Advancing Humanities and Social Sciences Research in Ireland

Advancing Humanities and Social Sciences Research in Ireland
A D V A N C I N G
H U M A N I T I E S
AN D
SO C I A L
SC I E N C ES
R E S E A R C H
I N
I R E L A N D
a re p or t by t he
r oyal irish academy
I
RA
Table of Contents
Fo rewo rd
Preface
xi
xiii
1 EX ECU TIV E SU M M A RY
xv
2 INTRODUCTION
1
3 H S S R ES E A R C H : CO N T R I B U T I O N A N D I M P O R TA N C E
3. 1 Cu l t u ra l e n rich m e n t
3. 2 Ec o n o m ic a n d s o ci a l we l l - b ei n g
3.3 Cos t s a n d b e n e fi t s o f i nves t m e n t i n HSS
4 ST R AT E G I C P L A N N I N G I N T H E H S S
4 . 1 Key p o l icy i n i t ia t ives
4 . 2 Po l i c y a c t o r s
4 .3 Advo c acy
4.4 Strategic planning in the HSS: ways for ward
4.4.1 Knowledge transfer and the HSS
5 THE HSS IN IREL AND: FUNDING PROFILE
5 . 1 Tr e n d s i n I r i s h H S S H E R D
5. 1 . 1 S o u rc e s o f H E R D
5. 1 . 2 H SS re s e a rch p e r s o n n e l i n t h e h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n s e c t o r
5. 2 EU H SS H E R D : EU c o m p a ri s o n s
5 . 2. 1 H S S H E R D : c o m p a r a t o r c o u n t r i e s
5.3 O bs e r va t i o n s
6 R ES E A R C H I N F R A ST R U C T U R ES F O R T H E H S S
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
Knowl e dg e - b ase d resou rc es
E-infrastructures and digitisation
Te c h n i c a l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p p o r t
Obser vations
3
3
7
10
13
13
16
19
21
23
25
25
27
32
34
35
38
43
43
46
48
49
7 H S S R ES E A R C H A N D T H E E U R O P E A N U N I O N
7. 1 H S S p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n E U r e s e a r c h f u n d i n g i n s t r u m e n t s
7. 1 . 1 E U F r a m e w o r k P r o g r a m m e s
7. 1 . 2 E R A - N E T
7. 1 . 3 ES F i n s t r u m e n t s ( 2 0 0 1 – 2 0 0 5 )
7. 1 . 4 CO ST
7. 2 O b s e r v a t i o n s
8 D O C TO R A L ST U D I ES A N D R ES E A R C H C A R E E R S
IN THE HSS
8.1
8.2
8 .3
8.4
8.5
Growth pat terns in doctoral studies, 1999–2004
Funding oppor tunities for HSS doctoral studies
Rese a rch t ra i n i ng a nd c a re ers
Mobility issues
Obser vations
9 R E CO M M E N D AT I O N S
A p p e n d i x I : M e m b e r s h i p o f t h e R I A Wo r k i n g G r o u p o n t h e H u m a n i t i e s
a n d S o cia l Scie n c es
A p p e n d i x I I : M e m b e r s h i p o f t h e R I A S u b - C o m m i t t e e s o f t h e Wo r k i n g
G ro u p o n t h e H u ma n i t ies a n d S o cia l Scie n c es
A pp end ix I I I : EU H E R D Co mp a ri so n s
A p p e n d i x I V : R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l s i n F i n l a n d , N o r w a y, Po r t u g a l a n d
Slovenia
References
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54
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56
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59
60
63
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64
67
69
71
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79
81
83
87
93
List of tables and charts
Table 1
Higher Education Expenditure on Research and Development (HERD) in the
humanities and social sciences, 1998–2004 (m constant 2004 prices)
26
Table 2
Source of total HERD funds for all fields of science expressed as a percentage share
of total HERD, 1998–2004 (m constant 2004 prices)
27
Table 3
HSS percentage share of total HERD expenditure by source of funds, 1998–2004
(m constant 2004 prices)
28
Table 4
Estimated HSS HERD allocation by source (direct government funding only) and
percentage funding allocation, 1999–2004 (m)
30
Table 5
Capital and recurrent breakdown of direct government funding by agency to the
humanities and social sciences
32
Table 6
Number of HSS researchers (full-time equivalents or FTEs), by occupation
compared with total researchers in all fields of science (FoS) in the higher-education sector, 1998–2004
33
Table 7
HERD as a percentage of GNI in Ireland, Finland, Norway, Portugal and Slovenia,
2000–2004 (m current prices)
36
Table 8
Sources of HERD expenditure on all fields of science, 1998–2004 (millions of
1995 PPS)
37
Table 9
Humanities and social sciences HERD as a percentage of GNI—2000–2004
(based on current prices)
38
Table 10
Sources of HERD expenditure (percentage) on humanities and social sciences,
1998–2004
39
Table 11
HERD expenditure on humanities and social sciences as a percentage of HERD in
all fields of science, 2000–2004 (constant 1995 prices)
40
Table 12
Ireland’s participation in EU FP4, FP5 and FP6
55
Table 13
Participation by Irish HSS researchers in NORFACE activities, 2005–2006
57
Table 14
Summary of participation of Ireland, Finland and Portugal in ESF instruments in the
HSS, 2001–2005
58
Table 15
PhD enrolments—distribution between HSS and SET, with year on year percentage
growth, 2000–2005
64
Table 16
IRCSET amd IRCHSS postgraduate scholarship scheme: number of applications for
scholarships and awards granted, 1998–2006
65
Table 17
Number of HSS PhD awards compared to HSS postdoctoral fellowship posts in the
higher-education sector, 1998–2004
68
Chart 1
Percentage share of total HERD by field of science, 2002 and 2004
26
Chart 2
HSS HERD sources of funding, 1998–2004
28
Chart 3
HSS HERD direct-government funding by agency, 1998–2005
31
Chart 4
Capital and recurrent allocations from direct-government sources of HSS HERD,
1998 – 2005
31
Chart 5
Number of HSS researchers compared with total number of researchers in all fields
of science in the higher-education sector, 1998–2004
34
Chart 6
HERD as a percentage of GNI 2000–2004
83
Chart 7
Humanities and social sciences HERD as a percentage of GNI, 2000– 2004
84
Chart 8
HERD expenditure on humanities and social sciences as a percentage of HERD, all
fields of science, 2000–2004
85
Glossary
AAI
CONUL
COST
CSC
DES
DETE
ECRP
EI
ERA
ERC
ERCH
ESF
ESFRI
ESS
EU
EUROCORES
FoS
FP
FTE
GDP
GNI
HE
HEA
HEG
HERA
HERD
HERG
HRB
HSS
ICT
IDC
IRCHSS
authorisation and authentication infrastructure
Consortium of National and University Libraries
European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical
Research
Cabinet Sub Committee on Science, Technology and Innovation
Department of Education and Science
Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment
European Collaborative Research Projects
Enterprise Ireland
European Research Area
European Research Council
European Research Council in Humanities
European Science Foundation
European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures
European Social Survey
European Union
European Collaborative Research Schemes
fields of science
European Union Framework Programmes
full-time equivalents (research personnel)
Gross Domestic Product
Gross National Income
higher education
Higher Education Authority
higher-education grants
Humanities in the European Research Area
Higher Education Expenditure on Research and Development
Higher Education Research Group
Health Research Board
humanities and social sciences
information and communications technology
Inter Departmental Committee on Science, Technology and
Innovation
Irish Research Council for the Humanities and Social Sciences
G LOSSA RY c o n t d.
IRCSET
IreL
ISCH
IUA
NCP
NORFACE
NUIM
OECD
PPS
PRTLI
R&D
RI
RIA
SCH
SCSS
SET
SFI
SIF
SSHERA
SSTI
Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering and Technology
Irish Research eLibrary
individuals, society, cultures and health
Irish Universities Association
National Contact Point
New Opportunities for Research Funding Co-operation in
Europe
National University of Ireland, Maynooth
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Purchasing Power Standards
Programme for Research in Third-Level Institutions
research and development
research infrastructures
Royal Irish Academy
Standing Committee for the Humanities
Standing Committee for the Social Sciences
science, engineering and technology
Science Foundation Ireland
Strategic Innovation Fund
European Commission’s Advisory Group on Social Sciences
and Humanities in the European Research Area
Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation 2006–2013
Foreword
The Royal Irish Academy (RIA) has long recognised the fundamental importance and
central contribution of the humanities and social sciences to the advancement of the
cultural, social, political, economic and scientific well-being of Ireland. Historically,
the Academy has played a significant role in the development of higher-education
research in these disciplines and today their continued importance is reflected in
the Academy’s research activities.
Ten of the RIA’s twenty-one committees are concerned with the humanities and social
sciences ranging from archaeology to biblical and Near Eastern studies, and from
philosophy to the social sciences. The majority of its research projects lie within the
domain of the humanities and social sciences and include: the Dictionary of Irish
Biography; the Foclóir Stairiúil na Nua-Ghaeilge; the Irish Historic Towns Atlas; the
Dictionary of Medieval Latin from Celtic Sources; Documents on Irish Foreign Policy
(in association with the Department of Foreign Affairs); and the Dublin Excavations
Publications Project. The Academy’s library contains important collections of manuscripts and other material of national as well as international interest, and welcomes
hundreds of researchers every year. Our occasional symposia, monographs, journals
and other publications underline our commitment to the promotion of excellence in
the humanities and social sciences.
In recent years the Academy has drawn on its expertise to analyse higher-education
research needs and to inform and advise on public policy in matters of national
research strategy. Its analysis of, and response to, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) recommendations on higher education in
Ireland, Cumhacht Feasa: Report on the Working Group on Higher Education, was
published in 2005. It has also published reports on higher-education infrastructure
needs and research investment, and facilitated government departments and other
bodies seeking independent expertise.
At a time when higher-education institutions and the broad humanities and social
sciences research community are under pressure to become more utilitarian and
‘vocationally relevant’, and when the relevance of the humanities may be becoming
less obvious in the eyes of the public, there is a perception that higher-education
institutions may be turning away from their historical commitment to these core
xi
disciplines. This report on the humanities and
social sciences reflects the Academy’s concern
to ensure that the liberal arts agenda remains
central to Ireland’s higher-education system. The
report, Advancing Humanities and Social
Sciences Research in Ireland, commissioned after
a wide-ranging consultation exercise within the
higher-education system, also reflects the
Academy’s continuing commitment to inform and
engage with public policy in education, scholarship and research.
Professor James A. Slevin
President, Royal Irish Academy
xii
Preface
This report is the result of a series of high-level meetings and a research project
hosted by the Royal Irish Academy during 2005 and 2006. It argues that the
humanities and social sciences (HSS) are fundamental to the further development of
the knowledge-based economy and to social cohesion, recognising that this has not
always been underlined effectively. In part, this has been due to a lack of resources
and incentives as well as to the evolution of a policy discourse, which often focuses
on the more tangible deliverables of research rather than on the broader culture that
makes these possible.
While this broader culture is not the preserve of any one set of disciplines, the
humanities and social sciences play a central role. As the report indicates, to neglect
the HSS is to undermine some of the more important vehicles of knowledge creation.
It is also to ignore the fact that many of the research questions of today’s Ireland are
posed as much by social and cultural issues as they are by the need for pioneering
discovery in the life sciences. Innovation is a broad church. To this extent, the humanities and social sciences should not be viewed as supplementary to science policy,
or presented as an afterthought to it. They are integral to the development of our
culture, economy and society as a whole.
Through this report, the Royal Irish Academy has demonstrated its proactive and
positive approach to the humanities and social sciences, and to HSS policy. It has
drawn on a range of experts who have looked at the question under three broad
headings: general strategies, infrastructure and internationalisation. I would like to
thank the convenors of the three sub-committees, Professor Michael Cronin, Professor
Mary E. Daly and Ms Marie Reddan, and the committee members, as well as the
members of the working group and in particular, Professor Jane Conroy, the
Academy’s Polite Literature and Antiquities Secretary and Professor Andrew Mayes,
Senior Vice President of the Academy.
I also acknowledge the assistance which we received from a number of public
bodies including the Irish Research Council for the Humanities and Social Sciences,
the Higher Education Authority, Forfás and the Economic and Social Research
Institute, and in particular its Director, Professor Frances Ruane. I would also like to
thank the staff of the Academy, including Vanessa Berman, Deirdre Stritch and
xiii
Sinéad Riordan whose appointment as Senior Research and Policy Officer in July
2006 particularly helped us to address this challenging assignment.
The outcome is a comment rather than a conclusion. However, the working group
hopes that the relevant government departments will study the important conclusions
and recommendations contained in this report carefully and that the implementation
of these recommendations will receive urgent consideration.
Dr Maurice J. Bric, MRIA
Chairman of the Working Group on the Humanities and Social Sciences
1 Executive summary
INTRODUCTION
In October 2005 the Royal Irish Academy (RIA) convened a working group to
examine the status of humanities and social sciences (HSS) research activity, and to
consider how best to ensure the future sustainability and appeal of the HSS research
environment in Ireland.
A strong base of HSS research and knowledge is needed for social, economic,
cultural and political reasons. The HSS contribute directly to economic wealth
creation and national prosperity. Full economic and social potential is achievable
only by drawing on the resources of all disciplines and by adopting a holistic
approach to research and development.
The knowledge and skills promoted by the HSS are vital to the balanced
development of Irish society. Research into cultural heritage, the economy and society
by HSS scholars has a long and valued tradition in Ireland, where it has helped to
shape understanding of the island’s histories, cultures and values. Our ability to
articulate and reflect on our environment, our traditions, our languages, our religious
beliefs, and the visual, musical and architectural forms that shape our consciousness,
is the condition of civilised social intercourse. It also allows us to claim an enriched
membership of the European and global family of nations.
HSS research is a prerequisite for making informed policy choices in areas that
impinge crucially on quality of life. Many sectors of Irish society benefit from the
knowledge generated and the services provided by the humanities and social
sciences. HSS graduates are equipped with a range of knowledge, skills and wider
competences that enable them to participate in, and contribute to, a variety of
sectors, which complement and support Ireland’s continued economic growth.
With the development of new technologies, the HSS also have an ever-growing
role in the preservation of Ireland’s unique resources (libraries, museums and
archives), thus ensuring that Ireland’s cultural heritage is recorded and maintained
for posterity. Furthermore, the HSS are major growth areas within the wider world
15
of teaching and learning and offer a way in which Ireland can make an important
contribution both to achieving the European Union (EU) Lisbon Agenda objective of
making the EU the most dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world by 2010
and to meeting the OECD 2004 recommendations on the expansion of Irish
research.
To evaluate the status of HSS research in Irish higher education today it is useful to
look at what may be considered its various strengths and weaknesses.
Strengths
• Significant investment since 2000 in responsive funding initiatives; specifically the
Programme for Research in Third-Level Institutions (PRTLI) and the Irish Research
Council for Humanities and Social Sciences (IRCHSS). These initiatives have had
a positive impact in stimulating HSS research.
• Capital investment channeled through the PRTLI has begun to stimulate the development of a critical mass in selected HSS research areas within the highereducation sector.
• Research initiatives funded by IRCHSS support research activities across the broad
community of higher-education HSS researchers including postgraduates, postdoctoral fellows and senior research fellows.
• The engagement of the HSS research community with the process of international
peer review ensures that HSS research meets internationally recognised ‘gold
standards’ of quality.
• HSS research has been to the fore of encouraging interaction and contact between
researchers throughout Ireland, North and South.
• HSS degrees continue to attract the greatest proportion of full-time undergraduate
new entrants, accounting for 58 per cent of new entrants in 2004/05.
• Recent years have seen the emergence of a community of HSS postgraduates with
an increase of 92 per cent in the number of HSS postgraduates (full- and parttime) from 2000.
• Growth in new postdoctoral career opportunities in HSS research has occurred.
xvi
• Enhanced investment in national research networks and growing access to electronic
resources such as the IreL (the Irish Research eLibrary) initiative has also occurred.
We a k n e s s e s
• Investment in HSS research in the higher-education sector lags behind the EU average.
• R&D in the HSS is the only field of science, which has experienced a fall in its
percentage allocation of public investment in higher-education R&D since 2002.
• Expenditure on HSS research from indirect government sources is considerably
lower than that in selected comparator countries, notably Finland and Norway.
• Investment in HSS R&D in the higher-education sector by EU, foreign and business
sources has declined in recent years.
• The number of full-time academic staff posts available to HSS researchers has
declined.
• Given the growing number of researchers who occupy short-term posts the sustainability of the HSS higher-education research community could be at risk.
• Insufficient recognition of the transferable skills obtained by HSS graduates has
been created outside the academic arena.
• Participation in international research collaborations, particularly at EU level,
remains low. The capacity of the HSS research community to engage in inter
national research collaborations is compromised by very limited funding to support
HSS researchers’ participation in travel and exchange programmes (often the first
step to forming international R&D collaborations) and a lack of targeted administrative and management supports to assist in the preparation and management of
transnational funding proposals.
• An inadequate research infrastructure has been identified, with particular needs in
respect of investment in the physical infrastructure including libraries, museums and
archives, access to fit-for-purpose research space as well as dedicated technical
and IT support, data archives and research repositories.
• There is no national policy or lead agency to oversee HSS digitisation projects.
xvii
Building Ireland’s HSS communit y—priorities to 2013
The capacity of the HSS research base must be further strengthened to ensure its
continued contribution to stated national R&D-policy goals, namely the achievement
of a knowledge-based, innovative economy and society. Key steps towards achieving this should include:
• Initiating a national foresight exercise for the HSS;
• Increasing investment in HSS research schemes;
• Internationalising of HSS research including increased international research
collaboration and mobility;
• Securing the supply of HSS researchers (developing postgraduate training and
researcher careers);
• Strengthening the HSS research infrastructure (print, physical and digital).
A n a t io n a l fo res ig h t exerci se fo r t h e HSS
Researchers in the sciences, engineering and technology benefited greatly from the
identification of priority research areas in the 1998 technology foresight exercise. A
similar exercise should be undertaken for the HSS research community and should
focus on a number of broad issues including:
• Identification of priority research areas with reference to existing research capacity,
future potential for research excellence and contribution to strategic policy research;
• Support for the development of a critical research mass and for individual
investigator research;
• Development of a research infrastructure;
• Expansion and development of sources of HSS research funding;
• Research dissemination and communication;
• Doctoral training and the development of research career pathways.
xviii
I ncre ase d i nvest ment i n HSS rese a rch
Additional investment is required if Ireland is to achieve even the EU-average
expenditure on HSS research. Resource-allocation models at sectoral and institutional
levels must take account of this overall objective. A short-term goal would be the
return of Irish HSS Higher Education Expenditure on Research and Development
(HERD) allocations to their relative levels in 2002. Increased funding should be
channelled into four main areas:
• Expansion of research programmes and initiatives;
• Capital infrastructure: provision of more research space, technical support, library
and IT support (including the maintenance of non-digital resources and digitisation
projects), and increased support for resources such as libraries, archives and
museums;
• Human resources: training, career structures and supports for researchers;
• Mobility and exchange networks.
A significant issue, hampering the development of HSS research within the highereducation sector, is the non-payment of institutional overheads by agencies and
bodies funding HSS higher-education research. Consideration should be given to the
development of a common protocol across all research-funding agencies and bodies
for the payment of such overheads, which is cognisant of the costs and differences
across the different types of research.
I nterna t io na l i sa t io n of HSS rese a rch
Participation in EU and international networks is vital to Ireland’s objective of creating
a world-class research system. However, the Irish HSS share of higher-education
research expenditure drawn from EU and foreign sources is falling and the
Irish HSS community has a relatively low level of participation in European funding
initiatives.
If the Irish HSS research community is to participate effectively in international
research and funding opportunities, a range of supports must be provided including
those to facilitate mobility, participation and collaboration. These supports include:
xix
• Active engagement by National Contact Points (NCPs) with the HSS research
community to support and encourage the development and presentation of
proposals to EU instruments;
• Enhanced administrative and management assistance within higher-education institutions for HSS researchers participating in the preparation of research proposals;
• Further development of domestic opportunities to access international mobility
funding to support participation in international networking opportunities, travel
grants and international exchanges, and to promote international networks. Such
schemes should provide a ‘mix’ of supports for early-career researchers and
principal investigators;
• Enhanced agency presence at the European Commission to assist and inform Irish
HSS researchers in regard to EU research opportunities.
Se cu ri ng t h e s upply of HSS rese a rchers
Proposed strategies include:
• A review of postgraduate formation in the HSS including the development of
structured PhD programmes embracing generic skills;
• Increased funding for HSS research postgraduates;
• Development of defined researcher career structures plus enhanced supports for
early-career researchers;
• Mobility grants to enable participation in European and international networking.
Strengthening the HSS research infrastructure (print, physical and digital)
PRINT
R ESO U R C ES A N D D ATA TO O L S
Initiatives are required to:
• Ensure continued support for the development and enhancement of non-digital
resources such as libraries, museums and archives.
xx
• Establish a national research register linked to a repository of published research
papers at local and national levels.
• Equip the Irish HSS research community to participate in European-level data
infrastructures and transnational data-collection instruments.
• Further the development of national data-archival structures and address the lack
of major data repositories for HSS research.
xxi
E- R ESO U R C ES
A N D I N F R A ST R U C T U R E
The international trend for the digitisation of research materials offers many
opportunities to encourage HSS research collaboration nationally and internationally. In support of this a national digitisation strategy should be established
to guide digitisation initiatives and support the development of a common e-infrastructure. This strategy should clearly outline the lead agencies and relevant
supports necessary to:
• Coordinate standards for digitisation, encoding, cataloguing, archiving, curation
and storage of research resources at a national level.
• Ensure continued investment in the national research network and in network
connectivity and bandwidth at national and regional levels.
• Organise national and international awareness and training, especially in relation
to digital resources.
• Facilitate relationships and knowledge exchange with cognate international organisations to share expertise and resources.
• Oversee the establishment of a national portal for access to electronic research
resources, and the establishment of a central national repository for Irish-produced
digital research and resources.
Representation and inclusion
The HSS community must be adequately represented within key policy and implementation structures such as the Higher Education Research Group.
The higher-education sector must also continue to take a major role in creating
sustainable and attractive environments for the HSS research community. It should be
motivated to place HSS research at the heart of its institutional research strategies,
actively lobby on behalf of the HSS research community and ensure that this community is specifically represented at senior-management level and in research offices.
xxii
2
Introduction
Education and research are fundamental to a knowledge-based society. Recognising
the challenges which face higher education and the research community in Ireland,
the Royal Irish Academy (RIA) has already published a number of relevant assessments. These include Sustaining and Enhancing Research Investment in Ireland (RIA
2004) and a detailed response to the OECD review, Cumhacht Feasa: Report of
the Working Group on Higher Education (RIA 2005).
In October 2005 the RIA established a working group on the humanities and social
sciences (HSS).1 Its brief was to:
• Make recommendations on the strategic needs of the humanities and social
sciences based on an analysis of the needs of the research community.
• Discuss the contribution of the HSS towards the promotion of Ireland’s knowledge
economy and society.
• Identify ways in which the collection of data on the HSS might inform the policy
and decision-making processes.
Three sub-committees facilitated the work of the working group.2 These examined the
role of the HSS under the following headings: strategic importance, infrastructures,
and the European and international contexts of HSS research.
While the working group recognises that research and learning can be used in a
variety of scenarios it has concentrated its observations on those in higher-education
institutions. It also has not specifically addressed the status of the creative arts including the visual and performing arts.
1
2
For a full list of the working group members, see Appendix I.
For the membership of these committees, see Appendix II.
3 HSS research: contribution and
importance
Over the last 30 years, Ireland has experienced dramatic change and increased
diversity. Our economy is strong and dynamic and is founded on the impact of
knowledge, especially in the sciences and technologies. The humanities and social
sciences (HSS) play a significant role in promoting our new prosperity and informing
the policies which facilitate it. In any event, the social and cultural aspects of what
our country is undergoing cannot be ignored. To do so is to focus on issues of
economic performance in isolation from their social context. It is to disregard the
community of the future.
While recognising the importance of the HSS to public policy, this report examines
whether there is a need to reassess current strategies and whether the ways in which
the HSS contribute to our knowledge-based economy, as well as to the research
strategies which help to drive it, should be clarified, sharpened and reassessed. In
doing so, the working group realise that different values are often assigned to
particular kinds of knowledge, for example scientific or cultural, and argues that the
ways in which knowledge is often defined should be revisited.
3 . 1 C U LT U R A L E N R I C H M E N T
The HSS are central to cultural and intellectual life and their vitality is the standard
by which quality of life is measured. They deal with issues of meaning, values, social
cohesion and individual and collective development. They confront difficult and
challenging issues in enabling ways: ethnicity and intercommunal tension; the crisis
of clashing world-views and value-systems; the dangers posed to the environment by
uncontrolled economic growth; the alienation of many citizens from the body politic;
the life cycle, with its intergenerational stresses; and the human quest for truly fulfilling
experience. The HSS:
• Inform contemporary debate, in shared as well as distinct senses of identity.
• Reflect the creativity of national heritage.
• Facilitate cultural exchange in the wider world.
• Promote reflective and analytic skills, which foster independent thinking and
innovative insight.
• Develop new forms of innovation.
Rapid economic development and significant social transformation often have
consequences for social cohesion in a society. Common purpose and shared values
can give way to an exclusive emphasis on individual self-enrichment and a preoccupation with private rights over collective responsibilities. HSS research is
uniquely placed to identify those factors, which act as a barrier to a more active
sense of citizenship, preventing citizens from contributing more fully to communities
at local and national level. HSS researchers in Ireland have much to contribute to
our understanding of how a society can be developed that cherishes all its
members equally and which creates a truly dynamic and inclusive sense of citizenship in twenty-first century Ireland. The skills and expertise of the HSS research
community will be indispensable in ensuring that policy objectives in this area are
properly informed and socially feasible.
A SSO C I AT I O N A L
CU LT U R E I N
I R E L A N D,
C.
1 750 – C . 1 940 ,
A D ATA B A S E
The Associational Culture in Ireland project in the Department of History, National University
of Ireland, Maynooth (NUIM), explores the culture of Irish associational life from 1750 to
1940. This study is not merely from the point of view of who, what, where and when, but also
the ‘hidden culture’ of social networking, which operated behind many different clubs and
societies throughout the period. The project fuses the latest computer programming, specifically
designed for the purpose, with historical data extracted from a wide range of sources to piece
together as comprehensive a view as possible of the myriad of clubs, societies, organisations,
groups, etc. that existed in Ireland during the period 1750–1940.
This research project is a foundational enterprise—enabling patterns in Irish associational
culture to be traced regionally, nationally and transnationally. Contemporary social and
political commentators are concerned about the role of associational culture in our globalised
environment. Studies, such as this project, are vital in tracing the effects of external political
and social factors on associational culture and grassroots participation in the public arena over
a long period. The database will, in particular, provide substance for all scholars of social,
political and economic trends in modern Ireland, not least in aiding researchers to identify the
changing nuclei of socialisation and to pinpoint trends in Irish associational development.
Funded by the Irish Research Council for the Humanities and Social Sciences (IRCHSS), the
Associational Culture in Ireland database will be launched in 2009 on the NUIM server.
From then on, the information on the various clubs and societies, collected under the auspices
of the project, will be available to all. The database is capable of infinite expansion; the
initial phase of funding will take the study up to 1940, but future funding can theoretically
bring the data and the resultant social patterns right up to the present day.
The HSS have made a fundamental contribution to furthering our understanding of
the different traditions, histories and cultures of the communities living on the island
of Ireland. HSS researchers have contributed to developing the conditions for
creative and meaningful interaction between groups from different political and
religious backgrounds on the island more than any other area of enquiry. This
research is of immense importance in constructing a viable economic, social and
cultural future for all the communities on the island of Ireland. This future should
involve mutual respect and a shared interest not only in the past and present condition of Ireland and Britain but which looks also to the evolving relationship between
the different polities on these islands.
5
A L L - I S L A N D R ES E A R C H CO L L A B O R AT I O N I N H U M A N I T I ES A N D SO C I A L SC I E N C ES
R ES E A R C H : A C A S E ST U DY
The 1966 Commemoration of the Golden Jubilee of the 1916 Rising
This joint project by University College
Dublin (UCD) and Queen’s University
Belfast (QUB) was funded by the Higher
Education Authority’s North–South
Research Programme (2003–2006).
The project explored how the Golden
Jubilee of the 1916 Rising was commemorated by the Irish government and
by voluntary organisations inside and
outside Ireland, and the reaction of the
Northern Irish government and communities to the commemoration. The
1966 Jubilee has sometimes been seen
as an event which nurtured a new
generation of physical-force republicans,
and is often linked with the outbreak of
the Troubles in Northern Ireland in
1969. The research performed in this
project does not support this hypothesis.
The existence of two research teams,
one in Belfast and one in Dublin,
undoubtedly strengthened the research
teams’ sense of the contrasts and
similarities, and the all-Ireland dimension of the research. The teams exchanged research
material and draft chapters, a process that also heightened their sense of the North–South
dimensions of the topics. The project funding made it possible to hold conferences and
workshops attended by graduate students from UCD and QUB. Material generated by the
project is being deposited in the UCD Archives, and posted on the web site of the UCD
Humanities Institute of Ireland. An as-yet-untitled multi-authored book, based on the project
will be published by the Royal Irish Academy in 2007.
6
We are the culture in which we live. Our ability to understand and reflect on our
surroundings, languages, history, literature and traditions shapes our consciousness,
and drives civilised social intercourse subnationally, nationally and internationally. It
reflects the kind of flexibility that is central to human progress and provides the range
of skills both to address the problems which are posed by a modern and dynamic
society and to ascertain how diverse institutional structures affect social policy and
economic performance.
Teaching and research in the HSS also contribute directly to:
• Artistic production in museums, galleries, concert halls, theatres and the media,
giving expression to creative understandings of the national heritage and serving
as the focal points for cultural exchange on a world stage;
• Literary production in books and newspapers through which critical reflection on
and discussion of national and international affairs are fostered;
• Historical production in journals, books and archaeological reports through which
history, tradition and social and individual identity come under continuous, selfcritical scrutiny.
Such activities involve a wide range of creative, expressive, reflective and analytic
skills, central to which is the independent mind. It allows us to bring critical and
innovative insight into everyday issues and situations, and is capable of the rigorous
formulation of problems and the gathering of information to solve them.
3 . 2 E CO N O M I C A N D S O C I A L W E L L - B E I N G
Cultural enrichment leads to economic prosperity, most obviously perhaps through
cultural tourism and enquiry. However, many sectors of Irish society also benefit in other
ways from the knowledge generated, and the services provided, by the humanities and
social sciences. HSS graduates are equipped with a range of knowledge, skills and
wider competences that enable them to contribute to a number of sectors and professions, as illustrated by recent research on the pathways of HSS graduates (HEA 2003,
2006a). As such, they are essential drivers of the knowledge economy in Ireland.
The knowledge economy relies on the ability to:
• Handle high-level concepts.
7
• Identify competing and complementary perspectives.
• Assemble and process data.
• Assess whether particular points of view are central to a productive and innovative
workforce.
This is how information, largely useless in itself, becomes valuable knowledge. These
are skills and capabilities that are developed through an education in the HSS. In
a global economy, the understanding of different cultures, organisations and societies
is vital to our ability to form international ties and alliances. In the absence of these
cultural and social understandings, scientific and technological advances are less
likely to travel cross-culturally.
In recent decades the Irish economy has been transformed from an agrarian and
traditional manufacturing-based economy to one based increasingly on the hi-tech
and internationally traded services sectors. The Irish labour force has undergone an
accompanying structural shift with a marked trend toward a ‘post-industrial’ workforce—in 2005 the services sector accounted for 66 per cent of employment,
industry for 28 per cent and agriculture for 6 per cent.3 Key growth areas include
non-market services (defence forces, health services, education and social and charitable services) and market services (particularly business, financial, professional and
insurance services, transport, communication and distribution). These services are the
key employment sectors for HSS primary-degree graduates (HEA 2006a, 2003).4
At a policy level, skills acquired through training in the HSS are reflected in government
departments and agencies, the education sector, health, welfare and social services,
tourism, and financial and management services. Research in the HSS informs social
debate and public policy as well as the decision-making processes. It is the key
provider not only of the skills and training that inform such decision-making but of
much of the information and evidence which is required to inform policy.
The contribution of the HSS to many substantive policy issues is crucial. These issues
include ethics in politics, active citizenship, medicine and daily life, as well as
globalisation, immigration, identities, urbanisation and the environment, economic
growth and social change, religion and politics, nationalism, national security and
international relations.
3
ESRI, 2006, accessed online at: www.esri.ie/irish_economy/ (23 January 2007).
In 2004 the key employment sector for arts, humanities and social sciences primary-degree graduates
were non-market services (38.2 per cent), business, finance and insurance services (22 per cent) and distribution (11.5 per cent). Business, finance and insurance services absorbed the majority of business and
law primary-degree graduates (60.1 per cent and 65.2 per cent respectively). See HEA 2006a, 37.
4
8
M ANAGI N G
WORK - LI FE BAL ANCE : IMPLICATIONS FOR SOCIAL AND PUBLIC POLICY
The reconciliation of professional and personal life has become increasingly important in
recent years and a number of developments in Irish society have resulted in a work–life
balance being placed at the heart of the management, social, public and political agenda.
Against this backdrop, a proposal by the Centre for Innovation and Structural Change,
National University of Ireland, Galway successfully received funding under the IRCHSS
Project Grants Scheme in 2005 to conduct research on work–life balance in Ireland. The
study is in its second year and the primary data are currently being collected. It is exploring
how employees manage the different work and life domains in the context of growing
demands and challenges on their time.
Its results will have important implications for social and public policy at a number of levels.
Firstly, the relative lack of focus on community as an important life domain in work–life
research to date will be addressed in the current study and will shed light on important issues
at a community level. Secondly, the study will report on work–-life balance policy at an
organisational level from the perspective of HR managers and line managers or supervisors
as well as practice from the employee perspective. It will reveal the effectiveness of various
initiatives and programmes in organisations such as flexible working practices (e.g. job
sharing, teleworking, flexitime). These findings will inform policy in terms of bespoke
arrangements provided by organisations as well as informing the social agenda on work–
life balance more generally.
It is also clear that HSS skills are central to innovation, which requires
A particular mindset that involves curiosity, creativity and problemsolving, the ability to continually question established ways of doing
things and the ability to apply knowledge, insights and intuition to
change them…
(Enterprise Strategy Group 2004, 104).
HSS skills are clearly central to addressing the emerging areas of organisational
and marketing innovation (Forfás 2006). Moreover, it can be argued that some of
our recent technological advances and successes are rooted in the human, social,
9
educational, entrepreneurial and management skills which are often the product of
HSS education and research.
Also characteristic of these generic skills is the flexible thinking that is increasingly
necessary for our business leaders, administrators and policy makers, people who
can adapt their high-level training from one area to another. Such skills chart the path
to innovation in business and enhanced productivity.
Outputs in the HSS are not always quantifiable in terms of the measurements which
are applied in other areas of research. However, there may not always be an
immediate correlation between knowledge gained in the sciences and its application in innovation and wealth creation. In this respect, and despite impressions to the
contrary, the impact of research in the HSS is little different from that in other areas
of science. Whether it is popularly called ‘blue skies’ research in the so-called ‘hard
sciences’, or ‘creativity’ in the HSS, research and innovation challenge and re-invent
established patterns of thought. In both cases, the results are frequently indirect and
unpredictable at the outset of the research initiative, and may not become visible for
a considerable period of time. The newly created European Research Council (ERC)
in dedicating its funding to non-applied ‘frontier research’ in all domains, recognises
the need for Europe to have a broader long-term vision for research.
While the creation of economic wealth demands that the state should invest large
public funds for a real return, such a return serves only part of the public good. The
wider and more durable interests of the community must also have regard to the
social and cultural dimensions of economic activity. It is towards the understanding
and analysis of such dimensions that the HSS make the most significant contribution
3 . 3 CO ST S A N D B E N E F I T S O F I N V EST M E N T I N H S S
As HSS disciplines are concerned with the development of new knowledge to grapple
with enduring problems and issues, the likelihood of a return on research investment,
provided the appropriate support structures are developed, is relatively high.
As we look forward, Ireland can invest with confidence in the HSS. Over the past
decade, the research capacity of the Irish higher-education sector in these disciplines
has grown as a result of higher participation rates and specific government initiatives
and schemes.
It is vital that policymakers and the higher-education sector value the specialist skills
of the HSS, which have been built up over the years in Ireland. It is also imperative
that they recognise that those skills, if lost, would be expensive and difficult, if not
impossible, to recover.
S PEEC H
BY THE
M I N ISTER
FOR
E DUCATION
AND
S CIENCE , 24 O CTOBER 2006
As Ms Mary Hanafin, TD, and Minister for Education and Science, remarked in a speech
to the Irish Universities Association conference on October 24, 2006:
......................................................................................................................
But the challenges we face are also grounded in the older and more
fundamental responsibilities of institutions of higher learning in any civilised
society. These relate to the development of individuals as independent and
creative thinkers, the promotion of active citizenship and support for ethical
values. They relate to the protection and enhancement of vital tenets of our
history and culture, to the search for social justice nationally and globally, to
the questioning of authority, to the deepening of our understanding of ourselves
and the world around us and to the enrichment of our lives through a
deepened recognition and appreciation of the values that matter in society. An
inclusive vision of higher education in Ireland has to encompass a broad
understanding of these roles. The intrinsic worth of higher learning for its own
sake both to the individual and to wide society is plain and is supported by
copious research. That higher education also confers major economic
advantages to the collective community is a highly welcome by-product.
......................................................................................................................
She also noted that although the utilitarian value of education has become increasingly
dominant in public policy discourse ‘The intrinsic value of the arts, humanities and social
sciences … outweighs direct or indirect economic benefit. The true worth of cultural
knowledge transcends any of its specific applications’.
Source: Speech given by Ms Mary Hanafin, TD, and Minister for Education and Science on 24
October 2006 to the Irish Universities Association conference, Humanities and Social Sciences in 21st
Century Ireland: Delivering the Knowledge Society.
.
.
4 Strategic planning in the HSS
4 . 1 K E Y P O L I C Y I N I T I AT I V ES
Prior to 1998 researchers within higher-education institutions conducted their work
with limited public funding. Such funding was typically drawn from the unified
teaching and research budget (or block grant) allocated each year by the Higher
Education Authority (HEA) to universities and institutes of technology. The system
made relatively little impact on HSS researchers, who typically received only a small
percentage share of what was available.
However, during the 1990s, concerted lobbying by both public research agencies
and those who wanted to improve the capacities of the higher-education sector, as
well as the example of pilot schemes such as the RIA Social Science Research
Council, demonstrated successfully the need to formalise and expand infrastructural
supports and funding for research and development (R&D) across all disciplinary
areas. As a result, Irish research is now supported by a diversity of funding initiatives
and enabling structures.
Important initiatives within this process include:
• The CIRCA Group report for the HEA on the management and funding of university
research (1996);
• Universities Act (1997);
• Technology Foresight Ireland: an Irish Council for Science, Technology and
Innovation overview (1999);
• The Humanities and the Social Sciences: a Case for a Research Council (1999);
• National Development Plan 2000–2006 (2000);
• Building Ireland’s Knowledge Economy: the Irish Action Plan for Promoting
Investment in Research and Development to 2010 (2004);
• OECD Review of Higher Education in Ireland (2004).
These initiatives have contributed to the development of:
• an agreed set of general principles and objectives for
Irish research policy;
• a set of enabling structures and initiatives to support the
achievement of national science and research objectives.
Among the more important developments relevant to the
HSS during this period were the launch of the Programme
for Research in Third-Level Institutions (PRTLI) and the Irish
Research Council for the Humanities and Social Sciences
(IRCHSS) (see Section 4.2). In the later part of 2005 the
Department of Education and Science (DES) launched the
Strategic Innovation Fund (SIF). This is a competitive multiannual fund designed to support internal change in
third-level institutions and promote the development of intraand inter-institutional collaboration in teaching and learning
and R&D, as well as improved access, retention and
progression of third-level students (DES 2005). When
applied, it will support measures to improve the quality of
education and/or structures for the delivery of postgraduate
education and research across higher-education institutions.
The Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation
2006–2013 (SSTI) was launched in July 2006 and
offers a vision of R&D for the Irish research system to
2013. It seeks to achieve:
• Coherence among key funding initiatives across all fields
of science;
• A ‘good fit’ between infrastructural investments in the
institutions and research and postgraduate education
programmes;
• An appropriate balance between collaboration and
competition among higher-education institutions.
In early 2007 the fourth PRTLI cycle was announced. This
will build on previous investment in higher education,
14
teaching, learning and research capacity and will complement the investment in
R&D currently being channelled through the SSTI and the newly announced National
Development Plan for 2007–2013. (Government of Ireland 2007)
These policy milestones challenge Ireland’s higher-education institutions and funding
agencies to identify clear strategies and structures to ensure the success of the government’s national science policy and investment in R&D. However, there will also be
a responsibility on government to ensure that its agencies will be in a position to
manage the various strands of the implementation process efficiently and effectively
to achieve the stated national R&D objectives.
A further policy context is provided by the European Union (EU), in particular by the
Lisbon Agenda which seeks to make the EU ‘the most dynamic and competitive
knowledge based economy in the world by 2010’ through increased expenditure
in R&D across key domains including business, higher education and government.
The Barcelona European Council set a target of spending three per cent of Gross
Domestic Product (GDP) on R&D by 2010. The Irish target for R&D investment is 2.5
per cent of GDP for 2013 (Forfás 2004a). Other related policy guidelines for
member states are provided by the Bologna declaration regarding higher education,
and the EU Council Resolution on Lifelong Learning.
There is a strong trend across European domestic R&D systems to prioritise investment
in a small range of research areas through the development of research centres of
excellence, some of which are located inside, and others outside, the highereducation sector. There are concerns that this may lead to the growing detachment
of teaching and learning from research within the higher-education institutions to the
disadvantage of both activities.
4 . 2 P O L I C Y A C TO R S
The DES and its agencies are central to the promotion of HSS policy, funding and
enabling structures in Irish higher education. Achieving a world-class research and
development capability in institutions of higher education is identified as a key
objective in the department’s Statement of Strategy 2005–2007.
The Higher Education Authority has statutory responsibilities for the planning and
development of the higher-education sector. The HEA block grant provides core
16
funding for teaching, learning and research in the universities, and the HEA itself also
administers the PRTLI on behalf of the DES.5
The PRTLI has been crucial to the HSS. It has encouraged a more systematic
approach to the funding of R&D and teaching and learning activities in the highereducation sector. It has encouraged higher-education institutions to develop strategic
priorities in accordance with their respective strengths. From this process, funding has
been allocated on a competitive basis to embed research and infrastructural
developments within Ireland’s higher-education institutions.
The IRCHSS is a major funder of
HSS research. It is an autonomous
body funded through the DES to
promote excellence in HSS research, including research in law
and business studies. The IRCHSS
complements the PRTLI, first by
recognising excellence at an
individual level, and more recently
by funding collaborative and
project research in both national
and international contexts. Its
funding schemes act as a bridge
between the strategic and ‘topdown’ concerns of the PRTLI and a
‘bottom-up’ approach to research that follows the initiatives of individual researchers
and provides support for individuals as well as collaborative research teams
(IRCHSS 2004). The IRCHSS also provides policy advice on HSS research, administers a range of specific research schemes, and has an active international
programme. Through its membership of the European Science Foundation (ESF),
the IRCHSS offers opportunities for Irish researchers to associate with researchers
outside Ireland. Its membership of European research networks such as HERA
(Humanities in the European Research Area) and NORFACE (New Opportunities
for Research Funding Co-operation in Europe) provide Irish researchers with opportunities to participate in European and international research networks and policy
forums. The council is also the National Contact Point (NCP) for HSS-related priorities under the EU Framework Programmes.
Both the PRTLI and the IRCHSS have had a profound influence on the HSS community, not least by encouraging the HSS to see itself, no more or less than other areas
5
Recognition of the need to think bigger and be more systematic in approaches to funding R&D and
teaching and learning activities in the higher-education sector informed the design and launch of the
PRTLI. The PRTLI seeks to strengthen the long-term capacity of third-level institutions for high-quality research.
It seeks to assist higher-education institutions to enhance and develop their research capabilities.
17
of research, as part of the new research architecture. However, much remains to be
done to ensure the future capacity and excellence of Irish HSS research.
The Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment (DETE) and its agencies, including Forfás, Enterprise Ireland (EI) and Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) also play an
important role in informing and promoting national science and research policy. Of
particular interest to the HSS is the DETE’s role on the European stage, primarily
through its oversight of the EU Framework Programmes and COST (European
Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research).6
In recent years, the interests of the DES and the DETE have been brought together
in a more formal manner through the Inter-Departmental Committee on Science,
Technology and Innovation (IDC), chaired by the DETE (IDC 2004). The IDC drives
the pursuit of national R&D objectives, examines and reports on any issue referred
to it by the Cabinet Sub-Committee on Science, Technology and Innovation (CSC),
and is charged with monitoring the overall implementation of the SSTI. Two new
structures have been established to support the implementation of the SSTI: the
Higher Education Research Group (HERG), which is chaired by the DES, and
Technology Ireland, which is chaired by the DETE.
Outside the formal structures of government departments and its agencies, the
most significant enablers for HSS interests are the higher-education institutions themselves. Higher-education institutions house much of the collective and individual
knowledge in the HSS, are the main channel through which research funding is
directed, and are crucial to the education of new generations of researchers. As
recently noted by Dr John Hegarty, Provost of Trinity College Dublin, ‘A great
university is one in which there is a balance between the humanities and the
sciences across a wide sweep of disciplines and across the breadth of human
knowledge and experience’ (Hegarty 2006).
Higher-education institutions have a major role in creating sustainable and attractive
environments for the HSS research community by:
• Encouraging due recognition and prioritisation of HSS research within the strategic
priorities of Irish higher-education institutions;
• Ensuring that the HSS are specifically represented within senior management structures and research offices;
6
See Chapter Seven for more information on Ireland’s involvement in European research programmes
and networks.
18
• Ensuring that the institutional status of the HSS will not be adversely affected by new
resource-allocation models;
• Liasing actively with key public research agencies to drive initiatives to strengthen
the research interests and careers of HSS researchers.
4 .3 A DVO CACY
Initiatives such as the former RIA Social Science Council and the establishment of the
IRCHSS have played an important and active role in raising awareness, fostering
research careers and creating domestic and transnational research networks.
The HSS research community should seek to strengthen the voice and resource base
of existing advocates, such as the IRCHSS, the RIA, the Irish Universities Association
(IUA) and the Council of Directors of Institutes of Technology, and ensure that the
HSS community is fully represented within policy and implementation structures such
as HERG.
19
‘P R O M OT I N G T H E ST U DY O F SC I E N C E , P O L I T E L I T E R AT U R E A N D
T H E R OYA L I R I S H A C A D E M Y A N D T H E H U M A N I T I ES A N D SO C I A L
A N T I Q U I T I ES ’
SC I E N C ES ...
Since its establishment in 1785 as a society for ‘promoting the study of science, polite
literature and antiquities’, the RIA has played a very active role as a supporter and promoter
of research in the humanities and social sciences. Today, the RIA is funded through the HEA
and its position on research is informed by a wide membership drawn from North and South.
In more recent years the RIA adopted a new strategic plan, developed its role as a neutral
advisor and facilitator of debate, and complemented the other and various national agencies
that seek to recognise and promote excellence. Drawing on an elected membership of 369
specialists, equally divided between the HSS and the natural sciences, and on the expertise
of its own professional staff, it has become an acknowledged expert forum for government
departments and other bodies to analyse policy needs.
The supports for research, provided by the RIA, takes a dual form, with on the one hand,
investigation of policy issues, and, on the other hand, direct funding of research. Such
research may take the form of long-term projects such as the Dictionary of Irish Biography or
the Foclóir Stairiúil na Nua-Ghaeilge, undertaken by teams of researchers, or alternatively
of smaller-scale individual research projects through mobility schemes.
RIA research project
accounts
Foclóir na NuaGaeilge
Celtic Latin
Dictionary
International
Exchanges &
Fellowships1
Irish Historic
Towns Atlas
Dictionary of Irish
Biography
Documents on Irish
Foreign Policy
Third Sector
Research Programme
TOTAL:
2001–2002
2002–2003
2003–2004
2004–2005
2005–2006
300,103
216,188
185,479
163,890
330,135
89,468
87,212
90,164
97,498
100,796
20,652
24,014
21,584
27,489
23,275
68,962
86,238
97,425
107,205
125,917
555,184
561,612
588,749
507,474
512,032
96,950
153,529
106,195
141,442
127,051
320,682
529,043
168,353
626,366
123,604
1,452,001
1,657, 836
1,257,949
1,671,364
1,342,810
Source: Data supplied by RIA on request.
Notes:
1 Includes allocations to fellowships in the sciences.
20
The visibility of HSS research would benefit from a fuller connection with audiences
and stakeholders outside of the academic community. Little is known about the use
and impact of HSS research upon policymaking. The HSS research community
should pursue an active policy of research dissemination to increase the profile,
impact and use of HSS research. Regular dialogue between HSS researchers and
policymakers would help to maximise the value added to existing data infrastructures
and HSS.
At a basic level, there is no central repository for information on HSS research or
centralised database for the HSS research community. The work of the group was
hampered by an absence of data and a lack of coherence across databases for
higher-education research. These deficits have been previously noted (Bric 1999).7
The group supports the establishment of a national research register to overcome
these information gaps. This was recognised previously by the RIA in the hope that
it would be taken up by the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures
(ESFRI).
4. 4 ST R AT E G I C P L A N N I N G I N T H E H S S : WAYS F O R WA R D
In an economic context, the 2004 OECD Review of Higher Education in Ireland
observed that ‘Ireland was one of the first European countries to grasp the
economic importance of education and economists suggest that this upskilling of
the labour force accounts for almost 1% per annum of additional national output
over the last decade or so’. These gains cannot be taken for granted. British experience has shown that the continued development of a highly skilled workforce is
necessary to maintain both productivity levels and competitive advantage relative
to other economies. These arguments apply to the HSS no less than to other areas
of knowledge.
In many ways, some subtler than others, the skills base of the HSS directly facilitates
the creation of wealth. Full economic and social potential is achievable only by
recognising the potential of these skills as part of an integrated and rounded
approach to research and development in Ireland. As Lord May, former President of
the Royal Society, has observed.
Science does no more than set the stage, providing and clarifying the
choices. Our values and feelings about the society we wish to build,
in this wiser world of tomorrow, will then write the play. But whence
7
See Solow et al (2002) for a discussion of the importance of data for humanities research.
21
the values? What shapes them? What guides the subsequent
choices? These are hugely difficult, yet utterly fundamental questions.
Ultimately the answers, insofar as there are answers, will illustrate
better than anything else just how indivisible is the continuum from the
arts, humanities and social sciences through to the biological and
physical sciences
(British Academy 2004, 35).
Like other European countries, Ireland will need graduates with a highly
developed capacity to analyse and understand the values and social
characteristics of the global economy. In this sense, the strategic needs
of the HSS converge with those of Irish society generally.
Ireland needs critical and imaginative research in the HSS to
ensure that the potential of innovation can be realised fully.
Researchers in the sciences, engineering and technology (SET)
greatly benefited from the identification of priority areas in the
1999 Technology Foresight Exercise.8 A similar exercise should
be undertaken for the HSS research community: this proposal
enjoys broad support across the HSS research community9 and
should be developed as a matter of urgency. It is suggested that
the consultative exercise10 should seek to identify the priority
needs of the HSS community in respect of a number of broad
issues including:
• Priority research areas with reference to existing research capacity,
future potential for research excellence and contribution to strategic policy
research;
• Appropriate balance between support for a critical mass and a commitment to individual, investigator-led research;
• Research infrastructures;
• Research funding;
• Research dissemination and communication;
• Doctoral training and the development of research career pathways.
8
For more information on foresight exercises see Martin 1995.
In 2005 the IRCHSS convened a focus group on HSS national support requirements with regard to
researchers’ involvement in the then-upcoming EU Seventh Framework Programme for research. It called
for the development of a national agenda for HSS research (IRCHSS 2005).
10
In early 2006 a similar exercise was undertaken for the archaeology community. The Minister for
Environment, Heritage and Local Government requested that the Heritage Council prepare recommendations on the research needs of Irish archaeology. Following initial consultations an interim report
was been prepared on the development of the research infrastructure and specific themes into which
current and relevant research needs can be placed.
9
22
4 . 4 . 1 K N OW L E D G E T R A NS F E R A N D T H E HSS
An explicit, but often overlooked, aspect of this way forward is the recognition that
while HSS research is a specialised higher-education interest, it is also a social
good. This is not to imply that such research does not also impact on society in a
direct way, and that, as in other areas of scientific research, there is no immediate
link between knowledge production and its social application and exploitation.
However, in all areas of research the best outcomes are often indirect and may
appear later and in forms different to those initially expected. As the history of
invention suggests, this is implicit to the process of innovation.
In the HSS, just as in science and technology, the link between research
findings and their social application and exploitation is not necessarily direct
and immediate. This is not a defect in the dissemination of knowledge, but
an inevitable effect of the establishment and encouragement of those
means of the discovery of knowledge which hold out the best hope of
genuine innovation and development.
The transfer and application of knowledge generated in the HSS is a
complex and multi-faceted issue, which requires researchers to participate
in a range of interface activities with the private and public sectors. Insofar
as social and economic growth in Ireland is predicated on the creation of
a vibrant knowledge society, it is clear that knowledge transfer must be a
major concern. Enabling processes to meet this challenge include:
• Fuller recognition of, and provision for, lifelong learning;
• Increased and better partnerships between higher-education institutions and cultural
institutions, and industry;
• Enhanced flexibility in higher-education doctoral programmes allowing for
increased provision of part-time programmes.
23
5 The HSS in Ireland: funding profile
This chapter examines investment in HSS R&D in the higher-education sector in
Ireland and discusses key trends drawing on the measure Higher Education
Expenditure on Research and Development (HERD)11 as this is the key source of
funding for Irish HSS research. 12 The object is to situate the HERD data for the HSS
within the broader national and international data on total HERD.
Section 5.1 explores the historic Irish data and provides a brief discussion of trends
in the composition of HSS higher-education researchers as a supplement to the data
on expenditure. Section 5.2 provides a number of international comparisons and
Section 5.3 summarises the key observations emerging from this analysis.
5. 1 T R E N DS I N I R I S H H SS H E R D
Between 1998 and 2004 total Irish HERD increased by 94 per cent from 253.6m
in 1998 to 491.7m in 2004. Most of this increase occurred between 2000 and
2004, when an additional 215m (constant prices) was invested (see Table 1).1
Actual expenditure on HSS R&D in the higher-education sector (i.e. the allocation
to HSS R&D from total HERD) rose by approximately 50m from 71m in 1998 to
120.5m in 2004—an overall percentage increase of 70 per cent.14
Despite this increase in the actual amount invested, the HSS are the only field of
science whose percentage share of total HERD declined over the period, falling
from a high of 29 per cent in 2002 to 25 per cent in 2004. This decrease was
proportionately more severe for the humanities, whose percentage share of total
HERD fell from ten to eight per cent, while the social sciences’ share fell from nineteen
to seventeen per cent (see Chart 1).
11
In accordance with OECD classification structures HERD in Ireland is classified into six broad
academic fields: natural sciences, engineering, medical sciences, agricultural sciences, social sciences
and humanities. HERD funding sources are broken down into six major categories: direct government
(targeted initiatives such as the PRTLI), indirect government (derived from the HEA annual ‘block grant’
to universities), EU, foreign sources, Irish business, ‘other and own’ (which refers to higher-education
institutions capacity to source funds independently e.g. from philanthropic sources) (Forfás 2005a).
12
While beyond the scope of this particular paper, philanthropic contributions and donations are
widely acknowledged to have provided much support for HSS research in recent years.
13
Forfás supplied much of the data used in the tables in this chapter. The original data were submitted to
Forfás for compilation from the universities, institutes of technology and technology centres located within
colleges. The data are prepared in accordance with the OECD/Frascati Manual (1993/2002) guidelines for estimating levels of research and development in the higher-education sector (Forfás 2005a).
14
Based on an examination of expenditure patterns in HERD allocations to the HSS in comparison to
total HERD.
Table 1—Higher Education Expenditure on Research and Development in the humanities and social
sciences, 1998–2004 (€m constant 2004 prices)
1998
2000
2002
2004
% change
1998–2004
HSS HERD €m constant
(2004) prices
71.0
79.8
98.8
120.5
70%
Total HERD €m constant
(2004) prices
253.6
276.3
340.9
491.7
94%
HSS as % of total HERD
28%
29%
29%
25%
Source: Forfás 2000, 2003, 2004a, 2004b, 2005a.
Chart 1—Percentage share of total HERD by field of science, 2002 and 2004
Humanities
Field of science
Social sciences
Agricultural sciences
% share of HERD, 2004
% share of HERD, 2002
Engineering
Medical sciences
Natural sciences
0
10
20
30
% Share
Source: Forfás 2005a, Figure 5.
26
40
50
5 . 1 . 1 S O U R C ES O F H E R D
There are significant changes in the composition of total HERD by source of funds
from 1998 onwards (see Table 2). Investment in higher-education R&D by indirect
government sources (i.e. the allocation to R&D made by universities from the HEA
block grant) increased by approximately 100m. Despite this significant increase
indirect government’s actual percentage share of total HERD remained constant at
42 per cent due to substantial increases in other sources of funding, notably direct
government funding sources.
By 2004 direct government funding accounted for 41 per cent of total HERD an
approximate overall increase of 140m in expenditure from 1998 levels.
Meanwhile, the percentage share of total HERD supplied by EU funding, foreign,
Irish business and ‘other and own’ sources declined substantially.
Table 2—Source of total HERD funds for all fields of science expressed as a percentage share of total
HERD, 1998–2004 (€m constant 2004 prices)
Source of Funding
Direct government
EU
Foreign sources
Irish business
Other & own
Indirect government
Total
Total HERD (€m)
1998
%
2000
%
2002
%
2004
%
24
16
3
7
8
42
100
24
12
4
5
13
42
100
40
7
2
4
9
38
100
41
6
2
3
6
42
100
253.6
276.3
340.9
491.7
Source: Forfás, 2000, 2003, 2004a, 2004b, 2005a.
A similar pattern is reflected in the breakdown of the sources of funding for HSS
HERD (see Table 3 and Chart 2). Indirect government sources of funding are
historically the largest funding source for HSS HERD and while indirect government
expenditure on HSS R&D increased by over 50 per cent (from 53m to 84m), its
percentage share of total HSS HERD remained relatively constant at an average of
nineteen per cent.
27
Table 3—HSS percentage share of total HERD expenditure by source of funds, 1998–2004
(€m constant 2004 prices)
Source of funding
1998
%
2000
%
2002
%
2004
%
Direct government
EU
Foreign sources
Irish business
Other & own
Indirect government
2
2
0
1
2
21
2
2
0
1
5
19
3
1
0
1
4
20
4
1
1
0
2
17
HSS % share of total HERD
(based on current €m prices)
28
29
29
25
71.0
79.8
98.8
120.5
Total HSS HERD
(€m constant 2004 prices)
Source: Forfás 2000, 2003, 2004a, 2004b, 2005a.
Chart 2—HSS HERD sources of funding, 1998–2004
90
80
70
60
Indirect government
Other & own
50
€m
Direct government
EU
40
Irish business
Foreign sources
30
20
10
0
1998
2000
2002
Year
Source: Forfás 2000, 2003, 2004, 2005a.
28
2004
In contrast, the percentage share of total HSS HERD drawn from other sources
including the EU, ‘other and own’, and Irish business sources declined. It may be that
HSS researchers chose to prioritise applications for domestic rather than EU funding
schemes during this period given the significant growth in domestic- and nationallevel funding sources. Alternatively, there is some evidence that the high level of
administration involved in the application requirements and the complexity of the
EU collaboration mechanisms may have acted as barriers to HSS researchers’
participation (IRCHSS 2005).
However, as Table 3 also shows, investment in HSS R&D by direct government
funding sources (i.e. funding channelled through targeted research initiatives such as
the PRTLI) doubled between 1998 and 2004.
Table 4 provides an overview of direct government funding for HSS R&D by source
for the period 1998–2005 (see also Chart 3). The increase in direct government
funding sources of HSS HERD was channelled largely through targeted initiatives
such as the:
• PRTLI: 46.1m was allocated to the HSS across Cycles 1 to 3, funding, for
example, twelve research programmes and centres in the HSS (HEA 2004a);
• IRCHSS: the various IRCHSS research initiatives and schemes since 1999 have
seen 34.6m allocated in support of HSS research;
• Awards made to specific HSS research projects by government agencies and
bodies such as the Health Research Board (HRB) (9.8m allocated in support of
HSS research), Teagasc (13.4m) and ‘other’ HEA research programmes.
IRCHSS is the principal HSS funding agency in terms of its percentage allocation
(at 100 per cent) to the HSS, followed by ‘other’ HEA awards (12 per cent), the
HRB (8.2 per cent), the PRTLI (8 per cent) and Teagasc (3.9 per cent).
Most of the increased investment channelled through direct government sources of
funding is allocated to HSS recurrent expenditure.
Only two of the direct government-funders of HSS HERD—the HRB and the PRTLI—
allowed for capital expenditure and each allocated less than a third of their HSS
HERD share to capital expenditure.
29
Table 4—Estimated HSS HERD allocation by source (direct government funding only) and percentage
funding allocation, 1999–2004 (€m)
Agency
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
Total IRCHSS HERD
HSS IRCHSS HERD
1
0.9
0.9
1.6
1.6
2.9
2.9
6.3
6.3
7.4
7.4
7.4
7.4
8.1
8.1
% allocation to HSS
-
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
Total PRTLI HERD 2
1
206
7.0
50
20.2
320
18.9
2
2
2
2
% allocation to HSS
-
3.4
40.4
5.9
-
-
-
-
Total Health Research Board (HRB) HERD3
HSS HRB HERD
5.58
6.60
10.00
10.84
2.2
14.78
0.8
22.20
1.3
25.70
1.8
22.69
3.7
% allocation to HSS
0
0
0
20.30
5.40
5.85
7.00
16.30
Total other HEA awards HERD4
HSS other HEA awards HERD
1
1
1
0
1.3
0
1.5
0
3.5
0.84
3.4
0.80
3.1
0.43
% allocation to HSS
-
-
0
0
0
24.0
24.0
14.0
Total Teagasc HERD
HSS Teagasc HERD
29.8
1.650
28.9
1.625
35.7
1.705
43.8
1.612
51.5
1.850
46.4
1.598
50.5
1.723
55.9
1.599
% allocation to HSS
5.5
5.6
4.8
3.7
3.6
3.4
3.4
2.9
Total Enterprise Ireland(EI) HERD
HSS EI HERD
12.1
0.01
12.7
0.02
34.6
0.04
32.7
0.02
32.9
0.05
25.4
0.03
20.3
0.05
5
% allocation to HSS
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.3
-
Total Science Foundation Ireland HERD
1
1
1
1
31.0
64.9
108.6
122.2
% allocation to HSS
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
Total IRCSET HERD
1
1
1
1
4.4
10.5
13.8
15.9
% allocation to HSS
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
HSS PRTLI HERD
Source: Listed agencies: data gathered directly from each agency. There are timing issues between the funding (calendar year) and HERD (academic year) and
roll-overs of money into the next financial year. Allocation does not always equal expenditure and is not always picked up in the performance survey (HERD) or is
assigned to incorrect areas. Consequently, these figures may not exactly match the HERD figures provided through Forfás.
Notes:
1 Organisation/research award scheme not in existence or data not available for this period.
2 In December 2006 three cycles of funding were announced under the PRTLI: Cycle 1 (announced 1999) covered the funding period 2000–2003, Cycle 2
(announced 2000) covered the funding period 2001–2004, and Cycle 3 (announced 2001) covered the funding period 2002–2006. A call for applications
to Cycle 4 was issued in January 2007.
3 The HRB does not categorise its funding awards by general field of science. Instead, it categorises all its funded activities by field of health research i.e.
biomedical science, health services, population health, etc. The RIA working group estimated these figures by identifying funding awarded through two HRB
schemes––the HRB non-biomedical awards (data not available prior to 2001), and the R&D section of the HRB (data not available prior to 2002)––to projects
with a social-science research focus either in their research topic or primary research methodology.
4 ‘Other’ HEA research awards included in this analysis are: the HEA North South Research Programme Strand 1; the Digital Technology Fund; and the Transport
Research Fund. Research funded under Strand 2 of the HEA North South Research Programmes is not included as the Special European Union Programmes
Body funds it.
5 Data not available for 2005.
30
Chart 3—HSS HERD direct-government funding by source, 1998–2005
14
12
10
PRTLI
€m
Teagasc
8
IRCHSS
HRB
6
Other HEA
Enterprise Ireland
4
2
0
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
Year
Source: Listed agencies (data supplied on request).
Notes: For the purposes of this chart, the funding allocated to the HSS under Cycles 1 to 3 of the PRTLI have been cumulatively averaged over the period
from 2000 to 2005/06.
Chart 4—Capital and recurrent allocations from direct government sources of HSS HERD, 1998–2005
50
45
40
35
€m
30
Recurrent
25
Capital
20
15
10
5
0
IRCHSS
PRTLI
HRB
Other HEA
Teagasc
Enterprise Ireland
Agency (direct government)
Source: Listed agencies (data supplied on request).
31
Table 5—Capital and recurrent breakdown of direct government funding by source to the humanities
and social sciences (€m)
Agency
1998
1999
2001
2000
2002
2003
2005
2004
IRC HSS
1
0.9
1.6
2.9
6.3
7.4
7.4
8.1
Capital
Recurrent
-
0
0.9
0
1.6
0
2.9
0
6.3
0
7.4
0
7.4
0
8.1
PRTLI
Capital
Recurrent
1
20.2
8.1
12.1
18.9
4.8
14.1
2
2
2
2
-
7
3.4
3.6
-
-
-
-
3
3
3
2.2
0.8
-
-
-
2.20
0.78
1.3
0.43
0.86
1.8
0.25
1.58
3.7
2.50
1.20
HRB
Capital
Recurrent
Othe r HEA
Capital
Recurrent
1
1
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
0.84
0
0.84
0 . 80
0
0.80
0.43
0
0.43
Teagasc
Capital
Recurrent
1 . 6 50
0.050
1.600
1.625
0.025
1.600
1.705
0.055
1.650
1.612
0.012
1.600
1 . 8 50
0.055
1.795
1.598
0.010
1.588
1.723
0.050
1.673
1.599
0.030
1.569
EI
Capital
Recurrent
0.01
0
0.01
0.02
0
0.02
0.04
0
0.04
0.02
0
0.02
0.05
0.003
0.05
0.03
0
0.03
0.05
0
0.05
4
-
Source: Listed agencies: data supplied on request.
Notes:
1 Organisation/research award scheme not in existence at this time.
2 In December 2006 three cycles of funding were announced under the PRTLI: Cycle 1 (1999) covered the funding period 2000–2003,
Cycle 2 (2000) covered the funding period 2001, and Cycle 3 (announced 2001) covered the funding period 2002–2006. A call for applications to
Cycle 4 was issued in January 2007.
3Data on HRB non-biomedical research awards and R&D awards was not available prior to 2001.
4 Data not available for 2005.
5 . 1 . 2 H S S R ES E A R C H P E R S O N N E L I N T H E H I G H E R E D U C AT I O N S E C TO R
The majority of HSS researchers are based within the higher-education sector but
may also be employed within the state sector, non-governmental organisations
or public-research agencies. This discussion draws on Forfás survey data which
32
measured the human resources involved in research in the higher-education sector
between 1998 and 2004.
Between 1998 and 2004 the number of researchers in higher education rose by
71 per cent—from 2,425 full-time equivalent (FTEs) researchers in 1998 to 4,151
in 2004. While the number of HSS researchers (FTEs) grew from 843 in 1998 to
1,215 in 2004—an increase of 42 per cent—this growth failed to keep pace with
the overall rate of increase across all fields of science. At the same time, the HSS
share of total higher-education researchers (FTEs) fell from 35 per cent in 1998 to
29 per cent in 2004 (see Table 6).
Table 6—Number of HSS researchers (full-time equivalents or FTEs) by occupation compared with total
researchers in all fields of science (FoS) in the higher-education sector, 1998–2004
1998
Researcher
Occupation
Academic staff
HSS
2000
All FoS2
HSS
1
2002
All FoS2
HSS
All FoS2
2004
HSS
All FoS2
791
1394
786
1380
839
1547
716
1695
Postdoctoral fellows
8
267
31
267
22
310
146
964
Contract lecturers
3
3
3
3
26
150
196
494
44
764
45
501
85
790
157
998
843
2425
862
2148
972
2797
1215
4151
Research assistants
Total researchers
All HSS researchers
as a % of total ‘all
FoS’ researchers
35%
40%
35%
29%
Source: Forfás’s Survey of Research and Development in the Higher Education Sector (Forfás 2000, 2003, 2004a, 2004b, 2005a, 2005b).
Notes:
1 The Forfás survey data takes the time spent on research into consideration and personnel data are supplied as full-time equivalents. For the purpose of this table
the totals do not include the FTE figures for technicians and other staff.
2 Total includes HSS researchers but excludes technicians and other support staff.
3 Data on the occupation category ‘contract lecturers’ was not included in data collected by Forfás in 1998 and 2000.
Changes are also evident in the composition of the HSS higher-education researcher
population with strong growth in the numbers occupying contract-lecturer, postdoctoral and research-assistant posts. The increase in contract lecturers is particularly
33
striking—from zero in 2000 to 196 in 2004. Academic staff in the HSS accounted
for 42 per cent of the total number of higher-education researchers (FTEs) in 2004,
a drop from 57 per cent of FTEs recorded in the 1998 HERD survey. This decline
is in part a reflection of the increase in human resources in other scientific areas
within the broad higher-education sector as result of new research-funding initiatives
since 2000, particularly in the science and technology sectors.
Chart 5—Number of HSS researchers compared with total number of researchers in all fields of science in
the higher-education sector, 1998–2004*
Number of researchers (FTEs)
1800
1600
1400
Academic staff
1200
Postdoctoral fellows
1000
Contract lecturers
Research assistants
800
600
400
200
0
HSS
All FoS
1998
HSS
All FoS
2000
HSS
All FoS
2002
HSS
All FoS
2004
Year
Source: Forfás Survey of Research and Development in the Higher Education Sector 2000, 2003, 2004, 2005.
*Excludes other research personnel such as technicians, administrative staff, etc.
Given these changes and in particular the growing number of researchers occupying
short-term research posts, the long-term sustainability of the HSS higher-education
teaching and research community could be at risk.
5 . 2 E U H S S H E R D : E U CO M PA R I S O N S
HERD relative to some measure of domestic output product or national income is
typically one of the key metrics used in making cross-country comparisons. Due to
difficulties with using Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the Irish case, HERD relative
34
to Gross National Income (GNI) is used to explore how Ireland’s expenditure on
HERD compares with other EU countries.15
Using the GNI metric, Ireland’s expenditure on HERD is relatively low—less than one
per cent of the GNI value of the country with the highest GNI within the EU.
Therefore, comparisons are expressed in this format; EU-average figures for the HERD
share (in terms of one per cent of GNI for the years 2000–2004) are around 0.4
of one per cent, with a small number of countries displaying figures significantly
above the average, namely Denmark, the Netherlands, Austria, Finland, Sweden,
Iceland and Switzerland (see Chart 6, Appendix III).16 While changes to the overall
EU average are modest, the pattern is upwards to 2003, with a levelling off in 2004.
Ireland’s performance over the period represents a significant improvement—from
less than 0.3 to exactly 0.4 per cent in 2004. Given that GNI has risen more
quickly in Ireland than elsewhere in the EU over that period, it represents a significant
increase in relative expenditure. Despite this increase Ireland remains below the EU
average, albeit to a much lesser extent than in 2000.
The international data are much less complete for HERD spending on HSS, both by
year and by country and it is not possible to compute EU averages due to difficulties
arising from incomplete data. However, the Nordic countries are significant investors
under this measure (see Chart 7, Appendix III). In the case of many countries, Ireland
included, the share of HERD going to HSS has fallen (see Chart 8, Appendix III).
This pattern may reflect greater emphasis on non-HSS areas of research in national
strategies, but it may also reflect the greater capital requirements outside HSS over
the time period, which would naturally bias the HSS share downwards.
5 . 2. 1 H S S H E R D : CO M PA R ATO R CO U N T R I ES
It is useful to examine how countries differ in absolute funds spent on HERD and how
HERD is sourced. A comparison of HERD in Ireland with the selected comparator
countries of Finland, Norway, Portugal and Slovenia serves to establish the
relative health or otherwise of Irish funding for the HSS in a European context. These
countries were identified as important points of comparison for the Irish HSS research
community. Comparisons with Finland and Norway are particularly useful as these
countries are broadly similar in population terms and in scale of research activity.
Portugal was chosen, as it, like Ireland, was a designated recipient of EU StructuralFund investment from the late 1980s. Slovenia was chosen as it has developed a
focused and specific research policy relatively recently (see Appendix IV).
15
GDP is a measure of the economic performance of a national economy over a given period. It indicates the value of the goods and services produced in the economic territory (value added) unless they
are used as intermediate consumption for the production of other goods and services. GNI accounts
for flows in and out of the country. For many countries, the flows tend to balance out, leaving little difference between GDP and GNI. However, the outflows of profits and income from multi-national
corporations based in Ireland often exceed income flows back into the country. In other words, while
Ireland produces a lot of income per inhabitant GNI shows that less of it stays in the country than GDP
might suggest (see: http://oecdobserver.org/news/fullstory.php/aid/1507/GDP_and_GNI.html,
last verified 12 January 2007)
16
See Chart 6, Appendix III. The chart has two EU measures––EU 25 and EU 15, and the data are
in current prices.
35
Table 7 shows HERD as a percentage of GNI between 2000 and 2004 in Ireland
and the selected countries used for comparison in current prices.17 In 2000 Ireland,
at 0.27 of one per cent of GNI, was the second lowest of the five countries, behind
all but Slovenia. By 2004 the latest year for which the international data are
available, Ireland has moved up to 0.39 of one per cent of GNI and while this
places Ireland above Portugal and Slovenia, it continues to lag considerably behind
Finland and Norway.
Table 7—HERD as a percentage of GNI in Ireland, Finland, Norway, Portugal and
Slovenia, 2000–2004 (€m current prices)
Ireland
Finland
Norway
Portugal
Slovenia
2000
%
2001
%
2002
%
2003
%
2004
%
0.27
0.60
n/a
0.29
0.24
0.28
0.60
0.41
0.30
0.25
0.30
0.64
0.45
0.29
0.24
0.34
0.67
0.47
0.29
0.18
0.39
0.68
0.48
0.28
0.19
Source: Eurostat.
Despite the very considerable increase in HERD expenditure in recent years,
Ireland still spends much less on total HERD (351.7m) than Finland (737.1m),
Norway (494.72m) and Portugal (421.39m). Spending on HERD in Slovenia
is increasing but remains low in absolute terms (see Table 8).18
Table 8 also shows the breakdown in the different sources of HERD for all fields
of science. While there are differences in the way in which HERD is sourced in
these countries, and while each country has increased its expenditure on direct
government sources of HERD funding, the HSS in Ireland continue to receive a
lower share of this source of funding relative to the comparator countries. Although
the percentage share of HSS total HERD drawn from indirect government sources
has remained constant in Ireland, the actual amount of expenditure from this source
is considerably lower than in Finland and Norway, despite positive increases over
the period of analysis.
It should also be noted that Irish research has traditionally been relatively successful
in obtaining funding from EU sources but in recent years the Irish take from EU
funds has clearly declined, particularly when compared to Finland, Norway and
Portugal. Finally, local business as a source of HERD is far lower in Ireland than
in Finland and Norway.
17
Current dollars means ‘nominal’ whereas constant dollars means ‘real’. The value of output can
increase for two distinct reasons. It can increase because more goods and services are being
produced, or it can increase because prices of goods and services have risen. To eliminate the effects
of changing prices, one must compute real or constant-dollar GDP (or GNI), which values the output
of various time periods with a set of fixed prices. The current-dollar or nominal GDP (or GNI) is the
value of output measured in prices which existed when the output was produced.
18
Slovenia was not eligible for EU R&D funding during this period.
36
Table 8—Sources of HERD expenditure on all fields of science, 1998–2004 (millions of
Purchasing Power Standards (million of national currency—euro for euro area), constant
1995 prices) 1
Direct government
EU
Foreign sources
Local business
O ther & own
Indirect government
Total
Ireland
Finland
Norway2
Portugal
Slovenia
Year
44.44
225.48
89.30
n/a
48.48
1998
54.80
274.89
84.53
n/a
63.40
2000
102.89
285.21
108.73
n/a
72.47
2002
146.58
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
2004
30.51
17.90
n/a
9.65
n/a
1998
24.09
24.71
7.54
13.75
n/a
2000
17.87
39.82
8.72
14.77
n/a
2002
22.04
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
2004
6.09
11.53
13.12
1.95
4.10
1998
7.60
14.60
4.55
4.84
4.99
2000
5.20
19.84
5.21
5.24
5.60
2002
7.23
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
2004
12.25
25.50
24.29
5.09
7.37
1998
10.64
36.49
23.63
4.03
6.28
2000
8.97
45.41
26.54
4.89
8.58
2002
9.03
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
2004
14.45
12.51
22.19
21.22
0.84
1998
18.66
13.17
23.14
20.41
0.32
2000
15.98
26.54
25.47
17.79
2.06
2002
22.26
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
2004
79.26
271.55
322.26
n/a
4.43
1998
83.45
291.32
289.15
n/a
7.57
2000
92.04
320.28
320.04
n/a
6.84
2002
144.55
n/a
n/a
n/a
187.00
564.47
471.16
350.97
n/a
2004
3
65.22
1998
4
199.24
655.18
432.54
408.49
82.56
2000
242.95
737.10
494.71
421.395
95.55
2002
351.69
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
2004
Source: OECD R&D database (January 2006). Conversion indices provided by Eurostat. Irish data supplied by Forfás.
Notes:
1 Purchasing Power Parities are based on comparisons of the prices of representative and comparable goods or services recorded in the
national currency of the country in question on a specific date. As a result financial aggregates can be expressed in Purchasing Power
Standards—PPS—rather than euro based on exchange rates. Source: http://epp.eurostat.cec.eu.int/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-NS-05002/EN/KS-NS-05-002-EN.PDF (23 January 2007).
2 The Norwegian data are an average derived from 1997–1999, 1999–2001 and 2001–2003, as data are only available for every
second year.
3 This total is comprised of the figures for other sources plus figure for total government expenditure (313.03 millions of PPS constant 1995
prices), as a breakdown of government direct and indirect funding was not available.
4 This total is comprised of the figures for other sources plus figure for total government expenditure (365.46 millions of PPS constant 1995
prices), as a breakdown of government direct and indirect funding was not available.
5 This total is comprised of the figures for other sources plus figure for total government expenditure (378.7 millions of PPS constant 1995
prices), as a breakdown of government direct and indirect funding was not available.
37
Table 9 shows that the Irish share of HSS HERD as a percentage of GNI has
increased from 0.08 in 2000 to 0.10 in 2004.19 Nevertheless, Ireland continues
to lag behind Finland (0.20) and Norway (0.15 in 2003) in the share of total
HERD allocated to the HSS.
Table 9—Humanities and social sciences HERD as a percentage of GNI,
2000–2004 (current prices)
2000
%
2001
%
2002
%
2003
%
2004
%
Ireland
0.08
0.08
0.09
0.08
0.10
Finland
0.16
0.16
0.17
0.19
0.20
Norway
n/a
0.14
n/a
0.15
1
Portugal
0.09
0.10
0.09
0.10
1
Slovenia
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.03
0.03
Source: Eurostat.
Note:
1 Data for 2004 are not available for Norway and Portugal.
Table 10 illustrates sources of HERD expenditure and the percentage spend of total
HERD on HSS in Ireland, Finland, Norway, Portugal and Slovenia between 1998
and 2004. It shows that the HSS in Ireland continue to receive a lower percentage
share of total HERD in comparison to the allocations made by Finland, Norway
and Portugal.
Table 11 illustrates HERD expenditure on HSS relative to other fields of science.
Only Ireland and Slovenia have seen the HSS percentage share of total HERD fall
between 2000 and 2004.
19
EU averages are not computed due to difficulties arising from incomplete data but again, Table 9
shows that the Nordic countries are significant investors under this measure.
38
Table 10—Sources of HSS HERD as a percentage of total HERD by country, 1998–2004*
Direct government
EU
Foreign sources
Local business
Other & own
Indirect government
Total
Ireland
%
Finland
%
Norway
%
Portugal
%
Slovenia
%
Year
2.00
7.16
5.90
n/a
14.55
1998
2.00
7.81
6.09
n/a
14.88
2000
3.00
8.32
6.85
n/a
n/a
2002
4.00
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
2004
2.00
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
1998
2.00
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
2000
1.00
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
2002
1.00
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
2004
0.00
0.96
0.54
n/a
1.29
1998
0.00
1.19
0.54
n/a
1.16
2000
0.00
1.33
0.54
n/a
n/a
2002
1.00
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
2004
1.00
0.63
0.88
n/a
0.66
1998
1.00
0.76
0.96
n/a
0.69
2000
1.00
0.87
1.36
n/a
n/a
2002
0.00
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
2004
2.00
0.77
1.26
n/a
0.81
1998
5.00
0.69
1.44
n/a
0.18
2 0 00
4.00
1.04
1.85
n/a
n/a
2002
2.00
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
2004
21.00
17.58
21.97
n/a
2.06
1998
19.00
15.61
22.44
n/a
3.71
2000
20.00
15.50
25.08
n/a
n/a
2002
17.00
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
2004
1
28.00
27.10
30.55
30.95
19.37
1998
29.00
26.06
31.47
31.932
20.62
2000
3
29.00
27.06
35.68
32.58
21.22
2002
25.00
n/a
n/a
n/a
16.65 5
2004
4
Source: OECD R&D database, accessed January 2006; conversion indices provided by Eurostat; Irish data supplied by Forfás.
Notes:
* These data are less complete than for HERD overall as some countries did not report these breakdowns to the OECD.
1 Breakdown of HSS HERD is not available. Total HSS HERD for Portugal in 1998 taken from OECD R&D database, accessed January 2006.
2 Breakdown of HSS HERD is not available. Total HSS HERD for Portugal in 2000 taken from OECD R&D database, accessed January 2006.
3 This percentage is derived from Eurostat figures for total Portuguese HSS HERD.
4 Annual breakdown not available for Slovenia. Eurostat figures give a HSS HERD percentage share of total HERD of 21.22 per cent in 2002.
5 Annual breakdown not available for Slovenia. Eurostat figures give a HSS HERD percentage share of total HERD of 16.65 in 2004.
39
Table 11—HERD expenditure on humanities and social sciences as a percentage
of HERD in all fields of science, 2000–2004 (constant 1995 prices)*
2000
%
2001
%
2002
%
2003
%
2004
%
Ireland
28.98
28.9
28.95
24.58
24.55
Finland
29.50
30.33
31.60
32.28
33.72
Norway
-
44.16
-
43.08
-
Portugal
36.72
37.36
39.16
37.57
-
Slovenia
23.02
23.08
24.57
18.26
20.14
Source: Eurostat. Date of extraction: 14 July 2006.
Note:
* Prices are based on purchasing parity exchange rates; this is the exchange rate calculated to yield Purchasing Power
Parity and is used to make comparisons of real values (wages, GDP) across countries with different currencies. Absolute
Purchasing Power Parity is the equality of the prices of a bundle of goods in two countries when valued at the prevailing
exchange rate.
5 . 3 O B S E R VAT I O N S
Continued strategic investment in the HSS research community is vital to ensure a
high-quality teaching and learning experience in conjunction with the pursuit of an
ambitious research agenda. At the EU level, HERD expenditure on HSS research
has not kept pace with expenditure on other fields of science and the Irish HSS
HERD allocation remains low compared to the EU average (see Chart 6).
There are differences in the way in which HERD is sourced across the EU; the HSS
in Ireland receive a lower share of direct government HERD in comparison to Finland
and Norway in particular (see Chart 6). While the percentage share of Irish HSS
HERD drawn from indirect government sources has remained constant (see Table 3),
the actual amount of expenditure from this source is considerably lower than in
Finland and Norway, countries against which Ireland often benchmarks itself as a
knowledge economy.
In Ireland, the HERD allocation to the HSS has fallen compared to other fields of
science (see Chart 1). However, the recent increase in funding from direct government sources for Irish HSS HERD is welcome. This increase primarily occurred after
2000, signalling the positive impact of the establishment of the IRCHSS and PRTLI
funding streams on HSS research funding.
40
In terms of direct government support, IRCHSS emerges as the largest single funder
of HSS HERD recurrent expenditure (see Chart 4). However, the PRTLI, which funds
capital and recurrent expenditure, is clearly the largest overall source of funding for
HSS research. This dual approach to supporting capital and recurrent HSS research
expenditure is vital to ensure that investment in human resources is supported by the
necessary capital research infrastructures.
Given the importance of the PRTLI investment it is vital that the HSS continue to feature
strongly in future PRTLI cycles and that higher-education institutions continue to ensure
the prominence of HSS research within institutional strategic research programmes.
Similarly, IRCHSS research funding is very important. The success of these schemes
to date points to the decisive impact of responsive funding across the HSS. In line
with best practice, consideration should be given to the allocation of a multi-annual
budget for research-funding agencies such as the IRCHSS and the RIA to allow a
substantial increase in targeted investment in HSS research.
As neither the IRCHSS nor the RIA nor any other research-funding agency actually
funds capital infrastructure it is essential that initiatives such as the PRTLI should
continue to fund the development of general HSS research infrastructures. The HSS
typically have more general research infrastructure needs but, as demonstrated in
Chapter 7, now require significant levels of investment to support participation in
European research networks, to upgrade basic research facilities, to facilitate the
sharing of data, and to ensure easy access to data sources. At the same time, the
sustainability of the HSS higher-education research community can be questioned
given the growing number of researchers occupying short-term posts (see Chart 5).
Efforts to support and increase the share of total HSS HERD must also address the
decline in the HSS percentage share of research funding from business and EU
sources (see Table 3). The considerable opportunity cost to researchers of developing
EU funding submissions should be recognised through the provision of appropriate
research and administrative supports within the higher-education institutions.
The DETE and its agencies clearly have a major role to play also and their efforts
to engage actively with HSS researchers and encourage them in the development
and presentation of proposals to EU instruments is particularly welcome. Similarly,
efforts to promote the relationship between enterprise and education must be
strengthened in order to address the noted decline in HSS research funding drawn
from business sources. However, this should not be to the detriment of research projects where partners in industry cannot be found or where industry–academia
partnerships would not be appropriate.
41
Given that sustained and substantial national investment in HSS capital and human
capital infrastructures is essential for Irish researchers to effectively exploit research
and funding opportunities effectively at the EU level, those who inform and manage
HSS policy should:
• Monitor carefully the HSS percentage share of total HERD and ensure that
expenditure in HSS HERD does not continue to lag behind the EU-15 average.
• Observe carefully the HSS HERD percentage allocation from indirect government
sources so that changes in allocation mechanisms do not inadvertently damage
the funding of the HSS.
• Promote responsive funding instruments and strategically targeted initiatives to fund
HSS capital and recurrent research expenditure.
• Encourage and support participation in EU FP initiatives and other research
structures.
It is important to identify clearly and fully the true costs of HSS research and to ensure
that HERD sources recognise and meet these costs. A significant issue is the nonpayment of institutional overheads by HSS funders. Consideration should be given
to the development of a common and agreed protocol across all research-funding
agencies and bodies for the payment of institutional overheads for research.
6. Research infrastructures for the HSS
Research cannot flourish without appropriate infrastructures. The adequacy or otherwise of such supports is a significant factor in determining both the quality and output
of research and consequently, the attractiveness of Ireland as a research location.
While there has been significant investment in R&D infrastructure in recent years,
ongoing investment in general and specific infrastructures is vital to overcome the
historic deficit in HSS funding and to enable the HSS to make their full contribution
to the cultural, intellectual, social and economic life of Ireland.
For the purposes of this report, research infrastructures (RI), simply defined, include
facilities, resources, equipment or services that are needed by the research
community to conduct research in any field of science, including the HSS, and the
associated human resources and Information and Communications Technology
(ICT). Research infrastructures may also be ‘single-sited’ (single resource at a single
location), ‘distributed’ (network of distributed resources), or ‘virtual’ (electronic
service provision).20
While much of the recent discussion on RI has focused on tools and facilities
associated with ICT, such as video conferencing and video streaming, digital text
and data archives, and searchable electronic resources, it is also vital, if we wish
to underpin research in a meaningful way, to emphasise the continuing and vital
importance of more traditional ‘real-world infrastructures’ such as libraries, museums
and archives, which can serve as inspirational and creative learning spaces as well
as depositories of vital primary materials for HSS research.
6 . 1 K N O W L E D G E - B A S E D R ES O U R C ES
No less than any other field of science, empirical research in the HSS draws on a
wide range of data from both historic (libraries, museums and archives) and the
emerging electronic data infrastructures. The non-digital archive remains an indispensable resource across the HSS and is of particular importance to those engaged
in work and research that deals with manuscripts, archival and museum collections.
Archaeologists and those who exist within the umbrella of cultural heritage illustrate
20
European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (2006), available online at:
http://cordis.europa.eu/infrastructures/survey2.htm (12 January 2006).
this point usefully—they engage with digital material as a means of accelerating and
improving their access to the primary resource and disseminating knowledge about
their research. However, ultimately they must have direct access to the primary material, be they artefacts, buildings or manuscripts.
A key resource issue for the HSS is the
availability of, and access to, data sets,
including the capacity to generate new
data, as well as the importance of ensuring
widespread availability of, and access to,
previously gathered data. Data infrastructures operate increasingly at national and
European level and looking to the future, the
HSS research community must continue to
recognise the significance and value of
transnational data collection efforts and
develop appropriate instruments to engage
in such efforts.21 This raises significant issues
regarding how best to ensure that data is
adequately protected and analysed in ways
that both acknowledge the domestic context
and facilitate the upskilling of researchers in
support of Ireland’s involvement in EU data
infrastructures. ICT advances have increased
the capacity for undertaking in-depth
secondary analysis. However, secondary
data sources are also vital resources for
HSS research. The Irish HSS community
must further develop its capacity to engage
with such data sources and ensure that
access to new and emerging e-science
tools is properly resourced.
Linguistic barriers are also relevant here.
While most of Irish HSS research is written
and published in English, Ireland’s participation in multilingual research, publication and dissemination efforts must be
resourced if it is to engage in transnational and EU research networks. This includes
much research which is policy relevant and directed at a particular national audience
and accordingly, written in the specific national language.
21
For example, national and EU official statistical systems can also be considered part of the existing
infrastructure (European Commission SSHERA 2005a).
44
IRELAND’S
PA RT I C I PAT I O N I N T H E
EU RO PEA N SO C I A L SU RV EY
The European Social Survey (ESS) is an academically driven, biennial, international survey
examining changing social attitudes, beliefs and values within Europe both over time and
across twenty European societies. The ESS enables researchers to examine the distribution
of people’s social values, beliefs and norms and how these differ across nations as well as
the direction in which they are evolving.
......................................................................................................................
Each round of the ESS gathers information on common core areas of socio-demographic,
socio-psychological and socio-economic interest while also including different ‘rotating
modules’ devoted to substantive theoretical or social policy themes. The core questions enable
monitoring of broad social change in key variables, while the rotating modules facilitate an
in-depth focus on specific issues.
Participation of Ireland in the ESS involves not only the creation of a uniquely valuable and
rigorous dataset for Irish and international researchers, but also ensures an Irish presence in
the European data infrastructures and research networks generated by the project. Social
surveys are at their richest in terms of research potential when they enable comparisons of
different sets of respondents. Optimal comparability arises when responses between different
national groupings are assessed with reference to each other, and across different time
frames. Thus, for Irish HSS research, interested in the trajectory of social attitudes in Ireland
(and ultimately Europe), Ireland’s participation in successive rounds of the survey is vital,
both for its own sake and to enrich the interpretation of data gathered in previous rounds.
Data from the third round of the ESS will allow direct comparison over time with the responses
to the core areas while also enabling cross-national contrasts on key social concerns. This
cross-national comparability also makes Ireland’s participation critical for the rest of
participating countries.
The European Commission, the ESF and academic funding bodies in each participating
country fund the project jointly––Ireland’s participation is funded by IRCHSS.
Another associated issue is the absence of a national infrastructure to support data
sharing on completed and ongoing research. The establishment of a national
research register linked to a repository of published work will reduce the risk of
duplication of research and enable the identification of research expertise. As such,
it will also facilitate cross-institutional collaboration and the preparation of EU
funding proposals.
45
6 . 2 E - I N F R A ST R U C T U R ES A N D D I G I T I S AT I O N
HSS researchers need access to a range of resources, many of which are already
digitised and available on subscription. Within the university sector, IreL (the Irish
Research eLibrary) has greatly enhanced access to e-resources for specific SET
disciplines, especially biotechnology and ICT. In 2006 a comparable scheme
commenced for university-based HSS researchers. HEAnet (Ireland’s national education and research network) provides a high-quality telecommunications network and
value-added Internet services to Irish researchers.22 With the basic transmission infrastructure in place, it is important that there is continued support for the development
and delivery of quality applications to exploit this investment for the benefit of the
HSS community.
However, we must make other Irish resources available in digital form including
material which may not be commercially attractive to publishers but which is
nonetheless essential to support new research and to make Irish HSS research
findings more visible internationally. A recent survey by the Consortium of
National and University Librarians (CONUL) indicated a modest level of digitisation activity in its third-level member institutions (CONUL 2006).23 The working
group’s sub-committee on infrastructures conducted a survey of the infrastructure
needs of the Irish HSS research community.24 A broad consensus emerged regarding the need to prioritise investment in the digitisation of existing print resources
and strengthening the capacity of ‘hard’ ICT infrastructures to support research.
Such investment would:
• Open up research opportunities which are not possible in a print-only environment.
• Bring the richness and variety of resources on which HSS researchers draw to
create new and unique multimedia projects.
• Make scholars location independent.
• Facilitate the dissemination of research output to a world audience in a manner
and timescale not possible by traditional means.
• Promote collaborative research opportunities.
Priority areas identified included:
22
HEAnet is now based on a dark fibre infrastructure, over 2,500km in length and spanning the whole
country. This is scalable technology, enabling upgrades and indeed, additional point-to-point circuits
throughout the network. It is currently being extended so that the same levels of service will be available
in institutions and research centres everywhere (information supplied on request by HEAnet).
23
The CONUL (2006) survey indicated a modest level of digitisation activity, with some projects undertaken on a collaborative basis, either with other CONUL institutions or with third parties. The survey
relates only to those digitisation projects that have taken place within libraries and does not capture
information regarding digitisation projects undertaken in other areas of universities.
24
Further information on the work of the Subcommittee on Infrastructures can be obtained by contacting
the Academy (hss@ria.ie).
46
• Continuing investment in both the
national research network and in
network connectivity and bandwidth
at national and regional levels;
• Ensuring that consistent technical
standards are set to facilitate the
collective sharing of research;
• Addressing issues of intellectual
property rights and privacy policies.
Yet, at national level, there is no single
comprehensive roadmap to create
and maintain an infrastructure that will,
without recourse to periodic and
systematic intervention, support the
long-term preservation of and access
to digital materials beyond the lifetime
of the research project or organisation
that created the electronic resource.
This is regrettable, especially in view
of the work of ESFRI over the past
two years and the opportunities
offered under the Seventh Framework
Programme (FP7) in this area.
The lack of leadership for the Irish
digitisation programme has emerged
as a significant issue in researching
this report. This is compounded by the
fact that no single department or
agency is charged with responsibility
for the overall digitisation agenda or
for coordination of the digitisation
projects occurring presently in a range
of sectors.25 Moreover, few national agencies provide substantial funding for HSS
digitisation projects. Although the IRCHSS did include infrastructures as a fundable
theme within its 2005 call, this was not continued in 2006. Consequently,
important European and international initiatives, especially those which involve the
25
Organisations involved in digitisation projects span a range of sectors with the majority of such
funding provided by public-sector sources. Responsibility is spread across many departments, including
the departments of An Taoiseach (the Information Society); Arts, Sport and Tourism (national cultural
institutions and cultural policy); Education and Science (education at all levels, the HEA and by extension the higher-education sector); the Environment, Heritage and Local Government (the local library,
archives and museums sector); and Communications, Marine and Natural Resources (broadband provision as well as the technological aspects of communications policy).
47
collaboration of the Irish HSS research community with international networks, do
not have either a secure or predictable source of domestic funding from module to
module. This policy absence contrasts sharply with other European countries that
typically have a defined policy on digitisation for higher-education research.
6 . 3 T E C H N I C A L A N D A D M I N I ST R AT I V E S U P P O R T
Basic research facilities would appear to be at a premium in many higher-education
institutions. Particular needs were identified in regard to the provision of more
research and office space, computer and other IT access.26 These resources are
necessary if the more general and holistic aspirations of R&D policy are to be
realised.
This is especially important in view of the recent shift within the EU FP
towards recognising the integrity of the HSS in informing the development of the European Research Area (ERA). The importance of
providing appropriate supports, including administrative and
management supports, to enable HSS researchers to access EU
funding opportunities emerged as a strong need. There was
strong support for the provision of funding to enable researchers
to take ‘time-out’ from teaching and administrative duties to
prepare major EU research proposals.
In 2004 there were 33 technicians and associated research
support staff for the HSS disciplines compared to 349 for the
SET disciplines (Forfás 2005a).27 The limited provision for HSS
technical and research support within existing national strategic
frameworks emerged as a clear weakness. While the SSTI
(2006) allows for an additional 350 technicians and 350
research assistants to support SET R&D over the lifetime of the
strategy it fails to provide for any such supports for HSS research.
Such supports are becoming more necessary to support participation in an increasingly methodological and technically complex
transnational R&D environment. This oversight should be addressed
and the equal importance of research and technical assistants to the
general HSS community recognised through, for example, the provision
of specific funding lines to enable the provision of targeted technical
supports for the HSS higher-education research community.
26
Less than nine per cent (or 21,408 m2) of total research space within the third-level sector is allocated to the arts, humanities, psychology and social sciences. See HEA ‘Research Infrastructure Review
Site Visits Briefing’ accessed online at: www.hea.ie/index.cfm/page/publications/category/143/
section/details/id/1107 (12 January 2007).
27
The Forfás HERD survey provides data on the number of personnel involved in R&D activities in the
higher-education sector including all associated support staff and technical staff. Personnel data are
supplied for the survey as full-time equivalents by each field of science.
48
6 . 4 O B S E R VAT I O N S
It is important to emphasise the value of resources such as libraries, archives and
museums as physical, inspirational and creative learning spaces in the HSS. A full
review of the needs of non-digital archival resources for HSS research should
be undertaken. Particular emphasis should be given to supporting and
upgrading the infrastructure of libraries and public archives such
as the National Library of Ireland, the National Archives of
Ireland and other non-digital national archival resources.
It is clear that Ireland needs a more coherent
policy on digitisation and access, including a
clear identification of which agency or
department has responsibility for the
area. At the very least, such an agency
should have a coordinating ‘digital
hub’ with an appropriate distributed
expertise and strategy and a
system, which might offer data
storage for digitised and electronic material as well as set
standards for the formats, metadata and quality of primary
source material.
In any discussion of national/
international digitisation projects, it is essential to recognise
that no such project can justify
digitisation of all potential
material. Equally, many Irish
researchers are engaged in
research that is so specific as to
have no material of significance
located within Ireland and with the
supporting primary material scattered over one or more institution,
archive, museum or library where it may
not be a priority for digitisation. The
49
importance, therefore, of providing an environment in which print/non-digital material
can be preserved and consulted will continue in tandem with the urgency for increased
access to, and availability of, digitised resources. The preservation of research
resources is a welcome by-product of digitisation, but very often much of the source
material for digitisation projects is in itself a unique and valuable asset. Such material
also needs to be preserved.
Broadband high-capacity networks are essential to ensure speedy access to
resources and to support collaborative research. The basic transmission infrastructure
is already in place in Ireland. However, it is important that there is continued support
for the development and delivery of quality applications to exploit this investment and
to provide real benefits to the HSS community. The expansion of the IreL scheme to
the HSS community within the university sector is welcome but it must be made more
accessible to the broad community of researchers.
There is much to be done at national level in supporting the development and
delivery of quality applications to exploit the basic infrastructure and especially to
provide the requisite authorisation and authentication infrastructure (AAI). This will
provide researchers with access to both appropriate resources and roaming access
nationally and globally. Such AAI is already in place for the Grid community.
However, the scope needs to be extended to the research community as a whole
and integrated with AAI at international level if only to ensure that such automated
tools will lead to the semiautomatic transfer of digitised resources into high-capacity
storage facilities with associated quality control and validation. Also critical is the
need to consider storage and preservation of digital data to ensure continued future
accessibility, and the need to address complex issues surrounding the preservation
of the integrity of artefacts and data represented and stored digitally.
With respect to the HSS community, there is also a need to heighten awareness of
both existing digitised resources available to it and current national and international digitisation projects. A national programme of awareness building and
training is desirable. This would support the maximum return from the investment in
data developed institutionally and data accessed on a fee-paying basis. It is
suggested that training/promotional tools should draw on existing national and
international best practice.
The growth in transnational research collaboration has served to highlight existing
weaknesses in the capacity of the domestic statistical infrastructure for long-range
studies of Irish population, economy and society. It is suggested that this capacity
should be further developed to enable Ireland to reap the maximum benefits for its
involvement in transnational, particularly EU-level research. This requires funding to
support the development of methodological tools, approaches and the upskilling of
the HSS research community to enable them to use these tools. A national seed
fund to support HSS methodological studies and participation in transnational infrastructure initiatives should be established.
7 HSS research and the European Union
The significance of research is growing rapidly within the EU as evidenced through
the commitments expressed within the Lisbon Agenda: the EU promotes R&D mainly
through the work programmes of its multi-annual Framework Programmes (FPs). With
FP7, the EU for the first time recognises the humanities explicitly and expands its
commitment to the social sciences. The ERC will also dedicate substantial funding
to research at the highest level (SSHERA 2005a). Other mechanisms for the promotion of HSS R&D include the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures
(ESFRI),28 NORFACE, HERA and the ESF.
In seeking to respond to these trends, present and anticipated, Ireland is at a notable
disadvantage relative to other European states, large and small. Countries such as
the United Kingdom, France, Germany, the Netherlands and the Nordic countries,
have all invested much more decisively in the HSS than we have done, and have a
more highly developed infrastructure for research support at all levels. As a result,
Ireland is at present less well-placed than these and other countries to participate in
international research collaborations, access EU funding, retain its best graduates in
the HSS, or attract graduates from other countries here as PhD students.
Barriers to the participation of Irish HSS researchers in EU and international research
opportunities include:
• Inconsistencies in the level and type of support offered by the National Contact
Point (NCP) for previous FPs—it was widely agreed that the NCP role should be
more proactive in explaining commission documents and FP information as well
as providing practical advice on costing and other technical issues to the HSS
community;
• Low levels of awareness amongst the HSS community of supports offered by state
agencies such as Enterprise Ireland and other NCPs;
• Perception that support and information offered by NCPs is primarily SET focused
(IRCHSS 2005).
28
ESFRI is charged with the development of roadmaps of infrastructure requirements across a range of
fields of science, including the HSS. Its report was published in November 2006 (ESFRI 2006).
Available online at: http://europa.eu.int/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=MEMO/
05/115&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (16 January 2007).
S T R E N GT H E N I N G I R I S H HSS
R ES E A R C H BY PA RT I C I PAT I O N I N
EU
PR O G R A M M ES
With the support of funding through the EU FP6 and FP5, a project is researching the
issue of political and civic participation on a Europe-wide basis. The project, which
began with nine partners and now numbers sixteen, has brought together some of the
leading European and American researchers in this field, resulting in significant theoretical
innovation. In terms of improved databases, the project has gathered large volumes of
existing aggregate data and brought about the collection of newly designed individuallevel data.
The project is leveraging the opportunities provided by cross-national comparison to identify
the effects of system-level variables (historical traditions, institutional structure, economic
conditions and political cleavages) on individual behaviour. This contributes to improvements
in the quality of the research itself and substantial benefits in terms of the development of
the research capacity of Irish researchers and the third-level sector overall.
7. 1 H S S PA R T I C I PAT I O N I N E U R ES E A R C H F U N D I N G I N ST R U M E N T S
The FP includes a variety of instruments to support research and researchers’ mobility
but these instruments have not always been ‘friendly’ to the HSS. A report by the
European Commission’s Advisory Group on Social Sciences and Humanities in the
European Research Area (2005b, 2005c) suggested that:
• The strategies of EU funding agencies were diverse and when taken with the
absence of national research registers led to the risk of duplication and overlap in
the funding of research.
• European research infrastructures were, relative to other areas, fragmented and
poorly developed making it difficult to promote collaborative and comparative
research.
• Access to data is often restricted.
• The organisation of ‘big science’ type research projects often reflects a lack of
experience in such initiatives.29
29
Available online at: http://ec.europa.eu/research/social-sciences/society/article_3269_en.htm
(16 January 2007).
54
A snapshot of the depth and breadth of Irish HSS research participation in key
European research initiatives is provided below. Where possible, comparisons are
again made with Finland, Norway, Portugal and Slovenia as in Section 5.2.
7. 1 . 1 E U F R A M E W O R K P R O G R A M M ES
EU FPs support the expansion of transnational research and the development of
European multi-disciplinary research, and address scientific and technological
challenges in strategic policy areas for Europe and its citizens.30 Ireland’s draw on
FP funding has been relatively poor in recent years especially in the HSS. However,
as the nature and activities of the FP were not particularly welcoming to the HSS,
the figures presented in Table 12 should be read with caution.
Table 12—Ireland’s participation in the EU FP4, FP5 and FP6
Programme
Priority
No. of
HSS projects
€m
No. of Irish
partners
involved in
FP projects
No. of FP
projects with
Ireland as
coordinator
FP4, 1994–98
Targeted socio-economic
research
162
112
24
3
FP5,
1998–2002
Improving the socioeconomic knowledge base
185
155
5
2
FP6,
2002–2006
Citizens and knowledge in
a knowledge-based society
144
2701
18
2
Source: European Commission 1999, 2003a, 2003b, 2003c, 2006a.
Note:
1 Two per cent of the total FP budget was allocated to this priority.
Human resources and mobility activities are an integral element of the EU FPs and
are known as the Marie Curie actions (European Commission 2006b). Marie Curie
instruments are largely based on the financing of training and mobility activities for
researchers.31 As such, they emphasise mobility of researchers, transnational networking and sharing of expertise across countries. Approximately ten per cent (or
1,580m) of the FP6 budget was assigned to Marie Curie initiatives providing
30
Available online at: ftp://ftp.cordis.lu/pub/era/docs/fp7_irish_final.doc (16 January 2007).
‘Marie Curie Actions: Overview’, available online at: http://ec.europa.eu/research/fp6/
mariecurie-actions/action/level_en.html (16 January 2007).
31
55
funding for Research Training Networks and Transfer of Knowledge initiatives as
well as for individual and collective research training. The HSS are included under
a number of headings, sometimes under the heading of economics and social
sciences and sometimes under specific discipline headings such as ‘cultural studies’,
‘literature’ and ‘philosophy’.
Europe’s HSS researchers have engaged relatively little with Marie Curie instruments.
A 2005 audit indicated that only five per cent of the total Marie Curie fellowships
awarded in FP4 and FP5 went to the HSS (European Commission 2005a, 11). Irish
institutions have coordinated 78 Marie Curie-funded projects of which 6 (7.7 per
cent) are in economics and social sciences. The equivalent figure for all of Europe
is 2,256 projects, with 145 projects (6.42 per cent) in economics and social
sciences. A search among vacancies for researchers in August 2006 yielded 19
‘hits’, of which none are in the HSS. The equivalent figures for Europe are 458 with
74 (16 per cent) in HSS.32
7. 1 . 2 E R A - N E T
The ERA-NET scheme was undertaken under FP6 to promote the cooperation and
coordination of research and innovation programmes carried out at national or
regional level and will be continued under FP7. For the HSS, the relevant ERA-NETs
are HERA (for the humanities) and NORFACE (for the social sciences).
HERA—a partnership between fifteen humanities research councils across Europe
and the ESF—was established to promote and support the humanities within ERA
and FP instruments. It also seeks to establish best practice in funding mechanisms,
research priorities, and humanities research infrastructure, and to develop a transnational funding programme. HERA was originally promoted by the European Network
for Research Councils in the Humanities (ERCH), of which the IRCHSS was a founding
partner, and is financed through FP6. To date, HERA activities have focused on the
technical rather than the research aspects of the ERA–NET. These include peer review,
for which the IRCHSS has been responsible, and on which a report has been
completed. It is expected that a transnational programme will be announced in 2007.
NORFACE is a partnership between twelve research councils for the social sciences
to increase cooperation in research and research policy in Europe. It also receives
funding under FP and is supplemented by contributions from its constituent councils.
Irish participation in the second call for seminars and programmes has increased
(see Table 13).
32
Available online at: http://cordis.europa.eu/mc-opportunities/index.cfm?fuseaction=dataForm.do
Search&typeSearch=PI (16 January 2007). These figures are merely indicative of initial ‘hits’, and are
not absolute, since there is considerable cross-listing in the vacancies section.
56
Table 13—Participation by Irish HSS researchers in NORFACE activities, 2005–2006
Activity
No. applications with
Irish participation
No. successful
applications with Irish
participation
Totals
PI1
Co-Applicant
PI
Co -Applicant
Total No.
applications
Seminar series
2005
2
4
0
2
11
Seminar series
2006
2
4
1
2
12
Pilot research
programme2
5
7
2
5
63
26
Total
9
15
3
9
86
26
Total No.
successful
Source: Data supplied on request from NORFACE.
Notes:
1 PI = Principal Investigator.
2 The application and decision-making process for the most recent round of the NORFACE Pilot Research Programme is ongoing. Irish researchers were involved in five
applications as the PI and in seven applications as a co-applicant. Sixty-three proposals were submitted in total and twenty-six of these were invited to submit a full proposal;
two applications led by an Irish PI and five applications involving an Irish co-applicant were invited to submit a full proposal. Final funding decisions were expected in late
2006/early 2007.applications as the PI and in seven applications.
7. 1 . 3 ES F I N ST R U M E N T S ( 2 0 0 1 – 2 0 0 5 )
The ESF is the only major European agency where the humanities have their own
committee, the Standing Committee for the Humanities (SCH).33 As with the
Standing Committee for the Social Sciences (SCSS), it seeks to bring added value
to research funded nationally through European collaboration between ESF member
organisations and their researchers. Both committees also play a central role in
initiating and coordinating ESF scientific activities and provide expert advice on
issues of science policy in this field.34
Table 14 gives an overview of the level of participation of Ireland, Finland and
Portugal in the principal ESF HSS instruments between 2001 and 2005. Finland
was the most active of the three countries in terms of submissions and successes.
It should be added that Irish participation in the HSS activities of the ESF is directly
informed by the ability of the national member to finance successful projects and,
because of the incremental way in which the IRCHSS has developed its schemes, it
has been possible only recently for Ireland to include the opportunities offered by the
ESF within its budget.
33
The ESF assists its member organisations by bringing scientists together in its Forward Looks,
Exploratory Workshops, Programmes, Networks, EUROCORES and ESF Research Conferences to work
on topics of common concern. It also conducts joint studies on issues of strategic importance in
European science policy and manages grant schemes such as the European Young Investigator Awards
(ESF 2005).
34
Available online at: www.esf.org/esf_domain_home.php?section=2&language=0&domain=4 (16
January 2007).
57
Table 14—Summary of participation of Ireland, Finland and Portugal in ESF instruments in the HSS,
2001–20051
ESF instrument
Ireland
Finland
Portugal
No. of participants
No. of participants
No. of participants
Exploratory Workshops in the humanities2
0
2
0
Exploratory Workshops in the social sciences2
1
1
0
EUROCORES CNCC3
Not a signatory to
the programme.
Yes, a signatory to
the agreement
Yes, a signatory to
the agreement
EUROCORES BOREAS3
Not a signatory to
the programme.
Yes, a signatory to
the agreement
Not a signatory to
the programme.
EUROCORES OMLL3
Not a signatory to
the programme.
Yes, a signatory to
the agreement
Yes, a signatory to
the agreement
1
4
0
2 PL; 9 PI
1 PL; 8 PI
0
Forward Looks in the humanities
1
2
0
Forward Looks in the social sciences
1
2
0
Programmes in the humanities
2
3
0
Programmes in the social sciences
3
7
4
Networks in the humanities
0
1
0
Networks in the social sciences
2
2
2
European Collaborative Research Projects (ECRP)
EUROCORES ECRP 20055
4
Source: The group would like to thank Ms Reija Tuomala for her efforts in making these data available. Where possible, besides indicating the number of
funded projects the analysis shows the number of applications and rejected projects. A key difficulty with these data is that the number of funded projects is
rather low each year so there is little variation. To gain more meaningful insights a more in-depth study of all member countries, proportioned to the
population, would be needed.
Notes:
1 Slovenia was not eligible for EU funding during this period.
2 Exploratory workshops enable researchers to explore an emerging and/or innovative field of research or research infrastructure at a European level. The
numbers displayed in the table comprise only the main applicant, since other scientists that are mentioned in the applications are considered as participants of
workshops.
3 EUROCORES (European Collaborative Research Schemes) provide a flexible framework allowing national basic research-funding organisations to support
top-class European research in and across all scientific areas. Researchers’ participation is dependent on their national funding agency agreeing to be the
signatory to the EUROCORES agreement as the research funding remains with the participating national funding agencies.
4 The number of applicants refers to Project Leaders (PLs) and Principal Investigators (PIs).
5 The final funding decisions on the 2005 ECRP scheme will be made by mid February 2006. The number of Project Leaders (PLs) and Principal Investigators
(PIs) refer to eligible applicants.
58
7.1.4 COST
COST is a Europe-wide network,
comprising over 30 countries. It
encourages cooperation between
nationally funded basic-research
activities from participating
countries to address common
research goals. COST is particularly advantageous to Irish
research scientists in the
access it provides to a large
network of European researchers. The Office of
Science and Technology
provides funding for Irish
membership of COST.
Enterprise Ireland has
responsibility for the coordination of Irish participation
in COST actions and represents Ireland at the COST
Committee of Senior Official
meetings.
The social sciences have been a
COST domain since 1989, the
humanities were added in 2003 and
related actions in these areas fall within the
domain Individuals, Societies, Cultures and
Health (ISCH). As of 2005, ISCH had supported
36 research networks (‘actions’): Ireland has participated in 19 COST ISCH actions. Across the 17 domain
areas, however, Ireland has participated in 262 COST actions,
which means that the HSS account for just 7.25 per cent of Ireland’s
COST actions.35
35
See www.cost.esf.org (16 January 2007).
59
7. 2 O B S E R VAT I O N S
Given the increasing role of international
collaboration as a crucial driver of
research, Ireland’s HSS researchers must
engage more actively with international
research opportunities. However, Ireland
must provide the appropriate structural and
financial resources to enable this.
As it is, Ireland is at a notable disadvantage
relative to other EU member states. Countries
such as Finland and Norway, to name but
two, have invested more decisively in the
HSS than Ireland (see Chapter 5, Table 8).
Ireland is consequently less well-placed to
participate in collaborative projects networks, foresight exercises, workshops and
conferences, retain its best graduates in the
HSS, or to attract and retain world-class
researchers from other countries.
Although many informal links exist between
Irish HSS researchers and their European
colleagues, there is a strikingly low level
of Irish participation in European research
projects. Examining Ireland’s participation
levels in ESF instruments suggests that,
although the small numbers involved
require cautious interpretation of the data,
on average, Ireland seems to perform less
well than her comparator Nordic countries
but somewhat better than Portugal.
Administration and management issues feature prominently in the discussions on
participation in EU projects and networks. The common view is that the bureaucratic
aspects of EU initiatives are more a hindrance than an encouragement. There is a
strong view among Irish FP participants that Integrated Projects and Networks of
Excellence require specialised management skills and that the allocations made for
60
management time and resources are not
sufficient to cover all of the work that is
usually involved in managing these large
and complex networks.36
There also appears to be a low level of
awareness amongst the HSS research
community regarding the support provided
by National Contact Points and agencies
with a European remit.
Recognising the international, and more
specifically, the European dimensions of
HSS research, each of the four countries
which the group looked at most closely
(Norway, Finland, Portugal and Slovenia)
have sought to ensure the continued vitality
of their national research cultures through
international research cooperation, collaboration and participation in transnational
research networks and schemes (see
Appendix IV).
Portugal, Norway and Finland have
sought to develop the critical mass of their
HSS research communities by identifying
specialised areas of expertise and channelling additional funding into these areas
through mechanisms such as Centres of
Excellence. Ireland has also pursued this
practice by providing funding streams
through the IRCHSS and PRTLI to support
R&D in specific research priority areas
leading, for example, to the establishment of a number of PRTLI-funded interdisciplinary research centres. In Slovenia, the development of a strong research culture
in the HSS is seen as the basis for economic competitiveness, social cohesion
and regional security. Furthermore as a country with a small population base,
it has targeted the HSS as an area which can generate significant returns in terms
of international prestige and enhancing the internationalisation capacity
of indigenous research.
36
Available online at: ftp://ftp.cordis.lu/pub/era/docs/fp7_irish_final.doc (16 January 2007).
61
8 Doctoral studies and research careers
in the HSS
There has been a shortage of analysis of postgraduate and postdoctoral research
opportunities in Ireland in general. While recognising that a full analysis of postgraduate activity and prospects is needed, and would involve close attention to first
postgraduate degree systems and their supports, the primary focus here is on HSS
doctoral education and early research careers.
If Ireland’s economy is to develop to meet the objectives expressed within the SSTI
(2006), it will have to draw on a skills base of the highest quality and capacity.
Increasing the capacity for postgraduate teaching and research within the highereducation sector is critical. A more coordinated approach is necessary to maximise
HSS research potential and develop research careers in higher education as well
as careers in non-academic areas where research skills are required.
8.1 GROW TH PAT TERNS IN DOCTO R AL STUDIES, 1999–2004
Since 2000 there has been a steady climb in annual PhD enrolments in HSS and
SET disciplines. In 2005 there were 4,574 university-based doctoral students, of
whom the majority were engaged in full-time studies (see Table 15).37
The majority of HSS postgraduates are engaged in full-time studies and the
percentage of part-time HSS doctoral students has declined since 2000. There has
been an increase of 29 per cent in the number of HSS PhD awards from 1998 to
2003/2004.38
The greatest increase in PhD enrolments has taken place in the HSS disciplines,
where a growth of 92 per cent in enrolled doctoral students was recorded between
1999 and 2004. This represents a greater rate of increase than that proposed in
the SSTI (2006), which commits to a doubling of PhD students between 2007 and
2013 (from a 2003 base level). These projections, if achieved, would lead to
2,312 new PhD awards to HSS and 6,546 awards to SET graduates (DETE 2006,
30). However, for the HSS, this would actually represent a decrease on current
growth trends.
37
All percentage increases expressed in the tables presented in this section of the discussion have
been rounded to the nearest figure.
38
Source: HEA yearly statistics available online at: www.hea.ie/uploads/excel/AwardsAllPGPhD
Field04.xls (16 January 2007).
Table 15—PhD enrolments: distribution between HSS and SET, with year on year percentage growth,
2000–2005
1999/2000 1
2000/2001
2001/2002
2002/2003
2004/2005 2
2003/2004
HSS
SET
HSS
SET
HSS
SET
HSS
SET
HSS
SET
HSS
SET
FT
661
1615
749
1644
865
1822
995
2178
1175
2487
1367
2631
PT
199
355
194.5
334.5
212
354
215.5
273.5
228
277
285
291
860
1970
943.5
1978.5
2176
1210.5 2451.5 1403
2764
1652
2922
Total
% change
2830
-
1077
2922
-
10%
0.4%
3253
14%
10%
3662
12%
4167
13%
16%
4574
13%
18%
6%
Source: HEA statistics for 1999–2004/2005 compiled from online data on full and part-time PhD enrolments available online at
www.hea.ie/index.cfm/page/sub/id/710 (16 January 2007) and HEA (2006b).
Notes:
1 2000–2004 inclusive: nursing studies has been assigned to SET (although having HSS elements and being affiliated to arts faculties in some instances);
communications and information studies have been assigned to HSS; computer and IT studies have been assigned to SET; education has been assigned to HSS, despite
the science focus of some research; combined studies has been divided between HSS and SET; architecture has been assigned to SET.
2 In 2005 the HEA presentation of statistics was re-aligned with the International Standard Classification of Education developed and used by the OECD and Eurostat to
code students’ fields of study, services have been assigned to HSS except for combined environmental protection; health and welfare have been assigned to SET, except
for combined social services, child and youth counselling, social work and counselling (HEA 2006b).
8 . 2 F U N D I N G O P P O RT U N I T I ES F O R H SS D O CTO R A L ST U D I ES
The arrangements and structures supporting doctoral education in Ireland need to
be placed on a more professional footing. The manner in which doctoral students
are financed and funded is a central issue within this broader process. Of particular
concern is the low level of scholarship funding and stipends available to HSS
doctoral students in comparison to those in SET.
Table 16 illustrates the level of demand for the principal postgraduate-funding
schemes, which are administered by IRCHSS and the Irish Research Council for
Science, Engineering and Technology (IRCSET). Between 1998 and 2006 29 per
cent of total applicants to the IRCHSS postgraduate scheme were successful
compared to 22.5 per cent of applicants to IRCSET schemes. While a relatively
higher percentage of IRCHSS applicants receive an award, the lower level of stipend
compared to that available to IRCSET awardees offsets this.
64
The level of funding available to IRCHSS award holders is currently considerably less
than that available to IRCSET award holders. IRCSET awards provide funding of
24,003 for each of the three years assigned for doctorate-level research (maximum
amount for an individual stipend of 72,009) and one year for Masters-level
research (IRCSET 2006). Of the 24,003 maximum stipend per annum, 16,002
goes directly to the student, with the remainder available to fund other forms of
support such as fees, appropriate travel and other expenses. The IRCHSS scholarship
is valued at a maximum of 12,700 per annum in maintenance, plus fees.
Scholarships are awarded initially for one year, but may be renewed for up to two
additional years, giving a maximum living stipend over three years of 38,100
(IRCHSS 2006/2007).
Table 16—IRCSET and IRCHSS postgraduate scholarship scheme: number of applications for
scholarships and awards granted, 1998–2006
Year
1998–1999
1999–2000
2000–2001
2001–2002
2002–2003
2003–2004
2004–2005
2005–2006
2006–20073
Total
IRCHSS
No. applications
No. awards
IRCSET1
No. applications
No. awards
380
217
276
314
340
359
316
359
93
47
83
96
176
110
77
84
94
9
1222
7902
7162
7252
552
218
149
157
226
152
2654
776
4005
902
% Successful applicants
to IRCHSS
29.24%
% Successful applicants
to IRCSET
22.5%
Source: Figures supplied on request by IRCSET and IRCHSS.
Notes:
1 The first IRCSET postgraduate awards were made in 2002.
2 The IRCSET figures presented for 2003–2004, 2004–2005 and 2005–2006 reflect the overall totals for all applications received and awards
made in the first and second annual call of each year.
3 The IRCSET figures for 2006–2007 refer only to the first call for applications to the scheme in 2006. The second and final call for applications was
underway at the time of writing and no data could be provided in relation to the call.
65
SET postgraduates also have
access to a wider variety of
funding schemes including opportunities offered by the SFI, the HRB
and the Environmental Protection
Agency. Meanwhile, HSS disciplines have benefited significantly
less than SET from other postgraduate-funding opportunities such as
those provided by the PRTLI. As of
March 2004, the PRTLI had
funded 969 postgraduates of
whom only 125 (or thirteen per
cent) were from HSS disciplines
(HEA 2004a, 23).
Little is known of the 1878 unsuccessful applicants to the
IRCHSS postgraduate schemes. It
is reasonable to assume that a
considerable number of HSS
postgraduates are engaged in
employment to fund the costs of
their doctoral studies, whether fullor part-time. Participation in nonacademic employment carries
clear opportunity costs for postgraduate students in terms of their
ability to complete doctoral
studies within a three-year timeframe, as well as their capacity to
develop the necessary additional
research outputs (such as publications) to support their future
research careers.
Higher-education institutions should consider the establishment of a part-time fees
structure in recognition of these constraints.
66
F O ST E R I N G L I N K A G ES B E T W E E N A C A D E M I A A N D
C O M BAT P O V E RT Y P H D F E L LOWS H I P A WA R D
S EC TO R :
THE
FOR
P U B L I C / B U S I N ES S
P O V E RT Y R ES E A R C H
The Combat Poverty PhD Fellowship Award for Poverty Research is an innovative example
of the benefits that can accrue through partnerships between academia and the public
sector. It seeks to match the needs of the doctoral student (funding to complete studies, access
to advice and support from non-academic as well as academic sources) with the needs of
the public sector (specific research to inform agency's activities, ensuring that initiatives are
informed by high-quality research).
The Combat Poverty Award supports postgraduate research that is directly related to poverty
and that might not normally be considered for funding by mainstream sources. Priority is
given to proposals that relate to the research priority themes of Combat Poverty’s strategic
plan and to proposals that are of an applied nature, have a policy focus or contain a
comparative dimension.
The fellowship is administered, and the student supervised, within the university/
institution. Combat Poverty assesses applications using a panel of external experts as well
as the expertise of in-house staff, and a relevant member of staff from Combat Poverty is
identified for each fellow to provide ongoing advice and support over the fellowship
period. Fellows are invited to base themselves within Combat Poverty for a period of
four weeks during the fellowship period and to present an in-house seminar to Combat
Poverty staff after the first year of their studies. This provides an opportunity to develop
research ideas in consultation with relevant members of staff and to link in with particular
aspects of Combat Poverty’s work. Fellows also have access to Combat Poverty’s library
and are required to present their research at a research seminar, and to prepare a
working paper for Combat Poverty’s research working-paper series within six months of
completing their doctorates.
8 . 3 R ES E A R C H T R A I N I N G A N D C A R E E R S
HSS graduate programmes should facilitate young researchers in the development
of a skills base to support their participation in research careers in the public and
private sectors. A strong argument exists for the inclusion of generic skills as an
67
integral element of HSS doctoral education including training in quantitative and
qualitative research methodologies, lecturing experience and pedagogic training,
publishing skills, and communication and project management skills. The support
expressed for the development of graduate education programmes in strategic
statements such as the SSTI (DETE 2006) and the SIF (HEA 2006c) are clearly
intended to encourage higher-education institutions to address the provision of
structured graduate education.
Table 17—Number of HSS PhD awards compared to HSS postdoctoral
fellowship posts in the higher-education sector, 1998–20041
1998
2000
2002
2004
Total
HSS PhD awards
HSS postdoctoral fellowships
132
2812
3072
3182
1038
8
31
22
146
207
Source: Statistics on awards compiled from online data on awards to PhD graduates of HEA institutions
available online at: www.hea.ie/index.cfm/page/sub/id/702 (19 February 2007); also, HEA annual
statistics and Forfás Survey of Research and Development in the Higher Education Sector, 2000, 2003,
2004, 2005.
Notes:
1 Figures were not available for 2005 as of 19 February 2007.
2 The figure for HSS PhD awards in 2000 include awards made in 1999, the 2002 figures include awards
made in 2001, and the 2004 figures include awards made in 2003. Different classifications were used in
reports from 1998 to 2003 with social sciences, business, commerce and law tallied separately (with a
separate category of business, economics and social studies for TCD). These separate categories are combined
for the purposes of this table.
Postdoctoral fellowships are typically the first step to an academic career. There has
been a substantial increase in such fellowships within the HSS from 8 in 1998 to
146 in 2004. This increase is largely attributable to funding opportunities generated
by IRCHSS and the PRTLI measures to support postdoctoral researchers (funding 197
and 64 fellowships respectively as of 2005).39 Despite this, a significant gap
remains between the number of PhD graduates and postdoctoral fellowships
available per annum (see Table 17). The fact that Ireland, unlike some other
European countries, has not chosen to develop national research teams, such as
those developed under the aegis of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
in France, is another limitation on the number of research posts available.
39
In 2000 IRCHSS inaugurated a scheme to support postdoctoral scholars in the HSS. The award is
valued at 31,745 per annum for the academic year 2006–2007, and may be held, subject to
stated terms and conditions, for up to two years. IRCSET offers a similar postdoctoral scheme with
176 awards since 2002/03. IRCSET’s postdoctoral awards are valued at a maximum of 33,000
per annum (although this is under review as of July 2006) with an additional contribution to laboratory
costs and travel to a maximum of 5,000 per annum.
68
While the SSTI acknowledges that a proportion of the proposed increase in HSS
PhD graduates will have to be incorporated into tenured posts within the highereducation sector, it does not make any specific proposals as to how this will
be supported.
It is probable that the present trend, which sees the majority of PhD graduates
following non-academic career paths at least initially, will continue into the future.
Approximately 50 per cent of Irish PhD graduates across all disciplines move
directly out of academia upon completion of their studies (IUA 2004). This echoes
trends in the United States of America and the wider EU whereby doctoral-level
training has become the norm for participation in key areas of private and public
sector employment.
The importance of developing an agreed career structure for researchers within the
higher-education sector and in research organisations (public and private) is wellrecognised. Such a structure would consider specific issues such as remuneration,
pensions and other entitlements, as well as contract conditions.40 The European
Charter for Researchers and the Code of Conduct for the Recruitment of Researchers
(European Commission 2005b) seeks to increase the attractiveness of research
careers and marks a first step in the process of developing a recognised career
structure for researchers.41
8 . 4 M O B I L I T Y I S S U ES
Mobility is key to the advancement of research careers. Participation in research
networks, conferences and research programmes promotes Irish HSS research and
increases its attractiveness to international researchers. The availability of international
exchange awards and travel bursaries is essential to encourage greater mobility
and the internationalisation of HSS research.
At present there are a limited number of domestic funding opportunities for HSS
mobility and exchange programmes.42 In particular, early career researchers and
postgraduates have limited opportunities to access funding to enable participation
in international networks or conferences. For example, IRCHSS postgraduate awards
do not offer financial support for participation in international networking opportunities or international travel.
40
See also the discussion in Downey (2003) and the 2004 proceedings of an IUA conference on
research careers.
41
The Charter recommendations aim to provide equal rights and obligations for individual researchers
throughout Europe by specifying the roles, responsibilities and entitlements of researchers, as well as
those of funders and/or employers of researchers. The guidelines of the Charter and Code address
all European research organisations and universities, both public and private, and are to be implemented on a voluntary basis. The IUA is the Irish signatory to the Charter.
42
For example, the RIA receives considerable interest in the range of international exchange schemes
it administers.
69
A
GAT E WAY TO I N T E R N AT I O N A L R ES E A R C H N E T WO R KS : M O B I L I T Y G R A N TS I N
THE
HSS
The RIA administers a number of international exchange schemes. One such scheme is
organised jointly with the British Academy to enable HSS scholars to visit universities and
research institutes in Great Britain. The scheme is open to all scholars of postdoctoral or
equivalent level. Independent researchers and those based in museums, galleries, libraries
and similar organisations may apply, as well as scholars in any third-level institution in Ireland,
including Northern Ireland.
Grants may be used for the direct costs of research, research assistance, travel and
maintenance. Such schemes are very valuable and in many cases have enabled researchers
to leverage significant additional funding and build international collaborations, which last
well beyond the initial grant.
The exchange allowed me time to spend time developing working relationships
with colleagues in my specific field in the UK, while also allowing me to gain new
research skills in areas still developing in Ireland … I feel that I have gained
considerably from the experience.
(Participant A)
The visit has led to significant opportunities to develop my research interests in this
area through further invitations to speak and participate at invited workshops and
conferences internationally … I now have the contacts and the expertise to seek
funding for further research.
(Participant B)
Furthermore, Irish HSS postgraduate training typically has a limited international
dimension. Higher-education institutions should consider implementing structures such
as the co-tutelle and the label européen. The co-tutelle is a system whereby directors
from two universities, normally in different countries, supervise a postgraduate thesis
and the degree is formally recognised in each country. This is a particularly suitable
route for multidisciplinary and comparative research and would encourage overseas
postgraduates to study in Ireland in the knowledge that their degree would have
formal recognition in their country of origin. For a thesis to be awarded a label
70
européen, the material covered must involve substantial research in two countries,
normally of different languages, the viva must be conducted in more than one
language, and the viva examiners must be drawn from more than one country.
8 . 5 O B S E R VAT I O N S
In international terms, participation in HSS doctoral studies in Ireland is developing
from a low base. There is a clear capacity for growth and the significant increase
in HSS PhD enrolments since 2000 is therefore encouraging.
The commitment expressed in the SSTI to increase the number of HSS PhD awards
is welcome, but it must first be discussed against the present low outputs. When
distributed across the various HSS disciplines the SSTI projections of 2,499 HSS
doctoral awards represent a relatively modest increase in PhD graduates per
discipline per annum, over the SSTI time-span, and across all higher-education
institutions.43 Indeed this prediction, in comparison with the current level of growth,
would mean a slowing down of the growth in the sector. In any case it is unlikely
that the aspirations expressed by the SSTI could be fulfilled with such a low level
of increase.
Additional short-term targets should be set to increase the number of doctoral
students in HSS disciplines which historically have low rates of research postgraduates such as business studies or law, but which are nonetheless important to
strategic long-term development.
The actual number of HSS doctoral students is low compared to the numbers of
undergraduates engaging in HSS primary degrees. While recognising that many
first-class graduates are not drawn to research and are needed for other roles in
society, we need to study why relatively few choose to progress to doctoral studies.44
Higher-education institutions should consider how best to strengthen links between
doctoral and undergraduate studies in the HSS as this is a key mechanism to
increase the numbers participating in doctoral programmes.
There is little discussion in the SSTI as to how it proposes to fund the projected
increase in HSS doctoral students. The limited funding currently available to HSS
postgraduates may act as a disincentive to progression to doctoral studies.
The success of the IRCHSS scholarship scheme points to the decisive impact that
responsive funding has had in increasing PhD enrolments. But even here HSS post
43
Based on an estimate of twenty broad disciplines within the HSS, as per the proposed OECD
Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development, OECD (Frascati Manual
1993, 2002, as cited in Forfás 2003, 29).
44
Anecdotal evidence suggests that key factors contributing to this include: the shortage of available
fellowships/scholarships; the relatively low number of research teams; the scarcity of postdoctoral fellowships and research positions available after completion of the doctorate and shortage of academic
posts; and, the lack of structured training programmes and institutional support for HSS postgraduates.
71
graduates are at a disadvantage when compared
to those in receipt of IRCSET awards.45 The group
supports previous proposals by IRCHSS and the IUA
for a commonality of postgraduate studentship
funding across national funding agencies, including
agreement on a national standard for studentships.46
Higher-education institutions should also consider the
establishment of a part-time fees structure, in recognition of these constraints.
The negative impact of socio-economic factors in
determining undergraduate participation in third-level
education is well-documented. Issues of equity of
access and participation may also arise in relation to
participation in doctoral studies. The HEA (2006d)
has expressed its intention to undertake further analysis of the equity aspects of third-level access and it is
hoped that this can be broadened to include an
analysis of access to postgraduate degrees.
It is vital that national science policy considers the
issue of research careers clearly: the vision to
increase the number of PhD graduates must be
matched with a vision for research careers if the
national R&D strategy is to be successful.
Organisations such as the HEA and the research
councils should play a central role in bringing
together key stakeholders to set out a career structure for researchers with reference
to remuneration, pension and other entitlements, as well as contract conditions.47
Funding agencies should also explore the provision of ‘bridging funding’ to support
the transition from PhD training to postdoctoral fellow employment within highereducation institutions.
Enhanced doctoral training would generate a cadre of multi-skilled, adaptable humanities and social-science researchers ideally equipped to participate in knowledge
and technology transfer. Higher-education institutions must promote the contribution
of the HSS to enterprise and innovation. The HSS community itself should draw
on learning from the experiences of the natural and life sciences in developing
industry-academia partnerships in research, teaching and learning.
45
The current IRCSET living stipend has increased twice within 12 months: from 12,700 in 2005 to
14,351 in January 2006, and to 16,002 in October 2006. This increase of 26 per cent would
not have been introduced unless warranted, and the same logic should, it is suggested, apply to HSS
postgraduates, whose living and research-related expenses are broadly comparable.
46
The IRCHSS is currently in discussion with the HEA to raise the living stipend for IRCHSS postgraduate
awards to 16,000 and increase the eligibility threshold for higher-education grants (HEG) to the
same amount. If granted, this would increase the living stipend to 16,000 for all postgraduates in
receipt of scholarships and to 19,300 for those award holders in receipt of additional HEG.
2002/2003 data show 24,180 students in receipt of HEGs and 9,987 receiving ‘top-up’ grants (out
of a total of 77,287 full-time HE enrolments inclusive of undergraduates and postgraduates) (HEA
2004b, 27; 2006b, 6).
47
See also HEA and Forfás (2003).
72
Participation in European and international networks and
research is vital to raise the profile of the Irish HSS community and attract world-class researchers to Ireland. There are
very limited domestic funding opportunities for HSS human
resource mobility activities and this should be addressed
through enhanced investment in international travel schemes
and exchanges such as those offered by the RIA.
In conclusion, the group’s work was hampered frequently
by the absence of a coherent database or centralised
information source on the HSS with, for example, little
collated information available on participation in HSS
postgraduate and postdoctoral studies and research.
Responsibility for data collection in these areas is
assigned across the individual higher-education institutions
and various state agencies including the HEA and Forfás.
The group supports the development of a coherent data
strategy to assist in the preparation of a strategic training
and career framework for HSS postgraduate and postdoctoral researchers. Such a strategy requires the
establishment of a centralised database containing information on the numbers enrolled in PhD studies, awards
granted, postdoctoral positions available/occupied, and
a register of PhD research. This database should be integrated into the general register of HSS research previously
suggested in section 5.6.
73
9 Recommendations
1
Undertake a Foresight Exercise for the humanities and social sciences (HSS) with a
brief to provide an objective assessment of the role of the HSS in interacting with
current research and strategic policies, map past and present research, identify
research priority areas and research funding, supports and services to drive humanities and social sciences research in Ireland.
2
Develop a national register of research and a repository for published research
papers and address the lack of major data repositories for HSS research.
3
Increase the HSS percentage share of Higher Education Expenditure on Research
and Development (HERD) drawn from industry and other sources by exploring the
possibilities of developing knowledge partnerships between academia and the
public, private and business sectors.
4
Provide targeted funding through the Programme for Research in Third Level Institutions
(PRTLI), the Irish Research Council for the Humanities and Social Sciences (IRCHSS)
and other appropriate agencies such as the Royal Irish Academy (RIA) for initiatives
to explore strategic research priority areas in the HSS.
5
Develop the resource base of the IRCHSS and other bodies which administer HSS
research funding to enable a responsive and comprehensive engagement with the
needs of all levels of HSS researchers.
6
Commission a review of the needs of non-digital archival resources for the HSS with
a particular emphasis on supporting and upgrading the infrastructure of libraries,
museums and public archives. This review might also comment on awareness of,
and capacity to use, research support resources (both digital and non-digital) at
individual and inter-institutional level across the HSS community.
7
Establish a Digitisation Stakeholders Forum to provide a direct mechanism for the
input of all relevant stakeholders in the development and implementation of a
national digitisation policy. Such a forum might inform the establishment of a national
policy on digitisation for the HSS, which should also make proposals for curation
and preservation, ensuring that data remains readable and renderable for current
and future technical systems, and that common standards and formats are adopted
in line with international best-practise and support continued investment in the
research network infrastructure.
76
8
Provide increased technical support and research assistance for HSS research. In
particular, such an initiative should support the participation of HSS researchers in
transnational opportunities and assist scholars in the preparation of funding submissions to European Union (EU) and international funding instruments, and where
necessary to provide short-term teaching replacement for academic staff to enable
their participation.
9
Commission a review of postgraduate training across HSS disciplines to include a
review of the research activity, conditions and prospects of HSS postgraduates,
arrangements for the promotion of co-tutelle supervision, the introduction of the label
européen to Irish higher-education institutions, and a review of the projected rates
of increase in HSS postdoctoral numbers having regard to current growth rates and
necessary supports.
10
Establish a part-time fee structure across higher-level institutions to encourage and
promote greater numbers of HSS PhD enrolments and allow HSS postgraduates
greater flexibility in managing their research.
11
Develop an improved career structure for researchers in the HSS by means of an
agreed national career structure for academic researchers.
12
Promote wider recognition of the transferable skills of HSS graduates as part of the
development of career pathways for researchers in the public and private sector.
13
Develop domestic opportunities further to access international mobility funding to
support participation in international networking opportunities, travel grants, international exchanges and to promote international networks. Such schemes should
provide a ‘mix’ of supports for early career researchers and principal investigators.
14
Enable the Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment, both in its own right
and through its system of National Contact Points, to engage more actively with
HSS researchers to better facilitate HSS researchers in the development and presentation of proposals to EU instruments.
15
Establish an agency presence at the European Commission to assist and inform Irish
HSS researchers in regard to research opportunities within the EU.
16
Provide incentives to encourage the HSS participation in transnational collaborative
research through:
• Provision of dedicated administrative support for the preparation of EU funding
proposals
• Ongoing management support for those participating in EU research networks
• Encouragement of Irish HSS experts to assume management and evaluation roles
in EU projects
• Inclusion of senior staff with HSS expertise within higher-education research offices.
17
Ensure adequate representation of HSS researchers, including postgraduate and
postdoctoral fellows, on boards and committees developing and overseeing the
implementation of national research policy and initiatives, including the Higher
Education Research Group.
77
Appendix I: Membership of the Royal
Irish Academy Working Group on the
Humanities and Social Sciences
WORKING
GROUP MEMBERS
D R M AURICE B RIC , MRIA, School of History and Archives, University College
Dublin (Chair)
P ROFESSOR J ANE CONROY , MRIA, Department of French, National University of
Ireland, Galway (Vice-Chair)
P ROFESSOR K EVIN BARRY , Department of English, National University of Ireland,
Galway
D R N IALL B RADY , Discovery Programme, Fitzwilliam Square, Dublin 2
P ROFESSOR H OWARD C LARKE , MRIA, Secretary, RIA
P ROFESSOR M ICHAEL C RONIN , MRIA, Director of the Centre for Translation and
Textual Studies, Dublin City University
P ROFESSOR M ARY D ALY , MRIA, Principal, College of Arts and Celtic Studies,
University College Dublin
D R A IDAN K ANE , Director of CISC, National University of Ireland, Galway
P ROFESSOR Á INE H YLAND , Vice-President, University College Cork
D R E VELYN M AHON , Department of Sociology, Trinity College Dublin
P ROFESSOR A NDREW M AYES , MRIA, Department of Religion and Theology,
Trinity College Dublin
P ROFESSOR E LIZABETH M EEHAN , MRIA, Emeritus Professor of Politics, Queen’s
University Belfast
D R M UIRIS Ó L AOIRE , Irish Department, Tralee Institute of Technology
P ROFESSOR S EÁN Ó R IAIN , Department of Sociology, National University of
Ireland, Maynooth
M S M ARIE R EDDAN , Librarian, National University of Ireland, Galway
PROFESSOR N ICK R EES , Department of Politics and Public Administration, University
of Limerick
PROFESSOR DAVID S INGLETON , Centre for Language and Communication Studies,
Trinity College Dublin
R OYAL I RISH ACADEMY S ECRETARIAT TO THE WORKING G ROUP :
Ms Vanessa Berman, Programme Manager
Ms Sinéad Riordan, Senior Research and Policy Officer
Ms Deirdre Stritch, Researcher (to July 2006)
80
Appendix II: Membership of the RIA
Sub-Committees of the Working Group
on the Humanities and Social Sciences
SU B - CO M M I T T E E
ON
I N F R AST R U CT U R ES
Chair: Ms M. Reddan (NUI, Galway)
Dr N. Brady (Discovery Programme)
Ms C. Crowe (National Archives)
Mr C. Horton (Chester Beatty Library)
Mr A. Ó hAonghusa (National Library of Ireland)
Ms A. Kelly (An Comhairle Leabharlanna)
Mr J. McDonough (UCD)
Ms A. Neligan (NUI Maynooth; Chair, Consortium of National and University
Libraries (CONUL))
Dr S. Ryder (NUI, Galway)
Dr E. Bhreathnach (UCD)
Dr M. Ó Laoire (IT Tralee)
SU B - CO M M I T T E E
ON
EUROPEAN
Chair: Professor M. Cronin (DCU)
Professor A. Chambers (UL)
Professor F. Ruane (ESRI)
Dr V. Crosbie (DCU)
Professor E. Meehan (QUB)
Professor N. Rees (UL)
Professor K. Sidwell (UCC)
Professor C. Whelan (ESRI)
Professor D. Singleton (TCD)
Professor R. Sinnott (UCD)
AND
I N T E R N AT I O N A L ST R AT E G I ES
SU B - CO M M I T T E E
ON
D O M EST I C ST R AT E G I ES
Chair: Professor M. E. Daly (UCD)
Dr M. Caball (UCD)
Mr C. O’Briain (National College of Art and Design)
Dr E. Mahon (TCD)
Professor N. Grene (TCD)
Professor P. O’Donovan (UCC)
Professor Seán Ó Riain (NUI, Maynooth)
Professor Séamus Mac Mathúna (University of Ulster)
Dr S. P. Donlon (UL)
Professor A. Hyland (UCC)
Professor K. Barry (NUI, Galway)
82
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84
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n
Appendix IV: Research Councils in
Finland, Norway, Portugal and Slovenia
In most European countries, funding for research is primarily managed by research
councils in parallel with significant other agencies or instruments, as is the case in
Ireland with the IRCHSS, IRCSET, SFI and the PRTLI, such as their national academies.48
FINLAND
The Academy of Finland is the main research-funding body for all scientific disciplines
and it operates under the aegis of the Ministry for Education. It has four constituent
research councils of which one is in the HSS (Culture and Society) and an annual
budget of approximately 200m. The Academy supports a range of funding instruments including research projects and programmes, centres of excellence, researcher
training, international cooperation as well as Research Academy Professors and
Research Fellows.
Its main focus is on:
• The internationalisation of the Finnish science community;
• Supporting the development of innovative research environments;
• Promoting professional careers in research to ensure a sufficient supply of professional researchers;
• Advancing gender equality in research;
• Strengthening international cooperation and interaction;
• The creation of new kinds of expertise clusters to ensure the viability of the research
system.49
Annual Academy support for research at Finnish universities and research institutes
amounts to 257m. This represents more than fifteen per cent of total government
research funding. R&D funding increased in Finland all through the 1990s. In 1991
R&D stood for 2.1 per cent of GDP, whereas in 2005, the share is estimated at 3.5
per cent. In the state budget for 2006, state allocations for R&D amounted to 1.68
billion, in comparison to 1.59 billion in 2005. In recent years the Academy has
48
In some countries, separate councils for HSS, founded at different dates, have been maintained. The
United Kingdom is one such instance where there has been a separation of humanities from social
sciences. The Social Science Research Council (now the Economic and Social Research Council) was
first founded in 1965, and the Arts and Humanities Research Board, being created comparatively late
in 1998, and since 2005 replaced by the Arts and Humanities Research Council. Similar separation
occurs in the Czech Republic. In certain countries there are two councils, each with different funding
roles covering the same disciplines, for example in Estonia with the Estonian Science Foundation,
founded in 1990, and the Ministry for Education’s Research Competence Council which manages
certain large-scale awards.
49
As part of this broad strategy, the Academy became a funding partner in the establishment of Nordic
Centres of Excellence with the explicit aim of increasing the visibility of Nordic research in Europe, to
create Nordic added value and further increase the scientific quality of Nordic research. The Joint
Committee for Nordic Research Councils for the Humanities and Social Sciences has selected four
Nordic Centres of Excellence, the first of which will run between 2005 and 2010.
put more money into R&D activities in the social sciences than in engineering (24m
against 16m) (ESF 2005).
In spite of the greater resources made available, competitive research funding in
Finland finds itself in an increasingly difficult position because the continuing qualitative and quantitative growth of the science community means that competition for
funding is increasingly fierce.
No more than between ten and twenty per cent of the number of applications for
funding through the Academy’s key funding instruments are now being accepted. Too
many research projects are being turned down and not getting the money that they
need, even though they are rated as excellent. In 2005 research projects received 42
per cent of total Academy research funding in 2004. Research programmes
accounted for twelve per cent of all research-funding decisions, researcher training for
nineteen per cent, research posts for eleven per cent, international cooperation for
eight per cent and centre of excellence programmes for eight per cent.
N O R WAY
The Research Council of Norway (RCN) was established in 1993 and plays a
central role in Norwegian research. The RCN mandate is to promote and support
basic and applied research in all areas of science, technology, medicine and the
humanities. The RCN is the principal research-policy adviser to the government. In
2004 the RCN published its strategy document, Research Expands Frontiers, that
identified five main goals for the RCN to 2010:
• Enhancing the contribution of research to social development;
• Increasing research for innovation;
• Promoting professional careers in research;
• Committing to the creation of a quality-research basis at national level in the HSS
to support effective international networking and research cooperation;
• Increasing the internationalisation of Norwegian research.
Funding from the RCN increased considerably between 1999 and 2003 in line
with government intentions to channel a larger proportion of R&D funding through
the council. In 2003 the RCN’s annual budget was more than NOK5 billion and
it financed more than one-fifth of the higher-education sector’s public R&D expenditure. The Ministry of Education and Research and the Ministry of Trade and Industry
are the most important contributors to the budget of the Research Council of Norway.
The total R&D expenditure in 2003 in Norway amounted to NOK27.3 billion or
1.73 per cent of GDP. Of this total R&D expenditure, fifteen per cent was allocated
to the HSS. The higher-education sector spent 27 per cent of the total R&D expenditure in 2003. Looking at the higher-education sector expenditure on R&D we see
that 87 per cent (or NOK6.5 billion) came from public sources, including the RCN.50
R&D expenditure in the higher-education sector on the HSS posted an annual real
growth of seven per cent in the two-year period from 2001 to 2003.
In 2002 the Norwegian government created a national network of Centres of
Excellence to promote long-term basic and applied world-class research over periods
of between five and ten years. These centres are seen as a way of maximising the
small scale of the Norwegian research community and a way of engendering more
funding, competition, interaction and internationalisation. Thirteen centres were
established, of which three promote research in the HSS.51
Norway attaches great strategic importance to international collaboration as a
complement to its national programmes. The RCN is responsible for managing
50
Research Council of Norway (RCN 2006, 21), 2005 Report on Science and Technology Indicators
for Norway, available online at: www.forskningsradet.no/servlet/Satellite?blobcol=urlvedleggfil&
blobheader=application%2Fpdf&blobkey=id&blobtable=Vedlegg&blobwhere=1150814000724&ss
binary=true (16 January 2007).
51
A 1999 report on research priorities identified a number of HSS issues as crucial to the development
of Norwegian society and economy and pointed to the need to achieve world-class research in these
areas. Available online at: http://odin.dep.no/kd/english/doc/white_paper/014005-990480/
dok-bn.html (16 January 2007).
89
Norway’s involvement in the EU FP. Since October 2005, it has maintained
permanent representation in Brussels to facilitate participation in the FP and keep its
own scientists informed on research policy and opportunities. Norwegian scientists
are involved in every fourth contract within FP6 and in nearly every second contract
in ERA-NET.52
PO RT U GA L
The Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)—Foundation for Science and
Technology—is the Portuguese governmental agency for non-applied research
funding and is integrated in the Ministry of Science and Higher Education.53 It is the
main research-funding agency for all fields of science and all the actors from research
teams in public sector and universities to the private sector. In 2002 FCT had an
overall budget of 194.6 million.54
The main objective of Portuguese research funding is to create critical mass at
national level to increase the impact of Portuguese research internationally and to
enable it to compete more effectively for European funding. FCT supports research
centres and institutes of higher education through its R&D Units Pluri-annual Funding
Programme. The FCT provides the institutional framework for the state and associate
laboratories. The laboratories research programmes are closely linked to government
research priorities.
Although there are currently no state laboratories in the HSS, two out of the fifteen
associate laboratories are dedicated to the HSS. Its commitment to long-term,
strategic funding, primarily in the social sciences, is based on the belief that Portuguese
research groups need to be sufficiently strong nationally to compete internationally,
and that national and EU research priorities should complement each other.
S LOV E N I A
Like Ireland, Slovenia developed a focused and specific research policy relatively
recently. The Slovenian Research Agency (AzRD) was established in 2003 to
promote international cooperation, target opportunities for young researchers, and
infrastructures. The AzRD provides permanent, professional and independent
decision-making on the selection of programmes and projects financed from the
state budget and other financial sources.
52
Available online at: http://cordis.europa.eu.int/norway/eu_en.html (16 January 2007).
It was created in July 1997 on the basis of two ancestors from which it inherited functions, competences, and the tradition: JNICT, the National Board for Scientific and Technological Research
(1967–1997), and INIC, the Portuguese Research Council (1929–1992). Available online at:
www.norface.org/norface/publisher/index.jsp?&1nID=93&pID=95&nID=195 (16 January 2007).
54
Available online at: www.eurobiodiversa.org/FCT-2C-Portugal_68.html (16 January 2006).
53
90
The AzRD manages three types of research instruments, which fund research
programmes, research projects or targeted research programmes. Research
programmes typically reflect the concerns of the Slovenian National Research and
Development Programme. In 2004 262 research programmes were funded,
comprising some 831.9 FTE researchers, of which 80 relate to HSS research areas.
Research projects are not specifically linked to issues of national interest and can be
either of a basic or applied nature. In 2004 113 of a total of 415 FTE researchers
funded and assessed were in HSS areas. Finally, targeted research programmes are
problem-oriented and aimed at improving the standard of living in Slovenia. In 2004
the budget for the targeted research programmes was nearly 3m, of which some
1.7m was awarded to HSS applications.55
55
Available online at: www.arrs.gov.si/en/progproj/rprog/obseg.asp (16 January 2006).
91
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