BENDIX AD-1 AIR DRYER Troubleshooting guide

BENDIX AD-1 AIR DRYER Troubleshooting guide
SD-08-2418
®
Bendix® AD-IS® Air Dryer and Reservoir System
RES
GOVERNOR
RESERVOIR (2)
21
PRI
DELIVERY TO
PRIMARY
RESERVOIR
MOUNTING
HOLES - 4
DESICCANT
CARTRIDGE
PURGE VALVE
22
SEC
DELIVERY TO
SECONDARY
RESERVOIR
PRESSURE
PROTECTION
VALVES (4)
SAFETY VALVE
PURGE
RESERVOIR
UNL
GOVERNOR
UNLOADER (2)
MOUNTING
BOLTS (3)
HEATER /
THERMOSTAT
GOVERNOR
EXH
GOVERNOR
EXHAUST
®
AD-IS AIR DRYER
PART NUMBER
STAMPED HERE
1
IN
SUPPLY FROM
COMPRESSOR
FIGURE 1 - AD-IS® AIR DRYER AND RESERVOIR SYSTEM
DESCRIPTION
The function of the Integrated Solution Air Dryer (AD-IS®)
and Reservoir System is to provide heavy vehicles with an
integrated vehicle air dryer, purge reservoir, governor and a
number of the charging valve components in a module.
These have been designed as an integrated air supply
system.
The AD-IS® air dryer and reservoir system collects and
removes air system contaminants in solid, liquid and vapor
form before they enter the brake system. It provides clean,
dry air to the components of the brake system which
increases the life of the system and reduces maintenance
costs. The necessity for daily manual draining of the
reservoirs is eliminated.
PRESSURE PROTECTION
VALVES (4)
Air
Connection
Port ID
23
AUX2
AUXILIARY
DELIVERY PORTS
(2)
24
AUX1
AUXILIARY
DELIVERY PORTS
(4)
Function/Connection
QTY
1
IN
Inlet Port (air in).
1
21
PRI
Delivery Port out (to Primary reservoir)
1
22
SEC
Delivery Port out (to Secondary reservoir)
1
24
AUX 1
Auxiliary Delivery Port (air out).
4
23
AUX 2
Auxiliary Delivery Port (air out).
1
Unloader Control Air (D-2A™ Governor)
Common Reservoir Pressure
(D-2A™ Governor)
Governor Exhaust
2
UNL
RES
EXH
2
1
TABLE 1 - PORT DESIGNATIONS
1
Note 1:
®
The AD-IS air dryer and reservoir system
purge piston has a purge control channel
drain. This allows any condensation in this
area to flow past a diaphragm in the top of the
purge piston and out through a channel in
the middle of the central bolt of the purge
assembly to be drained. During the purge
cycle this drain is closed.
DESICCANT
BED
OIL
SEPARATOR
GOVERNOR
DELIVERY
CHECK
VALVE
(OPEN)
PURGE
ORIFICE
PURGE
RESERVOIR
UNLOADER
PORT
PRESSURE PROTECTION
VALVES
PURGE
CONTROL
CHANNEL
INLET
PORT
(IN)
A
B
TURBO CUTOFF VALVE
(OPEN)
PURGE
VALVE
(CLOSED)
SEE
NOTE 1
SAFETY
VALVE
PRIMARY
PORT
(PRI)
C
D
AUXILIARY PORTS
(TO ACCESSORIES)
SECONDARY
PORT
(SEC)
ENGINE
TURBO
PURGE
RESERVOIR
DRAIN VALVE
SECONDARY
RESERVOIR
COMPRESSOR
PRIMARY
RESERVOIR
DIAGRAM SHOWS PRESSURE
PROTECTION VALVES A & B OPEN,
C & D CLOSED.
FIGURE 2 - AD-IS® AIR DRYER AND RESERVOIR SYSTEM CHARGE CYCLE
The function of the pressure protection valves is to protect
each reservoir from a pressure loss in the other reservoir or
a pressure loss in an air accessory. Each of the pressure
protection valves in the AD-IS® air dryer and reservoir system
may have different pressure settings, but these are factory
set and must not be changed or adjusted.
The air dryer and reservoir system consists of a “spin on”
desiccant cartridge secured to a base assembly. The base
assembly contains a delivery check valve assembly, safety
valve, heater and thermostat assembly, pressure protection
valves, threaded air connections and the purge valve
assembly.
2
The removable purge valve assembly incorporates the purge
valve mechanism and a turbocharger cut-off feature that is
designed to prevent loss of engine “turbo” boost pressure
during the purge cycle of the AD-IS® air dryer and reservoir
system. For ease of maintenance, all replaceable
assemblies can be serviced without removal of the air dryer
and reservoir system from its mounting on the vehicle. Refer
to Preventive Maintenance section.
DESICCANT
BED
OIL
SEPARATOR
GOVERNOR
DELIVERY
CHECK
VALVE
(CLOSED)
PURGE
ORIFICE
PURGE
RESERVOIR
UNLOADER
PORT
INLET
PORT
(IN)
PRESSURE PROTECTION
VALVES
PURGE
CONTROL
CHANNEL
A
B
TURBO CUTOFF VALVE
EXHAUST
(CLOSED) PURGE
VALVE
SAFETY
(OPEN)
VALVE
PRIMARY
PORT
(PRI)
C
D
AUXILIARY PORTS
(TO ACCESSORIES)
PURGE
RESERVOIR
DRAIN VALVE
SECONDARY
PORT
(SEC)
SECONDARY
RESERVOIR
ENGINE
TURBO
PRIMARY
RESERVOIR
COMPRESSOR
GOVERNOR SIGNALS AIR
COMPRESSOR TO SUSPEND
COMPRESSED AIR SUPPLY
TO AD-IS® AIR DRYER
DIAGRAM SHOWS ALL PRESSURE PROTECTION VALVES
OPEN.
FIGURE 3 - AD-IS® AIR DRYER AND RESERVOIR SYSTEM PURGE CYCLE
AD-IS® AIR DRYER AND RESERVOIR SYSTEM
OPERATION: GENERAL (Refer to Figure 2)
Charge Cycle and the Purge Cycle. The following
descriptions are separated into these “cycles” of operation.
The AD-IS® air dryer and reservoir system is designed to
receive compressed air from the vehicle air compressor,
clean and dry the air, deliver air to the vehicle’s primary
reservoir, secondary reservoir and accessories, and control
the compressor/dryer charge cycle.
CHARGE CYCLE (Refer to Figure 2)
AIR DRYER AND RESERVOIR SYSTEM
OPERATION: GENERAL
The AD-IS® air dryerand reservoir system alternates between
two operational modes or “cycles” during operation: the
When the compressor is loaded (compressing air)
compressed air flows through the compressor discharge
line to the inlet (1/IN) port of the air dryer body. The
compressed air often includes contaminates such as oil,
oil vapor, water and water vapor.
Traveling through the discharge line and into the air dryer,
the temperature of the compressed air falls, causing some
3
of the contaminants to condense and drop to the bottom of
the air dryer and reservoir system purge valve assembly,
ready to be expelled at the next purge cycle. The air then
flows into the desiccant cartridge, where it flows through an
oil separator which removes liquid oil and solid contaminants.
Air then flows into the desiccant drying bed and becomes
progressively drier as water vapor adheres to the desiccant
material in a process known as “ADSORPTION.”
Dry air exits the desiccant cartridge through the center of
the base assembly. The air then flows to the delivery check
valve and also through an orifice into the purge reservoir.
The delivery check valve opens, supplying air to the pressure
protection valves (A) through (D) simultaneously, the safety
valve, and also to the reservoir port of the attached governor.
The purge reservoir fills, storing air that will be used to
reactivate the desiccant during the purge cycle. This air is
available to supply downstream components during the
charge mode.
When the air pressure reaches approximately 106 psi, the
four pressure protection valves will open and air will be
supplied to the primary reservoir, secondary reservoir and
accessories. If the pressure protection valves are preset to
different values the valves will open in order of lowest setting
to highest setting when charging a flat system.
The air dryer and reservoir system will remain in the charge
cycle until the air brake system pressure builds to the
governor cut-out setting of approximately 130 p.s.i.
PURGE CYCLE (Refer to Figure 3.)
When air brake system pressure reaches the cut-out setting
of the governor, the governor unloads the compressor and
the purge cycle of the air dryer and reservoir system begins.
The governor unloads the compressor by allowing air
pressure to fill the line leading to the compressor unloader
mechanism - causing the delivery of compressed air to
the AD-IS® air dryer and reservoir system to be suspended.
Similarly, the governor also supplies air pressure to the
AD-IS® air dryer and reservoir system purge control channel.
The AD-IS® air dryer and reservoir system purge piston
moves down in response to this air pressure, causing the
purge valve to open to the atmosphere and the turbo cut-off
valve to close off the supply of air from the compressor (this
will be further discussed in the Turbo Cut-off Feature
section). Water and contaminants which have collected in
the purge valve base are expelled immediately when the
purge valve opens. Also, air which was flowing through the
desiccant cartridge changes direction and begins to flow
toward the open purge valve. Oil and solid contaminants
collected by the oil separator are removed by air flowing
from the purge reservoir through the desiccant drying bed
to the open purge valve.
4
The initial purge and desiccant cartridge decompression
lasts only a few seconds and is evidenced by an audible
burst of air at the AD-IS® air dryer and reservoir system
exhaust.
The actual reactivation of the desiccant drying bed begins
as dry air from the purge reservoir flows through the purge
orifice into the desiccant bed. Pressurized air from the
purge reservoir expands after passing through the purge
orifice; its pressure is lowered and its volume increased.
The flow of dry air through the drying bed reactivates the
desiccant material by removing the water vapor adhering to
it. Approximately 30 seconds are required for the entire
contents of the purge reservoir of a standard AD-IS® air dryer
and reservoir system to flow through the desiccant drying
bed.
The delivery check valve assembly prevents air pressure in
the brake system from returning to the air dryer and reservoir
system during the purge cycle. After the purge cycle is
complete, the air dryer and reservoir system is ready for
the next charge cycle to begin.
TURBO CUT-OFF FEATURE (Refer to Figure 3.)
The primary function of the turbo cut-off valve is to prevent
loss of engine turbocharger air pressure through the
AD-IS® air dryer and reservoir system when the dryer is in
the unloaded mode.
At the onset of the purge cycle, the downward travel of the
purge piston is stopped when the turbo cut-off valve (tapered
portion of purge piston) contacts its mating metal seat in
the purge valve housing. With the turbo cut-off valve seated
(closed position), air in the compressor discharge line and
AD-IS® air dryer and reservoir system inlet port cannot enter
the air dryer and reservoir system. In this manner the turbo
cut-off effectively maintains turbo charger boost pressure
to the engine.
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
Important: Review the warranty policy before performing
any intrusive maintenance procedures. An extended
warranty may be voided if intrusive maintenance is performed
during this period. Purge valve maintenance is permissible
during the warranty period only when using a genuine Bendix
purge valve kit.
Because no two vehicles operate under identical conditions,
maintenance and maintenance intervals will vary.
Experience is a valuable guide in determining the best
maintenance interval for any one particular operation.
Every 900 operating hours, or 25,000 miles or three (3)
months:
1. Check for moisture in the air brake system by opening
reservoir drain valves and checking for presence of
water. If moisture is present, the desiccant cartridge
may require replacement; however, the following
conditions can also cause water accumulation and
should be considered before replacing the desiccant:
A. An outside air source has been used to charge the
system. This air did not pass through the drying
bed.
B. Air usage is exceptionally high and not normal for a
highway vehicle.
This may be due to accessory air demands or some
unusual air requirement that does not allow the
compressor to load and unload (compressing and
non-compressing cycle) in a normal fashion. Check
for high air system leakage. If the vehicle vocation
has changed it may be necessary to upgrade the
compressor size. Refer to Bendix Specification
BW-100-A, Appendix D to determine if any changes
are necessary.
C. Location of the air dryer and reservoir system is too
close to the air compressor. Refer to Bendix
Specification BW-100-A, Appendix B for discharge
line lengths.
D. In areas where more than a 30 degree range of
temperature occurs in one day, small amounts of
water can temporarily accumulate in the air brake
system due to condensation. Under these
conditions, the presence of small amounts of
moisture is normal.
Note: A small amount of oil in the system is normal and
should not be considered as a reason to replace the
desiccant cartridge. Some oil at the dryer exhaust is normal.
2. Visually check for physical damage such as chaffed or
broken air and electrical lines and broken or missing
parts.
3. Check the AD-IS® air dryer and purge reservoir bolts for
tightness. See Figure 1. Re-torque the three air dryer
bolts to 360-420 inch pounds and the four purge reservoir
bolts to 300-360 inch pounds.
4. Perform the Operation & Leakage Tests listed in this
publication.
WARNING!
This air dryer and reservoir system is intended to
remove moisture and other contaminants normally
found in the air brake system. Do not inject alcohol,
anti-freeze, or other de-icing substances into or
upstream of the air dryer and reservoir system. Alcohol
is removed by the dryer, but reduces the effectiveness
of the device to dry air. Use of these or other substances
can damage the air dryer and reservoir system and
may void the warranty.
HEATER & THERMOSTAT
CONNECTOR
FIGURE 4 - AD-IS® AIR DRYER AND RESERVOIR SYSTEM
HEATER AND THERMOSTAT CONNECTOR
OPERATION & LEAKAGE TESTS (ALSO SEE
VIDEO BW2327)
1. Check all lines and fittings leading to and from the air
dryer and reservoir system for leakage and integrity.
Repair any leaks found.
2. Build up system pressure to governor cut-out and note
that the AD-IS® air dryer and reservoir system purges
with an audible escape of air. Watch the system
pressure and note the pressure fall-off for a ten minute
period. If pressure drop exceeds, for a single vehicle - 1
psi/minute from either service reservoir; or for tractor trailer
- 3 psi/minute from either service reservoir, inspect the
vehicle air systems for sources of leakage and repair
them. Refer to section entitled Troubleshooting,
Symptoms 1 and 4.
3. Caution: Be sure to wear safety glasses in case of
a purge blast. Check for excessive leakage around
the purge valve with the compressor in the loaded mode
(compressing air). Apply a soap solution to the purge
valve exhaust port and observe that leakage does not
exceed a 1" bubble in 1 second. If the leakage exceeds
the maximum specified, refer to section entitled
Troubleshooting, Symptom 4.
4. Build up system pressure to governor cut-out and note
that the AD-IS® air dryer and reservoir system purges
with an audible burst of air, followed immediately by
approximately 30 seconds of air flowing out of the purge
valve. "Fan" the service brakes to reduce system air
pressure to governor cut-in. Note that the system once
again builds to full pressure and is followed by an
AD-IS® air dryer and reservoir system purge. If system
does not follow this pattern, refer to section entitled
Troubleshooting, Symptoms 5 and 6.
5. Check the operation of the end cover heater and
thermostat assembly during cold weather operation as
follows:
5
A. Electric Power to the Dryer
With the ignition or engine kill switch in the RUN
position, check for voltage to the heater and
thermostat assembly using a voltmeter or testlight.
Unplug the electrical connector at the air dryer and
reservoir system and place the test leads on each of
the connections of the female connector on the
vehicle power lead. If there is no voltage, look for a
blown fuse, broken wires, or corrosion in the vehicle
wiring harness. Check to see if a good ground path
exists.
B. Thermostat and Heater Operation
Note: These tests are not possible except in cold
weather operation.
Turn off the ignition switch and cool the thermostat and
heater assembly to below 40 degrees Fahrenheit. Using
an ohmmeter, check the resistance between the
electrical pins in the air dryer and reservoir system
connector half. The resistance should be 1.5 to 3.0
ohms for the 12 volt heater assembly and 6.0 to 9.0
ohms for the 24 volt heater assembly.
Warm the thermostat and heater assembly to
approximately 90 degrees Fahrenheit and again check
the resistance. The resistance should exceed 1000
ohms. If the resistance values obtained are within the
stated limits, the thermostat and heater assembly is
operating properly. If the resistance values obtained are
outside the stated limits, replace the heater and
thermostat assembly.
6. Pressure Protection Valves. Observe the pressure
gauges of the vehicle as system pressure builds from
zero. The primary or secondary gauge should rise until
it reaches approximately 106 p.s.i. (±6 p.s.i.), then level
off (or a momentary slight fall) as the next pressure
protection valve opens supplying its reservoir. When
that pressure gauge passes through approximately 106
p.s.i. (±6 p.s.i.) there should be an associated leveling
off (or momentary slight fall) of pressure as the third and
fourth pressure protection valves open. Then the primary
and secondary gauges should increase together until
they reach their full pressure of approximately 130 psi
(±5 psi).
If the AD-IS® air dryer and reservoir system does not
perform within the pressure ranges as described above,
recheck using gauges known to be accurate. If the
readings remain outside of the ranges outlined above,
replace the AD-IS® air dryer and reservoir system. NOTE:
There are no kits available for the servicing of the
pressure protection valves. WARNING: Do not attempt
to adjust or service the pressure protection valves incorrect pressure protection valve settings can
result in automatic application of the vehicle spring
brakes without prior warning in the event one of
the supply circuits experiences rapid pressure loss.
6
REBUILDING THE AD-IS® AIR DRYER AND
RESERVOIR SYSTEM
GENERAL SAFETY GUIDELINES
WARNING! PLEASE READ AND FOLLOW
THESE
INSTRUCTIONS
TO AVOID
PERSONAL INJURY OR DEATH:
When working on or around a vehicle, the following
general precautions should be observed at all times.
1. Park the vehicle on a level surface, apply the
parking brakes, and always block the wheels.
Always wear safety glasses.
2. Stop the engine and remove ignition key when
working under or around the vehicle. When
working in the engine compartment, the engine
should be shut off and the ignition key should be
removed. Where circumstances require that the
engine be in operation, EXTREME CAUTION should
be used to prevent personal injury resulting from
contact with moving, rotating, leaking, heated or
electrically charged components.
AD-IS®
AIR DRYER
GOVERNORS
ARE NONADJUSTABLE
AND FEATURE A
BREATHER VALVE
IN THIS PORT
PRESSURE
PROTECTION
VALVE
LOCATIONS
FIGURE 5 - PRESSURE PROTECTION VALVE LOCATIONS
WARNING:
DO NOT ATTEMPT TO ADJUST OR
SERVICE THE PRESSURE PROTECTION
VALVES. INCORRECT PRESSURE
PROTECTION VALVE SETTINGS CAN
RESULT IN AUTOMATIC APPLICATION OF
VEHICLE SPRING BRAKES WITHOUT
PRIOR WARNING.
LOCK TABS
SPLASH
SHIELD
COVER
SPLASH
SHIELD
BRACKET
FIGURE 6 - SPLASH SHIELD BRACKET AND COVER - (EXPLODED VIEW)
3. Do not attempt to install, remove, disassemble or
assemble a component until you have read and
thoroughly understand the recommended
procedures. Use only the proper tools and observe
all precautions pertaining to use of those tools.
4. If the work is being performed on the vehicle’s air
brake system, or any auxiliary pressurized air
systems, make certain to drain the air pressure
from all reservoirs before beginning ANY work on
the vehicle. If the vehicle is equipped with an
AD-IS ® air dryer system or a dryer reservoir
module, be sure to drain the purge reservoir.
5. Following
the
vehicle
manufacturer’s
recommended procedures, deactivate the
electrical system in a manner that safely removes
all electrical power from the vehicle.
6. Never exceed manufacturer’s recommended
pressures.
7. Never connect or disconnect a hose or line
containing pressure; it may whip. Never remove a
component or plug unless you are certain all
system pressure has been depleted.
8. Use only genuine Bendix® replacement parts,
components and kits. Replacement hardware,
tubing, hose, fittings, etc. must be of equivalent
size, type and strength as original equipment and
be designed specifically for such applications and
systems.
9. Components with stripped threads or damaged
parts should be replaced rather than repaired. Do
not attempt repairs requiring machining or welding
unless specifically stated and approved by the
vehicle and component manufacturer.
10. Prior to returning the vehicle to service, make
certain all components and systems are restored
to their proper operating condition.
11. For vehicles with Antilock Traction Control (ATC),
the ATC function must be disabled (ATC indicator
lamp should be ON) prior to performing any vehicle
maintenance where one or more wheels on a
drive axle are lifted off the ground and moving.
GENERAL
When rebuilding or replacing components of the air dryer
and reservoir system use only genuine Bendix parts. For
ease in servicing, the AD-IS® air dryer and reservoir system
has been designed so that any of the following maintenance
kits can be installed without removing the air dryer and
reservoir system from the vehicle. CAUTION: Always
depressurize the air dryer and reservoir system purge
reservoir, and all other reservoirs on the vehicle to 0 p.s.i.
before servicing the air dryer and reservoir system.
7
If, after completing the routine operation and leakage tests,
it has been determined that one or more components of the
air dryer and reservoir system requires replacement or
maintenance, refer to the following list to find the appropriate
kit(s).
MAINTENANCE KITS AVAILABLE:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Service New Desiccant Cartridge Kit - Part Number
5008414: This kit contains the parts necessary to change
the desiccant cartridge only.
Delivery Check Valve Maintenance Kit - Part Number
5004052: This kit contains the parts necessary to replace
the delivery check valve.
Purge Valve Maintenance Kit - Part Number
5018313: This kit contains the parts necessary to
replace and relubricate the purge valve sealing rings.
Governor/Delivery Check Valve Kit - Part Number
5004049: This kit contains the parts necessary to replace
both the governor and delivery check valve.
12 volt or 24 volt Heater and Thermostat Kit - Part
Numbers 109495 & 109496: Contains a replacement
heater and thermostat assembly and related components
required for replacement.
Purge Valve Housing Rebuild Kit - Part Number
5003547: This kit contains the parts necessary to rebuild
the purge valve sub-assembly.
Service New Purge Valve Housing Assembly - Part
Number 800404: Contains a service new assembly
and related components to change the purge valve subassembly.
Pressure Protection Valve Boot Replacement- Part
Number 5005163.
AD-IS® Air Dryer Replacement: Replaces the complete
air dryer assembly. Includes air dryer assembly and
governor.
AD-IS® Air Dryer Splash Shield Replacement Kit Part Number 5006698.
Purge Reservoir Drain Valve: Replaces the drain valve
on the purge reservoir.
SEE THE AD-IS® AIR DRYER CATALOG PAGE
(STARTING ON PAGE 08-A-24) FOR A FULL LIST
OF MAINTENANCE KITS AVAILABLE.
NOTE: Kits are not available for the servicing of the pressure
protection valves (See Figure 5). Do not attempt to adjust
or service the pressure protection valves - these are not
service items.
TESTING THE AD-IS® AIR DRYER AND
RESERVOIR SYSTEM
Before placing the vehicle in service, perform the following
tests:
1. Close all reservoir drain valves.
8
2. Build up system pressure to governor cut-out and note
that the AD-IS® air dryer and reservoir system purges
with an audible burst of air, followed immediately by
approximately 30 seconds of air flowing out of the purge
valve.
3. “Fan” the service brakes to reduce system air pressure
to governor cut-in. Note that the system once again builds
to full pressure and is followed by a purge at the AD-IS®
air dryer and reservoir system exhaust.
4. It is recommended that the total air system be tested for
leakage to assure that the AD-IS® air dryer and reservoir
system will not cycle excessively.
See Bendix publication BW5057 "Air Brake Handbook."
BRAKING SYSTEM PROTECTION
The AD-IS® air dryer and reservoir system allows the system
to maintain one brake circuit up to about 100 psi even after
a pressure loss in the other brake circuit. This allows a
vehicle to be moved (in an emergency), but with reduced
braking capacity. Compare this to a conventional system
where a loss of pressure in one service tank leaves the
vehicle with a limited number of reduced braking capacity
applications before the parking brakes automatically apply
and stay on.
ROADSIDE INSPECTION
In the event of a roadside inspection the system behavior
will be as follows: When the system is charged to governor
cut-out, and then one reservoir drain valve is opened, initially
both reservoir gauges will fall, however, the AD-IS® air dryer
and reservoir system primary and secondary pressure
protection valves will close at pressures above 70 psi,
protecting the remaining brake circuit from further loss of
pressure.
TEMPORARY AIR DRYER AND RESERVOIR
SYSTEM BYPASS
To temporarily bypass the air dryer, the following procedure
needs to be followed:
Follow the Maintenance Precautions outlined elsewhere in
this document.
Make sure that all residual pressure has been released
and the air dryer purge reservoir has been drained to 0 p.s.i.,
then remove the air supply line from the compressor to the
inlet port (1/IN). Remove the safety valve from the AD-IS®
air dryer and reservoir system body (see Figure 1 for location).
Note that a short puff of trapped air may vent from the safety
valve port when the valve is being removed. Install a T-fitting
into the port. Using any adapters necessary, reinstall the
safety valve in one of the branches of the T-fitting. Using
any adapters necessary, install the air supply line into the
remaining T-fitting port. After testing the T-fitting for any air
leakage, by using a soap solution after charging to system
GOVERNOR GASKET
(SPECIAL GASKET,
SEE NOTE 6)
SMALL
O-RING
GOVERNOR
(NON-ADJUSTABLE,
130 PSI CUT-OUT)
BOLTS
CHECK VALVE
BODY
SPRING
LARGE
O-RING
ADAPTER
FIGURE 7 - AD-IS® AIR DRYER AND RESERVOIR SYSTEM DELIVERY CHECK VALVE
cut-out pressure (a 1” bubble in 10 seconds is acceptable),
the vehicle may be returned to temporary service.
Note: This is a temporary bypass of the air dryer, and
full repair of the unit must be carried out at the earliest
opportunity. With the air dryer and reservoir system
removed from the system, contaminants will be entering
the air system: reservoirs will need to be manually drained
daily until the repairs are completed. At end of each working
day, park vehicle and slowly drain pressure through the
drain valves – leave open to the atmosphere, for several
hours if possible. When repairs are carried out, be sure to
check that all reservoirs (including the air dryer purge
reservoir) are emptied of all contaminants.
If after bypassing the air dryer and reservoir system the
system pressure still does not build, use the following
procedure to remove, clean and reinstall the delivery check
valve.
DELIVERY CHECK VALVE CLEANING PROCEDURE
See Figure 7 throughout this procedure. Depressurize the
air brake system following the general safety precautions
outlined elsewhere in this document. Also, always
depressurize the air dryer purge reservoir before servicing
the air dryer.
This procedure does not require removal of the AD-IS® air
dryer and reservoir system from the vehicle.
1. Remove the line from the governor and mark for easy
reinstallation.
2. Remove the bolts attaching the governor to the AD-IS®
air dryer and reservoir system and retain for reassembly.
3. Remove the governor from the air dryer. Be aware that a
short puff of trapped air may vent when the governor is
removed. Retain the governor gasket for reassembly if
a new governor gasket is not available. Remove and
retain the o-ring from the adapter.
4. The spring/delivery check valve can now be removed.
5. Remove and retain the o-ring from check valve body.
(Note: This is only required if system pressure does not
build after temporary bypass is completed.)
9
CLEANING & INSPECTION
1. Use a suitable solvent to clean all metal parts, and use
a cotton swab to clean the bore (Note: Do not use
abrasives or tools to clean the bore: any scratches
caused may necessitate replacing the AD-IS® air dryer
and reservoir system.) Superficial external corrosion
and/or pitting is acceptable.
2. Clean the o-rings with a clean dry cloth. Do not use
solvents.
3. Inspect for physical damage to the bore and the check
valve seat. If the bore is damaged (by scratches etc.
that would prevent delivery check valve from seating),
replace the AD-IS® air dryer.
4. Inspect the delivery check valve, o-rings, etc. for wear or
damage. Replace if necessary using the check valve
replacement kit available at authorized Bendix parts
outlets.
5. Inspect all air line fittings for corrosion and replace as
necessary.
ASSEMBLY
1. Lubricate the smaller o-ring and check valve body with
Bendix supplied barium or silicon grease.
2. Install this o-ring on the check valve body by sliding the
o-ring over the set of 4 tapered guide lands. The
o-ring groove holds the o-ring in its correct location.
3. At the other end of the check valve body, the spring is
installed over the set of 4 straight guide lands. When
the spring has been pushed to the correct location, the
check valve body is designed to hold the end of the spring
in position - be sure that the spring is not loose before
continuing with this installation.
4. Install the assembled check valve body/o-ring/spring in
the delivery port so that the o-ring rests on its seat and
the free end of the spring is visible.
5. Grease the adapter and the remaining larger o-ring and
install it onto the fitting.
6. Position the Bendix supplied gasket, then insert the
governor mounting bolts through the governor and tighten
(to 125 in-lbs). (Note: Do not replace with a standard
compressor/governor gasket.)
7. Reattach line to the governor.
8. Before placing vehicle back into service, check to see
that the system pressure now builds to full operational
pressure.
10
AD-IS® AIR DRYER AND RESERVOIR SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING CHART
SYMPTOM
1. Dryer is constantly
“cycling” or purging.
CAUSE
A. Excessive system
leakage.
REMEDY
A. Test for excessive system leakage.
Allowable leakage observed at dash gauge:
Single vehicle - 1 psi/minute.
Tractor trailer - 3 psi/minute.
Using soap solution, test vehicle for leakage at
fittings, drain valves and system valves. Repair
or replace as necessary.
B. Defective delivery check
valve.
B. Build system pressure to governor cut-out. Wait
1 minute for completion of purge cycle. Using
soap solution at exhaust of purge valve, leakage
should not exceed a 1" bubble in less than 5
seconds.
If a rapid loss of pressure is found, the following
procedure will determine if the delivery check
valve is malfunctioning:
Build system pressure to governor cut-out and allow
a full minute for the normal dryer purge cycle to
empty the purge reservoir. Switch off the engine
and “fan” the brakes so that the system pressure
reaches governor cut-in. The purge valve will return
to its closed position. The purge reservoir has a
drain valve which is opened by moving the center
lever away from its closed position. Open the drain
valve and wait 10 seconds to allow any residual
purge pressure to be released. Release the lever,
closing the drain valve. Carefully remove the air
dryer cartridge using a strap wrench and then test
for air leaking through the center of the threaded
boss by applying a soap solution to the boss.
Replace the delivery check valve if there is
excessive leakage (exceeding a 1" bubble in 5
seconds).
Regrease the seal on the air dryer cartridge before
reinstalling. Be sure the drain valve on the purge
reservoir is not leaking before restoring vehicle to
service.
C. Defective governor.
C. Check governor at both “cut-in” and “cut-out”
position for (i) proper pressures and (ii)
excessive leakage at fittings and exhaust.
D. Compressor unloader
mechanism leaking
excessively.
D. Remove air strainer or fitting from compressor
inlet cavity. With compressor unloaded, check
for unloader piston leakage. Slight leakage is
permissible.
11
TROUBLESHOOTING CHART (Continued)
SYMPTOM
2. Water in vehicle
reservoirs.
12
CAUSE
REMEDY
A. Maximum air dryer inlet
temperature is
exceeded due to
improper discharge line
length.
A. Check for excessive carbon build up in
compressor discharge line. Replace if
required. Make certain that discharge line
length is at least 6 ft. Increase discharge line
length and/or diameter to reduce air dryer inlet
temperature.
B. Air system charged from
outside air source
(outside air not passing
through air dryer).
B. If system must have outside air fill provision,
outside air should pass through air dryer.
C. Excessive air usage Air dryer not compatible
with vehicle air system
requirement (Improper
air dryer/vehicle
application).
C. Refer to Bendix Advanced Troubleshooting Guide
for Air Brake Compressors (BW1971) for proper
application of the AD-IS® air dryer and reservoir
system. An extended purge model (AD-ISEP) is
available for many higher air usage vehicles,
such as city buses and construction vehicles.
If the vehicle is equipped with high air usage
accessories such as trailer pump-off systems or
central tire inflation, the air for these accessories
must by-pass the dryer reservoir system.
D. Desiccant requires
replacement.
D. Replace desiccant cartridge assembly.
E. Air by-passes desiccant
cartridge assembly.
E. If vehicle uses Holset compressor, inspect
feedback check valve for proper installation and
operation.
F. Air dryer not purging.
F. Refer to Symptom 6.
G. Purge (air exhaust) time
insufficient due to
excessive system
leakage.
G. Refer to Symptom 1.
TROUBLESHOOTING CHART (Continued)
SYMPTOM
3. Safety valve on air dryer
“popping off” or
exhausting air.
4. Constant exhaust of air
at air dryer purge valve
exhaust or unable to
build system pressure.
(Charge mode.)
CAUSE
REMEDY
A. Defective AD-IS® air dryer
and reservoir system
delivery check valve.
A. Test to determine if air is passing through check
valve. Repair or replace. Refer to Symptom 1,
Remedy B.
B. Safety valve setting too
low (<150 p.s.i.)
B. Replace safety valve.
C. System pressure too
high (>135 p.s.i.)
C. Test with accurate gauge. Replace governor if
necessary.
D. Excessive pressure
pulsations from
compressor. (Typical
single cylinder type).
D. Increase volume in discharge line. This can be
accomplished by adding a 90 cubic inch (or larger)
reservoir between the compressor and the AD-IS®
air dryer and reservoir system.
A. Air dryer purge valve
leaking excessively.
A. With compressor loaded, apply soap solution
on purge valve exhaust, to test for excessive
leakage. Repair or replace purge valve as
necessary. Refer to Technical Bulletin
TCH-008-040.
B. Purge valve frozen open
- faulty heater and
thermostat, wiring,
blown fuse.
B. Refer to paragraph 5 of Operation and Leakage
Tests for heater and thermostat test.
C. Defective AD-IS® air
dryer delivery check
valve.
C. Refer to Symptom 1, Remedy B.
D. Leaking Turbo Cut-Off
valve.
D. Repair or replace purge valve assembly.
E. Defective governor.
E. Check governor at both “cut-in” and “cut-out”
position for (i) proper pressures and (ii) excessive
leakage at fittings and exhaust.
F. Leaking purge valve
control piston quad-ring.
F. Repair or replace purge valve assembly.
13
TROUBLESHOOTING CHART (Continued)
SYMPTOM
5. Cannot build system air
pressure.
6. Air dryer does not purge
or exhaust air.
7. Desiccant material
being expelled from air
dryer purge valve
exhaust (may look like
whitish liquid or paste
or small beads.)
8. Unsatisfactory
desiccant life.
9. “Pinging” noise
excessive during
compressor loaded
cycle.
14
CAUSE
A. Kinked or blocked
(plugged) discharge line.
REMEDY
A. Check to determine if air passes through discharge
line. Check for kinks, bends, excessive carbon
deposits, or ice blockage.
B. Excessive bends in
discharge line (water
collects and freezes).
B. Discharge line should be constantly sloping
from compressor to air dryer with as few bends as
possible.
C. Pressure protection
valve(s) in air dryer will
not open.
C. Replace air dryer (pressure protection valves are
not serviceable).
D. Refer to Symptom 4.
D. Refer to Symptom 4, Remedy A.
E. Refer to Symptom 7.
E. Refer to Symptom 7, Remedies A and B.
A. Faulty air dryer purge
valve.
A. After determining air reaches purge valve control
port by installing a T-fitting with a pressure gauge
into the governor unloader port, repair purge valve
if necessary.
B. See Causes B, E, and F
for Symptom #4.
B. Refer to Symptom 4, Remedies B, E, and F.
Also refer to Symptom 1, Remedy B.
A. Faulty dryer cartridge.
A. Replace AD-IS® air dryer cartridge and/or AD-IS®
air dryer.
B. Excessive dryer vibration.
B. Check the AD-IS® air dryer mounting for looseness
or damage. Repair mounting and replace cartridge.
A. Excessive system
leakage.
A. Refer to Symptom 1, Remedy A.
B. Wrong vehicle application
for AD-IS® air dryer.
B. Refer to Symptom 2, Remedy C.
C. Compressor passing
excessive oil.
C. Check for proper compressor installation; if
symptoms persist, replace compressor. Refer to
Bendix Advanced Troubleshooting Guide for Air
Brake Compressor (BW1971).
A. Single cylinder
compressor with high
pulse cycles.
A. A slight “pinging” sound may be heard during
system build up when a single cylinder compressor
is used. If this sound is deemed objectionable, it
can be reduced substantially by increasing the
discharge line volume.
This can be accomplished by adding a 90 cubic
inch (or larger) reservoir between the compressor
and the AD-IS® air dryer and reservoir system.
TROUBLESHOOTING CHART (Continued)
SYMPTOM
10. The air dryer purge
piston cycles rapidly in
the compressor
unloaded (noncompressing) mode.
CAUSE
A. Compressor fails to
“unload”.
REMEDY
A. Check air hose from governor to compressor for a
missing, kinked or restricted line. Install or repair
air hose.
Repair or replace compressor unloader.
15
BW2234 © 2007 Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems LLC All rights reserved. 5/2007
16
Printed in U.S.A.
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