Grade 11/12 Curriculum

Grade 11/12 Curriculum
REVISED
2010
The Ontario Curriculum
Grades 11 and 12
The Arts
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
3
Secondary Schools for the Twenty-First Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Importance of the Arts Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ideas Underlying the Arts Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Roles and Responsibilities in the Arts Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Attitudes in the Arts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
THE PROGRAM IN THE ARTS
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5
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9
Overview of the Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Curriculum Expectations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Strands in the Arts Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
The Creative Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
The Critical Analysis Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT
23
Basic Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
The Achievement Chart for the Arts: Grades 9–12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Information on the Achievement Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM PLANNING IN THE ARTS
Instructional Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Planning Arts Programs for Students With Special Education Needs . . . . . . . . . . . .
Program Considerations for English Language Learners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Environmental Education and the Arts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Healthy Relationships and the Arts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equity and Inclusive Education in the Arts Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiple Literacies in the Arts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Literacy, Mathematical Literacy, and Inquiry/Research Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Critical Thinking and Critical Literacy in the Arts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Role of the School Library in the Arts Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Role of Information and Communications Technology
in the Arts Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Ontario Skills Passport and Essential Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Career Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Une publication équivalente est disponible en français sous le titre suivant : Le curriculum
de l’Ontario, 11e et 12e année – Éducation artistique, 2010
This publication is available on the Ministry of Education’s website, at http://www.edu.gov.on.ca.
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45
Cooperative Education and Other Forms of Experiential Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Planning Program Pathways and Programs Leading to a Specialist
High Skills Major . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Health and Safety in the Arts Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ethics in the Arts Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COURSES
DANCE
46
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47
51
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dance, Grade 11, University/College Preparation (ATC3M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dance, Grade 11, Open (ATC3O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dance, Grade 12, University/College Preparation (ATC4M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dance, Grade 12, Workplace Preparation (ATC4E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DRAMA
45
51
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60
67
74
81
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Drama, Grade 11, University/College Preparation (ADA3M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Drama, Grade 11, Open (ADA3O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Drama, Grade 12, University/College Preparation (ADA4M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Drama, Grade 12, Workplace Preparation (ADA4E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
EXPLORING AND CREATING IN THE ARTS
111
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Exploring and Creating in the Arts, Grade 11 or 12, Open (AEA3O/AEA4O) . . . . 112
MEDIA ARTS
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Media Arts, Grade 11, University/College Preparation (ASM3M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Media Arts, Grade 11, Open (ASM3O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Media Arts, Grade 12, University/College Preparation (ASM4M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Media Arts, Grade 12, Workplace Preparation (ASM4E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MUSIC
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Music, Grade 11, University/College Preparation (AMU3M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Music, Grade 11, Open (AMU3O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Music, Grade 12, University/College Preparation (AMU4M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Music, Grade 12, Workplace Preparation (AMU4E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VISUAL ARTS
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Visual Arts, Grade 11, University/College Preparation (AVI3M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Visual Arts, Grade 11, Open (AVI3O) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Visual Arts, Grade 12, University/College Preparation (AVI4M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Visual Arts, Grade 12, Workplace Preparation (AVI4E) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GLOSSARY
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189
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205
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INTRODUCTION
This document replaces The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 11 and 12: The Arts, 2000. Beginning
in September 2010, all arts courses for Grades 11 and 12 will be based on the expectations
outlined in this document.
SECONDARY SCHOOLS FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY
The goal of Ontario secondary schools is to support high-quality learning while giving
individual students the opportunity to choose programs that suit their skills and interests.
The updated Ontario curriculum, in combination with a broader range of learning options
outside traditional classroom instruction, will enable students to better customize their
high school education and improve their prospects for success in school and in life.
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ARTS CURRICULUM
Experiences in the arts – dance, drama, media arts, music, and the visual arts – play a
valuable role in the education of all students. Through participation in the arts, students
can develop their creativity, learn about their own identity, and develop self-awareness,
self-confidence, and a sense of well-being. Since artistic activities involve intense engagement, students experience a sense of wonder and joy when learning through the arts,
which can motivate them to participate more fully in cultural life and in other educational
opportunities.
The arts nourish the imagination and develop a sense of beauty, while providing unique
ways for students to gain insights into the world around them. All of the arts communicate through complex symbols – verbal, visual, and aural – and help students understand
aspects of life in a variety of ways. Students gain insights into the human condition
through ongoing exposure to works of art – for example, they can imagine what it would
be like to be in the same situation as a character in a play, an opera, or a painting, and try
to understand that character’s point of view. They identify common values, both aesthetic
and human, in various works of art and, in doing so, increase their understanding of
others and learn that the arts can have a civilizing influence on society. In producing
their own works, students communicate their insights while developing artistic skills
and aesthetic judgement.
Through studying works of art from various cultures, students deepen their appreciation
of diverse perspectives and develop the ability to approach others with openness and
flexibility. Seeing the works of art produced by their classmates also helps them learn
about, accept, and respect the identity of others and the differences among people. The
openness that is fostered by study of the arts helps students to explore and appreciate the
culture of diverse peoples in Canada, including First Nations and francophones. Students
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learn that people use the arts to record, celebrate, and pass on to future generations
their personal and collective stories and the values and traditions that make us unique
as Canadians.
Education in the arts involves students intellectually, emotionally, socially, and physically.
Learning through the arts therefore fosters integration of students’ cognitive, emotional,
sensory, and motor capacities, and enables students with a wide variety of learning styles
to increase their learning potential. For example, hands-on activities can challenge students
to move from the concrete to the abstract, and the students learn that, while the arts can
be enjoyable and fulfilling, they are also intellectually rigorous disciplines. Students also
learn that artistic expression is a creative means of clarifying and restructuring personal
experience.
In studying the arts, students learn about interconnections and commonalities among the
arts disciplines, including common elements, principles, and other components. Dance
and drama share techniques in preparation and presentation, and require interpretive and
movement skills. Music, like dance, communicates through rhythm, phrase structure, and
dynamic variation; also, both have classical, traditional, and contemporary compositional
features. The visual arts, dance, and drama all share aspects of visual design, interpretation,
and presentation, making connections among movement, space, texture, and environment.
Media arts can incorporate and be interwoven through the other four disciplines to enhance,
reinterpret, and explore new modes of artistic expression.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Links can also be made between the arts and other disciplines. For example, symmetry
in musical structure can be related to mathematical principles. Mathematics skills can
be applied to drafting a stage set to scale, or to budgeting an arts performance. Students
taking a history course can attempt to bring an event in the past to life by reinterpreting it
in their work in drama. Because all the arts reflect historical, social, and cultural contexts,
students taking history, geography, and social sciences can gain insights into other cultures
and periods through studying the arts of those cultures and times. Arts students can also
apply their knowledge of historical and cultural contexts to enhance their understanding
and appreciation of works of art. Dance students can make use of scientific principles of
physical motion in their choreography.
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The courses described in this document prepare students for a wide range of challenging
careers in the arts, as well as careers in which they can draw upon knowledge and skills
acquired through the arts. Students who aspire to be writers, actors, musicians, dancers,
painters, or animators, for example, are not the only ones who can benefit from study
of the arts. Arts education prepares students for the fast-paced changes and the creative
economy of the twenty-first century. Learning through the arts develops many skills,
abilities, and attitudes that are critical in the workplace – for example, communication
and problem-solving skills; the ability to be creative, imaginative, innovative, and original;
the ability to be adaptable and to work with others; and positive attitudes and behaviours.
For example, participation in arts courses helps students develop their ability to listen and
observe, and thus to develop their communication and collaborative skills. It encourages
students to take risks, to solve problems in original ways, and to draw on their resourcefulness. In arts courses, students develop their ability to reason and to think critically as well
as creatively. They learn to approach issues and present ideas in new ways, to teach and
persuade, to entertain, and to make designs with attention to aesthetic considerations.
They also gain experience in using various forms of technology. In short, the knowledge
and skills developed in the study of the arts can be applied in many other endeavours
and in a variety of careers.
IDEAS UNDERLYING THE ARTS CURRICULUM
The arts curriculum is based on four central ideas – developing creativity, communicating,
understanding culture, and making connections. Major aspects of these ideas are outlined
in the chart below.
Ideas Underlying the Arts Curriculum
Developing
Creativity
•
•
•
•
developing aesthetic awareness
using the creative process
using problem-solving skills
taking an innovative approach to a challenge
Communicating
• manipulating elements and forms to convey or express thoughts, feelings, messages,
or ideas through the arts
• using the critical analysis process
• constructing and analysing art works, with a focus on analysing and communicating
the meaning of the work
• using new media and technology to produce art works and to convey thoughts, feelings,
and ideas about art
Understanding
Culture
• understanding cultural traditions and innovations
• constructing personal and cultural identity (developing a sense of self and a sense of
the relationship between the self and others locally, nationally, and globally)
• making a commitment to equity and social justice and dealing with environmental issues
Making
Connections
• making connections between the cognitive and affective domains (expressing thoughts
and feelings when creating and responding to art works)
• creating and interpreting art works on their own and with others, and performing
independently and in groups
• making connections between the arts and other disciplines (e.g., transferring knowledge,
skills, and understanding to other disciplines)
ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES IN THE ARTS PROGRAM
Students
Students have many responsibilities with regard to their learning. Students who make
the effort required to succeed in school and who are able to apply themselves will soon
discover that there is a direct relationship between this effort and their achievement, and
will therefore be more motivated to work. There will be some students, however, who will
find it more difficult to take responsibility for their learning because of special challenges
they face. The attention, patience, and encouragement of teachers can be extremely
important to the success of these students.
INTRODUCTION
Taking responsibility for their own progress and learning is an important part of arts
education for all students, regardless of their circumstances. Students in arts courses
need to realize that honing their craft is important and that real engagement with the arts
requires hard work and continual self-assessment. Through practice, and through review
and revision of their work, students deepen their understanding of their chosen arts
discipline. Students can also extend their learning in the arts by participating in school
and community arts activities.
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Parents
Parents1 have an important role to play in supporting student learning. Studies show
that students perform better in school if their parents are involved in their education.
By becoming familiar with the curriculum, parents can better appreciate what is being
taught in the courses their daughters and sons are taking and what they are expected to
learn. This awareness will enhance parents’ ability to discuss their children’s work with
them, to communicate with teachers, and to ask relevant questions about their children’s
progress. Knowledge of the expectations in the various courses will also help parents to
interpret teachers’ comments on student progress and to work with teachers to improve
their children’s learning.
Effective ways in which parents can support their children’s learning include attending
parent-teacher interviews, participating in parent workshops, and becoming involved in
school council activities (including becoming a school council member). Parents who
encourage and monitor home practice or project completion further support their children
in their arts studies. By attending concerts and presentations and other performances by
school ensembles and clubs, parents can demonstrate a commitment to their child’s success.
Parents can also attend local arts and cultural events (such as art exhibits and concerts)
with their children, whether or not their children are participating themselves. These
events often take place in community centres, places of worship, and public parks or
schools, as well as in more formal venues, such as public galleries, museums, libraries,
and concert halls. Parents can make an arts activity into a family activity, further demonstrating an awareness of and support for their child’s artistic and personal interests.
Teachers
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Teachers and students have complementary responsibilities. Teachers develop appropriate
instructional strategies to help students achieve the curriculum expectations, as well
as appropriate methods for assessing and evaluating student learning. Teachers bring
enthusiasm and varied teaching and assessment approaches to the classroom, addressing
different student needs and ensuring sound learning opportunities for every student.
Using a variety of instructional, assessment, and evaluation strategies, teachers provide
numerous opportunities for students to develop and refine their critical and creative
skills, problem-solving skills, and communication skills, while engaged in arts activities,
projects, and exploration. The activities offered should give students opportunities to
relate their knowledge of and skills in the arts to the social, environmental, and economic
conditions and concerns of the world in which they live. Such opportunities will motivate
students to participate in their communities as responsible and engaged citizens and to
become lifelong learners.
Teachers can help students understand that the creative process often requires a considerable expenditure of time and energy and a good deal of perseverance. Teachers can also
encourage students to explore alternative solutions and to take the risks necessary to
become successful problem solvers and creators of art work. The arts can play a key role
in shaping students’ views about life and learning. Since the arts exist in a broader social
and historical context, teachers can show students that all of the arts are affected by the
values and choices of individuals, and in turn have a significant impact on society.
1. The word parent(s) is used in this document to refer to parent(s) and guardian(s).
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Arts teachers provide students with frequent opportunities to practise and apply new
learning and, through regular and varied assessment, give them the specific feedback they
need in order to further develop and refine their skills. By assigning tasks that promote
the development of higher-order thinking skills, teachers enable students to become
thoughtful and effective communicators. In addition, teachers encourage students to think
aloud about their own artistic choices, and support them in developing the language and
techniques they need to assess their own learning. Opportunities to relate knowledge
of and skills in the arts to broader contexts will motivate students to learn in meaningful
ways and to become lifelong learners.
Principals
The principal works in partnership with teachers and parents to ensure that each student
has access to the best possible educational experience. To support student learning,
principals ensure that the Ontario curriculum is being properly implemented in all
classrooms using a variety of instructional approaches. They also ensure that appropriate
resources are made available for teachers and students. To enhance teaching and learning
in all subjects, including the arts, principals promote learning teams and work with teachers to facilitate their participation in professional development activities. Principals are
also responsible for ensuring that every student who has an Individual Education Plan
(IEP) is receiving the modifications and/or accommodations described in his or her
plan – in other words, for ensuring that the IEP is properly developed, implemented,
and monitored.
Community Partnerships
Community partners can be an important resource for schools and students. They can
be models of how the knowledge and skills acquired through the study of the curriculum
relate to life beyond school. As mentors, they can enrich not only the educational experience
of students but also the life of the community.
Schools and school boards can play a role by coordinating efforts with community partners.
They can, for example, set up visits to art galleries, theatres, museums, and concert venues
(where available), which provide rich environments for field trips and for exploration of
the local community and its resources. Alternatively, local artists, musicians, actors, or
dancers may be invited into the school. An increasing number of partnership programs –
such as the Ontario Arts Council’s Artists in Education program – can assist teachers in
more fully integrating arts and cultural programming into the classroom. In locales where
there are few artists, technology can be used to provide a wealth of opportunities for
students to hear and see performances and art works and to contact artists.
ATTITUDES IN THE ARTS
INTRODUCTION
The attitudes of everyone involved with students have a significant effect on how students
approach the arts. Parents can demonstrate a positive attitude towards the arts at home
and in the community, and teachers should project a positive attitude towards the arts in
their instruction. Teachers should encourage students to use their imagination and their
problem-solving and critical-thinking skills in planning, producing, and assessing works
of art. They should also help students understand that even the most accomplished artists
continue to put a great deal of time and effort into their work.
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Teachers can also encourage a positive attitude towards the arts by helping students learn
about careers in various areas of the arts industry. By studying art in a variety of forms,
learning about artists within and outside the community, and participating in a variety
of artistic activities, students will become better informed about the possibilities for active
participation in the arts later in life.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Students’ attitudes towards the arts can have a significant effect on their achievement
of the curriculum expectations. Teaching methods and learning activities that encourage
students to recognize the value and relevance of what they are learning will go a long
way towards motivating students to work and to learn effectively.
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THE PROGRAM IN
THE ARTS
OVERVIEW OF THE PROGRAM
The arts program in Grades 11 and 12 consists of four courses in each of dance, drama,
media arts, music, and visual arts, as well as a course entitled Exploring and Creating
in the Arts.
The courses in this document are intended to help students build on the knowledge and
skills they have developed in arts courses in Grades 9 and 10. Arts courses for the first
two years of secondary school are designed to appeal to students’ interests and imagination, and provide a basis for more intensive and specialized study. In all arts subjects in
Grades 11 and 12, emphasis is placed on acquiring more advanced skills and applying
them in more complex ways. An important aim of the Grade 11 and 12 courses is to help
students understand the world in which they live and to help them make choices that
will both enrich their lives and prepare them for a variety of careers. To this end, course
content is designed to encourage students to understand the connections between what
they are doing at the Grade 11 and 12 levels and what is required in a broad range of
university and college programs and the world of work.
In the arts program in Grades 11 and 12, three types of courses are offered –
university/college preparation, workplace preparation, and open. Students choose between
course types on the basis of their interests, achievement, and postsecondary goals, as well
as the pathways they are pursuing. The course types are defined as follows:
University/college preparation courses are designed to equip students with the knowledge and skills they need to meet the entrance requirements for specific programs
offered at universities and colleges.
Workplace preparation courses are designed to equip students with the knowledge and
skills they need to meet the expectations of employers, if they plan to enter the workplace
directly after graduation, or the requirements for admission to many apprenticeship or
other training programs.
Open courses are designed to broaden students’ knowledge and skills in subjects that
reflect their interests and to prepare them for active and rewarding participation in
society. They are not designed with the specific requirements of universities, colleges,
or the workplace in mind.
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Courses in the Arts, Grades 11 and 12*
Grade
Course Name
Course Type
Course Code**
Prerequisite
11
Dance
University/College
ATC3M
Grade 9 or 10 Dance, Open
11
Dance
Open
ATC3O
None
12
Dance
University/College
ATC4M
Grade 11 Dance,
University/College
12
Dance
Workplace
ATC4E
Grade 11 Dance, Open
11
Drama
University/College
ADA3M
Grade 9 or 10 Drama, Open
11
Drama
Open
ADA3O
None
12
Drama
University/College
ADA4M
Grade 11 Drama,
University/College
12
Drama
Workplace
ADA4E
Grade 11 Drama, Open
Open
AEA3O/4O‡
Any Grade 9 or 10 arts
course
Dance
Drama
Exploring and Creating in the Arts
11 or 12
Exploring and
Creating in the Arts
Media Arts
11
Media Arts
University/College
ASM3M
Grade 10 Media Arts, Open
11
Media Arts
Open
ASM3O
None
12
Media Arts
University/College
ASM4M
Grade 11 Media Arts,
University/College
12
Media Arts
Workplace
ASM4E
Grade 11 Media Arts, Open
11
Music
University/College
AMU3M
Grade 9 or 10 Music, Open
11
Music
Open
AMU3O
None
12
Music
University/College
AMU4M
Grade 11 Music,
University/College
12
Music
Workplace
AMU4E
Grade 11 Music, Open
Music
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Visual Arts
10
11
Visual Arts
University/College
AVI3M
Grade 9 or 10 Visual Arts,
Open
11
Visual Arts
Open
AVI3O
None
12
Visual Arts
University/College
AVI4M
Grade 11 Visual Arts,
University/College
12
Visual Arts
Workplace
AVI4E
Grade 11 Visual Arts, Open
* Each Grade 11 and 12 course has a credit value of 1.
** Course codes consist of five characters. The first three characters identify the subject; the fourth character identifies
the grade (i.e., 3 and 4 refer to Grade 11 and Grade 12, respectively); and the fifth character identifies the type of
course (i.e., M refers to “university/college preparation”, E refers to “workplace preparation”, and O refers to “open”).
‡ This course may be taken at either the Grade 11 or the Grade 12 level. Only one credit may be earned in this course.
Prerequisite Charts for the Arts, Grades 9–12
These charts map out all the courses in the discipline and show the links between courses and the possible
prerequisites for them. They do not attempt to depict all possible movements from course to course.
Dance
Dance
ATC1O
Dance
ATC2O
Grade 9, Open
Grade 10, Open
Drama
Drama
ADA1O
Drama
ADA2O
Grade 9, Open
Grade 10, Open
Dance
ATC3M
Dance
ATC4M
Grade 11, University/College
Grade 12, University/College
Dance
ATC3O
Dance
ATC4E
Grade 11, Open
Grade 12, Workplace
Drama
ADA3M
Drama
ADA4M
Grade 11, University/College
Grade 12, University/College
Drama
ADA3O
Drama
ADA4E
Grade 11, Open
Grade 12, Workplace
Integrated Arts / Exploring and Creating in the Arts
Integrated Arts
ALC1O/ALC2O
Grade 9 or 10, Open
Media Arts
Any Grade 9 or 10
arts course
Exploring and Creating
in the Arts
AEA3O/AEA4O
Grade 11 or 12, Open
Media Arts
ASM3M
Media Arts
ASM4M
Grade 10, Open
Grade 11, University/College
Grade 12, University/College
Media Arts
ASM3O
Media Arts
ASM4E
Grade 11, Open
Grade 12, Workplace
Music
AMU3M
Music
AMU4M
Grade 11, University/College
Grade 12, University/College
Music
AMU3O
Music
AMU4E
Grade 11, Open
Grade 12, Workplace
Visual Arts
AVI3M
Visual Arts
AVI4M
Grade 11, University/College
Grade 12, University/College
Visual Arts
AVI3O
Visual Arts
AVI4E
Grade 11, Open
Grade 12, Workplace
Music
Music
AMU1O
Music
AMU2O
Grade 9, Open
Grade 10, Open
Visual Arts
Visual Arts
AVI1O
Visual Arts
AVI2O
Grade 9, Open
Grade 10, Open
THE PROGRAM IN THE ARTS
Media Arts
ASM2O
11
Half-Credit Courses
The courses outlined in the Grade 9 and 10 and Grade 11 and 12 arts curriculum documents
are designed as full-credit courses. However, with the exception of Grade 12 university/college
preparation courses, they may also be delivered as half-credit courses.
Half-credit courses, which require a minimum of fifty-five hours of scheduled instructional time, adhere to the following conditions:
• The two half-credit courses created from a full course must together contain all of
the expectations of the full course. The expectations for each half-credit course must
be drawn from all strands of the full course and must be divided in a manner that
best enables students to achieve the required knowledge and skills in the allotted
time.
• A course that is a prerequisite for another course in the secondary curriculum
may be offered as two half-credit courses, but students must successfully complete
both parts of the course to fulfil the prerequisite. (Students are not required to
complete both parts unless the course is a prerequisite for another course they
may wish to take.)
• The title of each half-credit course must include the designation Part 1 or Part 2.
A half credit (0.5) will be recorded in the credit-value column of both the report
card and the Ontario Student Transcript.
Boards will ensure that all half-credit courses comply with the conditions described
above, and will report all half-credit courses to the ministry annually in the School
October Report.
Focus Courses
The curriculum expectations for the courses in dance, drama, music, and visual arts
given in this document are designed to allow schools to develop courses that focus on
particular aspects or areas of the subject. The following is a list of some of the possible
areas for focus in dance, drama, music, and visual arts:
• dance: ballet, modern dance, African dance, jazz dance, dance composition
• drama: production, Canadian theatre, music theatre, acting/improvisation
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
• music: vocal jazz, instrumental music, guitar, electronic music
12
• visual arts: printmaking, sculpture, painting, ceramics, film/video
Regardless of the particular area on which a course is focused, students must be given
the opportunity to achieve all the expectations for the course that are set out in this
document.
A student may take more than one course for credit in the same subject and the same
grade in dance, drama, music, or visual arts, provided that the focus of the courses is
different. For example, a student could take two courses in visual arts in Grade 12, earning
one credit for each; the focus of one of the courses might be on photography and the other
on environmental design.
There are no provisions for the development of courses that focus on particular areas
in media arts. The course descriptions in media arts provide a comprehensive outline
of the knowledge and skills that are covered in those courses.
The course codes given in the chart on page 10 identify the courses for each subject that
are outlined in this document. Courses that focus on a particular area of a subject should
be assigned the appropriate code. A list of focus courses for the arts can be found on
the curriculum page for the arts, under the section “Resource Documents Specific to
this Subject”, on the ministry’s website, at www.edu.gov.on.ca. For example, the code
identifying a Grade 11 open course called Dance – Hip Hop and Urban is ATR3O; the
code identifying a Grade 12 university/college preparation course called Music –
Repertoire is AMR4M.
All the courses that a school offers will be listed in the school course calendar, along
with the course codes. For courses that focus on a particular area, an additional sentence
identifying that area should be included in the course descriptions in school calendars.
CURRICULUM EXPECTATIONS
The expectations identified for each course describe the knowledge and skills that students
are expected to develop and demonstrate in their class work, on tests, and in various
other activities on which their achievement is assessed and evaluated.
Two sets of expectations – overall expectations and specific expectations – are listed for
each strand, or broad area of the curriculum. (The strands are numbered A, B, and C.)
Taken together, the overall and specific expectations represent the mandated curriculum.
The overall expectations describe in general terms the knowledge and skills that students
are expected to demonstrate by the end of each course.
The specific expectations describe the expected knowledge and skills in greater detail.
The specific expectations are grouped under numbered headings, each of which indicates the strand and the overall expectation to which the group of specific expectations
corresponds (e.g., “B2” indicates that the group relates to overall expectation 2 in strand B).
This organization is not meant to imply that the expectations in any one group are achieved
independently of the expectations in the other groups. The subheadings are used merely
to help teachers focus on particular aspects of knowledge and skills as they plan learning
activities for their students.
THE PROGRAM IN THE ARTS
Most specific expectations are accompanied by examples and “teacher prompts”, as
requested by educators. The examples, given in parentheses, are meant to clarify the
requirement specified in the expectation, illustrating the kind of knowledge or skill, the
specific area of learning, the depth of learning, and/or the level of complexity that the
expectation entails. The teacher prompts are meant to illustrate the kinds of questions
teachers might pose in relation to the requirement specified in the expectation. Both the
examples and the teacher prompts are intended as suggestions for teachers rather than
as an exhaustive or a mandatory list. Teachers can choose to use the examples and
prompts that are appropriate for their classrooms, or they may develop their own
approaches that reflect a similar level of complexity. Whatever the specific ways in
which the requirements outlined in the expectations are implemented in the classroom,
they must, wherever possible, be inclusive and reflect the diversity of the student
population and the population of the province.
13
Each course in the arts is organized
into three strands, numbered A, B,
and C.
A numbered subheading introduces
each overall expectation. The same
heading is used to identify the group
of specific expectations that relates
to the particular overall expectation
(e.g., “A1. The Creative Process”
relates to overall expectation A1 for
strand A).
The overall expectations describe in general
terms the knowledge and skills students are
expected to demonstrate by the end of each
course. Three or four overall expectations are
provided for each strand in every course. The
numbering of overall expectations indicates the
strand to which they belong (e.g., A1 through
A3 are the overall expectations for strand A).
A. CREATING AND PRESENTING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
A1. The Creative Process: apply the creative process to create media art works, individually and/or
collaboratively;
A2. The Principles of Media Arts: design and produce media art works, applying the principles of
media arts and using various elements from contributing arts (dance, drama, music, visual arts);
A3. Using Technologies, Tools, and Techniques: apply traditional and emerging technologies, tools,
and techniques to produce and present media art works for a variety of audiences and purposes.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
A1. The Creative Process
By the end of this course, students will:
14
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
The specific expectations
describe the expected
knowledge and skills in
greater detail. The expectation number identifies
the strand to which the
expectation belongs and
the overall expectation to
which it relates (e.g., A1.1,
A1.2, A1.3, and so on,
relate to the first overall
expectation in strand A).
124
A1.1 use a variety of strategies (e.g., brainstorming,
concept webs, mind maps, group discussions,
research using sources such as case studies) to
investigate creative challenges and generate
innovative ideas, individually and/or collaboratively, for addressing them (e.g., the challenge
of creating a video art work on cyberbullying)
Teacher prompt: “Do any of your personal
experiences or those of your group members
relate to the topic of the challenge? Where
would you find more information on the topic?
How can these experiences and this information help you generate ideas?”
A1.2 develop plans, individually and/or collaboratively, that address a variety of creative
challenges (e.g., reflect on and filter their ideas
to select a feasible one as the basis for their plan;
use storyboards, thumbnail sketches, production
notes, scripts, choreographic notes, and/or blocking
notes to help develop their plans), and assess and
revise their plans on the basis of feedback and
reflection
Teacher prompts: “What criteria might you use
when filtering ideas?” “What challenges does
your plan present? Would revising an aspect of
the plan help you overcome those challenges?”
A1.3 produce and refine media art works, using
research, exploration, input, and reflection
(e.g., research audio/visual codes and alternative
media; explore new media tools, practise a range
The examples help to clarify the
requirement specified in the expectation
and to suggest its intended depth and
level of complexity. The examples are
illustrations only, not requirements.
They appear in parentheses and are
set in italics.
of techniques, and reflect on which tools and techniques would be appropriate for their art work;
reflect on feedback from their teacher, peers, and
others, and modify their preliminary work as
appropriate on the basis of this feedback)
Teacher prompts: “What other media artists
have used this technique? How can exploring
techniques used by other media artists help
you expand the range of techniques you use
in your work?” “How do you decide when to
integrate the input of others into your work?
In what ways did feedback affect your final
product?”
A1.4 exhibit or perform media art works, individually and/or collaboratively, using methods that
are highly appropriate for the work (e.g., present
a performance art work with sound effects or music
that enhances their message; post their digital
work on the Internet; play the class a DVD of
their animation; present their work in an actual
or virtual gallery)
Teacher prompt: “Is your mode of presentation
appropriate for your art work? Is there any
aspect of your work that is not well served by
the method of presentation? How might you
modify your presentation plans to address this
problem?”
A1.5 use an appropriate tracking tool (e.g., a
sketchbook, a journal, storyboards, a checklist,
production notes, a “making-of” video) to produce
a detailed record of their application of the creative process, and use this record to determine,
through reflection, how effectively they applied
this process
Teacher prompts illustrate the kinds
of questions teachers might pose in
relation to the requirement specified in
the expectation. They are illustrations
only, not requirements. Teacher prompts
follow the specific expectation and
examples.
STRANDS IN THE ARTS CURRICULUM
The expectations in all Grade 11 and 12 courses in the arts are organized in three distinct
but related strands, which are as follows:
A. Creating and Presenting or Creating and Performing or Creating, Presenting, and
Performing (depending on the arts subject)
B. Reflecting, Responding, and Analysing
C. Foundations
The emphasis in each strand is described in the overview to each arts subject – dance,
drama, media arts, music, and visual arts – and in the overview to the Integrating Arts
course entitled Exploring and Creating in the Arts.
THE CREATIVE PROCESS
Students are expected to learn and use the creative process to help them acquire and
apply knowledge and skills in the arts. Use of the creative process is to be integrated
with use of the critical analysis process (described on pages 17–22) in all facets of the
arts curriculum as students work to achieve the expectations in the three strands.
Creativity involves the invention and the assimilation of new thinking and its integration
with existing knowledge. Creativity is an essential aspect of innovation. Sometimes the
creative process is more about asking the right questions than it is about finding the
right answer. It is paradoxical in that it involves both spontaneity and deliberate,
focused effort. Creativity does not occur in a vacuum. Art making is a process requiring
both creativity and skill, and it can be cultivated by establishing conditions that encourage
and promote its development. Teachers need to be aware that the atmosphere they create
for learning affects the nature of the learning itself. A setting that is conducive to creativity
is one in which students are not afraid to suggest alternative ideas and take risks.
The creative process comprises several stages:
• challenging and inspiring
• imagining and generating
• planning and focusing
• exploring and experimenting
• producing preliminary work
• revising and refining
• presenting and performing
• reflecting and evaluating
INTRODUCTION
The creative process in the arts is intended to be followed in a flexible, fluid, and cyclical
manner. As students and teachers become increasingly familiar with the creative process,
they are able to move deliberately and consciously between the stages and to vary the
order of stages as appropriate. For example, students may benefit from exploring and
experimenting before planning and focusing; or in some instances, the process may
begin with reflecting. Feedback and reflection take place throughout the process.
15
The Creative Process
Challenging
and
Inspiring
Imagining
and
Generating
Reflecting
and
Evaluating
Planning
and
Focusing
Feedback
(from Peers and Teacher)
and Reflection
Presenting
and
Performing
Revising
and
Refining
Exploring
and
Experimenting
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Producing
Preliminary
Work
16
Students will sometimes follow the complete cycle of the creative process, beginning
with a challenge or inspiration in a particular context and ending with producing a final
product and reflecting on their approach to the process. At other times, the process may
be followed through only to the exploration and experimentation stage. Research clearly
shows that the exploration and experimentation stage is critical in the development of
creative thinking skills. Students should be encouraged to experiment with a wide range
of materials, tools, techniques, and conventions, and should be given numerous opportunities to explore and manipulate the elements within each art form.
Ongoing feedback and structured opportunities for students to engage in reflection and
metacognition – for example, reflecting on strengths, areas for improvement, and alternative possibilities, and setting goals and identifying strategies for achieving their goals –
are woven into each stage of the creative process. In this way, assessment by both teacher
and student is used to enhance students’ creativity and support their development and
achievement in the arts. The communication and reflection that occur during and after
the process of problem solving help students not only to articulate and refine their thinking but also to see the problem they are solving from different perspectives. Descriptive
feedback to the students on their work can occur throughout the stages of the creative
process and may include assessment by peers and the teacher as well as self-assessment
of drafts and other first attempts at creation or production. Sketches and drafts or preliminary recordings and videos of works in progress may be housed in each student’s
working portfolio. Students may periodically select items or exhibits from their working
or process portfolios to place in a presentation portfolio. Both types of portfolios are to
be included in the assessment process.
In the chart that follows, some possible activities are listed for each of the stages of the
creative process.
THE CREATIVE PROCESS
Stage of the Process
Possible Activities of the Student
Challenging and inspiring
– responding to a creative challenge from the teacher or another student
– using creative ideas inspired by a stimulus
Imagining and generating
– generating possible solutions to the creative challenge by using brainstorming,
thumbnail sketches, choreographic sketches, musical sketches, mind mapping
Planning and focusing
– creating a plan for an art work by choosing ideas, determining and articulating
a focus, and choosing an appropriate art form
Exploring and experimenting
– exploring a range of elements and techniques and making artistic choices
for a work
Producing preliminary work
– producing a preliminary version of the work
– sharing the preliminary work with peers and teacher, and seeking their
opinions and responses
Revising and refining
– refining the initial work on the basis of their own reflection and others’
feedback
Presenting and performing
– completing the art work and presenting it to or performing it for an audience
(e.g., their peers, a teacher, the public)
Reflecting and evaluating
– reflecting on the degree of success of the work with reference to specific
aspects that went well or that could be improved
– using the results of this reflection as a basis for starting another arts project
THE CRITICAL ANALYSIS PROCESS
Critical thinking also requires openness to other points of view and to various means
of expression and creation. Everyone views the world through different lenses, and our
views of the world and our life experiences inform our understanding of works of art.
Students need to be taught that works of art are not created in a vacuum; they reflect
the personal, social, and historical context of the artists. This is true for works created
by professional artists and by students in the classroom.
THE PROGRAM IN THE ARTS
Critical analysis is a central process in all academic work. The critical analysis process
involves critical thinking, and thinking critically implies questioning, evaluating, making
rational judgements, finding logical connections, and categorizing.
17
Using the critical analysis process will enable students to:
• respond knowledgeably and sensitively to their own and others’ works in dance,
drama, media arts, music, and visual arts;
• make connections between their own experiences and works in the arts, between
different art forms, and between art works and the lives of people and communities
around the world;
• perceive and interpret how the elements of each art form contribute to meaning
in works in dance, drama, media arts, music, and visual arts;
• develop, share, and justify an informed personal point of view about works in the
arts;
• demonstrate awareness of and appreciation for the importance of dance, drama,
media arts, music, and visual arts in society;
• demonstrate appreciation appropriately as audience members in formal and
informal settings (e.g., peer performances in the classroom; excursions to arts
institutions, galleries, concert halls, theatres).
Students need to be guided through the stages of the critical analysis process. As they
learn the stages in the process, they will become increasingly independent in their ability
to develop and express an informed response to a work of dance, drama, media art,
music, or visual art. They will also become more sophisticated in their ability to critically
analyse the works they are studying or responding to. Students learn to approach works
in the arts thoughtfully by withholding judgement until they have enough information
to respond in an informed manner.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Teachers can set the stage for critical response and analysis by creating a reassuring
learning environment in which students feel free to experiment with new or alternative
approaches and ideas. This is a good opportunity to remind students that different people
may respond to the same work in different ways. Each person brings a particular cultural
perspective and a unique personal history to experiences in the arts. Responding to the
arts is, in part, a discovery process. While students may lack specific background information about the artists, the history of the arts, or contemporary artistic practices, their
own life experience, intuition, ideas, and critical and creative thinking abilities are
important and relevant aspects of their interaction with works of all types in the arts.
18
The critical analysis process includes the following aspects:
• initial reaction
• analysis and interpretation
• consideration of cultural context
• expression of aesthetic judgement
• ongoing reflection
The process is intended to be used in a flexible manner, taking into account students’ prior
experiences and the context in which the various art forms and works are experienced.
It is important to remember that students will be engaged in reflection and interpretation
throughout the process.
The Critical Analysis Process
Initial
Reaction
Expression
of Aesthetic
Judgement
Ongoing
Reflection
Analysis and
Interpretation
Consideration
of Cultural
Context
Initial Reaction
Students are encouraged to express their first reaction to a work. This first impression is
the starting point for further investigation and discovery. First impressions may provide
a useful benchmark for later evaluations of students’ ability to critique a work. Teachers
can elicit students’ first impressions by asking questions such as those found below. If
students cannot easily explain why they are making a judgement, these questions can
help them move beyond overly simple value judgments. Students need to be reminded
that there are no wrong answers if the responses are sincere.
Sample guiding questions might include:
• What is your first impression of this work?
• What does this work bring to mind?
• What emotions does this work evoke?
• What puzzles you? What questions do you have?
• What connections can you make between this work and your own experience or
other art forms?
THE PROGRAM IN THE ARTS
• What does this movement suggest to you?
19
Analysis and Interpretation
As part of analysis, students try to figure out what the artist has done to achieve certain
effects. Students can discuss the artist’s use of the elements, principles, materials, and/or
concepts specific to the art form. Students might want to refer back to their first impressions (e.g., analyse how the use of various elements in the work contribute to a first
impression of liveliness). Teachers should encourage students to describe and explain
how the individual elements have been used and how they relate to each other. Students
can also analyse the overall characteristics and compositional features of the work (e.g.,
how the artist uses and manipulates various elements, principles, sounds, movements,
words, images, or ideas).
As students move towards personal interpretation (e.g., “This dance is about feeling
lonely.”), they connect their own perspectives, associations, and experiences with the
characteristics found in the work. As in the “initial reaction” stage of the formal criticism
approach, there are no wrong answers. However, students should be able to provide
evidence for their interpretations. This stage requires the use of higher-order thinking
skills; students should go beyond free association to combine associations based on
evidence found in the work.
Activities such as discussing interpretations in a small group, writing an artist’s statement,
reflective journal writing, working independently on a written analysis, or preparing
notes for an oral presentation may all be part of this stage.
Sample guiding questions might include:
• What elements, principles, and/or conventions of the art form are used in this
work?
• How are the elements and/or principles organized, combined, or arranged in
this work by the artist (composer, choreographer, playwright, media artist, visual
artist)?
• What do you think is the theme or subject of the work? (i.e., What is the artist
trying to communicate, and why? or, in reflecting on their own work: What did
you intend to communicate, and why?)
• Why do you think the composer, choreographer, playwright, media artist, or
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
visual artist created this work?
20
• What message or meaning do you think the work conveys?
• What do you feel is the artist’s view of the world?
• How does this view match or contrast with your own view of the world?
The types of questions asked will vary with the type of art works being discussed.
Consideration of Cultural Context
As part of the critical analysis process, students develop an understanding of works in
the arts in their cultural context. In addition to analysing and interpreting the art works
themselves, students also need to understand how aspects of an artist’s life can have a
bearing on his or her works and on the interpretation of those works.
Sample guiding questions might include:
• What social, political, and historical events may have influenced the artist in this work?
• What cultural movements, events, or traditions or other works in the arts may
have influenced the artist?
• What events in the artist’s life may have affected the creation of the work?
In order to extend their understanding of works of art in their context, students may also
conduct their own inquiry-based research, or teachers can support them in investigations
into the following:
• the similarities and differences between specific works in the past and present
• the way in which a work in the arts represents the perspective of individuals within
a specific cultural group
• examples of other works created in the same period
• the expectations and artistic preferences of audiences at the time the work was created
• the initial reception of the work by critics
• the responsibility of an audience, including basic points of audience etiquette and the
individual’s responsibility to acknowledge any personal biases that may influence
his or her response to a work (e.g., cultural biases or past experiences with the arts)
Teachers could also suggest that a student – who is in role as a reporter – interview another
student – who is in role as a visual artist, composer, playwright, or choreographer –
about cultural, social, economic, and political conditions at the time the artist lived.
Expression of Aesthetic Judgement
Students compare their perception of the art work after reflection and analysis to their
initial reaction and make connections to other works of art they have seen or heard.
They consider the effectiveness of aspects of the work. They also reflect on whether they
have learned anything that they can apply to their own work.
Sample guiding questions might include:
• How effectively does the artist select and combine elements to achieve an intended
effect in this work? (i.e., What works?)
• What doesn’t work, and why?
changed? Why?
• In what ways does the artist evoke joy, sadness, or other emotions in this work?
THE PROGRAM IN THE ARTS
• Has your point of view shifted from your initial reaction? If so, how has it
21
Ongoing Reflection
Reflection occurs throughout the critical analysis process, whether students are examining
their own works or the works of others.
Sample guiding questions to help students in reflecting on a work of their own might
include:
• In what ways do you feel your work is successful?
• In what ways would you change the work to improve it?
• How did your work affect the audience? Was it the way you intended?
• How would you alter this work for a different audience, or to send a different
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
message?
22
ASSESSMENT AND
EVALUATION OF
STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT
BASIC CONSIDERATIONS
Growing Success: Assessment, Evaluation, and Reporting in Ontario Schools, First Edition,
Covering Grades 1 to 12, 2010 sets out the Ministry of Education’s assessment, evaluation,
and reporting policy. The policy aims to maintain high standards, improve student
learning, and benefit students, parents, and teachers in elementary and secondary schools
across the province. Successful implementation of this policy depends on the professional
judgement of educators at all levels as well as on educators’ ability to work together and
to build trust and confidence among parents and students.
A brief summary of some major aspects of the assessment, evaluation, and reporting
policy that relate to secondary schools is given below. Teachers should refer to the
Growing Success document for more information.
Fundamental Principles
The primary purpose of assessment and evaluation is to improve student learning.
The following seven fundamental principles lay the foundation for rich and challenging
practice. When these principles are fully understood and observed by all teachers, they
will guide the collection of meaningful information that will help inform instructional
decisions, promote student engagement, and improve student learning.
To ensure that assessment, evaluation, and reporting are valid and reliable, and that
they lead to the improvement of learning for all students, teachers use practices and
procedures that:
• are fair, transparent, and equitable for all students;
• support all students, including those with special education needs, those who
are learning the language of instruction (English or French), and those who are
First Nation, Métis, or Inuit;
• are carefully planned to relate to the curriculum expectations and learning goals
and, as much as possible, to the interests, learning styles and preferences, needs,
and experiences of all students;
23
• are communicated clearly to students and parents at the beginning of the school
year or course and at other appropriate points throughout the school year or
course;
• are ongoing, varied in nature, and administered over a period of time to provide
multiple opportunities for students to demonstrate the full range of their learning;
• provide ongoing descriptive feedback that is clear, specific, meaningful, and timely
to support improved learning and achievement;
• develop students’ self-assessment skills to enable them to assess their own learning,
set specific goals, and plan next steps for their learning.
Learning Skills and Work Habits
The development of learning skills and work habits is an integral part of a student’s
learning. To the extent possible, however, the evaluation of learning skills and work
habits, apart from any that may be included as part of a curriculum expectation in a
course, should not be considered in the determination of a student’s grades. Assessing,
evaluating, and reporting on the achievement of curriculum expectations and on the
demonstration of learning skills and work habits separately allows teachers to provide
information to the parents and student that is specific to each of the two areas of
achievement.
The six learning skills and work habits are responsibility, organization, independent
work, collaboration, initiative, and self-regulation.
Performance Standards
The Ontario curriculum for Grades 9 to 12 comprises content standards and performance
standards. Assessment and evaluation will be based on both the content standards and
the performance standards.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
The content standards are the curriculum expectations identified for every discipline –
the overall and specific expectations for each course.
24
The performance standards are outlined in the achievement chart (see pages 26–27). The
achievement chart is a standard province-wide guide and is to be used by all teachers as
a framework within which to assess and evaluate student achievement of the expectations
in the particular subject or discipline. It enables teachers to make consistent judgements
about the quality of student learning based on clear performance standards and on a
body of evidence collected over time. It also provides teachers with a foundation for
developing clear and specific feedback for students and parents.
The purposes of the achievement chart are to:
• provide a common framework that encompasses all curriculum expectations for
all courses across grades;
• guide the development of high-quality assessment tasks and tools (including
rubrics);
• help teachers to plan instruction for learning;
• provide a basis for consistent and meaningful feedback to students in relation to
provincial content and performance standards;
• establish categories and criteria with which to assess and evaluate students’ learning.
Assessment for Learning and as Learning
Assessment is the process of gathering information that accurately reflects how well a
student is achieving the curriculum expectations in a course. The primary purpose of
assessment is to improve student learning. Assessment for the purpose of improving
student learning is seen as both “assessment for learning” and “assessment as learning”.
As part of assessment for learning, teachers provide students with descriptive feedback
and coaching for improvement. Teachers engage in assessment as learning by helping
all students develop their capacity to be independent, autonomous learners who are able
to set individual goals, monitor their own progress, determine next steps, and reflect on
their thinking and learning.
Evaluation
Evaluation refers to the process of judging the quality of student learning on the basis
of established performance standards and assigning a value to represent that quality.
Evaluation accurately summarizes and communicates to parents, other teachers, employers,
institutions of further education, and students themselves what students know and can
do with respect to the overall curriculum expectations. Evaluation is based on assessment
of learning that provides evidence of student achievement at strategic times throughout
the course, often at the end of a period of learning.
All curriculum expectations must be accounted for in instruction and assessment, but
evaluation focuses on students’ achievement of the overall expectations. A student’s achievement of the overall expectations is evaluated on the basis of his or her achievement of
related specific expectations. The overall expectations are broad in nature, and the specific
expectations define the particular content or scope of the knowledge and skills referred
to in the overall expectations. Teachers will use their professional judgement to determine which specific expectations should be used to evaluate achievement of the overall
expectations, and which ones will be accounted for in instruction and assessment but not
necessarily evaluated.
Reporting Student Achievement
Although there are two formal reporting periods for a semestered course and three formal
reporting periods for a non-semestered course, communication with parents and students
about student achievement should be continuous throughout the course, by means
such as parent-teacher or parent-student-teacher conferences, portfolios of student
work, student-led conferences, interviews, phone calls, checklists, and informal reports.
Communication about student achievement should be designed to provide detailed
information that will encourage students to set goals for learning, help teachers to
establish plans for teaching, and assist parents in supporting learning at home.
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT
The Provincial Report Card, Grades 9–12, shows a student’s achievement at specific points
in the school year or semester. The first report in both semestered and non-semestered
schools reflects student achievement of the overall curriculum expectations, as well as
development of the learning skills and work habits, during the first reporting period.
25
THE ACHIEVEMENT CHART FOR THE ARTS: GRADES 9–12
The achievement chart identifies four categories of knowledge and skills in the arts and
four levels of achievement. An explanation of the components of the chart is provided
on pages 28–30.
Categories
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Knowledge and Understanding – Subject-specific content acquired in each grade (knowledge), and the
comprehension of its meaning and significance (understanding)
The student:
Knowledge of content (e.g., facts,
genres, terms, definitions, techniques,
elements, principles, forms, structures,
conventions)
demonstrates
limited knowledge of content
demonstrates
some knowledge
of content
demonstrates
considerable
knowledge of
content
demonstrates
thorough knowledge of content
Understanding of content (e.g.,
concepts, ideas, styles, procedures,
processes, themes, relationships
among elements, informed opinions)
demonstrates
limited understanding of
content
demonstrates
some understanding of content
demonstrates
considerable
understanding
of content
demonstrates
thorough understanding of
content
Thinking – The use of critical and creative thinking skills and/or processes
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
The student:
26
Use of planning skills (e.g., formulating questions, generating ideas,
gathering information, focusing
research, outlining, organizing an
arts presentation or project, brainstorming/bodystorming, blocking,
sketching, using visual organizers,
listing goals in a rehearsal log,
inventing notation)
uses planning
skills with limited
effectiveness
uses planning
skills with some
effectiveness
uses planning skills
with considerable
effectiveness
uses planning
skills with a
high degree of
effectiveness
Use of processing skills (e.g.,
analysing, evaluating, inferring,
interpreting, editing, revising, refining,
forming conclusions, detecting bias,
synthesizing)
uses processing
skills with limited
effectiveness
uses processing
skills with some
effectiveness
uses processing
skills with
considerable
effectiveness
uses processing
skills with a
high degree of
effectiveness
Use of critical/creative thinking
processes (e.g., creative and analytical
processes, design process, exploration
of the elements, problem solving,
reflection, elaboration, oral discourse,
evaluation, critical literacy, metacognition, invention, critiquing, reviewing)
uses critical/
creative thinking
processes with
limited
effectiveness
uses critical/
creative thinking
processes with
some effectiveness
uses critical/
creative thinking
processes with
considerable
effectiveness
uses critical/
creative thinking
processes with
a high degree
of effectiveness
Categories
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Communication – The conveying of meaning through various forms
The student:
Expression and organization of ideas
and understandings in art forms
(dance, drama, media arts, music,
and visual arts) (e.g., expression of
ideas and feelings using visuals, movements, the voice, gestures, phrasing,
techniques), and in oral and written
forms (e.g., clear expression and logical
organization in critical responses to art
works and informed opinion pieces)
expresses and
organizes ideas
and understandings with limited
effectiveness
expresses and
organizes ideas
and understandings with some
effectiveness
expresses and
organizes ideas
and understandings with
considerable
effectiveness
expresses and
organizes ideas
and understandings with a high
degree of effectiveness
Communication for different audiences (e.g., peers, adults, younger children) and purposes through the arts
(e.g., drama presentations, visual arts
exhibitions, media installations, dance
and music performances) and in oral
and written forms (e.g., debates,
analyses)
communicates
for different
audiences
and purposes
with limited
effectiveness
communicates
for different
audiences
and purposes
with some
effectiveness
communicates
for different
audiences and
purposes with
considerable
effectiveness
communicates
for different
audiences and
purposes with
a high degree
of effectiveness
Use of conventions in dance, drama,
media arts, music, and visual arts (e.g.,
allegory, narrative or symbolic representation, style, articulation, drama conventions, choreographic forms, movement
vocabulary) and arts vocabulary and
terminology in oral and written forms
uses conventions,
vocabulary, and
terminology of
the arts with limited effectiveness
uses conventions,
vocabulary, and
terminology of
the arts with some
effectiveness
uses conventions,
vocabulary, and
terminology of
the arts with
considerable
effectiveness
uses conventions,
vocabulary, and
terminology of
the arts with a
high degree of
effectiveness
Application – The use of knowledge and skills to make connections within and between various contexts
The student:
applies knowledge
and skills in
familiar contexts
with limited
effectiveness
applies knowledge
and skills in
familiar contexts
with some
effectiveness
applies knowledge
and skills in
familiar contexts
with considerable
effectiveness
applies knowledge
and skills in
familiar contexts
with a high degree
of effectiveness
Transfer of knowledge and skills
(e.g., concepts, strategies, processes,
techniques) to new contexts (e.g., a
work requiring stylistic variation, an
original composition, student-led
choreography, an interdisciplinary
or multidisciplinary project)
transfers knowledge and skills
to new contexts
with limited
effectiveness
transfers knowledge and skills
to new contexts
with some
effectiveness
transfers knowledge and skills
to new contexts
with considerable
effectiveness
transfers knowledge and skills
to new contexts
with a high degree
of effectiveness
Making connections within and
between various contexts (e.g.,
between the arts; between the arts and
personal experiences and the world
outside the school; between cultural
and historical, global, social, and/or
environmental contexts; between the
arts and other subjects)
makes connections
within and
between various
contexts with limited effectiveness
makes connections
within and
between various
contexts with
some effectiveness
makes connections
within and
between various
contexts with
considerable
effectiveness
makes connections
within and
between various
contexts with a
high degree of
effectiveness
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT
Application of knowledge and skills
(e.g., performance skills, composition,
choreography, elements, principles,
processes, technologies, techniques,
strategies, conventions) in familiar
contexts (e.g., guided improvisation,
performance of a familiar work, use of
familiar forms)
27
INFORMATION ON THE ACHIEVEMENT CHART
Categories of Knowledge and Skills
The categories represent four broad areas of knowledge and skills within which the subject expectations for any given course can be organized. The four categories should be
considered as interrelated, reflecting the wholeness and interconnectedness of learning.
The categories help teachers to focus not only on students’ acquisition of knowledge but
also on their development of the skills of thinking, communication, and application.
The categories of knowledge and skills are as follows:
Knowledge and Understanding. Subject-specific content acquired in each course
(knowledge), and the comprehension of its meaning and significance (understanding).
Thinking. The use of critical and creative thinking skills and/or processes.
Communication. The conveying of meaning and expression through various art forms.
Application. The use of knowledge and skills to make connections within and between
various contexts.
In all of their courses, students should be given numerous and varied opportunities to
demonstrate the full extent of their achievement of the curriculum expectations across all
four categories of knowledge and skills.
Teachers will ensure that student learning is assessed and evaluated in a balanced manner with respect to the four categories, and that achievement of particular expectations is
considered within the appropriate categories. The emphasis on “balance” reflects the fact
that all categories of the achievement chart are important and need to be a part of the
process of instruction, learning, assessment, and evaluation. However, it also indicates
that for different courses, the relative importance of each of the categories may vary.
The importance accorded to each of the four categories in assessment and evaluation
should reflect emphasis accorded to them in the curriculum expectations for the course,
and in instructional practice.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
To further guide teachers in their assessment and evaluation of student learning, the
achievement chart provides “criteria” and “descriptors”, which are described below.
28
Within each category in the achievement chart, criteria are provided, which are subsets
of the knowledge and skills that define each category. The criteria identify the aspects of
student performance that are assessed and/or evaluated, and serve as a guide to what
teachers look for. In the arts curriculum, the criteria for each category are as follows:
Knowledge and Understanding
• knowledge of content (e.g., facts, genres, terms, definitions, techniques, elements,
principles, forms, structures, conventions)
• understanding of content (e.g., concepts, ideas, styles, procedures, processes,
themes, relationships among elements, informed opinions)
Thinking
• use of planning skills (e.g., formulating questions, generating ideas, gathering
information, focusing research, outlining, organizing an arts presentation or project,
brainstorming/bodystorming, blocking, sketching, using visual organizers, listing
goals in a rehearsal log, inventing notation)
• use of processing skills (e.g., analysing, evaluating, inferring, interpreting, editing,
revising, refining, forming conclusions, detecting bias, synthesizing)
• use of critical/creative thinking processes (e.g., creative and analytical processes,
design process, exploration of the elements, problem solving, reflection, elaboration,
oral discourse, evaluation, critical literacy, metacognition, invention, critiquing,
reviewing)
Communication
• expression and organization of ideas and understandings in art forms (dance,
drama, media arts, music, and visual arts) (e.g., expression of ideas and feelings
using visuals, movements, the voice, gestures, phrasing, techniques), and in oral
and written forms (e.g., clear expression and logical organization in critical
responses to art works and informed opinion pieces)
• communication for different audiences (e.g., peers, adults, younger children)
and purposes through the arts (e.g., drama presentations, visual arts exhibitions,
media installations, dance and music performances) and in oral and written forms
(e.g., debates, analyses)
• use of conventions in dance, drama, media arts, music, and visual arts (e.g., allegory,
narrative or symbolic representation, style, articulation, drama conventions,
choreographic forms, movement vocabulary) and arts vocabulary and terminology
in oral and written forms
Application
• application of knowledge and skills (e.g., performance skills, composition,
choreography, elements, principles, processes, technologies, techniques, strategies,
conventions) in familiar contexts (e.g., guided improvisation, performance of a
familiar work, use of familiar forms)
• transfer of knowledge and skills (e.g., concepts, strategies, processes, techniques)
• making connections within and between various contexts (e.g., between the arts;
between the arts and personal experiences and the world outside the school; between
cultural and historical, global, social, and/or environmental contexts; between the
arts and other subjects)
“Descriptors” indicate the characteristics of the student’s performance, with respect to a
particular criterion, on which assessment or evaluation is focused. In the Knowledge and
Understanding category, the criteria are “knowledge of content” and “understanding of
content”; assessment of knowledge might focus on accuracy, for example, and assessment of
understanding might focus on the depth of an explanation. Effectiveness is the descriptor
used for each criterion in the Thinking, Communication, and Application categories. What
constitutes effectiveness in any given performance task will vary with the particular
ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT
to new contexts (e.g., a work requiring stylistic variation, an original composition,
student-led choreography, an interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary project)
29
criterion being considered. Assessment of effectiveness may therefore focus on a quality
such as appropriateness, clarity, accuracy, precision, logic, relevance, significance, fluency,
flexibility, depth, or breadth, as appropriate for the particular criterion. For example, in
the Thinking category, assessment of effectiveness might focus on the degree of relevance
or depth apparent in an analysis; in the Communication category, on clarity of expression
or logical organization of information and ideas; or in the Application category, on
appropriateness or breadth in the making of connections.
Levels of Achievement
The achievement chart also identifies four levels of achievement, defined as follows:
Level 1 represents achievement that falls much below the provincial standard. The student
demonstrates the specified knowledge and skills with limited effectiveness. Students
must work at significantly improving in specific areas, as necessary, if they are to be
successful in a course in the next grade.
Level 2 represents achievement that approaches the standard. The student demonstrates
the specified knowledge and skills with some effectiveness. Students performing at this
level need to work on identified learning gaps to ensure future success.
Level 3 represents the provincial standard for achievement. The student demonstrates
the specified knowledge and skills with considerable effectiveness. Parents of students
achieving at level 3 can be confident that their children will be prepared for work in
subsequent courses.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Level 4 identifies achievement that surpasses the provincial standard. The student
demonstrates the specified knowledge and skills with a high degree of effectiveness.
However, achievement at level 4 does not mean that the student has achieved expectations
beyond those specified for the course.
30
Specific “qualifiers” are used with the descriptors in the achievement chart to describe
student performance at each of the four levels of achievement – the qualifier limited is
used for level 1; some for level 2; considerable for level 3; and a high degree of or thorough
for level 4. Hence, achievement at level 3 in the Thinking category for the criterion
“use of planning skills” would be described in the achievement chart as “[The student]
uses planning skills with considerable effectiveness”.
SOME CONSIDERATIONS
FOR PROGRAM
PLANNING IN THE ARTS
When planning a program in the arts, teachers must take into account considerations in
a number of important areas, including those discussed below.
INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACHES
The arts curriculum is based on the premise that all students can be successful in arts
learning. One of the keys to student success in mastering arts skills and knowledge is
high-quality instruction. Since no single instructional approach can meet all of the needs
of each learner, teachers will select classroom activities that are based on an assessment
of students’ individual needs, proven learning theory, and best practices.
Students learn best when they are engaged in a variety of ways of learning. Arts courses
lend themselves to a wide range of approaches in that they require students to explore,
to create their own works, and to interpret the works of others either individually or in a
group. Teachers must provide a wide range of activities and assignments that encourage
mastery of the basic fundamental concepts and development of inquiry and research skills.
They also will provide ongoing feedback to students and frequent opportunities for students
to rehearse, practise, and apply skills and strategies, and to make their own choices. To make
the arts program interesting and relevant, teachers must also help students to relate the
knowledge and skills gained to issues and situations connected to their own world.
It is essential that teachers emphasize that the arts have a profound effect not only on
our society but on students’ everyday lives and their community. In all arts courses,
consideration should be given to including regular visits to and from guest artists with
diverse backgrounds and experiences, as well as field studies that help students to connect
with the arts world. Students develop a better understanding of various aspects of the
study of the arts when they can see and experience actual examples of the arts they are
studying. Such experiences also give them a better appreciation of the unique features
of the arts communities that affect their daily lives.
The arts courses outlined in this document have been designed for use throughout the
province, and the course expectations can be adapted to reflect the local arts and cultural
environment. The courses allow for constant changes in technology and take into consideration the evolving artistic global community, enabling teachers to develop lessons that
31
are creative, dynamic, and challenging for students. The courses also provide for explicit
teaching of knowledge and skills. In effective arts programs, teachers will introduce a
rich variety of activities that integrate expectations from different strands.
PLANNING ARTS PROGRAMS FOR STUDENTS WITH SPECIAL EDUCATION NEEDS
Classroom teachers are the key educators of students who have special education needs.
They have a responsibility to help all students learn, and they work collaboratively with
special education resource teachers, where appropriate, to achieve this goal. Special
Education Transformation: The Report of the Co-Chairs with the Recommendations of the
Working Table on Special Education, 2006 endorses a set of beliefs that should guide program
planning for students with special education needs in all disciplines.
Those beliefs are as follows:
• All students can succeed.
• Universal design2 and differentiated instruction3 are effective and interconnected
means of meeting the learning or productivity needs of any group of students.
• Successful instructional practices are founded on evidence-based research, tempered
by experience.
• Classroom teachers are key educators for a student’s literacy and numeracy
development.
• Each student has his or her own unique patterns of learning.
• Classroom teachers need the support of the larger community to create a learning
environment that supports students with special education needs.
• Fairness is not sameness.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
In any given classroom, students may demonstrate a wide range of strengths and needs.
Teachers plan programs that recognize this diversity and give students performance
tasks that respect their particular abilities so that all students can derive the greatest
possible benefit from the teaching and learning process. The use of flexible groupings for
instruction and the provision of ongoing assessment are important elements of programs
that accommodate a diversity of learning needs.
32
In planning arts courses for students with special education needs, teachers should
begin by examining the current achievement level of the individual student, the
strengths and learning needs of the student, and the knowledge and skills that all students
are expected to demonstrate at the end of the course, in order to determine which of the
following options is appropriate for the student:
• no accommodations4 or modified expectations; or
• accommodations only; or
• modified expectations, with the possibility of accommodations; or
• alternative expectations, which are not derived from the curriculum expectations
for a course and which constitute alternative programs and/or courses.
2. The goal of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is to create a learning environment that is open and accessible to
all students, regardless of age, skills, or situation. Instruction based on principles of universal design is flexible and
supportive, can be adjusted to meet different student needs, and enables all students to access the curriculum as
fully as possible.
3. Differentiated instruction is effective instruction that shapes each student’s learning experience in response to his or
her particular learning preferences, interests, and readiness to learn.
4. “Accommodations” refers to individualized teaching and assessment strategies, human supports, and/or individualized equipment.
If the student requires either accommodations or modified expectations, or both, the
relevant information, as described in the following paragraphs, must be recorded in
his or her Individual Education Plan (IEP). More detailed information about planning
programs for students with special education needs, including students who require
alternative programs and/or courses,5 can be found in The Individual Education Plan (IEP):
A Resource Guide, 2004 (referred to hereafter as the IEP Resource Guide, 2004). For a
detailed discussion of the ministry’s requirements for IEPs, see Individual Education Plans:
Standards for Development, Program Planning, and Implementation, 2000 (referred to hereafter as IEP Standards, 2000). (Both documents are available at www.edu.gov.on.ca.)
Students Requiring Accommodations Only
Some students are able, with certain accommodations, to participate in the regular
course curriculum and to demonstrate learning independently. Accommodations allow
access to the course without any changes to the knowledge and skills the student is
expected to demonstrate. The accommodations required to facilitate the student’s learning must be identified in his or her IEP (see IEP Standards, 2000, p. 11). A student’s IEP is
likely to reflect the same accommodations for many, or all, subjects or courses.
Providing accommodations to students with special education needs should be the
first option considered in program planning. Instruction based on principles of universal
design and differentiated instruction focuses on the provision of accommodations to
meet the diverse needs of learners.
There are three types of accommodations:
• Instructional accommodations are changes in teaching strategies, including styles
of presentation, methods of organization, or use of technology and multimedia.
• Environmental accommodations are changes that the student may require in the
classroom and/or school environment, such as preferential seating or special
lighting.
• Assessment accommodations are changes in assessment procedures that enable
If a student requires “accommodations only” in arts courses, assessment and evaluation
of his or her achievement will be based on the appropriate course curriculum expectations and the achievement levels outlined in this document. The IEP box on the student’s
Provincial Report Card will not be checked, and no information on the provision of
accommodations will be included.
Students Requiring Modified Expectations
Some students will require modified expectations, which differ from the regular course
expectations. For most students, modified expectations will be based on the regular
course curriculum, with changes in the number and/or complexity of the expectations.
Modified expectations represent specific, realistic, observable, and measurable achievements and describe specific knowledge and/or skills that the student can demonstrate
independently, given the appropriate assessment accommodations.
SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM PLANNING IN THE ARTS
the student to demonstrate his or her learning, such as allowing additional time
to complete tests or assignments or permitting oral responses to test questions
(see page 29 of the IEP Resource Guide, 2004, for more examples).
5. Alternative programs are identified on the IEP form by the term “alternative (ALT)”.
33
It is important to monitor, and to reflect clearly in the student’s IEP, the extent to which
expectations have been modified. As noted in section 7.12 of the ministry’s policy document Ontario Secondary Schools, Grades 9 to 12: Program and Diploma Requirements, 1999,
the principal will determine whether achievement of the modified expectations constitutes
successful completion of the course, and will decide whether the student is eligible to
receive a credit for the course. This decision must be communicated to the parents and
the student.
When a student is expected to achieve most of the curriculum expectations for the
course, the modified expectations should identify how the required knowledge and skills
differ from those identified in the course expectations. When modifications are so extensive
that achievement of the learning expectations (knowledge, skills, and performance tasks)
is not likely to result in a credit, the expectations should specify the precise requirements
or tasks on which the student’s performance will be evaluated and which will be used to
generate the course mark recorded on the Provincial Report Card.
Modified expectations indicate the knowledge and/or skills the student is expected to
demonstrate and have assessed in each reporting period (IEP Standards, 2000, pp. 10 and 11).
The student’s learning expectations must be reviewed in relation to the student’s progress
at least once every reporting period, and must be updated as necessary (IEP Standards,
2000, p. 11).
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
If a student requires modified expectations in arts courses, assessment and evaluation of
his or her achievement will be based on the learning expectations identified in the IEP
and on the achievement levels outlined in this document. If some of the student’s learning
expectations for a course are modified but the student is working towards a credit for
the course, it is sufficient simply to check the IEP box on the Provincial Report Card.
If, however, the student’s learning expectations are modified to such an extent that the
principal deems that a credit will not be granted for the course, the IEP box must be
checked and the appropriate statement from the Guide to the Provincial Report Card,
Grades 9–12, 1999 (p. 8) must be inserted. The teacher’s comments should include relevant
information on the student’s demonstrated learning of the modified expectations, as well
as next steps for the student’s learning in the course.
34
PROGRAM CONSIDERATIONS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS
Ontario schools have some of the most multilingual student populations in the world.
The first language of approximately twenty per cent of the students in Ontario’s Englishlanguage schools is a language other than English. Ontario’s linguistic heritage includes
many First Nation and Inuit languages, the Métis language, and many African, Asian,
and European languages. It also includes some varieties of English – also referred to as
dialects – that differ significantly from the English required for success in Ontario schools.
Many English language learners were born in Canada and have been raised in families
and communities in which languages other than English, or varieties of English that differ
from the language used in the classroom, are spoken. Other English language learners
arrive in Ontario as newcomers from other countries; they may have experience of highly
sophisticated educational systems, or they may have come from regions where access
to formal schooling was limited.
When they start school in Ontario, many of these students are entering a new linguistic
and cultural environment. All teachers share in the responsibility for these students’
English-language development.
English language learners (students who are learning English as a second or additional
language in English-language schools) bring a rich diversity of background knowledge
and experience to the classroom. These students’ linguistic and cultural backgrounds not
only support their learning in their new environment but also become a cultural asset in
the classroom community. Teachers will find positive ways to incorporate this diversity
into their instructional programs and into the classroom environment.
Most English language learners in Ontario schools have an age-appropriate proficiency
in their first language. Although they need frequent opportunities to use English at
school, there are important educational and social benefits associated with continued
development of their first language while they are learning English. Teachers need to
encourage parents to continue to use their own language at home in rich and varied
ways as a foundation for language and literacy development in English. It is also important for teachers to find opportunities to bring students’ languages into the classroom,
using parents and community members as a resource.
During their first few years in Ontario schools, English language learners may receive
support through one of two distinct programs from teachers who specialize in meeting
their language-learning needs:
English as a Second Language (ESL) programs are for students born in Canada or newcomers whose first language is a language other than English, or is a variety of English
significantly different from that used for instruction in Ontario schools.
In planning programs for students with linguistic backgrounds other than English,
teachers need to recognize the importance of the orientation process, understanding that
every learner needs to adjust to the new social environment and language in a unique
way and at an individual pace. For example, students who are in an early stage of
English-language acquisition may go through a “silent period” during which they closely
observe the interactions and physical surroundings of their new learning environment.
They may use body language rather than speech or they may use their first language
until they have gained enough proficiency in English to feel confident of their interpretations and responses. Students thrive in a safe, supportive, and welcoming environment
that nurtures their self-confidence while they are receiving focused literacy instruction.
When they are ready to participate, in paired, small-group, or whole-class activities,
some students will begin by using a single word or phrase to communicate a thought,
while others will speak quite fluently.
SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM PLANNING IN THE ARTS
English Literacy Development (ELD) programs are primarily for newcomers whose first
language is a language other than English, or is a variety of English significantly different
from that used for instruction in Ontario schools, and who arrive with significant gaps in
their education. These students generally come from countries where access to education
is limited or where there are limited opportunities to develop language and literacy skills
in any language. Some First Nation, Métis, or Inuit students from remote communities in
Ontario may also have had limited opportunities for formal schooling, and they also may
benefit from ELD instruction.
35
In a supportive learning environment, most students will develop oral language proficiency
quite quickly. Teachers can sometimes be misled by the high degree of oral proficiency
demonstrated by many English language learners in their use of everyday English and
may mistakenly conclude that these students are equally proficient in their use of academic English. Most English language learners who have developed oral proficiency in
everyday English will nevertheless require instructional scaffolding to meet curriculum
expectations. Research has shown that it takes five to seven years for most English language learners to catch up to their English-speaking peers in their ability to use English
for academic purposes.
Responsibility for students’ English-language development is shared by the classroom
teacher, the ESL/ELD teacher (where available), and other school staff. Volunteers and
peers may also be helpful in supporting English language learners in the language classroom. Teachers must adapt the instructional program in order to facilitate the success of
these students in their classrooms. Appropriate adaptations include:
• modification of some or all of the subject expectations so that they are challenging
but attainable for the learner at his or her present level of English proficiency,
given the necessary support from the teacher;
• use of a variety of instructional strategies (e.g., extensive use of visual cues, graphic
organizers, and scaffolding; previewing of textbooks; pre-teaching of key vocabulary; peer tutoring; strategic use of students’ first languages);
• use of a variety of learning resources (e.g., visual material, simplified text, bilingual
dictionaries, and materials that reflect cultural diversity);
• use of assessment accommodations (e.g., granting of extra time; use of oral interviews,
demonstrations or visual representations, or tasks requiring completion of graphic
organizers or cloze sentences instead of essay questions and other assessment
tasks that depend heavily on proficiency in English).
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
When learning expectations in any course are modified for an English language learner
(whether the student is enrolled in an ESL or ELD course or not), this information must
be clearly indicated on the student’s report card.
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Although the degree of program adaptation required will decrease over time, students
who are no longer receiving ESL or ELD support may still need some program adaptations to be successful.
For further information on supporting English language learners, refer to The Ontario
Curriculum, Grades 9–12: English as a Second Language and English Literacy Development,
2007; English Language Learners – ESL and ELD Programs and Services: Policies and
Procedures for Ontario Elementary and Secondary Schools, Kindergarten to Grade 12, 2007;
and the resource guides Supporting English Language Learners with Limited Prior
Schooling: A Practical Guide for Ontario Educators, Grades 3 to 12, 2008 and Many Roots,
Many Voices: Supporting English Language Learners in Every Classroom, 2005.
ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND THE ARTS
Ontario’s education system will prepare students with the knowledge, skills, perspectives,
and practices they need to be environmentally responsible citizens. Students will
understand our fundamental connections to each other and to the world around us
through our relationship to food, water, energy, air, and land, and our interaction with
all living things. The education system will provide opportunities within the classroom
and the community for students to engage in actions that deepen this understanding.
Acting Today, Shaping Tomorrow: A Policy Framework for Environmental
Education in Ontario Schools (2009), p. 6
Acting Today, Shaping Tomorrow: A Policy Framework for Environmental Education in
Ontario Schools outlines an approach to environmental education that recognizes the
needs of all Ontario students and promotes environmental responsibility in the operations of all levels of the education system.
The three goals outlined in Acting Today, Shaping Tomorrow are organized around the
themes of teaching and learning, student engagement and community connections, and
environmental leadership. The first goal is to promote learning about environmental
issues and solutions. The second is to engage students in practising and promoting
environmental stewardship, both in the school and in the community. The third stresses
the importance of providing leadership by implementing and promoting responsible
environmental practices throughout the education system so that staff, parents, community
members, and students become dedicated to living more sustainably.
The arts can also be powerful forms of expression for students to use to explore and
articulate the social and political impact of issues related to the environment. Art works
can also be used to advocate protection of and respect for the environment. As well, the
actual use of arts materials can be related to environmental education. Many safety
guidelines are followed to reduce harmful effects arising from the interaction of potentially
hazardous substances with the environment. As students learn about the safe handling
and disposal of substances used in the arts, they have opportunities to explore how
everyday human interactions with the environment can have significant consequences.
SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM PLANNING IN THE ARTS
There are many opportunities to integrate environmental education into the teaching of
the arts. Nature often provides an inspirational starting point for creativity in both representational and more abstract art forms. Indeed, a sense of connection to the immediate
environment and the natural world is frequently reflected in the arts – from Paleolithic
cave paintings of animals and traditional dances and performances that evoke aspects
of nature to landscape painting and Impressionist music. To facilitate these connections,
arts teachers are encouraged to take students out of the classroom and into the world
beyond the school to help students observe, explore, and investigate nature, and to
design activities that allow students to integrate natural materials into their creative works.
Performances and installations that take place in the natural environment can also provide
students with unique insights into environmental issues, as well as stimulate creative
opportunities.
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HEALTHY RELATIONSHIPS AND THE ARTS
Every student is entitled to learn in a safe, caring environment, free from violence and
harassment. Research has shown that students learn and achieve better in such environments. A safe and supportive social environment in a school is founded on healthy
relationships – the relationships between students, between students and adults, and
between adults. Healthy relationships are based on respect, caring, empathy, trust, and
dignity, and thrive in an environment in which diversity is honoured and accepted. Healthy
relationships do not tolerate abusive, controlling, violent, harassing, or inappropriate
behaviours. To experience themselves as valued and connected members of an inclusive
social environment, students need to be involved in healthy relationships with their
peers, teachers, and other members of the school community.
Several provincial policies and initiatives, including the “Foundations for a Healthy
School” framework, the equity and inclusive education strategy, and the Safe Schools
strategy, are designed to foster caring and safe learning environments in the context of
healthy and inclusive schools. These policies and initiatives promote positive learning
and teaching environments that support the development of healthy relationships,
encourage academic achievement, and help all students reach their full potential.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
In its 2008 report, Shaping a Culture of Respect in Our Schools: Promoting Safe and Healthy
Relationships, the Safe Schools Action Team confirmed “that the most effective way to
enable all students to learn about healthy and respectful relationships is through the
school curriculum” (p. 11). Teachers can promote this learning in a variety of ways. For
example, by giving students opportunities to apply critical thinking and problem-solving
strategies and to address issues through group discussions, role play, case study analysis,
and other means, they can help them develop and practise the skills they need for building
healthy relationships. Co-curricular activities such as clubs and intramural and interschool sports provide additional opportunities for the kind of interaction that helps
students build healthy relationships. Teachers can also have a decisive influence on
students by modelling the behaviours, values, and skills that are needed to develop
and sustain healthy relationships, and by taking advantage of “teachable moments”
to address immediate relationship issues that may arise among students.
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Skills in building healthy relationships are developed as part of the arts curriculum.
For example, courses include expectations that develop skills associated with ensemble
performances in dance, drama, and music, and collaborative work in visual and media arts.
They help students to appreciate the value of each others’ contribution and to support
each other in these experiences. The Foundations strand in each arts course includes
expectations on etiquette and ethical practices related to the discipline to encourage respect,
trust, and honesty. Students have many opportunities to develop healthy relationships in
the arts classroom and during rehearsals. In addition, arts teachers can encourage students
to participate in arts councils or other arts groups where students can interact with various
other students and make friends.
EQUITY AND INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN THE ARTS PROGRAM
The Ontario equity and inclusive education strategy focuses on respecting diversity, promoting inclusive education, and identifying and eliminating discriminatory biases, systemic barriers, and power dynamics that limit the ability of students to learn, grow, and
contribute to society. Antidiscrimination education continues to be an important
and integral component of the strategy.
In an environment based on the principles of inclusive education, all students, parents,
caregivers, and other members of the school community – regardless of ancestry, culture,
ethnicity, sex, physical or intellectual ability, race, religion, gender identity, sexual orientation, socio-economic status, or other similar factors – are welcomed, included, treated fairly,
and respected. Diversity is valued, and all members of the school community feel safe,
comfortable, and accepted. Every student is supported and inspired to succeed in a culture
of high expectations for learning. In an inclusive education system, all students see themselves reflected in the curriculum, their physical surroundings, and the broader environment, so that they can feel engaged in and empowered by their learning experiences.
The implementation of antidiscrimination principles in education influences all aspects
of school life. It promotes a school climate that encourages all students to work to high
levels of achievement, affirms the worth of all students, and helps students strengthen
their sense of identity and develop a positive self-image. It encourages staff and students
alike to value and show respect for diversity in the school and the broader society.
Antidiscrimination education promotes fairness, healthy relationships, and active,
responsible citizenship.
Teachers can give students a variety of opportunities to learn about diversity and diverse
perspectives. By drawing attention to the contributions of women, the perspectives of
various ethnocultural, religious, and racial communities, and the beliefs and practices of
First Nation, Métis, and Inuit peoples, they enable students from a wide range of backgrounds to see themselves reflected in the curriculum. It is essential that learning activities
and materials used to support the curriculum reflect the diversity of Ontario society. In
addition, teachers should differentiate instruction and assessment strategies to take into
account the background and experiences, as well as the interests, aptitudes, and learning
needs of all students.
In an inclusive arts program, learning resources and art work presented for analysis
reflect the broad range of both female and male students’ interests, backgrounds, cultures,
and experiences. Teachers routinely use materials that reflect the diversity of Canadian
and world cultures, including those of contemporary First Nation, Métis, and Inuit
peoples, and ensure that students have access to such material. At the same time, the
creation of various forms of art, inspired by styles from diverse cultures, provides
opportunities for students to explore issues relating to their identity.
SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM PLANNING IN THE ARTS
School–community interactions should reflect the diversity of both the local community
and the broader society. A variety of strategies can be used to communicate with and
engage parents and community members from diverse communities, and to encourage
their participation in and support of school activities, programs, and events. Family and
community members should be invited to take part in teacher interviews, the school
council, and the parent involvement committee, and to attend and support activities
such as plays, concerts, co-curricular activities and events, and various special events at
the school. Schools may consider offering assistance with childcare or making alternative
scheduling arrangements in order to help caregivers participate. Students can also help
by encouraging and accompanying their families, who may be unfamiliar with the Ontario
school system. Special outreach strategies and encouragement may be needed to draw
in the parents of First Nation, Métis, or Inuit students, and to make them feel more
comfortable in their interactions with the school.
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Students should be made aware of the historical, cultural, and political contexts of both
the traditional and non-traditional gender and social roles represented in the material
they are studying. Attention should be drawn to the ways in which minority groups are
represented. In visual arts, for instance, examples can be taken from traditional art forms
and crafts, which in the past were largely the purview of women, as well as from fine arts.
In music, male and female students should be encouraged to play instruments of their
choice without facing gender bias. In dance, opportunities to explore non-stereotypical
social roles in dance forms should be provided. The dramatic arts provide opportunities
for teachers and students to examine the work of Aboriginal storytellers and playwrights
and those from other minority groups.
Outside the classroom, the work of women and many minority groups is underrepresented
in public galleries, theatres, dance and music concert halls, and the world of popular
culture. As a result, women’s and minority perspectives and viewpoints in drama, film,
dance, music, and the visual arts are limited. Changes are occurring, however. For example,
many instrumental music groups hold auditions for new members behind a screen so
that the evaluators cannot tell whether they are assessing female or male instrumentalists.
Nevertheless, there are few female conductors of major orchestras in the world, and in
the dance world, the works of male choreographers predominate. Teachers should make
students aware of these equity issues and ensure that the work of a socio-culturally and
historically diverse range of both women and men is valued and explored. As well,
teachers should provide positive role models for both male and female students in the
areas they are exploring, both to engage the students and to help them consider the
possibility of careers in those areas.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
The arts give both students and teachers a unique way to explore positive ways of dealing
with the social and emotional impact of various forms of discrimination, such as racism,
sexism, homophobia, and religious intolerance, as well as the effects of bullying, harassment, and other expressions of violence and hatred. Teachers can help students link the
understanding they gain in this regard to messages conveyed through the school’s
antibullying and violence-prevention programs.
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Participation in the arts can also benefit students who have not had educational or
economic advantages. By being actively engaged in arts activities, students become
motivated and can develop the ability to be persistent in tasks; through their successes,
they develop self-confidence. In addition, participation in the arts gives them opportunities
to develop social skills, such as skills in conflict resolution, self-control, and collaboration,
as well as social tolerance and empathy. They can also learn to take creative risks in a
safe environment.
MULTIPLE LITERACIES IN THE ARTS
Literacies in the arts are developed as students learn in, through, and about different art
forms within the arts disciplines and as they learn to use the “languages” of these disciplines to communicate and to interpret meaning. There are many ways of knowing and
of communicating what we know and understand, and the arts provide multiple avenues
for expression. These include the visual (e.g., still and animated images, layout, design,
hypermedia, three-dimensional forms), oral (e.g., timbre and tone of voice), gestural
(e.g., body language, kinesthetic movement), and aural (e.g., music, sound effects) –
in fact, anything that can be “read”, whether it uses print or other symbol systems to
communicate. Visual, auditory, or kinesthetic signs and symbols are used by artists,
choreographers, composers, dancers, dramatists, and musicians as part of the language
of their discipline.
Because the arts offer various ways of knowing and different forms of communication,
they provide students with relevant options for developing and representing their
understanding. Education in arts programs is relevant to learning in all disciplines because
it offers students different means of expression while strengthening linguistic literacy,
and it offers teachers various ways of differentiating instruction and engaging students
in learning. In addition, since art forms, genres, styles, and techniques are rooted in a
cultural context, students have an opportunity to develop an understanding of the
meaning of the artistic languages used in art forms from various cultures by studying
art forms in their cultural context.
The various arts disciplines are therefore a vital component of literacy education. The arts
disciplines promote literacies that contribute to students’ ability to explore, negotiate,
communicate, interpret, and make sense of the changing realities of contemporary
culture, technology, and society. Since technological advances continue to develop at
an unprecedented rate, educators should promote the learning of multiple literacies as
crucial to living successfully in an age in which communication and change have so
much importance. Education in the arts prepares students not only to adapt to change
but also to be active participants in bringing about change.
LITERACY, MATHEMATICAL LITERACY, AND INQUIRY/RESEARCH SKILLS
Literacy, mathematical literacy, and inquiry/research skills are critical to students’ success
in all subjects of the curriculum and in all areas of their lives.
The arts program also builds on, reinforces, and enhances mathematical literacy. For
example, clear, concise communication often involves the use of diagrams, charts, tables,
and graphs, and many components of the arts curriculum emphasize students’ ability
to interpret and use symbols and graphic texts. In addition, mathematical equations can
be used in such activities as developing architectural drawings to scale – for example,
drawings showing the design and construction of a model of a Roman-style column.
Links can also be made between mathematical reasoning and musical composition.
Inquiry and research are at the heart of learning in all subject areas. In arts courses, students
are encouraged to develop their ability to ask questions and to explore a variety of possible
answers to those questions. As they advance through the grades, they acquire the skills
to locate relevant information from a variety of sources, such as books, periodicals,
SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM PLANNING IN THE ARTS
Many of the activities and tasks that students undertake in the arts curriculum involve
the literacy skills relating to oral, written, and visual communication. For example,
students use language to record their observations, to describe their critical analyses in
both informal and formal contexts, and to present their findings in presentations and
reports in oral, written, graphic, and multimedia forms. Understanding in the arts
requires the use and understanding of specialized terminology. In all arts courses,
students are required to use appropriate and correct terminology, and are encouraged
to use language with care and precision in order to communicate effectively.
41
dictionaries, encyclopedias, interviews, videos, and the Internet. The questioning they
practised in the early grades becomes more sophisticated as they learn that all sources of
information have a particular point of view and that the recipient of the information has
a responsibility to evaluate it, determine its validity and relevance, and use it in appropriate ways. The ability to locate, question, and validate information allows a student to
become an independent, lifelong learner.
CRITICAL THINKING AND CRITICAL LITERACY IN THE ARTS
Critical thinking is the process of thinking about ideas or situations in order to understand them fully, identify their implications, make a judgement, and/or guide decision
making. Critical thinking includes skills such as questioning, predicting, analysing,
synthesizing, examining opinions, identifying values and issues, detecting bias, and
distinguishing between alternatives. It involves an inquiry process of exploring questions
about and solutions for issues that are not clearly defined and for which there are no
clear-cut answers. Students who are taught these skills become critical thinkers who
do not merely accept the obvious as a given.
Students use critical thinking skills in the arts when they assess, analyse, and/or evaluate
the impact of something and when they form an opinion about something and support
that opinion with a rationale. In order to think critically, students need to examine the
opinions and values of others, detect bias, look for implied meaning, and use the information gathered to form a personal opinion or stance, or a personal plan of action with
regard to making a difference.
As they work to achieve the arts expectations, students frequently need to identify the
possible implications of choices. As they gather information from a variety of sources,
they need to be able to interpret what they are listening to, reading, or viewing; to look
for instances of bias; and to determine why that source might express that particular bias.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
In developing critical thinking skills in the arts, students must ask good questions to
interpret information, detect bias, and consider the values and perspectives of a variety
of groups and individuals.
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Critical literacy is the capacity for a particular type of critical thinking that involves
looking beyond the literal meaning of a text to determine what is present and what is
missing, in order to analyse and evaluate the text’s complete meaning and the author’s
intent. Critical literacy goes beyond conventional critical thinking by focusing on issues
related to fairness, equity, and social justice. Critically literate students adopt a critical
stance, asking what view of the world the text advances and whether they find this
view acceptable, who benefits from the text, and how the reader is influenced.
Critically literate students understand that meaning is not found in texts in isolation.
People make sense of a text, or determine what a text means, in a variety of ways. Students
therefore need to be aware of points of view (e.g., those of people from various cultures),
the context (e.g., the beliefs and practices of the time and place in which a text was created),
the background of the person interacting with the text (e.g., upbringing, friends, communities, education, experiences), intertextuality (e.g., information that a viewer brings to a
text from other texts experienced previously), gaps in the text (e.g., information that is
left out and that the reader or viewer must fill in), and silences in the text (e.g., voices
of a person or group not heard).
In the arts, students who are critically literate are able, for example, to actively analyse
art works and other texts and determine potential motives and underlying messages.
They are able to determine what biases might be contained in an art work and why that
might be, how the content of the art work was determined and by whom, and whose
perspectives might have been left out and why. Students would then be equipped to
produce their own interpretation of the work and their own opinion on its message or
the issue it addresses. Opportunities should be provided for students to engage in a
critical discussion of “texts”, which can include television programs, movies, web pages,
advertising, music, gestures, oral texts, visual art works, media arts installations, and
other means of expression. This discussion empowers students to understand the impact
intended by the creator of the text on members of society. Language and communication
are never neutral: they are used to inform, entertain, persuade, and manipulate.
THE ROLE OF THE SCHOOL LIBRARY IN THE ARTS PROGRAM
The school library program can help to build and transform students’ knowledge to
support lifelong learning in our information- and knowledge-based society. The school
library program supports student success across the arts curriculum by encouraging
students to read widely, teaching them to examine and read many forms of text for
understanding and enjoyment, and helping them to improve their research skills and
to use information gathered through research effectively.
The school library program enables students to:
• develop a love of reading for learning and for pleasure;
• develop a critical appreciation of works of art;
• acquire an understanding of the richness and diversity of artistic and informa-
tional texts produced in Canada and around the world;
• obtain access to programs, resources, and integrated technologies that support all
curriculum areas;
learning.
The school library program plays a key role in the development of information literacy
and research skills. In collaboration with classroom or content-area teachers, teacherlibrarians design, teach, and provide students with authentic information and research
tasks that foster learning, including the ability to:
• access, select, gather, process, critically evaluate, create, and communicate
information;
• use the information obtained to explore and investigate issues, solve problems,
make decisions, build knowledge, create personal meaning, and enrich their lives;
• communicate their findings for different audiences, using a variety of formats and
technologies;
• use information and research with understanding, responsibility, and imagination.
SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM PLANNING IN THE ARTS
• understand and value the role of public library systems as a resource for lifelong
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THE ROLE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY IN THE
ARTS PROGRAM
Information and communications technologies (ICT) provide a range of tools that can
significantly extend and enrich teachers’ instructional strategies and support student
learning. ICT tools include multimedia resources, databases, Internet websites, digital
cameras, and word-processing programs. Tools such as these can help students to collect,
organize, and sort the data they gather and to write, edit, and present reports on their
findings. ICT can also be used to connect students to other schools, at home and abroad,
and to bring the global community into the local classroom.
The integration of a wide range of technologies into the arts curriculum represents a
natural extension of the learning expectations associated with each art form. An education
in the arts will engage students in using various technologies through which artistic
expression can be achieved. The most obvious example is media arts, which primarily
involves solving artistic problems through the application of current technologies; for
example, students will gain skills and knowledge related to still and video photography,
sound recording, and digital technologies. Study of the other arts also provides excellent
opportunities for using relevant technologies. In the dance curriculum, students can use
choreographic software for composition and stage technologies for production. In drama,
students can gain facility in the use of lighting, sound, and other production technologies.
Students of music can use analog and digital technology – including notation, sequencing,
and accompaniment software – in composing, arranging, recording, and editing music.
Visual arts activities engage students in the use of current technologies – including websites
and graphic design software – both as research tools and as creative media. Of particular
interest in all of the arts is an analysis of the impact of various technologies on contemporary society.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Whenever appropriate, students should be encouraged to use ICT to support and
communicate their learning. For example, students working individually or in groups
can use computer technology and/or Internet websites to gain access to museums,
galleries, and archives in Canada and around the world. They can also use portable
storage devices to store information, as well as CD-ROM and DVD technologies and
digital cameras and projectors to organize and present the results of their research and
creative endeavours to their classmates and others.
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Although the Internet is a powerful learning tool, there are potential risks attached to
its use. All students must be made aware of issues of Internet privacy, safety, and
responsible use, as well as of the potential for abuse of this technology, particularly
when it is used to promote hatred.
ICT tools are also useful for teachers in their teaching practice, both for whole-class
instruction and for the design of curriculum units that contain varied approaches to
learning to meet diverse student needs. A number of educational software programs
to support the arts are licensed through the ministry and are listed on www.osapac.org
under the Software/Resource Search link.
THE ONTARIO SKILLS PASSPORT AND ESSENTIAL SKILLS
Teachers planning programs in the arts need to be aware of the purpose and benefits
of the Ontario Skills Passport (OSP). The OSP is a bilingual web-based resource that
enhances the relevance of classroom learning for students and strengthens school–work
connections. The OSP provides clear descriptions of Essential Skills such as Reading
Text, Writing, Computer Use, Measurement and Calculation, and Problem Solving and
includes an extensive database of occupation-specific workplace tasks that illustrate how
workers use these skills on the job. The Essential Skills are transferable, in that they are
used in virtually all occupations. The OSP also includes descriptions of important work
habits, such as working safely, being reliable, and providing excellent customer service.
The OSP is designed to help employers assess and record students’ demonstration of
these skills and work habits during their cooperative education placements. Students
can use the OSP to assess, practise, and build their Essential Skills and work habits and
transfer them to a job or further education or training.
The skills described in the OSP are the Essential Skills that the Government of Canada
and other national and international agencies have identified and validated, through
extensive research, as the skills needed for work, learning, and life. These Essential Skills
provide the foundation for learning all other skills and enable people to evolve with
their jobs and adapt to workplace change. For further information on the OSP and the
Essential Skills, visit http://skills.edu.gov.on.ca.
CAREER EDUCATION
Expectations in the arts program include many opportunities for students to apply their
skills to work-related situations, to explore educational and career options, and to
become self-directed learners. Arts education can provide students with knowledge and
a range of communication skills that are valued in various kinds of employment both
in the arts themselves and in marketing and public relations, tourism and hospitality,
teaching, and law. Teachers can help students to identify ways in which their involvement
in the arts enhances their suitability for a wide range of occupations.
COOPERATIVE EDUCATION AND OTHER FORMS OF EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING
Cooperative education and other forms of experiential learning, such as job shadowing,
field trips, and work experience, enable students to apply the skills they have developed
in the classroom to real-life activities in the community and in the world of business and
public service.
6. Paul Sereda, Culture Employment in a North American Context: 1981 to 2001 (Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2007), p. 18.
SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM PLANNING IN THE ARTS
Cultural industries are among the largest sectors of the economy, and educational and
career opportunities related to the arts are consequently many and varied. In fact, the
workforce in the culture sector has increased over a recent twenty-year period at a much
faster rate than the total workforce in Canada.6 Students can be encouraged to explore
careers as artists, technicians, or arts administrators. To prepare students for the varied
demands of a wide array of postsecondary educational programs and careers, arts courses
require students to develop skills and strategies in research, planning, and presentation.
Making oral presentations and working in small groups with classmates help students
express themselves confidently and work cooperatively with others.
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Cooperative education and work experience possibilities in the arts include a variety of
placements related to each art form. For example, visual arts students could extend their
understanding of graphic design and computer technologies by completing an internship
in a graphic arts studio or a publishing house. Music students could apply knowledge
acquired in class by working in a music library or a compact disk outlet. Media arts
students could gain insight into the practical and ethical issues associated with this
subject by assisting in a broadcasting facility or an advertising agency. Drama students
could apply skills gained at school and acquire insight into theatre practice by volunteering
as a production assistant at a professional theatre or community drama centre. Dance
students could enhance their knowledge of the elements of movement by leading creative
movement activities at a childcare centre. They could learn more about rehearsal discipline
by completing a placement at a professional dance company.
Teachers of the arts can support their students’ learning by maintaining links with
community-based arts organizations to ensure that students have access to hands-on
experiences that will reinforce the knowledge and skills gained in school.
PLANNING PROGRAM PATHWAYS AND PROGRAMS LEADING TO A SPECIALIST
HIGH SKILLS MAJOR
Arts courses are well suited for inclusion in programs leading to a Specialist High Skills
Major (SHSM) or in programs designed to provide pathways to particular apprenticeship
or workplace destinations. In an SHSM program, arts courses can be bundled with other
courses to provide the academic knowledge and skills important to particular industry
sectors and required for success in the workplace and postsecondary education, including
apprenticeship. Arts courses may also be combined with cooperative education credits to
provide the workplace experience required for SHSM programs and for various program
pathways to apprenticeship and workplace destinations. (SHSM programs would also
include sector-specific learning opportunities offered by employers, skills-training centres,
colleges, and community organizations.)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
HEALTH AND SAFETY IN THE ARTS PROGRAM
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As part of every course, students must be made aware that health and safety are everyone’s responsibility – at home, at school, and in the workplace. Students must be able to
demonstrate knowledge of the equipment being used and the procedures necessary for
its safe use.
In planning learning activities to help students achieve the arts curriculum expectations,
teachers need to ensure that students have opportunities to consider health and safety
issues. In the visual arts studio, for example, use of various liquids that may contain toxic
properties must be carefully monitored, and such materials must be securely stored when
not in use. Appropriate routines need to be in place in the dance and drama studio to
help students avoid physical injury as a result of carelessness or lack of proper warm-up.
Teachers should ensure that students feel comfortable emotionally and psychologically.
For example, they should discuss emotional roles in drama with the students; encourage
sensitivity to others’ cultural values; and encourage students to be aware of the personal
space of others, emphasizing that touching required for a dance or drama activity needs
to be respectful.
Health and safety issues not usually associated with arts education may be important
when the learning involves fieldwork. Out-of-school fieldwork can provide an exciting
and authentic dimension to students’ learning experiences. Teachers must preview and
plan these activities carefully to protect students’ health and safety.
ETHICS IN THE ARTS PROGRAM
The arts provide students with real-life situations that require them to develop an understanding of ethical issues, such as intellectual ownership and use of copyright material.
In a technological world in which it is very easy to copy and use various kinds of materials,
students must become aware of the ethical issues concerning, for example, reproducing
visual images, copying aspects of someone else’s style, and incorporating soundtracks in
their own works. Distinctions must be made between being inspired by others’ works in
the arts and reproducing others’ works or aspects of them as they create their own works.
SOME CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM PLANNING IN THE ARTS
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COURSES
DANCE
OVERVIEW
In dance courses at the Grade 11 and 12 level, students continue to learn in, about, and
through dance. The medium of expression is movement; the instrument is the human
body. Dance education goes beyond the study of a repertoire of movements to offer an
understanding of the principles and concepts that govern and define the art. Dance
transforms images, ideas, and feelings into movement sequences through innovative
choreographic insights. Learning in dance requires a balance of knowledge and skills,
and a synergy between intellect, ability, and emotion. Engagement in dance can provide
a context for understanding world issues and exploring a variety of cultures. The study
and practice of composition provide students with the essential building blocks that
support lifelong interest in, appreciation of, and curiosity about dance.
Students refine their kinesthetic awareness and use all of the elements of dance (body,
space, time, energy, relationship) to create dance works that explore themes and express
ideas and moods. Technique emphasizes the importance of physiological and safety
factors while leading to a fuller use of the body and all its parts, stimulating creative and
expressive abilities. Students use the elements of movement with increasing refinement,
complexity, and variety. They also give attention to development of alignment, balance,
correct breathing, flexibility, and strength in creating dance works and performing them
safely.
The art of dance should be shared. Students develop performance skills through formal
and informal presentations, helping them recognize and communicate both aesthetic and
personal values. They learn about the dynamic relationship between process and product.
Students also demonstrate an increased understanding of the role of dance in various
cultures, societies, and historical periods. They refine their ability to evaluate the quality
of performances by critiquing their own and others’ work.
The expectations for courses in dance are organized into three distinct but related strands:
1.
Creating and Presenting: Students use the creative process (see pages 15–17) to create,
re-create, and present dance composition in a variety of contexts. Creative work in
dance involves the realization of exercises, explorations, experiments, dance works,
and productions through the refinement of abilities, skills, and competencies. Students
demonstrate increased autonomy and innovation in their practice as both choreographer
and dancer. They develop personal metaphor and demonstrate their depth of understanding of the creative process. They become increasingly familiar with the tools of
stagecraft in dance presentations.
51
2.
Reflecting, Responding, and Analysing: The critical analysis process (see pages 17–22)
involves applying rational and logical thinking to learning in, about, and through
dance. Students demonstrate increasing autonomy and ability of all stages of the
critical analysis process. They evaluate their own dance work and the work of others,
reflect on how dance can enhance both personal well-being and community life,
investigate artistic and social influences on dance, and explore possibilities for
continuing engagement in dance.
3.
Foundations: This strand encompasses the body of knowledge, understanding, concepts,
conventions, and norms that create an underpinning and a context for dance as an
arts discipline. Understanding how to move the human body and expanding its
movement vocabulary helps students develop insight into how and why people
dance. Students examine developments in dance history and dance conventions
around the world. At the same time, they expand their awareness of the artistic
environment with respect to matters of safety, ethics, and acceptable modes of
conduct as an artist, performer, and critic.
For policy guidelines pertaining to focus courses, see pages 12–13 of this document.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
The list of approved focus courses for Dance can be found at:
www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/secondary/arts.html.
52
Dance, Grade 11
University/College Preparation
ATC3M
This course emphasizes the development of students’ artistry, improvisational and
compositional skills, and technical proficiency in dance genres from around the world.
Students will apply dance elements, techniques, and tools in a variety of ways, including performance situations; describe and model responsible practices related to the
dance environment; and reflect on how the study of dance affects personal and artistic
development.
Prerequisite: Dance, Grade 9 or 10, Open
53
A. CREATING, PRESENTING, AND
PERFORMING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
A1. The Creative Process: use the creative process, the elements of dance, and a variety of sources to
develop movement vocabulary;
A2. Choreography and Composition: combine the elements of dance in a variety of ways in composing
individual and ensemble dance creations;
A3. Dance Techniques: demonstrate an understanding of the dance techniques and movement
vocabularies of a variety of dance forms from around the world;
A4. Performance: apply dance presentation skills in a variety of contexts and performances.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
A1. The Creative Process
By the end of this course, students will:
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
A1.1 use the elements of dance to create and
perform increasingly complex dance phrases
inspired by a theme (e.g., use drawing or writing
to depict a theme evoked by a piece of instrumental music, then translate the theme into a series of
dance phrases; use free writing to identify themes
of interest to them, and create a series of movement
phrases based on key words or descriptions from
their writing)
54
Teacher prompt: “What aspects of the music did
you focus on in your writing or drawing? What
elements of dance will you focus on in translating these aspects into movement phrases?”
A1.2 create and perform increasingly complex
phrases that combine and manipulate the
elements of dance in a variety of ways (e.g.,
include one or more of compound time, repetition,
retrograde, or canon in a movement study; develop
three or more balances and create simple, organic,
connective movements to move from balance to
balance)
Teacher prompt: “Which element will you focus
on first when trying to create movement phrases
that meet several different criteria?”
A1.3 use the elements of dance to generate and
perform increasingly complex dance vocabulary
through improvisation and experimentation
with a partner or in a group (e.g., use contact
improvisation to develop movement with a partner,
with attention to considerations such as trust, the
sharing of weight, and non-verbal communication)
Teacher prompt: “In working with a partner,
how do you maintain balance as you pull away
from each other? What movement is generated
while getting into and out of this balance?”
A1.4 develop solutions to increasingly complex
compositional problems, and demonstrate
selected solutions through performance (e.g.,
use motif in the creation of solos, duets, and trios;
use variations on a theme within different configurations; demonstrate various ways of making
smooth transitions between different configurations; develop movement phrases that reflect the
dancers’ relationship to one another and to the
dance environment)
Teacher prompt: “In what ways are movement
motifs similar to narrative themes found in a
literary source? How could using a motif help
you express your ideas?”
A2. Choreography and Composition
By the end of this course, students will:
Teacher prompt: “What challenges does a
multi-focus work present to an audience?
What choreographic structures or techniques
could you use to help the viewer understand
what is going on?”
A2.2 create a complex dance composition that
explores a self- or teacher-selected theme (e.g.,
develop a dance interpretation of a theme suggested
by the film Hula Girls by Sang-il Lee)
Teacher prompt: “What dance structures could
you use to communicate your theme? How
could you use the elements to vary the structures to create interest?”
A2.3 use a variety of compositional approaches
to express a broad range of ideas and moods
through dance (e.g., determine which of two
compositional approaches offers more scope for
communicating a particular message or theme
through dance)
Teacher prompt: “What factors do you need to
consider when deciding on the most appropriate compositional approach for a particular
dance project?”
A3. Dance Techniques
By the end of this course, students will:
Teacher prompt: “How does your knowledge
of different movement vocabularies help you
learn new dance forms more easily? What
similarities do different forms share that help
you transfer your body knowledge from one
form to the next?”
A3.3 create and perform compositions that blend
the vocabulary and technique of two or more
dance forms from around the world (e.g.,
flamenco and belly dancing)
Teacher prompt: “How can you use the similarities between these two forms to make the
movements appear to flow seamlessly back
and forth between the forms?”
A4. Performance
By the end of this course, students will:
A4.1 revise, refine, and polish movement execution
and choreography with increased attention to
detail (e.g., use their own perceptions and feedback
from peers and the teacher to identify problems,
rework choreography, and refine their technical
execution of movements, timing, spacing, and
interactions)
ATC3M
Teacher prompt: “What aspects of your dance
are you not satisfied with? What specific things
do you think you need to improve?”
A4.2 use the tools of stagecraft with increasing
creativity to enhance their dance performances
(e.g., heighten the appeal to the senses by introducing incense, background sound, lighting effects,
and herbal tea, and by having the audience walk
into the space barefoot on bubble wrap)
Teacher prompt: “What changes could you make
to the performance environment that might
encourage a positive audience response to your
presentation?”
A4.3 apply an understanding of the artistic and
expressive intent of a work when rehearsing
and performing (e.g., pay attention to what their
bodies are doing individually and in relation to
other dancers; maintain awareness of the connection between their movements and the mood or
theme of a piece)
Teacher prompts: “Why is it important for you
to understand the intended meaning or effect
of a dance you are performing?” “What can
you do to prepare yourself mentally for a
dance performance?”
CREATING, PRESENTING, AND PERFORMING
A3.1 apply an understanding of the principal
movements of a variety of dance forms from
around the world (e.g., accurately perform key
movements from ballet or jazz dance, modern/
contemporary dance, and two or more world dance
forms such as Afro-Caribbean dance, salsa, and
the hula)
Teacher prompt: “How is momentum or speed
a factor in exploring the dynamics of this
phrase? For each movement quality, what is
the relationship of the body to gravity?”
Dance
A2.1 use a variety of choreographic forms, structures, and techniques to create and perform
increasingly complex dance works (e.g., working
in trios, develop a solo for each dancer, including a
movement motif that connects each solo; have the
solos performed simultaneously to create multiple
foci; then use unison performance of the movement
motif to create a theme and variation structure)
A3.2 accurately reproduce a range of dynamics
and movement techniques from a variety of
dance forms from around the world (e.g., correctly perform a given phrase that contains fall,
swing, and suspension)
55
Grade 11, University/College Preparation
B. REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND
ANALYSING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
B1. The Critical Analysis Process: use the critical analysis process to reflect on and evaluate their own
and others’ dance works and activities;
B2. Dance and Society: demonstrate an understanding of how societies present and past use or have
used dance, and of how creating and viewing dance can benefit individuals, groups, and communities;
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom: demonstrate an understanding of the purpose and possibilities
of continuing engagement in dance arts.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
B1. The Critical Analysis Process
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
B1.1 use the critical analysis process to compare
and contrast two Canadian choreographic
works (e.g., describe the stylistic difference in the
choreography of Allen Kaeja’s Asylum of Spoons
and Ginette Laurin’s Luna)
B2.1 identify some world and social dance forms
that have been introduced in Canada and
explain their growing influence or popularity
(e.g., the African dance of Zab Maboungou and
Le cercle d’expression artistique Nyata Nyata)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Teacher prompt: “How would you define contemporary dance? Why do you think there is
so much variety in this one dance form?”
56
B2. Dance and Society
B1.2 develop and use aesthetic criteria to evaluate
both the content and the fluency or expressiveness of student compositions (e.g., criteria
including but not limited to: variety of compositional structures, clarity of intent, suitability of
movement choices to purpose or theme, smoothness
of transitions, connection between movement and
musical mood and phrasing)
Teacher prompts: “What do you look for in
a dance when judging the movements and
movement patterns? Their variety and/or
complexity? The way they are combined?
What other qualities?” “What questions do you
ask about how level, shape or direction, and
rhythm have been used? About the handling
of transitions between sequences or sections?
About the connections between the music, the
movements, and the theme or purpose?”
Teacher prompt: “Why might a range of dance
forms from around the world attract interest
in Canada? What examples can you find?”
B2.2 explain how dance education contributes
to their personal growth and well-being (e.g.,
develop ten “Dance education gives me…” statements that reflect how they benefit from studying
dance)
Teacher prompt: “How could listing the benefits of dance education contribute to your
learning in dance?”
B2.3 explain how the culture of different societies
fostered the development of specific dances or
dance types (e.g., the “twist” in mid-twentiethcentury North America, the quadrille in eighteenthcentury France)
Teacher prompt: “What kinds of trends in popular culture have been linked to the emergence
of new forms of social dance?”
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom
By the end of this course, students will:
B3.1 identify a variety of career options that are
available in the dance arts and the skills
required for each (e.g., dancer, choreographer,
instructor, set/costume/lighting designer, publicist,
production manager, dance reviewer)
B3.2 develop and implement a plan to promote
dance education in their school community
(e.g., research how dance courses at their school
are viewed by other arts students, the general school
community, and teachers and administrators;
brainstorm ways to raise awareness of the benefits
and importance of dance arts for individuals and
communities)
B3.3 develop and maintain a traditional or digital
dance portfolio that demonstrates the depth and
breadth of their learning (e.g., record analyses
of or reflections on challenges they faced, how
they responded to them, and what they learned
from them)
Teacher prompt: “How have your dance skills
changed or developed since you created your
first portfolio? What moments or works do
you remember most clearly? What made them
particularly memorable or meaningful?”
Dance
Teacher prompts: “What are some careers in the
dance arts that support performers?” “How
many people are required to work on a professional dance show and what are their duties?”
Teacher prompt: “What can you do to find
out how the dance arts are perceived at your
school? How would you like dance to be
understood and treated at your school?
What steps could you take to promote your
viewpoint?”
ATC3M
REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND ANALYSING
57
Grade 11, University/College Preparation
C. FOUNDATIONS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
C1. Physiology and Terminology: demonstrate an understanding of, and use correct terminology when
referring to, the physiology of movement as it relates to dance;
C2. Contexts and Influences: demonstrate an understanding of the social, cultural, and historical origins
and development of dance forms, including their influence on each other and on society;
C3. Responsible Practices: demonstrate an understanding of safe, ethical, and responsible personal
and interpersonal practices in dance activities.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
C1. Physiology and Terminology
By the end of this course, students will:
C1.1 identify and describe alternative physical
practices that enhance dance training and
physical well-being (e.g., karate, aikido, ju-jitsu,
t’ai chi)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Teacher prompt: “Describe the relationship
between the Brazilian martial art of capoeira
and the dance form of the same name. What
connections can you make between the ‘ginga’
movement and modern dance steps that you
learn in class? How could developing the
strength, groundedness, and acrobatic ability
required for capoeira enhance your overall
learning in dance?”
58
C1.2 use biomechanical terminology to describe
movement (e.g., demonstrate and name the
movements that represent flexion/extension,
internal/external rotation, inversion/eversion)
Teacher prompts: “How would you describe
the Pilates exercises ‘hundreds’ and ‘the saw’
using biomechanical terms?” “How does
understanding biomechanics and how the
body moves help you to use self-correction
and peer feedback to improve your technique?”
C1.3 demonstrate, and describe using correct
terminology, the principal dance vocabulary
of a variety of dance forms from around the
world (e.g., describe and perform Latin dances
such as salsa, samba, meringue, rhumba; develop
an instructional DVD to explain a world dance
form to novice dancers, share the DVD with the
class, and ask for peer feedback on the effectiveness of their instruction)
C2. Contexts and Influences
By the end of this course, students will:
C2.1 demonstrate an understanding of key developments in Canadian dance history, including
the artistic contributions of Canadian dance
pioneers (e.g., the founding and development of
dance companies such as the Royal Winnipeg
Ballet or Decidedly Jazz Danceworks; the work
of dancer-choreographers such as Carol Anderson
or Robert Desrosiers)
Teacher prompts: “What were the goals of
the founders of the dance company? What
challenges did they face in establishing the
company in Canada? Are there other companies
like this in Canada?” “Who were the key artists
who founded Dancemakers, and what were
their goals? How have the company and its
work evolved since its founding?”
C2.2 describe how artistic, social, political, and
environmental events have influenced the evolution of local and global dance communities
(e.g., research and report on the effects of migration,
globalization, or art trends on the dance community
in Canada, or on the development of modern dance
as a vehicle for social commentary)
Teacher prompt: “How does dance compare
to drama and music as an effective way to
comment on environmental issues such as
pollution or global warming?”
C3.2 identify and carry out the responsibilities of
the varied roles they undertake during dance
activities (e.g., responsibilities of a choreographer,
costume manager, dancer, props or materials
manager, rehearsal director, sound technician)
Teacher prompts: “What are some examples of
dance or types of dance that challenge viewers’
ideas about age or race or gender?” “What are
some types of dance that challenge stereotypes
about who can perform or participate in dance?”
Teacher prompt: “What steps can you take to
ensure that each group member understands
the requirements of his or her role? What might
be the benefits of agreeing in advance on a
procedure to check that essential tasks are being
completed adequately and on time? What
might such a tracking mechanism look like?”
C3. Responsible Practices
By the end of this course, students will:
C3.1 demonstrate responsible, constructive
behaviour in interactions with others during
the creation and production processes (e.g.,
work cooperatively to solve problems and resolve
conflicts peacefully; show respect for others’ views
in open forum discussions about performances or
presentations by class members; use the phrase
“I saw” in place of “I like”)
Teacher prompt: “Why is it important to keep
value judgements out of your comments by
beginning statements with ‘I saw’?”
C3.3 identify and follow safe and ethical practices
in dance activities in both classroom and
performance settings (e.g., learn and apply
procedures for the safe use of equipment in studios,
classrooms, and rehearsal and performance spaces;
comply with laws, regulations, and customary
practices for the protection of choreographic,
creative, and intellectual property rights)
Teacher prompts: “What are some hazards
related to equipment use we need to be aware
of during dance activities? What physical,
psychological, or environmental hazards do we
need to protect against?” “How does copyright
law define and penalize theft of another choreographer’s work?” “How can you include
ideas from others’ work yet still make a work
your own?”
Dance
C2.3 identify ways in which dance genres they
have studied have challenged social or cultural
stereotypes or boundaries in the arts (e.g.,
describe the dance legacy of José Limón as a
response to the limitations of visual art)
ATC3M
FOUNDATIONS
59
Dance, Grade 11
Open
ATC3O
This course emphasizes the development of students’ movement vocabulary relating
to dance genres from around the world, and of their understanding of the elements of
dance and the tools of composition in a variety of performance situations. Students will
research and explain how physical, intellectual, and artistic skills developed in dance
can be applied in a wide range of careers. They will apply tools and techniques throughout the process of creation and presentation, and reflect on how studies in the dance arts
affect personal identity.
Prerequisite: None
60
A. CREATING, PRESENTING, AND
PERFORMING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
A2. Choreography and Composition: combine the elements of dance in a variety of ways in composing
individual and ensemble dance creations;
Dance
A1. The Creative Process: use the creative process, the elements of dance, and a variety of sources to
develop movement vocabulary;
A3. Dance Techniques: demonstrate an understanding of the dance techniques and movement
vocabularies of a variety of dance forms from around the world;
A4. Performance: apply dance presentation skills in a variety of contexts and performances.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
ATC3O
A1. The Creative Process
By the end of this course, students will:
A1.1 use the elements of dance to develop and
perform a series of connected dance phrases
inspired by a source (e.g., demonstrate “stages in
the life” of figures from various Rodin sculptures;
depict changes in an object from nature or the
surrounding environment)
Teacher prompts: “What other works of art
could be a source for dance creation?” “If you
think of this figure as moving in time, can you
demonstrate what preceded this moment, and
what you imagine happens next?”
Teacher prompt: “What happens when you
change direction abruptly? What happens
to your formation when you move forward,
backward, or in a zigzag?”
A1.3 use the elements of dance to produce and
perform movement vocabulary through guided
improvisation (e.g., explore negative space within
a small group in a variety of ways, collaboratively
Teacher prompt: “What strategies help you
remember movement ideas generated during
improvisation for use in a dance piece?”
A1.4 develop a variety of solutions to movement
problems following specific guidelines in performance (e.g., use juxtaposition, contrast, and/or
repetition with a partner to broaden movement
vocabulary)
Teacher prompt: “What other manipulations
can you include in the exploration to broaden
the development of your movement material?”
A2. Choreography and Composition
By the end of this course, students will:
A2.1 use a variety of choreographic forms, structures, and techniques to create and perform a
series of movement phrases (e.g., use a theme
and variation structure in a duet; create a group
composition using movement motifs that communicate a response to a natural or built environment
beyond the studio)
Teacher prompt: “In what way will your chosen
environment shape your movement patterns
and the relationships of the dancers?”
CREATING, PRESENTING, AND PERFORMING
A1.2 create and perform phrases that combine the
elements of dance in a variety of ways (e.g., use
body parts in a sequential and then in an isolated
way while alternating levels with each movement;
combine the elements of space and relationship in
a diagonal movement by a tightly clumped group)
decide on revisions, and repeat the improvisational
process several times until a sequence begins to
unfold)
61
Grade 11, Open
A2.2 create a dance composition inspired by a
source (e.g., develop dance phrases suggested by
Feathers and Fools by Mem Fox and Nicholas
Wilton or The Great Kapok Tree by Lynne Cherry
and use them as the basis for a longer composition)
Teacher prompts: “Which illustrations, images,
key words, and/or phrases from the story give
you ideas you can use in your composition?
Do they appeal to your visual imagination, or
your sense of sound or rhythm?” “What is the
story’s message? How can you translate that
message into the language of dance?”
A2.3 use a variety of compositional approaches
to express a range of ideas and moods through
dance (e.g., select evocative words from a poem
and create movement vocabulary to communicate
their meaning; compose a series of dance phrases
to reflect the structure and express the mood of a
piece of music)
Teacher prompt: “Which compositional
approaches will you use? Which ones are likely
to be most helpful in exploring new ways to
communicate through movement?”
A3. Dance Techniques
By the end of this course, students will:
A3.1 apply knowledge of the movement vocabularies of a variety of dance forms from around
the world (e.g., practise and demonstrate movements from ballet/jazz dance, modern/contemporary
dance, and one or more world dance forms, such
as the Anishinabe “jingle dress dance” and the
Punjabi bhangra dance)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Teacher prompt: “In what way does knowing
about the cultural or historical origins of a
dance form influence how you perform the
vocabulary?”
62
A3.2 accurately reproduce timing and phrasing
patterns found in a variety of dance forms
from around the world (e.g., correctly perform
a syncopated movement phrase)
Teacher prompts: “What visual or auditory
cues do you use to help you execute a specific
rhythmic timing in dance? Is music distracting
or helpful to your timing?” “Are mirrors helpful or distracting when you are focusing on
accurately learning the rhythm or timing of a
phrase?”
A3.3 arrange and present multiple sequences
using the dance vocabulary and technique
from an identified dance form (e.g., use the
vocabulary learned in Limón technique to create
a five-minute Limón technique demonstration for
a Grade 8 class)
Teacher prompt: “What aspects of the Limón
technique will you focus on in your
demonstration?”
A4. Performance
By the end of this course, students will:
A4.1 revise, refine, and polish movement execution and choreography (e.g., use teacher and peer
feedback to clarify their movement choices and
intention; rework or change phrases/sections that
need revision; polish the technical execution of
movement, timing, and spacing)
Teacher prompt: “Have you received feedback
encouraging you to change movement phrases
that you are really attached to? Do you understand the reasons behind the suggestions?
How could you work with the suggestions to
produce a solution you can feel good about?”
A4.2 use the tools of stagecraft to achieve specific
purposes in dance presentations (e.g., use lighting
to create a particular effect on stage or in the studio)
Teacher prompt: “What technologies can you
use to create lighting effects for your dance
piece if a lighting board and lighting instruments
such as spotlights, striplights, floodlights, and
follow spots are not available?”
A4.3 maintain an appropriate stage presence in
rehearsals and performances (e.g., demonstrate
awareness of self and others, a strong sense of
focus, and an appropriate frame of mind)
Teacher prompts: “How is the quality of your
dancing in rehearsals and performances affected
when you are distracted? How is the quality of
a performance affected when you are distracting
others?” “How do the energy and attitude you
bring to the rehearsal environment affect the
overall performance of the group?”
B. REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND
ANALYSING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
B2. Dance and Society: demonstrate an understanding of how societies present and past use or have used
dance, and of how creating and viewing dance can benefit individuals, groups, and communities;
Dance
B1. The Critical Analysis Process: use the critical analysis process to reflect on and evaluate their own
and others’ dance works and activities;
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom: demonstrate an understanding of the purpose and possibilities
of continuing engagement in dance arts.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
B1. The Critical Analysis Process
By the end of this course, students will:
B1.1 use the critical analysis process to describe
and compare a wide variety of dance forms
(e.g., identify and describe the movement vocabularies of two or more dance forms and explain what
is different and what is similar within these forms)
Teacher prompt: “Why does comparing one
dance form with another help you understand
each one more clearly?”
B1.2 analyse dance works in terms of both their
content and their fluency, artistry, or expressiveness (e.g., identify technical details of alignment
and placement in their peers’ movement combinations and explain how they affect the fluency and
expressiveness of their dance works)
B2. Dance and Society
By the end of this course, students will:
B2.1 compare the characteristics of a world dance
form and a social dance form and describe the
role each has in its society or culture of origin
(e.g., Odissi and square dance)
ATC3O
B2.2 explain how dance contributes to their
personal growth and self-understanding (e.g.,
develop a series of “Dance gives me…” statements
that reflect how they benefit from dance activities
within and outside of school)
Teacher prompt: “What areas of your life are
most affected by your learning in dance? In
what ways? Are there any areas that are not
touched by it?”
B2.3 identify and describe different types of
dance represented in a particular culture, and
describe their purposes (e.g., the characteristics
of rain dances in ancient Egypt and their relationship to environmental factors, agricultural practices,
and religious beliefs)
Teacher prompt: “What are some environmental issues in the world today? Which of these
issues could you comment on in a dance? How
might your dance be enhanced if you studied
how dances from other cultures addressed
environmental issues?”
REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND ANALYSING
Teacher prompt: “How can identifying the
details that give fluency to another person’s
movement combinations help you improve the
fluency of your own dance works?”
Teacher prompt: “How does traditional North
American square dance resemble other kinds
of folk dances? What are some ways it is different from other folk dances, past and present?
How would you describe the differences
between folk dance and other types of dance?”
63
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Grade 11, Open
By the end of this course, students will:
64
B3.1 identify physical, intellectual, and artistic
skills that are developed through dance, and
explain how they can be applied to a wide
range of careers (e.g., identify occupations that
require the type of discipline and patience needed
to participate in ballet class)
Teacher prompt: “What skills or personal
qualities are developed through studying
classical East Indian dance? What careers
require similar skills or qualities?”
B3.2 explain why it is important to support dance
arts in their community (e.g., explain how a
local dance organization contributes to community
life, and identify supports it needs to continue or
extend its activities)
Teacher prompt: “What would you include in a
detailed plan to help meet the needs of a community dance organization? How would you
implement that plan within the organization?”
B3.3 develop and maintain a traditional or digital
dance portfolio to demonstrate their learning
in a variety of ways (e.g., gather and organize
materials and records that reflect their evolution
as dance creators and performers)
Teacher prompt: “How could you use the
materials selected for your portfolio to create
a ‘narrative’ about your learning in dance
throughout the year? What story will your
portfolio tell?”
C. FOUNDATIONS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
C2. Contexts and Influences: demonstrate an understanding of the social, cultural, and historical origins
and development of dance forms, including their influence on each other and on society;
Dance
C1. Physiology and Terminology: demonstrate an understanding of, and use correct terminology when
referring to, the physiology of movement as it relates to dance;
C3. Responsible Practices: demonstrate an understanding of safe, ethical, and responsible personal
and interpersonal practices in dance activities.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
C1. Physiology and Terminology
By the end of this course, students will:
C1.1 identify and describe practices that can
enhance a positive body image and healthy
lifestyle and contribute to successful achievement in dance (e.g., making informed nutritional
choices; avoiding substance abuse; recognizing
negative patterns of behaviour; identifying and
building on their strengths)
Teacher prompt: “What are at least two positive
things you can say about yourself? How do the
positive comments affect how you see yourself
when you look in the mirror? What kinds of
positive comments have your peers written
about themselves? How have the comments
affected the mood or tone of the class?”
C1.2 demonstrate an understanding of specific
details of muscular anatomy as they relate to
movement (e.g., describe the relationships
between flexors, extensors, adductors, and
abductors; create a short warm-up exercise that
demonstrates the relationships between the skeletal
muscles in the upper and lower body; identify key
surface and deep muscles in different parts of their
anatomy and explain or demonstrate ways to
maintain or increase their strength)
ATC3O
Teacher prompt: “What are the key terms
and vocabulary we have studied this year?
What methods of memorization or demonstration might help you remember your dance
terminology?”
C2. Contexts and Influences
By the end of this course, students will:
C2.1 describe the historical development of one
or more dance forms (e.g., the development of
English folk dance; the evolution of contra dance
into salsa dance as we know it today)
Teacher prompt: “What are some effective
ways you can communicate information about
the evolution of the dance form(s) you are
interested in?”
C2.2 identify and describe ways in which dance
is or can be used to reflect or comment on
social questions in the local and/or global community (e.g., research and report on the themes
addressed by dance pieces such as Lamentation
by Martha Graham, A Flock of Flyers by the
dance/comedy group Corpus, and/or The Green
Table by Kurt Jooss, and the techniques they use
FOUNDATIONS
Teacher prompt: “How are tendons and
ligaments involved in the warm-up process?
What movements are included in your
warm-up? What muscle groups are used in
each movement?”
C1.3 demonstrate, and describe using correct terminology, movement repertoire from a variety
of dance forms from around the world (e.g.,
describe and perform capoeira movements such as
banda, cocorinha, ginga, rasteira; create games or
narratives involving both words and movements
to illustrate dance terminology)
65
Grade 11, Open
to communicate their message; research and report
on how companies such as CityDance Ensemble,
TRIP Dance Theater, and ODC Dance use dance
to comment on environmental issues)
Teacher prompt: “Which dance companies use
dance as social commentary most effectively?
Which of their approaches or techniques might
you adopt for your own purposes?”
C2.3 identify and describe similarities and differences in some dance forms from around the
world and illustrate them through performance
(e.g., do research to identify and compare some
characteristic gestures and movements of
Kathakali dance and Aboriginal dance, or tap
and flamenco, and perform excerpts from these
styles to demonstrate their findings)
Teacher prompt: “What are some of the characteristics of social dance from the 1960s? How
do these social dance forms reflect the music
of this era? What role does improvisation play
in this type of social dance? Is improvisation
used to make some kind of ‘statement’? If so,
what kind?”
C3. Responsible Practices
By the end of this course, students will:
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
C3.1 identify and follow responsible practices
while creating, performing, and viewing dance
(e.g., explain why it is important to avoid distracting
or inappropriate movement while viewing others’
performances; give constructive and respectful
feedback)
66
Teacher prompts: “Why is it important to
watch other students perform without making
comments while the presentation is in progress?”
“How does having an inattentive, noisy, or
restless audience affect your own performance?”
C3.2 demonstrate collaborative and negotiating
skills during rehearsal and performance (e.g.,
contribute their fair share to the creative process;
show willingness to negotiate group roles such as
motivator, scheduler, materials manager, project
coordinator)
Teacher prompts: “What do you do to build
trust and encourage people to contribute their
ideas?” “Do creation or presentation processes
work better when people feel that they have a
specific role/function in the group?”
C3.3 identify and follow safe and ethical practices
in dance activities in both classroom and performance settings (e.g., help others to use equipment safely; maintain appropriate boundaries;
show respect for the opinions of others during
class or group discussions; explain why it is
important to respect others’ choreographic and
intellectual property; create, describe, and perform
a presentation that shows how another person’s
work can be incorporated without plagiarizing)
Teacher prompts: “What specific safety concerns
do we need to be aware of during this activity?
Would it be helpful to give each student a
specific safety feature to be responsible for?”
“What is the difference between imitating and
plagiarizing? When might it be appropriate to
use someone else’s idea or concept in your
own work? What are some strategies you can
use to imitate creatively, without plagiarizing?”
Dance, Grade 12
University/College Preparation
ATC4M
This course emphasizes the development of students’ technical proficiency, fluency in the
language of movement in dance genres from around the world, and understanding of
dance science. Students will explain the social, cultural, and historical contexts of dance;
apply the creative process through the art of dance in a variety of ways; and exhibit an
understanding of the purpose and possibilities of continuing engagement in the arts as
a lifelong learner.
Prerequisite: Dance, Grade 11, University/College Preparation
67
A. CREATING, PRESENTING, AND
PERFORMING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
A1. The Creative Process: use the creative process, the elements of dance, and a variety of sources to
develop movement vocabulary;
A2. Choreography and Composition: combine the elements of dance in a variety of ways in composing
individual and ensemble dance creations;
A3. Dance Techniques: demonstrate an understanding of the dance techniques and movement
vocabularies of a variety of dance forms from around the world;
A4. Performance: apply dance presentation skills in a variety of contexts and performances.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
A1. The Creative Process
By the end of this course, students will:
A1.1 use the elements of dance to create and
perform abstract dance phrases inspired by a
theme of personal significance (e.g., a theme
suggested by an environmental or social issue or
by a composition of a favourite dance group)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Teacher prompt: “What does a dance film like
Sarah by Kaeja d’Dance tell you about the
creative process? Can you use a similar type of
process when working thematically to develop
your own movement phrases?”
68
A1.2 create and perform complex phrases that
combine and manipulate the elements of dance
in a variety of ways (e.g., generate dance vocabulary using variations and mixtures of different
aspects of the elements, such as body actions,
locomotor steps, direction, level, floor and air
patterns, structured and unstructured space,
symmetry and asymmetry, individual and
group shapes, tempo, accent, movement qualities,
relationships/groupings)
Teacher prompt: “If you choose to focus on
non-locomotor body actions, how might that
affect the way you incorporate other elements –
such as time, space, and relationship – into your
dance phrases?”
A1.3 use the elements of dance to generate and
perform complex dance vocabulary through
solo or ensemble improvisation and experimentation (e.g., in pairs, use action/reaction during
contact improvisation to explore movement
possibilities)
Teacher prompt: “How does improvisation
extend your understanding of movement
possibilities? How will you use this new
understanding in your dance composition?”
A1.4 generate and develop solutions for a complex compositional problem and demonstrate
one solution in performance (e.g., in a small
group, create a movement problem/recipe for another
group to solve, and develop and demonstrate a
solution to a movement problem created by the
other group)
Teacher prompt: “What insights into the creative
process can you gain from creating a movement
problem for others to solve? What insights can
you gain from the solutions they develop?”
A2. Choreography and Composition
By the end of this course, students will:
A2.1 use a variety of choreographic forms, structures, and techniques to create and perform
complex dance works (e.g., in pairs, use ABACA
[rondo] form as a basis for an original composition)
Teacher prompt: “How can you decide which
form or techniques are most suitable for your
work? How do you decide if a technique is
effective? What role does viewing work by
your peers play in assessing and revising your
own work?”
Teacher prompt: “What concrete movements
and choreographic structures can you use to
illustrate the abstract idea you want to express?”
A2.3 use a variety of compositional approaches
in developing dance creations that explore
complex, challenging themes and moods
(e.g., identify and use several compositional
approaches, such as theme and variation or a
specific movement repertoire, that will help them
explore multiple dimensions of a theme; identify
a compositional approach used by an Ontario choreographer whose work they admire, and adapt the
approach to their own process of dance creation)
Teacher prompt: “When you create dances,
some of what you do is based on intuition and
some is based on the repertoire of compositional
forms and approaches you have learned in
your dance studies. How will you achieve a
balance between the two types of influences?”
A3. Dance Techniques
By the end of this course, students will:
A3.1 apply an understanding of a wide range of
movement vocabularies found in a variety of
dance forms from around the world (e.g., accurately perform a large repertoire of movements
from ballet/jazz dance, modern/contemporary
dance, and two or more world dance forms such
as flamenco, gumboot dancing, and belly dancing)
A3.2 accurately demonstrate a wide range of
movement techniques from a variety of dance
forms from around the world (e.g., correctly
perform assigned phrases that alternate the use
of weighted movement and movement requiring
a weightless quality)
Teacher prompt: “What style of music do you
think would support your ‘fusion’ choreography?
Why would it be a good choice? What other
style of music might also be appropriate? Why?”
A4. Performance
By the end of this course, students will:
A4.1 revise, refine, and polish movement execution and choreography, with particular attention
to how each detail contributes to the whole
and to the intended effect (e.g., use their own
intuitions and analyses and feedback from peers
and the teacher to rework, clarify, and perfect
individual movements, phrases, transitions, and
sequences)
ATC4M
Teacher prompt: “What skills do you use when
revising and polishing your work? How are
they the same as or different from the skills
you use at the start of the creative process?”
A4.2 use a variety of tools of stagecraft in increasingly complex or imaginative ways to enhance
their dance performances (e.g., locate and use
choreographic software and electronic technology
to assist the process of creation and presentation;
use music editing software to adapt a piece of
music to their own choreography; use digital
videography to create their own filmed interpretations of their choreography)
Teacher prompt: “What technologies could
you use to help in the creation and production
processes and enhance the effectiveness of your
presentation?”
A4.3 demonstrate both an intellectual and an
emotional understanding of the artistic and
expressive intent of a work in rehearsals and
performances (e.g., explain the artistic intention
of their dance piece in a written “artist’s statement”;
maintain their focus on the relationship between
their movements and the intended meaning of a
piece)
Teacher prompt: “What is the artistic intent of
your dance piece, and how is it expressed in
your dancing/choreography?”
CREATING, PRESENTING, AND PERFORMING
Teacher prompts: “How does training in a
variety of dance forms expand your awareness
of the possible positions and movements of
different parts of your body (your kinesthetic
range)?” “What types of movements do many
dances share? What types of differences between
dances do you find interesting, and why?”
A3.3 create and perform compositions that blend
the vocabulary and technique of Western and
non-Western dance forms (e.g., salsa and
breakdance)
Dance
A2.2 create a complex dance composition that
explores an abstract theme (e.g., explore the
theme of the transformative power of dance in
the context of conflict in a composition that pays
tribute to the Ugandan refugee children featured
in the film War Dance by Albie Hecht)
Teacher prompt: “When nuance is added to a
movement, what happens to the dynamic quality
(speed or pace) of the phrase it is part of?
Could it make the movement more difficult to
perform? In what way? How might it look to
an audience?”
69
Grade 12, University/College Preparation
B. REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND
ANALYSING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
B1. The Critical Analysis Process: use the critical analysis process to reflect on and evaluate their own
and others’ dance works and activities;
B2. Dance and Society: demonstrate an understanding of how societies present and past use or have used
dance, and of how creating and viewing dance can benefit individuals, groups, and communities;
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom: demonstrate an understanding of the purpose and possibilities
of continuing engagement in dance arts.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
B1. The Critical Analysis Process
By the end of this course, students will:
B1.1 critique a live or filmed work by an Ontario
dance artist (e.g., use a set of aesthetic evaluative
criteria established in class to review works by
Ontario dance artists such as Laura Taler, Jenn
Goodwin, Allen Kaeja, Lata Pada)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Teacher prompt: “How does having a preestablished set of criteria in mind influence the
way you view a dance work? Does it help you
notice things you might miss? Could it limit
your response in any way?”
70
B1.2 develop appropriate criteria and use them to
interpret, analyse, and evaluate both the content
and the fluency or expressiveness of a broad
range of student compositions (e.g., criteria such
as use of props, dynamics, interpretive skills)
Teacher prompts: “What is the purpose of integrating a prop into this composition? How might
props affect the impact of a performance?” “Is
the symbolic meaning of the steps and gestures
used in the work clear or hard to understand?”
B2. Dance and Society
By the end of this course, students will:
B2.1 identify a variety of world and social dance
forms in Ontario and describe their contribution
to economic, social, and cultural life (e.g., the
role of Sampradaya Dance Creations in raising
the profile of South Asian dance in the province)
Teacher prompt: “What impact did Lata Pada’s
bharatanatyam dance company have on the
dance community in Toronto after its founding
in 1990?”
B2.2 identify specific ways in which dance education can enhance community life (e.g., develop a
brochure about how dance education could benefit
their local community)
Teacher prompt: “What groups in our community might benefit from viewing or participating
in dance? Seniors? Young children? How could
you help these groups learn more about opportunities to watch or join in dance activities?”
B2.3 compare and contrast criteria used to evaluate
dance in different cultures (e.g., identify similarities and differences in the aesthetic criteria applied
to a Western prima ballerina and a renowned
Middle Eastern belly dancer)
Teacher prompt: “What cultural influences
have shaped the standards of excellence that
are applied to these different types of dance?”
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom
By the end of this course, students will:
B3.1 identify and describe a variety of postsecondary destinations in the field of dance and
the training or education required for each
(e.g., occupations in dance arts advocacy, administration, creation, design and production, education,
fund-raising, performance, staging)
Teacher prompt: “What postsecondary institution(s) provide instruction in dance notation?
What were some of the career options and
choices made by individuals who have
embarked on that career?”
Teacher prompt: “What specifically would you
like the members of the school community to
B3.3 develop a traditional or digital dance portfolio for a specific audience and purpose (e.g.,
to serve as a resource for junior dance classes)
Teacher prompt: “How should your information be organized and displayed when it is to
be used as a resource by other students? What
information should be communicated first,
and how do you decide what information
should follow? How important are accuracy
and clarity when communicating information
in this manner?”
Dance
B3.2 develop and implement a plan for improving
the climate for dance education within their
school community (e.g., use a survey to discover
how dance arts are perceived within the school,
and plan and carry out a campaign to enhance
the image of dance studies among teachers and
students)
know about the art of dance? How can you
effectively communicate this information to
all members of the school community?”
ATC4M
REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND ANALYSING
71
Grade 12, University/College Preparation
C. FOUNDATIONS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
C1. Physiology and Terminology: demonstrate an understanding of, and use correct terminology when
referring to, the physiology of movement as it relates to dance;
C2. Contexts and Influences: demonstrate an understanding of the social, cultural, and historical origins
and development of dance forms, including their influence on each other and on society;
C3. Responsible Practices: demonstrate an understanding of safe, ethical, and responsible personal and
interpersonal practices in dance activities.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
C1. Physiology and Terminology
By the end of this course, students will:
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
C1.1 identify and demonstrate an understanding
of somatic techniques that enhance dance training and physical and emotional well-being
(e.g., maintain a record of their use and the effects
of techniques such as yoga, Pilates, the Alexander
Technique, the Feldenkrais Method, Joan Skinner’s
Releasing Technique, Donna Krasnow’s C-I
[conditioning-with-imagery] Training)
72
Teacher prompts: “What significant improvement
in your physical condition or development
have you noticed? What techniques have you
found most helpful?” “Has your study of
Pilates strengthened your core, and what has
that core strength done to improve your centre
of balance in locomotion?”
C1.2 analyse and explain movement patterns
using correct biomechanical terminology (e.g.,
use a graphic to explain the biomechanics of a
variety of movements in the frontal, medial,
horizontal, and sagittal planes)
Teacher prompt: “Identify at least five dance
exercises or movements that occur in each
plane. What other movements from daily life
(such as walking, sitting, texting, hugging)
occur in each of these biomechanical planes?”
C1.3 demonstrate, and describe using correct
terminology, an extensive dance vocabulary
from a variety of dance forms from around
the world (e.g., describe and demonstrate ballet
movements such as pas de basque, contretemps,
pas de ciseaux, temps de cuisse; use print and
electronic media to develop an illustrated dictionary describing the movement vocabulary of a
dance style of their choice for younger students)
Teacher prompt: “Based on the format of dictionaries you have examined, what components
do you need to include in each definition?
What are some terms that are common to
many or most dance styles?”
C2. Contexts and Influences
By the end of this course, students will:
C2.1 demonstrate an understanding of key developments in Ontario dance history, including
the artistic contributions of Ontario dance
pioneers (e.g., the founding and development of
companies such as the Toronto Dance Theatre or
Dance Theatre David Earle; the work of dancerchoreographers such as Celia Franca, George
Randolph, Zelma Badu)
Teacher prompt: “Who were the key innovators
in David Earle’s dance company in the early
years? What factors shaped its growth? What
are its goals today?” “Who were the first artistic directors of the National Ballet of Canada?
How did their dance experience influence the
company’s direction and growth?”
C2.2 describe the influence of global artistic,
social, and political events or issues (e.g., globalization, the environment, poverty, HIV/AIDS, war,
political repression, refugees) on the current
Canadian arts scene, including but not limited
to the dance scene
Teacher prompt: “How have Canadian choreographers used dance to raise public awareness
of an important social or environmental issue?”
Teacher prompt: “What is the purpose of the
group dancing of a Broadway chorus line and
a traditional Russian folk dance? What similarities and differences can you identify between
the two types of group dancing?”
C3. Responsible Practices
By the end of this course, students will:
C3.1 model responsible, constructive behaviour
in interactions with others during the creation
and production processes (e.g., work cooperatively
to solve problems and resolve conflicts peacefully;
mentor a younger dance student to help develop
his or her understanding of appropriate behaviour
in rehearsal and performance)
Teacher prompts: “What are the attributes of an
effective leader?” “What leadership opportunities can you identify related to dance activities
in your school and local community?”
C3.3 model safe and ethical practices in dance
activities in both classroom and performance
settings (e.g., learn and apply procedures for the
safe and appropriate use of equipment in studios,
classrooms, rehearsal and performance spaces, and
alternative venues; use environmentally friendly
materials and processes in dance productions;
acknowledge sources and comply with laws,
regulations, and customary practices for the protection of choreographic, intellectual, and creative
property rights)
Teacher prompts: “What steps can experienced
dancers take to help raise awareness among
younger students of appropriate safety practices in performance environments?” “What
procedures should we follow when preparing
the costumes, sets, and performance venue to
ensure the environmentally responsible use of
materials and energy?” “How can you build
on others’ experience while avoiding improper
use of sources and influences?”
Dance
C2.3 identify, describe, and compare how a variety
of elements and conventions of dance are used
in a selection of dance genres from around the
world, and demonstrate their findings through
performance (e.g., demonstrate the uses of the
circle or explain the function of music in different
dance genres; create a digital media presentation
to illustrate various dance dress codes)
C3.2 demonstrate leadership skills during the creation and production processes (e.g., participate
in a leadership outreach experience to produce
dance pieces for younger dancers to perform at
a school Arts Night or other school/community
event)
ATC4M
Teacher prompt: “Do you notice a change in the
behaviour of your mentee? How does acting as
a mentor affect your own understanding of
appropriate performance behaviour?”
FOUNDATIONS
73
Dance, Grade 12
Workplace Preparation
ATC4E
This course enables students to develop performance and interpersonal skills through the
study of dance. Students will apply the elements of dance and the tools of composition
to develop a physical vocabulary that can be used to create and communicate through
dance. Students will research and explain how physical, intellectual, and artistic skills
developed in the dance arts are transferable to a wide range of careers and workplace
environments. They will develop an understanding of practices associated with healthy
living, the benefits of self-discipline, and the importance of continuing engagement in
the arts.
Prerequisite: Dance, Grade 11, Open
74
A. CREATING, PRESENTING, AND
PERFORMING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
A2. Choreography and Composition: combine the elements of dance in a variety of ways in composing
individual and ensemble dance creations;
Dance
A1. The Creative Process: use the creative process, the elements of dance, and a variety of sources to
develop movement vocabulary;
A3. Dance Techniques: demonstrate an understanding of the dance techniques and movement
vocabularies of a variety of dance forms from around the world;
A4. Performance: apply dance presentation skills in a variety of contexts and performances.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
ATC4E
A1. The Creative Process
By the end of this course, students will:
A1.1 use the elements of dance to create dance
phrases inspired by a workplace activity or
theme (e.g., combine movements, tempos, and
groupings to reflect activities in a specific workplace setting)
Teacher prompt: “What workplace activity
can you think of that requires the kind of body
awareness, teamwork, and sense of rhythm
needed in dance activities? Can you develop
movement phrases that demonstrate those
aspects of work?”
Teacher prompts: “What specific types of
movement seem to match what specific types
of music? How will your movements change
depending on whether the beat is fast or
slow?” “To what style of music do you feel
most comfortable moving? Why?”
Teacher prompt: “When might you want to
use non-verbal communication skills in your
workplace environment? What kinds of body
language are appropriate in a workplace
situation?”
A2. Choreography and Composition
By the end of this course, students will:
A2.1 use a variety of choreographic forms, structures, and techniques to create and perform a
series of movement phrases (e.g., short pieces
for three or four dancers using rondo, AB, or canon
form; duets featuring symmetry and mirroring)
Teacher prompt: “How can you ensure that your
group piece will include each individual equally?
Does the choice of form make a difference?
What form would permit the most equality
among dancers?”
CREATING, PRESENTING, AND PERFORMING
A1.2 create and perform movement phrases that
use the elements of dance to express physical
or emotional states (e.g., body movements and
accents that reflect the emotions evoked by a piece
of music or a natural or urban landscape; patterns
and groupings that demonstrate ideas of freedom
or constraint)
A1.3 use improvisation and the elements of dance
to show how movement and body language
are used for non-verbal communication in
daily life, including in the workplace (e.g., with
a partner, develop a dance sequence that shows a
non-verbal “conversation” carried out through
movement; develop sequences that use posture
and other aspects of body language to depict
different personality or character types, or people
of different ages and occupations)
75
Grade 12, Workplace Preparation
A2.2 create and perform movement phrases
inspired by a theme of workplace skill building
(e.g., themes such as customer service, organization,
teamwork)
Teacher prompt: “What kinds of body language,
movements, and groupings might convey
insights about teamwork? About customer
service?”
A2.3 identify and use a variety of compositional
approaches to communicate ideas and feelings
through dance (e.g., use structured improvisation
and a combination of elements to develop a short
piece about an environmental concern; use floor
patterns and movement vocabulary from two of
their favourite dance styles to create a work based
on a self-selected theme)
Teacher prompts: “Can dance be used to
address social issues? Can you think of any
examples where dancers have used dance in
this way?” “What types of movements, rhythms,
and structures would help you express the
ideas you want to communicate?”
A3. Dance Techniques
By the end of this course, students will:
A3.1 demonstrate technical proficiency in basic
dance vocabulary and the physical conditioning and self-discipline required to support it
(e.g., perform positions and movements requiring
alignment, core strength, centredness)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Teacher prompt: “What type of physical training do you need to prepare for very fast-paced
choreography? What type for a dance that
requires frequent transitions between high
and low levels?”
76
A3.2 demonstrate familiarity with steps and
movements found in a variety of social dance
forms (e.g., perform a dance “collage” for a
Parents’ Night that combines steps and movements
from ballroom and contemporary social dances)
Teacher prompt: “What movement differences
do you notice between the social dances of you
and your peers and the social dances of your
parents or grandparents? Can you demonstrate
some of the differences?”
A3.3 demonstrate technical proficiency in one or
more movement styles and the physical fitness
and awareness needed to support it (e.g., create
a piece of choreography that combines or fuses the
dance vocabularies of two genres of their choice;
perform movement phrases that incorporate aspects
of body-awareness training such as yoga or t’ai chi)
Teacher prompt: “In what ways does your
physical understanding of yoga postures and
breathing make you more aware of your posture and breathing in everyday activities? How
does it change the way you perform various
daily physical routines?”
A4. Performance
By the end of this course, students will:
A4.1 rework and polish technique and choreography to achieve an intended effect (e.g., use
feedback from teacher and peers to clarify their
intention and polish movement, timing, alignment,
and spacing)
Teacher prompt: “What is the theme of your
dance? How do the different movements
express the theme? Are there any movements
that don’t seem to fit with the overall idea?
How could you fix that?”
A4.2 choreograph and perform dances to meet
the needs of a specific community audience
or event (e.g., a retirement home “social”, an
environmental awareness event, a cyber-bullying
awareness session)
Teacher prompt: “What were your objectives in
preparing a dance show for this audience? How
might you modify the dance for a different
audience?”
A4.3 use various methods to communicate
through dance in both rehearsals and performances (e.g., match facial expression to the mood
of a particular sequence; maintain awareness of
the connection between their movements and the
idea[s] being communicated)
Teacher prompt: “What do you consider to be
more important in communicating your choreographic intentions, facial expression or body
movement?”
B. REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND
ANALYSING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
B2. Dance and Society: demonstrate an understanding of how societies present and past use or have used
dance, and of how creating and viewing dance can benefit individuals, groups, and communities;
Dance
B1. The Critical Analysis Process: use the critical analysis process to reflect on and evaluate their own
and others’ dance works and activities;
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom: demonstrate an understanding of the purpose and possibilities
of continuing engagement in dance arts.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
B1. The Critical Analysis Process
B2. Dance and Society
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
B1.1 use the critical analysis process to identify
and assign roles within the group and to guide
collaborative work (e.g., use class-developed
criteria to assess their own group skills; contribute
to peer assessment of group functions; complete
teacher-guided reflections)
B2.1 compare the characteristics of popular dance
styles (e.g., krump and breakdance) and explain
their appeal to both viewers and performers
Teacher prompt: “What roles are required by
this collaborative assignment? What are the
responsibilities of the different roles? How will
you decide what role(s) to allocate to each
group member?”
Teacher prompt: “What similarities can you see
between these classical and contemporary dance
works? What differences can you identify?”
Teacher prompt: “How would you explain your
preference for one of these styles? Which is
harder to perform? Which is more popular
with your peers, and why?”
B2.2 identify ways in which dance reflects and
influences popular culture (e.g., describe how a
variety of urban street dances continue to evolve
from, express, and influence the culture of innercity neighbourhoods)
Teacher prompt: “What social conditions
shaped the emergence of krumping? What are
some other dance forms that have developed
in response to particular social conditions?”
B2.3 identify connections between their dance
studies and representations of dance in popular
culture (e.g., create a mind map of dance images
from films, commercials, television shows, and
websites, and use captions to explain how they
illustrate aspects of their dance studies)
Teacher prompt: “How have your dance studies
influenced the way you view media representations of dance? What things do you notice
that you might have missed before you studied
dance?”
REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND ANALYSING
B1.2 analyse and compare choreographies and
dance works of different styles and periods
(e.g., use mind maps to list characteristics of
excerpts from Petipa’s Swan Lake and Jean Pierre
Perrault’s Joe, and identify key similarities and
differences between the two works)
ATC4E
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B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Grade 12, Workplace Preparation
By the end of this course, students will:
78
B3.1 identify and describe opportunities for
continued engagement in dance as a performer,
producer, educator, or audience member (e.g.,
identify opportunities for participation in community productions)
Teacher prompt: “Do you watch dance routines
on the Internet? Have you ever posted your
own dance routine on the Internet? What other
ways can you think of to view or participate
in live or broadcast dance activities, now or
in the future?”
B3.2 identify and document transferable workplace skills they have acquired through their
dance studies, and possible workplace applications of those skills (e.g., compile a record of the
skills developed during task planning, decision
making, problem solving, and information gathering
for dance activities)
Teacher prompts: “What did you learn about
problem solving while creating choreography
in a small group?” “Could the verbal skills
you developed while giving feedback to your
peers be useful in a professional environment?
In what kinds of situations?” “How would
maintaining a portfolio of your learning in
dance help you in developing a résumé or
describing your skills and experience to a
prospective employer?”
C. FOUNDATIONS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
C2. Contexts and Influences: demonstrate an understanding of the social and cultural origins and
development of dance forms, including their influence on each other and on society;
Dance
C1. Physiology and Terminology: demonstrate an understanding of, and use correct terminology when
referring to, the physiology of movement as it relates to dance;
C3. Responsible Practices: demonstrate an understanding of safe, ethical, and responsible personal and
interpersonal practices in dance activities.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
C1. Physiology and Terminology
By the end of this course, students will:
C1.1 demonstrate an understanding of the importance of personal wellness and professional
conduct for success in endeavours of all types,
including career roles, both in the dance arts
and in other areas of endeavour (e.g., how proper
diet contributes to energy and stamina; how rest and
relaxation alleviate stress on the job; how a correct
warm-up supports longevity in a dance career)
Teacher prompt: “Which foods/substances and
activities increase or decrease your personal
wellness and effectiveness? What steps can you
take to avoid things that negatively affect your
health and performance?”
C1.2 describe the skeletal system as it relates to
movement (e.g., create a display that shows the
importance of good posture and efficient movement
for effective performance in both dance activities
and the workplace)
Teacher prompt: “What are some techniques
for avoiding physical strain during dance
activities? How might those techniques be
relevant to the workplace?”
ATC4E
C2. Contexts and Influences
By the end of this course, students will:
C2.1 describe how specific social and cultural
factors have influenced the evolution of some
popular dance styles (e.g., connect the development of b-boying or capoeira to circumstances in
their society or culture of origin)
Teacher prompts: “What social factors influenced
the development of capoeira as a dance form
based on martial arts movements?” “What is
the origin of the word breakdancing? What type
of ‘break’ is being referred to?”
C2.2 describe the influence of some global issues
on dance (e.g., the influence of globalization on
the evolution of dance in various cultures; the
focus on issues such as racism, violence, the environment as themes for choreographers)
Teacher prompt: “Who are some choreographers
who have dealt with social or political issues in
their work? What are some of the approaches
they have used?”
FOUNDATIONS
C1.3 demonstrate, and describe using correct
terminology, the dance vocabulary of a variety
of dance forms from around the world (e.g.,
create a game to illustrate the dance terminology
of different forms, including forms studied in
class)
Teacher prompt: “What are the key terms used
to describe the dances we have studied this
year? Why is it important to know the terms
for the dance steps, forms, and techniques you
have learned?”
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C3. Responsible Practices
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Grade 12, Workplace Preparation
By the end of this course, students will:
80
C3.1 identify and follow responsible practices
while creating, performing, and viewing dance
(e.g., give feedback in a constructive and respectful
manner; explain how appropriate behaviour can
contribute to success in the workplace as well as
in performances and classroom activities)
Teacher prompt: “Why is it important to watch
performances without making comments while
the presentation is in progress? How might an
inattentive or restless audience affect your
own performance in a presentation or a job
interview?”
C3.2 demonstrate collaborative skills in a variety
of situations and settings (e.g., show respect for
others by being punctual; fully carry out responsibilities of their own role while observing boundaries between their own and others’ roles)
Teacher prompts: “What do you feel are some
of the important qualities a dance leader must
possess?” “Why is it important to work as a
team both on stage as a dancer and in the
workplace?”
C3.3 identify and follow safe and ethical practices
in dance activities and demonstrate an understanding of their relevance to workplace environments (e.g., follow correct procedures for the
safe use of equipment; do appropriate exercises to
guard against strain injuries; maintain appropriate
distances from other dancers/workers; report to the
class on copyright laws)
Teacher prompts: “What are some rules for
working safely with others in a confined
space?” “How does copyright law define the
‘fair use’ of another person’s work? What is the
difference between working ‘in the style of’ a
choreographer and copying a choreographer’s
work?”
DRAMA
OVERVIEW
At the Grade 11 and 12 level, drama students extend their understanding and interpretation of dramatic texts, forms, characters, and theatrical productions. They incorporate a
variety of dramatic elements and conventions in their performances and productions.
Students engage in increasingly effective social interactions and collaboration as they
create, perform, and analyse drama. In these courses, students will experience being
performer, audience, playwright, technician, designer, and critic.
Students use the elements of drama (role/character, relationship, time and place, focus
and emphasis, and tension) to create works that are related to their personal interest and
experience. In doing so, they integrate technology to enhance the impact of drama works
and to help convey mood, create tension, and communicate a message.
Students examine how different styles and traditions of drama can affect social and cultural conditions in a variety of Canadian and global contexts. Students explore various
opportunities for careers in drama and other arts while developing skills that can be
linked to a range of careers. They enhance their ability to analyse and interpret a range
of drama work, and reflect on and evaluate their own and others’ creative work.
The expectations for drama courses are organized in three distinct but related strands:
1.
Creating and Presenting: Students use the creative process (see pages 15–17) to develop,
produce, and perform drama. Students interpret dramatic texts and use appropriate
dramatic forms, elements, techniques, and technologies to present their ideas and
achieve specific purposes. In all creative projects, students will develop and present
their work both individually and in ensemble.
2.
Reflecting, Responding, and Analysing: In this strand, students use the critical analysis
process (see pages 17–22) to identify and reflect on their response to dramatic works
and develop their understanding of how dramatic purpose is achieved. Students
explore how societies present and past use or have used drama, and they reflect on
ways in which drama can lead to a deeper understanding of themselves and the
communities in which they live. Students are challenged to examine their artistic
choices and processes and to determine what they have learned from them.
3.
Foundations: This strand addresses dramatic forms, conventions, practices, and skills.
Students refine their knowledge of theoretical concepts through active engagement
in drama. They deepen their understanding of the origins and development of
drama and theatre arts and their influence on past and present societies. They
communicate by using terminology specific to creating, presenting, and analysing
drama. Students continue to study the significance of health and safety issues as
well as a variety of protocols related to ethics and etiquette in drama activities.
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For policy guidelines pertaining to focus courses, see pages 12–13 of this document.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
The list of approved focus courses for Drama can be found at:
www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/secondary/arts.html.
82
Drama, Grade 11
University/College Preparation
ADA3M
This course requires students to create and perform in dramatic presentations. Students
will analyse, interpret, and perform dramatic works from various cultures and time
periods. Students will research various acting styles and conventions that could be
used in their presentations, and analyse the functions of playwrights, directors, actors,
designers, technicians, and audiences.
Prerequisite: Drama, Grade 9 or 10, Open
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A. CREATING AND PRESENTING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
A1. The Creative Process: use the creative process and a variety of sources and forms, both individually
and collaboratively, to design and develop drama works;
A2. Elements and Conventions: use the elements and conventions of drama effectively in creating
individual and ensemble drama works, including works based on a variety of sources;
A3. Presentation Techniques and Technologies: use a variety of presentation techniques and technological
tools to enhance the impact of drama works and communicate for specific audiences and purposes.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
A1. The Creative Process
By the end of this course, students will:
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
A1.1 develop interpretations of drama texts or
other sources from a variety of Western and
non-Western traditions as a basis for their own
drama presentations (e.g., interpretations of narratives by men, women, and children from diverse
backgrounds; scenes from Kabuki or Noh theatre;
excerpts from Tennessee Williams’s The Glass
Menagerie, Marsha Norman’s ’Night Mother,
or Dennis Foon’s Skin; scenes from plays by men
and women playwrights, including Aboriginal,
Asian Canadian/American, or African
Canadian/American dramatists)
84
Teacher prompts: “How might you dramatize a
narrative like The History of Mary Prince, A West
Indian Slave? What other kinds of historical
voices could you bring to life through drama?”
“What are some of the themes and issues in
this text? How could you adapt the source to
show its relevance to the world of today?”
A1.2 select and use appropriate drama forms to
present a variety of adapted or original drama
works (e.g., use a drama anthology to present a
famous person’s life story; use a skit with slapstick
humour to comment on a recent media event; use
puppetry to adapt a children’s book on a social or
environmental theme, such as The Lorax [Seuss]
or The Great Kapok Tree [Cherry], for a dramatic
presentation)
Teacher prompt: “What form could you use
to dramatize an important turning point in a
person’s life? Mime? A dramatic monologue?
A type of ritual?”
A1.3 create and interpret a range of characters
using a variety of acting approaches (e.g., present
a scene in the style of melodrama or commedia
dell’arte; use the Laban approach to create an
original character)
Teacher prompts: “How do inside-out and
outside-in acting approaches help you to
create a character? Which do you prefer, and
why?” “What are some of the strategies a
company of actors might explore in rehearsal
to draw attention to the dilemma facing a
character?”
A2. Elements and Conventions
By the end of this course, students will:
A2.1 highlight selected elements of drama and
subordinate others to achieve specific purposes
(e.g., use setting and relationship to illuminate
character; use time to explore relationship)
Teacher prompt: “How could disrupting
chronology to show the end of this relationship
before its beginning help create tension throughout the play?”
A2.2 use a variety of drama conventions to establish a distinctive context or role in original or
adapted works (e.g., use guided imagery and
mapping to visualize settings and relationships;
use hot-seating or voices in the head to build a
rounded picture of a character)
Teacher prompts: “How might you depict the
relationships and atmosphere of Shakespearean
characters in a modern setting? What will you
do to establish a convincing context?” “What
information do we need about this character in
order to decide how she will react to this new
challenge? How can we explore her character
to find out?”
A3. Presentation Techniques and
Technologies
By the end of this course, students will:
Teacher prompt: “How would you use staging
techniques, such as breaking the fourth wall,
to connect with your audience?”
Teacher prompt: “What techniques could you
use to create a back story for your character?
Why might creating a back story for a character help you portray that character more
effectively?”
A3.3 select and use a variety of technological
tools, including forms of new media, to highlight the message and enhance the impact of
drama works (e.g., use traditional and digital
music and video supports to create lighting and
sound effects that enhance a specific mood)
Drama
A3.1 use a variety of techniques to increase interaction with or participation by the audience
(e.g., use forum theatre to involve the whole class
in developing a character or exploring a theme;
situate some of the action in non-stage areas of
the theatre)
A3.2 use a range of techniques and acting
approaches to refine performance during
rehearsal (e.g., use vocal, movement, trust, and
relaxation exercises to prepare for rehearsal; use
hot-seating and writing in role to extend character
development during rehearsal)
Teacher prompt: “How can we use lighting
and sound to heighten tension in this scene?”
ADA3M
CREATING AND PRESENTING
85
Grade 11, University/College Preparation
B. REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND
ANALYSING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
B1. The Critical Analysis Process: use the critical analysis process to reflect on and evaluate their own
and others’ drama works;
B2. Drama and Society: demonstrate an understanding of how societies present and past use or have used
drama, and of how creating and viewing drama can benefit individuals, groups, and communities;
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom: identify knowledge and skills they have acquired through drama
activities, and demonstrate an understanding of ways in which they can apply this learning in
personal, social, and career contexts.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
B1. The Critical Analysis Process
By the end of this course, students will:
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
B1.1 use the critical analysis process before and
during drama projects to assign roles within
the group, monitor the group process, and
modify the roles and process as needed (e.g.,
use brainstorming and group discussion to generate
ideas, assign roles, and agree on a process that
includes a mechanism for reviewing progress and
providing feedback; use journal writing to reflect
on progress during rehearsal; create and use a
self- or peer-assessment tool based on studentdeveloped criteria)
86
Teacher prompts: “How will you track your
group’s progress during the rehearsal
process?” “How can you build opportunities
for peer feedback into the process to improve
your group’s creative work?”
B1.2 analyse drama works to determine how they
communicate ideas about issues, culture, and
society (e.g., compare the different ways in which
dramas on the same topic present their themes;
compare the presentation of female characters by
women playwrights in two different eras)
Teacher prompts: “How does Shaw’s comic
approach to war in Arms and the Man serve
his purpose? What role does comedy serve in
other plays about war, such as Shakespeare’s
Henry V?” “What are some common themes in
the work of pre-modern women playwrights
such as Aphra Behn, Joanna Baillie, or Hannah
Cowley? Are there any similarities with the
work of modern women playwrights? What
are some reasons why there are so few women
playwrights from pre-modern times?”
B1.3 analyse and evaluate the aesthetic and technical aspects of drama works of diverse genres
and styles (e.g., give feedback to peers about the
strengths and areas for improvement of their
directing decisions and stagecraft choices)
Teacher prompts: “What decisions did the
director make about how to highlight the theme?
What aspects of character were chosen for
emphasis?” “What effect did the blocking create?
Was it appropriate to the work as a whole?”
B2. Drama and Society
By the end of this course, students will:
B2.1 analyse different styles of drama and
explain their influence on artistic and social
conditions in diverse communities and cultures
from the past and present (e.g., explain how the
emerging style of naturalism in drama enabled
Chekhov, Ibsen, or Shaw to address issues of his
day, including themes of social change; explain
the reasons for Shaw’s satirical attack on the
well-made play; describe alienation in Brechtian
theatre as a reaction to the elevation of theatrical
Noh theatre, Famous People Players, Cirque de
Soleil, Green Thumb theatre, or De-Ba-Jeh-Mu-Jig
theatre reflect aspects of the communities that
produced them)
Teacher prompts: “In what ways is this specific
style of theatre a reaction to styles of theatre
that preceded it?” “What does a play like
Ibsen’s A Doll’s House say about the role of
women in nineteenth-century Europe? How
might people have reacted to the play when it
was first presented? What impact does it have
today?” “How did this drama affect your
understanding of racism? What are some
other dramas that deal with this issue? How
did they affect audiences when they were first
performed?”
Teacher prompt: “What topics or issues are
addressed in this drama work? Can you see a
connection between the style of this work and
social or political conditions in its time and
place of origin?”
B2.2 identify ways in which drama can influence
personal growth, relationships with others, and
aesthetic judgement (e.g., issue-based and wholegroup drama activities can help develop empathy,
self-knowledge, and social and environmental
awareness; participation in the creative process
can develop skills in applying aesthetic criteria
to improve or evaluate a final product)
Teacher prompts: “What was your view of this
issue before the drama took place? Has your
view changed or altered based on what you
experienced during the improvisation? Why
or why not?” “What did you learn about the
importance of pacing from the feedback provided in your theatre workshop?”
B2.3 identify ways in which drama can influence
the broader community (e.g., by giving expression to previously unheard voices; by highlighting
systemic or emerging social problems)
Teacher prompt: “What social or environmental
issue might you use as the basis for an anthology
for a school assembly? What would be your
goal in presenting this issue?”
By the end of this course, students will:
B3.1 identify the collaborative skills and techniques they used to produce ensemble drama
works, and explain how they can be applied in
a variety of other contexts (e.g., explain the connection between carrying out an assigned role in
staging a drama and contributing to a school committee or “playing their position” in a team sport)
Teacher prompt: “How could you use the
teamwork skills learned in drama in other
areas of our school? In the community? In the
workplace?”
ADA3M
B3.2 analyse their use of the creative process in
drama activities, and explain what they learned
from it and how that learning can be applied in
work and other social contexts (e.g., how creative
thinking might help them solve problems in other
school subjects, based on their experience in drama
work)
Teacher prompt: “What are the benefits of
being able to look at a situation from several
different perspectives?”
B3.3 relate the various functions they have performed in drama activities to educational and
career opportunities in the broader educational
and arts sectors (e.g., describe, in a portfolio,
how the skills acquired through involvement in
community theatre can be applied elsewhere in the
arts; identify postsecondary careers and university
and college programs in the field of drama and
theatre where they could apply their drama
experience and skills)
Teacher prompt: “What roles are open to
volunteers in community theatre? How might
volunteer work with a community theatre
group contribute to your learning in drama?”
REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND ANALYSING
B2.4 explain how different types of theatre mirror
cultural diversity and local or regional concerns in Canadian and global societies from the
past and present (e.g., explain the link between
the use of joual in Quebec theatre in the 1970s
and the political unrest in the province at that
time; after viewing a production or video of
Theatre Passe Muraille’s Farm Show, explain
the reasons for its documentary-style portrayal
of people from a small rural community; explain
how types or styles of theatre represented by
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom
Drama
illusion over message; assess the influence of groups
such as Dreamrider Theatre and Ubom! Eastern
Cape Drama Company in raising awareness of
environmental issues)
87
Grade 11, University/College Preparation
C. FOUNDATIONS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
C1. Concepts and Terminology: demonstrate an understanding of the nature and functions of drama
forms, elements, conventions, and techniques, including the correct terminology for the various
components;
C2. Contexts and Influences: demonstrate an understanding of the origins and development of drama
and theatre arts and their influence on past and present societies;
C3. Responsible Practices: demonstrate an understanding of safe, ethical, and responsible personal and
interpersonal practices in drama activities.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
C1. Concepts and Terminology
production? What types of people are your
target audience and how will you attract them?”
By the end of this course, students will:
C1.1 identify and describe the forms, elements,
conventions, and techniques used in a variety
of drama styles, and explain how they help
achieve specific purposes and effects (e.g.,
explain how the use of formal postures and gestures
supports the intended effect of drawing-room
comedy; describe how tension is created in scenes
by dramatists such as Molière, Henrik Ibsen,
Thornton Wilder, Lillian Hellman, Carol Bolt,
or Michel Tremblay)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Teacher prompt: “How does overhearing this
character’s inner thoughts change our perspective on her past actions or future behaviour?”
88
C1.2 use correct terminology for the various components and processes of their own and others’
drama works (e.g., script analysis, character
actor, supporting role, dialogue, role on the wall,
hot-seating, method acting, classical technique)
Teacher prompt: “What aspects of character
can be explored using role on the wall?”
C1.3 demonstrate an understanding of production
and promotion roles, practices, and terminology
(e.g., set and costume design and construction
processes; technical design and support roles;
marketing and publicity tools and strategies)
Teacher prompt: “What tools and strategies
could the publicity team use in advertising the
C2. Contexts and Influences
By the end of this course, students will:
C2.1 locate, synthesize, and communicate information about scripts, performance spaces, and
theatre traditions from different periods and
cultures (e.g., create a comparison chart of conventions used in the staging of Greek, Roman,
and medieval theatre; describe the differences in
make-up styles in Noh theatre, Renaissance drama,
and other genres; highlight key elements of
Elizabethan and Restoration acting styles)
Teacher prompt: “What are the key similarities
and differences between these styles of theatre?
Are any conventions shared between different
cultures and time periods?”
C2.2 compare the acting skill sets required by
performers in current media to those required
in traditional theatre (e.g., explain how the
merits and limitations of television, the Internet,
webcasts, and/or films shape the performances
of actors in these media)
Teacher prompt: “How are webcast, television,
and film performances different from theatrical
performances? What skills do theatrical actors
use to communicate without the assistance of
close-up camera shots and/or microphones?”
C3. Responsible Practices
By the end of this course, students will:
Teacher prompts: “What safety concerns might
we face as we move forward with this production?” “How can we ensure that the materials
used in these sets are available for re-use in
future productions?” “Why is it important to
reflect the reality of ethnic diversity both in
developing and in presenting drama works?”
Teacher prompt: “What skills, knowledge, and
attitudes do you need to be an effective stage
manager?”
C3.3 demonstrate an understanding of correct
theatre worker and audience etiquette in classroom drama work and formal performance
contexts (e.g., as a director: show respect for
actors’ opinions and approaches; as a performer:
accept direction from peer coaches and teachers;
respect the fourth wall; as a viewer: maintain a
receptive attitude; respond courteously)
Drama
C3.1 identify and follow safe and ethical practices
in all drama activities (e.g., use vocal and physical
warm-ups to protect against strain injuries; tape
cords to ensure safety; store and handle flats safely;
follow instructions and protocols for operating
equipment; follow procedures for the environmentally responsible use of materials and energy;
honour the dramatist’s intentions; obtain performance rights; present and honour a variety of
perspectives)
C3.2 demonstrate an understanding of the tasks
and responsibilities involved in producing
drama works (e.g., itemize the multiple and interrelated responsibilities and competencies of director,
stage manager, costume manager, and writer)
Teacher prompts: “What procedures could
you put in place that will help maintain good
communication within your group?” “What is
the importance of being able to think and feel
what other people’s situations and predicaments
must be like?”
ADA3M
FOUNDATIONS
89
Drama, Grade 11
Open
ADA3O
This course requires students to engage in dramatic processes and the presentation of
dramatic works, and emphasizes the application of drama skills in other contexts and
opportunities. Students will interpret and present works in a variety of dramatic forms,
create and script original works, and critically analyse the processes involved in producing
drama works. Students will develop a variety of skills related to collaboration and the
presentation of drama works.
Prerequisite: None
90
A. CREATING AND PRESENTING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
A2. Elements and Conventions: use the elements and conventions of drama effectively in creating
individual and ensemble drama works, including works based on a variety of sources;
Drama
A1. The Creative Process: use the creative process and a variety of sources and forms, both individually
and collaboratively, to design and develop drama works;
A3. Presentation Techniques and Technologies: use a variety of presentation techniques and technological
tools to enhance the impact of drama works and communicate for specific audiences and purposes.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
A1. The Creative Process
By the end of this course, students will:
A1.1 develop interpretations of contemporary
and historical sources from diverse cultures to
use as the basis for drama (e.g., use narratives,
poetry, paintings, photographs, or Internet postings
as the basis for a dramatic monologue or dialogue;
use interviews with guest artists or stage performers
as the basis for a scene about “A day in the life of
an actor”; try out different scenarios for dramatizing
an event from the past)
Teacher prompt: “Could a situation like the one
these historical characters are facing happen
today? What would it be like? How could you
dramatize your source in a modern setting?”
A1.2 select and use appropriate dramatic forms to
present themes or ideas about diverse cultures,
contexts, and perspectives (e.g., use choral
speaking, spoken word, and/or mime to dramatize
an Aboriginal or Caribbean folk tale; use tableaux
with transitions to dramatize a traditional saying
or proverb)
Teacher prompt: “How could a chorus support
a drama that uses mime?”
ADA3O
A2. Elements and Conventions
By the end of this course, students will:
A2.1 identify distinctive uses of the elements of
drama in texts and sources from a range of cultures and incorporate them in their own drama
works (e.g., use trickster characters such as
Nanabush, coyote, and Anansi from Aboriginal
and Caribbean folk tales; observe unity of time
and place, as in the drama of ancient Greece)
Teacher prompt: “How can you present this
story so that all the action happens within
one day?”
A2.2 use a variety of drama conventions to clarify
roles, relationships, and themes in individual
and ensemble drama works (e.g., use inner and
outer circle, overheard conversations, and forum
theatre to highlight different characters’ views;
use caption making or collective drawing to clarify
focus)
Teacher prompts: “As you role play and write
in role, pay attention to any insights you are
gaining. Express your new ideas to the group
and then work from those ideas to deepen the
drama.” “What images or slogans can you think
of to express the central idea of your scene?
How could you incorporate that idea into the
action?”
CREATING AND PRESENTING
A1.3 use role play to explore the possibilities of
different scenarios, situations, and characters
(e.g., use forum theatre to develop scenes for an
original presentation; use improvisation to create
two different endings for a specific scene)
Teacher prompt: “What insights or actions from
your improvised scene could you include in
the final presentation?”
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A3. Presentation Techniques and
Technologies
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Grade 11, Open
By the end of this course, students will:
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A3.1 use a variety of techniques and technologies
to communicate ideas to different audiences
and for different purposes (e.g., use available
sound and light technologies to adapt scenes to
appeal to different audiences – young people,
seniors, special interest groups; use an opening
sound cue to establish the mood and engage the
audience in a children's theatre production)
Teacher prompts: “How will you use music and
lighting to engage your audience? How could
you use sound and lighting to create a particular mood?” “What kind of audience should
hear the important messages that you want
to communicate? What strategies can you use
to entice the audience into hearing/seeing/
experiencing your work so that they are moved
and transformed by the experience?”
A3.2 select and use appropriate role development
techniques during rehearsal and performance
(e.g., techniques such as warm-ups, voice and
movement exercises, concentration exercises,
improvisation, guided tour)
Teacher prompt: “How does improvising outside your given scene assist you in developing
your character? What did you discover about
this character that you didn’t know before?”
A3.3 select and use a variety of technological
tools to enhance the expressiveness and impact
of drama works (e.g., dim the lighting to signal
the approach of danger; use sound effects to
suggest a particular type of action or mood)
Teacher prompts: “What technological means
could you use to communicate the atmosphere
of your scene?” “How could you use light and
sound effects to help communicate the underlying theme of your work?”
B. REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND
ANALYSING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
B2. Drama and Society: demonstrate an understanding of how societies present and past use or have used
drama, and of how creating and viewing drama can benefit individuals, groups, and communities;
Drama
B1. The Critical Analysis Process: use the critical analysis process to reflect on and evaluate their own
and others’ drama works and activities;
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom: identify knowledge and skills they have acquired through drama
activities, and demonstrate an understanding of ways in which they can apply this learning in personal,
social, and career contexts.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
B1. The Critical Analysis Process
By the end of this course, students will:
B1.1 use the critical analysis process before and
during drama projects to assign roles appropriately within the group and to monitor the group
process (e.g., use journal writing, large-group
discussions, one-to-one feedback, think-pair-share,
and student-developed criteria to record activities
and provide feedback to all group members)
Teacher prompts: “Why is it useful to maintain
a rehearsal log, planning journal, or production
schedule when working on a project?” “What is
the value of monitoring attendance, promptness,
focus, and preparation in the rehearsal process?”
Teacher prompts: “In your opinion, what is the
essential conflict between these characters? Do
you think the author intended us to see it that
way? What evidence can you find for your
interpretation?” “In what way did the staging
support or enhance the play’s message?”
B1.3 identify aesthetic and technical aspects of
a variety of drama works, either completed or
in progress, suggest reasons for their use, and
ADA3O
Teacher prompts: “Did the lighting enhance the
impact of the scene?” “How could the blocking
be changed to focus more attention on the
eavesdropper’s reactions?”
B2. Drama and Society
By the end of this course, students will:
B2.1 identify different purposes for drama and
the forms used to achieve these purposes in
diverse communities and cultures from the
past and present (e.g., to provide entertainment
and escape – musical comedy; to comment on social
absurdity or hypocrisy – comedy of manners; to
draw attention to problems or promote attitudinal
change – issue-based drama; to explore aspects of
social status or class – commedia dell’arte)
Teacher prompts: “What are some examples of
contemporary issue-based drama (e.g., The
Laramie Project; productions of Dreamrider
Theatre or Ubom! Eastern Cape Drama
Company)?” “What social purpose does issuebased theatre serve?” “How does studying the
time period of a drama work help you understand its purpose?” “How does commedia
dell’arte reflect its time period?”
REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND ANALYSING
B1.2 analyse drama works to determine how well
they achieve their intended purpose (e.g., express
opinions in follow-up discussions about the communicative effectiveness of their own and others’
drama works and performances)
assess their effectiveness (e.g., in a large-group
discussion, debate different options for lighting;
write a review of a performance that includes an
evaluation of the positioning and movement of
the actors)
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Grade 11, Open
B2.2 identify ways in which drama can promote
self- and social awareness (e.g., creating and performing can promote self-awareness, self-confidence,
and personal growth; role playing can promote
social understanding and increase one’s capacity
for empathy)
Teacher prompts: “What have you learned
about your attitudes and abilities through participating in drama?” “Has taking on the role
of another character changed your perception
of particular people or groups in our society?
Why or why not?”
B2.3 identify ways in which drama works can
promote social improvement and good citizenship (e.g., by exploring issues and raising questions
about the way things are; by modelling positive
solutions to problems)
Teacher prompts: “Did creating an anti-bullying
presentation for an elementary school give you
a better understanding of how to prevent or
combat bullying in your own life?” “Why might
students find a drama about bullying more
helpful than a simple classroom discussion?”
B2.4 identify and interpret types of drama and
specific drama works that portray distinct cultures and traditions (e.g., develop a hypothesis
about the reasons for the ritual and symbolism
of political or religious ceremonies or the use of
masked actors in theatre traditions in different
cultures)
Teacher prompt: “What are some of the characteristics of this drama work? What does it
communicate about the beliefs, values, or
traditions of its culture of origin?”
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
By the end of this course, students will:
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B3.1 describe and assess the role of collaboration
in their creative process (e.g., identify aspects of
their group creative process that required collaborative as well as individual effort and suggest
possible improvements; outline the steps they
used to define and allocate roles, establish timelines,
and monitor how individuals carried out their
responsibilities)
Teacher prompt: “How were responsibilities
allocated to team members during the rehearsal
process? Did the process work well? What
could you do to improve the process next time?”
B3.2 identify problem-solving techniques they
have learned through drama activities, and
explain how they can be applied in work and
other social contexts (e.g., as a group, create a
presentation to model for other students how they
used respectful discussion and debate to identify
and analyse problems, brainstorm possible solutions, choose an acceptable option, monitor
progress, and modify plans if necessary)
Teacher prompt: “What are some problems
you encountered when working in your drama
group? How did you go about solving these
problems? Would these techniques work in
other group situations? Why or why not?”
B3.3 relate skills and knowledge they have
developed through drama to opportunities for
employment in the broader educational and
arts sectors (e.g., create a scrapbook or portfolio
that showcases their set design work; identify
cooperative education placements that reflect
their particular theatre interests; write a résumé
to support an application for an audition; write
a review of a community theatre production and
post it on the Internet or submit it for publication
to a community newspaper)
Teacher prompt: “What have you learned from
your drama studies that you can apply to your
part-time job, postsecondary study, or potential
employment opportunities?”
C. FOUNDATIONS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
C2. Contexts and Influences: demonstrate an understanding of the origins and development of drama
and theatre arts and their influence on past and present societies;
Drama
C1. Concepts and Terminology: demonstrate an understanding of the nature and functions of drama
forms, elements, conventions, and techniques, including the correct terminology for the various
components;
C3. Responsible Practices: demonstrate an understanding of safe, ethical, and responsible personal
and interpersonal practices in drama activities.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
C1. Concepts and Terminology
By the end of this course, students will:
C1.1 identify and describe the forms, elements,
conventions, and techniques used in a variety
of drama styles, and explain their function in
their own and others’ drama works (e.g., explain
the use of non-realistic, stylized movements in
commedia dell’arte, exaggerated movements
in melodrama, neutral and/or character masks
in mime)
Teacher prompt: “How would you describe this
style of movement? What type of message does
it convey?”
C1.2 use correct terminology for the forms, elements, conventions, and techniques they learn
about through viewing and creating drama
works (e.g., improvisational scene work, gesture,
voice, in role, motivation, mime, simulation)
Teacher prompt: “What terms do we use to
describe the structure of the action in comedy?
In tragedy? How could this information help
you in structuring your own scenes?”
ADA3O
Teacher prompts: “What are some specific
responsibilities of a stage manager?” “What is
the role of the artistic director of the Stratford
Festival?”
C2. Contexts and Influences
By the end of this course, students will:
C2.1 identify and describe theatre traditions
from various cultures and historical periods
(e.g., summarize the key characteristics and/or
conventions of Thai shadow puppetry, Renaissance
drama, commedia dell’arte)
Teacher prompt: “What groups in society are
depicted in these dramas? What are the most
common themes?”
C2.2 describe ways in which contemporary
dramas show the influence of current media
(e.g., media settings or personalities provide content and themes for drama; emerging media such
as blogs or videos provide new vehicles for drama;
media products such as reality television suggest
new forms for drama)
Teacher prompt: “What are some similarities
between reality television shows and improvised scene work?”
FOUNDATIONS
C1.3 demonstrate an understanding of production
and promotion roles, practices, and terminology
in producing and presenting drama works
(e.g., production roles: stage manager, make-up
designer, wardrobe manager; promotion and
marketing tools and procedures: poster, program,
brochure, direct-mail campaign, advertising
campaign, press relations strategy)
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C3. Responsible Practices
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Grade 11, Open
By the end of this course, students will:
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C3.1 identify and follow safe and ethical practices
in all drama activities (e.g., follow safety rules
and procedures when performing backstage tasks
and operating technical equipment; follow procedures for the environmentally responsible use of
materials and energy; make character, scene, and
script choices that reflect community standards;
acknowledge source material when producing
and/or presenting a partial or complete drama work)
Teacher prompts: “What safety issues must we
consider when using lighting equipment in
a production?” “What safety precautions do
theatre technicians take when producing a
show?” “How can we ensure that the materials
used in our sets are available for re-use in
future productions?” “Why is it important to
avoid offensive language in a production for
a young audience?”
C3.2 demonstrate an understanding of the tasks
and responsibilities involved in producing
drama works (e.g., show up on time; clarify
responsibilities; cooperate to build trust; carry
out duties consistently and fully)
Teacher prompts: “Why is producing drama a
team effort?” “What role(s) beyond the stage
character will you take on when producing
your scene? What skills and attitudes do your
additional responsibilities require?”
C3.3 observe correct theatre and audience etiquette
in classroom drama work and formal performance contexts (e.g., as an audience member: avoid
behaviour that could distract performers or other
audience members; as a performer: take direction
respectfully, respond appropriately to the director’s
notes, cooperate with the stage manager)
Teacher prompts: “What are the differences
between attending a rock concert and a theatre
production?” “How can you show appreciation for the actors without disrupting their
concentration?”
Drama, Grade 12
University/College Preparation
ADA4M
This course requires students to experiment individually and collaboratively with forms
and conventions of both drama and theatre from various cultures and time periods.
Students will interpret dramatic literature and other texts and media sources while learning
about various theories of directing and acting. Students will examine the significance
of dramatic arts in various cultures, and will analyse how the knowledge and skills
developed in drama are related to their personal skills, social awareness, and goals
beyond secondary school.
Prerequisite: Drama, Grade 11, University/College Preparation
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A. CREATING AND PRESENTING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
A1. The Creative Process: use the creative process and a variety of sources and forms, both individually
and collaboratively, to design and develop drama works;
A2. Elements and Conventions: use the elements and conventions of drama effectively in creating
individual and ensemble drama works, including works based on a variety of sources;
A3. Presentation Techniques and Technologies: use a variety of presentation techniques and technological
tools to enhance the impact of drama works and communicate for specific audiences and purposes.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
A1. The Creative Process
By the end of this course, students will:
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
A1.1 develop interpretations of drama texts from
a variety of Western and non-Western dramatic
traditions, past and present, as a basis for their
own drama works (e.g., interpretations of the
role of women in plays such as Top Girls, Hedda
Gabler, Blood Relations, The Good Woman of
Szechwan; modern versions of scenes from
Shakespeare or medieval morality plays; pivotal
or climactic scenes from works by playwrights
such as Daniel McIvor, Judith Thompson, John
Murrell, Tomson Highway, Michael Miller,
Lynn Nottage)
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Teacher prompts: “How does this play reflect
its own time period and culture? How can we
stage it so as to show its relevance to our own
society?” “What strategies does the playwright
use to create tension in this scene? How can
you stage the scene to enhance its impact and
fulfil the playwright’s intention?” “How were
women treated in society at the time this play
was written? How did they deal with their
subordination? What does the playwright
communicate to us about their strength despite
the odds that they face?”
A1.2 select and use a variety of drama forms to
present original drama works (e.g., combine
forms such as dance drama, mime, and reader’s
theatre to dramatize or comment on a social or
environmental issue)
Teacher prompt: “What are some of the key
characteristics of drama forms we have studied?
Which form(s) would be a good vehicle for
your ideas?”
A1.3 create and interpret a wide range of characters
using a variety of acting approaches (e.g., apply
the acting approaches of Stanislavski, Uta Hagen,
Le Coq, and/or Lee Strasberg in creating characters
and developing roles)
Teacher prompt: “How does your choice of
acting approach help you to interpret your
character? How could you use a variety of
approaches to create a more three-dimensional
character?”
A2. Elements and Conventions
By the end of this course, students will:
A2.1 use the elements of drama to achieve specific
purposes in drama works (e.g., use character,
setting, relationship, and focus to present a distinct
perspective on events or issues)
Teacher prompt: “What can you imply about
characters and relationships by using word
play and double meanings in dialogue? How
could you use these implicit messages to create
tension and highlight the theme of betrayal in
your scene?”
A2.2 use a variety of drama conventions to help
identify and incorporate new or emerging
ideas in drama works they are developing (e.g.,
use stranger-in-role and meetings to explore possibilities for resolving the drama’s main conflict,
agree on revisions, and refine the final product)
A3. Presentation Techniques and
Technologies
By the end of this course, students will:
A3.1 demonstrate an understanding of how
different acting and staging techniques reflect
and support different purposes in drama (e.g.,
identify theatre styles – such as Brechtian theatre,
theatre of the oppressed, or Shakespearean theatre –
that can help them achieve specific goals in theatre,
and use them as models in producing drama works)
Teacher prompt: “How does the use of theatrein-the-round techniques or a thrust stage affect
the actor–audience relationship?”
Teacher prompt: “What did this technique
help you learn about your character? How
will you communicate this information to
your audience?”
A3.3 select and use a variety of technological
tools to help convey mood, create tension, and
suggest universal connections (e.g., use projected
images to suggest a link to global issues; use
atmospheric lighting to heighten suspense)
Drama
Teacher prompt: “How could the new perspectives on the characters that emerged during
rehearsal influence the outcome? What process
will you use to decide which ideas to keep and
which to discard?”
A3.2 use different acting approaches to explore
and depict character in a variety of situations
(e.g., use forms of improvisation based on Keith
Johnstone’s teachings in Impro for Storytellers; use
Rudolf von Laban’s observations about movement
to suggest a character’s psychological state)
Teacher prompt: “What special effects would
highlight the theme of this drama? What technological tools could you use to create those
effects?”
ADA4M
CREATING AND PRESENTING
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Grade 12, University/College Preparation
B. REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND
ANALYSING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
B1. The Critical Analysis Process: use the critical analysis process to reflect on and evaluate their own
and others’ drama works;
B2. Drama and Society: demonstrate an understanding of how societies present and past use or have used
drama, and of how creating and viewing drama can benefit individuals, groups, and communities;
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom: identify knowledge and skills they have acquired through drama
activities, and demonstrate an understanding of ways in which they can apply this learning in personal,
social, and career contexts.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
B1. The Critical Analysis Process
By the end of this course, students will:
B1.1 use the critical analysis process to reflect on
and justify or revise decisions in creating
drama works (e.g., review their journal responses
to assess their contributions, strengths, and areas
for improvement; monitor the group rehearsal
process and modify the group roles and process
as needed)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Teacher prompt: “Describe your group’s creative
process. How did your collective vision evolve
throughout the rehearsal process? How did the
group implement the changes?”
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B1.2 analyse a variety of contemporary and historical drama works to explain and evaluate
how they communicate themes and dramatize
issues (e.g., describe the strategies used to explore
political and social issues in plays like The
Komagata Maru Incident by Sharon Pollock,
Les Belles Soeurs by Michel Tremblay, or The
Rez Sisters by Tomson Highway, and comment
on their effectiveness)
Teacher prompt: “What are the social, environmental, and/or political issues raised in this
play? Are the issues openly stated, or implied,
or both? Where in the play are the issues
presented most clearly?”
B1.3 analyse and evaluate the aesthetic and
technical aspects of a variety of drama works
and/or theatrical productions (e.g., write a
review of a new play, critiquing the dramatist’s
vision and execution as well as the production
itself; in a large-group discussion, compare their
own reactions to a production with the analysis
in a newspaper or Internet review)
Teacher prompt: “How does your analysis of
this play agree with or differ from the reviewers’
reactions? What evidence supports your judgement of the production? If you were giving
advice to the dramatist, what changes would
you suggest?”
B2. Drama and Society
By the end of this course, students will:
B2.1 demonstrate an understanding of how
drama questions social and cultural conditions
in a variety of Canadian and global drama
sources and traditions (e.g., determine the
intended message in Dennis Foon’s exploration
of racism in Skin, Rick Salutin’s investigation of
political unrest in Upper Canada in 1837: The
Farmers’ Revolt, Drew Hayden Taylor’s scrutiny
of Native culture in Toronto at Dreamer’s Rock,
Trey Anthony’s exploration of cultural identity in
‘Da Kink in My Hair, and various “green movie
dramas” such as Erin Brockovitch, Gorillas in
the Mist, The Day After Tomorrow, Hoot, and
Avatar; explain how the themes and techniques
of Brechtian theatre reflect socialist ideas, or
how theatre of the absurd reflects existentialist
philosophy)
B2.2 describe ways in which their personal
experiences in drama have influenced their
attitudes to others and their own world view
(e.g., by developing their empathy, respect for
others, and group skills; by introducing them
to customs and perspectives from other societies,
time periods, and cultures)
Teacher prompt: “In what ways has learning
about theatre from other time periods influenced
your ideas about social relationships and roles?”
B2.3 describe ways in which drama can support
or influence school and/or local community
goals (e.g., describe the role of Augusto Boal’s
Theatre of the Oppressed in improving conditions
and raising awareness in marginalized communities; explain why a protest march is a form of
theatre)
Teacher prompt: “What are some examples of
the use of drama to promote social or environmental change?”
B2.4 describe different approaches used to explore
universal concepts and themes in the drama of
diverse cultures (e.g., compare and contrast the
treatment of themes such as hunger, loneliness,
parenthood, oppression, war, and environmental
degradation in dramas from different countries
or time periods)
B3.1 outline the responsibilities of a variety of
leadership and support roles in drama, including the skills and knowledge required, and
evaluate their experiences in these roles in
different contexts (e.g., describe their successes
and areas for improvement in group work for a
Remembrance Day presentation, as a facilitator
in a Grade 9 drama classroom, as a mentor for a
younger drama student, or as a volunteer director
of a play being presented by a local youth group)
Teacher prompt: “What leadership skills did you
use during the stages of the creative process?
How did you provide support for the ideas
and initiatives of other group members?”
B3.2 identify skills they have acquired through
drama activities and explain how they can
contribute to success beyond the classroom
(e.g., voice projection skills are useful in making
presentations or chairing a committee; knowledge
of relaxation techniques is helpful in stressful
situations; understanding of body language is
helpful in “reading” the non-verbal messages in
people’s responses; active listening and collaborative skills are useful in solving problems and
resolving conflicts)
ADA4M
Teacher prompts: “What skills of a trained
actor would be helpful to a lawyer in court?”
“Why might drama students make good social
workers? What valuable lessons does drama
teach about human interaction
and socialization?”
B3.3 identify current and potential educational
and career opportunities in the dramatic arts,
and describe the competencies required in
those fields (e.g., volunteer, part-time, or career
opportunities in local media or arts organizations
such as a television station, community theatre,
art gallery, or summer arts camp)
Teacher prompts: “Which postsecondary
programs offer the best training for actors?”
“What jobs and careers have your drama
skills prepared you for?”
REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND ANALYSING
Teacher prompt: “What different attitudes to
parent–child relationships are presented in the
two plays you have chosen? What historical
or cultural factors might account for the
differences?”
By the end of this course, students will:
Drama
Teacher prompts: “Did your initial ideas about
the issue addressed in this play change after
seeing the play? Do you think drama is a good
vehicle for raising people’s awareness of an
issue or changing their perspectives on it?
Why or why not?” “What are the defining
characteristics of this style of theatre? How does
it relate to the culture and time period in which
it was created?”
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom
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Grade 12, University/College Preparation
C. FOUNDATIONS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
C1. Concepts and Terminology: demonstrate an understanding of the nature and functions of drama
forms, elements, conventions, and techniques, including the correct terminology for the various
components;
C2. Contexts and Influences: demonstrate an understanding of the origins and development of drama
and theatre arts and their influence on past and present societies;
C3. Responsible Practices: demonstrate an understanding of safe, ethical, and responsible personal and
interpersonal practices in drama activities.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
C1. Concepts and Terminology
By the end of this course, students will:
C1.1 demonstrate an understanding of the nature
and function of the forms, elements, conventions, and techniques associated with the theatre
of a particular period or culture (e.g., explain
the function of traditional masks in commedia
dell’arte and/or Noh theatre, or of soliloquies
in Shakespearean plays)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Teacher prompts: “What aspects of character
are communicated by the acting style of this
period?” “How does the use of masks affect
our perception of the characters?” “What type
of atmosphere is created by the use of ritualistic
movement?”
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C1.2 use correct terminology for the styles, components, processes, and techniques of drama
in creating and critiquing drama works and
theatre performances (e.g., the Laban system
of movement analysis, Uta Hagen’s six steps of
characterization, realism, absurdism, overlapping
dialogue, breaking the fourth wall)
Teacher prompt: “What are some examples of
‘breaking the fourth wall’? What effect is this
practice supposed to have on the audience?”
C1.3 demonstrate an understanding of how various media can be used in the production and
promotion of drama works (e.g., create a website
for a production featuring a visual based on the
set design; use a spreadsheet to map special
effects requirements, rehearsal schedules, and
the production process; post a promotional “trailer”
of scenes from the production on the Internet)
Teacher prompt: “What are some ways theatre
companies use media such as the Internet to
promote their productions? Which techniques
could you imitate in promoting your own
work?”
C2. Contexts and Influences
By the end of this course, students will:
C2.1 demonstrate an understanding of the theatre
traditions of a variety of historical periods and
cultures (e.g., identify and explain some differences
in acting and staging in Restoration, naturalist,
and postcolonial plays; explain how the themes
and techniques of the theatre of the absurd reflect
the philosophy of existentialism)
Teacher prompt: “What social and political
conditions in seventeenth-century England
are reflected in Restoration drama?”
C2.2 identify and describe how electronic media
can be used for specific purposes in drama
activities (e.g., projected video clips from the
Internet can be used to highlight or provide a
counterpoint to the action on stage; film adaptations of stage plays can reduce the visual distance
between the action and the viewer, creating a sense
of intimacy and realism; electronic music can
evoke a specific mood or atmosphere; presentation
software can be used to provide “surtitle” translations or interpretations of dialogue and action)
Teacher prompt: “How would you modify
movement, speech, costumes, sets, and makeup for a film version of your play?”
C3. Responsible Practices
By the end of this course, students will:
Teacher prompts: “Why is it important to warm
up your voice and body before performing?”
“Is there any racial or ethnic stereotyping in
this source? Can we use casting to counteract
it, or should we choose another play?”
Teacher prompt: “Why is it important for the
different work teams to keep one another
informed about their activities and progress?
What problems could be caused by a breakdown in communication?”
C3.3 demonstrate an understanding of correct
theatre worker and audience etiquette in classroom drama activities and formal performance
contexts (e.g., as a cast member: arrive prepared
and on time for rehearsals; avoid jumping cues
or directing fellow actors; keep to timelines for
memorizing lines and blocking; as a viewer: avoid
behaviour that disturbs or distracts the actors or
other audience members)
Teacher prompts: “How would you rate the
audience etiquette demonstrated in the theatre
today?” “What are some examples of professional or unprofessional behaviour in the
theatre?”
Drama
C3.1 identify and follow safe and ethical practices
in all drama activities (e.g., learn and use vocal
warm-up and physical flexibility exercises to
protect against strain injuries; learn and use safe
stage fighting and falling techniques; follow procedures for the environmentally responsible use of
materials and energy; respect intellectual property
rights and copyright laws; factor the cost of royalty
payments for copyrighted material into production
budgets; challenge assumptions about class, race,
gender, religion, ability/disability, and sexual
orientation in assigning performance and group
roles)
C3.2 demonstrate an understanding of the tasks
and responsibilities involved in producing
drama works (e.g., itemize the multiple and interrelated responsibilities and competencies of frontof-house staff, stage crew, and production staff)
ADA4M
FOUNDATIONS
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Drama, Grade 12
Workplace Preparation
ADA4E
This course requires students to create, present, and analyse a variety of dramatic works
relevant to the workplace. Students will build trust and collaborative skills and develop
self-confidence through hands-on experience and project-based learning in drama activities.
Students will also explore skills related to the study of drama that can be applied in the
workplace.
Prerequisite: Drama, Grade 11, Open
104
A. CREATING AND PRESENTING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
A2. Elements and Conventions: use the elements and conventions of drama effectively in creating
individual and ensemble works, including works based on a variety of sources;
Drama
A1. The Creative Process: use the creative process and a variety of sources and forms, both individually
and collaboratively, to design and develop drama works;
A3. Presentation Techniques and Technologies: use a variety of presentation techniques and technological
tools to enhance the impact of drama works and communicate for specific audiences and purposes.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
A1. The Creative Process
By the end of this course, students will:
A1.1 use a variety of sources as a basis for creating
scenes about workplace issues (e.g., use ideas
from books about “how to complain” or “dealing
with difficult people” to dramatize the handling
of a client grievance; use a newspaper story about
an equity or human rights issue as the basis for
a courtroom drama)
Teacher prompt: “What different characters
could you include in a skit about a human
rights enquiry?”
A1.2 choose appropriate drama forms to explore
a variety of perspectives on the world of work
and business (e.g., use a sitcom format to explore
a particular working environment such as a
restaurant kitchen or a law office; use monologue
or dialogue formats to dramatize the perspectives
of employees and/or employers on a workplace
issue)
Teacher prompt: “How could you dramatize
the different reactions of an employee and an
employer to an attempt to unionize the work
force?”
Teacher prompt: “What are some of the qualities you might look for when interviewing
someone for a job in the arts?”
ADA4E
A2. Elements and Conventions
By the end of this course, students will:
A2.1 combine and arrange the elements of drama
to create scenes that explore common workplace roles and situations (e.g., use a focus on
equity in a drama about interviewing applicants
for a position; use a shop-floor setting in a drama
about safe work habits)
Teacher prompt: “What kinds of equity issues
should job applicants and job recruiters be
aware of? How could you develop a drama
that shows the issues from both points of view?”
A2.2 use a variety of drama conventions to interpret roles and issues in the workplace (e.g., use
voices in the head and role on the wall to explore
the multi-faceted responsibilities of an employee
in a retail or service setting; use flashbacks to an
earlier job to explain the behaviour of a supervisor
or manager)
Teacher prompt: “How might the supervisor’s
previous experience in entry-level jobs influence her attitude to the workers who report
to her?”
CREATING AND PRESENTING
A1.3 create a scene or sequence of scenes featuring
a character who demonstrates employability
skills (e.g., scenes illustrating the job application
and interview process, including the depiction of
a range of emotional states experienced by the
applicant, such as excitement, anxiety, confidence;
scenes modelling appropriate behaviours for a
variety of workplace roles)
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THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Grade 12, Workplace Preparation
A3. Presentation Techniques and
Technologies
106
By the end of this course, students will:
A3.1 use a variety of techniques to engage specific workplace audiences for various purposes
(e.g., use questioning to engage an audience of
trainees in a presentation about workplace safety;
use a demonstration such as a make-up application
as part of a sales pitch for a product)
Teacher prompt: “How might audio of accident
noises strengthen your presentation on safe
work habits?”
A3.2 use various drama techniques to enhance
workplace presentations (e.g., use blocking to
visualize and plan the layout and audience traffic
patterns for a product display; plan and rehearse
phrasing, pauses, vocal inflection and emphasis,
gestures, and eye contact to enhance delivery of
a seminar or sales presentation)
Teacher prompts: “Which memorization techniques will you use to prepare for your seminar?” “How might relaxation exercises help
you prepare for an interview or audition?”
A3.3 select and use a variety of technological
tools, including forms of new media, to
enhance workplace presentations (e.g., use an
overhead projector, visuals, and audio recordings
to support a promotion of a new product; use a
webcam to create a training video for trainees to
access through the Internet)
Teacher prompt: “What visual aids can you use
to illustrate the steps in your presentation?”
B. REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND
ANALYSING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
B2. Drama and Society: demonstrate an understanding of how societies present and past use or have used
drama, and of how creating and viewing drama can benefit individuals, groups, and communities;
Drama
B1. The Critical Analysis Process: use the critical analysis process to reflect on and evaluate their own
and others’ drama works;
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom: identify knowledge and skills they have acquired through drama
activities, and demonstrate an understanding of ways in which they can apply this learning in personal,
social, and career contexts.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
B1. The Critical Analysis Process
By the end of this course, students will:
B1.1 use the critical analysis process to determine
the responsibilities attached to different roles
within the group and to guide and monitor
progress (e.g., use self- and peer-assessment
strategies to identify personal strengths and areas
for improvement; complete teacher-guided reflections to monitor and fine-tune roles during the
rehearsal process)
Teacher prompt: “What role(s) will you take on
in this collaborative assignment? Why did you
choose this role? What responsibilities will each
group member have?”
Teacher prompts: “What real-world workplace
settings are you familiar with? What workplace
issues are you aware of from your own experience? From films and TV shows? Do you think
films and TV shows are useful sources of information about workplace issues and behaviour?”
“Why is it important to explore difficult issues
ADA4E
B1.3 explain ways in which drama activities
develop their ability to determine the accuracy
and effectiveness of media representations
(e.g., creating and viewing drama can enhance
awareness of the purposes and creative choices
that shape media works)
Teacher prompt: “Was the difficulty of the job
exaggerated in this presentation? Or was it
oversimplified? Why do you think it was treated
in this way? What message did this treatment
send to the viewer?”
B2. Drama and Society
By the end of this course, students will:
B2.1 demonstrate an understanding of how
knowledge and skills developed through
drama can be used in social and workplace
contexts (e.g., visualization skills developed
through role playing can help in preparing for
new social situations or in training exercises;
creative and performance skills can enhance the
design and delivery of marketing and product
information presentations)
Teacher prompts: “How might your ability to
choose appropriate costumes for a drama help
you in a social or workplace context?” “What
are some similarities between performing a role
on stage and ‘performing the role’ of a job?”
REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND ANALYSING
B1.2 analyse presentations about workplace topics
to determine how accurately they depict workplace realities (e.g., analyse the depiction of
workplace conditions and issues in a film, a television show, or a stage work by their classmates
and compare it to information acquired from
real-world work experiences, community service,
or career research)
and represent them through drama? What can
be gained by both actors and audience from
this experience?”
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Grade 12, Workplace Preparation
B2.2 identify ways in which drama activities
strengthen their social and employability skills
(e.g., by emphasizing skills and attitudes such as
punctuality, acceptance of responsibility, ability
to take direction, respect for others)
Teacher prompt: “What are the characteristics
of a ‘professional attitude’? What can you learn
or have you learned about professional behaviour from your drama activities? Are these skills
and attitudes relevant only in employment
contexts?”
B2.3 explain how drama activities provide
insight into different types of roles, social or
occupational hierarchies, and issues they may
encounter in the workplace (e.g., viewing drama
works provides a range of perspectives on social
interaction, power relationships, and ethical issues
in social and occupational contexts; ensemble
drama work provides experience of roles and
responsibilities in product development and
project management processes)
Teacher prompts: “How would you describe
the employer–employee–client relationships
depicted in this scene? Are they believable?
Or are they too stereotypical or idealized?
Give reasons to support your opinion.” “What
is the importance of having a leader on a project?
What are the difficulties of having no leader, or
more than one?”
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
B2.4 describe ways in which dramas or other
works that use elements of drama can reflect
the culture and experience of work (e.g., the
musical A Chorus Line reveals and critiques the
reality of the lives of stage performers; Dan
Needles’s Wingfield Trilogy explores farm life in
Canada using humour; Michael Moore’s documentaries Roger and Me and Sicko explore and
critique the tensions between economics and ethics
in the automotive and health care industries)
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Teacher prompt: “How could we use drama to
challenge the dominance of cliques in the school
and strengthen awareness of our common
interests?”
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom
By the end of this course, students will:
B3.1 explain how the strategies for conflict resolution and team building used in drama can
be applied in the workplace (e.g., collaborative
processes such as forum theatre, voices in the
head, or corridor of voices can be used to assist in
group problem solving and/or conflict resolution)
Teacher prompts: “What common types of
conflicts arise in the workplace? How could
you use the skills you have learned in drama
to help solve such conflicts?” “How can our
new understandings about group theatre and
shared leadership be applied in a workplace
setting?”
B3.2 identify personal strategies and skills they
have developed through drama activities and
explain how they can contribute to success in
workplace contexts (e.g., the ability to interpret
verbal and non-verbal cues such as tone of voice
and body language can help them understand
others and communicate effectively in a wide
range of situations)
Teacher prompt: “How could you use verbal
cues and body language to suggest changes
in a persuasive, non-threatening manner?”
B3.3 identify and describe employment opportunities and careers in the theatre industry, and
describe the competencies they require (e.g.,
outline the responsibilities of different types of
theatre workers, such as actor, backstage technician, front-of-house staff, custodial staff, arts
administrator)
Teacher prompt: “What skills and preparation
would you need for these workplace roles?
How have your classroom drama activities
equipped you for some or all of these roles?”
C. FOUNDATIONS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
C2. Contexts and Influences: demonstrate an understanding of the origins and development of drama
and theatre arts and their influence on past and present societies;
Drama
C1. Concepts and Terminology: demonstrate an understanding of the nature and functions of drama
forms, elements, conventions, and techniques, including the correct terminology for the various
components;
C3. Responsible Practices: demonstrate an understanding of safe, ethical, and responsible personal
and interpersonal practices in drama activities.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
C1. Concepts and Terminology
By the end of this course, students will:
C1.1 identify a variety of forms, elements, conventions, and techniques of drama and describe
some of their functions (e.g., how situation comedy can be used to critique foolish or pretentious
behaviour; how character can be used to illustrate
a theme; how physical place and historical time
period can be used to clarify motivation; how gesture and voice can be used to reveal a character’s
attitudes and emotions; how blocking can be used
to help create tension)
Teacher prompt: “How is mime used to dramatize the impact of mass production methods on
workers in Charlie Chaplin’s Modern Times?
Why is it so effective?”
C1.2 use correct terminology for the styles, components, processes, and techniques of drama
in creating and responding to drama works
(e.g., voices in the head, thought tracking, accepting
offers, advancing a scene, improvisation)
Teacher prompt: “What are some ways of
‘advancing a scene’ when improvising with a
partner (e.g., adding a new detail, continuing
the game, raising the stakes, connecting unrelated details, beginning to carry out an anticipated action, disrupting a routine)?”
ADA4E
Teacher prompt: “What information should
be included on an advertising poster for the
performance of a play?”
C2. Contexts and Influences
By the end of this course, students will:
C2.1 describe how social and cultural patterns
influence the forms and subject matter of
drama (e.g., connect character types from commedia
dell’arte to social conditions in sixteenth-century
Italy; compare depictions of women’s roles in
Restoration and nineteenth-century dramas and
give reasons for the differences; explain how themes
and characters in the drama of Western societies
changed to reflect the growth of industrialization
and urbanization; explain the social background
to themes of migration in the drama of diverse
cultures)
Teacher prompt: “What are some common
themes in Canadian drama? What social or
cultural realities do they reflect?”
C2.2 suggest ways in which current media forms
and technologies influence the content and
presentation of drama works (e.g., the role of
electronic technologies in daily life is a theme in
contemporary drama – including the “dramas”
depicted in advertisements; webcams, webcasts,
and video technology provide access to global
audiences for both amateur and professional
FOUNDATIONS
C1.3 demonstrate an understanding of the nature
and purpose of informational and support
materials for drama productions (e.g., rehearsal
schedules, prompt scripts, blocking diagrams,
cue sheets for lighting and special effects, brochures,
programs, promotion schedules, press releases,
commercials)
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THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Grade 12, Workplace Preparation
drama creators; video and audio technology
are used to add special effects to film and stage
productions)
110
Teacher prompt: “How are video games similar
to or different from action-adventure films?
How have developments in video games been
adapted for some types of film and television
dramas?”
C3. Responsible Practices
By the end of this course, students will:
C3.1 identify and follow safe and ethical practices
in drama activities and explain their relevance
to workplace settings (e.g., explain the relevance
of Workplace Hazardous Materials Information
System [WHMIS] labelling to theatre and other
workplace settings; identify safety training and
certifications that are relevant to occupations in
the theatre and other fields; identify and follow
procedures for the environmentally responsible
use of materials and energy; explain the importance of developing and implementing workplace
antiharassment and antidiscrimination policies
and guidelines)
Teacher prompts: “What safety concerns have
you become aware of through your work in
drama? How does safety training prepare
you for other types of jobs?” “What steps can
people take to prevent or combat harassment
in their workplace?”
C3.2 demonstrate an understanding of tasks and
responsibilities in producing drama works that
have counterparts in other workplace settings
(e.g., preparing progress reports for colleagues;
participating in team meetings; being punctual
and keeping to timelines; complying with codes of
conduct; clarifying and fulfilling job expectations)
Teacher prompt: “How do we ensure that all
team members fulfil their responsibilities to
the project?”
C3.3 demonstrate an understanding of correct
theatre worker and audience etiquette and its
relevance to other workplace contexts (e.g., use
appropriate professional language; observe dress
codes; demonstrate appropriate conduct in meetings)
Teacher prompts: “What is the appropriate
style of dress for this particular role?” “How
might you have to change your everyday
behaviour to suit a particular workplace role
or environment?”
EXPLORING AND
CREATING IN THE ARTS
OVERVIEW
Exploring and Creating in the Arts focuses on creating, presenting, and promoting art
works, including integrated art works and productions, for a variety of purposes. Students
use a variety of tools, techniques, and technologies to create art works and productions
that communicate messages and demonstrate their creative skills. Students analyse
works from various arts disciplines and create art works or productions that integrate
aspects of these disciplines.
In exploring the arts and creating art works, students explore the interrelationship
between the arts and personal development. They respond to creative challenges using
elements, principles, materials, and techniques from various arts disciplines, including
dance, drama, media arts, music, and visual arts. This course encourages creative
expression and fosters the development of skills and knowledge that prepare students
for lifelong learning and participation in the arts and arts-related activities.
The expectations for the course in exploring the arts and creating art works are organized
into three distinct but related strands:
1.
Creating and Presenting: Students apply the creative process (see pages 15–17) to
produce and present art works/productions using materials and elements and/or
principles from more than one arts discipline. Students use technologies, tools, and
techniques associated with these disciplines to create, modify, present, and promote
integrated art works/productions for a variety of purposes.
2.
Reflecting, Responding, and Analysing: In this strand, students use the critical analysis
process (see pages 17–22) to analyse and assess a variety of art works/productions.
Students examine the function of the arts in society and analyse how the arts have
affected their personal values and sense of identity, generating a deeper understanding
of themselves and their culture. They explore arts-related careers and opportunities
outside the classroom.
3.
Foundations: In this strand, students develop their understanding of, and use proper
terminology when referring to, elements, principles, and other key concepts related
to various arts disciplines. They explore symbols and themes in the arts as well as
influences on various arts disciplines. Students learn about responsible practices and
ethical considerations associated with creating and experiencing different types of
art works and apply these practices when creating, presenting, experiencing, and
promoting art works/productions.
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Exploring and Creating
in the Arts, Grade 11 or 12
Open
AEA3O/AEA4O
This course offers students the opportunity to explore connections between dance, drama,
media arts, music, and/or visual arts. Students will use the creative process individually
and/or collaboratively to produce integrated art works that draw on various disciplines,
and they will critically analyse art works and determine how interpreting these works
affects their own development. Students will develop responsible practices that are
transferable beyond the classroom. They will explore solutions to integrated arts challenges
and discover that art is everywhere, influencing and reflecting society.
Prerequisite: Any Grade 9 or 10 arts course
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A. CREATING AND PRESENTING
By the end of this course, students will:
A1. The Creative Process: apply the creative process to create integrated art works/productions,
individually and/or collaboratively;
A2. Elements and Principles: apply elements and principles from various arts disciplines when creating,
modifying, and presenting art works, including integrated art works/productions;
A3. Tools, Techniques, and Technologies: use a variety of tools, techniques, and technologies to create
integrated art works/productions that communicate specific messages and demonstrate creativity;
A4. Presentation and Promotion: present and promote art works, including integrated art works/
productions, for a variety of purposes, using appropriate technologies and conventions.
Exploring and Creating in the Arts
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
A1. The Creative Process
By the end of this course, students will:
A1.1 use a variety of strategies (e.g., brainstorming
with a partner, think-pair-share, mind maps,
graphic organizers) to generate innovative ideas
and to develop and refine detailed plans to
address an integrated art challenge, individually
and/or collaboratively (e.g., the challenge to
create a performance piece or installation on a
theme related to nature, such as water, fire, birth,
or decay)
Teacher prompts: “What strategies did your
group use to generate ideas to address the creative challenge?” “Does your plan address how
you will approach all the stages of the creative
process as you create your art work?” “In what
ways did you have to refine your original
idea and plans as you progressed through
the creative process?”
AEA3O/
AEA4O
A1.3 compile and organize a portfolio that contains representative samples of their integrated
art works/productions and illustrates how
they have used the creative process in creating
these works (e.g., ensure that their portfolio
includes evidence of how their work developed
through each stage of the creative process)
Teacher prompts: “Does your portfolio contain
a range of work that illustrates your approach
to each stage of the creative process? Which
works reflect the specific stages of the process?”
“Why is it important to include preliminary
as well as final versions of your work in your
portfolio?”
A2. Elements and Principles
By the end of this course, students will:
A2.1 select and apply a combination of elements
and principles from multiple arts disciplines
when creating and presenting complex integrated art works/productions (e.g., use relationship
CREATING AND PRESENTING
A1.2 use the appropriate stages of the creative
process to produce and present integrated art
works, individually and/or collaboratively,
in response to creative challenges, and revise
them on the basis of reflection and peer- and
self-assessment (e.g., experiment with elements
from various arts disciplines; present their work
formally and informally to the class at various
stages of the creative process, reflect on the insights
derived from the audience response, and use valid
feedback as well as self-assessment to refine their
work)
Teacher prompts: “How do you decide if an
experiment with integrating elements from
various arts has been successful?” “When you
reflect on your approach to the creative process,
was any stage more demanding than the others?”
“Has peer feedback given you fresh ideas to
explore? Has it changed your perception of or
approach to your work? What changes did you
make as a result of this feedback?”
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Grade 11 or 12, Open
from dance, timbre and texture from music, and
unity and harmony from visual arts to highlight the
connections between different life forms on Earth;
present an art work that combines interactivity
and duration from media arts with time and space
from drama and time and energy from dance)
Teacher prompts: “How could you visually
complement the pitch and dynamics of this
piece of music using elements from dance
and drama?” “How would you approach the
elements of energy and tension in this work
to create a cohesive art work?”
A2.2 research how artists have modified existing
art works to create new art works (e.g., how
Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern
Are Dead draws on characters from Hamlet; how
Andy Warhol used photographs in his visual art
works; how Akira Kurosawa uses conventions
from Kabuki theatre in his films; how Antonin
Dvorak used themes from traditional Slavic and
American music in his art music), and, using this
research as inspiration, modify the elements
and/or principles of an existing art work to
create a new work whose intent and impact
are different from those of the original work
Teacher prompts: “How have visual artists
such as Charles Pachter or Betye Saar challenged the meaning of cultural icons? When
might a similar approach be appropriate in
your own work?” “Who are some popular
songwriters who have used themes from art
music in their compositions? Are there any
themes from the music you have studied that
you could adapt for use in your own composition or improvisation? How might you modify
such a theme? What factors influence your
approach?”
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
A3. Tools, Techniques, and Technologies
114
By the end of this course, students will:
A3.1 integrate media/materials, tools, and
techniques from more than one arts discipline
to create a complex integrated art work/
production that communicates a specific message
(e.g., create two public service announcements
on the same current social issue but intended
for different audiences; create a podcast or other
multimedia production on an issue of personal
interest)
Teacher prompts: “How might you use an
integrated art work to draw attention to
social/political issues? What techniques might
you use to enhance your message?” “Why might
an integrated art work be particularly effective
at conveying a message to an audience?”
A3.2 use technologies, tools, and techniques associated with more than one arts discipline to
create integrated art works/productions that
demonstrate creativity and/or innovation (e.g.,
use accompaniment and animation software to
create an innovative art work based on an environmental theme; used digitized sound- and videoediting techniques to create an experimental film;
use computer-assisted design software and design
techniques to create an innovative interior design
for an advertising agency)
Teacher prompts: “What are the criteria for
determining whether an art work or production
demonstrates creativity, uniqueness, or innovation?” “In what ways has working with current
technologies allowed you to explore and extend
the limits of innovation in your art works?”
A4. Presentation and Promotion
By the end of this course, students will:
A4.1 apply a variety of current technologies to
present integrated art works/productions (e.g.,
present the class’s integrated art works in a virtual
gallery; display digitized visual art works on the
stage to enhance a music, dance, or drama presentation; present a screen dance that complements a
pre-recorded, original digital soundtrack)
Teacher prompt: “What are some of the advantages and disadvantages associated with
presenting your integrated art works in a
virtual environment? How can you assess
the response to works presented in this way?”
A4.2 use a collaborative approach to plan, design,
and produce a year-end group presentation of
selected art works, including integrated art
works (e.g., select works that demonstrate a
sophisticated understanding of the creative process
and that represent all the arts disciplines; generate
strategies for display/presentation that best suit
the individual works and that present the works
as a cohesive whole)
Teacher prompts: “What considerations do you
need to address when selecting works for a
collaborative culminating presentation?” “How
can the various works be organized in a way
that enhances the individual works but also
contributes to a unified presentation?”
different standards and practices for formal and
informal presentations; practices used to effectively promote an exhibition of integrated art works
in the local community)
Teacher prompts: “How would you promote
integrated art works/productions being presented at a community centre or gallery as
opposed to those being presented to an audience
of students at your school?” “What are the
advantages and disadvantages of promoting
or presenting works solely on the Internet?”
Exploring and Creating in the Arts
A4.3 demonstrate an understanding of the appropriate standards, conventions, and practices
associated with the preparation, promotion,
and presentation of art works, including integrated art works/productions, for a variety
of purposes (e.g., standards and conventions for
the display of various types of visual art works;
practices to ensure an appropriate level of interactivity in media art works; standards associated
with venues for dance or drama presentations;
AEA3O/
AEA4O
CREATING AND PRESENTING
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B. REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND
ANALYSING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
B1. The Critical Analysis Process: demonstrate an understanding of the critical analysis process by
applying it to study works from various arts disciplines as well as integrated art works/productions;
B2. The Function of the Arts in Society: explain and assess the functions and impact of the arts in past
and present societies;
B3. The Arts and Personal Development: demonstrate an understanding of the interrelationship
between the arts and personal development, including their own personal development;
B4. Connections Beyond the Classroom: demonstrate an understanding of and apply the types of skills
developed through creating, presenting, and analysing art works, including integrated art works/
productions, and describe various opportunities to pursue artistic endeavours outside the classroom.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
B1. The Critical Analysis Process
By the end of this course, students will:
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
B1.1 describe their initial reaction to works from
a variety of arts disciplines, and explain the
reasons for their reaction (e.g., aspects of the
work and their personal experience or values that
contributed to their reaction)
116
Teacher prompt: “What particular aspects of
this art work most affected your initial impression? Why do you think this aspect of the work
had an impact on you?”
B1.2 identify and describe the elements and
principles used to create integrated art works,
and analyse the methods used to combine
these elements and principles into unified art
works (e.g., write a review of an installation,
including a description of how the artist combined
elements from various arts disciplines; create a
mind map of the artistic elements in a music video
by contemporary First Nation, Métis, or Inuit musicians, and analyse how these elements have been
combined into a cohesive whole)
Teacher prompts: “What elements from the arts
are integrated into an operatic performance?”
“When you study this installation, what elements
can you identify? Which arts disciplines are
they taken from? How does the combination
of these elements allow the work to transcend
these disciplines?”
B1.3 interpret a variety of art works using the
critical analysis process, and reflect on and
explain how their interpretation of specific art
works has changed over the course of this
process (e.g., the difference between their initial
reaction and more informed interpretation; the
roles of research and reflection in their ongoing
critical assessment)
Teacher prompt: “Describe your initial reaction
to this art work. In what ways has this reaction
changed as a result of your increased understanding of the artist’s intent? What factors
contributed to this change?”
B1.4 communicate their critical judgement of a
variety of their own art works and the works
of others, and explain the relationship between
this stage of the critical analysis process and
the creative process (e.g., why a work is or is not
effective; what they would change in a work, and
why; how evaluating the effectiveness of others’
art works contributes to their ability to assess
their own works at different stages of the creative
process)
B2. The Function of the Arts in Society
By the end of this course, students will:
B2.1 explain various functions of the arts in society,
with reference to both past and present societies
(e.g., prepare an integrated arts presentation to
explain the function of the arts with respect to ritual,
entertainment, education, or cultural expression;
report on the functions of art in Aboriginal societies;
compare the functions of the arts in ancient and
contemporary societies)
Teacher prompts: “What is the meaning of
Marshall McLuhan’s statement ‘The medium is
the message’? How is it related to the function
of the arts in society?” “What role do songs
play in oral cultures?”
B2.2 assess, on the basis of research, the ability of
the arts to inform and instruct and to contribute
to social change (e.g., the impact of works intended
to manipulate, didactic works, propaganda, works
of social or political protest; the influence of artists
such as Augusto Boal, Bertold Brecht, Miriam
Makeba, Alanis Obomsawin, Pablo Picasso, John
Heartfield, Bruce Mau; the impact of contemporary
podcasts or random access web videos on politics
or cultural issues)
B3. The Arts and Personal Development
By the end of this course, students will:
B3.1 analyse how creating, presenting, and
analysing a variety of art works has affected
their personal values and their understanding
of the values of their community and culture
and those of other cultures (e.g., how using the
newspaper as a source of ideas for an art work
contributed to their understanding of the importance
of an issue in their community; how analysing art
Teacher prompts: “What have you learned
about your personal biases from creating your
art works?” “In what ways did you adapt to
different points of view when working on collaborative creative projects?” “Have any of the
art works you have studied challenged your
assumptions about other cultures? If so, how?”
B3.2 analyse, on the basis of research, the impact
of a range of factors on the development of
artists from various arts disciplines (e.g., the
impact of mental health issues on the work of
Vincent van Gogh or of physical disability on
the work of Chuck Close or Evelyn Glennie; the
impact of changing technologies on the work of
Michael Snow; the influence of Aboriginal culture
on the work of Santee Smith; the impact of gender
roles on various women artists), and describe
factors that have contributed to their own
development as an artist
Teacher prompts: “What impact did traditional
gender roles have on the career and artistic
output of a composer such as Clara Schumann
or a visual artist such as Emily Carr?” “What
would you change about one of your earlier
art works to demonstrate your artistic growth?”
AEA3O/
AEA4O
B4. Connections Beyond the Classroom
By the end of this course, students will:
B4.1 demonstrate an understanding of, and apply
both inside and outside the arts classroom,
skills, character traits, and work habits that are
developed though the processes of creating,
analysing, presenting, and promoting collaborative and independent art works, including
integrated art works/productions (e.g., create a
word wall of character traits useful in integrated
arts; in small groups, demonstrate leadership skills
related to task planning, organizing, and delegating;
demonstrate effective oral communication skills;
compare the skills required to produce, present, or
analyse work in integrated arts and those required
in other classes or extracurricular activities;
demonstrate skills included in the Ontario Skills
Passport or among the Human Resources and Skills
Development Canada [HRSDC] essential skills)
Teacher prompt: “How might you use skills
learned in this course to organize a community
event to showcase student work? How can
these same planning, organizational, and promotional skills be used in other areas of study
or in your part-time job?”
REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND ANALYSING
Teacher prompts: “Who are some Canadian
artists who are particularly associated with
social commentary or criticism? What impact
has their work had?” “Name some artists
whose work has been censored, and explain
why their work met with this response.” “In
what ways is digital technology changing the
ability of the arts to contribute to social change?”
“In what ways can a viral web video affect an
election campaign?”
works from around the globe on the Internet has
contributed to their understanding of and appreciation for other cultures; how their understanding of
issues of importance to other cultures has affected
their own values)
Exploring and Creating in the Arts
Teacher prompts: “What aspects of this art
work do you think are effective? Why? Are
there any aspects that you consider ineffective?
Why?” “What criteria can we use for evaluating
art works? How can you apply these criteria
when engaged in the creative process to enhance
the effectiveness of your work?”
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B4.2 describe, on the basis of research, arts-related
careers and secondary and postsecondary
pathways that reflect their interests and skills
(e.g., reflect on their interests, conduct personal
skills inventories, and research employment opportunities that reflect their interests and skills;
explore college and university arts programs and
arts-related apprenticeships; compile a list of arts
organizations in their community and the types
of career opportunities available with them)
Teacher prompts: “What arts-related career
opportunities that are of interest to you exist
in our community? What types of educational
background and work experience do they
require?” “What arts career opportunity most
interests you? What skills do you see as necessary in order to succeed in this area?”
B4.3 describe, on the basis of research, opportunities for continuing engagement in artistic and
cultural endeavours beyond the classroom
(e.g., student subscription packages for local dance
troupes, theatre groups, music ensembles; local
artist talks or art gallery tours; opportunities for
involvement in arts advocacy, either with a local
group or nationally/internationally through
the Internet; volunteer opportunities with local
festivals)
Teacher prompt: “In what ways does the
Internet expand opportunities for you to
become involved in arts advocacy?”
C. FOUNDATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
C1. Terminology: demonstrate an understanding of, and use proper terminology when referring to,
elements, principles, and other concepts related to various arts disciplines;
C2. Contexts and Influences: demonstrate an understanding of symbols and themes associated with
art works produced by various cultures from around the globe and of past and present influences
on works from various arts disciplines;
C3. Conventions and Responsible Practices: demonstrate an understanding of conventions and
responsible practices associated with various arts disciplines, and apply these practices when
creating, presenting, experiencing, and promoting art works.
Exploring and Creating in the Arts
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
C1. Terminology
By the end of this course, students will:
C1.1 use, appropriately and correctly, terminology related to elements, principles, and other
key concepts from all the arts disciplines when
creating, analysing, or presenting various types
of art works (e.g., use terminology correctly when
using technology to create a melodic phrase to
complement a visual art work or series of dance
movements, when creating an art installation,
when analysing a sculpture, when staging a play;
design a “terminology bingo” game using a wide
range of terms describing the elements and principles related to all the arts)
C1.2 demonstrate an understanding of elements,
principles, and other key concepts associated
with all the arts disciplines, and identify those
that are common to more than one discipline
(e.g., in small groups, generate a list of concepts
from all arts disciplines for a word wall; create
a Venn diagram to determine common concepts;
explain terms such as line, point of view, time,
balance, interactivity, and variety with reference
to specific arts disciplines)
AEA3O/
AEA4O
C2. Contexts and Influences
By the end of this course, students will:
C2.1 demonstrate an understanding of symbols
used in a variety of past and present art works
from various cultures from around the world
(e.g., research and report on the significance of
symbols associated with ancient Egyptian or
Roman statuary; First Nation, Métis, and Inuit
pictographs; Balinese dance; Celtic ballads;
commercial icons)
Teacher prompts: “What types of symbols are
used in this advertising icon? Why are these
symbols used?” “What are some symbols used
in the lyrics of religious music?”
C2.2 research, reflect on, and explain how common themes (e.g., love, war, heroism, death, joy,
work, nature) are addressed in a variety of past
and present art works from various cultures
Teacher prompts: “What are some different
ways in which artists have portrayed the theme
of love?” “What are some of the ways in which
Canadian artists, including Québécois and First
Nation, Métis, and Inuit artists, have addressed
the theme of nationhood?”
FOUNDATIONS
C1.3 analyse similarities and differences in
approaches to the creative process in various arts
disciplines (e.g., how a musician, a choreographer,
and a sculptor might approach the planning/
incubation stage; how a visual artist and a musician
might experiment with the elements of their art;
how a dramatist and a media artist might present
their work; how the revision process differs across
the various arts disciplines)
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Grade 11 or 12, Open
C2.3 demonstrate an understanding of how past
and present social, economic, and/or political
factors have affected artistic form and content
(e.g., how political factors influenced the content
of propaganda films from World War II; how social,
economic, and political factors affected the visual
arts, music, drama, and/or dance of the Renaissance;
how environmental issues have influenced various
contemporary artists; how industrialization resulted
in new artistic forms and technologies)
Teacher prompts: “What impact did the social
and economic disruption associated with the
Great Depression have on music, visual arts,
or drama in Canada?” “In what ways did the
social and economic changes associated with
the Industrial Revolution affect the content
and form of art works?”
C3. Conventions and Responsible
Practices
By the end of this course, students will:
C3.1 demonstrate an understanding of and apply
conventions associated with the experiencing
of various types of art works (e.g., the etiquette
associated with dance and drama, interactive media
art, various types of concerts, museums/galleries)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Teacher prompts: “What are the conventions
traditionally associated with attending art exhibitions? In what ways are some media artists
challenging these conventions?” “How and
why might audiences behave differently at a
rock concert, a jazz concert, and an art music
concert?”
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C3.2 demonstrate an understanding of safe and
conscientious work practices associated with
various arts disciplines, and apply these practices when engaged in the creative process (e.g.,
demonstrate familiarity with Workplace Hazardous
Materials Information System [WHMIS] guidelines;
show respect for the work of other students; apply
safe practices when working with various tools
and materials; use group discussion and consensus
to determine effective rules and expectations in the
integrated arts classroom)
Teacher prompts: “What sorts of substances
should not be used in the classroom? Which
substances should be used only with protective
equipment?” “Why is it important to warm up
properly before a dance routine or before
singing?”
C3.3 demonstrate an understanding of ethical
and legal practices related to the various arts
disciplines, and apply these practices when
creating, presenting, or promoting art works,
including integrated art works/productions
(e.g., use media from Creative Commons; obtain
permission to sample songs or use stock photography; acknowledge their sources when borrowing
from the work of other artists; show respect and
sensitivity when appropriating from other cultures)
Teacher prompts: “What issues should you
consider before appropriating symbols or motifs
associated with other cultures in your art work?”
“How would you go about getting permission
to include in your film soundtrack a piece of
music written by another composer?”
C3.4 describe environmental issues associated
with the arts, and apply environmentally
responsible practices when creating, presenting,
and promoting art works, including integrated
art works/productions (e.g., safely and appropriately dispose of paint containers, toner cartridges,
and other arts supplies; recycle batteries; use the
Environment Canada website as a source for an
integrated arts project on the four R’s [reduce,
reuse, recycle, and recover]; reduce the use of paper
by promoting a performance or art exhibition
through the Internet)
Teacher prompts: “Why is it important to check
the source the supplies you use for your art
works?” “Are any of the items you used in
creating your art work classified as hazardous
waste? How should you dispose of them?”
MEDIA ARTS
OVERVIEW
Media arts courses at the Grade 11 and 12 level focus on refining students’ use of multiple
media and their skills in the use of traditional and emerging technologies and tools.
Students create increasingly sophisticated media art works that communicate ideas, feelings,
and beliefs to specific audiences. These courses also develop students’ theoretical knowledge and analytical skills, and encourage them to explore in greater depth the cultural,
historical, and social contexts of media art.
Media arts incorporates a variety of materials, techniques, tools, technologies, and skills
from various arts disciplines including dance, drama, music, and visual arts. Elements
are also drawn from the contributing arts: for example, line, colour, and texture from
visual arts; space, time, and energy from dance; rhythm (duration), harmony (pitch), and
dynamics from music; and character, place, and tension from dramatic arts. The technologies and processes used and adapted to create media art may be traditional, including,
but not limited to, photography, film, photocopy art, analog and electro-acoustic sound,
classical animation, and video/television. The technologies and processes may also be
digital: computer software, digital imaging and graphics, digital sound recording and sonic
sculpture, two- and three-dimensional animation, multimedia production, holography,
and web-page design.
Four organizing principles guide the creation of media artworks: hybridization, interactivity,
duration, and point of view. Hybridization involves innovative ways of combining art
disciplines to create what can be called “hybrid” forms of art. Duration explores the nature
of time and how its perception can be manipulated and presented. Interactivity involves
viewer participation and includes artforms such as interactive installations, performance
art, gaming environments, and web-based art. Point of view can be expressed both
conceptually – revealing, for example, an artist’s response to a social theme or issue –
and physically, through perspective.
The expectations for the courses in media arts are organized into three distinct but
related strands:
1.
Creating and Presenting: Students apply the creative process (see pages 15–17) to
construct and present media art works using traditional and emerging technology
and tools in increasingly skillful ways. They create art works for multiple purposes
and audiences, reflecting on the effectiveness of their use of the creative process.
Students analyse how various artists use the principles of media art in the design
and production of works that integrate elements from contributing arts.
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122
2.
Reflecting, Responding, and Analysing: In this strand, students use the critical analysis
process (see pages 17–22) and the process of deconstruction to enhance their appreciation of media art works. Students reflect on their artistic choices to determine their
effectiveness. They examine how media art works reflect personal and cultural
identities, and affect personal, cultural, and community values. They assess and
refine the skills needed for a range of careers and lifelong learning.
3.
Foundations: In this strand, students deepen their understanding of theoretical
concepts and expand their vocabulary for evaluating their own creations and those of
other media artists. They analyse the roles of media artists and explore the historical
and sociocultural contexts of media arts. Students demonstrate responsible practices
when producing, presenting, and experiencing media art works.
Media Arts, Grade 11
University/College Preparation
ASM3M
This course focuses on the development of media arts skills through the production
of art works involving traditional and emerging technologies, tools, and techniques
such as new media, computer animation, and web environments. Students will explore
the evolution of media arts as an extension of traditional art forms, use the creative process
to produce effective media art works, and critically analyse the unique characteristics of
this art form. Students will examine the role of media artists in shaping audience perceptions of identity, culture, and values.
Prerequisite: Media Arts, Grade 10, Open
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A. CREATING AND PRESENTING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
A1. The Creative Process: apply the creative process to create media art works, individually and/or
collaboratively;
A2. The Principles of Media Arts: design and produce media art works, applying the principles of
media arts and using various elements from contributing arts (dance, drama, music, visual arts);
A3. Using Technologies, Tools, and Techniques: apply traditional and emerging technologies, tools,
and techniques to produce and present media art works for a variety of audiences and purposes.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
A1. The Creative Process
By the end of this course, students will:
A1.1 use a variety of strategies (e.g., brainstorming,
concept webs, mind maps, group discussions,
research using sources such as case studies) to
investigate creative challenges and generate
innovative ideas, individually and/or collaboratively, for addressing them (e.g., the challenge
of creating a video art work on cyberbullying)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Teacher prompt: “Do any of your personal
experiences or those of your group members
relate to the topic of the challenge? Where
would you find more information on the topic?
How can these experiences and this information help you generate ideas?”
124
A1.2 develop plans, individually and/or collaboratively, that address a variety of creative
challenges (e.g., reflect on and filter their ideas
to select a feasible one as the basis for their plan;
use storyboards, thumbnail sketches, production
notes, scripts, choreographic notes, and/or blocking
notes to help develop their plans), and assess and
revise their plans on the basis of feedback and
reflection
Teacher prompts: “What criteria might you use
when filtering ideas?” “What challenges does
your plan present? Would revising an aspect of
the plan help you overcome those challenges?”
A1.3 produce and refine media art works, using
research, exploration, input, and reflection
(e.g., research audio/visual codes and alternative
media; explore new media tools, practise a range
of techniques, and reflect on which tools and techniques would be appropriate for their art work;
reflect on feedback from their teacher, peers, and
others, and modify their preliminary work as
appropriate on the basis of this feedback)
Teacher prompts: “What other media artists
have used this technique? How can exploring
techniques used by other media artists help
you expand the range of techniques you use
in your work?” “How do you decide when to
integrate the input of others into your work?
In what ways did feedback affect your final
product?”
A1.4 exhibit or perform media art works, individually and/or collaboratively, using methods that
are highly appropriate for the work (e.g., present
a performance art work with sound effects or music
that enhances their message; post their digital
work on the Internet; play the class a DVD of
their animation; present their work in an actual
or virtual gallery)
Teacher prompt: “Is your mode of presentation
appropriate for your art work? Is there any
aspect of your work that is not well served by
the method of presentation? How might you
modify your presentation plans to address this
problem?”
A1.5 use an appropriate tracking tool (e.g., a
sketchbook, a journal, storyboards, a checklist,
production notes, a “making-of” video) to produce
a detailed record of their application of the creative process, and use this record to determine,
through reflection, how effectively they applied
this process
Teacher prompt: “After reviewing your record
of the way you used the creative process, what
have you learned that you might apply to the
creation of your next media art work?”
A2. The Principles of Media Arts
By the end of this course, students will:
Teacher prompts: “How has the combination of
these two media enriched the final media art
work?” “In what ways can sound be used to
unify space in an installation?”
A2.2 analyse how media artists use the principle
of interactivity, and apply that principle in the
design and production of media art works
that explore elements from contributing arts
(e.g., use projected images and/or text to create
an installation and live performance in the style
of Rafael Lozano-Hemmer or of Janet Cardiff and
George Bures Miller’s The Paradise Institute)
Teacher prompts: “What elements can you use
to enhance the interactivity of your art work?”
“How are the elements of dance and visual arts
applied through the principle of interactivity
in Camille Utterback’s Untitled 5 from her
External Measures series?”
A2.3 analyse how media artists use the principle
of duration, and apply that principle in the
design and production of media art works that
explore elements from contributing arts (e.g.,
analyse how video artists such as Shandi Mitchell
or multidisciplinary artists such as Thom Sokoloski
combine elements using the principle of duration;
design a multimedia performance with time-lapse
effects; use digital video editing and other techniques to make time “fly”)
A2.4 analyse how media artists use the principle
of point of view, and apply that principle in the
design and production of media art works that
explore elements from contributing arts (e.g.,
analyse the animated short Ryan by Chris
A3. Using Technologies, Tools, and
Techniques
By the end of this course, students will:
A3.1 explore a wide range of traditional and
emerging technologies, tools, and techniques,
and use them to produce effective media art
works (e.g., explore advanced digital imaging,
digital video, and digital audio; experiment with
multimedia, performance, and installation art;
create web-based art, using software from the
OSAPAC database where possible)
ASM3M
Teacher prompt: “In what ways has your developing skill in photographic and digital imaging
increased your ability to express your ideas?”
A3.2 create and present media art works that are
appropriate for specific audiences and venues
(e.g., an audience of elementary students; a venue
such as a theatre stage, a gallery, an outdoor site),
using various technologies, tools, and techniques (e.g., projection, broadcast, the Internet,
computer monitors)
Teacher prompts: “Is your media art work
appropriate for your audience?” “Based on
feedback from the audience, is there anything
that you would change about the techniques
used in your art work? Why or why not?”
A3.3 communicate their purpose and artistic
intention when creating and presenting media
art works, using a variety of approaches, tools,
technologies, and techniques (e.g., create a
video-based installation that uses dramatic images
to encourage the audience to consider social issues
related to Aboriginal rights or environmental
protection)
Teacher prompts: “What is your artistic intention? What type of approach might best
communicate your intent to an audience?”
“How did your artistic intention influence
your choice of technology and use of tools?”
CREATING AND PRESENTING
Teacher prompts: “What is the difference
between running time, perceived time, and
actual time in a media art work?” “How can
you use images and effects to depict the passage
of time? How can you manipulate the sense of
time in media art?”
Teacher prompt: “How does the physical point
of view affect the meaning of this media art
work? How might you change the point of
view to alter the work’s meaning?”
Media Arts
A2.1 analyse how media artists use the principle
of hybridization, and apply that principle in
the design and production of media art works
that explore elements from contributing arts
(e.g., combine still photographs and the techniques
of cut paper animation to create a digital animation
in the style of Allison Hrabluik)
Landreth and the related documentary Alter Ego
by Laurence Green with reference to their
approach to conveying physical and conceptual
points of view; create an art work to express a
conceptual point of view on a cultural, political,
or social theme; present physical points of view
by creating a series of still images that approach
the same subject matter from a variety of positions
[bird’s eye, worm’s eye, eye level, panoramic,
internal, microscopic])
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Grade 11, University/College Preparation
B. REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND
ANALYSING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
B1. The Critical Analysis Process: demonstrate an understanding of the critical analysis process by
using it to monitor the creative process, and by examining, interpreting, assessing, and reflecting
on media art works;
B2. Identity and Values: demonstrate an understanding of how media art works reflect personal and
cultural identity, and affect personal, cultural, and community values and their awareness of those
values;
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom: demonstrate an understanding of the types of knowledge
and skills that are transferable beyond the media arts classroom.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
B1. The Critical Analysis Process
By the end of this course, students will:
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
B1.1 analyse, through examination and reflection,
their initial response to media art works, using
various strategies and modes of communication
(e.g., describe their initial reaction to a classmate’s
media art work in an inside-outside circle or using
a sticky-note parking lot; use an electronic chart to
record their analysis of how specific elements of
the art work affected their initial reaction)
126
Teacher prompt: “Does a particular technical
or aesthetic aspect of this media art work strike
you? How does it affect your initial reaction
to the work?”
B1.2 use the critical analysis process to deconstruct,
interpret, and assess media art works created
by recognized artists, and record and organize
their findings using a variety of tools and formats
(e.g., identify the individual components of the
work and analyse how the artist combines them to
communicate a message or convey meaning; assess
the effectiveness of the artist’s use of technology
and tools as well as principles and elements from
contributing art forms; analyse ways in which the
artist has used his or her cultural background as
inspiration; interpret the work to determine its
intent; assess how effectively the artist addresses
a social issue or communicates artistic intent;
analyse the use of large-scale projection in Bill
Viola’s work The Crossing)
Teacher prompt: “What was the artist’s intent in
creating this art work? How effectively does the
artist communicate that intent? What specifically
does he or she do to achieve that intent?”
B1.3 analyse how each stage of the critical analysis
process contributes to their comprehension of
media art works, and communicate their findings (e.g., review their records [notes, blogs, video
journals, digital recordings] to determine their
understanding of a media art work during each
stage of the critical analysis process)
Teacher prompt: “What sorts of differences can
your see between your initial reaction to this
work and your final assessment of it? What
accounts for those differences?”
B1.4 use the appropriate components of the critical
analysis process to assess and enhance their own
creative process, including their planning, production, and presentation decisions, and to
interpret audience responses to their media art
work (e.g., use feedback from the critical analysis
process when making creative decisions about the
most appropriate modes of presentation, effective
technologies, the time and place for an exhibition,
and/or the level of interactivity of their art work;
critically analyse the work of recognized media
artists to inspire them and expand their creative
potential, to help them refine their design plan, or
to discover new technologies or new ways of working with familiar technologies)
B2. Identity and Values
By the end of this course, students will:
B2.1 identify and analyse ways in which media
art works express the personal identities of
artists (e.g., works by the General Idea collective;
Joane Cardinal-Schubert’s The Lesson; music
videos by Red Power Squad or Youssou N’Dour)
Teacher prompt: “What is the intent of this art
work? What does this intent tell you about the
personal identity of the artist?”
B2.2 analyse the ability of media art works to
express historical or contemporary cultural
identities (e.g., Alanis Obomsawin’s Kanehsatake:
270 Years of Resistance; Nina Levitt’s Thin Air),
and explain how obstacles can limit that ability
(e.g., the limited representation on the Internet of
media artists from some regions of the world)
Teacher prompts: “Why are certain groups, cultures, and/or geographic areas underrepresented
in media arts? What characteristics of the World
Wide Web potentially increase the representation
of artists from a variety of cultures and with
various points of view? What factors might
limit this potential?” “What is the potential of
web-based works, such as Mary Flanagan’s
[collection], to expand the audience for artists
from cultures across the globe?”
Teacher prompt: “What is the message of this
political poster? What methods does it use to
try to persuade the viewer? Why do you think
its creator believed it would be successful?”
B2.4 analyse, on the basis of reflection, and document how creating and presenting media art
works has affected their personal values and
their understanding of their culture and community (e.g., how presenting media art works to
B2.5 analyse how the process of critically analysing
media art works has affected their perception
and understanding of different communities,
cultures, ideologies, and/or social groups (e.g.,
how analysing media art work posted on video
blogs has expanded their knowledge or changed
their perception of people who are from different
cultures or who advocate different ideologies)
Teacher prompt: “In what ways has your
perception of other cultures changed through
your examination of video art works on the
Internet?”
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom
By the end of this course, students will:
B3.1 identify areas of postsecondary study that
are related to media arts and that reflect their
personal skills and interests, describe the
requirements for each area, and create and
maintain a portfolio that could be used when
applying to programs in these areas (e.g., reflect
on their interests and skills to determine the most
appropriate areas of study; create a portfolio that
includes a formal artist statement, samples of
completed works, a skill inventory, and a résumé)
ASM3M
Teacher prompt: “How has the process of
creating a portfolio helped you identify your
personal strengths and future goals? What is
the most important thing you have learned
from this process?”
B3.2 analyse skills connected with design, production, distribution, or management processes
in media arts (e.g., skills needed for image manipulation, digital video editing, sound editing,
multimedia authoring; skills related to leadership,
innovation, teamwork), and explain how these
skills can be applied in a range of careers related
to media arts (e.g., animation, commercial photography, filmmaking, graphic design, journalism,
photojournalism)
Teacher prompt: “How has research into a
number of fields related to media arts informed
your awareness and understanding of future
opportunities in these fields? Do you have all
the skills necessary to be successful in one of
these fields? If not, what other skills would you
need to develop to help you achieve success?”
REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND ANALYSING
B2.3 analyse the ability of historical or contemporary media art works to influence community
or societal values (e.g., the impact of propaganda
art, such as that of the Chinese Cultural Revolution;
the impact of the documentary The Final Inch;
the influence of contemporary advertising)
Teacher prompt: “What have you learned about
your community through the creation of a
media art work on an issue in a local election
campaign?”
Media Arts
Teacher prompts: “In what ways has analysing
the work of this media artist informed your
plans for your installation?” “Which of your
creative plans or decisions did you revise after
critically analysing them? Why?”
a variety of local audiences has influenced their
perspective on issues and broadened their understanding of their community)
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Grade 11, University/College Preparation
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
128
B3.3 describe skills and understandings acquired
through the creative and critical analysis
processes in the media arts (e.g., technical,
analytical, and communication skills; visual and
aural discrimination skills; a more sophisticated
understanding of a variety of ethno-cultural
groups and of the need to respect the opinions and
values of others), and explain in detail how they
can be applied in a range of areas in everyday
life (e.g., to troubleshoot an installation for a local
gallery; to develop multimedia presentations for
family events; to analyse magazine articles or documentaries that are used to promote a particular
view point or manipulate an audience)
Teacher prompts: “What are some of the ways
in which you have used media arts tools and
processes in your school and your personal
life? How have these processes enhanced your
ability to share ideas and express yourself?”
“What influence has the media had on your
behaviour and choices? In what ways do the
skills and understandings you have acquired
in this course help you analyse the media and
understand the sources of their influence?”
C. FOUNDATIONS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
C2. Contexts and Influences: demonstrate an understanding of the sociocultural and historical contexts
of media arts;
C3. Responsible Practices: demonstrate an understanding of responsible practices associated with
producing, presenting, and experiencing media art works.
Media Arts
C1. Terminology: demonstrate an understanding of, and use correct terminology when referring to,
elements, principles, and other concepts relating to media arts;
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
C1. Terminology
C2. Contexts and Influences
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
C1.1 describe the stages of the creative and critical
analysis process with reference to media art
works, and explain and use correctly and
appropriately a broad range of terms related to
the conventions, concepts, principles, and elements of media arts when creating or analysing
media art works (e.g., create a media art work
to illustrate stereotypes, symbols, styles, icons,
structures, and recipes used in media arts)
C2.1 analyse the connections between a contemporary media art work and related historical
art works (e.g., how the multimedia work of
Shilpa Gupta relates to William Hogarth’s Rake’s
Progress)
C1.2 describe, on the basis of research, a variety
of elements from contributing arts that can be
used in media art works, and explain how these
elements can be applied through the principles
of media arts (e.g., how elements from drama and
visual arts can be organized using the principle of
point of view in a multimedia art work)
C1.3 explain terminology associated with the
technologies, tools, and techniques used in the
production and presentation of media art works,
and use this terminology correctly and appropriately when producing, presenting, and
analysing media art works (e.g., explain to an
audience of their peers the technologies and tools
they used to produce their art work)
ASM3M
C2.2 explain, on the basis of research, the history
and development of various media technologies and/or items that are dependent on these
technologies (e.g., the influence of Japanese
“pillow books” on the development of weblogs;
the origins of web pages, interactive CD-ROMs,
interactive games, digital imaging, digital audio,
digital video, multimedia installation, interactive
media)
C2.3 describe, with reference to individual artists
and their works, culturally specific methods
used by contemporary media artists to engage
their audiences (e.g., using familiar symbols or
stereotypes in new and unexpected ways; integrating everyday objects into their work, as in Ruth
Kedar’s Playing Cards)
FOUNDATIONS
Teacher prompts: “How does Ian Carr-Harris
use symbols, stereotypes, and icons to convey
his views of Canadian identity?” “In what
ways are specific contemporary media artists
pushing technical and creative boundaries to
create an emotional response in their audience?”
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Grade 11, University/College Preparation
C3. Responsible Practices
By the end of this course, students will:
C3.1 describe and apply healthy, safe, and
conscientious work practices when producing,
presenting, or promoting media art works
(e.g., develop studio safety checklists and conduct
studio safety tests; apply appropriate practices,
including using personal protective equipment,
when working with sound, chemicals, hazardous
equipment)
Teacher prompt: “What practices or processes
have you developed to ensure that you use
equipment safely and effectively in a video
studio? A sound studio?”
C3.2 explain ethical and legal issues associated
with media arts, particularly with respect to
social justice and equity issues (e.g., issues of
access, inclusion, cultural appropriation), and
use ethical and legal practices when creating,
presenting, or promoting media art works
Teacher prompt: “What factors should you
consider when representing or documenting
individuals or social/cultural groups or when
exploring sensitive issues?”
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
C3.3 identify and apply responsible environmental
practices associated with the media arts workplace (e.g., dispose of chemicals, batteries, and
obsolete hardware in environmentally safe ways;
use energy conservation practices; use recycled or
recyclable material where possible)
130
Teacher prompt: “What practices should media
artists put in place to ensure that they are
working in environmentally friendly ways?
Have you applied these practices in your
recent projects?”
C3.4 identify a range of positive character traits
associated with media arts production, and
exhibit these traits in both their independent
work and their interactions with others (e.g.,
show respect for their own work and the work of
others and for their tools and work spaces; demonstrate sensitivity towards their subjects; show
responsibility by completing tasks and meeting
deadlines; demonstrate encouragement and support
for team members)
Teacher prompt: “How have your actions and
attitudes promoted a positive and creative
working environment in your group?”
C3.5 demonstrate an understanding of and apply
conventions associated with the presenting and
experiencing of media art works, and challenge
these conventions in creative ways to extend
the audience’s experiencing of art works (e.g.,
exhibit appropriate behaviour in galleries and
other locations; challenge audience etiquette or
adapt viewing/listening conventions as part of
their media art work)
Media Arts, Grade 11
Open
ASM3O
This course enables students to create media art works using available and emerging
technologies such as computer animation, digital imaging, and video, and a variety of
media. Students will explore the elements and principles of media arts, the connections
between contemporary media art works and traditional art forms, and the importance of
using responsible practices when engaged in the creative process. Students will develop
the skills necessary to create and interpret media art works.
Prerequisite: None
131
A. CREATING AND PRESENTING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
A1. The Creative Process: apply the creative process to create media art works, individually and/or
collaboratively;
A2. The Principles of Media Arts: design and produce media art works, applying principles of media
arts and using various elements from contributing arts (dance, drama, music, visual arts);
A3. Using Technologies, Tools, and Techniques: apply traditional and emerging technologies, tools,
and techniques to produce and present media art works for a variety of audiences and purposes.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
A1. The Creative Process
By the end of this course, students will:
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
A1.1 use a variety of strategies (e.g., a placemat
or jigsaw exercise; brainstorming; sketches; a
checklist; a concept web or mind map; research)
to generate and explore ideas, individually
and collaboratively, for solutions to creative
challenges (e.g., creating a media art work on
the signs of or issues relating to climate change
in their community or on a cultural theme)
132
Teacher prompts: “How can you use the collaborative process to develop and enrich your
team’s ideas? What collaborative processes do
artists’ collectives in your community use?
Does an understanding of these processes widen
the range of ideas that your team can explore?”
“In what ways did your idea-generation process
change when working in a group as opposed
to by yourself?”
A1.2 develop plans, individually and/or collaboratively, that address a range of creative challenges (e.g., use outlines, scripts, diagrams, rough
copies, templates, thumbnail sketches, storyboards,
and/or production notes to help develop their
plans; outline the steps in the creative process
that they plan to apply), and revise their plans
on the basis of self-assessment and the input
of others
Teacher prompt: “Does your plan clearly identify
the steps you will follow and how they will
allow you to address your challenge? When
you review your outline, can you see how you
will move from one step to the next when you
begin to produce your art work?”
A1.3 produce and refine media art works, using
experimentation, input, and reflection (e.g., use
their plan and outline to guide experimentation; use
rating charts, self-assessment rubrics, simulations,
journals, class critiques, and/or discussion boards
to gather feedback and reflect on their preliminary
work; refine their art work on the basis of peer
input and self-assessment)
Teacher prompts: “Have your experiments with
new techniques been successful? How can you
incorporate the results into your art work?”
“What type of refinements did you make to your
preliminary work as a result of constructive
criticism? How did these refinements contribute
to the successful completion of your art work?”
A1.4 exhibit or perform media art works, individually and/or collaboratively, using a variety of
methods that are appropriate for their work
(e.g., a classroom exhibition showcasing a variety
of works on a social issue; an outdoor installation
based on an environmental theme; a podcast on
the significance of storytelling in First Nation,
Métis, and/or Inuit cultures)
Teacher prompts: “Did your presentation
method affect the intended outcome of your
media art work? Would another presentation
method have been more effective?” “How did
the site you selected for your installation influence the meaning of the work?”
A1.5 use a variety of tracking tools (e.g., sketchbooks, process journals, digital collections of
images and sounds) to document in a detailed
way their use of the creative process, and use
this record as a basis for reflection on the effectiveness of their procedures
A2. The Principles of Media Arts
By the end of this course, students will:
A2.1 communicate an understanding of the
four principles of media arts, and apply one
of them to reinterpret an existing art work
(e.g., reinterpret South African photographer
Santu Mofokeng’s Concert at Sevenfontein
using the principle of duration)
Teacher prompt: “How can applying the
principle of duration to transform a still
photograph change the meaning and impact
of the original work?”
A2.2 design and produce original media art works
by combining two or more of the principles of
media arts to organize a variety of elements
from the contributing arts (e.g., use the principles
of interactivity and duration to design and
produce an environment that integrates a variety
of elements in the style of Janet Cardiff’s
Whispering Room)
Teacher prompt: “Which principles of media
arts can you combine in your work to most
effectively engage the audience?”
Teacher prompts: “Does the virtual zoetrope
provide insight into how you might create
an optical illusion in your media art work?”
“How does the inclusion of a soundscape
enhance viewers’ experience of your landscape
photographs?”
A3.2 use appropriate technology, tools, and techniques to create and present media art works
that are appropriate for specific audiences
(e.g., use techniques from manga art in making
an animation for Grade 9 students; create an
installation within the school that uses a variety
of techniques to convey the meaning of a holiday
connected to their cultural heritage)
Teacher prompt: “What revisions would you
make to your animation if the audience changed
from Grade 9 boys to Grade 12 girls?”
Media Arts
Teacher prompts: “Does your sketchbook allow
you to reflect on how you approached each
stage of the creative process in the production
of your art work?” “Which specific steps did
you follow in the creation of this work? Did
the exploration stage result in changes to your
initial idea or plans?”
use digital still or video cameras and image- or
video-editing software; use available OSAPAC
software; use 3D animation software to construct
a virtual zoetrope or create a digital media art
work; edit an existing sound file using MP3
sound-encoding software; use a digital recording
device to store sounds for a soundscape based on
an environmental theme)
ASM3O
A3.3 communicate a personal message or an
opinion on an issue of personal concern by
creating and presenting media art works using
a variety of techniques, tools, and/or technologies (e.g., an animated short to express their
personal point of view on issues related to smoking;
a series of ads for public spaces on reducing the
size of our ecological footprint, using techniques
similar to those of Adbusters)
Teacher prompts: “Which technologies do you
find most useful in helping you communicate
your personal ideas?” “Can you think of another
technique that would enhance your ability to
convey your opinion on this issue?”
A3. Using Technologies, Tools, and
Techniques
By the end of this course, students will:
A3.1 explore a variety of traditional and emerging
technologies, tools, and techniques, and use
them to produce effective media art works (e.g.,
CREATING AND PRESENTING
133
Grade 11, Open
B. REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND
ANALYSING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
B1. The Critical Analysis Process: demonstrate an understanding of the critical analysis process by
examining, interpreting, assessing, and reflecting on media art works;
B2. Identity and Values: demonstrate an understanding of how media art works reflect personal and
cultural identity, and affect personal, cultural, and community values and their awareness of those
values;
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom: demonstrate an understanding of the types of knowledge
and skills developed in media arts and how they can be used outside the media arts classroom.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
B1. The Critical Analysis Process
By the end of this course, students will:
B1.1 identify and explain their initial responses to
media art works (e.g., Sara Diamond’s web-based
work CodeZebra), using various strategies and
modes of communication (e.g., a small-group
or class discussion, a think-pair-share or jigsaw
strategy, a blog, a journal, a sketchbook)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Teacher prompt: “How would you describe
your first response to this art work? In what
ways has this response been influenced by
your personal experiences?”
134
B1.2 identify, on the basis of investigation, the
aesthetic and technical features of a contemporary media art work, and explain how and
why the artist has combined these features in
creating his or her work (e.g., identify the tools,
techniques, technologies, and materials used by
an artist, and explain how they have been used to
create the art work; identify the individual elements,
principles, and other aesthetic features of the art
work, and explain, using jot notes, a digital
recorder, comparison charts, a graphic organizer,
or a web application, how and why the artist uses
these features; explore the technical and aesthetic
features of James Turrell’s work Light Reign)
Teacher prompts: “How has the artist used and
manipulated chat rooms, discussion boards,
and video streaming in this art work?” “What
musical elements has the artist used to create
sounds? What effect does the use of sound
have on the audience?”
B1.3 use the critical analysis process to evaluate
the effectiveness of media art works (e.g., determine the intended effect of the work and assess
whether that intent has been realized), and explain
how their evaluation has evolved throughout
the critical analysis process
Teacher prompts: “How effectively has the
artist communicated a theme or position in
this media art work? Is the artist successful in
creating a desired effect? In generating debate?”
“In what ways has your evaluation of this
artist’s work changed as you have analysed
it more thoroughly?”
B1.4 explain how applying the critical analysis
process affects their use of the creative process
when they are creating media art works (e.g.,
how the critical analysis process has informed
their decision to use a particular technique, medium,
element, or principle) and how it contributes to
their understanding of the creative process in
the work of other artists
Teacher prompts: “How did you use the critical
analysis process to help you make artistic choices
at different stages of the creative process?”
“How can you use critical analysis to identify
key features of the creative process in other
media artists’ work?”
B2. Identity and Values
By the end of this course, students will:
B2.1 identify and explain ways in which media
art works reflect artists’ personal identities
(e.g., artists’ values, beliefs, sexual orientation,
learning challenges, socio-economic status)
B2.2 explain ways in which media art works
reflect cultural identity (e.g., works in the
ImagiNATIVE Film and Media Arts Festival;
the work of Jenny Fraser)
Teacher prompt: “In what ways does a work
such as Nam June Paik’s TV Buddha reflect
the artist’s cultural identify?”
B2.3 identify and explain ways in which media
art works can influence community or societal
values (e.g., explore a range of advertisements on
television, in public spaces, and in print media,
and explain how they influence the immediate
community and society at large; explore the
effects of community-based broadcasting on the
maintaining of cultural identity in Aboriginal
communities)
Teacher prompt: “What methods do advertisements for advocacy groups such as Mothers
Against Drunk Driving (MADD) use to try to
change people’s attitudes and practices?”
B2.4 explain, using a variety of formats (e.g., a
digital collage with voice-over, an audio recording,
a reflection journal), how creating and presenting media art works has affected their personal
values and their understanding of their culture
and community (e.g., how creating a documentary that expressed their impressions of their
school culture has increased their understanding
of the diversity of the student population)
B2.5 explain how the process of critically
analysing media art works has affected their
understanding of the values of other cultures
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom
By the end of this course, students will:
B3.1 identify and describe, on the basis of
research, areas for continued study in media
arts and related fields, and describe their
requirements (e.g., requirements for and content
of media arts and contributing arts courses; opportunities for experiential learning)
B3.2 identify skills associated with media arts
(e.g., planning and organizational skills; skills in
using web-creation software or 2D and 3D animation software; skills related to digital imaging, digital sound recording, video editing), and explain
how these skills can be applied in a range of
careers related to media arts (e.g., e-learning
designer, graphic artist, storyboard artist)
ASM3O
Teacher prompt: “What skills do you need to
become a successful web designer or sound
engineer? Explain why these skills are important in this career.”
B3.3 identify and describe skills and understandings acquired through the creative and critical
analysis processes in the media arts (e.g., organizational, planning, decision-making, interpersonal,
and interpretation skills; more sophisticated
understanding of social and environmental issues
and anti-discriminatory practices), and explain
how they can be applied in everyday life (e.g.,
to mediate a conflict; to analyse a music video or
an advertisement and to assess its effect on their
behaviour or purchasing decisions)
Teacher prompts: “How can you use your
organizational skills to contribute to your
community?” “What skills have you developed
through your participation in collaborative
processes in this course? How can you apply
those skills in your relationships with your
family or friends?”
REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND ANALYSING
Teacher prompt: “How did creating your interactive collage on climate change affect your own
approach to the environment and your understanding of the values of your community?”
Teacher prompt: “In what ways has your analysis of Zacharias Kunuk’s film Atanarjuat / The
Fast Runner informed your understanding of
the traditional values of Inuit culture?”
Media Arts
Teacher prompt: “How do your artistic choices
with respect to images, sounds, or topics reflect
your identity? How can you use this understanding to analyse a media art work for clues
as to the artist’s personal identity?”
and communities (e.g., how analysing the
approach and message of, and tools used in, a
work by a media artist from outside their own
community/culture has expanded their understanding of another culture)
135
C. FOUNDATIONS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
Grade 11, Open
By the end of this course, students will:
C1. Terminology: demonstrate an understanding of, and use correct terminology when referring to,
elements, principles, and other concepts relating to media arts;
C2. Contexts and Influences: demonstrate an understanding of the sociocultural and historical contexts
of media arts;
C3. Responsible Practices: demonstrate an understanding of responsible practices associated with
producing, presenting, and experiencing media art works.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
C1. Terminology
136
C2. Contexts and Influences
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
C1.1 describe the stages of the creative and
critical analysis processes with reference to
media art works, and explain and correctly
use terminology related to the conventions
and concepts of media arts when creating or
analysing media art works (e.g., use a graphic
organizer to explain some of the stereotypes,
symbols, styles, icons, structures, and/or recipes
used in modern media)
C2.1 identify, through exploration, and explain
(e.g., in written critiques or presentations; using
comparison charts, illustrations, or diagrams)
connections between a contemporary media art
work and related historical art works (e.g., the
large-scale digital photographs of Chris Jordan
and traditional still life paintings)
Teacher prompt: “What are the similarities and
differences between contemporary 3D animation
films and Norman McLaren’s animations?”
C1.2 identify and describe a variety of elements
from contributing arts that are used in media
art works (e.g., line and texture from visual arts,
pitch and timbre from music, space and energy
from dance, tension and relationship from drama),
and describe how these elements can be organized using one of the principles of media arts
(e.g., how elements from music and visual art can
be organized using the principle of hybridization)
C2.2 demonstrate an understanding of the history
and development of a media arts tool, medium,
or technology (e.g., create a video tracing the
technological development of 2D animation from
Eadweard Muybridge to the present; create a
diagram tracing the history of audio technology;
research and report on the history of performance
media art)
C1.3 explain terminology associated with the
technologies, tools, and techniques used in the
production and presentation of media art works
(e.g., audio mixing, camera angles, choreography,
layering, light board, microphone, sound board,
sound effects, transitions, zoom), and use this
terminology correctly when producing and
presenting media art works
C2.3 explain how sociocultural trends have
contributed to the development of media arts
(e.g., how the widespread use of technologies such
as cellphones, MP3 players, or LED lights have
led to new ways of creating and presenting media
art works; how human rights movements have
influenced the message, media, or modes of
presentation in media arts)
Teacher prompts: “In what ways has the widespread use of electronic surveillance devices
recontextualized public spaces? How does
Michael Naimark’s concept of camera zapping
recontextualize the surveillance camera?”
“In what context can electronic kiosks be
considered art works?”
By the end of this course, students will:
Teacher prompts: “In what ways can an
individual media artist contribute to the environment?” “What environmentally friendly
practices can you adopt when you are creating
a media art work?”
C3.1 identify and apply healthy, safe, and conscientious work practices when performing tasks
related to media arts production (e.g., use safe
practices when setting up for a video shoot, using
and storing chemicals, packing up equipment, or
setting up microphones; apply ergonomic principles
in their studio environment; back up electronic
files using a reliable system)
C3.4 identify positive character traits associated
with media arts production (e.g., use a thinkpair-share strategy to develop a storyboard for an
animation based on positive traits; develop and
maintain a work journal focusing on traits that
contributed to successful interactions with others),
and exhibit these traits in both their independent work and their interactions with others
Teacher prompts: “What steps should you take
to ensure safety on a film set?” “What are the
most stable ways of archiving video?”
Teacher prompt: “What traits do you find most
helpful in group members when you are
involved in the collaborative process? When
you are having difficulty with this process, why
might a shift in the roles of group members be
useful?”
C3.2 explain key ethical and legal practices
associated with media arts, particularly with
respect to copyright laws, and apply these
practices when creating media art works (e.g.,
obtain permission to sample photographs; use
authorized sources when appropriating streaming
video; show respect for cultural differences)
Teacher prompt: “What is the difference between
being inspired by another artist’s work and
appropriating components of that work?”
Media Arts
C3. Responsible Practices
C3.3 identify and apply responsible environmental
practices associated with the media arts workplace (e.g., reuse and recycle materials when
possible; dispose of chemicals and batteries in
environmentally safe ways; use energy conservation practices)
ASM3O
C3.5 identify and appropriately apply conventions
associated with the experiencing of media art
works (e.g., follow the policies of the presentation
space with respect to noise, interaction with the
works, and access to and movement within the
space; respond in an appropriate way [silently,
vocally, with clapping throughout or just at the
end of a presentation], depending on the type
of presentation; offer constructive criticism and
meaningful praise)
FOUNDATIONS
137
Media Arts, Grade 12
University/College Preparation
ASM4M
This course emphasizes the refinement of media arts skills through the creation of a
thematic body of work by applying traditional and emerging technologies, tools, and
techniques such as multimedia, computer animation, installation art, and performance art.
Students will develop works that express their views on contemporary issues and will
create portfolios suitable for use in either career or postsecondary education applications.
Students will critically analyse the role of media artists in shaping audience perceptions
of identity, culture, and community values.
Prerequisite: Media Arts, Grade 11, University/College Preparation
138
A. CREATING AND PRESENTING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
A2. The Principles of Media Arts: design and produce media art works, applying the principles of
media arts and using various elements from contributing arts (dance, drama, music, visual arts);
A3. Using Technologies, Tools, and Techniques: apply traditional and emerging technologies, tools,
and techniques to produce and present media art works for a variety of audiences and purposes.
Media Arts
A1. The Creative Process: apply the creative process to create media art works, individually and/or
collaboratively;
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
A1. The Creative Process
By the end of this course, students will:
A1.1 use a variety of strategies (e.g., brainstorming,
concept webs, mind maps, advisory/production
team discussions, research using a variety of
sources) to investigate increasingly complex
creative challenges and to generate and organize
innovative ideas, individually and/or collaboratively, for addressing these challenges (e.g.,
the challenge of developing a virtual gallery)
Teacher prompts: “What mix of individuals or
teams might you bring together to generate a
wider range of ideas?” “How did discussions
between the advisory and production teams
help to generate diverse ideas for addressing
the creative challenge?”
Teacher prompt: “Does your plan cover all
aspects of the design, production, and presentation of your art work? Have you reflected on
problems that arose when producing earlier
works to help you refine your current plan?”
ASM4M
Teacher prompts: “What sources might you
explore to discover new techniques or innovative approaches that might be adapted for your
own work?” “In what ways has your research
and experimentation informed the initial development and final outcome of your art work?”
A1.4 exhibit or perform media art works, including increasingly complex works, independently
and/or collaboratively, using the most appropriate methods for the work (e.g., present a
performance-based installation with a soundscape
in a space with effective lighting, sightlines, and
acoustics; exhibit their digital works in a virtual
gallery; present their animation at a school-wide
film festival)
Teacher prompt: “What mode of presentation
is most appropriate for your art work? Why?
How would changing the mode enhance or
detract from your work?”
A1.5 create a detailed record of their use of the
creative process in the production and presentation of a media art work, using a tracking tool
compatible with the medium/media used in
that work (e.g., a sketchbook showing modifications
CREATING AND PRESENTING
A1.2 develop detailed plans, individually and/or
collaboratively, that address a variety of creative
challenges, including increasingly complex
challenges (e.g., reflect on and filter their ideas to
select a feasible one as the basis for their plan; use
storyboards, thumbnail sketches, production notes,
scripts, choreographic notes, and/or blocking notes
to help develop their plans; with a partner, plan a
media work using alter egos or, in the digital
world, avatars), and assess and refine their
plans on the basis of feedback and reflection
A1.3 produce and refine media art works, including increasingly complex art works, using
research, exploration, input, and reflection
(e.g., research audio/visual codes and alternative
media; extend their skills by experimenting with
new tools and practising unfamiliar techniques;
reflect on feedback from their teacher, peers, and
others, and modify their preliminary work as
appropriate on the basis of this feedback)
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to the design of their installation; a video of the
development of a performance art piece), and use
this record to determine, through reflection,
how effectively they applied the creative process
Teacher prompts: “What sort of tool would be
most effective for tracking the progress of your
installation? Why?” “How has reviewing the
creative process enriched your experience of
producing this art work? What impact do you
think this process might have on works you
create in the future?”
A2. The Principles of Media Arts
By the end of this course, students will:
A2.1 investigate and analyse how media artists
use the principle of hybridization, and apply
that principle and at least one other principle
in the design and production of media art
works that incorporate elements from contributing arts (e.g., use video, performance art,
and audio and the principles of hybridization and
interactivity to create a multidimensional installation in the style of artists such as Tony Oursler or
Angela Bulloch)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Teacher prompt: “In the hybrid media art works
you have analysed, what other principles did
the artists use? How does the combination of
principles affect the impact of the work? How
could you use similar principles to enrich and
extend the impact of your media art work?”
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A2.2 investigate and analyse how media artists
use the principle of interactivity, and apply that
principle and at least one other principle in the
design and production of media art works that
incorporate elements from contributing arts
(e.g., develop a multimedia arts “intervention” that
uses the principles of interactivity and point of
view in the style of artists such as Yoko Ono or
Margot Lovejoy)
Teacher prompt: “How has the artist used the
principles of interactivity and point of view to
organize the different elements in her media
art work? Do you think she was successful?
How might you adapt this approach for your
own art work?”
A2.3 investigate and analyse how media artists
use the principle of duration, and apply that
principle and at least one other principle in the
design and production of media art works that
incorporate elements from contributing arts
(e.g., using the work of Ron Haselden as inspiration,
apply the principles of duration and point of view
to create a multimedia, site-specific group performance piece that is to be presented in a particular
area of the school or the school grounds and that
challenges or changes the space’s purpose or
meaning; explore Juan Geuer’s Hellot Glasses as
a possible source of inspiration for a media art
work that combines the principles of duration
and interactivity)
Teacher prompt: “Compare atemporal still
images from your video with the time-based
imagery. What impact does the combination
of the principles of duration and point of view
have on the viewer?”
A2.4 investigate and analyse how media artists
use the principle of point of view, and apply
that principle and at least one other principle
in the design and production of media art works
that incorporate elements from contributing
arts (e.g., analyse a work such as Bruce Nauman’s
World Peace, which displays many perspectives in
multiple screen projections and uses hybridization
and interactivity; produce, with other class members,
a series of video or animation shorts that depict
the same event or concept from different point of
view and that integrate the principle of duration)
Teacher prompt: “How can the principle of
interactivity be used to change the point of
view of a media art work? How can combining
these principles transform the way an art work
is explored, experienced, and/or interpreted?”
A3. Using Technologies, Tools, and
Techniques
By the end of this course, students will:
A3.1 explore a wide range of increasingly complex
traditional and emerging technologies, tools,
and techniques, and use them to produce highly
effective media art works (e.g., extend skills by
exploring complex tasks involving digital imaging,
digital video, digital audio, multimedia, installations,
and performance art; develop complex layers in
digital imaging; use key frames and tweening in
video editing or animation; design and block a performance in real space and time as well as virtual
space and time; create web-based art, using software from the OSAPAC database where possible)
Teacher prompts: “Have you used this technology to produce other media art works? How
might you extend your technological capabilities
in this particular work?” “In what ways have
your heightened skills contributed to your ability
to choose and work with the most appropriate
media for the task?”
A3.2 create and present media art works that are
highly appropriate for a variety of specific
audiences and venues (e.g., an audience of students and their parents; a fringe festival audience;
a venue such as a virtual gallery, a studio, or an
outdoor site that is relevant to the particular art
work), using a range of technologies, tools,
and techniques (e.g., projection, broadcast, the
Internet, computer monitors)
Teacher prompts: “What technique could you
use to help convey your message effectively to
the audience? How could you modify this technique to put a more personal stamp on your art
work?” “Explain how your creative decisions
have helped you to effectively communicate
your artistic intention.”
Media Arts
Teacher prompts: “Why might your awareness
of your audience and venue influence your
design choices and presentation media?” “Did
the technology you used to present your art
work maximize the audience’s ability to experience the work? What might you change about
the presentation to enhance the audience’s
experience?”
A3.3 communicate their purpose and artistic
intention when creating and presenting media
art works, using a variety of approaches, tools,
technologies, and techniques in an increasingly
skilful and personalized way (e.g., produce a
non-narrative video that uses sound effects and
images to challenge ethnic stereotyping in their
school and larger community; produce a short
documentary to raise awareness of a current
Aboriginal issue, using an approach similar to
that in Alanis Obomsawin’s works)
ASM4M
CREATING AND PRESENTING
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B. REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND
ANALYSING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
B1. The Critical Analysis Process: demonstrate an understanding of the critical analysis process by
using it to monitor the creative process, and by examining, interpreting, assessing, and reflecting
on media art works;
B2. Identity and Values: demonstrate an understanding of how media art works reflect personal and
cultural identity, and affect personal, cultural, and community values and their awareness of those
values;
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom: demonstrate an understanding of the types of knowledge and
skills developed in media arts and how they can be used outside the media arts classroom.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
B1. The Critical Analysis Process
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
By the end of this course, students will:
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B1.1 interpret and assess the media art works of
their peers, organize and communicate their
findings in appropriate ways (e.g., use a graphic
organizer, an electronic feedback form, or a questionnaire to record their initial response to the
work, their analysis of the work’s technical and
aesthetic components, their interpretation of its
message, and their assessment of the work’s
effectiveness), and reflect on how their feedback could be applied to their own media
art works
Teacher prompt: “What is a useful way of
recording your response to the art works created
by your peers? What are some constructive ways
of communicating your assessment to your
peers? How can the processes of organizing
and communicating your assessment help
you in your own use of the creative process?”
B1.2 use the critical analysis process to deconstruct,
analyse, and evaluate different types of media
art works (e.g., interactive installations, animations,
music videos, performance art, websites, digitally
manipulated photographs, documentaries) by
contemporary media artists (e.g., determine
their initial reaction to an art work; identify the
individual elements and principles of the work
and analyse how the artist has combined them
for a particular purpose; reflect on the work’s
technical and aesthetic features to determine its
effectiveness in communicating a message, emotion,
or concern and to assess its impact; analyse how
Mona Hatoum uses projected video to communicate a sense of self in Corps étranger; assess the
effectiveness of Don Kelly’s A Fish Out of Water
in providing insight into contemporary Aboriginal
identities)
Teacher prompts: “How does the artist’s selection
of media and techniques contribute to the
effectiveness of the art work? In what ways has
your analysis of this media art work affected
your opinion of the artist or his or her art work?”
“Why might the aesthetic choices of an artist
have different effects on different people?”
B1.3 analyse how their interpretation and evaluation of a media art work evolved through each
stage of the critical analysis process, and communicate their findings in a creative way (e.g.,
in a presentation, a video journal, an annotated
sketchbook, a blog, a digital recording)
Teacher prompts: “How and why does increased
understanding of an artist’s intent affect your
opinion or appreciation of an art work?” “What
observations might you include in a one-minute
short that communicates your new learning
and understandings about an art work studied
in class?”
Teacher prompt: “What insights did you gain
by reflecting on the physical or virtual space
and the mode of presentation for your art
work? What did you learn from analysing
the audience’s response to your work?”
B2. Identity and Values
By the end of this course, students will:
B2.1 analyse, on the basis of investigation, how
media art works can express the evolution of
artists’ personal identities over time (e.g., investigate the Untitled Film Stills series of Cindy
Sherman for insights they provide into her identity,
and compare them to her later works)
Teacher prompt: “What can a media art work
reveal about the artist’s identify? How and
why might media artists create an identity
through their work that may not represent
who they really are?”
B2.2 analyse, on the basis of investigation, the
ability of media art works to express and promote cultural identities (e.g., a media art work
on the spirit or resilience of an Aboriginal culture),
and analyse how obstacles can limit that ability
(e.g., how galleries or the Internet might limit the
representation of different cultures; how appropriation of ideas can affect the expression of identity)
B2.3 analyse, on the basis of investigation, how
media art works can serve as a catalyst for
changing community or societal values (e.g.,
the use of filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl by the propaganda arm of the Nazi government in Germany
Teacher prompt: “What methods do documentary filmmakers or photographers use to increase
public awareness of their subjects and affect
people’s beliefs and behaviour? Which methods
do you think are most effective? Why?”
B2.4 assess, on the basis of reflection, and communicate (e.g., in a formal artist’s statement) the
impact that creating and presenting media art
works has had on the evolution of their personal values and their understanding of their
culture and community
Teacher prompt: “In what ways have you
developed as a media artist? What impact has
this growth had on your own values? On your
awareness of the values of your culture?”
B2.5 analyse how the process of critically
analysing media art works has affected their
perception and understanding of different
communities, cultures, ideologies, and/or social
groups, and assess the impact of these perceptions and understandings on their own media
art work (e.g., reflect on how their increased understanding of others’ points of view has affected the
content or approach of their own art works)
ASM4M
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom
By the end of this course, students will:
B3.1 analyse, on the basis of investigation, the
requirements for postsecondary studies that
are related to media arts and that suit their personal skills, and create and maintain a personal
portfolio that could be used when applying to
programs in these areas (e.g., assemble a digital
portfolio that highlights their skills that would
be relevant to a postsecondary program and that
contains appropriate samples of their media art
works; complete a self-assessment of their skills
and competencies in one or more of the following
areas: technical skills [in image manipulation,
digital video editing, sound editing, multimedia
authoring], management skills, innovation skills,
interpersonal skills related to leadership and
collaboration)
B3.2 analyse and assess their personal skills and
interests in relation to careers connected with
design, production, distribution, or management
processes in media art (e.g., strong technological
skills and interest in evolving technologies and
media, incisive analytical skills, the ability to
respond in a timely fashion to fast-changing
REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND ANALYSING
Teacher prompts: “What effect does ‘cyberimperialism’ or ‘cyber-colonialism’ have on
the types of media arts represented on the
Internet?” “What are some of the ways in
which Aboriginal media artists have portrayed their cultures? In what ways are these
portrayals different from outsiders’ portrayals
of these cultures? What accounts for these
differences?”
in the 1930s; the advocacy role of documentaries
such as Not a Love Story or If You Love This
Planet)
Media Arts
B1.4 use the appropriate components of the
critical analysis process throughout the creative
process to assess the effectiveness of their
decisions, to determine their next steps, and
to analyse audience responses to their media
art work (e.g., analyse their approach to and decisions about planning, producing, and presenting
their art work; incorporate into their creative
practices knowledge and skills gained by critically
analysing the art work of others), and create a
record (e.g., a blog, a journal, a video documentary)
of how the critical analysis process has affected
their creative decisions
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demands, leadership and interpersonal skills, communication skills; the relationship between these
skills and careers such as animator, artistic director,
educator, entrepreneur, media critic, producer)
B3.3 analyse skills and understandings acquired
through the creative and critical analysis
processes in media arts (e.g., creative, technical,
analytical, collaborative, and communication
skills; increased understanding of issues related
to differently abled people and inclusion), and
analyse in detail how they can be applied in
a wide range of areas in everyday life (e.g., to
analyse and help resolve a contentious issue in
their school or local community; to write a review
of a installation at a gallery and post it on a
website; when volunteering for a social justice
organization)
Teacher prompt: “How can you use the skills
and knowledge learned in media arts to promote, and change people’s perspectives on, an
issue of local, national, or global importance?
What tools could you use to attract people’s
attention and influence their perspective?”
C. FOUNDATIONS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
C2. Contexts and Influences: demonstrate an understanding of the sociocultural and historical contexts
of media arts;
C3. Responsible Practices: demonstrate an understanding of responsible practices associated with
producing, presenting, and experiencing media art works.
Media Arts
C1. Terminology: demonstrate an understanding of, and use correct terminology when referring to,
elements, principles, and other concepts relating to media arts;
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
C1. Terminology
C2. Contexts and Influences
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
C1.1 explain the stages of the creative and critical
analysis process with reference to media art
works, and explain and use correctly and
appropriately a broad range of terms related
to the conventions, concepts, principles, and
elements of media arts when creating or
analysing media art works (e.g., create a media
presentation to explain a range of genres, stereotypes, symbols, styles, icons, structures, and
recipes used in media arts; use proper terminology
when describing the conventions used in The
Paradise Institute by Janet Cardiff and George
Bures Miller)
C2.1 analyse in detail the connections between
a contemporary media art work and related
historical art works (e.g., compare and contrast
the use of text in media art works with its use
in European or Arab illuminated manuscripts,
Chinese or Japanese paintings that include kanji
calligraphy, Egyptian tomb paintings that integrate hieroglyphics, or Aboriginal rock paintings
that include pictographs; analyse how media
artists use dynamic text or otherwise integrate the
written word into their works; compare contemporary First Nation, Métis, and/or Inuit portrait
photography, such as that in the Aboriginal youth
magazine SAY, with the historical photographs
of Edward Curtis)
C1.2 analyse, on the basis of research, how
elements from contributing arts are applied
through the principles of media arts (e.g., how
line from visual arts and space from dance can be
applied using the principle of point of view; how
the principle of hybridization can be used to integrate timbre from music and tension from drama),
and communicate their findings
C2.2 investigate and explain in detail the history
and development of a range of media arts
technologies (e.g., the development of interactive
media from early mechanical games such as pinball, through early digital games such as Pong, up
to more recent interactive web pages and gaming
media)
Teacher prompt: “In what ways have gaming
media changed over the past three decades?
Describe the ways in which online role playing
in gaming has affected actual communities and
social/personal interactions.”
C2.3 analyse, with reference to specific artists
and their works (e.g., Rob Thompson’s work
in which he cages people), the types of roles
played by media artists in various societies,
FOUNDATIONS
C1.3 explain in detail terminology associated
with the application of technologies, tools, and
techniques in the production and presentation
of media art works (e.g., produce an instructional
manual that explains the terminology associated
with the technologies, tools, and techniques they
used to create a media art work), and use this
terminology correctly and appropriately when
creating, presenting, or analysing media art
works
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and explain how their roles may vary depending on the sociocultural context in which they
work (e.g., how, in a society characterized by war
or social conflict, the artist might promote the
cause of one side in the conflict or might be an
advocate for peace; in a totalitarian society, the
artist might challenge restrictions on free expression; in a multicultural society, the artist might
represent the cultural accomplishments of a
minority group)
Teaching prompt: “Why did Annie Leonard
create the video The Story of Stuff? What role
did she adopt in making this video? Why?”
C3. Responsible Practices
By the end of this course, students will:
C3.1 assess and apply health and safety procedures
when producing, presenting, or promoting
media art works (e.g., use studio safety checklists,
modifying them as necessary to suit the type of
studio work they are doing; apply safe practices
when developing lighting and electrical plans; use
appropriate stretching techniques before presentations that require movement; use appropriate vocal
care practices; assess their work space and integrate
ergonomic considerations into its design; use construction equipment and materials safely)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
C3.2 demonstrate an understanding of ethical
and legal issues in media arts, including issues
related to intellectual property, social conflict,
and discrimination (e.g., freedom of expression
and censorship of artists who challenge government
policies; public access to work by artists from
various sociocultural groups and representing a
variety of perspectives), and use ethical practices
when creating, presenting, or promoting media
art works
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C3.3 identify and apply responsible environmental practices associated with the media arts
workplace (e.g., dispose of chemicals, batteries,
and obsolete hardware in environmentally safe
ways; use energy conservation practices; use
recycled or recyclable materials where possible;
substitute more environmentally friendly materials
for hazardous ones)
C3.4 identify a broad range of positive character
traits associated with media arts production,
and exhibit these traits consistently in both
their independent work and their interactions
with others (e.g., show initiative at the outset of
creative production processes; demonstrate cooperation and responsible leadership in a team environment; show respect for their tools and work
environment and for the opinions of others)
C3.5 analyse conventions associated with the
presenting and experiencing of media art
works, and adapt these conventions to extend
the ways they present and experience art
works (e.g., analyse the purpose and/or validity
of traditional audience conventions; adapt these
conventions as part of a media art work; challenge
conventions for viewing or listening to traditional
art forms)
Media Arts, Grade 12
Workplace Preparation
ASM4E
This course focuses on a practical approach to a variety of media arts challenges related
to the interests of the student and provides students with opportunities to examine
media arts in relation to the world of work. Students will develop works that express
their views on contemporary issues and will create portfolios suitable for use in postsecondary work experiences. Students will critically analyse the role of media artists in
shaping audience perceptions of identity, culture, and community values, particularly
within the context of the workplace.
Prerequisite: Media Arts, Grade 11, Open
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A. CREATING AND PRESENTING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
A1. The Creative Process: apply the creative process to create media art works, individually and/or
collaboratively;
A2. The Principles of Media Arts: design and produce media art works, applying principles of media
arts and using various elements from contributing arts (dance, drama, music, visual arts);
A3. Using Technologies, Tools, and Techniques: apply traditional and emerging technologies, tools,
and techniques to produce and present media art works for a variety of audiences and purposes.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
A1. The Creative Process
By the end of this course, students will:
A1.1 use a variety of strategies (e.g., brainstorming,
concept webs, mind maps, group discussions,
research) to generate and organize ideas, individually and/or collaboratively, for addressing
creative challenges (e.g., the creation of a mixedmedia installation that raises awareness of workplace safety issues in Ontario)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Teacher prompts: “How can you use the
diverse experiences of your team members to
help generate a range of ideas?” “How do you
decide whether an idea is worth pursuing?”
“What impact did the collaborative process
have on how your ideas were generated and
developed?”
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A1.2 develop production plans, individually
and/or collaboratively, that address a variety of
creative challenges (e.g., use thumbnail sketches,
storyboards, and/or production notes to help them
formulate plans for a sound and image presentation for the workplace), and modify their plans
on the basis of feedback from their teacher,
their peers, and others
Teacher prompt: “When you reflect on your
plan, do all its aspects seem practical? Is there a
particular area that presents difficulties? What
process might your group use to solve these
difficulties?”
A1.3 use experimentation, input, and reflection
to produce a media art work based on their
production plan and to refine their art work
(e.g., experiment with media tools and techniques;
before producing their final product, reflect on
feedback from their teacher, peers, and others,
and use it to refine their preliminary work)
Teacher prompts: “Has your experiment with
this technique been successful? Why or why not?
What might you do differently to achieve a more
positive outcome?” “How did experimentation
and feedback affect your final product?”
A1.4 present media art works, individually
and/or collaboratively, using methods that are
appropriate for the work (e.g., project digital
images with a soundtrack that enhances the theme
of the images; create an interactive web page with
clear instructions; present their site-based installation in a space that complements the installation;
present their video or animation during a classroom
film festival)
Teacher prompt: “What factors should you
take into consideration when presenting your
installation in this space?”
A1.5 use an appropriate tracking tool (e.g., a
sketchbook, a process journal, a checklist, production notes) to create a record of their application
of the creative process, and use this record to
determine, through reflection, how effectively
they applied this process
Teacher prompt: “What did you learn from
reviewing your record of the creative process?
Are there other uses for such a record? How
might documenting the creative process
benefit the relationship between client and
media artist?”
A2. The Principles of Media Arts
By the end of this course, students will:
Teacher prompts: “What type of image or message would be appropriate for this workplace?
How could you transform an art work using
the principle of point of view to convey this
image or message?” “What are some examples
of existing art works that have been transformed to create a new image or product brand?
How can examining these works help you
create your media product?”
A2.2 design and produce original media art works
by applying two or more of the principles of
media arts with increasing skill to organize
elements from the contributing arts (e.g., extend
their skill in applying principles of media arts by
creating an interactive environment that considers
the points of view of various stakeholders in the
workplace [employer, manager, employee] and
reflects the style of the work of Jenny Holzer)
Teacher prompt: “What elements might you
use to enrich the communicative aspects of
your work? How might you use the principles
of duration and interactivity to heighten the
effectiveness of these elements?”
A3.2 create and present media art works that
effectively communicate specific messages to
specific audiences (e.g., an audience of new
employees, occupational health and safety representatives, senior high school students), using a
variety of technologies, tools, and techniques
(e.g., projection, broadcast, interactive web pages,
site-based installations) and venues (e.g., a
boardroom, a theatre, a gallery)
Media Arts
A2.1 demonstrate an understanding of the four
principles of media arts, and apply one or
more of them to transform an existing art work
into a media product that is appropriate for a
workplace (e.g., a hospital, a school, a retail outlet,
or a professional office such as a law, dental, or
accountant’s office)
Teacher prompts: “Have you used this tool in
other contexts? How could you modify your
use of this tool to increase the impact of your
art work?” “How does refining your skills with
media arts tools and techniques increase your
ability to design and manage projects?”
Teacher prompt: “What type of audience are
you targeting? Given what you know about
your audience and the message you are trying
to communicate, what techniques or technologies would be most appropriate?”
A3.3 demonstrate a personal style when using a
variety of tools and techniques to create and
present media art works (e.g., use animation
software to create a personal avatar for a video
game; use sound and images in a personally
meaningful way when creating an interactive
website on an issue of interest to them)
ASM4E
Teacher prompts: “How can you modify your
use of this technique to make it more original?”
“Why does having an original style increase
your employability in the media arts industry?”
A3. Using Technologies, Tools, and
Techniques
By the end of this course, students will:
A3.1 explore and refine their use of a variety of
traditional and emerging technologies, tools,
and techniques, and apply them to produce
effective media art works (e.g., experiment with
still and video cameras and image-editing software;
explore available OSAPAC software; manipulate
found sounds to create an ambient soundtrack for
a slide show; use 2D animation software to create
an animation on workplace safety)
CREATING AND PRESENTING
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B. REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND
ANALYSING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
B1. The Critical Analysis Process: demonstrate an understanding of the critical analysis process by
using it to monitor the creative process, and by examining, interpreting, assessing, and reflecting
on media art works;
B2. Identity and Values: demonstrate an understanding of how media art works reflect personal and
cultural identity, and affect personal, cultural, and community values and their awareness of those
values;
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom: demonstrate an understanding of the types of knowledge
and skills developed in media arts and how they can be used outside the media arts classroom.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
B1. The Critical Analysis Process
By the end of this course, students will:
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
B1.1 use the critical analysis process to examine,
interpret, and reflect on media art works created
by peers (e.g., view media art works at various
stages of production and record their initial reactions to them, examine the technical aspects of the
works, interpret their message or purpose, and reflect
on the effectiveness of the works in communicating
this message or achieving this purpose)
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Teacher prompt: “How could changes to the
technical or aesthetic aspects of this work
heighten its impact on the consumer?”
B1.2 use the critical analysis process to examine,
interpret, and assess media art works created
by recognized media artists and intended for
or used in workplace applications (e.g., examine
a media art work used in theatre, film, promotion,
or music industry applications; document their
initial reaction to the art work and their analysis of
its elements and principles; determine the purpose
or intent of the media art work in the workplace
context; analyse the work holistically, technically,
and aesthetically to assess how well it meets the
requirements of the workplace/client)
Teacher prompt: “How well does this media art
work meet the criteria specified by the client or
purchaser? What features of the work contribute
to its success or lack of success in meeting that
objective?”
B1.3 demonstrate an understanding of how each
stage of the critical analysis process contributes
to their comprehension of media art works,
including works intended for commercial
applications (e.g., reflect on how their interpretation and assessment of a work has changed over
the course of the critical analysis process, and use
a presentation, a journal, an online discussion, an
annotated sketchbook, or a weblog to communicate
their reflections)
Teacher prompts: “How does your increased
understanding of the artist’s approach change
the way you perceive the art work?” “What
aspects of this media art work make it appropriate for a commercial application?”
B1.4 use the appropriate components of the critical analysis process to guide the individual
and/or collaborative use of the creative process
when creating and presenting a media art work
for a particular client or consumer and to draw
out and interpret responses to the work (e.g.,
use the critical analysis process to assess planning,
production, and presentation decisions; involve the
client or consumer in the critical analysis process
throughout the creative process to ensure that the
end product achieves its purpose)
Teacher prompts: “What makes an effective
commerical media art work?” “What artistic
and technical concepts should the commercial
artist be mindful of when creating a presentation
for a particular client or audience?” “Why is it
important to encourage clients to be specific
when communicating their response to a work?”
By the end of this course, students will:
B2.1 analyse the function of the artist’s identity in
a media art work used in commercial applications (e.g., how the identity of an artist is affected
when his or her work is recontextualized for the
purpose of selling a product)
B2.2 analyse how media art works express
cultural identity (e.g., tourism advertisements;
documentaries such as The Invisible Nation;
Speak It! From the Heart of Black Nova Scotia;
Crossroads)
B2.3 analyse how media art works influence
community or societal values (e.g., advertisements for advocacy groups; music videos; documentaries such as Carts of Darkness, I’ll Find
a Way, Wapos Bay, An Inconvenient Truth,
Bowling for Columbine)
B2.4 analyse how creating and presenting media
art works has affected their personal values
and their understanding of the values of their
culture and community, with particular reference to the values of corporate and commercial
enterprises (e.g., how creating a multimedia
advertisement for a corporate client and reflecting
on the client’s response to that advertisement
contributed to their understanding of the values
of the corporation)
B3.1 identify and describe, on the basis of
research, areas for continued study in media
arts and related fields (e.g., the requirements for
and course content of postsecondary programs in
media arts and the contributing arts; learning
opportunities in the workplace), and create and
maintain a portfolio that could be used to
apply to programs or for jobs in these fields
Teacher prompt: “What sorts of jobs or workplaces provide continuing learning opportunities related to media arts?”
B3.2 identify their personal skills and interests as
they relate to jobs associated with media arts
(e.g., conduct an inventory of their skills and
interests as they relate to jobs such as producer,
web designer, media critic, video game designer,
interactive television producer, on-line journalist,
DJ; perform a gap analysis to determine the skills
they need to acquire or improve on in order to
achieve their employment goals), and describe
the educational requirements for those jobs
ASM4E
B3.3 explain how media arts skills and processes
can facilitate tasks in the workplace (e.g.,
explain how the critical analysis process could be
applied to assess the artistic merits of an advertising campaign, how presentation skills develop
during the creative process could be applied in
a business presentation, or how collaborative
skills could be used in working with other people;
compare media arts skills to the skills listed in
the Ontario Skills Passport)
B3.4 explain how media arts skills and understandings (e.g., the ability to meet deadlines,
to communicate with team members, to analyse
media; research skills; understanding of issues
related to gender, race, sexuality, and cultural
differences) can be applied in everyday life
REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND ANALYSING
B2.5 explain how the process of critically analysing
media art works (e.g., television advertisements
from countries outside North America) has affected
their perception and understanding of different
communities, cultures, ideologies, and/or social
groups
By the end of this course, students will:
Media Arts
B2. Identity and Values
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom
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Grade 12, Workplace Preparation
C. FOUNDATIONS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
C1. Terminology: demonstrate an understanding of, and use correct terminology when referring to,
elements, principles, and other concepts relating to media arts;
C2. Contextual Study: demonstrate an understanding of the history and function of media arts in the
workplace;
C3. Responsible Practices: demonstrate an understanding of responsible practices associated with
producing, presenting, and experiencing media art works.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
C1. Terminology
152
C2. Contextual Study
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
C1.1 describe the stages of the creative and critical
analysis processes with respect to media art
works, and explain and use correctly and
appropriately a range of terms related to the
conventions, concepts, and principles of media
arts when creating or analysing media art works
(e.g., when analysing the conventions used in an
advertisement to draw the viewer’s attention)
C2.1 identify and explain the function of media
art works in the workplace (e.g., the use of
videos to promote corporate identity, to train new
workers, or to present motivational messages;
the use of websites to sell products or to promote
cultural events)
C2.2 analyse, on the basis of research, the history
of media art works developed for the workplace (e.g., the development of advertising in the
twentieth century; the use of training or information films; the approach and content of posters
used to recruit workers)
C1.2 describe, on the basis of research, a range
of elements from contributing arts that can
be used in media art works, and explain how
these elements can be applied through the
principles of media arts (e.g., how elements
from drama, music, and visual art can be applied
using the principle of hybridization in a media
art installation)
By the end of this course, students will:
C1.3 explain terminology associated with the
technologies, tools, and techniques used in
the production and presentation of media art
works (e.g., produce a glossary that defines terms
associated with the technologies, tools, and techniques used in their art work; explain terms such
as cropping, burning, dodging, layers, key frames,
transition, image framing, setup shot, close-up,
zoom, microphone, key light, fill light, spot meter),
and use this terminology correctly and appropriately when producing and presenting their
work
C3.1 identify and apply conscientious practices
and accepted workplace health and safety
procedures when producing, presenting,
promoting, or distributing media art works
(e.g., demonstrate safe practices when setting up,
taking down, and packing up lighting or sound
equipment; use the proper personal protective
equipment when working with chemicals or sharp
tools; regularly update computer virus programs;
stretch properly before presenting an art work
that involves movement; lift objects properly;
use ladders or platforms safely)
C3. Responsible Practices
C3.2 explain and apply ethical and legal practices
related to the media arts workplace (e.g., roleplay a scenario on copyright violations; explain
the importance of intellectual property; create a
mixed-media presentation on a workplace issue
such as discrimination, harassment, or accessibility;
use authorized sources when downloading music,
photos, or videos; show respect when using cultural
representations)
C3.4 demonstrate an understanding of and apply
conventions associated with the presenting and
experiencing of media art works in workplace
settings (e.g., protocols for presentations; respectful
interactions with clients, customers, and consumers)
Media Arts
C3.3 identify and apply responsible environmental
practices associated with the media arts workplace (e.g., dispose of chemicals and batteries in
environmentally appropriate ways; use energy
conservation practices; reuse and recycle materials
when possible; substitute a less harmful substance
for a hazardous one)
ASM4E
FOUNDATIONS
153
MUSIC
OVERVIEW
Music study at the Grade 11 and 12 level enhances students’ understanding and appreciation of music through the development of practical skills and creative work. Students
extend their creative problem-solving skills, individual and cooperative work habits,
and knowledge of themselves and others. They develop a sense of personal responsibility
and connections to their communities, and explore future careers.
Students use the elements of music (pitch – melody, harmony and tonality; duration –
beat, metre, rhythm, and tempo; dynamics and other expressive controls; timbre; texture;
and form) to create and perform works of increasing complexity. They use a variety of
current technologies with increasing skill when practising, performing, composing,
arranging, or recording music.
Performance and theory skills continue to be of major importance as students progress
from grade to grade. Students extend their ability to evaluate performances by reviewing and reflecting and commenting on their own and others’ creative work. They
expand their specialized vocabulary for evaluating their own music and the work
of other musicians.
The expectations for music courses are organized into three distinct but related strands:
1.
Creating and Presenting: Students use the creative process (see pages 15–17) to apply
their skills and knowledge of theory to performance and composition. Students
develop their technical skill when performing individually and in ensembles (e.g.,
using voice, band instruments, string instruments, guitar, keyboards, or other performance media). They improvise, interpret, and compose music, using a variety of
media, such as computers and other digital technology.
2.
Reflecting, Responding, and Analysing: Using the critical analysis process (see
pages 17–22) to enhance their appreciation of different types of music enables
students to develop a deeper understanding of themselves and the communities
in which they live. Students listen to and reflect on live and recorded performances
to develop their understanding of the language of music and assess how effectively
composers and performers communicate to their audience. Students explore the
interrelationship between music and society, drawing on music from a range of
cultures, including the rich heritage of Canadian music. Students also assess their
interest, skills, and knowledge in relation to potential careers or continued study
in music.
155
3.
Foundations: In this strand, students enhance their knowledge of and their ability to
apply the symbols, concepts, and conventions used in music. Students build on the
vocabulary necessary for creating, performing, and evaluating music. This foundational study helps them expand their understanding of the development of different
musical forms and the importance of health and safety practices. Students also develop
their understanding of musical etiquette and of ethical issues that apply to both
consumers and producers of music.
For policy guidelines pertaining to focus courses, see pages 12–13 of this document.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
The list of approved focus courses for Music can be found at:
www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/secondary/arts.html.
156
Music, Grade 11
University/College Preparation
AMU3M
This course provides students with opportunities to develop their musical literacy through
the creation, appreciation, analysis, and performance of music, including traditional,
commercial, and art music. Students will apply the creative process when performing
appropriate technical exercises and repertoire and will employ the critical analysis
processes when reflecting on, responding to, and analysing live and recorded performances. Students will consider the function of music in society and the impact of music
on individuals and communities. They will explore how to apply skills developed in
music to their life and careers.
Prerequisite: Music, Grade 9 or 10, Open
157
A. CREATING AND PERFORMING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
A1. The Creative Process: apply the stages of the creative process when performing notated and/or
improvised music and composing and/or arranging music;
A2. The Elements of Music: apply the elements of music when performing notated and improvised
music and composing and/or arranging music;
A3. Techniques and Technologies: use a range of techniques and technological tools in a variety of
applications relating to music.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
A1. The Creative Process
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
A1.1 apply the creative process when performing
notated and/or improvised music (e.g., explore
and reflect on subtleties of balance and blend in
the selection they are playing or singing; refine
their performance of a baroque selection by adding
ornamentation; evaluate the success of innovation
and experimentation through self-assessment and
by reflecting on input from teachers and peers)
A2.1 apply the elements of music and related
concepts appropriately and effectively when
interpreting and performing notated music
(e.g., demonstrate skills in phrasing, intonation,
dynamics, tempi, rhythm, balance, and blend in
repertoire and supporting exercises; play or sing
with correct articulation increasingly complex
melodic and harmonic patterns; provide shape to
reflect the character of a melody; play or sing with
tone colour appropriate to the style of music being
performed)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Teacher prompts: “How do you decide whether
an improvisational exploration has been successful? What role, if any, do your peers play
in this decision-making process?” “What roles
do inspiration and innovation play when you
improvise music?”
158
A2. The Elements of Music
A1.2 apply the creative process when composing
and/or arranging music (e.g., make an initial
plan with respect to the form of their composition;
experiment with different rhythms and articulation;
demonstrate innovation in their choice of instruments in their arrangement, such as arranging a
chorale or hymn melody for brasses; revise and
refine their work in response to self-assessment
and peer and teacher input; present their revised
work to the class or the whole school)
Teacher prompts: “How will your plans with
respect to instrumentation affect your approach
to this arrangement?” “When you are exploring
approaches to your arrangement, how can input
from the intended performers be valuable?”
“Have you built enough time for reflection
into the creative process? Why is this stage
important?”
Teacher prompts: “How can input from peers
with respect to timbre and expressive controls
help you achieve appropriate balance and blend
in your performance?” “Why is it important for
all members of an ensemble to approach the
elements of music in the same way?” “Was
there disagreement in your ensemble about the
approach to some elements of the selection?
Why? How did the resolution affect the interpretation of the selection?”
A2.2 manipulate the elements of music and related concepts appropriately and effectively when
improvising melodies in a variety of musical
forms (e.g., when improvising four-bar diatonic
melodies over appropriate accompaniment; when
using forms such as rondo, call and response,
theme and variations; when adding ornamentation
to a melody to create variety in repeating passages;
when improvising musical patterns using modes
and scales from non-Western music)
Teacher prompts: “In what ways does the effect
of this selection differ when the rhythm or
tempo is ‘swung’ rather than played ‘straight’?”
“What types of variations could you make in
dynamics to create interest and variety in
repeating passages?”
Teacher prompt: “When approaching the element
of pitch, how might you use dissonance to
enhance your harmonic palette and add interest
to your work? How can the use of modal scales
affect the pitch of your composition?”
A3. Techniques and Technologies
By the end of this course, students will:
A3.1 demonstrate technical skills when performing
increasingly complex notated and/or improvised music (e.g., perform notated music with
accuracy and fluency; sight-read unfamiliar music
with accuracy; perform complex studies and exercises to support repertoire; perform passages from
technical exercises and repertoire demonstrating
varying tempi; perform improvised music with
fluency and appropriate expression)
Teacher prompts: “What must you do to maintain clear articulation in this exercise as your
tempo increases?” “How does this study relate
to the repertoire we are preparing in class?
What particular skills does it target?”
Teacher prompts: “What techniques might you
use to integrate repetition into your work and
yet still keep the composition fresh?” “How
might you use compositional techniques from
other cultures? How might these enrich your
work?”
A3.3 use a variety of current technologies in
various applications related to music, including
composing, arranging, performing, and/or
recording music (e.g., use accompaniment software to accompany their solo performance; make
a digital recording of a personal performance and
distribute it using available technology; use a computer and appropriate software to record and edit
a performance by a class ensemble; use a notation
program when composing music or to arrange a
composition to be played by the class; produce
music using a loop-based mixing program)
Music
A2.3 apply the elements of music and related
concepts appropriately and effectively when
composing and/or arranging music in a variety
of forms (e.g., when creating rhythmic or melodic
compositions in forms such as rondo or theme and
variations; when creating melodies using a variety
of modal scales; when composing a short work for
brass ensemble and djembe)
A3.2 apply compositional techniques when composing and/or arranging music (e.g., create
and/or arrange homophonic compositions in four
or more parts, using technology where appropriate;
include aleatoric aspects in a composition for a vocal
performance or performance on their instrument;
use simple polyphonic techniques to compose a
short work for a small group; use vocables and
strophes when composing a vocal composition in
the style of a First Nation song; use techniques
associated with raga and tala to compose a short
work in an East Indian tradition)
AMU3M
Teacher prompts: “Identify all the technological
devices in your home that can be used to play
music. In what ways do these devices influence
when and how you listen to music?” “How can
using current technology help you become a
more effective producer of music?”
CREATING AND PERFORMING
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Grade 11, University/College Preparation
B. REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND
ANALYSING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
B1. The Critical Analysis Process: use the critical analysis process when responding to, analysing,
reflecting on, and interpreting music;
B2. Music and Society: demonstrate an understanding of social and cultural influences on and effects
of traditional, commercial, and art music;
B3. Skills and Personal Growth: demonstrate an understanding of how performing, creating, and
critically analysing music has affected their skills and personal development;
B4. Connections Beyond the Classroom: analyse opportunities and requirements for continued
engagement in music.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
B1. The Critical Analysis Process
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
By the end of this course, students will:
160
B1.1 deconstruct the elements and other components in musical works through score study
and purposeful listening (e.g., identify the
individual elements of music in their performance
repertoire and/or in aural selections, interpret
their function, and analyse how the composer
has manipulated them to create specific effects;
analyse the form and effect of the first movement
of a classical symphony, with reference to the
repetition and variation of specific elements of
music; identify and analyse the use of elements
in improvised music)
Teacher prompts: “How has the composer used
the elements of music to create a sense of unity
in this composition?” “Which elements do the
musicians manipulate in their improvisation?
What effect does this manipulation produce?”
B1.2 listen in a purposeful way to selections from
a wide variety of musical styles and genres,
and analyse and reflect on their responses to
and interpretation of them (e.g., describe their
personal preferences in music styles, with reference to characteristics and components of specific
selections; analyse changes in their response to
a selection from the baroque period, from initial
reaction through reflection and ongoing interpretation; explain their interpretation of a selection
from the traditional music of an Asian culture;
describe their response to the original version of a
classic blues recording and later covers of the same
song, and explain the reasons for their response)
Teacher prompts: “When you reflect on the
types of music that appeal to you, do you see
similarities in the characteristics of the selections? What are these characteristics? Why do
you think you are drawn to them?” “In what
ways does your own cultural background
influence your interpretation of music from
another culture?”
B1.3 analyse, and assess the effectiveness of,
music from a variety of styles and genres and
in various performance modes (e.g., analyse
the success or lack of success of the composer of
an impressionist selection in achieving his or her
artistic goal; explain how the aesthetic success of
an improvised selection is related to the effectiveness of its manipulation of the musical elements;
assess a performance by a professional musician
who plays the same instrument or has the same
voice type they do, and reflect on how it may
influence their own performance)
Teacher prompts: “What was Beethoven trying
to convey in his Third Symphony? Do you
think he was successful? Why or why not?”
“How can your engagement with the critical
analysis process affect your approach to the
creative processes?”
Teacher prompts: “In what ways does your
understanding of the background of a musician
and the reception of her or his music by the
public influence your choices of performance
repertoire?” “When you learned about the
inspiration for this piece of music, did this
knowledge affect your interpretation or assessment of the work? Why or why not?”
B2. Music and Society
By the end of this course, students will:
B2.1 analyse ways in which traditional, commercial, and art music are a response to and reflection of the community or culture in which they
were created (e.g., describe socio-economic influences on the chamber works of a specific period
in Western music; compare traditional music of
selected African cultures and spirituals of the
antebellum American South, and give reasons
for the similarities and differences; analyse the
influences that technology has had on traditional
music over the past half century; analyse how
songs have drawn attention to various social
causes or historical events)
Teacher prompts: “How did J. S. Bach’s work
influence composers from the baroque period
and beyond?” “What impact did Helen
Creighton have on traditional music in
Canada?”
B2.3 analyse the interrelationships between traditional, commercial, and art music (e.g., the
influence of traditional and commercial music on
the art music of George Gershwin; the use by pop
songwriters from a variety of cultures of themes or
melodies from art music; the integration of traditional blues riffs in rock ’n’ roll; the impact of
globalization on music)
Music
B1.4 gather information from reliable sources on
the background of music and musicians, audience responses, and music criticism, and analyse
and reflect on the information to enhance their
critical judgements and ongoing interpretations
of music (e.g., compare and contrast a variety of
concert reviews of “new music”, including both
positive and negative reviews; use contemporary
reviews to identify the critical response to the
premiere of a work by a historical musical figure,
compare it to the present-day reception of that
work, and conduct research into the historical
context to determine reasons for the difference in
the responses; reflect on responses from audience
members and media critics, and apply the information to make improvements in their own
performances)
Teacher prompts: “What features did J. S. Bach
borrow from music from his Lutheran heritage,
and how did he integrate them into his music?”
“What types of themes did Dvorak use in his
New World Symphony?” “What traditional
instruments are used in contemporary West
African music?”
B3. Skills and Personal Growth
By the end of this course, students will:
AMU3M
B3.1 analyse the impact of the study of music on
their personal growth (including the development of their values), their expressive capabilities, their awareness of social issues, and their
understanding of other cultures (e.g., their
respect for the opinions, preferences, and creative
abilities of others; their awareness of social issues
addressed in protest music; their ability to express
a range of emotions creatively; their understanding
of and appreciation for the richness of different
cultures)
Teacher prompts: “In what ways has creating or
analysing music affected your personal values?”
“In what ways has analysing or performing
music from other cultures affected your opinion
of people from those cultures?”
B3.2 assess their musical skills and knowledge,
and develop and implement a plan to ensure
continued improvement (e.g., use technology to
record and review their studio and public performances, and assess those performances; identify
areas for both aesthetic and technical improvement;
develop and reflect on a creative or performance
portfolio that exemplifies their output as a musician
and demonstrates ongoing improvement)
B2.2 analyse the impact that significant individuals
or groups from a variety of cultures (e.g., African
Guitar Summit, Joan Baez, Nadia Boulanger,
Ry Cooder, Ella Fitzgerald, Peter Gabriel, Antonio
Carlos Jobim, Ladysmith Black Mambazo, Clara
Schumann) have had on traditional, commercial,
and/or art music
Teacher prompts: “What role does careful and
analytical listening play in helping you improve
your performance?” “Are you able to successfully record and edit your composition? If not,
what other skills or knowledge do you need to
acquire?” “What skills and artistic qualities are
REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND ANALYSING
Teacher prompts: “What impact have socioeconomic conditions had on the music of
developing countries such as South Africa or
India?” “What are some of the songs associated
with the environmental movement? The civil
rights movement? What was the social context
for these songs?” “What was the origin and
impact of Live Aid?”
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THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
162
you developing that signal your musical
growth as a performer? In what areas do you
need more practice?”
B3.3 demonstrate the interpersonal skills, work
habits, attitudes, and qualities that are essential
to the effective functioning of a musical ensemble (e.g., personal responsibility and respect for
others in performance and creative work, the
ability to lead sectional rehearsals, the ability
to balance the needs of the group with the needs
of individual musicians)
Teacher prompts: “What steps would you take
in a small ensemble if there were conflict over
musical interpretation or if members were
unprepared?” “What are some strategies you
have used to build consensus on musical goals
in rehearsal?”
B4. Connections Beyond the Classroom
By the end of this course, students will:
B4.1 assess their interests, skills, and knowledge
in relation to a variety of music-related careers
(e.g., create a reverse plan, from a music career
they would like to pursue to their prospective
educational pathway; summarize their skills,
interests, and experience in a résumé that could be
used to apply for work in a recording studio, music
store, or musical theatre production; determine
the skills and educational requirements of a range
of jobs generated by the musical entertainment
industry)
Teacher prompts: “What skills, knowledge, and
attitudes are required for work as a recording
engineer? A disc jockey? A studio musician?
What skills and/or knowledge would you
have to acquire to work at one of these jobs?”
“What skills and background does a professional classical musician require?” “What is
the salary range for a member of a classical
ensemble? How might a professional musician
supplement this salary?”
B4.2 analyse the requirements for postsecondary
study of music with respect to education and
musical proficiency, and assess what they need
to do to meet those requirements (e.g., research
university and college programs in music or
music-related areas, and identify academic
requirements for entry into these programs; assess
their performance or creative proficiencies with
respect to audition or portfolio requirements for
application to postsecondary programs)
Teacher prompt: “From your gap analysis, what
areas would you need to focus on to meet the
application requirements for a postsecondary
musical theatre program? What sorts of experience or educational opportunities might you
pursue outside the school system to help you
succeed in your application?”
B4.3 analyse opportunities for, and explain the
benefits of, continuing involvement in music
and other arts, including opportunities associated with private or public arts organizations
(e.g., assess the funding support that is available
through organizations that support the arts, and
write a funding application to one of them; research
possibilities for involvement in an ensemble,
show, production, or other opportunity within the
school or the community; analyse how community
music events help keep the arts vibrant in their
community/region)
Teacher prompts: “What are the benefits for
both the individual and the community of local
opportunities for participation in amateur music
events?” “What might be done to mitigate the
differences between large urban centres and
smaller towns or rural areas with respect to
arts-related opportunities?”
C. FOUNDATIONS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
C2. Characteristics and Development of Musical Forms: demonstrate an understanding of the
development, function, and characteristics of various forms of music;
Music
C1. Theory and Terminology: demonstrate an understanding of music theory with respect to concepts
of notation and the elements and other components of music, and use appropriate terminology
relating to them;
C3. Conventions and Responsible Practices: demonstrate an understanding of conventions and
responsible practices relating to music.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
C1. Theory and Terminology
By the end of this course, students will:
C1.1 extend their understanding of the elements
and other components of music, particularly
through practical application and aural recognition, and use appropriate terminology related
to these elements (e.g., describe in detail elements
of music as they relate to course repertoire and a
broad range of aural examples; describe, recognize,
and perform major, melodic and harmonic minor,
whole tone, chromatic, and various blues scales;
identify simple and compound intervals, as well as
major, minor, and diminished triads; describe and
demonstrate dominant, diminished, major, and
minor seventh chords; describe and demonstrate
cadences, including perfect, imperfect, and plagal;
recognize various forms and aspects of form, such
as strophic form, sonata form, refrain, motif, bridge,
oratorio, vocables in Native American songs)
AMU3M
C2. Characteristics and Development
of Musical Forms
By the end of this course, students will:
C2.1 demonstrate an understanding of the development and function and/or theme of various
musical forms and conventions (e.g., outline the
part of the Catholic mass that best illustrates the
use of cantus firmus; explain the use of overtures
in opera and musical theatre; trace the development
of instruments over time; create a CD of musical
excerpts to illustrate the evolution of the concerto
form)
Teacher prompt: “After careful listening, what
characteristics of this selection lead you to
conclude that it is not a baroque orchestral
composition?”
C2.2 analyse, on the basis of research, and report
on the characteristics of and ideas in traditional
and contemporary music, including Aboriginal
music, from Canada and around the world
FOUNDATIONS
C1.2 demonstrate an understanding of, and use
correct terminology related to, the concepts of
notation in a variety of activities (e.g., demonstrate an understanding of notational format and
conventions involved in scoring for various small
ensembles; use correct notation when arranging
or transposing an existing polyphonic work of at
least three parts/voices for a small ensemble; identify and notate sound layering in various voicings;
use graphic notation to reflect environmental
source material in a soundscape)
C1.3 accurately reproduce, notate, or identify
melodic, harmonic, and/or rhythmic examples
(e.g., reproduce, aurally identify, and notate intervals from unison to an octave, including major,
minor, diminished, and augmented intervals;
notate melodies from four to eight measures in
length; reproduce rhythm patterns and phrases
related to their performance repertoire)
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Grade 11, University/College Preparation
(e.g., analyse shared characteristics of West African
and Cuban music; research and report on connections between music and nature; interview a First
Nation musician and share his or her experiences
and perspectives with their peers)
Teacher prompts: “Why might the composer
of a Renaissance madrigal have imitated the
sounds of nature?” “What are some of the
key themes in Aboriginal music in Canada?
How do these themes compare to those in
Aboriginal music in other countries?”
C3. Conventions and Responsible
Practices
By the end of this course, students will:
C3.1 explain the importance of and demonstrate
safe and healthy practices associated with practising, performing, and listening to music (e.g.,
ergonomic considerations associated with playing
various instruments and using computers; connections between respiratory health and the rehearsal
environment; safe sound levels in rehearsal and
performance settings and when listening to recorded
music)
Teacher prompts: “What are some common
injuries or physical problems that musicians
are subject to? What measures could they take
to help reduce the incidence of these injuries?”
“Why is it important for a vocalist to conduct
warm-up exercises before a performance?
What are some appropriate exercises?”
C3.2 explain and demonstrate conventions associated with various type of musical performance
and production, from the perspective of a performer and an audience member (e.g., explain
the differences in acceptable audience behaviour
at the symphony, a jazz concert, a musical theatre
production, and an outdoor rock event; demonstrate
proper etiquette when performing solo or as part of
an ensemble; prepare program notes for a musical
theatre production or a classical concert)
C3.3 demonstrate an understanding of ethical
and legal practices with reference to both consumers and producers of music, with particular
emphasis on copyright issues (e.g., stage a mock
trial in which they explain their rights as a performer, creator, and consumer of music; participate
in a four-corner debate on issues related to downloading copyrighted music files)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Teacher prompts: “How are composers remunerated when their work is played on the
radio? When it is downloaded from a website?”
“Legally, what actions are advertisers supposed
to take before using a composer’s music in a
commercial?”
164
Music, Grade 11
Open
AMU3O
This course develops students’ musical literacy through performance and the preparation
and presentation of music productions. Students will perform works at a level consistent
with previous experience. Independently and collaboratively, students will use current
technology and the creative and critical analysis processes to plan, produce, present,
and market musical productions. Students will respond to, reflect on, and analyse
music from various genres and periods, and they will develop skills transferable to
other aspects of their life and their careers.
Prerequisite: None
165
A. CREATING AND PERFORMING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
A1. The Creative Process: apply the stages of the creative process when performing music, composing
and/or arranging music, and creating a musical production;
A2. The Elements of Music: apply elements of music when performing music and composing and/or
arranging music;
A3. Techniques and Technologies: use a variety of techniques and technological tools when engaged
in musical creation, production, and/or performance.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
A1. The Creative Process
166
A2. The Elements of Music
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
A1.1 apply the creative process when performing
music and composing and/or arranging music
(e.g., generate ideas for a musical composition
based on a video game; experiment with various
natural and instrumental sounds when arranging
music for their ensemble; explore and reflect on
different arrangements of the same work; revise
aspects of their performance based on feedback
from peers)
A2.1 apply the elements of music and related
concepts appropriately when interpreting and
performing notated music (e.g., reproduce accurately, by clapping, playing, or singing, rhythms
that are similar to those in the music they are
studying; play or sing repertoire with accurate
pitch and intonation; play or sing repertoire with
correct dynamics and articulation; perform in an
ensemble setting with uniform tonal blend and
balanced dynamic intensity)
Teacher prompts: “What musical choices will
you need to make in this performance? How
can the creative process help you make effective choices?” “What roles do imagination
and planning play in your preparation for
a performance?”
A1.2 apply the creative process when creating a
musical production (e.g., when planning, revising,
and presenting a concert with your ensemble;
when planning for, producing, and editing a
recording of a small ensemble)
Teacher prompts: “What do you need to consider when planning for the instruments or
voices you are using in your production?”
“How might you incorporate innovation into
your production?” “Which stages of the creative
process did you follow when working on this
production?” “What are the potential pitfalls
for performances or productions that do not
follow the stages of the creative process?”
Teacher prompts: “Considering the timbres
of the various instruments in your ensemble,
how might you ensure appropriate balance
and blend?” “If the tempo of this song were
altered, how might you change your approach
to articulation?”
A2.2 apply the elements of music and related
concepts appropriately when composing
and/or arranging music (e.g., apply elements
such as pitch [melody], timbre, and texture in their
composition in a way similar to that in the popular
music they are studying; use guitar tablature to
notate pitches in a solo composition; arrange pieces
of music in simple, binary, and free forms)
Teacher prompts: “What would be some
advantages of using guitar tablature as opposed
to ‘standard’ notation? What limitations might
this tablature have with respect to expressing
the elements of music?” “How might the timbres
of the instruments in your group affect the way
you use the elements of duration and dynamics
in your composition?”
A3. Techniques and Technologies
By the end of this course, students will:
Teacher prompt: “How does competence in
performing scales and technical exercises
support your ability to perform repertoire?”
A3.2 use compositional techniques and available
technology when composing and/or arranging
music (e.g., compose a soundtrack in ABA form
for a scene in a play, using a loop-based mixing
program; use computer software to produce a
rhythm section accompaniment for an instrumental
or vocal solo)
A3.3 use current technology to create a record of
their own or their peers’ performance and/or
production (e.g., collect examples of their best
work in digital format and create a performance
archive; create and publish digital video of their
group’s best performances)
Teacher prompts: “What technical considerations
do you need to address when creating your
performance archive?” “How can watching a
video recording of your performance help you
assess your strengths and weaknesses?”
Music
A3.1 demonstrate technical skill when performing
music and/or creating a musical production
(e.g., accurately and proficiently perform scales,
patterns, or technical exercises in support of repertoire; demonstrate technical skills when recording
their performances or those of their classmates or
using a loop-based composition program to mix
audio)
Teacher prompts: “What software experience
do you have that might help you use these
music programs?” “How can you use software
to address issues of balance and blend in your
arrangement?” “How can you use software to
help you implement your musical ideas?”
AMU3O
CREATING AND PERFORMING
167
Grade 11, Open
B. REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND
ANALYSING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
B1. The Critical Analysis Process: use the critical analysis process when responding to, analysing,
reflecting on, and interpreting music;
B2. Music and Society: demonstrate an understanding of the role and impact of traditional, commercial,
and art music within various communities and cultures;
B3. Skills and Personal Growth: demonstrate an understanding of how performing, creating, and
critically analysing music has affected their skills and personal development;
B4. Connections Beyond the Classroom: identify and describe opportunities and requirements for
continued engagement in music.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
B1. The Critical Analysis Process
By the end of this course, students will:
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
B1.1 listen to and/or perform selections that
represent a wide variety of musical genres
and styles, and describe and reflect on their
responses to them (e.g., document their initial
reactions to more than one version of the same
Leonard Cohen song; describe their response to
several selections of music they like, and identify
any common traits; describe the emotions conveyed in a work by a composer from the Romantic
period)
168
Teacher prompts: “Why might your opinion of
a musical work, artist, or genre change over
time?” “Describe the evolution of your personal listening history. What attracted you to each
successive musical style?”
B1.2 analyse productions such as concerts,
recitals, musical theatre, and/or other musical
events with reference to the elements and other
components of music as well as the technical
and organizational aspects of the production
(e.g., the human and technical resources required
for a musical theatre production; the interplay of
the elements of music in a performance by a string
ensemble; the contribution of the elements of music
to the aesthetic impact of a performance by a
marching band)
Teacher prompts: “Have you created a flow
chart showing the roles of all the participants
in the talent show you are organizing? Are the
roles clearly defined and complementary?”
“Which elements of music contributed to the
success (or lack of success) of this production?”
“What non-musical aspects of a musical performance can be analysed using the critical
analysis process?”
B1.3 assess the effectiveness of a variety of musical
selections and/or productions (e.g., communicate
their response to a community concert, including
their assessment of its effectiveness in meeting the
needs of the community; write a review of a musical
theatre production; assess the appropriateness of a
musical program with respect to its intention and
audience)
Teacher prompts: “What features of the small
ensemble recital were effective from your point
of view?” “Which member(s) of the cast of this
musical production gave the most effective
performance? What are the reasons for your
opinion?”
B2. Music and Society
B3. Skills and Personal Growth
By the end of this course, students will:
B2.1 identify and explain the interrelationships
between traditional, commercial, and art music
in specific cultures or communities (e.g., the
integration of elements of traditional music from
multiple cultures into commercial music in
Canada; the use of Hungarian folk songs in the
work of art music composers from that country)
B3.1 explain how the study of music has contributed to their self-awareness, their values,
their ability to express themselves, and their
understanding of others (e.g., how exposure to
the values expressed in contemporary music has
shaped or reinforced their values or behaviour;
how honing their performance, production, and
creative skills has enabled them to express themselves more effectively; how musical activities have
contributed to their knowledge and understanding
of the communities or cultures of their peers)
Teacher prompts: “Who are some art music
composers who have benefited from a strong
folk music tradition in their culture? What
impact has this tradition had on their music?”
“What elements of traditional music can you
identify in the music you hear around you in
a typical day?”
B2.2 describe significant contributions of individuals, groups, or organizations within a community or culture to presentation and production
aspects of traditional, commercial, and art
music (e.g., how groups and individuals such as
the Rolling Stones, Michael Jackson, Madonna, or
Rush have contributed to the format of large-scale
music concerts popular in the West; how the East
Coast Music Awards provide a vehicle for and
encourage musicians from Atlantic Canada; how
John Hammond helped broaden the audience for
African-American musicians in the 1930s; how the
concepts and intent of the salon music of Schubert
and his contemporaries are reflected in modern-day
performance and production practices)
Teacher prompts: “What evidence do you hear
of a cross-pollination of traditional, commercial,
and art music in the music of Great Big Sea?”
“How has the work of Andrew Lloyd Webber
influenced the production and presentation of
musical theatre?”
Teacher prompts: “What role has FrenchCanadian music played in maintaining a
distinct francophone culture in Canada?”
“In what ways do musical styles and preferences
define and express the concerns of various
youth communities?”
Teacher prompts: “What aspects of the study
of music have enhanced your ability to express
yourself?” “How has studying music from a
variety of cultures affected your identity?”
B3.2 identify and analyse their musical production
and performance skills and knowledge, and
describe the steps they will take to ensure continued improvements in these areas (e.g., critique
their own performance from a technical or aesthetic
perspective, and identify areas for improvement;
reflect regularly on their rehearsal of a selection
in order to identify areas for improvement; develop
and carry out a practice strategy for overcoming a
performance weakness; review their contributions
to group planning or production meetings, and
identify how they could improve their personal
input)
AMU3O
Teacher prompt: “What contribution have you
made to ensuring the success of this production?
Are there any areas you found particularly
challenging and/or where you had to enlist the
help of your peers? How could you improve
your skills in these areas?”
B3.3 demonstrate leadership and collaborative
skills when planning, promoting, producing,
and performing in a variety of musical presentations (e.g., facilitate and participate in group
planning processes; follow protocols for effective
meetings; consult with the other members of their
ensemble or production team, listen meaningfully,
and reflect on their ideas; devise and implement
innovative ideas to promote a performance)
Teacher prompts: “Why is it important to build
trust when working as part of a team?” “When
your ensemble is preparing for a recital, what
skills are most likely to ensure success?”
REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND ANALYSING
B2.3 explain the role of traditional, commercial,
and/or art music in various communities or
cultures (e.g., the use of commercial music in
advertising; how certain urban or rural communities
have been stereotyped by the music they produce
or listen to; how concerts can bring together a
community)
Music
By the end of this course, students will:
169
B4. Connections Beyond the Classroom
Grade 11, Open
By the end of this course, students will:
B4.1 identify and describe the skills and knowledge required to pursue careers connected to
the arts and culture industry (e.g., describe possible music industry careers and the requirements
for specific jobs; use a career-profiling website to
assess their own interests, skills, and aspirations
and match these with appropriate careers in the
cultural industry; investigate the skills required
for careers that support musicians and composers,
such as artist management, instrument making or
repair, music promotion and marketing, recording
or sound engineering)
Teacher prompts: “Based on your current
interests, skills, and level of knowledge, what
music-related career could you pursue that
would provide an adequate living?” “What
types of jobs does the production of a largescale musical generate? What skills do these
jobs require?”
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
B4.2 describe educational pathways that would
enable them to prepare for careers in planning,
promoting, producing, and/or performing in
musical presentations (e.g., conduct a live or
electronic interview with a music producer or
promoter in their community, focusing on the
educational prerequisites and ongoing learning
requirements for the field; create a promotional
poster for a postsecondary school of music that
illustrates possible careers associated with its
music program)
170
Teacher prompts: “What non-music courses
would help you acquire skills and knowledge
related to the promotion or production of
musical presentations?” “How might you
assess the value or appropriateness of a course
or program in music?”
B4.3 identify opportunities for, and explain the
benefits of, participating in and attending
musical endeavours of various types (e.g., performances of various types of music in their school
or community; opportunities for performance by
their band, choir, ensemble; possible venues for
performance or presentation of musical work, such
as parks, town halls, hospitals, elementary or
nursery schools, or other non-traditional spaces;
music-related activities and other services offered
by local or regional arts councils)
Teacher prompts: “Where might you look for
information about folk, jazz, and/or international music festivals in the community?”
“Describe how you can use radio, television,
and/or podcasts to access music that you are
unable to hear live.” “What supports exist that
could assist young musicians in building a
profile in your community?”
C. FOUNDATIONS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
C2. Musical Genres and Influences: demonstrate an understanding of musical genres, periods, and
themes, and the influence of the environment on different forms of music;
Music
C1. Theory and Terminology: demonstrate an understanding of music theory with respect to the
elements and other components of music, and use appropriate terminology relating to them;
C3. Conventions and Responsible Practices: demonstrate an understanding of responsible practices
and performance conventions relating to music.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
C1. Theory and Terminology
C2. Musical Genres and Influences
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
C1.1 demonstrate an understanding of, and use
correct terminology relating to, the elements of
music when planning, promoting, producing,
and performing in a music production or presentation (e.g., describe in detail the elements of
music in their performance repertoire; analyse the
interrelationship of pitch, duration, and dynamics
in a particular musical production, and identify
the acoustical aspects of a performance venue that
would best support these elements; describe the
types of tasks and personnel [types of musicians,
sound engineers] required to support the elements
in a musical production; list the physical resources
required to support the elements of music, such as
acoustic or electronic instruments, amplification,
sound baffling, computer technologies)
C2.1 categorize various musical works by genre,
period, and function and/or theme, and
describe the reasons for their categorization
(e.g., categorize selected art music as a symphony,
concerto, or sonata, and give reasons for their
decisions; distinguish between Gregorian chant
and chants in South Asian ragas; describe the
differences between rock music and rhythm and
blues; describe the genres of music in a range of
music videos)
C1.2 demonstrate an understanding of, and use
proper terminology when referring to, aspects
of musical form in a variety of genres (e.g., riffs
in blues; themes in orchestral music; vocables in
North American Aboriginal songs; themes associated with movie characters in film scores; overtures,
arias, duets, choruses in opera)
Teacher prompt: “What era and genre of
twentieth-century popular music do you
believe this selection represents? What musical
characteristics led you to this conclusion?”
C2.2 describe, in a research-based report or
presentation, the interrelationship between
nature/the environment and various kinds of
music, including Aboriginal music (e.g., present
a ritual or celebration using replica instruments
created from natural or recycled materials; investigate how composers have used nature as a source
of inspiration and ideas)
Teacher prompts: “What attitudes towards the
environment are evident in traditional and
contemporary Aboriginal music?” “How does
Stravinsky represent nature in Rite of Spring?
What are some other art music compositions
that were inspired by nature?” “How can
music connect us to the environment?”
FOUNDATIONS
C1.3 identify melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic
patterns, and reproduce them accurately, by
playing, singing, or notating them (e.g., reproduce,
aurally identify, and notate examples of intervals
from unison to an octave; reproduce, aurally identify,
and notate examples of major and minor triads in
root position; notate examples of rhythm patterns
appropriate to the repertoire being studied)
AMU3O
171
C3. Conventions and Responsible
Practices
Grade 11, Open
By the end of this course, students will:
C3.1 explain the importance of safe and healthy
practices for preventing performance- and
production-related injuries and for maintaining
respiratory, aural, and vocal health (e.g., safe
practices associated with performing on stage;
ways to protect their hearing when playing or
listening to loud music; warm-up exercises prior
to playing an instrument or singing)
Teacher prompts: “What are some potential
dangers associated with practising or performing
on stage?” “Why do vocalists do warm-up
exercises before performing?”
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
C3.2 describe and demonstrate conventions associated with music performances and productions,
from the perspective of a performer and an
audience member (e.g., compile a detailed list
of audience etiquette for different types of musical
performances; compare and contrast the programs
for different types of concerts and explain the
reasons for the differences)
172
Teacher prompts: “Is it appropriate to clap after
a song in a musical theatre presentation? After
a movement of a concerto?” “What sorts of
behaviour by audience members can disturb
performers or other audience members? What
can you do to ensure you do not disturb the
performance or other people’s enjoyment of
it?” “What strategies can performers use to
connect with the audience during a concert?”
C3.3 demonstrate an understanding of ethical
and legal issues related to music, with respect
to both consumers and producers and with
particular emphasis on issues related to the
entertainment industry (e.g., debate issues related
to the protection of the rights of composers/performers, the availability of music on the Internet,
and illegal downloading and file sharing)
Teacher prompt: “How has the distribution of
recorded music changed over the past twentyfive years? What legal problems have these
changes created for the recording industry?”
Music, Grade 12
University/College Preparation
AMU4M
This course enables students to enhance their musical literacy through the creation,
appreciation, analysis, and performance of music. Students will perform traditional,
commercial, and art music, and will respond with insight to live and recorded performances. Students will enhance their understanding of the function of music in society and
the impact of music on themselves and various communities and cultures. Students will
analyse how to apply skills developed in music to their life and careers.
Prerequisite: Music, Grade 11, University/College Preparation
173
A. CREATING AND PERFORMING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
A1. The Creative Process: apply the stages of the creative process when performing notated and/or
improvised music and composing and/or arranging music;
A2. The Elements of Music: apply the elements of music when performing notated and improvised
music and composing and/or arranging music;
A3. Techniques and Technologies: use a range of techniques and technological tools in a variety of
applications related to music.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
A1. The Creative Process
By the end of this course, students will:
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
A1.1 apply the creative process when performing
increasingly complex and difficult notated
and/or improvised music (e.g., study the score in
order to plan their approach to the performance of
a selection; consider various sources of inspiration
for their improvisation; experiment with variations
in articulation, balance, blend, tempo, and/or
texture; use rehearsal time to revise aspects of
their performance based on self-assessment and
reflection on critiques by their peers and/or teacher;
perform a polished version of the selection for
their peers)
174
Teacher prompts: “How and why does your
approach to the creative process change when
you are improvising as opposed to performing
notated music?” “How has reflection and
experimentation affected your performance
of this selection?”
A1.2 apply the creative process when composing
and/or arranging increasingly complex musical
works (e.g., follow the applicable stages of the
creative process when composing or arranging for
small ensemble a sixteen-bar melody; explore the
creative challenge, conducting research to develop
their understanding or for inspiration; develop a
plan that details the form and structure of their
composition; experiment with various metres,
tempi, and approaches to articulation; explore
the tessitura of various instruments to determine
which are most appropriate for their planned
arrangement; revise their composition on the
basis of self-assessment and reflection on critiques
from their peers and/or teacher; present the final
work to an audience)
Teacher prompts: “How do your instrumentation choices affect the tone colour, blend, and
balance in your arrangement? Do they achieve
the effect you were intending? What aspects
might you refine to achieve a more effective
arrangement?” “Have you explored the impact
on your arrangement of the tessitura of all the
instruments in your ensemble? What, if any,
changes might you make to use all the available
instruments to their best advantage?”
A2. The Elements of Music
By the end of this course, students will:
A2.1 apply the elements of music and related
concepts appropriately and effectively when
interpreting and performing increasingly complex and difficult notated music (e.g., accurately
play or sing increasingly complex rhythms; accurately play or sing increasingly difficult music with
correct articulation, clear melodic shape, and relative
balance; play or sing with accurate intonation,
effective tonal blend, and harmonic balance)
Teacher prompts: “How might a change in
articulation alter the overall effect of this
selection?” “In what ways does your approach
to the elements of music change when you
are playing the melody line as opposed to
accompaniment?”
A2.2 manipulate the elements of music and related
concepts effectively and with increasing skill
and creativity when improvising melodies in
a wide variety of musical forms (e.g., when
improvising melodies over an appropriate chord
progression; when improvising using modes, scales,
and/or patterns from Western and non-Western
music; when improvising a sixteen-bar diatonic
or modal melody over appropriate accompaniment;
when using strophic or ternary form or a combination of forms)
A2.3 apply the elements of music and related
concepts effectively and with increasing skill
and creativity when composing and/or arranging music in a variety of forms (e.g., when writing
tonal melodies; when writing atonal melodies
using a tone row; when writing atonal melodies
using pitch integers, ordered pitch intervals, and/or
pitch classes; when arranging melodic and rhythmic
compositions in binary and ternary form)
Teacher prompt: “How are aspects of pitch,
especially melody and harmony, used when
creating atonal music?”
A3. Techniques and Technologies
By the end of this course, students will:
A3.1 extend their technical skills when performing
increasingly complex and difficult notated
and/or improvised music (e.g., perform repertoire
with accuracy and artistic sensitivity; sight-read
increasingly complex music with accuracy and
fluency; perform with highly appropriate expression selections from a range of genres; sing or play
their instrument with a timbre appropriate for the
selection)
Teacher prompts: “What are the positive
aspects of your chosen form? What are its
limitations?” “Would you borrow aspects of
another complementary or contrasting style
to include in your work? Why or why not?”
A3.3 use a variety of current technologies with
increasing skill when practising, performing,
composing, arranging, or recording music (e.g.,
record a multi-track sequence using the functions
of audio-editing software; record their performance
of a range of selections for a performance portfolio;
use notation and sequencing software when
producing a work in a twentieth-century style
[expressionist, minimalist, blues, musique concrète];
arrange an original composition for the class using
various scoring tools in a notation program)
Music
Teacher prompt: “What is the role of each note
in this chord with respect to tension and dissonance? Is this chord resolved or not? Will you
need to make the melody fit with your revised
harmonic progression?”
A3.2 apply compositional techniques with
increasing skill and creativity when composing
and/or arranging music (e.g., compose and/or
arrange contrapuntal compositions, using technology where appropriate; compose a piece using
twentieth-century techniques such as tone rows,
indeterminacy, or free improvisation; arrange a
pentatonic melody such as the Japanese Sakura,
incorporating contemporary rhythmic patterns
and applying the timbres of modern string, wind,
and percussion instruments; write a rhythm rondo
using African drums and embedding improvisational passages and structured notated patterns)
AMU4M
Teacher prompts: “What are some of the ways
in which digital technology has changed the
music industry?” “How could you use software to notate music from an oral tradition?”
“What features of music notation, editing, and
sequencing software do you find most useful
as a composer?”
Teacher prompts: “What is the relationship
between technical skill and artistic ability?”
“How can this technical exercise enhance your
ability to perform with artistic sensitivity?”
CREATING AND PERFORMING
175
Grade 12, University/College Preparation
B. REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND
ANALYSING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
B1. The Critical Analysis Process: use the critical analysis process when responding to, analysing,
reflecting on, and interpreting music;
B2. Music and Society: demonstrate an understanding of social and cultural influences on and effects
and functions of traditional, commercial, and art music;
B3. Skills and Personal Growth: demonstrate an understanding of how performing, creating, and
critically analysing music has affected their skills and personal development;
B4. Connections Beyond the Classroom: assess opportunities and requirements for continued
engagement in music.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
B1. The Critical Analysis Process
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
By the end of this course, students will:
176
B1.1 deconstruct with increasing skill and insight
the elements and other components of music
through score study of and purposeful listening to increasingly complex musical works
(e.g., describe and evaluate how melody, rhythm,
harmony, texture, and/or timbre function and
interact in serial music from the twentieth century;
analyse a significant form of Western music such
as a symphony, a concerto, an opera, or an art song;
review a peer’s public performance with reference
to her or his manipulation of musical elements;
analyse a lead sheet for a jazz standard, and then
critique the performance of the selection in terms
of the aesthetic and technical impact of the performers’ manipulation of the elements of music)
Teacher prompts: “What can you determine
about the cultural context for a selection from
analysing its approach to the elements of
music?” “How do these two recordings of this
aria differ in their approach to the elements
of music? What effects do these differences
produce?”
B1.2 listen to and reflect on selections from a
wide range of musical styles and genres,
including their own performance repertoire,
and analyse and reflect with increasing insight
on their responses to and interpretation of
them (e.g., explain their initial reaction to a selection whose genre or form they are not familiar
with; explain their interpretation of a Canadian
avant-garde selection; reflect and report on how
their response to a selection of music has changed
from initial reaction, to increased understanding
as a result of background research, and to critical
analysis as a result of repeated and focused
listening)
Teacher prompts: “In what ways does your
initial reaction to a piece of music from an
unfamiliar genre or culture differ from your
reaction to a selection by one of your favourite
composers or musicians?” “Can you understand or appreciate a piece of music without
liking it? Why or why not?”
B1.3 analyse with increasing insight and assess
the effectiveness of music from a wide range of
styles and genres and in various performance
modes, and reflect on how such analyses can
enhance their own creation or performance of
music (e.g., assess the effectiveness of a selection
that represents a significant form of Western music,
such as a symphony, a concerto, an opera, or an
art song, in communicating to its audiences, and
analyse how the work achieves its purpose; analyse
the aesthetic and technical features of various
forms of jazz, and evaluate the effect of the music
on the performer and listener; assess the impact
and effectiveness of a taiko ensemble)
Teacher prompts: “Why does ritual music of
this culture have such a powerful effect on the
participants?” “How can you apply what you
have learned from your analysis of Gustav
Holst’s work to your own performance of
English band repertoire?”
Teacher prompts: “What influence have the
reviews of this musician’s work had on your
opinion and assessment of that work?” “Does
an understanding of the cultural or historical
context of a composition influence your opinion
of the work? Why or why not?”
Teacher prompts: “What impact has Woody
Guthrie had on popular music in North
America?” “Name some influential Canadian
Aboriginal artists, and describe how they
have contributed to contemporary Aboriginal
musical genres.”
Music
B1.4 gather information from a range of reliable
sources on music history, composers and musicians, technical and/or aesthetic criticism, and
audience responses, and analyse, critique, and
reflect on the information with increasing
insight to enhance their critical judgement and
ongoing interpretation of music (e.g., gather and
analyse data on audience responses to one of their
performances, either individual or as part of an
ensemble; investigate the cultural context and
critical opinion of the work of a non-Western
musician, evaluate the information, and compare
it to their own opinion; investigate the purpose,
cultural context, technical complexities, and elements of a selection of contemporary Aboriginal
music; analyse the work of a professional media
critic or musicologist, and use it as a model for
their own criticism of music)
B2.2 analyse the impact of significant individuals
or groups from a variety of cultures or
communities on various genres of traditional,
commercial, and/or art music (e.g., the impact
of composers and/or musicians such as Hildegard
von Bingen, Robert Johnson, Glenn Gould, the
Beatles, Ali Farka Touré, Evelyn Glennie, or Yo-Yo
Ma on various genres; the influence of composers
such as Anil Biswas, Tan Dun, Ennio Morricone,
or John Williams on film scoring)
B2.3 analyse the various functions of music in
society (e.g., to pass on traditions in oral cultures,
to protest social injustice, to commemorate, to
educate and raise awareness, as therapy to enhance
health and well-being, to entertain, to accompany
dance, for religious worship)
Teacher prompts: “What was the function of
music under the patronage system of eighteenthcentury Europe?” “Why are songs that are
passed down by oral cultures so important to
the history and traditions of these cultures?”
“What are some of the uses of music therapy?”
AMU4M
B3. Skills and Personal Growth
B2. Music and Society
By the end of this course, students will:
Teacher prompts: “What social, cultural, and/or
economic factors influenced the development
of ragtime?” “Why do the works of many
Renaissance composers reflect a multicultural
influence?” “What is the social context for
Joe Sealy’s Africville Suite?”
B3.1 analyse and assess the impact of the study of
music on their self-awareness, their expressive
capabilities, their awareness of social issues,
and their understanding of others (e.g., their
awareness of, and their ability to express, personal
responses to a wide range of music from a variety of
cultures; the ability to support their own opinions
while demonstrating respect for the opinions of
others; the ability to express their ideas, concerns,
and emotions creatively; their knowledge of and
respect for other cultures; their awareness of current
and historical social issues as expressed through
song)
Teacher prompts: “What role has the study of
music played in making you the person you
are?” “In what ways has studying the music of
other cultures and communities expanded your
knowledge and understanding?”
REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND ANALYSING
B2.1 analyse, on the basis of in-depth research,
ways in which traditional, commercial, and
art music are a response to and a reflection of
the community or culture in which they were
created (e.g., the social and/or historical context of
nineteenth-century Irish folk music, klezmer music,
Chinese revolutionary opera; the interrelationship
between music and social issues in South Africa; the
historical context of Tchaikovsky’s 1812 Overture;
the sources of hybridization in contemporary
music)
By the end of this course, students will:
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Grade 12, University/College Preparation
B3.2 assess, with increasing insight, their musical
skills and knowledge, and develop and implement a detailed plan to enhance them and
evaluate their progress (e.g., select and organize
items for a portfolio of performance or creative
work to demonstrate continuing improvement;
conduct and report on the results of self-directed
study on a musical topic; plan ways to extend their
skills in working with music-related software)
Teacher prompts: “How might you develop a
plan to assess your skills as an independent
musician and a member of this ensemble? Do
these two roles require different skills? Why or
why not?” “What skills do you need to develop
to enhance your ability to use this piece of
music software?”
B3.3 demonstrate the interpersonal skills, work
habits, attitudes, and qualities that are essential
to the effective performance of music in a variety
of contexts (e.g., conduct or lead a small or large
ensemble; participate in a music council or other
leadership group; demonstrate preparedness,
cooperation, optimism, and perseverance when
rehearsing and performing as part of an ensemble)
Teacher prompts: “What are some ways to
develop individual accountability in a musical
ensemble?” “What challenges did you
encounter in this collaborative composition
process? How did you resolve these challenges?”
B4. Connections Beyond the Classroom
By the end of this course, students will:
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
B4.1 assess their interests, skills, and knowledge
in relation to a variety of careers in the arts and
culture industry (e.g., interview a Canadian composer to determine the skills necessary to succeed
in this profession and to discover how this individual makes a living; identify and assess the
178
requirements of careers related to the promotion
and marketing of artists, including musicians;
identify and evaluate the requirements of careers
related to music education; identify opportunities
at arts advocacy organizations, and describe the
background required for these jobs)
Teacher prompts: “What kinds of careers in
music would allow you to combine your interest in the arts with social or political activism?”
“What type of experiential learning might you
pursue to help determine whether a career in
the arts and culture sector suits you?”
B4.2 evaluate and demonstrate their musical
skills and knowledge in relation to entrance
requirements for postsecondary study of music
(e.g., plan and prepare audition material; assemble
a portfolio of performance and/or creative work
for application to postsecondary institutions; identify additional training or practice opportunities
to build skill and knowledge levels)
Teacher prompts: “What portfolio or audition
choices would best portray your strengths as a
performer or composer?” “What would you
need to do to create a ‘mock audition’ that
would prepare you to face an actual audition?”
B4.3 demonstrate an understanding of the benefits
of their continuing involvement in a variety of
aspects of the arts community (e.g., as a performer, composer, advocate, audience member,
promoter, and/or producer; the benefits to the
community of the promotion of artistic endeavours;
the value of political or social activism in support
of the arts)
Teacher prompts: “What can you do to become
an advocate for arts programs in the school and
community?” “What types of arts programs
do you think would provide the greatest benefit
to your community? To you as an individual?
Why?”
C. FOUNDATIONS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
C2. Characteristics and Development of Musical Forms: demonstrate an understanding of the origins,
development, and characteristics of various forms of music;
Music
C1. Theory and Terminology: demonstrate an understanding of music theory with respect to concepts
of notation and the elements and other components of music, and use appropriate terminology
relating to them;
C3. Conventions and Responsible Practices: demonstrate an understanding of conventions and
responsible practices relating to music.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
C1. Theory and Terminology
By the end of this course, students will:
C1.1 extend and deepen their understanding of
the elements and other components of music,
particularly through practical application and
aural recognition, and use appropriate terminology related to them (e.g., identify major,
minor, diminished, and augmented triads in root
position and inversions; describe perfect, imperfect,
and deceptive cadences; demonstrate an understanding of a variety of chord progressions;
demonstrate an understanding of the relationship
between the elements of music and performance
practices such as phrasing and breathing; identify
various forms and aspects of form, such as fantasia,
rhapsody, serialism, tone poem, tone row)
C1.2 extend their understanding of, and use correct terminology related to, the concepts of
notation in a variety of activities (e.g., demonstrate an understanding of increasingly complex
notation symbols by reading or writing notation
when playing, singing, arranging, and composing;
identify and notate accurately the seven standard
diatonic modes; accurately notate increasingly
complex or difficult melodies and rhythmic patterns;
demonstrate an understanding of scoring formats
for various small and larger ensembles; identify
sound layering in increasingly complex voicings)
C1.3 accurately reproduce, notate, and identify
increasingly complex melodic, harmonic,
and/or rhythmic examples (e.g., seventh chords;
perfect, plagal, imperfect, and deceptive cadences;
all triads; major, minor, diminished, and augmented
intervals, including inversions; rhythmic patterns
in compound and mixed metres at various tempi)
AMU4M
C2. Characteristics and Development
of Musical Forms
By the end of this course, students will:
C2.1 demonstrate an understanding of the development of various forms of music with respect
to chronology, genre, and theme (e.g., explain
the features that differentiate opera and musical
theatre; create a CD to demonstrate the timeline
and chronology of the blues; analyse the themes
in music from the Romantic period)
Teacher prompts: “You are in Vienna in the
1830s. What music would you program for a
performance in one of the city’s major concert
halls? Why would you focus on these particular
selections?” “You are in Harlem in the 1930s.
What music would you program for a concert
at the Apollo Theater? Who would the featured
artists be? Why?”
FOUNDATIONS
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C2.2 analyse, on the basis of in-depth research,
and report on the characteristics of and ideas in
a variety of forms of traditional and contemporary music, including Aboriginal music, from
Canada and around the world (e.g., the characteristics of serial music, in contrast to those of
traditional Western tonal music; the characteristics
of Cajun music from Louisiana and Acadian music
from Maritime Canada; the use of the didgeridoo
in Aboriginal music in Australia; the ideas in
traditional Russian ballads)
Teacher prompts: “What are some of the ideas
expressed in the contemporary music that
you listen to? How are these ideas different
from those in popular music of the 1960s?”
“What characteristics do Cajun and Acadian
music share? How can you account for the
similarities?”
C3. Conventions and Responsible
Practices
By the end of this course, students will:
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
C3.1 demonstrate an understanding of performance-related injuries connected to the field of
music and ways of minimizing such injuries
(e.g., the impact on the auditory system of repeated
exposure to loud sound; injuries that can result
from poor posture, playing position, or technique;
the purpose of various types of protective or
ergonomic equipment)
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Teacher prompt: “What types of repetitive
strain injuries are a concern for musicians?
What can be done to reduce their incidence?”
C3.2 extend their understanding of conventions
associated with various types of musical performances, from the perspective of performers
and audience members (e.g., the set-up of and
responsibilities in a symphony orchestra; the use
of surtitles at operas; how musical genres such as
jazz or punk rock challenged traditional musical
conventions)
C3.3 demonstrate an understanding of legal and
ethical practices with respect to both consumers
and producers of music, with a particular
emphasis on the recording industry (e.g., the
function of the Canadian Musical Reproduction
Rights Agency [CMRRA]; the methods of obtaining
“mechanical licensing”; the implications of
supporting musicians through legal purchase of
their music as opposed to illegal file sharing)
Teacher prompt: “What agencies collect royalties on behalf of composers when their music
is recorded for sale in Canada? How do they
obtain their data?”
Music, Grade 12
Workplace Preparation
AMU4E
This course provides students with the fundamental knowledge and skills needed
to succeed in the music workplace. Students will, at a level consistent with previous
experience, perform appropriate musical works. Independently and collaboratively,
students will use current technology and the creative and critical analysis processes
to plan, produce, and market music presentations that reflect a broad spectrum of
workplace contexts. In addition, students will explore ethical and safe practices
related to music.
Prerequisite: Music, Grade 11, Open
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A. CREATING AND PERFORMING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
A1. The Creative Process: apply the stages of the creative process when performing music, composing
and/or arranging music, and engaging in musical productions;
A2. The Elements of Music: apply elements of music when performing music and/or creating a musical
production, and when composing and/or arranging music;
A3. Techniques and Technologies: use a range of techniques and technological tools in a variety of
applications related to music.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
A1. The Creative Process
182
A2. The Elements of Music
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
A1.1 apply the creative process when performing
music and composing and/or arranging music
(e.g., develop a practice plan for their guitar group,
including exercises that focus on skills related to
the selection to be performed; experiment with
various approaches to improvising a selected
melody, and evaluate the results; present their a
cappella selection to a group of their peers, and
reflect on their feedback to refine their performance; arrange rhythm patterns for a variety of
instruments in a percussion ensemble)
A2.1 demonstrate the ability to effectively apply
and/or address the elements of music and
related concepts when performing music
and/or creating a musical production (e.g.,
accurately play or sing selected rhythms and
melodies similar to those in the music they are
studying; list the key elements of a selection in a
graphic organizer, and use this list to guide their
practice; record an ensemble performance, with
attention to dynamics and pitch, especially maintaining appropriate balance and blend)
Teacher prompts: “What skills or elements do
you need to address in your practice plan?
Should all members of the group follow the same
plan? Why or why not?” “What inspired your
approach to your Native drum performance?”
A1.2 use applicable stages of the creative process
when developing aspects of a variety of musicrelated productions (e.g., explore possible acts
and venues for a community fund-raising concert;
working independently, plan, refine, and present
a marketing strategy for a CD; working in groups,
develop a creative plan for a coffee house, variety
night, or nightclub activity for your school or
community)
Teacher prompts: “What aspects of the creative
process go into producing a successful concert
or musical event? Which aspects do you think
are the most important? Why?” “What have
you learned from reflecting on and evaluating
your approach to the creative process in this
production?”
Teacher prompt: “What particular elements
will you focus on most closely when rehearsing
this musical selection? How will this practice
enhance your performance?”
A2.2 apply the elements of music and related
concepts appropriately when composing
and/or arranging music (e.g., explore a range
of forms for their composition, using a loop-based
mixing program; manipulate the elements of music
in an electronic or acoustic composition in a way
appropriate to their chosen form)
Teacher prompt: “In writing the background
music for this public service announcement,
what factors did you have to consider when
planning your approach to the elements of
music? In what ways have the subject and
potential audience influenced your approach
to form and duration?”
A3. Techniques and Technologies
By the end of this course, students will:
Teacher prompts: “In what ways does posture
and breathing affect your performance?”
“What could you do to develop your skill in the
use of this sequencing program? How would
enhancing these skills affect your ability to
produce music?”
Teacher prompts: “What qualities does a good
sound system have?” “What are the advantages
of reviewing your recorded practice?” “What
technical considerations do you need to keep
in mind when developing a creative portfolio?”
“What are the advantages of having a loop
feature on your music sequencing or accompaniment software program? How can it assist
you in your musical production?”
Music
A3.1 demonstrate technical skill in a variety of
music performance and/or production situations (e.g., use correct breath control, bow control,
stick technique, as appropriate; demonstrate the
technical skills necessary to operate a sound board,
to use a sequencing program when producing music,
or to use a notation program when preparing
individual parts of a selection for an ensemble
performance)
A3.2 use current technology in a variety of
applications related to music, including the
preparation of a portfolio (e.g., design, set up,
and run a concert sound system; plan an optimal
music system for their home or vehicle; use digital
technology to record their rehearsal for the purpose
of review; use accompaniment or notation software
when composing; create a blog documenting their
creative journey as they prepare for an a cappella
performance; create a digital portfolio of their
computer-based composition at various stages
of its development)
AMU4E
CREATING AND PERFORMING
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B. REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND
ANALYSING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
B1. The Critical Analysis Process: use the critical analysis process when responding to, analysing,
reflecting on, and interpreting music;
B2. Music and Society: demonstrate an understanding of the function of and social/cultural influences
on music;
B3. Skills and Personal Growth: demonstrate an understanding of how performing, creating, and
critically analysing music has affected their skills and personal development;
B4. Connections Beyond the Classroom: identify and describe opportunities and requirements for
continued engagement in music.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
B1. The Critical Analysis Process
By the end of this course, students will:
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
B1.1 identify and analyse the elements of music
selections used in commercial and corporate
applications through listening to and/or examining notated scores of these selections (e.g., list
the elements of music used in advertisements or in
television or radio show themes; analyse the use of
music on websites or in video games with reference
to melody, rhythm, harmonic structure, timbre,
and/or texture)
184
Teacher prompts: “How does the score for this
action movie use the elements of music to
enhance the emotional effect on the audience?”
“What type of music is used in this advertisement? Why would the use of elements in this
music appeal to the target audience?”
B1.2 listen in a purposeful way to music used
in a variety of commercial and/or corporate
applications, and describe and reflect on their
responses to and interpretation of the music
(e.g., describe their initial responses to a variety
of advertising jingles; use a graphic organizer to
record their evolving interpretation of a film score
through each stage of the critical analysis process;
create a playlist for a specific purpose or event,
and explain their choices with reference to their
personal interpretation of the music and its appropriateness for the intended audience)
Teacher prompts: “What is your response to
the music in this advertisement? Do you think
your response is consistent with the advertiser’s
intention?” “In what ways did your interpretation of this film score change when you listened
to it while watching the film on DVD after
initially listening to the score on CD without
the images/action?”
B1.3 analyse and evaluate the effectiveness of
music used in a variety of commercial or corporate applications (e.g., assess the effectiveness
of various advertising jingles; analyse the intended
emotional impact of the score for a television drama,
and explain whether or not it is successful; provide
constructive feedback on the music a peer has chosen
or composed for a website he or she is developing)
Teacher prompts: “What role does the soundtrack play in communicating the message of
this movie? Do you think it is successful? Why
or why not?” “Why is the theme music for
your favourite TV show so effective in conveying the theme or tone of the show?”
B1.4 analyse research data related to music
marketing, criticism, and audience response,
with particular emphasis on music used for
commercial purposes (e.g., analyse data on music
distribution and marketing related to changing
forms of music presentation [CDs versus MP3s];
use survey data to devise a marketing plan for a
music product)
Teacher prompt: “What kind of information
might a recording company want to collect
when planning the release of new music?
How might they obtain the data? How might
they use the data?”
B2. Music and Society
By the end of this course, students will:
Teacher prompts: “Why do advertisers often
use popular songs in their ads?” “What types
of social issues are addressed in commercial
music in Canada? What, if any, differences are
there between these issues and those addressed
in commercial music in a developing country?”
B2.2 analyse factors, including social and cultural
factors, that influence the creation and consumption of music (e.g., the impact of technological
developments; the influence of prominent or
innovative composers or stylists; the forces of
multiculturalism and globalization; the desire
of songwriters to respond to social issues)
Teacher prompts: “Who or what are the musical
influences of your favourite performers? What
aspects of their music illustrates this influence?”
“What effect has mass media and new technology had on the music industry?” “How has
multiculturalism affected current commercial
music in Canada?”
B3. Skills and Personal Growth
B3.2 assess their musical performance and production skills and knowledge, and describe
the steps they will take to ensure continued
improvement in these areas (e.g., assess the
effectiveness of a collaborative musical production,
and determine how they could enhance their
contribution to it; review recordings of their performances to assess their strengths and weaknesses
and identify areas for improvement; describe the
skills and knowledge they would need to develop
to plan and produce a musical presentation in a
theatrical setting)
Music
B2.1 analyse the functions of music, with particular emphasis on music used in workplace
applications (e.g., to sell products; to entertain; to
raise awareness about social issues; to complement
films, television shows, websites, video games)
your point of view on a social or environmental
issue. How have they affected your day-to-day
behaviour?”
Teacher prompts: “How effectively did you
perform this selection? What aspects of your
performance could be improved? What strategy
could you use to develop your skill in these
areas?” “When you reflect on this concert, what
would you change about your contribution
that would enhance the overall effectiveness
of the event?”
B3.3 demonstrate the ability to lead and work as
part of collaborative musical production teams
(e.g., develop procedures for collaborative planning and production meetings; assemble a creative
team to produce a music video; model appropriate
behaviour when working with an ensemble)
AMU4E
Teacher prompts: “In what ways do your
responsibilities change when you take on a
leadership role within your performing ensemble
or production team?” “How can you apply the
teamwork and leadership you have developed
in your performing group to other situations?”
B4. Connections Beyond the Classroom
By the end of this course, students will:
Teacher prompts: “What role does music play
in your life? Has that role changed as your
knowledge of music has increased?” “Identify
some musicians and songs that have influenced
By the end of this course, students will:
B4.1 identify, and assess the requirement for, jobs
or careers that utilize skills and knowledge
acquired through the study of music (e.g., prepare
for and conduct a mock job interview, focusing on
the skills developed through the study of music;
invite a master who supervises an apprenticeship
program in a trade related to music to visit the
class and discuss the skills and training necessary
for the trade; job-shadow a worker in a career in
the music industry that can be accessed through
a workplace pathway)
Teacher prompts: “What music-related jobs
and careers can be accessed directly out of
high school?” “How might you use the skills
you have developed through the study of
music in jobs outside the music industry?”
REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND ANALYSING
B3.1 assess how the study of music has affected
their personal growth and values, their expressive capabilities, and their understanding of
others, particularly within the context of the
workplace and their daily life (e.g., the difference
that music has made in their personal life; their
ability to analyse and communicate, and its impact
on their job performance; their understanding of
other cultures and communities developed through
the study of music, and its impact on their values
and behaviour)
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186
B4.2 investigate and describe musical learning
opportunities and experiences, both formal
and informal, that they could pursue after high
school (e.g., develop a business/career plan for
their band/ensemble/group; create a slide show
focusing on musical opportunities in their community; explore ways in which the Internet could play
a role in their musical future; discover venues for
study in the field of music therapy; create a website
for a virtual school of music, illustrating a range
of possible careers)
Teacher prompt: “What kinds of informal musical experiences can be educational? What are
the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing
a formal music education compare to pursuing
informal learning opportunities or being a
self-taught musician?”
B4.3 describe opportunities for, and assess the
benefits of, personal involvement in arts-related
activities, including opportunities related to
private and/or public arts organizations (e.g.,
funding requirements of various arts organizations;
arts advocacy opportunities and their possible
impact; student subscription series in music,
theatre, or dance in their community)
Teacher prompts: “What could you do to
increase the range or quality of musical opportunities in your community?” “What are some
organizations that support artists in your local
community? What are some ways you could
work with or receive support from them?”
C. FOUNDATIONS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
C2. Characteristics and Development of Musical Forms: demonstrate an understanding of the
development and characteristics of various forms of music;
Music
C1. Theory and Terminology: demonstrate an understanding of music theory with respect to elements
and notation, and use appropriate terminology relating to them;
C3. Conventions and Responsible Practices: demonstrate an understanding of conventions and
responsible practices relating to music.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
C1. Theory and Terminology
By the end of this course, students will:
C1.1 demonstrate an understanding of the elements of music, through practical application
in musical performance, composition, and
production, and use appropriate terminology
related to these elements (e.g., explain orally,
using appropriate terminology, the decisions they
made with respect to dynamics and phrasing in
preparation for performing a piece of music;
describe how they approached decisions about
duration in their composition)
C1.2 demonstrate an understanding of, and use
correct terminology related to, the concepts of
notation in a variety of performance and/or
composition activities (e.g., demonstrate the
ability to read guitar tablature, and describe its
relationship to grand staff notation; demonstrate
an understanding of duration and pitch notation
by accurately transcribing melodies from contemporary music; create an original notation system
for a short melodic line, and teach their notation
system to one of their peers)
C2. Characteristics and Development
of Musical Forms
By the end of this course, students will:
Teacher prompts: “Can you tell by listening
whether this musical selection would be classified as traditional or art music? Which elements
of the selection help you classify it?” “What
elements of traditional music are evident in
this popular song?”
AMU4E
C2.2 explain, in a research-based report or presentation, the characteristics of and ideas
addressed in traditional and contemporary
music, including Aboriginal music from
Canada and around the world (e.g., compare
the ideas expressed in popular music from South
Asia and North America; illustrate, using a Venn
diagram, and explain the shared characteristics of
traditional and contemporary music from Quebec;
compare the characteristics of traditional music
they are familiar with from their own childhood
with traditional songs from other cultures)
Teacher prompts: “What themes are expressed
in contemporary Aboriginal music in Canada?”
“How and why do the soundtracks from
Chinese and Hollywood action/martial arts
films differ from each other?”
C3. Conventions and Responsible
Practices
By the end of this course, students will:
C3.1 demonstrate an understanding of safe and
healthy practices related to the field of music,
with an emphasis on maintaining a healthy
lifestyle and preventing performance-related
FOUNDATIONS
C2.1 categorize musical works by genre, period,
function, and/or theme, and describe the reasons
for their categorization, with particular emphasis
on the elements of music (e.g., identify the
elements of music associated with chamber music,
jazz, hip hop, Bollywood soundtracks; use concept
attainment strategies relating to the elements of
music to categorize various musical selections
by genre)
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188
injuries (e.g., create a radio ad outlining the
importance of hearing protection for musicians
and audiences; create an online or video public
service announcement on the issue of drug and
alcohol abuse in the music industry and its impact
on careers and families)
Teacher prompt: “How would you describe the
sound levels at a rock concert? What phenomena
produce similar levels of sound? In which
occupations are workers exposed to similar
levels? What precautions do these workers
take?”
C3.2 describe and demonstrate conventions
associated with various types of musical
performances and productions, both as a
performer and audience member (e.g., role-play
accepted audience behaviour at a hip hop show, a
jazz concert, a symphonic performance, a Native
drum ceremony; demonstrate appropriate stage
etiquette such as bowing before and after a
performance)
Teacher prompts: “At what types of performance is one likely to find a mosh pit?” “Why
are floor-level seats popular at a rock concert?”
C3.3 demonstrate an understanding of legal and
ethical issues related to music, with respect to
consumers and producers (e.g., copyright their
own original music products and explain the
importance of doing so)
Teacher prompts: “What are your legal rights
as a consumer of music? As a producer?”
“Why is it important to abide by copyright laws
and download music only from authorized
sources? Are there ethical as well as legal
reasons for doing so?”
VISUAL ARTS
OVERVIEW
Visual arts courses at the Grade 11 and 12 level focus on studio work and critical analysis
of a wide range of art works. Students apply the elements and principles of design with
increasing skill and creativity to produce art works that communicate emotions or comment on issues. They apply their skills using an array of media, including alternative
media, and current technologies, to create two- and three-dimensional art works for a
variety of purposes.
Students create increasingly complex art works that integrate the fundamental components of design known as elements (colour, form, line, shape, space, texture, and value).
Students continue to explore design principles (balance, contrast, emphasis, harmony,
movement, proportion, rhythm and repetition, unity, and variety), organizing or arranging these principles in increasingly sophisticated ways to produce visual effects.
Students develop their understanding of how art works reflect and affect the history,
values, and beliefs of various societies and cultures. By experiencing a wide range of art
works, including the rich heritage of Canadian art, students enhance their understanding
and appreciation of the range and significance of artistic expression.
The expectations for visual arts courses are organized into three distinct but related
strands:
1.
Creating and Presenting: Students enhance their ability to apply the creative process
(see pages 15–17) to create and present original art works. Students use tools, technologies, and the elements and principles of design with increasing sophistication to
create art works for a variety of purposes. Throughout, they document their approach
to each stage of the creative process in a portfolio, which they can use for reflection.
2.
Reflecting, Responding, and Analysing: Through the critical analysis process (see
pages 17–22), students reflect on their responses to and assess art works, developing a deeper understanding of themselves and the communities in which they live.
By exploring the context of various art works, students expand their awareness of
past and present societies. They explore opportunities for continuing engagement
in postsecondary study and careers of personal interest in arts-related fields.
3.
Foundations: In this strand, students enhance their understanding of conventions,
techniques, and processes that people use to produce visual art works. Students
refine their specialized vocabulary, engage in responsible practices when creating
and presenting art works, and investigate increasingly complex ethical and legal
issues associated with visual arts.
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For policy guidelines pertaining to focus courses, see pages 12–13 of this document.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
The list of approved focus courses for Visual Arts can be found at:
www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/secondary/arts.html.
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Visual Arts, Grade 11
University/College Preparation
AVI3M
This course enables students to further develop their knowledge and skills in visual arts.
Students will use the creative process to explore a wide range of themes through studio
work that may include drawing, painting, sculpting, and printmaking, as well as the
creation of collage, multimedia works, and works using emerging technologies. Students
will use the critical analysis process when evaluating their own work and the work of
others. The course may be delivered as a comprehensive program or through a program
focused on a particular art form (e.g., photography, video, computer graphics, information design).
Prerequisite: Visual Arts, Grade 9 or 10, Open
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A. CREATING AND PRESENTING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
A1. The Creative Process: apply the creative process to create a variety of art works, individually and/or
collaboratively;
A2. The Elements and Principles of Design: apply the elements and principles of design to create art
works for the purpose of self-expression and to communicate ideas, information, and/or messages;
A3. Production and Presentation: produce art works, using a variety of media/materials and traditional
and emerging technologies, tools, and techniques, and demonstrate an understanding of a variety of
ways of presenting their works and the works of others.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
A1. The Creative Process
By the end of this course, students will:
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
A1.1 use various strategies, individually and/or
collaboratively, to generate, explore, and
elaborate on ideas and to develop and revise
detailed plans for the creation of art works that
address a variety of creative challenges (e.g.,
use brainstorming, concept webs, and/or group
discussions to formulate original ideas for thematic
works and/or works of personal expression; use
research and discussions with a partner to explore
and elaborate on ideas; use diagrams, notes,
and/or outlines to help them formulate detailed
plans for the art work; revise their plans on the
basis of reflection)
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Teacher prompts: “What sources might you
consult to help you elaborate on your ideas?”
“Have you reflected on how your plan
addresses each stage of the creative process?
Do you need to revise your approach to any
of these stages?”
A1.2 apply the appropriate stages of the creative
process to produce and revise two- and threedimensional art works using a variety of traditional and contemporary media (e.g., explore,
experiment with, and refine their use of a variety
of media; choose a medium/media appropriate for
their planned art work; reflect on the effectiveness
of preliminary versions of their work; revise their
art work on the basis of reflection and useful
feedback)
Teacher prompt: “How have you revised your
planned art work as a result of your experimentation with media and techniques? In what
ways does your completed work differ from
your original vision?”
A1.3 document their use of each stage of the
creative process, as well as varied and extensive
research, in a portfolio that includes art works
created for a variety of purposes (e.g., ensure
that their portfolio includes evidence of idea generation and elaboration, research, investigation,
planning, exploration, experimentation, and
revision; include a variety of works created for
different purposes), and review and reflect on
the contents of their portfolio to determine how
effectively they have used the creative process
Teacher prompts: “What evidence does your
portfolio provide of research during the
imagination/innovation and exploration stages
of the creative process?” “Does your portfolio
include representative samples of your work?”
A2. The Elements and Principles of
Design
By the end of this course, students will:
A2.1 explore how elements and principles of
design can be used to convey emotion and
enhance personal expression, and use a combination of these elements and principles to create
two- and three-dimensional art works that
express personal feelings and communicate
specific emotions to an audience (e.g., explore
how variations in line, value, form, proportion, and
emphasis can be used to convey various emotions;
adapt their findings to enhance expression in their
art work)
A2.2 apply elements and principles of design as
well as art-making conventions to create art
works that comment and/or communicate their
personal perspective on issues related to social
justice or the environment (e.g., use line and
value in a drypoint etching that integrates satire
or symbolism to comment on an issue such as
poverty, child labour, or discrimination)
Teacher prompt: “What type of symbols might
you use in a work about poverty? Why do you
think these symbols would be effective? How
might you use conventions such as juxtaposition
or exaggeration in the same work?”
A3. Production and Presentation
By the end of this course, students will:
Teacher prompts: “Explain how you can affect
a viewer’s impression of your work by altering
the materials, techniques, or media.” “How
might you adapt some of the techniques used
by Monet in his Giverny paintings to enhance
your own landscape painting?”
A3.3 describe appropriate standards and conventions for the presentation of different types of
visual art works, and apply these standards
and conventions when preparing their art
works for presentation (e.g., ensure that their
work is signed, labelled, dated, matted, and/or
mounted, that their three-dimensional work can
be displayed safely, that the appropriate digital
presentation technology is available and in working order)
Visual Arts
Teacher prompt: “How has Marjane Satrapi
used black-and-white line drawings to enhance
the emotional aspects of her autobiographical
graphic novel Persepolis? How could you adapt
aspects of her use of elements and principles
and apply them to enhance your own works
of personal expression?”
A3.2 explore a range of traditional and current
materials, technologies, techniques, and tools
used by visual artists (e.g., Claude Monet’s use
of optical colour mixing; Andy Warhol’s use of
silkscreens; George Segal’s use of plaster bandage;
Jean-Paul Riopelle’s use of a palette knife for
impasto application of paint; Daphne Odjig’s use
of interconnecting black lines), and adapt and
apply them to create original art works
AVI3M
Teacher prompts: “How and why does the
intended venue for your work change the way
you prepare the work for display?” “In what
ways can variations in matting or mounting
affect the audience’s response to your work?”
A3.1 explore and experiment with media, including
alternative media, and current technologies,
and use them to create a variety of art works
(e.g., use media such as digitally enhanced photographs, transparencies, and/or found objects
when creating a collage; create a mixed-media
image reflecting their personal identity or cultural
heritage)
A3.4 explain how variations in where and how
art works are displayed (e.g., as public art, in
private and public galleries, on the Internet, in the
mass media, in virtual and traditional museums,
as transient art works) can affect the impact and
meaning of the works and the size and type of
audience they reach
Teacher prompts: “How might you combine
alternative and traditional media to create a
collage?” “How might you use digital technologies to enhance the creativity of your art work?”
Teacher prompt: “In what circumstances would
a traditional gallery be the best place to exhibit
a work of art? When might a virtual gallery be
more appropriate? Why?”
CREATING AND PRESENTING
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Grade 11, University/College Preparation
B. REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND
ANALYSING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
B1. The Critical Analysis Process: demonstrate an understanding of the critical analysis process by
examining, interpreting, evaluating, and reflecting on various art works;
B2. Art, Society, and Values: demonstrate an understanding of how art works reflect the society in
which they were created, and of how they can affect both social and personal values;
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom: describe opportunities and requirements for continued
engagement in visual arts.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
B1. The Critical Analysis Process
By the end of this course, students will:
B1.1 analyse their initial response to art works
(e.g., describe their initial reaction to an art work
and determine which specific aspects of the work
and their personal experience led to their reaction)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Teacher prompt: “What do you see when you
look at this art work for the first time? What do
you think this art work is about? Why? Do you
think everyone would share your opinion or
understanding? Why or why not?”
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B1.2 deconstruct the visual content and the use of
elements and principles of design in their own
art work and the work of others (e.g., identify
individual elements and principles and aspects of
the visual content in an art work, interpret their
function, and analyse how the artist has manipulated them to create impact, emphasis, mood,
movement, and meaning; compare The Abduction
of the Daughters of Leucippus by Peter Paul
Rubens to the cover of a contemporary comic book
about an action hero, with reference to the artists’
use of colour, line, shape, value, balance, and
emphasis)
Teacher prompt: “What differences are there
between the landscapes of Homer Watson and
those of Emily Carr with respect to the artists’
use of elements/principles such as colour,
value, shape, proportion, and emphasis? What
impact do these differences have on the mood
or meaning of the works?”
B1.3 explain, with reference to particular works,
both historical and contemporary (e.g., J. M. W.
Turner’s Rain, Steam, and Speed: The Great
Western Railway; Maya Lin’s Vietnam Veterans
Memorial), how knowledge of an art work’s
cultural and historical context, achieved through
research, has clarified and enriched their understanding of the work’s intent and meaning
Teacher prompts: “In what ways has your
research on the American role in the Vietnam
War contributed to your understanding of the
intent of Maya Lin’s design for the Vietnam
Veterans Memorial?” “Does learning about the
Industrial Revolution change the way you
interpret Turner’s painting? Why or why not?”
“Why does knowledge about the role of
Canadian women in World War II enhance a
viewer’s understanding of Paraskeva Clark’s
Parachute Riggers?”
B1.4 describe and reflect on the qualities of their
own art works and the works of others, and
evaluate the effectiveness of these works, using
a variety of criteria (e.g., the works’ ability to
convey a message or emotion; their technical
merit; their stylistic qualities; the use of technique
and successful manipulation of media/materials;
the connection between form and message)
Teacher prompt: “When you reflect on the
stylistic qualities of this work, which do you
think are successful? Why? Are there any that
you think are not effective? What might you
change to increase their effectiveness?”
B2. Art, Society, and Values
By the end of this course, students will:
Teacher prompts: “What was the purpose of
the murals Diego Rivera was commissioned
to create in Mexico in the 1920s? What impact
did his works have in Mexico and the rest of
North America?” “Why and how was the
Taj Mahal built?”
B2.2 explain, on the basis of research, ways in
which various art works are a response to and
a reflection of the society in which they were
created (e.g., how available technologies and
materials affect artists’ work; how artists have
responded to persecution or social injustice; how
changing gender roles are reflected in art works)
Teacher prompts: “In what ways did the
invention of the camera change the course
of painting?” “In what ways does Gerald
McMaster’s work reflect his experiences as
a Cree living in Canada?” “How did the
‘Reversing Vandalism’ art show come about?
What does it reveal about social mores?”
B2.3 reflect on and explain how creating and
analysing art works has affected their personal
identity and values and/or changed their perceptions of society and social issues (e.g., with
reference to their emotional awareness and their
ability to express themselves; their awareness of
stereotypes; their understanding of the meaning
Teacher prompts: “Has analysing art works
created by First Nation artists affected your
awareness of Aboriginal culture in Canada?
Why or why not?” “In what ways has creating
art works enhanced your ability to express your
feelings or point of view?”
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom
By the end of this course, students will:
Visual Arts
B2.1 analyse the function and social impact of
different kinds of art works in both past and
present societies (e.g., the use of art works for
ritualistic and religious purposes; for social and/or
political commentary; as propaganda; as symbols
of economic or social power; to commemorate
people and/or historical events; to instruct)
of objects and symbols associated with a variety of
cultural groups; their awareness of and relationship to their physical environment; their position
on social issues such as censorship, discrimination,
inequality)
B3.1 identify a variety of careers in fields related
to visual arts (e.g., advertising, art direction for
theatre or films, art therapy, costume design,
graphic design, industrial design, museum or
gallery curation, photojournalism), and describe
the skills, education, and training they require
B3.2 describe, on the basis of research and investigation, a variety of personal opportunities
in their community in cultural or other fields
related to visual arts (e.g., opportunities within
their school or community to promote the arts by
finding new venues for visual arts displays;
opportunities to organize or create an art installation in a public space; the availability of grants,
funding, or sponsorship for public or school-based
art works that explore a social theme)
AVI3M
B3.3 describe, on the basis of investigation, a
variety of local, national, and global arts-based
organizations, and identify ways they could
become involved with one or more of these
organizations (e.g., community art councils;
websites that promote the arts)
REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND ANALYSING
195
Grade 11, University/College Preparation
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
196
C. FOUNDATIONS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
C1. Terminology: demonstrate an understanding of, and use correct terminology when referring to,
elements, principles, and other components related to visual arts;
C2. Conventions and Techniques: demonstrate an understanding of conventions and techniques used
in the creation of visual art works;
C3. Responsible Practices: demonstrate an understanding of responsible practices related to visual arts.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
C1. Terminology
C2. Conventions and Techniques
By the end of this course, students will:
By the end of this course, students will:
C1.1 demonstrate an understanding of the elements and principles of design, and use terminology related to these elements and principles
correctly and appropriately when creating or
analysing art works (e.g., when describing how
they have used elements and principles in a
sculpture to convey a sense of movement)
C2.1 demonstrate an understanding of a wide
variety of techniques that artists use to achieve
a range of specific effects (e.g., techniques used
to create the illusion of depth and perspective and
to create texture on different surfaces; the use of
additive and subtractive sculpture, layering, positive and negative space, and relief to create effects)
C1.2 explain terminology related to a variety of
techniques, materials, and tools (e.g., additive
and subtractive techniques, blazing, gesso, intaglio,
layering, palette knife, scumbling, transfers,
single-lens reflex [SLR] cameras, software used to
edit digital photographs), and use this terminology correctly and appropriately when creating,
analysing, and/or presenting art works
C2.2 demonstrate an understanding of a variety
of conventions used in visual arts (e.g., allegory,
expressive exaggeration, juxtaposition, synectics;
conventions associated with heroic, narrative,
naturalistic, propaganda, realistic, and satirical art),
and explain how they are used in different types
of art works
C1.3 using appropriate terminology, explain
the creative process and describe in detail
the critical analysis process, with particular
reference to the role of deconstruction in the
latter process
Teacher prompt: “What kinds of decisions
about materials, techniques, and style does the
artist have to make when deciding to create an
art work? What kinds of information does the
viewer need to explore when trying to deconstruct the art work?”
Teacher prompt: “Why is allegory often used in
propaganda art or works of social or political
criticism?”
C3. Responsible Practices
By the end of this course, students will:
C3.1 demonstrate an understanding of legal and
ethical issues related to the appropriation of
images, materials, or ideas, or to the display of
art works (e.g., issues related to censorship, to the
appropriate and inappropriate display of art works),
and apply legal and ethical practices when
appropriating images, materials, and/or ideas
to create art works (e.g., provide a suitable credit
to the original artist when appropriating images
and/or ideas; show sensitivity in the use of images
or conventions associated with other cultures)
Teacher prompts: “Why is it important to know
the source and content of the materials and
media you are using?” “What types of materials
should you avoid using in your art works
because their sourcing, processing, and/or
disposal can damage the environment?”
Visual Arts
C3.2 demonstrate an understanding of health
and safety issues and conscientious practices
associated with the use of materials, property,
techniques, tools, and technologies in visual
arts (e.g., the appropriate use of aerosol products,
utility knives, printing presses, electrical tools,
computers; appropriate precautions to take when
exposed to physical and chemical hazards), and
apply these practices when creating and/or
presenting art works
C3.3 demonstrate an understanding of how the
production and presentation of art works can
affect the environment (e.g., in small groups,
prepare a role play to illustrate the environmental
consequences of improper use or disposal of hazardous or toxic materials), and apply environmentally responsible practices when creating,
presenting, and promoting art works
AVI3M
FOUNDATIONS
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Visual Arts, Grade 11
Open
AVI3O
This course focuses on studio activities in one or more of the visual arts, including
drawing, painting, sculpture, photography, printmaking, collage, and/or multimedia art.
Students will use the creative process to create art works that reflect a wide range of
subjects and will evaluate works using the critical analysis process. Students will also
explore works of art within a personal, contemporary, historical, and cultural context.
Prerequisite: None
198
A. CREATING AND PRESENTING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
A2. The Elements and Principles of Design: apply elements and principles of design to create art works
for the purpose of self-expression and to communicate ideas, information, and/or messages;
A3. Production and Presentation: produce art works, using a variety of media/materials and traditional
and/or emerging technologies, tools, and techniques, and demonstrate an understanding of a variety
of ways of presenting their works and the works of others.
Visual Arts
A1. The Creative Process: apply the creative process to create a variety of art works, individually and/or
collaboratively;
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
A1. The Creative Process
By the end of this course, students will:
A1.1 use a variety of strategies, individually
and/or collaboratively, to generate and explore
ideas and to develop plans for the creation of
art works (e.g., use brainstorming, research, and/or
checklists to generate and explore a range of original
ideas; reflect on and filter ideas to select a suitable
one to serve as the basis for their art work; use
diagrams, notes, and/or outlines to help them
develop detailed plans that reflect the stages of the
creative process; reflect on and revise their plans
on the basis of peer- and self-assessment)
Teacher prompts: “In what ways do external
factors and personal experience influence the
creative ideas we generate?” “Does your plan
clearly address how you will approach each
stage of the creative process?”
Teacher prompts: “How can you apply the
results of your experiments with media to
enhance the creativity of your work?” “Why
are reflection and revision crucial to the planning and production of your art work?”
AVI3O
Teacher prompts: “How does your portfolio
provide evidence of the informed development
of original ideas?” “What might you add to
your portfolio to document your experiments
with different media?” “After reviewing your
use of the creative process, how would you
improve your approach to the planning or
production stages?”
A2. The Elements and Principles of
Design
By the end of this course, students will:
A2.1 use a combination of elements and principles of design to create art works that express
personal feelings and communicate specific
emotions to an audience (e.g., use colour and
line to suggest strong emotion; use harmony and
unity to convey a sense of balance and peace)
Teacher prompts: “How can you manipulate
the elements of value, form, and balance to
communicate fear or anger?” “How does Emily
Carr communicate emotion through her use of
elements and principles in Vanquished? How
could you adapt her approach for use in one
of your art works?”
CREATING AND PRESENTING
A1.2 apply the appropriate stages of the creative
process to produce two- and three-dimensional
art works using a variety of traditional and
contemporary media (e.g., explore various media
and techniques, and determine which ones are
most appropriate for their planned art work;
reflect on their work at each stage of the creative
process; use a variety of strategies to gather feedback on their preliminary work, and refine their
work on the basis of feedback and self-assessment)
A1.3 document their use of each stage of the creative process in a portfolio (e.g., include notes,
checklists, rough sketches, preliminary versions,
and final products to provide evidence of planning,
exploration, experimentation, production, reflection,
and revision), and refer to this portfolio to
reflect on how effectively they have used the
creative process
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Grade 11, Open
A2.2 apply elements and principles of design as
well as art-making conventions to create a variety of art works that explore and/or present a
point of view on contemporary social issues
and/or themes (e.g., use line, form, and contrast
as well as imagery and symbols associated with
an urban subculture in a drawing or mixed-media
work that explores the issue of discrimination)
Teacher prompt: “Why is the imagery you have
chosen appropriate for the subject matter of
your work?”
A3. Production and Presentation
By the end of this course, students will:
A3.1 explore a range of techniques, tools, materials/
media, and technologies, including alternative
media and current technologies, and apply
them to create and present a variety of art works
(e.g., use digital photographs, image-editing software, found objects, and fabric to create an original
work of art; create site-specific art works, mosaics,
plaster works; present their art work in a virtual
gallery)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Teacher prompts: “What techniques or
media/materials could you combine to create
a work that explores a social issue?” “What
considerations must you address when creating
an art work for display on the web?” “How
can you engage your audience when working
in a virtual environment? How can you use
200
the technology to enhance your audience’s
interaction with your work?”
A3.2 demonstrate appropriate ways to prepare
their art works for presentation in a variety
of contexts or venues (e.g., the conventions for
presentation in a classroom compared to those in
a community gallery, in a virtual gallery, or as
part of a thematic exhibition in a cultural centre)
Teacher prompts: “In completing this art work,
how have you ensured that it is ready for display? Is it labelled, signed, matted, and/or
mounted?” “Would you prepare your work
differently if it were being displayed in a cultural centre rather than a classroom? Why or
why not?”
A3.3 demonstrate an understanding of a variety
of ways in which art works can be presented to
reach a variety of audiences (e.g., young children,
youth who are no longer in school, members of a
particular cultural group) and to suit a range of
purposes (e.g., to engender debate, to inform, to
entertain, to sell products)
Teacher prompts: “What impact can the purpose of an art exhibition or installation piece
have on choice of venue and on the number
and type of people who see the exhibition
or installation?” “Why can the use of public
space be an effective way of getting an artist’s
message out to a wide audience?”
B. REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND
ANALYSING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
B1. The Critical Analysis Process: demonstrate an understanding of the critical analysis process by
examining, interpreting, evaluating, and reflecting on various art works;
B2. Art, Society, and Values: demonstrate an understanding of how art works reflect the society in
which they were created, and of how they can affect personal values;
Visual Arts
By the end of this course, students will:
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom: demonstrate an understanding of the types of knowledge and
skills developed in visual arts, and describe various opportunities related to visual arts.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
B1. The Critical Analysis Process
By the end of this course, students will:
B1.1 describe their initial reactions to a variety
of art works (e.g., their initial impressions of a
work’s mood, subject, intent, purpose, meaning),
and explain the reason for their reactions
Teacher prompt: “What is your initial impression of the meaning and purpose of Louise
Bourgeois’s Maman? What aspects of the work
support this impression?”
B1.2 identify and describe the elements and
principles of design used in their own art works
and the works of others, and explain how they
are used to achieve specific effects (e.g., determine
how the artist has combined individual elements
and principles to create mood and meaning)
B1.3 communicate their understanding of the
meanings of a variety of historical and contemporary art works, based on their interpretation
AVI3O
Teacher prompt: “How has your understanding
of Turner’s painting changed as a result of
your research into the historical context in
which it was created?”
B1.4 use a variety of strategies (e.g., peer- and selfassessment, formal critiques, ongoing review and
revision, feedback received from public displays)
to identify and reflect on the qualities of their
own art works and the works of others, and
evaluate the effectiveness of these works
Teacher prompt: “In what ways were you
successful in communicating your message
in your work? What would you change about
this work if you could do it again?”
B2. Art, Society, and Values
By the end of this course, students will:
B2.1 explain the functions of various types of art
works (e.g., animation; various types of architecture;
propaganda, public, and religious art; works
focused on personal expression; satirical works)
in past and present societies
Teacher prompt: “What pieces of public art
are there in your community? What is their
purpose?”
REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND ANALYSING
Teacher prompts: “How has the photographer
used line, space, and balance to create a sense
of movement in this photograph?” “How do
the sculptures of Alberto Giacometti and
Henry Moore differ in terms of the artists’ use
of line, shape, and form?” “In this car advertisement, how has the designer used colour,
space, movement, and emphasis to highlight
the selling points of the product?”
of the works and an investigation of their
historical and/or social context (e.g., Haida
masks or totem poles; the AIDS Quilt Project;
J. M. W. Turner’s The Slave Ship)
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Grade 11, Open
B2.2 identify and explain ways in which various
art works are a response to and a reflection of
the society in which they were created (e.g.,
how artists are influenced by their access to
technology and materials and by social and/or
political conditions)
Teacher prompts: “What impact did the invention of paint tubes have on the development of
impressionist landscape painting?” “Describe
how a current technology has affected the way
images are made.” “How has the invention of
the camera and photocopier (lens-based art)
affected the type of subject matter chosen by
artists?” “What social issues did Keith Haring
address in his work?”
B2.3 describe how creating and analysing art
works has affected their personal identity and
values and/or changed their perception of
society (e.g., with reference to their emotional
awareness, their ability to express themselves,
their approach to fashion, their cultural sensitivity,
their awareness of stereotypes, their relationship
with the physical environment, their appreciation
of objects associated with cultural groups, their
social awareness)
Teacher prompt: “Which of the art works that
you have studied has had the greatest impact
on you? Why? What effect did the work have
on your beliefs or perceptions related to the
subject matter of the work?”
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom
By the end of this course, students will:
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
B3.1 explain how knowledge and skills acquired
in visual arts (e.g., knowledge related to visual
literacy; creative thinking and problem-solving
skills; skills related to visual communication, spatial
organization, and presentation; interpersonal
202
skills developed through collaboration) could be
applied in a wide variety of careers and in
areas of future study
Teacher prompt: “Which skills have you acquired
in visual arts that would contribute to your
leadership potential in a career outside the
arts? Explain how you could use these skills.”
B3.2 describe, on the basis of research, a variety
of pathways and careers related to visual arts
(e.g., apprenticeships; postsecondary art programs;
art-related careers in advertising, animation,
architecture, art therapy, fashion design, filmmaking,
gallery curation, graphic design, industrial design,
photojournalism) and the education required for
these careers
Teacher prompts: “What types of courses
would you have to take to pursue a career in
graphic design?” “Would you need a university degree to become an architect?” “What types
of apprenticeships or experiential learning are
available for someone who wants to be an animator or filmmaker?”
B3.3 describe, on the basis of research, a variety
of personal opportunities in their community
in cultural or other fields related to visual arts
(e.g., opportunities to organize or assist with craft
classes for younger children in the community, to
design and produce decorations for an event associated with a cultural practice, to paint community
murals, to design the school yearbook, to design
and produce posters for a community event)
Teacher prompt: “Are there local community
centres that offer art or craft classes for children?
How might you be able to assist the centre or
the instructor?”
C. FOUNDATIONS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
C2. Conventions and Techniques: demonstrate an understanding of conventions and techniques used
in the creation of visual art works;
C3. Responsible Practices: demonstrate an understanding of responsible practices related to visual arts.
Visual Arts
C1. Terminology: demonstrate an understanding of, and use correct terminology when referring to,
elements, principles, and other components related to visual arts;
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
C1. Terminology
By the end of this course, students will:
C1.1 demonstrate an understanding of the
elements and principles of design, and use
appropriate terminology related to elements
and principles when creating and analysing
art works (e.g., when explaining how a designer
has used particular elements and principles to
draw attention to a product in an advertisement)
C1.2 explain terminology related to techniques,
materials, and tools, and use this terminology
appropriately when creating and presenting
art works (e.g., techniques and tools from various
cultures [East Asian, East and West African] used in
textile design; silkscreening; stencilling; washes;
type fonts)
Teacher prompts: “What techniques have
Japanese artists used to create woodblock prints?
What effects can be achieved using these techniques?” “What techniques do installation
artists use to get the attention of the viewer?”
AVI3O
C2.2 demonstrate an understanding of a variety
of conventions used in visual arts (e.g., exaggeration, juxtaposition, metaphor, simile, symbols,
synectics; conventions associated with heroic,
narrative, naturalistic, and satirical art works;
conventions associated with imitationalism)
Teacher prompt: “What are some examples of
the effective use of exaggeration in comics or
graphic novels to provide social commentary?”
C3. Responsible Practices
By the end of this course, students will:
C1.3 identify and describe the stages of the creative process and the critical analysis process
using appropriate terminology, and explain
how these processes are used to create and
analyse art works (e.g., the stages of the creative
process used to make a print; the stages of the
critical analysis process a gallery owner would
use to evaluate the print)
C2. Conventions and Techniques
By the end of this course, students will:
Teacher prompts: “Why is it inappropriate to
incorporate a corporate logo or copyrighted
character into your design without getting permission to do so?” “What ethical issues have
you encountered with respect to appropriation
in visual art? How have you addressed these
issues?”
FOUNDATIONS
C2.1 demonstrate an understanding of a wide
variety of techniques that artists use to achieve
specific effects (e.g., the use of depth and angle
in an engraving to convey a sense of movement)
C3.1 describe legal and ethical issues associated
with the use of images, materials, and property
(both physical and virtual) in the production of
art works (e.g., copyright; ownership of virtual
and intellectual property; issues associated with
cultural appropriation), and demonstrate legal
and ethical practices when creating, presenting,
and/or promoting art works (e.g., use accepted
citation conventions when crediting other people’s
work; download images from authorized sources)
203
Grade 11, Open
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
204
C3.2 demonstrate an understanding of safe and
conscientious practices associated with the use
of materials, property, tools, and technologies
in visual arts, and apply these practices when
creating and/or presenting art works (e.g., take
appropriate precautions when working with
hazardous materials; adopt protective measures
when working with sharp or heavy tools; keep
their work space tidy and free of physical and
other hazards; demonstrate respect for physical
property, classroom facilities, tools, and technological devices)
C3.3 demonstrate an understanding of how the
production and presentation of art works can
affect the environment, and apply environmentally responsible practices when creating, presenting, and promoting art works (e.g., use
recycled materials and those made from sustainable
resources when creating their works and when
packing and shipping art works; dispose of waste
materials, including hazardous materials, in an
environmentally responsible way; reduce the use
of paper by using email and the Internet to promote
an exhibition)
Teacher prompt: “Why is it important to apply
safe practices when handling art materials?
What should you do if you don’t know whether
a material is toxic?”
Teacher prompts: “What are some of the ways
you could use found materials responsibly in
the creation of an assemblage?” “What are
some alternatives to styrofoam packaging?”
“How can creating art works be harmful to the
environment? What are some ways of ensuring
that you are an environmentally friendly artist?”
Visual Arts, Grade 12
University/College Preparation
AVI4M
This course focuses on enabling students to refine their use of the creative process
when creating and presenting two- and three-dimensional art works using a variety of
traditional and emerging media and technologies. Students will use the critical analysis
process to deconstruct art works and explore connections between art and society. The
studio program enables students to explore a range of materials, processes, and techniques
that can be applied in their own art production. Students will also make connections
between various works of art in personal, contemporary, historical, and cultural contexts.
Prerequisite: Visual Arts, Grade 11, University/College Preparation
205
A. CREATING AND PRESENTING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
A1. The Creative Process: apply the creative process to create a variety of art works, individually and/or
collaboratively;
A2. The Elements and Principles of Design: apply the elements and principles of design to create art
works for the purpose of self-expression and to communicate ideas, information, and/or messages;
A3. Production and Presentation: produce art works, using a variety of media/materials and traditional
and emerging technologies, tools, and techniques, and demonstrate an understanding of a variety of
ways of presenting their works and the works of others.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
A1. The Creative Process
By the end of this course, students will:
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
A1.1 use various strategies, individually and/or
collaboratively, with increasing skill to generate,
explore, and elaborate on original ideas and to
develop, reflect on, and revise detailed plans
for the creation of art works that address a
variety of creative challenges (e.g., extend their
skills in using brainstorming, concept webs, mind
maps, and/or group discussions to formulate
original and innovative ideas for an art work on
a social or personal theme; use critical research
skills to explore and elaborate on ideas; demonstrate
fluency in formulating clear and detailed plans;
demonstrate flexibility in revising their plans on
the basis of reflection)
206
Teacher prompts: “Have you reflected on each
element of your plan to ensure it is workable
and consistent with the creative challenge?”
“What inspired you to address this particular
creative challenge?” “Were there any particular
influences from your prior experience in art that
supported your idea generation or planning for
this art work?”
A1.2 apply, with increasing fluency and flexibility,
the appropriate stages of the creative process to
produce two- and three-dimensional art works
using a variety of traditional and contemporary
media (e.g., extend their skills in working with a
range of media; demonstrate flexibility in revising
plans in response to problems encountered during
other stages of the creative process; reflect on the
effectiveness of preliminary versions of their work,
and revise the work on the basis of reflection and
self-assessment)
Teacher prompt: “Was there any stage in the
development of your art work that required
more time than you had planned or that
exceeded your skill with a particular medium?
How did you adapt to this challenge and modify
the production of your work?”
A1.3 document their use of each stage of the creative process, and provide evidence of critical
inquiry, in a portfolio that includes a range of
art works created for a variety of purposes
(e.g., ensure that their portfolio includes the following: evidence of critical inquiry associated
with idea generation and elaboration; evidence of
research on how different artists approach specific
themes and/or use particular techniques that can
be adapted in their own work; preliminary and
final works to show evidence of thoughtful revision),
and review and reflect on the contents of their
portfolio to determine how effectively they
have used the creative process
Teacher prompts: “Does your portfolio include
examples of the different types of art works
you have created? Does it represent the full
range of your artistic skills?” “How did your
original concept evolve as a result of technical
challenges, timelines, personal experience,
and/or unexpected results or feedback?”
A2. The Elements and Principles of
Design
By the end of this course, students will:
Teacher prompt: “How could you use elements
and principles such as shape, value, and rhythm
to convey a sense of confinement in your art
work?”
A2.2 apply the elements and principles of design
as well as a wide range of art-making conventions with increasing skill and creativity to
produce art works that comment and/or communicate a clear point of view on a variety of
issues (e.g., extend their skills by manipulating
elements and principles and using conventions in
creative ways to produce an art work that conveys
the point of view of a teenager living on the street
or that comments on a current event or social issue)
Teacher prompts: “What images or symbols
might you use to comment on the impact of
human behaviour on the natural environment?”
“How might you use colour, emphasis, and
juxtaposition to draw attention to the message
in your art work?”
A3. Production and Presentation
By the end of this course, students will:
A3.1 use with increasing skill a wide variety
of media, including alternative media, and
current technologies to create two- and threedimensional art works for a variety of purposes
(e.g., extend their skills in the manipulation of a
variety of media and technologies to create a
sculpture for an outdoor space, a mixed-media
work for display on the Internet, an installation
evoking their cultural heritage)
A3.2 use with increasing skill a wide variety of
traditional and current materials, technologies,
techniques, and tools to create original art
A3.3 demonstrate a understanding of the appropriate standards and conventions for presenting
art works for a variety of purposes (e.g., as
samples in a portfolio to be viewed by prospective
employers or postsecondary educational institutions; as part of a year-end exhibit by the senior
class; as part of a thematic display in a cultural
centre; for inclusion in a virtual gallery), and
apply these standards and conventions when
preparing various types of visual art works for
presentation (e.g., include an artist’s statement
with works in their portfolio; ensure that twodimensional works are properly matted and/or
framed and ready to hang and that threedimensional works are securely mounted at an
appropriate height; ensure that digital reproductions are clear and large enough for the audience
to see the details in the work)
AVI4M
Teacher prompts: “How will you organize and
present your body of work in your portfolio to
highlight your strengths and the range of your
abilities and experiences?” “What standards do
you need to observe when presenting work in
a class exhibition?”
A3.4 demonstrate an understanding of curatorial
considerations, including those relating to the
purpose of and audience for an exhibition,
and explain the impact curatorial judgements
(e.g., with respect to venue, inclusion, presentation
format, anticipated audience) can have on a
collection of art works
Teacher prompts: “Why do you think the curator configured the exhibition space in this way?
Which art works are given emphasis? Why do
you think the curator decided to feature these
works? Would you have presented the works
differently? Why?” “Which of your art works
would you display in a senior class exhibition?
How should these works be organized for
maximum effect?”
CREATING AND PRESENTING
Teacher prompt: “How might you use alternative media and current technologies in your
installation work? How will the use of new
media and technologies allow you to explore
new ideas and/or engage the viewer in the
work?”
Teacher prompt: “What factors should you take
into consideration when choosing the techniques
and materials you will use for an art work?
How can changes in techniques or tools affect
the intended outcome or the effect of an art
work?”
Visual Arts
A2.1 apply the elements and principles of design
with increasing skill and creativity to produce
two- and three-dimensional art works that
express personal feelings and communicate
specific emotions (e.g., extend their skills in combining various elements and principles to convey
a sense of fear, happiness, hopefulness, despair)
works for a variety of purposes and audiences
(e.g., select materials that are highly appropriate for
an art work that is intended to convey a message
to their peers; extend their skills by experimenting
with and applying a variety of techniques; use
emerging tools and technologies to create effects
that enhance the message of their work)
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Grade 12, University/College Preparation
B. REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND
ANALYSING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
B1. The Critical Analysis Process: demonstrate an understanding of the critical analysis process by
examining, interpreting, evaluating, and reflecting on various art works;
B2. Art, Society, and Values: demonstrate an understanding of how art works reflect the society in
which they were created, and of how they can affect both social and personal values;
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom: demonstrate an understanding of and analyse the requirements
for a variety of opportunities related to visual arts.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
B1. The Critical Analysis Process
By the end of this course, students will:
B1.1 demonstrate the ability to support their
initial responses to a variety of art works with
informed understanding of the works’ artistic
form and function (e.g., describe their initial
response to an art work, and explain in detail
how specific aspects of the work’s content, formal
qualities, and media inform that response)
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Teacher prompt: “What informed your initial
understanding of the meaning of A Sacred
Prayer for a Sacred Island by Jane Ash Poitras?
In what ways have Poitras’s artistic choices
affected your initial response to this work?”
208
B1.2 deconstruct with increasing skill and insight
the visual content and the use of elements and
principles of design in their own art work and
the work of others (e.g., extend their skills in
identifying individual elements and principles
and aspects of the visual content in an art work,
interpreting their function, and analysing their
effect; compare and contrast the use of shape,
form, line, texture, space, and balance in Frank
Lloyd Wright’s Falling Water and Moshe Safdie’s
Habitat)
Teacher prompt: “What are the differences in
the way Wright and Safdie used shape and
balance in their structures? What elements or
principles have they applied in a similar way?
What effects do they produce?”
B1.3 explain in detail, with reference to a variety
of historical and contemporary art works (e.g.,
the social scenes painted by Pieter Bruegel the
Elder; Joseph Paxton’s Crystal Palace; works by
Canadian war artists, such as Alex Colville’s
Bodies in a Grave or Molly Lamb Bobak’s
Private Roy, Canadian Women’s Army Corps),
how knowledge of a work’s cultural and historical context, achieved through extensive
research, has clarified and enriched their
understanding and interpretation of a work’s
intent and meaning
Teacher prompts: “How has your research
on the social context of the photography of
Edward Burtynsky informed your understanding of his work? In what ways is his work
reflective of contemporary concerns and issues?”
“Why did the Canadian government appoint
official war artists during World War II? How
might their status as government appointees
have affected these artists’ approach to their
subject matter?”
B1.4 describe in detail and reflect on with
increasing insight the qualities of their art
works and the works of others, and evaluate
the effectiveness of these works using a wide
variety of criteria (e.g., provide an informed
explanation of why a work of art is, or is not, successful with respect to its ability to communicate
a message or emotion, its technical and aesthetic
conventions, its form and stylistic qualities, its
originality)
Teacher prompt: “In Betye Saar’s work The
Liberation of Aunt Jemima, what methods does
the artist use to communicate her message? Do
you think she succeeds in her intent? Why or
why not? Do you think this work is effective
stylistically and aesthetically? Why or why not?”
B2. Art, Society, and Values
B2.1 analyse, on the basis of research, the function and social impact of different kinds of art
works in both past and present societies (e.g.,
how art works function to decorate private and
public space, to investigate and draw attention to
themes and issues, to criticize political policy and
social norms, to satirize public figures, to memorialize people and commemorate events, to preserve
aspects of a people’s culture; how works of art can
symbolize political, religious, social, or economic
power; the power of art to help change personal
and public positions on social and political ideas)
Teacher prompt: “What was the function of
Zeppelinfeld Stadium in Nuremberg, designed
by Albert Speer? What was the immediate
social impact of the structure, and how did its
impact change over time?”
B2.2 assess the impact of socio-economic, political, cultural, and/or spiritual factors on the production of art works (e.g., how artists are affected by oppression, persecution, censorship, or war,
or by cultural, political, and/or religious beliefs; how
access to locations, materials, technologies, and
funding can affect the production of art works)
Teacher prompts: “In what ways was Picasso’s
Guernica a response to the political and social
events of the time?” “What impact has the
availability of digital technologies had on
visual art?”
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom
By the end of this course, students will:
B3.1 analyse, on the basis of self-directed
research, the requirements for postsecondary
study and for careers of personal interest in
arts-related fields (e.g., college and university
programs and scholarship opportunities; apprenticeships; opportunities for independent artists;
careers in architecture, arts advocacy, art therapy,
education, filmmaking, museum or gallery curation,
photography)
AVI4M
B3.2 identify, on the basis of research, and assess
a variety of opportunities in their community
for involvement in the arts (e.g., interview people
at local artists’ collectives; research the mission
statements of cultural centres that present art exhibitions; explore alternative local venues for art
exhibitions, including centres for youth or seniors,
malls, theatre lobbies, restaurants)
B3.3 analyse a variety of local, national, and
global arts-based advocacy organizations with
reference to the type of work they do, their
effectiveness, and the possibility of students’
working with them or receiving funding from
them (e.g., investigate organizations such as the
Ontario Arts Council, the Ontario Crafts Council,
the Canada Council for the Arts, UNESCO, the
International Association of Art, private foundations
that provide grants to artists; prepare an application
for a grant or other funding)
REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND ANALYSING
B2.3 assess the impact that the creation and
analysis of art works has had on their personal
identity and values and their perceptions of
society (e.g., with reference to their self-awareness
and their ability to express their emotions, their
cultural and social empathy, their knowledge of
Teacher prompt: “Have you studied an art
work that has changed your perception of a
social or personal issue? In what way did your
perception change? What aspects of the work
effected this change, and why?”
Visual Arts
By the end of this course, students will:
and appreciation for their own cultural heritage and
the cultural heritage of people in their community,
their reaction to stereotypes, their understanding
of the issue of cultural appropriation, their appreciation for the natural and built environment
around them, changes in their position on
social/cultural issues)
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Grade 12, University/College Preparation
C. FOUNDATIONS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
C1. Terminology: demonstrate an understanding of, and use correct terminology when referring to,
elements, principles, and other components related to visual arts;
C2. Conventions and Techniques: demonstrate an understanding of conventions and techniques used
in the creation of visual art works;
C3. Responsible Practices: demonstrate an understanding of responsible practices related to visual arts.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
C1. Terminology
By the end of this course, students will:
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
C1.1 extend their understanding of the elements
and principles of design, and use terminology
related to these elements and principles correctly and appropriately when creating or
analysing a variety of art works (e.g., when
analysing how artists’ manipulation of space,
movement, form, and proportion affects meaning
in an installation or an environmental work)
210
C1.2 explain in detail terminology related to a
wide variety of techniques, materials, and tools
(e.g., techniques and materials associated with
installation art; additive and subtractive techniques,
digital manipulation, impasto, optical colour
mixing, pointillism), and use this terminology
correctly and appropriately when creating,
analysing, and/or presenting art works
C1.3 explain in detail the stages of the creative
process and the critical analysis process, and
explain, using appropriate terminology, how
these processes contribute to the successful
creation and analysis of art works
C2. Conventions and Techniques
By the end of this course, students will:
C2.1 extend their understanding of a wide variety
of techniques that artists use to achieve a range
of specific effects (e.g., techniques used to create
a range of textures in an art work, to develop the
connection and relationship between forms in a
composition, to draw attention to specific parts
of a work)
C2.2 extend their understanding of the variety
of conventions used in visual art (e.g., allegory,
appropriation, juxtaposition, synectics; conventions associated with formalism, objective and
non-objective abstraction, propaganda, realism,
social commentary), and explain in detail how
they are used in a variety of art works
Teacher prompt: “What works of art can you
think of that have appropriated existing images
and changed their meaning?”
C3. Responsible Practices
By the end of this course, students will:
C3.1 demonstrate an understanding of legal and
ethical issues related to the appropriation of
virtual, intellectual, or physical property (e.g.,
copyright, ownership, censorship, sensitivity
towards cultural symbolism or iconography), and
apply legal and ethical practices when creating
and displaying art works
C3.2 demonstrate appropriate health and safety
procedures and conscientious practices in the
selection and use of various materials, techniques, tools, and technologies when producing
or presenting art works (e.g., demonstrate safe
practices when creating installations, assemblages,
earthworks, constructions, multimedia projects;
demonstrate appropriate protocols, deportment,
and respect for others when working in a studio
or visiting a presentation space)
C3.3 explain how art works can have both a positive and negative impact on the environment
(e.g., explain how art works can educate people
about environmental issues; identify hazardous
substances commonly used in the production of
art works, explain their potential environmental
impact, and identify the proper way to dispose of
them; explain the pros and cons of using recycled
materials in their art works)
Teacher prompts: “What artists can you think
of who deal with environmental themes in
their art work? Has their work influenced your
attitudes on environmental issues? Why or
why not?” “What type of art works might you
create to educate your audience about an issue
such as loss of habitat?”
Visual Arts
AVI4M
FOUNDATIONS
211
Visual Arts, Grade 12
Workplace Preparation
AVI4E
This course focuses on a practical approach to a variety of art and design projects related
to the workplace. Students will use the creative process to produce a traditional and/or
digital portfolio of their work in a variety of media. Students may focus on various
aspects of visual arts, including advertising, ceramics, fashion design, graphic arts,
jewellery design, and/or web design.
Prerequisite: Visual Arts, Grade 11, Open
212
A. CREATING AND PRESENTING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
A2. The Elements and Principles of Design: apply the elements and principles of design to create art
works for the purpose of self-expression and to communicate ideas, information, and/or messages;
A3. Production and Presentation: produce art works, using a variety of media/materials and traditional
and emerging technologies, tools, and techniques, and demonstrate an understanding of a variety of
ways of presenting their works and the works of others.
Visual Arts
A1. The Creative Process: apply the creative process to create a variety of art works, individually and/or
collaboratively;
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
A1. The Creative Process
By the end of this course, students will:
A1.1 use a variety of strategies, individually
and/or collaboratively, to generate, explore,
and reflect on ideas and to develop and revise
plans for the creation of art works, including
applied and commercial art works (e.g., extend
their skills in brainstorming and research to generate and explore a range of creative ideas; reflect
on ideas and choose one that is suitable for the
creative challenge; use strategies such as thumbnail sketches, diagrams, notes, and/or outlines to
help them develop detailed plans; reflect on and
revise their plans)
Teacher prompt: “What are the advantages and
challenges associated with generating creative
ideas as a group? How did the collaborative
process affect the development of your initial
ideas and plans?”
AVI4E
A1.3 document their use of each stage of the creative process in a portfolio (e.g., ensure that their
portfolio contains evidence of the following: the
development of ideas and plans; experimentation
with various materials, techniques, and design
principles and elements; and reflection on and
revision and/or refinement of their work), and
review and reflect on the contents of the portfolio to determine how effectively they have
used the creative process
Teacher prompts: “Does your portfolio contain
evidence of how you executed each step in
your work plan when creating your art work?”
“From the samples in your portfolio, can one
identify how the design of your work evolved
throughout the reflection and revision stages?”
A2. The Elements and Principles of
Design
By the end of this course, students will:
A2.1 apply the elements and principles of design
with increasing skill to create art works,
including applied and commercial art works,
that reflect their personal interests or personal
experience and/or that convey emotion (e.g.,
extend their skills in the use of texture, value, line,
CREATING AND PRESENTING
A1.2 apply the appropriate stages of the creative
process to create a variety of art works, including applied and commercial art works, in areas
of personal interest (e.g., produce art works in
one or more of the following areas: digital art,
furniture design, fashion design, graphic arts,
jewellery design, painting, sculpture; use charts
or checklists to ensure they complete the stages
of the creative process that are most appropriate
for the creative challenge)
Teacher prompts: “Do you approach the stages
of the creative process differently when you are
creating an art work for a work-related purpose
as opposed to a work of personal expression?”
“Describe the stages of the creative process you
would need to use in your work-related project.”
213
Grade 12, Workplace Preparation
shape, form, unity, and/or variety to create a
narrative work based on a workplace experience;
use colour, space, emphasis, and proportion to
create an advertisement that conveys a feeling
of excitement)
Teacher prompts: “Which elements and principles might you use to convey a positive workplace experience in your art work? How might
your choices change if you wanted to convey a
negative experience?” “How could you manipulate the chosen elements and principles to best
communicate your feelings to the audience?”
A2.2 apply the elements and principles of design
as well as art-making conventions with increasing skill to create a variety of art works that
explore and/or present a point of view on
contemporary social issues and/or themes
(e.g., use dramatic symbols, shapes, colours, and
values to create a poster on a current issue for an
advocacy group)
Teacher prompt: “How might you use space,
proportion, and emphasis in a public service
advertisement encouraging people to limit
their use of plastic water bottles? What sorts
of images might you juxtapose to make your
point?”
A3. Production and Presentation
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
By the end of this course, students will:
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A3.1 extend their exploration of media/materials,
techniques, tools, and traditional and emerging
technologies, and apply them to create a variety
of art works, including applied and commercial art works, for a range of purposes (e.g., use
appropriate software to design and produce a logo
and stationery products, including letterhead and
business cards, for a business enterprise; create a
promotional item such as a poster or T-shirt for a
fund-raising event for an environmental advocacy
group)
Teacher’s prompts: “What products or services
does this business offer? How could they be
reflected in a company logo?” “Why is it
important to understand your client’s requirements when creating products for them?”
A3.2 explain standards and conventions for
the presentation of art works for a variety of
purposes, and apply appropriate standards
and conventions when preparing works for
presentation (e.g., ensure that works for public
display are signed, dated, labelled, mounted,
matted, and/or framed, as appropriate; write
an artist’s statement for inclusion in a portfolio;
ensure, when presenting works digitally to a
client, that the image is clear and that the colours
are accurately represented)
Teacher prompt: “In the digital image of the
advertisement you have designed, are the
colours sharp and clear? Is all the type legible?
Will the client be able to see the detail in the
work?”
A3.3 demonstrate an understanding of the variety
of ways in which art works, including applied
and commercial art works, can be presented to
reach a variety of audiences (e.g., peers in their
school, members of the community at a local venue,
a particular demographic group that might be
interested in a product/service, a broad audience
on the Internet) and for different purposes (e.g.,
to promote events, to sell products or services, to
inform)
Teacher prompt: “What considerations should
you take into account when choosing a venue
for your annual pottery show and sale?”
B. REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND
ANALYSING
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
B1. The Critical Analysis Process: demonstrate an understanding of the critical analysis process by
examining, interpreting, evaluating, and reflecting on various art works;
B2. Art, Society, and Values: demonstrate an understanding of how art works reflect the society in
which they were created, and of how they can affect both social and personal values;
Visual Arts
By the end of this course, students will:
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom: demonstrate an understanding of various job opportunities
both within and outside the area of visual arts and how skills related to visual arts can be applied
in the workplace.
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
B1. The Critical Analysis Process
By the end of this course, students will:
B1.1 describe their initial reaction to a variety of
art works, including applied and commercial
art works (e.g., a promotional or informational
poster, an advertisement in a magazine, a CD
cover, a piece of public art in their community, a
Renaissance painting, a work by Edvard Munch
or Andy Warhol, a photograph by Yousuf Karsh),
and explain in detail the reasons for their
reaction
Teacher prompt: “Why do you think this art
work was created? What materials or processes
did the artist use? How did the use of these
particular materials and processes affect the
way you reacted to the work?”
Teacher prompt: “Do these two websites use
any elements or principles of design in similar
ways? Which elements and principles are used
differently? Why do you think the designer
used the elements and principles in these
AVI4E
B1.3 interpret the meanings of art works, including applied and commercial art works, from
different historical periods (e.g., advertisements
or other commercial art works from the 1960s;
propaganda art from World War II; Haida totem
poles)
Teacher prompts: “Why are these historical
pieces effective (or ineffective) in communicating their message?” “What sorts of images or
approaches from historical art works do we
continue to see in modern advertising? Why
do you think they are still used?”
B2. Art, Society, and Values
By the end of this course, students will:
B2.1 explain how applied and commercial art
works can influence individual and community
values (e.g., how the design of sustainable products
such as reusable bags or bottles can encourage
people to reduce and reuse packaging; how posters
and brochures can educate people about the dangers
of smoking)
Teacher prompt: “What are some examples of
products that artists have designed or modified
to encourage people to respect or protect the
environment? How have these products affected
practices in your family, school, or community?”
REFLECTING, RESPONDING, AND ANALYSING
B1.2 identify the elements and principles of
design used in art works, including applied
and commercial art works, analyse their purpose, and evaluate their effectiveness (e.g., the
use of colour, line, and proportion to increase the
appeal of a product in a print advertisement; the
use of texture, balance, and form to create a dramatic
effect in the design of a piece of clothing or fashion
accessory)
ways? Which website is more effective at
attracting and keeping your attention and
conveying the intended message?”
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Grade 12, Workplace Preparation
B2.2 explain ways in which art works, particularly
applied or commercial art works (e.g., advertising, architecture, clothing, product packaging,
public art, website design), reflect the values of
the society in which they were created
Teacher prompt: “In what ways do advertisements for cosmetics and clothing reinforce
cultural ideas about personal appearance?”
B3. Connections Beyond the Classroom
By the end of this course, students will:
B3.1 describe, on the basis of research, a variety
of work opportunities related to the field of
visual arts (e.g., apprenticeships or internships
in fashion design, graphic arts, or stage or set
construction; jobs in interior design, jewellery
design, website design; jobs in the sale and promotion of pottery or woodwork), describe the skills
they require, and compare these skills to their
own skill set
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
Teacher prompts: “What arts-related opportunities in the world of work exist for someone
with visual arts skills and knowledge?” “What
216
particular skills do you possess that are well
suited to a job that interests you in the visual
arts field?”
B3.2 explain how skills associated with the creation and analysis of visual art works, including
applied and commercial art works, can be
transferred to jobs outside the visual arts field
(e.g., visual communication skills, technical skills
related to the use of design software, analytical
skills developed in interpreting art works, attention
to deadlines, the ability to understand and carry
out instructions, the ability to develop and follow
a plan; skills that are included in the Ontario
Skills Passport or in the Human Resources and
Skills Development Canada [HRSDC] list of
essential skills)
Teacher prompts: “In what types of jobs could
you apply the technical and communication
skills you have acquired in studying visual
arts?” “What are some of the key interpersonal
skills you have learned and practised as a
result of studying visual art/visual culture?
What types of jobs outside the arts require
these types of skills?”
C. FOUNDATIONS
OVERALL EXPECTATIONS
By the end of this course, students will:
C2. Conventions and Techniques: demonstrate an understanding of conventions and techniques that
artists use in the creation of visual art works;
C3. Responsible Practices: demonstrate an understanding of responsible practices related to visual arts.
Visual Arts
C1. Terminology: demonstrate an understanding of, and use correct terminology when referring to,
elements, principles, and other concepts related to visual arts;
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
C1. Terminology
By the end of this course, students will:
C1.1 demonstrate an understanding of the elements and principles of design, particularly
those used in applied and commercial art
works, and use terminology related to these
elements and principles when creating and
analysing art works (e.g., when describing their
illustrations for a children’s book or design for the
cover of a CD; when explaining the effectiveness
of an advertisement; when explaining the choice
of typeface for a poster)
C1.2 explain in detail terminology related to
techniques, materials, and tools used to create
applied art works (e.g., create a glossary of terms
used in one or more of the following applied art
forms: fashion design, interior design, jewellery
design, set/stage construction, wood carving)
C2. Conventions and Techniques
By the end of this course, students will:
Teacher prompt: “What techniques did you use
when designing this CD cover that will appeal
to a specific youth market?”
AVI4E
Teacher prompt: “How could you apply conventions used in satirical art, such as the works
of Fernando Botero, to a piece of commercial
art intended to promote changes in young
people’s diet and exercise?”
C3. Responsible Practices
By the end of this course, students will:
C3.1 demonstrate an understanding of legal and
ethical issues associated with intellectual, virtual,
and physical property (e.g., issues related to
ownership, plagiarism, appropriation), and apply
ethical practices when appropriating the property of others and using cultural images in
their art works (e.g., show sensitivity when using
images associated with other cultures, including
First Nation, Inuit, and Métis cultures)
C3.2 demonstrate an understanding of health and
safety procedures when creating or presenting
art works, including applied and commercial
art works (e.g., demonstrate safe practices when
creating installations, assemblages, constructions,
paintings, prints, posters, jewellery, textiles, and/or
multimedia projects; explain the importance of
proper ventilation; use gloves or skin-barrier products when working with chemicals; demonstrate the
safe storage of hazardous materials; use protective
equipment for ears and eyes when working with
noisy tools or materials that can chip or splash)
FOUNDATIONS
C2.1 demonstrate an understanding of a variety
of techniques that artists use to achieve certain
effects, with particular reference to applied and
commercial art works (e.g., to create audience
interest through the layout of a promotional
brochure; to present a positive corporate image
in an advertisement; to convey a sense of texture
in a piece of pottery)
C2.2 demonstrate an understanding of various
visual arts conventions (e.g., exaggeration, juxtaposition, metaphor, symbols, synectics; conventions
associated with narrative or naturalistic art or
works of social commentary) as they relate to the
production of applied and commercial art work
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Grade 12, Workplace Preparation
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
218
C3.3 identify responsible environmental practices
that should be used in applied arts workplaces
(e.g., safe disposal of paints, solvents, and photographic chemicals; reuse and recycling of materials;
substitution of a less harmful substance for a toxic
one), and apply these practices when creating
visual art works
Teacher prompts: “Why is it important to
source materials that have been produced
with the least harm to the environment?”
“What items in a graphic arts workplace can
be recycled?” “What fabrics cause the least
environmental damage? Why?”
GLOSSARY
The following definitions of terms are intended to help teachers and parents use this document.
Terms that apply throughout the document are listed first, then terms connected with Dance, Drama,
Media Arts, Music, and Visual Arts.
Aboriginal person. A person who is a descendant
of the original inhabitants of North America. In
Canada, the Constitution Act (1982) recognizes
three primary groups as Aboriginal peoples:
Indians, Inuit, and Métis.
achievement levels. Brief descriptions of four
different degrees of student achievement of
the provincial curriculum expectations for any
given grade. Level 3, which is the “provincial
standard”, identifies a high level of achievement
of the provincial expectations. Parents of students
achieving at level 3 in a particular grade can be
confident that their children will be prepared for
work at the next grade level. Level 1 identifies
achievement that falls much below the provincial standard. Level 2 identifies achievement
that approaches the standard. Level 4 identifies
achievement that surpasses the standard.
aesthetic. Relating to the nature and appreciation of beauty, especially in the arts.
artistic scope. The breadth of creative study
and application.
artist’s statement. A concise summary in which
the artist reflects on and/or analyses what he
or she has done, in order to help the audience
understand his or her purpose, priorities, and
techniques.
audience etiquette. Acceptable audience behaviour for an arts performance, presentation,
exhibition, or installation.
context (for a work of art). The interrelated
social, cultural, historical, and personal circumstances surrounding and influencing the creation
of an art work.
critique. A critical judgement regarding the
effectiveness of an art work, performance, or
presentation, including the appropriateness of
the choices made by the creator or performer of
a work. Critiques, in the form of constructive
feedback, of an art work in progress can be
used by the artist during the revision process.
culture. The customs, beliefs, institutions, and
achievements of a particular nation, people,
or group, including the art works and other
embodiments of the intellectual achievements
of the group.
expectations. The knowledge and skills that
students are expected to develop and to demonstrate in their class work, on tests, and in various
other activities on which their achievement is
assessed. Overall expectations describe in general
terms the knowledge and skills that students
are expected to demonstrate by the end of each
grade. Specific expectations describe the expected
knowledge and skills in greater detail.
strands. The three major areas of knowledge
and skills into which the curriculum for the
arts is organized. The strands for the arts are:
Creating and Presenting or Creating and
Performing or Creating, Presenting, and
Performing (depending on the arts subject);
Reflecting, Responding, and Analysing; and
Foundations.
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subject matter. The ideas, objects, figures, feelings, and understandings represented in a work
of art.
think-pair-share. A learning strategy in which
a student thinks about a topic or idea, works
on it with a partner, and then shares the result
with the whole group.
DANCE
AB. A two-part choreographic pattern form
with an A theme and a B theme. The form
consists of two distinct, self-contained dance
sequences or sections.
ABA. A three-part choreographic pattern form
with an A theme and a B theme in which the
second section contrasts with the first section
and the third section restates the first section
in a condensed, abbreviated, or extended form.
accent. A strong movement or gesture used for
emphasis.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
asymmetry. (1) A difference in size, shape, or
position between parts on opposite sides of a
dividing line (e.g., different arm and leg positions on the right and left sides of the body).
(2) A difference in the placement of dancers in
a space on opposite sides of a dividing line.
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balance. (1) Maintenance of a controlled
position of the body, whether the body is in
movement or still. (2) A state of equilibrium
in the spatial arrangement of bodies (e.g., in
performance space).
body. See elements of dance.
body base. The part of the body that is supporting the rest of the body. When someone is
kneeling, for example, the knees are the body
base.
canon. A choreographic form in which a dance
phrase is performed by more than one soloist
or group and begins at different times so that
the phrases overlap (analogous to a round in
music).
choreographer. A person who plans and creates
dance pieces.
choreographic form. A structure that organizes
movements. Choreographic forms may be
defined as narrative or patterned (e.g., canon,
call and response, retrograde, ABA, rondo).
See also composition.
choreography. The creation and composition of
dances, whether for a solo dancer, duets, trios,
or small ensembles, by planning or inventing
steps, movements, and patterns of movements
and arranging them into a meaningful whole
to communicate a feeling, idea, or theme.
composition. (1) The exploratory process of
creating and arranging movements with artistic
intent. (2) A dance sequence that is created with
a specific intent to communicate a feeling, idea,
or theme using movement; used in solo dance,
as well as duets, trios, and small ensembles.
See also choreographic form.
contact improvisation. Spontaneously created
movement in response to body contact with
another dancer. This is usually done in a duet.
The partners are often moving in and out of
physical contact while mutually supporting and
following each other’s movements. It is often a
starting point for choreography.
contrast. The pairing of unlike movements. In
dance, two contrasting movements might differ
in energy, space (e.g., size, direction, level), shape
(e.g., symmetrical/asymmetrical, open/closed),
or timing (fast/slow, even/uneven). Contrast is
often used to emphasize differences.
dance piece. A series of connected phrases.
dance sequence. Part of a larger dance piece.
Dancers connect choreographed or personal
movements (movement vocabulary) to form a
sequence. A dance sequence is longer than a
phrase but shorter than a section. It may be
performed in isolation or as part of a larger
dance piece. It conveys a sense of rhythmic
completion and contains a beginning, middle,
and end.
dance style. A way of performing dance that
is characteristic of a particular period, setting,
choreographer, performer, group, culture, or
other category. See also genre.
dance science. The application of scientific
principles to the study of dance, with a focus
on preventing injuries and on improving the
performance and the general health of dancers.
Disciplines that are often part of the study of
dance science are anatomy, biomechanics, physiology, and psychology. Study of somatic practices such as Pilates, yoga, and the Alexander
technique may also be included.
elements of dance. Fundamental components
of dance, which include the following:
– body. The instrument of dance. The term
body may also refer to body positions or
shapes (e.g., curved, straight, angular, twisted,
symmetrical, asymmetrical) or to body movements (e.g., locomotor, non-locomotor).
– energy. The force with which the body moves
(e.g., light, strong, sustained, sudden).
– relationship. The way in which two or more
things are connected to or associated with
one another (e.g., dancer to dancer, dancer
to object, right arm to left arm).
– space. The physical area in which the body
moves; also, the area surrounding the body.
– time. An element involving rhythm, tempo,
accent, and duration. Time can be based on
measured beats, as in music, or on body
rhythms, such as breath, emotions, and
heartbeat.
energy. See elements of dance.
ensemble. A group of performers.
fluid movement. Movement that is easily
changing, smooth, or unconstrained.
freeze. A stop; an absence of movement.
genre. A category of dance (e.g., ballet, Bharata
Natyam, modern, Afro-Caribbean).
guided improvisation. In dance, a movement
or series of movements created spontaneously
by a dancer, with teacher guidance. See also
improvisation.
improvisation. In dance, a movement or series
of movements created spontaneously by a
dancer, either independently or in a group.
kinesthetic awareness. The ability to be aware
of one’s own body parts (e.g., muscles, tendons,
joints), position (e.g., posture), and movement
(e.g., tension and relaxation of muscles, shifting
of weight, movement of the body through space).
Dancers who have developed kinesthetic
awareness, or body awareness, are more likely
to be able to perform the various movements
of dance safely, to have a good sense of balance,
and to respond to stimuli appropriately (e.g.,
judge correctly where to move while dancing
in a group).
level. The height of the dancer’s movements in
relation to the floor, usually measured as high,
medium, and low.
locomotor movement. A movement that
involves travelling from one place to another
across a space (e.g., walking, galloping, rolling).
mirroring. A type of improvisation. Two students
face each other. Student A initiates the movement, while student B follows, maintaining eye
contact as appropriate; students switch roles
after a set time.
motif. A distinctive recurring gesture, movement,
sequence, or image that can be elaborated upon
in a variety of ways. A motif may be used to provide a theme or unifying idea for a dance piece.
GLOSSARY
flocking. A type of improvisation in which
students move in groups, with no set pattern or
in a diamond formation, following a leader and
all doing the same movements simultaneously.
This is an extended version of mirroring for
three or more people. Participants do not necessarily need to be able to watch each other, as
long as they can see the leader.
fluency. The ability to perform dance movements
with apparent effortlessness.
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movement vocabulary. A repertoire of steps,
movements, and sequences that might be used
in creating a dance piece. They can be particular
to a dance form (e.g., traditional dance) or
personal (e.g., creative dance).
negative space. The unoccupied space surrounding a body, in the opening created by
body shapes, or between bodies.
non-locomotor movement. A non-travelling
movement, where the body is anchored in one
place; also called axial movement (e.g., moving
the arms and/or twisting the body while staying
in one spot).
notation. A formal written system of symbols,
shapes, and lines that represent body position
and movement. Various types of “invented
notation” can also be used instead of formal
forms of dance notation. Invented notation
consists of visuals used to plan, map, or record
movement.
pathway. (1) The route or movement taken
from point A to point B. (2) A pattern or design
created on the floor or in the air by movements
of the body (e.g., moving an arm in a circular
motion creates a circular air pathway; galloping
across the general space in a zigzag motion
creates a ground pathway).
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
pattern. An arrangement or sequence of elements
in which one or more of the elements is repeated
in a planned way.
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pattern form. A choreographic form used to
communicate an abstract idea or message (as
opposed to a narrative). Examples of pattern
forms include AB, ABA, call and response,
canon, collage, retrograde, rondo, theme and
variation.
phrase. A small group of movements that stand
together as a unit (analogous to a phrase in
language).
posture. The way a person carries his or her
body.
quality. The manner in which a movement is
performed (e.g., jerkily, smoothly, cautiously; in
a gliding, slashing, or dabbing manner), usually
in order to communicate information about the
physical and/or emotional state the performer
is attempting to portray.
relationship. See elements of dance.
retrograde. A choreographic form in which a
dance or movement sequence is performed in
reverse order (e.g., a dance phrase performed
from back to front).
rondo. A choreographic form that expands on
ABA form to ABACADA (lengthened indefinitely), in which the A theme is repeated or
varied.
site specific. Created for a specific location (e.g.,
a dance that can be danced only in a particular
location because the physical environment is
part of the dance).
space. See elements of dance.
stimulus. An inspiration for creating a dance
phrase or piece (e.g., a story, theme, idea, or
object).
style. The distinguishing way in which a dance
is created and performed; style is often associated with a particular performer, performance
group, choreographer, or time period.
symmetry. (1) An exact match in size, shape,
and position between the parts on opposite
sides of a dividing line (e.g., identical arm and
leg positions on the right and left sides of the
body). (2) An exact match in the positioning of
dancers in relation to other dancers on opposite
sides of a dividing line.
technique. (1) The physical skills of a dancer
that enable him or her to execute the steps and
movements of dance. (2) A set of movements
that are characteristic of a particular form or
genre of dance (e.g., ballet, modern dance).
tempo. The speed at which a dance is performed.
theme and variation. A choreographic form
that starts with an original movement idea that
is repeated with various modifications (e.g.,
performed faster or slower, with lighter or
stronger movements, in a new place) while
still maintaining its structure and sequence,
resulting in an A-A1-A2-A3 pattern. The theme
may be repeated between the variations.
time. See elements of dance.
transitions. The links between dance movements and phrases.
unison movement. A movement or action
performed in exactly the same way by two
or more people at the same time.
DRAMA
a day in the life. A convention in which students explore the experience of a person by
working backwards from a significant moment
or turning point in a character’s life to build the
story that accounts for the event. Students work
in groups, using tableau, improvisation, and/or
role play to depict key moments that may have
occurred in the last twenty-four hours of the
character’s life. The scenes are then run in
chronological sequence to depict the events
leading up to the dramatically significant
moment.
Anansi stories/tales. Anansi stories originated
in West Africa, where the tradition of storytelling has thrived for generations. The Ashanti
people in Ghana in the west of Africa still tell
stories of Kweku Anansi, the spider, a trickster
figure in African folktales, who both entertains
and teaches life lessons. Many of the Anansi
tales, or adapted versions of them with different heroes, now exist in North America, South
America, the West Indies, and the Caribbean.
blocking. (1) In drama and theatre, a technique
for working out and/or mapping the movement
and positioning of actors on the stage. (2) The
obstruction of an actor by an object or another
actor. (3) In drama improvisation, the rejection
of an idea introduced by another performer.
Brechtian theatre. A theatre movement of the
early to mid-twentieth century associated with
the German playwright Bertolt Brecht. Brecht’s
“epic theatre” uses various distancing devices
to remind audiences that the primary purpose
of a play is neither to entertain nor to create an
illusion of reality but to present ideas for the
audience to reflect on.
caption making. A convention in which students
work in groups to devise slogans, titles, newspaper headlines, or chapter headings that
convey in words the intended message of
tableaux or pictures. The captions may be shared
orally by the groups, read out by a narrator, or
written on placards to be read by the class.
ceremony/ritual. A set of actions prescribed
by the beliefs or traditions of a community or
culture and thought to have symbolic value.
character/role. See elements of drama.
choral speaking, chanting. The reading or
reciting of a text by a group. Preparation for a
performance may involve interpretation of the
text; experimentation with language, rhythm,
volume, pace, and different numbers of voices;
and rehearsal.
GLOSSARY
atmosphere. The mood established for a drama,
or for a scene within a drama. Music, lighting,
sets, and costumes may all be used to help
create a particular mood or atmosphere.
audience. (1) In a formal or traditional play,
the audience is typically seated in front of or
around the action of the play. (2) In a shared
drama experience or role play in the classroom,
the students typically are both actors and spectators in the experience. At times, the students
are all in role together; at other times, some are
out of role viewing a group presentation as
audience members. They may also be audience
members viewing a scene or presentation while
they are in role (e.g., in role as the king’s assistant, viewing a presentation by local villagers).
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chorus. A convention in which individuals or
groups provide spoken explanation or commentary on the main action of a drama.
collective creation. A collaborative method of
playwriting that involves developing a play as
a group, with or without the aid of a playwright.
commedia dell’arte. A style of improvisational
comedy popular in sixteenth-century to
eighteenth-century Italy, involving stock situations and characters and the use of masks.
conventions of drama. Practices and forms of
representation that are widely accepted for use
in drama instruction as ways to help students
explore meaning and deepen understanding.
Hot seating, voices in the head, and freezeframe images are a few examples, among many.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
corridor of voices. A convention used to explore
the inner life of a character in drama. The
character moves along the “corridor” between
two lines of students who voice feelings,
thoughts, or moral concerns the character might
be likely to have. The convention can also be
used to explore the thoughts of a character who
is facing a difficult task or decision. In this case,
the voices would give advice and warnings.
See also voices in the head.
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cue sheet. (1) A record of words, phrases, or
stage actions that signal to a performer to begin
a speech or action. (2) A list of technical effects
(e.g., lights, sound, special effects) and when
they occur in a performance or production.
dialogue. A conversation involving two or more
characters.
director. The person who supervises the actors
and directs the action and production of a show.
drama anthology. A drama based on a collection of related sources about a particular theme,
issue, or person. Both fiction and non-fiction
sources may be used (e.g., diary entries, songs,
poems, speeches, images, headlines).
drama works. In an educational setting, drama
works that are experienced, created, and
viewed by students (e.g., plays, improvised
drama, short scenes, tableaux, shared drama
experiences, reader’s theatre scripts).
dramatic exploration. The spontaneous,
imaginative use by students of materials and
equipment available in the classroom to create
drama.
elements of drama. Fundamental components
of drama, including the following:
– character/role. An actor’s portrayal of a character in a drama, developed with attention to
background, motivation, speech, and physical
traits.
– focus or emphasis. The theme, character,
problem, event, moment in time, or centre of
visual interest (e.g., in a tableau or staging)
that gives purpose or impetus to a drama.
– place and time. The setting, time period (e.g.,
past, present, future), duration (e.g., one day),
and chronology of the action of a story or
drama.
– relationship(s). The connection(s) between
people, events, and/or circumstances.
– tension. A heightened mental or emotional
state resulting from uncertainty about how
the conflict or problem in a drama will be
resolved.
Elizabethan theatre. Theatre associated with
the reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England
(1558–1603), and particularly with the plays
of William Shakespeare. Other dramatists of
the period include Thomas Dekker, Thomas
Heywood, Ben Jonson, Thomas Kyd, and
Christopher Marlowe.
empathy/empathize. The capacity to “step into
the shoes” of another and to understand and
appreciate that person’s experiences and circumstances. In drama, empathy is developed
through role play, reflection, writing in role, and
viewing and discussing plays, stories, and films.
The ability to empathize with characters in drama
is a fundamental aspect of building role/character
and is essential to skill development.
ensemble. A group of actors who perform
together.
flashback and flash forward. Conventions used
to provide different perspectives on the action
in a drama by showing events from an earlier
or later time. A flashback might be used to
explain the causes of an action in the present,
a flash forward to show an action in the light
of its imagined or actual outcome.
focus or emphasis. See elements of drama.
form. (1) The compositional structure that shapes
a drama, as opposed to its theme or content.
(2) A broad category of drama that may include
within it a number of styles (e.g., puppetry is
a form, and different styles of puppetry are
characterized by the use of glove puppets or
marionettes or shadow puppets; dance drama
is a form, and there are different styles of dance
drama around the world, such as Kathakali of
India and wayang topeng of Bali and Java).
forum theatre. An approach to creating drama
works that enables a group to consider a range
of options or possible outcomes for a dramatic
conflict or complication. A small subgroup uses
improvisation to explore a dramatic situation
while the rest of the group observes. All members of the full group participate in creating
the scene – through discussion, by stopping the
scene to make suggestions, or by taking over a
role. The objective is to shape an authentic scene
that fits the dramatic context and is satisfying
to the whole group. This approach is central
to Augusto Boal’s theatre of the oppressed.
See also theatre of the oppressed.
freeze-frame image. A convention in which
students pose to make an image or tableau
that communicates an idea or a theme or that
depicts a moment in time. Also called a group
sculpture or tableau. See also tableau.
gesture. A movement of the body or limbs used
to express or emphasize a thought, emotion,
or idea.
Greek theatre. Theatre that evolved from religious rituals and flourished from approximately
600 BCE to 200 BCE in Athens, Greece, and that
made important contributions to acting, tragedy,
comedy, and the architecture and terminology
of theatre. Dramatists of the period include
Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes,
and Menander.
guided imagery. A convention used to help a
group visualize the setting for a drama. The
teacher or a student uses descriptive language
to create a picture of the physical setting and/or
historical context in which the action takes place.
hot seating. A convention in which students
allow themselves to be questioned by the rest
of the group. The questioners may speak as
themselves or in role (e.g., as reporters).
improvisation. An unscripted, unrehearsed
drama spontaneously created by a student or
students in response to a prompt or an artefact.
inner and outer circle. A convention used for
ensemble sharing of contrasting perspectives
related to a drama. Students gather in two circles:
an inner circle representing one character in the
drama and an outer circle representing a second
character. (1) In role: Students as characters
describe their reactions and state of mind at a
particular point in the drama. (2) Out of role:
Students share personal reflections with one
another as they are given prompts. Students
may speak spontaneously or read from a short
passage. Typically, the teacher orchestrates the
sharing (e.g., by tapping a student on the shoulder when it is that student’s turn to speak), so
that the contrasting points of view are highlighted for dramatic effect.
GLOSSARY
games/warm-ups. Activities that help develop
a group’s readiness for intensive drama work.
Such activities can promote group cooperation,
trust, risk taking, and listening.
genres. The categories into which dramas and
other literary works can be grouped. Examples
include: thriller, comedy, action, horror, docudrama, melodrama.
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in role. Acting a part. See also role; role
playing/role play.
interpretation. The process of making meaning
from stories, images, and poetry and the use of
drama conventions to represent or communicate
that meaning to others. Students can also
interpret drama works that they view at the
theatre and on television.
interviewing. A convention in which a person
or group in the role of “interviewer” asks
questions of a student in the role of “expert”
to gain information about a particular dramatic
situation.
journal writing. A means for students to reflect
on drama experiences, out of role, by writing
and/or drawing in a journal. The teacher may
pose questions to guide students’ thinking.
Kabuki theatre. One of the traditional forms of
Japanese theatre, originating in the 1600s and
combining stylized acting, costumes, make-up,
and musical accompaniment.
mapping. A convention in which students make
maps or diagrams in order to establish context,
build belief in the fictional setting, or reflect on
the drama.
meaning. (1) The intended message expressed
by an actor or by a drama work. (2) A viewer’s
or listener’s understanding of the message of
a drama work.
mood. See atmosphere.
narration. A convention in which a speaker
describes the action that is occurring in a
drama.
Noh theatre. One of the traditional forms of
Japanese theatre in which masked male actors
use highly stylized dance and poetry to tell
stories.
out of role. Not acting a part. The term may be
used to refer to discussions that take place out
of character to further the drama or to plan or
discuss artistic choices.
overheard conversations. A convention in
which the students, role playing in small
groups, “listen in” on what is being said by
different characters in the drama. A signal is
given to freeze all the groups. Then each group
in turn is “brought to life” to continue its
improvisation while the other groups watch
and listen.
performance. The presentation of a polished
dramatic work to others, usually an audience
of people outside the class.
performance space. The area where a presentation occurs. Types of performance space include
proscenium (in front of the curtain), alley,
thrust, in the round, and forum (large open
space).
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
place and time. See elements of drama.
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meetings. A convention in which students
and teacher come together in role to hear new
information, make decisions, and plan actions
or strategies to resolve problems that have
emerged in a drama.
mime. The use of gesture, movement, and
facial expression without words or sounds to
communicate actions, character, relationships,
or emotion.
monologue. A long speech by one character in
a drama, intended to provide insight into the
character.
play. A drama work to be read, performed
on stage, or broadcast.
plot. The sequence of events in a narrative
or drama. The sequence can be chronological
or presented in a series of flashbacks, flash
forwards, and vignettes.
prompt book. An annotated copy of a script
that includes blocking notes and diagrams,
performers’ and technicians’ cues, and other
production information. A stage manager keeps
a master copy, which is used to coordinate all
elements of a production.
prop. A portable object used in a drama to
support the action or to give authenticity to
the setting.
protagonist. The main character in a play.
reader’s theatre. A theatre genre in which
students: (a) adopt the roles of different characters and of a narrator to read a text; or (b)
develop scripts based on familiar texts, practise
their parts, and present their rehearsed reading
to others. Reader’s theatre does not involve
costumes, sets, props, or movement. The readers generally stand while reading, using their
voices to bring the action of the scene to life.
relationship(s). See elements of drama.
role. The part played by an actor depicting a
character in a drama.
role on the wall. A convention in which students
represent an important role in picture form
“on the wall” (usually on a large sheet of paper)
so that information about the role can be collectively referred to or added as the drama progresses. Information may include: the character’s
inner qualities and external appearance; the
community’s and/or the family’s opinions
about the character; the character’s view of
him- or herself; the external and internal forces
working for and against the character; known
and possible hidden influences on the action
or character.
role playing/role play. An instructional technique
in which a student and/or the teacher acts the
part of a character in an imagined situation,
usually in order to explore the character’s
thoughts, feelings, and values.
scene. A unit of a play, in which the setting is
unchanged and the time continuous.
script. The written text of a drama, including
stage directions and dialogue.
simulation. A re-creation of a series of events
from real life. Students are assigned roles and
provided with background information to help
them re-enact the real-life situation. Students
work in role in groups to plan their contribution,
then negotiate as a class to create a joint product.
source. A text, idea, or event that provides the
basis for a drama.
stage areas. Locations on the stage, such as
stage left (actor’s left), stage right (actor’s
right), upstage (away from audience), and
downstage (close to audience).
stage manager. The person in charge of overseeing a production and calling technical cues.
style. (1) A particular type of drama within a
broader dramatic category (e.g., commedia
dell’arte is a type or style of mask comedy).
(2) A distinct manner of presenting drama,
often associated with a particular historical
period, movement, writer, or performer.
tableau. A group of silent, motionless figures
used to represent a scene, theme, or abstract
idea (e.g., peace, joy), or an important moment
in a narrative. Tableaux may be presented as
stand-alone images to communicate one specific
message or may be used to achieve particular
effects in a longer drama work. Important
features of a tableau include character, space,
gesture, facial expression, and level.
talking stick. A drama strategy named after a
ceremonial artefact used in many cultures (e.g.,
Aboriginal) to ensure that everyone’s voice is
heard. In Aboriginal tradition, a stick decorated
with eagle feathers and crystals was held by a
speaker to show that he or she had the right
to speak without being interrupted. In drama
activities, a stick or other object passed among
students can be used to give everyone a turn
to speak.
GLOSSARY
227
techniques. (1) Methods or procedures used in
drama for specific purposes (e.g., use of the
voice, facial expressions, gestures, movement,
breath control, warm-ups). (2) Specific theories
about and/or methods for creating and exploring
characters in dramatic work. Examples include
the Alexander technique; the Stanislavski
method; the Meisner technique; and the
theories of Uta Hagen, Lee Strasberg, and
Rudolf Laban.
thought tracking. A strategy in which the
teacher circulates, tapping students on the
shoulder to prompt them to focus on their
inner thoughts and feelings. Thought tracking
helps students in role to draw on thoughts and
emotions that lie beneath the surface, enabling
them to deepen their response and/or contrast
outer appearance with inner experience. The
strategy can be used effectively with students
in tableaux.
technology. In drama, machinery, including
electrical or digital equipment, that is used to
help implement or enhance a drama production
(e.g., lighting equipment, sound equipment,
recording equipment, projector).
unity of time. One of three “unities” associated
with Aristotle’s discussion of Greek theatre in
the Poetics. A play whose action occurs within
a single twenty-four-hour period is said to have
unity of time. The other two unities are “unity
of place” and “unity of action”. A play set
entirely in one location is said to have unity of
place. A play that focuses on one main action
or story with no subplots is said to have unity
of action.
tension. See elements of drama.
text. A spoken, written, or media work that
communicates meaning to an audience.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
theatre in the round/arena stage. A type of stage
situated in the centre of the space, with the
audience facing it from all sides. The placement
of the audience quite close to the action creates
a feeling of intimacy and involvement.
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theatre of the absurd. Theatre associated with
the work of mainly European playwrights of
the 1950s and 1960s and motivated by a perception of the “absurdity” or meaninglessness of
the human condition. Plays often use broad
comedy to comment on the predicament of
characters in hopeless situations, as well as
innovative forms and distortions of conventional
speech to challenge complacent attitudes.
Playwrights include Samuel Beckett, Eugene
Ionesco, Jean Genet, and Harold Pinter.
theatre of the oppressed. A form of popular
theatre established in the early 1970s by
Brazilian director and Workers’ Party activist
Augusto Boal and created by, about, and for
people engaged in the struggle for liberation.
voice. The distinctive style of expression of a
character, an author, or an individual work conveyed through such means as the use of vocabulary, sentence structure, and imagery, as well
as through auditory elements such as volume,
timbre, projection, diction, dialect, tone, pitch,
articulation, and rhythm and pace of speech.
voices in the head. A convention used to deepen
students’ understanding of a conflict or a difficult choice facing a character in the drama.
The student representing the character remains
silent while others standing behind speak out to
express the thoughts and feelings the character
might be experiencing at this point. See also
corridor of voices.
writing in role. Writing done from the point of
view of a character in a drama in order to deepen
the writer’s understanding of the character and
create or develop scenes that reflect this understanding. Some examples of forms that may be
used include diaries, letters, and reports on
specific events that indicate the character’s
responses to those events.
MEDIA ARTS
acoustics. (1) The branch of science that is
concerned with the properties of sound.
(2) The properties of a particular space (e.g.,
a performance venue) that determine how
sounds (e.g., the sounds of musical instruments
and the human voice) are transmitted in it.
animation. The process of creating the illusion
of movement through a series of images
(e.g., drawings, digital images, paper cut-outs,
photographs, puppets, sculpted figures) that
show slight, progressive changes sequentially in
time using various techniques (e.g., claymation,
cut-out/collage animation, flipbook, thaumatrope, pixilation, rotoscope, stop motion, digital
processes).
avatar. A graphic image that is used to represent
a person in a virtual environment.
camera angles. Various positions of the camera in
relation to the subject being photographed, each
giving a different viewpoint and perspective.
codes and conventions. Symbols, icons, formulas,
and practices, used in various media to convey
meaning.
collage. A form of art in which a variety of
materials (e.g., photographs, fabric, found
objects, bits and pieces of originally unrelated
images including commercial images) are
arranged and attached to a flat background,
often in combination with painted or drawn
areas. Also known as découpage.
content. The meaning of an image beyond its
overt subject matter, including the emotional,
intellectual, symbolic, thematic, and narrative
connotations.
design process. A problem-solving model that
involves the concrete manipulation of images,
materials, and technology for the purpose of
solving a design problem. The technical design
process can be open ended when the student
designs all the steps, or it can be teacher directed
to varying degrees.
duration. A principle of media arts. Duration
refers to time and how its perception can be
manipulated and presented in media art works.
It can also be used to describe the temporal
nature of those art works that exist for only
a limited time.
elements of contributing arts. The elements
used in media arts are derived from other arts
disciplines. Elements include space, time, and
energy in dance; character, place, and conflict
in drama; rhythm, harmony, and dynamics in
music; line, colour, and texture in visual arts.
elements of design. Fundamental components
of visual art works. They include colour, form,
line, shape, space, texture, and value.
flipbook. A book of pictures in which the
sequential images vary slightly from one page
to the next. When the pages are turned (flipped)
rapidly, the sequence of changes in the pictures
simulates motion. Persistence of vision creates
the illusion that continuous motion, rather than
a series of discontinuous images, is being seen.
hybridization. A principle of media arts.
Hybridization is the technique used in creating
art works in which genres, styles, concepts,
materials, media, and forms are combined to
create new “hybrid” forms.
installation. A two-dimensional, threedimensional, or time-based art work (or a combination of these) made specifically for a chosen
site or environment, arranged in place either by
the artist or to the artist’s specifications, and
GLOSSARY
cropping. The trimming or cutting away of
unnecessary or unwanted edges of a picture,
or the reframing of an area of an image to create
a stronger composition. A viewfinder may be
used to help determine the best composition
before cropping.
deconstruction. The process of identifying
elements, principles, symbols, and other
components of an art work, interpreting their
meaning, and analysing how the artist has
combined them for a particular purpose.
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often involving interaction between the work, its
audience, and the site. Installations are relatively
large, and may be temporary or permanent and
created for indoor or outdoor settings.
interactivity. A principle of media arts. Interactive
media art works involve viewer participation in
the art work itself. Common interactive media
art works include interactive installations,
performance art, and web-based art.
media production. The use of a variety of technological and media tools to create a work that
conveys information or represents a student’s
culminating performance or project. Tools used
in media production may include cameras,
video or digital editing equipment, televisions,
video players, audio recorders and players,
projectors, computers, and the appropriate
software required to use these tools. Media
production provides the opportunity to
integrate and present text, graphics, sound,
video, and animation in new ways.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
media technologies. Evolving practical developments that expand artists’ ability to control and
adapt media, tools, and techniques to create art
works. Media technologies include computer,
digital imaging, and sound technologies, and
the Internet.
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multimedia art works. Like mixed-media art
works, multimedia art works are composed of
components from multiple media. However,
rather than drawing only on traditional visual
arts media, multimedia works draw on a broad
range of media that can include audio, video,
text, graphics, animation, and a variety of
digital media.
point of view. A principle of media arts referring to the perspective of an art work. Point of
view can be either conceptual or physical.
Conceptual points of view include internal,
external, subjective, objective, cultural, political,
and social viewpoints. Physical points of view
include bird’s eye, worm’s eye, eye level,
360 degree, internal, micro, macro, and
telescopic viewpoints.
principles of media arts. The organizing concepts
used in the creation of media art works. The
principles determine the organization of elements
taken from contributing art forms. There are
four organizing principles that guide the
creation of media art works: duration,
hybridization, interactivity, and point of view.
sketchbook. A book of drawing paper in which
artists record things they see or imagine. It may
include sketches, completed work, rough plans,
notes, images, and clippings.
storyboard. A visual planning tool for organizing
ideas for an animated work, story, video, or
comic book into a sequence of sketches, images,
or “shots”. Each item (frame) in the sequence
depicts scenes or figures and includes commentary that describes details of how the image
should look and how it fits into the story.
techniques. The styles and/or approaches that
can be used with tools and media to create a
particular effect in a media art work.
thumbnail sketch. A small, quick sketch that
records ideas and very basic information.
Thumbnail sketches are often used as examples
of possible layouts, showing combinations of
pictorial elements of various heights and
widths, different vertical and horizontal treatments, and/or close-ups and distant views.
tools. The mechanical or virtual implements
used to manipulate media to create media art
works.
tweening. The process in animation of inserting
one or more frames between two images to
make the second image follow smoothly from
the first. Tweening is used frequently in all types
of animation, including computer animation.
MUSIC
active listening. The process of listening to
music with a particular focus and for particular
purposes; for example listening for changes in
dynamics in order to discuss them with a classmate or listening to a melody to determine its
range.
arrange. Adapt a composition for performance
by voice(s) and/or instrument(s) that are
different from those of the original version
of the composition. The result is often called
an arrangement.
analog. A method of sound recording that
employs wave forms. The sound is most often
recorded on magnetic tape.
articulation. The way in which tones or notes
are rendered in performance. Common types of
articulation in Western music, all of which can
be indicated in notation, include staccato, legato,
tenuto, glissando, slurs, phrasing marks, accents,
and sforzando.
art music. Musical works created for an aesthetic
purpose rather than for commercial reasons.
aural/oral. Aural relates to hearing and listening.
Oral relates mainly to singing, but can also
include spoken rhymes and chant as well as
instrumental music (as in “oral tradition”).
balance. The appropriate relationship between
voices and/or instruments in a musical work,
or the positioning of voices and/or instruments
in a performance. Particular aspects of the total
sound may be relatively more prominent at different times depending on the context (e.g., a
solo violin melody in a dense orchestral texture;
a statement of the subject in an inner voice in a
fugue).
bar. The notes and rests contained between
two bar lines on the musical staff. Also called
a measure.
beat. An aspect of the element called duration.
A steady pulse. The underlying pulse of many
musical forms. In music with a metre, there are
strong beats (beats that are often emphasized)
and weak beats (unstressed beats). See also
rhythm.
binary form (AB form). A musical form that
consists of two contrasting sections (A and B).
See also form.
blend. The matching of tone quality by the
various voices within an ensemble.
blues. A vocal and instrumental form that is
characterized by blue notes and often by a
twelve-bar structure (“twelve-bar blues”).
Blue notes are most often the third and seventh,
which may occur both natural and flatted (E/E and B/B ). See also blues scale.
blues scale. Usually a six-note scale in which a
chromatic half step is added to the pentatonic
scale, which gives it the typical blues sound.
A flatted note, often the third or seventh note,
occurs in place of an expected major interval
and a flatted fifth may also occur (e.g.,
C–E –F–G –G–B ). See also blues; scale.
bridge. A transitional passage connecting two
sections of a composition, also transition.
cadence. A melodic or harmonic pattern or
formula that is used to end a phrase, section,
or piece of music. Typical harmonic cadences
are perfect (V–I), imperfect (IV–V or II–V),
plagal (IV–I), and deceptive (V–VI).
call and response. (1) A lead-and-follow activity,
sometimes also called question and answer.
(2) A song or rhythmic pattern consisting of
alternating sections of calls sung or played by
a leader (solo) and responses sung or played
by an individual or a group. The call (question)
and response (answer) are different phrases
(not echoes). It is a form that is common in
many musical traditions. Calls and responses
are often improvised.
GLOSSARY
231
canon. A piece in which the same melody is
repeated exactly by a different voice that begins
a short interval after the original voice has
started. Canons may also be for more than
two voices, and may be sung or performed
on instruments. See also round.
chant. The rhythmic speaking or singing of
words or sounds, sometimes using only one or
two pitches, called reciting tones. Some chants
are very simple (e.g., children’s chants), whereas others are very complex melodically (e.g.,
Gregorian chant, which was sung by monks
in religious services in the Middle Ages).
chord. Several notes, often three or four, played
simultaneously, usually containing a root, third,
and fifth. Chords of three notes are often called
triads. For example, a G-major chord (triad) is
made up of the notes G (root), B (third), and
D (fifth). Chords are usually described with
roman numerals – for example, I for the chord
on the first degree of the scale, or tonic; V for
the chord on the fifth degree of the scale, or
dominant; IV for the chord on the fourth degree
of the scale, or subdominant. A commonly used
chord progression is therefore written and
described as I–IV–V–I.
chord progression. See chord.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
chorus. One or more lines that are repeated at
the end of a verse in a song.
232
chromatic scale. A scale made up of twelve
consecutive notes, each a half step apart.
coda. (1) An extra section of music at the end
of a piece. (2) A concluding musical section
announcing the end of a piece.
commercial music. Music in various styles,
usually styles of popular music, that is disseminated through mass media.
compose. Create a piece of music (a composition)
using the elements of music to convey musical
thoughts and meaning.
compound metre. A metre in which each main
beat in a bar is divided into three (e.g., compound duple: 68 ; compound triple: 98 ). See also
metre.
cycle of fifths. Also often called the circle of
fifths, because a succession of perfect fifths
leads back to the starting point after proceeding
through all twelve tones (C–G–D–A–E–B–
F –C /D –A –E –B –F–C). Keys that are most
closely related to a main key are those that are
based on the note a fifth above or a fifth below
the main key.
diatonic. A term used to describe the major and
minor scales, as well as intervals and chords
based on the notes of these scales. It is also used
to describe the harmonic language of musical
styles that are largely based on the use of the
major and minor scales, rather than on the
chromatic scale.
digital. A way of recording music in which the
sound waves are represented digitally (as a
numbered sequence in a computer) resulting
in a much cleaner recording with very little
background noise.
dissonance. Any musical sound that requires a
resolution in a particular context.
duration. The element of music relating to time.
Major aspects include beat, rhythm, metre, and
tempo.
dynamics. The element of music relating to the
varying degree of volume. Some fundamental
concepts related to this element are: crescendo,
decrescendo; forte ( f – loud), fortissimo ( ff – very
loud), mezzo forte (mf – moderately loud); piano
(p – soft), pianissimo (pp – very soft), mezzo
piano (mp – moderately soft).
elements of music. Fundamental components
of music. They are defined for the purposes of
this document as duration (beat, rhythm, metre,
tempo), pitch (melody), dynamics, timbre,
texture/harmony, and form. See also individual
entries for all of these terms.
expressive controls. Particular kinds of emphasis
given to notes, using such means as articulation,
fermatas, tempo, dynamics, and timbre.
homophony (homophonic music). Music
consisting of a single melodic line with chordal
accompaniment.
folk song. A song that is usually transmitted
orally over several generations, often related
to the daily life of the people in a culture or
community.
imitation. The repetition by one voice of a
melody, phrase, or motif stated earlier in a
composition by another voice.
form. The element of music relating to the
structure of musical works or pieces. See also
binary form (AB form); rondo; ternary form
(ABA form); theme and variations; twelve-bar
blues.
found sounds. (1) Rhythmic or pitched sounds
that can be produced by using everyday objects,
such as sticks, combs, pop bottles, shakers, or
pots. (2) Environmental sounds, such as the
sounds of hammering, traffic, or birds, that can
be used in creating a musical composition.
genres. The categories into which musical works
can be grouped (e.g., song, sonata, opera, ballad).
grand staff. The combination of a staff notated
in the treble clef with one notated in the bass
clef. This staff is used for notating piano music
and music for other keyboard instruments, and
is also used to notate vocal works.
Gregorian chant. The central tradition of Western
plainsong, which is a form of monophonic,
unaccompanied vocal music of the Western
Christian church.
harmony. One of the elements of music. Harmony
is the simultaneous sounding of two or more
notes, or pitches. See also chord; texture.
improvisation. Either the music produced by
or the activity of improvising.
interpretation. (1) Analysis or appreciation of
a musical work by a viewer or listener. (2) The
particular understanding of a musical work that
is communicated by a performer of the work.
interval. The distance between two notes (e.g.,
the interval between two pitches that are one
step apart, such as C–D, is called a second).
intonation. The ability to play or sing in tune.
inversion. (1) The form of an interval that
occurs when the lower note is moved to
become the upper note. (2) The form of a chord
that occurs when the root of the chord is moved
to a position above one or more of the other
notes of the chord (e.g., root position: C-E-G;
first inversion: E-G-C; second inversion: G-C-E).
key signature. The pattern of sharps ( ) or flats
( ) placed on the staff immediately to the right
of the clef to indicate which notes are to be
played sharp or flat throughout a piece of music.
(Sharps or flats indicated in the key signature
can be temporarily cancelled by a natural sign
[ ].) The key signature also identifies the key
and scale associated with the music.
major and minor keys. A major key is based
on the notes of the major scale (e.g., C major:
C–D–E–F–G–A–B–C), while a minor key is
based on the notes of the minor scale (e.g.,
A minor [harmonic]: A–B–C–D–E–F–G –A).
See also major scale; minor scales.
GLOSSARY
historical periods. For the purposes of this
document, the historical periods for Western
classical music are the Middle Ages (ca. 500–
ca. 1450), the Renaissance (ca. 1450–1600),
the baroque period (1600–1750), the Classical
period (ca. 1750–1820), the Romantic period
(ca. 1820–1900), and the twentieth century and
beyond (from approximately 1900 on). Classical
musical traditions from other parts of the world
also have written historical records (e.g., North
and South Indian, Arabic, Persian, Chinese).
improvise. Compose, play, or sing spontaneously
without the aid of written music, applying
skills learned.
233
major interval. The distance between two notes
within the major scale, measured from the first
note of a major scale; that is, the major second,
major third, major sixth, and major seventh
(e.g., the interval F–G is a major second, and
C–E is a major third).
major scale. A stepwise series of eight notes
composed of whole steps and half steps in the
following sequence – whole, whole, half, whole,
whole, whole, half. In this pattern, a major
interval occurs between the first note of the
scale and each of the second, the third, the
sixth, and the seventh notes of the scale.
See also minor scales; scale.
measure. See bar.
melodic dictation. A process in which the teacher
performs a melodic pattern and the students
write it in musical notation after listening to it.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
melody. An aspect of the element called pitch.
A succession of sounds (pitches) and silences
moving through time. Melodies can be thought
of as movement in sound by repetition of a
pitch, by step, and by skip, or as movement by
a series of intervals (unison, step, skip, leap).
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metre. An aspect of the element called duration.
The grouping of beats in music using time
signatures. Metres are typically simple (e.g., 24 ,
3 4
6 6 9
4 , 4 ), compound (e.g., 8 , 4 , 8 ), and irregular
5
(e.g., 4 ). Duple metres have two main beats in a
bar (e.g., 24 , 68 , 64 ). Triple metres have three main
beats in a bar (e.g., 34 , 98 ).
minor interval. (1) The distance between two
notes within the minor scale, measured from
the first note of a minor scale; that is, the minor
third, minor sixth, and minor seventh (e.g., a
minor sixth is A–F). (2) Any interval that is
one half step (or semitone) smaller than a
major interval (e.g., a major second is C–D,
but the minor second is C–D ).
minor scales. (1) In the natural minor, there is
a stepwise series of eight notes composed of
whole steps and half steps in the following
sequence – whole, half, whole, whole, whole,
half, whole. In this pattern, a minor interval
occurs between the first note of the scale and
each of the third, the sixth, and the seventh
notes of the scale. (2) In the harmonic minor, the
seventh note is raised. (3) In the melodic minor,
the sixth and seventh notes are raised going up
the scale, and are lowered going down (lowered
to the same pitches as those in the natural
minor). Common to all three minor scales,
ascending and descending, is the minor interval
between the first note and the third. See also
major scale; scale.
MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface).
The technical standard that allows the software
and hardware of a computer to communicate
with a synthesizer or keyboard. MIDI is most
commonly used with sequencing and/or recording software, as well as notation software.
See also notation software.
modes. Types of scales that are commonly used
in jazz, folk traditions, Gregorian chant, and
music of various cultures. Although the names
of the modes have their basis in ancient Greek
musical theory, which was transmitted through
the Middle Ages, they are still used to describe
a variety of basically diatonic scale structures.
The most commonly used modes are ionian,
dorian, phrygian, and mixolydian.
monophony (monophonic music). Music
consisting of a single melodic line with no
accompaniment. It can be performed by one
person (a solo) or by several in unison (e.g., a
unison chorus).
motif. A dominant, recurring aspect of a musical
theme.
movement. A relatively independent segment of
a larger work that is found in such works as
sonatas, symphonies, and concertos.
musical literacy. The ability to understand and
use the variety of ways in which meaning is
communicated through music, including use
of the elements, aural skills (in listening and
performing), reading and writing skills (use of
notation, symbols, terminology), and interpretative performance skills.
notation. A way of indicating pitch and rhythm
in written form; for example, standard notation,
tablature, and percussion notation, as well as
written forms of oral syllables, such as the
syllables used in the Indian tabla tradition
and the Griot tradition of Africa.
notation software. A computer application
used to compose, arrange, and publish musical
compositions. Most notation software is able to
receive information from, and send information
to, a MIDI-capable keyboard or synthesizer.
note. A musical sound or the symbol used to
write it down.
ostinato. A continuous repeated rhythmic or
melodic pattern.
pentatonic scale. A musical scale of five pitches
or notes (e.g., C–D–E–G–A). See also scale.
phrase. (1) A group of sounds that has a beginning, a middle, and an end. (2) A musical
sentence that is both rhythmic and melodic
(often four to eight measures long).
pitch. The element of music relating to the
highness or lowness of a tone.
polyphony (polyphonic music). Music consisting
of two or more melodic lines that are performed
simultaneously. Also called counterpoint.
ragas. Melodic modes used in North and South
Indian music.
repertoire. The accumulated portfolio of pieces
that a performer or group of performers are
able to play or sing.
rhythm. An aspect of the element called duration.
The pattern of long and short sounds or silences.
See also beat.
riff. A repeated pattern (e.g., a rhythmic pattern,
a chord progression, or a melodic pattern) often
used in jazz. It is often the basis of the accompaniment in an improvisation.
rondo. A form of music in which the main
theme alternates with contrasting themes. It
often consists of five sections, of which the first,
third, and fifth are the same or almost the same
(ABACA or ABABA). See also form.
round. A piece for three or more voices or
instruments in which each sings or plays the
same melodic material but starts one after the
other at a set point (e.g., “Row, Row, Row Your
Boat”, “Frère Jacques”). It is a kind of canon.
scale. A series of notes that go up or down,
often stepwise (e.g., C–D–E–F–G–A–B). Chords
based on the notes of the scale are referred to
with roman numerals. See also chord; chromatic
scale; major scale; minor scales; modes;
pentatonic scale.
section. A part of a larger composition that is
longer than a phrase (e.g., an introduction, a
verse, a chorus, a coda). Musical forms, such
as binary and ternary, are built from smaller
musical units called sections.
sequencer. A computer program that records
music on one or many tracks.
sight reading. Singing or playing notated music
that one has not seen before.
style. Characteristic use of the elements of
music by musicians of particular traditions.
Often refers to music of a specific historical
period (e.g., baroque style). Knowledge of
aspects of the style of a particular time or
tradition is essential for proper interpretation
and performance of works in that style.
symbols. Conventional marks, signs, or characters indicating how to perform musical notes.
syncopation. The displacement of beats or
accents so that emphasis is placed on weak
beats rather than on strong beats.
GLOSSARY
tablature. A form of notation used for guitar
and other plucked instruments, such as the lute.
See also notation.
235
technical exercises. Exercises that develop
performance skills and facility.
technology. Electronic instruments and interfaces, as well as compositional hardware and
software, used for composing music and altering
and recording sound.
tempo. An aspect of the element called duration.
The speed of a piece. Some common tempo
indications are: allegro (quickly and in a lively
way), moderato (at a moderate speed), andante
(somewhat slowly, at a walking pace), largo
(slowly), adagio (slowly and gracefully), and
vivace (briskly, quickly, brightly).
ternary form (ABA form). A musical form that
consists of three sections – a first section, a
contrasting section, and a third section that
is a repetition of the first. See also form.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
texture. One of the elements of music. The relationship between the “horizontal” aspect of
music (i.e., a single line such as a melody) and
the “vertical” (i.e., some type of accompaniment
such as harmony). For example, texture that is
mainly vertical is homophonic (i.e., it consists
of a melody with chordal accompaniment), and
texture that is mainly horizontal is polyphonic
(i.e., it consists of two or more melodies sung
or played together). Texture may also be created
by a group of percussion instruments playing
music that is not primarily melodic, such as the
Balinese gamelan. See also harmony.
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theme. An important melodic subject of a piece
of music.
theme and variations. A form of music in which
a melody or section of music constitutes the
basis (the theme) for a series of variations (A,
A1, A2, A3...). The variations often result from
changes in the key, metre, rhythm, harmony,
speed, and/or mood of the theme. See also form.
timbre. The element of music relating to the
unique quality of sounds that allows us to distinguish between them (e.g., the characteristic
sound of a trumpet versus a clarinet, or a male
versus a female voice). Also called tone colour.
triad. A basic chord consisting of three notes:
the root, the third above the root, and the fifth
above the root. See also chord.
triplet. A grouping of three notes that takes the
same amount of time that two notes of the same
value would normally take in a specific piece.
A small numeral “3” is placed above the triplet.
Heard in succession, triplets produce a gently
swinging motion.
tone colour. The quality of a particular musical
sound. Also referred to as timbre. Words that
are sometimes used to describe the tone colour
or timbre of an instrument or the tone colour(s)
of a musical work might be rich, bright, mellow,
or piercing.
tone row. A non-repetitive ordering of the
twelve tones of the chromatic scale that is used
in serialism. Tone rows were widely used by
serialist composers of the twentieth century.
twelve-bar blues. One of the most popular
forms in the blues and in other popular music.
The twelve-bar blues has a distinctive structure
both musically and in its lyrics. The typical
twelve-bar blues chord progression is a
version of the I–IV–V–I chord progression
(e.g., G–C–D7–G or A–D–E7–A). This chord
progression forms the basis of thousands of
songs, not only blues songs such as “Shake,
Rattle, and Roll” and “Hound Dog”, but also
jazz classics such as “Night Train” and pop
and rock songs, such as the Clash’s “Should I
Stay or Should I Go?”. Lyrics are typically in
three lines, and the first two lines are almost
the same with slight differences in phrasing
and interjections. See also form.
unison. (1) The sound produced when two or
more instruments or voices play or sing the
same pitch. (2) The interval that occurs when
two melodic parts (voices or instruments) join
to produce the same sound.
VISUAL ARTS
animation. The process of creating the illusion
of movement through a series of images (e.g.,
drawings, digital images, paper cut-outs,
photographs, puppets, sculpted figures) that
show slight, progressive changes sequentially in
time using various techniques (e.g., claymation,
cut-out/collage animation, flipbook, thaumatrope, pixilation, rotoscope, stop motion, digital
processes).
appropriation. The taking or borrowing of
elements to recontextualize them or create new
works. The borrowed elements may include
images, forms, or styles from art history or from
popular culture, or materials and techniques
from non-art contexts (e.g., everyday objects).
The audience or viewer may or may not be
aware of the intertextuality of the imagery.
assemblage. A three-dimensional work of art
that combines a variety of materials such as
textiles and found objects or parts of objects.
background. The part of a composition that
appears to be farthest from the viewer or
behind the other objects.
balance. A principle of design. A feeling of
balance results when the elements of design
are arranged symmetrically or asymmetrically
to create the impression of equality in weight
or importance or harmony of design and
proportion. Forms and figures acquire greater
weight the farther away they are positioned
from the centre axis of the image.
collage. A form of art in which a variety of
materials (e.g., photographs, fabric, found
objects, bits and pieces of originally unrelated
images including commercial images) are
arranged and attached to a flat background,
often in combination with painted or drawn
areas. Also known as découpage.
composition. The organization of the elements
of design in an art work, following principles of
design. See also design process; elements of
design; principles of design.
contrast. A principle of design. The juxtaposition
of different elements of design (e.g., complementary colours such as red and green, textures
such as rough and smooth, values such as dark
and light) in order to highlight their differences
and/or create balance, visual interest, or a focal
point.
cool colours. Colours that suggest coolness
(e.g., blue, green, purple). Cool colours often
appear to recede into the background or
distance.
cross-hatching. A drawing technique for
shading using numerous crossed sets of parallel
lines, and usually resulting in darker values, to
create a sense of depth or three-dimensionality
on a flat surface. The darker values are created
by frequency rather than thickness of line:
fewer lines create a light image, while more
lines, closely spaced, create a darker image.
The hatching technique can also be used with
parallel lines and/or curved lines to follow the
shape of the object.
design. See composition.
design process. A problem-solving model that
involves the concrete manipulation of images,
materials, and technology for the purpose of
solving a design problem. The technical design
process can be open ended when the student
designs all the steps, or it can be teacher directed
to varying degrees.
dimension. An object’s extent in space. A
two-dimensional object has length and width.
A three-dimensional object has length, width,
and depth.
GLOSSARY
colour. An element of design. The particular
wavelength of light seen by the eye when an
object reflects or emits light. The four characteristics of colour are hue (name), value (lightness
and darkness), intensity (saturation, or amount
of pigment), and temperature (warm and cool).
See also cool colours; primary colours; secondary colours; value; warm colours.
237
elements of design. Fundamental components
of art works. They include colour, form, line,
shape, space, texture, and value.
emerging technologies. Recently developed
digital technologies that can be used to create
such art works as digital animation, interactive
video-based displays, installations incorporating
new media, and web-based art.
emphasis. A principle of design. Special attention or importance given to one part or element
in an art work (e.g., a shape of darker value in
a light composition). Emphasis can be achieved
through placement, contrast, colour, size, and
repetition, among other means.
exaggeration. A technique of enlarging or
distorting an element, object, or figure.
flipbook. A book of pictures in which the
sequential images vary slightly from one page
to the next. When the pages are turned (flipped)
rapidly, the sequence of changes in the pictures
simulates motion. Persistence of vision creates
the illusion that continuous motion, rather than
a series of discontinuous images, is being seen.
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
foreground. The area of a picture that appears to
be closest to the viewer and in front of the other
objects. It is often at the bottom of the picture
plane.
238
form. (1) An element of design. The compositional style, design, and arrangement of the
visual elements within an art work. (2) The
physical shape and dimensions of an object
within an art work. (3) A particular field or
genre within the visual arts (e.g., painting,
printmaking).
installation. A two-dimensional, three-dimensional, or time-based art work (or a combination of these) made specifically for a chosen site
or environment, arranged in place either by the
artist or to the artist’s specifications, and often
involving interaction between the work, its
audience, and the site. Installations are relatively
large, and may be temporary or permanent and
created for indoor or outdoor settings.
juxtaposition. The placing of items in an image
close to one another to reveal some contrast or
similarity that conveys a message.
landscape. (1) A painting or drawing in which
rural scenery is the main feature. Cityscapes,
streetscapes, and seascapes are variants of the
landscape genre. (2) The physical orientation
of a two-dimensional art work, where the width
is greater than the height.
layering. A technique of applying one layer
of opaque or transparent material (e.g., tissue
paper, paint, glaze) on top of another.
layout. The arrangement and positioning in
a design of text, illustrations, photographs,
and/or diagrams.
line. An element of design. The visual path
left by a moving point; also, a mark, guide,
or boundary that leads the eye in an art work.
Differences in the type, orientation, and/or
quality of lines can be used to suggest a variety
of ideas, states, or moods. For example, horizontal and curving lines can feel restful or inactive,
and vertical and diagonal lines can imply movement or action; combinations of horizontal and
vertical lines can suggest stability.
harmony. A principle of design. The combination
of elements so as to highlight their similarities
and produce a unified composition.
logo. A typographic or graphic form or image
used as an emblem to identify an individual,
club, organization, project, or product. Also
called a logotype.
hybridization. The technique used in creating
hybrid art works. Hybrid art is art in which
genres, styles, concepts, materials, media,
and cultural forms are combined to create
new forms.
materials. The substances out of which something is or can be made, including various
media (e.g., paint, chalk, modelling clay, canvas,
paper, wood) and found objects (e.g., leaves,
shells, wire). See also medium.
medium (plural: media). (1) The material(s) used
by an artist to produce a work of art. A medium
may be two-dimensional (e.g., graphite, ink,
paint, photographic paper, canvas), threedimensional (e.g., fibre, clay, wood, metal,
glass, plastic), or time-based (e.g., animation,
video), and may have wet properties (e.g.,
paint, ink, dye, wash) or dry properties (e.g.,
pencil, charcoal, conté, crayon). (2) A clear polymer or acrylic gel or emulsion used for glazing
or varnishing in painting, in image transfer
processes, or as an adhesive in collage. (3) The
liquid with which powdered pigments are
mixed to make paint (e.g., in oil paints, linseed
oil is the medium). See also mixed-media work.
mixed-media work. An art work in which more
than one medium is used (e.g., acrylic paint,
collage, and oil pastels, in combination).
mosaic. An art work made with small pieces of
a material, such as coloured stone, glass, paper,
or tile.
movement. A principle of design. The way in
which the elements of design are organized so
that the viewer’s eye is led through a work of
art in a systematic way, often to the focal area.
Movement can be directed, for example, along
lines and edges and by means of shape and
colour within the work. See also line.
multimedia applications. Computer software
programs that combine a variety of elements
such as sound, animation, text, and graphics
and can be used to create a multimedia production. Multimedia applications that provide
hypertext links among elements such as
computer text, visual material, and sound files
are called hypermedia applications. Multimedia
applications may be non-linear. They allow
students to compose, communicate, and create
in innovative ways.
pattern. (1) A principle of design. A regular
arrangement or sequence of alternated or
repeated elements (shapes, lines, colours) or
motifs. (2) A template, model, or guide for
making something.
perspective. The representation of space and
three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional
surface so as to convey the impression of height,
width, depth, and relative distance. The illusion
of depth, distance, and so on, is created through
methods such as the depiction of faraway
objects as smaller in scale and positioned closer
to the top of the art paper and the use of overlapping objects, vertical placement, diminishing
size, and shadows and shading. In linear
perspective, the parallel lines of buildings and
rectangular shapes or objects are drawn so as to
converge at a point on the horizon or eye-level
line called the vanishing point. In atmospheric
perspective, the intensity of colour and the
distinctness of detail are gradually lessened
to indicate an increase in the distance between
objects and the viewer.
primary colours. Red, yellow, and blue. These
are colours that cannot be created by mixing
other colours but that can be mixed to produce
all the other colours.
principles of design. Generally accepted ideas
about the qualities that contribute to the
effectiveness of an art work that are used as
guidelines in composing an image and analysing
how viewers are likely to perceive it. The qualities include but are not limited to the following:
balance, emphasis, harmony, movement,
proportion, repetition, rhythm, unity, variety.
proportion. A principle of design. The relationship
between objects with respect to size, number,
and so on, including the relation between parts
of a whole.
GLOSSARY
negative space. The empty or open areas within
or around an object or form (in two-dimensional
and three-dimensional art work). When these
areas have boundaries, they also function as
design shapes in the total structure.
original art work. An art work created by hand
using techniques such as drawing, printmaking,
painting, and sculpture, singly or in combination.
239
repetition. A principle of design. The repeated
use of similar elements and visual effects in
a composition. Repetition may produce the
dominance of one visual idea, a feeling of
harmonious relationship or unity, a pattern,
or a rhythmic movement of the viewer’s eye
(e.g., a repeated pattern of similar colours,
brushstrokes, and textures can lead the eye
through the art work).
rhythm. A principle of design. The use of recurring elements to direct the movement of the
viewer’s eye through the art work and give a
sense of unity to the composition. There are five
kinds of rhythm: random, regular, alternating,
progressive, and flowing.
sculpture. (1) A work of art in three dimensions
(i.e., with height, width, and depth), usually
intended to be viewed from all sides. (2) The
technique of creating three-dimensional forms
or figures by carving, cutting, hewing, casting,
moulding, welding, or assembling materials.
Materials may include clay, found objects,
modelling clay, papier mâché, plaster bandages,
wire, and wood. Types of sculpture include the
following:
THE ONTARIO CURRICULUM, GRADES 11 AND 12 | The Arts
– found-object sculpture. A type of sculpture
made of materials and objects found in the
environment. The materials and objects are
reorganized and reassembled into a new
form with or without surface decoration.
240
– free-standing sculpture. A self-supporting
three-dimensional form surrounded by space
and designed to be viewed from all sides.
Also called sculpture in the round.
scumbling (drawing). A drawing technique that
uses layers of small, calligraphic, scribbled
marks to build up value and texture.
secondary colours. Colours that are created by
mixing two primary colours (e.g., orange is
made by mixing red and yellow; green is made
by mixing blue and yellow; violet is made by
mixing blue and red).
shape. An element of design. The external form
or outline of an image produced by the use of
line, value, colour, and/or texture. Shape may
be geometric or organic, positive or negative.
Shapes have two dimensions, length and width.
space. An element of design. The area around,
within, or between images or elements. The
appearance of space can be created on a twodimensional surface by means of techniques
such as the overlapping of objects, the varying
of object size or placement, the varying of
colour intensity and value, and the use of detail
and diagonal lines.
style. The way of creating art that is characteristic
of a particular person, culture, historical period,
or group. In an art work, the type and use of
materials, methods of work, subject matter, and
so on, may reflect a particular style. The following are some major artistic styles: abstract art,
cubism, expressionism, impressionism, modernism, naturalism or realism, non-objective art,
op art (optical art), postmodernism, surrealism.
symmetry. Equality in size, shape, and/or
position between parts or elements or objects.
technique. A method or procedure of using a
tool or material to produce a work of art or
achieve an expressive effect (e.g., using the
side of a pencil to shade light and dark tones;
using the point of a pencil to create a fine line).
texture. An element of design. The feel, appearance, thickness, or stickiness of a surface or
substance. Subcategories of texture include the
following:
– illusory texture. A visual effect in which the
eye is tricked into seeing three-dimensional
materials (e.g., wood, fur, glass, metal, fabric)
on a two-dimensional surface. Also called
simulated texture or the illusion of texture.
– real texture. The three-dimensionality of
surfaces and materials that is perceptible by
touch as well as sight (e.g., smooth, rough,
silky, furry).
textile. Fibre or yarn usually woven into cloth.
thumbnail sketch. A small, quick sketch that
records ideas and very basic information.
Thumbnail sketches are often used as examples
of possible layouts, showing combinations of
pictorial elements of various heights and
widths, different vertical and horizontal treatments, and/or close-ups and distant views.
tone. See value.
unity. A principle of design. The arrangement
of elements to give the viewer the feeling that
all the parts of the piece form a coherent whole.
value. An element of design that describes the
lightness or darkness of a colour and/or the
gradual changes in the lightness or darkness
of an art work even when colour is absent.
In technical terms, a tint, or a light value of a
colour, is created by adding white, and a tone,
or a dark value of a colour, is created by adding
black.
– salt resist. A technique that involves sprinkling coarse salt on washes of damp, waterbased paint. The salt crystals gradually take
up the pigment, creating a multiplicity of
light, starlike shapes on the surface of the
paper.
– wash. A technique that involves broadly
applying thin layers of diluted pigment to
a surface, producing an almost transparent
effect.
– wet on dry. A technique that involves letting
each layer dry before applying another layer
of colour on top.
– wet on wet. A technique that involves
applying wet paint to a wet surface so that
the paints bleed and blend into one another.
variety. A principle of design. The quality of
being diverse or incorporating a number of
different or contrasting elements. Variety may
be achieved by opposing, changing, elaborating,
or contrasting the elements of design.
warm colours. Colours that suggest warmth
(e.g., red, yellow, orange). Warm colours usually
appear to advance into the foreground.
watercolour paint. Transparent, water-soluble
paint available in solid cakes or in semi-liquid
form in tubes.
watercolour techniques. Painting techniques
using water-soluble paint. Types of watercolour
techniques include the following:
– dry brush. A technique that involves the use
of thick paint and little water on the brush.
The relative dryness causes the brush to skip
on the surface of the paper, producing a
broken or textured appearance.
GLOSSARY
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The Ministry of Education wishes to acknowledge
the contribution of the many individuals, groups, and
organizations that participated in the development
and refinement of this curriculum policy document.
Printed on recycled paper
10-008
ISBN 978-1-4249-8072-7 (Print)
ISBN 978-1-4249-8073-4 (PDF)
ISBN 978-1-4249-8074-1 (TXT)
© Queen’s Printer for Ontario, 2010
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