PROTEAN IEF Cell Instruction

PROTEAN IEF Cell Instruction
PROTEAN® IEF
Cell
Instruction
Manual
Catalog Number
165-4000
For Technical Service Call Your Local Bio-Rad Office or in the U.S. Call 1-800-4BIORAD (1-800-424-6723)
Table of Contents
Page
Section 1 Introduction ....................................................................................................1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
Overview ......................................................................................................................1
Features ........................................................................................................................1
Specifications................................................................................................................2
Unpacking ....................................................................................................................2
Safety ............................................................................................................................3
Section 2 Basic Set-Up and Operation..........................................................................4
2.1 Instrument Components and Controls..........................................................................4
2.2 Basic Operation ............................................................................................................7
2.2.1 Programming Parameters ................................................................................7
2.2.2 Programming Instructions................................................................................8
Section 3 Rehydration Program..................................................................................10
3.1 Rehydration Programming Diagram ..........................................................................10
3.2 Rehydration Programming Instructions ....................................................................11
Section 4 Running Preset Methods ............................................................................12
4.1 Preset Method Programming Diagram ......................................................................13
4.2 Preset Method Programming Instructions..................................................................14
Section 5 Stored Methods (RUN, EDIT, DELETE)..................................................16
5.1 Stored Method Programming Diagram......................................................................16
5.2 Stored Method Programming Instructions ................................................................17
Section 6 Programming a New Method......................................................................20
6.1 New Method Programming Diagram ........................................................................21
6.2 New Method Programming Instructions....................................................................22
Section 7 Editing a Method While Running (Real Time Editing) ..........................24
7.1 Real Time Editing Programming Diagram ................................................................24
7.2 Real Time Editing Programming Instructions ..........................................................25
Section 8 Method Status Screens ................................................................................26
8.1 Program Status Screen Diagram ................................................................................26
8.2 Program Status Screen Instructions............................................................................27
Section 9 Error Screens ................................................................................................29
Section 10 Reagent and Strip Preparation ..................................................................31
10.1 IPG Buffers and Reagents ..........................................................................................31
10.1.1 IPG Strip Rehydration Buffers....................................................................31
10.1.2 2nd Dimension Equilibration Buffers ........................................................33
10.2 IPG Strip Preparation and Handling ..........................................................................33
10.2.1 IPG Strip Rehydration ................................................................................33
10.2.2 Isoelectric Focusing ....................................................................................35
10.2.3 IPG Strip Storage ........................................................................................38
10.2.4 IPG Strip Equilibration (prior to 2nd dimension) ......................................38
Section 11 Troubleshooting ............................................................................................38
Section 12 Accessories ....................................................................................................39
12.1 Optional Thermal Printer Model DPU ......................................................................39
12.2 ReadyStrips IPG Strips ..............................................................................................41
Section 13 Cleaning and Maintenance ........................................................................42
Section 14 Warranty ......................................................................................................42
Section 15 Product Information and Accessories........................................................42
Section 16 References ....................................................................................................43
Section 1
Introduction
1.1 Overview
The PROTEAN IEF Cell performs the first dimension isoelectric focusing of two dimensional electrophoretic protein analysis. The PROTEAN IEF Cell can accommodate up to
twenty-four 7 cm or twelve 17 cm Bio-Rad ReadyStrip™ IPG Strips for simultaneous isoelectric focusing.
The PROTEAN IEF system is comprised of a 10,000 V power supply with a Peltier temperature control platform, disposable 12 channel rehydration/equilibration trays, 12 channel
focusing tray assemblies, and accessories.
The PROTEAN IEF Cell is fully programmable from the front panel and can store up to
10 user-defined methods. Passive or active (50V) rehydration can be programmed as a
separate method, or as the first step of a method. Each method holds up to ten (10) steps
where each step specifies the voltage, the manner of voltage ramping and the duration of the
time segment. In addition to the user defined methods, the PROTEAN IEF Cell contains three
pre-programmed methods specifically designed as a starting point for new samples and novice
users to help determine optimal focusing conditions of ReadyStrip IPG Strips.
1.2 Features
The PROTEAN IEF Cell provides the following features
•
Peltier temperature controlled focusing platform
•
Maximum Voltage of 10,000 V
•
Set voltage and voltage ramping profile in each step
•
Time or Volt hour control in each step
•
Integral or separate rehydration step
•
Programmable current limit
•
Simultaneous focusing of twenty-four 7 cm strips, or twelve 17 cm IPG strips
•
Three pre-programmed (pre-set) methods
•
Ten user-defined methods
•
Run data collection via RS 232 port and optional Thermal Printer
1
1.3 Specifications
Input power
Fuse
Input power cord
Power outputs
Voltage
Current
Power
Time
Focusing trays
Material
Strip size
Capacity
Electrode distance
Accommodates total strip length
Peltier platform
Tray capacity
Temperature
Rehydration/equilibration trays
Material
Capacity
Accommodates total strip length
Environmental requirements
Regulatory
Dimensions
Weight
User interface
Control panel
Programmable
parameters
Voltage Ramping Profiles
Protocol capacity
Data collection
90–264 VAC, 47–63 Hz
10A, 250 V, SLO-BLOW, 3AB Ceramic Body
3-wire; grounded
50–10,000 V, 1 V increments
0–2.4 mA, 0.01 µA increments
0–24 Watts
00:01–99:00 hours:minutes or 0–99,999 volt-hours
Polycarbonate
7, 17 cm
12 strips per tray
7 cm
17 cm
64.5 mm
162 mm
82.3 mm
181 mm
One 17 cm tray or two 7 cm trays
10–25 °C ± 0.5 °C @ max. ambient of 30 °C
15–25 °C ± 0.5 °C @ max. ambient of 35 °C
Polystyrene
12 strips per tray
80 mm for 7 cm tray, 186 mm for 17 cm tray
For indoor use only.
For use at altitudes up to 2000 meters.
To be operated between 10 °C and 35 °C ambient.
To be operated with a maximum relative humidity
or 90% for temperatures up to 35 °C.
CE, EN61010-1
28(W)x30(D)x14(H) cm
12.5 lb. (5.7 kg)
12 key alpha-numeric keypad with 4 soft-keys and
3 function keys.
Graphics display, 4 lines x 21 characters
Rehydration and focusing time, platform temperature,
current limit per IPG strip, voltage and voltage
ramping type for each step.
Slow, Linear or Rapid
Three semi-programmable, pre-loaded methods.
Ten programmable methods with up to ten (10)
steps.
RS232 serial port and optional thermal printer
1.4 Unpacking
When you receive the PROTEAN IEF Cell, carefully inspect the shipping container for
any damage which may have occurred during shipping. Severe damage to a container may
indicate damage to its contents. If you suspect damage to the contents may have occurred,
immediately file a claim with the carrier in accordance with their instructions before
contacting Bio-Rad Laboratories.
Open the shipping carton and lift the contents out of its packing. Inspect the instrument
for external damage. If any part is missing or damaged, contact Bio-Rad Laboratories
immediately.
2
1.5 Safety
Caution/Warning
!
!
The PROTEAN IEF Cell uses high output voltages that are electrically isolated from
earth ground to minimize the risk of electrical shock to the user. The following
guidelines should be observed and followed when using the power supply.
The PROTEAN IEF Cell has passed tests for operation at temperatures between 10 °C
and 35 °C, with relative humidity between 0 and 90% non-condensing. Operating the cell
outside these conditions is not recommended by Bio-Rad and will void the warranty.
This instrument is intended for laboratory use only.
1. To insure adequate cooling of the cell’s power supply, be sure that there is at least 6 cm
clearance around the unit. Do not block the fan vents at the rear or underneath the unit.
Warning!
Do not use cloth or absorbent pads under the unit. These or other loose items may be pulled
into the fan intake, causing damage to the unit due to overheating, and voiding the warranty.
2. Always connect the cell to a 3-prong, grounded AC outlet, using the 3-prong AC power
cord provided with the cell.
3. Do not operate the cell in extreme humidity (>90%) or where condensation can short the
internal electrical circuits of the cell.
4. Disconnect power to the PROTEAN IEF Cell before servicing. No user-serviceable parts
are inside the instrument. Contact Bio-Rad service personnel for service.
5. The PROTEAN IEF Cell is certified to meet the EN61010-1 safety standard for safety of
laboratory equipment. Certified products are safe to use when operated in accordance
with the instruction manual. This safety certification does not extend to other equipment
or accessories not EN61010-1 certified, even when connected to the PROTEAN IEF Cell.
6. The PROTEAN IEF Cell conforms to the class A standards for Electromagnetic
Emissions, intended for laboratory equipment applications. It is possible that emissions
from this product may interfere with some sensitive appliances when placed nearby or on
the same circuit as those appliances. The user should be aware of this potential and take
appropriate measures to avoid interference.
7. This instrument should not be modified or altered in any way. Alteration of this instrument
will void the manufacturer’s warranty, void the EN61010-1 certification, and create a
potential safety hazard for the user.
8. Bio-Rad is not responsible for any injury or damage caused by the use of this instrument
for purposes other than those for which it is intended or by modifications of the instrument
not performed by Bio-Rad or an authorized agent.
EN61010-1 is an internationally accepted electrical safety standard for laboratory instruments.
3
Section 2
Basic Set-up and Operation
2.1 Instrument Components and Controls
Alphanumeric keypad
PROTEIN IEF Cell
Graphics display
ghi
1
abc
2
4
jkl
tuv
pqrs
7
def
3
5
mno
6
8
wxyz
9
Control keys
space
EXIT
0
CE
Soft keys
Indicator light
Fig. 1. Front panel display.
The soft keys, the alphanumeric key pad and the control keys are used to program the
instrument. A detailed description of each of the keys is provided in the table below.
Key
1
ghi
pqrs
4
7
EXIT
abc
j kl
tuv
2
5
8
space
0
Description
def
3
mno
6
wxyz
9
CE
The Alphanumeric Keys are used to enter numbers,
letters and spaces during programming. To activate
the keypad press the soft key adjacent to the parameter
to be entered. The keypad is active when the cursor
(-) and enter symbol (↵) are displayed on the LCD
panel. Press the appropriate alphanumeric key
repeatedly to scroll through selections until the
desired letter or number appears on the LCD panel.
Pressing the "0" key rapidly three times displays the
"pH" symbol.
The Exit Key is used to return to the previous screen
during programming.
The CE Key is used to clear an entry or to go back
one character when entering values.
Soft Keys
Programming parameters are selected by pressing
the green adjacent soft key. When an arrow ( ) is
displayed, the adjacent soft key allows you to scroll
through the parameters displayed on the adjacent
line or to activate the keypad. The selected parameter is displayed in capitalized reverse-type. When
values need to be entered for a selected parameter,
the adjacent softkey is pressed and the ( ) is
replaced by a cursor (-) and a return arrow
(↵) are displayed. The alphanumeric keypad is then
used to enter the required values.
Control Keys
The Start key is pressed to begin or resume a
programmed rehydration and/or a focusing method.
The Stop Key stops the run in progress. Total volthours are displayed. Pressing the stop key
again when the run is stopped or complete returns
you to the main screen.
The Pause Key interrupts the run in progress. The
current method can be edited while paused.
4
RS232 serial port
CAUTION
Serial number
label
Fan cover
Universal power
entry module
Fig. 2. Back panel display.
Peltier platform
Female banana plug
with safety interlock
Electrode
connections
Fig. 3. Top platform.
Trays
To provide the maximum flexibility for variability in protocols the PROTEAN IEF Cell
includes two different trays that can be used for rehydration; the disposable rehydration/
equilibration tray and the focusing tray.
Lid
Pressure tabs
Cathode
Focusing tray
Anode
Fig. 4. Rehydration/equilibration trays and focusing trays.
5
Rehydration/equilibration
tray
Rehydration/Equilibration Tray
The disposable rehydration/equilibration tray is used to rehydrate IPG strips prior to
isoelectric focusing and to equilibrate them prior to running the 2nd dimension. The use of a
rehydration/equilibration tray simplifies IPG strip handling when employing electrode wicks.
The rehydration/equilibration tray can also be used to equilibrate the IPG strips in buffer prior
to running the 2nd dimension.
Focusing Tray
The focusing tray holds up to 12 IPG strips. It contains the electrodes for isoelectric focusing
and wells for sample application. The focusing tray can be used for both the rehydration step
and the isoelectric focusing run. The isoelectric focusing tray is used when a method includes
an integral rehydration step as with active rehydration. Also, an isoelectric focusing tray must
be used in all methods with an integral rehydration step that do not include a pause after
rehydration.
Serial Port Functions for Printer or Computer Connection
The PROTEAN IEF cell has the ability to communicate with an external printer or
computer via the RS232 serial port located at the back of the instrument. The PROTEAN IEF
cell sends the data to these peripheral devices as ASCII text. The Thermal Printer can be directly
connected to the PROTEAN IEF cell. A straight, serial cable is included with the printer and
the DIP switches are pre-set.
Note: If a device other than the Bio-Rad Thermal Printer is used, a different type of cable
may be required. Check the configuration of the printer or computer to determine if a
straight serial cable or null modem cable is required and purchase the cable separately.
RS232 Printout of Running Conditions:
The PROTEAN IEF cell records the running conditions every 5 minutes during the
isoelectric focusing portion of a method. The printout lists the details of the programmed
method and values for all the parameters of each step.
Bio-Rad Laboratories
PROTEAN IEF Cell
Firmware Version: 1.40
Method "Name"
Rehydration: Inactive (Passive or Active @ 50 V)
Rehyde time: 00:00 Temp: 20 °C
Run Temp: 20 °C
Number of Gels: #
Max µA/Gel: 50
Step 01
250 V Ramp:R
Step 02
10000 V Ramp:S
etc.
End of Method list.
Time: 00:15
Time: 01:00
Start of run data.
00:00
Total time
elapsed
1
xxxxV /
Step # Voltage and
Ramp type
50
Total
Current
10 µA
Current
per gel
0000 V hrs
Total
Volthours
The printout will also indicate interruptions of the run, such as pause mode and interruption
of power when the cell cover is opened. If there is poor contact between one of the IPG strips
and the electrode, large fluctuations in resistance will hold the voltage constant at 500 volts
until the user intervenes, preventing the IPG strips from burning. If the method is edited during the run the printout will display edited values with an asterisk.
6
2.2 Basic Operation
2.2.1.
Programming Parameters
The PROTEAN IEF Cell programs control the following parameters of an isoelectric
focusing run.
a.
Rehydration
IPG strips must be rehydrated prior to isoelectric focusing. The PROTEAN IEF Cell
provides the option of including a temperature controlled rehydration step in the
focusing program or programming a separate rehydration program.
The user can perform the rehydration step in one of 3 ways.
•
Integral Rehydration—the rehydration step is an integral step of a method.
•
Separate Rehydration—the rehydration step is programmed separately using
the rehydration mode.
•
Other Rehydration—the rehydration step is performed outside the
PROTEAN IEF cell.
IPG strips are rehydrated with buffer that may or may not contain the sample. IPG
strips rehydrated with sample may be actively or passively rehydrated.
Active or Passive Rehydration
Active rehydration is only used when the sample is contained in the rehydration
buffer. Active rehydration applies 50V to the IPG strips during rehydration to
facilitate uptake of the sample into the IPG strip. Active rehydration requires the
use of an isoelectric focusing tray.
Passive rehydration can be done with or without sample present in the
rehydration buffer. The IPG strips are rehydrated without any voltage applied to
them. Passive rehydration can be performed in either the rehydration/equilibration tray or the isoelectric focusing tray.
Rehydration Time
Rehydration time is programmable within the range of 00:01–99:00 hours. The
recommended rehydration time (default value) is 12 hours.
Pause After Rehydration
A pause can be programmed after the rehydration step and prior to isoelectric focusing,
whether you are using the pre-set or user-defined programs. A pause is needed for
inserting electrode wicks, adding mineral oil, applying sample or transferring the
strips from the disposable rehydration/equilibration tray to the focusing tray. If a
pause is not inserted, then the program will proceed immediately to the first focusing
step.
7
b.
Peltier Platform Temperature
The Peltier platform temperature can be controlled during the rehydration and
focusing steps. The programmable temperature range is from 10–25 °C.
c.
Power Parameters
Voltage Ramping Method
Three voltage ramping options are available; Rapid, Linear and Slow. In the rapid
ramp method the voltage ramp is current limited. In the linear ramp method the
voltage increases in a linear fashion. In the slow ramp method, the voltage change
is based on a delayed voltage ramping algorithm. In all three methods the current will
not exceed the programmed current limit.
Max V
SLOW RAMP
VOLTAGE
LINEAR RAMP
RAPID RAMP
TIME/VH
Voltage
In user defined programs, a maximum voltage value is entered for each step of the
program. The maximum voltage is 10,000V.
Focusing Time
The length of time voltage is applied can be set in units of time up to 99:00
hours:minutes, or in volt-hours up to 99,999 volt-hours.
Current Limits
The maximum current output of the PROTEAN IEF Cell is 2.4 mA. The maximum
current limit is 99 µA per strip. In the pre-set methods the default current limit is set to
50 µA to prevent overheating or burning of the IPG strips.
Hold Step
The pre-set program mode provides an optional hold step. The hold step maintains
the voltage at 500 V until the run is stopped by the user. The hold step is used to
eliminate effects of over-focusing or to prevent protein drift.
Note: A hold step can be programmed in a user-defined method by programming the
last step of the method at 500 V for a specified length of time in the event that you are not
present at the end of the focusing step.
2.2.2.
Programming Instructions
The PROTEAN IEF Cell is designed to provide simple intuitive screen layouts for
easy programming.
Turn on the power switch located on the right side of the cell. The initialization screen will
be displayed for several seconds.
8
BIO-RAD LABORATORIES
PROTEAN IEF CELL
FIRMWARE VERSION 1.40
SYSTEM INITIALIZATION
The main screen displays four programming options. The user can program a
separate rehydration method, select one of three preset methods, select or edit a
previously stored method or program a new user-defined method.
REHYDRATION
PRESET METHOD
STORED METHOD
NEW METHOD
9
>
>
>
>
Section 3
Rehydration Program
The rehydration mode is used to program a separate rehydration step. The IPG Strips can
be rehydrated in a temperature controlled environment. There are two different rehydration
methods available, passive and active. When using the active rehydration method the IPG
strips are positioned in the focusing tray (see Section 10 for details). For passive rehydration
the IPG strips can be positioned in either the rehydration/equilibration tray or the focusing
tray.
3.1 Rehydration Programming Diagram (not integral)
BIO-RAD LABORATORIES
PROTEAN IEF CELL
FIRMWARE VERSION 1.40
SYSTEM INITIALIZATION
REHYDRATION
PRESET METHOD
STORED METHOD
NEW METHOD
>
>
>
>
REHYDRATION CONDITION
active @50V PASSIVE >
ENTER TEMP:
20 °C >
PRESS
TO START
REHYDRATION CONDITION
ACTIVE @50V passive >
ENTER TEMP:
20 °C >
PRESS
TO START
START
KEY
START
KEY
REHYDRATION: PASSIVE
TEMP: 20/20 °C
TIME ELAPSED: 00:00
PRESS
TO EXIT
STOP
KEY
REHYDRATION: AT 50V
TEMP: 20/20 °C
TIME ELAPSED: 00:00
PRESS
TO EXIT
STOP
KEY
EXIT
KEY
&
**CELL COVER OPEN**
REHYDRATION PAUSED.
CLOSE COVER
TO PROCEED.
STOP
KEY
10
3.2 Rehydration Programming Instructions
REHYDRATION
PRESET METHOD
STORED METHOD
NEW METHOD
1. Select the Rehydration mode to program a
rehydration method separate from a focusing
program.
>
>
>
>
2. Select passive or active (50 V) rehydration.
REHYDRATION CONDITION
active @ 50 V PASSIVE
ENTER TEMP:
20 °C
PRESS
TO START
Enter a rehydration temperature between
10–25 °C. The default value is 20 °C.
>
>
Press
to begin the rehydration program.
Passive Rehydration Running Screen
One of these two rehydration running screens
will be displayed.
REHYDRATION:
PASSIVE
TEMP: 20/20 °C
TIME ELAPSED:
00:00
PRESS
TO EXIT
The maximum time the rehydration program
will run is 99:00 hours.
Press the
key to return to the main screen.
Active Rehydration Running Screen
REHYDRATION:
AT 50 V
TEMP:
20/20 °C
TIME ELAPSED:
00:00
PRESS
TO EXIT
11
Section 4
Running Preset Methods
The PROTEAN IEF Cell contains three preset methods to be used as a starting point for
new samples and novice users to help determine optimal focusing conditions. Each of the
three methods is based on the manner in which the voltage is ramped in step 2x (the slope to
reach the maximum voltage). In all preset methods the maximum applied voltage is based
on the length of the IPG strip (4,000 V/7 cm; 8,000 V/11 cm; 10,000 V/17 cm). The program
will prompt the user for the IPG strip size. Each of these methods provides an optimum
maximum field strength of ~600 V/cm of IPG strip. The pre-set methods have a 50 µA
limit/IPG strip. If a different current limit is needed a customized method can be programmed
using the NEW METHOD option.
S3
Max V
SLOW RAMP
VOLTAGE
S2
[
]
LINEAR RAMP [
]
RAPID RAMP
]
S4
[
500 V
S1
250 V
50 V
R
Fig. 5. Preset method voltage over time.
TIME/VH
Step
R - Rehydration (*optional)
S1 - Conditioning Step
Parameters
Passive, or Active at 50 V
250 V for 15 minutes. A low voltage is applied
in Step 1 to remove salt ions and charged
contaminants.
Slow [ ], Linear [ ] or Rapid [ ]. When the
conditioning step is complete, the voltage
ramping step increases the voltage to the
maximum voltage in one of three ways. In all
three cases the current will not exceed the
50 µA/strip limit. See Section 2.2 for details.
A time is programmed to complete the focusing
process once the maximum voltage is reached.
If the maximum voltage is not reached at the
completion of step 2, the voltage will increase
to the maximum voltage using the rapid ramping
method. The current limit will not exceed
50 µA/strip.
Voltage
IPG Strip
4,000 V
7 cm
8,000 V
11 cm
10,000 V
17 cm
500 V is maintained until the run is stopped
to prevent diffusion of focused proteins or
over-focusing artifacts.
S2 - Voltage Ramping
S3 - Final Focusing
S4 - Hold step (optional)
*Rehydration step can be included in the preset method program or performed separately.
12
4.1 Preset Method Programming Diagram
REHYDRATION
PRESET METHOD
STORED METHOD
NEW METHOD
SELECT VOLTAGE SLOPE:
RAPID ∆V
>
>
>
>
>
LINEAR ∆V
SLOW ∆V
>
>
REHYDRATION: yes NO >
GEL LENGTH 07 11 17 >
FOCUS TEMP: 20°
>
NEXT
>
NEXT if YES
REHYDRATION STEP
active @50V PASSIVE >
ENTER TEMP:
20 °C >
NEXT
>
ENTER TIME:
12:00
INSERT PAUSE AFTER
REHYDRATION? yes NO
NEXT
>
>
>
NEXT if NO
S1
250 V
S2 HRS:MIN
S2 4000 V
00:15
vhours >
2:00 >
NEXT >
S3 hrs:min VHOURS >
S3 4000 V
20000 >
S4 500 V/HOLD yes NO >
NEXT >
REHYDRATION: PASSIVE
(or) AT 50V
TEMP:
20/20 °C
TIME:
00:00/00:00
METHOD WILL START (or
PAUSE) WHEN REHYDRATION
COMPLETE (Scrolled message)
REHYDRATION
selected
METHOD:
NAME
LIMIT/ GEL: 50 µA
ENTER # OF GELS: 1
PRESS
TO START
NO REHYDRATION
selected
When rehydration is
completed with inserted
pause OR, when pressing STOP
key during rehydration
REHYDRATION COMPLETE.
PRESS
TO START
STEP #1 OF METHOD.
**CELL COVER OPEN**
REHYDRATION PAUSED.
CLOSE COVER
TO PROCEED.
s 01/04 XXV
XXµA
20/20 °C
XXµA/GEL
VH: 000000 00:00/00:15
∆V
LINEAR
RUN IN
PROGRESS.
(Scrolled
message during run)
**CELL COVER OPEN**
POWER SUPPLY PAUSED.
CLOSE COVER
TO PROCEED.
To real time edit mode
13
>
Continue
METHOD IS PAUSED.
EDIT # GELS:
>
EDIT METHOD
>
PRESS
TO CONTINUE
4.2 Preset Method Programming Instructions
REHYDRATION
PRESET METHOD
STORED METHOD
NEW METHOD
>
>
>
>
SELECT VOLTAGE SLOPE:
RAPID
∆V
>
LINEAR
∆V
>
SLOW
∆V
>
REHYDRATION:
yes
GEL LENGTH 07 11
FOCUS TEMP:
20°
NEXT
NO >
17
>
1. Select the PRESET METHOD mode to program
a preset method.
2. Select one of the three voltage ramping
methods (slope). The difference between the
methods is the manner in which the voltage is
ramped to the maximum voltage (refer to Step
S2 in Figure 5).
3. Select the rehydration step (optional). No is the
default.
Select the gel size (7, 11, or 17 cm). Default is
07 cm. The gel size entered determines the
maximum voltage that is applied, 4000 V/7 cm,
8000 V/11 cm, and 10,000 V/17 cm.
>
Enter a focusing temperature between 10–25 °C.
20 °C is the default temperature.
Press the NEXT soft key to continue.
Note: Proceed to Step 4 if a rehydration step is
programmed. Proceed to Step 6 if a rehydration
step is not programmed.
4
REHYDRATION
[email protected] PASSIVE
ENTER TEMP:
20 °C
NEXT
>
>
>
Select the Active (50 V) or Passive rehydration
method. Passive rehydration is the default.
Enter a rehydration temperature between
10–25 °C. 20 °C is the default temperature.
Note: Maintain the rehydration and running
temperature above 18 °C if the rehydration
buffer contains urea.
ENTER TIME:
12:00
INSERT PAUSE AFTER
REHYDRATION?
yes
NEXT
>
5. Enter a time for the rehydration step up to 99:00
hours. The default value is 12 hours.
NO >
>
Select yes or no to insert a pause after the
rehydration step. NO pause is the default.
Press the NEXT key to continue.
Note: When a pause is programmed, the method will pause when the rehydration step is
complete to allow for the transfer of strips to a focusing tray, insertion of electrode wicks,
sample application, or the addition of mineral oil. If a pause is not programmed the method
will automatically continue with the first focusing step after rehydration is completed. Therefore,
be sure the strips are covered with mineral oil or similar overlay material during rehydration.
14
S1
S2
S2
250 V
HRS:MIN
4000 V
00:15
vhours
2:00
>
>
NEXT
>
6. Conditioning step (S1) parameters cannot be
changed.
Select the time or volt-hours option for the
Voltage Ramping Step (S2).
Press the adjacent soft key to activate the
alphanumeric keypad and enter a time up to
99:00 hours:minutes, or volt-hours up to
99,999.
Default values for Step 2:
7 cm
4,000 V - 2 hrs.
11 cm 8,000 V - 2:30 hrs.
17 cm 10,000 V - 3 hrs.
Press the NEXT key to continue.
S3
S3
hrs:min
4000 V
7. Select the time or volt-hours option for the Final
Focusing step (S3).
VHOURS
2:00
>
S4 500V/HOLD yes
NO
NEXT
>
>
Enter a time up to 99:00 hours:minutes or up to
99,999 volt-hours. If the maximum voltage is
not reached in Step 2, the rapid voltage slope is
applied to reach the maximum voltage.
Default values for Step 3:
7 cm
4,000 V
20,000 vhours
11 cm
8,000 V
35,000 vhours
17 cm
10,000 V
60,000 vhours
Select yes or no to insert an optional Hold step
(S4). No is the default parameter.
Note: If a Hold step is programmed the voltage
will be maintained at 500 V until the run is
stopped by the operator. If a Hold Step is not
programmed the run will stop upon the
completion of the final focusing step (S3).
Press the NEXT key to continue.
METHOD:
8. The first line of this screen displays the pre-set
method selected.
"METHOD NAME"
LIMIT/GEL:
ENTER # OF GELS:
PRESS TO START
50 µA
1
The second line displays the current limit/gel
(50 µA).
>
Enter the # of gels (IPG strips) to be run: 1–24
for 7 cm gels, 1–12 for 17 cm gels. 1 is the
default value.
Press to start the run and refer to Section 8
for the program status screens.
15
Section 5
Stored Methods (RUN, EDIT, DELETE)
The PROTEAN IEF Cell stores up to ten (10) programmed methods. Each method
contains up to ten (10) steps. In this mode a stored method can be run, edited or deleted.
5.1 Stored Method Programming Diagram
"METHOD NAME" S = #
"METHOD NAME" S = #
"METHOD NAME" S = #
(all) or (top) NEXT
>
>
>
>
"METHOD NAME" S = #
"METHOD NAME" S = #
"METHOD NAME" S = #
(bottom)
NEXT
>
>
>
>
"METHOD NAME"
RUN METHOD
EDIT METHOD
DELETE METHOD
>
>
>
>
REHYDRATION
METHOD
STORED METHOD
NEW METHOD
>
>
>
>
NO METHOD STORED
PRESS EXIT TO RETURN
OK
ENTER # OF GELS:
1 >
µA LIMIT/GEL:
50 >
FOCUS TEMP:
20 °C >
PRESS
TO START
RUN
DELETE
"METHOD NAME"
DELETE
CANCEL
OK
>
>
"METHOD NAME"
SAVE METHOD? YES no
>
CANCEL or EXIT
EDIT
NAME: "METHOD NAME"
REHYDRATION: yes NO
FOCUS TEMP: 20 °C
NEXT
>
>
>
>
YES
rehydration
REHYDRATION STEP
[email protected] V PASSIVE
ENTER TEMP:
20 °C
NEXT
>
>
>
ENTER TIME: 12:00
>
INSERT PAUSE AFTER
REHYDRATION? yes NO >
NEXT
>
NO rehydration
EDIT insert delete
ENTER STEP #: 1
NEXT
METHOD COMPLETE.
>
>
>
>
COMPLETE
NEXT
S 01/#
xxxxx V
>
SELECT VOLTAGE SLOPE:
RAPID
[
]
>
NEXT
YES,
NAME
EXISTS
>
XXXXX V
RENAME
HRS:MIN
ENTER TIME:
YES if new
name and
NO always
METHOD NAME EXISTS!
REPLACE
>
RENAME
>
CANCEL SAVE >
NEXT
S 01/#
CANCEL
vhours
XX:XX
NEXT
>
>
>
REPLACE
RENAME AND SAVE
"METHOD NAME" >
YES no >
NEXT
>
NEXT
METHOD MEMORY FULL.
REPLACE? YES no
NEXT
EXIT, returns
to edit mode
>
>
NEXT
16
>
ENTER # OF GELS:
1 >
µA LIMIT/GEL:
50 >
FOCUS TEMP: 20 °C >
PRESS
TO START
5.2 Stored Method Programming Instructions
REHYDRATION
PRESET METHOD
STORED METHOD
NEW METHOD
"METHOD NAME"
"METHOD NAME"
"METHOD NAME"
>
>
>
>
S = #
S = #
S = #
>
>
>
1. Select the STORED METHOD mode to run,
edit or delete a previously stored method.
2. The screen will display the stored methods
(three at a time) and the number of steps in the
method.
Press the NEXT key to scroll through the stored
methods.
(all),(top)or(bottom) NEXT >
Press the adjacent soft key to select the desired
method.
3. The first line displays the selected method.
"METHOD NAME"
RUN METHOD
EDIT METHOD
DELETE METHOD
Press the adjacent soft key to Run, Edit or
Delete the selected method.
>
>
>
RUN METHOD
ENTER # OF GELS:
1
µA LIMIT/GEL:
50
FOCUS TEMP:
20 °C
PRESS
TO START
>
>
>
1. Enter the # of gels (IPG strips); 1–24 for
7 cm gels, 1–12 for 17 cm gels.
Press the adjacent soft key to edit the
programmed values for current limit and
focusing temperature before starting the run.
Press to start the run and refer to Section 8
for the program status screens.
17
EDIT THE METHOD
NAME: "METHOD NAME"
>
REHYDRATION:
yes
NO >
FOCUS TEMP:
20 °C >
NEXT
>
1. Press the adjacent soft key to edit the name of
the method.
Select yes or no for a rehydration step.
Enter the focusing temperature.
Press the NEXT soft key to continue.
EDIT (ADD) insert delete
ENTER STEP #: 1
NEXT
METHOD COMPLETE.
>
>
>
>
2. Press the adjacent soft key to select edit, insert
or delete a step.
Enter the step number. (1 is the default value.)
Press the NEXT soft key to enter selected step.
Note: inserted steps are inserted ahead of the
step # entered.
S 01/#
10000 V
SELECT VOLTAGE SLOPE:
RAPID
[ ]
NEXT
>
3. The selected step number, the total number of
steps, the voltage and the voltage slope are
displayed.
>
Use the soft keys to edit the voltage and the
voltage slope.
>
Press the NEXT soft key to continue.
S 01/#
HRS:MIN
ENTER TIME:
10000 V
vhours
XX:XX
NEXT
4. Use the softkey to edit the time or volt-hours.
>
>
EDIT (ADD) insert delete>
ENTER STEP #: 1
>
NEXT
>
METHOD COMPLETE.
>
"METHOD NAME"
SAVE METHOD? YES
no
NEXT
Press the NEXT soft key to continue.
>
>
5. Select the Edit, Insert or Delete option and the
step # to edit the method further. Edit is
converted to ADD if a step # is added to the
method.
Select the Method Complete soft key when editing is complete.
6a. The save method screen is displayed after the
Method Complete key is selected.
Select yes to store a re-named or edited method
to memory. Select no to run the edited method
without saving it to memory.
>
Press the NEXT key to continue. (Go to step 8
if method name exists.)
METHOD MEMORY FULL.
REPLACE?
YES no
NEXT
>
6b. If memory is full, replace method, or run edited
method without saving.
>
18
ENTER # OF GELS:
µA LIMIT/GEL:
FOCUS TEMP:
PRESS
TO START
1 >
50 >
20 °C >
METHOD NAME EXISTS!
REPLACE
>
RENAME
>
CANCEL SAVE >
7. The adjacent screen is displayed after saving
the method.
Enter the number of gels and edit current limit
per gel if needed to 99 µA per gel maximum.
Edit Focusing temperature if desired. Press
to start the run.
8. If method name was not changed or if the
method name already exists, the adjacent screen
will be displayed.
Press the adjacent soft key to replace or rename
the method.
Press cancel save to return to the previous
screen.
RENAME AND SAVE
"METHOD NAME"
YES
no
NEXT
>
>
>
>
9. Press the adjacent soft key to re-name the
method. When the cursor and enter symbols are
visible, use the alphanumeric keypad to enter
the new name.
Select the YES option to save the re-named
method. Select NO to run the method without
saving it to memory.
Press the NEXT soft key to continue to the run
screen.
ENTER # OF GELS:
1 >
µA LIMIT/GEL:
50 >
FOCUS TEMP:
20 °C >
PRESS TO START
10. The adjacent screen is displayed after saving
the method.
Enter the number of gels and edit current limit
per gel if needed to 99 µA per gel maximum.
Edit Focusing temperature if desired. Press
to start the run.
N
DELETE A METHOD
1. The method name is displayed.
DELETE
"METHOD NAME"
Select cancel to cancel delete and return to the
run/edit/delete screen.
CANCEL
OK
>
>
Select OK to delete the method and return to the
stored method screen.
19
Section 6
Programming a New Method
In the NEW METHOD mode a method containing one (1) to ten (10) steps can be
programmed. Each method allows programming of the following parameters:
A rehydration step (optional)
•
passive or active at 50 V
•
rehydration temperature (10–25 °C)
•
rehydration time up to 99:00 hours
A current limit up to 99 µA per strip. 50 µA per strip is recommended to prevent IPG
strip overheating.
The isoelectric focusing temperature (10–25 °C)
Ten separate steps each programmable for:
•
Voltage
•
Voltage ramping slope (rapid, linear, or slow)
•
Time in hours:minutes or volt-hours.
20
6.1 New Method Programming Diagram
REHYDRATION
PRESET METHOD
STORED METHOD
NEW METHOD
>
>
>
>
NAME: "Method Name" >
REHYDRATION: yes NO >
FOCUS TEMP: 20 °C >
NEXT
>
NEXT IF
NO
METHOD MEMORY FULL.
DELETE A STORED
METHOD?
YES no >
NEXT
>
NEXT IF YES
REHYDRATION
SELECTED
REHYDRATION STEP
[email protected] V PASSIVE
ENTER TEMP: 20 °C >
NEXT
ENTER TIME:
12:00
INSERT PAUSE AFTER
REHYDRATION? yes NO
NEXT
NO
REHYDRATION
See Load stored method
screens for deleting a
method.
>
>
>
>
>
S 01
0 V
>
SELECT VOLTAGE SLOPE:
RAPID [
]
>
NEXT
S
01
Voltage
>
Time
xxxxxV
HRS:MIN vhours
ENTER TIME: 00:00
NEXT
>
>
>
METHOD "Method Name"
INCOMPLETE STEP
PLEASE ENTER VOLTAGE.
or
(PLEASE ENTER TIME.)
NEXT
>
NEXT
ADD (EDIT) insert delete
ENTER STEP #
#
NEXT
METHOD COMPLETE.
"Method Name"
SAVE METHOD? YES
NEXT
>
>
>
>
no >
>
NEXT, if YES or NO
EXIT
ENTER # OF GELS:
# >
µA LIMIT/GEL: 50
>
FOCUS TEMP:
20 °C >
PRESS
TO START
21
TO RUNNING
SCREENS
6.2 New Method Programming Instructions
REHYDRATION
PRESET METHOD
STORED METHOD
NEW METHOD
>
>
>
>
NAME: "METHOD NAME"
REHYDRATION: yes NO
FOCUS TEMP:
20 °C
NEXT
>
>
>
>
REHYDRATION STEP
[email protected] V
PASSIVE
ENTER TEMP:
20 °C
NEXT
>
>
>
ENTER TIME: 12:00
INSERT PAUSE AFTER
REHYDRATION? YES no
NEXT
>
S 01
0 V
SELECT VOLTAGE SLOPE:
RAPID
[ ]
>
>
>
1. Select the NEW METHOD mode to program
a new method.
2. Use the adjacent soft-key to activate the
alphanumeric keypad and enter a program
name with up to 10 characters.
Select YES or No for a rehydration step
(optional). NO is the default.
Enter a focusing temperature between 10–25 °C.
20 °C is the default value.
Press the NEXT key to continue.
Note: If a rehydration step is programmed
proceed to Step 3. If a rehydration step is not
programmed proceed to Step 5.
3. Select the Active (50 V) or Passive rehydration
option. Passive rehydration is the default.
Enter a rehydration temperature between
10–25 °C. Press the NEXT key to continue
4. Enter a rehydration time between 1 minute and
99 hours.
Select yes to insert a pause after the rehydration step. Select no to proceed immediately with
the first focusing step.
Press the NEXT key to continue.
Note: A pause is needed for inserting electrode
wicks, adding mineral oil, adding sample, or
transferring the strips from the disposable tray
to the running tray.
5.
NEXT
>
>
Use the adjacent soft-key to activate the
alphanumeric keypad and enter the desired
voltage value (50–10,000 V).
Select the voltage ramping slope for the step.
Brackets [ ] will surround the selected option.
Note: Rapid [ ] voltage ramping is limited
by the current. The Linear [ ] voltage ramping
option increases voltage linearly with respect to
time. The Slow [ ] voltage ramping option
increases voltage according to a delayed voltage
ramping algorithm.
Press the NEXT key to continue.
22
S
01
HRS:MIN
ENTER TIME:
xxxxxV
vhours
00:00
NEXT
>
>
>
ADD (EDIT) insert delete
ENTER STEP #: #
NEXT
METHOD COMPLETE
>
>
>
>
"METHOD NAME"
SAVE METHOD? YES
>
no
NEXT
>
6. The first line displays the step number, the
selected slope, and the entered voltage.
Select the time or volt-hours option for this step.
Enter a time up to 99:00 hours:minutes, or volthours up to 99,999.
Press the NEXT key to continue.
7. The ADD(EDIT)/Insert/Delete screen with the
next step number in the method is displayed
Use the adjacent soft key to edit, insert, or
delete a step in the method
Press the NEXT key and repeat steps 5 and 6
to add steps to the method.
Select the method complete softkey when
programming is complete.
Note: An inserted step is inserted ahead of the
step # entered.
8. The save method screen is displayed after the
Method Complete key is selected. Select yes to
save the method to memory. Select no to run
the method without saving it to memory.
Press the NEXT key to continue.
ENTER # OF GELS:
1 >
µA LIMIT/GEL:
50 >
FOCUS TEMP:
20 °C >
PRESS TO START
METHOD NAME EXISTS!
REPLACE
>
RENAME
>
CANCEL SAVE >
RENAME AND SAVE
"METHOD NAME"
YES
no
NEXT
>
>
>
>
ENTER # OF GELS:
1 >
µA LIMIT/GEL:
50 >
FOCUS TEMP:
20 °C >
PRESS TO START
9. The adjacent screen is displayed after saving
the method.
Enter the number of gels and edit current limit
per gel if needed to 99 µA per gel maximum.
Edit Focusing temperature if desired. Press
to start the run.
10. The Method Name Already Exists
If the method name already exists the adjacent
screen will be displayed.
Press the adjacent soft key to replace or rename
the method.
Press cancel save to return to the previous
screen.
11. Press the adjacent soft key to re-name the
method. When the cursor and enter symbols are
visible, use the alphanumeric keypad to enter
the new name.
Select the YES option to save the re-named
method. Select NO to continue to the run screen
without saving the method.
Press the NEXT key to continue to the run
screen.
12. The adjacent screen is displayed after replacing
the method. Enter the # of gels (IPG strips);
1–24 for 7 cm gels, 1–12 for 17 cm gels.
Press
to start the run and refer to Section 8
for program status screens.
23
Section 7
Editing a Method While Running (Real Time Editing)
Real time editing allows the user to modify a method during a run. Press the pause key to
enter the real time editing mode. Real time edits only affect the current run and changes can
not be stored or saved. The originally stored method remains unchanged.
7.1 Real Time Editing Programming Diagram
METHOD IS PAUSED.
EDIT # OF GELS: #
EDIT METHOD
PRESS
TO CONTINUE
EDIT
METHOD
>
>
EDITING
COMPLETE
STEP #/#
xxxxxV
EDIT HRS: MIN XX:XX
(or) VHOURS
XXXXXX
EDIT NEXT STEP
EDITING COMPLETE
>
>
>
>
CONTINUE
RUN
Running screen in step
number where system
was paused.
24
7.2 Real Time Editing Programming Instructions
METHOD IS PAUSED
EDIT # OF GELS:
EDIT METHOD
PRESS
TO CONTINUE
#
STEP
#/#:
xxxxxV
HRS:MIN
XX:XX
(or) VHOURS
XXXXX
EDIT NEXT STEP
EDITING COMPLETE
METHOD IS PAUSED
EDIT # OF GELS:
EDIT METHOD
PRESS
TO CONTINUE
#
>
>
>
>
>
>
1. Press the
key to pause the method.
Press the adjacent soft key to edit the number of
IPG strips for this run only.
Select EDIT METHOD to edit steps in the
method.
Press the
key to resume the method.
2. The current step number and total number of
steps are displayed. Only the current and
subsequent steps can be edited.
Press the adjacent soft key to edit the voltage.
Press the adjacent soft key to edit the time or
volt-hours.
Edited values cannot be less than the elapsed
time or volt-hours for the paused step.
Press the EDIT NEXT STEP key to edit
additional steps. If the method consists of only
one step this option is not available. Adding
steps during real time editing is not allowed.
Press EDITING COMPLETE to exit the edit
mode and return to the pause screen.
3. Press the
to resume the run.
Edited values during real time editing are not
saved.
>
>
25
Section 8
Method Status Screens
8.1 Program Status Screen Diagram
ENTER # OF GELS:
1 >
µA LIMIT/GEL:
50 >
FOCUS TEMP:
20 °C >
PRESS
TO START
RUNNING SCREENS
REHYDRATION
selected
NO
rehydration
REHYDRATION: PASSIVE (OR) AT 50 V
TEMP:
20/20 °C
TIME:
00:00/12:00
METHOD WILL START (OR PAUSE) WHEN
REHYDRATION COMPLETES (Scrolled)
When rehydration is completed
with inserted pause OR, when
pressing STOP key during
rehydration
REHYDRATION COMPLETE.
PRESS
TO START
STEP#01 OF METHOD
** CELL COVER OPEN **
METHOD PAUSED
CLOSE COVER
TO PROCEED.
S 01/#
XXV
XXµA
20/20 °C
XXµA/GEL
VH:000000 00:00/00:15
NAME RUN IN PROGRESS
(Scrolled message
during run)
** CELL COVER OPEN **
POWER SUPPLY PAUSED.
CLOSE COVER
TO PROCEED.
METHOD IS PAUSED
EDIT # OF GELS:
X
EDIT METHOD
PRESS
TO CONTINUE
S#/#
0V
0µA
22/20 °C
0 µA/gel
VH: 000000 00:00/00:01
NAME
FINISHED
>
>
Stop key
Stop key
Stop key
Go to real time
editing routine.
S#/#
0V
0µA
22/20 °C
0 µA/gel
VH: 000000 00:00/00:01
NAME
STOPPED
26
Stop
key
main
screen.
8.2 Program Status Screen Instructions
1. Start Run Screen
ENTER # OF GELS:
1 >
µA LIMIT/GEL:
50 >
FOCUS TEMP:
20 °C >
PRESS TO START
Enter the number of IPG strips to run.
Enter a current limit up to 99 µA.
Enter the focusing temperature (10–25 °C).
Press
to start the run.
2. Active/Passive Rehydration Display.
REHYDRATION: AT 50 V
TEMP:
20/20 °C
TIME:
00:00/00:00
METHOD WILL START (OR PAUSE)
WHEN REHYDRATION COMPLETES
(Scrolled)
** CELL COVER OPEN **
REHYDRATION PAUSED
•
The actual and set temperatures are
displayed (actual/set).
•
Time is listed as elapsed time/programmed
time.
Press
to stop the rehydration step.
3. When cell cover is opened the method is
paused. Close the lid to resume the rehydration
step.
CLOSE COVER TO PROCEED
REHYDRATION COMPLETE.
PRESS
TO START
STEP #01 OF METHOD
4. Rehydration Complete Display - This screen is
displayed when the rehydration step is complete
and a pause after rehydration step has been
programmed. In the pause mode the system
maintains the programmed temperature. At this
point IPG strips can be transferred to the focusing
trays if needed, electrode wicks can be inserted
and sample and/or mineral oil or similar overlay
material can be added to the individual channels.
Press
to start step 1 of the method.
5. S#/# (Current Step) Display
S 01/#
XXV
XXµA
20/20 °C
XXµA/GEL
VH: 000000
00:00/XX:XX
NAME
RUN IN PROGRESS
(Scrolled message during
run)
27
•
The actual voltage and the total current are
displayed.
•
The actual / set temperatures and the
current limit per gel are displayed.
•
The Total VH listed are cumulative but do
not include the rehydration step (active) or
the optional final hold step.
•
Time or vhours is listed as elapsed time
(vhours)/programmed time (vhours).
•
The Method Name is displayed. "Run in
progress" is scrolled during the run.
6. When the cell cover is opened during a run the
power supply is paused.
Close the lid to proceed to the method paused
screen.
** CELL COVER OPEN **
POWER SUPPLY PAUSED
CLOSE COVER TO PROCEED
METHOD IS PAUSED.
EDIT # OF GELS:
#
EDIT METHOD
PRESS
TO CONTINUE
7. Method is Paused screen is displayed when the
button is pressed.
>
>
Press the adjacent softkey to edit the number of
gels if any have been removed.
Select EDIT METHOD to edit the current
method. (See Section 7 for real time editing.)
Press
S #/#
0 V
0 µA
20/20 °C
0 µA/gel
VH: 000000
00:00/00:01
"METHOD NAME" FINISHED
key to continue method.
8. Final Run Screen (Stopped or Finished)
The final run screen is displayed when a
method is completed or is stopped during the
run.
•
The actual / set temperature is displayed.
•
The total volt-hours listed are cumulative
but do not include the rehydration step
(active).
•
The Method Name and STOPPED or
FINISHED is displayed.
Press the
to return to the main screen.
9. Hold Screen Display of Preset Methods
S 04/04
500V XXµA
20/20 °C
XXµA/gel
VH: 000000 00:00
HOLD VH:XXXX HOLDING
500V - PRESS (Stop key
symbol) TO STOP
(scrolled message)
This screen lists the holding voltage, total
current, and current per gel.
The VH listed are the total volthours of the
completed method excluding the hold step.
The displayed time is the elapsed time of the
hold step.
The HOLD VH displayed is the elapsed
volthours for the hold step only.
28
Section 9
Error Screens
Error Display Screens
Description of Error Screens
1.
When the Cell Cover is opened during either
rehydration or while running a method, the
PROTEAN IEF Cell is paused.
2.
* * CELL COVER OPEN * *
REHYDRATION PAUSED
(or)
POWER SUPPLY PAUSED.
CLOSE COVER
TO PROCEED.
This error screen is displayed if a zero value is
entered for voltage or time when programming
or editing a method.
"METHOD NAME"
INCOMPLETE STEP
PLEASE ENTER VOLTAGE
or
PLEASE ENTER TIME
NEXT >
3.
This error screen is displayed because of
recurring significant changes in resistance. To
prevent diffusion of focused proteins the
PROTEAN IEF Cell maintains the run at
500V. The displayed time and Volthours are
the elapsed time and volthours while in this
maintenance mode. Press the pause key to exit
this maintenance mode and enter the pause
mode. Before resuming the method check to
make sure all gels are in direct contact with the
electrode. Remove strips that show any
evidence of burning. Burned strips can be
caused by high current (we recommend a
current of < 50 µA per strip), or poorly
rehydrated IPG strips. Incomplete (<10 hours)
rehydration can result in electrical discontinuities
causing large fluctuations in resistance.
Note: When the PROTEAN Cell switches to
the maintenance mode, the timer of the method
itself is stopped and will continue where it left
off when the method is resumed.
The system is running outside the operating
limits. Check the gel and tray to insure proper
contact.
Recycle the power to reset instrument. Turn
off the mains power, then wait 10 seconds
before turning the mains power back on.
If the problem persists, record the values listed
and call Bio-Rad at 1-800-4BIORAD or
contact your local Bio-Rad representative.
RUN AT: 500V
XXµA
TIME: 00:00 00000 VH
ERRATIC RESISTANCE
PRESS PAUSE KEY. CHECK
GEL/ELECTRODE CONTACTS
IN TRAY. (scrolled
message)
4.
OVER VOLTAGE ERROR
or
OVER CURRENT ERROR
C=XXX
V=XXX
CYCLE POWER TO RESET
29
Error Display Screens
Description of Error Screens
5.
System error or possible arcing in focusing
tray. Check the gel and tray to insure proper
contact. Also, make sure the IPG strips have
been sufficiently rehydrated. Incomplete (<10
hours) rehydration can result in electrical
discontinuities causing large fluctuations in
resistance and possibly arcing. Recycle power
to reset instrument. Turn off the mains power,
then wait 10 seconds before turning the mains
power back on.
If the problem persists, call Bio-Rad at 1-8004BIORAD or contact your local Bio-Rad
representative.
PROT. IEF E TRAP
POSSIBLE ARCING
CHECK TRAY
CYCLE POWER TO RESET
6.
Voltage or current is outside operating parameters of the PROTEAN IEF Cell. Check the IPG
strips. Recycle the power to reset the instrument.
Turn off the mains power, then wait 10 seconds
before turning the mains power back on. If the
problem persists, call Bio-Rad at 1-8004BIORAD or contact your local Bio-Rad
representative.
VOLTAGE OFFSET ERROR!
or
CURRENT OFFSET ERROR!
CHECK TRAY
CYCLE POWER TO RESET
7. CHECKSUM ERROR IN
"METHOD NAME"
REVIEW METHOD STEPS!
NEXT >
This message is displayed when verification
of the selected method failed. Review the steps
of the method to confirm all values are correct
before proceeding. Wait 10 seconds before
pressing the NEXT soft key or reset the
instrument by recycling the power. Turn off
the mains power, then wait 10 seconds before
turning the mains power back on. Review the
steps in the method to confirm that all values
are valid. Replace the method before proceeding.
If problem persists call Bio-Rad at 1-8004BIORAD or contact your local Bio-Rad
representative.
8. ERROR WRITING EEPROM
METHOD NOT SAVED
P=XXX M=XXX O=XXX
NEXT >
System error.
Recycle the power to reset the instrument. Turn
off the mains power, then wait 10 seconds
before turning the mains power back on.
If the problem persists, record the values listed
and call Bio-Rad at 1-800-4BIORAD or
contact your local Bio-Rad representative.
9.
System error.
Recycle the power to reset the instrument. Turn
off the mains power, then wait 10 seconds
before turning the mains power back on.
If the problem persists, record the values listed
and call Bio-Rad at 1-800-4BIORAD or
contact your local Bio-Rad representative.
BAD VOLTAGE
VC=XXX,
VO=XXX
IC=XXX, IO=XXX
30
Error Display Screens
Description of Error Screens
10. PROT. IEF E TRAP
/0 ADDR=xxxx:xxxx
T=XX, CTXT=XXX
CYCLE POWER TO RESET
System error.
Recycle the power to reset the instrument. Turn
off the mains power, then wait 10 seconds
before turning the mains power back on.
If the problem persists, record the values listed
and call Bio-Rad at 1-800-4BIORAD or
contact your local Bio-Rad representative.
11. PROT. IEF E TRAP
ME: XXX, TYPE=XXX
T=XX, CTXT=XXX
CYCLE POWER TO RESET
System error.
Recycle the power to reset the instrument. Turn
off the mains power, then wait 10 seconds
before turning the mains power back on.
If the problem persists, record the values listed
and call Bio-Rad at 1-800-4BIORAD or
contact your local Bio-Rad representative.
12. PROT. IEF E TRAP
ERR: XXX ERRV=XXX
T=XX, CTXT=XXX
CYCLE POWER TO RESET
System error.
Recycle power to reset instrument. Turn off
the mains power, then wait 10 seconds before
turning the mains power back on.
If the problem persists, record the values listed
and call Bio-Rad at 1-800-4BIORAD or
contact your local Bio-Rad representative.
Section 10
Reagent and Strip Preparation
10.1 IPG Buffers and Reagents
10.1.1. IPG Strip Rehydration Buffers
Prior to isoelectric focusing, the IPG strips are rehydrated with rehydration buffer. Two
different rehydration buffers are listed; one for rehydration without sample and one for
sample application during rehydration. Rehydration with protein sample minimizes
solubility problems and allows for larger sample loads. The optimal rehydration buffer
composition for each type of sample is best determined empirically.1,2,3
31
1.
First Dimension
REHYDRATION BUFFER
Without protein sample
8-9.8 M Urea*
4.8-5.8g/10ml
REHYDRATION BUFFER
With protein sample
8-9.8 M Urea*
4.8-5.8 g/10 ml
0.5% CHAPS
50 mg/10ml
1-4% CHAPS*
100-400 mg/10 ml
10 mM DTT
15 mg/10ml
15-100 mM DTT*
23-150 mg/10 ml
(Dithiothreitol)
or,
2mM Tributylphosphine**
(Dithiothreitol)
or,
2mM Tributylphosphine**
0-0.2% (w/v) Bio-Lytes†
0-0.2% (w/v) Bio-Lytes†
0.001% Orange G
0.001% Orange G
or Bromophenol Blue
or Bromophenol Blue
* The amounts of Urea, CHAPS, DTT, and Bio-Lytes required depend on the sample solubility. The amounts listed here serve
as a general guideline. The optimal rehydration buffer composition for each sample type is best determined empirically.
** Tributylphosphine is an alternative reducing agent for DTT.4,5,6,7
† pH gradient corresponding to IPG Strip gradient.
IPG Strip Rehydration
7 cm ReadyStrip
17 cm ReadyStrip
Minimum rehydration volume
Rehydrates strip to a gel
thickness of 0.5 mm, and gel
composition of 4%T/3%C
125 µl
300 µl
Maximum rehydration volume
Increased rehydration volume
allows for larger protein sample
load, facilitates entry of larger
proteins, and minimizes protein
solubility problems
250 µl
600 µl
Sample Loading Following ReadyStrip Rehydration
Samples can be applied following rehydration immediately prior to focusing. The
rehydrated ReadyStrips are positioned in the focusing tray and covered with mineral oil or
similar overlay material. The sample is then added to the sample loading wells on the
channel in the focusing tray. The recommended sample volume for tray loading is
up to 30 µl/ReadyStrip.
32
10.1.2 2nd Dimension Equilibration Buffers
Prior to running the 2nd dimension (SDS-PAGE) it is necessary to equilibrate the
ReadyStrips.
The first equilibration step is required to saturate the ReadyStrip IPG Strips with SDS
and reducing agent.
When DTT is used a second equilibration step is required. The Iodoacetamide prevents
protein re-oxidation during electrophoresis and alkylates residual DTT to minimize vertical
streaking.
Equilibration buffer
Equilibration Buffer II
(Prepare immediately prior to use)
Step 1: 10–15 min in equilibration buffer I
(Prepare immediately prior to use)
Step 2 : 10–15 min in equilibration buffer II
6 M Urea
3.6 g/10 ml
6 M Urea
3.6 g/10 ml
2% SDS
0.2 g/10 ml
2% SDS
0.2 g/10 ml
0.375M Tris-HCl
pH 8.8
2.5 ml 1.5 M
Tris-HCl,
pH 8.8 /10 ml
0.375M Tris-HCl
pH 8.8
2.5 ml 1.5 M
Tris-HCl,
pH 8.8 /10ml
20% Glycerol
2 ml/10 ml
20% Glycerol
2 ml/10 ml
130 mM DTT
200 mg/10 ml
135 mM Iodoacetamide 250 mg/10 ml
10.2 IPG Strip Preparation and Handling
10.2.1. IPG Strip Rehydration
Select IPG strip with the pH range required for optimum separation of the proteins. Refer
to Section 6.2 for IPG strip specifications.
Note: Always wear gloves when handling IPG strips to prevent contamination.
IPG strips must be rehydrated prior to the isoelectric focusing run. Rehydrate the IPG
strips using one of the two basic methods (with or without sample) given below.
Rehydration (with sample)
The recommended method for applying protein samples to ReadyStrip IPG strips is to
rehydrate the strips in buffer containing sample. This is the simplest method to use and
allows for loading of larger quantities of proteins (up to 1 mg) while preventing sample
precipitation. The sample should be prepared in a buffer containing urea, non-ionic and/or
zwitterionic detergents, carrier ampholytes, and a reducing agent. The optimal buffer
composition and protein load will be sample dependent.
Prepare the sample in Rehydration Buffer. In general, use 5–100 µg for silver
staining and up to 1 mg for Coomassie staining. Refer to Section 10.1 for commonly used
rehydration solutions.
Rehydration (without sample)
Some proteins do not diffuse readily into the matrix of the IPG strip. In those cases the
sample can be applied to the IPG strips following rehydration just prior to focusing. The
IPG strips are rehydrated in Rehydration Buffer without sample and the sample is applied
via the channels of the focusing tray.
Select the appropriate disposable rehydration tray or the focusing tray for
rehydration of the IPG strips.
Note: The focusing tray must be used for active rehydration. Passive rehydration of the
IPG strips can take place in the disposable rehydration tray or in the IPG focusing tray.
33
Rehydration/equilibration tray
Focusing tray
Fig. 6. Rehydration/equilibration tray & focusing trays.
Open the IPG strip package and carefully remove the protective cover from the IPG
strip(s) with forceps. Discard the cover.
Fig. 7. Cover removal.
Add the appropriate rehydration solution (with or without protein sample) to each channel.
Bio-Rad ReadyStrip IPG Strip
7 cm strip
17 cm strip
Volume per Channel
125 µl
300 µl
34
Place the IPG strip gel side down into a tray channel. Wet the strip by sliding it through
the rehydration solution as you place it into the channel of the tray. Minimize the amount
of solution on top of the strip and insure that each strip is completely wetted to prevent
uneven rehydration.
+
a. Rehydration/equilibration tray
5-8
b. Focusing tray.
Fig. 8. IPG strip placement in tray.
Apply mineral oil or similar overlay material to each channel containing an IPG Strip.
Make sure the entire strip is covered.
Place the cover lid on the tray.
Place the tray on the Peltier platform. For active rehydration be sure to align the
electrodes of the focusing tray with the Peltier electrode connections on the platform as
shown in Figure 13.
Program or select the desired method (refer to Section 2.2) and start the run. The
program may include a pause step after rehydration in order to transfer strips from the
rehydration tray to the focusing tray and/or to add electrode wicks before the
isoelectric focusing begins (or to add mineral oil).
Note: Electrode wicks should never be used during the rehydration step as the wicks can
absorb the applied sample.
10.2.2. Isoelectric Focusing
Once the IPG strips are rehydrated they can be focused with or without the use of pre-wetted electrode wicks. Electrode wicks are recommended.
Prewet electrode wicks in deionized water blotting off excess water. Insert electrode wicks
directly on top of both the cathode and anode electrode wires in the focusing tray just prior
to focusing.
35
If a focusing tray is used for the rehydration step, carefully insert damp electrode wicks by
gently lifting the IPG strip and placing it between the electrode and the strip. (Refer to Figure 9.)
Fig. 9. Electrode wicks added to a focusing tray with IPG strips already in place.
If a rehydration/equilibration tray is used for the rehydration step place the damp electrode
wicks on the electrodes of the focusing tray first (Figure 10a). Then carefully transfer the
strips from the rehydration/equilibration tray placing them gel side down onto the
electrode wicks in the channel of the focusing tray. (Figure 10b) Overlay each strip with
mineral oil or a similar overlay material.
+
10a. Positioning Electrode Wick
5-8
10b. Positioning ReadyStrip IPG Strip
Fig. 10. Electrode wicks and IPG strips added to a focusing tray.
Sample application if the protein sample was not included in the rehydration buffer.
The rehydrated ReadyStrips are positioned in the focusing tray and covered with mineral
oil or similar overlay material. The sample is then added to the sample loading wells on
the channel in the focusing tray. The recommended sample volume for tray loading is
up to 30 µl/ReadyStrip.
Fig. 11. Sample Application.
36
Fig. 12. Interlocking lid and tray.
Place the lid on the focusing tray so that the lid pressure tabs press on the IPG strips
directly over the electrodes to insure good contact between the strips and the electrodes.
Fig. 13. Tray electrode and platform electrode alignment.
Place the tray on the Peltier platform. Be sure the electrodes of the focusing tray contact
the color coded electrodes of the PROTEAN IEF cell as shown in Figure 13.
Program or select the desired method and start the run.
37
10.2.3. IPG Strip Storage
IPG strips can be stored indefinitely at -80 °C after the run. A rehydration tray and lid
can be used to store the IPG strips.
10.2.4. IPG Strip Equilibration (prior to 2nd dimension)
To equilibrate IPG strips, fill each channel with DTT Equilibration buffer and soak for 10
minutes. Discard the solution and add the iodoacetamide equilibration solution and soak
for an additional 10 minutes. Then place the IPG Strip on the second dimension gel.
Section 11
Troubleshooting
If a system or operator error occurs the appropriate error message will appear on the LCD
display. The power is not applied to the system/electrodes when an error message is displayed.
Problem
Initial low or zero
current
Cause
• Poor contact between IPG
strips and electrode.
Solution
• Check contact between IPG
strips and electrode. Make
sure the focusing tray lid is
placed correctly.
• Incomplete contact between • Check placement of focusing
tray electrodes and PROTEAN tray to insure proper contact
IEF Cell connections.
between tray electrodes and
PROTEAN IEF Cell connections.
• Incomplete IPG strip
• Make sure that the IPG strips
rehydration
are completely and evenly rehydrated. Check rehydration
volumes and rehydration times.
• Salt concentration too high • Check salt concentration
and/or desalt sample.
Voltage is not
increasing during
voltage ramping steps.
Voltage does not
• Bio-Lyte concentration too • Reduce Bio-Lyte concentration
reach programmed
high
to 0.2% (v/v).
value, or maximum
• Set voltage too high for IPG • Program volt-hours for
voltage is reached
strip size and pH gradient.
focusing step to insure
very slowly
complete focusing of sample.
• Excess sample during re• If greater than recommended
hydration did not enter gel,
sample volumes are used make
or IPG gels overswelled
sure all off sample has entered
with excess sample
gel, or remove excess sample
prior to focusing.
Large fluctuations in • IPG strips contain poorly
• Check rehydration volume
Voltage and current.
rehydrated regions, or
and time. Make sure rehy(also resistance error
IPG strips have dried out
dration solution is evenly
message displayed)
during the run.
distributed during rehydration.
• Current limit too high.
• We recommend a current limit
of 50 µA/strip. Make sure the
correct number of IPG strips
was entered.
38
Problem
Cause
Burning of strips
• Current limit too high.
(this will cause large
fluctuations in
resistance resulting
in the resistance error • IPG strips have dried out.
message.)
• Electrode wicks too wet
or contain incorrect
electrode solution.
• Rehydration buffer
composition incorrect,
salt concentration too high.
Solution
• We recommend a current limit
50 µA/strip. Make sure the
correct number of IPG strips
was entered.
• Make sure IPG strips are
covered with mineral oil or
equivalent to prevent drying
out
• Make sure the electrode wicks
contain de-ionized water only
and are damp, not wet.
• Check rehydration buffer
concentration. Remake buffer if
if necessary.
Section 12
Accessories
12.1 Optional Thermal Printer
Thermal Printer can be directly used with the PROTEAN IEF Cell and comes ready to
connect to the RS232 serial port. A straight, serial cable is included with the printer and the
DIP switches are pre-set to match the PROTEAN IEF Cell requirements.
Configuration
The RS232 serial port
Pin 2
Pin 3
Pin 5
other pins
Signal and Direction
Transmit
Receive
Ground
Not connected
Thermal Printer
Pin 2
Pin 3
Pin 5
other pins
Thermal Printer
1. Insert the DC plug on the AC adaptor into the power supply jack on the printer.
2. Plug the AC adaptor into an outlet.
3. Connect the straight, serial cable to the RS232 port of the PROTEAN IEF Cell and to
the serial port located on the back of the printer.
4. Load the thermal paper into the printer (refer to the Printer Manual).
5. The printer DIP switches have been preset to match the requirements of the PROTEAN
IEF Cell.
To print the current DIP switch settings proceed as follows:
a.
Slide the power switch to ON while pressing the ONLINE button.
b.
Release the ONLINE button and a list of the current settings will be printed. The
completed printout is followed by the prompt
"Continue?: Push On-line SW"
"Write?: Push paper feed SW"
c.
Push the Feed button to return to ONLINE Mode.
39
Thermal Printer Preset DIP Switch Settings (for use with the PROTEAN IEF
Cell
DIP SW-1
1
(OFF)
2
(ON)
3
(ON)
4
(OFF)
5
(ON)
6
(OFF)
7
(ON)
8
(ON)
DIP SW-2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Input = Serial
Printing Speed = High
Auto loading = ON
Auto LF = OFF
Setting Command = enable
Printing
Density
= 100%
(ON)
(ON)
(ON)
(ON)
(ON)
(ON)
(ON)
(OFF)
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Printing Columns = 40
User Font Back-up = ON
Character Select = Normal
Zero - Normal
International
Character
Set
= U.S.A.
(ON)
(ON)
(ON)
(OFF)
(OFF)
(ON)
(ON)
(ON)
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Data Length = 8 bits
Parity Setting = No
Parity Condition - Odd
Busy Control = XON/XOFF
Baud
Rate
Select
= 9600 bps
DIP SW-3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
(Refer to the Printer Manual for details on changing the DIP switch setting)
40
RS232 Printout of Running Conditions
The PROTEAN IEF Cell is configured to output the running conditions every 5 minutes
during the isoelectric focusing portion of a method. The printout lists the details of the programmed method and values for all the parameters of each step.
Bio-Rad Laboratories
PROTEAN IEF Cell
Firmware Version: X.XX
Method "Name"
Rehydration: Inactive (Passive or Active @ 50 V)
Rehyde time: 00:00 Temp: 20 °C
Run Temp: 20 °C
Number of Gels: #
Max µA/Gel: 50
Step 01
250 V Ramp:R
Step 02
10000 V Ramp:S
etc.
End of Method list.
Time: 00:15
Time: 01:00
Start of run data:
00:00
Total time
elapsed
1
xxxxV /
Step # Voltage and
Ramp type
50
Total
Current
10 µA
Current
per gel
0000 V hrs
Total
Volthours
The printout will also indicate interruptions of the run, such as pause mode and interruption
of power when the cell cover is opened. If there is poor contact between one of the IPG strips
and the electrode, large fluctuations in resistance will hold the voltage constant at 500 volts
until the user intervenes, preventing the IPG strips from burning. If the method is edited
during the run the printout will display edited values with an asterisk.
12.2 ReadyStrips IPG Strips
ReadyStrips IPG strips are made with buffering acrylamide derivatives that contain either
a free carboxylic acid or a tertiary amino group which are co-polymerized with acrylamide and
Bis. As such, the pH gradient is precast into the gel and cannot shift during electrophoresis.
The pre-cast IPG provides reproducible gradients in an easy to use format.
Specifications
7 cm ReadyStrips
17 cm ReadyStrips
Total strip length
7.9 cm
17.8 cm
Gel length
7.25 cm
17.1 cm
Strip width
3.3 cm
3.3 cm
0.5 mm
0.5 mm
Strip dimensions
Gel thickness
Linear pH gradient ranges
Standard broad ranges
3-10, 4-7
3-10, 4-7
3-6, 5-8, 7-10
3-6, 5-8, 7-10
4%T/3%C
4%T/3%C
-20 °C
-20 °C
Number of ReadyStrips/package
12
12
Anode (acidic) end identified by:
+
+
Overlapping, narrow ranges
Gel composition
Storage
Refer to Section 15 for ordering information.
41
Section 13
Cleaning and Maintenance
Focusing/equilibration trays.
These trays are composed of polycarbonate. Clean the trays carefully with non-abrasive
detergent, e.g. a solution of ~10% SDS, being careful not to damage the platinum electrodes.
Special cleaning brushes are included with the PROTEAN IEF Cell to aid in the cleaning
process. Rinse the trays thoroughly with de-ionized water to remove all detergents. Make
sure the trays are completely dry prior to use.
Rehydration/equilibration trays:
These trays are composed of polystyrene and are disposable. If thoroughly cleaned as
specified above, these trays can be re-used.
PROTEAN IEF Cell:
The external case is composed of an ABS/Polycarbonate blend. Do not use strong solvents to
clean the PROTEAN IEF Cell. Any spills of IEF reagents on the cooling platform can be
removed with paper towel
Section 14
Warranty
The PROTEAN IEF Cell is warranted for one(1) year against defects in material and
workmanship. If any defects should occur during this warranty period, Bio-Rad Laboratories
will replace the defective parts without charge. However, the following defects are specifically
excluded:
1. Defects caused by improper operation.
2. Repair or modification done by anyone other than Bio-Rad Laboratories or their
authorized agent
3. Use with other spare parts not specified by Bio-Rad Laboratories.
For inquiry or request for repair service, contact your local Bio-Rad office.
Section 15
Product Information and Accessories
Catalog
Number
Product Description
165-4000
PROTEAN IEF System, complete, includes basic unit, 17 and 7 cm
focusing trays with lid, 1 pack each of 17 and 7 cm rehydration/
equilibration trays with lids, 2 pairs of forceps, 1 pack of electrode
wicks, mineral oil, cleaning brushes
165-4001
PROTEAN IEF Cell, 90–240 VAC, basic unit, includes the cell and
instruction manual
165-4010
17 cm focusing tray with lid, 1
165-4030
7 cm focusing tray with lid, 1
165-4015
Disposable rehydration/equilibration tray with lid, 17 cm, 25
165-4035
Disposable rehydration/equilibration tray with lid, 7 cm, 25
42
Catalog
Number
Product Description
165-4070
Forceps, 1 pair
165-4071
Electrode wicks, pre-cut, 4 mm x 20 mm, 500
165-4072
Cleaning brushes, 2
165-4080
Thermal Printer, with cable and power adaptor, 100 V
165-4082
Thermal Printer, 120 V
165-4085
Thermal Printer, 220 V
170-2412
Thermal Printer Paper, 10 rolls
163-2129
Mineral oil, 500 ml
ReadyStrip™ IPG Strips
163-2000
ReadyStrip IPG Strips pH 3-10, 7 cm, 12
163-2001
ReadyStrip IPG Strips pH 4-7, 7 cm, 12
163-2003
ReadyStrip IPG Strips pH 3-6, 7 cm, 12
163-2004
ReadyStrip IPG Strips pH 5-8, 7 cm, 12
163-2005
ReadyStrip IPG Strips pH 7-10, 7 cm, 12
163-2007
ReadyStrip IPG Strips pH 3-10, 17 cm, 12
163-2008
ReadyStrip IPG Strips pH 4-7, 17 cm, 12
163-2010
ReadyStrip IPG Strips pH 3-6, 17 cm, 12
163-2011
ReadyStrip IPG Strips pH 5-8, 17 cm, 12
163-2012
ReadyStrip IPG Strips pH 7-10, 17 cm, 12
Section 16
References
General 2D electrophoresis
1.
O'Farrell P. H. (1975) High resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins., J.Biol.Chem.
250, 4007–4021.
General solubilization
2.
3.
Rabilloud, T. (1996) Solubilization of proteins for electrophoretic analyses. Electrophoresis, 17,
813–829.
Link A.J.,Ed.(1999). "2-D Proteome Analysis Protocols." Methods in Molecular Biology, 112.
Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
Thiourea /TBP
4.
5.
6.
7.
Molloy M. P. et.al. (1998) Extraction of membrane proteins by differential solubilization for separation using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Electrophoresis, 19, 837–844.
Herbert, B. R. et.al. (1998) Improved protein solubility in two-dimensional electrophoresis using
tributyl phosphine as reducing agent. Electrophoresis, 19, 845–851.
Rabilloud T. (1998) Use of thiourea to increase the solubility of membrane proteins in two
dimensional electrophoresis. Electrophoresis, 19, 758–760.
Ruegg, U. T. and Rudinger, J. (1977) Reductive cleavage of cystine disulfides with
tributylphosphine, Methods Enzymol., 47, 11–116.
43
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Laboratories
Life Science
Group
Web site
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Korea
The Netherlands
Austria
Belgium Ph. 09-385 55 11, Fx. 09-385 65 54
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Italy
France Ph. 01 47 95 69 65, Fx. 01 47 41 9133
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Ph. 47-23-38-41-30, Fx. 47-23-38-41-39
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