Mangrove research at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Mangrove research at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
European Tropical Forest Research Network
No. 33 Spring/Summer 2001
ETFRN and EC News
Organisations - Programmes
Hydrological Research for Integrated Land &
Water Management - UNESCO-IHP & IUFRO
Symposium and Workshop
Danum Valley Hydrology Programme
Environmental Care Pays Off! A Long Term Study on
Plantation Forests in Sabah, Malaysia
Management of Upper Water Catchments - New
Research supported by DFID
Water Catchment Research. Issues & Options for
DFID’s Forestry Research Programme
The HELP Initiative to Coordinate Catchment
Mangrove Research at the Vrije Universiteit, Brussels 14
Impacts of Sedimentation on Mangrove Dynamics
along Thai Coastlines
The Contribution of Flooding-Tolerant Legume
Symbioses to the N-cycle of the Pantanal
Mato-Grossense Wetlands of Brazil
Gaseous Nitrogen Turnover in the Amazon
Floodplain Forest
Impact of Eucalypt Plantations in Congo on the
Chemical Composition of Surface Waters
Functioning of an Amazonian Forest Ecosystem:
the Water and Nutrient Cycling
Ecological Water Quality: A Valuable Tool to Assess
the Impact of Logging Activities on Tropical Forests? 27
Forest Rehabilitation & Water Conservation in the
Tigray Highlands, Northern-Ethiopia
Anthropogenic Disturbance Changes the Diversity
& the Structuring Mechanisms of Arthropod
Communities of Primary Rain Forests
Research Cooperation Sought
Internet Features
Other News
Job Opportunities
Dear readers,
For this issue on ”Forests and Water” I would like to start by thanking all contributors for their time spent and
fine collaboration in editing.
The relation of tropical forests and water is crucial in many aspects. However, the response to the call for
contributions has not been as overwhelming as for the previous issue of the newsletter on ”non timber forest
products”. Perhaps this is because water issues are not as ”hot” today as other issues to the community
forming policy for priorities for research. Water issues have been identified high on the agenda for many
decades, but maybe too long for research to develop? The benchmark symposium and workshop in Kuala
Lumpur, August 2000 (see report inside and reports on the web), identified the need for scaling up to
landscape level and to clarify the links and effects to society. Not that we do not need more understanding of
technical processes working within catchments, but how do they link and how are they relevant to poor people’s
living and development in the ecosystems of today? Sadly, much of what was forests in the past is not forests
today. What are the dynamics of people, fire, vegetation, water and nutrients in the dominating secondary and
manmade ecosystems of today and in changing societies? Much research is done on effects of land use
practices and processes in natural systems, but what about wild fires raging the tropical continents in more
fire prone new vegetation types?
The contents of this issue reflect a broad spectrum of forests and water. A number of articles report on the
classical type of catchment experiments. These reports underline the importance of long term research and
also aim at welcome efforts to coordinate catchment programmes.
Several key ecosystems, small but important, are covered. These include cloud forests (publications), wetlands
and mangroves, but also forest plantations, which will be increasingly important with vanishing natural forests
and land in need of “rehabilitation”.
Issues of water conservation pertain as major issues in the dry tropics and they are also covered in this issue.
Finally, a paper on arthropods in the trees has been included as this interesting subject has not been covered
in the ETFRN News for some time.
I hope you all will have interesting reading and get new impulses.
Anders Malmer
Dept. of Forest Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Umeå, Sweden.
We are grateful to Anders Malmer for editing this issue of the ETFRN News. Please note the themes and
deadlines for the next issues on the back cover.
Willemine Brinkman
ETFRN Coordinator
ETFRN Coordination Unit
c/o Tropenbos International
PO Box 232, 6700 AE Wageningen
The Netherlands
Tel: +31 317 495516 Fax: +31 317 495521
Email: [email protected]
Guest Editor for this issue:
Editorial assistance:
ETFRN News 33/01
Willemine Brinkman
Anders Malmer
Evelyn Whyte
Cover illustration:
Forest stream in multi-layered dipterocarp forest in
Sabah, Malaysia.
Photograph by Anders Malmer.
ETFRN and European Commission News
DG Research
mass of skills – research activities oriented
towards long-term objectives, rather than
precise, predefined results
Preparations for a new EU framework
programme for Research and
Development are reported to be on
schedule. The launch of the 17.5 billion
Euro Research Framework Programme for
2002 – 2006 is planned for mid 2002.
Integrated projects (in the range of several
million to several tens of millions of Euros)
The following research areas have been
identified as priorities for the framework
Information on the Commission's proposal for
the new framework programme (2002-2006) is
available from:
where the following documents may be
downloaded. The documents are available in
all EU languages.
Genomics and biotechnology for
Information Society technologies
materials and new production
Aeronautics and space
Food Safety and health risks
Sustainable development and global
Citizens and Governance in the
European Knowledge-based society
While the topic of sustainable development
and global change could potentially include
forest related research in the tropics,
subtropics and Mediterranean, the present
Commission proposals do not appear to
pay specific attention to research
cooperation with developing countries.
The research funding methods will not be
the same as in the present framework
programme. The new programme aims to
help create a European Research Area by
means of three key instruments:
Networks of excellence – networks of
researchers around a core group of
participants, aiming to advance knowledge
in a particular area by assembling a critical
ETFRN News 33/01
Joint participation in national programmes
– involving at least three Member States, or
two Member States and one Associated State
Commission's proposal for the new
framework programme: COM (2001) 94 of
Communication from the Commission: the
framework programme and the European
Research Area: application of Article169
and the networking of national
programmes: COM (2001) 282 of
Commission's proposal for the specific
programmes: COM (2001) 279 of
A dedicated e-mail address has been created
at DG Research to which comments and
suggestions may be sent:
[email protected]
DGs Development and Europe-Aid
Cooperation Office (formerly SCR)
The Tropical Forest Budget Line call for
proposals for 2001 closed last May.
ETFRN and European Commission News
According to Commission sources, around
700 proposals were received, and
evaluation will commence early September,
after the summer holiday period.
DG Environment
Report available: Economic Evaluation of
Sectoral Emission Reduction Objectives
for Climate Change
The objectives of this 2 year long study
were to identify the (least-cost) contribution
of different sectors and gases for meeting
the European Community’s quantitative
reduction for greenhouse gases under the
Kyoto protocol; and to determine a package
of cost-effective policies and measures for
all sectors and gases towards meeting the
The study is available from the DG
Environment website at:
Carbon sinks were not taken into account.
The study highlights include the following
statement: “Further work is required by
expanding the coverage to include carbon
sinks, to look beyond 2010 and to include
the accession countries in the analysis.”
wealth of web-based information on nontimber forest products and on biodiversity.
The new topics pages, on Non-Timber Forest
Products and on Biodiversity, have been
designed to improve access to the range of
information on the ETFRN website, as well as
to other relevant web-based information. To
save on search time, all information on Non
Timber Forest Products and on Biodiversity on
the ETFRN site can be accessed from the
topics pages. A page with direct links to the
search results of databases maintained by
other organisations, such as FAO, EIARD
Infosys, ELDIS and WISARD is also included.
In the future we plan to add new topics pages
on other subjects. We would very much
welcome comments and suggestions for
further improvement, and for topics to cover.
Recent ETFRN publications
Forestry, Forest Users and Research: New
Ways of Learning, edited by Dr Anna
Lawrence is the first publication in the new
ETFRN Series. The book provides a sampler
of current research with forest users, and is a
result of the ETFRN workshop "Learning from
Resource Users: a paradigm shift in tropical
forestry?" which was held in Vienna on 28-29
April 2000. For more information, please see
p. 46.
Further information on EU policies and
activities regarding climate change is
available from DG Environment’s Climate
Change page:
Developing Needs-Based Inventory
Methods for Non-Timber Forest Products:
Application and development of current
research to identify practical solutions for
developing countries.
The proceedings of the ETFRN workshop on
this topic, which was held at FAO, Rome in
May 2000 may be downloaded from the
ETFRN website at
ETFRN Topics pages: easy access to a
ETFRN News 33/01
ETFRN and European Commission News
has accepted.
Printed copies are also available from the
ETFRN Coordination Unit.
The ETFRN Executive Committee
meeting was held in Brussels 22 May
2001. Items discussed included workshop
plans, ETFRN participation in the ASEM
(Asia Europe Science meeting) conference
on sustainable forest management in Asia,
and DG Research preparations for the sixth
framework plan for Research and
The ETFRN Steering Committee meeting
was held 9 - 10 February 2001 in Umeå,
Sweden. Items discussed included plans
for ETFRN workshops; the ETFRN web
communication strategy; policy research
links; and an approach to quantification of
European research capability in forest
research in the tropics, subtropics and
At the end of the meeting the Chairman,
Olavi Luukkanen (Finland) handed over the
Chair to Jochen Heuveldop (Germany).
Professor Luukkanen agreed to stay on the
Executive Committee for one more year.
The Steering Committee unanimously
elected Anders Malmer (Sweden) as Vice
Chairman. Giovanni Preto (Italy) was
nominated as fourth member of the
Executive Committee. Approval for his
nomination was unanimous, and Dr Preto
ETFRN News 33/01
The Executive Committee endorsed the
following workshop proposals, and agreed
to reserve 10–15,000 Euro from the
Coordination Unit workshop funds for each
of these workshops. For both proposed
workshops, collaboration with other
organisations or projects, and additional
funds are being sought.
Workshop on Dryland Rehabilitation in SubSaharan Africa
Workshop on Methods for Participatory
Biodiversity Monitoring
Organisations - Institutions - Programmes
By Anders Malmer
followed by a workshop, which was coorganised and co-sponsored by the CGIAR
centre CIFOR (Centre for International
Forestry Research). The meeting was
formally closed by Mr. Matsuura, DirectorGeneral of UNESCO, during his visit to
Malaysia at the invitation of the Malaysian
In hydrology research there is a need to
scale up the level of investigation from plots
and small catchments to a larger landscape
level, in spite of the increased complexity, in
order to be more relevant to the larger water
problems and phenomena that face society.
This was one of the general
recommendations to the research
community given by this five-day meeting.
The production of a printed technical
Symposium/Workshop by Cambridge
University Press within the CUP-UNESCO
International Hydrology Series has
commenced, with a target date for
publication in 2002. The production of nontechnical materials (brochures, posters,
audio-visuals) for policy makers and
The meeting, held in Bangi, Kuala Lumpur, resource managers, summarising our current
Malaysia during five days in August 2000, understanding of tropical forest hydrology
was jointly organised by the UNESCO and environmental effects of forest
International Hydrological Programme (IHP) disturbance and conversion is under way.
(as a contribution to the IHP-V Humid
Tropics Programme and HELP – see p. 12
of this issue) and the International Union of Apart from general recommendations,
Forest Research Organisation (IUFRO). The presentations and discussions also resulted
programme was devised to interface science in recommendations on specific research
with policy and management: in the opening issues eg agroforestry, water and energy
session, an overview of the causes of land scarcity, extreme events, tropical montane
use change linked with policy, and the cloud forests, groundwater, etc. The paper by
perspectives of a resource manager and Bruce Aylward reported on in the
local communities were delivered. ‘Publications’ section of this issue (p. 42) is
Subsequent sessions enabled scientists to an example of one of the papers on
provide technical detail on hydrological economic aspects of land use in watershed
processes in 'undisturbed' forest, and on the context.
impact of various land use changes. New
methodologies to evaluate the effects of land
use change at different scales were then put Summary, recommendations, workshop
forward based on experience both outside overview and policy and management issues
arising from scientific sessions of this
and within the humid tropics.
meeting may be viewed at:
The final two days of the meeting were
devoted to policy needs in a plenary session
ETFRN News 33/01
Organisations - Institutions - Programmes
duration, convective storms that generate
flashy river behaviour. Over distances of only
a few kilometers, the rainfall exhibits a very
high degree of spatial variability, being
By Nick Chappell & Kawi Bidin
strongly moderated by the combined effects
There are many popular misconceptions of monsoonal wind direction and topography
about the hydrological behaviour of (Bidin, 2001 PhD thesis). Additionally, El
rainforests and the impact of forestry Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
activities on these aquatic processes. In phenomena give rise to cycles in the rainfall
part, this is because large natural variability (Chappell et al., 2001 Plant Ecology) that
(in space and time) makes it difficult to either become magnified in the river sediment
extrapolate local observations to the records. Magnified partly by the changing
landscape-scale, or identify purely incidence of extreme events (Douglas et al.,
anthropogenic change. To overcome these 1999 Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B;
difficulties, work within tropical rainforests Chappell et al., 2002 CUP-UNESCO).
requires application of the best field and
modelling technologies, not those that are Less than 5% of the incoming rainfall
generates surface-flow away from stream
easiest to resource.
channels, with almost all riverflow being
One site where these fundamental issues are generated only after rainfall has entered the
being addressed is the Danum Valley region ground. This flow is strongly related to the
of the Malaysian State of Sabah. Here, on preferential pathways of natural soil pipes,
Borneo Island, a group of Malaysian and UK percoline zones and rock fractures. Such
scientists (notably Waidi Sinun, Ian Douglas routes are poorly characterised by traditional
and Tony Greer) established hydrological methods, and their presence in the Danum
monitoring in 1986, as part of a joint catchments has lead to the development of
enterprise between the Sabah Foundation new whole-hillslope, hydraulic tests
and the Royal Society of London. The first (Chappell et al., 1998 Hydrological
projects were focused on the potential Processes). The role of such preferential or
impacts of the first phase of selective, localised phenomena is also seen within the
commercial forestry on the hydrology of erosion / sediment system. The nested
lowland rainforest (Douglas et al., 1992 Phil. catchment structure utlised within the Baru,
Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B.). This study and clearly demonstrated that over the long-term,
subsequent ecohydrological projects a few landslides and smaller collapses were
established a series of experimental the key source of soil particles flowing down
catchments, ranging in size from the 44 ha river channels (Chappell et al., 1999 Phil.
Baru catchment to the 721 km sq. Segama Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B.). While soil-slope
instabilities were observable within the
undisturbed forest of the Danum Valley
Analysis of the most recent Danum Valley Conservation Area (Balamurgan, 1997 PhD
data has shown that the local rainfall regime thesis; Chappell et al., 1999b Soil Till. Res.;
conforms to that expected of Equatorial Tangki, 2001 MPhil) the incidence of
with relatively little annual collapses along timber-lorry, haulage roads
seasonality and a dominance of short- seemed particularly high. The greater role of
ETFRN News 33/01
Organisations - Institutions - Programmes
landslides (triggered by changing
subsurface-water conditions) relative to
canopy disturbance and surficial erosion
along skidder-vehicle trails may have
important implications for the revision of
current, sustainable forestry guidelines.
Canopy disturbance did, however, impact on
the evaporative transfers to the atmosphere.
Surprisingly, greater rainfall reached the
ground below undisturbed remnants of
rainforest, relative to areas with a high
degree of canopy change (Bidin 2001 PhD
thesis). Such changes may be offset by
reduced transpiration losses following
disturbance and this is the focus of a series
of new projects.
The role of extreme events, and the
changing patterns of evaporation and
erosion with forest recovery, underline the
importance of continued monitoring at one of
the few reference sites for lowland tropical
For further information please contact:
Initiated in 1984, this joint project between
the Department of Forest Ecology of the
Swedish Agricultural University (SLU) and
Sabah Forest Industry is today outstanding in
terms of the long period of continuous
monitoring of water and nutrient budgets of
forest plantations established on former
rainforest land. Not least, the research has
produced illustrative results important for
forming wise forest management policy.
The research was started in 1984, demanded
by Malaysian government and paid by Sabah
Forest Industries (SFI) with the Department
of Forest Ecology (FE) as subcontractor for
a Swedish consultancy company: ÅF-IPK
AB. During the first years a paired catchment
study was set up for reference monitoring of
similarity of hydrological budgets between
catchments. Starting from 1986, the Swedish
Agency for Research Cooperation (Sarec,
presently part of Sida) has co-funded the
study during four three-year periods and a
final program grant (2000 - 2001).
Nick A Chappell and Kawi Bidin
Department of Environmental Science
Institute of Environmental and Natural
Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ,
United Kingdom
Tel:+44 1524 593933, Fax: +44 1524
Email: [email protected]
A cascade of experiments
In 1985 six catchments were established in
lightly logged (1981, 10 trees/ha, resembling
natural forest) dipterocarp forest and in such
forest struck by forest fire in 1982/83. Three
catchments were clear-felled and established
with Acacia mangium plantation in 1987/88.
Numerous process studies were performed in
the growing plantations and the natural
forest during the nineties, such as
soil,biomass, litterfall and throughfall
ENVIRONMENTAL CARE PAYS OFF! A contents of nutrients, natural rehabilitation of
LONG TERM STUDY ON PLANTATION tractor-disturbed soils, development of fine
roots and mycorrhiza, etc.. In 1994 another
five catchments were established in natural
forest. Four of these were clear-felled in
By Anders Malmer
1995, followed by shifting cultivation and
Acacia mangium establishment combined
ETFRN News 33/01
Organisations - Institutions - Programmes
with one crop of hill rice (Nykvist, 1993). A issues
large experiment on man made rehabilitation One of the major findings of the full rotation
of tractor disturbed soils was started in 1997. is that Calcium is the nutrient that is
expected to be limiting
first when
Less fire and disturbance pays off!
extrapolating nutrient budgets (Nykvist,
In 1987/88 one catchment was established 1997). One first confirmation of this may be
where use of crawler tractors and fire was that Calcium concentration in leaves in the
avoided. The most striking result was double second rotation is halved compared with the
tree production (Nykvist et al., 1994). first rotation at the same age (Comstedt,
Undesirable effects such as runoff increases 2001). However, three years into the second
and streamwater siltation were also reduced rotation there is no sign yet of reduced
by 50% (Malmer, 1996). Fire triggered large productivity.
hydrological nutrient losses, almost double
to those from the non-burned felled and At the end of a four-month dry period in April
planted area. The strong effect of fire was 1998 (caused by the El Niño Southern
later confirmed in repeated experiments for Oscillation) the region was struck by large
nutrient losses (Malmer, accepted) and for wildfires. The eleven catchments were
affected by these fires. This provided an
tree production (Selamat, in prep).
opportunity to observe the patterns of fire
Quick successful establishment of new intensity and effect in different types of
forest is essential. Fire has been (and still is) vegetation as the catchments at that time
the traditional means to establish a crop. ranged from natural forest over young forest
However, this research shows that even plantation to natural secondary vegetation
though rearranging residues to be able to and newly harvested plantation.
plant is costly, this was fully compensated
by the reduction in weeding costs. The Deeper understanding of nutrient supply
combination of better growth and residues needed
covering the ground resulted in considerably In the El Niño drought of 1998 the young
lower competition by weeds during the first Acacias showed undisturbed growth
years (Nykvist et al., 1994). Leaving residues throughout the four month drought
is much easier when establishing the second (Nordanstig, 1998). It was found that two
rotation after harvesting as the amounts are year old Acacia mangium already had many
fine roots down to, and into, the bedrock
(Boström, 2000). Furthermore, mycorrhiza
As a result of the research conducted, SFI amounts per weight of fine roots were higher
no longer uses fire as a management tool in in deeper soil horizons than in topsoil. These
its plantations. However, this put an even are strong indications that nutrient input to
higher pressure on quick establishment as it forest plantations are indeed supplied from
gives even less time ahead for the planted soil horizons not commonly included in
trees to the weeds. SFI is furthermore using traditional modelling of plantation nutrient
cable yarders for plantation harvest to budgets. This field of deeper understanding
reduce soil disturbance.
of below ground ecology and physiology of
tropical forest plantations is very relevant to
Ca deficiencies and fire hot research decreasing wood supply and land
ETFRN News 33/01
Organisations - Institutions - Programmes
management issues for the tropical region. interesting agroforestry system used by Sabah Forest
A proposal for a PhD research project along Industries in Malaysia. Forests, Trees and People
these lines is currently under review by Sida Newsletter, 20: 15.
For further information please contact
Nykvist, N., 1997. Total distribution of plant nutrients
in a tropical rainforest ecosystem in Sabah, Malaysia.
Ambio 26(3): 152-157.
Dr Anders Malmer
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Dept of Forest Ecology
S-901 83 Umeå, Sweden
Tel: +46 90 7866617
Fax: +46 90 786 77 50
Email: [email protected]
Nykvist, N., Grip, H., Sim, B.L., Malmer, A. and
Wong, F.K., 1994. Nutrient losses in Forest
Plantations in Sabah, Malaysia. Ambio, 3: 210-215.
Boström, B., 2000. Abundance of roots and
mycorrhiza in deep soil horizons under a humid
tropical forest. MSc thesis, Swedish University of
Agricultural Science, Department of Forest Ecology,
stencil no. 61, 31 pp.
Comstedt, D., 2001. The use of foliar analysis in
Acacia mangium as a complementary tool for
Evaluation of productivity trials. MSc thesis, Swedish
University of Agricultural Science, Department of
Forest Ecology, stencil no. 69, 30 pp.
The Forestry Research Programme of the UK
Department for International Development is
commissioning a new cluster of projects on
the management of upper water catchments.
The projects respond to the need for
research to improve the livelihoods of the
sometimes very poor people in upper
catchments, including marginalised farmers
and minority ethnic groups. These rural
communities may be culturally isolated from
a country's main infrastructure and markets,
as well as from educational and employment
opportunities and national health care, even
if they are not physically remote.
Conventional development plans for upper
catchments may fail to understand the
cultural and economic value systems used
by such communities; these systems may
include important non-monetized and nonmarket benefits.
Malmer, A. 1996. Hydrological effects and nutrient
losses of forest plantation establishment on tropical
rainforest land in Sabah, Malaysia. Journal of
Hydrology, 174: 129-148.
Malmer, A., in press. Stream Water Quality as
Affected by Wild Fires in Different Vegetation Types
in Malaysian Borneo, Hydrological processes, 2001.
Nordanstig, J. 1998. Short term dynamics of
diameter increament of young Acacia mangium in
forest plantations on former tropical rain forest soil in
Sabah, Malaysia. Swedish University of Agricultural
Science, International office, Minor field studies No.
56, 17 pp.
Nykvist, N., 1993. An even better compromise! An
Selamat. K., in prep..Plantation establishment with
and without burning in Sabah, Malaysia. MSc thesis,
Department of Forest Ecology, Swedish University of
Agricultural Science.
By J R Palmer
ETFRN News 33/01
Organisations - Institutions - Programmes
One project has started already, on the
comparative performance of policy
instruments for managing the demand for
water in various forestry-related activities.
This project is or will be operating in three
countries: Grenada, South Africa and
Tanzania. A particular focus in South Africa
is the effect of removing invasive exotic tree
species. The catchments had been planted
during a time when an increase in timber
supplies was thought to be more important
than secure water supplies. This project is
led by the Centre for Land Use and Water
Resources Research (CLUWRR) at the
University of Newcastle, UK, Email:
[email protected]
Environmental Hydrology Programme
(TRENDY) in the Department for Hydrology
at the Free University of Amsterdam, Email:
[email protected]
If co-funding can be secured, a parallel study
will research the effect on recharge and low
flows of spatial changes in forest vegetation
in dry climate catchments, in India, also
[email protected]
Associated with the hydrological studies will
be comparative research on methods for
valuing forest goods and services, leading to
decision support systems which recognise
the existence of different cultural concepts of
The major hydrological study at the core of value. A guide will be produced on the
this research cluster will quantify the choice an application of forest valuation
relationship between the area and spatial methods.
The intention is to help
disposition of (forest) vegetation and dry negotiations over land use and forest
season base flows of water. Research will changes become more equitable, by
begin in tropical montane cloud forest providing a common platform of shared
(TMCF), because this vegetation type has information and value concepts.
the unusual ability to add water to the
natural rainfall by stripping moisture from Experimental work will be undertaken on the
clouds in the condensation zone. This work development of water markets and
is starting at the well known research site of downstream-upstream compensation
Monteverde in Costa Rica. Elevational mechanisms in small- and medium-sized
transects will extend the studies to some catchments; this experimental work will
other TMCF areas, and then to forest types complement the documentation of a range of
at lower elevations and without cloud- water market systems which will be
stripping ability, and possibly into sub- undertaken by the Forestry and Land Use
tropical forests. This research will use newly Programme of the International Institute for
developed process techniques to capture the Environment and Development, London, UK,
quantitative relationship and so allow, for the Email: [email protected]
first time, reliable predictions of the effects Upstream managers of lands and forests
on water flows of changing land use. This could then negotiate with downstream water
research is a component of the IUCN cloud users and consumers over the price or other
forest initiative, which involves also the benefits to be secured for ensuring particular
International Hydrological Programme of water flows in particular seasons.
UNESCO, the World Conservation
Monitoring Centre, and WWF-International. The research on decision support systems
The hydrological work is led by the Tropical for valuation, and later work on mechanisms
ETFRN News 33/01
Organisations - Institutions - Programmes
to capture the agreed values, will aid another
cluster of projects beginning this year (2001)
on forest yield regulation in developing
countries. This cluster is being led initially
by the Institute for Ecology and Resource
Management (IERM) at the University of
[email protected]
Why is further hydrological research
Past hydrological research has provided only
catchment-specific, unreplicable results.
Many unproven assumptions about causeand-effect linkages regarding land-use and
water remain. This has misguided land-use
decisions in many places. To allow improved
decision-making, unambiguous and
For further information please contact:
defensible information is needed. New
developments in hydrological research allow
J R Palmer
a process approach, from which models can
Manager of DFID's centrally-funded Forestry be derived, calibrated and applied in other
Research Programme
Natural Resources International Limited
(street address) Pembroke, Chatham Why focus research in tropical montane
Maritime, Kent ME4 4NN
cloud forest (TMCF) watersheds, when the
(mailing address) P.O.Box 258, Chatham, number of people dependent on TMCF is
Kent ME4 4PU
low, relative to other forest/vegetation
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 1634 88 3365
The water production value of TMCF is high Fax: +44 1634 88 3937
it captures 5-100% more water than the total
E-mail: [email protected]
rainfall, through interception of cloud
moisture. Removals of TMCF or lower
montane buffer forests can have significant,
attributable effects on both base level and
dry season water flows downstream.
Enormous downstream populations are
dependent on TMCF, as well as those who
live in or near it. New hydrological research
By Kirsti Thornber
approaches are expected to be able to
As part of planning towards a new research produce definitive, quantitative relationships
cluster on management of water between TMCF cover changes and dry
catchments, the Forestry Research season flows. This cause-effect relationship
Programme (FRP) held two workshops in is less clearly quantifiable for other forest
December 2000 to discuss issues and types.
options for research, one focused on The high biodiversity of TMCF provides a
hydrological issues, the second on socio- range of livelihood services to poor local
economic issues. This summary highlights people, including non-timber forest products
concerns raised in the workshops. Further and cultural values, but it is being deforested
information can be gained from the author. at a greater rate than other forest types.
Conservation efforts need to be informed by
reliable information on impacts of potential
Key questions from workshops.
land-use change.
ETFRN News 33/01
Organisations - Institutions - Programmes
Why focus the hydrological research only
on dry season flows?
The definitive attribution of effects of TMCF
removal on dry season and base water flows
possible through new approaches to
hydrological research (noted above) may not
yet be possible for other aspects of water
service provision (such as erosion or
The additional water captured by TMCF is
especially critical in areas with a marked dry
season without rainfall, when the water
stripped from clouds is the only addition to
the watershed during the dry season.
results. Socio-economic work can be done in
these and/or non-cloud forest areas.
Will the hydrological studies interface/link
with the socio-economic work?
Studies in this cluster will be carried out by
multi-disciplinary teams, including socioeconomists. The workshops agreed that
establishing a standardised approach to
characterising stakeholders in different
catchments would be valuable to all research
and development projects in upper
catchments. Sharing experiences through
action learning as work progresses will
ensure that approaches in different research
When and how might the research from projects are compatible for ease of promotion
TMCF be extendable to other of results in broad recommendation domains
forest/vegetation types and other away from the specific research areas.
FRP's proposed hydrological research What is the likelihood that research will
involves using the new developments to lead to development of a decision support
derive and calibrate models for use in other system (DSS) that will actually break down
areas. It includes study of hydrological the 'myths' of land-use effects on water,
processes in various forest types along the and influence land-user behaviour?
elevational gradient. This approach aims to It is difficult to assure a change in the
track the changes in reliability of quantified behaviour of land-users, or policy-makers.
vegetational-hydrological relationships from Promotion of sustainable and equitable
TMCF to other forest types, where the changes in attitude and policy requires
relationships are more difficult to display negotiation to be supported by unambiguous
unambiguously. It is anticipated that this information about the real hydrological links
definitive, reliable set of results will provide between land-use and water. Diverse views
critical lessons for use with other forest types about the values of forest goods and services
and water service issues.
amongst the stakeholders can then have
some common ground.
Why focus hydrological research in sites
where good hydrological research can The hydrological work will feed into the DSS
happen, when these are not areas of developments. Communication between all
socio-economic need?
researchers is essential to take efficiently the
To be able to produce definitive, quantitative science into social and political reality. Close
relationships between forest cover changes links into ongoing efforts to develop and
and dry season flows, research needs to be establish appropriate markets are key.
carried out in areas where there is already The DSS should emerge from and feed into
good data on which to build. In data-poor negotiation processes. It should channel
areas, research will not produce as reliable information to different categories of
ETFRN News 33/01
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stakeholder, in culturally appropriate ways,
with the communication methods and the
information being based on different
stakeholder perceptions about values and
choices. Involving stakeholders in the
development of the DSS should ensure its
Given the strength of power politics in
negotiations about water services markets
and pricing, can the information provided
by the research really make a difference?
Whilst decision-making may be improved by
inclusive negotiations, imbalances in
negotiating power will persist. Thus
livelihoods of the poor cannot be expected to
be improved without equitable access to
reliable, factual information, that does not
disfavour the poor; mutual understanding of
social and cultural positions and beliefs.
Feeding that information into the negotiation
processes in a targeted way to the less
powerful stakeholders, and supporting the
negotiating process with a range of DSSs,
will begin to address power imbalances.
Nr. Edinburgh EH26 0PH
Scotland, UK
Tel: +44 131 440 5500
Fax: +44 131 440 5501
E-mail: [email protected]
Hydrology for the Environment, Life and
Policy (HELP) is a new initiative to establish
a global network of catchments to improve
the links between hydrology and the needs of
society. The vital importance of water in
sustaining human and environmental health
has been widely recognised by numerous
national and international fora. However, no
international hydrological programme has
before addressed key water resource
management issues in the field and
integrated them with policy and management
In response to these concerns, United
Nations agencies have for more than four
decades been encouraging the collection and
analysis of hydrological data, and capacity
Acknowledgements: This summary is building. All their most recent assessments
based on outputs from a research pre- support the urgent need for action to address
project (ZF0146) funded by the Forestry global water management issues. For
Research Programme (FRP) of the United example, the UN Commission on Sustainable
Kingdom Department for International Development (CSD) emphasised the
Development (DFID) for the benefit of emerging issue of global water scarcity,
developing countries. The views expressed partly in response to the recommendations of
are not necessarily those of FRP or DFID.
the Rio Conference and Agenda 21. In 1994
the CSD called for "a comprehensive
For more information please contact:
assessment of freshwater resources, with the
aim of identifying the availability of such
Kirsti Thornber
resources, making projections of future
LTS International Ltd.
needs, and problems to be considered".
Pentlands Science Park
Three years later, the "Comprehensive
Bush Loan
Assessment of the Freshwater Resources of
the World" was presented to CSD 5 and the
ETFRN News 33/01
Organisations - Institutions - Programmes
UN General Assembly Special Session
(UNGASS). This document was prepared by
a steering committee comprising all UN
agencies involved in fresh water, and in cooperation with the Stockholm Environment
Institute. A further important step towards
realising the CSD objective is the publication
of the UNESCO-IHP monograph "World
Water Resources".
The background to HELP can be traced back
to the first International Hydrology Decade
(IHD). This ran from 1965 to 1974 and was
established in response to the need for the
systematic study of the hydrological
environment. This was very successful and
led to a series of follow-up programmes
including the successive phases of the
International Hydrology Programme (IHP) of
UNESCO. To date there have been five
The European Commission has examined phases of the IHP, and the sixth is currently
water issues across Europe (Freshwater: a being planned to run from 2002 to 2007.
challenge for innovation, 1998). This widely
consulted document highlights water as a The idea that there should be a new
strategic resource, and recognises that international initiative similar in scope to the
even in areas with high precipitation and in IHD emerged in 1996 at the United Nations
major river basins, over-use and Administrative Committee on Co-ordination
mismanagement of water resources have Sub-Committee on Water Resources (UN
created severe constraints on supply. Such ACC SWR) 17th Session (Paris, October
problems are widespread and will be made 1996) which recommended that there should
more acute by the growing demand on be a Global Water Quality Initiative.
freshwater arising from increasing economic Meanwhile, individuals and groups of
scientists independently recognised a similar
need and calls were made for a scienceThere remains the traditional separation driven 2nd International Decade. These were
between the water policy, water resource followed by approaches from members of the
management and scientific communities, GEWEX community who proposed
especially in terms of setting of research consideration of a second IHD by UNESCO.
agenda and free-flow of information for use
in management. A result is that there is a In response to the above requests, UNESCO
significant time lag in the implementation of and WMO co-sponsored a meeting of an
scientific outputs to the benefit of society. In informal expert group (held at Wallingford,
addition, water management policy is UK, in December 1998), which
globally based on outdated knowledge and recommended the development of a new
technology. In many cases, procedures are international hydrology initiative. The
followed with scientists not grasping what is conceptual framework of this initiative was to
required and stakeholders unaware of what combine experimental hydrology with water
alternatives are available. This "Paradigm resource management and policy issues.
Lock" has come about because the two main This concept was presented at the 5th Joint
groups have become isolated: scientists by UNESCO/WMO Conference on International
the lack of proven utility of their findings and Hydrology (Geneva, February 1999) where it
stakeholders by legal and professional was unanimously endorsed. The conference
precedence and disaggregated institutions. recommended the creation of a new global
initiative, which would, through the
ETFRN News 33/01
Organisations - Institutions - Programmes
establishment of a global network of
catchments, in which the scientific agenda
will be set behind the most critical water
policy and water management issues. This
new initiative is entitled HELP (Hydrology for
the Environment, Life and Policy). The
conference recommended the establishment
of a task force, consisting of hydrological
scientists, water resources managers and
water policy and law specialists, to develop
the concept further. The structure of the
resultant Task Force and its Terms of
Reference are shown in Appendices I and II.
The conference also requested the
preparation of this project document by the
task force.
The Mangrove Management Group is an
informally organized and open collaboration
between various scientists of the Vrije
Universiteit Brussel (VUB), intending to
combine their diverse fields of expertise
(chemistry, botany, zoology, socio-economy,
remote sensing) as applied to the mangrove
ecosystem in its widest sense. It is expected
and it was experienced that this diverse input
is scientifically very enriching for all partners
and that it allows to tackle a wider range of
problems. Though there is a general interest
in fundamental questions (and answers), the
Mangrove Management Group is very much
aware of the fact that research into this
complex ecosystem can rarely or never take
place without taking into account its vital role
for human society, particularly for people
relying directly on mangrove resources. It is
also realized that this is more commonly the
case for developing countries. It is a principle
that wherever and whenever possible
scientists or other people who can contribute
from the host country be involved and/or
receive feedback about results.
HELP was approved by the 28th Session of
the IHP Bureau, which recommended that
HELP, like FRIEND, should become a
distinctive cross-cutting programme of the
UNESCO IHP. The Bureau also
recommended that HELP should develop
strong links with appropriate parts of other
global programmes such as the
agencies, non-governmental organisations,
international programmes and the World
Water Council's Vision on Water, Life and
Environment in the 21st Century (Appendix
III). To this end, these communities were
invited to send representatives and The general mission of the Mangrove
participate in the first HELP task force Management Group is to contribute
meeting in Arizona (20-26 November 1999). scientifically to a better understanding of
the mangrove ecosystem and to yield
This text was extracted from the HELP elements to improve mangrove
website at: management and conservation.
More information on current activities are
available on the website or from Dr Mike Research framework
Bonell, UNESCO, 7place de Fontenoy,
75352 Paris 07 SP, France
The research framework presented here
includes different aspects within the theme of
mangrove vegetation structure dynamics,
ETFRN News 33/01
Organisations - Institutions - Programmes
regeneration and restoration (cf. DahdouhGuebas, 2001; Kairo, in prep.). In addition
to these studies there is also a heavy
emphasis on the trophic relationships within
mangroves and between mangroves and
near-shore ecosystems (Laboratory of
Analytical Chemistry). Below a general
the depicted research
framework will be given (numbers refer to
the research framework in the figure).
This framework starts with the mapping of
the present vegetation structure through
airborne remote sensing (0). Fieldwork in
which we assess the horizontal and vertical
distribution of adult, young and juvenile trees
completes the analysis of the vegetation
structure at present (1). Retrospective
investigation of the same area is done
through sequential aerial photography from
the past (2). The juvenile vegetation layer is
subject to regenerative constraints, of which
propagule predation is investigated in-depth
(3). In combination with the evolution in the
recent past of the mangrove and the present
distribution of adult trees, both the young
and the juvenile vegetation layer can be used
to make a prediction for the future, which
can be either positive or negative with
respect to the extent or composition of the
mangrove (4).
In case of a positive
prediction we are interested in the
assessment of the natural regeneration
potential and make a comparative study
between mangrove forests with various
degrees of disturbance (5). In case of a
negative prediction artificial regeneration and
restoration may be necessary (6). Two
questions must be addressed then : first,
which forest areas need rehabilitation, and
second, which tree species are going to be
ETFRN News 33/01
used to rehabilitate those areas ? (7) The
study on propagule predation contributes to
the answer on both questions. The links with
other research frameworks is given in dotted
lines. The study of the genetic differentiation
in the adult trees of various mangrove
populations partly provides elements to
answer the question of desirability of
propagules from other populations for
restoration (Abeysinghe, 1999) (8). The
investigation of hydrology in general or as a
regenerative constraint in particular provides
information to the rehabilitation of
mangroves (Verheyden, in prep.) (9).
Questions that have often been forgotten in
rehabilitation programmes are designed a
separate framework (Bosire, 1999, in prep.)
“What happens with the artificial
regeneration plots 10 years from now ?”,
“How functional in the ecological sense do
these plantations become ?” and “Is there
faunal and floral recruitment into the often
monospecific plots ?”.
Therefore we
compare the artificial forest with a natural
mangrove and a naked area and investigate
the environmental factors, the floristic
succession and the faunistic recruitment
The research presented above is on-going
and the findings generated so far have been
published in peer-reviewed manuscripts,
theses and websites. Particularly via the
internet the interested audience is invited to
browse through the results of different
research aspects and to contact us for
reprints or further information (see URL
Research framework
Organisations - Institutions - Programmes
Research and its valorisation financed by the
European Commission (EC), the University
of Nairobi, the African Academy of Sciences,
the Fund for Scientific Research (FWO), the
Fund for Collective Fundamental Research
(FKFO), the Foundation for the Promotion of
Scientific Research in Africa, the Flemish
Institute for the advancement of scientifictechnological research in the industry (IWT),
the Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research
Institute (KMFRI), the Kenya Belgium Project
(KBP), the World Wide Fund for Nature
(WWF), the Estuarine Research Foundation
(ERF), Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), the
Netherlands Wetlands Programme, the
Kenyan Forestry Department and the
Biodiversity Support Programme (USAID
funded consortium of WWF, Nature
Conservancy and the World Resources
Institute), the Small Fishers Federation of
Lanka (SFFL) and VUB. Many thanks are
due to the hospitality of the local
communities in Gazi, Mida Creek, Tsunza,
Wasini, Galle and in the Pambala-Chilaw
Lagoon complex.
Bosire, J.O. Floristic and faunistic recovery process
of restored mangrove ecosystems in Kenya. PhD
dissertation, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels,
Belgium. (in preparation).
Dahdouh-Guebas, F., 2001. Mangrove vegetation
structure dynamics and regeneration.
dissertation, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels,
Kairo, J.G. Ecology and restoration of mangrove
systems in Kenya.
PhD dissertation, Vrije
Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Kenya.
Verheyden, A. Quantitative and qualitative influence
of groundwater on the mangrove. PhD dissertation,
Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Kenya. (in
By Udomluck Thampanya & Jan Vermaat
For further information please contact:
In South East Asia, sediment loads to
coastal waters have increased over the past
Farid Dahdouh-Guebas
Laboratory of General Botany and Nature decades, leading to a well-quantified decline
in area and cover of seagrass and reef coral
Causes for this increased loading
Mangrove Management Group
are linked to overexploitaiton of terrestrial
Vrije Universiteit Brussel
watersheds. The effect of such increased
Pleinlaan 2
sedimentation on mangroves, however, is
1050 Brussels, Belgium.
Tel. + 32 2 629 3422, Fax: + 32 2 629 3413 less well studied and a priori less
straightforward: since mangroves inhabit
E-mail : [email protected]
muddy sediment deposition shores, they may
even respond positively. Generally, however,
forest area has declined
URL East African Mangroves :
dramatically all over SE Asia due to over
URL Mangrove Management Group : exploitation and conversion to shrimp ponds.
Presently, widespread attempts to reafforest
ETFRN News 33/01
Organisations - Institutions - Programmes
mangroves meet with variable success. In
this study we assessed:
progressively colonize newly accreting
shores along peninsular Thailand,
combining remote sensing and in situ
age reconstruction along transects.
Whether sediment burial would affect
survival and growth of three comon SE
Asian species: Avicennia alba,
Rhizophora mucronata and Sonneratia
less between sites of different exposure
across the Bay. Over the whole one year
lasting experiment, the smaller seedlings of
Avicennia alba and Sonneratia caseolaris
showed higher mortality than the larger ones
of Rhizophora mucronata. Seedlings of the
latter species, however, are produced in
much smaller quantities, and survive
substantially better in the area of some
existing vegetation. For the other two
species, the pattern was opposite: seedlings
survived better on the open mudflat. This
confirms the successional status of the three
species: Avicennia alba and Sonneratia
caseolaris being early colonizers, and
Rhizophora mucronata establishing at a later
For the same three species, whether
different exposure to water motion
would affect survival and growth along
transects in Pak Phanang Bay (S We suggest that a strategy for successful reThailand).
establishment of mangrove stands would be
to allow natural colonization by early
Whether the combination of these data successional species. Presently, this is
would allow the construction of a frequently hampered by intensive fishing
predictive model of mangrove activities with push nets and trawls.
propagule recruitment success.
Establishment of enclosures in potential area
would probably be profitable.
The project is in its final stage, and we report
a few highlights here from studies 2 and 3. For further information please contact:
In a randomized block design, sediment
burial (0-32 cm) caused substantial mortality Udomluck Thampanya
in Avicennia alba and Sonneratia caseolaris, Coastal Resources Institute
but not in Rhizophora mucronata, probably Prince of Songkla University
due to the much taller hypocotyl of the latter Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110, Thailand
species, raising its viviparous seedling far Email: [email protected]
above the experimentally increased sediment [email protected]
surface. Exposure to waves and currents
was found to have a strong seasonal Jan Vermaat
component, having maximal values during IHE Delft
the high river discharges of the monsoon PO Box 3015
season. Survival of the seedlings of 2601 DA Delft
Avicennia alba, Rhizophora mucronata and The Netherlands
Sonneratia caseolaris differed strongly Email: [email protected]
across the steep spatial gradients from the
open mudflat into the mangrove forest and
ETFRN News 33/01
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By Euan K. James*, Janet I. Sprent and
Richard Parsons
The Pantanal Mato-Grossense is located in
the west of Brazil and to the south of
Amazonia and has a total area of 138,183
km2, excluding the approximately 10% of its
area that lies in neighbouring Bolivia and
Paraguay. It is the largest pristine wetland in
the world and is of extreme importance in
South America, both ecologically, due to its
biodiversity, and economically, as a source
of tourism, fresh water, fish, wildlife, forage
and timber plants. However, as with other
tropical wetlands, this little-studied and
fragile region is increasingly under threat
from drainage and/or dyke-building for
agriculture and housing, deforestation, and
pollution. In the northern part of the
Pantanal, south of Cuiabá (the capital of the
state of Mato Grosso), the unique flora is
particularly threatened by drainage and
dyke-building for cattle ranching, as well as
from overgrazing.
Tropical wetlands, such as the Pantanal, the
Amazon region and the Orinoco basin
generally experience two types of flooding,
each associated with a unique flora. Plants
in the central regions close to the water
courses are more or less permanently
flooded, whereas those in the peripheries are
subjected to seasonal flooding. In both
cases, many of the plants are nodulated
legumes, and recent work has shown that
not only can these fix N2 whilst flooded, but
there may even be positive selection
pressure for them to do so. This selection
ETFRN News 33/01
pressure may be due to the inherently low Nstatus of the heavily leached soils brought
about by seasonal flooding, and also
because, under more permanently-flooded
conditions, there is a decrease in the
mineralisation of organic matter and an
increase in denitrification, all of which result
in a shortage of available N. Moreover, and
specifically in the case of the Pantanal, the
headwaters of the rivers that feed it (Rio
Cuiabá, Rio Paraguai) can be low in organic
and inorganic nutrients. This lack of external
input of nutrients exacerbates the scarcity of
N in the wetland during the flooded period,
and hence increases the demand for
biological N2 fixation. The predominant
source of fixed N in the Pantanal is almost
certainly from nodulated legumes, as they
have already been shown to contribute
significantly to the N-balance of other tropical
wetlands and rainforests, such as the
Amazon region, French Guiana, and the
flooded forests of the Orinoco basin, and are
considered to be the main contributors of
fixed N in all pristine ecosystems.
There has been comparatively little research
on tropical wetland legumes. Not all of them
have been checked for an ability to nodulate:
a study of nodulation in 172 legume species
in the Amazon region of Brazil found that
56% of the reports of nodulation were new,
with most of the nodulated legumes being
found within the seasonally-flooded Varzea
and Igapo areas rather than in the drier Terra
firme regions. The legumes of the Pantanal
have been studied even less than those in
the Amazon. However, the Pantanal has
recently been the source of a number of new
discoveries of flooding-tolerant legume
symbioses, including a new genus of stemnodulating shrubs, Discolobium, and a new
report of stem nodulation by a species of
Aeschynomene (A. fluminensis). A recent
Organisations - Institutions - Programmes
field study from our laboratory which was
conducted in collaboration with Brazilian
researchers (Fatima Loureiro, UFMT,
Cuiabá, Arnildo Pott, Vali Pott, EmbrapaPantanal, Corumbá, and Avilio Franco,
Claudia Martins, Embrapa-Agrobiologia, Rio
de Janeiro) has confirmed that not only are
these legumes abundant in the Pantanal,
even in the central, permanently flooded,
regions, but also that they are extensively
nodulated and hence may have substantial
rates of N2 fixation. See Table.
Potential importance of flooding-tolerant
legumes to the ecology of the Pantanal
Our initial studies have shown that the type
of legume symbiosis may differ according to
the flooding regime and that there are
adaptations to two types of flooding:
permanent and seasonal. The former is best
exemplified by Discolobium pulchellum,
whose stem nodules cannot form or function
without being surrounded by water or wet
soil, and the latter by various Aeschynomene
spp. on which stem nodules form during the
flooding period and remain functional after
the flooding recedes. There are also a
number of semi-aquatic legumes, such as
Mimosa pellita and Neptunia plena that are
rooted in mud at the peripheries of the river
channels and permanently-flooded baias.
These are not stem-nodulated, but instead
have their nodules on adventitious roots that
form on their flooded stems. Finally, in the
permanently flooded regions of the Pantanal
there is a great abundance of legumes that
are not actually “flooding tolerant” as such,
but have a floating habit that prevents their
nodules (borne on stems and/or adventitious
roots) from being substantially submerged.
Good examples are Neptunia prostrata,
Sesbania exasperata and Vigna lasiocarpa.
Nodulated legumes are potentially of great
importance to the ecology of the Pantanal. In
addition to their N2-fixing ability, those listed
in Table 1 are very palatable and readily
foraged by indigenous fauna and/or cattle.
This is especially true of the Aeschynomene
and the Discolobium spp., whose submerged
stems are eaten by the herbivorous fish pacu
(Piaractus mesopotamicus) and by the giant
rodent capybara (Hydrochaeris
hydrochaeris). The indigenous people of the
Pantanal also use Aeschynomene and
Discolobium spp. for medicinal purposes.
Owing to their ability to fix N2 and to tolerate
flooding, A. fluminensis, A. sensitiva and S.
exasperata are showing promise outside the
Pantanal as pioneer species for recovery of
flooded ponds filled with residues of bauxite
minings in regions such as Porto Trombetas
in the Amazon. However, in order to fully
characterise the ecological role of nodulated
legumes to the biology of the Pantanal and
other tropical wetlands, it will be necessary to
quantify their populations in regions with
different flooding regimes. In addition, 15N
natural abundance studies, such as those
that have been undertaken in the Amazon
floodplain and in the rainforests of French
Guiana, are urgently needed in order to
assess the potential contribution of nodulated
legumes to the N-budget of this largely
oligotrophic region.
ETFRN News 33/01
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Comments a
Aeschynomene ciliata
Aeschynomene denticulata
Aeschynomene fluminensis
Stem, Root
Dry, Flooded
Aeschynomene sensitiva
Discolobium leptophyllum
Stem, Root
Discolobium pulchellum
Stem, Root
Mimosa pellita
H.B. ex Willd.
Mimosa polycarpa
Neptunia plena
Neptunia prostrata
(Lam.) Baill.
Stemb, Root
Neptunia pubescens
Sesbania exasperata
Stem, Root
Vigna lasiocarpa (syn. Phaseolus
(Benth.) Verdc.
Stem, Root
Flooded = plants partially submerged in water or rooted in saturated soil.
Nodules on floating stems but attached vasculary to the bases of subtending adventitious roots.
ETFRN News 33/01
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For further information please the authors at:
Biological Sciences Institute
School of Life Sciences
University of Dundee
Dundee DD1 4HN, Scotland, UK
Tel: + 44 1382 344280
Fax: + 44 1382 344275
Email: [email protected],
[email protected], [email protected]
scale, sustainable and suitable management
Nitrogen is one of the most important macro
nutrients but the significance of specific
nitrogen sources and sinks is only
rudimentarily known. Therefore N2 fixation
and denitrification were monitored in the
floodplain forest over one entire annual
hydrological cycle to identify their role for
*Present address: Centre for High Resolution nitrogen availability in the várzea.
Imaging & Processing, MSI/WTB Complex,
School of Life Sciences, University of Due to rhizobium symbioses legumes have a
Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, UK.
high potential for biological nitrogen fixation.
They are valuable plants for agriculture and
also on the Amazon floodplain they may play
an important role for the ecosystem. Within
the várzea forest there are about 20%
leguminous trees. It could be shown that
nodulated legume trees may fix nitrogen
by Heidi Kreibich
derived from atmosphere (Ndfa) at high
In Central Amazonia the average flood amounts. Estimations using the isotopic
amplitude of the Amazon river is 10 m, ratios in leaves resulted in mean values of
which leads to predictable floods in the 32% Ndfa for Pterocarpus amazonum, 37%
middle of the year. Due to the annual water Ndfa for Albizia multiflora and 60% Ndfa for
and nutrient input, the Amazon floodplain Zygia inaequalis. In comparison nitrogen
(várzea) is characterised by many unique fixation is only slightly higher in agricultural
adaptations of plants and animals, a high crops (soybean 50% Ndfa, pea 70% Ndfa,
biomass production and a rapid nutrient clover 90%).
turnover. Small scale agriculture and shifting
cultivation has been practised for centuries, On the other hand denitrification might be a
but with accelerating population growth and key process in the várzea, since the gaseous
commercial interest pressure increases and nitrogen turnover in the soil is considerably
is already clearly visible.
influenced and stimulated by the flood pulse.
More than 80% of the nitrogen loss via
National and international efforts are denitrification occurred during the aquatic
urgently needed to preserve this unique phase, with highest activities during flooding
ecosystem and to prevent further and the transition periods. The soil water
uncontrolled deforestation. The German- content has a large influence on the
Brazilian SHIFT project: “Gaseous Nitrogen availability of oxygen in soil, and
Turnover in Amazon Floodplain Forest” consequently on anoxic processes such as
studies the complex nutrient cycles within denitrification. Although denitrification could
the floodplain forest to provide essential be measured in the soil even at a depth of
knowledge for the development of small three meters, maximum activity occurred in
ETFRN News 33/01
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the litter.
Further within this project nitrogen fixation
and denitrification will be balanced for one
particular forest area to estimate their
importance for the whole nitrogen cycle of
the várzea forest. In the future the results
may be used for the implementation of
agroforestry systems in the várzea.
Supporting the cultivation of legumes may
open new perspectives for sustainable
management by improving soil fertility,
reducing erosion and transferring the
fertilising effects to associated crops.
For further information please contact:
Heidi Kreibich
Institut für Agrartechnik Bornim e.V.
Max-Eyth-Allee 100
14469 Potsdam
Tel: +49 331- 5699 129
Fax: +49 331- 5699 849
e-mail: [email protected]
By Jean-Paul Laclau
In Congo, Eucalyptus species were
introduced in the littoral savannas in the
early fifties. Highly productive varieties of 2
hybrids were developed since that time and
42000 ha of clonal plantations have been set
up around Pointe-Noire to produce
pulpwood. The sustainability of the
management of these plantations, i.e. longterm production and maintenance of the
environment, was identified as a priority for
research. This question is particularly
ETFRN News 33/01
relevant as high amounts of nutrients are
exported every 7 years with biomass
removal, in sandy and acidic soils with low
reserves of available nutrients.
The biogeochemical cycles of nutrients were
studied in 2 stands located side by side in the
Kouilou region, near Pointe-Noire : a clonal
eucalypt plantation and a native savanna.
The plantation was between six to nine years
old at study. The objectives were (i) to
improve our understanding of the mineral
functioning of both ecosystems, (ii) to
establish input-output budgets in order to
quantify the impact of the plantation
management on the nutrient capital in the
soil and (iii) to assess the environmental
impact of the eucalypts on the chemical
composition of surface waters.
In particular the changes in precipitation
chemistry during the transfer of solutions in
both ecosystems was studied. Special care
was taken to identify the processes
contributing to the chemical composition of
the solutions. During the rainy and the dry
seasons, rainfall was on average 151 mm
and 7 mm per month respectively. Chemical
analyses performed monthly during 3 years
showed that the concentration of all the
elements in rainfall increased sharply during
the dry season. Precipitation solutions were
acidic (pH < 4.5) with a dominance of Na+,
Ca2+ and Cl-. Throughfall and stemflow were
enriched for most of the elements but a N
foliar uptake was observed in both stands.
The concentration of the majority of elements
increased during the transfer of the solutions
through the litter layer. This enrichment was
particularly marked for H+ and dissolved
organic carbon in both stands. A severe
water repellency observed at the surface of
the soil in the eucalypt stand increased the
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time of contact between the solution and the
forest floor and a net uptake of Ca2+ by a
dense root mat inside the forest floor was
observed. In the savanna, a net uptake of NNH4+, K+ and Mg2+ was also measured in the
surface soil. At the depths of 15 cm and 50
cm, the gravitational soil solutions were
collected by 4 replicates of zero tension plate
lysimeters (ZTL) in each stand. The
“capillary solutions” were collected by 4
replicates of ceramic cups connected to a
suction of -600 hPa, at the depths of 15 cm,
40 cm, 1 m, 2 m, 3 m and 4 m in each stand
plus at the depth of 6 m in the eucalypt
organic carbon.
A hydrological model of water transfer in
both ecosystems was developed to predict
the fluxes of gravitational water at various
depths in the soil. A validation of this model
was made from a TDR monitoring of soil
water content during 2 years, with 3-5
replicates of probes at the depths of 15, 50,
100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 cm in the soil.
The concentrations of solutions collected by
ceramic cups were used to calculate the
losses of nutrients by deep drainage because
gravitational solutions were not collected in
the deep layers of soil. It was however
checked that the intensity of the suction
At the depth of 15 cm, the concentration of applied did not significantly change the
most elements in the solutions collected by chemical composition of the solutions
ceramic cups was lower than in the collected.
gravitational solutions. This result was
unexpected because solutions collected by The results of this study showed a very
tension lysimeters are usually enriched by efficient uptake of the nutrients by both
weathering processes and by the activity of stands and very low losses by deep drainage
micro-organisms. With a suction of –600 in this ferrallic arenosol soil. The quality of
hPa, solutions collected by ceramic cups drainage water was similar beneath both
included both gravitational solutions and ecosystems, with extremely low
solutions from smaller pores, in equilibrium concentrations of all the mineral elements.
with the soil and the vegetation. In this
ferralic arenosol, the release of base cations For further information please contact:
by weathering is expected to be low. Also,
the availability of exchangeable cations was Jean-Paul Laclau
weak and the very low concentrations of N- UR2PI / CIRAD-Forêt
NO3-, N-NH4+ and base cations measured in BP 1291
solutions collected by ceramic cups showed Pointe-Noire
a very efficient uptake by the vegetation. A République du Congo.
very dense network of thin roots in the upper Tel: + (242) 94 31 84
layer of soil was observed in both stands, Fax: + (242) 94 47 95
allowing a very quick uptake of nutrients. In Email : [email protected]
deeper layers the concentrations of all the
elements were very low in the “capillary
solutions”, except for Si and dissolved
ETFRN News 33/01
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gross rainfall) and shows a power relation
with gross rainfall. Evaporation during
rainfall has a linear relation with rainfall
By C. Tobón Marin
duration and the ratio between evaporation
and gross rainfall increases with forest cover
A comprehensive hydrological and nutrient in the ecosystems studied. The presence of
cycling research was carried out in four a thick litter layer or forest floor (FF), and the
undisturbed forest ecosystems in Colombian concentration of fine roots in this
Amazonia, through the monitoring of compartment determine the net rainfall
variables and modelling. These forests differ partitioning into uptake and drainage to the
in their structure and soil conditions and are mineral soil. Drainage from the FF varied
located on a similar number of landscape between ecosystems, ranging from 87% to
units (Tertiary sedimentary plain, high and 93% of net rainfall. Results pointed to
low terrace and the flood plain of the river differences between ecosystems in the FF
Caquetá). The main objective of the research water storage capacity, water content and
was the characterisation of the hydrology water uptake amounts. The FF in the
and nutrient cycling, by describing and sedimentary plain stored the highest amount
quantifying the temporal and spatial of water and the water uptake was also the
dynamics of the hydrological and nutrient highest, accounting for about 30% of total
fluxes through the forest compartments. forest water uptake during the period studied.
During a five year period data on climate The FF in the flood plain retained the lowest
was collected on twenty minutes basis and with the lowest uptake.
daily measurements of gross rainfall,
throughfall, stemflow, forest floor water The water retention characteristics and field
content, litterflow, soil water pressure head, measurements pointed to a low water
soil water content, basin drainage, availability in the Amazonian soils studied,
atmospheric nutrient inputs, internal fluxes although soil water storage was high and
and output were carried out. Additionally, almost constant during the studied period,
some forest characteristics, forest structure, except during the droughts. Water content
litter structure and soil properties were dynamics in the upper soil layers was more
characterised. For this study a compartment variable than in deeper layers, which is
approach was followed, which provided connected to soil properties and root uptake.
specific information on the water and For the upper part of the soil profiles, a water
nutrient fluxes between and in each flux model predicted high flux rates upon
inputs, which is in line with the high macro
and mesoporosity and well developed
Results indicated that the percentage of structure.
throughfall depended on the amounts and
characteristics of gross rainfall and on forest The rainfall distribution and the high water
structure (forest cover and LAI). Throughfall storage of soils are the most important
percentage ranged from 82 to 87% of gross factors in the maintenance of actual
rainfall in the studied ecosystems and varies transpiration at almost potential rate during
linearly with rainfall quantity. Stemflow most of the year except for the short dry
contributes little to net precipitation (1.1% of periods when actual transpiration decreased
ETFRN News 33/01
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to almost one third of the reference. The FF
together with the upper soil layers, where
fine roots are concentrated, are responsible
for the supply of most of the water demand
by these forests. The annual water balances
during the studied period showed that the
fraction of intercepted rainfall differs between
ecosystems, being the highest in the flood
plain It showed that differences between
ecosystems in the magnitude of water fluxes
through the forest compartments are mainly
due to differences in forest structure, forest
floor thickness, soil properties and fine root
distribution. Within the range of ecosystems
studied, the largest differences in
hydrological behaviour and water fluxes at
compartment level were observed between
the forest on the sedimentary plain and the
flood plain.
Nutrient fluxes
Results from the nutrient cycling study
indicated that in this part of the Amazonia
solute inputs in gross rainfall are very low,
Na and SO4 being the elements with the
highest concentration in rainfall and there
are no significant differences in rainfall
composition among studied landscape units.
The high temporal variability found for the
solute fluxes depended on temporal rainfall
patterns with almost no influence of the
preceding long lasting dry period. The main
nutrient source of rainfall chemistry was the
combination of biomass burning and natural
biogenetic emissions; followed by the marine
source, which mainly explain the presence of
Na, Cl and Mg. A third factor seem to be
exclusively source from plant emissions and
a weak source of acidity.
and low terrace than in the high terrace and
sedimentary plain. Trends of ion enrichment
vary among the forests; however there is a
general tendency in all ecosystems for a
higher enrichment of SO4 , K, Cl, NO3 and
NH4 in throughfall and stemflow and a low or
negative increase of protons, Mn, orthoP and
Fe. Throughfall is the most important
transport media of solutes to the forest floor,
which contributed with 98% of total solute
inputs. Nutrient enrichment in throughfall
and stemflow were mostly related to the
long-lasting dry period before a sampling
date followed by the amounts of throughfall
and stemflow. Moreover the increases of
frugivores in the forests seem to influence
the increasing ion concentrations in
throughfall and stemflow during the fruiting
periods. The main source of solutes in
throughfall and stemflow appeared to be the
washoff of exudes, deposited ions in the
foliage after evaporation of intercepted
rainfall and dry deposited materials.
After throughfall and stemflow passed the
FF, the concentration of some ions
decreased relative to that in throughfall in
most of the events in studied forests.
Nevertheless, most nutrients increased their
concentration in the whole, except for orthoP,
which was influenced by the amounts of
nutrients released by litter decomposition.
Concentrations of ions in litterflow followed a
similar pattern as those in throughfall,
indicating that ion inputs to the FF largely
originate from the throughfall and stemflow.
Litterflow ion concentration showed a poor
correlation with variables as litterflow
amounts, rainfall intensity and preceding dry
period. Amounts of nutrients fluxing out to
the mineral soil were significantly different
Nutrient concentration in rainfall increased between forests (P < 0.05), these fluxes
considerably after water passed the forest being larger in the sedimentary plain and in
canopies with higher values in the flood plain the high terrace, mainly for ions as SO4,
ETFRN News 33/01
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NO3, Cl, K and Na. The FF nutrient balance
indicated that these FF’s act as a sink for
nutrients incoming in throughfall, stemflow
and litterfall, where orthoP and Mg appeared
to be the most limiting elements. Finally the
basin discharge of nutrients showed to be in
balance with inputs, with large outputs
during the high intensity rainfall events. The
hydrographs indicated that most outputs of
nutrients occur at the end of the events,
mainly of elements as Si, SO4 and protons.
For further information please contact:
Dr. Conrado Tobon Marin
Calle 36 No. 69F – 65 Int. 35 apto 802
Tel. + 57 1 4162016
E-mail. [email protected]
[email protected]
sustainable use of tropical forest are needed.
One possible approach is to define Criteria
and Indicators of sustainable forest
management. The present communication
presents some preliminary results on the first
step of a three year project named: “An
evaluation of sets of indicators and verifiers
to assess the biodiversity of tropical forests:
landscape and water quality indicators”.
This study takes place in East Kalimantan
Province in Borneo (Indonesia) where the
main use of the forest remains logging
activities. As potential indicator for
sustainable use of forest we chose to study
macroinvertebrates and physical parameters.
In other words, we study the relationship
between the logging activities and forest
biodiversity through the ecological quality of
the streams. The study is undertaken at both
local (species/ecosystem/habitat) and
landscape levels.
The study area, covering 8500 ha, is located
116°30’E and 3°00’N in a state owned
concession, part of the Malinau watershed in
Bulungan region. Altitude ranges from 100 to
Pascale Derleth1, Rodolphe Schlaepfer1, 300 m a.s.l. Considered as moist tropical
climate, the average annual rainfall is 3,5 to
Michel Sartori2 and Jean-Luc Gattolliat2
4 m with an average annual temperature of
This Ph D study is supervised by the EPFL1 27 C°. Lowland to hill Dipterocarp forest is
(Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), cut for the first cutting cycle in most of this
Lausanne, Switzerland in collaboration with area, under the Indonesia selective cutting
CIFOR (Centre for International Forestry system. The allowed minimum tree size at
Research), Bogor, Indonesia and the dbh (diameter breast height) is 50 cm.
Museum of Zoology2 in Lausanne,
Switzerland. The research is sponsored by We decided to focus our study on the
ZIL (Swiss Centre for International catchment headwater (third to fourth stream
order), because it is a reasonable
Agriculture), Zürich, Switzerland.
generalisation that the impacts of land use
are most severe upon smaller, headwater
Project summary
There is widespread agreement throughout channels.
the world that methods to assess
ETFRN News 33/01
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Samples were taken during 3 months of field
work in summer 2000. 19 sites have been
selected, distributed over 14 rivers, 10 rivers
with third or fourth stream order (12
sampling sites) and the 4 remaining with
more than fourth stream order (7 sampling
The main parameter to assess logging
activity and intensity is the proportion of the
catchment area which is logged, as well as
the date of logging. On the 19 sampling
sites, 7 are on streams in unlogged areas
and 12 in logged areas with the following
distribution: 2 sites in an area where the
logging road was already built and the area
open with logging activities starting, 3 sites
in an area logged in 1999, 2 sites logged in
1998, 2 sites logged in 1996 and 3 sites
logged in 1995. The proportion of the area
logged was measured for some of the
catchment by mapping in the field the
logging roads and skid trails, together with
their width, length and canopy opening.
At each sampling sites we performed:
3 quantitative Surber net samples (net
with 250 : mesh, area 1/10 m 2) of the
river bottom and 1 hour qualitative
samples, in order to collect
physical parameters and habitat
assessment include: air and water
temperature, pH, conductivity,
transparency, flow, canopy opening
under the stream, substrate
composition, vegetation on the bank,
Ephemeroptera order. We notice a high
taxonomic richness with 17 orders, 40
families and 60 genera and very low
abundance, compared to other parts of the
world, with mean number of individuals per
m 2 ranging from 420 to 1145.
Considering richness and abundance, we
notice an increase in the number of
individuals at the early stage of logging
activities with road building, followed by a
drop one and two years after logging. In
absence of ongoing logging activities, the
fauna start to recover within 4 to 5 years after
With preliminary focus on Ephemeroptera
order, differences appear in taxa encountered
in logged and unlogged area. 7 genera occur
in unlogged sampling sites only and are
absent in the logged sites, whereas 3 genera
emerged in the logged sites without having
been recorded in the unlogged sites. This
interesting perspective to identify key species
has to be developed and confirmed with the
second field sampling campaign.
Habitat assessment and physical parameters
do not bring spectacular results. Amongst the
information extracted, water temperature in
logged streams are slightly higher than in
unlogged streams. Substrate composition
analyses show that sand appears in all
logged streams, with its proportion
decreasing with time after logging.
Conclusion and perspective
Preliminary results
The collection of 6500 individuals has been
identified during 3 months to the level of
order and family for most of the individuals
with focus up to the generic level for •
Logging activities have an influence on
macroinvertebrate composition, but
confirmation is needed with second field
Abundance and richness is lowest one
ETFRN News 33/01
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year after logging when the proportion of
sand is highest
The subsequent increase of biodiversity
indexes indicates the slow recovery of
the river system in absence of any
ongoing logging
Aerts, R.a,b, Mitiku, H.b, Muys, B.a, Deckers,
J.c Hermy, M.a & Moeyersons, J.d
Laboratory for Forest, Nature and Landscape
Analysis of one insect order at the Research, K.U. Leuven, Belgium
Department of Land Resources Management and
generic level adds complementary
Protection, Mekelle University, Ethiopia
information on tolerance of selected taxa c
Second fieldwork is planned for MarchApril 2001 where the 19 sites will be
sampled again. Most of the unlogged
areas have been logged at present,
which will give us information on the
same sampling sites before and after
logging activities.
Laboratory for Soil and Water, K.U. Leuven, Belgium
Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium
1. Introduction
Ethiopia is regularly affected by serious
droughts, but a long-term tendency towards
increasingly dry weather conditions cannot
be distinguished in the highlands of Tigray.
Nevertheless, there are many indications
that, even under normal rainfall, streams
Faunistic and environmental variables once perennial have become intermittent,
will be studied in detail to identify the streams still perennial have a reduced dry
most important parameters and the season base flow and springs are drying out
most informative taxa
(Hunting, 1974). Gully incision is one cause
for further drainage of the water table
Information at the landscape level is
(Nyssen et al., 2000). Forest rehabilitation
being processed, but is not ready yet to
could play a key role in halting the
be discussed
desiccation of Tigray.
For further information, please contact:
Pascale Derleth
1015 Lausanne – Ecublens
Tel : +41 21 693 6336
Fax : +41 21 6935760
e-mail: [email protected]
2. Forest degradation and reforestation
2.1. Forest degradation
Despite the rather low and generally badly
distributed rainfall, much of the Tigray
plateau was once a naturally forested terrain.
Impoverishment of the increasing highland
population and their search for immediate
subsistence has led to massive deforestation
(Chadhokar & Solomon Abate, 1988).
Today, Tigray has lost virtually all of its
forests, much of its wildlife and a great part
of its soil and permanent stream flow. Forest
remnants have often been overexploited by
ETFRN News 33/01
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systematic fuel wood extraction, logging of
valuable timber (e.g. Juniperus procera and
Olea europaea), illegal grazing and
unintentional fire (Hunting, 1974). As a
result of this massive environmental
degradation, the inhabitants now are more
vulnerable to periodic drought and crop
Not the trees themselves play the dominant
role in soil protection and water conservation
but rather the shrubs, herbs and leaf litter
associated with forest ecosystems (Hunting,
1974), along with appropriate physical
conservation measures.
plantations might never evolve into a forest
ecosystem that efficiently protects the soil.
This is one of the main reasons why natural
regeneration or artificial regeneration with
2.2. Recent reforestation efforts
Pilot reforestation schemes were established indigenous species is preferable.
since 1970. They usually involved terracing
of the slopes and planting of seedlings In order to catalyse the natural regeneration
grown in nurseries, but were very expensive of a forest ecosystem, one should focus on
and largely destroyed the relic vegetation. stimulating the natural succession. One
Much of the success of the forestation approach could be the plantation of so-called
terracing lies in the natural regrowth of framework tree species, relatively fast
weedy vegetation following exclusion of growing indigenous tree or shrub species that
attract seed dispersing animals such as
grazing animals (Hunting, 1974).
birds, which are still abundant in the Tigray
For this reason, several areas were closed highlands, and thus promote the dispersal of
for cattle since the mid-eighties. Recently, seeds from remnant forest patches into the
the Relief Society of Tigray (REST), an forest rehabilitation areas.
environmental rehabilitation and agriculture
department, initiated the large scale creation The Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)
of such enclosed areas. Although they have and its partner institution Mekelle University
very clearly stated their operational (Ethiopia) are carrying out a joint research
objectives, they do not have the scientific project in Tigray to contribute to the
capacity to follow the evolution of the restoration of Ethiopia’s forest resources and
its multiple functions, such as supply of fuel
enclosed areas.
wood and other essential forest products,
Recent eucalypt plantation activities in some erosion prevention, water harvesting and
of the closed areas may raise questions conservation of biodiversity. Furthermore,
concerning socio-economical and ecological the project aims to contribute to the capacity
sustainability. Questions may arise on the building of resource monitoring and
high cost of plantations versus the low management by local authorities and
survival rate of the trees and on the effects communities.
on the water balance, erosion resistance and
biodiversity in the closed areas. Dense In particular, the project’s goal is to expand
plantation schemes may lead to the scientific base for natural forest
monospecific ‘forests’ of eucalypts lacking rehabilitation in the Tigray region by
strengthening of the research capacity on
mixture of indigenous species.
3. Forest rehabilitation through natural forestry at Mekelle University and increasing
the knowledge and awareness of the
ETFRN News 33/01
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stakeholders (e.g. policy makers, forestry
extension officers, commercial foresters,
local communities and farmers) through a
participatory exchange of skills. Finally, the
project wishes to contribute to the biological
conservation in Tigray by identifying those
areas that are best suited for natural forest
rehabilitation and by formulating sustainable
management practices for the remaining
forest fragments and the existing forest
rehabilitation areas.
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
Vital Decosterstraat 102
3000 Leuven
Tel: +32-16-32 97 26
Fax: +32-16-32 97 60
E-mail: [email protected]
The research project ‘Forest Rehabilitation PRIMARY RAIN FORESTS
through Natural Regeneration in Tigray,
Northern-Ethiopia’ is a joint research project By Andreas Floren and K.Eduard Linsenmair
of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
(Belgium) and its counterpart Mekelle Tropical forests are still being destroyed with
University (Ethiopia).
The Belgian increasing rate without our possessing even
Government funds the project through the the most basic knowledge about the
Vlaamse Interuniversitaire Raad (VL.I.R.). functioning of these ecosystems. We do not
Jan Nyssen, K.U. Leuven research scientist even know to the order of magnitude the
in Tigray is thankfully acknowledged.
extent of species diversity and consequently
cannot judge how many species have
Literature cited
already become extinct through this ruthless
Chadhokar, P. & Solomon Abate (1988) - Importance forest exploitation. A question of central
of revegetation in soil conservation in Ethiopia. In: importance is how human impact changes
Rimwanich (Ed.) (1988) - Constraints and solutions
these ecosystems and whether changes are
to application of conservation practices. pp. 1203reversible or whether they lead to irreparable
damage. This is in the focus of our research
Hunting (1974) - Central Tigre Development Study, in SE-Asian lowland rain forests (in Sabah,
Tigre Province, Ethiopia.
Working paper II: Malaysia) in which we analyse how
Conservation and Afforestation. Hemel Hempstead, anthropogenic disturbance affects arboreal
Hunting Technical Services Ltd. 28 pp.
arthropod communities.
Nyssen, J., Moeyersons, J., Deckers, J, Mitiku, H. &
Poesen, J. (2000) - Vertic movements and the
development of stone covers and gullies, Tigray
Highlands, Ethiopia. Z. Geomorph. N. F. 44(2):145164
For further information please contact:
Prof. B.Muys
Laboratory for Forest,
Landscape Research
ETFRN News 33/01
Tree crowns harbour distinguishable
arthropod communities which can be
sampled in a tree specific and almost
quantitative way with our selective canopy
fogging method. Fogging was carried out
with natural pyrethrum , an insecticide which
has no persistent effects, is not toxic for
vertebrates, and which quickly degrades
within a few hours. This method allowed us
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not only to analyse alpha and beta diversity
of the arboreal arthropod communities, but
also to study colonisation dynamics by refogging individual trees after different
periods of time. Our investigation was
carried out along an anthropogenic
disturbance gradient. The forests have been
cleared 5, 15, and 40 years ago, used some
years for agriculture, and were then left to
natural regeneration. All merged into one
another with primary forest representing the
final stage. From each forest type at least
ten trees of the same species that occurred
in sufficiently large numbers were chosen for
the comparison.
greatly influenced by stochastic events.
Community composition appears to be
random even though deterministic
processes, like specific interactions,
microclimatic requirements etc., are of
In contrast to the primary forest, conditions
were completely different in the disturbed
forests. In the 5 year-old forest ant species
richness was reduced by about 90%, the
proportion of rare species was significantly
lower, and species that were rare in the
primary forest, had gained dominance and
occurred on most trees. This corresponded
with a change of the system of species
The focus of our analysis was on Formicidae interactions, from weakly interacting species
as the most important predators in the in the stochastically assembled communities
tropics and on phytophagous Coleoptera in the primary forest to stronger interactions
which should rather form tree specific in the disturbed forest communities, as
communities on conspecific trees. We indicated by the occurrence of positive and
quickly recognised that ants are particularly negative species associations. In contrast to
suited for analysing changes on the the primary forest, community structure was
community level because they are of clearly deterministic in the 5 and in the 15
moderate species richness and nest in the year-old forest. With increasing time of forest
trees thus forming permanent communities. succession communities became than again
In contrast to all theoretical expectations, more and more unpredictable.
according to which ant communities should
be structured by interspecific competition, Results for Coleoptera were similar, however,
the ant communities of the primary forests due to their extraordinary high diversity, their
could not be distinguished from randomly communities are difficult to analyse.
composed communities (Floren & Although our primary forest data now
Linsenmair in press). We have no proof that comprise a total of 79 foggings on 13 tree
ants establish a fixed dominance hierarchy species, we could not identify a tree specific
and permanent territories. That could be due beetle fauna because most species in each
to the limitation of food in the trees which sample were new and abundant species were
make it uneconomic to defend large lacking. Along the disturbance gradient,
territories. Furthermore, the ant communities beetle communities showed similar changes
which were re-fogged again after three years in structure and composition to the ant
showed no predictability in species richness communities. Composition on the familial
and species composition at all (Floren & level was highly variable while always
Linsenmair 2000). These results Chrysomelidae, Staphylinidae, and
demonstrate that species assemblage of ant Curculionidae contributed both most
communities is a very complex process and specimens and species in the primary forest.
ETFRN News 33/01
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Again species diversity was significantly
lower in the disturbed forests, some species
occurred on most trees, and the mean
correspondence in species composition was
greatest in the most disturbed forest types.
During the course of forest succession
communities became more and more similar
to those of the primary forest.
are not able to establish viable populations
and will die out in disturbed forests.
Therefore changes in communities of
isolated forest fragments should be even
more pronounced. This is currently being
investigated in the tropics as well as in
temperate forests of central Europe.
For further information please contact:
Corresponding changes on the community
level were also found in other taxa currently
under analysis, namely Ichneumonidae,
Arachnida and Orthoptera. This led us
conclude that anthropogenic disturbance
changes primary forest ecosystems not only
on the species level but also fundamentally
on the functional level. Transition of
communities, from seemingly stochastically
composed communities in the primary forest
to deterministic communities in the disturbed
forests, might follow a general principle
which has been overlooked until to date.
Although changes in communities in
disturbed forests are often recognised, no
study relates these changes to ecosystem
Andreas Floren and K. Eduard Linsenmair
Biowissenschaften der Universität Würzburg
Lehrstuhl Tierökologie und Tropenbiologie
(Zoologie III)
Am Hubland
D-97074 Würzburg
Tel: +49-931-888 4351
Fax.+49-931-888 4352
E-Mail: [email protected]
[email protected]
We want to emphasise that the disturbed
forests lay close together and finally merged
into primary forest so that species could
easily colonise younger forests. Today,
however, most forest fragments are isolated
from primary or even old secondary forest
and colonisation is therefore very much
impeded. All the more our results indicate
that most arboreal primary forest arthropods
ETFRN News 33/01
Floren A. and K.E. Linsenmair (2000): Do ant
mosaics exist in pristine lowland rain forest?
Oecologia 123: 129-137.
Floren A., Freking A., Biehl M. and K.E. Linsenmair:
Anthropogenic disturbance changes the structure
of arboreal tropical ant communities. Ecography, in
Research Cooperation Sought
Mike Philip, editor of the Forests, Trees and
Livelihoods Journal (formerly the
Tree Crops Journal), is
looking for authoritative articles for FT&L.
The journal covers an holistic field
connecting forests, trees and people.
Naturally all aspects of community forestry
fall within this scope; Mike is especially
looking for articles on: techniques in
participatory research; all aspects of
NTFPs; ethical trading; and impacts of
carbon offsetting programmes on rural
livelihoods. The readership is international,
but reports of research with a mainly local
impact may be published as short research
notes. You may contact Mike at:
[email protected]
Source: Forest Information Update, Vol 2,
No 25, 18 June 2001
Gyde Lund of Forest Information Services
has updated his web pages on key forest
classification terminology. For definitions of
definitions of forest state, stage, and origin
(old growth, pristine, ancient, natural,
plantation forest, etc.) see
For definitions of agroforestry, urban
forestry, forest health, sustainable forest
For listings of definitions around the world
for forest, woodland, tree, afforestation,
reforestation and deforestation, etc. see
Warning - this is a large file - approx.
Gyde is still seeking national or official
definitions of forest, forest land and tree for
the following countries: Algeria, Angola,
Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Belize, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, British Virgin Islands, Brunei
Darussalam, Cayman Islands, Chad, Congo
(Zaire), Djibouti, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial
Guinea, French Guyana, French Polynesia,
Greenland, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guinea,
Guinea Bissau, Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan,
Korea, Dem. People's Rep., Kuwait, Liberia,
Libya Arab Jamahiriy, Macedonia, Malta,
Martinique, Moldavia, Republic of, Mongolia,
New Caledonia, Nigeria, Oman, Palestine,
Reunion, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, St.
Helena, St. Kitts & Nevis, St. Vincent &
Grenadine, Surinam, Swaziland, Syrian Arab
Rep., Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates,
Uzbekistan, Western Sahara, and Western
If you can assist with any definitions for the
above countries, please notify Gyde Lund at:
Forest Information Services
8221 Thornwood Ct.
Manassas, VA 20110-4627
Tel: +1 703 368 7219, Fax: +1 703 257 1419
Email: [email protected]
Source: Forest Information Update Vol 2, No 16, 16
April 2001
ETFRN News 33/01
Research Cooperation Sought
Heather Miewald writes, "I am working on
a feasibility study for a carbon
sequestration project for the Mount
Cameroon Project in Limbe, Cameroon. I
have come across numerous figures for the
carbon sequestration potential for primary
and secondary forests, but I was wondering
if anyone knows of reliable information on
carbon sequestration potentials specifically
for tropical forests, especially in subSaharan Africa? Any information at all on
this subject would be most helpful. I am
also looking into different carbon
monitoring and accounting (i.e. ton years)
methods, and methodologies for baseline
establishment. The project is particularly
interested in the use of GIS for baseline
establishment and monitoring purposes. I
would be interested in corresponding with
anyone involved in carbon sequestration
projects anywhere."
If you can help, please contact Heather at
Mount Cameroon Project, Limbe,
Cameroon. [email protected]
Christine Levant has an MSc in Ecology (DEA
-advance study diploma- 3rd cycle of
university), from the University of Pierre et
Marie Curie in Paris. Her study involved:
• population genetics, modelisation,
biological statistics, population dynamics,
sexual reproduction, life cycle, ethology
and tropical biology.
• 6 months probationary period of research
application at the Ecology and Evolution
Laboratory in the ENS de Paris about the
impact of biodiversity variation of
pollinisators on the plants community.
Ms Levant is now looking for a PhD position;
her interests are in the conservation of
biological resources and species and animal
population dynamics.
If you can be of any assistance, please
Christine Levant
53, rue Chanzy
21000 Dijon
Tel: +33 3 80 70 91 29
Email: [email protected]
Source: Forest Information Update, Vol 2, No 30,
23 July 2001
ETFRN News 33/01
Internet Features
By Jelle Maas
In the past UNESCO (United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization) has paid attention to the
subject of forests and water in the form of
publications. An overview of their
publications, with extended summaries, can
be obtained at:
The Tropical environmental hydrology
program (TRENDY), a project of the
Hydrogeology Section, Faculty of Earth
Sciences, Free University of Amsterdam,
investigates water-, sediment- and nutrient
dynamics of forested areas, from micro- to
meso-catchment scale, and the effects on
these resulting from deforestation and reafforestation. More information at:
The associated projects on forest hydrology
in Jamaica and Puerto Rico are presented
at respectively and
The thesis resulting from the latter project
is available at:
As a first step in modelling, a versatile yet
robust one-dimensional soil-vegetationatmosphere
(VAMPS, was
A closely related initiative is the Catchment
Research & Modelling Initiative (CRMI, jointly developed
with International Institute for
Infrastructural, Hydraulic and
Environmental Engineering (IHE, in Delft, the Netherlands.
The list of current research projects of the
Department of GeoEnvironmental Sciences
of the Free University of Amsterdam may be
viewed at: .
The list includes several projects on forests
and water questions in different tropical
countries. A list of papers and reports is
available from the same page.
Mountain forests are vital as sources of water
for irrigation and power generation. They
intercept and store water from rainfall, mist
and snow, and release it slowly, thereby
reducing soil erosion, avalanches and
downstream flooding impacts. They are
seriously threatened by climate change and
a wide range of human activities. As a first
step to evaluating global mountain forest
resources and the threats to them, UNEPWCMC (in collaboration with the
Environmental Change Institute and kindly
supported by the Swiss Agency for
Development and Co-operation - SDC) has
made a first attempt to map the mountain
forests of the world. The results of this effort
are presented on this website as regional
maps and statistics:
The Australian Commonwealth Scientific and
Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO)
has published a number of research updates
dealing with work in the area of forests and
water, eg ‘Trees and water a balanced view’,
‘Trees as water pumps’ and ‘ Australian Low
Rainfall Tree Improvement Group’. Please
Forests and water are closely related to the
subject of climate change (see ETFRN News
26). A useful overview on forests and climate
change is provided by IUCN at
ETFRN News 33/01
Internet Features
The World Resources Institute (WRI) has a
new feature on its website called Earth
Trends, providing a wealth of information,
with access to databases and maps on
different subjects such as climate, marine
ecosystems, biodiversity, forests and
grasslands and water resources. Take a
look at
IDRC, the Canadian International
Development Research Centre has specific
programmes on people, land and water
( in
which forests play a significant role.
The National Forests in the USA are the
site of many hydroprojects, which range
from small stock dams to massive power
generation stations buried deep within
granite mountains. The Forest Service
analyzes the environmental impacts of
proposed projects, which are then licensed
by other federal agencies. More information
The topic of the E-conference ‘Biodiversity
of Water and Forest – Science in support of
the Ecosystem Approach’ is to discuss how
natural dynamics and disturbances of
ETFRN News 33/01
forests and various forestry management
affect biodiversity in freshwater and how
natural dynamics and regulation of
freshwater affect forest biodiversity.
Information on the conference can be
found at:
Gap size, soil condition and microclimate is
a project carried out by Oscar van Dam in
the framework of the Tropenbos Guyana
Programme. His findings were recently
published as Tropenbos Guyana Series 10.
More information on the project and
As a first step to evaluating global mountain
forest resources and the threats to them, the
World Conservation Monitoring Centre (in
collaboration with the Environmental Change
Institute and kindly supported by the Swiss
Agency for Development and Co-operation
- SDC) has made a first attempt to map the
mountain forests of the world. The results of
this effort are presented on this website as
regional maps and statistics:
Other News
Dr Michael Kleine is the new coordinator for
the Special Programme for Developing
Countries of the International Union of Forest
Research Organizations (IUFRO-SPDC). Dr
Kleine takes over from Dr David Langor, who
returned to his research position with the
Canadian Forest Service, having completed
his two-year term with SPDC.
Forest Trends ( would
like to announce that as of mid-year it will
begin issuing a monthly review piece
(FLOWS) on recent papers that address
topical issues on the interface of hydrology,
economics and markets for environmental
services. This review is part of a larger
initiative to develop an information
IUFRO-SPDC is implementing the GFIS- clearinghouse on markets for environmental
Africa Project, which is funded by the services – with an initial emphasis on forests
European Commission’s tropical forests and water - being developed by a number of
budget line. Information on the development institutions and interested individuals that
of the Global Forest Information Service have participated in the Katoomba Group
(GFIS) is available from the IUFRO website meetings. The Katoomba meetings bring
: together individuals from the public and private sectors, as well as civil society, to
discuss cutting edge approaches to
developing markets for forest environmental
Other IUFRO-SPDC activities include the services.
BIOtechnology assisted REFORestation
project (BIOREFOR), and distribution of the For those interested in subscribing to the
“Handbook for Preparing and Writing FLOWS listserver please send an email to
Research Proposals” by Prof. C. Patrick Reid. [email protected] with the word
This publication is currently being translated SUBSCRIBE in the Subject line.
to French, and there are plans for workshops
on this topic in francophone Africa.
For those interested in submitting recent (or
older but relevant) papers work for inclusion
For further information please contact:
in future review pieces or for eventual listing
in the information clearinghouse, please
Dr. Michael Kleine, Coordinator
send the papers to [email protected]
Special Programme for Developing
with the word PAPER in the Subject line.
International Union of Forest Research
Seckendorff-Gudent-Weg, 8
A-1131 Vienna, Austria
Tel: +43-1-877-015122
The Masters Programme in Mountain
Fax: +43-1-877-9355
Forestry at BOKU provides academic
Email: [email protected];
training to highly qualified students and
[email protected]
professionals who wish to specialize in
Mountain Forestry. The curriculum
ETFRN News 33/01
Other News
emphasizes interdisciplinarity and learning by
doing, and it fosters intercultural
communication and team-working,
participatory thinking and bottom-up
approaches. Applicants must be graduates
from an accredited university-level institution
(Bachelor/Master's or its equivalents). The
programme lasts 2 years and finishes with the
completion of a Master's thesis. Graduates of
the Master's curriculum in Mountain Forestry
at BOKU will have a solid basis for
professional activities in administration,
extension, community services, private
enterprises, research or work in national or
until October 31st, 2001.
For further information, please contact:
Birgit Habermann
University of Agricultural Sciences
Institute for Forest Ecology
Peter Jordanstrasse 82
1190 Vienna
Tel: +43-1-47654-4124
Fax: +43-1-4797896
• Mountain forest ecology, climatology and
hydrology, biodiversity and conservation, Date: 24-28 September 2001
Location: Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Modelling mountain forest ecosystems,
multiple-criteria decision making, remote
sensing and GIS in natural resource
Agromisa is a knowledge centre for the
south, focussing on small-scale sustainable
agriculture. Agromisa has been organising
the course on Participation in Local
Development since 1994. The A-week is an
Natural resources management in intensive five days course which aims to give
mountainous areas (silviculture, an introduction on Participatory Approaches
agroforestry, wildlife management, forest that can be used when facilitating Local
Economics of mountain forests, social
issues, politics and policy,managerial
economics, project management,
participatory methods and tools for
mountain forestry applications;
Topics that will be treated during the course
are: RAAKS (Rapid Appraisal of Agricultural
Knowledge Systems), PTD (Participatory
Technology Development), PRA
(Participatory Rural Appraisal), Theatre for
Development, Monitoring and Evaluation and
• Road network planning, harvesting Intercultural Communication. The role of a
systems, risk management, technology development worker as a facilitator and the
assessment, science of natural mountain cultural problems one may encounter will be
highlighted. Special time will be devoted to
group discussions and practical exercises.
The first course will start March 2002, and The course is meant for people working in
applications will be accepted
development programmes, especially for
ETFRN News 33/01
Other News
those who have little or no experience in using
participatory methods. The course is open for
a maximum of 20 participants and is offered
only in English. The A-week is held twice a
year. This year the course will be given from
24-28 September 2001 and from 14-18
From 1-5 October 2001 the A-week Plus is
held for participants that want more
participative skills. This course has a more
practical focus. The will be finishing the
course with an implementation plan for
his/her won area. The A-week Plus is for
participants that have followed the A-week or
that have experience with participative
Fees: NLG 2950,-/ 1250 USD/ Euro 1300,incl. VAT (Fees include meals,
accommodation and course materials).
Registration is possible untill two months
before the start of the course.
Please note that Agromisa cannot fund
course fees, as we are a non profit
organisation and we have limited financial
resources. In the case you cannot attend the
course on the planned date, we could also
offer you a “tailor made course”, in the
Netherlands. In that case, the course can be
adapted entirely to the needs and wishes of
your organisation and/ or work.
For more information please contact:
The Agromisa Foundation
P.O. Box 41
6700 AA Wageningen
The Netherlands
Tel: +31 317 412217
Fax: +31 317 419178
E-mail: [email protected]
ETFRN News 33/01
Job Opportunities
The successful candidate will be fluent in
English, with proven writing, editing and
communication skills. She/he must be able to
understand topical issues related to forestry
The Center for International Forestry and the environment, and be able to
Research (CIFOR) is an international synthesize complex technical information and
organisation with headquarters in Bogor, present it attractively for different audiences.
Indonesia and regional offices in Brazil,
Cameroon and Zimbabwe. Established in The candidate should have a degree in
1993, CIFOR is committed to enhancing the journalism, communications, or a related
benefit of forests for all people through discipline, with a proven track record in
research and capacity building. CIFOR's environmental journalism, science writing
collaborative research, carried out in more and communications. Knowledge of French
than 30 countries with a range of partners, or Spanish is an advantage. Ability to
generates scientific knowledge which function in a cross-cultural and
contributes towards better tropical forest multidisciplinary environment is essential.
conservation and management in developing
countries. CIFOR is funded by over 30 CIFOR offers an internationally competitive
governments and development assistance compensation package, which includes
agencies, and employs 150 staff members. housing, education support for dependants,
and comprehensive healthcare coverage.
CIFOR seeks a highly motivated and
experienced Writer for its Communications Applicants should send a letter of interest,
Unit, based at its headquarters in Bogor. The curriculum vitae and the names of 3
incumbent will be a member of a small team references, by e-mail, fax or regular mail, to
which has the important task of the address below. We will begin considering
disseminating the results of research by applications on 15 September 2001 until the
CIFOR and its partners to a wide-ranging position is filled. Only short-listed candidates
audience of policy makers, opinion leaders will be contacted.
and donors, as well as to the global
forestry/environment community and the Michael Hailu
media. She/he will be assisted by a network Director, Information Services Group
of freelance writers, editors and designers. Center for International Forestry Research
The Writer will identify high interest stories P.O. Box 6596 JKPWB
from CIFOR's research and ensure that they Jakarta, Indonesia
are written in a range of styles and Tel: +62 251 622 622 or +1 650 833 6665
disseminated in a suitable format. She/he Fax: +62 251 622 100 or +1 650 833 6666
will be a self-starter, able to maintain the email: [email protected]
highest international standards for the Http://
Center's publications and web-site materials, CIFOR is supported by the Consultative
including the annual report, the newsletter, Group on International Agricultural Research
brochures and posters.
ETFRN News 33/01
directly through consumption, indirectly
through the household production function or
as factor inputs in production. A review of the
types of economic impacts that can be
a p a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t a U N E S C O expected to result from changes in
Symposium/Workshop on Forest-Water-People hydrological services that are, in turn, related
in the Humid Tropics, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia,
to changes in land use is accomplished with
July 31 –August 4, 2000
reference to the range of such impacts
identified in the literature. The general nature
Bruce Aylward (in prep. 2002)
of these linkages between land use and
hydrological externalities drawing upon the
This is a paper presented at a UNESCO
empirical and theoretical ideas is then
Symposium/Workshop on Forest-Waterdiscussed.
People in the Humid Tropics, Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia, July 31 –August 4, 2000, expected
Review of the literature suggests that, though
to appear in a Cambridge University Press
the effects of downstream sedimentation will
and UNESCO-IHP volume synthesizing
typically be negative, they may often be of
contributions from that meeting.
little practical significance. The literature on
water quantity impacts is sparse at best. This
Land use change that accompanies
is most surprising in the case of the literature
economic development and population
on large hydroelectric reservoirs where the
growth is intended to raise the economic
potentially important and positive effects of
productivity of land. An inevitable by product
increased water yield are typically ignored in
of this process is the alteration of natural
favor of simplistic efforts to document the
vegetation and downstream hydrological
negative effects of reservoir sedimentation.
function. This paper examines the existing
knowledge base with regard to the
The paper suggests that on theoretical
application of the tools of economic analysis
grounds it would be incorrect to assume that
to the valuation of these hydrological
all changes away from natural forest cover
externalities of land use change, with an
must lead to decreases in the economic value
emphasis on the humid tropics.
derived from hydrological services. Similarly,
it is not possible to assume that reforestation
The paper begins by characterizing in
or natural regeneration will unambiguously
general terms the relationships that govern
lead to an increase in the economic welfare
the linkages between land use and
derived from these services. The paper
hydrological externalities in humid tropical
concludes by identifying lessons learned and
lowland and upland environments. A brief
making recommendations for future research
summary of the hydrological functions
in the field of integrated hydrologicalconcerned (sedimentation, water yield,
economic analysis of land use change.
seasonal flows, flooding, etc.) is followed by
a simple theoretical presentation of the
Those interested in an electronic copy of the
linkages between land use, hydrology and
paper should contact:
economic utility. Hydrological services may
enter into an individual's utility function
Bruce Aylward, PhD, Email: [email protected]
ETFRN News 33/01
Julie Wilk (2000)
The aim of this PhD thesis (based on five
published/accepted articles) was to assess
the effects of land use changes on
streamflow in two large catchments, the
upper Bhavani basin in south India (4100
km 2 ) and the upper Nam Pong basin in
northeast Thailand (12 000 km2). Studies
from smaller catchments (of up to one
square kilometre) indicate that forest
removal will cause an initial increase in total
annual streamflow, with the final change
dependent on the replacing vegetative cover.
On larger catchments of several thousand
square kilometres, no changes in streamflow
are often found despite the removal of large
percentages of forest. In the Nam Pong
basin, the forest cover has decreased from
80% to 27% in the last 30 years. Despite
this, almost no changes in streamflow
patterns or amounts were found. The figure
of forest cover depicting a drastic reduction
of indigenous forest is in this case partly
misleading. In cases where swidden
agriculture has been the cause of forest
encroachment, large numbers of trees have
been left on the land for shade purposes.
The density of trees in the catchment has
therefore not been as radically reduced (219
trees ha-1 to 104 trees ha-1) as the amount of
forest cover. Abandoned plots of land are
also a result of the swidden agriculture
system, where people move on to new areas
after soil fertility is reduced. The secondary
ETFRN News 33/01
vegetation that grows in has
evapotranspiration rates that are close to that
of mature forests in only a few years. This
would indicate that substituting indigenous
forest with a mosaic of mixed vegetation
including open land with mixed trees does not
drastically affect the quantity of streamflow, in
the manner that has been observed in small
catchments. The original figures of strongly
declining forested areas, may thus be true in
terms of continuous areas of indigenous forest
but alterations of evapotranspiration and
infiltration may not be so extreme as the
figures of changes of the percentage of the
area covered by forest indicates. The amount
as well as condition of different vegetative
covers (degraded/healthy or open/dense) is of
importance when attempting to understand
their cumulative effect on the hydrological
regime of a river basin.
Interviews performed with local inhabitants of
both catchments found that people in both
areas valued trees highly for productivity
functions such as firewood, food items,
medicines and aesthetic reasons. Forests
were also believed very closely linked with
sustained water availability in terms of rain
and streamflow. There was a strong interest in
both conserving the indigenous forests that
still exist today as well as retaining and
planting scattered trees. This would maintain
a landscape mosaic that should according to
the results presented in this thesis, not
drastically affect streamflow regimes from
more indigenous forested conditions.
Study work in the upper Bhavani catchment,
India, was riddled with data uncertainties that
made modelling work wrought with extra
challenges. Even in areas where data is
insufficient in relation to the area’s
hydrological and climatological complexities,
as in the upper Bhavani, people have an
interest in knowing as much as possible
about the local hydrological regime. It is
therefore justifiable to model these areas, if
the results are presented and interpreted in
light of these data uncertainties. A GISassisted method of obtaining more
representative areal precipitation was
developed and the hydrological data were
assessed and crosschecked against each
other until an acceptable model calibration
was obtained. This was considered
sufficiently reliable to run different land use
and climate change scenarios to test their
relative effects on streamflow. Results
supported work in the upper Nam Pong
catchment (Thailand) that more
heterogeneous land use conditions,
indicated from land use maps from 1965 and
1994, showed little changes in streamflow
regimes from a hypothetical indigenous
scenario (where all agricultural land was
converted to the closest indigenous
vegetation). Most extreme changes in annual
water yield were caused by the scenarios
placing the entire catchment under
agriculture (streamflow was increased by
19%) and plantations (streamflow was
decreased by 33%). Climate change
scenarios of increased precipitation of 10%
caused an almost equally large increase as
the agricultural scenario (17%) but
decreasing dry season precipitation caused
a negligible change (-5%). Changes in
assured reservoir yield (yield that can be
assured every year) were also modelled, a
measurement which is of greater importance
from a downstream perspective where a
sustained water flow for agriculture and
hydropower purposes is of utmost interest.
These changes were more modest than
those in mean annual runoff indicating that
the effects of the different land uses on
temporal distribution of flow throughout the
year and between years are of extreme
importance in influencing the amount and
timing of water entering the downstream
In summary, the retention of heterogeneous
land use can buffer the effects of large
changes in streamflow as found in small-scale
catchment studies. It is very likely that people
that enter a forested area to undertake smallscale agriculture will maintain scattered tree
groves and even plant new trees for the many
products and services that trees are perceived
to provide. While some areas of forest are
being removed, other areas are probably
growing in and the effects of the individual
changes disappear in one another. The effects
of land use conversion on streamflow thus
vary spatially. Forest removal should ensue a
large local effect while at a larger scale the
effects will usually be buffered out.
ISBN 91-7219-882-6, Reprint orders to:
Julie Wilk, Department of Water and
Environmental Studies, Linköping University,
581 83 Linköping, Sweden
Email: [email protected]
By Anders Malmer
Tropical montane cloud forests have been
substantially under researched in relation to
the apprehension of their importance as
headwater areas for downstream societies.
There has been some efforts on reviewing
current work, like by Hamilton et al. (1995),
but like Bruijnzeel and Veneklaas (1998) state;
the fog may not have lifted yet, indicating the
ETFRN News 33/01
ongoing lack of in depth field study not only
of hydrological budgets of these forests but
also the major ecological understanding of
these forests.
disturbing nutrient uptake and root function.
Even though total input of water by cloud
interception was low the nutrient input in the
more stunted of the two forests investigated
was substantial. It is important to
acknowledge that the answers from this site
In a printed PhD thesis (Hafkenscheid, 2000) may not give the answer for all cloud forests,
Raimond Hafkenscheid of the Free but sincere and thorough field research efforts
University of Amsterdam presents a like this are essential to find the answers we
thorough in depth study on forests on the need. Hafkenscheid points out several
Blue Mountains of Jamaica. The thesis recommendations for further research. One of
compares two nearby sites of different forest these are to what extent the close to
stature and top soils with one of the specific continuous wet leaf surfaces contributes to
aims to investigate how fog and low clouds low transpiration of these forests.
contribute to hydrological and nutrient
budgets. The low water use by these For more information on this thesis please
stunned forests together with difficulties to contact:
measure large inputs by occult precipitation,
has maintained theories of cloud forests to Dr L A Bruijnzeel
be of outmost importance to densely Free University of Amsterdam
populated lowlands, not the least in dry Faculty of Earth Sciences & Environmental
periods. As anthropogenic pressure Hydrology
increases on cloud forests, scientific Tropical Environmental Hydrology
information is still largely lacking.
De Boelelaan 1085
1081 HV Amsterdam
The Netherlands
Hafkenscheid used both standard “fog Tel: +31 20 4447300
gauges” and estimated cloud water Fax: +31 206462457, Email: [email protected],
interception from troughfall and stemflow in Http://
times of no rainfall or more than 2h after
rainfall. This lead to conclusions of small
contributions of cloud water interceptions to Bruijnzeel, L.A. and Veneklaas, E.J., 1998. Climatic
both investigated stands (1.4 – 3.4 % of total conditions and tropical montane forest productivity: the
input). This was also supported by that the fog has not lifted yet. Ecology, 79(1): 3-9.
investigated cloud forest stands had similar Hafkenscheid, R., 2000. Hydrology and
modelled water budget and transpiration as biogeochemistry of tropical montane rain forests of
nearby tall montane forests with “no clouds”. contrasting stature in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica.
In this study no climatic explanations were PhD thesis, Free University of Amsterdam, 302 pp.
found to the ecological dispute of the
stunting of these mountain forests. Rather, Hamilton, L.S., Juvik, J.O. and Scatena, F.N., 1995.
Hafkenscheid argue from his investigations Tropical montane cloud forests, Ecological Studies, vol
on hydrology and biogeochemistry for the 110, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg.
polyphenolic quality of litter leading to low
soil pH and Aluminium concentrations
ETFRN News 33/01
Dr Uwem E. Ite, Department of Geography,
Lancaster University, UK.
LOSS AND CONSERVATION IN Orders: ISBN: 0-7546-1345-3 April 2001
158 pages £37.50 Hardback
Europe - Ashgate Gower Customer Service.
Bookpoint Limited, 130 Milton Park, Abingdon,
Uwem E Ite
Oxon, OX14 4SB, United Kingdom
SOAS Studies in Development Geography Tel: +44 1235 827730, Fax: +44 1235 400454,
Email: [email protected]
Based on extensive local field research
undertaken in and around the Cross River North & South America National Park in Nigeria, this book provides Email: [email protected]
a socio-economic study of the tensions
between agriculture and nature conservation. Southeast Asia, Indochina, China,
Taking a "bottom-up" approach and Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea focussing on the farm household and the Email: [email protected]
dynamics of forest farming at household
level, it brings together a wealth of new
information on the subject of tropical
forestry, the causes and dynamics of tropical
rain forest loss and the problematic relations
between conservation authorities in National RESEARCH: NEW WAYS OF LEARNING
Parks and local people. Its conclusions raise FIRST PUBLICATION IN ETFRN SERIES
important questions about practical ways
forward in the development of such areas.
Anna Lawrence (ed)
Contents: Global Thinking: Theoretical
Issues: Introduction; Small farmers, tropical
forest loss and conservation. Environmental
Management Issues in Nigeria: Tropical
forest loss and resource conservation; The
Cross River national park project. Local
Action: Forest Loss and Conservation in
Okwangwo Division: Environment and
development themes; Agricultural land use:
practices and challenges; Rates and
implications of forest loss in Okwangwo
division; Forest conservation-withdevelopment in Okwangwo division.
Synthesis: local rates and global illusions;
Bibliography; Index.
The first publication in the new ETFRN Series
has now been published. Entitled "Forestry,
Forest Users and Research: New Ways of
Learning", and edited by Anna Lawrence, the
book provides a sampler of current research
with forest users.
In participatory
development change is brought about through
new knowledge, which is treated not merely as
a product to help decision-makers, but as a
process of empowerment where local
communities take over their own development.
This has two important implications for
researchers: development can involve the
creation of knowledge; but conversely,
research where the learning processes are
only one-way can reinforce power structures
ETFRN News 33/01
which block participatory development. The
book includes a discussion on how the
research and learning approaches presented
can affect that process. The book is a result
of the ETFRN workshop "Learning from
Resource Users: a paradigm shift in tropical
forestry?" which was held in Vienna on 28-29
April 2000. The ETFRN Focal Point for
Austria (ANN-ETFRN) brought together
participants from 15 countries to examine
the implications of recent experience
involving local knowledge in forestry. The
debate looked at both studies of local
knowledge, and ways of creating new
knowledge. This book is the result of that
debate; most of the chapters began life as
papers at the workshop while others have
been added to create a book which
illustrates the diversity and innovativeness of
research with forest users. We hope it will
stimulate reflection on the future of forestry
It is principally a book for
researchers, but we believe it will also be
valuable to forestry and development
practitioners, to research funders,
development donors and policy makers.
Casapary, H.-U., Koné, I., Prouot, C. and Pauw, M.
de (2001)
Game is an important food resource in West
Africa, but in Côte d’Ivoire hunting is
forbidden. Hans Ulrich Caspary and his
colleagues argue that only regulated
reopening of hunting will be able to reduce
poaching in protected areas. Sustainable
wildlife management is urgently needed.
Poaching is a typical phenomenon all over
Côte d’Ivoire and the Taï region, at the border
with Liberia, is no exception. The influx of
migrants has increased the pressure in land
and the marginalised farmers need access to
game resources for their animal proteins and
to supplement their income. The illegality of
hunting means, however, that the marketing of
bush meat does not generate any incomes for
the state, while the local population does not
have any say in wildlife management. These
problems could be solved under a new
The workshop and proceedings were sustainable game management strategy. To
sponsored by ETFRN; the Austrian Federal support such a strategy, a study was carried
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, out under the Tropenbos Côte d’Ivoire
Environment and Water Management; the Programme in 1998-1999 to shed light on
Austrian Federal Ministry of Education, different forms of hunting and the various links
Science and Culture; and the University of in the bush meat supply chain in the Taï
Agricultural Sciences (BOKU).
Copies of the publication are available free
of charge, courtesy of the European
Commission INCODEV programme. If you
would like to receive a copy, please contact
the ETFRN Coordination Unit at:
[email protected] (Full address on back
page of this issue).
ETFRN News 33/01
The results showed that in the Taï region there
are about 73,000 subsistence hunters, 2,200
semi-professional hunters and 220
professionals. In the park itself there are about
20,000 subsistence hunters, 600 semiprofessional and 60 professional hunters. The
yearly game takeoff by the subsistence
hunters, who operate principally in the
peripheral zones of the park, is estimated
between 1.500 and 3,000 tonnes and is
valued at US$ 1.5 to 3 million. The catch of
the hunters, mainly rodents and other small
game, reflects the impoverished range of
wildlife. The professional hunters’ takeoff,
working in the park itself, is estimated at
between 56 and 720 tonnes (valued at US$
43,000 to 920,000). Monkeys and bovidae
dominate the hunting catch.
The African Ethnobotany network Bulletin #2
(August 2000) presents a review – in both
English and French - of ethnobotanical
literature for Central and West Africa. This
survey complements the literature review for
Eastern and Southern Africa which was
Hunting in the Taï region is highly published in the networks’ previous bulletin.
destructive. In order to preserve the unique The bulletin also includes a directory of
biodiversity of this and other regions, participants in the African Ethnobotany
sustainable wildlife management models network. The bulletin was published by the
need to be developed. These models should Association for the Taxonomic Study of the
combine protection and utilisation and be Flora of Tropical Africa; the People and Plants
applied in close collaboration between all Initiative; UNESCO and the World Wide Fund
p a r t i e s c o n c e r n e d . A l i s t o f for Nature.
recommendations is provided to facilitate the
development of wildlife management.
For further information please contact:
For more information or to obtain copies of
this publication please contact:
Tropenbos International
PO Box 232
6700 AE Wageningen
The Netherlands
Tel: +31 317 495500
Fax: +31 317 495520
Email: [email protected]
The African Ethnobotany Network
Réseau Africain d’Ethnobotanique
c/o People and Plants
UNESCO – Nairobi Office
PO Box 30592
Tel. +254 2 622668, Fax + 254 2 215991
Email: [email protected] or
[email protected]
ETFRN News 33/01
The Yunnan Sino-Dutch Forest Conservation
and Community Development Project
(FCCDP) organised a regional seminar on
the role of Non-timber Forest products in
forest conservation and community
development in Simao City, Yunnan, P.R. of
China, 11 – 14 December 2000. It was the
first time that such a regional seminar was
held, bringing together expertise from the
three countries. China’s Yunnan province,
Laos and Vietnam have similar cultures and
natural resources, sharing the Mekong and
Honghe River valleys.
The proceedings of the seminar include the
seminar summary, working group results,
and several of the background papers
submitted participants. The papers present
an insight in present activities and ideas on
NTFPs in the region.
The International Seminar on Non-timber
Forest Product – China Yunnan, Laos,
E Matthews, R Payne, M Rohweder and
SMurray (2000)
The Pilot Analysis of GlobalEcosystems
(PAGE) aims to provide an overview of
ecosystem condition at the global and
continental levels. The second objective of
PAGE is to identify the most serious
information gaps that limit our current
understanding of ecosystem condition. The
study reports on five major categories of
coastal ecosystems
forest ecosystems
freshwater systems
grassland ecosystems
The report on forest ecosystems includes
analyses of datasets at the global, national
and subnational level, drawing on published
and unpublished scientific studies. The
authors have developed indicators describing
the condition of the world’s forests, defining
condition as the current and future capacity of
forests to provide the full range of goods and
services that humans need and consume.
J. van Rijsoort and He Pikun, (editors) 2001,
The indicators studied include forest extent,
change, and human modification; as well as
the following forest goods and services:
Published and Distributed by Yunnan industrial roundwood production; woodfuel
University Press, Kunming, P.R. of China, production; biodiversity; carbon storage and
Price 40 RMB
sequestration; and watershed protection. The
choice of this limited set of goods and
services was based on consultations with
forestry experts in many countries, and on the
availability data. On all the indicators listed
above, key findings regarding forest condition
and trends, as well as quality and availability
of data are presented clearly and concisely in
ISBN 7-81068-271-7/S.21
ETFRN News 33/01
the executive summary.
The authors conclude that despite an
abundance of accessible information and
expertise, the uncertainty of much of what
we think we know about forests is sobering.
They found that it was most difficult to find
reliable data on woodfuel and biodiversity. It
was noted that the single biggest change
over time was the clearance of forests to
make way for agricultural land. They further
conclude that while forests have most
actively been managed for wood products,
under the assumption that other forest goods
and services would more or less take care of
themselves, there are signs of change in
both industrialised and developing countries.
Forest management practices and legal
protection reflect increasing recognition of
the need to manage forest for multiple
benefits and actors, and to make conscious
decisions on trade-offs when they become
inevitable. However, the full range of goods
and services that forests provide is rarely
factored into development decisions and our
current information base does not allow us
to consider and weight different goods and
services in an integrated way.
The report is published by the World
Resources Institute, Washington DC, USA.
Available at:
Printed copies may be ordered from:
WRI publications, PO Box 4852, Hampden
Station, Baltimore, MD 21211, USA
Tel: +1 410 516 6963, Fax: +1 410 516 6998
The International Centre for Integrated
Mountain Development (ICIMOD) publishes
the ICIMOD newsletter for sustainable
development in the Hindu Kush Himalayas, as
well as a series of short briefing notes “Issues
in Mountain Development”. The Winter
2000/2001 issue of the newsletter focussed on
mountain flash floods. The Titles of Issues in
Mountain Development 2000/4 and 2000/5
are: “Rangeland policies in the Eastern
Tibetan Plateau - Impacts of China’s
Grassland Law on pastoralism and the
landscape”; and “Poverty Assessment,
Poverty Reduction, and Sustainable
Livelihoods: How poverty mapping,
institutional analysis, and participatory
governance can make a difference.
Both the newsletter and the Issues in
Mountain Development are available on the
ICIMOD website:
For more information please contact:
4/80 Jawalakhel
GPO Box 3226
Tel +977 1 525313
Fax +977 1 524509, 536747
Email: [email protected]
ETFRN News 33/01
B Ritchie, C McDougall, M Haggith and N
Burford de Oliveira (2000)
Based on the outcomes of past field testing
in several countries as well as work in
progress, this guide incorporates results
from Cameroon, Brazil and Indonesia and
other ongoing research into community
forestry, and participatory decision making
and learning.
by Marielos Peña-Claros (2001)
Conversion of tropical forest into agricultural
fields has increased over the last decades.
When these fields are abandoned, vegetation
recovers by secondary succession and
secondary forest are formed after some years.
This PhD thesis reports on processes that
affect the course of secondary succession in
The guide introduces criteria and indicators the Bolivian Amazon. Processes such as seed
of sustainability for community managed predation, germination, seedling survival and
forest landscapes (CMF C&I) as a potential growth are studied in detail. In this way insight
learning and communication tool that can is gained into the processes limiting the
assist in adapting community forest regeneration of tree species in secondary
management systems sufficiently quickly forests differing in age. In addition, this thesis
and effectively to meet the rapid changes in reports on a method for enrichment planting
their political, socio-economic, and with Bertholletia excelsa seedlings in
biophysical contexts. It provides insights into secondary forests.
a flexible step-by-step approach to
developing and implementing self- or Orders: Copies of this thesis can be
collaborative forest monitoring systems, and downloaded from:
gives examples of C&I developed by Http://
communities in Cameroon, Brazil and 1954487/inhoud.htm
Indonesia. The approach is targeted to
communities and their partners in forest Hard copies are available from:
management (like NGOs, government, or
development projects) seeking strategies to Marielos Peña-Claros
improve local well-being and sustainable Deptartment of Plant Ecology
local forest management.
Utrecht University
Postbus 800 84
Orders: ISBN: 979-8764-439. 104 pp. 3508 TB Utrecht
CIFOR, PO Box 6596 JKPWB, Jakarta The Netherlands
10065, Indonesia. Tel: +62 251 622 622, fax: Email: [email protected]
+62 251 622 100, Email: [email protected],
ETFRN News 33/01
No 122
No 123
No 124
No 125
PROSEFOR, financed by DANIDA, is the No 126
forest tree seeds project of CATIE, Centro
Agronomico Tropical de Investigavion y No 127
Ensenanza, in Costa Rica. The project
publishes a series of technical notes, in No 128
Spanish, on forest tree seeds. The notes
summarise information available on seed No 129
production and management for some of the No 130
most important species of Central America.
See ETFRN News 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 30 for No 131
previous technical notes.
No 117
No 118
No 119
No 120
No 121
Gledistia amorphoides
(Grisebach) Taubert.
Tecoma stans (L.) Kunth ex HBK.
Lysiloma bahamensis Benth.
Cornus disciflora DC.
Luehea divaricata Martius &
Lecythis ampla Miers.
Parkinsonia aculeata L.
Pinus tropicalis Morelet.
Hibiscus elatus SW.
Juglans olanchanum Standl. &
Cabralea canjerana (Vellozo)
Martius subsp canjerana.
Pinus greggii Engelm.
Hura crepitans L.
Dendropanax arboreus (Linn.)
Planch. & Decne.
micrantha (Linnaeus)
Orders: Proyecto Semillas Forestales del
Turrialba, Costa Rica. Tel: +506 556 1933,
Fax: +506 556 7766.
ETFRN News 33/01
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