Download datasheet for LT3652 by Linear Technology
LT3652
Power Tracking 2A Battery
Charger for Solar Power
FEATURES
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DESCRIPTION
The LT®3652 is a complete monolithic step-down battery charger that operates over a 4.95V to 32V input
voltage range. The LT3652 provides a constant-current/
constant-voltage charge characteristic, with maximum
charge current externally programmable up to 2A. The
charger employs a 3.3V float voltage feedback reference,
so any desired battery float voltage up to 14.4V can be
programmed with a resistor divider.
Input Supply Voltage Regulation Loop for Peak
Power Tracking in (MPPT) Solar Applications
Wide Input Voltage Range: 4.95V to 32V (40V Abs Max)
Programmable Charge Rate Up to 2A
User Selectable Termination: C/10 or On-Board
Termination Timer
Resistor Programmable Float Voltage Up to 14.4V
Accommodates Li-Ion/Polymer, LiFePO4, SLA,
NiMH/NiCd Chemistries
No VIN Blocking Diode Required for Battery
Voltages ≤ 4.2V
1MHz Fixed Frequency
0.5% Float Voltage Reference Accuracy
5% Charge Current Accuracy
2.5% C/10 Detection Accuracy
Binary-Coded Open-Collector Status Pins
3mm × 3mm DFN12 or MSOP-12 Packages
The LT3652 employs an input voltage regulation loop, which
reduces charge current if the input voltage falls below a
programmed level, set with a resistor divider. When the
LT3652 is powered by a solar panel, the input regulation
loop is used to maintain the panel at peak output power.
The LT3652 can be configured to terminate charging
when charge current falls below 1/10 of the programmed
maximum (C/10). Once charging is terminated, the LT3652
enters a low-current (85μA) standby mode. An auto-recharge feature starts a new charging cycle if the battery
voltage falls 2.5% below the programmed float voltage.
The LT3652 also contains a programmable safety timer,
used to terminate charging after a desired time is reached.
This allows top-off charging at currents less than C/10.
APPLICATIONS
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Solar Powered Applications
Remote Monitoring Stations
LiFePO4 (Lithium Phosphate) Applications
Portable Handheld Instruments
12V to 24V Automotive Systems
L, LT, LTC, LTM, Linear Technology and the Linear logo are registered trademarks of Linear
Technology Corporation. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
TYPICAL APPLICATION
Solar Panel Input Voltage
Regulation, Tracks Max Power
Point to Greater Than 98%
2A Solar Panel Power Manager With 7.2V LiFePO4 Battery
and 17V Peak Power Tracking
22
SOLAR PANEL INPUT
(<40V OC VOLTAGE)
SYSTEM LOAD
CMSH3-40MA
10μF
530k
VIN
LT3652
VIN_REG
SHDN
100k
CHRG
FAULT
TIMER
CMSH3-40MA
SW
1μF
10μH
BOOST
0.05
SENSE
BAT
NTC
VFB
542k
10μF
INPUT REGULATION VOLTAGE (V)
CMSH1-40MA
TA = 25°C
20
18
100% TO 98% PEAK POWER
16
98% TO 95% PEAK POWER
14
12
459k
10k
B = 3380
2-CELL LiFePO4 (2 × 3.6V) BATTERY PACK
+
10
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8
CHARGER OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
2
3652 TA01b
3652 TA01a
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LT3652
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
(Note 1)
Voltages:
VIN ........................................................................40V
VIN_REG, SHDN, CHRG, FAULT ............ VIN + 0.5V, 40V
SW ........................................................................40V
SW-VIN.................................................................4.5V
BOOST ...................................................SW+10V, 50V
BAT, SENSE ...........................................................15V
BAT-SENSE ......................................... –0.5V to +0.5V
NTC, TIMER, ........................................................2.5V
VFB ..........................................................................5V
Operating Junction Temperature Range
(Note 2) ............................................. –40°C to 125°C
Storage Temperature Range................... –65°C to 150°C
PIN CONFIGURATION
TOP VIEW
TOP VIEW
VIN
1
12 SW
VIN_REG
2
11 BOOST
SHDN
3
10 SENSE
CHRG
4
FAULT
5
TIMER
6
13
VIN
VIN_REG
SHDN
CHRG
FAULT
TIMER
9 BAT
8 NTC
7 VFB
1
2
3
4
5
6
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
SW
BOOST
SENSE
BAT
NTC
VFB
MSE PACKAGE
12-LEAD PLASTIC MSOP
DD PACKAGE
12-LEAD (3mm × 3mm) PLASTIC DFN
TJMAX = 125°C, θJA = 43°C/W, θJC = 3°C/W
EXPOSED PAD (PIN 13) IS GND, MUST BE SOLDERED TO PCB
TJMAX = 125°C, θJA = 43°C/W, θJC = 3°C/W
EXPOSED PAD (PIN 13) IS GND, MUST BE SOLDERED TO PCB
ORDER INFORMATION
LEAD FREE FINISH
TAPE AND REEL
PART MARKING*
PACKAGE DESCRIPTION
TEMPERATURE RANGE
LT3652EDD#PBF
LT3652EDD#TRPBF
LFHT
12-Lead Plastic DFN 3mm × 3mm
–40°C to 125°C
LT3652IDD#PBF
LT3652IDD#TRPBF
LFHT
12-Lead Plastic DFN 3mm × 3mm
–40°C to 125°C
LT3652EMSE#PBF
LT3652EMSE#TRPBF
3652
12-Lead Plastic MSOP
–40°C to 125°C
LT3652IMSE#PBF
LT3652IMSE#TRPBF
3652
12-Lead Plastic MSOP
–40°C to 125°C
Consult LTC Marketing for parts specified with wider operating temperature ranges. *The temperature grade is identified by a label on the shipping container.
Consult LTC Marketing for information on non-standard lead based finish parts.
For more information on lead free part marking, go to: http://www.linear.com/leadfree/
For more information on tape and reel specifications, go to: http://www.linear.com/tapeandreel/
3652fc
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LT3652
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
The l denotes the specifications which apply over the full operating
temperature range, otherwise specifications are at TA = 25°C. VIN = 20V, Boost – SW = 4V, SHDN = 2V, VFB = 3.3V, CTIMER = 0.68µF.
SYMBOL
PARAMETER
CONDITIONS
MIN
VIN
VIN Operating Range
VIN Start Voltage
VBAT = 4.2 (Notes 3, 4)
VBAT = 4.2 (Note 4)
l
l
4.95
7.5
VIN(OVLO)
OVLO Threshold
OVLO Hysteresis
VIN Rising
l
32
VIN(UVLO)
UVLO Threshold
UVLO Hysteresis
VIN Rising
VFB(FLT)
Float Voltage Reference
(Note 6)
l
ΔVRECHARGE
Recharge Reference Threshold
VFB(PRE)
VFB(PREHYST)
3.282
3.26
TYP
MAX
UNITS
32
V
V
35
1
40
V
V
4.6
0.2
4.95
V
V
3.3
3.318
3.34
V
V
Voltage Relative to VFB(FLT) (Note 6)
82.5
Reference Precondition Threshold
VFB Rising (Note 6)
2.3
V
Reference Precondition Threshold
Hysteresis
Voltage Relative to VFB(PRE) (Note 6)
70
mV
VIN_REG(TH)
Input Regulation Reference
VFB = 3V; VSENSE – VBAT = 50mV
IIN_REG
Input Regulation Reference Bias Current VIN_REG = VIN_REG(TH)
IVIN
Operating Input Supply Current
CC/CV Mode, ISW = 0
Standby Mode
Shutdown (SHDN = 0)
IBOOST
BOOST Supply Current
Switch On, ISW = 0,
2.5 < V(BOOST – SW) < 8.5
20
mA
IBOOST/ISW
BOOST Switch Drive
ISW = 2A
30
mA/A
VIN – VSW, ISW = 2A
350
mV
2.7
2.75
l
35
100
nA
l
2.5
85
15
3.5
mA
μA
μA
l
2.65
mV
V
VSW(ON)
Switch-On Voltage Drop
ISW(MAX)
Switch Current Limit
VSENSE(PRE)
Precondition Sense Voltage
VSENSE – VBAT; VFB = 2V
VSENSE(DC)
Maximum Sense Voltage
VSENSE – VBAT; VFB = 3V (Note 7)
l
95
100
105
mV
VSENSE(C/10)
C/10 Trigger Sense Voltage
VSENSE – VBAT, Falling
l
7.5
10
12.5
mV
IBAT
BAT Input Bias Current
Charging Terminated
0.1
1
μA
ISENSE
SENSE Input Bias Current
Charging Terminated
0.1
1
μA
IREVERSE
Charger Reverse Current
IBAT + ISENSE + ISW
VIN = 0; VBAT = VSENSE = VSW = 4.2V
1
μA
IVFB
VFB Input Bias Current
Charging Terminated
65
nA
IVFB
VFB Input Bias Current
CV Operation (Note 5)
110
nA
VNTC(H)
NTC Range Limit (High)
VNTC Rising
l
1.25
1.36
1.45
VNTC(L)
NTC Range Limit (Low)
VNTC Falling
l
0.27
0.29
0.315
VNTC(HYST)
NTC Threshold Hysteresis
% of threshold
RNTC(DIS)
NTC Disable Impedance
Impedance to ground
l
INTC
NTC Bias Current
VNTC = 0.8V
VSHDN
Shutdown Threshold
Rising
l
2.5
3
A
15
mV
V
V
20
%
250
500
kΩ
l
47.5
50
52.5
μA
l
1.15
1.2
1.25
V
VSHDN(HYST)
Shutdown Hysteresis
120
mV
ISHDN
SHDN Input Bias Current
–10
nA
VCHRG, VFAULT
Status Low Voltage
ITIMER
Charge/Discharge Current
VTIMER(DIS)
Timer Disable Threshold
10mA Load
0.4
l
l
0.1
V
25
μA
0.25
V
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LT3652
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
The l denotes the specifications which apply over the full operating
temperature range, otherwise specifications are at TA = 25°C. VIN = 20V, Boost – SW = 4V, SHDN = 2V, VFB = 3.3V, CTIMER = 0.68µF.
SYMBOL
PARAMETER
tTIMER
Full Charge Cycle Timeout
CONDITIONS
MIN
DC
Duty Cycle Range
l
–10
min
10
1
Continuous Operation
Note 1: Stresses beyond those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings
may cause permanent damage to the device. Exposure to any Absolute
Maximum Rating condition for extended periods may affect device
reliability and lifetime.
Note 2: The LT3652EDD is guaranteed to meet performance specifications
from 0°C to 125°C junction temperature. Specifications over the –40°C
to 125°C operating junction temperature range are assured by design,
characterization, and correlation with statistical process controls. The
LT3652IDD specifications are guaranteed over the full –40°C to 125°C
operating junction temperature range. High junction temperatures degrade
operating lifetimes.
Note 3: VIN minimum voltages below the start threshold are only
supported if (VBOOST-VSW) > 2V.
l
15
UNITS
hr
22.5
Timer Accuracy
Operating Frequency
MAX
3
Precondition Timeout
fO
TYP
%
MHz
90
%
Note 4: This parameter is valid for programmed output battery float
voltages ≤ 4.2V. VIN operating range minimum is 0.75V above the
programmed output battery float voltage (VBAT(FLT) + 0.75V). VIN Start
Voltage is 3.3V above the programmed output battery float voltage
(VBAT(FLT) + 3.3V).
Note 5: Output battery float voltage (VBAT(FLT)) programming resistor
divider equivalent resistance = 250k compensates for input bias current.
Note 6: All VFB voltages measured through 250k series resistance.
Note 7: VSENSE(DC) is reduced by thermal foldback as junction temperature
approaches 125°C.
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LT3652
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
VIN_REG Threshold
vs Temperature: ICHG at 50%
TJ = 25°C, unless otherwise noted.
VIN Standby Mode Current
vs Temperature
VFB Reference Voltage
vs Temperature
2.720
100
3.304
2.715
95
VFB (FLT)
2.700
IVIN CURRENT (μA)
3.302
2.705
3.300
2.695
3.298
2.690
2.685
50
25
0
75
TEMPERATURE (°C)
100
125
–50
–25
50
25
0
75
TEMPERATURE (°C)
100
80
75
125
65
–50
–25
50
25
0
TEMPERATURE (°C)
75
100
3652 G02
Switch Forward Drop (VIN – VSW)
vs Temperature
Switch Drive (ISW/IBOOST)
vs Switch Current
480
36
33
ISW = 2A
460
30
440
27
VSW(ON) (mV)
24
21
18
15
12
420
400
380
360
9
6
340
3
0
85
3652 G01a
3652 G01
0
320
–50
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
SWITCH CURRENT (A)
–25
50
25
0
75
TEMPERATURE (°C)
3652 G03
125
C/10 Threshold (VSENSE –VBAT )
vs Temperature
CC/CV Charging; SENSE Pin Bias
Current vs VSENSE
100
100
3652 G04
12
VBAT = VBAT(PRE)
50
0
11
VBAT = VBAT(FLT)
–50
–100
–150
–200
VSENSE(C/10) (mV)
–25
ISW/IBOOST
2.680
–50
90
70
3.296
ISENSE (μA)
VIN_REG(TH) (V)
2.710
10
9
–250
–300
–350
0
0.5
1
1.5
8
–50
2.5
VSENSE (V)
2
3652 G05
–25
50
25
0
75
TEMPERATURE (°C)
100
125
3652 G06
3652fc
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LT3652
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
Thermal Foldback – Maximum
Charge Current (VSENSE –VBAT )
vs Temperature
Maximum Charge Current
(VSENSE –VBAT ) vs Temperature
100.8
120
2.2
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
–0.2
–0.4
VFB = 3V
100
100.6
100.4
VSENSE(DC) (mV)
VSENSE(DC) (mV)
CC/CV Charging; BAT Pin Bias
Current vs VBAT
100.2
100.0
99.8
99.6
99.4
80
IBAT (mA)
101.0
TA = 25°C, unless otherwise noted.
60
40
20
99.2
99.0
–50
0
–25
50
25
0
75
TEMPERATURE (°C)
100
125
25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 105 115 125 135
TEMPERATURE (°C)
0
0.5
1.5
1
3
3652 G09
VFLOAT Programming Resistor
Current vs VFLOAT for 2-Resistor
Network
Maximum Charge Current
(VSENSE –VBAT ) vs VIN_REG Voltage
12
100
10
80
8
IRFB (μA)
60
40
6
4
20
2
0
2.65 2.66 2.67 2.68 2.69 2.7 2.71 2.72 2.73 2.74 2.75
VIN_REG (V)
0
0
4
2
6
8
10
VBAT(FLT) (V)
12
14
3652 G10
Charger Efficiency vs Battery
Voltage (ICHG = 2A)
95
3.0
90
VIN = 20V
88
EFFICIENCY
85
2.0
75
CHARGE
CURRENT
1.5
65
1.0
55
0.5
45
0
35
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200
TIME (MINUTES)
86
EFFICIENCY (%)
POWER
LOSS
EFFICIENCY (%)
2.5
84
82
80
78
76
74
72
0
16
3652 G11
Charge Current, Efficiency, and
Power Loss vs Time
(ICHG(MAX) = 2A; VFLOAT = 8.2V)
CHARGE CURRENT (A); POWER LOSS (W)
2 2.5
VBAT (V)
3652 G08
3652 G07
VSENSE(DC) (mV)
VBAT(FLT)
3652 G12
70
VIN = 20V WITH INPUT BLOCKING DIODE
3
4
5
6
7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
VBAT (V)
3652 G13
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LT3652
PIN FUNCTIONS
VIN (Pin 1): Charger Input Supply. VIN operating range
is 4.95V to 32V. VIN must be 3.3V greater than the programmed output battery float voltage (VBAT(FLT)) for reliable start-up. (VIN – VBAT(FLT)) ≥ 0.75V is the minimum
operating voltage, provided (VBOOST – VSW) ≥ 2V. IVIN ~
85μA after charge termination.
VIN_REG (Pin 2): Input Voltage Regulation Reference.
Maximum charge current is reduced when this pin is below
2.7V. Connecting a resistor divider from VIN to this pin
enables programming of minimum operational VIN voltage.
This is typically used to program the peak power voltage
for a solar panel. The LT3652 servos the maximum charge
current required to maintain the programmed operational
VIN voltage, through maintaining the voltage on VIN_REG
at or above 2.7V. If the voltage regulation feature is not
used, connect the pin to VIN.
SHDN (Pin 3): Precision Threshold Shutdown Pin. The
enable threshold is 1.2V (rising), with 120mV of input
hysteresis. When in shutdown mode, all charging functions
are disabled. The precision threshold allows use of the
SHDN pin to incorporate UVLO functions. If the SHDN pin
is pulled below 0.4V, the IC enters a low current shutdown
mode where VIN current is reduced to 15μA. Typical SHDN
pin input bias current is 10nA. If the shutdown function
is not desired, connect the pin to VIN.
CHRG (Pin 4): Open-Collector Charger Status Output;
typically pulled up through a resistor to a reference voltage. This status pin can be pulled up to voltages as high
as VIN when disabled, and can sink currents up to 10mA
when enabled. During a battery charging cycle, if required
charge current is greater than 1/10 of the programmed
maximum current (C/10), CHRG is pulled low. A temperature fault also causes this pin to be pulled low. After
C/10 charge termination or, if the internal timer is used
for termination and charge current is less than C/10, the
CHRG pin remains high-impedance.
FAULT (Pin 5): Open-Collector Charger Status Output;
typically pulled up through a resistor to a reference voltage. This status pin can be pulled up to voltages as high
as VIN when disabled, and can sink currents up to 10mA
when enabled. This pin indicates fault conditions during a
battery charging cycle. A temperature fault causes this pin
to be pulled low. If the internal timer is used for termination, a bad battery fault also causes this pin to be pulled
low. If no fault conditions exist, the FAULT pin remains
high-impedance.
TIMER (Pin 6): End-Of-Cycle Timer Programming Pin.
If a timer-based charge termination is desired, connect
a capacitor from this pin to ground. Full charge end-ofcycle time (in hours) is programmed with this capacitor
following the equation:
tEOC = CTIMER • 4.4 • 106
A bad battery fault is generated if the battery does not
achieve the precondition threshold voltage within oneeighth of tEOC, or:
tPRE = CTIMER • 5.5 • 105
A 0.68μF capacitor is typically used, which generates a
timer EOC at three hours, and a precondition limit time of
22.5 minutes. If a timer-based termination is not desired,
the timer function is disabled by connecting the TIMER
pin to ground. With the timer function disabled, charging
terminates when the charge current drops below a C/10
threshold, or ICHG(MAX)/10
VFB (Pin 7): Battery Float Voltage Feedback Reference. The
charge function operates to achieve a final float voltage of
3.3V on this pin. Output battery float voltage (VBAT(FLT))
is programmed using a resistor divider. VBAT(FLT) can be
programmed up to 14.4V.
The auto-restart feature initiates a new charging cycle
when the voltage at the VFB pin falls 2.5% below the float
voltage reference.
The VFB pin input bias current is 110nA. Using a resistor
divider with an equivalent input resistance at the VFB pin
of 250k compensates for input bias current error.
Required resistor values to program desired VBAT(FLT)
follow the equations:
R1 = (VBAT(FLT) • 2.5 • 105)/3.3
(Ω)
R2 = (R1 • 2.5 • 105)/(R1 - (2.5 • 105))
(Ω)
R1 is connected from BAT to VFB, and R2 is connected
from VFB to ground.
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LT3652
PIN FUNCTIONS
NTC (Pin 8): Battery Temperature Monitor Pin. This pin is
the input to the NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient)
thermistor temperature monitoring circuit. This function is
enabled by connecting a 10kΩ, B = 3380 NTC thermistor
from the NTC pin to ground. The pin sources 50μA, and
monitors the voltage across the 10kΩ thermistor. When
the voltage on this pin is above 1.36 (T < 0°C) or below
0.29V (T > 40°C), charging is disabled and the CHRG and
FAULT pins are both pulled low. If internal timer termination is being used, the timer is paused, suspending the
charging cycle. Charging resumes when the voltage on NTC
returns to within the 0.29V to 1.36V active region. There
is approximately 5°C of temperature hysteresis associated
with each of the temperature thresholds. The temperature
monitoring function remains enabled while the thermistor
resistance to ground is less than 250k, so if this function
is not desired, leave the NTC pin unconnected.
BAT (Pin 9): Charger Output Monitor Pin. Connect a
10μF decoupling capacitance (CBAT) to ground. Depending on application requirements, larger value decoupling
capacitors may be required. The charge function operates
to achieve the programmed output battery float voltage
(VBAT(FLT)) at this pin. This pin is also the reference for
the current sense voltage. Once a charge cycle is terminated, the input bias current of the BAT pin is reduced to
< 0.1μA, to minimize battery discharge while the charger
remains connected.
SENSE (Pin 10): Charge Current Sense Pin. Connect the
inductor sense resistor (RSENSE) from the SENSE pin to the
BAT pin. The voltage across this resistor sets the average
charge current. The maximum charge current (ICHG(MAX))
corresponds to 100mV across the sense resistor. This
resistor can be set to program maximum charge current as high as 2A. The sense resistor value follows the
relation:
RSENSE = 0.1/ICHG(MAX) (Ω)
Once a charge cycle is terminated, the input bias current of
the SENSE pin is reduced to < 0.1μA, to minimize battery
discharge while the charger remains connected.
BOOST (Pin 11): Bootstrapped Supply Rail for Switch
Drive. This pin facilitates saturation of the switch transistor.
Connect a 1μF or greater capacitor from the BOOST pin
to the SW pin. Operating range of this pin is 0V to 8.5V,
referenced to the SW pin. The voltage on the decoupling
capacitor is refreshed through a rectifying diode, with
the anode connected to either the battery output voltage
or an external source, and the cathode connected to the
BOOST pin.
SW (Pin 12): Switch Output Pin. This pin is the output
of the charger switch, and corresponds to the emitter of
the switch transistor. When enabled, the switch shorts
the SW pin to the VIN supply. The drive circuitry for this
switch is bootstrapped above the VIN supply using the
BOOST supply pin, allowing saturation of the switch for
maximum efficiency. The effective on-resistance of the
boosted switch is 0.175Ω.
SGND (Pin 13): Ground Reference and Backside Exposed
Lead Frame Thermal Connection. Solder the exposed lead
frame to the PCB ground plane.
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LT3652
BLOCK DIAGRAM
+
–
125°C
TDIE
STANDBY
UVLO
+
–
OVLO
4.6V
– +
VIN_REG
2.7V
BOOST
+
–
VIN
35V
+
–
R
LATCH
S
Q
0.2V
TIMER
+
–
10mΩ
30mV
OSC
1MHz
+
–
TIMER
OSC.
SW
VC
–
C-EA
STANDBY
+
RIPPLE
COUNTER
COUNT
RESET
RS
SENSE
RS
BAT
OFFSET
–
COUNT
+
0.3V
RESET
ENABLE
V-EA
+
COUNT
ITH
10 × RS
MODE
(TIMER OR C/10)
CHRG
VFB
–
CONTROL LOGIC
TERMINATE
FAULT
STATUS
–
+
C/10
0.1V
1V
PRECONDITION
–
+
0.15V
NTC
VINT
2.7V
+
–
–
+
–
+
x2.25
2.3V
SHDN
STANDBY
1.2V
1.36V
50μA
0.29V
–
+
3.3V
3.218V
TERMINATE
NTC
– +
3652 BD
1.3V
0.7V
46μA
3652fc
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LT3652
APPLICATIONS INFORMATION
Overview
LT3652 is a complete monolithic, mid-power, multi-chemistry buck battery charger, addressing high input voltage
applications with solutions that require a minimum of external components. The IC uses a 1MHz constant frequency,
average-current mode step-down architecture.
The LT3652 incorporates a 2A switch that is driven by
a bootstrapped supply to maximize efficiency during
charging cycles. Wide input range allows operation to full
charge from voltages as high as 32V. A precision threshold
shutdown pin allows incorporation of UVLO functionality
using a simple resistor divider. The IC can also be put into
a low-current shutdown mode, in which the input supply
bias is reduced to only 15μA.
The LT3652 employs an input voltage regulation loop,
which reduces charge current if a monitored input voltage falls below a programmed level. When the LT3652 is
powered by a solar panel, the input regulation loop is used
to maintain the panel at peak output power.
The LT3652 automatically enters a battery precondition
mode if the sensed battery voltage is very low. In this mode,
the charge current is reduced to 15% of the programmed
maximum, as set by the inductor sense resistor, RSENSE.
Once the battery voltage reaches 70% of the fully charged
float voltage, the IC automatically increases maximum
charge current to the full programmed value.
The LT3652 can use a charge-current based C/10 termination scheme, which ends a charge cycle when the battery
charge current falls to one tenth of the programmed
maximum charge current. The LT3652 also contains an
internal charge cycle control timer, for timer-based termination. When using the internal timer, the IC combines C/10
detection with a programmable time constraint, during
which the charging cycle can continue beyond the C/10
level to top-off a battery. The charge cycle terminates
when a specific time elapses, typically 3 hours. When
the timer-based scheme is used, the IC also supports bad
battery detection, which triggers a system fault if a battery
stays in precondition mode for more than one eighth of
the total charge cycle time.
Once charging is terminated, the LT3652 automatically
enters a low-current standby mode where supply bias
currents are reduced to 85μA. The IC continues to monitor
the battery voltage while in standby, and if that voltage
falls 2.5% from the full-charge float voltage, the LT3652
engages an automatic charge cycle restart. The IC also
automatically restarts a new charge cycle after a bad battery fault once the failed battery is removed and replaced
with another battery.
The LT3652 contains provisions for a battery temperature
monitoring circuit. This feature monitors battery temperature using a thermistor during the charging cycle. If the
battery temperature moves outside a safe charging range
of 0°C to 40°C, the IC suspends charging and signals a
fault condition until the temperature returns to the safe
charging range.
The LT3652 contains two digital open-collector outputs,
which provide charger status and signal fault conditions.
These binary-coded pins signal battery charging, standby
or shutdown modes, battery temperature faults, and bad
battery faults.
General Operation (See Block Diagram)
The LT3652 uses average current mode control loop
architecture, such that the IC servos directly to average
charge current. The LT3652 senses charger output voltage
through a resistor divider via the VFB pin. The difference
between the voltage on this pin and an internal 3.3V voltage reference is integrated by the voltage error amplifier
(V-EA). This amplifier generates an error voltage on its
output (ITH), which corresponds to the average current
sensed across the inductor current sense resistor, RSENSE,
which is connected between the SENSE and BAT pins.
The ITH voltage is then divided down by a factor of 10,
and imposed on the input of the current error amplifier
(C-EA). The difference between this imposed voltage and
the current sense resistor voltage is integrated, with the
resulting voltage (VC) used as a threshold that is compared
against an internally generated ramp. The output of this
comparison controls the charger’s switch.
3652fc
10
LT3652
APPLICATIONS INFORMATION
The ITH error voltage corresponds linearly to average
current sensed across the inductor current sense resistor,
allowing maximum charge current control by limiting the
effective voltage range of ITH. A clamp limits this voltage
to 1V which, in turn, limits the current sense voltage to
100mV. This sets the maximum charge current, or the
current delivered while the charger is operating in constant-current (CC) mode, which corresponds to 100mV
across RSENSE. The ITH voltage is pulled down to reduce
this maximum charge current should the voltage on the
VIN_REG pin falls below 2.7V (VIN_REG(TH)) or the die temperature approaches 125°C.
If the voltage on the VFB pin is below 2.3V (VFB(PRE)),
the LT3652 engages precondition mode. During the
precondition interval, the charger continues to operate in
constant-current mode, but the maximum charge current
is reduced to 15% of the maximum programmed value
as set by RSENSE.
When the charger output voltage approaches the float voltage, or the voltage on the VFB pin approaches 3.3V (VFB(FLT)),
the charger transitions into constant-voltage (CV) mode
and charge current is reduced from the maximum value.
As this occurs, the ITH voltage falls from the limit clamp
and servos to lower voltages. The IC monitors the ITH voltage as it is reduced, and detection of C/10 charge current
is achieved when ITH = 0.1V. If the charger is configured
for C/10 termination, this threshold is used to terminate
the charge cycle. Once the charge cycle is terminated,
the CHRG status pin becomes high-impedance and the
charger enters low-current standby mode.
The LT3652 contains an internal charge cycle timer that
terminates a successful charge cycle after a programmed
amount of time. This timer is typically programmed to
achieve end-of-cycle (EOC) in 3 hours, but can be configured for any amount of time by setting an appropriate
timing capacitor value (CTIMER). When timer termination
is used, the charge cycle does not terminate when C/10
is achieved. Because the CHRG status pin responds to
the C/10 current level, the IC will indicate a fully-charged
battery status, but the charger continues to source low
currents into the battery until the programmed EOC time
has elapsed, at which time the charge cycle will terminate.
At EOC when the charging cycle terminates, if the battery
did not achieve at least 97.5% of the full float voltage,
charging is deemed unsuccessful, the LT3652 re-initiates,
and charging continues for another full timer cycle.
Use of the timer function also enables bad-battery detection. This fault condition is achieved if the battery does
not respond to preconditioning, such that the charger
remains in (or enters) precondition mode after 1/8th of
the programmed charge cycle time. A bad battery fault
halts the charging cycle, the CHRG status pin goes highimpedance, and the FAULT pin is pulled low.
When the LT3652 terminates a charging cycle, whether
through C/10 detection or by reaching timer EOC, the
average current mode analog loop remains active, but
the internal float voltage reference is reduced by 2.5%.
Because the voltage on a successfully charged battery is
at the full float voltage, the voltage error amp detects an
over-voltage condition and ITH is pulled low. When the
voltage error amp output drops below 0.3V, the IC enters
standby mode, where most of the internal circuitry is disabled, and the VIN bias current is reduced to 85μA. When
the voltage on the VFB pin drops below the reduced float
reference level, the output of the voltage error amp will
climb, at which point the IC comes out of standby mode
and a new charging cycle is initiated.
VIN Input Supply
The LT3652 is biased directly from the charger input supply
through the VIN pin. This supply provides large switched
currents, so a high-quality, low ESR decoupling capacitor
is recommended to minimize voltage glitches on VIN. The
VIN decoupling capacitor (CVIN) absorbs all input switching
3652fc
11
LT3652
APPLICATIONS INFORMATION
ripple current in the charger, so it must have an adequate
ripple current rating. RMS ripple current (ICVIN(RMS)) is:
ICVIN(RMS) ≅ ICHG(MAX) • (VBAT / VIN)•([VIN / VBAT] – 1)1/2,
where ICHG(MAX) is the maximum average charge current
(100mV/RSENSE). The above relation has a maximum at
VIN = 2 • VBAT, where:
BOOST Supply
The BOOST bootstrapped supply rail drives the internal
switch and facilitates saturation of the switch transistor.
Operating range of the BOOST pin is 0V to 8.5V, as refer-
LT3652
SW
BOOST
SENSE
ICVIN(RMS) = ICHG(MAX)/2.
RSENSE
BAT
3652 F01
The simple worst-case of ½ • ICHG(MAX) is commonly
used for design.
Bulk capacitance is a function of desired input ripple voltage (ΔVIN), and follows the relation:
CIN(BULK) = ICHG(MAX) • (VBAT/VIN) / ΔVIN (μF)
Input ripple voltages above 0.1V are not recommended.
10μF is typically adequate for most charger applications.
Charge Current Programming
The LT3652 charger is configurable to charge at average
currents as high as 2A. Maximum charge current is set by
choosing an inductor sense resistor (RSENSE) such that
the desired maximum average current through that sense
resistor creates a 100mV drop, or:
Figure 1. Programming Maximum Charge
Current Using RSENSE
enced to the SW pin. Connect a 1μF or greater capacitor
from the BOOST pin to the SW pin.
The voltage on the decoupling capacitor is refreshed
through a diode, with the anode connected to either the
battery output voltage or an external source, and the
cathode connected to the BOOST pin. Rate the diode
average current greater than 0.1A, and reverse voltage
greater than VIN(MAX).
To refresh the decoupling capacitor with a rectifying diode
from the battery with battery float voltages higher than
8.4V, a >100mA Zener diode can be put in series with
the rectifying diode to prevent exceeding the BOOST pin
operating voltage range.
RSENSE = 0.1 / ICHG(MAX)
where ICHG(MAX) is the maximum average charge current.
A 2A charger, for example, would use a 0.05Ω sense
resistor.
3652fc
12
LT3652
APPLICATIONS INFORMATION
LT3652
SW
BOOST
SENSE
BAT
3652 F02
Figure 2. Zener Diode Reduces Refresh
Voltage for BOOST Pin
VIN / BOOST Start-Up Requirement
The LT3652 operates with a VIN range of 4.95V to 32V,
however, a start-up voltage requirement exists due to
the nature of the non-synchronous step-down switcher
topology used for the charger. If there is no BOOST supply
available, the internal switch requires (VIN – VSW) ≥ 3.3V
to reliably operate. This requirement does not exist if the
BOOST supply is available and (VBOOST – VSW) > 2V.
When an LT3652 charger is not switching, the SW pin is
at the same potential as the battery, which can be as high
as VBAT(FLT). As such, for reliable start-up, the VIN supply
must be at least 3.3V above VBAT(FLT). Once switching
begins and the BOOST supply capacitor gets charged
such that (VBOOST – VSW) > 2V, the VIN requirement no
longer applies.
In low VIN applications, the BOOST supply can be powered
by an external source for start-up, eliminating the VIN
start-up requirement.
VBAT Output Decoupling
An LT3652 charger output requires bypass capacitance
connected from the BAT pin to ground (CBAT). A 10μF
ceramic capacitor is required for all applications. In systems
where the battery can be disconnected from the charger
output, additional bypass capacitance may be desired for
visual indication for a no-battery condition (see the Status
Pins section).
If it is desired to operate a system load from the LT3652
charger output when the battery is disconnected, additional
bypass capacitance is required. In this type of application,
excessive ripple and/or low amplitude oscillations can occur without additional output bulk capacitance. For these
applications, place a 100μF low ESR non-ceramic capacitor
(chip tantalum or organic semiconductor capacitors such
as Sanyo OS-CONs or POSCAPs) from BAT to ground,
in parallel with the 10μF ceramic bypass capacitor. This
additional bypass capacitance may also be required in
systems where the battery is connected to the charger
with long wires. The voltage rating of CBAT must meet or
exceed the battery float voltage.
Inductor Selection
The primary criterion for inductor value selection in an
LT3652 charger is the ripple current created in that inductor.
Once the inductance value is determined, an inductor must
also have a saturation current equal to or exceeding the
maximum peak current in the inductor. An inductor value
(L), given the desired amount of ripple current (ΔIMAX)
can be approximated using the relation:
L = (10 RSENSE / ΔIMAX) • VBAT(FLT) •
[1 – (VBAT(FLT) / VIN(MAX))]
(μH)
In the above relation, ΔIMAX is the normalized ripple current, VIN(MAX) is the maximum operational voltage, and
VF is the forward voltage of the rectifying Schottky diode.
Ripple current is typically set within a range of 25% to
35% of ICHG(MAX), so an inductor value can be determined
by setting 0.25 < ΔIMAX < 0.35.
3652fc
13
LT3652
APPLICATIONS INFORMATION
forward voltage yields the lowest power loss and highest
efficiency. The rectifier diode must be rated to withstand
reverse voltages greater than the maximum VIN voltage.
SWITCHED INDUCTOR VALUE (μH)
16
14
12
The minimum average diode current rating (IDIODE(MAX))
is calculated with maximum output current (ICHG(MAX)),
maximum operational VIN, and output at the precondition
threshold (VBAT(PRE), or 0.7 • VBAT(FLT)):
10
8
IDIODE(MAX) > ICHG(MAX) • (VIN(MAX) – VBAT(PRE)) / VIN(MAX)) (A)
6
4
12
20
24
28
16
32
MAXIMUM OPERATIONAL VIN VOLTAGE (V)
3652 F03
Figure 3. 7.2V at 1.5A Switched Inductor Values
Magnetics vendors typically specify inductors with
maximum RMS and saturation current ratings. Select an
inductor that has a saturation current rating at or above (1+
ΔIMAX/2) • ICHG(MAX), and an RMS rating above ICHG(MAX).
Inductors must also meet a maximum volt-second product
requirement. If this specification is not in the data sheet of
an inductor, consult the vendor to make sure the maximum
volt-second product is not being exceeded by your design.
The minimum required volt-second product is:
VBAT(FLT) • (1 – VBAT(FLT)/VIN(MAX)) (V • μS)
For example, a rectifier diode for a 7.2V, 2A charger with
a 25V maximum input voltage would require:
IDIODE(MAX) > 2 • (25 – 0.7[7.2]) / 25), or
IDIODE(MAX) > 1.6A
Battery Float Voltage Programming
The output battery float voltage (VBAT(FLT)) is programmed
by connecting a resistor divider from the BAT pin to VFB.
VBAT(FLT) can be programmed up to 14.4V.
BAT
LT3652
VFB
3652 F04
Rectifier Selection
The rectifier diode from SW to GND, in a LT3652 battery
charger provides a current path for the inductor current
when the main power switch is disabled. The rectifier is
selected based upon forward voltage, reverse voltage, and
maximum current. A Schottky diode is required, as low
+
RFB1
RFB2
Figure 4. Feedback Resistors from BAT to VFB
Program Float Voltage
3652fc
14
LT3652
APPLICATIONS INFORMATION
Using a resistor divider with an equivalent input resistance
at the VFB pin of 250k compensates for input bias current
error. Required resistor values to program desired VBAT(FLT)
follow the equations:
RFB1 = (VBAT(FLT) • 2.5 • 105) / 3.3
(Ω)
RFB2 = (R1 • (2.5 • 105)) / (R1- (2.5 • 105))
(Ω)
The charge function operates to achieve the final float
voltage of 3.3V on the VFB pin. The auto-restart feature
initiates a new charging cycle when the voltage at the VFB
pin falls 2.5% below that float voltage.
Because the battery voltage is across the VBAT(FLT) programming resistor divider, this divider will draw a small
amount of current from the battery (IRFB) at a rate of:
IRFB = 3.3 / RFB2
For a three-resistor network, RFB1 and RFB2 follow the
relation:
RFB2/RFB1 = 3.3/(VBAT(FLT) – 3.3)
Example:
For VBAT(FLT) = 3.6V:
RFB2/RFB1 = 3.3/(3.6 - 3.3) = 11.
Setting divider current (IRFB) = 10μA yields:
RFB2 = 3.3/10μA
RFB2 = 330k
Solving for RFB1:
RFB1 = 330k/11
RFB1 = 30k
The divider equivalent resistance is:
RFB1||RFB2 = 27.5k
Precision resistors in high values may be hard to obtain, so for some lower VBAT(FLT) applications, it may be
desirable to use smaller-value feedback resistors with an
additional resistor (RFB3) to achieve the required 250k
equivalent resistance. The resulting 3-resistor network,
as shown in Figure 5, can ease component selection
and/or increase output voltage precision, at the expense of
additional current through the feedback divider.
BAT
+
LT3652
RFB3
RFB1
VFB
3652 F05
RFB2
Figure 5. A Three-Resistor Feedback Network Can
Ease Component Selection
To satisfy the 250k equivalent resistance to the VFB
pin:
RFB3 = 250k − 27.5k
RFB3 = 223k.
Because the VFB pin is a relatively high impedance node,
stray capacitances at this pin must be minimized. Special
attention should be given to any stray capacitances that
can couple external signals onto the pin, which can produce undesirable output transients or ripple. Effects of
parasitic capacitance can typically be reduced by adding
a small-value (20pF to 50pF) feedforward capacitor from
the BAT pin to the VFB pin.
Extra care should be taken during board assembly. Small
amounts of board contamination can lead to significant
shifts in output voltage. Appropriate post-assembly board
3652fc
15
LT3652
APPLICATIONS INFORMATION
cleaning measures should be implemented to prevent
board contamination, and low-leakage solder flux is
recommended.
Input Supply Voltage Regulation
The LT3652 contains a voltage monitor pin that enables
programming a minimum operational voltage. Connecting a resistor divider from VIN to the VIN_REG pin enables
programming of minimum input supply voltage, typically
used to program the peak power voltage for a solar panel.
Maximum charge current is reduced when the VIN_REG pin
is below the regulation threshold of 2.7V.
If an input supply cannot provide enough power to satisfy
the requirements of an LT3652 charger, the supply voltage
will collapse. A minimum operating supply voltage can
thus be programmed by monitoring the supply through
a resistor divider, such that the desired minimum voltage corresponds to 2.7V at the VIN_REG pin. The LT3652
servos the maximum output charge current to maintain
the voltage on VIN_REG at or above 2.7V.
MPPT Temperature Compensation
A typical solar panel is comprised of a number of series-connected cells, each cell being a forward-biased p-n junction.
As such, the open-circuit voltage (VOC) of a solar cell has
a temperature coefficient that is similar to a common p-n
diode, or about –2mV/°C. The peak power point voltage
(VMP) for a crystalline solar panel can be approximated as
a fixed voltage below VOC, so the temperature coefficient
for the peak power point is similar to that of VOC.
Panel manufacturers typically specify the 25°C values for
VOC, VMP, and the temperature coefficient for VOC, making
determination of the temperature coefficient for VMP of a
typical panel straight forward.
The LT3652 employs a feedback network to program the
VIN input regulation voltage. Manipulation of the network
makes for efficient implementation of various temperature
compensation schemes for a maximum peak power tracking (MPPT) application. As the temperature characteristic
for a typical solar panel VMP voltage is highly linear, a
Programming of the desired minimum voltage is accomplished by connecting a resistor divider as shown in
Figure 6. The ratio of RIN1/RIN2 for a desired minimum
voltage (VIN(MIN)) is:
PANEL VOLTAGE (V)
VOC TEMP CO.
RIN1/RIN2 = (VIN(MIN)/2.7) – 1
VOC
VOC(25°C)
VMP(25°C)
VOC – VMP
VMP
If the voltage regulation feature is not used, connect the
VIN_REG pin to VIN.
5
15
35
25
TEMPERATURE (°C)
45
55
3652 F07
INPUT
SUPPLY
VIN
RIN1
LT3652
VIN_REG
RIN2
Figure 7. Temperature Characteristics for Solar Panel
Output Voltage
3652 F06
Figure 6. Resistor Divider Sets Minimum VIN
3652fc
16
LT3652
APPLICATIONS INFORMATION
simple solution for tracking that characteristic can be
implemented using an LM234 3-terminal temperature
sensor. This creates an easily programmable, linear
temperature dependent characteristic.
In the circuit shown in figure 8,
VIN
RSET = 1k
LM234
V+
RIN1
R
V–
As the temperature coefficient for VMP is similar to that
of VOC, the specified temperature coefficient for VOC
(TC) of –78mV/°C and the specified peak power voltage
(VMP(25°C)) of 17.6V can be inserted into the equations to
calculate the appropriate resistor values for the temperature compensation network in Figure 8. With RSET equal
to 1000Ω, then:
RSET
VIN
VIN_REG
RIN2
RIN1 = –1k • (–0.078 • 4405 ) = 344k
RIN2 = 344k/({[17.6 + 344k • (0.0674/1k)]/2.7} – 1)
= 24.4k
LT3652
Battery Voltage Temperature Compensation
3658 F08
Figure 8. MPPT Temperature Compensation Network
RIN1 = –RSET • (TC • 4405), and
RIN2 = RIN1/({[VMP(25°C) + RIN1 • (0.0674/RSET)]/VIN_REG} – 1)
Where: TC = temperature coefficient (in V/°C), and
VMP(25°C) = maximum power voltage at 25°C
For example, given a common 36-cell solar panel that has
the following specified characteristics:
Open Circuit Voltage (VOC) = 21.7V
Maximum Power Voltage (VMP) = 17.6V
Open-Circuit Voltage Temperature Coefficient (VOC) =
–78mV/°C
Some battery chemistries have charge voltage requirements that vary with temperature. Lead-acid batteries in
particular experience a significant change in charge voltage requirements as temperature changes. For example,
manufacturers of large lead-acid batteries recommend
a float charge of 2.25V/cell at 25°C. This battery float
voltage, however, has a temperature coefficient which is
typically specified at –3.3mV/°C per cell.
In a manner similar to the MPPT temperature correction
outlined previously, implementation of linear battery
charge voltage temperature compensation can be accomplished by incorporating an LM234 into the output
feedback network.
For example, a 6-cell lead acid battery has a float charge
voltage that is commonly specified at 2.25V/cell at 25°C,
or 13.5V, and a –3.3mV/°C per cell temperature coefficient,
3652fc
17
LT3652
APPLICATIONS INFORMATION
or –19.8mV/°C. Using the feedback network shown in
Figure 9, with the desired temperature coefficient (TC)
and 25°C float voltage (VFLOAT(25°C)) specified, and using
a convenient value of 2.4k for RSET, necessary resistor
values follow the relations:
RFB1 = –RSET • (TC • 4405)
= –2.4k • (–0.0198 • 4405) = 210k
RFB2 = RFB1 / ({[VFLOAT(25°C) + RFB1 • (0.0674/
RSET)] / VFB} – 1)
While the circuit in Figure 9 creates a linear temperature
characteristic that follows a typical –3.3mV/°C per cell
lead-acid specification, the theoretical float charge voltage
characteristic is slightly nonlinear. This nonlinear characteristic follows the relation VFLOAT(1-CELL) = 4 × 10–5 (T2)
– 6 × 10–3(T) + 2.375 (with a 2.18V minimum), where
T = temperature in °C. A thermistor-based network can
be used to approximate the nonlinear ideal temperature
characteristic across a reasonable operating range, as
shown in Figure 10.
= 210k/({[13.5 + 210k • (0.0674/2.4k)]/3.3} – 1)
= 43k
BAT
196k
RFB3 = 250k - RFB1||RFB2
= 250k – 210k||43k = 215k (see the Battery Float
Voltage Programming section)
69k
198k
VFB
LT3652
BAT
RFB3
215k
3652 F10a
R
RSET
2.4k
RFB2
43k
+
14.8
V–
14.6
14.4
6-CELL
LEAD-ACID
BATTERY
14.2
3652 F09a
14.0
13.6
13.4
14.2
13.2
14.0
13.0
12.8
–10
–19.8mV/°C
13.6
THEORETICAL VFLOAT
13.8
14.3
13.8
VFLOAT (V)
69k
V+
VFLOAT (V)
LT3652
22k
B = 3380
LM234
RFB1
210k
VFB
6-CELL
LEAD-ACID
BATTERY +
PROGRAMMED VBAT(FLOAT)
0
20
30
10
40
TEMPERATURE (°C)
50
60
3652 F10b
13.4
Figure 10. Thermistor-Based Temperature Compensation
Network Programs VFLOAT to Closely Match Ideal Lead-Acid
Float Charge Voltage for 6-Cell Charger
13.2
13.0
12.8
12.6
–10
0
20
30
10
40
TEMPERATURE (°C)
50
60
3652 F09b
Figure 9. Lead-Acid 6-Cell Float Charge Voltage vs
Temperature Has –19.8mV/°C Characteristic Using LM234 with
Feedback Network
3652fc
18
LT3652
APPLICATIONS INFORMATION
Status Pins
The LT3652 reports charger status through two open
collector outputs, the CHRG and FAULT pins. These pins
can accept voltages as high as VIN, and can sink up to
10mA when enabled.
The CHRG pin indicates that the charger is delivering
current at greater that a C/10 rate, or 1/10th of the programmed maximum charge current. The FAULT pin signals
bad battery and NTC faults. These pins are binary coded,
and signal following the table below, where ON indicates
pin pulled low, and OFF indicates pin high-impedance:
When C/10 termination is used, a LT3652 charger will
source battery charge current as long as the average
current level remains above the C/10 threshold. As the
full-charge float voltage is achieved, the charge current
falls until the C/10 threshold is reached, at which time the
charger terminates and the LT3652 enters standby mode.
The CHRG status pin follows the charger cycle, and is high
impedance when the charger is not actively charging.
When VBAT drops below 97.5% of the full-charged float
voltage, whether by battery loading or replacement of the
battery, the charger automatically re-engages and starts
charging.
There is no provision for bad battery detection if C/10
termination is used.
STATUS PINS STATE
CHRG
FAULT
OFF
OFF
Not Charging — Standby or Shutdown Mode
OFF
ON
Bad Battery Fault (Precondition Timeout / EOC
Failure)
ON
OFF
Normal Charging at C/10 or Greater
ON
ON
NTC Fault (Pause)
CHARGER STATUS
If the battery is removed from an LT3652 charger that is
configured for C/10 termination, a sawtooth waveform
of approximately 100mV appears at the charger output,
due to cycling between termination and recharge events,
This cycling results in pulsing at the CHRG output. An
LED connected to this pin will exhibit a blinking pattern,
indicating to the user that a battery is not present. The
frequency of this blinking pattern is dependent on the
output capacitance.
C/10 Termination
The LT3652 supports a low-current based termination
scheme, where a battery charge cycle terminates when the
current output from the charger falls to below one-tenth
of the maximum current, as programmed with RSENSE.
The C/10 threshold current corresponds to 10mV across
RSENSE. This termination mode is engaged by shorting
the TIMER pin to ground.
Timer Termination
The LT3652 supports a timer based termination scheme, in
which a battery charge cycle is terminated after a specific
amount of time elapses. Timer termination is engaged
when a capacitor (CTIMER) is connected from the TIMER
pin to ground. The timer cycle EOC (TEOC) occurs based
on CTIMER following the relation:
CTIMER = TEOC • 2.27 x 10–7
(Hours)
Timer EOC is typically set to 3 hours, which requires a
0.68μF capacitor.
The CHRG status pin continues to signal charging at a C/10
rate, regardless of what termination scheme is used. When
timer termination is used, the CHRG status pin is pulled
low during a charging cycle until the charger output current falls below the C/10 threshold. The charger continues
to top-off the battery until timer EOC, when the LT3652
terminates the charging cycle and enters standby mode.
Termination at the end of the timer cycle only occurs if
the charging cycle was successful. A successful charge
cycle is when the battery is charged to within 2.5% of the
3652fc
19
LT3652
APPLICATIONS INFORMATION
full-charge float voltage. If a charge cycle is not successful
at EOC, the timer cycle resets and charging continues for
another full timer cycle.
When VBAT drops below 97.5% of the full-charge float
voltage, whether by battery loading or replacement of the
battery, the charger automatically reengages and starts
charging.
Preconditioning and Bad Battery Fault
A LT3652 has a precondition mode, where charge current
is limited to 15% of the programmed ICHG(MAX), as set by
RSENSE. The precondition current corresponds to 15mV
across RSENSE.
Precondition mode is engaged while the voltage on the
VFB pin is below the precondition threshold (2.3V, or
0.7 • VBAT(FLT)). Once the VFB voltage rises above the
precondition threshold, normal full-current charging can
commence. The LT3652 incorporates 70mV of threshold
hysteresis to prevent mode glitching.
When the internal timer is used for termination, bad battery
detection is engaged. There is no provision for bad battery
detection if C/10 termination is used. A bad battery fault
is triggered when the voltage on VFB remains below the
precondition threshold for greater than 1/8 of a full timer
cycle (1/8 EOC). A bad battery fault is also triggered if a
normally charging battery re-enters precondition mode
after 1/8 EOC.
When a bad battery fault is triggered, the charging cycle
is suspended, so the CHRG status pin becomes highimpedance. The FAULT pin is pulled low to signal a fault
detection.
Cycling the charger’s power or SHDN function initiates a
new charging cycle, but a LT3652 charger does not require a reset. Once a bad battery fault is detected, a new
timer charging cycle initiates when the VFB pin exceeds
the precondition threshold voltage. During a bad battery
fault, 0.5mA is sourced from the charger, so removing
the failed battery allows the charger output voltage to rise
and initiate a charge cycle reset. As such, removing a bad
battery resets the LT3652, so a new charge cycle is started
by connecting another battery to the charger output.
Battery Temperature Monitor and Fault
The LT3652 can accommodate battery temperature monitoring by using an NTC (negative temperature co-efficient)
thermistor close to the battery pack. The temperature
monitoring function is enabled by connecting a 10kΩ,
B = 3380 NTC thermistor from the NTC pin to ground. If the
NTC function is not desired, leave the pin unconnected.
The NTC pin sources 50μA, and monitors the voltage
dropped across the 10kΩ thermistor. When the voltage
on this pin is above 1.36V (0°C) or below 0.29V (40°C),
the battery temperature is out of range, and the LT3652
triggers an NTC fault. The NTC fault condition remains until
the voltage on the NTC pin corresponds to a temperature
within the 0°C to 40°C range. Both hot and cold thresholds
incorporate hysteresis that correspond to 5°C.
If higher operational charging temperatures are desired,
the temperature range can be expanded by adding series
resistance to the 10k NTC resistor. Adding a 0.91k resistor
will increase the effective hot temperature to 45°C.
During an NTC fault, charging is halted and both status
pins are pulled low. If timer termination is enabled, the
timer count is suspended and held until the fault condition is relieved.
Thermal Foldback
The LT3652 contains a thermal foldback protection feature
that reduces maximum charger output current if the IC
junction temperature approaches 125°C. In most cases,
on-chip temperatures servo such that any excessive temperature conditions are relieved with only slight reductions
in maximum charger current.
3652fc
20
LT3652
APPLICATIONS INFORMATION
In some cases, the thermal foldback protection feature
can reduce charger currents below the C/10 threshold. In
applications that use C/10 termination (TIMER=0V), the
LT3652 will suspend charging and enter standby mode
until the excessive temperature condition is relieved.
Layout Considerations
The LT3652 switch node has rise and fall times that are
typically less than 10nS to maximize conversion efficiency.
The switch node (Pin SW) trace should be kept as short
as possible to minimize high frequency noise. The input
capacitor (CIN) should be placed close to the IC to minimize
this switching noise. Short, wide traces on these nodes
also help to avoid voltage stress from inductive ringing.
The BOOST decoupling capacitor should also be in close
proximity to the IC to minimize inductive ringing. The
SENSE and BAT traces should be routed together, and
these and the VFB trace should be kept as short as possible. Shielding these signals from switching noise with
a ground plane is recommended.
voltage reference. Effective grounding can be achieved
by considering switched current in the ground plane,
and careful component placement and orientation can
effectively steer these high currents such that the battery
reference does not get corrupted. Figure 11 illustrates an
effective grounding scheme using component placement
to control ground currents. When the switch is enabled
(loop #1), current flows from the input bypass capacitor
(CIN) through the switch and inductor to the battery positive terminal. When the switch is disabled (loop #2), the
current to the battery positive terminal is provided from
ground through the freewheeling Schottky diode (DF). In
both cases, these switch currents return to ground via the
output bypass capacitor (CBAT).
The LT3652 packaging has been designed to efficiently
remove heat from the IC via the Exposed Pad on the
backside of the package, which is soldered to a copper
footprint on the PCB. This footprint should be made as
large as possible to reduce the thermal resistance of the
IC case to ambient air.
High current paths and transients should be kept isolated from battery ground, to assure an accurate output
CIN
CBAT
VBAT
RSENSE
1
2
DF
+
LT3652
VIN
SW
SENSE
BAT
VFB
3652 F11
Figure 11. Component Orientation Isolates High Current Paths
from Sensitive Nodes
3652fc
21
LT3652
TYPICAL APPLICATIONS
2-Cell Li-Ion Charger (8.3V at 2A) With 3 Hour Timer Termination Powered by
Inexpensive 12V at 1A Unregulated Wall Adapter; VIN_REG Loop Servos Maximum Charge
Current to Prevent AC Adapter Output from Drooping Lower than 12V
MBRS340
AC ADAPTER INPUT
12V AT 1A
SH-DC121000
D3
VIN
LT3652
VIN_REG
330k
47k
SHDN
1μF
10k
CHRG
51k
10k
10μF
SW
1μF 1N914
BOOST
VISHAY
1HLP-2525CZ8R2M11
8.2μH
SENSE
BAT
FAULT
NTC
TIMER
VFB
MBRS340
0.05
SYSTEM
LOAD
+
10μF
626k
100μF
412k
0.68μF
+
R1 10k
B = 3380
REMOVABLE 2-CELL Li-Ion PACK
(8.3V FLOAT)
SH-DC121000
AC Adapter V vs I Characteristics
3652 TA02a
20
18
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8
OUTPUT CURRENT (A)
3652 TA02b
Basic 2A 1-Cell LiFePO4 Charger (3.6V Float) With C/10 Termination
CMSH3-40MA
VIN
5V TO 32V (40V MAX)
VIN
LT3652
VIN_REG
SHDN
10μF
CHRG
FAULT
TIMER
SW
1μF CMDSH2-4L
BOOST
5.6μH
0.05
SYSTEM
LOAD
SENSE
BAT
30k
NTC
VFB
3652 TA03
223k
C3
10μF
+
330k
LiFePO4 CELL
3652fc
22
LT3652
PACKAGE DESCRIPTION
DD Package
12-Lead Plastic DFN (3mm × 3mm)
(Reference LTC DWG # 05-08-1725 Rev A)
0.70 ±0.05
3.50 ±0.05
2.10 ±0.05
2.38 ±0.05
1.65 ±0.05
PACKAGE
OUTLINE
0.25 ± 0.05
0.45 BSC
2.25 REF
RECOMMENDED SOLDER PAD PITCH AND DIMENSIONS
APPLY SOLDER MASK TO AREAS THAT ARE NOT SOLDERED
3.00 ±0.10
(4 SIDES)
R = 0.115
TYP
7
0.40 ± 0.10
12
2.38 ±0.10
1.65 ± 0.10
PIN 1 NOTCH
R = 0.20 OR
0.25 × 45°
CHAMFER
PIN 1
TOP MARK
(SEE NOTE 6)
6
0.200 REF
1
0.23 ± 0.05
0.45 BSC
0.75 ±0.05
2.25 REF
(DD12) DFN 0106 REV A
0.00 – 0.05
BOTTOM VIEW—EXPOSED PAD
NOTE:
1. DRAWING IS NOT A JEDEC PACKAGE OUTLINE
2. DRAWING NOT TO SCALE
3. ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS
4. DIMENSIONS OF EXPOSED PAD ON BOTTOM OF PACKAGE DO NOT INCLUDE
MOLD FLASH. MOLD FLASH, IF PRESENT, SHALL NOT EXCEED 0.15mm ON ANY SIDE
5. EXPOSED PAD AND TIE BARS SHALL BE SOLDER PLATED
6. SHADED AREA IS ONLY A REFERENCE FOR PIN 1 LOCATION ON THE
TOP AND BOTTOM OF PACKAGE
3652fc
23
LT3652
PACKAGE DESCRIPTION
MSE Package
12-Lead Plastic MSOP, Exposed Die Pad
(Reference LTC DWG # 05-08-1666 Rev B)
BOTTOM VIEW OF
EXPOSED PAD OPTION
2.845 p 0.102
(.112 p .004)
5.23
(.206)
MIN
2.845 p 0.102
(.112 p .004)
0.889 p 0.127
(.035 p .005)
6
1
1.651 p 0.102 3.20 – 3.45
(.065 p .004) (.126 – .136)
0.12 REF
12
0.65
0.42 p 0.038
(.0256)
(.0165 p .0015)
BSC
TYP
RECOMMENDED SOLDER PAD LAYOUT
0.254
(.010)
0.35
REF
4.039 p 0.102
(.159 p .004)
(NOTE 3)
DETAIL “B”
CORNER TAIL IS PART OF
DETAIL “B” THE LEADFRAME FEATURE.
FOR REFERENCE ONLY
7
NO MEASUREMENT PURPOSE
0.406 p 0.076
(.016 p .003)
REF
12 11 10 9 8 7
DETAIL “A”
3.00 p 0.102
(.118 p .004)
(NOTE 4)
4.90 p 0.152
(.193 p .006)
0o – 6o TYP
GAUGE PLANE
0.53 p 0.152
(.021 p .006)
1 2 3 4 5 6
DETAIL “A”
1.10
(.043)
MAX
0.18
(.007)
SEATING
PLANE
0.22 – 0.38
(.009 – .015)
TYP
0.650
(.0256)
BSC
NOTE:
1. DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETER/(INCH)
2. DRAWING NOT TO SCALE
3. DIMENSION DOES NOT INCLUDE MOLD FLASH, PROTRUSIONS OR GATE BURRS.
MOLD FLASH, PROTRUSIONS OR GATE BURRS SHALL NOT EXCEED 0.152mm (.006") PER SIDE
4. DIMENSION DOES NOT INCLUDE INTERLEAD FLASH OR PROTRUSIONS.
INTERLEAD FLASH OR PROTRUSIONS SHALL NOT EXCEED 0.152mm (.006") PER SIDE
5. LEAD COPLANARITY (BOTTOM OF LEADS AFTER FORMING) SHALL BE 0.102mm (.004") MAX
0.86
(.034)
REF
0.1016 p 0.0508
(.004 p .002)
MSOP (MSE12) 0608 REV B
3652fc
24
LT3652
REVISION HISTORY
(Revision history begins at Rev B)
REV
DATE
DESCRIPTION
PAGE NUMBER
B
2/10
Add MSOP-12 Package
C
5/10
Corrected SHDN Pin Labels
1, 2, 24
3, 4
3652fc
Information furnished by Linear Technology Corporation is believed to be accurate and reliable.
However, no responsibility is assumed for its use. Linear Technology Corporation makes no representation that the interconnection of its circuits as described herein will not infringe on existing patent rights.
25
LT3652
TYPICAL APPLICATION
1A Solar Panel Powered 3-Stage 12V Lead-Acid Fast/Float Charger; 1A Charger Fast Charges with CC/CV
Characteristics Up to 14.4V; When Charge Current Falls to 0.1A Charger Switches to 13.5V Float Charge Mode;
Charger Re-Initiates 14.4V Fast Charge Mode if Battery Voltage Falls Below 13.2V and Trickle Charges at 0.15A if
Battery Voltage is Below 10V; 0°C to 45°C Battery Temperature Charging Range
SOLAR PANEL INPUT
<40V OC VOLTAGE
16V PEAK POWER VOLTAGE
MBRS140
10μF
499k
VIN
LT3652
VIN_REG
SHDN
SW
1μF 1N914
BOOST
WURTH
7447779122
22μH
BAT
910
FAULT
NTC
TIMER
VFB
MBRS340
0.1
SENSE
CHRG
100k
BZX84C6V2L
SYSTEM
LOAD
+
309k
10μF
100μF
174k
+
4.7μF
1M
1N4148
12V LEAD
ACID BATTERY
100k
10k
B = 3380
muRata
NCP18XH103
3652 TA04
RELATED PARTS
PART NUMBER
DESCRIPTION
COMMENTS
LT3650-4.1/LT3650-4.2 Monolithic 2A Switch Mode 1-Cell Li-Ion
Battery Charger
LT3650-8.2/LT3650-8.4 Monolithic 2A Switch Mode 2-Cell Li-Ion
Battery Charger
LTC4001/LTC4001-1
Monolithic 2A Switch Mode Synchronous
Li-Ion Battery Charger
LTC4002
LTC4006
Switch Mode Lithium-Ion Battery Charger
Small, High Efficiency, Fixed Voltage,
Lithium-Ion Battery Charger with
Termination and Thermistor Sensor
LTC4007
High Efficiency, Programmable Voltage
Battery Charger with Termination
4A, High Efficiency, Multi-Chemistry
Battery Charger
Standalone, 4.75V ≤ VIN ≤ 32V (40V Absolute Maximum), 1MHz, 2A
Programmable Charge Current, Timer or C/10 Termination, Small and Few
External Components, 3mm × 3mm DFN12 Package, –4.1 for 4.1V Float Voltage
Batteries, –4.2 for 4.2V Float Voltage Batteries
Standalone, 9V ≤ VIN ≤ 32V (40V Absolute Maximum), 1MHz, 2A Programmable
Charge Current, Timer or C/10 Termination, Small and Few External
Components, 3mm × 3mm DFN12 Package, –8.2 for 2 × 4.1V Float Voltage
Batteries, –8.4 for 2 × 4.2V Float Voltage Batteries
Standalone, 4V ≤ VIN ≤ 5.5V (6V Absolute Maximum, 7V Transient), 1.5MHz,
Synchronous Rectification Efficiency >90%, Adjustable Timer Termination, Small
and Few External Components, 4mm × 4mm QFN-16 Package –1 for 4.1V Float
Voltage Batteries
Standalone, 4.7V ≤ VIN ≤ 24V, 500kHz Frequency, 3 Hour Charge Termination
Complete Charger for 3- or 4-Cell Li-Ion Batteries, AC Adapter Current Limit,
16-Pin Narrow SSOP Package
Complete Charger for 3- or 4-Cell Li-Ion Batteries, AC Adapter Current Limit,
Thermistor Sensor and Indicator Outputs
LTC4008
Constant-Current/Constant-Voltage Switching Regulator Charger, Resistor
Voltage/Current Programming, AC Adapter Current Limit and Thermistor Sensor
and Indicator Outputs
LTC4009/LTC4009-1/
4A, High Efficiency, Multi-Chemistry
Constant-Current/Constant-Voltage Switching Regulator Charger, Resistor
LTC4009-2
Battery Charger
Voltage/Current Programming, AC Adapter Current Limit and Thermistor
Sensor and Indicator Outputs 1 to 4 Cell Li, Up to 18 Cell Ni, SLA and Supercap
Compatible; 4mm × 4mm QFN-20 Package –1 Version for 4.1V Li Cells, –2 Version
for 4.2V Li Cells
LTC40012/LTC40012-1/ 4A, High Efficiency, Multi-Chemistry
PowerPath Control, Constant-Current/Constant-Voltage Switching Regulator
LTC40012-2/ LTC4012-3 Battery Charger with PowerPath™ Control Charger, Resistor Voltage/Current Programming, AC Adapter Current Limit and
Thermistor Sensor and Indicator Outputs 1 to 4 Cell Li, Up to 18 Cell Ni, SLA and
Supercap Compatible; 4mm × 4mm QFN-20 Package –1 Version for 4.1V Li Cells,
–2 Version for 4.2V Li Cells, –3 Version has Extra GND Pin
PowerPath is a trademark of Linear Technology Corporation.
3652fc
26 Linear Technology Corporation
LT 0510 REV C • PRINTED IN USA
1630 McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035-7417
(408) 432-1900 ● FAX: (408) 434-0507
●
www.linear.com
© LINEAR TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 2010
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