Pressure Systems Regulations 2012

Pressure Systems Regulations 2012
Guide to the Safety,
Health and Welfare at Work
®
(General Application)(Amendment)
Regulations 2012 (S.I. No. 445 of 2012)
Pressure Systems
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CONTENTS
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Regulation 183: Interpretation for Part 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Regulation 184: Application of Part 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Regulation 185: Revocations, saver and transitional matters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Regulation 186: Design, construction and safe operating limits of a
pressure system, or parts thereof. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
Regulation 187: Installation of pressure equipment or a pressure system . . . . .13
Regulation 188: Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Regulation 189: Information and instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Regulation 190: Maintenance of pressure systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Regulation 191: Examination of pressure equipment or a pressure system . . . .18
Regulation 192: Report by a competent person . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Regulation 193: Keeping of records and registers of pressure vessels . . . . . . . . .24
Regulation 194: Duty of persons who hire pressure equipment to others. . . . .25
SCHEDULE 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Part A - Pressure systems excepted from Part 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
Part B - Period of examination of pressure vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Part C - Marking of pressure vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Part D - Information to be contained in report of examination . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Published in 2013 by the Health and Safety Authority, The Metropolitan Building, James Joyce Street, Dublin 1.
Introduction
The Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (General
Application) (Amendment) Regulations 2012 (S.I.
No. 445 of 2012) amend the Safety, Health and
Welfare at Work (General Application) Regulations
2007 (S.I. No. 299 of 2007) by adding a Part 10
and associated Schedule 12 to deal with pressure
systems.
The failure of pressure equipment can result in
fatalities and serious injuries and cause major
damage to property. The purpose of the
Regulations is to provide a robust regime for the
management of pressure systems, including clear
requirements for periodic statutory examinations
of pressure vessels.
The General Application (Amendment)
Regulations 2012 are made under the Safety,
Health and Welfare at Work Act 2005 (No. 10 of
2005) which is referred to in this guide as the
“2005 Act”.
These Regulations apply, subject to the
exceptions listed in Part A of Schedule 12, to
pressure systems and pressure equipment in any
work location. The objective is to control the
hazards presented by pressure systems by way of
design, installation, maintenance and periodic
vessel examination.
The definitions of “pressure equipment” and
“pressure systems” in Regulation 183 cover a
wide variety of equipment in use at workplaces.
This guide is not intended as a legal
interpretation of the legislation. Neither is it a
detailed technical document that covers all the
implications of any given Regulation.
The Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (General
Application) (Amendment) Regulations 2012,
came into operation on 1st January 2013. The
repeal of the Boiler Explosions Acts from 1882 and
1890 and provisions of the Safety in Industry Acts
1955 and 1980 relating to steam boilers and
steam and air receivers was also activated by the
Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act 2005
(Commencement) Order 2012 (S.I. No. 446 of
2012) on 1st January 2013.
In this guide the text of the Regulations is shown
in italics.
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Introduction
Examples of pressure systems include:
•
•
•
•
steam boilers and steam heating systems;
pressurised process plant and piping;
compressed air systems (fixed and portable);
refrigeration systems.
Examples of pressure equipment include:
•
•
•
•
•
pressure cookers, autoclaves and retorts;
heat exchangers;
valves, steam traps and filters;
piping and hoses;
pressure gauges and level indicators.
These Regulations apply to pressure equipment in
use; they do not cover the duties of those placing
pressure equipment on the EU market for the first
time; these are addressed in the European
Communities (Simple Pressure Vessels)
Regulations 1996 (S.I. No. 33 of 1996) which
implements Directive 87/404/EEC and the
European Communities (Pressure Equipment)
Regulations 1999 (S.I. No. 400 of 1999) which
implements Directive 97/23/EC and the European
Communities(Carriage of Dangerous Goods by
Road and Use of Transportable Pressure
Equipment) Regulations,2011(S.I. No.349 of 2011)
which implements Directive 2010/35/EU.
It is important to note that these Regulations are
intended to ensure the mechanical integrity
required by the pressurised state of the
equipment. The Regulations are not intended to
deal with other hazards that may arise from the
operation of a pressure system such as the
consequences of a pressure release involving
toxic or flammable contents. Such hazards are
dealt with under provisions of other legislation
such as the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work
(Chemical Agents) Regulations 2001 (S.I. No. 619
of 2001) and the European Communities (Control
of Major Accident Hazards Involving Dangerous
Substances) Regulations 2006 (S.I. No. 74 of
2006).
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Regulation 183:
Interpretation for Part 10
183. (1) In this Part–
“danger” in relation to a pressure system means reasonably foreseeable danger to persons from
system failure;
“examination” means a careful and critical scrutiny of a pressure system or part of a pressure
system, in or out of service as appropriate, using suitable techniques, including testing where
appropriate, to assess–
(a) its actual condition, and
(b) whether, for the period up to the next examination, it is safe to operate when properly used if
normal maintenance is carried out;
“fluid” means gases, liquids and vapours in pure phase as well as mixtures thereof and fluid may
contain a suspension of solids;
“maximum allowable pressure” or "minimum allowable pressure" means the maximum pressure
and minimum pressure, as the case may be, for which the equipment, or part thereof, is designed,
as specified by the manufacturer;
“maximum allowable temperature” or “minimum allowable temperature” means the maximum or
minimum temperature, as the case may be, for which the equipment is designed, as specified by
the manufacturer;
“pipeline” means a pipe or system of pipes used for the
conveyance of relevant fluid across the boundaries of
premises, together with any apparatus for inducing or
facilitating the flow of relevant fluid through, or through a
part of, the pipe or system, and any valves, valve
chambers, pumps, compressors and similar works which
are annexed to, or incorporated in the course of, the pipe
or system;
“piping” means piping components intended for the transport
of fluids, when connected together for integration into a pressure system and includes in particular a
pipe or system of pipes, tubing, fittings, expansion joints, hoses, bellows or other pressure-bearing
components as appropriate, and heat exchangers consisting of pipes for the purpose of cooling or
heating air shall be considered as piping;
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Regulation 183:
Interpretation for Part 10
“pressure” means pressure relative to atmospheric pressure, i.e. gauge pressure, and, as a
consequence, vacuum is designated by a negative value;
“pressure accessories” means devices with an operational
function and having pressure-bearing housings;
“pressure equipment” means vessels, piping, protective
devices and pressure accessories used with a relevant fluid
and where applicable, pressure equipment includes
attachments relevant to the integrity of the equipment;
“pressure system” means a system comprising one or more
pressure vessels of rigid construction, any associated piping and
protective devices and pressure accessories which contains or is liable to contain a relevant fluid;
“protective devices” means devices designed to protect the pressure equipment against the safe
operating limits being exceeded, including:
(a) devices for direct pressure limitation, such as safety valves, bursting disc safety devices,
buckling rods, controlled safety pressure relief systems,
(b) limiting devices, which either activate the means for correction or provide for shutdown or
shutdown and lockout, such as pressure switches, temperature switches or fluid level
switches and safety related measurement control and regulation devices, and
(c) devices designed to give warning that the safe operating limits are being exceeded;
“relevant fluid” means–
(a) steam,
(b) any gas which is at a pressure greater than 0.5 bar above atmospheric pressure
(1013 mbar),
(c) a liquid which would have a vapour pressure greater than 0.5 bar above atmospheric
pressure (1013 mbar) when in equilibrium with its vapour at either the actual temperature of
the liquid or 17.5 degrees Celsius;
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Regulation 183:
Interpretation for Part 10
“safe operating limits” means the operating limits (incorporating a suitable margin of safety)
beyond which system failure is liable to occur;
“system failure” means the unintentional release of stored energy from a pressure system;
“user” in relation to a pressure system, means the employer or self-employed person who has
control of the operation of the pressure system and includes, in the case of a lease of the pressure
system, the lessee;
“vessel” means a housing designed and built to contain relevant fluids including its direct
attachments up to the coupling point connecting it to other equipment, and a vessel may be
composed of more than one chamber.
Some of the implications of the definitions will be explored in the sections of this guide dealing with
particular Regulations. The definition of “relevant fluid” is particularly important for understanding the scope
of these Regulations in that there is no pressure criterion associated with steam i.e. steam may be at any
pressure. It is also important to understand that the Regulations apply to other pressure systems or
equipment at pressures greater than 0.5 bar subject to the exceptions listed in Part A of Schedule 12.
Hot water e.g.in pressurised hot water systems, is considered as a relevant fluid at a temperature of 112oC
and above.
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Regulation 184:
Application of Part 10
184. This Part applies to the use, examination
and testing of pressure equipment or pressure
systems (other than pressure systems referred
to in Part A of Schedule 12) which are used or
intended to be used at work.
The requirements of these Regulations apply to the
use, examination and testing of pressure equipment
and pressure systems at all places of work to which
the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act 2005
applies, unless excepted by Part A of Schedule 12.
This schedule lists a variety of pressure systems
and equipment which may be used in a work
environment but are exempt from the requirements
of these Regulations. The exception may be for
reasons of practicality, lack of incident history or
because the equipment may already be covered by
other specific legislative provisions.
Equipment listed in Part A of Schedule 12 and
excepted from these regulations may still be work
equipment to which Regulation 30 of the General
Application Regulations 2007 applies and, in that
case, the employer must have an appropriate
scheme of inspections in place.
Regulation 30 states that:
An employer shall ensure that–
(a) where the safety of work equipment
depends on the installation conditions–
(i) an initial inspection is carried out after
installation is completed and before it
is first put into service, and
(b) in the case of work equipment which is
exposed to conditions causing deterioration
liable to result in a danger to safety or health–
(i) periodic inspections and, where
appropriate, testing is carried out,
(ii) special inspections are carried out
when exceptional circumstances arise
which are liable to make the work
equipment unsafe, including
modification work, accidents, natural
phenomena or prolonged inactivity,
and
(iii) deterioration is detected and remedied
in good time,
(c) inspections carried out under paragraphs
(a) and (b) are carried out by a competent
person and are appropriate to the nature,
location and use of the work equipment,
(d) the results of inspections carried out
under paragraphs (a) and (b) are recorded
and kept available for 5 years from the date
of inspection, for inspection by an inspector,
and access to these records is made
available to users of the work equipment
upon request, and
(e) when work equipment is used in another
place of work, it is accompanied by evidence
of the last inspection carried out under
paragraphs (a) and (b).
(ii) an inspection is carried out after
assembly at any new site or in any new
location, and that the
work equipment is installed correctly
and is operating properly,
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Regulation 185:
Revocations, saver and transitional matters
185. (1) The following are revoked:
(a) Factories (Preparation of Steam Boiler
for Examination) Regulations 1956
(S.I. No. 174 of 1956),
(b) Factories (Report of Examination of
Steam Boiler) Regulations 1956 (S.I.
No. 183 of 1956),
(c) Factories (Report of Examination of
Steam Receivers) Regulations 1956
(S.I. No. 184 of 1956),
(d) Factories (Report of Examination of Air
Receivers) Regulations 1956 (S.I. No.
185 of 1956),
(e) Factories (Report of Examination of Air
Receivers) (Amendment) Regulations
1978 (S.I. No. 357 of 1978),
(f) Factories (Report of Examination of
Steam Receivers) (Amendment)
Regulations 1978 (S.I. No.
358 of 1978), and
(b) Sections 40, 41, 42 and 43 of the Factories
Act 1955 (No. 10 of 1955) as
amended by sections 31, 32 and 33 of the
Safety in Industry Act 1980
(No. 9 of 1980)
is activated by the coming into operation of the
Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act 2005
(Commencement) Order 2012.
(2) Where an examination has been carried
out, or commenced, under and in compliance
with an applicable statutory provision prior to
the coming into operation of this Part, the
examination shall be regarded as being in
compliance with this Part and Regulation 191
(other than paragraph (1) thereof) shall not
apply until after the expiry of the period
relating to that examination, as appropriate,
specified under the applicable statutory
provision.
(g) Factories (Report of Examination of
Steam Boiler) (Amendment)
Regulations 1978 (S.I. No. 359 of
1978).
The Regulations listed above are revoked by
these Regulations. In addition the repeal of
(a) the Boiler Explosions Act 1882 and the
Boiler Explosions Act 1890, and
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Regulation 185:
Revocations, saver and transitional matters
(3) An employer who is a user or owner of a
pressure vessel shall ensure that an
examination is carried out under this Part not
later than 3 months after the coming into
operation of this Part where such an
examination was required and was due be to
be carried out under an applicable statutory
provision but was not carried out before the
coming into operation of this Part.
date for the next examination (which will be the
first examination under these Regulations) will
be fourteen months later.
The introduction of these regulations cannot be
used as an excuse to delay examinations that
were due under previous legislation as
Regulation 185(3) sets a deadline for the
completion of overdue examinations.
These requirements deal with issues that arise
from the transition to the new Regulations.
Regulation 185(2) recognises examination work
carried out under legislation in force up to 31st
December 2012 e.g. if a steam boiler received a
thorough examination in June 2012, the latest
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Regulation 186: Design, construction and
safe operating limits of a pressure
system or parts thereof
186. An employer shall ensure that in respect of
a pressure system or parts thereof –
(a) without prejudice to the generality
Regulation 28:
(i) it is of good construction, sound
material, adequate strength, suitable
quality and free from patent defect;
preventive maintenance regime is put in place.
Employers must satisfy themselves that pressure
equipment is suitable for its intended purpose and
is installed correctly. This requirement can normally
be met by checking that appropriate design,
construction and installation standards and codes
of practice are complied with. The supplier of the
equipment should be able to demonstrate that it
complies with the relevant European Directives and
standards.
(ii) it is properly installed and used;
(iii) it is properly maintained;
(iv) the safe operating limits of pressure
equipment or the pressure system have
been established, and adequate
information on said limits is available;
(v) each vessel is marked with the
information specified in Part C of
Schedule 12, where known;
(vi) each vessel is uniquely marked in a
plainly visible and durable form to
enable it to be readily identifiable;
(vii) in the case of a steam boiler, the safe
operating limit shall be clearly displayed.
Regulation 28 of the General Application
Regulations 2007 sets out a range of duties in
respect of the use of work equipment which need to
be taken into account in conjunction with these
Regulations.
In order to comply with Regulation 186, it is
important that the equipment is installed by a
competent person and that an appropriate
10
The pressure system should be manufactured from
materials suitable for the substances it will contain.
Employers should know, by checking with
designers, manufacturers or installers, the safe
operating limits of the system and of any equipment
directly linked to it or affected by it. The expected
pressures and temperatures of some pressure
systems are readily determined but where there is
the risk of runaway chemical reactions, specialist
laboratory testing may be required to determine the
safe operating limits and sizing of pressure relief
systems.
The adequate design, installation and maintenance
of pressure systems includes measures to protect
against vacuum in situations where vacuum can
occur.
It is good practice to have a preventive
maintenance programme and maintenance file for
the system as a whole and for some systems where
there is the potential for serious injury or damage,
they are a necessity. Such a programme needs to
take account of any statutory examination
requirements of these Regulations. It should take
into account the system and equipment age, its
uses and the environment in which it operates. It
should include monitoring procedures to look for
tell-tale signs of problems with the system, e.g. a
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Regulation 186: Design, construction and
safe operating limits of a pressure
system or parts thereof
safety valve repeatedly discharging, maximum
operating temperatures or pressures being
exceeded or evidence of wear and corrosion. See
also Regulation 190.
It is important that pressure vessels are properly
marked in order to ensure safe maintenance and
that reports of examination can be linked to the
correct vessel. If not already done at the time of
manufacture, the safe operating limits should be
marked on pressure vessels along with a unique
identification mark. This will normally be achieved
by affixing a plate or label. Basic information about
pressure vessels should be permanently marked on
the vessel except in cases where the vessel is so
small as to make this impractical. Markings should
not be hard stamped onto the shell of pressure
vessels. The minimum information required is listed
in Part C of Schedule 12.
In addition, markings should not be obscured,
painted over, rendered illegible or located in a
place where they are difficult to read.
(b) it is not operated or allowed to be operated
beyond its safe operating limits except for
testing purposes as specified by, and under the
direction of, a competent person,
(c) it is provided with adequate and appropriate
protective devices, and any such device
designed to release contents shall do so safely.
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Regulation 186: Design, construction and
safe operating limits of a pressure
system or parts thereof
No part of a pressure system should be allowed to
operate beyond the safe operating limits referred to
above. This is achieved by a properly calibrated
control system, appropriate instrumentation and a
correctly set pressure relief system which will
activate in the event that the control system fails.
The only reason a system should be operated
above the safe operating limits is for the purposes
of testing under specialist supervision.
Suitable protective devices should be fitted to the
equipment and should be kept in good working
order at all times. These devices should be
included on a preventive maintenance programme
to ensure that they are capable, if required, of
fulfilling their intended function.
settings. Once set, these limits should not be
altered except where authorised by a competent
person. If warning devices e.g. high pressure
alarms, are fitted, their activation should be
noticeable either by sight or sound and they should
be installed in such a manner as their operation is
readily detected.
Protective devices such as safety valves and
bursting discs should be located such that, if
activated, they discharge to a safe place. In some
cases this may require the installation of a
collection vessel.
To ensure that limits are not exceeded, these
protective devices should be correctly specified
and, where applicable, adjusted to the correct
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Regulation 187: Installation of pressure
equipment or a pressure system
187. A person who installs pressure
equipment or a pressure system at a place of
work shall ensure that it is installed so that it
may be used safely, without risk to health or
impairing the operation of any protective
device or inspection facility.
Persons who install pressure equipment should take
care to ensure that the equipment is installed
correctly. They should ensure that the manner of
installation, e.g. welding procedures, handling
practices etc., does not impair the designed
integrity of the system. For example, hot work such
as welding or cutting may affect the integrity of the
system and should not be carried out unless the
effect of the work on the integrity of the system is
assessed. Examples of other issues that should be
given consideration include:
•
•
•
•
Access to controls;
Visibility of gauges;
Positioning of valves so that pressure relief
devices are not at risk of being isolated from the
systems being protected;
Pipework design so the back pressure in
discharge lines from pressure relief valves or
bursting discs is not excessive.
The installer must ensure that nothing about the way
a pressure system is installed shall give rise to
danger or otherwise impair the operation of any
protective device or inspection facility for that
system. This requires that adequate means of
access as well as sufficient working space is
provided to ensure that inspection facilities are
usable.
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Regulation 188:
Marking
188. (1) No person shall remove from
pressure equipment any mark, plate or label
containing any of the information required
under Regulation 186 (a)(v).
(2) No person shall falsify any mark on
pressure equipment or on a plate or label
attached to it, relating to its design,
construction, test or operation.
Markings on vessels contain important information
and this Regulation makes it a criminal offence to
remove those markings or to falsify the information
on them.
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Regulation 189:
Information and instruction
189. (1) Without prejudice to the generality of
Regulation 29, an employer shall ensure that
in respect of pressure equipment or a
pressure system –
(a) the necessary measures are taken
so that employees have at their
disposal adequate information and,
where appropriate, written
instructions concerning–
(i) conditions of use,
These requirements build on the general duty in
section 8(2)(g) of the 2005 Act and duties under
Regulation 29 of the General Application
Regulations 2007 to provide employees with
information and instruction relating to health and
safety.
The application of Regulation 189 will depend on
the individual circumstances of equipment use. For
example in the case of a heating system, there will
be little if any involvement for most employees
whereas operation of an autoclave involves a close
interaction with its user.
(ii) safe operation,
(iii) foreseeable abnormal situations,
(iv) action to be taken in the event of
an emergency, and
(v) conclusions to be drawn from
experience in using such
equipment, where appropriate,
and
(b) employees are made aware, whether
or not they use the equipment, of safety
and health risks relevant to them
associated with pressure systems
located at or near their workstation.
(2) An employer shall ensure that pressure
equipment or a pressure system is not
operated except in accordance with
information or instructions provided under
paragraph (1) (a) and (b).
Employees should, where necessary for the
conduct of their work, have access to any manuals
or instructions produced by the manufacturer and,
where issued, updates should be incorporated into
the available documentation. Translation of
documents may be necessary to ensure that
equipment users are adequately informed.
The content of any information or instruction should
address, as necessary, normal conditions of use
and action to identify and control foreseeable
abnormal or emergency situations. These situations
may arise, for example, due to an abnormal change
in temperature or pressure or a component or
service failure. The content should also reflect any
lessons learnt from experience, previous incidents
or near misses. Information may also be available
from other users or inspection bodies or from
publications produced by various professional or
industry bodies.
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Regulation 189:
Information and instruction
The nature of pressure equipment is such that
employees may be at risk from equipment that they
themselves do not use but which is located in their
vicinity, and is capable of exploding or releasing
hazardous substances. It is important that those
employees are made aware of the hazards and any
associated alarm or warning systems. Furthermore,
changes in the workplace which affect the safe use
of pressure equipment and systems must be both
communicated to employees and addressed in
revised risk assessments.
(3) An employer of a person, or a selfemployed person, who modifies or repairs
pressure equipment or a pressure system
shall provide sufficient written information
concerning the modification or repair to the
user of the system, as may reasonably be
needed, to enable the provisions of this Part
to be complied with and such information
shall be provided to that user as soon as is
practicable after the modification or repair
and before the pressure system is put back
into operation.
circumstances where the system user has not been
involved in the management of this work and
therefore would not be alert to possible
implications.
Prior to any modifications being carried out, a
proper assessment should be conducted to ensure
that all the implications of the change have been
considered. Following modification or repair of any
part of a system, the person carrying out such work
must, immediately after completion of the work,
supply to the user written information concerning
the work carried out and the implications for the
safe operation of the system including any new
instructions, if appropriate.
On receipt of this information the employer may
need to revise the operating instructions for the
system and alert employees to the changes.
When pressure systems are under repair,
precautions need to be in place to prevent the
system being accidentally restarted before all the
safety devices or systems have been restored.
This provision addresses the scenario where work
has been carried out by a third party who has taken
responsibility for the scope of this work in
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Regulation 190:
Maintenance of pressure systems
190. An employer who is a user or owner of a
pressure system shall ensure that–
(a) so far as is reasonably practicable, in
regard to maintenance operations where
there is a hazard from pressure, that they are
carried out when the pressure system is
depressurised and, where this is not
practicable, appropriate protection measures
are taken for the carrying out of such
operations,
It is appropriate to keep a maintenance file for a
system or part thereof if its failure can result in a
high risk of injury to persons.
While maintenance and the examinations required
under Regulation 191 are closely related, the two
procedures must be clearly differentiated. A
maintenance file or service report is not the same
as a report of examination by a competent person
produced under Regulation 191(3).
When a defect which may be significant to the
(b) where appropriate, a maintenance file for
any pressure system is maintained and kept
up to date, and
(c) where the need for repairs which are
significant in relation to the system being able
to safely withstand pressure becomes
apparent, a competent person is consulted
on the particulars of those repairs.
pressure integrity of a system, e.g. a crack,
becomes apparent or some kind of physical
damage has occurred, a competent person must
be consulted in order to ensure suitable repairs are
carried out. The system shall then be examined by
the competent person after such repairs are
completed in accordance with Regulation 191
(3)(b).
In the ideal world, systems should be
depressurised before maintenance work is carried
out, but for various reasons this is not always
achievable. However, it may be possible to safely
isolate the part of the system which requires
attention. In certain circumstances work on a live
system may be necessary. Protection measures for
work on pressure systems will need to address
“permit to work” arrangements, isolation procedures
and method statements.
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Regulation 191: Examination of pressure
equipment or a pressure system
191. (1) Without prejudice to Regulation 30
an employer shall ensure when pressure
equipment or a pressure system is installed
for the first time at a location that –
(a) in the case of new fixed pressure
equipment or a pressure system –
(i) it is inspected by a competent
person and, where appropriate,
safety devices are tested, prior to
first commission, and
(ii) in the case of pressure vessels, a
certificate of commissioning and,
where appropriate, test, by the
competent person specifying the
safe operating limits has been
obtained,
(b) in the case of previously used fixed
pressure equipment or a pressure
system being installed at a new
location, it is inspected and any vessel
is examined in accordance with
paragraph (3).
The purpose of this Regulation is to make certain
that when pressure equipment or a pressure
system is being put into use, it is assessed to
ensure its safe operation. Regulation 30 deals with
the inspection of work equipment. A distinction is
made between “inspection” and “examination” and,
in the context of these Regulations, “examination”
should be understood as a more thorough process.
18
Regulations 191(1)(a) and (b) cover the inspection
and commissioning of pressure equipment or a
pressure system after installation at a location. A
commissioning certificate is required for any new
pressure vessel.
The equipment should be inspected by a
competent person before being put into use. This
initial inspection should be carried out at the time of
installation of the equipment to ensure that the
equipment is installed correctly and is suitable for
its intended purpose and that protective devices
have been adjusted to the correct settings. Even if
equipment or a system has simply been
reassembled, it is required that it is inspected and,
if need be, safety devices tested to ensure that it is
in full working order.
(c) in the case of a portable or transportable
vessel, it has been examined in accordance
with paragraph (3), unless it can be shown
that the equipment has been in service from
new for a period shorter than that to the first
periodic examination as determined under
paragraph (3).
Regulation 191(1)(c) is similar in its requirements to
Regulation 191(1)(a) and (b) except that it applies
to portable pressure vessels which can easily be
moved from location to location. It requires that
portable vessels must also be examined in
accordance with Regulation 191(3) unless they are
so new that the period to the first examination has
not yet run out.
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(Amendment) Regulations 2012
PRESSURE SYSTEMS
Regulation 191: Examination of pressure
equipment or a pressure system
(2) The period (other than where the period is
determined in accordance with paragraph (2)
or (3) of Regulation 185) within which the first
of the examinations referred to in paragraph
(3) shall be carried out in respect of a
pressure vessel referred to in paragraph (3)
shall be determined by reference to the date
it was first taken into use, which shall be
recorded in the register referred to in
Regulation 193(2).
This provision establishes the date for the first
statutory examination of a pressure vessel. When
such equipment has been commissioned and is
taken into use at a place of work, its details,
including date of first use, are to be recorded in the
register as referred to in Regulation 193(2). This
date of first use is then the reference date from
which the date of the next statutory examination is
determined.
(3) Without prejudice to the generality of
Regulation 30, an employer shall ensure that
a pressure vessel of a type or class specified
in column 1 of Part B of Schedule 12, and any
associated protective devices and pressure
accessories, are not used unless they have
been examined by a competent person –
(a) at least once during the period
specified in column 2 of Part B of that
Schedule, unless that period has been
amended under Regulation 192(4) or a
different period has been specified in
writing by the manufacturer,
(b) after modification or repair and before
return to service where any
modification or repair is carried out to a
pressure vessel, and the modifications
or repairs are significant in relation to
the vessel being able to safely
withstand pressure, or
(c) at any time at the request of an
inspector of the Authority.
Regulation 191(3), through reference to Part B of
Schedule 12, sets down the framework for the
periodic statutory examination and testing of
pressure vessels. Part B presents two categories of
pressure vessels requiring regular examination by a
competent person and sets out the intervals
between examinations for each category. The
competent person can determine the type of
examination, subject to completing a report of
examination that meets the minimum requirements
of Part D. The examination periods are fourteen
months for vessels in Category 1 and twenty-six
months for vessels in Category 2. There is a further
provision in Regulation 192(4) which allows the
competent person to determine a period outside of
those set down in Part B of Schedule 12, in which
case the competent person must justify their
opinion for setting this different period.
Examination before return to use is required if any
modification or repair to a vessel has been carried
out which could have major implications for its safe
operation. The manufacturer’s guidance should be
sought and followed where available. Useful
information may also be available from competent
persons experienced in the examination and
inspection of pressure equipment and systems.
The facility for an inspector of the Health and Safety
Authority to require an examination is included to
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19
Regulation 191: Examination of pressure
equipment or a pressure system
cover situations such as where there is reason to
believe that the examinations or the reports of
such examinations are not adequate or there is
lack of adequate documentation or new
knowledge has come to light that suggests
examination is appropriate.
(4) The examination referred to in
paragraph (3) –
(a)may be completed in a number of
phases and the examination is not
complete until all phases are
completed,
(b)shall, in the case of equipment which
is heated, consist of an examination of
the equipment when it is cold and an
examination of the equipment when
under normal pressure; the
examination under pressure shall be
made on the first occasion when
normal pressure is raised after the
examination when cold, within 28
days of the completion of the first part
of the examination or within a
reasonable period specified by the
competent person, and
(c)may include a test.
The type of examination required will be specific to
the particular equipment being examined and, in
some cases, may consist of a series of
20
examinations. For example, for heated pressure
systems such as steam boilers, the process will
consist of an examination of the system when it is
cold and stripped down and another when it is
running under normal conditions. Separate reports
will be issued for the cold and the hot examination.
In this case the obligation to have the vessel
periodically examined is not met until both
examinations are completed.
The second examination is required on the first
occasion that normal pressure is raised so as to
ensure that the reassembly of the vessel has not
resulted in a potentially hazardous situation. The
reference to “first occasion that normal pressure is
raised” does not include the normal
commissioning procedures to bring a boiler to its
operating mode.
The second examination should take place within
twenty-eight days of the first or, if this is not
possible, the competent person should specify a
reasonable period in which the test should be
completed. Such situations can arise where plant
is on standby or used on a seasonal or occasional
basis and there is no demand to bring the plant
online immediately after the cold examination.
The examination may also require all or parts of
the equipment to be tested. It is the responsibility
of the competent person to determine the
examination criteria for the particular equipment.
Where the safe operation of a pressure vessel
depends on protective devices which are not
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Regulation 191: Examination of pressure
equipment or a pressure system
immediately connected to it e.g. an upstream
pressure-reducing valve, such devices need to be
examined as part of the examination.
(5) An employer shall provide every
assistance to the competent person carrying
out inspections and examinations under
these Regulations.
Following an examination a competent person
may determine that equipment is usable subject to
particular conditions. In this case the competent
person must specify these conditions in the report
of examination and the employer must ensure that
the equipment is used only in accordance with
those conditions.
The successful conduct of these examinations
requires that the employer assists the competent
person, e.g. allowing enough downtime for the
completion of the examinations, provision of
space, lifting equipment, access to maintenance
personnel, etc.
(6) Where a report of an examination under
Regulation 192(2) specifies conditions for
the safe working of the pressure equipment
or system, an employer shall ensure that it is
used only in accordance with those
conditions.
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21
Regulation 192:
Report by a competent person
192. (1) A competent person carrying out an
examination or test of a pressure vessel
under Regulation 185(3) or 191 shall prepare
a report of the result of every such
examination or test which shall contain the
particulars specified in Part D of Schedule
12 and shall furnish a copy of the report to
the owner and user.
(2) Where a report referred to in paragraph
(1) provides for –
(a) the immediate cessation of the use of
a pressure vessel, or part thereof, or
(b) the carrying out of certain repairs or
modifications necessary for the safe
use of the vessel,
the competent person concerned shall not
later than 20 days after the completion of the
examination, send a copy of the report of the
examination to the Authority.
(3) Where a report furnished in accordance
with paragraph (1) states that immediate
cessation of the use of the pressure vessel is
required, the employer, user or owner shall
ensure that the pressure vessel is not
operated until the repairs or modifications,
as the case may be, have been carried out.
Regulation 192 sets out the duty for a competent
person who conducts a statutory examination of a
pressure vessel to produce a report of
examination and give it to the owner and user. It
also sets out the circumstances that require a
copy of the report to be forwarded to the Health
and Safety Authority.
22
Such examinations are separate from
maintenance examinations.
Employers should satisfy themselves that the
competent person has the necessary knowledge,
experience, training and independence to
undertake the functions required of them. A
competent person may be an employee in a
company's own in-house inspection department
or external to the company, such as an individual
person (e.g. a self-employed person) or an
organisation providing independent inspection
services. If the person is an employee there
should be a formal procedure which ensures that
he or she is in a position to exercise independent
judgement.
Those responsible for the operation of pressure
equipment and systems must be familiar with the
contents of the reports prepared by the competent
person and must comply with any conditions laid
down by that person.
Repairs should not be carried out in the course of
statutory examinations and the report of an
examination must reflect the conditions as found.
A copy of the report of examination must be sent
to the Health and Safety Authority where the report
indicates that immediate cessation of use is
required or certain repairs or modifications are
necessary for safe use of the vessel.
(4) A competent person carrying out an
examination under Regulation 191(3) –
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PRESSURE SYSTEMS
Regulation 192:
Report by a competent person
(a) may specify a longer period of examination than the period specified in
column 2 of Part B of Schedule 12, in
relation to a pressure vessel of a
class referred to in column 1 of that
Part of that Schedule, where the
competent person forms the opinion
that it is appropriate for the conditions
of operation and the class of pressure
vessel concerned and he or she shall
provide the reason for the opinion in
writing to the owner and user of the
vessel, and
(b) may specify a shorter period of
examination than the period specified
in column 2 of Part B of Schedule 12
in relation to a pressure vessel of a
class referred to in column 1 of that
Part of that Schedule, where the
competent person forms the opinion
that a more frequent examination is
required for the conditions of
operation and the class of pressure
vessel concerned and he or she shall
provide the reason for the opinion in
writing to the owner and user of the
vessel.
(5) A competent person shall review the
forming of his or her opinion referred to in
paragraph (4) where an inspector in the
course of his or her duties directs that a
review is undertaken, and following the
review the competent person shall, within 30
days of the giving of that direction if he or
she is satisfied to do so, amend the interval
within which an examination may take place.
A longer period of examination intervals can be
established by the competent person, taking into
account such factors as:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
design details;
method of construction;
standards of maintenance;
conditions of use;
the safety record of the system;
its current condition;
reputable guidance;
experience with similar plant.
Similarly the option of setting shorter intervals
between examinations may be appropriate for
systems operating under arduous conditions,
inadequate maintenance regimes or where design
or manufacturing faults have been discovered, but
in any case the reason for the opinion must also
be provided in writing.
Any justification of an extended or shortened
period should demonstrate conclusively that the
extended or reduced period is warranted in the
circumstances described. If the competent person
is of this opinion, he or she must record the basis
of their decision in writing and give it to the owner
and user of the pressure system. An inspector of
the Authority can ask the competent person to
review their opinion, following which, if the
competent person is satisfied that the examination
interval should be changed, shall do so within the
given timeframe.
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(Amendment) Regulations 2012
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Regulation 193: Keeping of records and
registers of pressure vessels.
193. (1) An employer shall ensure that any
report produced under Regulation 192, or a
copy of it –
(a) is kept for inspection by an inspector
at the place of work where the
pressure vessel is permanently
located, and
(b) in the case of a pressure vessel used
from time to time at different places of
work, is kept for inspection by an
inspector, with the pressure vessel
and at the address of the owner of the
pressure vessel.
vessel or part thereof, as the case may be,
held by him or her under this Part in relation
to the pressure vessel.
Regulation 193(1) deals with the keeping of
examination reports and other relevant records so
that they are available at the point of use. See also
Regulation 30(d) of the General Application
Regulations 2007 with regard to the availability of
reports to those who use the equipment.
Regulation 193(2)(a) requires the establishment of
a pressure vessel register so that one can tell at a
glance the scope of equipment for examination
and its current status. The register may be in
electronic or printed form.
(2) An employer shall ensure that –
(a) a register of pressure vessels
containing details of the equipment,
distinguishing numbers, date of first
use and date of last examination and
testing is established, maintained and
kept available for inspection by an
inspector, and
(b) if the vessel does not have a
distinguishing number or mark for the
purpose of identifying the vessel on
the register referred to in
subparagraph (a), that one of long
lasting duration is provided and
placed on the vessel.
(3) The previous owner shall, on the
completion of a change of ownership of a
pressure vessel or, as soon as is practicable
thereafter, give to the new owner any report
or other written information relating to the
24
If the employer has separate locations, each with
its own equipment inventory, a location-specific
inventory may be useful.
Regulation 193(2)(b) addresses the situation
where a pressure vessel for some reason may not
have a distinguishing number or mark as required
by Regulation 186(a)(v). In this case, the employer
is obliged to provide it with one so that accurate
inspection and examination records can be
maintained.
In a situation where a pressure vessel is subject to
a change of ownership, Regulation 193(3)
requires that the original owner passes on all
records pertinent to the equipment kept under this
Regulation to the new owner. Confirmation of the
transfer of records should be made in writing.
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(Amendment) Regulations 2012
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Regulation 194: Duty of persons who
hire pressure equipment to others
194. Where pressure equipment is hired out
for use by others, Regulations 191 and 193
and paragraph (3) of Regulation 192 shall
apply, subject to the modification that
references, in those Regulations and that
paragraph, to the person who hires out
pressure equipment to others shall be
substituted for references to the employer
and any other necessary modifications.
This Regulation mirrors the provisions of
Regulation 59 of the General Application
Regulations 2007 relating to the obligations of
those who hire out lifting equipment. It provides
that those who hire out pressure equipment for use
by others must comply with the requirements
relating to the examination and testing of pressure
equipment under Regulation 191 and the keeping
of records and registers of pressure vessels under
Regulation 193.Where the report of examination
requires immediate cessation of use, the vessel
must be removed from hire until the necessary
remedial action has been taken.
Guide to the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (General Application)
(Amendment) Regulations 2012
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25
SCHEDULE 12 Part A
Regulation 184
Section 12 is divided into four parts :
Part A: Pressure systems excepted from Part 10.
Part B: Period of examinations of pressure
vessels.
Part C: Marking of pressure equipment.
Part D: Information to be contained in report of
examination.
Where questions arise about the application of
these Regulations, Part A should be consulted to
determine if the matter is within the scope of this
legislation. Even if the system is excepted under
Part A, it may still be work equipment to which
Regulation 30 applies and, in that case, the
employer must have an appropriate scheme of
inspections in place.
Most sections of Part A are readily recognisable;
for item 27, the bar litre value for a vessel is
obtained by multiplying the volume in litres by the
maximum allowable design pressure (bar). The
exception in 11(a) does not apply to the load
compartment of tankers such as those for the
transport of flour or cement.
In respect of Part D, it may be noted that there are
no prescribed forms for these Regulations but
certain details or particulars are prescribed which
need to appear in any report of examination used
for these Regulations. Additional information may
be added by the competent person as deemed
necessary or useful.
PRESSURE SYSTEMS
Part A - Pressure systems excepted from Part 10
These Regulations shall not apply to –
1. pipelines comprising piping or a system of
piping designed for the conveyance of any fluid
or substance to or from an installation (onshore or
offshore) starting from and including the last
26
isolation device located within the confines of the
installation, including all the annexed equipment
designed specifically for pipelines;
2. networks for the supply, distribution and
discharge of water and associated equipment
and headraces such as penstocks, pressure
tunnels, pressure shafts for hydroelectric
installations and their related specific
accessories;
3. that part of a system which is only a pressure
system because it is –
(a) subject to a leak test;
(b) pressurised unintentionally, such
pressurisation being not reasonably
foreseeable;
4. well-control equipment used in the gas,
petroleum or geothermal exploration and
extraction industry and in underground storage
which is intended to contain and control (or both)
well pressure, comprising the wellhead
(Christmas tree), the blow out preventers (BOP),
the piping manifolds and all their equipment
upstream;
5. any pressure system which –
(a) is an electrical or telecommunications
cable or is a pressurised pipe for the
containment of transmission systems, e.g.
for electrical power and telephone cables,
(b) is an enclosure for high-voltage electrical
equipment such as switchgear, control
gear, transformers, and rotating machines,
(c) contains sulphur hexafluoride gas and
forms an integral part of high or medium
voltage electrical apparatus,
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(Amendment) Regulations 2012
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SCHEDULE 12 Part A
Regulation 184
(d) consists of a water filled fluid coupling and
used in power transmission;
mounted vehicle, such as equipment forming part
of any braking, control or suspension system;
6. equipment comprising casings or machinery
where the dimensioning, choice of material and
manufacturing rules are based primarily on
requirements for sufficient strength, rigidity and
stability to meet the static and dynamic
operational effects or other operational
characteristics and for which pressure is not a
significant design factor including:
(a) engines including turbines and internal
combustion engines, and
11 (b) pressure equipment associated with gas
propulsion or other operating systems on motor
vehicles or trailers;
(b) steam engines, gas/steam turbines, turbogenerators, compressors, pumps and
actuating devices;
7. blast furnaces including the furnace cooling
system, hot-blast recuperators, dust extractors
and blast-furnace exhaust-gas scrubbers and
direct reducing cupolas, including the furnace
cooling, gas converters and pans for melting,
re-melting, de-gassing and casting of steel and
non-ferrous metals;
8. hydraulic systems in work equipment, except
for accumulators;
9. a pressure system which forms part of the
equipment of ships, rockets, aircraft, hovercraft or
hydrofoil, and mobile off-shore units, as well as
equipment specifically intended for installation on
board or the propulsion thereof;
10. a pressure system which forms part of, or is
intended to form part of, a weapons system;
11.(a) pressure systems and equipment intended
for the functioning of a wheeled, tracked or rail
12. pressure equipment consisting of a flexible
casing, e.g. tyres, air cushions, inflatable craft and
other similar pressure equipment;
13. exhaust and inlet silencers;
14. radiators and pipes used for space heating;
15. any water cooling system on an internal
combustion engine or on a compressor;
16. equipment to which Regulation 56 of the
Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (Quarries)
Regulations 2008 (S.I. No. 28 of 2008) applies;
17. equipment to which Regulations 83 to 85 of
the Mines (General) Regulations 1975 (S.I. No.
331 of 1975) apply;
18. a working chamber, manlock or an airlock
within which persons work in compressed air,
being work to which Part 7, Compressed Air, of
the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work
(Construction) Regulations 2006 (S.I. No. 504 of
2006) applies;
19. pressure equipment to which the following
apply:
(a) European Communities (Carriage of
Dangerous Goods by Road and Use of
Transportable Pressure Equipment)
Regulations 2011 (S.I. No. 349 of 2011);
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27
SCHEDULE 12 Part A
Regulation 184
(b) European Communities (Transport of
Dangerous Goods by Rail) Regulations
2010 (S.I. No. 651 of 2010);
(c) Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods)
Rules 1992 (S.I. No. 391 of 1992);
(d) Aeronautical Notice described as
Aeronautical Notice NR 0.1, Issue 18, Date
01.02.2010 and issued by the Irish Aviation
Authority
(e) any statute or instrument made under a
power conferred by statute or an
aeronautical notice described as such and
issued by the Irish Aviation Authority made
for the purpose of giving effect to(i) a provision of the Treaties governing the
European Communities or an act
adopted by the European Communities,
or
(ii) an international agreement to which the
State is a party,
in relation to the carriage of dangerous
goods by road, rail, inland waterway, sea or
air or for that purpose amending the
instruments or aeronautical notice referred
to in subparagraph (a), (b), (c) or (d);
20. pressure equipment to which the Dangerous
Substances (Storage of Liquefied Petroleum Gas)
Regulations 1990 (S.I. No. 201 of 1990) apply;
28
21. pressure equipment to which Regulation 9 of
the Safety, Health and Welfare (Offshore
Installations) (Operations) Regulations 1991 (S.I.
No. 16 of 1991) apply;
22. vapour compression refrigeration system
incorporating compressor drive motors, including
standby compressor motors, having a total
installed power not exceeding 25 kW;
23. a mobile system of the type known as a slurry
tanker, and containing or intended to contain
agricultural slurry, and used in agriculture;
24. a portable fire extinguisher with a working
pressure below 25 bar at 60°C and having a total
mass not exceeding 23 kilogrammes;
25. any part of a tool or appliance designed to be
held in the hand which is a pressure vessel;
26. vessels designed to contain liquids with a gas
pressure above the liquid of not more than 0.5
bar;
27. any pressure system containing a relevant
fluid (other than steam) if the product of the
pressure in bar and internal volume in litres of its
pressure vessels is in each case less than 250
bar litres;
28. pressure equipment used for diving
operations;
29. self contained breathing apparatus sets.
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SCHEDULE 12 Part B
Regulations 191 and 192
Part B - Period of examination of pressure vessels*
Column 1
Description of pressure equipment
Column 2
Period within which an examination
must occur
Category 1
Steam and hot water boilers such as shell boilers (fired or unfired,
horizontal or vertical), watertube boilers, cast iron sectional boilers.
14 months
Superheaters and economisers connected to boilers in this
category, and steam tube ovens or hotplates.
Self generating autoclaves and self generating jacketed pans.
Coil steam generators.
Category 2
Steam receivers, air receivers, autoclaves, jacketed pans and
steam accumulators.
26 months
All other pressure vessels not listed in Category 1,
*Note: The period for any particular piece of equipment maybe subject to change pursuant to the application of
Regulation 191(3)
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SCHEDULE 12 Part C
Regulations 186 and 188
Part C - Marking of pressure vessels
A non-exhaustive list of information referred to in
Regulation 186(a)(v) is as follows –
1. The manufacturer's name.
2. A serial number to identify the vessel.
3. The date of manufacture of the vessel.
4. The standard to which the vessel was built.
5. The following specified by the manufacturer:
(a) the maximum allowable pressure of the
vessel;
(b) the minimum allowable pressure of the
vessel where it is other than atmospheric;
(c) if relevant to the safe operation of the
vessel, the maximum allowable
temperature or the minimum allowable
temperature, or both the maximum
allowable temperature and the minimum
allowable temperature.
6. If applicable and if different to the operating
limits referred to in paragraph 5, safe operating
limits specified by a competent person following
an examination of the vessel by that person.
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PRESSURE SYSTEMS
SCHEDULE 12 Part D
Regulation 192
Part D - Information to be contained in report of
examination
1. The name and address of the employer, user
or owner for whom the examination was
made.
2. The address of the premises at which the
examination was made.
(b) particulars of any repair, renewal or
modification required to remedy a
defect found to be a danger to
persons and the period within which
the necessary remedial action is to
be completed,
(c) in the case of a defect which is not
yet but could become a danger to
persons –
3. Particulars sufficient to identify the pressure
vessel including, where known, its date of
manufacture.
(i) particulars of any repair, renewal
or modification required to
remedy it, and
4. Date of this examination and date of the last
examination, if known.
5. The safe operating limits of the pressure
vessel and any associated protective
devices, indicating if the immediate cessation
of the use of the pressure vessel, or part
thereof, is advised.
6. The purpose of the examination, including
examination –
(a) after installation or assembly at a new site
or new location
(b) after repairs or modifications, or
(c) which is periodic and where applicable,
hot or cold.
7. In relation to every examination of pressure
vessels and any associated protective devices
and pressure accessories –
(a) identification of any part found to have a
defect which is or could become a danger
to persons and a description of the
defect,
(ii) the period within which the
required repair, renewal or
modification should be
completed,
(d) the latest date by which the next
examination shall be carried out (and
if the interval to the next examination
is lesser or greater than the interval
specified in column 2 of Part B a
written justification shall be provided),
(e) where the examination included
testing, particulars of any test,
(f)
identification of parts not accessible
for examination, and
(g) particulars of any further examination
or test necessary to establish whether
a pressure vessel is safe to use.
8. The name, address and qualifications of the
individual making the report and, where
appropriate, the name and address of the
individual’s employer.
Guide to the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (General Application)
(Amendment) Regulations 2012
PRESSURE SYSTEMS
31
NOTES
32
Guide to the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (General Application)
(Amendment) Regulations 2012
PRESSURE SYSTEMS
A country where
worker safety, health
and welfare and
the safe management
of chemicals are
central to successful
enterprise
ISBN NO. 978-1-84496-173-3
HSA0390
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