Mumford - Some Notes on the History of Parametric Transducers - 1960.pdf

Mumford - Some Notes on the History of Parametric Transducers - 1960.pdf
Notes on
of Parametric Transducers*
Summary-This paper summarizes briefly the chronology of the
development of parametric transducers. The early works of Michael
Faraday (1831), F. Melde (1859), and Lord Rayleigh (1883) are cited
as mechanical examples and the pioneering work of L. Kiihn,
J. Zenneck, E. F. W. Alexanderson and R. V. L. Hartley are cited as
electrical examples. A very brief resum6 of selected contributions
follows, dating from the work on H. Q. North's diodes in 1945 to the
present flurry of excitement beginning in 1954, created by the development of the Signal Corps-Bell Laboratories Task 8 varactor
diodes. A list of 200 selected references is included.
T -I HE recent interest in amplifiers which derive their
gain from variable reactance circuit elements
stems chiefly from the development of low-loss
variable-capacitance diodes. There are two reasons for
this interest. One reason is the fact that such amplifiers
have low noise and the other is that the diodes are expected to have extremely long life. Either one of these
properties is adequate justification for the excitement
currently rampant throughout the world concerning the
exploitation of this "new" type of amplifier, but, with
two good reasons readily apparent, this excitation is
Mystery seemed to invade the thoughts of people
when the scientists announced this new type of anmplifier which was called a variety of names, such as:
"Parametric Amplifier," "Reactance Amplifier" and
"MAVAR" (Modulator Amplifier by Variable Reactance).1 Some of this mi-iystery could have been avoided
had the moderni men known or mentioned that the principle underlying the miiechanism whereby electrical amplification was effected was an old principle. This principle may be broadly stated thus: The energy of an oscillating system may be increased by supplying energy at a
frequency which differs from the fundamental freqbuency of
the oscillator. One mechanical illustration of this principle is the simple pendulum. The child in the swing
learns that he can "pump up" the amplitude of the
oscillation of the swing by lowering his center of gravity
on the down swing and raising it on the up swing. He
thus "pumps" at twice the frequency of the swing. Who
knows when this was invented? Could it have been in
prehistoric times by a monkey swinging by his tail from
the branch of a tree?
Faraday, Melde and Lord Rayleigh have published
observations and calculations concerning this principle.
Quoting Lord Rayleigh, "Faraday, . . . with great ingenuity and success (upon exaim-iiiiing) . . . the crispations upon the surface of water which oscillates vertically, arrived at the conclusion experimentally that
Original manuscript received by the IRE, November 17, 1959;
revised manuscript received, February 1, 1960.
t Bell Telephone Labs., Whippany, N. J.
These three names are considered herein to be synonymous and
to apply to any device which derives its gain from the pumping of a
variable reactance.
there were two complete vibrations of the support for
each complete vibration of the liquid. Crispations (may
be) observed upon the surface of liquid in a large wine
glass or finger glass which is caused to vibrate in the
usual manner by carrying the moistened finger round
the circumference. All that is essenitial to the production of crispations is that the body of liquid with a free
surface be constrained to execute a vertical vibration.
Faraday's assertion that the waves have a period double
that of the support has beeni disputed, but it may be
verified in various ways." Faraday's work was published in 1831 and Lord Rayleigh verified his conclusions sixty years later, also with considerable ingenuity.
The double period oscillation of the water is not readily
proven by casual observation.
The following example of the principle, reported by
Melde in 1859, is, however, readily observed and understood. Quoting again from Lord Rayleigh, "Perhaps the
best known example is that form of ?Melde's experiment
in which a fine string is maintainied in transverse vibrationl by connecting one of its extremities with a vibrating prong of a massive tuning fork, the direction of motion of the point of attachment being parallel to the length
of the string. Unider these circumstances . .. the string
may settle down into a perimianent and vigorous vibration, whose period is the double of that of the fork."
Lord Rayleigh anialyzed and experimented with this
and other similar mechanical phenomenia in 1887. This
led to anialogous experimnenits with electrical circuits.
The electrical principle is readily understood by the
following simple explaniatioin. Suppose that we have a
capacitor formed by two metal plates separated by air.
Assume that a charge exists on the capacitor. The plates
will be attracted to each other because of the equal anid
opposite charges so that to separate the plates requires
work. Uponi separating the plates, say to twice the original distance, the capacitaince will be reduced to half its
original value and, hence, the voltage mlust be twice the
original value, since the charge upoIn the plates remains
the same. The electrostatic energy, however, has been
doubled, since it is proportionial to the square of the
voltage and directly proportioinal to the capacitanice.
The eiiergy required to separate the plates Inow appears
as electrostatic energy in the capacitor.
Now suppose that the capacitor is combinied with an
inductor to form ain oscillating circuit. The voltage on
the capacitor will reach a imaxiniui-ii value twice each
cycle. Now if, on each half cycle, the capacitance is decreased when the voltage is ml-aximum aind increased
when the voltage is zero, net energy will be imiparted to
the oscillations since Ino electrical enlergy is used to restore the capacitor to its original value wheni the voltage
is zero.
Mumford: Some Notes on the History of Parametric Transducers
It appears to me that the fundamental principle . . will find its
Similarly, it is apparent that energy could be imother problems in connection with radio frequency
parted to the circuit had the inductance been varied in circuits. Onetothat
suggests itself immediately is the amplification of
the appropriate phase. This electrical principle was ex- incoming signals.
panded to include frequencies other than the two-to-one
Alfred N. Goldsmith pointed out the advantages of
ratio and the resulting device was used successfully in
magnetic amplifier over the direct-curAlexanderson's
radio telephone communication betweeni Berlin and
doubler employed by Kuhn.
Vienna prior to World War I. This was described by
that the magnetic amplifier
L. Kuhn in 1915. Prof. J. Zenneck, E. F. W. Alexandermodulator than
son and R. V. L. Hartley pioneered with theoretical and
used to ob500
experimental contributions within the next few years.
Alexanderson called these devices "Magnetic Ampliwill
fiers," a name which remains with us today. The objecor
tive then was to modulate a continuous wave arc transmitter by means of a nonlinear inductance or saturable after we learn how to build oscillions for large power
10 kw each. That will create a very difreactance. Here the voice currents constituted the sig- outputs, say 5 or
nal, and the carrier was the pump. The resulting sideThus, there appears to be very old prior art on
banids were radiated, together with the pump (or its harboth as modulator and amplifier. HowMAVAR,
monic in some cases).
I quote the following fromn a paper delivered by ever, the interest in magnetic amplifiers as radio freE. F. W. Alexanderson at an IRE meeting in New York quency modulators subsided quickly with the advent
of the high-power vacuum tube modulators. The "difCity onl February 2, 1916:
ferent situation" predicted by Lee De Forest in FebruThe name "Magnetic Amplifier" has been given to a device for ary, 1916, did, indeed, come to pass.
controlling the flow of radio frequency currents because this name
In the 1920's and '30's, interest developed in subseems to describe its function when it is used for radio telephony
oscillations in electrical circuits containing a
better than would any other.
variety of other purposes, the above name may in some cases not variable reactance. These "parametric" oscillations
seem too appropriate. However, the essential part of the theory that
exist at any one of f/n frequencies, where n is the
will be given refers to the amount of amplification which is possible could
fraction of the fundamental frequency. In
of attainment and the methods of securing a higher ratio of amplification than would be given by the device in its simplest form. ...
1954 Von Neumann and Goto independently recognized
The ratio of amplification is proportional to the ratio between
a phase ambiguity existed in the subharmonic
the frequency of the radio current and that of the controlling current. that
oscillations and that this ambiguity could be utilized in
logic circuits. Goto calls this device a "parametron."
(This conclusion was verified by R. V. L. Hartley and
About thirty years after the pioneering work of
subsequently by Manley and Rowe.)
Kuhn, Zenneck, Alexanderson, and Hartley on inductive
Alexanderson, in the discussion, also suggested am- reactance modulators, interest developed in capacitance
plification of incoming signals by cascaded stages of up- reactance modulators at microwave frequencies. The
conversion, rectification and up-conversion, etc. The failure of reciprocity in some crystal converters obname of Alexanderson's device withstood the rigors of
served in the middle 1940's by L. Apker of General
time. Currently, however, we recognize its radio fre- Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y., and R. N. Smith of
quency version as a type of parametric amplifier, rePurdue University, Lafayette, Inc., and the peculiar
actance amplifier, or MAVAR.
behavior of welded contact germanium diodes made by
In Alexanderson's magnetic amplifier, the chief inter- H. Q. North of General Electric Co., Schenectady,
est resided in the mode of operation in which the input N. Y., was interpreted to mean that the contact capacsignal was in the voice frequency band and the useful ity varied with bias. H. C. Torrey of the Massachusetts
output power was taken in some radio frequency band. Institute of Technology Radiation Laboratory, CamThus it was a modulator or up-converter.
bridge, Mass., gave a thorough discussion of the theory
Alexanderson presented curves to show that negative of nonlinear capacity converters.
resistance effects could exist. Quoting again from his
M. C. Waltz and R. V. Pound at the MIT Radiation
1916 paper: Under some conditions "instability and Laboratory observed negative IF conductance when
generation of self-excited oscillations" can exist. "This units like North's were used. Pound gave many interis a condition that must be avoided for telephone con- esting details about measured power and gain and also
trol; whereas it may have useful applications for other measured negative IF conductance. He obtained a 10purposes." (One useful application, pointed out by db gain and reasoned that such a receiver should have
Eugene Peterson in 1930, was the negative resistance a better noise figure than that of a conventional coInstraight-through amplifier, in which the negative re- verter which has conversion loss. He was unable, howsistance effect was enhanced by the suppression of fre- ever, to achieve this.
quencies higher than the pumping frequency.)
In 1948, A. van der Ziel and, in 1949, V. D. Landon
Louis Cohen, in a communicated discussion of the also derived the MAVAR gain relationships; the former
paper, said:
also pointed out the low-noise figure possibilities.
In 1952, C. F. Edwards observed nonreciprocal behavior in converters when he used R. S. Ohl's bombarded silicon diodes which exhibited variable capacitance as well as variable resistance characteristics. This
observation again triggered a sequence reminiscent of
the North diode sequence of the 1940's in which Apker,
Smith, Pound, and Waltz reported the experimenetal results and Torrey, van der Ziel, and Landon derived the
theory. Corresponding names for the early 1950 sequence are Ohl, Edwards, Manley, and Rowe.
However, ini neither of these sequences was a very
low-loss variable capacitance diode available and hence
the gain was limnited and the noise figure was not especially good.
In 1954, the United States Signal Corps sponsored a
project at Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill,
N. J., to develop semiconductor devices. In the second
interim report of this now famous "Task 8," A. E. Bakaniowski published his derivation of the nonlinear capacitor as a mixer. The work of Bakaniowski, Cranna and
Uhlir led to the discovery of a technique for making
low-loss units.
The technique of making low-loss silicon diode varactors or varicaps advanced rapidly and interest in these
new units began to expand.
In the meantime, H. Suhl discovered that variable
reactance in the microwave range was obtained in ferrite materials when properly excited by a pumping frequency. He proposed using this effect to obtain parametric amplification and discussed suitable materials in
the paper published in 1957. M. T. Weiss verified Suhl's
proposal experimentally.
M. E. Hines and H. E. Elder succeeded in demonstrating gain and oscillationis in a reactance amplifier
which used silicon varactors and suggested several microwave circuits for up-converters and negative resistance amplifiers. Their work stimulated activity in microwave applications of "varactor" diodes.2
In 1957, Heffner aiid Wade considered theoretically
the noise, gain and bandwidth of parametric amplifiers.
Early in 1958, the low-noise properties predicted by
theory were verified experimentally at the Bell Telephone Laboratories at 6000 mc by Uenohara anid at 380
mc by Engelbrecht. Salzberg at Airborne Instrumenits
Laboratory, Mineola, N. Y., and Heffner and Kotzebue
at Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., also achieved
low-noise performance working at 1 mc and 1200 Illc,
Miyakawa in Japan, Cullen in England and Tien and
Suhl in America considered the amplificationi anid frequency conversion in propagating circuits in which the
variable reactors were distributed along a tranismission
line while Bloom, Chang and Wittke of RCA Laboratories, Princeton, N. J., took up the theory of parametric
amplification and discussed the new approaches to am-
2 It should be pointed out that, unknown to Hines and Elder,
Kita and Fujii in Japan had been successful in demonstrating gain
and oscillations at microwave frequencies independently while working with variable capacitance diodes in 1954.
plification of microwaves. Bloom and Chang also discussed the case of low frequency pumping.
R. S. Engelbrecht at Bell Telephone Laboratories designed a traveling wave UHF parametric amplifier using
varactor diodes and achieved over 200-mc bandwidth
at UHF with 8 to 10 gain. MTIeasurements indicated an
"astronom-iy" iioise figure of one db, correspondinig to a
"radar" noise figure of about 3.5 db. (This compares
favorably with the best commercially available vacuum tube, whose noise figure is about 5 db.)
In the meantime, Adler of Zenith, Chicago, Ill.
(in June, 1957), suggested a niovel principle of signlal
amplification using a pumped electroni beam, and
Bridges (in February, 1958) suggested and constructed
a parametric amplifier using the variable reactance of a
floating drift tube klystron. Louisell and Quate discussed
the capabilities of this type of amplifier, and Adler
demonstrated that the conclusions conicerninig the lownoise capabilities were indeed correct. He achieved a
noise figure capability of 1.4 db, of which 0.4 db represented the loss in the iniput coupler.
The developmenit of the vacuumi tube in AlexandersonIs time curtailed the interest in radio frequency parametric transducers. Thirty or so years later, the invenition of the transistor then dimiinished the interest in
vacuum tubes. But the interest in radio frequenicy
parametric transducers was resurrected by the developmiienit of the low-noise variable capacitance diode, aind
this resurrection, in turn, has stimulated the interest in
vacuum tubes as parametric tranisducers.
What is the next cycle in this see-saw pattern?
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Mumford: Some Notes on the Ilistory of Parametric Transducers
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83. M. 'F. WXTeiss, "Solid state microwave amplifier and oscillator
using ferrites," Phys. Rev., vol. 107, p. 317; July 1, 1957.
84. R. W. DeGrasse and G. Wade, "Microwave mixing and frequenicy dividiIng," PROC. IRE, vol. 45, pp. 1013-1015; July,
85. A. E. Bakaniowski, N. G. Cranna, and A. Uhlir, Jr., "Diffused
germaniulm and silicon non-linear capacitor diodes," presented
at the IRE-AIEE Semiconductor Device Res. Conf., Boulder,
Colo.; July, 1957.
86. M. r. Weiss, "Quantum derivation of energy relations analogous
to those for nonlinear reactances," PROC. IRE, vol. 45, pp.
1012-1013; July, 1957.
87. L. J. Giacoletto, "Junction capacitance and related characteristics Usinlg graded impurity semiconductors," IRE rRANS. ON
ELECTRON DEVICES, vol. ED-4, pp. 207-214; July, 1957.
88. "New ferrite microwave amplifier," Bell Labs. Record, vol. 35,
pp. 316-317; Auigust, 1957.
89. A. Uhlir, Jr. and N. Bronstein, "Semniconiductor diodes yield
coniverter gaini, " Bell Labs. Record, vol. 35, p. 412; October, 195 7.
90. B. Salzberg, "Masers and reactance amplifiers, basic power relations," PROC. IRE, vol. 45, pp. 1544 1545; Novem1ber, 1957.
Simple derivation of Manley Rowe relations.
91. H. Suhl, "Theory of the ferromaginetic amplifier," J. Appl.
Phys., vol. 28, pp. 1225-1236; November, 1957.
92. Y. Miyakawa, "Amplification and frequency coniversion in
propagation circuits," Inst. Elec. Commun. Engrs., Japan, National Convention Record, p. 8; November, 1957. (In Japanese.)
93. S. Bloom and K. K. N. Chang, "Theory of parametric amplification usinig nonlinear reactanices," RCA Rev., vol 18, pp. 578593; December, 1957.
94. J. P. Wittke, "New approaches to the amplification of microwaves," RCA Rev., vol. 18, pp. 441 -457; December, 1957.
95. E. 0. Keizer, "A carrier-energized bistable circtuit using variable
capacitance diodes," RCA Rev., pp. 475-485; December, 1957.
96. B. Lax, "Status of microwave application-s of ferrites and semiconductors," IRE TRANS. ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TlECHNIQUFS, vol. MTT-6, pp. 5-18; January, 1958.
97. "Varicap," Radio Electronics, vol. 29, p. 45; January, 1958.
98. L. Esaki, "New phenomenoni in narrow germanium p-n junctions," Phys. Rev., vol. 109, pp. 603-604; Janriary 15, 1958.
99. S. Duinker, "General properties of frequenicy conivertinig networks," Phillips Res. Repts., vol. 13, pp. 37 78, February, 1958;
pp. 101-148, April, 1958.
100. A. L. Cullen, "A travelling-wave parametric amplifier," Nature,
vol. 181, p. 332; FebruLary 1, 1958.
101. T. J. Bridges, "Ail electron beam parametric amplifier," PROC.
IRE, vol. 46, p. 494-495; February, 1958.
102. H. Kromer, "Proposed negative mass microwave amplifier,"
Phys. Rev., vol. 109, p. 1856; March 1, 1958.
103. H. Suhl, "Origin and use of instabilities in ferromagnietic resonanice," J. Appl. Phys., vol. 29, pp. 416-421; March, 1958.
104. K. XW. H. Stevens, "Amplification usinig a processing magnetic
moment," J. Electronics Control, vol. 4, pp. 280-284; March,
105. C. L. Hogan, R. L. Jepsen, and P. H. Vartanian, "New type of
ferromagnetic amplifier," J. Appl. Phys., vol. 29, pp. 422-423;
March, 1958.
106. S. Bloom and K. K. N. Chang, "Parametric amplification using
low frequenicy pumpinig," J. Appl. Phys., vol. 29, p. 594; March,
107. P. K. Tien and H. Suhl, "A traveling wave ferromagnetic amplifier," PROC. IRE, vol. 46, pp. 700-706; April, 1958.
108. WV. H. Louisell and C. F. Quate, "Parametric amplification of
space charge waves," PROC. IRE, vol. 46, pp. 707-716; April,
109. H. Heffner and G. Wade, "Noise, gain and bandwidth characteristics of the variable parameter amplifiers," presented at
IRE PGED meeting, Washington, D. C.; October 31 to November 1, 1957. (Abstract, IRE TRANS. ON ELECTRON DEVICES,
vol. ED-5, p. 112; April, 1958.)
110. H. E. Rowe, "Sotne general properties of nonlinear elements,
II. Small signal theory," PROC. IRE, vol. 46, pp. 850-860; May,
111. H. Suhl, "Quantum analog of the ferromagnetic microwave
amplifier," J. Phys. Chem. Solids, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 278-282;
112. R. P. Turner, "Using the
pp. 57--59; May, 1958.
varicap," Radio Electronics, vol. 29,
113. G. G. Straube, "A voltage variable capacitor" (2 parts), Electronic Inds., pp. 69-73, May, 1958; pp. 77-80, July, 1958.
114. R. S. Engelbrecht, "A low-noise noni-liniear reactance travelilng
wave amplifier," presented at Solid-State Devices Res. Colof.,
Columbus, Ohio; Jtine 18, 1958.
115. G. G. Herrmann, M. Ueniohara, and A. Uhlir, Jr., "Noise figure
measurements oni two types of variable reactailce amplifiers
usilng semiconductor diodes," PROC. IRE, vol. 46, pp. 13011303; June, 1958.
116. A. IJhlir, Jr., "The potential of semiconductor diodes ini highfrequen1cy communulication1," PROC. IRE, vol. 46, pp. 1099- 1115;
June, 1958.
117. B. Salzberg and E. W. Sard, "A low-noise wide-banid reactanlce
amplifier," PROC. IRE, vol. 46, p. 1303; June, 1958.
118. S. Kita, "A harmonic generator by use of the noniliniear capacitanice of germaniu-m diode," PROC. IRE, Vol. 46, p. 1307;
June, 1958.
119. R. Adler, "Parametric amplificationi of fast electron waves,"
PlROC. IRE, vol. 46, pp. 1300-1301; JUn1e, 1958.
120. H. Heffner and K. Kotzebue, "Experimental characteristics
of a microwave parametric amplifier Llsing a semiiiconiductor
diode," PROC. IRE, vol. 46, p. 1301; JuIne, 1958.
121. P. K. Tien, "Parametric Amplification and Frequency Mixinig
in Propagating Circuits," Sixteenth Annual Conf. oni ET Res.,
Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada, June 26, 1958.
122. C. B. Crumly, P. M. Fitzgerald, and G. WVade, "multi-Tank
Microwave Parametric Converters and Amplifiers," Sixteenith
Annual Conf. on ET Res., lI"iiversite Laval, Quiebec, Caniada,
June 26, 1958.
123. A. Ashkin, "Parametric Amplification on Space Charge Waves,"
Sixteenth Annual Conf. on ETl Res., Universite Laval, Qtiebec,
Canada; June 26, 1958.
124. K. K. N. Chang and S. Bloom, "Parametric amplifier USillg
lower frequency pumping," PROC. IRE, vol. 46, pp. 1383-1386;
July, 1958.
125. N. Minorsky, "On parametric excitation," Compt. rend. Acad.
Sci., Paris, vol. 247, pp. 406-408; July 28, 1958.
126. "Low-noise amplifier for high frequencies Lises new semiconiduLctor diodes," Bell Labs. Record, vol. 36, pp. 250-251; Julv, 1958.
127. L. D. BrIchmiller and G. Wade, "Pumping to extend travelinigwave-tube freqriency range," PROC. IRE, vol. 46, pp. 1420-1421;
July, 1958.
128. D. Leenov, "Gain and noise figure of a variable capacitalnce
up converter," Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 37, pp. 989-1008; Jtily,
129. R. E. Beam, "Report on advances in microwave theory anid
techniques," IRE TRANS. ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, vol. MTT-6, pp. 251-263; July, 1958.
130. A. Uhlir, Jr., "Shot noise in p-n j unction frequeiicy coiuverters,
Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 37, pp. 951-987; July, 1958.
131. K. M. Poole and P. K. Tien, "A ferromagnetic resoniance frequency converter," PROC. IRE, vol. 46, pp. 1387-1396; JrIlY,
132. A. I). Berk, L. Kleinman, and C. E. Nelson, "Modified semistatic ferrite amplifier," 1958 WESCON CONVENTION RZECORD,
pt. 3, pp. 9-13.
133. L. B. Valdes, "Circuit conditions for parametric amplification,"
J. Electronics Control, vol. 5, pp. 129-141; August, 1958.
134. H. Heffner and G. Wade, "Minimum noise figure of a parametric amplifier," J. Appl. Phys., vol. 29, p. 1262; August,
135. A. Ashkin, 'F. J. Bridges, W. H. ILouisell, and C. F. Quate,
"Parametric electron beam amplifiers," 1958 WESCON CONVENTION RECORD, pt. 3, pp. 13 17.
136. H. Heffner, "Masers and parametric anmplifiers," 1958
137. K. K. N. Chang and S. Bloom, "A parametric amplifier usinlg
low frequency primping," 1958 WESCON CONVENTION RFCORD,
pt. 3, pp. 23-27.
138. M. E. McMahon and G. F. Straube, "Voltage sensitive semiconidLIctor capacitors," 1958 WVESCON CONVENTION RECOIRD,
pt. 3, pp. 72-82.
139. R. S. Engelbrecht, "A low noise nonlinear reactanice travelinig
wave amplifier," PROC. IRE, vol. 46, p. 1655; September, 1958.
140. P. K. Tien, "Parametric amplification and freqriency mixing
in propagating circuits," J. Appl. Phys., vol. 29, pp. 13471357; September, 1958.
141. H. Hleffner and G. WVade, "Gain, bandwidth and noise characteristics of the variable parameter amplifier," J. Appl. Phys.,
vol. 29, pp. 1321-1331; September, 1958.
142. S. Weber, "The Maver: A low noise microwave amplifier,"
Electronics, vol. 31, pp. 65-71; September 26, 1958.
143. W. L. Whirry and F. B. Wang, "Phase dependence of a ferromagnetic amplifier," PROC. IRE, vol. 46, pp. 1657-1658; September, 1958.
144. R. Gardner, J. C. Greene, P. P. ILombartdo, anld E. WV. Sard,
Mumford: Some Notes on the History of Parametric Transducers
"Application of semiconductor diodes to microwave low-noise
amplifiers and harmonic generators," 1) Rept. 4589-M-1 Cont.
AF30(602)-1854, September, 1958 (RADC, Rome); 2) Rept.
5872-I-1 Cont. 36-039-sd-78161 DA Project 3-99-15-106, October 15, 1958 (U. S. Army Signal Engrg. Lab.).
H. Suhl, "The ferromagnetic microwave amplifier," Physics
Today, vol. 11, pp. 28-30; September, 1958.
S. Muroga, "Elementary principles of Parametron and its application to digital computers," Otomation, vol. 4, pp. 31-34;
September/October, 1958.
S. Saito, "A new method of measuring the noise parameters of
an electron beam," IRE TRANS. ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOl.
ED-5, pp. 264-275; October, 1958.
R. Adler, G. Hrbek, and G. Wade, "A low-noise electron beam
parametric amplifier," PROC. IRE, vol. 46, pp. 1756-1757;
October, 1958.
H. A. Haus, "The kinetic power theorem for parametric, longitudinal electron-beam amplifiers," IRE TRANS. ON ELECTRON
DEVICES, vol. ED-5, pp. 225-232; October, 1958.
S. Saito, "Parametric amplification of space charge waves on a
thin electron beam," J. Inst. Elec. Engrs. Japan, vol. 41, pp.
1113-1120; November, 1958.
Microwave Parametric Device Lecture Series, IRE PGED and
PGMTT, San Francisco, Calif.; October 15, 22, 29, and November 5, 12, 19, 1958.
B. Salzberg, "General characteristics of nonlinear energy
storage elements," presented at Microwave Parametric Device
Lecture Series, IRE PGED and PGMTT, San Francisco, Calif.;
October 15, 1958. Resume by B. Fank in Grid, vol. 5, pp. 16-18;
November, 1958.
K. KotzebLue, "Large signal properties of parametric amplifiers,"
presented at Microwave Parametric Device Lecture Series,
IRE PGED and PGMTT, San Francisco, Calif., October 29,
1958, Resum6 by B. Fank, Grid, vol. 5, pp. 18-20; November,
H. Heffnler, "Back-biased diode parametric amplifiers," presented at Microwave Parametric Device Lecture Series, IRE
PGED and PGMTT, San Francisco, Calif.; October 22, 1958.
Resume by K. Hunton, Grid, vol. 5, p. 18; November, 1958.
J. Gibbons, "The characteristics of back-biased diodes," presented at Microwave Parametric Device Lecture Series, IRE
PGED and PGMTT, San Francisco, Calif.; November 5, 1958.
Resume by K. Hunton, Grid. vol. 5, pp. 16-18; December, 1958.
P. H. Vartanian, "Ferromagnetic parametric amplifiers," presented at Microwave Parametric Device Lecture Series, IRE
PGED and PGMTT, San Francisco, Calif.; November 12,
1958. Resutne by B. Fank, Grid. vol. 5, pp. 18-24; December,
R. Adler, "Beam type parametric amplifiers," presented at
Microwave Parametric Device Lecture Series, IRE PGED and
PGMTT, San Francisco, Calif.; November 19, 1958. Resume
by B. Fank, Grid. vol. 5, pp. 24-26; December, 1958.
Electrons at Work, "Parametric amplifier increases scatter
range," Electronics, vol. 31, p. 96; November 7, 1958.
F. S. Harris, "The parametric amplifier," CQ, vol. 14, p. 74,
et seq.; November, 1958.
R. Bateman and WV. F. Bain, "New thresholds in VHF and
UHF reception, the world below KTB," QST, vol 42, p. 30,
et seq.; December, 1958.
R. H. Pantell, "General power relationships for positive and
negativ e noniliniear resistive elements," PROC. IRE, vol. 46,
pp. 1910-1913; December, 1958.
A. Ashkin, "Paramiietric amplification of space-charge waves,"
J. Appl. Phys., vol. 29, pp. 1646-1651; December, 1958.
WV. E. Danielson, "Low noise in solid state parametric amplifiers at microwave frequienicies," J. Appl. Phys., vol. 30, pp. 816; January, 1959.
G. Matthei, "Recent advances in solid state receivers,"
J., vol. 2, pp. 19-24; januiary, 1959.
B. Lax, "Microwaves and the solid state," Microwave J., vol.
2, p. 5; janutary, 1959.
G. Matthei, and T. Saad, "A low-noise semiF. A. Brand,
conductor diode microwave amplifier," PROC. IRE, vol. 47, pp.
42-44; january, 1959.
B. Oguchi, S. Kita, N. Inage, and T. Okajima, "Microwave
parametric amplifier by means of germanium diode," PROC.
IRE, vol. 47, pp. 77-78; January, 1959.
H. Heffner, "Solid-state microwave amplifier," IRE TRANS. ON
83-91; Jantuary, 1959.
R. S. Engelbrecht and W. XXW. Mumford, "Some data on the
performance of MAVARS," presented at the IRE PGMTT
meeting, San Francisco, Calif.; January 20, 1959.
G. Wade and R. Adler, "A new method for pumping a fast
space-charge wave," PROC. IRE, vol. 47, pp. 79-80; January,
171. K. K. N. Chang, "Four terminal parametric amplifiers," PROC.
IRE, vol. 47, pp. 81-82; january, 1959.
172. R. Bateman and W. F. Bain, "New thresholds in VHF and
UHF reception devices and diodes," QST, vol. 43, p. 11, et
January, 1959.
173. K. Kurokawa and J. Hamasaki, "Theoretical analysis of periodic structures for parametric amplifiers," Rept. of Microwave
Transmission Res. Committee of Japan, January, 1959. (In
Japanese.) See "Mode theory of lossless periodically distributed
parametric amplifiers," IRE TRANS. ON MICROWAVE THEORY
360-365; July, 1959.
174. A. Uhlir, Jr., "Amplification by non-linear reactance," Digest
of Technical Papers, 1959 Solid-State Circuits Conf., Philadelphia, Pa.; February 12, 1959.
175. P. P. Lombardo, "Low-noise 400 mc reactance amplifier," Digest of Technical Papers, 1959 Solid-State Circuits Conf.,
Philadelphia, Pa.; February 12, 1959.
176. R. S. Engelbrecht, "Non-linear-reactance (Parametric) traveling wave amplifiers for U.H.F.," Digest of Technical Papers,
1959 Solid-State Circuits Conf., Philadelphia, Pa.; February
12, 1959.
177. K. L. Kotzebue, "Large-signal characteristics of three-frequency
cavity parametric amplifiers," Digest of Papers, 1959 Solid-
State Circuits Conf., Philadelphia, Pa.; February 12, 1959.
178. Hsu Hsiung, "Multiple frequency parametric devices," Digest
of Technical Papers, 1959 Solid-State Circuits Conf., Philadel-
phia, Pa.; February 12, 1959.
179. R. Bateman and W. F. Bain, "New thresholds in VHF and
UHF reception-circuit theory and diode details," QST, vol.
28-35; February, 1959.
180. F. Shunaman, "The variable reactance amplifier," Radio Elec-
tronics, vol. 30, pp. 78-82; February, 1959.
181. L. B. Valdes, "Proposed microwave mixer diode of improved
conversion efficiency," J. App!. Phys., vol. 30, pp. 436-440;
March, 1959.
182. H. Kromer, "The physical principles of a negative-mass amplifier," PROC. IRE, vol. 47, pp. 397-406; March, 1959.
183. L. S. Nergaard, "Nonlinear capacitance amplifiers," RCA Rev.,
vol. 20, pp. 3-17; March, 1959.
184. J. Sie and S. Weisbaum, "Noise figure of receiving systems using
parametric amplifiers," 1959 IRE NATIONAL CONVENTION
RECORD, pt. 3, pp. 141-158.
185. T. B. Warren, "Low noise parametric amplifiers and coniverters," 1959 IRE NATIONAL CONVENTION RECORD, pt. 3, pp.
186. R. Bateman and W. F. Bain, "New thresholds in VHF and
UHF reception, practical results," QST, vol. 43, pp. 35-39;
March, 1959.
187. H. Heffner, "Masers and parametric amplifiers," Microwave
J., vol. 2, pp. 33-38; March, 1959.
188. R. L. Wigington, "A new concept in computing," PROC. IRE,
vol. 47, pp. 516-523; April, 1959.
189. E. D. Reed, "The variable-capacitance parametric amnplifier,"
April, 1959.
190. E. W. Sard, "Analysis of a negative conductance amplifier operated with a non-ideal circulator," IRE TRANS. ON MICROWAVE
THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOI. MTT-7, pp. 288-294; April,
191. F. A.
Olson, C. P. Wang, and G. Wade, "Parametric devices
tested for distortionless limiting," PROC. IRE, vol. 47, pp. 587588; April, 1959.
192. R. D. Haun, Jr. and T. A. Osial, "Gain measturemiienits on a
pulsed ferromagnetic amplifier," PROC. IRE, vol. 47, pp. 586587; April, 1959.
193. R. C. Knechtli and R. D. Weglein, "Low-noise parametric amplifiers," PROC. IRE, vol. 47, pp. 584-585; April, 1959.
194. L. U. Kibler, "Directional bridge parametric amplifier," PROC.
IRE, vol. 47, pp. 583-584; April, 1959.
195. P. P. Lombardo and E. W. Sard, "Low frequencv prototype
traveling-wave reactance amplifier," PROC. IRE, vol. 47, pp.
995-996; May, 1959.
196. J. J. Younger, A. G. Little, H. Heffner, and G. Wade, "Para-
metric amplifiers
superregenerative detectors," PROC. IRE,
vol. 47, pp. 1271-1272; July, 1959.
197. H. S. Sommers, Jr., "Tunnel diodes as high-frequency devices,"
PROC. IRE, vol. 47, pp. 1201-1206; july, 1959.
198. G. M. Roe and M. R. Boyce, "Parametric energy conversion in
distributed systems," PROC. IRE, vol. 47, pp. 1213-1218; jutly,
199. B. B. Bossard, "Superregenerative reactance amplifier," PROC.
IRE, vol. 47, pp. 1269-1271; July, 1959.
200. K. K. N. Chang, "Low-noise tunnel diode amplifier," PROC.
IRE, vol. 47, pp. 1268-1269; July, 1959.
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