................1-1
1.1 Siting and Exposure.............................................................................. 1-1
1.1.1 Wind Speed and Direction .......................................................... 1-1
1.1.2 Temperature and Relative Humidity........................................... 1-2
1.1.3 Solar Radiation............................................................................ 1-2
1.2 Installation Tasks .................................................................................. 1-2
1.2.1 Indoors ........................................................................................ 1-2
1.2.2 Outdoors...................................................................................... 1-5
1.3 Tools Required ..................................................................................... 1-5
1.3.1 Tools for Pole Installation........................................................... 1-5
1.3.2 Tools for Instrumentation and Maintenance ............................... 1-6
1.4 Supplies for Power and Communications Options ............................... 1-6
1.5 Determining True North for Wind Vane Orientation ........................... 1-7
1.5.1 Web Calculator ........................................................................... 1-8
2. Hardware Installation ...............................................2-1
2.1 Base Foundation ................................................................................... 2-2
2.1.1 Supplied Components ................................................................. 2-2
2.1.2 Installation .................................................................................. 2-2
2.1.3 AC Power Installation................................................................. 2-4
2.2 Tower/Pole............................................................................................ 2-4
2.2.1 Supplied Components ................................................................. 2-4
2.2.2 Installation .................................................................................. 2-4
2.2.3 Tower Grounding........................................................................ 2-6
2.2.3.1 Supplied Components ....................................................... 2-6
2.2.3.2 Grounding Procedure ........................................................ 2-6
2.3 Enclosure .............................................................................................. 2-7
2.3.1 Enclosure Installation.................................................................. 2-7
2.4 Crossarm and Sensor Installation ......................................................... 2-8
2.4.1 Components ................................................................................ 2-8
2.4.2 Crossarm Installation .................................................................. 2-8
2.4.3 RH and Temperature Radiation Shield ..................................... 2-10
2.4.4 034B Wind Sensor (Wind Sensor Option –MW) ..................... 2-11
2.4.5 Gill WindSonic 2-D Ultrasonic Wind Sensor (Wind Sensor
Option –GW) .......................................................................... 2-13
2.4.5.1 Changing the Jumper....................................................... 2-13
2.4.5.2 Attachment to Sensor Arm .............................................. 2-15
2.4.6 Rain Gage ................................................................................. 2-17
2.4.7 Pyranometer .............................................................................. 2-18
2.4.8 Sensor Connections................................................................... 2-19
2.4.9 Sensor Verification and Clock Set ............................................ 2-21
2.5 Communication Peripherals................................................................ 2-21
2.5.1 Direct Connect to T107 Station ................................................ 2-21
i
T107 Weather Station Table of Contents
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.5.2 Phone Modem ........................................................................... 2-23
2.5.2.1 Internal Installation.......................................................... 2-23
2.5.2.2 External Installation......................................................... 2-24
2.5.3 Short-Haul Modem.................................................................... 2-24
2.5.3.1 Internal Installation.......................................................... 2-25
2.5.3.2 External Installation......................................................... 2-26
2.5.4 RF450 900 MHz, 1 Watt Spread Spectrum Radio .................... 2-27
2.5.4.1 Power Considerations ...................................................... 2-28
2.5.4.2 Default Configuration...................................................... 2-28
2.5.4.3 Internal Installation.......................................................... 2-29
2.5.4.4 External Installation......................................................... 2-30
2.5.4.5 Base Radio Installation .................................................... 2-36
Lightning Rod Installation .................................................................. 2-38
Solar Panel Installation ....................................................................... 2-40
Battery Installation.............................................................................. 2-42
Restraining Cables and Sealing/Desiccating Enclosure...................... 2-43
2.9.1 Restraining Cables..................................................................... 2-43
2.9.2 Sealing and Desiccating the Enclosure ..................................... 2-44
3. ET Software .............................................................. 3-1
4. Maintenance, Troubleshooting, and Schematics.. 4-1
4.1 Maintenance.......................................................................................... 4-1
4.1.1 Pole.............................................................................................. 4-1
4.1.2 Power Supply .............................................................................. 4-1
4.1.2.1 Batteries ............................................................................. 4-1
4.1.2.2 Solar Panel......................................................................... 4-1
4.1.3 Desiccant ..................................................................................... 4-1
4.1.4 Sensor Maintenance .................................................................... 4-2
4.1.4.1 Procedure for Removing RH Chip .................................... 4-4
4.1.5 CR1000M Module ...................................................................... 4-5
4.2 Troubleshooting .................................................................................... 4-6
4.2.1 No Response Using the CR1000KD Keypad.............................. 4-6
4.2.2 No Response from Datalogger through SC32B, RAD Modem,
or Phone Modem ....................................................................... 4-6
4.2.3 NAN or ±INF Displayed in a Variable ....................................... 4-7
4.2.4 Unreasonable Results Displayed in a Variable ........................... 4-7
4.2.5 NAN or ±INF Stored in a Data Table ......................................... 4-8
4.2.6 Communication Problems when using an RF450 Radio............. 4-8
4.2.7 Gill WindSonic1-ET Diagnostic Diagnostic Codes .................. 4-10
4.3 Schematics of Connectors................................................................... 4-11
4.3.1 Sensor Schematics..................................................................... 4-12
4.3.2 Power Schematics ..................................................................... 4-17
4.3.3 Communication Modems Schematics ....................................... 4-17
ii
T107 Weather Station Table of Contents
Appendices
A. T107 Maintenance Log............................................ A-1
B. PS24 24 Ahr Power Supply and 10 x 12 inch
Enclosure ............................................................ B-1
B.1 PS24 Components ................................................................................B-1
B.2 Installation............................................................................................B-4
C. Exploded Views....................................................... C-1
C.1 Enclosure..............................................................................................C-1
C.2 Crossarm ..............................................................................................C-2
D. Default Programs .................................................... D-1
D.1 Program for T107 with 034B.............................................................. D-1
D.2 Program for T107 with Gill WindSonic ............................................. D-5
Figures
1.1-1. Effect of Structure on Wind Flow .................................................... 1-1
1.2-1A. Cut Flap Packing Tape .................................................................. 1-3
1.2-1B. Shipping Box Packaging ............................................................... 1-3
1.2-2. T107 with the Met One 034B-ETM Wind Sensor, Top Layer......... 1-4
1.2-3. T107, Bottom Layer ......................................................................... 1-4
1.5-1. Magnetic Declination for the Contiguous United States .................. 1-7
1.5-2. Declination Angles East of True North Are
Subtracted From 0 to Get True North........................................... 1-8
1.5-3. Declination Angles West of True North Are
Added to 0 to Get True North....................................................... 1-8
2.1-1. ET Tower Installation....................................................................... 2-1
2.1-2. ET Tower Base Installation .............................................................. 2-3
2.1-3. Cut-Away View Shows Anchor Bolt and Conduit Placement in
Cement Pad................................................................................... 2-3
2.2-1. Transparent View Shows Raising and Grounding the ET Tower .... 2-5
2.2-2. Close up of Ground Rod and 4 AWG Cable .................................... 2-6
2.3-1. T107 Instrumentation Mounted on the ET Tower............................ 2-7
2.3-2. Enclosure Spacing Above Pole ........................................................ 2-8
2.4-1. T107 Sensor Arm Mounting............................................................. 2-9
2.4-2. Temperature/Relative Humidity Sensor with Yellow
Protective Cap ............................................................................ 2-10
2.4-3. Temperature/Relative Humidity Sensor without Yellow
Protective Cap ............................................................................ 2-11
2.4-4. Wind and RH/Temperature Sensor Installation ............................. 2-12
2.4-5. 034B Mounting to Pipe .................................................................. 2-12
2.4-6. Screws that Secure the Electronics Cover ...................................... 2-14
2.4-7. Removal of the Electronics Cover.................................................. 2-14
2.4-8. Jumper Set for WindSonic1 ........................................................... 2-15
2.4-9. Gill WindSonic Mounting Shaft..................................................... 2-16
2.4-10. Gill WindSonic Connected to Cable ............................................. 2-16
2.4-11. Remove Rubber Band from Tipping Mechanism......................... 2-17
iii
T107 Weather Station Table of Contents
2.4-12. Pyranometer Leveling................................................................... 2-18
2.4-13. Remove Red or Green Pyranometer Cap...................................... 2-18
2.4-14. Position of Sensor Bulkhead Connectors ..................................... 2-19
2.4-15. Connecting Sensor Cabling to Enclosure ..................................... 2-20
2.5-1. Close-up of the terminals and 9-pin ports in the T107 (battery
not shown). ................................................................................. 2-22
2.5-2. Phone Modem Mounting and Connections (battery not shown) .... 2-23
2.5-3. Short-Haul Modem Mounting and Connection .............................. 2-25
2.5-4. Short-Haul Modem Wiring Diagram.............................................. 2-27
2.5-5. RF450 in T107 (battery not shown) ............................................... 2-29
2.5-6. Attach Ribbon Cable to RF450 CS I/O Port................................... 2-30
2.5-7. Loosely Wire Tie Antenna Cable ................................................... 2-31
2.5-8. Loosely Drape Antenna Cable over Back of Enclosure ................. 2-31
2.5-9. Slide Antenna Bracket U-Bolt around Back of the Pole ................ 2-32
2.5-10. Antenna Bracket Mounted to Pole................................................ 2-33
2.5-11. Mount Antenna Saddle Bracket.................................................... 2-33
2.5-12. Yagi Antenna Mounted to Saddle Bracket ................................... 2-34
2.5-13. Wire Tie Antenna Cable to Yagi Antenna and to Pole................. 2-35
2.5-14. Wire Tie Locations for Omni Antenna Installation ...................... 2-36
2.5-15. Base RF450 Installation................................................................ 2-37
2.5-16. A Base Radio Installed in an Office ............................................. 2-37
2.6-1. Lightning Rod Bracket Installation ................................................ 2-38
2.6-2. Grounding to Lightning Rod Clamp............................................... 2-39
2.7-1. Solar Panel Mounting and Cabling................................................. 2-40
2.7-2. Side View of Solar Panel Shows Tilt Angle................................... 2-41
2.8-1. PS100 Battery Installation .............................................................. 2-42
2.8-2. PS100 to T107 Enclosure Wiring................................................... 2-42
2.9-1. Cabling Strapped to Wire Tie Harness ........................................... 2-43
2.9-2. Connector Cover in Place ............................................................... 2-44
2.9-3. Desiccant Installation...................................................................... 2-45
4.1-1. Exploded View of HMP50-ET (as shipped)..................................... 4-3
4.2-1. RF450 Front Side View.................................................................... 4-8
4.3-1. Schematic of HMP50-ET RH and Temperature Probe and
Connector Temp/RH................................................................... 4-12
4.3-2. Schematic of 034B-LC Wind Speed and Direction Probe and
Connector WS/WD..................................................................... 4-13
4.3-4. Schematic of CS305-ET Solar Radiation Sensor and
Connector Solar Radiation.......................................................... 4-14
4.3-5. Schematic of TE525-ET Rain Sensor and Connector
Rain (Precip)............................................................................... 4-15
4.3-6. Schematic of 107-LC or 108-LC Temperature Probe or
CS616-LC Soil Volumetric Water Content Sensor and
Connector Temp/CS616 ............................................................. 4-16
4.3-7. Schematic of Connector SDI-12..................................................... 4-16
4.3-8. Schematic of Solar Panel and Connector Power ............................ 4-17
4.3-9. Schematic of Short Haul or Phone Modem and Connector
COMM........................................................................................ 4-17
B.1-1. Environmental Enclosure with CH100, Power Cable, and
Battery Bracket ............................................................................ B-1
B.1-2. 24 Ahr Battery and Battery Cable................................................... B-2
B.1-3. Enclosure Supply Kit ...................................................................... B-3
B.2-1. Strut Clamps in Brackets................................................................. B-4
B.2-2. Both Strut Clamps and Brackets on T107 Pole............................... B-5
B.2-3. Top Clamp Hook Side Up............................................................... B-6
B.2-4. Enclosure Mounted on T107 Pole................................................... B-7
iv
T107 Weather Station Table of Contents
B.2-5. Enclosure Locking Mechanism .......................................................B-8
B.2-6. Mounted Solar Panel........................................................................B-9
B.2-7. Procedure for installing and connecting battery ............................B-11
Tables
4.1-1. CR1000 Lithium Battery Specifications........................................... 4-5
4.2-1. Multi-Point Network LED Status..................................................... 4-9
4.2-2. Gill WindSonic Diagnostic Codes ................................................. 4-11
v
T107 Weather Station Table of Contents
vi
Section 1. Preparation and Siting
1.1 Siting and Exposure
CAUTION
If any part of the weather station comes in contact with
power lines, you could be killed. Contact local utilities for
the location of buried utility lines before digging or driving
ground rods.
Selecting an appropriate site for the weather station is critical in order to obtain
accurate meteorological data. In general, the site should be representative of
the general area of interest, and away from the influence of obstructions such
as buildings and trees.
The weather station should not be located where sprinkler irrigation water will
strike sensors or instrument enclosure.
Some general guidelines for site selection are listed below, which were
condensed from EPA (1988)1, WMO (1983)2, and AASC (1985)3 publications.
1.1.1 Wind Speed and Direction
Wind sensors should be located over open level terrain, and at a distance of at
least ten times (EPA) the height of any nearby building, tree or other
obstruction, as illustrated in Figure 1.1-1.
H
H
10
MADE IN USA
Height of tree (T)
Logan, Utah
T
0
1
FIGURE 1.1-1. Effect of Structure on Wind Flow
1-1
Section 1. Preparation and Siting
1.1.2 Temperature and Relative Humidity
Sensors should be located over an open level area at least 9 m (29.5 ft) (EPA)
in diameter. The surface should be covered by short grass, or where grass does
not grow, the natural earth surface. Sensors should be located at a distance of
at least four times the height of any nearby obstruction and at least 30 m
(98.43 ft) (EPA) from large paved areas. Sensors should be protected from
thermal radiation, and adequately ventilated.
Situations to avoid include:
• large industrial heat sources
• rooftops
• steep slopes
• sheltered hollows
• high vegetation
• shaded areas
• swamps
• areas where snow drifts occur
• low places holding standing water after rains
1.1.3 Solar Radiation
Pyranometers should be located to avoid shadows on the sensor at any time.
Mounting it on the southern most (northern hemisphere) portion of the weather
station will minimize the chance of shading from other weather station
structures. Reflective surfaces and sources of artificial radiation should be
avoided.
1.2 Installation Tasks
1.2.1 Indoors
•
Immediately upon receipt of your shipment…
⇒ Weather station is packed in the shipping box in layers. See Figures
1.2-1A, 1.2-1B, 1.2-2, and 1.2-3.
⇒ Immediately upon receipt of your shipment…
Open shipping carton(s).
Set the large weather station carton down lengthwise on a floor or
table top. Position the box as shown in Figure 1.2-1A.
Cut the tape along the edge of the lower flap first. See Figure 1.21A.
Cut the tape around the remaining flaps BUT only cut one layer deep.
Lift up the cardboard flaps exposing the top layer of foam as shown
in Figure 1.2-1B.
⇒ Check contents against invoice and shipping checklist. Contact
Campbell Scientific immediately about any shortages.
1-2
THI
S
SID
E
UP
Section 1. Preparation and Siting
Cut Lower Flap
Edge First
FIGURE 1.2-1A. Cut Flap Packing Tape
Top Packing
Foam Layer
Middle Packing
Foam Layer
T107,
Top Layer
T107,
Bottom Layer
Bottom Packing
Foam Layer
FIGURE 1.2-1B. Shipping Box Packaging
1-3
Section 1. Preparation and Siting
Crossarm with Rain, Solar, and
Temp/%RH Sensors
Wind Vane
Manual
Enclosure
Top Layer
Wind Set
Instruction
Instruction
Manual
Manual
Cardboard
Cardboard
Containing Wind Vane
FIGURE 1.2-2. T107 with the Met One 034B-ETM Wind Sensor, Top
Layer
Mounting Template Grounding Wire
and Enclosure Desiccant Packs
2-Piece Pole
Grounding and
Lightning Rod
AC Transformer
and Cabling
T
DESI PAK
Mounting Bolts
and Hardware
Enclosure
Battery
301
-
BAT
TER
Y
Temp/%RH
Bottom Layer
Gill Radiation
Shield
PVC Swept
Elbow Conduit
FIGURE 1.2-3. T107, Bottom Layer
1-4
Communication
Option Cabling
Section 1. Preparation and Siting
⇒ Securely tape box shut if transporting entire station to another site. If
at the main site, remove any communication components that are
installed at the calling computer. Repackage remaining components
for transport to field site.
Solar panel and RF items (if any) will be packed in a separate box.
•
Several days prior to the planned installation date…
⇒ Collect tools and site information (Section 1)
⇒ Install datalogger support software (Section 3)
1.2.2 Outdoors
•
Locate suitable site (Section 1)
•
Prepare concrete base (Section 2)
•
T107 Installation:
⇒ Place instrumentation enclosure on the ET pole. Slide enclosure to the
top of the pole and secure with correct orientation (Section 2.3).
1.3 Tools Required
Tools required to install and maintain a weather station are listed below.
1.3.1 Tools for Pole Installation
ET Pole
Shovel
Rake
Open end wrenches: 3/8", 7/16", 1/2", (2) 9/16"
Magnetic compass
6' Step ladder
Tape measure (12’ to 20’)
Claw hammer
Level (24” to 36”)
Hand saw
Materials for concrete form:
(4) 1" x 2" x 12" stakes
(2) 2" x 4" x 96" lumber
(12) 8p double-head nails
(8) 16p double-head nails
20 ft form wire
½ Yard concrete
Concrete trowel, edger
Electrical Fish tape or 20 feet of small diameter rope
Wheelbarrow
1-5
Section 1. Preparation and Siting
1.3.2 Tools for Instrumentation and Maintenance
ET Pole
Lock and key for enclosure
Magnetic declination angle
Magnetic compass
Straight bit screwdrivers (small, medium, large)
Phillips-head screwdrivers (small, medium)
Small diagonal side-cutters
Needle-nose pliers
Wire strippers
Pocket knife
Calculator
Volt / Ohm Meter
Electrical Tape
Step ladder (6')
Station manuals
Station log and pen
Open end wrenches: 3/8", 7/16", 1/2", 9/16", 15/16"
Socket wrench and 7/16" deep well socket
Adjustable wrench
Pliers
Conduit and associated tools (as required)
Felt-tipped marking pen
Claw hammer
Pipe wrench (12")
1.4 Supplies for Power and Communications Options
AC Power
Wire, conduit, and junction boxes as needed (see Figure 2.1-1).
NOTE
User supplies valve box at base of station and weatherproof
enclosure for transformer. See Figure 2.1-1.
Phone Modem
Phone modem at the central computer.
Dedicated single twisted pair with shield phone line to the weather station
valve/junction box (see Figure 2.1-1).
Short-Haul Modem
Direct burial cable with a minimum of 2-twisted pairs with shield (minimum 5
conductors total) to travel from the weather station to the central computer
junction box. Direct burial armored cable may be required for rocky soils or
rodents (Anixter p/n F-02P22BPN (phone 847.677.2600)) or equivalent type
cable (see Figure 2.1-1).
RF450
Antenna for the T107 station (14205 Yagi antenna recommended). PS24
Power Supply and #18520 Hanger Kit if not using ac power (see Appendix B).
1-6
Section 1. Preparation and Siting
1.5 Determining True North for Wind Vane
Orientation
Magnetic declination, or other methods to find True North, should be determined
prior to installing the weather station. True North is usually found by reading a
magnetic compass and applying the correction for magnetic declination*; where
magnetic declination is the number of degrees between True North and Magnetic
North. Magnetic declination for a specific site can be obtained from a USFA map,
local airport, or through a NOAA website (Section 1.5.1). A general map showing
magnetic declination for the contiguous United States is shown in Figure 1.5-1.
Declination angles east of True North are considered negative, and are subtracted
from 0 degrees to get True North as shown Figure 1.5-2. Declination angles west
of True North are considered positive, and are added to 0 degrees to get True
North as shown in Figure 1.5-3. For example, the declination for Logan, Utah is
12.4° East. True North is 360° - 12.4° = 347.6° as read on a compass.
*
Other methods employ observations using the North Star or the sun, and
are discussed in the Quality Assurance Handbook for Air Pollution
Measurement Systems, Volume IV - Meteorological Measurements4.
Subtract declination from 360°
Add declination to 0°
20 W
22 E
18 W
16 W
20 E
14 W
12 W
18 E
10 W
8 W
16 E
6 W
4 W
14 E
2 W
0
12 E
10 E
8 E
6 E
4 E
2 E
FIGURE 1.5-1. Magnetic Declination for the Contiguous United States
1-7
Section 1. Preparation and Siting
FIGURE 1.5-2. Declination Angles East of True North Are
Subtracted From 0 to Get True North
FIGURE 1.5-3. Declination Angles West of True North Are
Added to 0 to Get True North
1.5.1 Web Calculator
Since magnetic declination fluctuates with time, it should be determined each
time the wind sensor orientation is adjusted. It can be accessed at
www.ngdc.noaa.gov/geomagmodels/Declination.jsp
Below is an example for Logan, UT.
1-8
Section 1. Preparation and Siting
A positive declination is east, while a negative declination is west. The
declination in this example is 12º 24′ or 12.4º. As shown in Figure 1.5-1, the
declination for Logan, UT is east, so True North for this site is 360 – 12.4, or
347.6 degrees.
References
1
EPA, (1987). On-Site Meteorological Program Guidance for Regulatory
Modeling Applications, EPA-450/4-87-013. Office of Air Quality Planning
and Standards, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711.
2
WMO, (1983). Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of
Observation. World Meteorological Organization No. 8, 5th edition, Geneva,
Switzerland.
3
The State Climatologist, (1985) Publication of the American Association of
State Climatologists: Height and Exposure Standards for Sensors on
Automated Weather Stations, v. 9, No. 4 October, 1985.
1-9
Section 1. Preparation and Siting
4
EPA, (1989). Quality Assurance Handbook for Air Pollution Measurement
Systems, EPA Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park,
North Carolina 27711.
1-10
Section 2. Hardware Installation
DANGER: Do not install near power lines. If any part of the tower comes in contact with
power lines you could be KILLED. Contact local utilities for the location of buried utility
lines before digging or driving grounding rods.
CAUTION: Do not fit the 3 meter ET Tower sections together until the appropriate time.
Once attached, they cannot be detached.
The ET Tower provides a support structure for mounting the T107 weather station
components. Figure 2.1-1 shows a typical ET Tower installation option. The tower is
designed to withstand winds of 100 mph. The lightning rod assembly is attached after the
instrumentation enclosure is installed.
User-Supplied
Valve Box
Swept Elbow
Conduit
FIGURE 2.1-1. ET Tower Installation
NOTE
User supplies valve box at base of station and weatherproof
enclosure for transformer. See Figure 2.1-1.
2-1
Section 2. Hardware Installation
2.1 Base Foundation
2.1.1 Supplied Components
(3) 5/8 inch Anchor L-Bolts
(9) 1/2 inch Nuts
(1) Anchor Template
Refer to Section 1 for components supplied by installer and bring components.
2.1.2 Installation
2-2
1.
The ET Tower attaches to a user supplied concrete foundation constructed
as shown in Figure 2.1-2.
2.
Construct the concrete form with 2" x 4" lumber and 16p nails.
3.
Assemble the template and anchor bolts. There should be two nuts below
and one nut above the template on each bolt.
4.
Clear an area large enough to set the form at the desired elevation.
5.
Dig a hole 2 feet x 2 feet x 2 feet. Lighter soils may require a deeper hole.
About 20 inches below the top of the hole, gouge a small cavity in one
wall of the hole. The cavity should be about 4 inches deep and just large
enough in diameter to insert one end of the conduit. Make certain the
cavity "points" in the direction from which power and communications
cables will come. For example the cavity will “point” towards a valve box
if one is being used.
6.
Center the form over the hole. Adjacent to the form, drive four stakes into
the soil. Secure the leveled form to the stakes with the 8p nails.
7.
Cap the ends of the conduit with duct tape. Position the conduit and wire
into place by securing the wire to nails in the form.
8.
Fill the hole and form with approximately ½ yard of concrete. Screed the
concrete level with the top of the form. Center the template assembly over
the conduit and press into the concrete. Put 2 x 4 spacers between the
template and the top of the form. The bottom of the bolt threads should be
about ½ inch above the concrete. The template must be level in two
dimensions. Use a trowel and edger to finish.
9.
Wait 24 hours before removing the concrete form. Wait 7 days before
mounting the ET Tower.
Section 2. Hardware Installation
SIDE VIEW
FORM
TOP VIEW
2"
FORM WIRE
NORTH
ANCHOR BOLT
24"
24"
SMALL
CAVITY
CEMENT PAD
24"
FORM WIRE
TEMPLATE
FIGURE 2.1-2. ET Tower Base Installation
Anchor
Bolt
Conduit
FIGURE 2.1-3. Cut-Away View Shows Anchor Bolt and Conduit
Placement in Cement Pad
2-3
Section 2. Hardware Installation
2.1.3 AC Power Installation
a)
The AC power option includes a 120 VAC to 16 VAC step down
transformer. The transformer should be mounted inside a user-supplied
junction box according to local electrical codes. Dangerous electrical
accidents may be avoided by locating the transformer remotely and
burying a low voltage line to the station. The low voltage will carry up to
500 feet on an 18 AWG power cable.
b) Shut off 110 VAC power at the main breaker. Connect the primary leads
of the transformer to 110 VAC following instructions provided with the
transformer. Connect a two-conductor cable to the secondary terminals of
the transformer. Route the cable from the transformer to the ET Enclosure
according to local electrical codes.
c)
Splice the incoming two-conductor cable to the power cable provided with
the station. Use the direct burial splice kit when splices are in a valve box
or buried.
d) Connect the power plug to the connector marked “Power” on the back of
the enclosure. See Figure 2.4-14.
NOTE
The splice and wire nut must be completely immersed into the
silicon gel inside the splice tube to be waterproof.
2.2 Tower/Pole
2.2.1 Supplied Components
(1) Upper Tower Section (Tapered)
(1) Lower Tower Section
(6) ½ inch Washers
(1) 12 foot 10 AWG Ground Cable
(1) White Tower Cap
(1) 20' communications cable (phone or short haul modem)
(1) 20' power cable (for AC option only)
2.2.2 Installation
Attach the tower to the base as shown in Figure 2.2-1.
2-4
1.
Dig a hole close to the concrete base to access the lower conduit opening.
From the hole, trench to the power and communications sources. Remove
the duct tape from both ends of the conduit.
2.
Remove the template. Slide the bottom and top half of the pole pieces
together. This is a permanent connection and cannot be taken apart once
they are put together. If a little more force is necessary to put the two
halves together, then get a small block of scrap wood and a hammer. Set
the pole upright on a grassy area or have someone hold the pole
horizontally. Place a piece of scrap wood over the very end of the top
section of the pole and gently hammer on the scrap wood to fit the two
halves together. A 1/2 inch (1.27 cm) gap between the top and bottom
Section 2. Hardware Installation
pole sections is acceptable. Lay the assembled pole on the ground next to
the concrete foundation.
NOTE
3.
Cut and save a 9 inch piece of 12 AWG ground wire from the 12 foot
length provided. This will be used later to attach the enclosure ground to
the lightning rod assembly (reference Figure 2.3-1).
4.
Thread communication cable, power cable with connector ends of cable
out the top of tower, and grounding wire through the tower and conduit.
Electrical fish tape will help. Leave approximately two feet of the
supplied power and communication cable hanging out of the top of the
pole. Secure all wiring so it doesn’t slip back down through the pole.
Solar panel and RF options will not have power or
communication cables.
5.
Place the white tower cap over the tower end.
6.
Raise the tower on a still day. Place a washer on top of the two nuts on
each foundation bolt. Taking great care not to damage cables between the
tower and conduit, raise the tower and lower it onto the conduit and
mounting bolts. Install a washer and nut on each bolt and hand tighten.
Check plumb of the tower by placing a level on the north and east sides of
the lower tower section. Adjust the topmost of the two lower nuts
(leveling nut) on each bolt as necessary. When plumb is established, lock
the leveling nut in place by tightening the lowest nut against it. Tighten
the three top nuts with the wrench.
ET Tower
4 AWG Wire
Leveling
Nut
Ground Rod
Concrete
Foundation
Anchor Bolt
Swept Elbow Conduit
FIGURE 2.2-1. Transparent View Shows Raising and Grounding the
ET Tower
2-5
Section 2. Hardware Installation
4 AWG Wire
Ground Rod
FIGURE 2.2-2. Close up of Ground Rod and 4 AWG Cable
2.2.3 Tower Grounding
2.2.3.1 Supplied Components
(1) 5 foot 4 AWG Ground Cable
(1) Copper Ground Lug, Bolt
(1) Ground Rod, Clamp
2.2.3.2 Grounding Procedure
Ground the tower as shown in Figures 2.2-1 and 2.2-2.
2-6
1.
Place the ground rod clamp on the ground rod. Secure it about 3 inches
from the top. Do this before the rod is driven into the ground. Be careful
not to damage the clamp with the hammer
2.
Taking care not to damage power or communications lines, drive the
ground rod close to the foundation using a fence post driver or sledge
hammer. Drive the rod at an angle if an impenetrable hardpan layer exists.
Soften hard clay soils with water if necessary.
3.
Strip 1 inch of insulation from both ends of the 4 AWG ground cable.
Strip 1 inch of insulation from the lower end of the 12 AWG ground wire.
Loosen the lug's set screw and insert the 4 AWG and 12 AWG wire.
Tighten the set screw (Figure 2.2-2).
4.
Loosen the ground rod clamp. Insert the 4 AWG wire. Tighten the clamp
(Figure 2.2-2).
Section 2. Hardware Installation
2.3 Enclosure
The weather station datalogger, power supply, sensor connection panel,
communications devices, and data retrieval peripherals are mounted in the ET
enclosure. Refer to Appendix C.1 for a labeled, exploded view of the
enclosure.
Lightning
Rod
Crossarm
Pyranometer
Tipping Bucket
Rain Gage
Met One 034B
Wind Set
ET Enclosure
Radiation
Shield
Logan, Utah
MADE IN USA
Ground
Rod
FIGURE 2.3-1. T107 Instrumentation Mounted on the ET Tower
2.3.1 Enclosure Installation
1.
Mount the ET enclosure on the ET Tower as shown in Figure 2.3-2.
a.
Remove the front lid. Remove the connector cover from the back of
the ET enclosure by loosening the Phillips screw at the bottom of the
cover.
2-7
Section 2. Hardware Installation
b.
2 – 2.5 cm
Loosen the mounting bracket bolts on the back of the enclosure wide
enough to slide over the pole. Slide the enclosure over the pole.
Position the enclosure so it faces east for northern latitudes or west
for southern latitudes. The top of the enclosure should be 2 – 2.5 cm
(3/4” to 1”) above the top of the pole (see Figure 2.3-2).
Power Cable
(if using AC
transformer)
Ground
Wire
COM Cable
(if using phone or
short-haul modem)
FIGURE 2.3-2. Enclosure Spacing Above Pole
2.4 Crossarm and Sensor Installation
Refer to Appendix C.2 for a labeled, exploded view of the crossarm.
2.4.1 Components
(1) T107 Crossarm with Sensors (see Figure 2.3-1)
(1) Met One 034B or Gill WindSonic Wind Sensor
(1) White Mounting Shaft for 034B or Gill WindSonic
(1) Gill Radiation Shield
2.4.2 Crossarm Installation
Adjust the bolts at the base of the pole to vertically level the top section of the
mounting pole. Install the T107 Sensor Arm after the ET Enclosure is
mounted on the ET Tower. You may need to temporarily remove the
communications option. Mount the sensor arm as shown in Figure 2.4-1
without the wind sensor attached.
2-8
Section 2. Hardware Installation
Screws
(4)
FIGURE 2.4-1. T107 Sensor Arm Mounting
1) Remove the front lid and the protective connector cover from the back of
the ET enclosure by loosening the one Phillips screw at the bottom of the
cover.
2) Place the sensor arm on top of the enclosure, lining up the four threaded
holes on the under side of the arm with the four holes in the top of the
enclosure. Attach the arm to the enclosure by inserting and tightening
four Phillips head screws. Adjust the position of the ET Enclosure so that
the crossarm is oriented along a due north to due south axis with the rain
gage and solar radiation sensor (pyranometer) on the south side for
northern latitudes and the reverse for southern latitudes.
2-9
Section 2. Hardware Installation
2.4.3 RH and Temperature Radiation Shield
1.
Remove the two Phillips screws taped underneath the crossarm.
2.
Remove the yellow shipping cap from off the end of the
temperature/relative humidity sensor. See Figures 2.4-2 and 2.4-3.
Remove Yellow Cap
FIGURE 2.4-2. Temperature/Relative Humidity Sensor with Yellow
Protective Cap
2-10
Section 2. Hardware Installation
Temp/RH with
Cap Removed
FIGURE 2.4-3. Temperature/Relative Humidity Sensor without Yellow
Protective Cap
3.
Insert the temperature/relative humidity into the gill radiation shield until
it stops or a “click” is heard.
4.
Attach the gill radiation shield to the underside of the crossarm using the
two Phillips screws from step 1.
2.4.4 034B Wind Sensor (Wind Sensor Option –MW)
1.
WARNING
Install the 034B Wind Sensor as shown in Figure 2.4-4 after the sensor
arm is securely installed.
Plugging this sensor into the connector marked “SDI
12” can result in damaging this sensor, the main
enclosure connector board, or both.
2-11
Section 2. Hardware Installation
Temp/% RH Gill
Radiation Shield
Phillips Mounting
Screws
FIGURE 2.4-4. Wind and RH/Temperature Sensor Installation
Wind
Vane
Counter
Weight
Shoulder
Screw
South
Alignment
Sticker
UTION
ENTIOMETER
ENT 5mA
FACE SOUTH
Alignment
Screw
FIGURE 2.4-5. 034B Mounting to Pipe
2-12
Mounting
Pipe
Section 2. Hardware Installation
WARNING
The wind vane can be easily damaged if dropped or
bent. Leave the wind vane in the protective cardboard
sleeve until it’s ready to be installed.
2.
Remove the alignment screw at the base of the 034B-ET (Figure 2.4-5).
Insert the 034B into the 034B Mounting Shaft. Align the hole in the shaft
with that in the 034B base and replace the screw. Do not overtighten the
alignment screw. Do not remove the shoulder screw at this time.
3.
Insert the mounting shaft through the U-Bolt on the sensor arm. Adjust
the mounting shaft so that the cable and connector coming out the end of
the sensor arm can plug easily into the mating connector on the 034B.
Lightly tighten up the U-bolt clamp nuts. See Figure 2.4-4.
4.
See Figure 2.4-5 for the alignment sticker on the 034B. Align the arrow
on this sticker with True South. The counterweight will also be pointing
due south. Make sure the sensor cable is not being pinched by the U-bolt.
Tighten up the U-bolt to hold the sensor firmly. Plug the cable into the
mating connector on the sensor. Plug must be fully seated and locking
ring turned fully clockwise.
5.
Install the wind vane using the Allen wrench supplied with the vane.
Wind vane should be perpendicular to the crossarm. Put the MetOne
sticker over the wind vane Allen screw opening.
6.
Remove and keep the shoulder screw. The shoulder screw will be needed
for replacing bearings and/or potentiometer. The wind vane and cups
should turn freely.
2.4.5 Gill WindSonic 2-D Ultrasonic Wind Sensor (Wind Sensor
Option –GW)
2.4.5.1 Changing the Jumper
NOTE
Jumper is set at the factory if Gill WindSonic is ordered with the
station.
When the WindSonic1-ET is added to the T107, a jumper setting must be
changed. The procedure to change the jumper follows:
1.
Remove the cover of the enclosure.
2.
Disconnect the 10588 ribbon cable from the CS I/O port.
3.
Use a Philips screwdriver to loosen the four screws shown in Figure 2.4-6.
2-13
Section 2. Hardware Installation
Loosen Screws
FIGURE 2.4-6. Screws that Secure the Electronics Cover
4.
Remove the electronics cover to expose the PCB (see Figure 2.4-7).
Lift Here
FIGURE 2.4-7. Removal of the Electronics Cover
2-14
Section 2. Hardware Installation
5.
Move the jumper at the top of connector PC board so that it is placed over
the center and right pins (see Figure 2.4-8).
New Jumper Position
FIGURE 2.4-8. Jumper Set for WindSonic1
6.
Replace electronics cover.
7.
Tighten screws.
8.
Reattach 10588 ribbon cable to the CS I/O port.
9.
Replace enclosure cover.
2.4.5.2 Attachment to Sensor Arm
1.
Remove the three Phillips screws from the end of the white mounting
shaft. Remove the protective cap covering the Gill WindSonic sensor
cable plug.
2.
Loosen the U-bolt holding the mounting shaft to the crossarm. Pull the
shaft up and out of the U-bolt as shown in Figure 2.4-9.
2-15
Section 2. Hardware Installation
FIGURE 2.4-9. Gill WindSonic Mounting Shaft
3.
Slide the connector and cable up through the center of the mounting shaft.
Plug the cable into the Gill WindSonic sensor. The connector has a key
and needs to be pushed in then rotated clockwise to lock it in place. See
Figure 2.4-10.
FIGURE 2.4-10. Gill WindSonic Connected to Cable
2-16
Section 2. Hardware Installation
4.
Center the Gill WindSonic over the three threaded screw holes on the
mounting shaft and screw it in place using the three Phillips screws taken
off the shaft in step 1.
5.
Slide the shaft and sensor back through the U-bolt. Align the sensor with
north by pointing the small colored dot on outer edge of the bottom of the
sensor so it faces true north. Space the sensor about 25.4 cm (10 inches)
above the crossarm and tighten down the U-bolt.
2.4.6 Rain Gage
For accurate measurements, the rain gage needs to be installed so it is
horizontally level. A bubble level is situated on the bottom of the inside of the
rain gage. To see the bubble level, pull the gold funnel up and off of the top of
the rain gage. Remove the rubber band holding the tipping mechanism in
place. The rain gage bubble level mounted on the tipping mechanism shows
how vertical the pole was installed. Adjust the bolts at the bottom of the pole
as needed to get the bubble level centered. Put the gold funnel back on the top
of the rain gage after leveling has been completed.
FIGURE 2.4-11. Remove Rubber Band from Tipping Mechanism
2-17
Section 2. Hardware Installation
2.4.7 Pyranometer
Level the pyranometer as indicated in Figure 2.4-12. Adjust the three leveling
screws until the bubble level indicates plumb. Remove the red or green
shipping cap from the pyranometer. See Figure 2.4-13.
Leveling
Screws
FIGURE 2.4-12. Pyranometer Leveling
Remove Cap
FIGURE 2.4-13. Remove Red or Green Pyranometer Cap
2-18
Section 2. Hardware Installation
2.4.8 Sensor Connections
Sensor schematics are provided in Section 4.3.1.
1.
WARNING
Each sensor cable plug attaches to a unique bulkhead connector as shown
in Figure 2.4-14. The sensor cables are individually marked to match up
with the sensor labeling on the back of the enclosure.
The 034B Wind Sensor plugs into the connector
labeled WS/WD. Plugging this sensor in the connector
labeled SDI-12 may damage the sensor and/or the main
enclosure connector board.
Enclosure Ground Lug
Wire Tie Harness
Sensors
TEMP CS616
WS/WD
SDI-12
TEMP/SONIC
RAIN (PRECIP)
TEMP/RH
SOLAR RADIATION
COMM
POWER
BNC Coaxial
Connector
Standoff
FIGURE 2.4-14. Position of Sensor Bulkhead Connectors
2-19
Section 2. Hardware Installation
NOTE
It’s very important that each plug is completely seated on to the
connector and the locking ring turned ¼ revolution clockwise.
Failure to seat the plug completely could cause corrosion and
water damage to both the enclosure and the sensor cable.
NOTE
Notice how the sensor caps are slid between the connector and
the one above in Figure 2.4-15. This will keep the caps out of
the way of the connector cover.
FIGURE 2.4-15. Connecting Sensor Cabling to Enclosure
2-20
Section 2. Hardware Installation
2.4.9 Sensor Verification and Clock Set
NOTE
The T107 comes with a default program (see Appendix D).
NOTE
Use standard time in the station if calculating evapotranspiration
(ETsz). Do not use daylight savings time.
Additional Station Communication Options:
a)
The station can be accessed directly using a CR1000KD keypad
display at the weather station. Plug the keypad into the extra plug
coming off the 9-pin connector marked “CS I/O”.
b) A laptop can be used to connect directly to the RS-232 port at the
station using a standard 9-pin serial cable. Do NOT use a null modem
cable.
c)
The station can be connected directly to using a Palm with Campbell
Scientific PConnect software and connector/cable or PConnect CE if
using a Windows CE based handheld with connector/cable.
2.5 Communication Peripherals
Only one communication kit can be mounted inside the ET enclosure.
Communication kits ordered with the ET Enclosure are pre-mounted and prewired; no further connections inside the enclosure are necessary. Follow the
"External Installation" procedures in later sections to make the external
connections.
If you received a telecommunication kit separate from the ET Enclosure,
follow the "Internal Installation" procedures outlined in later sections.
Schematics for the phone and short haul modems are in Section 4.3.3.
Default settings for the CR1000 in the T107 station.
•
•
•
•
PakBus address 1
RS-232 Port: Autobaud (300 – 115,200 Baud)
ME: Autobaud
SDC7 or SDC8: 115,200 Baud
2.5.1 Direct Connect to T107 Station
The T107 station does not require an interface device for direct RS-232
communication. The inside of the enclosure has a RS-232 and CS I/O port
available for communication (see Figure 2.5-1). Most standard communication
options use the CS I/O port leaving the RS-232 port free for direct
communication with a laptop or desktop computer using a standard RS-232
serial cable. The CR1000 datalogger used in the T107 station can speak with
more than one device at a time allowing troubleshooting to be done in the field
with a laptop while remote communication devices are accessing the station.
2-21
Section 2. Hardware Installation
NOTE
Connects with
phone modem’s
RJ-11 patch cord
Connects with Rad
modem’s 4-wire
patch cable
It’s best to use Device Configuration Utility (DevConfig) and
connect directly to the station to change the CR1000
configuration. DevConfig is included with LoggerNet and can
be obtained, at no charge, from our website.
Connects with a
phone modem, Rad
modem, or RF450
radio via the 10588
ribbon cable
Connects with a
laptop via an RS-232
serial cable
FIGURE 2.5-1. Close-up of the terminals and 9-pin ports in the T107
(battery not shown).
2-22
Section 2. Hardware Installation
2.5.2 Phone Modem
Phone modems enable communications between the ET Enclosure and a Hayes
compatible modem at your PC over a dedicated phone line. Phone line surge
protection is built into the ET Enclosure. By default, the COM220 phone
modem is configured for SDC7.
RJ-11 Patch Cord Connects with RJ-11 Jack
Ground Wire
10588 Ribbon Cable
FIGURE 2.5-2. Phone Modem Mounting and Connections (battery not
shown)
2.5.2.1 Internal Installation
NOTE
If the phone modem was ordered with the T107, you can skip
this section and go directly to the External Installation section.
For installation inside the ET Enclosure, the following components are
provided in the phone modem kit:
(1) COM220 Phone Modem
(1) 12 inch RJ-11 Patch Cord
(1) Mounting Bracket
(4) Screws
(1) 12 inch 14 AWG Ground Wire
Install the phone modem as shown in Figure 2.5-2.
1.
Attach the modem to the modem bracket with the 2 screws provided.
Mount the modem and bracket into the ET Enclosure with the 3 prethreaded screws on the mounting plate.
2-23
Section 2. Hardware Installation
2.
Connect the modem 9-pin port to the ET Enclosure CS I/O port with the
P/N 10588 ribbon cable supplied with the ET Enclosure (see Figure
2.5-1 and 2.5-2).
3.
Connect the modem RJ-ll jack to the ET Enclosure RJ-11 jack with the
RJ-ll patch cord (see Figure 2.5-2).
4.
Connect the modem ground terminal block (GND) to the ET Enclosure
ground with the 14 AWG ground wire.
2.5.2.2 External Installation
The following modem kit components are used to make the external
connections:
(1) Direct Burial Splice Kit
(1) 20 foot Telephone Patch Cord with Connector
1) Connect the 20 foot patch cord to connector marked COM on the external
back panel, under the protective cover.
NOTE
It’s very important that each plug is completely seated on to the
connector and the locking ring turned ¼ revolution clockwise.
Failure to seat the plug completely could cause corrosion and
water damage to both the enclosure and the sensor cable.
2) Splice the labeled "Tip" and "Ring" lines of the patch cord to the
telephone service line. Use the direct burial splice kit when splices are in
a valve box or buried.
NOTE
The splice and wire nut must be completely immersed into the
silicon gel inside the splice tube to be waterproof.
2.5.3 Short-Haul Modem
Short-haul modems enable communication between a datalogger and computer
over two twisted pairs of wires. The maximum distance between modems is
determined by baud rate and wire gauge. At 9600 baud, the approximate
maximum cable length is 6.0 miles using 19 AWG cable. DCE / DTE switches
on the modems are set to DCE.
NOTE
2-24
It's critical to use at least a two twisted-pair cable with a shield
wire. Shield wire(s) and/or any additional unused conductors
must connect to an earth ground at one end or the other of the
cable run.
Section 2. Hardware Installation
Rad Short
Haul Modem
SC932C
10588 Ribbon Cable
(see Figure 2.5-4 for
wiring)
12” 4-Wire
Patch Cable
(see Figure
2.5-4 for
wiring)
FIGURE 2.5-3. Short-Haul Modem Mounting and Connection
2.5.3.1 Internal Installation
NOTE
If the short haul modem was ordered with the T107, you can skip
this section and go directly to the External Installation section.
For installation inside the ET Enclosure, the following components are
provided in the short-haul modem kit:
(1) Item #10596 (SC932C) 9-pin to RS-232 DCE Interface
(1) Rad Modem
(1) Rad/SC932C Mounting Bracket
(1) 12 inch 4-wire patch cable
2-25
Section 2. Hardware Installation
Install the short-haul modems as shown in Figure 2.5-3 and 2.5-4.
WARNING
1.
Mount the Rad / SC932C mounting bracket into the ET Enclosure with the
three pre-threaded screws provided.
2.
Connect the Rad Modem and SC932C. Strap them into the mounting
bracket under the Velcro strap.
3.
Connect the SC932C 9-pin port to the internal ET Enclosure CS I/O port
with the P/N 10588 Ribbon Cable supplied with the ET Enclosure (see
Figure 3.3-1).
4.
Wire the Rad Modem to the ET Enclosure with the 12-inch patch cable.
Match wire labels to wiring panel labels on both the ET Enclosure and the
Rad Modem (+XMT to +XMT, etc.). A small screwdriver is provided
with the ET Enclosure to access the Rad Modem connections. Use the
screwdriver to press down on the lever arm.
Pressing too hard on the lever arm can cause it to
break!
2.5.3.2 External Installation
The following short-haul kit components (see Figure 2.5-1) are used to make
the external connections:
At the ET Enclosure:
(1) 20 foot 4-Wire Patch Cable
(2) 2 Direct Burial Splice Kits
(1) Length of User Supplied Wire (Supplier: Anixter, p/n F-02P22BPN,
Phone 847-677-2600)
At the PC:
(1) Rad Modem
(1) 5 foot 4-wire Patch Cable
(1) 10 foot 14 AWG Ground Wire
(1) Surge Protector and Case
(1) 9-25 Pin RS-232 Serial Cable
1) Connect the 20-foot patch cable to the connector marked COM on the
back side of the ET Enclosure. Splice the patch cable to the user supplied
cable, using the direct burial splice kits.
NOTE
2-26
It’s very important that each plug is completely seated on to the
connector and the locking ring turned ¼ revolution clockwise.
Failure to seat the plug completely could cause corrosion and
water damage to both the enclosure and the sensor cable.
Section 2. Hardware Installation
NOTE
The splice and wire nut must be completely immersed into the
silicon gel inside the splice tube to be waterproof.
2) Mount the surge protector box to a flat surface within 5 feet of the PC's
serial port. Ground the center terminal to an earth (or building) ground
using the 14 AWG wire.
3) Connect the 5-foot patch cable from the surge box to the Rad Modem.
Fasten the cable to the strain relief tab with a cable tie. Connect the Rad to
the PC's serial port with the 9-to-25 pin serial cable.
4) Route the user-supplied cable from the remote splice to the surge
protector. Connect it and the 5-foot patch cable to the surge protector.
SW-12V 12V 5V
6H
6L
-
XMT
+
RCV
+
See Figure 2.5-1 for close-up
FIGURE 2.5-4. Short-Haul Modem Wiring Diagram
2.5.4 RF450 900 MHz, 1 Watt Spread Spectrum Radio
The RF450 is a license free 1 watt spread spectrum radio. Communication is
strictly line-of-sight. Communication distance is dependant on antennas,
cabling, and terrain (please note that line-of-sight obstructions and RF
interference will affect transmission distance).
2-27
Section 2. Hardware Installation
2.5.4.1 Power Considerations
AC power is recommended when using RF450 radios with the station. A 10
watt solar panel can be used but days without sunlight and winter months with
little sunlight should be considered. The T107 station comes with a 7 amp-hour
battery that is NOT designed to handle deep discharge. Discharging the battery
below 11 Vdc may require battery replacement. Below are some examples of
power calculations. Battery current consumption is based on discharging the 7
amp-hour battery to 80% capacity (5.6 amp-hours). Discharging the battery
past this value could result in damaging the battery.
Polling the station once every 10 minutes and staying on line with the station
for one minute consumes approximately 1.276 amps over a 24 hour period. If
the station were to lose power it could run for around 4.3 days (105 hours)
before damaging the battery. A station with a 10 watt panel would need at least
3 hours of sunlight every day to keep the battery charged. Recommendation
here would be to decrease the power output of the radios or add a PS24 power
supply and enclosure with a 24 amp-hour battery below the main enclosure.
See Appendix B for mounting options and information on the PS24.
Polling the station once an hour and staying on line with the station for one
minute consumes approximately 0.388 amps over a 24 hour period. If the
station were to lose power it could run for around 14 days (346 hours) before
damaging the battery. A station with a 10 watt panel would need at least 1 hour
of sunlight every day to keep the battery charged.
2.5.4.2 Default Configuration
By default the radios are configured as follows.
Base Radio At Computer
•
•
•
•
•
Multi-Point Master
RS-232 @ 9600 Baud
Network ID: 1234
Frequency Key: 5
1 Watt Output (Transmit Power: 10)
Weather Station Radio
•
•
•
•
•
•
Multi-Point Slave
Communication With Datalogger via CS I/O SDC7
Network ID: 1234
Frequency Key: 5
1 Watt Output (Transmit Power: 10)
Low Power Mode: 2
See the RF450 manual for changing radio settings.
2-28
Section 2. Hardware Installation
2.5.4.3 Internal Installation
NOTE
If the RF450 radio was ordered with the T107, you can skip this
section and go directly to the External Installation section.
The following components are provided in the RF450 radio kit for installation
inside the ET enclosure:
(1) 18327 RF450 900MHz 1 W Spread Spectrum Radio
(1) 20584 RF450 ET Enclosure Antenna Cable
(1) 20585 RF450 ET Enclosure Mounting Bracket
The radio comes mounted to the ET bracket. Install the assembly as follows.
NOTE
Power the station down by flipping the PS100 power switch to
“Off” before installing any communication option. Remember to
flip the switch back to “On” after enclosure installation is
completed.
1.
Mount the RF450 bracket and radio into the ET enclosure using the three
existing screws. See Figure 2.5-5.
2.
Thread the smaller SMA connector end of the enclosure antenna cable
underneath the battery cables and screw it to the RF antenna connector on
the RF450 radio. Attach the other end of the cable to the BNC RF
bulkhead connector in the lower right hand corner of the enclosure. Make
sure all connections are tight. See Figure 2.5-5.
10588 Ribbon Cable
Antenna Cable
FIGURE 2.5-5. RF450 in T107 (battery not shown)
2-29
Section 2. Hardware Installation
3.
Connect the long 9-pin female end of the 10588 ribbon cable to the CS I/O
port on the RF450 radio. Screw the connector to the radio using the
provided two screws. See Figures 2.5-6.
10588
Ribbon
Cable
FIGURE 2.5-6. Attach Ribbon Cable to RF450 CS I/O Port
2.5.4.4 External Installation
The following components are provided with the RF450 radio kit for antenna
installation on the ET pole:
(1) 14241 Antenna Cable – 59 inch
(1) 18290 ET Antenna Adjustable Angle Mounting Bracket
(1) 17492 5/16-18 X 2.125 Stainless Steel U-bolt
(1) 17851 CM230 Saddle Bracket
(4) Silicon Bronze 5/16-18 Nuts
(4) 4365 5/16 Stainless Steel Washers
(4) 4366 5/16 Stainless Steel Lock Washers
(4) 17592 14.5 Inch Black UV Resistant Wire Ties
The 14221 3 dBd Omni or the 14205 6 dBd Yagi Directional Antenna with
Type N Female Connector should have been ordered with the kit.
2-30
1.
Remove the sensor cable cover off of the back of the enclosure by
loosening the thumb screw at the bottom of the cover and swinging the
cover back and down. The top of the cover has a tab that fits in to the
rectangular hole on the back of the sensor cross arm.
2.
Remove the cap off of the BNC bulkhead connector located on the lower
left hand corner of the enclosure back. Attach the antenna cable to the
BNC connector. Gently bring the cable up alongside the pole and loosely
wire tie it to the wire tie block at the top of the enclosure. Drape the
antenna cable between the pole and the enclosure. See Figures 2.5-7 and
2.5-8.
Section 2. Hardware Installation
FIGURE 2.5-7. Loosely Wire Tie Antenna Cable
FIGURE 2.5-8. Loosely Drape Antenna Cable over Back of Enclosure
2-31
Section 2. Hardware Installation
3.
Use the 2.125 stainless steel U-bolt to attach the adjustable angle
mounting bracket to the pole. Depending on the size of the antenna
position the bracket directly below, or above, the enclosure top mounting
bracket. The top of an omni directional antenna should not be higher than
the top of the lightning rod.
Slide the U-bolt behind the pole and through the oval notches on the
adjustable angle mounting bracket (see Figure 2.5-9). Put a flat washer,
lock washer, and a silicon bronze nut, in that order, on the ends of the Ubolt. Tighten the nuts finger tight to allow the angle bracket to rotate
around the pole.
FIGURE 2.5-9. Slide Antenna Bracket U-Bolt around Back of the Pole
2-32
Section 2. Hardware Installation
FIGURE 2.5-10. Antenna Bracket Mounted to Pole
4.
Mount the saddle bracket to the adjustable angle mount bracket by
inserting the ends of the bracket through the quarter circle notches. Put a
flat washer, lock washer, and a silicon bronze nut, in that order, on the
ends of the saddle bracket. Do NOT tighten down the nuts at this time.
FIGURE 2.5-11. Mount Antenna Saddle Bracket
2-33
Section 2. Hardware Installation
NOTE
Only rotate enclosure if needed to allow aiming of the Yagi
antenna to the base antenna. Keep solar radiation sensor towards
the South as much as possible. Rotate wind sensor to realign as
needed.
5.
NOTE
Use the following procedure to install the 14205 Yagi antenna for the
RF450. Installation of the 14221 Omni antenna is similar. See Figure
2.5-14.
Mounting hardware that comes in the box with the Yagi antenna
will not be used.
i.
Slide the back of the Yagi antenna into the saddle bracket. If the
Yagi antenna at the station is communicating with an
omnidirectional antenna at the base then align the tines on the
Yagi antenna so they are vertical. See Figure 2.5-12.
If two Yagi antennas are used at both ends of communication
then align the tines the same. If interference is a concern then
align the tines on the two Yagi antennas horizontally instead of
vertically. This will put the signal out of phase with other
antennas that are aligned vertically.
Tighten the nuts on saddle bracket to hold the antenna firmly in
place. Do NOT over tighten the nuts on the saddle bracket or
damage to the antenna may occur.
FIGURE 2.5-12. Yagi Antenna Mounted to Saddle Bracket
ii. Orient the Yagi antenna so it’s aimed at the base antenna. You
may have to flip the adjustable angle bracket over to get the
antenna and saddle bracket to point correctly in the vertical
direction.
2-34
Section 2. Hardware Installation
iii. Adjust the antenna cable at the BNC connector so the cable cover
fits over all the sensor cables as well as the antenna cable. You
may have to gently bend the antenna cable to put a 90° bend by
the BNC connector end of the cable. Take the cover off when
you’re done.
iv. Use one of the black wire ties to strap the antenna cable to the
bundle of sensor cables.
v.
Tighten up the wire ties holding the antenna cable to the wire tie
mount at the top of the enclosure.
vi. Take one black wire tie and strap the antenna cable to the antenna
as shown in Figure 2.5-13. Leave a little slack on the cable
between the wire tie and the antenna connector so as not to stress
the connector/cable connection.
vii. Make sure there is a loop of antenna cable directly under the Yagi
antenna. This will act as a drip loop and allow moisture to run off
the antenna and cable. See Figure 2.5-13.
viii. Wire tie the antenna cable to the pole. Clean up the wire ties and
put the cable cover back on.
Wire Ties
FIGURE 2.5-13. Wire Tie Antenna Cable to Yagi Antenna and to Pole
2-35
Section 2. Hardware Installation
Wire Tie
Wire Tie
FIGURE 2.5-14. Wire Tie Locations for Omni Antenna Installation
2.5.4.5 Base Radio Installation
The base radio kit comes with the following items.
(1) 10873 RS-232 Serial Data Cable with 6 feet of cable
(1) 15966 Wall Adapter: 100 to 240 Vac, 50-60 Hz Input to 12 Vdc 80 0mA
Output with 6 feet of cable.
(1) 18327 RF450 900 MHz, 1 W Spread Spectrum Radio
(1) 20617 900 MHz 0 dBd Omnidirectional Window Mount Antenna with 79
inches (6.58 feet) of Cable
The RF450 radio will need to be connected to a RS-232 serial port on the
calling computer and powered by the wall adapter. The antenna is designed to
stick to a window facing the weather station (see Figure 2.5-15 and Figure
2.5-16).
CAUTION
2-36
In order to comply with the FCC RF exposure
requirements, the RF450 series may be used only with
approved antennas that have been tested with this radio
and a minimum separation distance of 8 inches (20 cm)
must be maintained from the antenna to any nearby
persons.
Section 2. Hardware Installation
Attach the SMA connector on the antenna to the RF450 radio. Remove the
strip covering the adhesive on the antenna and stick it vertically to a window.
Attach the serial cable from the calling computer’s serial port to the port
marked “RS-232” on the RF450. Plug the wall adapter into a wall outlet and
plug the barrel connector into the RF450 connector marked “DC POWER 728V”. You should see the lights on the radio come on.
FIGURE 2.5-15. Base RF450 Installation
FIGURE 2.5-16. A Base Radio Installed in an Office
2-37
Section 2. Hardware Installation
2.6 Lightning Rod Installation
Install lightning rod as shown in Figure 2.6-1 and 2.6-2.
1.
Carefully mount the lightning rod clamp to the top of the pole (see Figure
2.6-1). Position the clamp so it won’t interfere with the connector cover.
FIGURE 2.6-1. Lightning Rod Bracket Installation
2.
2-38
Strip 2.54 cm (1”) from the top of the main green 10 AWG tower ground
wire. Insert the exposed wire into the empty clamp opening. Do not
tighten the screw at this time (see Figure 2.6-2).
Section 2. Hardware Installation
FIGURE 2.6-2. Grounding to Lightning Rod Clamp
3.
Strip 2.54 cm (1”) from both ends of the 9” (23 cm) piece of 10 AWG
green ground wire. Insert one end into the enclosure ground lug located at
the top back of the enclosure. Put the other end in the same clamp
opening as the main grounding wire and tighten down the screw (see
Figure 2.6-2).
4.
Insert the lightning rod into the empty clamp opening. The milled flat side
of the lightning rod should face the clamping screw. Tighten the screw to
hold the rod firmly in place.
2-39
Section 2. Hardware Installation
2.7 Solar Panel Installation
FIGURE 2.7-1. Solar Panel Mounting and Cabling
a)
2-40
Mount the solar panel to the tower using the mounting brackets as shown
in Figure 2.7-1. Mount the solar panel to the tower so it faces south
(northern hemisphere). Position it as high off the ground as practical,
ensuring it cannot interfere with air flow or sunlight around the sensors.
The solar panel should be oriented to receive maximum insolation over the
course of the year. Suggested tilt angles (referenced to the horizontal
plane) are listed below.
Section 2. Hardware Installation
Site Latitude
0 to 10 degrees
11 to 20
21 to 45
46 to 65
>65
Tilt Angle (α)
10 degrees
Latitude + 5 degrees
Latitude + 10 degrees
Latitude + 15 degrees
80 degrees
α
FIGURE 2.7-2. Side View of Solar Panel Shows Tilt Angle
b) After determining the tilt angle, loosen the two bolts that attach the
mounting bracket to the panel. Adjust the angle, then tighten the bolts.
Secure the lead wire to the mast using wire ties as show in Figure 2.7-2.
Connect the plug at the end of the solar panel cable to the connector
marked “Power”. Make sure the plug is fully seated and the locking ring
turned clockwise until it stops.
NOTE
Schematics for the solar panel cable are in Section 4.3.2.
2-41
Section 2. Hardware Installation
2.8 Battery Installation
Power Switch
FIGURE 2.8-1. PS100 Battery Installation
The PS100 power switch should be in the “OFF” position. To install the
battery, remove the cover from the PS100 by sliding the latch up at one end of
the cover and sliding the cover down and out. Install the battery as shown in
Figure 2.8-1. Plug the battery lead into the connector labeled “BATTERY –
Internal 12V 7 Amp-Hour”. Put the cover back on the PS100 and latch it in
place.
NOTE
Do not switch the power supply to “on” until AC or solar power
has been connected to the back of the enclosure.
The red charge light on the PS100 will glow when charging voltage is present.
The charge light is not effected by the switch. Switching on the power supply
without a charging voltage will run the battery down.
Figure 2.8-2 shows factory wiring between the PS100 and the enclosure.
FIGURE 2.8-2. PS100 to T107 Enclosure Wiring
2-42
Section 2. Hardware Installation
2.9 Restraining Cables and Sealing/Desiccating
Enclosure
2.9.1 Restraining Cables
1.
Loosely wire tie power, communication, and grounding cable to the wire
tie harness at the top of the back of the station. Do NOT clip back the wire
tie at this time. See Figure 2.9-1.
Wire Tie Harness
FIGURE 2.9-1. Cabling Strapped to Wire Tie Harness
2.
Replace the connector cover. The tab at the top of the connector cover
slides into the opening on the back of the cross arm. Ensure that all cables
and connector caps are under the cover before tightening the Phillips
screw at the bottom of the cover. Make sure that all cables coming out of
the top right of the connector cover are not being pinched.
2-43
Section 2. Hardware Installation
FIGURE 2.9-2. Connector Cover in Place
6.
Tighten down the wire ties holding cabling to the wire tie harness and clip
off any excess. See Figure 2.9-2.
2.9.2 Sealing and Desiccating the Enclosure
The ET Enclosure is supplied with two desiccant packs. The desiccant
maintains a low humidity in the enclosure to minimize the chance of
condensation on the instrumentation. Desiccant should be changed when the
internal ET Enclosure humidity sensor measures 50% or higher. Install the
desiccant as shown in Figure 2.9-3. Keep unused desiccant tightly sealed in an
airtight container.
NOTE
Putting desiccant into the station should be the very last thing
that is done after all other weather station installation steps have
been completed.
1) Take the desiccant packs out of the plastic bag. Strap the packs into the
desiccant holder inside the lid of the enclosure using the two Velcro
straps.
2-44
Section 2. Hardware Installation
2) Be sure to close the enclosure hasp securely. A padlock may be used on
the latch for extra security.
Desiccant
FIGURE 2.9-3. Desiccant Installation
2-45
Section 2. Hardware Installation
2-46
Section 3. ET Software
NOTE
The T107 comes with a default program, and typically does not
require additional programming (see Appendix D).
A variety of different software packages are available to work with the T107 station. This
section introduces software packages that can be used with the T107 station. It is not the
goal to fully explain capabilities of each package. All software packages mentioned below
come with extensive help files. Contact Campbell Scientific with questions and support. All
software includes installation instructions.
For Toro T.Weather 3.0 or higher, contact Toro NSN for support at 800-275-8676.
PC200W is free software which is used to communicate with a direct connect or short-haul
modem station and collect data. PC200W software cannot be used to communicate with
stations on a phone modem. This software can be downloaded from Campbell Scientific's
website www.campbellsci.com.
VisualWeather version 3.0 or higher is designed to work with the T107 station and can be
used to create programs, monitor present conditions, collect data, and create reports and
graphs. VisualWeather is designed to be a very user friendly program. No datalogger
experience is needed to use it. VisualWeather will communicate with a direct connect,
short-haul modem, RF radio, or phone modem station. Call Campbell Scientific for
pricing.
LoggerNet is a very powerful versatile package that requires some experience with
datalogger programming. LoggerNet is used to create custom programming for the station
as well as handling large networks of stations. LoggerNet is not as easy to use as
VisualWeather. Call Campbell Scientific for pricing.
NOTE
At default settings, the Campbell Scientific software packages
will not work alongside of Toro T.Weather. Contact Campbell
Scientific.
3-1
Section 3. ET Software
3-2
Section 4. Maintenance,
Troubleshooting, and Schematics
4.1 Maintenance
Proper maintenance of the T107’s components is essential to obtain accurate
data. Equipment must be in good operating condition, which requires a
program of regular inspection and maintenance. Routine and simple
maintenance can be accomplished by the person in charge of the weather
station. More difficult maintenance such as sensor calibration, sensor
performance testing (i.e., bearing torque), and sensor component replacement,
generally requires a skilled technician, or that the instrument be sent to
Campbell Scientific or the manufacturer.
A station log should be maintained for each weather station that includes serial
numbers, dates that the site was visited, and maintenance that was performed.
4.1.1 Pole
Periodically check the tower for structural damage, proper alignment, and for
level/plumb.
4.1.2 Power Supply
4.1.2.1 Batteries
Rechargeable power supplies should be connected to an AC transformer or
unregulated solar panel at all times. The PS100 charge indicating light should
be "ON" when voltage to the charging circuitry is present. The charge
indicating light runs independent of the power switch. Be aware of battery
voltage that consistently decreases over time, which indicates a failure in the
charging circuitry. Toro T.Weather software displays the battery voltage.
4.1.2.2 Solar Panel
An occasional cleaning of the glass on the solar panel will improve its
efficiency. Use warm mildly soapy water and a clean cloth. Rinse with clean
water.
4.1.3 Desiccant
Humidity is monitored inside the T107’s enclosure using the Elan HM2000
(item # 10070) RH sensor that is incorporated in the enclosure. Change the
desiccant packs when the enclosure RH exceeds 50%. The enclosure RH
sensor should be changed every 5+ years. The enclosure RH is displayed in
Toro T.Weather software.
4-1
Section 4. Maintenance, Troubleshooting, and Schematics
Desiccant packs may be ordered in quantity of 20 individually sealed packs at a
time (item# 6714) or by the individual pack (item# 4905). Campbell Scientific
does have a $50.00 minimum charge. Any orders under $50.00 require a $15.00
handling fee. Call Campbell Scientific or your local Toro distributor for pricing.
4.1.4 Sensor Maintenance
Sensor maintenance should be performed at regular intervals, depending on the
desired accuracy and the conditions of use. A suggested maintenance schedule is
outlined below. See Appendix A for an example of a maintenance log file. Log
file is for one year of station use.
1 week
•
Check the rain gage screen and funnel for debris and level.
1 month
•
CAUTION
CAUTION
Check the solar radiation sensor (pyranometer) for level and
contamination. Gently clean with blast of dry air, soft camel hair brush, or
clean water if needed.
Handle the pyranometer carefully when cleaning.
careful not to scratch the surface of the sensor.
Be
•
Do a visual/audio inspection of the 034B-ET’s anemometer at low wind
speeds. Worn bearings can cause the wind cups to spin in an uneven
manner and/or make a grinding sound.
•
Check the WindSonic1-ET for contamination. If needed, gently clean the
WindSonic1 with a cloth and mild detergent.
When cleaning the WindSonic1, do not use solvents and
avoid scratching the sensor.
3 months
4-2
•
Clean the Gill Radiation Shield by removing the two Phillips screws
holding it to the sensor arm. Gently pull the sensor out of the shield. Clean
the gill shield using warm mildly soapy water. Rinse with clean water and
allow the shield to dry before putting it back on the sensor arm.
•
If necessary clean the white filter element on the end of the temp/RH
sensor. To clean the filter, unscrew it from off the end of the sensor and
put it in a cup of CLEAN DISTILLED WATER. Use no soap. Agitate the
filter in the cup of water. Remove the filter and allow to air dry before
putting it back on the end of the sensor.
Section 4. Maintenance, Troubleshooting, and Schematics
6 months
•
Replace 034B-ET’s anemometer bearings and reed switch if operating
under harsh conditions, such as constant high winds, blowing dust, and/or
salt spray contamination.
1 year
•
Replace 034B-ET wind speed (anemometer) bearings (item #3648).
Contact your local Toro distributor for service.
•
Replace 034B-ET wind speed (anemometer) reed switch (item #13764) if
needed. Contact your local Toro distributor for service.
•
Check calibration of the HMP60-ET temp/RH probe. Sensor will tend to
drift up over time giving readings higher then 100%. Replace RH chip
(item# 9598) if necessary (see Figure 4.1-1 and Section 4.1.4.1).
•
Replace desiccant in enclosure housing as needed.
Protective Cap
and Filter
Shipping Cap
(remove prior
to installation)
9598 RH Chip
FIGURE 4.1-1. Exploded View of HMP60-ET (as shipped)
4-3
Section 4. Maintenance, Troubleshooting, and Schematics
2 years
•
Replace 034B-ET’s vane potentiometer if needed (call for part number
and price). Contact your local Toro distributor.
•
Replace enclosure gasket if necessary. Contact your local Toro
distributor.
3 years
•
Send the solar radiation sensor (pyranometer) for calibration. Contact
your local Toro distributor. Sensor cannot be calibrated in the field.
(Some users recommend calibrating this sensor on a yearly basis.)
4-5 years
•
Check sensor cables (as well as all other cables) for cracking,
deterioration, proper routing, and strain relief. Replace as required.
•
Check enclosure relative humidity sensor (item #10070). To check this
sensor, take the lid off the enclosure during routine desiccant replacement
and leave it off for 5 to 10 minutes before putting in new desiccant. While
the lid is off the enclosure, compare the internal enclosure humidity to the
air humidity. Replace if > 10% off.
4.1.4.1 Procedure for Removing RH Chip
1. Unscrew the protective cap (see Figure 4.1-1).
2. Hold the plastic sides of the RH chip and unplug it.
CAUTION
To prevent scratching, avoid touching the silver chip, and
handle the RH chip with care.
3. Rinse off the RH chip with distilled water or dispose of the old RH chip.
4. Hold the sides of the rinsed or new chip and plug it in.
5. Screw on the protective cap.
4-4
Section 4. Maintenance, Troubleshooting, and Schematics
4.1.5 CR1000M Module
The CR1000M Module contains a lithium battery that operates the clock and
SRAM when the module is not powered. The CR1000M does not draw power
from the lithium battery while it is powered by a 12 VDC supply. In an T107
stored at room temperature, the lithium battery should last approximately 10
years (less at temperature extremes). Where the T107 is powered most or all
of the time, the lithium cell should last much longer.
While powered from an external source, the module measures the voltage of
the lithium battery daily. This voltage is displayed in the status table. A new
battery will have approximately 3.6 volts. The CR1000 Status Table has a
“Lithium Battery” field. This field shows lithium battery voltage.
Replace the battery when voltage is approximately 2.7 V. If the lithium cell is
removed or allowed to discharge below the safe level, the T107 will still
operate correctly while powered. Without the lithium battery, the clock will
reset and data will be lost when power is removed. Contact your local Toro
distributor.
CAUTION
Toro recommends factory replacement of the lithium
battery. Misuse of the lithium battery or installing it
improperly can cause severe injury. It is a fire, explosion,
and severe burn hazard! Do not recharge, disassemble,
heat above 100°C (212°F), solder directly to the cell,
incinerate, nor expose contents to water. Lithium batteries
need to be disposed of properly.
The lithium battery contained inside of the T107’s canister is Campbell
Scientific part number 13519. Table 4.1-1 lists the specifications of the
battery.
TABLE 4.1-1. CR1000 Lithium Battery
Specifications
Manufacturer
Tadiran
Model
TL-59025 (3.6 V)
Capacity
1.2 Ah
Self-discharge rate
1%/year @ 20°C
Operating temperature range
-55°C to 85°C
4-5
Section 4. Maintenance, Troubleshooting, and Schematics
4.2 Troubleshooting
4.2.1 No Response Using the CR1000KD Keypad
Check keypad response after each of the following steps.
A. Make sure the battery has been installed and the PS100 power switch is set
to “ON” (Section 2.8).
B. Use a voltmeter to measure the voltage on the 12 V and G terminals (see
Figure 2.8-2); the voltage must be between 9.6 and 16 VDC.
Use a voltmeter to measure the voltage on the 5V and G terminals (see
Figure 2.8-2); the voltage must be between 4.9 – 5.1 VDC.
C. Disconnect the Temp/RH sensor from the back of the enclosure.
D. Disconnect the 9-pin ribbon cable from any communication option used
with the station so that only the keypad is attached to the 9-pin plug in the
lower right hand corner of the enclosure.
E. Cycle the power to the datalogger by switching the PS100 power supply to
“OFF”, then to “ON” or disconnecting and reconnecting the battery plug.
Keypad should power up and the Campbell Scientific logo and text
appears on the display.
4.2.2 No Response from Datalogger through SC32B, RAD
Modem, or Phone Modem
At the datalogger:
A. Make sure the battery has been installed and the power switch set to “ON”
(Section 2.8).
B. Use a voltmeter to measure the voltage on the 12V and G terminals (see
Figure 2.8-2); the voltage must be between 9.6 and 16 VDC.
Use a voltmeter to measure the voltage on the 5V and G terminals (see
Figure 2.8-2); the voltage must be between 4.9 – 5.1 VDC.
C. Make sure the datalogger is connected to the communication peripheral,
and the communication peripheral properly installed and configured
(Section 2.5).
At the computer:
D. Make sure calling software is properly configured (PC200W,
VisualWeather, or LoggerNet).
E. Check the cable(s) between the serial port and the modem. If cables have
not been purchased through Toro, check for the following configuration
using an ohm meter:
4-6
Section 4. Maintenance, Troubleshooting, and Schematics
25-pin serial port:
computer end
modem end
2
3
7
20
2
3
7
20
9-pin serial port:
computer end
2
3
4
5
modem end
3
2
20
7
F. Make sure the communication device at the computer is properly
configured and cabled (Section 2.5).
G. Call your local Toro distributor if still no response.
4.2.3 NAN or ±INF Displayed in a Variable
A. Make sure the battery voltage is between 9.6 and 16 VDC.
B. Verify sensors are plugged into the correct sensor connector and the
locking ring is securely in place (see Figure 2.4-18). Check connectors for
any corrosion on pins.
C. If Short Cut or VisualWeather is used to create the station program double
check the wiring diagram to see if it matches the physical wiring on the
sensor connectors on the back of the enclosure.
If CRBasic is used to create the station program verify channel
assignments and multipliers.
4.2.4 Unreasonable Results Displayed in a Variable
A. Inspect the sensor for damage and/or contamination.
B. Make sure the sensor is plugged into the correct sensor connector on the
back of the enclosure.
C. If Short Cut or VisualWeather is used to create the station program double
check the wiring diagram to see if it matches the physical wiring on the
sensor connectors on the back of the enclosure.
If CRBasic is used to create the station program verify channel
assignments and multipliers. Datalogger program may need to be changed.
4-7
Section 4. Maintenance, Troubleshooting, and Schematics
4.2.5 NAN or ±INF Stored in a Data Table
A. Something is wrong with the datalogger and/or sensor(s) if Short Cut or
VisualWeather was used to create the station program. Make sure the
sensor is plugged into the correct bulkhead connector.
If CRBasic is used to create the station program verify channel
assignments and multipliers. Datalogger program may need to be changed.
4.2.6 Communication Problems when using an RF450 Radio
LED Status
The RF450 has three red/green LED status indicator lights. Table 4.2-1 shows
the status of each light when the RF450 is in various states of communication.
4-8
CTS
TX
CD
CS I/O
RF450
1 Watt
Spread Spectrum
SN:
FIGURE 4.2-1. RF450 Front Side View
Section 4. Maintenance, Troubleshooting, and Schematics
TABLE 4.2-1. Multi-Point Network LED Status
Master
Slave
Repeater
Condition
Carrier
Detect
(CD)
Transmit
(TX)
Clear to
Send
(CTS)
Carrier
Detect
(CD)
Transmit
(TX)
Clear to
Send
(CTS)
Carrier
Detect
(CD)
Transmit
(TX)
Clear to
Send
(CTS)
Powered, not
linked
Solid
bright
red
Solid
dim red
Off
Solid
bright
red
Off
Blinkin
g red
Solid
bright
red
Off
Blinkin
g red (a)
Repeater and
Slave linked to
Master, no data
Solid
bright
red
Solid
dim red
Off
Solid
green
Off
Solid
bright
red (a)
Solid
green
Solid
dim red
Solid
bright
red (a)
Repeater and
Slave linked to
Master, Master
sending data to
Slave
Solid
bright
red
Solid
dim red
Off
Solid
green
Off
Solid
bright
red (a)
Solid
green
Solid
dim red
Solid
bright
red (a)
Master
Slave
Repeater
Repeater and
Slave linked to
Master, Slave
sending data to
Master
Solid
bright
red
OR
Solid
green
RCV
data
Solid
dim red
Intermittent
flashing
red
Solid
green
Intermittent
flashing
red
Solid
bright
red (a)
Solid
green
Solid
bright
red
Solid
bright
red (a)
Master with
diagnostics
program
running
Solid
bright
red
Solid
dim red
Intermittent
flashing
red
Solid
green
Intermittent
flashing
red
Solid
bright
red (a)
Solid
green
Solid
bright
red
Solid
bright
red (a)
(a) Clear to Send will be solid red with a solid link, as the link weakens the CTS on the Repeater and Slave will begin
to flash.
If DevConfig is unable to establish a connection with the RF450:
1.
Check that LoggerNet/PC400 is closed.
2.
Check power to the radio. The Carrier Detect (CD) light should be
flashing red.
3.
Check serial cable connections.
4.
Check serial port assignment for DevConfig.
5.
Press green Setup button on the RF450 and wait several seconds. CD and
Clear to Send (CTS) lights should be solid green.
4-9
Section 4. Maintenance, Troubleshooting, and Schematics
Radios not networked together, not communicating:
1.
Check the baud rate of all RF450s; they should be the same.
2.
Check Network IDs of all RF450s; they should be the same.
3.
Check Frequency Key Number of all RF450s; they should be the same
unless two branches of the network are operating in a parallel manner.
4.
Check the “Repeaters Used” box for all RF450s.
5.
Check the PakBus address of dataloggers connected to RF450s and in
LoggerNet.
6.
Check that antenna and antenna cables are SMA (SubMiniature version
A). They will have a yellow heat shrink label to distinguish them from
RPSMA (Reverse Polarity SubMiniature version A) devices. RPSMA
antennas and cables are not compatible with the RF450.
LEDs flash when LoggerNet command transmitted but no response from
datalogger:
1.
Check SC12 cable on the datalogger's CS I/O port.
2.
Check SDC address in RF450.
3.
Check SDC address in datalogger.
4.
Check the baud rate of all RF450s; they should be the same.
5.
Check the baud rate of LoggerNet; it should match the baud rate of the
RF450s.
Using the diagnostics port.
A special FreeWave Diagnostics cable and software (CSI part number 20625)
can be useful in troubleshooting radio problems. Contact FreeWave Inc. for
more information on using the Diagnostics cable.
4.2.7 Gill WindSonic1-ET Diagnostic Diagnostic Codes
The WindSonic outputs a diagnostic (Table 4.2-2) along with each wind
direction and speed measurement. A datalogger program can be written that
filters out all data when the diagnostic is not 0. The programs can also report
the number of good samples that were used in computing the on-line statistics.
If the total number of good samples is less than 98% of the expected samples,
the WindSonic may be in need of repair.
4-10
Section 4. Maintenance, Troubleshooting, and Schematics
TABLE 4.2-2. Gill WindSonic Diagnostic Codes
Diagnostic
Status
Comment
0
Okay
All okay
1
Axis 1 Failed
Insufficient samples, possible path obstruction
2
Axis 2 Failed
Insufficient samples, possible path obstruction
4
Both Axis Failed
Insufficient samples, possible path obstruction
8
NVM error
Nonvolatile Memory checksum failed
9
ROM error
Read Only Memory checksum failed
10
Maximum Gain
Questionable wind measurements
4.3 Schematics of Connectors
Knowledge of schematics is not necessary for routine installation and
maintenance. Each connector has a small molded dot by pin 1. All of the
schematics show the pinned connectors on the cables. Socketed connectors on
the back of the enclosure are the mirror images of what’s shown.
4-11
Section 4. Maintenance, Troubleshooting, and Schematics
4.3.1 Sensor Schematics
Schematics of T107 sensors and associated connectors are provided in Figures
4.3-1 through 4.3-7 for help in troubleshooting.
Temp/RH
3
4
2
6
1
5
Connector
Pin
Air Temperature and
Relative Humidity
Sensor
Relative Humidity (0-1VDC)
1
Air Temperature (0-1VDC)
2
Not Used
3
12V Switched Supply
4
Analog Ground
5
Shield
6
Datalogger
1H
1L
12VDC Switched
Supply
AG
G
FIGURE 4.3-1. Schematic of HMP60-ET RH and Temperature Probe
and Connector Temp/RH
4-12
Section 4. Maintenance, Troubleshooting, and Schematics
Wind Speed and Wind Direction Sensor
Connector
Pin
10K OHM
1K OHM
10K OHM
Potentiometer
Excitation
3
Wind Direction
Signal Return
1
Datalogger
EX2
WS/WD
2H
3
4
2
6
Analog Ground
2
Wind Speed
4
Pulse
1
5
AG
P1
Magnetically
Activated Reed
Switch
5
Ground
G
6
Shield
G
FIGURE 4.3-2. Schematic of 034B-LC Wind Speed and Direction
Probe and Connector WS/WD
Temp/Sonic
3
4
2
Temperature or Gill
6
1
5
Connector
Pin
*
Temperature
Signal Return
1
Datalogger
+12V
2
5H
1K‰
*Jumper P19 must be
jumpered across
pins 2 (center) and
3 (right).
Excitation
3
RS232
Recieve
4
RS232
Transmit
5
Ground
EX3
RS232
COM 1 (TX) [C1]
RS232
COM 1 (RX) [C2]
6
G
FIGURE 4.3-3. Schematic of Gill WindSonic1-ET Wind Sensor, Soil
Temperature Sensor (107-LC or 108-LC), and Connector
Temp/Sonic
4-13
Section 4. Maintenance, Troubleshooting, and Schematics
Solar Radiation
3
4
2
6
1
5
Connector
Pin
Apogee
Solar
SolarRadiation
Radiation
Sensor
Sensor
Datalogger
1
3H
10
to 20 OHMS
450-650
OHMS
2
3L
Shield
Not Used
3
Not Used
4
Not Used
5
6
G
FIGURE 4.3-4. Schematic of CS305-ET Solar Radiation Sensor and
Connector Solar Radiation
NOTE
4-14
The T106 used a Licor LI200X-ET Solar Radiation Sensor with
OHM readings of 450 to 650.
Section 4. Maintenance, Troubleshooting, and Schematics
Connector
Pin
Tipping Rain Bucket
Not Used
Rain
(Precip)
1
3
4
2
6
Not Used
2
Not Used
4
Pulse
3
Ground
5
1
5
Datalogger
Magnetically
Activated Reed
Switch
Shield
P2
G
6
G
FIGURE 4.3-5. Schematic of TE525-ET Rain Sensor and Connector
Rain (Precip)
4-15
Section 4. Maintenance, Troubleshooting, and Schematics
Temperature or Soil Volumetric Water Content
Connector
Pin
Datalogger
CS616 Signal Return
Temperature Signal Return
Temperature Excitation
1
4H
2
4L
TEMP
CS616
3
EX3
3
4
2
CS616 +12V Supply
4
CS616 Control
5
Ground
6
1
5
+12V
C7
6
G
FIGURE 4.3-6. Schematic of 107-LC or 108-LC Temperature Probe or
CS616-LC Soil Volumetric Water Content Sensor and Connector
Temp/CS616
SDI-12 or Temperature
Connector
Pin
Datalogger
SDI-12 Port
Temperature Signal Return
1
C5
2
2L
SDI-12
Temperature Excitation
3
EX3
3
4
2
SDI-12 +12V Supply
4
Ground
5
Ground
6
1
+12V
G
6
G
FIGURE 4.3-7. Schematic of Connector SDI-12
4-16
5
Section 4. Maintenance, Troubleshooting, and Schematics
4.3.2 Power Schematics
16-19 VAC or 16-24 VDC Solar Panel Power
PS100 Charger/Regulator
(Solar Panel+)
(Solar Panel-)
AC
AC
1
2
Red
Charge
Black
Charge
Power
2
1
Note: PS100 Charger/Regulator is not sensitive to polarity.
FIGURE 4.3-8. Schematic of Solar Panel and Connector Power
4.3.3 Communication Modems Schematics
Short-Haul or Phone Modem
Connector
Pin
Datalogger
RCV+ Terminal Block
RCV- Terminal Block
C8
1
RCV+
2
RCV-
COMM
XMT+ Terminal Block
3
XMT+
3
4
2
XMT- Terminal Block
RJ11 Phone Jack Pin 2
RJ11 Phone Jack Pin 3
6
4
1
5
XMT5
RING
6
TIP
All Connections are surge protected using spark gaps
FIGURE 4.3-9. Schematic of Short Haul or Phone Modem and
Connector COMM
4-17
Section 4. Maintenance, Troubleshooting, and Schematics
4-18
Appendix A. T107 Maintenance Log
Station Installation Date: __________________
CLEAN/INSPECT RAIN GAGE SENSOR
(Recommended - Weekly)
Date
OK/Comments
CLEAN/INSPECT RAIN GAGE SENSOR
(Recommended - Weekly)
Date
OK/Comments
A-1
Appendix A. T107 Maintenance Log
CLEAN/INSPECT
SOLAR RADIATION SENSOR
(Recommended - Monthly)
Date
OK/Comments
REPLACE WIND SPEED BEARINGS AND
REED SWITCH
(Recommended - Yearly)
Date
OK/Comments
REPLACE RH CHIP (P/N 9598) IN THE
HMP60-ET TEMP/% RH SENSOR
(Recommended - Yearly)
Date
OK/Comments
REPLACE DESICCANT BAGS (QTY - 2
OF P/N 4905) INSIDE ENCLOSURE
(Recommended - Yearly)
Date
CLEAN/INSPECT TEMP/% RH
SENSOR & GILL RADIATION SHIELD
(Recommended - Quarterly)
Date
A-2
OK/Comments
OK/Comments
CALIBRATE SOLAR RADIATION
SENSOR (CS305-ET)
(Recommended - Every 3 Years)
Date
OK/Comments
Appendix B. PS24 24 Ahr Power Supply
and 10 x 12 inch Enclosure
The PS24 Power Supply is typically used when the T107 transmits data via
RF450 Spread Spectrum Radios. However, the PS24 can be used for any
situation where a larger capacity battery is desirable.
B.1 PS24 Components
The PS24 consists of a 24 Ahr rechargeable battery, CH100 regulator, and a
10” x 12” environmental enclosure (see Figures B.1-1 through B.1-3). The
battery should be recharged via ac power or solar power. An SP10 10-W solar
panel, SP20 20-W solar panel, or 14014 Wall Charger is typically used to
recharge the battery. The environmental enclosure is mounted to the T107’s
pole using the #18520 hanger kit.
FIGURE B.1-1. Environmental Enclosure with CH100, Power Cable,
and Battery Bracket
B-1
Appendix B. PS24 24 Ahr Power Supply and 10 x 12 inch Enclosure
FIGURE B.1-2. 24 Ahr Battery and Battery Cable
B-2
HUMIDITY
HUMIDITY INDICATOR
Appendix B. PS24 24 Ahr Power Supply and 10 x 12 inch Enclosure
INDICATOR
MS20003-2
EXAMINE
ITEM
DO NOT EAT
UNITED DESICCANT
DO NOT EAT
ATES
101CHRISTINE, BELUNITEDS-G
DEICO
EN, NOW MEX
SIC8700
CA2NTDO
S-G
ATES
NO
101CHRIS
TINE
DO
, BEL
NO
EN, NOW MEXICOT EAT
T EAT
2
UNITED
DESICCA8700
UNITED DESICCA
NTS-GATES
NT
S-G
101C
HRISTINEAT
ES
, BEL
101CHRISTINE, BEL
EN, NOW MEXICO
EN, NEW MEXICO 8700
87002
2
SPECIFICATION MILD-3464 TYPE I &II
REACTIVATION TIME SPE
IN-BAGCIFI
16 CAT
MILHOUION
D-34
RS
REACTIVATION TIME AT 250 F64 TYPE I &II
DESICCANT
CONTEN
IN-BAG 16 HOURS
TS
PAC
AT 250 F
KAG
E CAT
USE
ACTIVATED
SPE
CIFI
DESCIFI
ION MIL-D-3464 TYP
NTION CON
4ICCA
SPE
TENTS
CAT
AND
MILSTA
PACKAGE USE E I &II
D-34
REA
BAGGED FOR
CTIV
64
TYP
ATIO
ACT
E I &II
N TIC
IVAT
TIME
REACTIV
UNIT
IN-B
SNED
AG
ATIO
DEH
16 HOURS AT 250O
4
UMI
TIME
DIFI
IN-BAG 16 CAT
O
AND
F
STATIC
HOUION
BAGGED FOR DES
RS AT 250
ICCA
UNITNT
CON
S
DESICCA
DEHTEN
TSF CATION
UMIDIFI
DO
NTNOT CON
PACKAGE USE
EAT
TENIVAT
TS ED
ACT
PACKAG
E
USE
ACT
4
IVAT
AND STATIC
UNITED DEED
DO
4
NO
T
BAG
EAT
GED
SIC
AND
FOR
STA
UNIT
BAGGED FORCANT
S-G
S TIC
UNIT
101CHRISTINE
S ATES
DEHUMIDIFICATION DEHUMIDIFICATION
DMEX
, BELUN
DE
EN,ITE
SIC8700
NOW
CA2NTDO
ICO
S-G
ATES
NO
101CHRIS
TINE
DO
, BEL
NO
EN, NOW MEXICOT EAT
T EAT
2
UNITED DESICCA8700
UNITED DESICCA
NTS-GATES
NTS-G
ES
TINEAT
, BEL
101CHRISTINE, BEL 101CHRIS
EN, NOW MEXICO
EN, NEW MEXICO 8700
87002
2
SPECIFICATION MILD-3464 TYPE I &II
REACTIVATION TIME SPE
IN-BAGCIFI
16 CAT
MILHOUION
D-34
RS
REACTIVATION TIME AT 250 F64 TYPE I &II
DESICCANT
CONTEN
IN-BAG 16 HOURS
TS
PAC
AT 250 F
KAG
E CAT
USE
ACTIVATED
SPE
CIFI
DESCIFI
ION MIL-D-3464 TYP
NTION CON
4ICCA
SPE
TENTS
CAT
AND
MILSTA
PACKAGE USE E I &II
D-34
REA
BAGGED FOR
CTIV
64
TYP
ATIO
ACT
E I &II
N TIC
IVAT
TIME
REACTIV
UNIT
IN-B
SNED
AG
ATIO
DEH
16 HOURS AT 250
4
UMI
TIME
DIFI
IN-BAG 16 CAT
O
AND
F
STATIC
HOUION
BAG
RS AT 250
DESICCA
UNITNT
CON
S
DESICCANTGED FOR
DEHTEN
TSF CATION
UMIDIFI
PACKAGE USE
CONACT
TENIVAT
TS ED
PACKAG
E USE
ACTIVATED
4
AND STATIC
4 GED FOR
BAG
AND
STA
UNIT
BAGGED FOR
S TIC
UNITS
DEHUMIDIFICATION DEHUMIDIFICATION
DESIDPEASKI
PAK
DESI D
PE
AS
KI PAK
DESIDPEASKI
PAK
DESI D
PE
AS
KI PAK
FIGURE B.1-3. Enclosure Supply Kit
B-3
Appendix B. PS24 24 Ahr Power Supply and 10 x 12 inch Enclosure
B.2 Installation
CAUTION
CAUTION
The PS24 is purposely shipped without the battery
mounted in its bracket. Do not install the battery until
instructed to do so.
1.
Place the top enclosure bracket on the pole at approximately 40 inches
above the bottom of the pole. The bracket should be installed with the
hook side up, and facing north.
2.
Slide the strut clamps into the bracket as shown in Figure B.2-1. Tighten
the clamp so that it doesn’t move.
Do not over tighten the clamp!
FIGURE B.2-1. Strut Clamps in Brackets
B-4
Appendix B. PS24 24 Ahr Power Supply and 10 x 12 inch Enclosure
3.
Place the bottom strut clamp and bracket approximately 12 inches below
the top clamp. This clamp is installed with the hook side down. The
bracket might have to be moved a little to accept the enclosure bracketing,
so don’t tighten the bracket yet. Figure B.2-2 shows the top and bottom
brackets correctly positioned on the T107 pole.
FIGURE B.2-2. Both Strut Clamps and Brackets on T107 Pole
B-5
Appendix B. PS24 24 Ahr Power Supply and 10 x 12 inch Enclosure
4.
Hook the enclosure on the top bracket as shown in Figure B.2-3.
FIGURE B.2-3. Top Clamp Hook Side Up
B-6
Appendix B. PS24 24 Ahr Power Supply and 10 x 12 inch Enclosure
5.
CAUTION
The bottom enclosure bracket should slide between the top lip of the
bottom strut mount bracket and the notch directly below. Move the
bottom bracket if necessary, then bolt the bottom bracket down (see Figure
B.2-4).
Do NOT over tighten the bottom bracket.
FIGURE B.2-4. Enclosure Mounted on T107 Pole
B-7
Appendix B. PS24 24 Ahr Power Supply and 10 x 12 inch Enclosure
6.
NOTE
The bottom enclosure bracket has a small metal locking mechanism. Push
up on the small Phillips screw underneath the mechanism and slide it to
the left. Once in place, put a small wire tie in the hole to the right of the
locking mechanism (see Figure B.2-5).
To remove the enclosure from the bracketing, cut off the wire tie,
slide the lock to the right, and lift the entire enclosure off the
bracketing.
FIGURE B.2-5. Enclosure Locking Mechanism
B-8
Appendix B. PS24 24 Ahr Power Supply and 10 x 12 inch Enclosure
7.
Install the solar panel above the 10 x 12 enclosure, and face the solar panel
south. See Figure B.2-6 for fully mounted solar.
FIGURE B.2-6. Mounted Solar Panel
IMPORTANT
8.
Throw a blanket or box over the solar panel to prevent any voltage output.
9.
Route the solar panel cable and power cable coming from the main T107
enclosure into the conduit at the bottom of the 10 x 12 enclosure.
Leave a loop of all cables under the 10 x 12 enclosure to act as a
drip line. Cut both cables to whatever length you need. It
doesn’t hurt to leave a loop of cable inside the enclosure.
B-9
Appendix B. PS24 24 Ahr Power Supply and 10 x 12 inch Enclosure
10. Wire the solar panel to the CH100 terminal blocks as follows.
Solar Panel to CH100
Red: CHG
Black: CHG
NOTE
Polarity makes no difference. Connect one wire per CHG
terminal block.
11. Remove the blanket or box from the solar panel once it’s wired in place.
12. Wire the power cable coming from the T107 station as follows.
Power Cable from T107 to CH100
Red: +12
Black:
NOTE
B-10
The red charging LED indicates that the solar panel is charging
the battery. The battery will be charged regardless of the switch
position. The switch controls the voltage going to the terminal
blocks marked “+12.
Appendix B. PS24 24 Ahr Power Supply and 10 x 12 inch Enclosure
13. Follow the Installation of Battery procedure provided in Figure B.2-7.
Plug the battery into the connector on the CH100 marked “INT”.
FIGURE B.2-7. Procedure for installing and connecting battery
14. An extra loop of ground wire was sent with the station. Use it to ground
the enclosure to the grounding rod system. The external ground lug is
mounted on the bottom left hand corner of the 10 x 12 enclosure.
15. Flip the switch to “ON”, and test drive the station.
16. After everything checks out, find the gray duct putty that was included in
the enclosure supply kit. Seal the cable-entry conduit by placing putty on
the inside and outside of it. Push the putty down into the cable entries.
B-11
Appendix B. PS24 24 Ahr Power Supply and 10 x 12 inch Enclosure
CAUTION
The enclosure needs to be sealed up tight so don’t be
stingy with the putty.
17. Put both bags of desiccant inside of the enclosure.
18. Stick the humidity indicator card on a wall inside of the enclosure.
CAUTION
Pink on the humidity indicator card means it’s time to
change the desiccant. Change the desiccant at least every
year. However, it’s often wise to change the desiccant
every six months.
19. Close the enclosure lid.
B-12
Appendix C. Exploded Views
C.1 Enclosure
C-1
Appendix C. Exploded Views
C.2 Crossarm
C-2
Appendix D. Default Programs
D.1 Program for T107 with 034B
'Program name: C:\TORO\T107_034B.CR1
'Programmer: Bart Nef - CSI
'Date: 4.Nov.2010
'Ver: C
'Notes: Toro T107_034B program to work with both the Toro software and Eicon.
'Changes from A (22.Jan.2007) to B: Corrected multiplier to convert wind speed in m/s to mph.
'Changes from B (25.Jan.2008) to C: Put in changes to handle an HMP60-ET
StationName (T107_034B_VC)
Public SaveSite
Public Latitude
Public Longitude
Public Altitude_m
Public BPoffset_KPa
'Setting value to 1 moves site information to non-volatile memory.
'Latitude in decimal degrees. Must be negative for southern latitudes.
'Longitude in decimal degrees. Longitude runs 0 - 360 degrees from west to east.
'Altitude of site in meters.
'Offset for barometric pressure. Not used with T107.
'Datalogger status and binary control flags.
Public WatchDog
'Number of watchdog errors. Should always be zero.
Public Overruns
'Number of table overrun errors. Should always be zero.
Public LowVolts
'Number of low voltage errors. Should always be zero.
Public FirstPass As Boolean
'Checks to see if this is the first time program has been run.
'Measured inputs
Public Meas(18)
Alias Meas(1) = BattVolt
Alias Meas(2) = SlrRad_W
Alias Meas(3) = AirTempC
Alias Meas(4) = RelHum
Alias Meas(5) = Baro_Kpa
Alias Meas(6) = WindSpd_ms
Alias Meas(7) = WindDir
Alias Meas(8) = Rain_mm
Alias Meas(9) = Rain_Hr
Alias Meas(10) = RainRun
Alias Meas(11) = Rain24
Alias Meas(12) = ETos_mm
Alias Meas(13) = ETos_Run
Alias Meas(14) = ETos24
Alias Meas(15) = MaxAirC
Alias Meas(16) = MinAirC
Alias Meas(17) = Max24Air
Alias Meas(18) = Min24Air
Public LogrTmpC
Public Encl_RH
Public LiBattV
'Meas(1) = Battery Voltage - VDC
'Meas(2) = Solar Radiation - Watts/meter^2
'Meas(3) = Air Temperature - Celsius
'Meas(4) = Relative Humidity - %
'Meas(5) = Barometric Pressure - Kilopascals. Not used in T107.
'Meas(6) = Wind Speed - meters/second
'Meas(7) = Wind Direction - degrees
'Meas(8) = Past 10-Second Rain Fall - millimeters
'Meas(9) = Rain fall for this hour. Resets at the top of the hour.
'Meas(10) = Rain Fall Since Midnight 'till Now - millimeters
'Meas(11) = Yesterdays Midnight to Midnight Rain Fall - millimeters
'Meas(12) = Hour ETo Value - millimeters
'Meas(13) = ETo Since Midnight - millimeters
'Meas(14) = Yesterdays Midnight to Midnight ETo - millimeters
'Meas(15) = High Air Temp Since Midnight - Celsius
'Meas(16) = Low Air Temp Since Midnight - Celsius
'Meas(17) = Yesterdays Midnight to Midnight High Air Temp - Celsius
'Meas(18) = Yesterdays Midnight to Midnight Low Air Temp - Celsius
'CR1000 Temperature - Celsius
'Enclosure Humidity - %
'Lithium Battery Voltage - VDC
D-1
Appendix D. Default Programs
'Unit conversions.
Public AirTempF
Public WindSpd_mph
Public TotalWSmph
Public SlrRad_KW
Public SlrRad_MJ
Public Rain_inch
Dim Scratch
'Air Temperature - Fahrenheit
'Wind Speed - miles/hour
'Totalized Wind Speed - miles/hour
'Solar radiation - Kilowatts/meter^2
'Solar radiation - Megajoules/meter^2
'Rain - inches
'Scratch pad variable for calculations.
'Define Data Tables
DataTable (SiteVal,True,5)
Sample (1,Altitude_m,IEEE4)
Sample (1,Latitude,IEEE4)
Sample (1,Longitude,IEEE4)
EndTable
DataTable (ToroHourly,1,-1)
DataInterval (0,60,Min,5)
Average (1,SlrRad_KW,FP2,False)
Average (1,AirTempC,FP2,False)
Average (1,RelHum,FP2,False)
Sample (1,TotalWSmph,FP2)
Totalize (1,Rain_inch,FP2,False)
Maximum (1,SlrRad_KW,FP2,False,False)
Maximum (1,AirTempC,FP2,False,False)
Maximum (1,RelHum,FP2,False,False)
Maximum (1,WindSpd_mph,FP2,False,False)
Minimum (1,SlrRad_KW,FP2,False,False)
Minimum (1,AirTempC,FP2,False,False)
Minimum (1,RelHum,FP2,False,False)
Minimum (1,WindSpd_mph,FP2,False,False)
WindVector (1,WindSpd_mph,WindDir,FP2,False,0,0,1)
FieldNames ("AvgWSmph,AvgWindDir")
ETsz (AirTempC,RelHum,WindSpd_ms,SlrRad_MJ,Longitude,Latitude,Altitude_m,3,0,FP2,False)
FieldNames ("ETos_mm,Rso_MJ")
EndTable
DataTable (ToroStatus,1,-1)
DataInterval (0,1440,Min,5)
Maximum (1,BattVolt,FP2,False,False)
Minimum (1,BattVolt,FP2,False,False)
Maximum (1,LogrTmpC,FP2,False,False)
Minimum (1,LogrTmpC,FP2,False,False)
Maximum (1,Encl_RH,FP2,False,False)
Minimum (1,Encl_RH,FP2,False,False)
Sample (1,WatchDog,FP2)
Sample (1,Overruns,FP2)
Sample (1,LowVolts,FP2)
EndTable
D-2
Appendix D. Default Programs
'Main Program
BeginProg
'Initialize Values (unitialized values are zero)
Latitude=0.00001
Longitude=latitude
Altitude_m=latitude
FirstPass = False
Baro_Kpa = 0
Scan(5,Sec, 3, 0)
PortSet(9,1)
'Battery voltage
Battery (BattVolt)
'Micrologger temperature
PanelTemp (LogrTmpC,250)
'Save Site Values
If SaveSite = 1 then
CallTable SiteVal
SaveSite=0
Endif
'Query Site Values from data table and use if needed.
If Latitude = 0.00001 and SiteVal.Latitude(1,1)<> NAN then
Latitude=SiteVal.Latitude(1,1)
Longitude=SiteVal.Longitude(1,1)
Altitude_m=SiteVal.Altitude_m(1,1)
Endif
'Enclosure humidity
VoltSE(Encl_RH, 1, mV2500, 10, False, 0, _60Hz, 0.1, 0)
If Encl_RH > 100 Then Encl_RH = 100
'CONNECTOR WS/WD
'034B-ET wind speed/direction sensor
PulseCount(WindSpd_ms, 1, 1, 2, 1, 0.799, 0.2811)
If (WindSpd_ms < 0.29) Then WindSpd_ms = 0.001
WindSpd_mph = WindSpd_ms / 0.44707
BrHalf(WindDir, 1, mV2500, 3, VX2, 1, 2500,True, 0,_60Hz, 720, 0)
If (WindDir >= 360 OR WindDir < 0) Then WindDir = 0
If WindDir = NAN Then WindDir = -6999
TotalWSmph = TotalWSmph + WindSpd_mph*0.0833
'CONNECTOR TEMP/RH
'HMP60-ET or HMP45C-ET temperature/humidity sensor
VoltSe(AirTempC, 1, mV2500, 2, False, 0, _60Hz, 0.1, -40)
If (AirTempC = NAN) Then AirTempC = -6999
VoltSe(RelHum, 1, mV2500, 1, False, 0, _60Hz, 0.1, 0)
If (RelHum = NAN) Then RelHum = -6999
If (RelHum >= 100) AND (RelHum < 108) Then RelHum = 100
PortSet(9, 0)
AirTempF = AirTempC * 1.8 + 32
D-3
Appendix D. Default Programs
If FirstPass = False Then
MaxAirC = AirTempC
MinAirC = AirTempC
FirstPass = True
Else
If (AirTempC > MaxAirC) Then MaxAirC = AirTempC
If (AirTempC < MinAirC) Then MinAirC = AirTempC
Endif
'CONNECTOR SOLAR RADIATION
'CS305-ET or LI200X-ET Pyranometer
VoltDiff(SlrRad_W, 1, mV7_5, 3, true, 0, _60Hz, 200, 0)
If (SlrRad_W < 0) Then SlrRad_W = 0
If (SlrRad_W = NAN) Then
SlrRad_W = -6999
SlrRad_KW = -6999
SlrRad_MJ = -6999
Else
SlrRad_KW = SlrRad_W*0.001
SlrRad_MJ = SlrRad_W*0.000005
Endif
'CONNECTOR RAIN (PRECIP)
'TE525-ET, TE525WS-LC, CS700-LC, or TB4-LC tipping rain bucket
PulseCount(Rain_mm, 1, 2, 2, 0, 0.254, 0)
Rain_inch = Rain_mm * 0.03937
Rain_Hr = Rain_mm + Rain_Hr
RainRun = RainRun + Rain_mm
CallTable ToroHourly
If (ToroHourly.Output(1,1)) Then
ETos_mm = ToroHourly.ETos_mm(1,1)
ETos_Run = ETos_Run + ETos_mm
Rain_Hr = 0
TotalWSmph = 0
Endif
CallTable ToroStatus
If (ToroStatus.Output(1,1)) Then
Rain24 = RainRun
RainRun = 0
ETos24 = ETos_Run
ETos_Run = 0
Max24Air = MaxAirC
Min24Air = MinAirC
MaxAirC = AirTempC
MinAirC = AirTempC
'Watchdog counts
WatchDog = Status.WatchdogErrors(1,1)
'Skipped scan counts
Overruns = Status.SkippedScan(1,1)
'Low voltage counts
LowVolts = Status.Low12VCount(1,1)
'Lithium battery voltage
LiBattV = Status.LithiumBattery(1,1)
D-4
Appendix D. Default Programs
Endif
NextScan
EndProg
D.2 Program for T107 with Gill WindSonic
'Program name: C:\TORO\T107_GILL.CR1
'Programmer: Bart Nef - CSI
'Date: 7.April.2011
'Ver: D
'Notes: Toro T107_GILL program To work with both the Toro software AND Eicon.
'Changes from version A to B: Corrected the method used to read the Gill wind sonic.
'Customer must have version 13 OS in their CR1000 to use this program!
'Changes from version B to C: Updated the method used to read the Gill wind sonic.
'Customer must have version 14 OS in their CR1000 to use this program!
'Changes from C to D: Put in changes to handle a HMP60-ET.
StationName (T107_GILL_VD)
Public SaveSite
Public Latitude
Public Longitude
Public Altitude_m
Public BPoffset_KPa
'Setting value to 1 moves site information to non-volatile memory.
'Latitude in decimal degrees. Must be negative for southern latitudes.
'Longitude in decimal degrees. Longitude runs 0 - 360 degrees from west to east.
'Altitude of site in meters.
'Offset for barometric pressure. Not used with T107.
'Datalogger status and binary control flags.
Public WatchDog
'Number of watchdog errors. Should always be zero.
Public Overruns
'Number of table overrun errors. Should always be zero.
Public LowVolts
'Number of low voltage errors. Should always be zero.
Public FirstPass As Boolean
'Checks to see if this is the first time program has been run.
'Measured inputs
Public Meas(18)
Alias Meas(1) = BattVolt
Alias Meas(2) = SlrRad_W
Alias Meas(3) = AirTempC
Alias Meas(4) = RelHum
Alias Meas(5) = Baro_Kpa
Alias Meas(6) = WindSpd_ms
Alias Meas(7) = WindDir
Alias Meas(8) = Rain_mm
Alias Meas(9) = Rain_Hr
Alias Meas(10) = RainRun
Alias Meas(11) = Rain24
Alias Meas(12) = ETos_mm
Alias Meas(13) = ETos_Run
Alias Meas(14) = ETos24
Alias Meas(15) = MaxAirC
Alias Meas(16) = MinAirC
Alias Meas(17) = Max24Air
Alias Meas(18) = Min24Air
Public LogrTmpC
'Meas(1) = Battery Voltage - VDC
'Meas(2) = Solar Radiation - Watts/meter^2
'Meas(3) = Air Temperature - Celsius
'Meas(4) = Relative Humidity - %
'Meas(5) = Barometric Pressure - Kilopascals. Not used in T107.
'Meas(6) = Wind Speed - meters/second
'Meas(7) = Wind Direction - degrees
'Meas(8) = Past 10-Second Rain Fall - millimeters
'Meas(9) = Rain fall for this hour. Resets at the top of the hour.
'Meas(10) = Rain Fall Since Midnight 'till Now - millimeters
'Meas(11) = Yesterdays Midnight to Midnight Rain Fall - millimeters
'Meas(12) = Hour ETo Value - millimeters
'Meas(13) = ETo Since Midnight - millimeters
'Meas(14) = Yesterdays Midnight to Midnight ETo - millimeters
'Meas(15) = High Air Temp Since Midnight - Celsius
'Meas(16) = Low Air Temp Since Midnight - Celsius
'Meas(17) = Yesterdays Midnight to Midnight High Air Temp - Celsius
'Meas(18) = Yesterdays Midnight to Midnight Low Air Temp - Celsius
'CR1000 Temperature - Celsius
D-5
Appendix D. Default Programs
Public Encl_RH
Public LiBattV
'Enclosure Humidity - %
'Lithium Battery Voltage - VDC
'Unit conversions.
Public AirTempF
Public WindSpd_mph
Public TotalWSmph
Public SlrRad_KW
Public SlrRad_MJ
Public Rain_inch
Dim Scratch
'Air Temperature - Fahrenheit
'Wind Speed - miles/hour
'Totalized Wind Speed - miles/hour
'Solar radiation - Kilowatts/meter^2
'Solar radiation - Megajoules/meter^2
'Rain - inches
'Scratch pad variable for calculations.
'Gill Sonic variables
Dim in_bytes_str As String * 21
Dim checksum_flg As Boolean
Dim nmbr_bytes_rtrnd
Dim disable_flag As Boolean
Dim one
Units one = samples
Public diag
Units diag = unitless
'Define Data Tables
DataTable (SiteVal,True,5)
Sample (1,Altitude_m,FP2)
Sample (1,Latitude,IEEE4)
Sample (1,Longitude,IEEE4)
EndTable
DataTable (ToroHourly,1,-1)
DataInterval (0,60,Min,5)
Average (1,SlrRad_KW,FP2,False)
Average (1,AirTempC,FP2,False)
Average (1,RelHum,FP2,False)
Sample (1,TotalWSmph,FP2)
Totalize (1,Rain_inch,FP2,False)
Maximum (1,SlrRad_KW,FP2,False,False)
Maximum (1,AirTempC,FP2,False,False)
Maximum (1,RelHum,FP2,False,False)
Maximum (1,WindSpd_mph,IEEE4,disable_flag,False)
Minimum (1,SlrRad_KW,FP2,False,False)
Minimum (1,AirTempC,FP2,False,False)
Minimum (1,RelHum,FP2,False,False)
Minimum (1,WindSpd_mph,FP2,False,False)
WindVector (1,WindSpd_mph,WindDir,IEEE4,disable_flag,0,0,1)
FieldNames ("AvgWSmph,AvgWindDir")
ETsz (AirTempC,RelHum,WindSpd_ms,SlrRad_MJ,Longitude,Latitude,Altitude_m,3,0,FP2,disable_flag)
FieldNames ("ETos_mm,Rso_MJ")
EndTable
D-6
Appendix D. Default Programs
DataTable (ToroStatus,1,-1)
DataInterval (0,1440,Min,5)
Maximum (1,BattVolt,FP2,False,False)
Minimum (1,BattVolt,FP2,False,False)
Maximum (1,LogrTmpC,FP2,False,False)
Minimum (1,LogrTmpC,FP2,False,False)
Maximum (1,Encl_RH,FP2,False,False)
Minimum (1,Encl_RH,FP2,False,False)
Sample (1,WatchDog,FP2)
Sample (1,Overruns,FP2)
Sample (1,LowVolts,FP2)
EndTable
DataTable (STATS,TRUE,168)
DataInterval (0,60,Min,10)
Totalize (1,one,IEEE4,disable_flag)
FieldNames ("n_TOT")
Totalize (1,one,IEEE4,diag<>1)
FieldNames ("diag_1_TOT")
Totalize (1,one,IEEE4,diag<>2)
FieldNames ("diag_2_TOT")
Totalize (1,one,IEEE4,diag<>4)
FieldNames ("diag_4_TOT")
Totalize (1,one,IEEE4,diag<>8)
FieldNames ("diag_8_TOT")
Totalize (1,one,IEEE4,diag<>9)
FieldNames ("diag_9_TOT")
Totalize (1,one,IEEE4,diag<>10)
FieldNames ("diag_10_TOT")
Totalize (1,one,IEEE4,diag<>NaN)
FieldNames ("no_data_TOT")
EndTable
'Main Program
BeginProg
'Initialize Values (unitialized values are zero)
Latitude=0.00001
Longitude=latitude
Altitude_m=latitude
FirstPass = False
Baro_Kpa = 0
'The Gill Sonic is left on all the time!
one = 1
SerialOpen (Com1,38400,3,0,432) 'SerialOpen buffer to handle 3 seconds of 1/4 second Gill data.
'Watchdog counts
WatchDog = Status.WatchdogErrors(1,1)
'Skipped scan counts
Overruns = Status.SkippedScan(1,1)
'Low voltage counts
LowVolts = Status.Low12VCount(1,1)
'Lithium battery voltage
LiBattV = Status.LithiumBattery(1,1)
Scan(3,Sec, 3, 0)
PortSet (9,1)
D-7
Appendix D. Default Programs
'Battery voltage
Battery (BattVolt)
'Micrologger temperature
PanelTemp (LgrTmpC,250)
'Save Site Values
If SaveSite = 1 Then
CallTable SiteVal
SaveSite=0
EndIf
'Query Site Values from data table and use if needed.
If Latitude = 0.00001 AND SiteVal.Latitude(1,1)<> NAN Then
Latitude=SiteVal.Latitude(1,1)
Longitude=SiteVal.Longitude(1,1)
Altitude_m=SiteVal.Altitude_m(1,1)
EndIf
'Enclosure humidity
VoltSe(Encl_RH, 1, mV2500, 10, False, 0, _60Hz, 0.1, 0)
If Encl_RH > 100 Then Encl_RH = 100
'CONNECTOR TEMP/RH
'HMP50-ET & HMP60-ET or HMP45C-ET temperature/humidity sensor
VoltSe(AirTempC, 1, mV2500, 2, False, 0, _60Hz, 0.1, -40)
If (AirTempC = NAN) Then AirTempC = -6999
VoltSe(RelHum, 1, mV2500, 1, False, 0, _60Hz, 0.1, 0)
If (RelHum = NAN) Then RelHum = -6999
If (RelHum >= 100) AND (RelHum < 108) Then RelHum = 100
AirTempF = AirTempC * 1.8 + 32
If FirstPass = False Then
MaxAirC = AirTempC
MinAirC = AirTempC
FirstPass = True
Else
If (AirTempC > MaxAirC) Then MaxAirC = AirTempC
If (AirTempC < MinAirC) Then MinAirC = AirTempC
EndIf
'CONNECTOR SOLAR RADIATION
'CS305-ET or LI200X-ET Pyranometer
VoltDiff(SlrRad_W, 1, mV7_5, 3, true, 0, _60Hz, 200, 0)
If (SlrRad_W < 0) Then SlrRad_W = 0
If (SlrRad_W = NAN) Then
SlrRad_W = -6999
SlrRad_KW = -6999
SlrRad_MJ = -6999
Else
SlrRad_KW = SlrRad_W*0.001
SlrRad_MJ = SlrRad_W*0.000005
EndIf
D-8
Appendix D. Default Programs
'CONNECTOR TEMP/SONIC
'Get RS232 data from WindSonic connected to TEMP/SONIC (COM1).
SerialInRecord (Com1,in_bytes_str,&h02,0,&h0D&h0A,nmbr_bytes_rtrnd,01)
WindDir = Mid (in_bytes_str,3,3)
WindSpd_ms = Mid (in_bytes_str,7,6)
diag = Mid (in_bytes_str,16,2)
checksum_flg = ( (HexToDec (Mid (in_bytes_str,20,2))) EQV (CheckSum (in_bytes_str,9,18)) )
disable_flag = (NOT (checksum_flg) OR (nmbr_bytes_rtrnd=0) OR (diag<>0))
WindSpd_mph = WindSpd_ms * 2.236936
TotalWSmph = TotalWSmph + WindSpd_mph*0.05
'CONNECTOR RAIN (PRECIP)
'TE525-ET, TE525WS-LC, CS700-LC, or TB4-LC tipping rain bucket
PulseCount(Rain_mm, 1, 2, 2, 0, 0.254, 0)
Rain_inch = Rain_mm * 0.03937
Rain_Hr = Rain_mm + Rain_Hr
RainRun = RainRun + Rain_mm
CallTable ToroHourly
If (ToroHourly.Output(1,1)) Then
ETos_mm = ToroHourly.ETos_mm(1,1)
ETos_Run = ETos_Run + ETos_mm
Rain_Hr = 0
TotalWSmph = 0
EndIf
CallTable ToroStatus
If (ToroStatus.Output(1,1)) Then
Rain24 = RainRun
RainRun = 0
ETos24 = ETos_Run
ETos_Run = 0
Max24Air = MaxAirC
Min24Air = MinAirC
MaxAirC = AirTempC
MinAirC = AirTempC
'Watchdog counts
WatchDog = Status.WatchdogErrors(1,1)
'Skipped scan counts
Overruns = Status.SkippedScan(1,1)
'Low voltage counts
LowVolts = Status.Low12VCount(1,1)
'Lithium battery voltage
LiBattV = Status.LithiumBattery(1,1)
EndIf
CallTable STATS
NextScan
EndProg
D-9
Appendix D. Default Programs
D-10
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