http://www.crowcanyon.org/ResearchReports/AlbertPorter/Albert_Porter_Pueblo_Final.pdf

http://www.crowcanyon.org/ResearchReports/AlbertPorter/Albert_Porter_Pueblo_Final.pdf
The Archaeology of Albert Porter
Pueblo (Site 5MT123):
Excavations at a Great House
Community Center in
Southwestern Colorado
Edited by
Susan C. Ryan
Copyright © 2015 by Crow Canyon Archaeological Center. All rights reserved.
CONTENTS
Acknowledgments........................................................................................................................ viii
To Borrow from this Publication ................................................................................................... ix
How to Cite this Publication .......................................................................................................... ix
How to Request Permission ........................................................................................................... ix
Chapter 1: Introduction, by Susan C. Ryan .....................................................................................1
Chapter 2: Research Design and Objectives, by Susan C. Ryan .....................................................8
Chapter 3: Chronology, by Susan C. Ryan ....................................................................................28
Chapter 4: Albert Porter Pueblo in a Regional Context, by Susan C. Ryan ..................................72
Chapter 5: Architecture, by Susan C. Ryan ...................................................................................84
Chapter 6: Artifacts, by Fumiyasu Arakawa................................................................................120
Chapter 7: Pollen Analysis, by Karen R. Adams .........................................................................283
Chapter 8: Plant Use, by Karen R. Adams...................................................................................313
Chapter 9: Human Skeletal Remains, by Kathy Mowrer ............................................................403
Chapter 10: Faunal Remains, by Shaw Badenhorst and Jonathan C. Driver ...............................448
Chapter 11: Population Estimates, by Susan C. Ryan .................................................................476
Chapter 12: Synthesis, by Susan C. Ryan ....................................................................................494
Illustrations
Figure 1.1. The location of Albert Porter Pueblo in the central Mesa Verde region. ..................... 4
Figure 1.2. Major cultural units within the 11.6-acre parcel owned by The Archaeological
Conservancy, Albert Porter Pueblo.............................................................................................. 5
Figure 1.3. Albert Porter. ................................................................................................................ 6
Figure 1.4. The locations of Albert Porter Pueblo, Woods Canyon Reservoir, Woods
Canyon Pueblo, and the Bass Site complex in the Woods Canyon community. ......................... 6
Figure 2.1. Site map showing architectural blocks and excavation units, Albert Porter Pueblo. . 16
Figure 2.2. Map of Hedrick Ruin, or Albert Porter Pueblo, produced by Art Rohn. ................... 17
Figure 2.3. Map of the Uncle Albert (Porter) Site, or Albert Porter Pueblo, produced by
Mark Chenault. .......................................................................................................................... 17
Figure 2.4. Aerial photograph taken in 1994, Albert Porter Pueblo. ............................................ 18
Figure 2.5. Topographic map indicating surface architecture and pit-structure depressions,
produced by Neal Morris, Albert Porter Pueblo. ....................................................................... 19
Figure 2.6. The electrical resistance survey being conducted by Fort Lewis College using
a Geoscan RM15 resistance meter, Albert Porter Pueblo. ......................................................... 19
Figure 2.7. Results of electrical resistance survey, Albert Porter Pueblo. .................................... 20
Figure 2.8. Electrical resistance anomalies and major cultural units, Albert Porter Pueblo......... 21
Figure 3.1. Histogram of all tree-ring dates, Albert Porter Pueblo. .............................................. 46
Figure 3.2. Histogram of all tree-ring cutting dates, Albert Porter Pueblo. .................................. 46
Figure 3.3. Late Pueblo II period occupation, Albert Porter Pueblo. ........................................... 47
Figure 3.4. Early Pueblo III period occupation, Albert Porter Pueblo. ........................................ 47
Figure 3.5. Late Pueblo III period occupation, Albert Porter Pueblo. .......................................... 48
Figure 4.1. Major architectural units, the Bass Site complex. ...................................................... 79
Figure 4.2. Major cultural units, Woods Canyon Pueblo. ............................................................ 80
Figure 4.3. Distribution of population of recorded sites near Albert Porter Pueblo. .................... 81
Figure 5.1. Aerial photograph, Albert Porter Pueblo. ................................................................. 105
Figure 5.2. Viga sockets in Structures 143 and 153 indicating multiple-story construction. ..... 105
Figure 5.3. T-shaped doorway (sealed), Structure 128, Albert Porter Pueblo. ........................... 106
Figure 5.4. Architectural Block 100 plan map, including great house, Albert Porter Pueblo. ... 107
Figure 5.5. Types of artifacts found on kiva floors, Albert Porter Pueblo. ................................ 108
Figure 5.6. Core-and-veneer-like masonry with chinking stones, Structure 140 east
exterior wall, Albert Porter Pueblo. ......................................................................................... 109
Figure 6.1. Ratios of mineral painted sherd count to gray ware sherd count for selected
sites in the central Mesa Verde region. .................................................................................... 182
Figure 6.2. Percentage of white ware bowl temper distribution, Architectural Block 100
vs. Architectural Blocks 200–1100, Albert Porter Pueblo....................................................... 183
Figure 6.3. Percentage of white ware bowl counts by temper category, Architectural Block
100 vs. Architectural Blocks 200–1100, Albert Porter Pueblo. ............................................... 183
Figure 6.4. INAA results: bivariate plot of chromium and ytterbium, Albert Porter Pueblo. .... 184
Figure 6.5. INAA results: bivariate plot of chromium and dysprosium, Albert Porter Pueblo. . 184
Figure 6.6. INAA results: bivariate plot of chromium and lutetium, Albert Porter Pueblo. ...... 185
Figure 7.1. Key pollen types through time on floor surfaces, Albert Porter Pueblo. ................. 298
Figure 7.2. Key pollen types through time in structure fills, Albert Porter Pueblo. ................... 299
Figure 8.1. Trend in diversity of wild plant foods, Albert Porter Pueblo. .................................. 334
ii
Figure 8.2. Summary of trends in wild plant foods, maize (all parts), and cheno-am seeds,
Albert Porter Pueblo. .............................................................................................................. 334
Figure 11.1. Basketmaker III period pottery counts by architectural block, Albert Porter
Pueblo. ..................................................................................................................................... 483
Figure 11.2. Pueblo I period pottery counts by architectural block, Albert Porter Pueblo. ........ 484
Figure 11.3. Pueblo II period pottery counts by architectural block, Albert Porter Pueblo. ...... 485
Figure 11.4. Pueblo III period pottery count by architectural block, Albert Porter Pueblo........ 486
Figure 12.1. Sum of all exotic artifacts by architectural block, Albert Porter Pueblo. ............... 507
Figure 12.2. Nonlocal pottery types inside and outside of Architectural Block 100,
Albert Porter Pueblo. ............................................................................................................... 508
Figure 12.3. Nonlocal pottery types by percentage from Architectural Block 100 and
outside of Architectural Block 100, Albert Porter Pueblo. ...................................................... 509
iii
Tables
Table 2.1. Modern Ground Surface Collection Units and their Grid Coordinates, Albert
Porter Pueblo. ............................................................................................................................. 22
Table 2.2. Results of Electrical Resistance Anomaly Testing, Albert Porter Pueblo. .................. 24
Table 3.1. The Pecos Classification Periods and their Associated Material Culture Traits ......... 49
Table 3.2. Time Periods, Subperiods, and Phases Assigned to Study Units,
Albert Porter Pueblo. ................................................................................................................. 50
Table 3.3. All Tree-Ring Dates, Albert Porter Pueblo. ................................................................. 51
Table 3.4. Chronological Assignments for all Cultural Contexts, Albert Porter Pueblo. ............. 53
Table 3.5. Pottery Counts and Weights and Percentages of Counts and Weights,
Albert Porter Pueblo. ................................................................................................................. 60
Table 3.6. Archaeomagnetic Dates from Kiva Hearths, Albert Porter Pueblo. ............................ 60
Table 3.7. Radiocarbon Results from Corn and Beans, Albert Porter Pueblo. ............................. 60
Table 6.1. Pecos Classification Terms and Associated Time Periods. ....................................... 186
Table 6.2. Subperiods and Date Ranges. .................................................................................... 186
Table 6.3. Three Temporal Periods............................................................................................. 186
Table 6.4. Nine Subperiods Used for Pottery Analysis, Albert Porter Pueblo. .......................... 187
Table 6.5. Count and Weight of Gray Ware, Albert Porter Pueblo. ........................................... 187
Table 6.6. Weights of Gray Ware from All Architectural Blocks, Albert Porter Pueblo. .......... 187
Table 6.7. Weights of Gray Ware from Architectural Block 100 and Other Architectural
Blocks (200–1100), Albert Porter Pueblo................................................................................ 188
Table 6.8. Bulk Sherds, Large, by Type, Albert Porter Pueblo. ................................................. 188
Table 6.9. Bulk Sherds, Large, by Time Period, Albert Porter Pueblo. ..................................... 190
Table 6.10. Pottery Sherds by Ware and Form, Albert Porter Pueblo. ....................................... 190
Table 6.11. Pottery Ware and Form by Time Period, Albert Porter Pueblo. .............................. 192
Table 6.12. Pottery Sherds by Count, Type, and Finish, Albert Porter Pueblo. ......................... 193
Table 6.13. Pottery Sherds by Weight, Type, and Finish, Albert Porter Pueblo. ....................... 194
Table 6.14. White Ware Counts and Percentage from Selected Study Units,
Albert Porter Pueblo. ............................................................................................................... 195
Table 6.15. White Ware Weights and Percentage from Selected Study Units, Albert
Porter Pueblo. ........................................................................................................................... 197
Table 6.16. White Ware Data from Well-Dated Components in Southwest Colorado. ............. 199
Table 6.17. Count of Pottery Types by Temporal Component, Albert Porter Pueblo. ............... 201
Table 6.18. Weight of Pottery Sherds by Type and by Temporal Component, Albert
Porter Pueblo. ........................................................................................................................... 203
Table 6.19. Count and Percent of Pottery Sherds from Middens, by Type and Temporal
Component, Albert Porter Pueblo. ........................................................................................... 205
Table 6.20. Weight and Percent of Pottery Sherds from Middens, by Type and Temporal
Component, Albert Porter Pueblo. ........................................................................................... 207
Table 6.21. Count of Pottery Sherds from Floors, by Type and Temporal Component,
Albert Porter Pueblo. ............................................................................................................... 209
Table 6.22. Weight of Pottery Sherds from Floors, by Type and Temporal Component,
Albert Porter Pueblo. ............................................................................................................... 210
Table 6.23. Count of Pottery Sherds by Ware and Type from Selected Great House
Contexts, Albert Porter Pueblo. ............................................................................................... 211
iv
Table 6.24. Direct Evidence of Pottery Production by Architectural Block, Albert
Porter Pueblo. ........................................................................................................................... 213
Table 6.25. Chipped-Stone Tool Count and Percentage by Raw Material, Albert Porter
Pueblo. ..................................................................................................................................... 214
Table 6.26. Chipped-Stone Tool Weight by Raw Material, Albert Porter Pueblo. .................... 216
Table 6.27. Projectile Point Data, Albert Porter Pueblo. ............................................................ 218
Table 6.28. Ratios of Projectile Point Counts to Gray Ware Weights, by Architectural
Block, Albert Porter Pueblo. .................................................................................................... 236
Table 6.29. Ground-Stone Tools, Albert Porter Pueblo.............................................................. 236
Table 6.30. Ground-Stone Tools, by Architectural Block, Albert Porter Pueblo. ...................... 237
Table 6.31. Ground-Stone Tools by Condition, Albert Porter Pueblo........................................ 238
Table 6.32. Ground-Stone Tools by Provenience, Albert Porter Pueblo. ................................... 239
Table 6.33. Battered and Polished Tools by Architectural Block, Albert Porter Pueblo. .......... 240
Table 6.34. Ratios of Battered/Polished Tools to Gray Ware Weights from Architectural
Block 100 and Architectural Blocks 200–1100. ...................................................................... 241
Table 6.35. Battered/Polished Tools by Depositional Context, Albert Porter Pueblo. ............... 241
Table 6.36. Stone Disks Collected from Albert Porter Pueblo. .................................................. 242
Table 6.37. Other Stone Artifacts, Albert Porter Pueblo. ........................................................... 244
Table 6.38. Miscellaneous Other Artifacts, Albert Porter Pueblo. ............................................. 256
Table 6.39. Counts and Weights of Effigies, Albert Porter Pueblo. ........................................... 259
Table 6.40. Bone Artifacts by Artifact Type, Albert Porter Pueblo. .......................................... 260
Table 6.41. Beads, Albert Porter Pueblo..................................................................................... 261
Table 6.42. Nonlocal Pottery from Albert Porter Pueblo. .......................................................... 266
Table 6.43. Nonlocal Pottery by Context within the Great House. ............................................ 267
Table 6.44. Obsidian Bifaces, Proveniences and Sources, Albert Porter Pueblo. ...................... 267
Table 6.45. Narbona Pass Chert from Selected Sites in the Central Mesa Verde Region. ......... 267
Table 7.1. Plant Communities and Selected Members that Make Up Local, RestrictedLocal, and Regional Pollen Source Categories. ....................................................................... 300
Table 7.2. Economic and Potentially Economic Plants Represented in Pollen Samples,
Albert Porter Pueblo. ............................................................................................................... 301
Table 7.3. Number of Pollen Samples by Context and Time Period, Albert Porter Pueblo. ...... 302
Table 7.4. Modern Pollen Control Samples. ............................................................................... 303
Table 7.5. Mean Percentage of Local, Restricted-Local, and Regional Pollen Types in
Floor and Fill Samples, Grouped by Time Period, in Comparison to Presence of Pollen
from these Taxa in Modern Surface Samples, Albert Porter Pueblo. ...................................... 304
Table 7.6. Pollen on Surfaces and within Fill Samples from the Late Pueblo II Period,
Albert Porter Pueblo. ............................................................................................................... 305
Table 7.7. Pollen from Pit Structure and Kiva Surface and Fill Samples from the Early
Pueblo III Period, Albert Porter Pueblo. .................................................................................. 306
Table 7.8. Pollen from Pit Structure and Kiva Surface and Fill Samples from the Late
Pueblo III Period, Albert Porter Pueblo. .................................................................................. 308
Table 7.9. Mean Percentage of Economic and Potentially Economic Pollen Types Present
in Surface and Fill Samples, Grouped by Time Period, in Comparison to Presence of
Pollen from these Taxa in Modern Surface Samples, Albert Porter Pueblo. ........................... 309
Table 7.10. Pollen on Surfaces from the Terminal Pueblo II through Initial Pueblo III
Period. ...................................................................................................................................... 310
v
Table 8.1. Analyzed Archaeobotanical Samples, by Context and Subperiod, Albert
Porter Pueblo. ........................................................................................................................... 335
Table 8.2. Counts of All Plant Taxa and Parts Identified in Analyzed Archaeobotanical
Samples from Albert Porter Pueblo, by Condition. ................................................................. 337
Table 8.3. Plant Foods at Albert Porter Pueblo: Counts of Individual Charred Non-Wood
Plant Parts Identified in Flotation and Macrofossil Samples from All Contexts,
by Subperiod. ........................................................................................................................... 347
Table 8.4. Ubiquity of Charred Non-Wood Plant Parts Considered Foods in all Flotation
and Macrofossil Samples from all Contexts, Albert Porter Pueblo. ........................................ 354
Table 8.5. Observations on 24 Charred Incomplete Maize Cob Segments and 87 Charred
Kernels from Albert Porter Pueblo. ......................................................................................... 354
Table 8.6. Contexts from which Zea mays was Recovered, Albert Porter Pueblo. .................... 355
Table 8.7. Plant Foods at Albert Porter Pueblo: Ubiquity of Charred Non-Wood Parts
in all Flotation Samples, by Subperiod. ................................................................................... 376
Table 8.8. Zea Mays and Cheno-am Seeds at Albert Porter Pueblo: Ubiquity of Charred
Non-Wood Plant Parts in Flotation Samples from Thermal Feature/Ashpit and Midden
Deposits, by Subperiod, and including the Number of Additional Food Taxa in the
Samples. ................................................................................................................................... 380
Table 8.9. Fuels at Albert Porter Pueblo: Counts of All Charred Non-Reproductive Parts
and Zea mays Non-Food Parts in Flotation and Macrofossil Samples from All Contexts,
by Subperiod. ........................................................................................................................... 381
Table 8.10. Fuels at Albert Porter Pueblo: Ubiquity of Charred Non-Reproductive Plant
Parts and Zea Mays Non-Food Parts in Flotation Samples from Thermal Features,
Ashpits, and Middens, by Subperiod. ...................................................................................... 384
Table 8.11. Counts and Percents of All Albert Porter Pueblo Tree-Ring Specimens. ............... 386
Table 8.12. Counts of All Identified Tree-Ring Specimens from Roof-Fall Contexts,
by Subperiod, Albert Porter Pueblo. ........................................................................................ 386
Table 8.13. Construction Materials and Plants Associated with Roofs at Albert Porter
Pueblo: Counts of All Charred Parts in Flotation and Macrofossil Samples from Roofs,
by Subperiod. ........................................................................................................................... 387
Table 8.14. Construction Materials and Plants Associated with Roofs at Albert Porter
Pueblo: Ubiquity of All Charred Parts in Flotation and Macrofossil Samples from Roofs
by Subperiod. ........................................................................................................................... 390
Table 8.15. Intentionally Modified Artifacts Made of Charred Wild Plant Materials
Recovered from All Sample Types, Albert Porter Pueblo....................................................... 392
Table 8.16. Charred Plant Parts within Flotation Samples from Thermal Features and
Ashpits of Kivas at Albert Porter Pueblo................................................................................. 395
Table 9.1. Demographics, Albert Porter Pueblo. ........................................................................ 433
Table 9.2. Pathologies, Albert Porter Pueblo.............................................................................. 434
Table 9.3. Mortuary Practices, Albert Porter Pueblo. ................................................................. 435
Table 9.4. Age and Sex Distribution at Albert Porter Pueblo and Selected Sites....................... 436
Table 9.5. Male and Female Burials at Albert Porter Pueblo, Sand Canyon Pueblo,
Woods Canyon Pueblo, and Salmon Ruins. ............................................................................ 437
Table 9.6. Average Stature Estimates for Individuals at Sand Canyon Pueblo, Woods
Canyon Pueblo, and Salmon Ruins.......................................................................................... 437
vi
Table 10.1. Study Units and Assigned Time Periods Yielding Faunal Remains, Albert
Porter Pueblo. ........................................................................................................................... 457
Table 10.2. Assemblage Size of Faunal Remains, Albert Porter Pueblo. ................................... 459
Table 10.3. Taxa Represented, by Time Period, Presented by Number of Identified
Specimens, Albert Porter Pueblo. ............................................................................................ 459
Table 10.4. Taxa Represented by Sub-Period, Presented by Number of Identified
Specimens, Albert Porter Pueblo. ............................................................................................ 462
Table 10.5. Faunal Index Values, Albert Porter Pueblo. ............................................................ 466
Table 10.6. Faunal Index Values according to Sub-Period, Albert Porter Pueblo. .................... 466
Table 10.7. NISP and Percentage NISP for Common Taxa for the Pueblo II Period,
Albert Porter Pueblo. ............................................................................................................... 466
Table 10.8. NISP and Percentage NISP for Common Taxa for the Pueblo II/III Period,
Albert Porter Pueblo. ............................................................................................................... 466
Table 10.9. NISP and Percentage NISP for Common Taxa for the Pueblo III Period,
Albert Porter Pueblo. ............................................................................................................... 467
Table 10.10. Artiodactyla Minimum Number of Elements (MNE), Minimum Animal
Units (MAU), and Percentage MAU, Albert Porter Pueblo. ................................................... 467
Table 10.11. Minimum Number of Elements (MNE), Albert Porter Pueblo. ............................ 468
Table 10.12. Burned Bone, Albert Porter Pueblo. ...................................................................... 470
Table 10.13. Bones with Cut Marks and Chop Marks, Albert Porter Pueblo............................. 470
Table 10.14. Taxa with Carnivore Chew Marks, Albert Porter Pueblo. ..................................... 470
Table 10.15. Bones with Rodent Gnaw Marks, Albert Porter Pueblo. ....................................... 471
Table 10.16. Bone Artifacts by Species, Albert Porter Pueblo................................................... 471
Table 11.1. Anomaly Testing Results, Albert Porter Pueblo...................................................... 487
Table 11.2. Date Ranges Assigned to Study Units, Albert Porter Pueblo. ................................. 489
Table 12.1. All Exotic Artifacts, Albert Porter Pueblo. .............................................................. 510
vii
Acknowledgments
Funding for the Albert Porter Pueblo research project was made possible in part by generous
grants from the Colorado Historical Society State Historical Fund and the National Geographic
Society. Additional support was provided through endowed funds at the Crow Canyon
Archaeological Center. To all the donors who have contributed to these funds over the years,
Crow Canyon extends its deep gratitude.
Albert Porter Pueblo is located on lands owned by The Archaeological Conservancy, which
granted Crow Canyon permission to conduct fieldwork at the site. Special thanks are given to the
Conservancy for allowing a large-scale research project to take place on their property and to
Sharon and Stewart Porter for their continued support during this project. Thanks also to the
Anasazi Heritage Center, the BLM museum and curation facility in Dolores, Colorado, for its
support throughout the project—from providing conservation advice in the field and lab to
permanently curating all the artifacts, samples, and records associated with Crow Canyon’s
excavations at the site. Deserving of special recognition are former Manager LouAnn Jacobson,
former Museum Curator Susan Thomas, and former Supervisory Interpretive Specialist Victoria
Atkins.
From the initial survey conducted by the University of Colorado in 1965 through the production
of this report decades later, the study of Albert Porter Pueblo has been a team effort. The
sustained support of Crow Canyon’s Board of Trustees and the active involvement of the
members of the Center’s research committee have been crucial to the successful completion of
this project—their interest, advice, and encouragement are greatly appreciated. Members of
Crow Canyon’s Native American Advisory Group offered thoughtful and thought-provoking
comments on the design and implementation of this project; as always, their perspectives
enriched our own and made for a better report.
Virtually everyone who worked in Crow Canyon’s research and education departments from
2001 through 2004 was involved in some aspect of the Albert Porter Pueblo research project,
including excavations and lab work. From the beginning of the project, various researchers
conducted special analyses, analyzed field and laboratory data, and prepared the collections for
curation. Throughout, the Center was aided in its work by undergraduate and graduate student
interns, helpers from the local community, and thousands of student and adult participants in the
Center’s excavation and laboratory programs. Diverse professional colleagues contributed their
special skills and expertise to the analyses and interpretation of materials recovered from the site;
some authored chapters in this report. It is impossible to individually recognize every staff
member, intern, volunteer, participant, and colleague by name, but their individual and collective
contributions to the success of the project cannot be overstated. They made this project possible.
viii
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How to Cite this Publication
To cite the entire publication:
Ryan, Susan C. (editor)
2015 The Archaeology of Albert Porter Pueblo (Site 5MT123): Excavations at a Great House
Community Center in Southwestern Colorado. Electronic document,
www.crowcanyon.org/albertporter, accessed day month year.
To cite an individual chapter, e.g., Chapter 6:
Arakawa, Fumiyasu
2015 Artifacts. In The Archaeology of Albert Porter Pueblo (Site 5MT123): Excavations at a
Great House Community Center in Southwestern Colorado, edited by Susan C. Ryan.
Electronic document, www.crowcanyon.org/albertporter, accessed day month year.
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Chapter 1
Introduction
by Susan C. Ryan
Albert Porter Pueblo (Site 5MT123) is the site of an ancestral Pueblo village located in what is
now southwestern Colorado near the modern town of Yellow Jacket (Figure 1.1). Most of the
site—including the structural remains that are most clearly visible on the modern ground
surface—is contained within an 11.66-acre (47,176 m² area) archaeological preserve owned by
The Archaeological Conservancy (Figure 1.2). This parcel of land was donated to the
Conservancy by members of the Porter family in 1988. Mr. Albert Porter, the site’s namesake
(Figure 1.3), owned and farmed the property for several decades before ownership was
transferred to the Conservancy. Albert Porter Pueblo was nominated to the National Register of
Historic Places as an example of a habitation site with public architecture (Lipe 1995) and was
placed on the register in 1999.
The types of pottery found at the site suggest that ancestral Pueblo people inhabited the location
at least as early as the Basketmaker III (A.D. 600–725) and Pueblo I (A.D. 725–920) periods.
However, the site was most intensively occupied during the Pueblo II (A.D. 920–1140) and
Pueblo III periods (A.D. 1140–1280). Evidence indicates that the site reached its maximum
extent from approximately A.D. 1100 to A.D. 1250.
Albert Porter Pueblo was part of the Woods Canyon community. This community is named for
Woods Canyon Pueblo (Churchill 2002), the site of a large village located approximately 1.8 km
southwest of Albert Porter Pueblo. Three large village sites are associated with the Woods
Canyon community (Figure 1.4): (1) Albert Porter Pueblo, (2) Bass Site complex (Site
5MT136)—located approximately 2.25 km to the west-southwest, and (3) Woods Canyon
Pueblo (Site 5MT11842). A fourth site, Woods Canyon Reservoir (Site 5MT12086)—located
approximately 1.00 km to the south—was constructed during the Pueblo II period and was
presumably used by residents of the Woods Canyon community until the region was depopulated
about A.D. 1280. Surface evidence at the Bass Site complex suggests that this settlement was
contemporaneous with Albert Porter Pueblo. Pottery types, tree-ring dates, architectural styles,
and site layout indicate that Woods Canyon Pueblo succeeded Albert Porter Pueblo as the center
of the Woods Canyon community during the mid-to-late A.D. 1200s.
In 2000, The Archaeological Conservancy granted Crow Canyon Archaeological Center
permission to conduct a two-year testing project at Albert Porter Pueblo. Testing began in 2001
and continued through 2002. After obtaining permission from the Conservancy, Crow Canyon
conducted an additional two years of testing; excavation was completed at the end of the 2004
field season. All fieldwork was conducted under State of Colorado Archaeological Permits 200119, 2002-3, 2003-17, and 2004-12. Annual reports summarize each season of research at Albert
Porter Pueblo (Ryan 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005). To date, the only professional excavations
undertaken at this site have been conducted by the Crow Canyon Archaeological Center.
1
Research at Albert Porter Pueblo was guided by Crow Canyon’s long-term research design, titled
“Communities through Time: Cooperation, Conflict, and Migration” (Varien and Thompson
1996). This research design focuses on the development and depopulation of ancestral Pueblo
communities in the central Mesa Verde region. The overarching goal of the Albert Porter Pueblo
project was to reconstruct the historic development of the village and the associated community.
The resulting reconstruction identifies multiple periods of occupation, documents population
growth and decline through time, and addresses the emergence of the settlement as a community
center. The presence of a Chaco period great house and a dense cluster of associated smaller
habitations suggest that Albert Porter Pueblo served as a community center. Crow Canyon’s
research at Albert Porter Pueblo provides important new insights into the historical development,
population dynamics, and human environmental impacts of ancestral Pueblo communities in the
central Mesa Verde region.
Crow Canyon archaeologists, educators, interns, volunteers, and hundreds of program
participants conducted archaeological research at this site. A total of 406 excavation pits were
completed during the four-year project. During excavations, we defined 26 kivas, six pit
structures, 28 rooms, 54 midden deposits, 50 areas of extramural surfaces, three miscellaneous
cultural deposits, and 58 noncultural deposits (Crow Canyon Archaeological Center 2010).
Overall, less than 1 percent of Albert Porter Pueblo was excavated during the project. Artifacts
collected in the field were analyzed in Crow Canyon’s laboratory; special analyses of artifacts
and ecofacts were conducted upon completion of the fieldwork.
This report comprises two components—interpretive chapters and a companion database.
Interpretive chapters summarize research conducted at Albert Porter Pueblo and provide
interpretations of the material remains collected and analyzed from the site. The companion
database contains specific information for each study unit identified through our excavations.
All field and laboratory data collected during the project—including maps, photographs,
stratigraphic descriptions, feature descriptions, masonry descriptions, and more—are available in
the companion database (Crow Canyon Archaeological Center 2010). The user is encouraged to
consult this database for detailed information on individual study units, excavation units,
features, point-located artifacts, masonry, stratigraphy, structure construction, structure dating,
artifacts, and human remains. The companion database also contains 158 maps and 1,738 color
photographs—only a small fraction of which are referred to in the interpretive chapters.
In addition, the homepage of the Albert Porter Pueblo Database provides access to background
information including a site overview, a history of investigations, site physiography, and field
methods. Links to site-wide data including maps, photographs, tree-ring dates, dating arguments,
and all excavation units are included as well. These two components of the Albert Porter Pueblo
publication were designed to be used in tandem; however, the interpretive report and the
database may also be used independently of each other.
Crow Canyon Archaeological Center electronic reports differ from traditional printed site reports
in that the primary goal of the interpretive chapters is to provide interpretations and a synthesis
of the data as opposed to presenting the data themselves. The Albert Porter Pueblo companion
database is the repository for field and laboratory data. This unique electronic format provides
several advantages over traditional printed site reports, including the capability to publish a large
2
amount of field documentation and vast quantities of maps and color photographs. In keeping
with Crow Canyon’s mission, the electronic-report format allows the interpretive chapters and
field and laboratory data to be accessible to professional archaeologists and the public alike.
Furthermore, the acquisition and use of this information is free to all users who have access to
the internet. We encourage users to develop and pursue additional research about Albert Porter
Pueblo that has not been addressed within this interpretive report.
3
Figure 1.1. The location of Albert Porter Pueblo in the central Mesa Verde region.
4
Figure 1.2. Major cultural units within the 11.6-acre parcel owned by The Archaeological
Conservancy, Albert Porter Pueblo.
5
Figure 1.3. Albert Porter.
Figure 1.4. The locations of Albert Porter Pueblo, Woods Canyon Reservoir, Woods
Canyon Pueblo, and the Bass Site complex in the Woods Canyon community.
6
References Cited
Churchill, Melissa J. (editor)
2002 The Archaeology of Woods Canyon Pueblo: A Canyon-Rim Village in Southwestern
Colorado. Electronic document, http://www.crowcanyon.org/woodscanyon, accessed
5 June 2009.
Crow Canyon Archaeological Center
2010 The Crow Canyon Archaeological Center Research Database. Electronic document,
http:/www.crowcanyon.org/researchdatabase, accessed 31 December 2010.
Lipe, William D.
1995 National Register of Historic Places Registration Form for Albert Porter Pueblo, Site
5MT123. Manuscript on file, Colorado Historical Society, Office of Archaeology and
Historic Preservation, Denver.
Ryan, Susan C.
2002 The Albert Porter Preserve (Site 5MT123), Montezuma County, Colorado: Annual
Report, 2001 Field Season. Electronic document,
http://www.crowcanyon.org/albertporter2001, accessed 6 June 2009.
2003
Albert Porter Pueblo (Site 5MT123), Montezuma County, Colorado: Annual Report,
2002 Field Season. Electronic document, http://www.crowcanyon.org/albertporter2002,
accessed 6 June 2009.
2004
Albert Porter Pueblo (Site 5MT123), Montezuma County, Colorado: Annual Report,
2003 Field Season. Electronic document, http://www.crowcanyon.org/albertporter2003,
accessed 6 June 2009.
2005
Albert Porter Pueblo (Site 5MT123), Montezuma County, Colorado: Annual Report,
2004 Field Season. Electronic document, http://www.crowcanyon.org/albertporter2004,
accessed 6 June 2009.
Varien, Mark, and Ian Thompson
1996 Communities through Time: Cooperation, Conflict, and Migration. Draft manuscript on
file, Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, Cortez, Colorado.
7
Chapter 2
Research Design and Objectives
by Susan C. Ryan
Introduction
Research at Albert Porter Pueblo was guided by two research strategies: Crow Canyon
Archaeological Center’s multi-year (1997–2004) research design titled “Communities Through
Time: Cooperation, Conflict, and Migration,” (Varien and Thompson 1996) and a proposal
submitted to The Archaeological Conservancy titled “A Proposal to Conduct Archaeological
Testing at the Albert Porter Preserve” (Varien 2000). The first research strategy addressed the
development and depopulation of ancestral Pueblo communities in the central Mesa Verde
region from A.D. 900 to1300. The latter research design focused specifically on Albert Porter
Pueblo to address the issues outlined in the former research design. The goal of this chapter is to
summarize the major research issues and strategies proposed in those documents and to outline
the field strategies and sampling plan used at the site. The reader is encouraged to refer to the
original documents (Varien 2000; Varien and Thompson 1996) for more-detailed information.
At Albert Porter Pueblo, site data were generated by testing each architectural block identified
from remains visible on the modern ground surface (Figure 2.1). The overarching goal of the
Albert Porter research was to reconstruct the historic development of Albert Porter Pueblo and
the associated community. Community centers in the central Mesa Verde region were focal
points within their respective communities, and they are recognized archaeologically by the
presence of distinctive residential and public architecture (Adler and Varien 1994; Varien 1999).
The term “public architecture” is defined by Lipe (2002:221) as structures “that differ from
ordinary domestic structures.” Researchers infer that public architecture—which includes great
kivas, plazas, and great houses—served both as gathering places for community members and
locations where ceremonies and information sharing took place (Adler and Wilshusen 1990).
Crow Canyon researchers define ancient communities (after Varien 1999:19) as groups of
households that lived near one another, had regular face-to-face interaction, and shared the use of
local, social, and natural resources; they define communities archaeologically on the basis of
clusters of contemporaneous habitation sites in an area approximately 4 km in diameter.
Typically, these settlement clusters include a single site that served as the “community center.”
Many such centers exhibit a central, focal building surrounded by residences. The form and
layout of community centers changed through time. According to the community center
succession model discussed by Lipe and Ortman (2000), community centers dating from the
A.D. 1050 to 1150 period consisted of large isolated buildings located primarily in upland areas,
many of which were associated with a great kiva. Between A.D. 1150 and 1225, community
centers included a cluster of buildings, many of which were located in upland areas, and a central
building was typically located in the center of the cluster. Finally, between A.D. 1225 and 1300,
community centers were large aggregated villages located in canyon-head settings.
8
The presence of a possible Chaco great house in Architectural Block 100 (see Figure 2.1) that is
surrounded by a dense concentration of 10 smaller architectural blocks suggests that Albert
Porter Pueblo was a community center. Distinctive in terms of its size, layout, and architectural
details, the great house would have served as a central building beginning in the early-to-middle
A.D. 1100s. During the late A.D. 1100s and early 1200s, several structures were added to the
great house, significantly increasing the size of the building; several structures within this
building were used until the village was depopulated in the late A.D. 1200s.
Research Questions
Research conducted as part of “Communities through Time: Migration, Cooperation, and
Conflict” was implemented at the scale of the locality as well as that of the region (Varien and
Thompson 1996). Early in the project, the title of the research design was altered by switching
the order of the terms “Conflict” and “Cooperation.” Research questions focused broadly on
problems including settlement patterns, community continuity, chronology at the household and
site level, regional connectedness, cooperation at the community and regional levels, conflict at
the community and regional levels, and access to resources. Lists of specific research questions
developed by Varien and Thompson (1996) to structure locality, community, and regional-level
research follow.
Locality-Level Research Questions
Locality-level research questions consist of the following:
Did families within communities move more frequently than the communities
themselves? Did the frequency of household movement change over time?
How long were community centers used and did they last longer than residences of
individual families?
Did the families living at or near the community centers live in their houses longer than
other families in the surrounding community? Did the families that lived at or near the
community center become important decision makers within the communities?
Were communities dating from A.D. 1050–1150 part of the Chaco regional system?
Was there a break in community continuity during the A.D. 1130–1180 drought?
Can we identify patterns of cooperation among households within communities in a
locality? Did households affiliate with groups that were larger than a single family but
smaller than the community?
Can we identify patterns of cooperation between households and the community? For
example, how did households cooperate on public-works projects?
Can we identify patterns of cooperation among communities within the locality? For
example, did two or more communities form alliances with one another?
Can we identify patterns of conflict among and between all of the above within a
locality?
9
Did all groups have equal access to resources?
Did unequal access to either resources or leadership positions create conflict within and
between communities?
Community- and Regional-Level Research Questions
Community- and regional-level research questions consist of the following:
Did community centers persist because they practiced economic and agricultural
intensification in the face of population growth?
Did the peripheral communities pursue more extensive economic and agricultural
strategies?
Did community centers persist because they had access to better resources (for example,
more productive agricultural land)?
Was there cooperation among the community centers?
Was there conflict between the community centers?
What was the role of the individual in the historical development of the ancient Pueblo
communities in the Mesa Verde region?
Was the final migration from the region in the late thirteenth century a household and/or
community-level decision?
Did the final migration result from household and community conflict?
What social forces or events contributed to the final migration?
In what decades did the final migration take place? What did this process look like?
If people migrated about A.D. 1260, did those people set up migration streams for the
groups that migrated two decades later?
As noted in “A Proposal to Conduct Archaeological Testing at the Albert Porter Preserve”
(Varien 2000), research at Albert Porter Pueblo fit into a larger program of long-term research
supported by the Crow Canyon Archaeological Center in which detailed case studies of
individual settlements and communities are integrated with regional and macroregional analyses.
Research at Albert Porter Pueblo was designed to help address the following interrelated issues
(Varien 2000): (1) dating each period of occupation, (2) reconstructing the history of occupation,
(3) clarifying the nature of the Chaco to post-Chaco transition, (4) assessing potential Chaco
influence, (5) evaluating Albert Porter Pueblo as a community center through time, (6)
reconstructing the layout of archaeological features, and (7) linking the ancient history of the
central Mesa Verde region with modern Pueblo Indian society. Additionally, research at Albert
Porter Pueblo was designed to expand our understanding of prehispanic history in the northern
San Juan region and the greater Southwest by addressing topics of general anthropological
interest including: (1) community organization and change in middle-range societies;
(2) the development of leadership, power, and social inequality in human society; and (3) the
importance of public architecture. Each of these problems is stated as a research question below.
10
Discussions of the following questions are found throughout this report; however, concise
discussions can be found in Chapter 12, “Synthesis.”
Was the village continuously occupied between the Chaco and post-Chaco period, or was
there a hiatus between these two periods? Did the use of the site change in each of these
periods?
Was Chacoan influence at Albert Porter Pueblo the result of direct contact between the
inhabitants of Chaco Canyon and Albert Porter Pueblo, or did leaders at Albert Porter
Pueblo emulate a Chacoan style?
Who used the great house, and how was it used?
Are community centers differentiated from the rest of the community and, if so, how?
What is the place of community centers in the regional settlement system?
What was the full inventory of architectural features, and does the layout of these features
indicate that the village was a Chacoan or post-Chacoan center?
Did community leaders live at Albert Porter Pueblo?
If evidence for leaders is discovered, how were they differentiated from other community
members?
Did leaders control the use of public buildings, or were these structures used
communally?
How did events in the northern San Juan region shape the development of modern Pueblo
society?
History of Research at Albert Porter Pueblo
Little research had been conducted at Albert Porter Pueblo before the Crow Canyon
Archaeological Center began testing the site in 2001. Earlier projects focused primarily on
surface remains at the site. In 1965, a Colorado State site survey form was completed as part of
a University of Colorado survey under the direction of Eric Varney and Doug Bucy. The few
artifacts collected during that survey are probably curated at the Anasazi Heritage Center in
Dolores, Colorado, or at the University of Colorado Museum in Boulder. In the late 1970s or
early 1980s, a sketch map of “Hedrick Ruin,” an early name for the site, was compiled by Art
Rohn of Wichita State University (Figure 2.2). In the late 1980s, Mark Chenault, then a graduate
student at the University of Colorado, used a transit to produce a more detailed map of the site
(Figure 2.3). In 1994, a field crew under the direction of William Lipe set in six datums (capped
rebar) and targeted the site for aerial photography conducted by Rocky Mountain Aerial Survey
of Englewood, Colorado (Figure 2.4). A detailed topographic map was generated from the aerial
photographs by Carrera and Associates. In 1995, as part of Crow Canyon’s Village Mapping
Project, structures visible on the modern ground surface—including masonry walls, rubble
mounds, and other cultural features—were mapped by Crow Canyon under the direction of
Richard Wilshusen and Neal Morris, with the assistance of four local members of the Colorado
Archaeological Society (Lipe and Ortman 2000; Varien and Wilshusen 2002). Neal Morris then
drafted a composite map showing topography, rubble mounds, and pit-structure depressions
11
(Figure 2.5). Because dense vegetation covered the site during the Village Mapping Project,
surface middens were not recorded at that time. On September 20, 1995, Albert Porter Pueblo
was nominated to the National Register of Historic Places as an example of a “habitation site
with public architecture” (Lipe 1995), and the site was placed on the register in 1999.
Field Methods
Field and laboratory methods for excavations at Albert Porter Pueblo are presented in “A
Proposal to Conduct Archaeological Testing at the Albert Porter Preserve” (Varien 2000). All
fieldwork at this site was conducted using methods consistent with the principles of conservation
archaeology (see Lipe 1974). As specified in the research design, less than 1 percent of Albert
Porter Pueblo was disturbed through excavation, leaving most of the site intact. Research at this
site focused on six distinct archaeological contexts: (1) modern ground surface, (2) extramural
middens, (3) interiors of pit structures, (4) exterior faces of the north walls of surface rooms or
roomblocks, (5) interiors of surface rooms, and (6) remote-sensing anomalies.
Modern Ground Surface Collections
Artifacts on the modern ground surface were collected within 3-m-radius “dog-leash” units that
were placed in the centers of 84 grid units measuring 20-x-20 m each (Table 2.1). The resulting
data allowed us to map areas of low, moderate, and high artifact densities across the site. These
data guided our choice of excavation units by allowing us to make inferences regarding the
locations of subsurface cultural deposits, to identify and locate unique temporal components on
the site, and to quantitatively assess the types and abundance of artifacts present on the modern
ground surface.
Midden Testing
Extramural middens were tested with randomly selected 1-x-1-m units. The units were selected
by first overlaying a 1-m grid on a map of each midden and numbering each 1-x-1-m square
consecutively. Excavation units were then selected by a random-number generator. The diversity
of artifact types in an archaeological sample is directly correlated with sample size (Jones et al.
1983); thus, at Albert Porter Pueblo, we attempted to sample each midden such that the collected
assemblage would adequately represent the contents of the entire midden. For middens smaller
than 100 m², we excavated 10 percent of the total midden area. Ten 1-x-1-m units were
excavated in middens between 100 and 200 m² in area. In middens larger than 200 m², 15 units
were excavated.
Pit-Structure Testing
Pit structures were tested with a judgmentally placed 2-x-2-m unit that was excavated until
collapsed roofing debris was exposed. Excavation was then restricted to one-half of that unit and
continued to the floor of the structure. This strategy—which exposes approximately 21 percent
of a pit structure floor measuring 3.5 m in diameter―was designed to optimally enable
researchers to collect data that would address four areas of interest. First, tree-ring samples were
collected to reconstruct the chronological history of the structure and the site overall. Previous
12
research indicates that, in the central Mesa Verde region, tree-ring samples are most abundant in
burned pit structures (Cameron 1990; Wilshusen 1988). Thus, one of our primary goals in testing
pit structures was to retrieve burned wood—especially from roofing timbers—that could be
dated by dendrochronology. Second, ash collected from pit-structure hearths provides
information on environmental conditions, activities conducted within the structure, diet, and the
economic status of those individuals who used the pit structure (Adams 1999). Hearths—
standard features in pit structures—are consistently located near the center of the structure.
Excavation units were judgmentally placed to take advantage of this predictability. Third, pitstructure testing reveals construction techniques and styles that reflect the time of construction.
Furthermore, at Albert Porter Pueblo, pit-structure architecture provided data on the extent of
Chaco influence. For example, key architectural features—including pilaster style, masonry type,
and ventilator type—may reflect association with Chaco Canyon (also see Chapter 5).
Exterior North-Wall Testing
Ten 1-x-2-m units were located to expose sections of north walls of selected roomblocks across
the site. These units were excavated to collect data on the construction and use history of each
roomblock area and data regarding the possible nature and extent of Chaco influence at the site.
Chaco influence in roomblock construction includes banded masonry, footer trenches, and
multistory construction (Hurst 2000). Units placed along the exterior faces of roomblock walls
were excavated from the modern ground surface to undisturbed native sediment, which was
interpreted as the occupational ground surface when the location was first inhabited. These
excavation units enabled us to determine if a footer trench was present, if the foundation rested
on undisturbed native sediment, or if the foundation rested on earlier cultural deposits. Where
cultural deposits were present below the foundation, we inferred that the types of pottery sherds
in those deposits reflected the earliest possible period that the wall could have been constructed.
Roomblock Testing
Ten surface rooms, all within Architectural Block 100, were selected for testing with one 1-x-2m unit each. This element of our excavation strategy focused on rooms suspected of having
special functions and rooms that appeared to have been constructed during a variety of time
periods. To expose as many wall faces as possible, the 10 excavation units were each positioned
along the inside edge of a structure wall. This strategy enabled us to record construction details,
remodeling events, and masonry features, and to investigate the nature and extent of Chaco
influence at the site. Evidence of Chaco-influenced architecture in surface rooms includes corner
doorways, room-wide platforms, and intramural beams (Bradley 1988; Hurst 2000; Lekson
1984). In addition, roomblock test units allowed us to document structure fills, structure floors,
and subfloor deposits. Such data are relevant for assessing postabandonment processes,
abandonment style, room use, and use of Architectural Block 100 before construction of the
possible Chaco great house.
Remote Sensing
Electrical resistance is the most widely used method of remote sensing in archaeology today and
was the method used at Albert Porter Pueblo (Charles and Ball 2001). This method, which was
13
developed in England during the 1950s (Rapp and Hill 2006), measures the distortion of an
induced electrical current as it passes between a positive and negative probe that contact the
ground surface. The level of resistance varies with the degree of subsurface disturbance. Most
disturbances beneath the modern ground surface at an archaeological site were caused by human
activity such as the construction of subterranean structures—including pithouses, kivas, and
other structures—as well as the use of footpaths or roads and other activities that altered natural
subsurface deposits.
From July 23 to July 28, 2001, an electrical-resistance survey was conducted on 40 grid units
measuring 20-x-20-m each (16,000 m² total) in the east-central, southeastern, north-central, and
west-central portions of Albert Porter Pueblo. The survey was performed by four members of the
anthropology department from Fort Lewis College, Durango, Colorado, under the direction of
Mona Charles and Bill Ball.
Methods
The instrument used in the survey was a portable Geoscan RM15 Resistance Meter with a twinprobe array (Figure 2.6); the RM15 is lightweight and easily transported. To detect subsurface
features at depths between 0.25 m and 1.50 m below the modern ground surface, probes were
set 0.50 m apart. One data point was collected for each square meter within the survey area; thus,
a total of 400 data points were collected for each 20-x-20-m grid. The probes were pushed a few
centimeters into the ground at each data point. The survey was guided by placing three ropes
marked at 1-m intervals on the modern ground surface—vegetation was removed to facilitate this
process. Two of the ropes were placed parallel to each other on the north and south gridlines and
the third rope provided a movable line that was perpendicular to the parallel ropes. Data were
collected from south to north until the end of each 20-m grid was reached; data collection then
proceeded north to south on the line immediately to the east of the preceding line. Data
collection began in the southwest corner of each grid and continued until the southeast corner
of the grid was reached.
Results
Results of the electrical resistance survey indicated the presence of as many as 36 pit structures
that are not visible on the modern ground surface, multiple linear features possibly representing
footpaths, numerous possible middens and surface rooms, a natural bedrock formation in the
eastern portion of the site, and a CO2 (carbon dioxide) pipeline along the eastern edge of the
survey area (Figure 2.7). The electrical resistance results more than doubled the number of
architectural features identified at the modern ground surface (Figure 2.8).
Testing
As a result of this survey, an addendum to the original research proposal was submitted to
The Archaeological Conservancy requesting permission to test the 36 locations of possible pit
structures. Each electrical resistance anomaly would be cored with a 7-cm-diameter auger to
confirm the presence and type of cultural feature. The Archaeological Conservancy granted
permission, and auger testing began in 2002. The resulting cores indicated that 33 of the 36
14
anomalies did indeed represent pit structures; 29 are confirmed structures and four are possible
structures (Table 2.2). Several of these structures were further tested during subsequent field
seasons.
15
Figure 2.1. Site map showing architectural blocks and excavation units, Albert Porter
Pueblo.
16
Figure 2.2. Map of Hedrick Ruin, or Albert Porter Pueblo, produced by Art Rohn.
Figure 2.3. Map of the Uncle Albert (Porter) Site, or Albert Porter Pueblo, produced
by Mark Chenault.
17
Figure 2.4. Aerial photograph taken in 1994, Albert Porter Pueblo.
18
Figure 2.5. Topographic map indicating surface architecture and pit-structure depressions,
produced by Neal Morris, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Figure 2.6. The electrical resistance survey being conducted by Fort Lewis College using
a Geoscan RM15 resistance meter, Albert Porter Pueblo.
19
Figure 2.7. Results of electrical resistance survey, Albert Porter Pueblo.
20
Figure 2.8. Electrical resistance anomalies and major cultural units, Albert Porter Pueblo.
21
Table 2.1. Modern Ground Surface Collection Units and their Grid Coordinates,
Albert Porter Pueblo.
Study Unit Type and
Number
Arbitrary Unit 1001
North
390
390
390
410
410
410
410
410
410
410
410
430
430
430
430
430
430
430
450
450
450
450
450
450
450
470
470
470
470
470
470
490
490
490
490
490
490
510
510
510
510
510
530
530
22
Grid Coordinates
East
390
410
430
390
410
430
450
470
490
510
530
390
410
430
450
470
610
630
430
510
530
550
570
610
630
430
450
470
570
610
630
430
450
570
590
610
630
450
570
590
610
630
470
550
Study Unit Type and
Number
Arbitrary Unit 1001,
continued
Arbitrary Unit 1105
Arbitrary Unit 202
Arbitrary Unit 304
Arbitrary Unit 404
Arbitrary Unit 503
Arbitrary Unit 603
Arbitrary Unit 703
Arbitrary Unit 802
Arbitrary Unit 902
North
530
530
530
530
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
550
570
570
570
570
570
590
590
590
590
590
590
450
470
410
430
430
410
430
430
430
450
450
450
390
570
570
570
590
23
Grid Coordinates
East
570
590
610
630
490
510
530
550
570
590
610
630
490
570
590
610
630
510
530
570
590
610
630
590
590
570
570
590
550
530
550
510
490
450
470
450
510
530
550
550
Table 2.2. Results of Electrical Resistance Anomaly Testing, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Anomaly
Number
Study
Unit
Northing/
Easting
A-1
A-2
1002
1003
590/508
580/506
Depth of
Auger
(m)
0.73
0.77
A-3
1004
573/517
1.37
A-4
1005
567/530
1.30
A-5
A-6
STR 904
STR 903
A-7
1006
572.3/556
0.60
A-8
1007
580/560
1.66
A-9
1008
577/565
0.80
A-10
1009
585/568
0.98
A-11
1010
564/534
2.07
A-12
1012
544/544
1.18
A-13
1011
558.5/565
1.40
A-14
1013
488/466
2.02
A-15
1014
486/472
1.31
A-16
1015
548.2/528
0.50
A-17
1016
533/532
0.50
A-18
1017
534/542
1.90
A-19
1018
534/552
2.00
A-20
1019
520/540
1.75
Fill Types
Natural fill w/ponding
Natural fill
Natural fill; midden at
0.70
Natural fill; redeposited
caliche at 0.60
Natural fill
Natural fill
Natural fill; cultural
fill; rock at 0.60
Natural fill; midden;
rock at 1.66
Natural fill; midden;
rock at 0.80
Natural fill; cultural fill
w/charcoal; rock at
0.98
Natural fill; redeposited
caliche; loess; sterile
Natural fill; midden
Natural fill; midden;
sterile
Natural fill; midden;
roof fall; ash
Natural fill; dense
midden
Natural fill; hit rock at
0.50
Natural fill; hit rock at
0.50 approaching
caliche
Natural fill;
construction fill;
powder caliche at 1.90
Natural fill; midden;
caliche at 1.40
Natural fill; midden;
sterile at 1.25
24
Midden
Burned
Structure
Present
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
?
X
X
X
X
X?
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
?
?
X
X
X
X
X
Anomaly
Number
Study
Unit
Northing/
Easting
Depth of
Auger
(m)
A-21
1020
508/575
1.45
A-22
1021
530/580
0.50
A-23
1025
491/547
1.50
A-24
1022
475/486
1.02
A-25
1023
473/595
0.90
A-26
1024
440/580
1.28
A-27
1026
548/535
1.93
A-28
A-29
A-30
1027
1028
STR 111
440/560
490/455
2.07
1.0
A-31
1029
428/504
1.40
A-32
1030
533/513
1.40
A-33
1031
440/572
0.65
A-34
1032
436/580
0.55
A-35
1033
470/600
2.10
A-36
1034
487/464
1.10
Fill Types
Natural fill; cultural
fill; rock at 1.45
Cultural until 0.23;
sterile
Natural fill; midden;
burned architecture
Natural fill w/adobe
and charcoal
Natural fill w/charcoal
flecks; bedrock?
Natural fill; midden;
construction fill; rock
at 1.28
Natural fill; midden;
sterile at 1.20
Natural fill; midden
Midden; sterile at 0.80
Natural fill
Natural fill; midden;
sterile at 1.20
Natural fill; midden;
sterile at 1.10
Natural fill w/charcoal;
rock at 0.65
Natural fill; midden;
cultural fill; rock at
0.55
Natural fill;
construction fill
Natural fill; midden;
sterile at 0.90
Note: STR = Structure; depths given in “Fill Types” column are in meters.
25
Midden
Burned
Structure
Present
X
–
X
X
X
X
X
?
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
–
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
–
References Cited
Adams, Karen R.
1999 Macrobotanical Remains. In The Sand Canyon Archaeological Project: Site Testing,
edited by Mark D. Varien, Chapter 16. CD-ROM, Version 1.0. Crow Canyon
Archaeological Center, Cortez, Colorado.
Adler, Michael A., and Mark D. Varien
1994 The Changing Face of the Community in the Mesa Verde Region A.D. 1000–1300. In
Proceedings of the Anasazi Symposium, 1991, compiled by Art Hutchinson and Jack E.
Smith, pp. 83–97. Mesa Verde Museum Association, Mesa Verde, Colorado.
Adler, Michael A., and Richard H. Wilshusen
1990 Large-Scale Integrative Facilities in Tribal Societies: Cross-Cultural and Southwestern
U.S. Examples. World Archaeology 22:133–145.
Bradley, Bruce A.
1988 Wallace Ruin Interim Report. Southwestern Lore 54(2):8–33.
Cameron, Catherine M.
1990 The Effect of Varying Estimates of Pit Structure Use-Life on Prehistoric Population
Estimates in the American Southwest. Kiva 55:155–166.
Charles, Mona C., and Bill Ball
2001 Electrical Resistance Field Report, Albert Porter Pueblo, 5MT123, Montezuma County,
Colorado. Manuscript on file, Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, Cortez, Colorado.
Hurst, Winston B.
2000 Chaco Outlier or Backwoods Pretender? A Provincial Great House at Edge of the Cedars
Ruin, Utah. In Great House Communities across the Chacoan Landscape, edited by John
Kantner and Nancy M. Mahoney, pp. 63–78. Anthropological Papers of the University of
Arizona, No. 64. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Jones, George T., Donald K. Grayson, and Charlotte Beck
1983 Artifact Class Richness and Sample Size in Archaeological Surface Assemblages. In Lulu
Linear Punctated: Essays in Honor of George Irving Quimby, edited by Robert C.
Dunnell and Donald K. Grayson, pp. 55–73. Anthropological Papers, No. 72. Museum of
Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Lekson, Stephen H.
1984 Great Pueblo Architecture of Chaco Canyon. Publications in Archeology, No. 18B.
National Park Service, Washington, D.C.
Lipe, William D.
1974 A Conservation Model for American Archaeology. The Kiva 39:213–245.
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1995
National Register of Historic Places Registration Form for Albert Porter Pueblo, Site
5MT123. Manuscript on file, Colorado Historical Society, Office of Archaeology and
Historic Preservation, Denver.
2002
Social Power in the Central Mesa Verde Region, A.D. 1150–1290. In Seeking the Center
Place: Archaeology and Ancient Communities in the Mesa Verde Region, edited by Mark
D. Varien and Richard H. Wilshusen, pp. 203–232. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake
City.
Lipe, William D., and Scott G. Ortman
2000 Spatial Patterning in Northern San Juan Villages, A.D. 1050–1300. Kiva 66:91–122.
Rapp, George R., Jr., and Christopher L. Hill
2006 Geoarchaeology: The Earth-Science Approach to Archaeological Interpretation. Yale
University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.
Varien, Mark D.
2000 A Proposal to Conduct Testing at Albert Porter Preserve. Manuscript on file, Crow
Canyon Archaeological Center, Cortez, Colorado.
1999
Sedentism and Mobility in a Social Landscape: Mesa Verde and Beyond. University of
Arizona Press, Tucson.
Varien, Mark D., and Ian Thompson
1996 Communities through Time: Cooperation, Conflict, and Migration. Draft manuscript on
file, Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, Cortez, Colorado.
Varien, Mark D., and Richard H. Wilshusen (editors)
2002 Seeking the Center Place: Archaeology and Ancient Communities in the Mesa Verde
Region. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Wilshusen, Richard H.
1988 Abandonment of Structures. In Dolores Archaeological Program: Supporting Studies:
Additive and Reductive Technologies, compiled by Eric Blinman, Carl J. Phagan, and
Richard H. Wilshusen, pp. 673–702. Bureau of Reclamation, Engineering and Research
Center, Denver.
27
Chapter 3
Chronology
by Susan C. Ryan
Introduction
The goal of this chapter is to reconstruct the occupational history of Albert Porter Pueblo using
multiple lines of evidence including tree-ring data, pottery dating, archaeomagnetic dating, radiocarbon dating, architectural styles, structure context, structure abandonment mode, and
stratigraphic sequences. The chapter begins with a discussion of the culture-historical context of
the occupation of Albert Porter Pueblo followed by a summary of the dating schemes used in this
report. Next, the various techniques used to date individual study units are discussed. Finally, a
reconstruction of the overall occupational history of the site is presented.
Pueblo I Period (A.D. 725–920)
The Pueblo I period is defined by several episodes of demographic and organizational changes
throughout the northern San Juan region (Kohler 1993; Wilshusen 1999; Wilshusen and Ortman
1999; Wilshusen and Wilson 1995). This period is characterized by the pithouse-to-pueblo
transition, population aggregation, village formation, organizational complexity, and a
substantial population decline by A.D. 890. These demographic and organizational changes were
due, in part, to the adoption of agriculture and the transition to sedentism that occurred during the
Basketmaker III period in the central Mesa Verde region.
Agriculture was practiced widely across the Colorado Plateau by the Pueblo I period. Families
relied on maize, beans, and squash as their primary means of subsistence; these crops were
supplemented by game and wild plants. Turkeys were also a part of the Pueblo diet, but they do
not appear to have been relied upon as a stable protein source at this time. With dependence on
agriculture came an increasing need to remain near farm fields in order to plant seeds, weed
fields, control pests, and harvest crops (Rafferty 1985). Furthermore, additional time was
required to process the crops for long-term storage and for daily meal preparation.
Archaeologists have applied the word “sedentary” to groups ranging from those who spend most
of the year in one location to those who were settled in one location year-round; in the latter use,
some apply the term specifically to agricultural groups that practiced permanent-field cultivation
(Rafferty 1985:115). Thus, the degree to which sedentism is defined as permanent, year-round
residence is disputed (Rafferty 1985:114; Wills and Windes 1989).
Four lines of evidence strongly suggest that residential sites during the Pueblo I period were
inhabited year-round for multiple years: (1) archaeobotanical remains, (2) tools and features,
(3) architecture, and (4) craft specialization. Archaeobotanical remains, such as macro-fossils,
micro-fossils, and pollen, indicate sedentism in the northern San Juan region by the early eighth
28
century A.D. Domesticated plants—such as maize, beans, and squash—are represented by well
preserved macrofossils. The presence of reproductive plant parts, such as pollen, indicates that
specific plants grew nearby. Tools such as manos and metates, and features such as mealing bins,
indicate a reliance on the processing of agricultural plants and products. Rafferty (1985:127,
132–133) notes that sedentary people often develop specialized hard-to-transport technologies.
Metates are an example of a hard-to-transport technology used during the Pueblo I period.
Changes in architecture accelerated during the Pueblo I period when roomblocks—used for
habitation and storage—were constructed for the first time. Lastly, evidence of craft
specialization in the form of pottery manufacturing has been detected at sites dating from the
Pueblo I period. Analysis of pottery raw materials indicates that production was local and that
many vessels were traded, especially San Juan red wares (see Ortman et al. 2005). Surplus
agricultural products might have been traded for red ware pottery.
During the Basketmaker III and Pueblo I periods there was a gradual shift throughout the
northern Southwest from villages composed of pithouses to villages composed of multi-room
surface structures and associated pit structures (Cordell 2007). Basketmaker III sites typically
comprised one- or two-household residences; however, hamlets composed of nine or more
pithouses, such as Shabik’eshchee Village in Chaco Canyon (Roberts 1929), have been
documented (Wills and Windes 1989; Wilshusen 1999). Basketmaker III residences typically
included: (1) a generally sub-rectangular pithouse constructed of wood posts and adobe;
(2) multiple storage cists constructed below the pithouse floor or in subterranean extramural pits;
(3) small, noncontiguous surface structures; and (4) middens. Pithouses—especially those in the
eastern portion of the Colorado Plateau—have antechambers that might have functioned as a
storage spaces and entryways. By A.D. 750, pithouses were constructed with ventilator systems
rather than antechambers, and they had rounded corners (Wilshusen 1999:201). In addition, wing
walls functioned to deflect air that entered the structure through the ventilation system away
from the hearth and to divide the interior of the structure for special-activity needs and storage.
Some eastern Colorado Plateau sites have stockades and rock aprons lining the pithouse.
Furthermore, great kivas—public buildings used for periodic group assembly—were constructed
at some Basketmaker III sites, reflecting the development of community organization and social
integration. Great kivas were constructed until the end of the thirteenth century.
In the northern Southwest, the transition from the Basketmaker III to the Pueblo I period is
marked by the “pithouse-to-pueblo transition” (Cordell 2007; Gilman 1987; Hegmon 1992; Lipe
and Breternitz 1980; Plog 1974; Wilshusen 1988). During the Pueblo I period, blocks of
contiguous aboveground habitation and storage rooms were constructed for the first time.
Surface rooms were constructed of wooden posts and adobe, and some incorporated masonry. It
was also during the Pueblo I period that residential layouts became formalized. Defined by T.
Mitchell Prudden as a “unit-type” pueblo, the layout consists of surface rooms located to the
north of the pithouse and midden deposits located south of the pithouse generally along a northsouth axis (Prudden 1903, 1914, 1918). The unit-type pueblo remained a consistent construction
pattern until the end of the thirteenth century (Lipe 2006).
Villages with 75 to 400 rooms were constructed in several areas in the Mesa Verde region during
the Pueblo I period. Examples include Site 2, located in the Ackmen-Lowry area (Martin
1939:360–385), Site 13, located in southeastern Utah (Brew 1946), and Grass Mesa Village,
29
located along the Dolores River (Lipe et al. 1988). Additionally, contemporary hamlets—
composed of from three to 20 rooms—were constructed in nearby drainages (Lightfoot 1993;
Lightfoot and Etzkorn 1993). Villages and hamlets typically were occupied for 30 to 40 years—
or one to two generations—after which people relocated to nearby drainages or migrated from
the region (Wilshusen 1999).
Increased aggregation is one of the main ingredients of social complexity, and during the Pueblo
I period people lived in groups of 15 to 20 households or more for the first time in Pueblo history
(Wilshusen 1999:210; Wilshusen and Blinman 1992). Rafferty (1985:117) notes that there are
several advantages to aggregation, including increased security, a chance to accumulate
possessions, and an opportunity to develop specialized technologies. Other possibilities noted by
Lightfoot and Feinman (1982:66–68) include greater predictability of public ceremonies,
stimulus of goods and other kinds of exchange, and the greater opportunity to perform activities
that benefit the economy of scale.
Rafferty (1985:141) notes that one consequence of sedentariness is increasingly complex
political organization. This may be the result of several factors: (1) the need to reduce conflict by
installing permanent leaders; (2) the need to organize and regulate trade in subsistence and
luxury goods which, in turn, ties settlements together; (3) increasing population size; and (4)
increasing ritual activity (Rafferty 1985:141). An archaeological example of social complexity is
provided by Blinman (1989, but also see Orcutt et al. 1990), who infers social hierarchy from
architectural and pottery data collected from Pueblo I period villages in the Dolores area of
southwestern Colorado. Blinman (1989) argues that oversized pit structures with ritual features
(see Wilshusen 1989) constructed within “U-shaped” roomblocks exhibit evidence of feasting.
He infers this on the basis of the association of higher proportions of red ware pottery sherds
with “U-shaped” roomblocks than with linear-style roomblocks.
By A.D. 860, or during the late Pueblo I period (A.D. 800–920), populations had increased, and
an estimated 9,500–10,500 people might have lived in the northern San Juan region (Wilshusen
1999:234; Wilshusen and Ortman 1999:Figure 3). The majority of this population resided in the
Dolores River canyon or on the Mesa Verde escarpment. Although some villages might have
housed more than 500 residents, most villages supported between 123 and 200 individuals
(Wilshusen 1999:232). Wilshusen and Ortman (1999) infer that this population was composed of
two distinct ethnic groups.
Environmental stability throughout the Basketmaker III and Pueblo I periods fostered successful
agricultural yields and provided ideal conditions for hunting and gathering. This favorable
pattern continued until the late Pueblo I period, about A.D. 880, when multiple drought years
affected people across the Colorado Plateau (Schlanger and Wilshusen 1993). Data from surface
surveys and excavations of Pueblo I sites indicate that population declined across the Mesa
Verde region—and much of the northern San Juan region—by the end of the ninth century
(Schlanger 1998; Varien 1999:188,190; Wilshusen 1999:228, 253). Wilshusen and Ortman
(1999) suggest that the population estimate given above—10,000 people in A.D. 860—declined
by approximately two-thirds by A.D. 890. A compilation of all available tree-ring cutting dates
from the central Mesa Verde region (Varien et al. 2007:Figure 5F) shows few cutting dates for
the early A.D. 900s, indicating that few trees were being harvested for construction during this
30
time. Furthermore, data for more than 50 Pueblo I sites investigated during the Dolores
Archaeological Program (DAP) also reflects a decline in population. Noting the lack of Pueblo II
settlements in their study area, DAP researchers inferred a large-scale migration from the San
Juan region at the end of the ninth century.
However, a recent survey conducted near Dove Creek, Colorado—northwest of the DAP study
area—revealed that populations lived in the northern periphery of the San Juan region during the
late Pueblo I period (Coffey 2006). Results of this study indicate that population decline was not
a uniform process across the region, but rather a more fractionalized process with some groups
remaining in particular areas. The sites recorded in this survey ranged from small family
farmsteads to large villages, and they were occupied between A.D. 880 and 940 (Coffey
2006:62). The population estimates indicate that a maximum of 750 individuals occupied this
area, more than half of whom resided in centralized villages (Coffey 2006:63). The most
common pottery types in the Mesa Verde region during the Pueblo I period include Moccasin
Gray, Chapin Black-on-white, Piedra Black-on-white, Bluff Black-on-red, and Deadmans Blackon-red (Ortman et al. 2005; Wilson and Blinman 1999).
Pueblo II Period (A.D. 920–1140)
Throughout the Southwest, the Pueblo II period was characterized by increasingly favorable
environmental conditions, increased population, increased aggregation, and the florescence of
the Chaco regional system (Lipe and Varien 1999). On the basis of reconstructions of rainfall
and temperature for the La Plata Mountains and the nearby vicinity, Petersen (1988:93) states
that winter precipitation increased beginning in the early A.D. 900s. Precipitation gradually
increased throughout the A.D. 1000s and remained constant until the mid-A.D. 1100s—at which
time below-normal precipitation affected the Southwest for five consecutive decades (Meko et
al. 2007; Van West and Dean 2000). A paleohydrologic reconstruction of the Black Mesa region
supports Petersen’s reconstruction (Dean et al. 1985). This reconstruction indicates low water
tables and alluvial degradation in the A.D. 800s and early 900s followed by high water tables and
stream aggradation in the late A.D. 900s and 1000s (Dean et al. 1985).
Favorable environmental conditions probably contributed to a population increase in the northern
Southwest during the A.D. 1000s. Lipe and Varien (1999:Table 8-4) infer a conservative average
momentary population of more than 5,000 people for the middle Pueblo II period (A.D. 1020–
1060) and more than 12,000 people by the end the Pueblo II period (A.D. 1060–1140).
Additionally, an increase in tree harvesting is reflected in the quantity of tree-ring dates for the
middle Pueblo II period (Varien 1999:Figure 7.17) when the increasing population resulted in
widespread house construction.
Throughout the Mesa Verde region, Pueblo II communities were composed of loose clusters of
one-to-two-household settlements located in areas suitable for farming (Lipe and Varien 1999a).
Although most communities comprised dispersed households, some communities developed a
nucleus or center around which several households aggregated. Community centers dating from
the Pueblo II period are often identified archaeologically by the presence of a great kiva, a great
house, a cluster of households, or some combination of these features (Lipe and Varien 1999a).
31
During the late Pueblo II period (A.D. 1060–1140), primarily after A.D. 1075, Chaco-influenced
great houses were the central structure in many of these communities.
Great houses in the Mesa Verde region exhibited architectural characteristics similar to those
found in Chaco Canyon, including the following: preplanned construction; visually imposing,
multiple-story buildings; and thick, core-and-veneer walls. Some Chacoan great houses were
associated with great kivas, earthen mounds or berms, and roads (Van Dyke 2003:181). Another
Chacoan architectural characteristic consists of kivas that were incorporated into roomblocks by
enclosing each in a rectangular room; many were constructed aboveground. In addition, these
kivas typically have subfloor ventilation systems and eight-pilaster roof support systems (Lekson
1984; Van Dyke 2003).
Great-house construction began in Chaco Canyon in the mid–to–late A.D. 800s (Wilshusen and
Van Dyke 2006; Windes and Ford 1996), and it was during this time that great houses began to
serve as community centers within the canyon. Great houses outside of Chaco Canyon, or
Chacoan outliers, were first constructed during the A.D. 900s south of the canyon (Kantner 1996,
1999). Soon after, outliers were constructed west of Chaco Canyon. The quantity and size of
great houses in Chaco Canyon increased until the canyon emerged as the primary center for a
larger regional system by about A.D. 1020 (Lipe 2006). About A.D. 1080, the Chaco regional
system expanded to its greatest spatial extent and for the first time extended north of the San
Juan River. In the late A.D. 1000s and the early 1100s, connections in the north intensified when
Aztec and Salmon pueblos, the largest Chacoan outliers, were constructed in the area known
today as the Totah region, near the confluence of the Animas, La Plata, and San Juan rivers.
Chaco Canyon remained the primary center of the ancestral Pueblo world until the early A.D.
1100s. Construction of Chaco Canyon great houses ended about A.D. 1140, roughly coincident
with the onset of a persistent and severe drought in A.D. 1130. The complex of great houses at
Aztec became a center—if not the primary center—of the post-Chaco world (Lekson 1999).
Approximately 250 outliers have been recorded and associated with the Chaco regional system
to date (Sipapu—The Chaco World Great House Database, accessed 3 December 2009). These
outliers were much smaller than the great houses at Aztec, Salmon, and Chaco Canyon, but they
were larger than the farmsteads and residential units that surrounded them in their local
communities. Albert Porter Pueblo was a small Chaco outlier.
Although researchers agree that Chaco Canyon was the center of a larger regional system, there
is much debate about the nature and organization of this system. The primary evidence of a
regional system is the wide distribution of Chaco-influenced architecture and a network of roads
found in an area more than 200 miles in diameter around Chaco Canyon. This area encompasses
northwestern New Mexico, southeastern Utah, southwestern Colorado, and northeastern Arizona
(Mahoney and Kantner 2000). The Chaco regional system was an intricate structure deriving
from social power concentrated in the hands of the occupants of the great houses in Chaco
Canyon. Although the exact nature of this power is not well understood, the power probably
derived from control over material and ideological resources such as labor, farmland, water
resources, material goods (including exotic goods), and ritual knowledge.
The most common pottery types associated with the middle Pueblo II period in the Mesa Verde
region include Mancos Corrugated Gray, Cortez Black-on-white, Mancos Black-on-white, and
32
Deadmans Black-on-red (Wilson and Blinman 1999). Late Pueblo II pottery assemblages are
dominated by Mancos Corrugated Gray and Mancos Black-on-white intermixed with McElmo
Black-on-white (Wilson and Blinman 1999). Red ware assemblages are dominated by Tsegi
Orange Ware intermixed with San Juan Red Ware (Wilson and Blinman 1999).
Pueblo III Period (A.D. 1140–1280)
Throughout the northern Southwest, the Pueblo III period was characterized by the mid–A.D.
1100s drought, an end to the construction of Chaco-influenced architecture, population
aggregation that led to the construction of large villages and cliff dwellings, the Great Drought
(which began about A.D. 1276), and the depopulation of the region about A.D. 1280. The single
greatest megadrought recorded for North America occurred in the western half of the continent
from A.D. 1140 to 1162; this period contained 23 consecutive years of negative Palmer Drought
Severity Index values (Cook et al. 2007). This megadrought occurred within a period of
prolonged moisture deficiency in the Colorado Plateau spanning five decades—from A.D. 1130
to 1180. In a recent study of drought in the northern Southwest, Meko et al. (2007) reconstructed
annual Colorado River flows at Lee Ferry, Arizona, for the period A.D. 762–2005 from tree-ring
samples and, beginning with the year1906, with stream-flow data. Although this study focused
solely on stream flow, which is affected by factors in addition to precipitation, the results clearly
indicate that Colorado River flows in the middle A.D. 1100s were the lowest of the past 1,200
years. According to Meko et al. (2007), below-normal flow occurred for the 13 consecutive years
between A.D. 1143 and 1155. The mid–A.D. 1100s megadrought almost certainly had
environmental and cultural repercussions: depressed water tables, eroded floodplains, decreased
climatic variability, reduced precipitation, and reduced agricultural productivity (Van West and
Dean 2000). Consequently, the duration, intensity, and persistence of the drought in the midA.D. 1100s must have had a significant impact on the occupants of the northern San Juan region
(Benson et al. 2007; Van West and Dean 2000).
The mid–A.D. 1100s drought coincided with the collapse of the Chaco regional system.
Construction of great houses in Chaco Canyon ceased by A.D. 1125, and Kantner and Kintigh
(2006) suggest that the frequency of abandonment was greatest during the first half of the twelfth
century, probably as a result of environmental conditions (Kantner and Kintigh 2006:184). In the
northern San Juan region, the construction of canyon-style great houses ended about A.D. 1140,
during the A.D. 1130–1180 drought. Judge and Cordell (2006) note that structures built in Chaco
Canyon after A.D. 1130 seem to have been more domestic than ritual in their use, and they were
constructed with loaf-shaped, pecked sandstone blocks characteristic of the McElmo
architectural style as opposed to the core-and-veneer styles used in previous centuries (also see
Chapter 5). As stated above, the complex of great houses at Aztec became an equal—if not the
primary—center of the ancestral Pueblo world during the early Pueblo III period (Lekson 1999).
There are relatively few cutting dates for the A.D. 1150–1170 period in the Mesa Verde region.
If regional patterns of tree-ring dates reflect occupational patterns, wood harvesting and
construction projects should be evident in the tree-ring dates even when populations were static
or decreasing (Berry and Benson 2010). Some researchers have interpreted the apparent decline
in tree harvesting during the A.D. 1130–1180 drought as evidence of great house abandonment
(Benson et al. 2007), and others suggest that the region was completely depopulated (Berry
33
1982). Even though few sites excavated in the central Mesa Verde region exhibit evidence of
construction during the A.D. 1130–1180 period—Albert Porter Pueblo is one of the few—it
seems unlikely that the region was completely depopulated (Lipe 2006; Lipe and Varien 1999;
Ryan 2010; Varien 1999). In one study, for example, Varien (1997, 1999) analyzed patterns of
beam harvesting in three Mesa Verde communities and found that beam harvesting probably
continued at reduced levels during the mid-A.D. 1100s.
It is also important to note that, beginning in the early Pueblo III period (A.D. 1140–1225),
people began to construct houses of coursed sandstone masonry, and the average occupation
span of unit pueblos increased from about 20 years to an estimated 45 years (Varien 1999;
Varien and Ortman 2005). The inference of increased occupation spans resulted from studies of
pottery discard that estimate the length of time people resided in a unit pueblo rather than the
estimated length of time the roofs of these structures could endure (Ryan 2010). The fact that
some roofs resting on masonry walls in cliff dwellings are still functional today, and that a high
proportion of timbers from late–A.D. 1200s structures are recycled beams (Bradley 1993),
suggests that the roof beams in masonry structures might have lasted much longer than houses
were typically occupied. If so, this would have greatly reduced the need to harvest “new” timbers
for construction during the Pueblo III period and would challenge the significance of periods of
reduced timber harvesting reflected in regional tree-ring data sets (Ryan 2010).
The most famous sites in the Mesa Verde region—including the cliff dwellings of Mesa Verde
National Park and the canyon-head structures of Hovenweep National Monument—date from the
late Pueblo III period. Settlement organization changed dramatically during that period. First,
community centers shifted from mesa-top and upland settings to alcoves and canyon heads, and
second, the majority of people began to live in tightly aggregated villages (Lipe and Ortman
2000; Lipe and Varien 1999; Varien 1999).
The shift to highly aggregated canyon-head villages appears to have occurred over a 20–30 year
span, and this pattern became the dominant organizational layout during the late Pueblo III
period (Lipe and Varien 1999:303). Although some mesa-top and upland community centers—
including Albert Porter Pueblo—retained a portion of their population, the majority of
households were living in highly aggregated villages by about A.D. 1250. Many of these villages
were constructed on a canyon rim—usually at the head of the canyon—and in overhangs and on
talus slopes below the rim. Woods Canyon Pueblo (Churchill 2002) was a canyon-head village
that succeeded Albert Porter Pueblo as the center of the Woods Canyon community during the
late Pueblo III period. It was also during this time that canyon-oriented communities composed
of clusters of cliff dwellings developed on the Mesa Verde proper (Lipe and Varien 1999:303).
Most canyon-head community centers contained a suite of common architectural elements
including towers, plazas, multi-walled structures, D-shaped structures, and also village-enclosing
walls—some of which enclosed springs (Glowacki 2006; Kuckelman 2007; Lipe 2002; Lipe and
Ortman 2000; Lipe and Varien 1999:319; Varien et al. 1996:99). Great kivas were constructed in
community centers during the late Pueblo III period but through time were increasingly
constructed without roofs; this change in construction style might have been an effort to make
the activities conducted therein more public (Kintigh et al. 1996). Furthermore, in a study of late
Pueblo II and Pueblo III public architecture throughout the Mesa Verde region, Churchill et al.
34
(1998) noted that the number of communities that contained a great kiva decreased through time,
and those with a multi-walled structure increased. Most multi-walled structures were built in the
late Pueblo III period (Lipe and Varien 1999:319).
Population in the central Mesa Verde region probably peaked in the early A.D. 1200s and then
began a rapid decline by A.D. 1270. Lipe (1994) estimates that post–A.D.1250 community
centers—of which there were approximately 60—contained about 8,000 structures; even if all of
these structures were occupied at the same time, the northern San Juan population might not have
exceeded 10,000 individuals. Other population estimates range from a low of 2,000 to 6,000
individuals (Duff and Wilshusen 1999, 2000:Figure 2) to a high of 30,000 (Rohn 1989:166).
However, many researchers infer that 10,000 to 20,000 individuals inhabited the region during
the Pueblo III period (Duff and Wilshusen 2000:182; Lipe 2002:214; Lipe and Varien 1999:326;
Varien et al. 2007; Wilshusen 2002:120).
A large body of research has focused on the role of the Great Drought—which lasted from A.D.
1276 to 1299 (Douglass 1929)—in the migration of people from the Mesa Verde region near the
end of the thirteenth century (Ahlstrom et al. 1995; Benson et al. 2007; Cordell 2007; Dean and
Van West 2002; Douglass 1929; Van West and Dean 2000). There is broad consensus that the
Great Drought played a role in the final depopulation of the region; however, on the basis of treering dates, some researchers argue that individuals began migrating from the area before the
Great Drought. Lipe (1995), for example, argues that migrations began in the A.D. 1250s (also
see Lipe and Varien 1999:339). Alternatively, Duff and Wilshusen (2000) argue that individuals
began to depart the region as early as the first part of the thirteenth century.
Tree-ring research indicates that the bimodal pattern of annual precipitation in the northern
Southwest became capricious from A.D. 1250 to 1450 (Ahlstrom et al. 1995; Dean 1996).
However, the annual precipitation patterns for the Rio Grande and upper Little Colorado River
basin areas of New Mexico and eastern Arizona remained stable, making these regions attractive
to migrating populations (Cordell 2007). Did the Great Drought negatively affect crop
production and resource acquisition and lead to mass migration? Van West’s (1994) model of
soil moisture and crop productivity for southwestern Colorado suggests that the region as a
whole could have supported a significant population during the Great Drought, although
particular communities might have been affected more than others.
Thus, recent research suggests that neither environmental factors nor resource depletion alone
forced populations to migrate from the Mesa Verde region (Van West and Dean 2000:38–39;
Varien 1999:216, 2010; Varien et al. 1996:103–105; Wright 2010; but also see Kuckelman
2010a). Researchers are now examining the role that social factors—and social factors in
combination with environmental factors (Kohler 2010; Varien 2010)—might have played in
decisions to migrate from the region. Factors such as conflict and warfare (Haas and Creamer
1993; Kohler 1993; Kuckelman 2002, 2010a, 2010b; Kuckelman et al. 2002; LeBlanc 1999;
Lightfoot and Kuckelman 2001) and organizational collapse (Glowacki 2010) might have been
catalysts for the migrations. Regardless of the factors that caused the depopulation, future
research would benefit by focusing on how migration occurred as social process (Varien 2010).
35
The most common white ware pottery types associated with the Pueblo III period in the Mesa
Verde region are McElmo Black-on-white and Mesa Verde Black-on-white; the predominance of
the latter increased through time (Lipe and Varien 1999:316; Ortman et al. 2005:5–14; Wilson
and Blinman 1999). The dominant gray ware type found in Pueblo III contexts is Mesa Verde
Corrugated Gray (Ortman et al. 2005:5–6).
Chronological Assignments
In 1927, a group of Southwestern archaeologists gathered in Pecos, New Mexico, to disseminate
information on their most recent archaeological findings and interpretations. It was during this
conference that Alfred Kidder proposed the adoption of the “Pecos Classification” system—a
developmental sequence of eight cultural periods (Table 3.1). This system relied on architectural
morphology, pottery designs, and material technology to place archaeological sites within a
culture-historical sequence. Because absolute dating techniques had not yet been developed, the
cultural periods lacked associated date spans. Chronological date spans were assigned to the
Pecos periods two years later following the development of tree-ring dating by A. E. Douglass,
an astronomer at the University of Arizona. Because groups of people adopted specific material
culture traits at different times, and because there were several cultural groups living in the
Southwest (e.g., Anasazi, Mogollon, Hohokam), it soon became clear that the Pecos
Classification system was not a good fit for all cultures and areas of the Southwest.
Archaeologists solved this problem by modifying the date spans at regional and sub-regional
levels. Crow Canyon Archaeological Center uses the Pecos Classification periods to reference
organizational developments and material culture patterning.
The chronological assignments used in this report consist of multiple, absolutely dated periods
ranging from broad spans of time consisting of a few centuries to short periods of time spanning
only a few decades (Table 3.2). The broadest of these time periods reference the Pecos
Classification system and are referred to in this report as Pueblo I (A.D. 725–920), Pueblo II
(A.D. 920–1140), and Pueblo III (A.D. 1140–1280); subperiods and phases represent
subdivisions of the Pecos periods. Because structures, features, and other cultural deposits were
utilized for varying spans of time, many study units have been assigned to date ranges that span
more than one period or subperiod. The following periods and subperiods are used most often in
this report: Basketmaker III (A.D. 600–725), Pueblo I (A.D. 725–920), early Pueblo II (A.D.
920–1060), late Pueblo II (A.D. 1060–1140), early Pueblo III (A.D. 1140–1225), and late Pueblo
III (A.D. 1225–1280).
Dating Methods Used at Albert Porter Pueblo
In this section I discuss the various dating methods used to reconstruct the occupational history
of Albert Porter Pueblo. The methods used include tree-ring dating, dating with pottery, and
archaeomagnetic, architectural, radiocarbon, and stratigraphic dating.
Tree-Ring Dating
Wood from many trees that were harvested and used for construction material, firewood, and
other needs has been preserved in the archaeological record of the Southwest. Archaeologists
36
commonly infer the settlement history of sites and regions from prehistoric construction
activities. A gap in a chronological series of tree-ring dates may indicate a period of reduced
construction or total depopulation of a site or region. Poor wood preservation also limits the
number of tree-ring dates for all periods of occupation.
The likelihood that wood will be preserved increases when wood becomes burned or charred,
because fungi are not able to decompose charred wood as easily as unburned wood. Ancestral
Pueblo people commonly reused wood construction materials. Many unburned roof beams were
used to construct new buildings. One example of recycling rates comes from excavations at Sand
Canyon Pueblo, a canyon-head village occupied from A.D. 1250 to about 1280. Sixty-eight
percent of the 275 “cutting” dates represent recycled beams—30 percent of which were
harvested before A.D. 1225 (Varien et al. 2007). Many of the samples that yielded these dates
were collected from a single structure, suggesting that beams were recycled from several
generations of households in the vicinity (Bradley 1993). Furthermore, it has been demonstrated
that when a population is not growing rapidly, most new buildings will be constructed with
recycled beams (Dean 1970; Schlanger 1980).
During the four-year field project at Albert Porter Pueblo, 387 tree-ring samples were collected.
Most of these samples were collected from primary and secondary roof beams in burned kivas.
The remaining samples were collected from structures other than kivas and from midden
deposits. Tree-ring samples collected from midden contexts probably originated from fuelwood
in structure hearths.
All 387 samples were sent to the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research at the University of Arizona
for analysis, and 175 of those were datable. Table 3.3 presents the results by study unit. Reports
on this analysis provided by the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research identify wood species,
calendar year of the innermost and outermost ring present, and symbols that provide additional
information for each analyzed sample (adapted from Nash1999:Table 1):
Symbol
B
G
L
r
v
vv
+
++
Explanation
Bark is present.
Beetle galleries are present on surface of specimen.
A characteristic surface patination and smoothness, which develops on
beams stripped of bark, is present.
Less than a full section is present, but the outermost ring is continuous
around the available circumference.
A subjective judgment that, although there is no direct evidence of the true
outside on the sample, the date is within a very few years of being a
cutting date.
There is no way of estimating how far the last ring is from the true
outside; many rings may be lost.
One or a few rings may be missing near the outside whose presence or
absence cannot be determined, because the series does not extend far
enough to provide adequate cross dating.
A ring count is necessary beyond a certain point in the series because
cross dating ceases.
37
Because tree-ring analysis can yield a “cutting” date—that is, the exact year a tree died—
researchers can use those data to reconstruct the construction and occupational history of a site.
However, not all tree-ring dates reflect the year of construction. For example, wood might have
been harvested for the construction of one structure and then used to construct the roof of a later
structure.
Five basic principles (Ahlstrom et al. 1985:39; Dean 1978:148) were used to interpret the treering data for Albert Porter Pueblo: (1) construction activities occur shortly after trees were
harvested; (2) the latest cluster of cutting dates—those with “B” or “r “symbols—from a
structure indicates those trees were harvested to construct that structure; (3) earlier cutting dates
indicate wood was recycled from an earlier structure; (4) non-cutting dates—those with “vv”
symbols—result from damage or the lack of preservation to the outside of the wood sample and
therefore do not reflect the year of construction; and (5) if there are no clusters of cutting dates
for a structure, the latest cutting date most likely reflects when the structure was constructed. In
addition, trees with dates with the “v” symbol are interpreted as having died or been harvested
within a few years of the outside date and are interpreted as “near-cutting dates.”
Tree-ring cutting dates for Albert Porter Pueblo indicate that occupation occurred during the
Pueblo II and Pueblo III periods. Of the 387 samples collected, 32 (8.3 percent) yielded cutting
dates and another 10 (2.6 percent) yielded near-cutting dates (see Table 3.3). The remaining treering samples were either not datable or yielded dates that do not reflect when the tree died.
Figure 3.1 is a histogram of all tree-ring dates for Albert Porter Pueblo. These dates suggest
that habitation at Albert Porter Pueblo began about A.D. 860 and continued until sometime after
A.D. 1258. However, the cutting dates, plotted in Figure 3.2, more accurately reflect the span
of occupation. The cutting dates suggest that the site was occupied continuously from about
A.D. 1110 (late in the Pueblo II period), until about 1260 (late in the Pueblo III period).
Although the samples that yielded all the dates were collected from one structure, Structure 150,
the year for which there is the greatest number of cutting dates is A.D. 1142 (see Figure 3.2).
Surprisingly, this year falls during the A.D. 1130–1180 drought, a period for which there are few
cutting dates for the Mesa Verde region (Ryan 2010; Varien 1999:Figure 7.17).
The tree-ring data do not reflect habitation at Albert Porter Pueblo during the Basketmaker III or
Pueblo I period nor did excavation expose any structures characteristic of these periods.
However, pottery data—which will be discussed below—do provide evidence of limited
habitation of this location during the Basketmaker III and Pueblo I periods.
Many contexts at Albert Porter Pueblo were assigned a date range on the basis of their
relationship to tree-ring dated contexts. For example, deposits located immediately above and
below a tree-ring dated context could be dated relative to the tree-ring dated context. Table 3.4
lists all study units from Albert Porter Pueblo according to type and date range. Study units with
accompanying tree-ring dates are bolded.
38
Pottery Dating
Pottery types were the primary evidence used to reconstruct the occupational history of Albert
Porter Pueblo. Pottery of the Mesa Verde region has been studied intensively for nearly a
century, resulting in detailed type descriptions and an understanding of ancient pottery
manufacturing techniques. Most importantly, the chronological significance of pottery types is
well established. Pottery design, form, and manufacturing technology changed through time, and
researchers have successfully correlated pottery types with tree-ring dates to establish temporal
periods for each type (Ortman et al. 2005).
Most study units at Albert Porter Pueblo were assigned a date range on the basis of the
associated pottery. The assemblage from each study unit was compared to the idealized potteryassemblage profiles for various time periods developed by Wilson and Blinman (1995, 1999) to
establish the most likely time span over which the pottery was deposited. This information, along
with any associated tree-ring dates and dating evidence from relevant units nearby, was then
used to estimate the span of time during which that study unit was used.
As a result of long occupation spans and mixing of deposits, many artifact assemblages contain
sherds of pottery types representing multiple periods. To address this problem, Ortman et al.
(2007) developed a method to assess the statistical likelihood of the percentage of pottery types
that should be present within refined temporal intervals. The following spans were defined:
A.D. 1020–1060, 1060–1100, 1100–1140, 1140–1180, 1180–1225, 1225–1260, and 1260–1280.
Note that the spans vary in length. This model uses three variables: (1) the probability of the
occurrence of various pottery types and design attributes on decorated bowl-rim sherds in
precisely dated sites as derived from a calibration dataset, (2) the observed counts of the same
types and attributes in the sample of decorated bowl-rim sherds for various precisely dated sites,
and (3) the average weight of corrugated gray sherds found in the midden deposits for precisely
dated sites. Pottery subassemblages recovered from Albert Porter Pueblo were compared against
the calibration dataset developed by Ortman et al. (2007), resulting in the assignment of refined
date ranges as applicable.
Table 3.5 provides information on analyzed pottery by count and weight, as well as by count
percentage and weight percentage. Some researchers prefer to discuss pottery by weight because
sherd count may be affected by natural and cultural processes—for example, stepping on a single
sherd may break it into several pieces, skewing the interpretive results. Others prefer to discuss
pottery by count, because sherd weight is affected by sherd size; for example, one large sherd
may outweigh five smaller ones. Clearly, sherd weight and sherd count are useful for addressing
different research problems; thus, both pottery weight and count will be provided for Albert
Porter Pueblo.
As seen in Table 3.5, all Pecos Classification periods are represented in pottery analyzed from
Albert Porter Pueblo. There are six sherds, or 14.50 g, of pottery dating from the early
Basketmaker III period. Because early Basketmaker III period sherds are very sparse within the
overall pottery count and weight—0.004 percent and 0.001 percent of the overall sherds,
respectively—it can be inferred that there was not an early Basketmaker III period occupation at
39
Albert Porter Pueblo. It is possible that these sherds or vessels were brought to the site as
heirloom pieces by residents of Albert Porter Pueblo during the late Basketmaker III period.
In all, 133 sherds, or 881.27 g of pottery, date from the Basketmaker III period. Although pottery
is not well represented for this period—0.080 percent of both count and weight of the overall
sherds—it seems likely that there was a small Basketmaker III occupation in this location.
Furthermore, it can be inferred that the first permanent residences were constructed here during
the Basketmaker III period.
Additionally, 12,298 sherds weighing more than 64,000 g that could date from either the
Basketmaker III or Pueblo I period were collected at Albert Porter Pueblo. This subassemblage
accounts for more than 7 percent of the sherds by count and more than 5 percent by weight of the
overall site assemblage. Most of these sherds consist of plain gray jar sherds that cannot be dated
more precisely. These results indicate a substantial occupation of Albert Porter Pueblo sometime
during the Basketmaker III period, the Pueblo I period, or both.
There are 902 sherds, or more than 4,474 g of pottery, that date specifically from the Pueblo I
period. This accounts for 0.543 percent by count and 0.407 percent of the total assemblage by
weight. Fewer sherds could be assigned to the Pueblo I period than to the Basketmaker
III/Pueblo I catchall category. This may be because there were fewer residents at Albert Porter
Pueblo during the late Pueblo I period, mirroring the regional population trends as described
above. Alternatively, it is possible that many sherds that might have been deposited during the
Pueblo I occupation could not be dated to that period and therefore were assigned to the broader
Basketmaker III/Pueblo I category.
A total of 11,334 sherds, or more than 89,927 g of pottery, dates from the Pueblo II period. This
accounts for more than 6 percent of the overall count and more than 8 percent of the overall
weight. These results are similar to those for the Basketmaker III/Pueblo I category, and suggest
heavy occupation of the pueblo during the Pueblo II period. However, the Pueblo II/Pueblo III
category results indicate that, with 129,022 sherds, or more than 788,989 g of pottery, the most
populous occupation occurred during this time. This accounts for more than 77 percent of the
overall assemblage by count and more than 71 percent by weight.
The Pueblo III period results are similar to those of the Basketmaker III/Pueblo I category and
the Pueblo II period with 11,471 sherds, or more than 146,168 g of pottery, dating from this
period. This accounts for more than 6 percent of the overall assemblage count and more than 13
percent of the assemblage by weight. Thus, the quantity of pottery dating from the Pueblo III
period indicates a considerable occupation of Albert Porter Pueblo during that time.
Other Methods of Dating
Architectural characteristics provided useful chronological information for each tested structure
at Albert Porter Pueblo. Dating inferences were drawn from several lines of evidence: type of
construction materials; method of construction; construction style—specifically, Chaco or
McElmo; construction sequence; and context—specifically, if a structure was constructed on
earlier cultural deposits or on undisturbed native sediment. This evidence proved especially
40
valuable in the chronological interpretation of the “great house,” located in Architectural Block
100. Chapter 5 of this report is devoted to a discussion of architecture.
Archaeomagnetic Dating
Archaeomagnetic dating relies on variation in the direction and intensity of the earth’s magnetic
field through time. When soils and sediments containing clay are heated to temperatures
exceeding 400–500º F, ferromagnetic minerals within the clay, such as magnetite and hematite,
will assume the direction of the magnetic field that surrounds them (Michels 1973:140–141). The
age of the archaeological sample can be determined by comparing these alignments to a key
developed by Robert DuBois for the American Southwest (Eighmy 1990:33; Michels 1973;
Weaver 1967). DuBois developed the polar calendar, or key, by comparing the magnetic
alignment of samples collected from archaeological sites with known carbon-14 or tree-ring
dates. The key extends back approximately 2,000 years and traces the meandering geomagnetic
pole for 8,800 miles during that period (Michels 1973:141). The DuBois Curve is used for
segments of the curve dating A.D. 400–650 and A.D. 1450–present (DuBois 1989). Additionally,
two other calibration curves are commonly used to date samples from specific periods of time in
the Southwest: (1) the Wolfman Curve, used to date the A.D. 1000–1450 segment of the curve
(Cox and Blinman 1999); and (2) the SWCV595 Curve, used to date the A.D. 650–1000 segment
of the curve (Lengyel and Eighmy 2002).
Archaeomagnetic samples were collected from hearths in Structure 112 (Feature 4) and Structure
150 (Feature 12) and were sent to Statistical Research, Inc. for analysis. These samples were
dated using the SWCV595 Curve. Results indicate that the latest, hottest fire in the hearth in
Structure 112 occurred sometime between A.D. 1160 and 1290 (Table 3.6). The data indicate
that the hearth in Structure 150 was last used sometime during the span A.D. 1010–1165;
however, the results suggest a strong likelihood that the feature was last used in the early twelfth
century, specifically around A.D. 1125 (see Table 3.6).
Archaeomagnetic samples were also collected from hearths in Structure 107 (Feature 1) and
Structure 108 (Feature 1) and were sent to the Office of Archaeological Studies at the Museum
of New Mexico for analysis. These samples were dated using the Wolfman Curve. Results
indicate that the latest hottest fire in the hearth in Structure 107 occurred between A.D. 1050 and
1250, with a strong likelihood that it occurred between A.D. 1205 and 1305. The data indicate
that the last use of the hearth in Structure 108 occurred between A.D. 1200 and 1250.
Radiocarbon Dating
Radiocarbon is the most common absolute dating technique used by archaeologists worldwide.
Developed in the 1950s by Willard Libby, radiocarbon dating measures the half-life of carbon-14
atoms. All organic matter, while alive, is in equilibrium with the environment and is constantly
absorbing carbon-14 (Michels 1973:149). However, at the time of death this process ceases,
because there is no process by which carbon-14 can then enter the organism. At death, carbon-14
atoms begin to decay, turning into nitrogen-14 at a fixed rate or half-life (Michels 1973:150).
The remaining carbon-14 atoms in a sample can thus be measured to determine how long ago the
parent organism died. All radiocarbon results are calculated from the year A.D. 1950, before
41
atmospheric disturbances caused by nuclear explosions and industrial coal burning (Michels
1973:155) and are reported as “1 Sigma calibrated results” and “2 Sigma calibrated results.”
The 1 Sigma calibrated results provide a 95 percent probability that the age of the sample falls
into the given date range, whereas the 2 Sigma calibrated results provide a 68 percent probability
that the age of the sample falls into the given date range.
Three vegetal samples from Albert Porter Pueblo were sent to the Beta Analytic Radiocarbon
Dating Laboratory for analysis (Table 3.7). The first radiocarbon sample consisted of a single
charred bean collected from the hearth, Feature 4, in Structure 112, an aboveground kiva dating
from the late Pueblo II period. Results of the analysis indicate that the bean has a conventional
radiocarbon age of 760+40 BP (“BP” is an abbreviation for “before present,” or 1950). The 2
Sigma calibrated result provided a 95 percent probability that the associated bean plant died
between A.D. 1210 and 1290. The 1 Sigma calibrated result provided a 68 percent probability
that the associated bean plant died between A.D. 1250 and 1280. Because the ratio of pottery
types found in the roof sediments is 2:2:1 Mancos, McElmo, and Mesa Verde Black-on-white,
respectively, it seems likely that use of Structure 112 ended during the early Pueblo III period,
and the radiocarbon date span of A.D. 1210–1290 best fits the date of structure abandonment.
The second radiocarbon sample consisted of maize kernels collected from the floor of Structure
150, a masonry-lined kiva that, according to tree-ring dates, was constructed in A.D. 1142 or
1188. Results of the radiocarbon analysis indicate that the maize kernels have a conventional
radiocarbon age of 800+60 BP (see Table 3.7). The 2 Sigma calibrated result provided a 95
percent probability that the maize kernels ceased growing either between A.D. 1060 and 1080 or
between A.D. 1150 and 1290. The 1 Sigma calibrated result provided a 68 percent probability
that the maize kernels ceased growing between A.D. 1190 and 1280 (see Table 3.7). Because
Mesa Verde Black-on-white pottery was absent from the floor assemblage, it seems likely that
use of Structure 150 ended during the early Pueblo III period, and the radiocarbon date span
A.D. 1190–1280 best dates the abandonment of the structure.
The third sample consisted of charred corn kernels collected from a bin (Feature 1) on the floor
of Structure 168, a late Pueblo II non-masonry surface room. Results of the analysis indicate that
the beans have a conventional radiocarbon age of 880+40 BP (see Table 3.7). The 2 Sigma
calibrated result provided a 95 percent probability that the associated bean plants died between
A.D. 1030 and 1250. The 1 Sigma calibrated result provided a 68 percent probability that the
associated bean plants died either between A.D. 1060 and 1080 or A.D. 1150 and 1210 (see
Table 3.7). This 1 Sigma result is consistent with the dating of this structure to A.D. 1060–1080
as indicated by its earthen-walled construction style and stratigraphic location beneath the
original great house. Tree-ring dates indicate that the great house was constructed in the early
A.D. 1100s.
Dating by Stratigraphy
Excavation provides unique information on the relationships between objects and deposits—both
cultural and natural—and the contexts in which they are found. Because archaeologists make
inferences on the basis of material traces of past human behavior, they require a theoretical
framework relating behavioral, organizational, material, spatial, and environmental variables
42
(Schiffer 1995). Interpretation of the stratigraphic record draws heavily from behavioral
archaeology, a program developed in the 1970s at the University of Arizona, which focuses on
the analysis of human behavior in terms of the production and disposal of material culture
(Schiffer 1976). Behavioral archaeologists define archaeology as the relationship between human
behavior and material culture in all times and places and rely on the following four-strategy
approach (Schiffer 1995:69–72): (1) using material culture manufactured in the past to answer
questions about the behavioral and organizational properties of past cultural systems, (2) using
present material culture in order to acquire laws useful for the study of the past, (3) using past
material culture to derive behavioral laws that can be applied to past and present human
behavior, and (4) using present material culture to describe and explain present human behavior.
At Albert Porter Pueblo, the four-strategy approach of behavioral archaeology guided
stratigraphic interpretation.
In addition to reconstructing past human behavior, stratigraphy can be used as an indirect dating
technique. The law of superposition—which states that sediment is deposited in a time sequence,
with the oldest on the bottom and the youngest on the top—allows archaeologists to infer when a
particular stratum was deposited. Furthermore, it allows archaeologists to infer if the occupation
of a site or structure was continuous or discontinuous, how much time elapsed between
occupations, how many times a particular location or structure was occupied, and the duration of
occupation. At Albert Porter Pueblo, it was commonplace to make chronological inferences on
the basis of stratigraphic relationships, especially if diagnostic artifacts were not available.
Stratigraphic interpretations for specific study units are presented in the database accompanying
this report.
Occupational History of Albert Porter Pueblo
Using the dating techniques and data reviewed above, I assigned each study unit identified in the
excavations at Albert Porter Pueblo (Crow Canyon Archaeological Center 2010) to one or more
date ranges of varying precision on the basis of evidence of the initial and final periods of use.
To adequately characterize the dating of each study unit, I defined 23 distinct date ranges (see
Table 3.4). Date Ranges 1–13 were derived from the Pecos Classification system; Date Ranges
1–3 represent the Pecos periods and Date Ranges 4–13 represent sub-periods of the Pecos
periods. Additionally, Date Ranges 14–19, 21, and 23 span more than one Pecos period or subperiod. Finally, Date Range 22 was assigned to noncultural deposits; these deposits were not
assigned a chronological date. Here, I summarize the occupational history of Albert Porter
Pueblo.
Excavation data indicate that Albert Porter Pueblo was occupied from the Basketmaker III period
until the late Pueblo III period; the population of this settlement declined during the final decades
of occupation in the region. This occupation overlapped with the occupations of the Bass Site
complex and Woods Canyon Pueblo.
The types of pottery found at Albert Porter Pueblo suggest that people inhabited this location as
early as the Basketmaker III period. However, none of the excavation units encountered
Basketmaker III deposits; this is probably a consequence of the research design and how
excavation units were selected for sampling. For example, structural remains visible on the
43
modern ground surface were more likely to have been tested than a structure that was not visible
on the modern ground surface. Although few Basketmaker III sherds were recovered, I infer that
a small population resided at this location during Basketmaker III times. Additionally, there is a
strong Basketmaker III/Pueblo I pottery signature at Albert Porter.
Fewer sherds date from the Pueblo I period than were assigned to the Basketmaker III/Pueblo I
category. As was the case for the Basketmaker III period, none of the excavation units
encountered Pueblo I period deposits. It is probable that fewer people resided at Albert Porter
Pueblo during the late Pueblo I period, mirroring the regional population trends described above.
It is likely that many sherds dating from the Pueblo I period were classified within the broader
Basketmaker III/Pueblo I period category.
Population increased at the pueblo in the late Pueblo II period, during the late eleventh century,
mirroring a regional trend. The data indicate that approximately 33 residences were constructed
during this time at Albert Porter Pueblo (Figure 3.3). A residence, as defined in this report,
includes a pit structure and its associated surface rooms. If a household of five to seven people
occupied each residence, then between 165 and 231 individuals resided at Albert Porter Pueblo
during this time. During the early A.D. 1100s, the great house, located in Architectural Block
100, was constructed. The sparse evidence of construction activity for the period of drought
between A.D. 1130 and 1180 suggests that population did not increase during that span. It seems
likely that the population of the settlement remained stable or declined during that time.
Approximately 20 new residences were constructed during the early Pueblo III period at Albert
Porter Pueblo (Figure 3.4). About 100 to 140 people occupied the new residences. The number
of people who resided in pre-existing residences is not known. Thus, the estimate of 100 to 140
individuals is conservative for the settlement as a whole. Furthermore, as stated above, the
Pueblo II/Pueblo III period pottery results indicate that the most significant occupation occurred
during this period.
The late Pueblo III period witnessed little construction activity at Albert Porter Pueblo; only
three new residences were constructed during this time (Figure 3.5). The latest tree-ring cutting
date from Albert Porter Pueblo—A.D. 1250r—was yielded by a burned roofing timber in
Structure 114, a masonry-lined kiva (see Table 3.3). The same structure also contained a timber
that yielded the latest tree-ring date for the entire site, A.D. 1258+vv. If kivas were typically
occupied for an average of 45 years (Varien 1999), a small group of people might have resided at
Albert Porter Pueblo at least into the A.D. 1260s and possibly later. I estimate that a total of 15 to
21 individuals resided in the three new residences. Additional individuals probably resided in
structures built before the late Pueblo III period, but it is difficult estimate the total population of
this settlement in the late Pueblo III period. Evidence suggests that the population of the pueblo
during this time was significantly reduced from that of the early Pueblo III period.
Two events might have drawn a significant number of residents away from Albert Porter Pueblo
during the late thirteenth century: the construction of Woods Canyon Pueblo and regional
depopulation. As stated above, the shift to highly aggregated canyon-head villages appears to
have occurred over a 20–30 year period, and these large canyon-rim pueblos became the
dominant organizational layout during the late Pueblo III period (Lipe and Varien 1999:303).
44
Although some mesa-top and upland community centers—including Albert Porter Pueblo—
retained a small portion of their population, the majority of households had moved to highly
aggregated villages by A.D. 1250. Many of these villages were constructed on a canyon rim—
usually at the head of the canyon—and in alcoves and on the talus slopes below the rim. Woods
Canyon Pueblo succeeded Albert Porter Pueblo as the center of the Woods Canyon community
during the late Pueblo III period. The momentary household population estimate for Woods
Canyon Pueblo is 70–112 individuals (Churchill 2002); no doubt some of these individuals were
born at Albert Porter Pueblo.
As stated earlier, Lipe (1995) argues that the initial migration from the Mesa Verde region to the
northern Rio Grande region began in the A.D. 1250s (Lipe and Varien 1999:339). However,
Duff and Wilshusen (2000) conclude that individuals began to depart the Mesa Verde region as
early as the first part of the thirteenth century. Population estimates for Woods Canyon Pueblo
suggest that some individuals might have migrated from the region at the end of the early Pueblo
III period.
In sum, the types of pottery found at Albert Porter Pueblo suggest that people were living in this
location at least as early as the Basketmaker III period (A.D. 600–750). The most intensive
occupation of Albert Porter Pueblo occurred during the Pueblo II period (A.D. 900–1150) and
the Pueblo III period (A.D. 1150–1300). Architectural evidence visible on the modern ground
surface—which includes the remains of a Chaco-era great house—and the presence of both
Pueblo II and Pueblo III pottery types indicate that the settlement reached its maximum extent
sometime between A.D. 1100 and 1250. During the mid-to-late A.D. 1200s, most residents
departed from Albert Porter Pueblo and probably either resettled at Woods Canyon Pueblo or
migrated from the region.
45
Figure 3.1. Histogram of all tree-ring dates, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Figure 3.2. Histogram of all tree-ring cutting dates, Albert Porter Pueblo.
46
Figure 3.3. Late Pueblo II period occupation, Albert Porter Pueblo.
(Courtesy of Dennis Holloway)
Figure 3.4. Early Pueblo III period occupation, Albert Porter Pueblo.
(Courtesy of Dennis Holloway)
47
Figure 3.5. Late Pueblo III period occupation, Albert Porter Pueblo.
(Courtesy of Dennis Holloway)
48
Table 3.1. The Pecos Classification Periods and their Associated Material Culture Traits
Pecos Classification Period
Material Culture Traits
Basketmaker I, or Early
Basketmaker
This was a postulated preagricultural stage. The category is no
longer used; rather, the developments now relate to the Archaic
period.
Basketmaker II, or
Basketmaker
Pottery is not present; however, agriculture is known, and the
atlatl is used.
Basketmaker III, or PostBasketmaker
Dwellings are pithouses or slab houses. Pottery is made. The
cooking ware is plain, without decoration.
Pueblo I, or Proto-Pueblo
Cranial deformation is practiced. Culinary vessels have coils or
bands at the neck. Villages are composed of aboveground,
contiguous rectangular rooms.
Pueblo II
Corrugations extend over the exterior surface of cooking vessels.
Small villages occur over a large geographic area.
Pueblo III, or Great Pueblo
Large communities appear. Craft specialization occurs.
Pueblo IV, or Proto-Historic The San Juan region is depopulated. Corrugated wares are no
longer produced in favor of plainware.
Pueblo V, or Historic
The final period, from A.D. 1600 to present.
Source: Adapted from Cordell (1984:55–56).
49
Table 3.2. Time Periods, Subperiods, and Phases Assigned to Study Units, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Year
(A.D.)
600
Period
Subperiod
Phase
Basketmaker
III
Basketmaker III
A.D. 600–725
Early Pueblo I
A.D. 725–800
725
800
Pueblo I
840
A.D. 800–840
Late Pueblo I
880
A.D. 880–920
920
A.D. 920–980
Early Pueblo II
980
1020
Pueblo II
Late Pueblo II
1100
1140
1225
A.D. 980–1020
A.D. 1020–1060
1060
1180
A.D. 840–880
Early Pueblo III
Pueblo III
Late Pueblo III
1260
1280
50
A.D. 1060–1100
A.D. 1100–1140
A.D. 1140–1180
A.D. 1180–1225
A.D. 1225–1260
A.D. 1260–1280
Table 3.3. All Tree-Ring Dates, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Study Unit
Non-Cutting Dates (A.D.)
Cutting and Near-Cutting Dates
(A.D.)
Latest Date (A.D.)
(from cutting and
non-cutting dates)
General Site
986+vv
986+vv
Structure 107
1232+vv, 1226+vv, 1213+vv,
1206++B, 1197+vv, 1168vv,
1149+vv, 1135+vv, 1130vv,
1129+vv, 1124vv, 1124vv,
1098vv, 1075vv, 1024+vv,
1013+vv, 1008+vv, 1007+vv,
1002+vv, 960+vv, 960+vv,
960+vv
1197+rB
1232+vv
Structure 110
1192++vv, 1178vv, 1160+vv,
1122vv, 1122++vv
1180LGB, 1125+B
1192++vv
Structure 114
1258+vv, 1248vv, 1241vv,
1239+vv, 1238vv, 1233+vv,
1229+vv, 1201vv, 1136+vv,
1026++vv
1250r
1258+vv
Structure 115
898+vv
898+vv
Nonstructure 132
1209vv, 1097+vv
1209vv
Structure 136
1218vv, 1205++vv, 1191++vv,
1179++vv, 1175++vv, 975vv
1218vv
Structure 137
1002+vv, 965vv, 955+vv
1002+vv
Nonstructure 139
956vv
956vv
Structure 141
1058vv, 947vv
1058vv
Structure 150
1149++B, 1138++v, 1138++vv,
1138+vv, 1137vv, 1137++B,
1135++r, 1135++v, 1133vv,
1131vv, 1128vv, 1125vv,
1125vv, 1125vv, 1125++rB,
1124+vv, 1122vv, 1120++B,
1119vv, 1118vv, 1116vv,
1110++vv, 1109vv, 1107++vv,
1107++vv, 1103vv, 1095vv,
1095vv, 1092vv, 1092vv,
1089vv, 1084++vv, 1082vv,
1073++vv, 1047vv, 1047vv,
1026vv, 1023vv, 1012vv,
1004vv, 988++vv, 987vv,
945vv, 912vv, 102vv
Structure 153
1135vv, 920++vv
1135vv
Nonstructure 154
1023vv
1023vv
Nonstructure 159
1192vv
1192vv
1188r, 1188v, 1188r, 1143v,
1142r, 1142v, 1142v, 1142v,
1142r, 1142rB, 1142v, 1142v,
1142v, 1135+r, 1132+B, 1113v,
1110r
51
1188r
Study Unit
Non-Cutting Dates (A.D.)
Cutting and Near-Cutting Dates
(A.D.)
Latest Date (A.D.)
(from cutting and
non-cutting dates)
Structure 170
1044vv
1044vv
Structure 176
1140++vv, 1113vv, 996vv
1140++vv
Structure 305
1026+vv
1026+vv
Structure 402
1226vv, 1226vv, 1225vv,
1223++rB, 1203++rB, 1159vv,
1157vv, 1152vv, 1144vv,
1134++vv, 1124vv, 1113vv,
1108++vv, 1047vv, 1003+vv,
958vv, 912vv, 900vv, 866vv
1226+r, 1226+B
Structure 403
1235+vv, 1234vv, 1233vv,
1226v, 1222+vv, 1209vv,
1194vv, 1190vv, 1189+vv,
1185++vv, 1169+vv, 1073+vv
1226+r, 1226+v, 1238+v, 1237v, 1238+v
1237r, 1236rB, 1233+rB, 1226+v,
1226+r
Structure 502
1232+vv, 1183vv
1232+vv
Structure 803
1205+vv
1205+vv
Structure 908
991+vv, 974vv, 952vv
991+vv
Structure 1037
1060+vv
1060+vv
Structure 9005
1168++vv
1168++vv
52
1226B
Table 3.4. Chronological Assignments for all Cultural Contexts, Albert Porter Pueblo.
(a) Table 3.4, Date Ranges 1–12
Date Range
Span
(Years A.D.)
Period/
Subperiod Name
Structures
1
725–
920
PI
2
920–
1140
PII
3
1140–
1280
PIII
4
725–800
5
1020–1060
Early PI
Middle PII
6
1060–
1140
Late PII
7
8
1140–1225 1225–
1280
Early PIII Late PIII
9
1060–
1100
10
1100–
1140
11
1140–1180
STR 160
STR 176
STR 906
STR 9005
Subterranean
Structure, Type
Unknown
Kivas
STR 183
STR 118
STR 204
53
STR 107
STR 108
STR 109
STR 110
STR 111
STR 113
STR 115
STR 116
STR 117
STR 119
STR 302
STR 303
STR 502
STR 602
STR 803
STR 114
STR 136
STR 402
STR 403
STR
903
STR
904
STR
1104
STR
112
STR
150
12
1180–
1225
Date Range
Span
(Years A.D.)
Period/
Subperiod Name
Masonry Surface
Structure
1
725–
920
PI
2
920–
1140
PII
3
1140–
1280
PIII
4
725–800
5
1020–1060
Early PI
Middle PII
6
1060–
1140
Late PII
STR 143
STR 142
STR 177
STR 178
STR 909
Nonmasonry
Surface Rooms
Masonry Structure,
Type Unknown
Subterranean
Rooms
7
8
1140–1225 1225–
1280
Early PIII Late PIII
STR 158
STR 166
STR 168
STR 170
STR 907
STR 908
STR 153
STR 1037
54
9
1060–
1100
STR 125 STR 141
STR 126
STR 128
STR 144
STR 145
STR 146
STR 148
STR 173
STR 184
STR 195
STR 305
STR 9021
10
1100–
1140
STR
140
11
1140–1180
12
1180–
1225
Date Range
Span
(Years A.D.)
Period/
Subperiod Name
Middens
1
725–
920
PI
2
920–
1140
PII
3
1140–
1280
PIII
4
725–800
5
1020–1060
Early PI
Middle PII
NST 131
NST 191
NST 187
NST 401
6
1060–
1140
Late PII
7
8
1140–1225 1225–
1280
Early PIII Late PIII
NST 154
NST 157
NST 159
NST 164
NST 169
NST 194
NST 198
NST 201
NST 1039
NST 1040
NST 1041
NST 1042
NST 1043
NST 1101
NST 1103
Cultural Deposits,
Type Unknown
NST 163
55
9
1060–
1100
NST 123 NST 130
NST 132
NST 133
NST 134
NST 139
NST 151
NST 152
NST 155
NST 161
NST 162
NST 188
NST 189
NST 196
NST 203
NST 205
NST 301
NST 501
NST 601
NST 804
NST 9002
10
1100–
1140
11
1140–1180
NST
138
NST
165
NST
192
NST
193
NST
199
NST
801
NST
901
NST 101
NST 102
NST 103
NST 104
NST 105
NST 106
ARB
1102
12
1180–
1225
Date Range
Span
(Years A.D.)
Period/
Subperiod Name
Extramural Surface
Noncultural
1
725–
920
PI
2
920–
1140
PII
3
1140–
1280
PIII
4
725–800
5
1020–1060
6
1060–
1140
Late PII
Early PI
Middle PII
NST 207
NST 306
NST 156
NST 504
NST 9015
NST 9025
NST 167
NST 181
NST 185
NST 186
NST 206
NST 9003
NST 174 NST 406
NST 190
NST 197
NST 9018
ARB 124
ARB 404
ARB 122
ARB 120
ARB 121
ARB 147
ARB 149
ARB 304
Note: Bolded Study Units have associated tree-ring dates.
Key: ARB = Arbitrary Unit; STR = Structure; NST = Nonstructure
56
7
8
1140–1225 1225–
1280
Early PIII Late PIII
9
1060–
1100
ARB 405
10
1100–
1140
11
1140–1180
NST
171
NST
172
NST
175
NST
179
NST
180
NST
182
NST
604
NST
605
NST
606
NST
805
NST
806
NST
9019
NST
9020
ARB
905
ARB
1105
NST 9004
NST 9007
NST 9008
NST 9009
NST 9010
NST 9011
NST 9012
NST 9013
NST 9014
12
1180–
1225
(b) Table 3.4, Date Ranges 13–23
Date Range
Span
(Years A.D.)
Period/
Subperiod Name
Earth-walled Pit
Structures
Subterranean
Structure, Type
Unknown
Kivas
Masonry Surface
Structure
Nonmasonry
Surface Rooms
Masonry Structure,
Type Unknown
Subterranean Rooms
Middens
Cultural Deposits,
Type Unknown
Extramural Surface
13
14
1225– 1060–
1260 1225
Late
PII–
Early
PIII
15
1020–1280
16
725–1225
Middle PII– Early PI–
Late PIII
Early PIII
17
920–
1280
PII–
PIII
18
19
725–1280 1060–1180
20
21
1180–1260 1100–1180
22
N/A
23
1100–1225
PI–PIII
Middle
PIII
N/A
Late PII–end
of Early PIII
Late PII–
Early PIII
Terminal PII–
Early PIII
STR 137
STR 1044
NST 9024
NST 9016
NST 135
NST 912
NST 913
NST 914
NST 915
NST 916
NST 917
NST 9001
NST 9017
NST 9023
NST 9006
57
Date Range
Span
(Years A.D.)
Period/
Subperiod Name
Noncultural
13
14
1225– 1060–
1260 1225
Late
PII–
Early
PIII
15
1020–1280
16
725–1225
Middle PII– Early PI–
Late PIII
Early PIII
ARB 127
ARB 202
ARB 503
ARB 603
ARB 703
ARB 802
ARB 902
17
920–
1280
PII–
PIII
18
19
725–1280 1060–1180
20
21
1180–1260 1100–1180
22
N/A
23
1100–1225
PI–PIII
Middle
PIII
N/A
Late PII–end
of Early PIII
ARB 100
ARB 129
ARB 800
ARB 900
ARB 1000
ARB 1001
ARB 1002
ARB 1003
ARB 1004
ARB 1005
ARB 1006
ARB 1007
ARB 1008
ARB 1009
ARB 1010
ARB 1011
ARB 1012
ARB 1013
ARB 1014
ARB 1015
ARB 1016
ARB 1017
ARB 1018
ARB 1019
ARB 1020
ARB 1021
ARB 1022
ARB 1023
ARB 1024
ARB 1025
ARB 1026
ARB 1027
Late PII–
Early PIII
Terminal PII–
Early PIII
ARB 1035
58
Date Range
Span
(Years A.D.)
Period/
Subperiod Name
13
14
1225– 1060–
1260 1225
Late
PII–
Early
PIII
15
1020–1280
16
725–1225
Middle PII– Early PI–
Late PIII
Early PIII
17
920–
1280
PII–
PIII
18
19
725–1280 1060–1180
20
21
1180–1260 1100–1180
22
N/A
23
1100–1225
PI–PIII
Middle
PIII
N/A
Late PII–end
of Early PIII
ARB 1028
ARB 1029
ARB 1030
ARB 1031
ARB 1032
ARB 1033
ARB 1034
Note: Bolded Study Units have associated tree-ring dates.
Key: ARB = Arbitrary Unit; STR = Structure; NST = Nonstructure; N/A = not applicable
59
Late PII–
Early PIII
Terminal PII–
Early PIII
Table 3.5. Pottery Counts and Weights and Percentages of Counts and Weights,
Albert Porter Pueblo.
Pecos
Classification
Period
Early Basketmaker
III
Basketmaker III
Basketmaker
III/Pueblo I
Pueblo I
Pueblo I/II
Pueblo II
Pueblo II/III
Pueblo III
Other
Pottery Count
Pottery Count
Percentage
Pottery Weight (g)
Pottery Weight (g)
Percentage
6
14.5
0.004
0.001
133
881.3
0.080
0.080
12,298
64,536.3
7.404
5.863
902
228
11,334
129,022
11,471
708
4,474.5
856.2
89,927.6
788,989.1
146,168.7
4,806.4
0.543
0.137
6.824
77.676
6.906
0.426
0.407
0.078
8.170
71.684
13.280
0.437
Table 3.6. Archaeomagnetic Dates from Kiva Hearths, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Structure No.
Feature No.
107
1
108
1
112
4
150
12
Date Range
A.D. 1050–1250
A.D. 1205–1305
A.D. 1200–1250
A.D. 1010–1140
A.D. 1160–1290
A.D. 1010–1165
Best Fit
Curve Used
A.D. 1205–1305
Wolfman
A.D. 1200–1250
A.D. 1025, A.D. 1075
A.D. 1200–1250
A.D. 1025, A.D. 1125
Wolfman
SWCV595
SWCV595
Table 3.7. Radiocarbon Results from Corn and Beans, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Structure No.
Material
Analyzed
Conventional
Radiocarbon Age
1 Sigma Calibrated
Result
(68% probability)
A.D. 1250–1280
(700–670 BP)
112
Bean
760+40 BP
150
Corn kernels
800+60 BP
A.D. 1190–1280
(760–670 BP)
880+40 BP
A.D. 1060–1080
(890–860 BP) and
A.D. 1150–1210
(800–740 BP)
168
Corn kernels
60
2 Sigma Calibrated
Result
(95% probability)
A.D. 1210–1290
(740–660 BP)
A.D. 1060–1080
(890–860 BP) and
A.D. 1150–1290
(800–660 BP)
A.D. 1030–1250
(920–700 BP)
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Chapter 4
Albert Porter Pueblo in a Regional Context
by Susan C. Ryan
Introduction
The goal of this chapter is to place Albert Porter Pueblo within a larger regional context.
Specifically, I will summarize overarching settlement patterns—or the distribution of
archaeological sites on the landscape—for the Pueblo I (A.D. 750‒900), Pueblo II (A.D. 900‒
1150), and Pueblo III (A.D. 1150‒1300) periods in the Woods Canyon community. Analyzing
settlement patterns through time allows researchers to gain insights into anthropological issues
including social structure, social organization, subsistence strategies, demography, migration,
and social complexity.
This chapter contains two main sections. The first highlights settlement patterns for three
primary sites located in the Woods Canyon community: the Bass Site complex, Woods Canyon
Pueblo, and the Woods Canyon Reservoir (see Figure 1.4). In the second section, I discuss the
development of Albert Porter Pueblo as a center within the Woods Canyon community. A
discussion of the overarching settlement patterns for the northern San Juan region can be found
in Chapter 3 of this report.
The Woods Canyon Community
As noted in Chapter 1, Albert Porter Pueblo was part of the Woods Canyon community, which is
named after Woods Canyon Pueblo (Churchill 2002), a large village site located approximately
1.8 km southwest of Albert Porter Pueblo. Three large villages were included in the Woods
Canyon community (see Figure 1.4): (1) Albert Porter Pueblo; (2) the Bass Site complex (Site
5MT136)—located approximately 2.25 km southwest of Albert Porter Pueblo; and (3) Woods
Canyon Pueblo (Site 5MT11842). A fourth site, Woods Canyon Reservoir (Site 5MT12086)—
located approximately 1.75 km south of Albert Porter Pueblo—was constructed by residents of
the Woods Canyon community during the Pueblo II period and used until regional depopulation
about A.D. 1300 (Churchill 2002). Diagnostic artifacts recovered from the modern ground
surface at the Bass Site complex suggest that Albert Porter Pueblo and the Bass Site complex
were contemporaneous. The results of test excavations at Woods Canyon Pueblo and Albert
Porter Pueblo suggest that the former succeeded the latter as the community center for the
Woods Canyon community during the mid-to-late A.D. 1200s (Ryan 2005).
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Bass Site Complex
Environmental Setting
The Bass Site complex is located at an elevation of approximately 6,650 feet (2,025 m) on a
gently sloping mesa top between unnamed tributaries of Sandstone and Woods canyons (see
Figure 1.4). The majority of the site rests on a thick deposit of eolian soils; the eastern edge rests
on Dakota sandstone bedrock. Water was probably collected from nearby seeps or springs in the
Woods Canyon tributary, but specific water sources have not been identified. The main portion
of the complex is visible for several kilometers to the northeast, east, and southeast and is
especially prominent when viewed from Albert Porter Pueblo. Soil on and around the site is
arable; the area north of the complex is under cultivation today. Wooded portions of the complex
were chained in the late 1950s or early 1960s to improve grazing conditions; it is believed that
chaining did not greatly impact the cultural resources of the complex. Today, vegetation growing
on the complex includes sagebrush, four-wing saltbush, pinyon trees, juniper trees, snakeweed,
rabbitbrush, mountain mahogany, bitterbrush, cliffrose, cheatgrass, and native and introduced
grasses.
History of Investigations
In July 1965, survey crews from the University of Colorado completed Colorado state site forms
and assigned the following site numbers to several of the architectural blocks in the complex:
5MT136, 5MT137, 5MT138, 5MT150, 5MT151, 5MT154, and 5MT155. Limited surface
collections were conducted at some of these sites; these collections are presumably curated at the
Anasazi Heritage Center or the University of Colorado Museum. In the late 1970s or early
1980s, several sketch maps were created by Art Rohn of Wichita State University, specifically of
the central portion of the complex (Architectural Units 300, 400, and 500). In the late 1980s,
Mark Chenault, then a graduate student at the University of Colorado, mapped the Bass Site
complex using a laser transit. In the summer of 1994, Crow Canyon Archaeological Center
archaeologists prepared the complex for aerial photography, which was conducted by Rocky
Mountain Aerial Survey of Englewood, Colorado. The same researchers also produced several
sketch maps of smaller architectural units and conducted in-field analysis of rim-sherd samples
from middens (Ortman 1995). Additionally, surface artifacts were collected from judgmental
dog-leash units in several middens; these samples are curated at the Anasazi Heritage Center,
Dolores, Colorado.
In the winter of 1994/1995, a topographic map of the Bass Site complex was generated from
aerial photographs taken by Carrera and Associates of Englewood, Colorado. In the summer of
1995, walls, rubble mounds, and other cultural features—specifically Architectural Units 300,
400, 500, 600, 700, 1200, and 1500—were mapped by researchers from the Crow Canyon
Archaeological Center under the direction of William Lipe and Scott Ortman. During the fall of
1995, Neal Morris produced an AutoCAD topographic map using digital mapping data. Finally,
several additional rim-sherd samples from the above units were analyzed in situ. On February 22,
1999, the Bass Site complex was placed on the National Register of Historic Places after being
nominated by William Lipe in 1995 (Lipe 1995). Today, the complex is within Canyons of the
Ancients National Monument.
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Architecture
Fifteen architectural roomblock units have been identified in the Bass Site complex (Figure 4.1).
These 15 units appear to be approximately contemporaneous, having been constructed in the late
A.D. 1100s and early A.D. 1200s (Lipe 1995). The primary architectural blocks in the complex
are units 300, 400, and 500—a tight grouping of multiple-household roomblocks (Lipe 1995).
Portions of Architectural Unit 400 appear to be distinct in that they were probably two stories
tall, are located on the highest portion of the landscape, and include several towers. Additionally,
five kivas were enclosed within the roomblock, a characteristic most often associated with a
Chacoan architectural style. Smaller roomblocks—Architectural Units 300, 500, and 600—were
constructed around Architectural Unit 400, and probably housed one or two families each. It is
suspected that additional roomblocks were scattered over the surrounding landscape for distances
as great as several kilometers from Architectural Unit 400, but that these have been destroyed by
mechanical disturbance.
Chronology
Analysis of pottery collected from the modern ground surface indicates that the Bass Site
complex might have been constructed in two stages (Ortman 1995). Architectural Units 1000,
1100, and the western portion of Unit 100 were constructed during the earliest part of the
occupation of the complex about A.D. 1075‒1150 (see Figure 4.1). The second phase of
construction, about A.D. 1150‒1225, witnessed the occupation of Architectural Units 300, 400,
500, 600, 800, 1300, and the eastern portion of Architectural Unit 100 (see Figure 4.1). Of these
blocks, it appears that Architectural Unit 600 was used the latest. It is important to note that
some architectural blocks were excluded from the study by Ortman (1995), either because no
samples were collected, or because the samples that were collected contained few or no
diagnostic artifacts.
Summary
The Bass Site complex was probably first occupied in the late A.D. 1000s and early A.D. 1100s,
and it consisted of only a few small habitations. In the late A.D. 1100s, the central portion of
Architectural Unit 400 was constructed and probably housed leaders or a corporate group who
organized ritual, political, and economic activities within the complex. The multiple-story
construction, thick walls, enclosed kivas, and prominent location would have distinguished
Architectural Unit 400 from surrounding structures. It was during this time that the Bass Site
complex became a community center. Over the next several generations, multiple residences
were constructed; some were built in new areas of the complex, and others were constructed such
that they abutted existing structures. The Bass Site complex reached its occupational peak
between the late A.D. 1100s and the early A.D. 1200s, perhaps supporting as many as 140‒196
people.
Woods Canyon Pueblo
The Crow Canyon Archaeological Center conducted research at Woods Canyon Pueblo (Site
5MT11842), a Pueblo III period canyon-rim village site located in the Woods Canyon
74
community, from 1994 to 1996 (Churchill 2002). Research at Woods Canyon Pueblo was
undertaken as part of Crow Canyon’s Village Testing Project, designed to further our
understanding of community development during the late Pueblo II and the Pueblo III periods
(Ortman et al. 2000). Research indicated that Woods Canyon Pueblo contained approximately 50
kivas, 16 towers, and 120‒220 surface rooms, as well as middens, water-control features, and a
possible plaza (Figure 4.2). Multiple lines of evidence—including tree-ring, stratigraphic,
pottery, and architectural-morphology data—indicate that Woods Canyon Pueblo was inhabited
for approximately 150 years, from about A.D. 1140 until the late A.D. 1200s (Churchill 2002).
Although no structures or features dating from the Pueblo II period were exposed during
excavations, the presence of Mancos Black-on-white pottery—the predominant pottery type in
the central Mesa Verde region between A.D. 1000 and 1140—has been interpreted as possible
evidence of late Pueblo II occupation (Churchill 2002).
Two primary periods of occupation were identified at Woods Canyon Pueblo, A.D. 1140‒1225,
which occurred primarily in the canyon bottom, and A.D. 1225‒1280, which occurred primarily
on the canyon rim, the east talus slope, and the upper-west portion of the site (see Figure 4.2).
Population during early Pueblo III times is estimated at 70 to 112 individuals. Population during
late Pueblo III times is estimated at 130 to 208 residents. The population of Woods Canyon
Pueblo might have peaked by the mid-A.D. 1200s and then declined in the late A.D. 1200s. The
settlement patterns for Albert Porter Pueblo suggest that the individuals who occupied that
settlement during the Pueblo III period were the same individuals who constructed and
eventually occupied Woods Canyon Pueblo. This pattern supports a community center
succession model in which researchers proposed that community centers shifted from mesa-top
locations to canyon-rim or canyon-head locations in the mid-A.D. 1200s (Ortman et al. 2000).
Woods Canyon Reservoir
The Woods Canyon Reservoir (Site 5MT12086) is an earthen-and-masonry dam dating from the
Pueblo II‒III period that is located in a small tributary of Woods Canyon, approximately 750 m
northeast of Woods Canyon Pueblo and 1.25 km south of Albert Porter Pueblo (see Figure 1.4).
Excavations at Woods Canyon Reservoir consisted of testing two areas of the site―the dam and
the reservoir area behind the dam. Eight 1-x-1-m units were excavated across the dam as a
continuous trench, and nine 1-x-1-m units were excavated in the reservoir area southeast of the
dam (Wilshusen et al. 1997). Stratigraphic and pottery data provide little evidence of when the
dam was constructed. The presence of three Mancos Black-on-white sherds and six McElmo
Black-on-white sherds date the construction to about A.D. 1050‒1175 (Wilshusen et al.
1997:673). The dates of tree-ring samples collected from trees growing at the site, as well as
pottery collected from the modern ground surface, suggest that the reservoir was first used
during the late Pueblo II period, or about A.D. 1125‒1175 (Wilshusen et al. 1997:678). It seems
likely that the reservoir was constructed by the occupants of Albert Porter Pueblo at
approximately the same time the great house in Architectural Block 100 was constructed. The
reservoir, like other “public” Chaco-period constructions (such as roads, berms, and great kivas),
might have been instrumental in attracting members to the Woods Canyon community and in
supporting and maintaining them after they settled there.
75
Community and Community Centers
As noted in Chapter 3, a basic characteristic that defines communities in the northern San Juan
region is the spatial proximity of households (Adler and Wilshusen1990; Eddy 1977; Lipe 1992;
Varien 1999). During the time span A.D. 900‒1300, communities exhibited distinct changes in
population size, settlement pattern, and organization (Varien 1999). A community center, as
defined by Varien (1999:19), is “many households that live close to one another, have regular
face-to-face interaction, and share the use of local, social and natural resources.” Crow Canyon
archaeologists developed a community center succession model that describes how the form of
community centers changed through time (Lipe and Ortman 2000; Varien 1999). During the
Chaco period, many community centers in the northern San Juan region were large isolated
buildings in mesa-top settings, and some were accompanied by a great kiva. In the early postChaco period, community centers consisted of a cluster of buildings, located on the mesa tops,
and many contained a larger structure in the center of the cluster. In the late post-Chaco period,
community centers were large, aggregated villages located in canyon settings.
In a study of settlement patterns in the central Mesa Verde region, Varien (1999) and Varien and
Ortman (2005) note that during the Chaco period most habitations were constructed with wooden
posts and adobe and were occupied an average of about 20 years. The occupation span of
habitation sites increased to about 45 years during the post-Chaco period when, for the first time
in the central Mesa Verde region, habitations were constructed with sandstone masonry.
Although typical farmsteads were occupied for these relatively short periods, community centers
were occupied for longer periods, and the entire settlement cluster that composed a community
persisted for centuries (Varien 1999). The longer occupation spans of these community centers,
and the communities they were a part of, made the centers especially important in the social and
political landscape of the region.
Excavation data indicate that the most intensive and continuous occupation of Albert Porter
Pueblo dates from A.D. 1060 to1280, and it was during this period that Porter served as a center
for the surrounding habitations (see Figure 1.4). Architectural Block 100, which contains a “great
house,” is distinctive in terms of its size, layout, and architectural details. Albert Porter Pueblo is
interpreted as a community center on the basis of the presence of the great house, the dense
concentration of smaller architectural units surrounding it, and the long occupation span of this
settlement as compared to the farmsteads in the surrounding community. Additionally,
individuals were part of an “imagined” community. Anderson (2006) distinguishes between an
imagined community and an actual community in that an imagined community is not defined on
the basis of face-to-face interaction between members; instead, members create a mental affinity
based on a perception of shared ideologies. He further notes that the factors that structure this
interaction extend well beyond the physical boundaries of the community (Anderson 2006).
Residential, face-to-face communities in the central Mesa Verde region have been shown to have
a radius of approximately 2 km (Adler and Varien 1991; Ortman and Varien 2007; Varien
1999:153–155). The area around Albert Porter Pueblo has not been subjected to full-coverage
survey, but many sites have been recorded; this record allows us to examine the population
dynamics of the community outside Albert Porter Pueblo. Figure 4.3 shows sites that were within
76
3 km of the Pueblo during the pre-Chaco period (A.D. 1020–1060), the Chaco Period (A.D.
1060–1140), and the post-Chaco period (A.D. 1140–1280).
As shown Figure 4.3, there was settlement in the area of the Woods Canyon community during
the pre-Chaco period, but habitations were few and uniformly small. Population increased during
the Chaco period, and two large community centers formed―Albert Porter Pueblo and Bass
Pueblo. Bass Pueblo is located 2 km southwest of Porter. Great houses were constructed at both
centers during the Chaco period, and future research will examine the relationship between these
two centers. Population continued to increase during the post-Chaco period, but people
consolidated into fewer settlements. Albert Porter and Bass pueblos continued to be large
settlements during this period, but most people moved from the mesa tops to the canyon and
formed the large village of Woods Canyon Pueblo (Churchill 2002). The shift from mesa-top to
canyon settings occurred throughout the central Mesa Verde region during the post-Chaco period
(Lipe and Varien 1999:303‒312). An important exception to this general trend was that
occupation continued at the Chaco-era community centers, such as Albert Porter Pueblo, which
were located on mesa tops.
Discussion
Research conducted at Albert Porter Pueblo has contributed significantly to our understanding of
the culture history of the central Mesa Verde region. The key contributions of this research are
threefold. First, settlement trends at Albert Porter Pueblo follow the community center
succession model that describes how the form of community centers changed through time (Lipe
and Ortman 2000; Varien 1999). During the Chaco period, community centers in the northern
San Juan region were large isolated buildings, many were in mesa-top settings, and some were
accompanied by a great kiva. In the early post-Chaco period, community centers were composed
of a cluster of buildings located on mesa tops, and many clusters contained a larger central
structure. In the late post-Chaco period, community centers were large, aggregated villages
located in canyon settings.
Second, our research examined the origin and demise of a community center. Although the site
was occupied in the Basketmaker III and Pueblo I periods, it was not until approximately A.D.
1060 that Albert Porter Pueblo witnessed a surge in population, perhaps a result of migrants
moving to the northern San Juan region from the south, near Chaco Canyon (Varien et al.
2008:358). At this time, the great house was constructed at Albert Porter Pueblo, and the
settlement emerged as a community center. Likewise, the great house at the Bass Site complex
was constructed and emerged as a community center. Both settlements reached their maximum
extent during the late Pueblo II and early Pueblo III periods but began to decline by A.D. 1250 or
at approximately the same time that Woods Canyon Pueblo was constructed on the canyon rim.
Albert Porter Pueblo was sparsely occupied during the late Pueblo III period until the region was
depopulated about A.D. 1280.
Finally, our research indicates that the Albert Porter Pueblo community center endured for
approximately 200 consecutive years or approximately 20 generations. The built environment at
Albert Porter Pueblo created a meaningful cultural landscape fundamental to the construction of
social identity and the social construction of community. The site was the location of important
77
community activities; it contained two centuries of community social memory. Those specific
memories structured the identity of the community and its members.
78
Figure 4.1. Major architectural units, the Bass Site complex.
79
Figure 4.2. Major cultural units, Woods Canyon Pueblo.
80
Albert Porter Pueblo
Bass Pueblo
Albert porter Pueblo
Bass Pueblo
Woods Canyon Pueblo
Figure 4.3. Distribution of population of recorded sites near Albert Porter Pueblo.
The circle has a 3-km radius and is centered on Albert Porter Pueblo. Gray polygons
indicate surveyed areas.
81
References Cited
Adler, Michael A., and Mark D. Varien
1994 The Changing Face of the Community in the Mesa Verde Region A.D. 1000–1300.
In Proceedings of the Anasazi Symposium, 1991, compiled by Art Hutchinson and Jack
E. Smith, pp. 83–97. Mesa Verde Museum Association, Mesa Verde, Colorado.
Adler, Michael A., and Richard H. Wilshusen
1990 Large-Scale Integrative Facilities in Tribal Societies: Cross-Cultural and Southwestern
U.S. Examples. World Archaeology 22:133‒145.
Anderson, Benedict
2006 Imagined Communities. Verso, London and New York.
Churchill, Melissa J. (editor)
2002 The Archaeology of Woods Canyon Pueblo: A Canyon-Rim Village in Southwestern
Colorado. Electronic document, http://www.crowcanyon.org/woodscanyon, accessed
5 June 2009.
Eddy, Frank W.
1977 Past and Present at Chimney Rock. In Chimney Rock: The Ultimate Outlier, edited by
J. McKim Malville, pp. 23‒50. Lexington Books, Lanham, Maryland.
Lipe, William D.
1992 The Sand Canyon Archaeological Project: A Progress Report. Occasional Papers No. 2,
Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, Cortez, Colorado.
1995
Bass Site Complex: Bass Ruins (5MT136). Nomination for National Register of Historic
Places. Registration form on file, Colorado Historical Society, Office of Archaeology and
Historic Preservation, Denver, Colorado.
Lipe, William D., and Scott G. Ortman
2000 Spatial Patterning in Northern San Juan Villages, A.D. 1050‒1300. Kiva 66:91‒122.
Lipe, William D., and Mark D. Varien
1999 Pueblo III (A.D. 1150–1300). In Colorado Prehistory: A Context for the Southern
Colorado River Basin, edited by William D. Lipe, Mark D. Varien, and Richard H.
Wilshusen, pp. 290–352. Colorado Council of Professional Archaeologists, Denver.
Ortman, Scott G.
1995 Escaping the Confines of Object-Ive Analysis: Perspectives on the Type and Attribute
Approaches to Ceramic Chronology. Manuscript on file, Crow Canyon Archaeological
Center, Cortez, Colorado.
82
Ortman, Scott G., Erin L. Baxter, Carole L. Graham, G. Robin Lyle, Lew W. Matis, Jamie
A. Merewether, R. David Satterwhite, and Jonathan D. Till
2005 The Crow Canyon Archaeological Center Laboratory Manual, Version 1. Electronic
document, http://www.crowcanyon.org/labmanual, accessed 15 May 2010.
Ortman, Scott G., Donna M. Glowacki, Melissa J. Churchill, and Kristin A. Kuckelman
2000 Pattern and Variation in Northern San Juan Village Histories. Kiva 66:123‒146.
Ortman, Scott G., and Mark D. Varien
2007 Settlement Patterns in the McElmo Dome Study Area. In The Archaeology of Sand
Canyon Pueblo: Intensive Excavations at a Late-Thirteenth-Century Village in
Southwestern Colorado, edited by Kristin A. Kuckelman. Electronic document,
http://www.crowcanyon.org/sandcanyon, accessed 20 June 2010.
Ryan, Susan C.
2005 Albert Porter Pueblo (Site 5MT123), Montezuma County, Colorado: Annual Report,
2004 Field Season. Electronic document, http://www.crowcanyon.org/albertporter2003,
accessed 6 June 2009.
Varien, Mark D.
1999 Sedentism and Mobility in a Social Landscape: Mesa Verde and Beyond. University of
Arizona Press, Tucson.
Varien, Mark D., and Scott G. Ortman
2005 Accumulations Research in the Southwest United States: Middle-Range Theory for BigPicture Problems. World Archaeology 37(1):132‒155.
Varien, Mark D., Scott G. Ortman, Susan C. Ryan, and Kristin A. Kuckelman
2008 Population Dynamics among Salmon’s Northern Neighbors in the Central Mesa Verde
Region. In Chaco’s Northern Prodigies: Salmon, Aztec, and the Ascendancy of the
Middle San Juan Region After A.D. 1100, edited by Paul F. Reed, pp. 351‒365.
University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Wilshusen, Richard H., Melissa J. Churchill, and James M. Potter
1997 Prehistoric Reservoirs and Water Basins in the Mesa Verde Region: Intensification of
Water Collection Strategies during the Great Pueblo Period. American Antiquity
62(4):664‒681.
83
Chapter 5
Architecture
by Susan C. Ryan
Introduction
There are four primary reasons to examine the relationship between architecture and human
behavior (Sanders 1990:47): (1) all of the built environment has and communicates meanings
through material and non-material signs; (2) the meanings of signs are established by acceptance
of cultural conventions; (3) signs provide cues for expected behavioral responses; and (4)
meanings are conveyed by sign systems using redundancies and are dependent on context.
First, and foremost, architecture allows archaeologists an opportunity to reconstruct past social
realities. No one with an interest in how the built environment is represented can dismiss an
approach that focuses on the process of representation. Architecture is particularly important to
archaeologists who spend their entire careers reading and interpreting the material remains of
past cultures.
Second, architecture is composed of coded signs—a sign system—that communicates culturally
prescribed information to the observer about surroundings, society, and accepted behavior. For
example, Swentzell (1990) notes how Pueblo myths, stories, songs, and prayers describe a world
in which architecture is not merely an object, but is part of a cosmological world view that
recognizes multiplicity, simultaneity, inclusiveness, and interconnectedness. Swentzell (1990:29)
notes, “It is an ordered, but flowing, whole that reflects a cosmos strongly biased toward the
gentle and inclusive qualities of the universe.” Architecture is the place where the ethereal and
nonmaterial qualities of the cosmos were interpreted by ancient architects and emphasized in
material form. Architecture communicates culturally prescribed, and accepted, information to the
observer about Pueblo cosmology.
Third, archaeologists are equally concerned with interpreting “the relationships between human
behavior and material culture in all times and all places” (Schiffer 1995:69). Architecture—
perhaps more so than other types of material culture—allows archaeologists to reconstruct
material culture/human behavior relationships. The term “materiality”—or the ways in which
material culture mediates social being—conveys this concept (Preucel 2006:5). Materiality has
emerged as a powerful means of understanding the recursive engagement that exists between the
physical properties within a particular environment and the social practices that take place within
it. The dialectical relationship between humans and architecture is socially complex; these
relationships are never static, they are dynamic across time and space and often cue behavior
resulting in unconscious action. For example, Bender (1993) examines the relationship between
human behavior and architecture at Stonehenge from medieval times through the present day.
Bender’s diachronic analysis illustrates how Stonehenge has been culturally mediated and
interpreted throughout the millennia.
84
Finally, on a fundamental level, much of anthropology—and increasingly more of archaeology—
is concerned with how humans organize the world according to their understanding of it. Lotman
(2001:203) notes that the importance of spatial models—of which architecture is a part—lies in
the fact that spatial models are constructed not on a verbal scale, but on an iconic continuum.
The icons used in architecture are a reflection of how people create, visualize, categorize, and
organize the world around them. A well-known example is “The Berber House or the World
Reversed” in which Bourdieu (1970) examines household architecture as a microcosm of the
universe. He notes that oppositions—for example, male/female, light/dark—are not necessarily
the result of the technical imperatives or functional requirements of architecture—but are a
material manifestation of the Berber understanding of the cosmos (Bourdieu 1970).
Vernacular Architecture
All ancestral-Pueblo constructions can be described as “vernacular” architecture, or architecture
that is constructed by the people who use it. Vernacular architecture is characterized by the use
of locally available materials to produce a form that follows traditional ideologies and reflects
the local environment (Rapoport 1969:5). Vernacular architecture has been examined from a
variety of theoretical and methodological perspectives. These approaches have analyzed
architecture in terms of function (Hunter-Anderson 1977; McGuire and Schiffer 1983),
proxemics (Hall 1966, 1968, 1972), social organization (Flannery 1972; Hill 1970; Layne 1987;
Morgan 1965; Riggs 2001; Whiting and Ayers 1968), household studies (Blanton 1994; Clarke
1972; Wilk and Rathje 1982), symbolism (Bourdieu 1970, 1977; Bradley 2003, 2005; Broadbent
1977; Hieb 1979, 1990; Kus and Raharijaona 2006; Robin 2003; Saile 1977; Sofaer et al. 2006;
Swentzell 1990; Uphil 1972), the cultural landscape (Lefebvre 1991; Smith and David 1995),
semiotics (Barthes 1979; Broadbent 1977; Fogelin 2006), visual and spatial structure (Higuchi
1983), performance (Moore 1996, 2006; Turnbull 2002), and the role of architecture in the
production and reproduction of social structure (Bourdieu 1970; Hillier and Hanson 1984:2;
Lawrence and Low 1990:455; Rapoport 1990).
Rapoport (1969:8) distinguishes between two types of vernacular architecture1, “fixed” and
“additive.” Fixed architecture is characterized by few building types, a model or framework with
few individual variations, and architecture that is built by all members of society. Additive
vernacular is characterized by a greater number of building types, greater individual variation of
the model or framework, and architecture that is built by tradesmen. Additive vernacular
architecture is changeable and open-ended, whereas fixed architecture cannot tolerate change
(Rapoport 1969:6). As Rapoport (1969:4‒5) notes, the vernacular design process allows for
individual variability and differentiation, while the model or framework is held constant.
Although additive vernacular architecture has an unchangeable framework, users have the ability
to communicate particular meanings through personalization or by adding or subtracting various
elements within the model (Rapoport 1990:24). Personalized aspects of architecture may express
such things as ethnicity, group identity, and social status. These changes may be interpreted as
the priorities of a particular group that is utilizing the structure.
85
Unit Pueblos as “Fixed Architecture”
The most common architectural form constructed during the Pueblo I‒III periods is the “unit
pueblo” (Prudden 1903) or “Prudden unit” (Lipe and Varien 1999). Defined by T. Mitchell
Prudden as a “unit-type” pueblo, the layout of this form consists of surface rooms located to the
north of the pit structure and midden deposits located south of the pit structure, generally along a
north-south axis (Prudden 1903). In the San Juan region, the unit pueblo is interpreted as the
architectural representation of a single household composed of a nuclear or small, extended
family (Lipe 2006:263; Varien 1999:18). The unit-type pueblo remained a consistent
architectural pattern from the Pueblo I period until the region was depopulated about A.D. 1300
(Lipe 1989:55, 2006:263; Varien 1999:18). However, it can be argued that the unit pueblo
framework, or model, has its origins in pithouses constructed during the Basketmaker period.
As noted above, fixed architecture is characterized by few building types, a model or framework
with few individual variations, and architecture that is built by all members of society. I argue
that unit pueblos were an example of fixed architecture. Although there was some variation in
these habitations, they are often described as “cookie cutter” images of one another. This
suggests that there were few “changeable” elements in the unit-pueblo framework.
Great Houses as “Additive Vernacular” Architecture
Lipe (2006) has argued that the basic architectural form of the great house is rooted in a
preexisting cultural schema that he terms the “San Juan pattern.” Lipe (2006) notes that the San
Juan pattern includes the following characteristics: (1) an architectural unit that consists of
aboveground roomblocks and subterranean pit structures, or kivas, in front of these roomblocks;
(2) pit structures and kivas, which have both domestic and ritual function; (3) a north-south
orientation of the overall site layout, with roomblocks on the north, pit structures to the south of
the roomblocks, and midden areas to the south of the pit structures; and (4) residential household
kivas and community great kivas, which hold various degrees of symbolic significance. It is
important to note that the first three characteristics are used by Prudden to define a unit-type
pueblo. Following Lipe, I view the San Juan pattern as a fundamental ancestral Pueblo schema
because the individuals who built the first great houses successfully transposed the residentialhousehold schema onto great houses (Ryan 2008). This schema may be viewed as the framework
or model upon which all architectural variation rests.
Albert Porter Pueblo
Architecture is only a small part of the built environment, which is composed of “systems of
activities” performed in “systems of settings” (Rapoport 1990:11). As noted in the Introduction
subsection of this chapter, the built environment and the people who inhabit it are in a dialectical
relationship; the built environment reflects the overarching ideologies, actions, and behaviors of
a group of people, and simultaneously, the built environment influences them (Hillier and
Hanson 1984; Lawrence and Low 1990; Rapoport 1969; Steadman 1976). In essence, people
manifest concepts of social structure in the built environment, arranging their space according to
their worldview and, in return, their worldview is affirmed and perpetuated by the built
environment. It this sense, we can examine the architecture of Albert Porter Pueblo to gain
86
insights into ancestral Pueblo ideologies and how those ideologies were maintained, influenced,
and/or changed through time.
Site Layout
Albert Porter Pueblo is located on an upland area (Figure 5.1) between Woods and Sandstone
canyons. The site is situated at the head of a north-south tributary that drains into Woods Canyon
to the south. This layout, with the site constructed near the head of a drainage, may be a
prototype for settlements built during the late Pueblo III period that were constructed around a
drainage at the head of a canyon.
The most common architectural form found at Albert Porter Pueblo is the unit pueblo (Prudden
1903), “Prudden unit” (Lipe and Varien 1999), or “kiva suite” (Bradley 1992). Unit pueblos are a
good example of “fixed vernacular” architecture, as described above, in that they are
characterized by few building types, a framework with few individual variations, and
architecture that is built by all members of society. Unit pueblos at Albert Porter Pueblo were
constructed on a southwest-northeast axis, forming rows of residences. Most of these units
appear to be tightly clustered into architectural blocks. Architectural blocks at the site were
defined by Crow Canyon researchers on the basis of archaeological remains visible on the
modern ground surface, including rubble mounds, pit-structure depressions, and/or midden
deposits with distinct boundaries. Each architectural block at Albert Porter Pueblo contains one
or more unit pueblos. In some blocks—such as Architectural Block 1000—structural remains
were absent from the modern ground surface but were present subsurface, as indicated by the
results of a remote sensing survey (also see Chapter 2). Eleven architectural blocks were defined
on the basis of surface evidence; however, the results of the remote-sensing survey indicate the
presence of numerous additional architectural blocks that are not included on the site map.
On the basis of evidence from the modern ground surface, subsurface testing, and an electricalresistance survey, we identified 58 pit structures, three towers, dozens of surface rooms, a
possible plaza, and one possible shrine. All roomblocks at the site are linear and are oriented
east-west. This layout of multiple, tightly spaced, often parallel aggregates of unit pueblos is
typical of large villages constructed during the Pueblo II and Pueblo III periods in the central
Mesa Verde region (Varien et al. 1996:98). Architectural data—including masonry type,
masonry preparation, coursing type, foundation type, mortar characteristics, length, depth, width,
observed face, orientation, bonds and abutments, and features—were collected and recorded for
each wall exposed in an excavation unit. These data are available in the online, database portion
of this report.
Rooms
Mounds of rubble, rubble concentrations, and scatters of rubble were found on the modern
ground surface in the following architectural blocks at Albert Porter Pueblo: 100, 300, 400, 500,
700, 900, and 1100 (see Figure 2.1). On the basis of their appearance at the modern ground
surface and their locations just north of mapped pit structures, I infer that the areas of dense
rubble are the remains of abovegound masonry rooms. The heights of rubble mounds vary from
approximately 1 to 3 m. Although in many areas the modern ground surface has been disturbed
87
by historic agricultural activities, it appears that most of the rubble mounds were avoided and
remain intact. The heights of the rubble mounds in Architectural Blocks 300, 400, 500, 700, 900,
and 1100 suggest that the rooms were one story tall. The tallest rubble mounds are located in the
northwestern portion of the great house in Architectural Block 100. On the basis of the heights of
these rubble mounds—as well as data collected from the excavation of Structures 143 and 153
(Figure 5.2)—I infer that the northeastern section of the “core” of the great house was a
minimum of two stories tall.
Numerous architectural blocks are devoid of rubble on the modern ground surface, suggesting
that these blocks were disturbed by either historic plowing or prehistoric and historic “recycling”
activities. The recycling of usable sandstone blocks, as well as roof beams, was a common
practice throughout the Mesa Verde region in both prehistoric and historic, times.
The quantity of aboveground rooms constructed at Albert Porter Pueblo is difficult to estimate
because of prehistoric and historic disturbance. I estimate that the remains of more than 100
rooms are preserved on the site, more than half of which are located in Architectural Block 100.
This number would triple or quadruple if aboveground rooms associated with remote-sensing
anomalies are added to this count.
Use of Masonry Rooms
Nineteen masonry rooms were tested at Albert Porter Pueblo. Data from excavation units placed
in the interior of rooms provided information on how a particular room was used. Specifically,
we determined if a room was used as a living room or a storage room on the basis of the presence
or absence of features and artifacts. Additionally, rooms were evaluated for the presence of
sooting; if present, it was inferred that a hearth was constructed within the structure and that the
room was used for domestic activities such as cooking. Moreover, the presence of a doorway
suggests that a room was used for domestic activities rather than for storage, because this feature
would have facilitated movement between structures or provided exterior access to the structure.
Excavation data suggest that at least eight of the 19 rooms defined were used as living rooms.
These rooms contained one or more of the following characteristics: (1) a doorway; (2) de facto
refuse on the floor; and (3) a hearth, pit, niche, or other feature. Two rooms, Structures 128 and
141, were constructed with T-shaped doorways (Figure 5.3). One room, Structure 140, contained
a niche in the face of the south wall, and one room, Structure 143, contained evidence of a
possible collapsed hearth. De facto refuse was found on the floors of Structures 142, 146, and
305 (see Figure 2.1; Figure 5.4).
De facto refuse recovered from floors consisted primarily of pottery sherds and chipped-stone
debris. An axe head, olivella shell bead, and portions of a McElmo Black-on-white bowl rested
on the floor of Structure 305. The presence of pottery, chipped stone, an axe head, and a bead
suggests that domestic activities occurred in Structures 142, 146, and 305, and that these
buildings were used as living rooms.
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Uses of Nonmasonry Rooms
Six nonmasonry rooms, located in Architectural Blocks 100 and 900, were subjected to test
excavations at Albert Porter Pueblo (see Figure 2.1). None of these structures was visible from
the modern ground surface, but the rooms were identified when excavations continued below
other masonry structures or below deposits of secondary refuse. The presence of de facto refuse
and architectural features suggests that four of the six rooms—Structures 158, 168, 170, and
908—were used as living rooms. On the floor of Structure 168, a slab-lined bin (Feature 1)
contained numerous burned beans. Structure 907 contained a metate bin (Feature 1) and de facto
refuse that included a bead, a peckingstone, and chipped stone; this room might have been a
mealing room or a living room. Structure 166 was detected below the west masonry wall of
Structure 148 in the “original core” of the great house; the limited exposure of this room
precludes an inference regarding use.
Kivas
Kivas were used by pueblo people for multiple activities, most of which were domestic and
ritual. The architectural form of the kiva originated with the pithouse during the Basketmaker
period and transitioned into a formalized kiva about A.D. 700‒900. The kiva form has been a
hallmark of Pueblo architecture for approximately 1,500 years (Cordell 2007).
Among modern pueblos, kivas are the center of village religious and social life. The quantity of
kivas in modern pueblos range from several, at pueblos such as Hopi and Zuni, to one or two at
Keresan and Tanoan-speaking villages (Vivian and Hilpert 2002:147‒148). Once initiated into a
kiva, men learn ritual knowledge and work together to perform rituals. Although used primarily
by men, women (and sometimes outsiders) are invited to attend ritual performances within the
structure. Modern kivas have many features in common with ancestral Pueblo kivas. First and
foremost, most kivas are oriented on a north-south axis and are bilaterally symmetrical. There is
typically an entrance in the roof, an encircling bench, a hearth, a ventilator, a deflector, and a
sipapu.
The quantity of kivas present in ancestral Pueblo villages is significantly greater than that found
in modern pueblos. It is assumed that, in ancestral Pueblo villages, each kiva housed a single
family, or between five and seven individuals (Lipe 1989:54). The average size of a kiva—
approximately 3.5 m in diameter—suggests that these structures were used by households, kinbased groups, or small co-residential groups for domestic and ritual activities.
Several lines of archaeological evidence suggest that kivas were used for both domestic and
ritual purposes. The presence of features including mealing bins, hearths, and loom anchors
suggests that household activities occurred inside these structures (Cater and Chenault 1988).
The sipapu—a small floor pit—might have served as symbolic architecture. The term “sipapu” is
a Hopi word for the place where people emerged from an underworld into this world (Vivian and
Hilpert 2002:222). Some Pueblo people today believe that they emerged from three previous
worlds before the one we currently inhabit. Events in each of the former worlds forced some
people to move to a new world above, usually by climbing a hollow reed to a hole in the sky
(Vivian and Hilpert 2002:222). The sipapu, most of which are located north of the hearth,
89
commemorates this emergence. Likewise, some kivas were constructed with floor vaults (also
known as foot drums). Floor vaults are rectangular pits; many are lined with sandstone masonry
and adobe and were covered with wood planks. According to Lekson (2007:23‒24), threefourths of all kivas in Chaco Canyon were constructed with floor vaults; however, significantly
fewer floor vaults were constructed in the northern San Juan region. Although the exact use of
floor vaults is unknown, archaeologists have inferred that they were used in ritual activities as
foot resonators, sudatories, or containers for the ritual germination of seeds used in ceremonies
(Vivian and Hilpert 2002:107).
Artifacts including pottery, lithic artifacts, and ground-stone tools were found on the majority of
kiva floors at Albert Porter Pueblo. Figure 5.5 illustrates the quantity of kiva floors on which
various types of artifacts were found. Interestingly, the three types of artifacts found most
commonly on kiva floors at Albert Porter Pueblo are pottery, flaked-lithic artifacts, and groundstone tools, respectively; however, artifacts found on kiva floors at this site include lithic cores,
unfired pottery, faunal remains, modified minerals/stones, axes, basketry, pendants, and
projectile points.
It is difficult to determine from kiva-floor assemblages whether any household in this pueblo
engaged in craft specialization. The strongest case for craft specialization may be the unfired
pottery found in Structures 109, 115, and 602. The presence of “green,” or unfired, pottery
suggests that the residents of these structures manufactured vessels. However, unfired pottery is
fragile and is subject to decomposition, thus it is possible that all households produced pottery,
and that there was no craft specialization at Albert Porter Pueblo.
Towers
During the Pueblo III period in the San Juan region, towers were constructed on mesa tops, in
cliff dwellings, along canyon rims, and in canyon bottoms (Bredthauer 2010; Glowacki 2006:61,
Table 3.5; Lipe and Varien 1999; Van Dyke and King 2010). Archaeologists have interpreted
towers as defensive strongholds (Ingersoll 1874; Mackey and Green 1979), lookouts (Farmer
1957; Hibben 1948:36; Holmes 1878; Jackson 1878; Lancaster and Pinkley 1954:44‒47;
Lancaster et al. 1954; Mackey and Green 1979; Riley 1950; Schulman 1950), signaling stations
(Mackey and Green 1979), astronomical observatories (Winter 1977:210‒211; Wormington
1947:94), storehouses (Mackey and Green 1979), ceremonial facilities (Winter 1977:210‒211;
Wormington 1947:94), guard towers (Johnson 2003), and as symbolic architecture (Van Dyke
and King 2010). Many towers are found on mesa tops and in tributary canyons north of the San
Juan River (Glowacki 2006). Researchers have documented towers at Mesa Verde National Park,
Hovenweep National Monument, Canyon of the Ancients National Monument, and on private
land. In general, towers can be one or multiple stories, attached to other structures or isolated,
and round or square. Because of a lack of consistent internal features and de facto refuse,
archaeologists have had great difficulty in inferring the uses of these buildings. Van Dyke and
King (2010:360) note that no single functional explanation fits the diverse characteristics of
towers, and one reason that archaeologists have difficulty drawing inferences regarding use is
that our analyses have focused on assigning a single practical use to these buildings. Moreover,
towers were not constructed in the Southwest after A.D. 1300, making it impossible to draw on
historic ethnographies.
90
At Albert Porter Pueblo, three structures were identified as towers; however, none was tested.
One tower is located just south of Structure 403, a masonry-lined kiva in Architectural Block 400
(see Figure 2.1) that dates from the Pueblo III period. The tower and this kiva are less than 5 m
apart; thus, an underground tunnel may connect them. The shape of its associated rubble mound
suggests that the tower is circular. A different tower is located just west of Structure 602, a
masonry-lined kiva in Architectural Block 600 (see Figure 2.1) that dates from the Pueblo III
period. This tower also appears to be circular. It is unclear whether this tower and Structure 602
are connected by a tunnel. A third possible tower is located in the northeastern portion of Block
100, just northeast of Structure 115 (see Figure 5.4). It is not known whether this structure is a
tower or an aboveground room, but it appears to have been significantly taller than the
surrounding rooms. Because no towers at Albert Porter Pueblo were tested, no data are available
regarding their architectural characteristics or artifact assemblages.
Public Architecture
For the purposes of this report, I define “public architecture” as nondomestic structures and
features constructed and used by more than one household or social group. Group rituals are an
important element of creating and maintaining social integration in societies that lack strong
political institutions. Public architecture allows for social integration in that it provides a space
for social activities to occur. The size and form of public architecture will dictate the number of
people who can participate, the kinds of activities that can be performed within a space, the
seasonality of specific activities, and will create ideological and physical boundaries between
sacred and domestic space (Hegmon 1989:7). Moreover, architecture promotes the persistence
and repetition of activities by fixing them in space and providing a context for symbolically
charged actions. In doing so, architecture transmits and validates social rules or schemas which,
in turn, create and perpetuate social identity and integration.
Types of public architecture found in the central Mesa Verde region include great kivas, plazas,
D-shaped structures, bi-wall structures, and tri-wall structures. Great houses provided a space for
both domestic and ritual activities and therefore do not fit the “nondomestic” criterion of public
architecture. However, great houses were constructed to look unlike a common residence,
displaying prominence, grandeur, and symbolism that was unmatched within the surrounding
community. Great-house architects successfully transposed a schema associated with domestic
architecture and produced a new, “public” building. Being the focal point of the community,
great houses no doubt were used by more than one household and were important places for
activities that created and maintained social cohesion.
At Albert Porter Pueblo, the topographic signature of Architectural Block 1100 (see Figure 2.1),
a large, circular mound with a depression in the center, as well as possible adjacent footpaths
detected by the resistivity survey, suggest the presence of a great kiva. However, testing of this
mound revealed Structure 1104, an average-size kiva. To date, the great kiva known to be nearest
to Albert Porter Pueblo is that at Lowry Ruin, located approximately 15 km to the northwest. No
bi-wall, tri-wall, or D-shaped structures were identified at Albert Porter Pueblo. Thus, the only
public architecture identified at Albert Porter Pueblo is a possible plaza.
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A plaza can be defined as a large, open space that may be enclosed on two or more sides by
buildings. Although no formal plaza was identified at Albert Porter Pueblo, it is possible that the
space in the south-central portion of Architectural Block 100—just south of Structures 107, 109,
and 195—served as a plaza (see Figure 5.4). This area appears to lack structures and midden
deposits, and, before being sealed, a T-shaped doorway in the south wall of Structure 128
allowed access to this exterior space. Additionally, a prepared adobe surface, Nonstructure 9018,
was exposed along the exterior face of the south masonry wall of Structure 195. This surface
could have been constructed as a plaza.
The Great House
Similar to the unit pueblo, the great house can be viewed as an exaggerated version of the
household residence. Unlike the unit pueblo, the great house probably housed numerous families
or kin-based groups. Levi-Strauss (1982) was one of the first scholars to discuss house
architecture as a place of symbolic investment by key social units that define and symbolize
important social, political, and cosmological relationships through house affiliation. House
societies tend to form during periods of social transformation, particularly when new forms of
social inequality and hierarchy emerge.
Five principles underlie the concept of the house society (Beck 2007; Gillespie 2007; Heitman
2007; Mills 2010). First, material and immaterial property are heritable—this includes the house
proper. Second, house societies occur in areas where there are like structures—houses are found
in societies with other houses. Third, the house itself is considered a “moral person” and is often
viewed as a living being. Fourth, houses are neither social nor spatial units. And finally, houses
may be identified on the basis of architectural permanence, ancestors, origins or primacy, and
inalienable heirlooms.
The house-society model has recently been used to investigate social organization in Chaco
Canyon (Heitman 2007; Heitman and Plog 2005; Mills 2010; Plog and Heitman 2010). The
inference that house societies were present at Chaco rests on several types of data (Mills 2010).
The most compelling is the presence of burials and other human remains that are clustered in the
oldest sections of Pueblo Bonito and the association of these remains with abundant material
objects (Plog and Heitman 2010). The burials and associated objects were deposited over several
generations into what are referred to as family “crypts.” The second argument for the presence of
house societies at Chaco Canyon is shared symbolism and cosmology, which includes the
importance of wood as well as resurfacings and rituals of renewal (for “renewal” see Crown and
Wills 2003).
Thus, the construction of the great house at Albert Porter Pueblo can be interpreted as an effort to
integrate distinct social groups, probably kin-based, into one oversized “house.” The integration
of multiple kin-based groups served the social, political, and ceremonial needs of the village as a
whole, and perhaps even the larger community. The architecture of this great house—which was
preserved and conserved over multiple generations—embodies the principles that underlie the
concept of the house society, namely, that structures within the great house were heritable, were
in an area with other houses, were decommissioned with offerings of food and useable objects in
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a manner similar to human burials (Ryan 2010), and displayed references of origin through the
use of symbolic architecture (Ryan 2008).
Construction Techniques
The following subsections will focus on three categories of construction techniques most
relevant to architecture at Albert Porter Pueblo. These techniques were observed primarily in two
structure types―surface rooms and round rooms, or kivas. These include: (1) wall-construction
techniques; (2) roof-construction techniques; and (3) finishing techniques. The wall-construction
subsection includes discussion of wall foundations and leveling, masonry, mortar, coursing,
dressing, masonry style, the use of intramural beams, bonding, doorway types and placement,
and wall decoration, or petroglyphs. The roof-construction subsection includes discussion of
roofing techniques used in surface rooms and round rooms, or kivas, as well as the types of
roofing materials found during excavation. The final subsection includes discussion of finishing
techniques, specifically floor and plastering construction techniques.
Wall Construction
Because portions of Albert Porter Pueblo were occupied during several centuries, construction
fill—composed of secondary refuse, caliche, adobe, and/or spall stones—was deposited before
the construction of many new walls to level an uneven construction surface. Exceptions to this
include walls constructed in a previously unused area, in which case the wall footing was
constructed on undisturbed sediment or bedrock.
In general, basal stones—or the lowest stones in the continuous face of a wall—were placed on
masonry footings—a wall section composed of one to several courses of large, unshaped
sandstone blocks. Masonry walls were typically recessed or set back, from the face of the
footing. In one excavation unit, a layer of clean adobe was deposited over the top course of the
footing and was then sloped away from the exterior wall in an apparent attempt to divert
precipitation away from the building. No evidence of footer trenches was found in the excavation
units at Albert Porter Pueblo. However, possible evidence of pre-planned layout was observed in
the presence of several circular postholes located along the exterior face of the north wall of the
great house; posts thus might have marked the location and alignment of the great house before it
was constructed.
Construction of the great house appears to have begun with the creation of a platform 50 cm
thick composed of secondary refuse and construction deposits. The wall footings on the north
side of the great house were constructed directly on this platform. The purpose of the platform
was twofold: first, it leveled the surface for construction; and second, it elevated the great house.
Masonry
Masonry construction is an architectural technique that uses stones and can be (1) dry-laid—
stones laid without mortar; (2) dry-laid/daubed—stones laid without mortar but with daub
pressed into the joints; and (3) wet-laid—stones laid onto wet mortar. All masonry recorded at
Albert Porter Pueblo—including that for aboveground rooms, kivas, and enclosing walls—was
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constructed using the wet-laid technique, with one exception. Structure 1044, a possible shrine
located in the southeastern portion of the site (see Figure 2.1), which appears to have been
constructed using a dry-laid technique.
Although the locations of sandstone quarries have not been documented, the sandstone used in
wall construction at Albert Porter Pueblo was probably procured in the immediate vicinity of the
settlement. Sandstone was readily available along the eastern edge of the pueblo as well as in
outcrops in Sandstone and Woods canyons. This sandstone, known as Dakota Sandstone,
originated in the lower Cretaceous formation during the Mesozoic era, a period from 250 to 67
million years ago. Dakota sandstone is a sedimentary rock consisting primarily of shallow,
sandy-marine deposits.
Mortar
Mortar is defined as a bonding material used to join masonry, wood, or other materials into a
unified mass. Most walls documented at Albert Porter Pueblo were constructed using a wet-laid
masonry technique. The mortar was composed of reddish-brown silty clay loam and typically
lacked inclusions. This type of sediment is generally found in alluvial deposits. These deposits
were probably procured near springs or possibly at the Woods Canyon Reservoir (also see
Chapter 12). Mortar was applied as either extruded or flush with the masonry face in joints 1 to 6
cm wide. In general, walls constructed with tabular stone—with edges that are at least three
times as long as they are high—tended to have mortar joints of 2 cm or less. As noted by Lekson
(1987:11), using less mortar allows for stone-to-stone contact which, in turn, increases the
strength of the wall and reduces the possibility of structural failure resulting from the weathering
of mortar joints.
Coursing
Coursing—or the degree of consistency with which masonry courses were laid—varied at Albert
Porter Pueblo. Two types of coursing were found most commonly: (1) fully coursed, in which
stones are laid in distinct rows and tend to overlap the joints of the adjacent courses, virtually
eliminating running joints; and (2) semicoursed, in which stones are laid in somewhat distinct
rows but lack consistency. In general, room walls, and kiva benches, pilasters, and deflectors
were fully coursed, whereas kiva upper-lining walls were generally semicoursed. Another
coursing type, coursed-patterned—or fully coursed walls in which the stones have been sorted by
size and/or shape—was observed on the exterior face of the east wall of Structure 140. This is
the only coursed-patterned wall recorded at the site; this style might reflect Chaco influence.
Dressing
Masonry blocks were either well-dressed or partly shaped on at least one face to provide a
uniform edge for construction. Sandstone blocks used in wall construction were dressed, or
shaped, by methods including flaking, pecking, grooving-and-snapping, and/or grinding.
Flaking, also referred to spalling (Lekson 1987:11) or scabbling (Hayes 1964:73), involves the
removal of stone through direct percussion. The same is true of pecking; however, pecking tends
to be localized and removes a smaller fragment of stone than flaking, which may remove an
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entire face. Pecking often leaves a dimpled appearance on the stone face, possibly a means of
ensuring that plaster would stick to the wall (Vivian and Hilpert 2002:161). Grooving-andsnapping is similar to flaking except that the stone has been prepared with a groove around the
intended margins of the rock face to guide the fracture (Lekson 1987:11). Grinding involves
rubbing a block against another stone to produce a smooth face. The majority of blocks recorded
at Albert Porter Pueblo were dressed primarily by flaking, grinding, and pecking methods.
Masonry Style
Most styles of masonry can be classified using Lekson’s (1987:17) typology that was originally
developed by Neil Judd for Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon (Judd 1964). This typology
describes four styles—Types I‒IV—of surface patterning or “veneers.” In addition to these
styles, Lekson (1987:17) includes the “McElmo” style that was first described by Vivian and
Mathews (1965). As noted above, the McElmo style is considered by many researchers to be
intrusive to Chaco Canyon, because its origins are assumed to be in the Mesa Verde region.
However, the origin of the McElmo style is currently being debated, because it appears in the
architecture of Chaco Canyon and some outliers as early as the late A.D. 1000s and early A.D.
1100s (see Vivian and Hilpert 2002:160;Wills 2009). Great houses constructed with McElmostyle masonry are strikingly different from great houses constructed with Types I‒IV styles.
Many McElmo-style buildings consist of one or two square, compact units containing one or two
aboveground kivas and surrounded by several rows of rooms. Many McElmo-style great houses
lack great kivas and enclosed plazas, and there is less terracing of rooms, because many are only
one or two stories tall (Vivian and Hilpert 2002:160).
Four types of facing styles were documented at Albert Porter Pueblo. These types were discerned
from aboveground rooms. Of the four types present, three represent exterior faces, and one
represents an interior face. The predominant facing is the McElmo style, characterized by
rectangular, brick-shaped stones with abraded or pecked faces, mortar joints between 2 and 6 cm
thick, and sparse spall or tabular chinking stones in the mortar joints. At Albert Porter Pueblo,
this “classic” style is most common in structures dating from the Pueblo III period, particularly
those that postdate A.D. 1225. The second style may be considered a McElmo style, which I
label “McElmo Style A.” This style shares all of the characteristics of classic McElmo facing
minus the abraded finish. This facing type appears most often at Albert Porter Pueblo in
structures dating from the early-to-middle A.D. 1100s. The third facing style may be considered
a nonconforming McElmo style, which I label “nonconforming McElmo style A,” because it
appears to be a mix of types consistent with “Type III” masonry associated with a Chacoan
construction technique and a McElmo style. Type III masonry is characterized by tabular and
rectangular stones, thin mortar joints, and some chinking (Lekson 1987:17). Additionally,
alternating bands of large brick-shaped stones and smaller, thinner tabular stones are common in
the Type III masonry style (Lekson 1987:17).
At Albert Porter Pueblo, only one wall, the exterior face of the east wall of Structure 140,
exhibited “nonconforming McElmo style A” (Figure 5.6). This wall was constructed as part of
the great house “core,” constructed during the Pueblo II period. The fourth facing type which I
label “nonconforming McElmo style B,” may also be considered a nonconforming McElmo
style. This style is composed of both tabular and rectangular flaked blocks, most of which were
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not pecked or abraded, and contains moderate-to-dense chinking in the horizontal mortar beds.
This style of masonry is associated with the construction of the core of the great house, which
was built during the Pueblo II period.
Abutting and Bonding
New walls are commonly abutted to, or built against, the face of a standing wall in order to add
to or expand a building. This process typically occurs when new rooms are under construction or
when an addition to an existing building is constructed. Analyzing the bonding and abutting of
walls allows researchers to infer the construction sequence of a building through time.
At Albert Porter Pueblo, unit pueblos appear to have been constructed in a single building phase,
whereas the great house, located in Architectural Block 100, was constructed during several
building episodes over a period of two centuries. The original great house consisted of an
aboveground, blocked-in kiva (Structure 112), and approximately 14 rooms. The first addition to
the great house was constructed about A.D. 1140. A kiva, Structure 108 (see Figure 5.4), and
several rooms were added to the south of Structure 112. Structure 108 was constructed mostly in
the local (Mesa Verde) masonry and architectural style, with the exception of a subfloor
ventilation system, a feature not common in the Mesa Verde region before the period of Chaco
influence. The structure also contained a subfloor vault, which indicates the kiva was used for
important ritual activity (Wilshusen 1989). During the period of Chaco influence, space around
the great house was restricted, and no other buildings were constructed in proximity to the great
house. But beginning in the middle-to-late A.D. 1100s and continuing until the 1250s, a
minimum of nine roomblocks were constructed adjacent to, or near, the original great house. By
the mid-A.D. 1200s, approximately 11 kivas and 55 rooms had been constructed in the
expanded, post-Chaco, great house (see Figure 5.4).
Doorways
Lekson (1987:25‒28) found four types of doorways in aboveground rooms in Chaco Canyon:
(1) small doorways with sills high above the floor; (2) large doorways with the sills just above
the floor; (3) T-shaped doorways; and (4) corner doorways. Of these types, the first three were
the most common and, of these, small doorways were the most prevalent. In Chaco Canyon,
corner doorways are the least numerous; seven are present at Pueblo Bonito, three were recorded
at Chetro Ketl, and one is present Pueblo Pintado. Aztec Ruins, located in the middle San Juan
region, has three corner doorways.
Many T-shaped doorways at Pueblo Bonito and in other Chacoan buildings open into a plaza or
onto a roof terrace of elevated kivas (Judd 1964:28; Lekson 1987:28). In general, T-shaped
doorways are sparse in the Southwest, but are reported in greater numbers in Chaco Canyon,
Mesa Verde National Park, and Casas Grandes in Chihuahua (Cameron 2009:92; Love 1974).
The functional and symbolic nature of T-shaped doorways is unknown, but they may index
clouds, rain, or fertility—all of which continue to be significant for Pueblo people today.
Only two doorways were found during excavations at Albert Porter Pueblo. A T-shaped doorway
located in the southern wall of Structure 128 was sealed when a row of rooms was abutted to the
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exterior face of the southern wall of Structure 128. It seems likely that this doorway accessed an
exterior plaza, because there is no surface indication of an elevated kiva just south of this
doorway. The other doorway is located in the west wall of Structure 141. This possible T-shaped
doorway connected Structure 141 to the room adjacent to the west. Because T-shaped doorways
are known to connect structures to exterior spaces, it is more probable that this doorway once
served as an exterior entrance on the west exterior wall of the great house before the construction
of the room to the west.
Petroglyphs
Four architectural petroglyphs were found in Architectural Block 100 at Albert Porter Pueblo.
Two of the petroglyphs (Features 15 and 16) are located in the exterior face of the south wall of
Structure 112, an aboveground, blocked-in masonry kiva constructed in the great house in the
early A.D. 1100s. One of these petroglyphs (Feature 16) consists of three concentric circles, and
the other (Feature 15) is a spiral that loops three times. An additional architectural petroglyph
was found in collapsed wall debris on the modern ground surface just north of Structure 113 and
also consists of a spiral that loops three times. Given its context and morphology, and its
similarity to the first two petroglyphs described, this petroglyph was probably incorporated into
an exterior wall, possibly the east exterior wall of the core of the great house. The fourth
petroglyph was found in collapsed roofing material in Structure 150. This petroglyph was pecked
into a sandstone slab and does not appear to have been incorporated into a masonry wall. This
petroglyph also consists of a spiral that loops three times.
Architectural petroglyphs have been reported from numerous other sites in the central Mesa
Verde region (Fewkes 1911:67, 1917:472, 1919:12; Hayes and Lancaster 1975:166, Figure 215;
Reed et al. 1979:301‒306) and from northeastern Arizona (Kidder and Guernsey 1919:196,
Figure 97; Woodbury 1954:162). Five architectural petroglyphs were recorded at Escalante Ruin,
a great house dating from the Pueblo II period and located southeast of Albert Porter Pueblo, and
two such petroglyphs were recorded at Dominguez Ruin (Reed 1979:98‒100) also located in the
Escalante community. At Escalante Ruin, three of the petroglyphs consist of spirals. Two are
concentric circles found in the wall-collapse debris along the exterior face of the north wall of
the pueblo. Two of the spiral petroglyphs were also recovered from wall debris along the exterior
face of the north wall.
Chaco-Influenced Architectural Features
In this subsection, I discuss types of features associated with Chaco-influenced architecture
including ventilator tunnels, pilasters, floor vaults, and deflectors. I also summarize intramural
beams and footer trenches.
Ventilator Tunnels
Ventilator tunnels are the horizontal portion of a ventilation system, which is a specialized
construction for allowing the intake of fresh air into a structure. Most ventilation systems are in
pithouses and kivas, but a few are found in rooms. In the Mesa Verde region, most ventilator
tunnels open in one of two locations―the south bench face at floor level or the floor just south of
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the hearth. The latter type is most often associated with aboveground kivas constructed during
the Pueblo II period, but some are present in structures dating from the Pueblo III period.
Ventilator tunnels were exposed in six kivas at Albert Porter Pueblo (Structures 108, 112, 113,
115, 116, and 150). Two of these, Structures 108 and 112, were constructed with subfloor
ventilator tunnels. Structure 112, an aboveground, blocked-in kiva, was the sole kiva constructed
within the original core of the great house sometime in the early A.D. 1100s. Located just south
of Structure 112, a subterranean kiva, Structure 108, was constructed with a subfloor ventilator
tunnel about A.D. 1140. This ventilator tunnel was filled with refuse—from which a Chaco
Black-on-white sherd and multiple fish bones were recovered—and sealed when a new floor was
constructed just above the first floor. During this remodeling event, a floor-level ventilator tunnel
was constructed through the bench face below the southern recess.
Pilasters
As noted above, most subterranean kivas in the central Mesa Verde region were constructed with
six “pier” pilasters—or tall masonry columns without wood, whereas many aboveground kivas
were constructed with eight radial-beam pilasters. Radial-beam pilasters consist of short masonry
columns constructed around one to four wood beams (although most contain a single large beam)
seated horizontally in the upper-lining wall behind the pilaster (Windes 2008). Many of the wood
beams in the masonry casing were cut flat, producing a “sawed” appearance near the interior face
of the pilaster. Windes and McKenna (2001) note that the flattening of beam ends was common
in the architecture of Chaco great houses and should be considered a strong hallmark of Chaco
craftsmanship. Both the masonry and beam ends were plastered so that none of the materials
used in construction was visible.
Seventeen pilasters in 12 structures were exposed during excavations at Albert Porter Pueblo. As
noted above, all except those found in Structure 112 were of the pier variety—tall masonry
columns lacking wood. The kivas with pier pilasters were apparently constructed with a cribbed
roof. Structure 112, an aboveground, blocked-in kiva, was also constructed with masonry
pilasters that lacked wood; however, the pilasters were “squat,” or smaller than pier pilasters.
This suggests that, although the roof of Structure 112 was cribbed, the weight of the roof was
probably supported by beams set into sockets in the upper walls of the room that enclosed the
kiva. Furthermore, four pilasters were exposed in the western half of the kiva, suggesting that
Structure 112 was constructed with a total of eight pilasters.
The quantity of pilasters constructed within a kiva varies—kivas without pilasters, and those
with four, six, or eight pilasters, are the most common. Some researchers believe that the
quantity of pilasters corresponds to the size of the structure. For example, Structure 112 is
approximately 4.64 m in diameter and contains eight pilasters, whereas Structure 109 is
approximately 3.5 m in diameter and contains six pilasters. However, a preliminary analysis of
the correlation between the quantity of pilasters and structure size does not support this
conclusion (Ryan 2011). Alternatively, the quantity of pilasters in a kiva may reference an
ideological perception of the cosmos. For example, four pilasters may reference the cardinal
directions, six pilasters may represent the cardinal directions plus zenith and nadir, and eight
pilasters may reference the cardinal and ordinal directions.
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Floor Vaults
A floor vault is defined as a large, formally constructed, rectangular pit excavated into the floor
of a pit structure or kiva. Beginning in the Pueblo I period, many great kivas were constructed
with floor vaults, a practice that continued until the late A.D. 1200s in the northern San Juan
region. Floor vaults were typically constructed in pairs and were located east and west of the
hearth box in great kivas; yet, a single vault, located in the western portion of the structure, is
typically present in residential pit structures and kivas,. During the Pueblo I period, some floor
vaults were constructed north of the hearth. Wilshusen (1989) argues that floor vaults
constructed north of the hearth functioned as the sipapu. The interior of a floor vault may be
earthen, masonry-lined, or some combination of these. It is thought that most floor vaults were
covered with a wooden plank.
Lekson (2007:23‒24) notes that approximately three-fourths of round rooms in Chaco Canyon
were constructed with floor vaults west of the hearth. Because many of these features were
covered during remodeling events, Lekson notes that the quantity of round rooms constructed
with floor vaults might have been considerably greater. A preliminary analysis of architecture
dating from the Pueblo II and Pueblo III periods in the northern San Juan region suggests that
floor vaults are common in kivas constructed during the Pueblo II period and are less common in
kivas dating from the Pueblo III period (Ryan 2011).
Two floor vaults were exposed during excavations at Albert Porter Pueblo. Both vaults were
constructed in subterranean kivas, Structures 108 and 150, during the early to mid-A.D. 1100s.
Interestingly, these kivas shared northing coordinates, but were approximately 50 m apart eastwest. Both floor vaults were constructed by lining with coursed masonry a rectangular pit that
had been excavated into the floor (in Structure 150, vertical slabs were also used). Both vaults
were lined with adobe that covered this masonry. No evidence of a roof or wooden plank was
observed in either of the vaults; however, sockets preserved in both features indicate that the
features were roofed. The floor vault in Structure 108 was in use until the kiva was abandoned in
the Pueblo III period; however, the floor vault in Structure 150 was decommissioned by filling
the vault with secondary refuse and covering the entire feature with an adobe floor. Interestingly,
fish bones—a rare occurrence at Albert Porter Pueblo—were recovered from the floor vault in
Structure 108.
Deflectors
A deflector is defined as an upright slab or short segment of masonry or jacal wall between a
hearth and the opening of a ventilator tunnel. Deflectors are most common in pit structures but
can be present in surface rooms. It is thought that deflectors served two functions: to shield the
fire from air entering the structure and to disperse and circulate fresh air throughout the structure.
A third possibility exists that deflectors—as well as their corresponding wing walls—divided
interior space.
Nine deflectors were exposed during excavations at Albert Porter Pueblo. The only kiva that did
not contain a deflector was Structure 112—this is probably due to the presence of a subfloor
ventilator. Three types of deflectors were documented at this site: (1) slab (n=4); (2) masonry
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(n=4); and (3) masonry with wing walls (n=1). The slab deflectors were composed of a single
piece of shaped sandstone and were anchored vertically into the kiva floor. The masonry
deflectors were composed of several courses of sandstone blocks with mortar joints. One kiva,
Structure 114, was constructed with a coursed-masonry deflector and wing walls that curved to
meet the southern bench face. Two deflectors, located in Structures 111 and 114, were
constructed with niches.
Intramural Beams
The use of intramural beams—or beams located horizontally in the core of a masonry wall—is a
hallmark of Chacoan architecture. In Chaco Canyon, intramural beams range from about 15 to 20
cm in diameter, as much as 2.25 m long, and are occasionally found in pairs (Lekson 1987:24).
As Lekson (1987:24) notes, the frequency of intramural-beam use is unknown; however, more
than 200 such beams were exposed after a flood in 1947 that destroyed the standing walls of six
rooms at Chetro Ketl. Although intramural beams have been noted in great houses located near
Albert Porter Pueblo, including Lowry Ruin (Martin 1936), none was identified at Albert Porter
Pueblo. However, this may be a consequence of our excavation strategy; the cores of masonry
walls were not examined at this site.
Footer Trenches
No evidence of footer trenches was found in the excavation units at Albert Porter Pueblo.
However, pre-planned layout may be evidenced by the presence of several postholes along the
exterior face of the north wall of the great house, constructed during Pueblo II period, possibly
marking the location and alignment of the great house before construction.
Roof Construction
Roofing of Square Rooms
Intact roofs are found primarily in cliff dwellings or sites that are protected from weathering, and
in massive, open-air sites such as the great houses in Chaco Canyon. Archaeologists can infer
how the roof of a particular structure was built by observing intact roofs. Most roofs were
constructed using the following materials: (1) vigas or primary beams, which were the main roof
supports that spanned the length or width of a structure; (2) latillas or secondary beams, which
were beams that rested on the vigas and spanned the distance between primary beams or between
a primary beam and a wall of a structure; (3) shakes, or long, narrow pieces of wood that were
split from a larger piece of wood and were frequently layered on top of secondary beams; (4)
closing material, or vegetal material that rested on the secondary beams and/or shakes and was
beneath the fill layer; and (5) fill, composed of loose dirt, adobe, rock, and/or caliche and that
covered the shakes and provided a flat exterior surface.
Two techniques were used to seat primary beams in a wall (Lekson 1987:30). Most often, the
primary beams were placed on top of the wall, and the ends of the beams were encased in
masonry. Less often, masonry walls were constructed with a gap or socket in which primary
100
beams would be fitted after the masonry construction was complete. Afterwards, the area
surrounding the primary beams was filled with masonry that was heavily chinked.
At Albert Porter Pueblo, the only remaining evidence of primary-beam construction was found in
Structure 143/153, a two-story masonry room located in the northeastern portion of the core of
the great house. Three primary-beam sockets were exposed in the interior face of the west wall,
the locations of which indicate the elevation of the roof of Structure 153 and the floor of
Structure 143. The construction method used in Structure 143/153 is a common type in which the
primary beams were placed on top of the wall and were subsequently encased with masonry.
Some of the masonry surrounding the primary beams was shaped to accommodate the round
intrusion. Rotted wood was recovered from all three sockets but was too decomposed to yield
tree-ring dates for the construction of these rooms.
Roofing of Circular Rooms
Kivas, whether constructed below ground or above ground within a rectangular enclosing
structure, had a flat roof that served not only as the access route into the structure but as a surface
for courtyard activities such as drying food and making tools. In great houses, kiva roofs also
served as terraces for second-story rooms. Additionally, in historic and modern pueblos—and
probably in pre-Hispanic pueblos—rooftops were gathering places for the observation of plaza
activities.
Roof construction techniques vary, and there is much debate about the exact methods of
construction, especially for structures built during the Pueblo II period. The typical method used
to construct a kiva roof was a framework of wood beams, also known as “cribbing” (Judd 1964;
Lekson 1987:32; Morris 1921). For cribbed roofs, beams were placed horizontally directly on
top of masonry pilasters, or coursed-masonry columns, that were constructed at equal intervals
on the bench surface. Kivas were constructed with approximately four to 10 pilasters.
Some archaeologists assume that cribbing was load-bearing and supported the weight of beams
and fill; however, others believe that much of the weight of the roof was supported by
horizontally-placed beams that rested on the tops of enclosing walls (Hovezak 1992:41; Reiter
1946). The latter was probably true for kivas constructed with radial-beam or squat pilasters.
Additionally, Lekson (1987:34) argues that some kivas had an internal wattle-work framework—
often referred to as wainscoting—that formed an artificial domed ceiling within the structure
without using cribbing. The domed ceiling itself was not load-bearing, but was made so by the
resting of horizontally-placed primary beams across the tops of the enclosing walls.
Roofing Materials
As noted in Chapter 8, most primary and secondary roof beams, called vigas and latillas,
respectively, were of juniper (Juniperus) wood, which composed 92 percent of the identified
specimens were submitted to the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research from this site. Pinyon (Pinus
edulis) wood composed 6.4 percent of the identified specimens, and the remaining elements were
identified as ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), spruce/fir (Picea/Abies), or as non-coniferous
elements.
101
Interestingly, Structure 110, a masonry-lined kiva associated with the core of the great house,
was constructed during the Pueblo II period with spruce/fir and non-coniferous wood, as well as
with juniper. Additionally, Structure 908, a non-masonry aboveground room in Architectural
Block 900, was constructed with ponderosa pine wood as well as with juniper. The nearest
sources of spruce/fir and ponderosa pine would have been in high-elevation areas, such as on Ute
Mountain, on Mesa Verde, or in the canyons along the Dolores River, and procuring and
transporting these beams to Albert Porter would have required a major labor investment.
The incorporation of high-elevation construction wood is common in great houses in Chaco
Canyon and in outliers constructed during the Pueblo II period (Betancourt et al. 1986; Reynolds
et al. 2005; Windes and McKenna 2001). For example, an estimated 200,000 high-elevation
trees, including 26,000 for Chetro Ketl, 50,000 for Pueblo Bonito, and 18,000 for Pueblo del
Arroyo, were harvested and transported to Chaco Canyon for construction (Windes and
McKenna 2001:123). High-elevation trees have a greater circumference and are taller and
straighter than trees growing near Chaco Canyon, making them functionally superior
construction elements. For this reason—and perhaps reasons rooted in symbolism (highelevation trees index areas that receive increased precipitation)—high-elevation trees were a
sought-after commodity.
Unfortunately, no intact roofs were found during excavation at Albert Porter Pueblo. However,
collapsed roofing material was present on or near structure floors. Roofing material—composed
of some combination of the architectural elements listed above—contained fill dirt, adobe,
caliche, wall-fall debris, pieces of charred and uncharred vigas and latillas, and remnants of
closing material. When present, wood samples were collected and sent to the Laboratory of
Tree-Ring Research for dating (also see Chapter 3). Additionally, 1-liter samples of roof
sediments were analyzed for microscopic and macroscopic fossil plant remains. As noted in
Chapter 8, closing material was composed primarily of sagebrush (Artemisia
tridentata/Artemisia). Used in lesser quantities were numerous other trees and shrubs, including
service berry (Amelanchier/Peraphyllum), mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus montanus),
Mormon tea (Ephedra viridis), cottonwood/willow (Populus/Salix), and Gamble oak (Quercus
gambelii). All of the roof-closing resources listed here would have been available in the
immediate vicinity of the settlement.
Finishing
Floors
Interestingly, floor-construction techniques were similar during all periods of occupation at
Albert Porter Pueblo. Most floors were constructed by depositing 2 to 4 cm of adobe directly on
a prepared caliche (calcium carbonate) construction surface. The caliche construction surface
varied from 2 to 7 cm thick, depending on the nature and condition of fill below the room. The
adobe was evenly distributed across the caliche base and was typically lipped up at the interface
with interior masonry walls. Some structures contained multiple floor surfaces, indicating a
remodeling event or a long use-life, or both. Only one structure, Structure 403, used bedrock as a
floor; an adobe coping was used to construct the hearth collar in that structure.
102
Plastering
After a building was walled and roofed, the interior was finished by covering the masonry with
plaster. Although there is no evidence of plaster on the exterior faces of walls at Albert Porter
Pueblo, it seems likely that exterior walls were plastered to prevent weathering and erosion of the
mortar joints. Preserved plaster was found only in kivas, specifically on pilasters and benches. In
most instances, plaster appeared to have been composed of ground caliche, or calcium carbonate,
and water—although chemical analysis is needed to verify this. This mixture would have created
a “whitewash” when applied to a masonry face. Kivas that had long use lives exhibited several
layers of plaster. For example, Structure 112, the aboveground, blocked-in masonry kiva located
in the great house in Architectural Block 100, exhibited a minimum of seven layers of plaster
that had been applied over the course of two centuries of use.
Decorated plaster is commonly found in kivas located in the Mesa Verde region. A pilaster in
Structure 112 (Feature 1) at Albert Porter Pueblo was coated with light green plaster. A second
pilaster (Feature 11) exhibited several white dots; these dots appeared to have been made by
pressing fingertips coated with white plaster onto a soot-covered background. The associated
bench face might also have been decorated.
103
Note
1. I altered Rapoport’s (1969) terminology from “primitive vernacular” to “fixed” and
“preindustrial vernacular” to “additive” in order to avoid connotations of cultural
evolution.
104
Figure 5.1. Aerial photograph, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Figure 5.2. Viga sockets in Structures 143 and 153 indicating multiple-story construction.
105
Figure 5.3. T-shaped doorway (sealed), Structure 128, Albert Porter Pueblo.
106
Figure 5.4. Architectural Block 100 plan map, including great house, Albert Porter Pueblo.
The great house “core” is composed of Structure 112 and the surrounding rooms, including
the four rooms immediately west of Structure 112.
107
108
Artifact Type
Figure 5.5. Types of artifacts found on kiva floors, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Vegetal Sample
Single-Bitted Axe
Projectile Point
Pendant
Other Modified Vegetal
One-Hand Mano
Other Ceramic Artifact
Maul
Hammerstone
Basketry
Axe/Maul
Other Modified Stone/Mineral
Nonhuman Bone
Modified Sherd
Unfired Sherd
Peckingstone
Core
Two-Hand Mano
Lithics
Pottery
Number of Kivas
Artifact Types on Kiva Floors
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Figure 5.6. Core-and-veneer-like masonry with chinking stones, Structure 140 east exterior
wall, Albert Porter Pueblo.
109
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Chapter 6
Artifacts
by Fumiyasu Arakawa
Introduction
This chapter synthesizes information on portable artifacts collected during excavations at Albert
Porter Pueblo. The tables and figures in this chapter were produced using data as they existed in
August 2010. I am not aware of any provenience changes that have been made since that time,
but slight discrepancies between the data discussed in this report and those contained in the
database may develop over time if errors in the database are found and corrected. However, it is
likely that any such changes will be minor and will not affect any of the conclusions presented in
this chapter.
All items collected during excavations at Albert Porter Pueblo were processed according to the
standard laboratory procedures of the Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, which are described
in detail in Crow Canyon’s online laboratory manual (Ortman et al. 2007). All objects were
classified into various stone, bone, pottery, vegetal, and other categories, as defined in the
laboratory manual.
With the exception of wood samples submitted for tree-ring dating, all artifacts, ecofacts, and
other samples recovered from Albert Porter Pueblo, as well as original field and laboratory
documentation, are curated at the Anasazi Heritage Center, Dolores, Colorado. The collections
are indexed to artifact databases, which are curated at both Crow Canyon and the Anasazi
Heritage Center and are accessible online in Crow Canyon’s research database. Materials are
available for study with permission from the Anasazi Heritage Center. Dated tree-ring samples,
and additional wood samples that might be datable in the future, are stored at the Laboratory of
Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona, Tucson.
Numerous artifacts were subjected to destructive analysis. Small portions of 20 rim sherds from
both white ware bowls and corrugated gray jars were destroyed to facilitate temper identification.
These items were subjected to Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) by the
University of Missouri, Columbia, and petrographic analysis was conducted by Fort Lewis
College, Durango, Colorado. In addition, the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research discarded treering samples that possessed little dating potential.
In addition to the analyses reported here, several other studies of artifacts from Albert Porter
Pueblo have been conducted or are in progress. Arakawa and Merewether (2010) have
investigated the frequency of nonlocal items dating from the Chaco (A.D. 1050–1150) and postChaco (A.D. 1150–1280) periods at Albert Porter Pueblo. Arakawa and Gonzales (2010) have
studied the sourcing of temper using INAA, petrographic, and microprobe analyses. Copeland et
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al. (2011) have investigated the chemical signature of prehistoric copper collected from Albert
Porter Pueblo as well as other sites in southwestern Colorado.
Definitions of Artifact-Assemblage Groupings for Analysis
This research summarizes the analyses of artifacts from Albert Porter Pueblo in two aggregate
units―one spatial and the other temporal. Eleven architectural blocks were identified and
mapped at the site (also see Chapter 2). These blocks, numbered 100 through 1100, were defined
on the basis of artifact, rubble scatters, and rubble mounds that were visible on the modern
ground surface. Within each architectural block, study units such as “structure” (e.g., kivas),
“nonstructure” (e.g., middens), and “arbitrary unit” were each assigned a unique number within
that series; see Crow Canyon’s online field manual for further descriptions of these study unit
types. The assignment of temporal components to study units was completed with the aid of
multiple lines of evidence including tree-ring and pottery data; these data are presented and
discussed in the Albert Porter Pueblo online database.
Spatial Analysis: Study-Unit Groupings
To understand the spatial distributions of various types of artifacts, two groupings of study units
were used—artifacts collected from Architectural Block 100 vs. those collected from
Architectural Blocks 200–1100. These groupings were employed in order to address specific
research questions for the excavations at Albert Porter Pueblo that included determining whether
the material culture of the residents of the “great house” in Architectural Block 100 differed from
that of the residents of the other areas of the settlement.
Temporal Assignment
For base-line dating assignments, the Pecos Classification System (Kidder 1927) was used for
temporal comparisons of artifacts collected from Albert Porter Pueblo (Table 6.1). For a detailed
analysis of the general trend of artifact distributions within the site, artifact deposition was
separated into three different subperiods—late Pueblo II (A.D. 1060–1140), early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225), and late Pueblo III (A.D. 1225–1280); a category labeled “others” was used
for contexts with mixed assemblages or for which dates could not be assigned (Table 6.2).
Three different time periods were assigned to facilitate discussions of the construction of the
great house in Block 100 and the deposition of artifacts through time: pre-A.D. 1060, A.D.
1060–1140, and A.D. 1140–1280. These dates differ somewhat from the traditional Pecos
Classification System (Kidder 1927), because the assignments of these periods were derived
from assessments of diagnostic pottery types and tree-ring-dated assemblages from the central
Mesa Verde region (Ortman et al. 2007); these dating assignments provide for more precise and
detailed dating of the construction and occupation of the great house in Block 100 (Table 6.3).
Artifacts collected from the pre-A.D. 1060 context are associated with activities that were
conducted before the construction of the great house. The A.D. 1060–1140 context indicates
artifacts that reflect activities conducted by people who probably resided in the great house. The
A.D. 1140–1280 context refers to activities by residents of Albert Porter Pueblo who used,
remodeled, and added structures to the great house. For artifact comparisons between the Pueblo
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II and Pueblo III periods, the Pueblo II artifact category includes materials from both the preA.D. 1060 and 1060–1140 periods, whereas the Pueblo III category includes materials from the
A.D. 1140–1280 period only.
In addition, for investigations of the general trend of artifact distributions through time, nine
different categories were assigned (Table 6.4), and for investigating pottery-ware forms, Early
(Basketmaker III and Pueblo I periods), Late (Pueblo II and Pueblo III periods), and Pueblo
I/Pueblo II categories were used. The lumped category contains pottery that could not be
identified as diagnostic of either the Pueblo I or Pueblo II period.
Accumulation Study: Weight of Gray Ware Sherds
To compare quantities of artifacts collected from different excavation units, the weights of gray
ware sherds were used as a measure of sampling intensity across study units and architectural
blocks. Essentially, this standardizes artifact recovery against a measure of total material
excavated, on the assumption that gray ware pottery accumulated at a consistent rate per person
and year and is thus a good standard against which to compare other artifact types (Varien and
Mills 1997; Varien and Ortman 2005). In all analyses, the ratio between the count of each artifact
type and the weight of gray ware sherds recovered from various areas was used to control for
sample size and to standardize the abundance of each type of artifact against cooking-vessel
sherds. Gray ware weight is specifically used, because it has been found to be a good measure of
site occupation intensity (Kohler 1978; Varien and Mills 1997; Varien and Potter 1997; Varien
and Ortman 2005). In addition, previous studies indicate that weight is the best estimator of
pottery accumulation, because it controls for the degree of pottery fragmentation across
depositional contexts and post-depositional disturbances (Ortman 2000). In Table 6.5, the counts
and weights of gray ware sherds are presented for the pre-A.D. 1060, A.D. 1060–1140, and A.D.
1140–1280 periods of great house use. In addition, Table 6.6 presents the weight of gray ware
collected from each architectural block at Albert Porter Pueblo. Table 6.7 shows the weight of
gray ware sherds collected from Architectural Block 100 vs. the weight of gray ware sherds from
Architectural Blocks 200–1100.
Standard Errors of Proportion Analysis
The standard errors of proportion were conducted for various pottery and chipped-stone tool
analyses. In general, the standard errors of proportion help us understand the accuracy of sample
sizes. In other words, this analysis evaluates whether samples are of sufficient abundance for the
purpose of comparing one artifact type with another. When sample size is small, errors in
comparisons can result, thus creating errors for the whole population. To alleviate this problem,
two confidence intervals were applied to the standard errors of proportion calculations for the
artifacts from Albert Porter Pueblo.
Albert Porter Pueblo Research Design
In this section, I will briefly summarize the spatial and temporal framework used to interpret
artifacts from Albert Porter Pueblo and introduce three major research topics related to the
village—settlement patterns, sociopolitical organization, and trade. Albert Porter Pueblo is the
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remains of an ancestral Pueblo village located in southwestern Colorado in a study area defined
by Crow Canyon researchers as the Woods Canyon community. Other large sites within this
community include the Bass Site complex and Woods Canyon Pueblo. On the basis of the initial
survey, Albert Porter Pueblo showed characteristics of Chaco influence (Lipe and Ortman 2000;
Lipe and Varien 1999a:288–289, 1999b:349–352). In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, Albert
Porter Pueblo was a community center surrounded by more than 50 structures (Glowacki 2006;
Ryan 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2010; Varien 1999). Use of Albert Porter Pueblo appears to
have declined during the final decades of the thirteenth century (also see Chapter 3). During
these final decades, some residents might have migrated from the Mesa Verde region, and others
could have relocated to Woods Canyon Pueblo. Woods Canyon Pueblo might have replaced
Albert Porter Pueblo as a community center about A.D. 1250.
At the center of Albert Porter Pueblo, and located in Architectural Block 100, is a great house
that was constructed in the early-to-mid A.D. 1100s and occupied until the mid-to-late A.D.
1200s. Multiple unit pueblos dating from the Pueblo II and Pueblo III periods surround the great
house. Comparisons of artifacts collected from Architectural Block 100 to those from
Architectural Blocks 200–1100 may illuminate social and economic differentiation within the
community. In addition, artifact comparisons will determine whether the residents of the village
had connections with communities outside the central Mesa Verde region, particularly those in
Chaco Canyon, the southern San Juan region, and the middle San Juan region.
Because Albert Porter Pueblo is considered a community center, we are interested in using
artifact data to investigate whether the center was organized and controlled by elites. Elites can
be defined as religious or ceremonial leaders that might have controlled rituals but not held
economic and political power (Schachner 2001, 2011). In addition, artifact data can yield
evidence of the development of, or resistance to, social inequality. Such evidence has been
obtained by researchers who have investigated social inequality using pottery data to identify
evidence of communal or competitive feasting (Blinman 1989; Robinson 2005). Communal
feasting generally takes place when people gather and exchange food and resources on a fairly
equitable basis in a particular area within a community. In contrast, competitive feasting takes
place when aspiring elites attempt to accumulate exotic goods or occupy ceremonial structures or
an important space; by doing so, they increase their social and ceremonial status.
Finally, artifacts from Albert Porter Pueblo inform us on the nature of interaction between
residents of the village and those living in the southern and middle San Juan regions. Some
archaeologists argue that great house construction in the northern San Juan region was
influenced by events in Chaco Canyon, suggesting that great houses were strongly affiliated with
the Chaco regional system (Earle 2001; Mills 2002; P. Reed 2008). This issue was investigated
using igneous temper and is discussed in the “Pottery” section of this chapter.
In sum, the analyses of the artifact assemblages recovered from Albert Porter Pueblo address
several important topics: the nature of leadership; decision-making and authority in human
society; the development of, or resistance to, social inequality; and the role of public architecture
in the development of social complexity. In addition, the data help to examine external
relationships and influences at the village during the Pueblo II and Pueblo III periods.
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Pottery
Pottery was by far the most abundant type of artifact recovered from excavations at Albert Porter
Pueblo. More than 166,000 sherds, weighing more than 1,100 kg, were collected. The process of
pottery analysis initially separated the sherds into two categories—Bulk Sherds, Large (BSL)
and Bulk Sherds, Small (BSS). The former category includes pottery sherds that are larger than
½-inch mesh, whereas the latter category contains sherds that are smaller than ½-inch mesh but
are captured by ¼-inch mesh. Because the BSS category contained less than 10 percent (120,765
g) of the total weight of unmodified sherds (1,285,973 g), we focused primarily on the category
BSL to investigate the nature of the Albert Porter Pueblo pottery assemblage.
The following sections focus on three major topics: (1) general descriptions of pottery forms,
types, and attributes; (2) detailed analyses of pottery types with regard to spatial and temporal
components; and (3) in-situ pottery production and intra-regional pottery trade, emphasizing
changes in assemblage composition among the subassemblage of sherds that predate the
construction of the great house (pre-A.D. 1060), sherds dating from the initial use of the great
house (A.D. 1060–1140), and sherds that date from the final use of the great house (A.D. 1140–
1280) in Architectural Block 100.
General Description of Pottery
Bulk Sherds, Large
The pottery sherds collected from Albert Porter Pueblo are categorized into 43 different pottery
types according to the pottery-classification scheme used by the Crow Canyon Archaeological
Center (Ortman et al. 2007). Table 6.8 shows the counts and weights of all unmodified sherds in
the Albert Porter Pueblo assemblage by ware and type. These data indicate that the most
abundant type of sherd in the assemblage is Indeterminate Local Corrugated Gray (about 50
percent by count and about 45 percent by weight), followed by Late White Unpainted (nearly 19
percent by count and weight). The percentages by count and weight of seven pottery types—Late
White Painted, Indeterminate Local Gray, Mancos Black-on-white, Pueblo III White Painted,
McElmo Black-on-white, Mesa Verde Corrugated Gray, and Mesa Verde Black-on-white—vary
from approximately 1 to 8 percent of the total assemblage. These data indicate that the most
abundant types of pottery sherds collected from Albert Porter Pueblo are local utility and serving
wares, as well as white wares dating from the tenth through thirteenth centuries A.D. It is also
important to note that the assemblage derives from long-term occupation and includes types
dating from several distinct time periods between A.D. 600 and 1280.
Of all of pottery types identified, a subset of 30 types was selected to investigate the time spans
of occupation at Albert Porter Pueblo. These pottery types were chosen because they correlate to
Pecos Classification periods1 (Kidder 1927). Table 6.9 shows the count, weight, and percentage
by count and weight of the total assemblage of sherds of these selected types by time period.
This table shows that about 70 percent of the total pottery assemblage, by count and weight,
consists of sherds that date from the Pueblo II or the Pueblo III period (A.D. 900–1300). Sherds
that clearly date from the Pueblo II period (A.D. 920–1140) represent 7 percent (by count) to 8
percent (by weight) of the assemblage, and sherds that clearly date from the Pueblo III period
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(A.D. 1140–1280) make up another 7 percent (by count) to 13 percent (by weight). An additional
small percentage (approximately 7 percent by count and 6 percent by weight) of pottery sherds
date from the Basketmaker III (A.D. 600–725) or Pueblo I (A.D. 725–920) period. The majority
of pottery sherds collected from Albert Porter Pueblo date from the Pueblo II or Pueblo III
period.
Table 6.10 shows the percentage by count and weight of pottery sherds by ware and vessel form.
These data offer many insights into the relative abundance of various functional forms in
household assemblages, the use life of various forms, and the relative frequency with which the
activities for which these vessels were designed took place. For example, these data show that
about 50 percent of the assemblage consists of corrugated gray jar sherds, and that plain gray jar
sherds are also relatively frequent (about 7 percent by count and 6 percent by weight). Because
corrugated and plain gray jars were large and were used on a daily basis for multiple purposes—
cooking food, carrying water, and storing liquids and seeds—it is not surprising that they
compose a relatively large proportion of the assemblage. White ware jars and bowls each
compose approximately 20 percent of the total pottery assemblage. White ware bowls were used
for serving food, whereas white ware jars were used primarily for the storage of liquids and
seeds. The high frequency of white ware bowls and jars suggests that residents of Albert Porter
Pueblo conducted the activities associated with these vessel forms on a regular basis, and that the
use lives of these forms were relatively short. Other pottery forms—canteens, kiva/seed jars,
ladles, and mugs—occur in lesser quantities, suggesting that these vessel forms were used less
often and had longer use lives than vessels of other wares and forms.
Comparison of Pottery Ware Forms: The Early and Late Pueblo Periods
Table 6.11 shows the pottery ware forms grouped by Early (Basketmaker III and Pueblo I
periods), Late (Pueblo II and Pueblo III periods), and the sherds of vessels that could have been
produced either during the Pueblo II or the Pueblo III period. This table indicates changes in the
ware-form data for each period. For example, during the Early period, residents of Albert Porter
Pueblo produced and used a high percentage (about 96 percent) of jars, whereas during the Late
period, people continued to make jars but increased the percentage of bowls, ladles, and mugs. In
other words, residents of Albert Porter Pueblo produced a wider variety of vessel forms during
later periods.
Table 6.12 presents a tabulation of sherds assigned to painted white ware vessels by the type of
pigment used to paint the designs. These data indicate that carbon paint and mineral paint occur
equally (about 50 percent) among painted white ware sherds in the Albert Porter Pueblo
assemblage. The majority of the white ware vessels produced during the Basketmaker III and
Pueblo I periods—Chapin and Piedra Black-on-white—were decorated with mineral paint. More
than half of the white ware vessels produced during the Pueblo II and Early Pueblo III periods—
Cortez, Mancos, and McElmo Black-on-white—were also decorated with mineral paint. In
contrast, about 55 percent of Mesa Verde Black-on-white pottery was decorated with carbon
paint. The majority of Early White Painted (about 60 percent) and Pueblo II White Painted
(about 90 percent) sherds were decorated with mineral paint; in contrast, about 60 percent by
count of Pueblo III White Painted and about 56 percent of Late White Painted were finished with
carbon paint.
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Table 6.13 indicates the relative weights of painted white ware sherds by type and finish. These
results are similar to the percentages by count (see Table 6.12), but Chapin and Mesa Verde
Black-on-white compose slightly larger percentages by weight than by count. The total
percentage of painted pottery types by weight indicates more mineral-painted sherds (about 50
percent) than carbon-painted sherds (about 48 percent).
The presence of significant quantities of sherds exhibiting carbon and mineral paint in the Albert
Porter Pueblo subassemblage of painted white ware is consistent with previous pottery studies
for the central Mesa Verde region. For example, assemblages of painted white ware sherds from
Yellow Jacket, Woods Canyon, and Shields Pueblos all illustrate that the majority of white ware
sherds dating from the Late Pueblo II (A.D. 1060–1140) or Pueblo III (A.D. 1140–1280) period
were carbon painted (Ortman 2000, 2002, 2003; Till 2007). However, these studies have also
identified a clinal, southeast-to-northwest trend in areas near the southern boundary between the
Colorado and Utah today in the replacement of mineral paint by carbon paint; mineral paint
continued to be used regularly into the Pueblo III period in the northwest part of that area. The
Albert Porter Pueblo assemblage follows this trend, and thus supports the results of previous
studies (Ortman 2000, 2002, 2003; Till 2007).
To investigate the temporal trend of white ware vessels finished with mineral paint for Albert
Porter Pueblo, I compared subassemblages for two time spans—A.D. 1060–1225 and 1225–
1280. Tables 6.14 and 6.15 show the count and weight as well as the count percentage and
weight percentage for structures with associated tree-ring dates (also see Chapter 3). A total of
10 (about 3 percent) of the 387 tree-ring samples yielded near-cutting dates. Comparisons of
percentages by count and weight of white wares show a relatively similar pattern. However,
three contexts—Structure 110, Structure 150, and Structure 402—indicate a higher percentage
by weight of McElmo Black-on-white than Mancos Black-on-white. In general, the majority of
pottery sherds collected from these contexts contains a higher percentage of Mancos Black-onwhite than McElmo and Mesa Verde Black-on-white. On the basis of the percentage by count of
Mancos, McElmo, and Mesa Verde Black-on-white, the wood samples dating from the A.D.
1200s are associated with Mancos Black-on-white pottery. This is unexpected, because Mancos
Black-on-white vessels were produced between A.D. 1060 and 1140 (i.e., the late Pueblo II
period). There are three possible reasons for this anomaly. First, post-deposition processes
caused earlier objects (Mancos Black-on-white) to be deposited with these late-dating tree-ring
samples. Second, a fairly high percentage of mineral paint, which is an excellent marker for
Early White Painted, could have caused analysts to misclassify the Pueblo III (McElmo and
Mesa Verde Black-on-white) sherds. Third, residents of Albert Porter Pueblo could have
continued to produce or use Mancos Black-on-white vessels from the Pueblo II into the Pueblo
III period. Additionally, a comparison of the percentage by count and weight of Pueblo II and
Pueblo III white painted sherds reveals a higher percentage of Pueblo III white painted sherds.
This is, in fact, what was expected from the assemblage data, because many tree-ring cutting
dates for Albert Porter Pueblo are for the early A.D. 1200s.
To understand the nature of spatial and temporal distributions of mineral paint in the central
Mesa Verde region, I compared, for numerous sites, the ratio of sherds with mineral paint to the
total number of sherds analyzed (adapted from Ortman 2003, Table 12). Table 6.16 shows
several diagnostic pottery types with the best context of pottery subassemblages associated with
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tree-ring dates for sites in the central Mesa Verde region. In this table, seven phases—Phase 1
(A.D. 1020–1060), Phase 2 (A.D. 1060–1100), Phase 3 (A.D. 1100–1140), Phase 4 (A.D. 1140–
1180), Phase 5 (A.D. 1180–1225), Phase 6 (A.D. 1225–1260), and Phase 7 (A.D. 1225–1280)—
are analyzed for their pottery paint types. In addition, the ratio of sherds with mineral paint to the
number of gray ware sherds analyzed was calculated. A high ratio indicates that people in the
village used more mineral paints. To visualize the difference between these ratios, I separated
these phases into two broad periods: A.D. 1060–1225 and A.D. 1225–1280. Figure 6.1 shows the
result of these comparisons. It is apparent that between A.D. 1060 and 1225 the residents of
many Mesa Verde villages used mineral paint to decorate many of their white ware vessels.
However, there were some exceptions. Sites in the Sand Canyon locality sites, such as Roy’s
Ruin and Lillian’s Site, show a fairly low ratio when compared to other sites, indicating less use
of mineral paint. In addition, from A.D. 1225 to 1280, the residents of most sites did not use
mineral paint on a large number of vessels. Some of the larger villages, such as Castle Rock,
Sand Canyon, Woods Canyon, and Albert Porter pueblos, used more mineral paint than small- or
medium-size villages in the Sand Canyon locality. The data for Albert Porter Pueblo indicate that
residents continued to use mineral paint until the A.D. 1200s. It is, however, important to note
that the site was occupied until the late 1200s, which might have resulted in a higher ratio of
mineral paint from A.D. 1225 to 1280 than at other late Pueblo III sites.
Rim sherds provide another means of assessing variation in the relative quantities of vessels of
different forms in pottery assemblages. One major advantage of rim-sherd analysis is that many
rim sherds preserve more diagnostic attributes of pottery types than do body sherds and therefore
tend to be classified to type more precisely. The data for Albert Porter Pueblo indicate that
sherds of white ware bowls compose the highest percentage (about 50 percent) of the rim-sherd
assemblage, and corrugated jars form a moderately high percentage (about 30 percent).The
percentage of rims from white ware jars by count and weight is also relatively high (both about
10 percent) as is the percentage by count and weight of plain gray jar rims (3 percent and 1
percent, respectively) as compared to other types of pottery. Specific vessel forms—white ware
bowls and corrugated jars—are the most common and frequent among rim-sherd forms,
presumably because of the sizes and shapes of the rims of these vessels; more rim sherds tend to
be generated from the breakage of a large-diameter vessel than a smaller vessel.
The rim-sherd data for Albert Porter Pueblo, by pottery type, indicate that the percentages of rim
sherds differ by count and weight. For example, the percentage of Mesa Verde Corrugated Gray
sherds by count is about 10 percent, whereas the percentage by weight is about 16 percent,
revealing that rim sherds of this pottery type are larger than average for the assemblage of rim
sherds. The same appears to be true for McElmo Black-on-white and Mesa Verde Black-onwhite rim sherds. In contrast, rim sherds of Indeterminate Local Corrugated Gray, Mancos
Black-on-white, Pueblo III White Painted, Late White Painted, and Late White Unpainted
pottery show a higher percentage by count rather than weight. This suggests that the rim sherds
of these vessels are relatively small. This further suggests that larger sherds were more likely to
be assigned to specific pottery types during analysis, and that smaller sherds were more likely to
be assigned to more general types.
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Spatial and Temporal Variation
In this section, I focus on the temporal and spatial distributions of pottery types from Albert
Porter Pueblo. Tables 6.17 and 6.18 summarize the pottery assemblage from study units assigned
to one of the three subperiods by count and weight, respectively—Late Pueblo II, Early Pueblo
III, Late Pueblo III—or to the “Other” category. Study units were assigned to these periods on
the basis of tree-ring dates, other methods of absolute dating, stratigraphy and constructionsequence data, and the pottery assemblages themselves (also see Chapter 3). The trends through
time and relative percentages of Mancos, McElmo, and Mesa Verde Black-on-white ware for
Albert Porter Pueblo are consistent with idealized pottery assemblages developed to assist in
dating sites in the central Mesa Verde region (Wilson and Blinman 1991, 1995). It is important
to note, however, that few deposits at Albert Porter Pueblo were sealed and, as a result, small
quantities of intrusive sherds are apparent in these subassemblages.
Counts and weights of pottery types by architectural block show consistent spatial distribution
across the site. About 50 percent of sherds were identified as Indeterminate Local Corrugated
Gray, followed by Late White Unpainted (about 20–30 percent) and Indeterminate Local Gray
(about 10 percent). No major variations are apparent among the types of pottery sherds collected
from these 11 architectural blocks. This suggests that residents throughout Albert Porter Pueblo
produced and used similar types of pottery, and their daily activities and behaviors were similar.
The counts and weights of rim sherds typed as various wares and forms in these chronological
subassemblages were assessed. The data show relatively little change in the percentage of rims
from white ware bowls, corrugated jars, white ware jars, and white ware ladles through time.
However, the percentage of rims of white ware mugs does appear to have increased through
time. I evaluated this increase by calculating standard errors of the proportions. In general, the
standard errors of proportions help us understand the accuracy of sample sizes. The data show
that the proportions of painted sherds of white ware mugs increased from the Late Pueblo II to
the Late Pueblo III periods, and that the confidence intervals do not overlap among these time
periods. This suggests that the sample size is adequate, and that the frequency of rim sherds from
painted white ware vessels increased through time. The relatively frequent occurrence of white
ware mugs in contexts dating from the Late Pueblo III period has been reported for other pottery
assemblages in the central Mesa Verde region (Ortman 2000, 2002, 2003; Till 2007). It is
therefore reasonable to infer that white ware mugs were produced with increasing frequency
between A.D. 1200 and 1280 at Albert Porter Pueblo.
Rims from red ware bowls represent less than 1 percent of rim sherds in assemblages from the
Late Pueblo II through Late Pueblo III periods. However, it appears that the percentage by count
and weight of sherds from red ware bowls decreased (0.7 percent to 0.6 percent in counts; 0.4
percent to 0.2 percent in weights) from the Late Pueblo II to the Early Pueblo III period. Because
most red ware vessels were produced in southeast Utah (Allison 2008; Hegmon et al. 1997;
Oppelt 1998), these data suggest that the production and trade of these vessels was greatest
between A.D. 1050 and 1150, and that at least trade declined during the Pueblo III period (also
see “Trade,” below).
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Rim Sherds and Temporal Components
Rim sherds from painted white ware vessels present the greatest quantity of diagnostic attributes
for classifying pottery into specific, named types. For example, rim sherds from Mesa Verde
Black-on-white vessels generally show a flat profile, white slip with carbon-painted designs, a
high degree of polish, and ticked decorations on the rim. The percentages by count and weight of
rim sherds from white ware vessels assigned to the three subperiods defined for Albert Porter
Pueblo were analyzed. Previous studies of well dated assemblages (Ortman et al. 2007; Wilson
and Blinman 1991) indicate that a high frequency of Mancos Black-on-white is associated with
the Late Pueblo II subperiod, whereas McElmo Black-on-white is most strongly associated with
the Early Pueblo III subperiod, and Mesa Verde Black-on-white reflects production during the
Late Pueblo III subperiod. Data indicate that Mancos Black-on-white rims are most common in
the Late Pueblo II subassemblage, and that carbon and mineral paint are co-dominant on these
rims. Also, McElmo Black-on-white rims are associated with the Early Pueblo III subperiod, and
on these sherds carbon paint is slightly more frequent than mineral paint. Lastly, Mesa Verde
Black-on-white rims, which display either carbon or mineral paint, are strongly associated with
the Late Pueblo III subperiod.
As discussed for all sherds, the percentages of types among rim sherds vary depending on the
method of quantification used. For example, although Mesa Verde Black-on-white rims sherds
with carbon paint compose less than 20 percent of the Late Pueblo III subassemblage by count,
these same sherds compose more than 50 percent of the subassemblage by weight. This suggests
that rim sherds assigned to the Mesa Verde Black-on-white type are larger than those assigned to
other types. In the assemblage for the Late Pueblo III subperiod, most of the represented Mesa
Verde Black-on-white vessels were finished with carbon paint, but a relatively high percentage
of McElmo Black-on-white rims exhibited mineral-painted designs. The relatively frequent
occurrence of mineral paint on rim sherds dating from the Pueblo III period is consistent with
pottery assemblages for other Pueblo III sites investigated by the Crow Canyon Archaeological
Center (Ortman 2000, 2002, 2003; Till 2007). These results demonstrate that paint type cannot
be used to reliably distinguish sherds of Late Pueblo II pottery (i.e., Mancos Black-on-white)
from Pueblo III pottery (i.e., McElmo and Mesa Verde Black-on-white).
Middens and Temporal and Spatial Components
Middens are the accumulation of refuse generated by a wide variety of activities at a habitation;
thus, the study of middens generally provides insight into human behaviors and activities in
different temporal and spatial contexts. Most middens at Albert Porter Pueblo were located to the
south of residences. Tables 6.19 and 6.20 show the percentage by count and weight of the pottery
from midden contexts at Albert Porter Pueblo. These tables indicate that Indeterminate Local
Corrugated Gray compose the majority of pottery sherds (about 40–50 percent), followed by
Late White Unpainted sherds (about 20 percent). The percentage by count and weight of
Indeterminate Local Gray is greater for the Late Pueblo II period than for the Late Pueblo III
period, although a moderately high percentage of this pottery type was not assigned to type. In
midden contexts, Mancos Black-on-white sherds, which date from the Late Pueblo II period,
formed the highest percentage by count and weight, whereas the highest percentage for Mesa
Verde Black-on-white is from Late Pueblo III contexts. The highest percentage of McElmo
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Black-on-white by count is from Late Pueblo III contexts; in contrast, the percentage by weight
is slightly higher for the Early Pueblo III period. Similar to the temporal trends of pottery types
discussed in the previous section, the percentages by count and weight of Mancos Black-onwhite, McElmo Black-on-white, and Mesa Verde Black-on-white are typical of temporal trends
noted at other sites in the central Mesa Verde region (Ortman 2000, 2002, 2003; Till 2007;
Wilson and Blinman 1991). It is interesting to note that Tsegi Orange Ware sherds, by count and
weight, were found in relatively high frequencies in both Late Pueblo II and Late Pueblo III
contexts compared to other pottery types for this assemblage through time.
Percentages by count and weight of the spatial distribution of pottery types for middens in each
architectural block reveal a similar pattern. More than 50 percent of sherds recovered from each
architectural block was Indeterminate Local Corrugated Gray (Table 6.6), followed by about 20
percent of Late White Unpainted sherds. A relatively higher percentage by count and weight of
two diagnostic pottery types—McElmo Black-on-white and Mesa Verde Black-on-white—were
collected from Architectural Block 400 than from other architectural blocks. This might indicate
that residents of Architectural Block 400 occupied this location beginning in the A.D. 1100s,
despite tree-ring data suggesting that this block was constructed in the early A.D. 1200s. In
addition, stratigraphic data reflect no previous occupation below pit structures in Architectural
Block 400. Thus, it is possible that these early pottery sherds are secondary refuse from
Architectural Block 100—located just north of Architectural Block 400—during the A.D. 1100s.
Floor Contexts
Artifact assemblages recovered from floor contexts offer crucial information on the final
activities that occurred in structures at Albert Porter Pueblo. Tables 6.21 and 6.22 show the
percentages by count and weight of pottery types from both kiva and room floors assigned to the
three temporal components. It is interesting that percentages by count differ from percentages by
weight. For instance, the percentage by count of Mesa Verde Black-on-white (Late Pueblo III)
sherds is 5 percent, whereas the percentage by weight is more than 50 percent. The percentage by
count of Indeterminate Local Corrugated Gray is about 60 percent, whereas that by weight is
about 10 percent. These results suggest that most diagnostic white ware types—Mancos,
McElmo, and Mesa Verde Black-on-white—represent a higher percentage in weight; inversely,
many indeterminate pottery types show a lower percentage by weight but a higher percentage by
count. This suggests that decorated sherds recovered from floor contexts are larger than those of
other pottery types.
It is worthwhile to compare the types of wares in floor assemblages to those in midden
assemblages to see whether floor assemblages are representative of activities that occurred on a
daily basis during the occupation of the settlement. This investigation is also an important means
of assessing the manner of use of Architectural Block 100. For this comparison, Tables 6.19 and
6.20 present pottery types, by count and weight, collected from the middens, whereas Tables
6.21 and 6.22 present pottery types, by count and weight, recovered from floor contexts. Sherds
of 13 pottery types were collected from floor contexts compared to sherds of 44 types from
middens. The percentages by count listed in Tables 6.19 and 6.21 indicate that 30 to 60 percent
of Indeterminate Local Corrugated Gray was identified from floor contexts. The percentage of
sherds placed in this category is about 30 percent greater from Late Pueblo III middens than from
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Late Pueblo II middens, although sample size might have skewed these results. About 50 percent
of pottery sherds from both Late Pueblo II and Late Pueblo III midden contexts were classified
as Indeterminate Local Corrugated Gray. A comparison of floor and midden contexts indicates
that three diagnostic pottery types—Mancos, McElmo, and Mesa Verde Black-on-white—reveal
chronological components common to the central Mesa Verde region, except that McElmo
Black-on-white sherds were associated with the Late Pueblo III period component rather than the
Early Pueblo III component. Although sample size is fairly small for the floor assemblages, the
pottery types by count as well as by weight indicate that the activities that generated pottery
found in the middens were similar to those found in floor contexts.
Great House Construction
In this section, I investigate the pottery assemblage from the great house, located in Architectural
Block 100, in order to detect periods of occupation. Although some structures in Architectural
Block 100 have been dated using tree-ring data, none of these structures is in the great house
portion of the block. Therefore, I use pottery data to reconstruct the occupation sequence of the
great house. Table 6.23 summarizes the count, as well as the percentage by count, of pottery
sherds from sealed contexts beneath the floor of the great house. As shown in Table 6.23, a high
frequency of Mancos Black-on-white sherds (7 to 13 percent), a type produced in the Late
Pueblo II period, was deposited in Nonstructures 154 and 157, and in Structure 158. These study
units also contained a low frequency of McElmo Black-on-white sherds (0 to 2 percent). The
frequencies of these two types of sherds suggest that the initial construction of the great house
occurred between A.D. 1060 and 1100. In addition, the very low frequency of McElmo Blackon-white sherds suggests that the great house was built before A.D. 1100. However, it is
important to note that the presence of earthen architecture just below the foundation of the great
house reveals that this area of the site was inhabited before the great house was constructed
(Ryan 2008, 2010).
I separated pottery sherds collected from refuse fill from the great house by time period: those
pre-dating construction of the great house, those deposited during the initial use of the great
house, and those associated with the final use of the great house. Most of the refuse was
deposited during the use of the great house, from the late A.D. 1000s to the mid-A.D. 1250s,
except for the refuse from Structure 142. The floor of Structure 142 was heavily disturbed by
weathering and rodent damage; thus, it is possible that the assemblage from this context was
mixed.
The percentages by count and weight of pottery assemblages in refuse in the great house
illustrate that the majority of sherds are Indeterminate Local Corrugated Gray, and the next most
abundant are Late White Unpainted sherds. Mancos Black-on-white (Early Pueblo II) sherds
constitute approximately 8 percent by count and 12 percent by weight of sherds; about 2 percent
by count and 4 percent by weight are McElmo Black-on white sherds (Early Pueblo III); and
about 1 percent by count and 3 percent by weight are Mesa Verde Black-on-white sherds (Late
Pueblo III). The high percentage of Mesa Verde Corrugated Gray in contexts dating from the
initial use of the great house was presumably a result of the refuse fill in Structure 142 (including
Nonstructures 152 and 161), which was heavily disturbed by weathering and rodent activity.
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Great House vs. Surrounding Areas
One research goal for Albert Porter Pueblo excavations was to investigate the extent to which
residents of the pueblo participated in the Chaco regional system and to examine the possibility
of differentiation in resource acquisition between the residents of Architectural Block 100 vs.
those of Architectural Blocks 200–1100. A potential indicator of both phenomena is a more
diverse or exotic, or both, pottery assemblage from Architectural Block 100 than from other
areas of the site.
The relative abundance of nonlocal pottery is similar for all blocks. This suggests that residents
of Architectural Block 100 were not substantially better connected to long-distance exchange
networks than the residents of other blocks. Thus, there is no evidence in the pottery assemblage
to suggest significant economic differentiation among residents of Albert Porter Pueblo during
the Pueblo II and Pueblo III periods. In addition, this suggests that the residents of Architectural
Block 100 did not have strong ties with people in Chaco Canyon, further suggesting that the
Chaco regional system (Lekson 2006; L. Reed 2008) did not strongly affect the residents of
Albert Porter Pueblo.
Pueblo II Period vs. Pueblo III Period Contexts
Pottery assemblages from contexts dating from the Pueblo II period and those dating from the
Pueblo III period within Architectural Block 100 were analyzed. Pueblo II contexts were
“sealed” by the later construction of a structure floor or wall. In other words, these sealed
contexts were beneath the floors or walls of rooms in the great house; no sealed contexts were
excavated outside the great house at this site. Pottery assemblages dating from the Pueblo III
period were created by residents who inhabited the pueblo after the great house was constructed
but before regional depopulation about A.D. 1280 (also see the “Introduction” section of this
chapter).
Data indicate a slightly higher percentage by count and weight of Mancos corrugated and
Mancos Black-on-white sherds in contexts dating from the Pueblo II period than from contexts
dating from the Pueblo III period. Also, the percentage by count and weight indicates that in
Architectural Block 100, deposition of Late White Painted and Indeterminate Local Corrugated
Gray sherds decreased from the Pueblo II period to the Pueblo III period. In contrast, the
percentage by count and weight of Late White Unpainted and McElmo Black-on-white sherds
reflects increased deposition from the Pueblo II to the Pueblo III period.
Pottery Rim Analysis
In this section, I examine the spatial distribution of rim sherds collected from Albert Porter
Pueblo to evaluate differential use of serving bowls across the village. I will also, by analyzing
the size distributions of serving bowls and the frequency of exterior designs in the same manner
as other researchers (Blinman 1989; Potter 1997, 2000; Wilshusen 1989), investigate whether
residents of the pueblo regularly participated in feasting. Feasting means that people gather for
inter-community food consumption, and feasting serves to facilitate community integration as
well as differentiation of the group (Potter 1997).
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Temporal Distributions of Serving-Bowl Rims
I randomly selected 840 sherds for bowl-rim analysis. I compared, by count and weight, the
temporal distribution of these sherds from Pueblo II and Pueblo III contexts. A comparative ratio
was calculated from the count and weight of rim sherds and divided by the weight of corrugated
gray ware sherds collected from these two contexts. The weight of corrugated sherds was used to
standardize the deposition of bowl sherds against the accumulation of cooking pottery; many
studies have shown that the sherds of cooking pots accumulated at consistent rates per
household-year of occupation at ancestral Pueblo sites (Varien 1999; Varien and Mills 1997;
Varien and Ortman 2005). Interestingly, the data for sherd counts suggest that the sherds of
serving bowls accumulated more slowly than the sherds of cooking vessels during the Pueblo II
period as opposed to the Pueblo III period. In contrast, the ratio between the weight of the sherds
of serving bowls and the weight of the sherds of corrugated gray wares suggests that more bowl
sherds than cooking jar sherds were deposited during the Pueblo II period. These comparisons
suggest that the sherds of serving bowls recovered from contexts dating from the Pueblo II
period were larger than those collected from contexts dating from the Pueblo III period. The
standard error of proportion indicates that the ratios are significantly different between the
contexts dating from these two periods. These data are difficult to interpret, but may indicate that
during the Pueblo II period, food was more often prepared elsewhere and brought to Albert
Porter Pueblo in serving bowls as opposed to being prepared within the settlement.
Pottery Rim-Arc Analysis
In this section, I examine the size distributions of bowl rims to explore variation in foodconsumption practices through time and space at Albert Porter Pueblo. Several studies of pottery
assemblages dating from the late Pueblo III period (Ortman 2000, 2002, 2003; Robinson 2005;
Till and Ortman 2007) have noted that bowl sizes exhibit a bimodal distribution consisting of
small (16–20 cm in diameter) and large (24–32 cm in diameter), with few bowls exhibiting
diameters between 20 and 24 cm. These studies have also found that many serving bowls in
villages occupied during the Late Pueblo III period were painted on their exteriors as well as
their interiors. Exterior designs may reflect the active signaling of group identities (Mills 2007;
Robinson 2005). This interpretation was drawn from proxemic distance analysis, a method
developed by Hall (1966, 1968) that examines the relationship between objects and the distances
at which the objects were typically viewed during use (see also Bowser 2000; Mills 2007; Moore
1996). For example, the typical diameter of a kiva is 3.5 m, and this distance falls within the
categories Hall (1966, 1968) labels “social” or “public near.” At this distance, viewers are able to
distinguish the distance between attendees and performers during activities contained within
particular architectural settings. The distance provides crucial information about the types of
interaction associated with communication (Hall 1968:Table 1; Moore 1996:Table 1), including
“intimate personal” (0–1 m), “social” (1–3 m), “public near” (4–7 m), and “public far” (8–11+
m). Both Robinson (2005) and Ortman (2000) argue that the bimodal-size distribution of bowls,
combined with a high frequency of exterior designs, reflects the development of communal
feasting in villages occupied during the Late Pueblo III period. Ortman (2000) suggests that the
volumes of bowls of varying size indicate that small bowls were used for individual servings,
whereas large bowls were used for serving a batch of food to household-size or larger groups.
These studies raise the question of whether communal feasting was also frequent in Pueblo II
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period communities, and whether bowls dating from this period also exhibit bimodal-size
distribution as well as exterior designs. Ortman (2003) found that bowl rims from Yellow Jacket
Pueblo, most of which predate A.D. 1250, do not exhibit a bimodal-size pattern or exhibit
exterior designs. He interpreted these patterns to suggest that the inhabitants of that village did
not regularly participate in communal feasting.
To test for the possible existence of communal or competitive feasting at Albert Porter Pueblo, I
analyzed the size of bowl-rim sherds and the frequency of exterior designs on bowls. A high
frequency of large bowls suggests that residents of the village participated in communal
gatherings. In addition, ethnographic records suggest that exterior-bowl designs are most likely a
representation of ethnic or group identities (Mills 2007). Thus, a high frequency of bowls with
exterior designs indicates that people participated in public social gatherings.
Pierce and Varien (1999) have discussed methods used to collect these data and several possible
sources of analytical bias in rim-arc analysis. Several procedures have been used to help control
for these biases. First, comparisons of estimates of rim-arc diameters with vessel diameters are
within 2 cm of the true radius of the parent vessel approximately 80 percent of the time for
sherds that display at least 20 degrees of arc. Thus, only sherds displaying 20 degrees of arc or
more are considered and the radius estimates for these sherds have been grouped into 2-cmradius classes. Second, the total degrees of arc assigned to each radius class have been used as
the measure of abundance, rather than the count or weight of sherds. This was done to
compensate for the tendency for smaller-diameter vessels, upon fracturing, to yield fewer rim
sherds that would display more degrees of arc than sherds of larger-diameter vessels.
The percentages of rim-radius estimates drawn from rim sherds of Mancos Black-on-white bowls
and the percentage of rim-radius estimates for both McElmo Black-on-white and Mesa Verde
Black-on-white bowls in the assemblage were analyzed. For this analysis, I only used only those
three pottery types, because they are the Pueblo II and Pueblo III temporal markers in the rimsherd assemblage. Data indicate that the highest percentage of bowl rim sherds typed as Mancos
Black-on-white are within the 10-cm-radius class, and the next highest percentage is in the 8-cmradius class. These results indicate that people living at Albert Porter Pueblo during the Pueblo II
period produced and used relatively small Mancos Black-on-white bowls. In contrast, although
the relative percentages of radius estimates for bowl rims of McElmo and Mesa Verde Black-onwhite indicate a pattern similar to that for Mancos Black-on-white sherds, sherds from the later
time period have relatively higher percentages of estimates measuring 12 to 14 cm. This suggests
that people produced and utilized more large painted bowls during the Pueblo III period than
during the Pueblo II period.
Rim-radius estimates from rim sherds of Mancos vs. Mesa Verde corrugated jars in the Albert
Porter Pueblo assemblage were analyzed. These utility wares were selected because they are
Pueblo II and Pueblo III, respectively, temporal markers in the assemblage. The percentages of
rim-radius estimates for Mancos Corrugated sherds indicate that the highest percent of rim
sherds is within the10-cm-radius class, and the second-highest percent of sherds is in the 8-cmradius class. In contrast, the percentages of rim-radius estimates of Mesa Verde Corrugated
sherds are greatest for the 8-cm-radius class. In addition, a comparison of the black-on-white vs.
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corrugated rim-radius indicates that Mancos Corrugated rim sherds occur in higher percentages
in the 12- and 14-cm-radius class than do Mesa Verde Corrugated sherds.
Estimates of the rim radius of sherds of white ware bowls and corrugated jars both display
unimodal distributions and suggest the same interpretation; namely, that residents of Albert
Porter Pueblo generally used similar-size white ware bowls and corrugated jars for their daily
life. Unlike the “bimodal” distributions of rim-radius estimates for white ware bowls and
corrugated jars for sites dating from the late Pueblo III period—Woods Canyon Pueblo (Ortman
2002), Castle Rock Pueblo (Ortman 2000), and Sand Canyon Pueblo (Till and Ortman 2007)—
the results for Albert Porter Pueblo show unimodal distributions for both white ware bowls and
corrugated jars. This suggests that regular communal feasting did not occur at Albert Porter
Pueblo.
Pottery Production and Exchange
In this section, I summarize direct and indirect evidence of pottery production at Albert Porter
Pueblo and examine intra-regional networks of pottery exchange in which the inhabitants of this
pueblo participated. Evidence of long-distance pottery exchange, as well as other nonlocal
exchange, will be discussed in the “Trade” section later in this chapter.
Direct Evidence of Production
Direct evidence of pottery production comes in many forms, including mineral samples, other
artifacts made from pottery clay, sherds from unfired vessels, and polishing stones. In the spatial
distribution of pottery types within the site, I discuss how residents of Albert Porter Pueblo used
and produced similar types of pottery. Table 6.24 presents the counts and weights, by
architectural block, of other artifacts that might provide important information about pottery
production. In order to compare the quantity of these artifacts by architectural block, I
standardized these counts against the weight of gray ware sherds recovered from each block.
These results indicate that direct evidence of pottery production is especially abundant in
Architectural Block 600. In contrast, little direct evidence of pottery production was recovered
from Architectural Blocks 200 and 1000. These data suggest that the amount of pottery produced
varied across households in the settlement and that evidence of pottery production or possible
part-time craft specialization is more abundant for the houses around the periphery of
Architectural Block 100 dating from the Early Pueblo III period.
Indirect Evidence of Production and Evidence of Exchange
An important issue in the archaeology of the Southwest is how social and economic ties between
groups changed through time. One way researchers have examined these interaction networks is
through comparisons of the raw materials used to make pottery with the spatial distribution of
these materials on the landscape (L. Reed 2008). In this section, I summarize research on the
sourcing of pottery-production materials conducted as part of the Albert Porter Pueblo project. I
first summarize information on the tempers that were identified using a binocular microscope on
a sample of corrugated jars and of bowl rims from white ware vessels from Albert Porter Pueblo.
Then I discuss recent research to clarify the sources of specific igneous tempers found in pottery
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sherds recovered from sites in the Mesa Verde region. Finally, I discuss the results of
petrographic analysis and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) performed on a
subsample of the temper-analysis sample from Albert Porter Pueblo.
Temper Analysis
Using a binocular microscope, Crow Canyon laboratory staff, interns, and volunteers identified
the tempers present in 1,976 rim sherds of white wares and 1,425 rim sherds of corrugated gray
wares. A minimum of 25 sherds were selected randomly from each architectural block at the site.
Crow Canyon researchers assigned the dominant, non-plastic inclusions in the clay bodies of
these sherds to one of 14 temper-material codes (Ortman 2002:23). It is apparent that about half
of these sherds came from vessels produced using sherd temper; the next most frequent temper
was crushed white-matrix sandstone, followed by igneous rock.
To better understand the general trend of temper preferences by residents of Albert Porter
Pueblo, I grouped these 14 temper codes into seven different categories: igneous (crushed quartz,
igneous rock, and trachyte), sedimentary (crushed sandstone, crushed silicified sandstone,
crushed white-matrix sandstone, shale, and weathered silicified sandstone), sand (multi-lithic
sand and quartz sand), metamorphic (crushed metamorphic rock), sherd, indeterminate, and
other. The counts by percentage for white ware bowls are as follows: sherd temper composes
about 50 percent of the preferred materials, sedimentary temper composes about 30 percent,
igneous rock composes about 10 percent, and sand composes about 5 percent of the preferred
materials.
The counts by percentage for corrugated rim sherds show that the greatest quantity (about 45
percent) of sherds contain crushed white-matrix sandstone temper, igneous rocks were found in
25 percent, weathered silicified sandstone was used in about 10 percent, multi-lithic sand was
used in less than 10 percent, and crushed silicified sandstone was found in slightly more than 5
percent. Sherds containing these 14 tempers were then grouped into seven larger categories. The
greatest percentage of corrugated gray sherds contained temper of sedimentary rock, and lower
percentages of sherds contained igneous or sand temper.
Comparison of Tempers in White Ware vs. Corrugated Gray Ware Sherds
There are many differences in the tempers used in white ware vessels as opposed to corrugated
gray ware vessels. Comparing tempers in the two vessel types reveals interesting patterns. First,
although more than 30 percent of both white ware and corrugated gray ware sherds contain
temper of sedimentary rock, the frequencies of sherd temper vary widely between the two types
of wares. Second, the percentage of corrugated gray sherds with igneous temper is twice that of
white ware sherds with that type of temper. Finally, sand temper is present in about twice as
many corrugated gray ware sherds as white ware sherds.
These differences in temper use between corrugated gray and white ware vessels are probably
related to differences in the ways these vessels were used. Corrugated gray ware vessels were
cooking pots that were routinely subjected to thermal stress by being placed over open fires,
which created marked temperature variation along the vessel walls and between the interior and
exterior surfaces (Pierce 1999a:1). Tempering agents that resisted thermal expansion
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counteracted the tendency of fired clay to expand when heated and helped corrugated vessels
withstand thermal stress without cracking or breaking (West 1992:1). In addition, larger particles
of temper in cooking pots help diffuse microfractures that develop during use and therefore were
used more commonly in the production of corrugated gray ware vessels than in white ware
vessels. In contrast, white ware vessels were used for serving and storage and were not exposed
to significant thermal stress after firing. As a result, temper in white ware pastes functioned
primarily to keep unfired vessels from cracking as they dried. Thus, smaller and softer temper
particles (e.g., sherd fragments) were used for serving and storage vessels.
Next, to investigate the spatial distribution of sherds by temper type across the site, I separated
the temper data into two groups—that for Architectural Block 100, and that for Architectural
Blocks 200–1100. Figure 6.2 presents the results of the count by percentage of white ware sherds
on the basis of 14 temper codes. Most of the sherds from both contexts were tempered with
sherds, crushed white-matrix sandstone, or igneous rock. These three tempers are found in many
locally produced Mesa Verde white ware sherds and could have been procured locally, except
that the source areas of igneous materials―Sleeping Ute Mountain and the La Plata
Mountains―are more than 15 km from the site. Only sherds from Architectural Block 100
contain trachyte, a temper that outcrops primarily in the Chuska Mountains south of the Mesa
Verde region and in many diatremes and dikes in the Navajo Volcanic Field in the greater
Southwest (Arakawa and Gonzales 2010; Gerhardt and Arakawa 2009). This suggests two
possible interpretations: residents of Architectural Block 100 might have participated in more
spatially-extensive interaction networks than the inhabitants of other blocks in the pueblo, or the
residents of Albert Porter Pueblo procured trachyte locally, such as at diatremes and dikes
located in and around Mesa Verde National Park and Ute Mountain Ute Tribal Park.
Figure 6.3 shows percentages of white ware bowl sherds by temper materials for seven out of 17
temper categories. Sherd and igneous temper were found in slightly greater percentages of sherds
in Architectural Block 100 than in other blocks, but sedimentary rock temper was more common
in other areas of the site. Overall, these results suggest that local pottery production and
exchange networks were not significantly different in Block 100 than in other blocks in the
pueblo.
Percentages by count of corrugated gray ware sherds were analyzed on the basis of 14 temper
codes and were grouped by seven temper materials. Data indicate that two temper materials—
crushed white-matrix sandstone and igneous rocks—were found in higher frequencies of sherds
in Architectural Block 100; in contrast, crushed sandstone, multi-lithic sand, and weathered
silicified sandstone were found in greater percentages of sherds in other areas of the site.
Moreover, more vessels were produced with igneous temper in Architectural Block 100; in
contrast, sand temper particles were found in more sherds in other areas of the site. As discussed
in the previous section, the higher percentage of sherds with igneous temper found in
Architectural Block 100 might suggest that these residents obtained igneous temper or finished
vessels containing igneous temper from a location about 15 km distant, a relatively long distance,
such as Sleeping Ute Mountain, the La Plata Mountains, or the Chuska Mountains. I discuss
trade and the detailed analysis and interpretations of igneous temper in the “Trade” section of
this chapter.
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Comparison of White Ware and Corrugated Gray Ware: Pueblo II and Pueblo III Periods
In this section, temper preferences during the Pueblo II and Pueblo III periods are reported.
The results of counts by percentage of rim sherds from white ware vessels shows that about 50
percent of temper particles used in the Pueblo II period were sherd temper compared to about 45
percent of temper particles used during the Pueblo III period. In addition, 20 percent of sherds
dating from the Pueblo II period were tempered with igneous rock compared to about 10 percent
of sherds dating from the Pueblo III period. About 30 percent of sherds dating from both periods
contain temper of crushed white-matrix sandstone. Seventeen temper materials were grouped
into seven categories and analyzed. Data indicate different percentages of sherds with sherd and
igneous temper including a higher percentage of sherds with igneous rock temper but a lower
percentage of sherds with sherd temper dating from Pueblo II period contexts. The slightly
higher percentage of sherds with igneous temper dating from the Pueblo II period suggests that
residents participated in more exchange or trade with people who lived more than 15 km away.
A comparison of the frequency of temper types in rims of corrugated gray ware sherds shows a
relatively similar pattern between sherds found in Pueblo II vs. Pueblo III contexts. The results
of the count of corrugated gray ware by percent for 17 temper types show that a relatively higher
frequency of sherds found in contexts dating from the Pueblo II period contained crushed whitematrix sandstone and multi-lithic sand; in contrast, a relatively higher frequency of sherds
contained temper of weathered silicified sandstone in contexts dating from the Pueblo III period.
Temper preferences as revealed using seven broad temper types reflect slight differences in
temper preferences from the Pueblo II to the Pueblo III periods. Igneous particles and sand were
found in more sherds dating from the Pueblo II period, but temper of sedimentary rock was
found in more sherds dating from the Pueblo III period. Overall, the data reveal slight differences
in temper preferences for the Pueblo II vs. the Pueblo III period.
Comparison of White Ware and Corrugated Gray Ware from Albert Porter and Woods Canyon
Pueblos
To better understand temporal differences in temper types between the Late Pueblo II/Early
Pueblo III vs. Late Pueblo III period, 972 rim sherds from white ware vessels in the Albert Porter
Pueblo assemblage were compared with 104 sherds from similar vessels from Woods Canyon
Pueblo, and 679 rims sherds from corrugated gray vessels from Albert Porter Pueblo were
compared with 92 sherds from similar vessels from Woods Canyon Pueblo. The Woods Canyon
Pueblo assemblage was chosen for these comparisons for two reasons. First, the population of
Albert Porter Pueblo diminished during the Late Pueblo III period, and residents of this
settlement might have relocated to Woods Canyon Pueblo (Lipe and Ortman 2000). Second,
assemblages from these sites were analyzed in a comparable manner by Crow Canyon
researchers. The results show that residents of Albert Porter Pueblo used various types of
tempers, whereas residents of Woods Canyon Pueblo used sherd temper in most of their white
ware vessels. Also, igneous temper was not present in rim sherds found at Woods Canyon
Pueblo, whereas more than 10 percent of rim sherds collected from Albert Porter Pueblo
contained igneous temper. This might indicate that residents of the latter travelled (i.e., more
than 15 km) to obtain igneous rock, or they participated in trade with others who lived closer to
an igneous source (Arakawa 2006; Arakawa and Merewether 2010, 2011). Another interesting
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finding is that, in the Woods Canyon Pueblo assemblage, about 90 percentage of rim sherds from
white ware vessels contained sherd temper. Previous research suggests that during the Late
Pueblo III period, people in the central Mesa Verde region preferred sherd temper for their white
ware vessels (Ortman 2000; Till 2007).
The counts and percentages of five types of temper material found in sherds from corrugated jars
in assemblages from Albert Porter and Woods Canyon pueblos reveal significant differences in
the two assemblages. First, the frequency of sherds with igneous temper is lower for Albert
Porter Pueblo than for Woods Canyon Pueblo, which was occupied primarily late in the Pueblo
III period. Second, there is a much higher percentage of metamorphic rock temper in the
assemblage from Woods Canyon Pueblo; in contrast, a higher percentage of sherds containing
temper of sedimentary rock was identified in the Albert Porter Pueblo assemblage. Third, a
higher percentage of sherds from Albert Porter Pueblo than from Woods Canyon Pueblo
contained sand temper. This comparison reveals a very different pattern of raw material
procurement through time; the majority of the residents of Albert Porter Pueblo during the Late
Pueblo II and Early Pueblo III periods procured relatively more igneous temper than did the Late
Pueblo III residents of Woods Canyon Pueblo. This finding is similar to the results of other
researchers (Arakawa and Duff 2002; Arakawa, Merewether, and Nicholson 2011; Neily 1983).
This further indicates that residents during the Late Pueblo II/Early Pueblo III period procured
relatively long-distance igneous materials through interaction or trade.
Recent Research on Trachyte/Trachybasalt and Nonlocal Temper Sources
The study of pottery production and exchange depends not only upon the accurate
characterization of the raw materials found in specific pottery vessels but also upon knowledge
of the distribution of these raw materials on the landscape. Several studies of clay resource
distributions have been conducted for the Mesa Verde region (Glowacki et al. 2002; Hegmon et
al. 1997), but little research has addressed distributions of rocks and minerals used as temper. To
address this problem, Arakawa (2006) and Gerhardt and Arakawa (2007, 2009) conducted
several surveys of lithic resources in the McElmo drainage and in several areas of the Mancos
River basin, including Mesa Verde National Park (MVNP), the Ute Mountain Ute Tribal Park
(UMTP), and the Ute Mountain Ute Reservation. In addition to this work, MVNP staff and
students from Fort Lewis College (Burgess and Gonzales 2005; Gonzales et al. 2006; Turner and
Gonzales 2006) documented numerous small, extrusive igneous centers (diatremes and minette
dikes) in MVNP and UMTP.
An unexpected finding of these surveys casts doubt upon a long-standing inference in potterysourcing studies―that the presence of trachybasalt (also called sanidine basalt and trachyte in
the literature) in pottery indicates that the vessels were produced along the eastern foothills of the
Chuska Mountains (Lucius and Blinman 1981; Shepard 1956:166). Thus, when this temper is
identified in pottery assemblages from the Mesa Verde region, it has generally been interpreted
as evidence of long-distance exchange with people residing in the Chuska Mountains. Because
many resources, such as construction timbers, maize, and lithic materials (e.g., Narbona Pass
chert) were exported from the southern San Juan region (Benson et al. 2003; Ward 2004) to
Chaco Canyon, archaeologists have come to associate these materials with the Chaco regional
system. As a result, some archaeologists have interpreted the presence of trachybasalt in
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assemblages from the Mesa Verde region not only as evidence of interaction with the southern
San Juan region, but of participation in the Chaco regional system (e.g., Errickson 1993; Lekson
2006).
This series of inferences rests upon the assumption that trachybasalt does not occur naturally in
the Mesa Verde region. The recent surveys of resource distribution cited above indicate that this
assumption is false. Specifically, the diatremes and minette dikes recently identified in MVNP
and UMTP have been found to contain aphanitic minette and trachybasalt, both of which have
long been thought to outcrop only in the Chuska Mountains. These new data lead Gerhardt and
Arakawa (2009) to argue that it is no longer possible to assume that pottery vessels containing
these temper materials were necessarily produced in the Chuska Mountains. Thus, the presence
of these materials in pottery assemblages does not necessarily indicate interaction with the
southern San Juan region.
I also use pottery temper data to gain knowledge on interaction and affiliation between Albert
Porter Pueblo and Aztec Ruins, located in northwestern New Mexico. Lekson (2006) and P.
Reed (2008) assert that, before Chaco Canyon was depopulated, outlying great houses were more
closely affiliated with Aztec Ruins than with Chaco Canyon itself. If this was the case, one
should find exchange goods indicating interaction between residents of Albert Porter Pueblo and
residents of the middle San Juan region. I investigate this issue with the use of petrographic and
neutron-activation analyses to examine the frequencies of pottery tempers.
To test our hypothesis of local procurement, Arakawa and Gerhardt obtained research permits
from MVNP, UMTP, and the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe to search for geologic sources and
associated quarry sites of trachybasalt and aphanitic minette. We found both geological sources
and quarry sites, leading us to conclude that people in the central Mesa Verde region probably
procured weathered trachybasalt for pottery temper and aphanitic minette for stone tools from
these local sources, rather than, or in addition to, trading with ancestral Pueblo populations in the
middle San Juan region. Gonzales et al. (2006) have conducted further reconnaissance of dikes
and diatremes in the Navajo Volcanic Field to collect samples of these potential sources of
extrusive rocks and minerals.
Pottery Sourcing Analyses
Given the research by Gerhardt and Arakawa (2009), one of the goals of INAA and petrographic
(or thin-section) analyses for the Albert Porter Pueblo project was to determine whether trachytetempered sherds from Albert Porter Pueblo were necessarily from vessels produced in the
Chuska Mountains. Twenty sherds from Albert Porter Pueblo were selected for INAA and
petrographic analyses. All 20 exhibit evidence of nonlocal manufacture in the form of igneous
tempers that include trachyte or trachybasalt, olivine, biotite, augite diorite, and diorite porphyry.
Trachyte or trachybasalt has typically been associated with the eastern slope of the Chuska
Mountains, and specifically the northern portion of Beautiful Mountain (Errickson 1993; Mills et
al. 1997). Olivine and biotite minerals are also mainly extrusive and occur in diatremes and dikes
of the Navajo Volcanic Field across the Four Corners region. Augite diorite, in which augite is a
prominent mafic mineral, and can be found in areas around the Carrizo Mountains in New
Mexico, in the La Plata Mountains, or on river terraces south of the San Juan Mountains. Diorite
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is a type of rock between granite and gabbro, and porphyry is a rock texture type that may
contain any of the other igneous rocks. Diorite is common in La Plata Mountains, and diorite
porphyry is a major constituent of Sleeping Ute Mountain and Abajo Mountain. One-half of each
sample was sent for INAA at the Archaeometry Laboratory Research Reactor Center at the
University of Missouri (MURR), and the other sherds were made into thin sections for
petrographic analysis at Fort Lewis College.
Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis
Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is a method that identifies the elemental
composition of a sample. Ferguson and Glascock describe the sample-preparation procedures
used by MURR as follows:
Fragments of about 1 cm2 were removed from each sample and
abraded using a silicon carbide burr in order to remove glaze, slip,
paint, and adhering soil, thereby reducing the risk of measuring
contamination. The samples were washed in deionized water and
allowed to dry in the laboratory. Once dry, the individual sherds
were ground to powder in an agate mortar to homogenize the
samples. Archival samples were retained from each sherd (when
possible) for future research (Ferguson and Glascock 2009:2).
When MURR researchers prepared the samples from Albert Porter Pueblo for INAA, one sample
(Provenience Designation Number [PD] 1812, Field Specimen Number [FS] 1) was misplaced;
thus, only 19 samples were analyzed (Ferguson and Glascock 2009). The small number of
samples constrains intrasite comparisons, but MURR maintains a database of elemental
concentrations for more than 55,000 INAA samples, including items from the Chuska Mountains
(Mills et al. 1997) the middle San Juan region (Glowacki 2006; L. Reed 2008), Mesa Verde
proper (Glowacki 2006), and the McElmo/Monument area of the central Mesa Verde region
(Glowacki 2006). It is possible to compare each of the 19 samples from Albert Porter Pueblo
with other samples in this database to determine whether their overall compositions are
consistent with production using materials available in each of these areas.
The Albert Porter samples were compared to the entire MURR pottery INAA database using
principal-components analysis and a variety of bivariate elemental concentration plots. Figure
6.4 compares the elemental concentrations of chromium and ytterbium in the Albert Porter
samples with their concentrations in previously analyzed samples from the Chuska Mountains.
The figure shows that 11 of the Albert Porter Pueblo samples match the Chuska Mountains
samples (Mills et al. 1997). In addition, five items matched the concentrations of these two
elements in previously analyzed samples from the middle San Juan (Glowacki 2006; L. Reed
2008), two pieces matched concentrations in samples from Mesa Verde proper (Glowacki 2006),
and one item matched the elemental concentrations of samples from the McElmo/Monument
area (Glowacki 2006).
Figure 6.5 shows a bivariate plot of chromium and dysprosium concentrations in the samples
from Albert Porter Pueblo, the Chuska Mountains, Mesa Verde and McElmo/Monument, and
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Aztec and Salmon Ruins in the middle San Juan region. This chart confirms that the five sherds
from Albert Porter Pueblo identified as middle San Juan white ware during temper analysis
overlap with the main cluster of samples from Aztec and Salmon Ruins (Ferguson and Glascock
2009). According to Ferguson and Glascock (2009:8), this interpretation should be approached
with some caution: “The distinction between the Mesa Verde Proper and McElmo-Monument
regional chemical signatures is quite subtle and not easy to differentiate using bivariate plots or
multivariate statistics.”
Finally, Figure 6.6 displays the concentrations of chromium and lutetium in the Albert Porter
Pueblo samples and in previously analyzed samples from the northern Southwest. This figure
nicely separates the Chuska Mountains, middle San Juan region, Mesa Verde proper, and
McElmo-Monument compositional groups.
The INAA results show that the overall elemental composition of a majority of the samples
submitted matched those of sherds collected from the Chuska Mountains. This result is not
unexpected, because we selectively chose samples containing trachybasalt for analysis.
However, it is important to remember that INAA is a bulk-sample analysis method, and that the
composition of the clays and the tempers are combined using this method. Thus, if temper
compositions drive the analysis more so than clay compositions, and potters in the Mesa Verde
region used the local sources of aphanitic minette and trachybasalt mentioned earlier, sherds
from vessels produced in the Mesa Verde region using these resources may be indistinguishable
from sherds of vessels produced using resources from the Chuska Mountains. An alternative
means of assessing the possibility of local production would be to assess the composition of the
clays used to make the trachybasalt-tempered vessels from Albert Porter Pueblo and the Chuska
Mountains and then assess the tempers of those vessels separately. However, to definitively
demonstrate local production would require finding unfired sherds containing trachybasalt and
made using local clays at sites near the local sources of trachybasalt identified in recent resource
surveys. I will interpret the results of the INAA in conjunction with the results of the
petrographic analysis below.
Petrographic Analysis
The other halves of the 20 sherds submitted for INAA were sent to Mark Mercer at Petrographic
Service in Montrose, Colorado for analysis. Because two of the samples we submitted were too
small for thin sectioning, he created a total of 18 thin-section slides. These thin-section samples
were then analyzed by David Gonzales at Fort Lewis College in Durango, Colorado.
Some archaeologists and geologists (Mills et al. 1997; Shepard 1939) have previously conducted
petrographic studies of pottery sherds in the Southwest. The most characteristic feature of
extrusive igneous ceramic tempers from the Chuska Mountains is the presence of microlithic
inclusions of magnetite and pyroxene within crystals of potassium feldspar, forming a “poikilitic
texture” (Mills et al. 1997; Shepard 1939; Warren 1967). Micas, pyroxene, and olivine (often
altered to hematite) are also present. According to Shepard (1939), Warren (1967), and Mills et
al. (1997), the only sources of rocks containing this mineralogy are thought to be Beautiful
Mountain and the basalt flows at Narbona Pass. These flows are late-stage plugs that occurred
after formation of the main diatremes, possibly infilling the topographic low created by earlier
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phreatic explosions at Narbona Pass (Lucas et al. 2003). They are slightly more felsic (richer
in potassium feldspar) than the older minette dikes. Mills et al. (1997) further investigated the
trachybasalt at Narbona Pass to better understand the production and distribution of Chuska
pottery. They concluded that vessels found at sites near Narbona Pass displayed a chemical
composition distinct from areas of East Sonsela Butte, Shiprock, and Beautiful Mountain in the
Navajo Volcanic Field because of the abundant use of trachybasalt and sanidine in the former
area. Gerhardt and Arakawa (2009) challenged the hypothesis that tempers containing this
lithology are available only at Narbona Pass and proposed that igneous centers of the Navajo
Volcanic Field near Mesa Verde National Park could have also served as a source of this
material.
The following descriptions are of pottery sherds examined by Gonzales (2009). Two dominant
types of igneous temper material were identified in this investigation. Nine sherds contain
sanidine-rich minette and the remaining nine contain other intrusive rock. The sanidine-rich
minette consists primarily of fragments and disaggregated fragments of minette dominated by
laths and blades of sanidine with variable proportion of clinopyroxene, phlogopite, and opaque
minerals +/- apatite +/- rutile. These sherds also contain variable amounts of quartz, perthitic
alkali feldspar, plagioclase, and sedimentary rock fragments. The minette fragments in these
samples are holocrystalline (no glass) and vary from fine grained to medium grained. In some
samples the sanidine occurs as massive bladed crystals that envelop subhedral to eudedral
crystals of clinopyroxene and phlogophite, producing a poikilitic texture. In other samples the
sanidine forms in clusters of lath-shaped crystals. In either case, however, the sanidine occurs
late in the crystallization and makes up more than 30 percent of the total material in the samples
(Gonzales 2009).
The temper in the remaining nine thin sections consists primarily of perthitic alkali feldsparplagioclase-quartz-rich intrusive rock (or plutonic) fragments and disaggregated fragments. The
dominant constituents in the plutonic fragments are clinopyroxene, microcline or orthoclase
(some are perthitic), plagioclase, and opaque minerals +/- apatite +/- sphene (titanite) along with
minor amounts of other minerals (e.g., hornblende) and metamorphic or sedimentary rock
fragments. In at least some samples, polygranular metamorphosed quart-rich fragments are very
abundant. The plutonic fragments in these samples are holocrystalline hypidiomorphic to
allotriomorphic and medium to coarse grained. Most crystals are anhedral to subhedral, with
quartz crystallizing last in most samples. The feldspar crystals in most of these samples are
altered to clays and sericite. This alteration varies from minor to extensive (Gonzales 2009).
The paste of the pottery sherds examined varies from shades of brown to gray and is very fine
grained to fine grained. Most paste materials contain high proportions of angular to subangular
fragments that are too small to be identified with a petrographic microscope. In some samples
some fragments might have been derived from reworked pottery (Gonzales 2009).
Possible Sources of Igneous Temper
The Navajo Volcanic Field covers approximately 20,000 km2 in the Four Corners area of the
American Southwest. It consists of many diatremes, tuff pipes, and dikes. These volcanoes
erupted from about 25 to 30 million years ago (Thornbury 1965:413). Since then, erosion has
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lowered the surface hundreds of meters, exposing deeper levels of these extinct volcanoes.
Shiprock, near the town of Shiprock, New Mexico, is an excellent example of a volcanic neck or
plug with surrounding dikes. The abundance of fragmented volcanic rock suggests the explosive
eruption of highly gas-charged magma. In the Four Corners area, 36 diatremes have been
recorded in the Chuska Mountains, and more than five additional diatremes have been identified
within Mesa Verde National Park, Ute Mountain Ute Tribal Park, and the Ute Mountain Ute
Reservation. Along these diatremes, dozens of dikes and sills are also deposited. The relationship
between these diatremes and dikes is not clear, but both types were possibly created at the same
time, about 25 to 30 million years ago.
To understand the sources of igneous-temper minerals in pottery collected from Albert Porter
Pueblo, David Gonzales, Kim Gerhardt, and I initially conducted reconnaissance surveys around
and in MVNP and UMTP (Gerhardt and Arakawa 2009). We visited five major areas of
diatremes and dikes, including Weber Mountain diatremes, Chapin Mesa dike, Wetherill Mesa
diatremes and dikes, northern Mancos Canyon diatremes, and Johnson Canyon diatremes and
dikes. Since 2009, we have continued to visit and collect extrusive minerals from other areas
around and within MVNP and UMTP. The detailed petrographic analysis of these collected
samples was conducted by David Gonzales at Fort Lewis College.
In addition, Gonzales (2009) has conducted collection surveys at dozens of diatremes, dikes, and
plugs in the Navajo Volcanic Field in Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado. He has visited
more than 20 diatremes and dikes to collect representative samples. Gonzales undertook
petrographic and microprobe analyses from 2010 through 2012 (Gonzales 2009).
On the basis of field survey and microscopic analysis, David Gonzales (personal communication
2009) suggests that minerals deposited in and around MVNP and UMTP are more sodic-rich
than areas of Narbona Pass and Beautiful Mountain, where explosive flows were late-stage plugs
after formation of the main diatremes, possibly infilling the topographic low created by earlier
phreatic explosions. In contrast, minerals collected from Narbona Pass and Beautiful Mountain
are more felsic (richer in potassium feldspar) than the older minette dikes. Gonzales also notes
that minerals collected from diatremes and dikes in the Chuska Mountains contain large sanidine
crystals, which are also frequent in mineral samples from MVNP and UMTP. According to
Gonzales, the abundance of sanidine may help to separate igneous temper from the Chuska
Mountains and MVNP and UMTP areas in the future.
Comparison of Results from INAA and Petrographic Analyses
The results of both INAA and petrographic analyses for 17 sherds from Albert Porter Pueblo
indicate that nine pieces containing sanidine-rich temper were, through petrography, also
identified as Chuskan in origin (through INAA). The petrographic analysis suggests eight pieces
contain other rock-rich minerals, and INAA traced these sherds to three different areas—the
middle San Juan region, Mesa Verde proper, and the McElmo/Monument area (Glowacki 2006).
Overall, the results of these analyses indicate that the binocular microscopic analysis was highly
successful in separating sanidine-rich igneous tempers from other igneous tempers, and relatively
successful in identifying sherds from vessels manufactured in the middle San Juan region as
opposed to the central Mesa Verde region. These results thus suggest that it is possible, using a
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binocular microscope, to distinguish pottery vessels with sanidine-rich temper from vessels made
using resources from the middle San Juan and central Mesa Verde region. Whether the sanidinerich tempers derived from the Chuska Mountains in all cases is not yet known, and a definitive
answer will require further study. Refiring and microprobe analyses of the clays used to make
vessels with sanidine-rich temper found at sites in the central Mesa Verde region may be needed
to resolve the questions raised by Gerhardt and Arakawa (2009) as a result of their discovery of
aphanitic minette and trachyte sources in southwest Colorado.
Chipped-Stone Artifacts
In this section, I summarize and discuss the chipped-stone artifacts recovered from Albert Porter
Pueblo. The first subsection provides background information for the types of lithic raw
materials present in the assemblage. The chipped-stone tools from Albert Porter Pueblo are then
considered, both by architectural block and by temporal component, in light of these material
types. The section then turns to the analysis of “bulk” chipped stone, which is also discussed by
architectural block and by component. Formal and informal chipped-stone tools include bifaces,
drills, projectile points, cores, peckingstones, and utilized and modified flakes. The section
concludes with a discussion of chipped-stone debitage recovered from the site.
Lithic Raw-Material Types
The classification system used for lithic raw materials by the Crow Canyon Archaeological
Center was first created for the analysis of the lithic assemblage from the Duckfoot site,
5MT3806 (Lightfoot and Etzkorn 1993), and was later modified by Gerhardt (2001). This
subsection covers mostly descriptions and classifications by Gerhardt (2001) of lithic rawmaterial types in the central Mesa Verde region. Gerhardt (2001) developed a flow chart of rawmaterial classification on the basis of three major rock types—sedimentary, igneous, and
metamorphic. Igneous rocks can be classified as either intrusive or extrusive rocks, depending on
their mineral composition (i.e., cooling of molten rock either slowly or quickly by volcanic
activities). In the central Mesa Verde region, intrusive rocks such as granite, diorite, and gabbro
can be found in the La Plata Mountains, on Sleeping Ute Mountain, and in many Pleistocene
gravel deposits along the Mancos River drainage and along McElmo creek. Extrusive rocks such
as aphanitic minette, obsidian, and basalt were deposited in dikes and diatremes of the Navajo
Volcanic Field, Jemez Mountains, Mount Taylor, and the San Francisco Peaks in the American
Southwest. As discussed in the “Pottery” section of this chapter, some extrusive rocks were also
used for pottery temper in the Mesa Verde region.
Sedimentary rocks were made from either the consolidation of solid fragments or by
precipitation of minerals from solution. According to Gerhardt’s (2001) lithic flowchart,
sedimentary rocks are first classified as either silicified sedimentary rock, precipitation of silica,
or unsilicified sedimentary rock. In silicified sedimentary categories, rocks are further classified
by color: (1) tan-white, light brown, and light gray; (2) purple, green, or dark gray; or (3) other.
The first category includes Cretaceous-period Dakota or Burro Canyon Formation silicified
sandstone (hereafter called Dakota/Burro Canyon silicified sandstone). The second category
includes Jurassic-period Morrison Formation Brushy Basin Member silicified sandstone
(hereafter called Morrison silicified sandstone). Other sedimentary rocks include silicified
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sandstone, which is referred to as quartzite in the original lithic classification system used by
Crow Canyon2, and mudstone. In the precipitate of silica category, rocks that contain inclusions
such as chalcedony are classified as Cretaceous period Dakota or Burro Canyon Formation chert
(hereafter called Burro Canyon chert/siltstone), whereas rocks that contain no inclusions can be
identified as Morrison Formation Brushy Basin Member chert (hereafter called Brushy Basin
chert). Rocks of a specific color can be identified as particular types of rock. For example,
translucent rocks are classified as chalcedony. Red rocks are identified as red jasper. Rocks that
are salmon red are Narbona Pass chert.
Metamorphic rocks include quartzite, metaquartzite, slate, and shale. In the past, Crow Canyon
categorized Dakota quartzite as metamorphic (Ortman 2003), but this is sedimentary rock that
contains microcrystalline quartz precipitated between sand grains. Thus, Crow Canyon now
refers to this material as Dakota/Burro Canyon silicified sandstone.
Historical Geology and Lithology in the Four Corners Area
Historical geology and lithology help us understand what kind of rock was available to the
inhabitants of Albert Porter Pueblo for the production of chipped-stone tools. Three important
geological formations—Morrison, Burro Canyon, and Dakota—are particularly relevant when
addressing this topic. In this subsection, I briefly discuss the historical geology and lithology of
these three formations in the central Mesa Verde region.
The following discussion follows Gerhardt (2001). During the Jurassic period, approximately
144–206 million years ago, an offshore trench west of California was created by subduction (the
movement of one tectonic plate under another tectonic plate) of oceanic crust beneath continental
North America. Inland from the subduction zone was an active volcanic arc of the Sierra Nevada
spewing out ash, and this ash was carried eastward into the area of Morrison Formation
deposition. Erosion of the volcanic mountain belt provided sediments that were carried eastward
by rivers depositing river gravels and sands as well as floodplain shales in the Four Corners area.
Sediments in the area of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado were dominated by sandy
deposits. Material sources in the Salt Wash Member include silica-cemented sandstone and
petrified wood. In the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation, the tectonic setting was
identical to the Salt Wash Member (i.e., subduction of ocean crust and active volcanic arc and
ash fall), but the depositional environment changed from predominantly river sands and gravels
to floodplain mudstones and lake deposits.
One large lake, T’oo’dichi’, occupied much of the area of southeastern Utah and southwestern
Colorado during Brushy Basin time, 152–150 million years ago (Fassett et al. 2010). During this
period, ash from volcanic eruptions in the Sierra Nevada was carried eastward over the Four
Corners area and fell into Lake T’oo’dichi’, forming a layer of sediment on the bottom of the
lake. The chemistry of the lake and sedimentary pore waters (the water filling the spaces between
grains of sediments) is unusual in two ways. First, the lake is highly alkaline, more so toward the
center than the edges; this is because there was inflow but no outlet, and the climate was hot,
causing evaporation and concentration of ions. Second, the ash deposits contained an abundance
of mobile, reactive silica as a result of the dissolution of volcanic glass. In this environment, the
ash layer altered into a series of secondary minerals that were concentrically zoned by position
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toward the center. From the margin to the center, four minerals were exposed, including
smectite, clinoptilolite, analcime, and albite. With the exception of smectite (used for clay), these
minerals were used by ancestral Pueblo people to make chipped-stone tools. The color of Brushy
Basin silica-cemented sandstones is typically purple to brown, gray-red, or green.
In the Cretaceous period, the subduction and volcanism from the Jurassic period continued to be
active, but a new feature was created by a syncline, resulting in the deformation of eastern
Nevada and western Utah and forming thrust faults. This overthrust belt, “Sevier Orogenic Belt,”
formed the Wasatch Mountains. Erosion of the mountain belt proceeded simultaneously with
tectonic movement, and vast quantities of gravel, sand, silt, and clay were carried by river
systems from the northeast to the Pacific Ocean. The thickness of the sediments deposited by
these fluvial systems was color coded from purple to red. The thickest layers of gravelly
sediments were deposited adjacent to the thrust belt, and the thinner shale layers were deposited
farther eastward from the Four Corners area. Southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado were
in the zone of thinner deposits. From the western Dolores River valley, the lower Cretaceous
section thickened and became more gravelly. The formation name changes from Burro Canyon
to Cedar Mountain to the Buckhorn Conglomerate across the area. The Burro Canyon Formation
was deposited first, regionally thick and extensive above the smooth-weathering, shaley Brushy
Basin Member. These thick, fluvial-channel sandstones of the Burro Canyon Formation became
silicified and were a material source for ancestral Pueblo chipped-stone tools. Most silicacemented sandstone is light gray, light brown, tan, or white. These silica-cemented sandstones
might have undergone repeated dissolution of the original quartz grains and precipitation of
microcrystalline quartz (chert and chalcedony). The end product is a light-colored chert that was
used for chipped-stone tools by individuals in the central Mesa Verde region.
The finer-grained interbeds between Burro Canyon sandstones closely resemble the Brushy
Basin Member in the Morrison Formation in that they are green, purple, reddish, and tan.
Silicified ash layers similar to those in the Brushy Basin Member also occurred in the shale
interbeds of the Burro Canyon Formation and were material sources for chipped-stone tools.
Sea level had been rising steadily throughout the Mesozoic, culminating in the middle-to-upper
Cretaceous period. Oceanic embayment spread northward from the Gulf coast and south from the
Arctic, eventually forming the continuous “Western Interior Seaway.” Southwestern Colorado
and southeastern Utah were located on the margin of the seaway.
When the Dakota Formation was deposited, it was actually a time-transgressive unit that
represented shoreline deposits. Sediments from laterally-linked sandy beaches, coaly coastal
swamps, and sandy river-channel sub-environments were all included in the Dakota Formation.
Offshore, the muddy ocean-bottom sediments then became the Mancos Shale Member. As sea
level rose, the Dakota Formation shoreline retreated westward while the former land was covered
with oceanic shale (i.e., Mancos shale). At any one location today, Mancos shale is always above
Dakota sandstone, but these units are different ages from east to west. For example, the Dakota
sandstone and Mancos shale in Durango, Colorado, is older than the Dakota sandstone and
Mancos shale in Cortez, Colorado. The back-stepping of the Dakota sub-environments with
rising sea level resulted in the typical vertical succession of thick-bedded fluvial sandstones
overlain by coaly shale, and overlain by thin beach sandstones. River-channel sandstones and
coaly shale are typical lithologies in the Dakota Formation. The fluvial sandstones of the lower
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Dakota Formation closely resemble those of the underlying Burro Canyon Formation, but the
shale interbeds of the Dakota Formation were coaly, whereas those of the Burro Canyon look
like the green and purple Brushy Basin materials. This difference in the lithology of mudstones is
the only way to detect the contact between the Burro Canyon and Dakota formations in outcrop.
It would be impossible to differentiate a sandstone sample originating from the lower Dakota
Formation from one from the Burro Canyon Formation. The middle-to-upper Dakota sandstone
is more thinly-bedded and frequently contains imprints of plant debris. Because plant imprints
are very rare in the Burro Canyon Formation, the upper Dakota sandstones are identifiable by
this characteristic.
Local vs. Nonlocal Materials
Previous studies of lithic raw materials from archaeological sites in the central Mesa Verde
region (Arakawa 2000, 2006; Ortman 2000, 2002, 2003; Till and Ortman 2007) suggest that the
majority of these materials were procured locally, and that less than 2 percent of debitage
assemblages consist of nonlocal materials. Obsidian and Narbona Pass chert (this material was
previously called “Washington Pass chert”) are two important raw materials that were procured
from outside the central Mesa Verde region. Arakawa et al. (2011) summarize obsidian toolstone procurement patterns in the central Mesa Verde region. They conclude that early residents
(A.D. 600–900) obtained obsidian from various areas, including Government Mountain in
northern Arizona, Mount Taylor in west-central New Mexico, and the Jemez Mountains in northcentral New Mexico. In contrast, later residents (A.D. 900–1280) procured obsidian almost
exclusively from the Jemez Mountains. Arakawa et al. (2011) argue that the increasing focus
through time on the Jemez Mountains for obsidian procurement reflects the development of a
migration stream from the central Mesa Verde region to northern Rio Grande region.
Narbona Pass chert is another nonlocal material that is important for understanding and
reconstructing exchange networks between the Mesa Verde region and the southern San Juan
region during the late Pueblo II period (A.D. 1050–1150). The only known quarry for Narbona
Pass chert is located in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico, approximately 60 miles south of
the central Mesa Verde region. Stone from this quarry is quite distinct from other
cryptocrystalline (very fine-grained) materials because of its distinctive color and purity.
From about A.D. 1000 to 1140, when the Chaco regional system was at its peak, many goods
and resources—including Narbona Pass chert—were imported from the Chuska Mountains, not
only to Chaco Canyon itself, but to Chaco outliers throughout the San Juan basin (Cameron
2001). Although Crow Canyon staff members and program participants have conducted
excavations at more than 20 archaeological sites in the central Mesa Verde region, few artifacts
made of Narbona Pass chert have been recovered—a total of six projectile points (from Lester’s
Site, Sand Canyon Pueblo, and Yellow Jacket Pueblo), three cores (from Albert Porter, Shields,
and Yellow Jacket pueblos), and 45 pieces of debitage from various sites.
Red jasper has been classified as nonlocal by previous researchers as a result of its common
occurrence in Triassic-age rocks in southeastern Utah (Ortman 2003; Till 2007). However,
Arakawa (2006) found a quarry site (Site 5MT4818) containing red cryptocrystalline material
(i.e., red jasper) in Cow Canyon, located near Lowry Ruins in southwestern Colorado. Although
the deposition of red jasper at the quarry was not extensive, a projectile point made of this
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material was identified at Albert Porter Pueblo. Thus, at least some of the red jasper found at
Albert Porter Pueblo might have been procured locally.
Raw-Material Qualities
For the manufacture of formal chipped-stone tools such as projectile points and bifaces, lithic
raw materials should be capable of forming conchoidal (“shell-like”) fractures (also called
Hertzian cones). According to Whittaker (1994:12–14), stones that produce conchoidal fractures
have three important properties—they are homogeneous, brittle, and elastic. Homogeneous
means “…they are the same throughout, lacking differences in texture, cracks, planes, flaws, and
irregularities”; brittle means “the rock breaks relatively easily and cannot be deformed (bent,
compressed) very much without breaking”; and elasticity means “that if not deformed too much
(to the breaking point) a material will return to its original shape.” Burro Canyon chert/siltstone,
chalcedony, red jasper, petrified wood, Brushy Basin chert, Narbona Pass chert, and obsidian are
all considered high-quality materials because they possess these three properties and were
commonly used by ancestral Pueblo people to make formal chipped-stone tools. In contrast, most
Morrison Formation rocks—Morrison mudstone and Morrison silicified sandstone—are not ideal
for manufacturing formal tools because they do not possess these properties. Morrison rocks are
hard and coarse and were typically used to make peckingstones and ground-stone tools. Dakota
mudstone is slightly silicified yellow or red sandstone that appears to outcrop just west of Albert
Porter Pueblo. This material was also of low quality and was used to make expedient tools.
The Albert Porter Lithic Assemblage
Table 6.25 presents, by material type, the quantities of bifaces, cores, other chipped-stone tools,
modified cores, peckingstones, projectile points, single-bitted axes, and debris in the Albert
Porter Pueblo assemblage. Most of the lithic artifacts (about 98 percent) are debitage, and cores
and peckingstones each compose about 1 percent of the assemblage. An examination of the lithic
assemblage by weight (Table 6.26) yields similar results: more than 60 percent is debris, whereas
peckingstones compose 15 percent and cores compose 17 percent of the total assemblage. Tables
6.25 and 6.26 illustrate interesting patterns in the preference of raw materials for specific tool
types. More than 40 percent of formal tools, such as projectile points and bifaces, were made of
Dakota/Burro Canyon silicified sandstone. In contrast, more than 35 percent of expedient tools
such as cores and peckingstones were made of Morrison mudstone or silicified sandstone, and
about 35 percent of modified cores were of Dakota mudstone. These correlations between raw
materials and tool types have been noted in previous studies of ancestral Pueblo assemblages
(Ortman 2003; Till 2007) and appear to derive from the properties of various raw materials, as
stated above.
Projectile Points
Projectile points were typically used for hunting large game (Ellis 1997). Projectile points differ
from bifaces in that most of the former are notched at the distal end so that the point can be
hafted onto an arrow shaft. In all, 222 projectile points were recovered at Albert Porter Pueblo
(Table 6.27). Most of these are small corner- or side-notched points. The average size of these
points is 2.22 cm long, 1.29 cm wide, and 0.35 cm thick. The average weight is about 1 g. Most
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are complete points or points that were discarded during the final stages of manufacture (see
Whittaker 1994), but 16 of the 222 points were either incomplete or were discarded at an
indeterminate stage in the reduction process.
More than 40 percent of these points were made of Dakota/Burro Canyon silicified sandstone,
12 percent were fashioned from Burro Canyon chert, 11 percent are agate/chalcedony, and 11
percent are of unknown chert. Analyzing these objects by weight produces similar patterns.
Because projectile points are rarely represented by multiple fragments from the same object,
I will focus on counts for the remainder of this subsection.
The majority of projectile points were recovered from fill inside structures—which includes
middens, roof-fall debris, and naturally deposited sediments—and the remainder were recovered
from the modern ground surface. More than half were recovered from Architectural Block 100;
many were also found in Architectural Blocks 900 and 1000. In order to assess the relative
densities of projectile points from different areas of the site, it is necessary to standardize
projectile-point recovery rates against the total amount of excavation in each area. Utility wares
have been found to be a good measure of site-occupation intensity (Kohler 1978; Varien and
Mills 1997; Varien and Ortman 2005; Varien and Potter 1997) and thus can serve as a means of
standardizing data for comparisons. For the analyses that follow, I use the ratio of tool counts to
the weights of gray ware sherds for various excavated areas within Albert Porter Pueblo in order
to compare the relative incidence of projectile points. Because sherd size varies across sampling
strata as a result of depositional and post-depositional processes, weights rather than counts are
better estimators of pottery deposition. In contrast, counts are a more interpretable measure of
stone-artifact deposition because, unlike pottery vessels, stone artifacts do not fragment.
The results indicate that, although projectile points occur at relatively comparable rates in all
architectural blocks, the incidence is greater in Architectural Blocks 400, 1100, 1000, and 900
(Table 6.28). Projectile points appear to be slightly less abundant in Architectural Block 100
(115/300,003 = 0.00038) than in other areas (107/272,634 = 0.00039).
The incidence of projectile points in three temporal contexts within Block 100—pre–A.D. 1060,
A.D. 1060–1140, and A.D. 1140–1280—was investigated; these three time spans predate the
great house, coincide with initial use of the great house, and coincide with final use of the great
house, respectively. The results show a higher ratio of projectile points for the pre–A.D. 1060
context; in contrast, the ratio for the A.D. 1060–1140 context was relatively low. This suggests
that the initial residents of Architectural Block 100 (before A.D. 1060) produced and used more
projectile points than later residents. Finally, a comparison between contexts dating from the
Pueblo II period (4/16,418=.0002) vs. the Pueblo III period (113/305,243 = 0.0003) indicates
that projectile points were less common in Pueblo II-period contexts than in Pueblo III-period
contexts. The standard errors of proportion indicate that sample sizes are fairly similar for
comparisons of projectile points recovered from Architectural Block 100 and other areas,
whereas sample sizes of the Pueblo II period and Pueblo III period suggest that the comparisons
are significantly different and comparable.
A recent study by Arakawa et al. (2013) suggests that this temporal trend was widespread and
was probably associated with changes in hunting roles in ancestral Pueblo subsistence strategies
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through time. Arakawa et al. (2013) compiled data on the frequencies of projectile points for 123
sites in the Mesa Verde region to investigate the ways in which increasing population affected
subsistence patterns as revealed by the frequency of projectile points. We calculated ratios of
projectile points to counts of gray ware sherds and then compared these ratios to local population
densities across the Mesa Verde region. We focused only on sites dating from the Pueblo II to
the Pueblo III periods in the central Mesa Verde region. The index for Albert Porter Pueblo is
0.0023 (222/98,105), whereas the average ratio in the selected samples is 0.0020. This suggests
that residents of Albert Porter Pueblo discarded a relatively greater quantity of projectile points
than residents of other settlements. This may indicate that inhabitants of Albert Porter Pueblo
hunted big game (i.e., deer) more frequently than did inhabitants of adjacent areas (see also
Chapter 10).
Bifaces
A biface is defined as “a tool that has two surfaces (faces) that meet to form a single edge that
circumscribes the tool” (Andrefsky 1998:21). On most bifaces, both faces exhibit flake scars that
extend at least halfway across the face of the tool. In hunting-and-gathering societies, bifaces
were commonly used as knives; most bifaces from ancestral Pueblo sites are either preforms or
fragments of finished or nearly-finished projectile points.
The Albert Porter Pueblo assemblage contains 130 bifaces. The average size of these bifaces is
2.3 cm long, 1.7 cm wide, and 0.5 cm thick. The average weight is 2.4 g. The average size of
these bifaces is comparable to that of the projectile points in the assemblage, but the average
weight of the bifaces (2.4 g) is more than twice the average weight of the projectile points (1 g).
This suggests that some bifaces were significantly heavier than other bifaces. These heavier
bifaces are probably projectile-point preforms.
The counts, weights, and percentages of bifaces from Albert Porter Pueblo by raw-material type
were examined. Because there is no substantial difference between percentages by count and
weight, I focus on the percentage by count in the following discussion. Bifaces shared similar
material types as projectile points. More than 45 percent of bifaces were made from
Dakota/Burro Canyon silicified sandstone, about 15 percent from Burro Canyon chert, 10
percent from unknown chert, and about 7 percent from agate/chalcedony. These patterns of rawmaterial use are mirrored in other assemblages from the central Mesa Verde region that date
from the Pueblo II and Pueblo III periods (Ortman 2003; Till 2007). Bifacial tools made of
Dakota/Burro Canyon silicified sandstone, Burro Canyon chert, and agate/chalcedony are
common in these collections, because sources of these raw materials are abundant and widely
distributed in the central Mesa Verde region.
The Crow Canyon laboratory subscribes to Whittaker’s (1994:199–206) bifacial reduction
categories: primary thinned preforms, bifacial-edged blanks, refined bifaces, finished bifaces,
and indeterminate. About one-third of the bifaces from Albert Porter Pueblo were deposited at an
indeterminate stage in the reduction process, about 30 percent were primary thinned preforms,
and 16 percent were finished bifaces. The large percentage of primary thinned preforms indicates
that most bifaces were flakes that were subsequently thinned bifacially to create a knife or were
discarded at one of various stages in the process of producing a projectile point.
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The quantity of bifaces and the ratio of the count of bifaces to the weight of gray ware sherds
collected from each architectural block were calculated. Although 40 percent of the bifaces in the
assemblage were recovered in Architectural Block 100, the results of this ratio analysis indicate
that the largest incidence of bifaces is for Architectural Blocks 400 and 500. This uneven
distribution suggests that some residents of those blocks might have participated in lithicreduction activities. This issue will be further investigated in the discussion of the debitage
assemblage, below.
To gain more information about bifacial reduction activities in Architecture Block 100, I
compared the ratio of biface counts to the weights of gray ware sherds for areas inside
Architectural Block 100 to the ratios for all other blocks. The results indicate that bifaces are
slightly more abundant in other blocks (75/272,634=.00027) than in Block 100
(55/300,003=.00018), but the differences are relatively small. To evaluate whether sample sizes
are sufficient for this comparison, I calculated the standard errors of the proportion of the counts
of bifaces to gray ware sherds collected from all architectural blocks at the site. The results
suggest that the incidence of bifaces recovered from these two areas is significantly different,
and that standard errors do not overlap. These data suggest that bifacial-reduction activities
might have occurred more frequently in blocks other than Architectural Block 100.
In the previous section, I investigated ratios of projectile-point counts to the weights of gray ware
sherds for three specific temporal contexts as well as for contexts dating from the Pueblo II and
Pueblo III periods. I conducted the same analysis for bifaces. It appears that bifaces were more
common before the great house was constructed and during the final use of the great house. The
analysis of bifaces dating from the Pueblo II period vs. Pueblo III period indicates that bifaces
were more abundant in contexts dating from the Pueblo III period (55/305,243=.00012) than in
those dating from the Pueblo II period (2/16,418=.00018). The result of the standard errors of the
proportion for the counts of bifaces and gray wares sherds collected from those contexts suggests
that bifaces recovered from these two types of contexts are significantly different and the
standard errors do not overlap. Thus, these results are meaningful and interpretable. Although
only two bifaces were recovered from contexts dating from the Pueblo II period, the ratio data
suggest that, relative to sherds of cooking wares, fewer bifaces were produced and used during
the Pueblo II period than during the Pueblo III period.
Drills
Drills take one of three forms: (1) formally shaped tools (generally shaped through bifacial
reduction) with pointed projections, (2) flakes with ad hoc projections that show distinctive
rotational wear on the tips, and (3) projectile points that were recycled into drills and show
distinctive drill wear on their tips (Pierce 1999b). A total of 27 drills were recovered from Albert
Porter Pueblo. Thirteen drills (48 percent) were made of Dakota/Burro silicified sandstone and
four pieces (11 percent) were fashioned of agate/chalcedony. The distribution of drills across
depositional contexts is as follows: 17 (63 percent) were discovered in midden contexts, eight
(30 percent) were from kiva contexts (i.e., roof fills and floors), and two (7 percent) were from
the modern ground surface. More than half (52 percent) were collected from Architectural Block
100, and one or two (3 or 7 percent) were collected from each of the following Blocks: 200, 300,
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400, 600, 800, 900, 1000, and 1100. The widespread spatial distribution of drills suggests that
people throughout the pueblo used drills to make holes in hides, jewelry, and other objects.
The ratios of the counts of drills to the weights of gray ware sherds from Architectural Block 100
vs. Blocks 200–1100 is similar (14/30,003=.00004 and 13/272,634=.00004, respectively). On the
basis of the standard errors of proportion, the difference is not significant. In addition, sample
sizes are insufficient to compare the incidence of drills from contexts dating from the Pueblo II
vs. Pueblo III period. In short, the spatial distribution of drills suggests that residents throughout
Albert Porter Pueblo produced and used drills.
Cores
Cores are rocks with more than two flake scars on a ventral (exterior) surface and display
evidence of intentional modification related to flake production. Seven hundred cores were
collected from Albert Porter Pueblo. More than 25 percent of cores were of Morrison Formation
rocks—Morrison mudstone (31 percent), Morrison silicified sandstone (26 percent), and Dakota
mudstone (19 percent). All of these materials outcrop in deposits less than 7 km from Albert
Porter Pueblo (Arakawa 2000). It is clear from percentages of raw materials of projectile points
and bifaces that most cores did not result from the production of formal tools. The majority of
cores (63 percent) were collected from middens, and about 20 percent were found in the fills of
subterranean kivas. The spatial distribution of cores indicates that 50 percent were collected from
Architectural Block 100, 10 percent were found in Architectural Block 900, and 10 percent were
found in Block 1000. However, the results of a comparison of the ratios of core counts to
weights of gray ware sherds suggest that cores were more abundant in Architectural Block 400,
1000, and 200, in decreasing order of abundance. In addition, I examined whether there was a
higher incidence of cores in Architectural Block 100 than in other blocks; however, this ratio is
similar for Architectural Block 100 (359/300,003=.001) and Architectural Blocks 200–1100
(341/272,634=.001), and the standard errors of the proportion indicate that the differences are not
significant. Thus, cores appear to have been discarded at similar rates throughout the village.
The rates of the deposition of cores during three time spans reveal that cores were discarded at a
slightly greater rate before the great house was constructed than during either of the later time
spans, although the three ratios are relatively similar. A comparison of Pueblo II and Pueblo III
contexts indicates that cores might have been produced and discarded with greater relative
frequency during the Pueblo II period (22/16,418=.00013) than during the Pueblo III period
(338/305,243=.0011), and the standard errors of the proportion indicate that these differences are
significant.
Peckingstones
Peckingstones are tools that originally had sharp edges but were subsequently used for battering
and cutting activities. As a result, the edges appear dulled, blunted, or damaged, or some
combination of these three characteristics. The activities for which peckingstones were used are
difficult to specify and, as a result, artifacts exhibiting battered edges have been, in many
analysis systems, classified as “other” tool types. For example, artifacts classified as
peckingstones by laboratory analysts at Crow Canyon have, in other systems, been categorized
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as hammerstones (Mobley-Tanaka 1997). In my opinion, the major difference between
peckingstones and hammerstones is that the former were used to shape rocks through pecking
and battering, whereas the latter were used to produce flakes or to shape rocks through flake
removal. In addition, more force is applied to a metate or a building stone when it is being
shaped or the surface is being roughened by a peckingstone than is the case when a hammerstone
is used to remove flakes from a core. Flaking can be done using antler, whereas pecking cannot,
which suggests that one difference between peckingstones and hammerstones is how force is
applied to a target object. In other words, a peckingstone is used more like a chisel, directing
force directly into an object, whereas a hammerstone is used to direct force along the edge of an
object.
When considering the production stages of peckingstones, some archaeologists (Adams 2002;
Etzkorn 1993) have assumed that cores were a byproduct of the manufacture of other tools, and
that cores were subsequently used for pecking and battering other objects. Thus, peckingstones
are cores that were used for pecking and battering. When assessing the utilization of
peckingstones, archaeologists have tended to assume that this tool type was mainly used for
“resharpening,” or roughening the surfaces of, ground-stone tools. According to Etzkorn
(1993:166–167), some peckingstones “may have been used to shape building stones or large
stone tools such as metates; others may have been used to roughen the surfaces of manos and
metates that had become too worn to grind corn effectively.” Adams (2002:153) agrees that
peckingstones were used primarily for roughening the surfaces of manos and metates. In fact,
there has been very little study of the production and use of peckingstones; therefore, we decided
to investigate both behaviors using the chipped-stone assemblage from Albert Porter Pueblo.
More than 500 peckingstones were collected and analyzed from Albert Porter Pueblo. The data
reveal that approximately 75 percent of the peckingstones are made of Morrison rocks—
Morrison silicified sandstone and mudstone. Significantly, these rocks would be locally available
in abundance. More than half of the peckingstones in this assemblage are of hard, coarse-grained
Morrison silicified sandstone. About 20 percent are made of Morrison mudstone. Of the
remaining, non-local stones, about 12 percent are Dakota/Burro Canyon silicified sandstone and
another 8 percent are Dakota mudstone.
About 60 percent of peckingstones were collected from midden contexts, 22 percent were from
subterranean kiva contexts, and 7 percent were found in noncultural contexts. The high
percentage of peckingstones from midden contexts indicates that residents of the settlement
probably discarded peckingstones in trash areas after usable sharp edges had become dull
through use. I expected peckingstones to be more abundant in architectural contexts, because I
think maize-grinding activities typically occurred indoors, and peckingstones were probably used
to roughen the surfaces of manos and metates. However, only 10 peckingstones (2 percent) were
collected from the interiors of structures. This pattern suggests either that excavations did not
expose the types of intramural spaces where maize-grinding activities occurred, or that the
inhabitants of Albert Porter Pueblo left little de facto refuse when they depopulated the
settlement.
The data indicate that about 50 percent of peckingstones were collected from Architectural Block
100, and, in order of decreasing relative abundance, from Blocks 1000, 900, and 800. The ratios
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of the quantity of peckingstones to the weight of gray ware sherds were calculated for each
architectural block, and the results indicate that relatively more peckingstones were discarded
in Architectural Blocks 200 and 1000 than in other blocks. The ratios also indicate that
peckingstones accumulated at relatively constant rates in Architectural 100 (255/300,003=.0008)
and in all other blocks (254/272,634=.0009); the standard errors of the proportion indicate no
significant difference. This suggests that peckingstones were used and discarded at similar rates
throughout the settlement.
Although peckingstones were found throughout the site and in all temporal contexts, relative to
gray ware sherds, fewer peckingstones were discarded in Architectural Block 100 before the
great house was constructed than during the initial and final uses of the great house. However, it
appears that peckingstones were discarded with the same relative frequency in Pueblo II contexts
(13/16,418=.0008) and Pueblo III contexts (242/305,243=.0008); the standard errors of the
proportion indicate no significant difference. This suggests that peckingstones were used with
about the same frequency during the Pueblo II and Pueblo III periods.
These results raise several questions about the use of peckingstones. Were these tools used to
shape building stones during the A.D. 1140–1225 period? Was maize grinding frequent in the
great house during both the Pueblo II and the Pueblo III periods? To address these questions,
Crow Canyon laboratory analysts conducted an experimental-archaeology program in October
2009. Five lay participants and three Crow Canyon staff members participated in this program.
We used Morrison silicified sandstone to manufacture cores with sharp edges; this material is
common on archaeological sites. During this experiment, we recognized that a much harder
stone, such as a river cobble or chunk of quartzite, was necessary to produce sharp edges on
Morrison silicified sandstone. Thus, it is unlikely that ancestral Pueblo people created cores by
striking two rocks of the same material against each other. Instead, it appears that the artifacts we
classify as hammerstones were used to create cores.
Our second experiment investigated how peckingstones were manufactured. Using the cores we
had made, we pecked and battered many different materials that ancestral Pueblo people would
have modified, including timber, hides, animal bones, and pieces of sandstone. We found that the
edges of peckingstones readily became dull when struck against sandstone but not when
modifying other materials. Through these experiments, we determined that peckingstones were
almost certainly made by battering cores against sandstone, presumably to shape building stones
or to shape or roughen maize-grinding tools, including manos. We could not determine how
often peckingstones were used for each activity. This is an important question, because these
activities reflect very different aspects of ancestral Pueblo economy: the shaping of building
stone relates to new construction, whereas the shaping and roughening of maize-grinding tools
relates to food preparation.
Most peckingstones were probably a byproduct of food preparation rather than construction
activities. This inference results from several assumptions. First, building stones were only
shaped once even though many were reused repeatedly, whereas maize-grinding tools required
frequent roughening. The ratios of the counts of peckingstones to gray ware sherds collected
from archaeological sites excavated by Crow Canyon, and that date from the Pueblo II and
Pueblo III periods, were analyzed. The data show that peckingstones are just as abundant at the
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Duckfoot site, where the architecture did not include pecked-block masonry, as they are at later
sites (e.g., Yellow Jacket, Woods Canyon, Castle Rock, and Sand Canyon pueblos) where
pecked-block masonry was used. If this hypothesis is correct, and the grinding of maize was
primarily women’s activity, as it is in Pueblo society today, it suggests that peckingstones and
the byproducts of their production and use reflect the activities of ancestral Pueblo women. This
is a striking thought, because many archaeologists have assumed that chipped-stone tools and
debris reflect men’s activities. Our studies suggest that, even if projectile points were made and
used by men, most of the stone artifacts recovered from ancestral Pueblo sites reflect women’s
activities. This inference provides many new opportunities for research on gender and the sexual
division of labor in ancestral Pueblo society.
Utilized Flakes
During the analysis of bulk-chipped-stone artifacts, Crow Canyon analysts separated utilized
flakes from angular shatter and unutilized flakes. Through this process, 914 pieces weighing
more than 20 kg were identified as utilized flakes. Both the percentages by count and by weight
show that the greatest percentage of utilized flakes, in order of decreasing incidence, were
Morrison silicified sandstone, Dakota mudstone, and Morrison mudstone. These rocks were
procured from local deposits that are abundant within 7 km of Albert Porter Pueblo (Arakawa
2006; Gerhardt and Arakawa 2007, 2009). Thus, the procurement of these types of raw materials
could be considered an activity requiring low-energy expenditure.
In the past, Crow Canyon analysts have encountered difficulty identifying utilized flakes
consistently. A major reason for the difficulty is that, although many utilized flakes exhibit
serrated edges, it is fairly difficult to ascertain whether the serration was the result of deliberate
human activity, was created as a result of the grain of the raw material, or was the result of some
other, possibly natural, process. In order to improve our ability to identify utilized flakes, Crow
Canyon laboratory analysts conducted several experiments in 2009. First, we visited a quarry site
of Burro Canyon chert/siltstone on Cannonball Mesa in the Mesa Verde region. At this ancestral
Pueblo quarry, five Crow Canyon program participants and two Crow Canyon researchers
recorded several attributes of flakes lying on the modern ground surface. Several units measuring
1-x-1-m were placed within the scatter of quarry debris, and all debitage inside this unit was
identified and counted. In the first unit, 10 of 85 flakes of Burro Canyon chert/siltstone exhibited
serrated edges and were identified as utilized flakes. In the second unit, four of 50 flakes were
classified as utilized. These were surprising results given the likelihood that all artifacts at the
quarry reflect quarrying activities as opposed to cutting, scraping, or slicing activities.
There are several possibilities for the high percentage of utilized flakes at this quarry. First, these
flakes could have been used for processing faunal remains. However, this is unlikely, because we
observed no faunal remains, bifaces, or projectile points at the site, suggesting that animal
carcasses were not processed there. Second, flakes might have been used to cut brush at the
quarry. This is unlikely, because vegetation is not abundant at the site today, and the past
environment was probably similar. Third, serrated edges could have been produced during a
generalized lithic-reduction process rather than through usage of these flakes. However, we did
not produce many flakes similar to the utilized flakes encountered at the quarry site when we
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performed our core-reduction process for manufacturing cores and flakes during our experiments
in 2009; therefore, this scenario is also unlikely.
To further address the issue of the high percentage of utilized flakes at the quarry, we conducted
an additional experiment with utilized flakes. Local Morrison silicified sandstone was obtained
from an outcrop in Yellow Jacket Canyon, and many flakes of various shapes and sizes were
produced with this material. Participants in the study were supplied with numerous flakes 5‒10
cm long, 5 cm wide, and 2‒3 cm thick, and were asked to perform several cutting, slicing, and
scraping activities on yucca leaves, bark, wood, or bones. After one hour, staff members
collected the utilized flakes from each individual.
The results of this experiment indicate that producing serrated edges on flakes of Morrison
silicified sandstone is a fairly laborious and time-consuming process. Participants could not
easily produce serrated edges by cutting or scraping soft materials (e.g., yucca and branches of
pinyon and juniper). In contrast, edges of flakes became dull and sometimes serrated when hard
objects (e.g., wood from a cottonwood tree) were processed. Nevertheless, only two of the 20
flakes in the experiment bore any resemblance to the utilized flakes identified at the
archaeological sites.
In a third experiment, 50 flakes were randomly placed on the modern ground surface, were
walked on three times, and were then analyzed. An average of seven of 50 flakes (with a range of
four to nine pieces) were identified as utilized. These results suggest perhaps the strongest theory
for the presence of a high percentage of utilized flakes at the quarry site. The modification of
these flakes was probably created unintentionally by human traffic during quarrying activities.
These experiments indicate that additional research should be conducted on the morphology and
function of utilized flakes.
Modified Flakes
During analysis of bulk chipped stone, Crow Canyon analysts record data on individual modified
flakes. A modified flake is defined as a flake “that has been deliberately modified prior to use but
that does not fall into one of the other more formal tool categories; it is a very general category
that encompasses a wide range of possible functions” (Etzkorn 1993:174). In the Crow Canyon
system, flakes are identified as being modified if they exhibit evidence of intentional
modification of the flake edge as a result of percussion and pressure-flaking actions. The
appearance of these flakes is distinct from the serrated edges of utilized flakes, because the
former displays a continuous, thin, and sharp edge, whereas many of the serrated edges of
utilized flakes appear dull or have varying sharpness.
For Albert Porter Pueblo, 702 flakes weighing a total of 15,110 g were identified as modified.
Similar to utilized flakes, the greatest percentage of modified flakes are of, in order of decreasing
percentages, local Morrison silicified sandstone, Morrison mudstone, and Dakota mudstone. It is
interesting that some high-quality materials such as Burro Canyon chert/siltstone and Morrison
chert compose a relatively higher percentage by count than by weight. In contrast, Dakota
mudstone occurs in a higher percentage by weight than by count. These results suggest that
small, high-quality pieces of Burro Canyon chert/siltstone and Morrison chert were used for
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many modified flakes, but that larger pieces of Dakota mudstone were also used by residents of
Albert Porter Pueblo.
Debitage
Crow Canyon researchers have conducted “mass analyses” of lithic assemblages since 1997
(Ahler 1989; Arakawa 2000; Ortman 2003; Till 2007). We performed this analysis for the
chipped-stone artifacts from Albert Porter Pueblo as well. This method was developed by Ahler
(1989) and was designed to make the analysis of large chipped-stone assemblages more efficient
and less time consuming. With this method, debitage is first segregated by size or weight, and
then a few attributes of flakes, such as raw-material type and the presence or absence of cortex
(i.e., chemical or mechanical weathered surface of rocks [Andrefsky 1998:xxii]), are recorded.
Interpretation of the results rests on three critical assumptions. First, large flakes were produced
early in the reduction process, whereas a greater quantity of smaller flakes was produced as
reduction proceeded. Second, the amount of cortex decreased over the course of the reduction
process and was absent during the late stages of bifacial reduction. Third, the size distributions of
flakes and angular shatter by raw material can help us understand correlations between tool types
and patterns of raw-material procurement on the basis of energy expenditure (Arakawa 2000).
Crow Canyon staff, volunteers, and interns analyzed 74,896 pieces of debitage weighing a total
of 405,684 g from Albert Porter Pueblo. Comparisons of raw-material percentages by count and
weight reveal that some materials make up a higher percentage by count than by weight. These
materials include agate/chalcedony, Morrison chert, Morrison silicified sandstone, Burro Canyon
chert, Burro/Dakota silicified sandstone, and Morrison mudstone. In contrast, several categories
of debitage, including conglomerate, other igneous rocks, Dakota mudstone, sandstone, and
unknown silicified sandstone occur in higher percentages by weight than by count. The latter
group of materials was typically used for ground-stone tools and expedient tools (e.g.,
peckingstones and modified flakes) and is coarser and heavier than the raw-material types that
were typically used for other types of chipped-stone tools.
About 50 percent of the assemblage was identified as, in decreasing order of incidence, Morrison
silicified sandstone, Morrison mudstone, and Dakota mudstone. Together, these three materials
compose more than 80 percent of the total assemblage by both count and weight. These materials
are available within 7 km of Albert Porter Pueblo (Arakawa 2000) and would have been easy to
procure. These materials were also heavily used for the manufacture of peckingstones and
modified flakes, as discussed earlier. In contrast, the percentages by count and weight of raw
materials typically used for bifaces and projectile points are fairly low. For example, less than 6
percent of the debitage is of Burro/Dakota silicified sandstone, and less than 1 percent is Burro
Canyon chert or agate/chalcedony. In short, the percentage by count and weight of the entire
debitage assemblage indicates that the majority of the debitage assemblage derives from the
production of expedient and ground-stone tools.
To investigate the spatial distribution of debitage at the site, I tabulated the percentage by count
and weight of debitage collected from midden contexts in each architectural block. Because
chipped-stone specialists (e.g., Ammerman and Andrefsky 1982; Andrefsky 1998) argue that
weights provide more reliable data for the interpretation of debitage assemblages than do counts,
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I use weights in the following discussion of abundance. As previously mentioned, specific types
of raw materials were used for particular tool types; most expedient tools were produced from
local raw materials, whereas formal tools (bifaces and projectile points) were made of raw
materials that required relatively high expenditure of energy to procure.
First, three types of raw material—agate/chalcedony, Burro Canyon chert, and Dakota/Burro
Canyon silicified sandstone—that were commonly used to manufacture bifaces and projectile
points were examined. Among these materials, the greatest percentage of agate/chalcedony was
deposited in Architectural Blocks 400 and 600, the greatest percentage of Burro Canyon chert
was deposited in Architectural Blocks 300 and 900, and the greatest percentage of Dakota/Burro
Canyon silicified sandstone was deposited in Architectural Block 500. In contrast, among rawmaterial types emphasized in the production of expedient tools, Morrison silicified sandstone
occurred with the greatest frequency in Architectural Block 800, whereas Dakota mudstone
occurred most frequently in Architectural Block 1100. These differences in the spatial
distributions of manufacturing debris associated with different tool types suggest that residents
of Albert Porter Pueblo produced different types of chipped-stone tools in different areas. This
may reflect the development of incipient task or craft specialization across households in the
community.
In contrast to the distributions of raw materials, I could detect no pattern in the abundance of
debitage, relative to gray ware pottery, from Architectural Block 100 vs. the other blocks at the
site. For example, the ratio of debitage counts to the weights of gray ware sherds is nearly
identical for Architectural Block 100 (36,175/300,003=.12) and for Architectural Blocks 200–
1100 (36,819/272,634=.13). The similarities of these ratios suggest that gray ware sherds and
chipped-stone debitage accumulated at consistent rates throughout the occupation of the
settlement (see Varien and Ortman 2005).
I also compared debitage collected from three temporal contexts in Architectural Block 100—
those pre-dating the great house, those deposited during the initial use of the great house, and
those dating from the final use of the great house. The incidence of debitage in contexts that
predate the great house is lower (0.06) than in contexts dating from the initial use of the great
house (0.10). But a comparison of this same ratio between contexts dating from the Pueblo II
vs. the Pueblo III periods indicates that less debitage accumulated during the Pueblo II period
(1,569/16,418=.095) than during the Pueblo III period (36,488/305,243=.119). The debitage
dating from the Pueblo II period was recovered from Architectural Block 100. The standard
errors of the proportion suggest that the results of these two analyses are significantly different
and comparable. Thus, these results may indicate a change in the mix of activities that occurred
in Architectural Block 100 through time. Perhaps the deposits dating from the Pueblo II period
resulted from activities associated with construction of the great house, whereas the deposits
dating from the Pueblo III period resulted from domestic activities that occurred in the great
house.
In this and the following paragraphs, I investigate whether residents of Albert Porter Pueblo
participated in intensive lithic-reduction activities in specific areas within the village. More than
40 percent of projectile points from the site were made of Dakota/Burro Canyon silicified
sandstone. The preference of this material type for manufacturing projectile points was also
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evident in the assemblages from Yellow Jacket Pueblo (Ortman 2003), Shields Pueblo (Till
2007), and Sand Canyon Pueblo (Till and Ortman 2007). In the central Mesa Verde region, 53
of the 94 (56 percent) quarries identified to date are sources of Dakota/Burro Canyon silicified
sandstone (Arakawa 2006:360–365). Numerous pieces of debitage, in addition to cores, tested
cobbles, and bifacial thinning flakes, are visible on the modern ground surface, suggesting that
residents of the central Mesa Verde region exploited these quarries, tested this material while
they were at the quarries, and obtained the raw material through direct procurement. The nearest
quarries of Dakota/Burro Canyon silicified sandstone are about 10 km from Albert Porter
Pueblo. Thus, to procure this preferred material for the production of projectile points, residents
of the pueblo were compelled to travel some distance from the settlement. Characteristics of the
lithic assemblage from the site indicates that the villagers rarely reduced cores of Dakota/Burro
Canyon silicified sandstone within the village; the percentage of cores of this material is very
low (10 percent) compared to the percentage of projectile points of Dakota/Burro Canyon
silicified sandstone (40 percent) in the assemblage.
To evaluate the possibility that residents of Albert Porter Pueblo engaged in bifacial-reduction
processes to manufacture projectile points within the village, I, following Patterson’s (1990)
approach, analyzed the size distribution of the chipped-stone debitage of Dakota/Burro Canyon
silicified sandstone. Patterson proposed that characteristics of flake-size distribution are useful
indicators of bifacial-reduction activities and offered a simple analytical technique generated
using archaeological and experimental data. Graphed results showing an exponential curve with
a high frequency of small flakes indicate bifacial manufacturing, whereas a graph displaying a
relatively irregular curve reflects core reduction or other modes of lithic reduction.
Some archaeologists have criticized Patterson’s (1990) analytical technique. Shott (1994:92–94),
for example, argues that not all experimental cobble- and core-reduction processes show an ideal
exponential curve as assumed by Patterson’s model. Andrefsky (2001:3; 2007) also evaluated the
mass-analysis technique and concluded that the results often lead to erroneous interpretations
because of variation in individual flintknapping styles and methods, the properties of various
raw-material types, and the mixing of multiple episodes or multiple forms of reduction.
Despite these important caveats regarding mass analysis, I argue that small thinning flakes are
generally more abundant in assemblages resulting from the production of bifacial tools than in
assemblages produced as a result of core reduction, because soft-hammer percussion and
pressure flaking characterize bifacial-tool production, whereas hard-hammer percussion, which
is less precise, characterizes bipolar and generalized core-reduction activities. Moreover, Stahle
and Dunn’s (1984) experimental analysis of debitage from the bifacial-reduction process
demonstrated that the size of waste flakes decreased from earlier to later reduction stages. The
analysis of the production of Clovis points and the associated debris by Morrow (1997; also
see Andrefsky 2007:398) also shows that the mean weight of flakes gradually decreases as the
manufacturing process approaches end products. Focusing on only one type of raw material
(Dakota/Burro Canyon silicified sandstone) also minimizes errors that arise from the mixing
of lithic-reduction methods correlated with various types of raw materials, as pointed out by
Andrefsky (2001, 2007). Thus, examining flake-size distributions within rather than across
categories of raw material to ascertain the dominant modes of reduction reflected in the debris
of that material should provide superior results.
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The mass-analysis method employed by Crow Canyon analysts involves sorting debitage into
three size grades: pieces captured by 1-in mesh (size 1), pieces that fall through 1-in mesh but
are captured by 1/2-in mesh (size 2), and pieces that fall through 1/2-in mesh but are captured by
1/4-in mesh (size 4). For the dependent valuable, I used the percentage of debris by count in each
size category. Contrary to the expectations of an idealized bifacial-reduction curve, the debitage
assemblage from Albert Porter Pueblo shows that the size grade with the greatest percentage (40
percent) of Dakota/Burro Canyon silicified sandstone debitage fragments is size 2, suggesting
that this type of debitage in the assemblage is not primarily the result of bifacial reduction. Thus,
the villagers probably did not routinely conduct bifacial-reduction activities at the pueblo.
Similar results have been obtained for other lithic assemblages from the central Mesa Verde
region, suggesting that we still have much to learn about the production of projectile points.
Ground-Stone and Polished-Stone Tools
In this section, I summarize the ground-stone and polished-stone tools from Albert Porter
Pueblo. For information regarding these artifact categories, and for definitions of the tool types
within these categories, the reader is referred to Crow Canyon’s laboratory manual (Ortman et al.
2007).
Ground-stone artifacts consist primarily of objects that are associated with food processing (e.g.,
manos and metates). In addition, at least one type of artifact, abraders, was used in the
manufacture or processing of materials other than food (e.g., arrow-shaft shaping, pigment
processing, and pendant manufacture). A total of 639 ground-stone items was collected from
Albert Porter Pueblo (Table 6.29). The following paragraphs summarize the types of groundstone tools and raw materials present in this assemblage and consider the distribution of groundstone tools by architectural block and by component.
Many ground-stone tools—abraders, basin metates, manos, metates, one-hand manos, pestles,
slab metates, stone mortars, trough metates, and two-hand manos—were made of sandstone. The
majority of two-hand manos, as well as slab and trough metates, were also made of sandstone,
but 17 percent of these tools were made of conglomerate. It is interesting to note that residents of
Albert Porter Pueblo used igneous materials (about 23 percent), which were procured more than
7 km away, for one-hand manos. As discussed in the chipped-stone section, one-hand manos
might have been used not only for grinding agricultural products and gathered foods but also for
sharpening the surfaces of peckingstones or for roughening the surfaces of metates.
Table 6.30 summarizes the distribution of ground-stone tools by architectural block and reveals
that ground-stone tools were recovered from various architectural blocks. Ratios of counts of
ground-stone artifacts to weights of gray ware sherds, by architectural block, however, indicate
that many ground-stone tools of various types—abraders, manos, metates, trough metates, and
two-hand manos—occur in higher densities in blocks other than Architectural Block 100. These
data may indicate that villagers who lived in Architectural Blocks 200–1100 devoted more time
and energy to food-processing activities than did the occupants of Architectural Block 100.
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Ground-Stone Tools by Condition
Table 6.31 presents the ground-stone artifacts from Albert Porter Pueblo by condition.
Approximately half of the complete ground-stone artifacts were classified as abraders, stone
mortars, or one-hand manos. The other half of manos, metates, slab metates, two-hand manos,
and trough metates were fragmentary; fragmentation might have resulted from preservation
conditions (e.g., broken by roofing falling on the tools), or from usage.
Ground-Stone Tools by Provenience
Table 6.32 provides the provenience category of each ground-stone tool. The provenience
categories reflect four different contexts, including “architectural deposit,” “fill” (excludes roof
fall and below, when those strata were present), “other,” and “surface contact.” On the basis of
this analysis, I infer that the majority of ground-stone tools were deposited in fill, although some
were also left on surfaces.
Battered or Polished Tools
The battered or polished stone-tool assemblage includes axes, axe/mauls, hammerstones, mauls,
peckingstones, polishing stones, polishing stone/hammerstones, single-bitted axes, and
tchamahias (Table 6.33). More than 50 percent of axes, axes/mauls, peckingstones, and singlebitted axes were made of Morrison silicified sandstone. In this subsection, I summarize this
assemblage.
Eleven axes were collected from Albert Porter Pueblo. Seven of these (63 percent) were made of
Morrison silicified sandstone; one axe each (9 percent) was made of Morrison chert, Morrison
mudstone, other igneous rock, and unknown silicified sandstone. Nineteen fragments of axes or
mauls (axe/mauls) were also collected, and 74 percent were made of Morrison silicified
sandstone. Fifty hammerstones of a variety of materials were recovered. Thirty percent of these
were made of Morrison silicified sandstone, 16 percent were made of Dakota/Burro Canyon
silicified sandstone, and 14 percent were fashioned of other igneous rock. As discussed in the
chipped-stone subsection, hammerstones should be made of hard, coarse-grained stone; thus,
Morrison silicified sandstone, Dakota/Burro Canyon silicified sandstone, and other igneous rock
materials are well suited for battering other objects. Six mauls were collected, three of which
were made of Morrison silicified sandstone, two of which were made of Dakota mudstone, and
one of which was made of sandstone. A comparison of the raw materials used to make mauls and
axes indicates that the residents used porous and fragile rocks (Dakota mudstone) more
frequently for making mauls than for making axes.
As discussed in the previous chapter, 509 peckingstones were collected from Albert Porter
Pueblo; the majority were made of Morrison silicified sandstone (54 percent), about 20 percent
were made from Morrison mudstone, and about 12 percent were fashioned of Dakota/Burro
Canyon silicified sandstone. Fifty-nine polishing stones were recovered; these were typically
used for smoothing the surfaces of pottery vessels during manufacture. Quartz was the most
commonly (about 13 percent) used raw material, about 10 percent were made of unknown chert
or siltstone, and about 27 percent were of unknown stone. Ten polishing/hammerstones were
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collected from the site; at 40 percent, igneous materials were most common. This tool type
is unusual relative to other battered/polished tools because polishing/hammerstones exhibit
evidence of both rubbing and striking against other objects. Five single-bitted axes were
identified, all of which were made of Morrison silicified sandstone. Lastly, 21 flat, elongated
stone artifacts were identified as tchamahias. Although this type of tool might have been used
for digging, planting, hoeing, or chopping, or any combination of these activities (Osborne
2004:200), some archaeologists (Brew 1946:241–242; Voth 1903:286) have argued that
tchamahias were primarily ceremonial objects. Sixty-two percent of the tchamahias from Albert
Porter Pueblo were made of Brushy Basin chert. The sources of Brushy Basin chert are mostly
in the southwestern portion of the central Mesa Verde region, near the Four Corners National
Monument.
The distribution of battered/polished stone tools is presented in Table 6.33, which shows the
counts and percentages by count of battered/polished stone tools collected from each
architectural block at Albert Porter Pueblo. The majority of battered/polished tools were
recovered from Architectural Block 100, probably because of the intensive excavation of this
portion of the site. In order to conduct comparative temporal and spatial distributions, ratios of
ground-stone tools to weights of gray ware sherds were calculated. The results show that
hammerstones were relatively more abundant in Architectural Block 100, whereas axe/mauls and
peckingstones were relatively more abundant in Architectural Block 1000. In addition, relatively
higher frequencies of axes, peckingstones, and tchamahias were recovered from Architectural
Block 800. The spatial distribution of tchamahias in Architectural Block 800 may indicate that
the villagers who used and occupied the area just south of the great house had a ceremonial role
in the pueblo. Finally, polishing stones, polishing/hammerstones, and single-bitted axes were
relatively more abundant in Architectural Block 800.
Table 6.34 summarizes the quantity of battered/polished items from Architectural Block 100 vs.
all other blocks. Peckingstones and tchamahias were more frequently discovered in other blocks,
whereas axes/mauls, hammerstones, and polishing stones were more abundant in Architectural
Block 100. The abundance of battered/polished tools in Architectural Block 100 suggests that
residents who occupied and used the great house, as well as nearby structures, actively
participated in the manufacture and use of chipped-stone tools, ground-stone tools, or pottery
technology, or some combination of these activities. Another possibility is that this trend could
reflect construction activity. Table 6.35 summarizes the depositional context of each
battered/polished stone tool.
Other Artifacts and Objects of Adornment
In this section, I focus on artifacts that are not discussed in other sections, including stone disks,
other stone artifacts, gizzard stones, mineral samples, “other” artifacts, bone artifacts, historic
artifacts, and objects of personal adornment (e.g., pendants and beads). Readers should refer to
Crow Canyon’s laboratory manual (Ortman et al. 2007) for more specific information regarding
the definitions and identifications these types of artifacts.
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Stone Disks
Stone disks have been found covering the mouths of corrugated jars set into floors and other
surfaces of Mug House in Mesa Verde National Park, and in proximity to corrugated jars (Rohn
1971:198). Thus, the stone disks collected from Albert Porter Pueblo might have been used as jar
lids or other types of covers. Table 6.36 shows the count, weight, and context of the 24 stone
disks collected from Albert Porter Pueblo. Most of these stone disks were collected from fill in
“nonstructure” contexts. Thirteen stone disks were recovered from the intensive excavations in
Architectural Block 100; the remainder was collected from other areas—one piece each from
Architectural Blocks 200 and 300, three pieces from Architectural Block 400, and two pieces
each from Architectural Blocks 800, 900, and 1100. The average weight of these artifacts is
about 55 g.
Other Stone Artifacts
The category “other stone artifacts” includes many different artifacts that do not fit the
definitions of any previously described type of stone artifact. These objects have been
categorized as “other modified stone/mineral.” Table 6.37 provides provenience and analytic
data for each artifact in this category. Of 204 total items, 119 are fragmentary, 57 are complete,
15 are incomplete, and the conditions of the remaining 13 are recorded as “not applicable.” The
average weight of these artifacts is about 105 grams (the range is 0.1 to 2,938.0 grams). Most
(194 of 204) of these objects were collected from fill contexts at the site. Many (87 of 204) were
made of sandstone, 19 were fashioned of unknown stone, and 14 are of unknown chert or
siltstone. By weight, sandstone and Dakota mudstone are the dominant types of raw materials.
The intensive excavations in Architectural Block 100 yielded more than half of the artifacts in
this category, but an additional one-third of these objects were collected from Architectural
Block 1000. Every architectural block yielded at least one artifact in this category; this suggests
that these artifacts were used throughout the pueblo.
Gizzard Stones
A total of 1,188 gizzard stones, weighing a total of 579.41 grams, was collected from Albert
Porter Pueblo. No detailed study was conducted to identify the raw materials from which the
gizzard stones were formed. The majority of these stones appear to derive from small chippedstone artifacts and small, evenly worn pebbles without cement. Because gizzard stones are not
normally passed by living birds until they are too small to identify as such, the common
occurrence of gizzard stones indicates that turkeys were butchered at the settlement. In addition,
the common occurrence of gizzard stones that derived from chipped-stone artifacts indicates that
turkeys regularly foraged at the pueblo. Both patterns generally support the inference that
domesticated turkeys were raised as a source of food at Albert Porter Pueblo (also see Chapter
10; Rawlings and Driver 2006; Speller et al. 2010). Unfortunately, it is difficult to use gizzard
stones to estimate the size of turkey flocks because individual stones are small and mobile (Till
2007). The spatial distributions of gizzard stones found at Albert Porter Pueblo, as well as the
ratio of the counts of gizzard stones to the weights of gray ware sherds were assessed. The data
indicate that Architectural Block 300 contained the highest ratio of gizzard stones to gray ware
sherds (0.0036); in contrast, Architectural Block 600 has the lowest ratio (0.0010). The range of
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ratios (from 0 to 0.003) suggests that some residents of Albert Porter Pueblo raised more turkeys,
or butchered more turkeys, than others.
Contexts dating from three different time periods were assigned to gizzard stones to facilitate
discussions of the construction of the great house and the deposition of artifacts through time:
those pre-dating the great house (pre-A.D. 1060), those deposited during the initial use of the
great house (A.D. 1060–1140), and those deposited during the final use of the great house (A.D.
1140–1280). The ratios indicate that more gizzard stones were associated with the final use of
the great house, a result similar to results of previous studies (Driver 2000).
Mineral Samples
Excavations at Albert Porter Pueblo yielded 341 mineral samples weighing 3,244 g. Most
abundant are conglomerate (40 percent by count, 51 percent by weight), sandstone (21 percent
by count, 14 percent by weight), and unfired clay (12 percent by both count and weight), all of
which were probably associated with the production of pottery. Several types of conglomerate
and sandstone were used for temper; the unfired clay was probably also associated with the
production of pottery vessels. Much of the unfired clay that was found was in the form of
“green,” or unfired, vessels. I investigated the spatial distribution of unfired clay found in seven
architectural blocks (100, 200, 300, 600, 800, 900, and 1100). In decreasing order of abundance,
the highest ratios of the count of unfired clay pieces to gray ware sherds was for Architectural
Blocks 600, 800, and 900, which might indicate that relatively more pottery was produced in
these blocks than in other blocks at the pueblo. However, it is important to note that unfired clay
decays readily and could have been broken into many pieces. Therefore, associated inferences
should be considered tentative.
Twenty six pigment samples were collected from the site. Hematite and azurite were presumably
used as pigment for painting pottery vessels, pictographs, and kiva murals (Smith 1952). Various
shades of red may be produced from hematite, whereas malachite can be a source for green
pigment, and azurite for bright blue pigment. Although the source of hematite is local, further
research is necessary to identify sources of malachite and azurite in the American Southwest.
Other Artifacts
The artifact assemblage from Albert Porter Pueblo includes eight basketry fragments, one textile
fragment, four cylinder concretions, 16 effigies, and five gaming pieces (Table 6.38). The eight
basketry items were all collected from the floor of Structure 136, a kiva that dates from the
Pueblo III period and is located west of the great house in Architectural Block 100. Additionally,
one charred textile fragment, possibly of a sandal, was collected from the fill of Structure 110,
located in the northwestern portion of Architectural Block 100. These vegetal objects are
described in further detail in Chapter 8.
Table 6.39 shows the counts, material types, and descriptions of effigy items, almost all
fragmentary, collected from Albert Porter Pueblo. Eight effigy items were made of pottery or
fired clay, seven effigy items were made of unfired clay, and one possible effigy or pendant
blank was made of unidentified stone. Six effigy fragments were recorded as possible effigy legs.
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All effigies and effigy fragments were collected from structure and midden fill; two or more
effigies each were recovered from Architectural Blocks 100, 800, and 400. One item
(Architectural Block 100, Study Unit 151, PD 1711, FS 20) was identified as an insect (possibly
a dragonfly nymph) effigy on a mug handle. Additionally, one bird-head pottery effigy was
recovered (Architectural Block 100, Study Unit 106, PD 1526, FS 7).
Five complete gaming pieces were collected from the site. Three are made of bone, one is made
of Morrison chert or siltstone, and one is turquoise. The turquoise gaming piece is tubular,
tapered at both ends, and was recovered from the fill of Structure 502.
Bone Artifacts
Species and element identifications for bone artifacts other than gaming pieces were made by
Shaw Badenhorst (also see Chapter 10), following methods described by Driver (2000). Most of
the bone artifacts are fragmentary, and many are unidentifiable. Seventy-five bone tubes were
collected―45 were discovered in fill contexts in Architectural Block 100, one was collected
from Architectural Block 200, one was collected from Architectural Block 400, two were
recovered from Architectural Block 500, nine were recovered from Architectural Block 800,
eight were recovered from Architectural Block 900, six were recovered from Architectural Block
1000, and three were recovered from Architectural Block 1100.
Table 6.40 summarizes bone objects by artifact type, count, and percentage by count. The most
abundant worked-bone items are awls (about 40 percent) and items categorized as “other
modified bone” (also about 40 percent). The “other modified bone” category contains primarily
indeterminate bone artifacts. Although good preservation of organic materials is rare at this site,
a deer antler was recovered from the fill of Structure 113, a masonry-lined kiva located in the
north-central portion of Architectural Block 100.
Bone artifacts were more abundant in Architectural Block 100 than in the other blocks. In
addition, it appears that residents of the settlement during the Pueblo III period manufactured and
used relatively more bone artifacts than did residents during the Pueblo II period. Bone artifacts
recovered from contexts dating from the Pueblo II period include seven artifacts categorized as
“other modified bone,” 10 awls, and seven tubes. The lower ratio of bone artifacts from the
Pueblo II contexts suggests that these residents engaged in less hide processing, ornament
manufacture, or both, than did residents during the Pueblo III period.
Historic Artifacts
The landscape surrounding Albert Porter Pueblo has been modified by agricultural activities
since the tenth century. The recovery of numerous historic or modern artifacts reflects such use
in recent times. Ten historic artifacts consisting of metal, ceramic, aluminum, leather, glass, or
plastic were found at the site. Eight of the 10 historic artifacts were collected from nonstructural
contexts, and, interestingly, six were collected from secondary refuse deposits. The discovery of
historic items in secondary refuse suggests that recent looting activities churned these midden
deposits.
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Objects of Personal Adornment
A total of 118 items of personal adornment was collected from Albert Porter Pueblo. These items
consist of beads, pendants, and rings. Among these objects, beads are most plentiful (63 count,
53 percent); however, many pendants (52 count, 44 percent) were also recovered. In the
following paragraphs, the spatial and temporal distributions of these objects are examined to
determine whether there is evidence of craft specialization or evidence for the accumulation of
these items by residents of specific blocks within the settlement. Evidence of craft specialization
could suggest social and economic stratification of the residents at Albert Porter Pueblo.
General Descriptions of Beads and Pendants
Table 6.41 presents data for beads recovered from Albert Porter Pueblo and shows that the
average maximum diameter of beads is 0.4 cm, and the average maximum thickness is 0.15 cm.
In addition, the average drill-hole diameter is 0.17 cm. Forty-seven (75 percent) beads are
complete, 10 (16 percent) are incomplete, and four (6 percent) are fragmentary (condition of two
beads [3 percent] was unrecorded). Forty-eight beads (about 76 percent) are disk shaped, nine
(14 percent) are cylindrical, five (about 8 percent) are of other or unknown shape, and one bead
(about 2 percent) is tear-drop shaped.
Fifty-two pendants were collected from Albert Porter Pueblo. The average length of pendants is
1.8 cm, the average width is 1.6 cm, and the average thickness is 0.7 cm; 22 pendants (about 42
percent) are fragmentary, 22 (about 42 percent) are complete, and eight (about 15 percent) are
incomplete.
Spatial Distribution of Objects of Personal Adornment
Table 6.41 summarizes the distribution of 63 beads by study unit. Not surprisingly, about half
of all beads were collected from Architectural Block 100, where the most intensive excavations
took place. It is interesting to note that five beads made of unidentified quartzite and three of
slate or shale were discovered in one midden deposit (PD 498). Additionally, four beads made
of unidentified quartzite were collected from Architectural Block 1000, and two beads of
unidentified stone were collected from Architectural Block 1100. This clustering of beads in
specific proveniences suggests that beads were manufactured by craft specialists in the pueblo.
Murphy (1997), for example, suggests that more than 100 beads tend to be deposited in areas
where craft specialists produce such items. Only two beads were made from nonlocal jet; the
majority of beads at Albert Porter were made of an unknown type of quartzite, unknown chert
or siltstone, unknown silicified sandstone, or unknown stone. Thus, it is difficult to infer whether
the beads were imported from other areas or if they were manufactured locally.
In total, 52 pendants were recovered from Albert Porter Pueblo. Thirty-two (about 61 percent)
of pendants were discovered in Architectural Block 100, and six pendants were found in
Architectural Block 800. All pendants were identified by raw-material type. These include nine
pendants of unknown stone, five of unidentified chert or siltstone, eight of slate or shale, three of
unknown siltstone or sandstone, one of Brushy Basin chert, four of Morrison materials, one of
jet, one of turquoise, one of bone, three of sandstone, four of clay, one of pottery, one of quartz,
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one of red jasper, one of shell, three of Dakota/Burro Canyon silicified sandstone, and five of
unknown material. If, at Albert Porter Pueblo, pendants were manufactured by craft specialists,
one might expect pendants or evidence of pendant production to be clustered in specific areas.
Although pendants were recovered from all architectural blocks with the exception of
Architectural Blocks 700 and 1100, over 60 percent of pendants were recovered from
Architectural Block 100, indicating that this area of the village was a possible location for
pendant production.
Temporal Distribution of Objects of Personal Adornment
The data indicate that 19 beads were recovered from contexts dating to the Pueblo II period and
44 beads were recovered from contexts dating to the Pueblo III period.
Two of the three rings recovered from Albert Porter Pueblo were found in contexts that dated
from the early Pueblo III period, and the other ring dated from the late Pueblo III period. The
temporal distribution of beads suggests that they, like other forms of personal adornment,
including pendants, bone tubes, and rings, were more commonly made during the Pueblo III
period.
Trade
In this section, I focus on trade items acquired by the residents of Albert Porter Pueblo through
inter-regional exchange during the Pueblo I through Pueblo III periods. Previous studies of longdistance exchange in the northern Southwest have typically found that such exchange was
relatively frequent during the Chaco period (A.D. 1050–1150) and then declined after A.D. 1150
(Arakawa and Duff 2002; Arakawa et al. 2011; Lipe 2002, 2006; Neily 1983). The increased
frequency of long-distance exchange was associated with the development of the cultural,
political, and religious center in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, between A.D. 900 and 1150. The
Chaco regional system reached its height about A.D. 1050–1150, and its influence was felt
throughout the northern Southwest (Cameron and Duff 2008; Lekson 2006; Lipe 2006).
Chaco influence dates from about A.D. 1080 in the northern San Juan region (Cameron and Duff
2008; Cordell 1997:324; Lekson 2006). During this period, exchange between residents of Chaco
Canyon, the Chuska Mountains, and the central Mesa Verde region increased (Arakawa and Duff
2002; Lipe 1995, 2006; Neily 1983), and many Chaco-style great houses and great kivas were
constructed.
Research conducted on the Village Ecodynamics Project (VEP)3 study area indicates that
population levels were low during the tenth and early eleventh centuries A.D. until A.D. 1060–
1100 when the first Chaco-style great houses appeared (Varien et al. 2007). The population
increase at this time might have been a result of emigration from the southern San Juan Basin
that coincided with the expansion of the Chaco regional system (Cordell 1997). During this
period, Salmon and Aztec Ruins also became important central places in the middle San Juan
region (Lekson 1999; P. Reed 2008). These were by far the largest great houses outside of Chaco
Canyon (Lekson 1999; Lipe 2006; Lipe and Varien 1999a:258; P. Reed 2008) and might have
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facilitated migration into the central Mesa Verde region during the late A.D. 1000s and early
A.D. 1100s (Lekson 1999).
About A.D. 1140, the regional system centered on Chaco Canyon appears to have shifted
(Cameron and Duff 2008; LeBlanc 1999:183–186; Lekson 2006; Wilcox and Haas 1994), when
Chaco-style political organization might have moved north to Aztec Ruins (Lekson 1999; P.
Reed 2008). During the post-Chaco period (A.D. 1140–1280), population levels continued to
increase in the northern San Juan region as communities like Albert Porter Pueblo expanded
around earlier, Chaco-period great houses. In the mid-A.D. 1100s, these demographic trends
shifted as new villages were constructed in alcoves, as exemplified by Cliff Palace in Mesa
Verde National Park, and in canyon-rim settings, as exemplified by Sand Canyon Pueblo
(Kuckelman 2007). Previous studies have noted that evidence of long-distance exchange is much
sparser in these cliff dwellings and canyon-rim villages than in earlier, Chaco-period great house
communities (Lipe 1995; Lipe and Varien 1999b). What is not clear is whether the decrease in
trading activity coincided with the decline of Chaco Canyon, or whether it is associated with the
settlement changes during the late A.D. 1200s. Albert Porter Pueblo provides an opportunity to
investigate this question, because it was occupied continuously from the A.D. 900s until the midA.D. 1200s.
To reconstruct the frequency of trade, interaction, and exchange between residents of Albert
Porter Pueblo and people in other areas, such as the Chuska Mountains and Chaco Canyon,
I focus on four major artifact categories: nonlocal pottery, nonlocal lithic raw materials,
ornaments, and shell. Drawing on results of earlier studies, I begin with the working hypothesis
that exotic materials are relatively more abundant in subassemblages dating from the Pueblo II
period than from the Pueblo III period. In addition, because the majority of the residents of
Albert Porter Pueblo probably moved to Woods Canyon Pueblo during the mid-A.D. 1200s
(Lipe and Ortman 2000; Lipe and Varien 1999b; Ryan 2008), I compare the nonlocal materials
from Albert Porter Pueblo with those from Woods Canyon Pueblo to assess changes in interregional exchange during the late Pueblo III period.
Pottery
In the pottery assemblage from Albert Porter Pueblo, 642 sherds were identified as nonlocal
(Table 6.42). These include Abajo Red-on-orange, Bluff Black-on-red, Deadmans Black-on-red,
and less specific types: Indeterminate Local Painted and Unpainted Red, Other Nonlocal Gray,
Other Nonlocal White, Other Nonlocal Red, and Polychrome. Although the term “local” appears
in the type name, the types “Indeterminate Local Red Unpainted” and “Indeterminate Local Red
Painted” are considered nonlocal here, because these types refer to varieties of San Juan Red
ware that were produced in southeastern Utah as opposed to the area in proximity to Albert
Porter Pueblo.
Of the total nonlocal pottery sherds, 170 were classified as Deadmans Black-on-red. This type of
pottery was produced between A.D. 900 and 1100 and was probably traded from southeastern
Utah, where it and other varieties of San Juan Red Ware were produced (Hegmon et al. 1997). In
addition, 173 nonlocal sherds were identified as “Indeterminate Local Red Painted.” The sherds
of San Juan Red Ware also probably originated from southeastern Utah. The incidence of San
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Juan Red Ware at Albert Porter Pueblo indicates that residents interacted with people who lived
in southeastern Utah.
A relatively high percentage (11 percent by count and 19 percent by weight) of the pottery
assemblage from Albert Porter Pueblo consists of “Other White Nonlocal” sherds. The Crow
Canyon laboratory staff recorded the nonlocal ware and type, if known, during pottery analysis.
The resulting data suggest that several sherds contained nonlocal, extrusive temper materials
such as biotite, mica, and trachyte. In addition, more-detailed analysis indicates that some of the
nonlocal sherds could be identified as specific pottery types. For example, four nonlocal sherds
were identified as Chaco Black-on-white, two sherds as Chuska Black-on-white, one sherd as
Flagstaff Black-on-white, and one sherd as Gallup Black-on-white. Additional petrographic and
chemical analysis is needed to understand trading behavior associated with Other White
Nonlocal items.
The temporal distribution of nonlocal sherds at Albert Porter Pueblo was investigated. Three
different time periods were assigned to facilitate discussions of the construction of great house
and deposition of artifacts through time: deposits that predate construction of the great house
(pre-A.D. 1060), deposits dating from the initial use of the great house (A.D. 1060–1140), and
deposits dating from the final use of the great house (A.D. 1140–1280). Table 6.43 presents the
counts, weights, and ratios of nonlocal sherds for these time periods and comparable data for
Pueblo II vs. Pueblo III contexts. Nonlocal sherds are more common in the deposits associated
with the great house; however, the ratios are about the same as for the Pueblo II and Pueblo III
periods.
Next, I will compare the ratios for the counts of red ware sherds to the weights of gray ware
sherds for Architectural Block 100 vs. Architectural Blocks 200-1100. Most of the sherds of San
Juan Red Ware—Abajo Red-on-orange, Deadmans Black-on-red, Indeterminate Local
Unpainted Red, and Indeterminate Local Painted Red —were collected from Architectural Block
100. However, the ratios for Other White Nonlocal, Other Gray Nonlocal, and Other Red
Nonlocal sherds indicate that these types were relatively more abundant in blocks other than
Block 100. Overall, these results suggest that relatively more sherds of nonlocal pottery from
areas other than southeastern Utah were deposited in Architectural Block 100.
The contexts of nonlocal pottery found at Albert Porter Pueblo are also important. A complete
Chaco-McElmo Black-on-white pitcher was associated with a burial in Architectural Block 900,
and a Tusayan polychrome bowl was collected from Structure 136 within Architectural Block
100.
Chipped-Stone Artifacts
Only eight of the 130 bifaces and seven of the 222 projectile points found at the site were made
of nonlocal materials. One biface manufactured from Narbona Pass chert was collected from
Architectural Block 100; the other seven bifaces were collected from Architecture 900. X-ray
fluorescence (XRF) analysis was conducted to discover the sources of the obsidian used to
produce the four obsidian projectile points and one of the obsidian bifaces (Table 6.44). Three
of these projectile points were recovered from Architectural Block 100, and the fourth was
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recovered from Block 900. The results of this analysis indicate that three of the projectile points
were made of obsidian from the El Rechuelos source in the northeastern part of the Jemez
Mountains, and the other projectile point and the biface were made of obsidian from Mount
Taylor in west-central New Mexico (Arakawa et al. 2011). Although the sourced items from
Albert Porter Pueblo probably post-date A.D. 900, procurement patterns appear to reflect earlier
(A.D. 600–920) patterns of obsidian procurement in which obsidian from all major sources was
brought into the central Mesa Verde region, and most of the Jemez obsidian originated from the
El Rechuelos source, which is nearest geographically to the central Mesa Verde region (Arakawa
et al. 2011).
A total of 27 pieces of nonlocal debitage were collected from Albert Porter Pueblo. These
include seven pieces of “Nonlocal Chert/Siltstone” for which specific source areas are
unspecified, three pieces of obsidian, and 17 pieces of Narbona Pass chert. The nonlocal
chert/siltstone debitage was collected from Architectural Block 100. Additionally, two of the
three pieces of obsidian were collected from Architectural Block 100. Interestingly, two of the
obsidian pieces derive from Mount Taylor, and the third derives from the Valle Grande source in
the center of the Jemez Mountains. The relatively high frequency of Mount Taylor obsidian at
Albert Porter Pueblo contrasts with the general pattern of obsidian procurement suggested by
XRF analyses of obsidian from other sites in the central Mesa Verde region (Arakawa et al.
2011). Several possible scenarios might account for this difference. First, the obsidian-sourcing
data for Albert Porter Pueblo may be skewed by the small size of the sample. Second, the
obsidian from this site might date primarily from the Pueblo II period, during which time
exchange with the San Juan Basin (including the Mount Taylor area) was relatively frequent.
Third, the inhabitants of Albert Porter Pueblo might have maintained long-distance exchange
relationships with the southern San Juan Basin during the Pueblo III period despite an overall
shift in obsidian procurement southeast toward the Jemez Mountains.
Excavations at Albert Porter Pueblo yielded 17 pieces (55.5 g total weight) of Narbona Pass
chert. Of these, eight pieces were recovered in the eastern portion of Architectural Block 100,
two were recovered from the southern portion of Block 100, one was found in the central portion
of Block 100, and five were found in blocks other than Block 100. Debitage of Narbona Pass
chert was distributed across the village, which suggests that the residents of Albert Porter Pueblo
had equal access to nonlocal lithic resources.
Narbona Pass chert is extremely rare in artifact assemblages from the central Mesa Verde region.
For example, at a sample of sites excavated by Crow Canyon, the total amount of debitage of this
material (Table 6.45) consists of one piece from the Hedley Site complex (Site 42SA22760), two
pieces from the Harlan Great Kiva site (Site 5MT16805), eight pieces from Shields Pueblo (Site
5MT3807), and 13 pieces from Yellow Jacket Pueblo (Site 5MT5).
One reason Narbona Pass chert is important in the assessment of long-distance exchange is that
the only known quarry of this material is located in the Chuska Mountains in northeastern New
Mexico, approximately 90 miles south of Albert Porter Pueblo. Stone from this quarry is
different from other cryptocrystalline materials in its purity and distinctive pinkish-orange color.
From about A.D. 1050 to 1140, when the Chaco regional system was at its peak, many goods
and resources—including Narbona Pass chert—were imported from the Chuska Mountains not
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only to Chaco Canyon itself, but also to great-house settlements throughout the regional system.
Thus, the presence of this material at Albert Porter Pueblo suggests that residents of this village
were active participants in the Chaco regional system.
Ornaments
Ten ornaments made of nonlocal materials were collected from Albert Porter Pueblo: (1) two
beads made of jet and one bead made of nonlocal chert/siltstone, (2) one turquoise gaming piece,
(3) one jet ornament classified as “other modified stone/mineral,” (4) one pendant made of jet
and one made of turquoise, and (5) one copper fragment. The turquoise probably derives from
the Cerrillos source in New Mexico, located more than 200 miles southeast of Albert Porter
Pueblo. Although the source areas of jet are as yet unknown, we do know that this material is not
available locally—the nearest possible source is more than 20 miles from the site. The best
assessment of the copper fragment is that the object originated from a copper ornament
manufactured in Mexico (Copeland et al. 2011).
Few ornaments of nonlocal material were found at Albert Porter Pueblo. The importation of
these items can be accounted for in two possible ways. First, these items or the raw materials
might have been carried directly from the source areas to Albert Porter Pueblo by residents of
that settlement. Alternatively, these objects might have been procured through down-the-line
exchange in which the items were carried and exchanged by multiple individuals before reaching
Albert Porter Pueblo. Additional research on long-distance exchange is necessary to differentiate
between these two procurement patterns and to understand the nature of the interactions between
residents, such as those at Albert Porter Pueblo, and the individuals who managed source areas.
Lastly, two shell items were collected from Albert Porter Pueblo. One shell fragment was found
in the eastern portion of Architectural Block 100, and the other was recovered in Block 300. The
shell recovered from Structure 109 was identified as olivella and was probably procured near the
Pacific Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico. This shell might have been obtained by either a direct or
indirect (down-the-line) exchange.
Comparison with Woods Canyon Pueblo
Because nonlocal objects are relatively rare, and most of the artifact assemblage from Albert
Porter Pueblo derives from deposits dating from multiple time periods, it is not possible to
examine long-distance exchange practices through time using solely this assemblage. However,
it is possible to examine change in procurement behavior through time by comparing nonlocal
materials from Albert Porter Pueblo with those from Woods Canyon Pueblo. The latter site is
located about 1.5 km southwest of Albert Porter Pueblo. Previous researchers (e.g., Lipe and
Ortman 2000) have argued that, during the middle A.D. 1200s, Woods Canyon Pueblo replaced
Albert Porter Pueblo as the community center of the Woods Canyon community. Because the
assemblage from Albert Porter Pueblo represents primarily activities dating between A.D. 1050
and 1225, whereas the assemblage from Woods Canyon Pueblo represents primarily activities
dating between A.D. 1225 and 1280, it may be possible to reconstruct temporal trends in longdistance exchange by comparing the assemblages from these two sites. To do this, a simple
equation (Equation 1) that summarizes overall levels of long-distance exchange was created.
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In this equation, the total quantity of sherds classified as “bulk sherds, large” is divided by the
quantity of nonlocal sherds; the total quantity of projectile points is divided by the quantity of
nonlocal points; the total quantity of tools made of “other modified stone” is divided by the
quantity of nonlocal objects made of “other modified stone”; the total quantity of pendants is
divided by the quantity of nonlocal pendants; these ratios are then summed and divided by the
total weight of gray ware sherds collected from that site. The lower the resulting number, the
higher the incidence of trade goods. It is important to note that this treats the entire assemblage
as a random sample of the total quantity of artifacts deposited at a site.
Equation 1:
Level of trade=
BSL/nonlocal BSL + pop/nonlocal pop + oms/nonlocal oms + pen/nonlocal pen
Total weight of grayware sherds (BSL)
Note: BSL – bulk sherds, large; pop – projectile point; oms – other modified stone; pen –
pendant
The results indicate that residents of Albert Porter Pueblo participated in relatively more
(0.00063) long-distance exchange than did residents of Woods Canyon Pueblo (0.00533)4.
The results also suggest that the reduction in long-distance exchange during the Pueblo III period
occurred primarily during the late portion of that period. Also, because the resident population of
Albert Porter Pueblo peaked during the late A.D. 1100s and early 1200s, and most of the
material recovered from the excavations dates from this period, the relatively high levels of longdistance exchange reflected in the overall artifact assemblage suggest that trade relationships did
not atrophy immediately following the collapse of the Chaco regional system, but instead
continued into the early decades of the A.D. 1200s. Additional research is needed to determine if
this trend was true for other community centers in the central Mesa Verde region.
Conclusions
In this section, I summarize the major findings of various analyses performed on the artifact
assemblage from Albert Porter Pueblo from an intrasite perspective as well as in the context of
the broader region. I begin with an evaluation of activities that occurred within Architectural
Block 100 vs. those that occurred in other blocks, as well as activities that occurred during the
Pueblo II vs. the Pueblo III period. Then I summarize evidence for inter-regional interaction
between A.D. 900 and 1300. Finally, I conclude this section with an evaluation of social
inequality at Albert Porter Pueblo and examine evidence for feasting and social differentiation.
I briefly summarize each artifact type, beginning with a discussion of pottery sherds, followed by
a discussion of chipped-stone tools, and then ground-stone tools. Material from Architectural
Block 100 is compared to material from Architectural Blocks 200–1100. To better understand
the temporal distributions of each artifact type, I also compare material from contexts that date
from the Pueblo II period (A.D. 900–1140) with material from contexts dating from the Pueblo
III period (A.D. 1140–1280). In addition, to better understand the use of the great house through
time, material from sealed contexts beneath great house was analyzed; I infer that this material is
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representative of activities that predate the construction of the great house, and that material from
the interior of the great house is representative of activities associated with the use of the great
house.
Activities in Architectural Block 100 vs. Other Blocks
In this subsection, I use pottery data to summarize evidence of activities at Albert Porter Pueblo.
In the pottery section of this chapter, I emphasized that most of the pottery assemblage from this
site derives from mixed contexts that cannot be dated more precisely than A.D. 900–1280. In the
overall assemblage, about 50 percent of the sherds were identified as deriving from corrugated
jars, and sherds from white ware jars and bowls each constitute about 20 percent of the total. The
relatively high percentage by count and weight of Mancos and McElmo Black-on-white pottery
indicates that the densest occupation of Albert Porter Pueblo dates from the late Pueblo II to the
early Pueblo III periods (A.D. 1050–1225). Another important pattern is that sherds with carbon
paint and those with mineral paint occur about equally in white wares by count and weight. This
result is consistent with previous studies (Breternitz et al. 1974), which have found a general,
southeast-to-northwest gradient in the use of carbon paint in sites dating from the late Pueblo II
and Pueblo III periods in the central Mesa Verde region.
To better understand the daily activities of residents in Architectural Block 100, the artifact
assemblage from this block was compared with artifacts collected from Architectural Blocks
200–1100. The typological profiles of these two subassemblages suggest that residents of all
architectural blocks engaged in similar activities. Specifically, the percentages by count and
weight of types of pottery that are characteristic of the Pueblo II and Pueblo III periods suggest
that there was no significant difference in the activities in which the residents of these two areas
engaged. Among trade wares, San Juan Red Ware was more abundant in other blocks than in
Architectural Block 100, whereas other nonlocal wares were more abundant in Architectural
Block 100. The relative greater abundance of San Juan Red Ware in Architectural Blocks 200–
1100 suggests that the settlement was occupied during the Pueblo I period, and that most of the
excavation units were located in middens from which sherds dating from this period were more
likely to be recovered. However, the greater relative abundance of other nonlocal wares within
Architectural Block 100 suggests that the residents of that block enjoyed social networks that
were more spatially extensive or had easier access to resources than did other community
members. The standardized error test indicates that the sample size from each architectural block
was comparable for this analysis.
In the section on chipped-stone artifacts, I compared the frequencies of six types of chippedstone tools—projectile points, bifaces, drills, cores, peckingstones, and debitage—collected from
Architectural Block 100 vs. those from Architectural Blocks 200–1100. The result suggests that
residents of Architectural Block 100 used and discarded a greater quantity of projectile points
and bifaces than did other residents of the village. The ratios of drills, cores, peckingstones, and
debitage are approximately the same for all architectural blocks at the site, which suggests that
fewer formal chipped-stone tools were produced, used, and discarded in Architectural Block 100
than in other blocks in the settlement. In addition, the presence of peckingstones and debitage in
all architectural blocks at Albert Porter Pueblo suggests that seeds and nuts were ground into
meal, or that pecked-block masonry was produced throughout the pueblo.
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In the section on ground-stone tools, I found that about one-half of the ground-stone artifacts—
abraders, metates, one-hand manos, slab metates, stone mortars, and two-hand manos—were
collected from Architectural Blocks 200–1100, and that ground-stone tools were relatively sparse
in Block 100. This suggests that, in Block 100, food-processing tasks occurred less frequently,
relative to other activities. These patterns suggest that the activities that occurred in Block 100
were different from the activities that occurred elsewhere in the pueblo. More activities in Block
100 were associated with construction and the production of formal chipped-stone tools, and
fewer were associated with food preparation.
Temporal Comparisons
To examine the activities that occurred in Architectural Block 100 through time, I compared
artifact assemblages from three temporal contexts: (1) those pre-dating the great house (pre-A.D.
1060), (2) those associated with the initial use of the great house (A.D. 1060–1140), and (3)
those deposited during the final use of the great house (A.D. 1140–1280). The ratios of tool
counts to the weights of gray ware sherds indicate that projectile points, bifaces, cores, and
nonlocal tools were relatively more abundant before the great house was constructed, although
the ratios of these tools were very small. Peckingstones were relatively more abundant in
deposits dating from the initial use of the great house, and debitage was relatively more abundant
in contexts dating from the final use of the great house. Overall, although many chipped-stone
tools were recovered from deposits that predated great house construction, the differences in the
ratios were small.
Trade at Albert Porter Pueblo
One of the major goals of the excavations at Albert Porter Pueblo was to better understand the
extent of trade, interaction, and exchange between residents of this settlement and the inhabitants
of other regions and to examine change through time in long-distance exchange behaviors. I
expected that nonlocal materials would be relatively more abundant in the subassemblage dating
from the Pueblo II period than that dating from the Pueblo III period, and that residents of Albert
Porter Pueblo obtained more nonlocal items from the southern San Juan region than from
elsewhere. To evaluate these hypotheses for Albert Porter Pueblo, I investigated three types of
artifacts—nonlocal pottery, nonlocal lithic materials, and ornaments of nonlocal materials.
The assemblage of nonlocal-pottery items indicates that residents of Albert Porter Pueblo
obtained a significant quantity of San Juan Red Ware vessels from producers in southeastern
Utah. In addition, sherds from these vessels were relatively most abundant in Blocks 200–1100.
This pattern may reflect differences in sampling strategies of different architectural blocks, as
well as differences in the relative intensity of occupation during various periods in Architectural
Block 100 vs. other blocks.
Nineteen pottery sherds containing nonlocal tempers were analyzed by petrographic analysis and
neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results of petrographic analysis indicated that these
sherds contained two distinct tempers: a sanidine-rich temper that is traceable to dikes and
diatremes in the Navajo Volcanic Field of the Four Corners area and an intrusive igneous rockrich temper of unknown provenance that might have derived from the middle San Juan region
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(L. Reed 2011). Improving our understanding of the source areas of these tempers is an
important topic for future research.
INAA identified the clay and temper sources that were used in the manufacture of the vessels
from which the sampled sherds derived. The INAA data for Albert Porter Pueblo were compared
to the pottery database for the Archaeometry Laboratory Research Reactor Center at the
University of Missouri (MURR). Four source areas were recognized—Mesa Verde proper, the
McElmo-Monument area, the middle San Juan region, and the southern San Juan region. These
results indicate that residents of Albert Porter Pueblo engaged in interactions with residents of
these areas. Because the analyzed samples included some sherds collected through judgmental
selection and others that were collected through random selection, we could not determine the
level of interaction of the Porter residents with the inhabitants of the southern and middle San
Juan regions through time. The answer to this question is important because the southern San
Juan region, particularly the Chuska Mountains, was an important source area for timber, pottery
temper, lithic raw material, and maize during the height of the Pueblo occupation of Chaco
Canyon (Lekson 2006). Thus, defining long-distance exchange relationships between these two
areas is crucial for determining the extent to which inhabitants of Albert Porter Pueblo
participated in the Chaco regional system.
Additionally, the participation of Albert Porter Pueblo in well-developed trade networks is
supported by the presence of obsidian, jet, turquoise, copper, and shell. Three projectile points,
as well as debitage, of obsidian from Mount Taylor in northwestern New Mexico were collected
from Architectural Block 100. This suggests that residents of Albert Porter Pueblo either
interacted with residents of the Mount Taylor area or obtained these obsidian materials by downthe-line trading. A few nonlocal ornaments made of turquoise, jet, or copper were also collected
from the site. The fragment of pure copper, which appears to be from an object produced in
Mexico, was discovered in Architectural Block 1000. Finally, two olivella shells were
discovered at the site, indicating that residents of Albert Porter Pueblo maintained long-distance
contacts with the Pacific Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico. In sum, residents of Albert Porter Pueblo
participated in trade networks that connected people in the central Mesa Verde region with those
in southeastern Utah, the middle and southern San Juan regions, and the Northern Rio Grande, as
well as either the Pacific Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico, or both.
Additionally, data indicate that nonlocal items are relatively more abundant in Architectural
Block 100 than in other blocks, which suggests that the residents of Block 100 accumulated more
nonlocal items than did the occupants of other architectural blocks in the settlement. The
implications for evidence of social stratification in the Woods Canyon community are discussed
below.
To examine changes in the quantity of long-distance exchange through time, a measure of the
abundance of nonlocal items was created and applied to the assemblages for Albert Porter and
Woods Canyon pueblos. The occupations of these two villages overlap temporally, although the
major occupation of Albert Porter Pueblo dated between A.D. 1060 and 1225, and the major
occupation of Woods Canyon Pueblo dated from A.D. 1225 to 1280. The results of this
comparison suggest that residents of Albert Porter Pueblo participated in more long-distance
exchange than did the residents of Woods Canyon Pueblo, and indicate that the frequency of
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long-distance exchange remained high at Albert Porter Pueblo even after the collapse of the
Chaco regional system. As seen in the data for Wood Canyon Pueblo, this pattern declines
during the final decades of the ancestral Pueblo occupation of the Mesa Verde region.
Evidence of Social Differentiation
Researchers interested in the dynamics of social power in ancestral Pueblo societies have
focused on mechanisms through which social power is either consolidated or distributed
(Bernardini 1996; Blanton et al. 1996; Johnson 1989; Schwartz and Nichols 2006). Feinman
(2000:214) notes that corporate organizational strategies characterize more egalitarian systems,
in which wealth is broadly distributed and power arrangements are shared, with power embedded
in the group. In contrast, network organizational strategies characterize more hierarchical
systems, in which wealth is concentrated, individuals attain positions of power, and social
differentiation—as reflected in ostentatious material culture—is valued (Feinman 2000).
Network strategies commonly emerge when aggrandizing individuals develop strong affiliations
and interactions with other ethnic groups and control access to precious trade goods.
In the central Mesa Verde region, population increased and aggregated communities developed
in the late A.D. 1000s, and both trends intensified into the A.D. 1200s. Previous research has
suggested that incipient social hierarchy developed in the central Mesa Verde region during this
period (see Lipe 2002:227–230, 2010). For example, several researchers have argued that
powerful political and religious leaders were present and that they lived in special houses—
including the D-shaped structure and the kiva suites in Block 100 at Sand Canyon Pueblo—just
before the depopulation of the Mesa Verde region (Huber 1993; Lipe 2002:223–224; Lipe and
Varien 1999b; Ortman and Bradley 2002:54–62). An important issue raised by these arguments
is whether specific individuals at Albert Porter Pueblo, following network strategies,
accumulated social, economic, and political power. I address this question by investigating
evidence of feasting, craft specialization, and the accumulation of precious goods by the
residents of Albert Porter Pueblo.
To identify possible evidence of feasting, the spatial distribution of the rims of serving bowls and
the size, shape, and decorative treatments of white ware bowls were investigated. The ratios of
the counts of bowl-rim sherds to the weights of gray ware sherds indicate that residents of
Architectural Block 100 used serving bowls, or at least deposited more sherds of serving bowls,
relative to the sherds of cooking vessels, than did the residents of other blocks in the village.
Additionally, the relative abundance of the sherds of bowl rims by count and weight in contexts
that date from the Pueblo II vs. the Pueblo III periods was investigated. When examined by
count, there is no difference in the relative abundance of sherds of bowl rims from Pueblo II vs.
Pueblo III contexts; however, when tabulated by weight, sherds of bowl rims are twice as
abundant in contexts dating from the Pueblo III period. These patterns suggest that residents of
the village used larger, thicker, and heavier serving bowls during the Pueblo III period. Because
most of the artifacts that date from the Pueblo III period were recovered from Architectural
Block 100, these patterns suggest that feasting activities occurred in that block.
To further investigate this possibility, data for the arcs of vessel rims were examined. Previous
research suggests that active participation in feasting, as the host or the provider, is one way that
177
aggrandizing individuals accumulate social and political power (Potter 1997). Communal
feasting has been inferred in previous studies of artifacts from late Pueblo III canyon-rim villages
on the basis of the common occurrence of painted designs on the exteriors of serving bowls and
on the basis of a bimodal distribution of bowl size as revealed by rim-arc data and measurements
of diameters of complete vessels (Mills 2007; Ortman 2000, 2002, 2003; Robinson 2005; Till
and Ortman 2007). These studies have interpreted the presence of designs on bowl exteriors as a
reflection of the public presentation of food, and the bimodal size distribution as a reflection of
using vessels for individual servings versus serving large batches of food. Both patterns might
reflect feasting.
The results suggest that feasting was not as prevalent at Albert Porter Pueblo as it was at Woods
Canyon Pueblo and at other late Pueblo III canyon-rim villages. Specifically, the distribution of
the diameters of serving bowls as indicated by rim-arc data does not suggest a bimodal size
distribution in the Albert Porter assemblage but instead presents a single mode that is
intermediate between the large (24–32 cm) and small (16–20 cm) modes observed in late Pueblo
III assemblages. Also, exterior designs are rare (35 of 1,989 sherds of painted white ware bowl
rims) in the assemblage from Albert Porter Pueblo even among rims classified as Mesa Verde
Black-on-white, a late Pueblo III type. This study of exterior designs on bowl-rim sherds
suggests that feasting was not a common activity in community centers of the central Mesa
Verde region until the final decades of ancestral Pueblo occupation. However, it is important to
note that, because most bowl sherds with exterior designs date later than A.D. 1250 (Robinson
2005), we should not expect many such sherds at Albert Porter Pueblo, because only a few
households were present in that settlement during that time. Thus, we should be cautious when
interpreting the possibility of feasting at Albert Porter Pueblo on the basis of the diameters of
serving bowls and the presence of exterior designs on sherds from the rims of white ware bowls.
When craft specialization is apparent in the archaeological record, it is reasonable to infer the
existence of different social and economic status among residents of a settlement that result from
the development of balanced reciprocity associated with economic exchange of craft products
(Brumfiel 1987; Costin 1991; Sahlins 1968). To examine the possibility that craft specialization
existed in the Woods Canyon community, I calculated the density of objects of personal
adornment for each architectural block at Albert Porter Pueblo. In terms of absolute counts, most
items of personal adornment were collected from Architectural Block 100; however, the
incidence of these objects in all architectural blocks is relatively low. Thus, it appears unlikely
that any residents of Albert Porter Pueblo were full-time or part-time specialists in the production
of beads, pendants, or other objects of personal adornment (see Murphy 1997).
To address the possibility of the specialized production of other types of artifacts, evidence of the
production of pottery vessels, chipped-stone tools, and ground-stone tools was examined. A
variety of materials—mineral samples, other pottery artifacts, unfired sherds, and polishing
stones—might be related to pottery production. However, none of these types of artifacts was
especially prevalent in any particular architectural block, and this suggests that pottery
production was not localized in specific households, but that pottery was produced throughout
the settlement.
178
The flake-size distribution of Dakota/Burro Canyon silicified sandstone also argues against
intensive production of projectile points at Albert Porter Pueblo, because the distribution does
not exhibit the expected pattern―that is, a negative exponential slope (Patterson 1990)―for an
assemblage produced primarily through bifacial reduction, even though the majority of projectile
points in the site assemblage was made of this material. Thus, it appears that many of the
projectile points in the Albert Porter Pueblo assemblage were manufactured elsewhere, perhaps
in agricultural fields or at quarries.
Lastly, the spatial distribution of ground-stone tools indicates that these tools were also
distributed evenly across the site. In short, although there is evidence of craft specialization
elsewhere during this time period, the artifact data for Albert Porter Pueblo do not indicate that
part-time or full-time craft specialization was practiced in the Woods Canyon community.
However, the temporal mixing of artifacts might be masking such evidence.
Discussions and Future Research
In addition to providing dating estimates for various contexts, the artifact assemblage from
Albert Porter Pueblo provides insights into several important topics—interaction and trade
during the Pueblo II and Pueblo III periods, the changing role of great houses in community
organization, the development of craft specialization, and the emergence of social inequality.
Although this chapter has provided significant information about the Woods Canyon community,
additional topics—such as migration, gender, social inequality, and trade—remain to be
explored. Investigating these topics on three different scales—the great house, community, and
regional levels—are especially key.
Future Great-House Research
The great house at Albert Porter Pueblo was built on a deposit containing artifacts dating from
the middle portion of the Pueblo II period; thus, the great house was constructed within an
existing settlement. The great house was expanded over time, and the artifacts from few contexts
within the great house can confidently be dated to the initial period of use during the Pueblo II
period. As a result, the artifact assemblage from the site informs us primarily about the manner
of the later use of the great house, which occurred during the Pueblo III period. The data suggest
that during this period, the great house was a residence for several kin-based household groups
(Ryan 2008). The mix of daily activities performed by these residents does appear to have
differed somewhat from that performed in other houses within the settlement, but the differences
are quantitative rather than qualitative. Thus, the inhabitants of the great house might have been
relatively prestigious and influential within the community, but there is no evidence that they
were of a separate social class than the remainder of the community.
The artifact assemblage from this site does not contain abundant evidence of Chaco influence.
However, it does contain rare objects of turquoise and copper that might have come to the
settlement through Chaco Canyon, and the incidence of nonlocal items is greater at Albert Porter
Pueblo than at other late Pueblo III sites in the Mesa Verde region. The findings reported here
suggest that an important topic for future research would be to clarify whether the people who
constructed great houses in the central Mesa Verde region were immigrants who were already
179
part of the Chaco regional system, local people wishing to emulate Chaco architecture, local
people wishing to participate in the system, or some combination of these possible scenarios.
Another important issue is determining whether great houses were initially designed as
residences, ceremonial structures, council chambers, or some combination of these structure
types. The long use-life of, and resulting complexity of deposits within, the great house at Albert
Porter Pueblo complicates inferences regarding these issues.
Another topic that deserves further exploration is social inequality. Artifact data from Albert
Porter Pueblo suggest that aspiring elites did not accumulate social, political, and economic
power. This pattern contrasts with the architectural signature, which suggests that the great
house, a large and relatively ostentatious building, was at least in part residential, and was
probably the residence of influential or prestigious individuals. This disjunction between
architectural and artifactual evidence raises the issue of what role great houses played in
communities in the central Mesa Verde region, and how much social differentiation existed in
these communities.
Future Community and Regional Research
In a community-level study, it is important to explore the gendered use of activity spaces using
pottery, chipped-stone, and ground-stone data. The results of chipped-stone analysis revealed
that bifacial reduction activities did not occur frequently within Albert Porter Pueblo. A strong
cross-cultural pattern identifies men as the primary manufacturers and users of projectile points.
If this was the case at Albert Porter Pueblo, projectile-point and biface manufacture might have
been performed by men when they were away from the village. In contrast, women’s economic
roles, such as food preparation, were performed within the settlement as reflected in the
abundance of cooking pottery, ground-stone tools, peckingstones, and debitage from
peckingstone manufacture found at the site. These patterns suggest that future research on the
gendered division of labor should operate at the landscape level as opposed to the intrasite level.
Additionally, researchers should further explore the topic of trade in the central Mesa Verde
region. The petrographic and neutron activation analyses reported here indicate that some pottery
sherds recovered from Albert Porter Pueblo were from vessels made in the southern and middle
San Juan regions of New Mexico. However, recent research in the Navajo Volcanic Field has
revealed that there may be sources of trachyte or sanidine-rich tempers in southwest Colorado.
Thus, to better understand ancestral Pueblo exchange networks during the Pueblo II period, we
must increase the quantity of both geological and archaeological samples from relevant sites.
Arakawa and Gonzales (2010) are working on geological surveys in the Navajo Volcanic Field
and developing comparative data for petrographic and microprobe analyses of archaeological
samples. Thus, in the future, we hope to be able to determine where pottery vessels containing
trachyte or sanidine-rich tempers were produced. It is also important to improve our ability to
identify vessels produced in the middle San Juan region so that we can address the extent to
which the residents of Aztec Ruins influenced society in the central Mesa Verde region during
the Pueblo III period. The petrographic and INAA studies reported here indicate that analysts can
reliably identify vessels produced in the middle San Juan region and can identify sherds
180
containing trachyte or sanidine-rich tempers using a binocular microscope. These same
techniques need to be applied to larger samples and to assemblages from additional sites.
181
Figure 6.1. Ratios of mineral painted sherd count to gray ware sherd count for selected
sites in the central Mesa Verde region.
182
Figure 6.2. Percentage of white ware bowl temper distribution, Architectural Block 100
vs. Architectural Blocks 200–1100, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Figure 6.3. Percentage of white ware bowl counts by temper category, Architectural Block
100 vs. Architectural Blocks 200–1100, Albert Porter Pueblo.
183
Figure 6.4. INAA results: bivariate plot of chromium and ytterbium, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Figure 6.5. INAA results: bivariate plot of chromium and dysprosium, Albert Porter
Pueblo.
184
Figure 6.6. INAA results: bivariate plot of chromium and lutetium, Albert Porter Pueblo.
185
Table 6.1. Pecos Classification Terms and Associated Time Periods.
Pecos Classification Terms
Time Period
Basketmaker II
1000 B.C.–A.D. 600
Basketmaker III
A.D. 500–750
Pueblo I
A.D. 750–900
Pueblo II
A.D. 900–1150
Pueblo III
A.D. 1150–1300
Table 6.2. Subperiods and Date Ranges.
Subperiod
Date Range
Late Pueblo II
A.D. 1060–1140
Early Pueblo III
A.D. 1140–1225
Late Pueblo III
A.D. 1225–1280
Others
Mixed or unassigned dates
Table 6.3. Three Temporal Periods.
Time Period
Date Range
Predating Great House
Construction
Prior to A.D. 1060
Initial Use of Great House
A.D. 1060–1140
Final Use of Great House
A.D. 1140–1280
Source: Adapted from Ortman et al. 2007:Table 4.
186
Table 6.4. Nine Subperiods Used for Pottery Analysis, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Subperiod
Middle Pueblo II (A.D. 1020–1060)
Late Pueblo II (A.D. 1060–1140)
Early Pueblo III (A.D. 1140–1225)
Late Pueblo III (A.D. 1225–1280)
Late Pueblo II through Early Pueblo III (A.D. 1060–1225)
Middle Pueblo II through Late Pueblo III (A.D. 1020–1280)
Early Pueblo I through Early Pueblo III (A.D. 725–1225)
Terminal Pueblo II through Initial Pueblo III (A.D. 1100–1180)
Unassigned
Table 6.5. Count and Weight of Gray Ware, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Time Period
Count
Weight (g)
733
4,897.2
Initial Use of Great House
1,539
11,520.9
Final Use of Great House
46,974
305,243.2
Predating Great House
Table 6.6. Weights of Gray Ware from All Architectural Blocks, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Architectural Block
Weight (g)
100
300,003.0
200
24,484.4
300
16,917.5
400
19,289.0
500
19,630.8
600
13,629.6
700
53.1
800
56,602.5
900
56,495.5
1000
45,827.8
1100
19,703.9
187
Table 6.7. Weights of Gray Ware from Architectural Block 100 and Other Architectural Blocks
(200–1100), Albert Porter Pueblo.
Weight (g)
Architectural Block 100
300,003
Other Architectural Blocks
272,634
Table 6.8. Bulk Sherds, Large, by Type, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Ware Form
Type
Mudware
Basketmaker Mudware
Gray Ware
Chapin Gray
Gray Ware
Count
Weight (g)
Percent by
Count
Percent by
Weight
6
14.5
0.0
0.0
106
699.1
0.1
0.1
Moccasin Gray
10
82.8
0.0
0.0
Gray Ware
Mancos Gray
19
188.5
0.0
0.0
Gray Ware
Indeterminate
Neckbanded Gray
10
36.8
0.0
0.0
Gray Ware
Indeterminate Local Gray
12,298
64,536.2
7.4
5.9
Corrugated
Mancos Corrugated Gray
826
8,500.1
0.5
0.8
Corrugated
Mesa Verde Corrugated
Gray
1,467
25,385.3
0.9
2.3
Corrugated
Mummy Lake Gray
11
1,081.9
0.0
0.1
Corrugated
Indeterminate Local
Corrugated Gray
83,685
493,780.5
50.4
44.9
White Ware
Chapin Black-on-white
27
182.1
0.0
0.0
White Ware
Piedra Black-on-white
42
285.9
0.0
0.0
White Ware
Cortez Black-on-white
198
1,513.6
0.1
0.1
White Ware
Mancos Black-on-white
9,021
73,664.6
5.4
6.7
White Ware
McElmo Black-on-white
4,222
60,788.1
2.5
5.5
White Ware
Mesa Verde Black-onwhite
1,282
23,613.1
0.8
2.1
White Ware
Early White Painted
96
416.1
0.1
0.0
White Ware
Early White Unpainted
691
3,324.3
0.4
0.3
White Ware
Pueblo II White Painted
1,119
5,595.6
0.7
0.5
White Ware
Pueblo III White Painted
4,500
36,382.0
2.7
3.3
White Ware
Late White Painted
13,961
82,424.6
8.4
7.5
188
Ware Form
Type
White Ware
Late White Unpainted
White Ware
Count
Weight (g)
Percent by
Count
Percent by
Weight
31,365
211,702.1
18.9
19.2
Indeterminate Local
White Painted
78
326
0.0
0.0
White Ware
Indeterminate Local
White Unpainted
234
1,006.1
0.1
0.1
Red Ware
Abajo Red-on-orange
32
129.9
0.0
0.0
Red Ware
Bluff Black-on-red
2
10
0.0
0.0
Red Ware
Deadmans Black-on-red
170
653.4
0.1
0.1
Red Ware
Indeterminate Local Red
Painted
55
189.8
0.0
0.0
Red Ware
Indeterminate Local Red
Unpainted
173
666.4
0.1
0.1
Nonlocal
Chuska Corrugated, not
further specified
1
7.1
0.0
0.0
Nonlocal
Chuska Gray, not further
specified
1
3.9
0.0
0.0
Nonlocal
Chuska White, not further
specified
3
14.8
0.0
0.0
Nonlocal
Middle San Juan Gray
Ware
4
28.9
0.0
0.0
Nonlocal
Middle San Juan White
Ware
1
3.3
0.0
0.0
Nonlocal
Tsegi Orange Ware
119
547.2
0.1
0.0
Nonlocal
White Mountain Red
Ware
24
206.3
0.0
0.0
Nonlocal
Other Gray Nonlocal
40
398.8
0.0
0.0
Nonlocal
Other Red Nonlocal
15
55.6
0.0
0.0
Nonlocal
Other White Nonlocal
91
733.6
0.1
0.1
Nonlocal
Polychrome
21
971.8
0.0
0.1
Ware unknown Unknown Gray
37
288.3
0.0
0.0
Ware unknown Unknown White
5
18.6
0.0
0.0
Ware unknown Unknown Pottery
34
196
0.0
0.0
166,102
1,100,654
100.0
100.0
TOTAL
Note: Percentages shown as totals may not add up to exactly 100% due to rounding.
189
Table 6.9. Bulk Sherds, Large, by Time Period, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Pecos Period
Count
Others
Percent
by Count
Weight (g)
Percent
by Weight
708
4,806.4
0.4
0.4
6
14.5
0.0
0.0
Basketmaker III
133
881.3
0.1
0.1
Basketmaker III/
Pueblo I
12,298
64,536.3
7.4
5.9
Pueblo I
902
4,474.5
0.5
0.4
Pueblo I/II
228
856.2
0.1
0.1
11,334
89,927.6
6.8
8.2
129,022
788,989.1
77.7
71.7
11,471
146,168.7
6.9
13.3
166,102
1,100,654.6
100%
100%
Basketmaker II
Pueblo II
Pueblo II/III
Pueblo III
TOTAL
Note: Percentages shown as totals may not add up to exactly 100% due to rounding.
Table 6.10. Pottery Sherds by Ware and Form, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Ware Form
Mudware
Gray Ware
Vessel Form
White Ware
Weight (g)
Percent by
Count
Percent by
Weight
Jar
4
6.8
0.0
0.0
Unknown
2
7.7
0.0
0.0
Bowl
5
26.4
0.0
0.0
Canteen
3
7.3
0.0
0.0
12,338
65,008.6
7.4
5.9
Kiva/Seed Jar
12
146.3
0.0
0.0
Unknown
85
354.9
0.1
0.0
1
7.1
0.0
0.0
Jar
85,988
528,740.8
51.8
48.0
Bowl
30,795
236,211.2
18.5
21.5
24
122.3
0.0
0.0
Jar
Corrugated
Count
Bowl
Canteen
190
Ware Form
Vessel Form
Jar
Count
19.3
21.4
58
543.7
0.0
0.0
1,619
20,100.6
1.0
1.8
Mug
159
1,919.3
0.1
0.2
Other
26
410.8
0.0
0.0
2,170
6,685.4
1.3
0.6
325
1,159.6
0.2
0.1
96
439.2
0.1
0.0
Kiva/Seed Jar
4
28.9
0.0
0.0
Ladle
3
12.6
0.0
0.0
Unknown
4
9.3
0.0
0.0
209
2,097.1
0.1
0.2
1
4.8
0.0
0.0
99
809.1
0.1
0.1
Ladle
6
19.0
0.0
0.0
Mug
3
31.4
0.0
0.0
Other
1
7.8
0.0
0.0
Unknown
1
2.1
0.0
0.0
Bowl
6
86.4
0.0
0.0
Canteen
1
4.6
0.0
0.0
46
351.6
0.0
0.0
1
3.8
0.0
0.0
22
56.5
0.0
0.0
166,102 1,100,654.4
100%
100%
Unknown
Bowl
Jar
Bowl
Canteen
Jar
Unknown
Jar
Ladle
Unknown
TOTAL
Percent by
Weight
235,231.4
Ladle
Nonlocal
Percent by
Count
31,985
Kiva/Seed Jar
Red Ware
Weight (g)
Note: Percentages shown as totals may not add up to exactly 100% due to rounding.
191
Table 6.11. Pottery Ware and Form by Time Period, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Ware Form
Bowl
Percent by
Weight
2.4
2.3
5
12.8
0.0
0.0
12,878
67,735.2
96.5
96.7
Ladle
5
26.3
0.0
0.0
Mug
0
0.0
–
–
17
185.6
0.1
0.3
117
462.7
0.9
0.7
0
0.0
–
–
Early Total
13,348
70,022.0
100.0
100.0
Bowl
30,603
235,107.4
20.2
22.9
22
116.81
0.0
0.0
117,332
761,073.6
77.3
74.2
1,614
20,047.36
1.1
2.0
159
1,921.39
0.1
0.2
57
533.31
0.0
0.1
2,061
6,423.09
1.4
0.6
27
418.57
0.0
0.0
151,875
1,025,642
100.0
100.0
156
498.5
68.4
58.2
68
348.4
29.8
40.7
4
9.3
1.8
1.1
228
856.2
100.0
100.0
Kiva/Seed Jar
Unknown
Other
Canteen
Jar
Ladle
Mug
Kiva/Seed Jar
Unknown
Other
Late Total
Bowl
Pueblo I/Pueblo II
Percent by
Count
1,599.4
Jar
Late (Pueblo II–
Pueblo III)
Weight (g)
326
Canteen
Early
(Basketmaker III–
Pueblo I)
Count
Jar
Unknown
PI/PII Total
Note: Percentages shown as totals may not add up to exactly 100% due to rounding.
192
Table 6.12. Pottery Sherds by Count, Type, and Finish, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Count
Pottery Type
Carbon Mineral
Paint
Paint
Mixed
Paint
Percentage
Indeterminate
TOTAL
Painted
Carbon
Paint
Mineral
Paint
Mixed
Paint
Indeterminate
TOTAL
Painted
Chapin Black-on-white
7
20
27
25.9
74.1
100.0
Piedra Black-on-white
11
31
42
26.2
73.8
100.0
Cortez Black-on-white
7
191
198
3.5
96.5
100.0
Mancos Black-on-white
3,855
5,100
50
1
9,006
42.8
56.6
0.6
0.0
100.0
McElmo Black-on-white
1,989
2,199
28
2
4,218
47.2
52.1
0.7
0.0
100.0
711
558
11
1,280
55.5
43.6
0.9
33
60
95
34.7
63.2
Mesa Verde Black-on-white
Early White Painted
2
Early White Unpainted
Pueblo II White Painted
100.0
2.1
0
100.0
–
124
987
2
4
1,117
11.1
88.4
0.2
0.4
100.0
Pueblo III White Painted
2,640
1,814
20
14
4,488
58.8
40.4
0.4
0.3
100.0
Late White Painted
7,808
5,996
37
70
13,911
56.1
43.1
0.3
0.5
100.0
4
2
1
7
57.1
28.6
14.3
100.0
24
40
13
77
31.2
51.9
16.9
100.0
1
1
100.0
100.0
108
34,467
0.3
100.0
Late White Unpainted
Indeterminate Local White
Painted
Indeterminate Local White
Unpainted
TOTAL
17,213
16,998
148
Note: Percentages shown as totals may not add up to exactly 100% due to rounding.
193
49.9
49.3
0.4
Table 6.13. Pottery Sherds by Weight, Type, and Finish, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Weight (g)
Pottery Type
Carbon
Paint
Mineral
Paint
Mixed
Paint
Percentage
Indeterminate
Painted
TOTAL
Carbon
Paint
Mineral
Paint
Mixed Indeterminate
TOTAL
Paint
Painted
Chapin Black-on-white
20.7
161.4
182.1
11.4
88.6
100.0
Piedra Black-on-white
70.8
215.2
286.0
24.8
75.2
100.0
Cortez Black-on-white
39.8
1,473.8
1,513.7
2.6
97.4
100.0
Mancos Black-on-white
30,048.2
43,095.8
430.2
2.2
73,576.3
40.8
58.6
0.6
0.0
100.0
McElmo Black-on-white
28,089.2
32,314.4
326.6
10.0
60,740.2
46.2
53.2
0.5
0.0
100.0
Mesa Verde Black-onwhite
14,492.9
8,927.1
181.5
23,601.5
61.4
37.8
0.8
166.5
240.6
409.8
40.6
58.7
Early White Painted
2.7
100.0
0.7
Early White Unpainted
Pueblo II White Painted
100.0
-
865.3
4,659.7
7.8
58.0
5,590.8
15.5
83.3
0.1
1.0
100.0
Pueblo III White Painted
20,802.7
15,176.6
153.7
122.4
36,255.5
57.4
41.9
0.4
0.3
100.0
Late White Painted
44,192.0
37,237.2
312.0
464.9
82,206.0
53.8
45.3
0.4
0.6
100.0
21.1
23.1
5.3
49.5
42.6
46.7
10.7
100.0
143.7
122.8
55.8
322.3
44.6
38.1
17.3
100.0
2.5
2.5
100.0
100.0
723.8
284,736.1
0.3
100.0
Late White Unpainted
Indeterminate Local White
Painted
Indeterminate Local White
Unpainted
TOTAL
138,952.9 143,647.7 1,411.8
194
48.8
50.4
0.5
Table 6.14. White Ware Counts and Percentage from Selected Study Units, Albert Porter Pueblo.
(a) Table 6.14, White Ware Counts
Pottery Type
Piedra Black-on-white
Cortez Black-on-white
Mancos Black-on-white
McElmo Black-on-white
Mesa Verde Black-on-white
Early White Painted
Early White Unpainted
Pueblo II White Painted
Pueblo III White Painted
Late White Painted
Late White Unpainted
Indeterminate Local White
Painted
Indeterminate Local White
Unpainted
TOTAL
A.D.
1060–
1225
STR 107
1232+vv
2
123
28
11
11
20
65
155
468
Count
A.D.
A.D.
A.D.
1060–
1060–
1225–
1225
1225
1280
STR 110 STR 150 STR 114
1192++vv 1188r
1258+vv
1
7
6
73
153
62
42
92
21
13
13
11
1
1
1
2
9
8
2
20
7
29
40
42
124
133
111
233
317
311
2
5
1
888
521
195
787
580
A.D.
1225–
1280
STR 402
1226b
A.D.
1225–
1280
STR 403
1238+v
16
10
6
11
12
2
1
21
69
92
20
30
105
215
180
(b) Table 6.14, White Ware Percent
Type
Piedra Black-on-white
Cortez Black-on-white
Mancos Black-on-white
McElmo Black-on-white
Mesa Verde Black-on-white
Early White Painted
Early White Unpainted
Pueblo II White Painted
Pueblo III White Painted
Late White Painted
Late White Unpainted
Indeterminate Local White
Painted
Indeterminate Local White
Unpainted
TOTAL
A.D.
1060–
1225
STR 107
1232+vv
Percent
A.D.
A.D.
1060–
1225–
1225
1280
STR 150 STR 114
1188r
1258+vv
0.9
1.0
19.4
10.7
11.7
3.6
1.7
1.9
0.1
0.2
1.1
1.4
2.5
1.2
5.1
7.2
16.9
19.1
40.3
53.6
0.3
-
0.2
13.9
3.2
1.2
1.2
2.3
7.3
17.5
52.7
-
A.D.
1060–
1225
STR 110
1192++vv
0.2
14.0
8.1
2.5
0.2
0.4
0.4
5.6
23.8
44.7
-
0.6
0.2
-
-
-
-
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Note: Percentages shown as totals may not add up to exactly 100% due to rounding.
196
A.D.
1225–
1280
STR 402
1226b
7.4
4.7
2.8
0.5
9.8
32.1
42.8
-
A.D.
1225–
1280
STR 403
1238+v
6.1
6.7
1.1
11.1
16.7
58.3
-
Table 6.15. White Ware Weights and Percentage from Selected Study Units,
Albert Porter Pueblo.
(a) Table 6.15, White Ware Weights
Weight (g)
Type
Piedra Black-on-white
Cortez Black-on-white
Mancos Black-on-white
McElmo Black-on-white
Mesa Verde Black-on-white
Early White Painted
Early White Unpainted
Pueblo II White Painted
Pueblo III White Painted
Late White Painted
Late White Unpainted
Indeterminate Local White
Painted
Indeterminate Local White
Unpainted
TOTAL
A.D.
1060–
1225
STR 107
1232+vv
12.50
875.93
392.92
202.71
72.09
65.40
464.36
749.60
2,774.60
A.D.
A.D.
A.D. 1060– A.D. 1225–
1225–
1060–1225 1225
1280
1280
STR 110 STR 150
STR 114
STR 402
1192++vv 1188r
1258+vv
1226b
2.60
70.60
68.47
654.40
1,289.40
499.26
102.10
800.39
2,226.48
290.35
136.90
244.80
377.30
118.20
104
3.40
1.70
1.70
22.70
40.70
38.36
5.60
106
50.61
2.30
218.30
317.30
415.68
154.90
715.60
1,390.20
628.62
507.40
1,393.75
3,214.33
2,438.78
796.30
A.D. 1225–
1280
STR 403
1238+v
88.20
236.40
24.40
214.60
122.10
755.45
13.70
29.90
16.50
5,640.01
4,078.04
197
9,047.71
4,550.03
1,803.90
1,441.15
(b) Table 6.15, White Ware Percent
Percent
Type
Piedra Black-on-white
Cortez Black-on-white
Mancos Black-on-white
McElmo Black-on-white
Mesa Verde Black-on-white
Early White Painted
Early White Unpainted
Pueblo II White Painted
Pueblo III White Painted
Late White Painted
Late White Unpainted
Indeterminate Local White
Painted
Indeterminate Local White
Unpainted
TOTAL
A.D.
1060–
1225
STR 107
1232+vv
A.D.
A.D.
A.D. 1060– A.D. 1225–
1225–
1060–1225 1225
1280
1280
STR 110 STR 150
STR 114
STR 402
1192++vv 1188r
1258+vv
1226b
A.D. 1225–
1280
STR 403
1238+v
0.2
15.5
7.0
3.6
1.3
1.2
8.2
13.3
49.2
0.1
16.0
19.6
6.0
0.1
0.6
0.1
5.4
17.5
34.2
0.8
14.3
24.6
4.2
0.0
0.4
1.2
3.5
15.4
35.5
1.5
11.0
6.4
2.6
0.0
0.8
1.1
9.1
13.8
53.6
5.7
7.6
5.8
0.1
8.6
28.1
44.1
6.1
16.4
1.7
14.9
8.5
52.4
-
-
0.2
-
-
-
0.5
0.4
-
-
-
-
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Note: Percentages shown as totals may not add up to exactly 100% due to rounding.
198
Table 6.16. White Ware Data from Well-Dated Components in Southwest Colorado.
Pottery Types
Site
Number
Site Name
Cortez
Latest
B/W and
TreePhase*
Pueblo II
Ring Date
White
(A.D.)
Painted
Mancos
B/W
McElmo
B/W
Mesa
Verde
B/W
Pueblo III
White
Painted
Late
White
Painted
Mineral
Paint
Ratio of Mineral
Number
Paint to Number
of Sherds
of Sherds
Analyzed
Analyzed
5MT11338
G and G
Hamlet
2, 4
1083
5
22
19
9
7
2
31
66
0.47
5MT2544
Roundtree
Pueblo
2, 5
1078
13
108
44
28
22
47
193
278
0.69
5MT10010
Cowboy
Wash
3
1114
2
62
4
3
2
30
48
103
0.47
5MT2148
Dominguez
Ruin
3
1123
3
15
5
1
4
11
32
0.34
5MT2149
Escalante
Ruin
3
1138
2
82
40
2
8
61
146
0.42
5MT3876
Hanson
Pueblo
3
1134
3
40
4
13
28
76
0.37
5MT6970
Wallace
Ruin
3
1108
33
273
31
12
15
56
218
448
0.49
5MT3892
Seed Jar Site
4
1148
7
77
13
1
1
7
61
119
0.51
5MT5152
Kenzie
Dawn
Hamlet
4, 5
1142
26
14
11
9
4
26
67
0.39
5MT2525
Knobby
Knee
Stockade
5
1201
1
19
4
10
13
33
47
0.70
5MT3930
Roy's Ruin
5
1223
4
26
28
38
11
14
107
0.13
5MT3936
Lillian's Site
5
1214
3
20
23
25
8
10
80
0.13
5MT123
Albert Porter
Pueblo
3, 4, 5
349
162
37
134
412
594
1,145
0.52
51
199
Pottery Types
Site
Number
Site Name
Cortez
Latest
B/W and
TreePhase*
Pueblo II
Ring Date
White
(A.D.)
Painted
5MT262
Saddlehorn
Hamlet
6
1256
5MT10246
Lester's Site
7
1271
5MT3951
Troy's Tower
7
1271
5MT1825
Castle Rock
Pueblo
7
1274
5MT765
Sand Canyon
Pueblo
6, 7
1274
5MT5
Yellow
Jacket
Pueblo
(Block 1200)
7
1254
5MT11842
Woods
Canyon
Pueblo
6, 7
1276
5MT123
Albert Porter
Pueblo
6
1258
Mancos
B/W
McElmo
B/W
Mesa
Verde
B/W
Pueblo III
White
Painted
11
18
13
2
22
58
25
2
4
19
1
25
0
6
1
Late
White
Painted
Mineral
Paint
Ratio of Mineral
Number
Paint to Number
of Sherds
of Sherds
Analyzed
Analyzed
2
42
0.05
4
4
111
0.04
23
7
4
58
0.07
85
73
12
51
197
0.26
59
355
334
55
177
813
0.22
2
31
96
68
8
11
206
0.05
0
2
5
16
9
0
5
32
0.16
14
89
43
19
83
210
176
458
0.38
1
Notes: * Phase 1 = A.D. 1020–1060; Phase 2 = A.D. 1060–1100; Phase 3 = A.D. 1100–1140; Phase 4 = A.D. 1140–1180; Phase 5 = A.D. 1180–1225;
Phase 6 = A.D. 1225–1260; Phase 7 = A.D. 1260–1280.
B/W = Black-on-white.
200
Table 6.17. Count of Pottery Types by Temporal Component, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Count
Pottery Type
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–
1140)
Basketmaker Mudware
Early Pueblo
III (A.D.
1140–1225)
Percent
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–
1280)
3
Late Pueblo
II (A.D.
1060–1140)
Early Pueblo III Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–
(A.D. 1225–
1225)
1280)
3
-
0.0
-
0.0
50
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
Others
Chapin Gray
17
32
Moccasin Gray
1
4
5
0.0
0.0
-
0.0
Mancos Gray
6
2
11
0.0
0.0
-
0.0
Indeterminate Neckbanded Gray
2
4
4
0.0
0.0
-
0.0
Indeterminate Local Gray
2,744
4,128
313
5,116
8.9
6.7
4.6
7.6
Mancos Corrugated Gray
194
271
45
316
0.6
0.4
0.7
0.5
Mesa Verde Corrugated Gray
268
649
69
483
0.9
1.0
1.0
0.7
2
-
0.0
-
0.0
Mummy Lake Gray
Indeterminate Local Corrugated Gray
7
Others
9
15,742
30,933
3,668
33,648
51.1
50.0
53.4
49.9
Chapin Black-on-white
5
5
3
14
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Piedra Black-on-white
12
12
18
0.0
0.0
-
0.0
Cortez Black-on-white
59
46
10
83
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
Mancos Black-on-white
2,310
3,093
214
3,487
7.5
5.0
3.1
5.2
McElmo Black-on-white
635
1,931
211
1,494
2.1
3.1
3.1
2.2
Mesa Verde Black-on-white
42
644
153
463
0.1
1.0
2.2
0.7
Early White Painted
23
25
2
47
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
Early White Unpainted
142
185
14
351
0.5
0.3
0.2
0.5
Pueblo II White Painted
259
360
37
472
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.7
Pueblo III White Painted
460
1,967
273
1,857
1.5
3.2
4.0
2.8
Late White Painted
2,335
5,081
509
6,123
7.6
8.2
7.4
9.1
Late White Unpainted
5,320
12,106
1,322
12,815
17.3
19.6
19.2
19.0
5
18
55
0.0
0.0
-
0.1
Indeterminate Local White Painted
201
Count
Percent
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–
1140)
Early Pueblo
III (A.D.
1140–1225)
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–
1280)
Others
Late Pueblo
II (A.D.
1060–1140)
Indeterminate Local White
Unpainted
41
37
2
154
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.2
Abajo Red-on-orange
7
11
1
13
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
-
0.0
-
-
Pottery Type
Bluff Black-on-red
2
Early Pueblo III Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–
(A.D. 1225–
1225)
1280)
Others
Deadmans Black-on-red
38
70
4
77
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
Indeterminate Local Red Painted
6
31
1
18
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
Indeterminate Local Red Unpainted
40
72
4
65
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
Chuska Corrugated, not further
specified
1
-
-
-
0.0
Chuska Gray, not further specified
1
-
-
-
0.0
Chuska White, not further specified
3
-
-
-
0.0
1
-
0.0
-
0.0
-
0.0
-
-
Middle San Juan Gray Ware
3
Middle San Juan White Ware
1
Tsegi Orange Ware
29
White Mountain Red Ware
38
4
49
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
17
1
7
-
0.0
0.0
0.0
1
25
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
7
0.0
0.0
-
0.0
Other Gray Nonlocal
7
7
Other Red Nonlocal
7
3
Other White Nonlocal
24
26
1
40
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
Polychrome
6
7
2
6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Unknown Gray
1
31
5
0.0
0.1
-
0.0
Unknown White
1
3
1
0.0
0.0
-
0.0
Unknown Pottery
2
21
2
9
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
30,788
61,867
6,871
67,390
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
TOTAL
Note: Percentages shown as totals may not add up to exactly 100% due to rounding.
202
Table 6.18. Weight of Pottery Sherds by Type and by Temporal Component, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Pottery Type
Basketmaker Mudware
Chapin Gray
Moccasin Gray
Mancos Gray
Indeterminate Neckbanded
Gray
Indeterminate Local Gray
Mancos Corrugated Gray
Mesa Verde Corrugated Gray
Mummy Lake Gray
Indeterminate Local
Corrugated Gray
Chapin Black-on-white
Piedra Black-on-white
Cortez Black-on-white
Mancos Black-on-white
McElmo Black-on-white
Mesa Verde Black-on-white
Early White Painted
Early White Unpainted
Pueblo II White Painted
Pueblo III White Painted
Late White Painted
Late White Unpainted
Indeterminate Local White
Painted
Indeterminate Local White
Unpainted
Weight (g)
Early Pueblo Late Pueblo
III (A.D.
III (A.D.
1140–1225) 1225–1280)
4.3
110.4
198.0
42.8
4.8
42.0
48.2
51.8
Late Pueblo
II (A.D.
1060–1140)
6.5
20.8
13,778.25
1,897.99
3,947.6
23,086.1
3,047.0
12,891.3
298.2
79,419.77
Other
10.2
347.98
36
88.5
Percent
Late Pueblo Early Pueblo Late Pueblo
II (A.D.
III (A.D.
III (A.D.
Other
1060–1140) 1140–1225) 1225–1280)
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
9.5
0.0
0.0
-
0.0
1,560.0
609.0
1,510.9
26,089.04
2,946.13
7,035.55
783.7
7.8
1.1
2.2
-
5.1
0.7
2.9
0.1
2.3
0.9
2.3
-
6.4
0.7
1.7
0.2
199,868.1
30,766.5
183,543.8
45.1
44.4
46.3
45.1
23
106.99
507
19,059
6,901.97
352.3
84.51
629.5
1,193.04
3,136.34
13,347.47
30,473.17
27.4
58.1
292.9
25,874.9
31,828.0
11,294.9
101.8
1,061.8
1,744.0
16,933.9
30,896.7
88,969.1
49.8
81.9
120.9
626.12
26,713.37
18,139.88
6,775.92
221.5
1,562.08
2,458.93
13,608.07
34,071.84
79,301.71
0.0
0.1
0.3
10.8
3.9
0.2
0.0
0.4
0.7
1.8
7.6
17.3
0.0
0.0
0.1
5.7
7.1
2.5
0.0
0.2
0.4
3.8
6.9
19.7
0.1
0.1
3.0
5.7
7.8
0.0
0.1
0.3
4.0
6.1
19.3
0.0
0.0
0.2
6.6
4.5
1.7
0.1
0.4
0.6
3.3
8.4
19.5
13.5
57.8
254.7
0.0
0.0
-
0.1
149.85
180.0
664.93
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.2
87.7
2,003.8
3,821.6
5,157.7
8.3
71.0
199.6
2,686.9
4,083.0
12,808.9
11.3
203
Pottery Type
Abajo Red-on-orange
Bluff Black-on-red
Deadmans Black-on-red
Indeterminate Local Red
Painted
Indeterminate Local Red
Unpainted
Chuska Corrugated, not
further specified
Chuska Gray, not further
specified
Chuska White, not further
specified
Middle San Juan Gray Ware
Middle San Juan White Ware
Tsegi Orange Ware
White Mountain Red Ware
Other Gray Nonlocal
Other Red Nonlocal
Other White Nonlocal
Polychrome
Unknown Gray
Unknown White
Unknown Pottery
TOTAL
Weight (g)
Late Pueblo Early Pueblo Late Pueblo
II (A.D.
III (A.D.
III (A.D.
1060–1140) 1140–1225) 1225–1280)
25.2
35.3
1.4
10.0
174.81
210.6
7.7
Percent
Late Pueblo Early Pueblo Late Pueblo
Other
II (A.D.
III (A.D.
III (A.D.
Other
1060–1140) 1140–1225) 1225–1280)
68
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
260.39
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
19.5
116.8
2.2
51.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
109.5
326.3
15.1
215.48
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.1
7.1
-
-
-
0.0
3.9
-
-
-
0.0
14.8
-
-
-
0.0
9.8
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
100.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
1.2
0.2
100.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
114.7
31.2
21.5
192.6
30.8
15.4
1.8
16.5
175,944.7
19.1
3.3
176.2
131.1
127.1
14.9
172.1
29.0
227.6
8.6
43.8
450,480.7
62.7
2.7
11.1
7.0
830.0
101.0
66,519.7
Note: Percentages shown as totals may not add up to exactly 100% due to rounding.
204
193.6
72.5
229.4
19.2
361.9
82
45.3
8.2
34.7
407,169.8
Table 6.19. Count and Percent of Pottery Sherds from Middens, by Type and Temporal Component, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Pottery Type
Cibola White, not further
specified
Basketmaker Mudware
Chapin Gray
Moccasin Gray
Mancos Gray
Indeterminate Neckbanded
Gray
Indeterminate Local Gray
Mancos Corrugated Gray
Mesa Verde Corrugated Gray
Mummy Lake Gray
Indeterminate Local
Corrugated Gray
Chapin Black-on-white
Piedra Black-on-white
Cortez Black-on-white
Mancos Black-on-white
McElmo Black-on-white
Mesa Verde Black-on-white
Early White Painted
Early White Unpainted
Pueblo II White Painted
Pueblo III White Painted
Late White Painted
Late White Unpainted
Indeterminate Local White
Painted
Indeterminate Local White
Unpainted
Late Pueblo
II
Count
Early Pueblo Late Pueblo
III
III
Late Pueblo
II
Other
Percent
Early Pueblo Late Pueblo
III
III
Other
1
-
-
-
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
-
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
10
2
15
3
2
2
39
4
10
2
1
3
0.0
0.0
-
0.0
2,041
155
184
1,778
139
333
108
20
30
4,069
264
355
1
9.0
0.7
0.8
-
6.4
0.5
1.2
-
3.5
0.6
1.0
-
7.5
0.5
0.7
0.0
11,516
13,569
1,621
27,267
51.0
48.9
52.6
50.2
4
8
37
1,796
435
28
17
80
178
331
1,712
3,885
1
6
25
1,454
951
324
11
92
141
899
2,395
5,425
3
11
11
57
2,768
1,153
382
34
281
362
1,525
4,916
10,372
0.0
0.0
0.2
8.0
1.9
0.1
0.1
0.4
0.8
1.5
7.6
17.2
0.0
0.0
0.1
5.2
3.4
1.2
0.0
0.3
0.5
3.2
8.6
19.6
0.1
2.6
4.0
3.5
0.0
0.1
0.8
5.1
6.1
19.5
0.0
0.0
0.1
5.1
2.1
0.7
0.1
0.5
0.7
2.8
9.1
19.1
4
5
44
0.0
0.0
-
0.1
37
14
110
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2
80
124
107
1
4
24
158
188
599
2
205
Pottery Type
Abajo Red-on-orange
Bluff Black-on-red
Deadmans Black-on-red
Indeterminate Local Red
Painted
Indeterminate Local Red
Unpainted
Chuska Corrugated, not
further specified
Chuska Gray, not further
specified
Chuska White, not further
specified
Middle San Juan Gray Ware
Middle San Juan White Ware
Tsegi Orange Ware
White Mountain Red Ware
Other Gray Nonlocal
Other Red Nonlocal
Other White Nonlocal
Polychrome
Unknown Gray
Unknown White
Unknown Pottery
TOTAL
Count
Late Pueblo Early Pueblo Late Pueblo
II
III
III
1
3
1
1
22
27
1
Percent
Late Pueblo Early Pueblo Late Pueblo
Other
Other
II
III
III
10
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
65
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.1
6
12
1
11
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
22
29
2
52
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
1
-
-
-
0.0
2
1
0.0
-
-
0.0
2
4
0.0
-
-
0.0
5
1
37
6
10
7
23
6
4
1
8
54,293
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
100.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
3
22
5
6
11
5
1
1
1
22,573
1
1
19
8
2
3
6
5
13
1
8
27,721
3
1
1
3,079
Note: Percentages shown as totals may not add up to exactly 100% due to rounding.
206
Table 6.20. Weight and Percent of Pottery Sherds from Middens, by Type and Temporal Component, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Pottery Type
Cibola White, not further specified
Basketmaker Mudware
Chapin Gray
Moccasin Gray
Mancos Gray
Indeterminate Neckbanded Gray
Indeterminate Local Gray
Mancos Corrugated Gray
Mesa Verde Corrugated Gray
Mummy Lake Gray
Indeterminate Local Corrugated Gray
Chapin Black-on-white
Piedra Black-on-white
Cortez Black-on-white
Mancos Black-on-white
McElmo Black-on-white
Mesa Verde Black-on-white
Early White Painted
Early White Unpainted
Pueblo II White Painted
Pueblo III White Painted
Late White Painted
Late White Unpainted
Indeterminate Local White Painted
Indeterminate Local White Unpainted
Abajo Red-on-orange
Bluff Black-on-red
Deadmans Black-on-red
Indeterminate Local Red Painted
Late
Pueblo II
Period
Weight (g)
Early
Late
Pueblo III
Pueblo III
Period
Period
50.1
2.7
105.8
16.6
6.5
9,877.1
1,530.3
2,764.1
51.8
2.6
10,606.4
1,551.9
5,955.8
56,135.4
16.2
45.1
361.6
13,671.3
4,326.3
198.8
64.6
347.5
819.3
2,051.6
9,473.9
24,497.5
7.1
134.0
2.8
91,486.4
4.5
29.9
174.9
13,023.8
15,459.4
6,397.8
54.6
596.1
825.3
8,617.9
15,268.1
44,152.0
9.6
56.3
8.2
2.9
94.3
49.6
111.3
19.5
11.3
1.4
9.4
7.7
217.08
30.8
84.8
3.9
20,212.8
3,168.7
4,721.8
6.7
143,644.5
68.0
74.7
422.1
21,316.1
13,023.3
5,504.3
179.4
1,176.2
1,798.2
11,315.8
26,728.2
63,605.4
174.6
421.4
53.7
3.4
2.2
222.7
32.1
585.8
318.9
823.6
15,507.7
49.8
973.9
1,872.4
1,937.6
6.6
24.9
115.2
1,664.7
2,025.8
7,108.9
207
Other
Late
Pueblo II
Period
0.0
0.0
0.0
7.8
1.2
2.2
44.2
0.0
0.0
0.3
10.8
3.4
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.6
1.6
7.5
19.3
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0
Percent
Early
Late
Pueblo III
Pueblo
Period
III Period
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
4.9
1.8
0.7
1.0
2.8
2.5
42.5
46.9
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.1
6.1
2.9
7.2
5.7
3.0
5.9
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.1
0.4
0.3
4.0
5.0
7.1
6.1
20.5
21.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Other
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
6.3
1.0
1.5
0.0
45.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
6.7
4.1
1.7
0.1
0.4
0.6
3.5
8.4
19.9
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.1
0.0
Pottery Type
Indeterminate Local Red Unpainted
Chuska Corrugated, not further
specified
Chuska Gray, not further specified
Chuska White, not further specified
Middle San Juan Gray Ware
Middle San Juan White Ware
Tsegi Orange Ware
White Mountain Red Ware
Other Gray Nonlocal
Other Red Nonlocal
Other White Nonlocal
Polychrome
Unknown Gray
Unknown White
Unknown Pottery
TOTAL
Late
Pueblo II
Period
77.1
5.4
11.5
19.6
74.5
25.8
16.1
105.7
24.5
15.4
1.8
6.7
126,912.6
Weight (g)
Early
Late
Pueblo III
Pueblo III
Period
Period
176.9
9.7
9.3
3.2
70.3
46.6
7.8
17.0
58.1
24.6
190.0
2.1
16.2
215,210.7
18.8
2.7
31.1
33,096.5
Note: Percentages shown as totals may not add up to exactly 100% due to rounding.
208
Percent
Early
Late
Pueblo III
Pueblo
Period
III Period
0.1
0.0
183.7
Late
Pueblo II
Period
0.1
7.1
-
-
-
0.0
3.9
21.2
25.3
13.8
141.0
61.0
124.0
19.9
201.7
82.0
41.7
8.2
33.6
319,192.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
100.0
0.1
0.0
0.1
100.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
100.0
Other
Other
0.1
Table 6.21. Count of Pottery Sherds from Floors, by Type and Temporal Component, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Pottery Type
Indeterminate Local Gray
Mancos Corrugated Gray
Mesa Verde Corrugated Gray
Indeterminate Local Corrugated Gray
Mancos Black-on-white
McElmo Black-on-white
Mesa Verde Black-on-white
Early White Unpainted
Pueblo II White Painted
Pueblo III White Painted
Late White Painted
Late White Unpainted
Tsegi Orange Ware
TOTAL
Late Pueblo
II Period
4
2
1
8
15
Count
Percent
Early
Late Pueblo
Late Pueblo Early Pueblo Late Pueblo
Other
Pueblo III
III Period
II Period
III Period
III Period
Period
3
2
1.7
3
1.7
3
4
36
1.7
10.3
61
23
446
26.7
33.9
59.0
5
17
13.3
2.8
31
7
22
6.7
17.2
17.9
3
2
1.7
5.1
1
0.6
1
9
2
5.0
9
29
5.0
52
2
32
53.3
28.9
5.1
1
2.6
180
39
587
100.0
100.0
100.0
Note: Percentages shown as totals may not add up to exactly 100% due to rounding.
209
Other
0.3
6.1
76.0
2.9
3.7
0.2
0.3
4.9
5.5
100.0
Table 6.22. Weight of Pottery Sherds from Floors, by Type and Temporal Component, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Pottery Type
Indeterminate Local Gray
Mancos Corrugated Gray
Mesa Verde Corrugated Gray
Indeterminate Local Corrugated Gray
Mancos Black-on-white
McElmo Black-on-white
Mesa Verde Black-on-white
Early White Unpainted
Pueblo II White Painted
Pueblo III White Painted
Late White Painted
Late White Unpainted
Tsegi Orange Ware
TOTAL
Late
Pueblo II
Period
40.2
23
5.5
Weight (g)
Early
Late Pueblo
Pueblo III
III Period
Period
13.05
28.3
72.7
208.3
665.26
409.5
271.5
801.6
564.2
41.09
2,368.3
1.9
58.9
179.1
126.7
533.05
127.6
2,734.25
13.7
794.1
4,358.1
210
Other
12.5
782.1
3,805.8
200.1
939.4
2.8
67.5
546.4
370.8
6,727.4
Late
Pueblo II
Period
31.5
18.0
4.3
46.2
100.0
Percent
Early
Late Pueblo
Pueblo III
III Period
Period
0.5
1.0
2.7
4.8
24.3
9.4
9.9
29.3
12.9
1.5
54.3
0.1
6.6
4.6
19.5
0.3
18.2
100.0
100.0
Other
0.2
11.6
56.6
3.0
14.0
0.0
1.0
8.1
5.5
100.0
Table 6.23. Count of Pottery Sherds by Ware and Type from Selected Great House Contexts, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Count
Ware Form
Type
Gray Ware Chapin Gray
Indeterminate
Gray Ware
Local Gray
Mancos
Corrugated Corrugated
Gray
Mesa Verde
Corrugated Corrugated
Gray
Indeterminate
Local
Corrugated
Corrugated
Gray
White
Cortez BlackWare
on-white
Mancos
White
Black-onWare
white
McElmo
White
Black-onWare
white
Mesa Verde
White
Black-onWare
white
White
Early White
Ware
Unpainted
White
Pueblo II
Ware
White Painted
White
Pueblo III
Ware
White Painted
White
Late White
Percent
NST NST NST NST NST STR NST NST
123 133 152 154 157 158 161 174
1
1
1
Chapin Gray
48
101
21
30
21
59
33
9
3
3
8
5
5
2
2
1
4
11
120
4
4
6
2
473
523
322
132
323
282
48
147
Pottery Types
4
Indeterminate
Local Gray
Mancos
Corrugated
Gray
Mesa Verde
Corrugated
Gray
Indeterminate
Local
Corrugated
Gray
Cortez Blackon-white
NST
123
NST
133
NST
152
NST
154
NST
157
STR
158
NST
161
NST
174
0.1
0.1
-
-
-
0.2
-
-
5.8
10.4
2.9
11.6
9.3
9.0
6.3
10.2
0.4
0.3
1.1
1.9
2.2
0.3
0.4
1.1
0.5
1.1
16.3
1.6
-
0.6
1.1
2.3
57.5
53.9
43.8
51.2
65.0
49.5
53.6
54.5
-
-
-
-
-
0.6
-
-
37
47
36
34
15
46
41
5
Mancos Blackon-white
4.5
4.8
4.9
13.2
6.6
7.1
7.8
5.7
23
19
29
1
2
11
18
4
McElmo
Black-on-white
2.8
2.0
3.9
0.4
0.9
1.7
3.4
4.5
10
7
26
Mesa Verde
Black-on-white
1.2
0.7
3.5
-
-
-
0.6
-
1
1
2
5
1
2
16
34
26
8
72
79
43
8
3
13
2
1
1
1
4
4
10
1
9
69
31
5
Early White
Unpainted
Pueblo II
White Painted
Pueblo III
White Painted
-
0.1
0.1
-
-
2.0
0.4
1.1
0.2
0.5
0.1
0.8
-
0.2
0.2
-
1.9
3.5
3.5
3.1
1.8
0.6
1.9
1.1
Late White
8.8
8.1
5.8
3.1
4.0
10.6
5.9
5.7
211
Count
Ware Form
Type
Ware
Painted
White
Ware
Late White
Unpainted
Indeterminate
Local White
Painted
Abajo Redon-orange
Deadmans
Black-on-red
Indeterminate
Local Red
Painted
Indeterminate
Local Red
Unpainted
Tsegi Orange
Ware
White
Mountain
Red Ware
Other White
Nonlocal
White
Ware
Red Ware
Red Ware
Red Ware
Red Ware
Nonlocal
Nonlocal
Nonlocal
Nonlocal
Ware
unknown
TOTAL
Polychrome
Unknown
Gray
Percent
NST NST NST NST NST STR NST NST
123 133 152 154 157 158 161 174
NST
123
NST
133
NST
152
NST
154
NST
157
STR
158
NST
161
NST
174
14.7
14.0
13.7
12.8
9.7
16.9
17.9
12.5
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.2
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.3
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.4
-
0.2
-
-
0.1
0.3
-
-
0.2
0.2
-
-
0.1
-
-
-
0.2
-
-
-
0.1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1.1
Polychrome
0.1
-
-
0.4
-
-
-
-
Unknown Gray
1.3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Pottery Types
Painted
121
136
101
33
22
110
94
11
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
11
822
970
736
258
226
652
526
88
Late White
Unpainted
Indeterminate
Local White
Painted
Abajo Red-onorange
Deadmans
Black-on-red
Indeterminate
Local Red
Painted
Indeterminate
Local Red
Unpainted
Tsegi Orange
Ware
White
Mountain Red
Ware
Other White
Nonlocal
TOTAL
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Note: Percentages shown as totals may not add up to exactly 100% due to rounding. NST = Nonstructure; STR = Structure.
212
Table 6.24. Direct Evidence of Pottery Production by Architectural Block, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Mineral
Architectural
Block
Other Ceramic
Weight
(g)
Count
Polishing Stone
Weight
(g)
Count
Unfired Clay
Weight
(g)
Count
Corrugated
Weight
(g)
Count
Count
Weight (g)
Total
Ratio Ratio
Total
Weight*
Count Weight
Count*
(g)
100
98
566.1
48
178.5
32
933.4
0
0
43,489
290,039.4
178
200
5
6.9
2
12.4
0
0
0
0
4,195
20,553
7
19.3 599.3 1,064.9
300
4
7
4
5.5
1
16.7
0
0
3,105
15,086.4
9
29.2 345.0
516.7
400
1
4.1
2
2.9
3
85.3
0
0
2,690
17,982.2
6
92.3 448.3
194.8
500
4
6.7
1
2.2
2
29.9
0
0
3,533
17,327.8
7
38.8 504.7
446.6
600
3
83.65
0
0
1
21.3
90
272.1
2,001
12,475.9
94
800
7
71
14
63.3
9
265.1
1
0.3
7,811
50,693.2
900
14
34.1
2
10.4
6
161.5
0
0
8,249
1000
3
9.9
4
21.2
3
21.7
0
0
1100
6
34.8
4
5.2
1
21.8
0
0
* Not including corrugated.
213
1,678.0 244.3
377.05
172.9
21.3
33.1
31
399.7 252.0
126.8
48,339.9
22
206 375.0
234.7
7,180
38,734.1
10
52.8 718.0
733.6
3,704
17,292.1
11
61.8 336.7
279.8
Table 6.25. Chipped-Stone Tool Count and Percentage by Raw Material, Albert Porter Pueblo.
10
1
27
23
3
28
4
1
21
315
353
1,608
1,640
495
543
1
2
1
1
56
59
12
12
2
2
4
184
6
11
275
4
5
36,757
37,246
Nonlocal Chert/
Siltstone
Morrison
Mudstone
Morrison Chert
Dakota/ Burro
Canyon
Silicified
Sandstone
Morrison
Silicified
Sandstone
Gypsum/
Calcite/Barite
Fossil
Conglomerate
Caliche
Brushy Basin
Chert
Agate/
Chalcedony
Type
Biface
Core
Other Chipped-stone Tool
Modified Core
Peckingstone
Projectile Point
Single-bitted Axe
Bulk Chipped Stone
TOTAL
Burro Canyon
Chert
(a) Counts
55
73
4
2
63
98
9
43
2
1
10
13
4
220
4
5
105
2
2
4,396
4,691
3,762
3,840
16,451
16,791
7
13
1
3
Biface
Core
Other Chipped-stone
Tool
Modified Core
Peckingstone
Projectile Point
Single-bitted Axe
Bulk Chipped Stone
TOTAL
1
1
1
8
135
2
13
9
1
Narbona Pass
Chert
Unknown
Silicified
Sandstone
Unknown Stone
Unknown Chert/
Siltstone
Sandstone
Slate/Shale
Red Jasper
Quartz
Dakota
Mudstone
Petrified Wood
Igneous
Type
Obsidian
(a) Counts, continued
3
1
4
3
8
3
23
27
4
11
16
11
40
10,385
10,572
TOTAL
132
701
18
1
8
14
15
40
56
214
27
27
370
372
1
3
28
2
3
5
1
92
146
19
25
31
40
17
17
31
509
222
5
74,894
76,512
Nonlocal
Chert/ Siltstone
Dakota/ Burro
Canyon
Silicified
Sandstone
1.7
-
-
-
0.0
0.5
1.2
1.6
0.2
1.1
0.0
1.3
15.4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.0
7.7
7.9
89.2
100.0
0.2
98.0
100.0
0.2
3.9
91.2
100.0
100.0
100.0
3.4
94.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
0.0
0.7
0.0
0.0
98.7
100.0
0.0
0.0
1.3
0.3
2.1
0.3
93.7 98.0
100.0 100.0
0.0
0.6
0.0
98.0
100.0
23.1
53.8
100.0
Fossil
Caliche
Brushy Basin
Chert
Morrison
Mudstone
Morrison
Silicified
Sandstone
-
Gypsum/
Calcite/Barite
4.2
0.6
Conglomerate
0.1
1.6
Burro Canyon
Chert
2.8
-
Agate/
Chalcedony
Type
Biface
Core
Other Chipped-stone
Tool
Modified Core
Peckingstone
Projectile Point
Single-bitted Axe
Bulk Chipped Stone
TOTAL
Morrison Chert
(b) Percent of counts
Biface
Core
Other Chipped-stone
Tool
Modified Core
Peckingstone
Projectile Point
Single-bitted Axe
Bulk Chipped Stone
TOTAL
Narbona Pass
Chert
Unknown
Silicified
Sandstone
Unknown
Stone
Unknown
Chert/ Siltstone
Sandstone
Slate/Shale
Red Jasper
Quartz
Dakota
Mudstone
Petrified Wood
Igneous
Type
Obsidian
(b) Percent of counts, continued
TOTAL
0.2
0.9
12.5
-
3.7
6.3
-
1.3
-
14.3
-
-
0.5
8.9
6.2
4.0
7.5
-
-
-
0.0
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0.0
- 11.1
50.0
37.5 85.2
100.0 100.0
25.0
68.8
100.0
0.1
0.4
98.2
100.0
6.7
93.3
100.0
14.3
71.4
100.0
100.0 99.5
100.0 100.0
0.7
2.1
19.2
63.0
100.0
8.0
12.0
76.0
100.0
12.5
2.5
77.5
100.0
100.0
100.0
0.0
0.7
0.3
0.0
97.9
100.0
215
Table 6.26. Chipped-Stone Tool Weight by Raw Material, Albert Porter Pueblo.
65.8
3.7
542.4
20.4
6.0
174.4
21.3
472.6
507.8
7,675.3
8,609.5
1,615.0
2,181.6
5.2
5.2
452.5
998.6
49.7
49.7
1.5
1.5
8.3
19,926.7
440.8
833.2
52,415.2
7.6
1,712.9
197,682.6
273,027.3
Nonlocal Chert/
Siltstone
142.7
6,940.8
101.1
151.1
12,278.2
93.5
37.2
1,664.7
29.4
83.0
954.6
11.5
7.0
16,798.0
90.1
387.3
12,717.5
2.2
4.6
21,778.8
41,486.2
11,509.8
14,290.2
84,345.7
114,347.8
9.6
27.4
Dakota/ Burro
Canyon
Silicified
Sandstone
Morrison
Silicified
Sandstone
Gypsum/
Calcite/Barite
Fossil
Conglomerate
51.8
319.1
Morrison
Mudstone
0.7
861.7
Morrison Chert
14.9
Caliche
Brushy Basin
Chert
Agate/
Chalcedony
Type
Biface
Core
Other Chipped-stone Tool
Modified Core
Peckingstone
Projectile Point
Single-bitted Axe
Bulk Chipped Stone
TOTAL
Burro Canyon
Chert
(a) Weight
5.5
7.7
Biface
Core
Other Chipped-stone Tool
Modified Core
Peckingstone
Projectile Point
Single-bitted Axe
Bulk Chipped Stone
TOTAL
0.2
4.2
9.2
13.6
280.6
1,578.4
235.7
2,094.7
7.3
2.5
56,460.2
256.3
2,188.1
11,663.1
11.0 75,164.5
20.8 145,732.2
15.8
0.3
5.2
63.1
63.4
47.9
68.9
216
145.5
71.8
71.8
3,361.2
3,506.7
19.7
1,229.5
77.8
337.6
64.2
181.7
33.5
338.0
6.8
577.6
0.8
288.7
1,817.3
88.0
510.5
630.4
1,546.4
Narbona Pass
Chert
Unknown
Silicified
Sandstone
Unknown Stone
Unknown Chert/
Siltstone
Sandstone
Slate/Shale
Red Jasper
Quartz
Dakota
Mudstone
Petrified Wood
Igneous
Type
Obsidian
(a) Weight, continued
55.5
55.5
TOTAL
313.9
105,042.2
923.2
3,772.7
93,421.0
223.5
1,712.9
405,625.3
611,034.8
2.9
4.0
93.1
100.0
0.0
10.0
0.8
0.1
89.1
100.0
2.4
14.6
8.0
1.0
74.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
0.4
54.3
45.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
0.0
7.3
0.2
0.3
19.2
0.0
0.6
72.4
100.0
0.3
16.7
0.2
0.4
29.6
0.2
52.5
100.0
0.3
11.6
0.2
0.6
6.7
0.1
80.5
100.0
0.0
14.7
0.1
0.3
11.1
0.0
73.8
100.0
Nonlocal Chert/
Siltstone
Morrison
Mudstone
Morrison Chert
Dakota/ Burro
Canyon
Silicified
Sandstone
Morrison
Silicified
Sandstone
Gypsum/
Calcite/Barite
Fossil
Conglomerate
Caliche
Burro Canyon
Chert
Agate/
Chalcedony
Type
Biface
Core
Other Chipped-stone Tool
Modified Core
Peckingstone
Projectile Point
Single-bitted Axe
Bulk Chipped Stone
TOTAL
Brushy Basin
Chert
(b) Percent of weight
16.8
20.1
28.1
35.0
100.0
13.4
75.4
11.3
100.0
35.1
12.0
52.9
100.0
38.7
0.2
1.5
8.0
51.6
100.0
0.5
99.5
100.0
22.9
7.5
69.5
100.0
Note: Percentages shown as totals may not add up to exactly 100% due to rounding.
217
100.0
100.0
4.1
95.9
100.0
1.1
67.7
3.5
10.0
1.8
15.9
100.0
15.2
66.2
1.3
17.2
100.0
21.8
37.4
0.1
40.8
100.0
Narbona Pass
Chert
Unknown
Silicified
Sandstone
Unknown Stone
Unknown Chert/
Siltstone
Sandstone
Slate/Shale
Red Jasper
Quartz
Dakota
Mudstone
Petrified Wood
Type
Biface
1.5
Core
Other Chipped-stone Tool
Modified Core
Peckingstone
Projectile Point
30.9
Single-bitted Axe
Bulk Chipped Stone
67.6
TOTAL
100.0
Igneous
Obsidian
(b) Percent of weight, continued
100.0
100.0
TOTAL
0.1
17.2
0.2
0.6
15.3
0.0
0.3
66.4
100.0
Table 6.27. Projectile Point Data, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Provenience
Designation
Number
Field
Specimen
Number
Length
(cm)
Width
(cm)
Thick
(cm)
Material Type
Reduction
Description
Count
Weight
(g)
Fill/
Assemblage
Position
Fill/ Assemblage
Type
Study
Unit
Number
17
14
2.69
1.58
0.22
Agate/chalcedony
Finished
biface
1
0.7
fill
postabandonment
deposit
502
160
18
1.85
0.95
0.23
Agate/chalcedony
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
cultural deposit
502
162
4
2.30
1.59
0.33
Agate/chalcedony
Finished
biface
1
0.9
fill
postabandonment
deposit
107
215
7
2.91
1.50
0.32
Agate/chalcedony
Finished
biface
1
1.0
fill
collapsed structure
502
282
7
1.60
1.24
0.8
Agate/chalcedony
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
postabandonment
deposit
119
352
19
2.35
1.08
0.31
Agate/chalcedony
Indeterminate
reduction
stage
1
0.6
fill
cultural deposit
139
360
9
2.55
1.55
0.35
Agate/chalcedony
Finished
biface
1
1.1
fill
postabandonment
deposit
118
635
5
1.80
0.99
0.22
Agate/chalcedony
Finished
biface
1
0.3
fill
mixed deposit
117
964
11
2.60
1.05
0.21
Agate/chalcedony
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
mixed deposit
111
1091
10
2.20
1.02
0.20
Agate/chalcedony
Finished
biface
1
0.5
fill
mixed deposit
101
1137
6
1.84
1.09
0.23
Agate/chalcedony
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
mixed deposit
101
1182
7
1.51
0.90
0.24
Agate/chalcedony
Indeterminate
reduction
stage
1
0.2
fill
mixed deposit
803
1192
5
2.61
1.22
0.38
Agate/chalcedony
Finished
biface
1
0.9
fill
mixed deposit
1102
1192
7
1.38
1.02
0.21
Agate/chalcedony
Finished
biface
1
0.3
fill
mixed deposit
1102
218
Provenience
Designation
Number
Field
Specimen
Number
Length
(cm)
Width
(cm)
Thick
(cm)
Material Type
Reduction
Description
Count
Weight
(g)
Fill/
Assemblage
Position
Fill/ Assemblage
Type
Study
Unit
Number
1197
15
1.94
1.15
0.26
Agate/chalcedony
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
cultural deposit
1103
1329
9
1.94
0.91
0.26
Agate/chalcedony
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
collapsed structure
903
1481
22
2.37
1.09
0.30
Agate/chalcedony
Indeterminate
reduction
stage
1
0.9
fill
collapsed structure
115
1636
6
2.35
1.25
0.21
Agate/chalcedony
Finished
biface
1
0.75
fill
mixed deposit
1042
1655
5
1.75
1.18
0.26
Agate/chalcedony
Finished
biface
1
2.2
fill
mixed deposit
1041
1770
5
2.47
1.14
0.25
Agate/chalcedony
Finished
biface
1
0.8
fill
cultural deposit
152
1931
6
2.10
1.2
0.23
Agate/chalcedony
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
cultural deposit
141
2008
33
3.08
1.75
0.68
Agate/chalcedony
Finished
biface
1
3.5
fill
cultural deposit
151
2054
7
2.55
1.45
0.24
Agate/chalcedony
Finished
biface
1
0.9
fill
mixed deposit
170
2092
4
0.70
1.84
0.17
Agate/chalcedony
Indeterminate
reduction
stage
1
0.2
fill
collapsed structure
158
1183
2
5.30
2.37
0.55
Fossil
Finished
biface
1
6.0
surface
contact
postabandonment
deposit
800
858
6
2.92
1.22
0.29
Brushy Basin
Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.7
fill
cultural deposit
901
881
8
2.34
0.79
0.24
Brushy Basin
Chert
Finished
biface
1
4.7
fill
mixed deposit
901
987
6
2.25
1.18
0.22
Brushy Basin
Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
mixed deposit
801
219
Provenience
Designation
Number
Field
Specimen
Number
Length
(cm)
Width
(cm)
Thick
(cm)
Material Type
Reduction
Description
Count
Weight
(g)
Fill/
Assemblage
Position
Fill/ Assemblage
Type
Study
Unit
Number
1289
7
0.93
1.38
0.33
Brushy Basin
Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
mixed deposit
113
2008
34
No data
1.99
0.55
Morrison Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
4.7
fill
cultural deposit
151
16
18
1.45
1.18
0.24
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.5
fill
cultural deposit
502
36
11
1.46
0.85
0.27
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
mixed deposit
201
74
6
2.84
1.51
0.33
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
1.1
fill
cultural deposit
301
148
6
2.37
1.54
0.32
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
1.0
fill
cultural deposit
401
160
17
2.77
1.21
0.27
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.8
fill
cultural deposit
502
294
12
1.84
1.22
0.22
Burro Canyon
Chert
Indeterminate
reduction
stage
1
0.5
fill
cultural deposit
103
295
6
0.91
1.26
0.20
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.3
fill
postabandonment
deposit
108
295
7
1.33
1.16
0.33
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
postabandonment
deposit
108
472
7
5.15
1.30
0.25
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
2.2
surface
contact
mixed deposit
129
499
1
2.12
1.21
0.31
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.5
surface
contact
mixed deposit
1043
517
6
4.23
2.19
0.65
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
5.9
fill
mixed deposit
801
632
4
0.86
1.39
0.25
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
4.0
fill
collapsed structure
107
743
10
1.96
0.73
0.21
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.32
fill
cultural deposit
901
220
Provenience
Designation
Number
Field
Specimen
Number
Length
(cm)
Width
(cm)
Thick
(cm)
Material Type
Reduction
Description
Count
Weight
(g)
Fill/
Assemblage
Position
Fill/ Assemblage
Type
Study
Unit
Number
777
10
2.45
1.05
0.3
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.8
fill
mixed deposit
102
981
7
2.10
1.34
0.32
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.7
fill
mixed deposit
801
1127
13
2.35
1.22
0.24
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
cultural deposit
132
1157
6
1.60
0.99
0.23
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.3
fill
collapsed structure
108
1393
1
2.04
1.30
0.31
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.7
fill
collapsed structure
1104
1422
5
1.12
1.13
2.2
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.32
fill
cultural deposit
106
1600
10
2.18
1.14
0.2
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
mixed deposit
104
1614
3
1.98
1.13
0.22
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.5
fill
mixed deposit
1040
1640
6
2.64
1.26
0.44
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
1.1
fill
mixed deposit
1042
1673
5
2.10
1.10
0.2
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.5
fill
mixed deposit
1040
1689
10
1.79
1.46
0.27
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
mixed deposit
1042
1860
14
7.30
1.10
0.2
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.2
fill
cultural deposit
155
1988
7
2.29
1.11
0.23
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
mixed deposit
104
2010
16
2.15
1.18
0.31
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.8
fill
cultural deposit
151
2013
5
2.94
1.42
0.34
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
1.2
fill
mixed deposit
1101
2036
4
2.09
1.29
0.27
Burro Canyon
Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
cultural deposit
157
221
Provenience
Designation
Number
Field
Specimen
Number
Length
(cm)
Width
(cm)
Thick
(cm)
Material Type
Reduction
Description
Count
Weight
(g)
Fill/
Assemblage
Position
Fill/ Assemblage
Type
Study
Unit
Number
32
5
2.25
1.28
0.21
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.7
fill
mixed deposit
201
40
4
2.41
1.43
0.30
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.8
fill
mixed deposit
201
44
7
2.08
1.41
0.32
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
cultural deposit
401
44
10
1.42
1.40
0.28
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
cultural deposit
401
60
8
1.23
1.05
0.27
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
mixed deposit
401
88
5
1.59
0.95
0.26
Dakota/Burro Indeterminate
Canyon Silicified
reduction
Sandstone
stage
1
0.3
fill
cultural deposit
401
135
6
2.00
1.16
0.26
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.8
fill
cultural deposit
401
150
1
2.81
1.01
0.27
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.7
fill
mixed deposit
402
185
5
1.80
1.26
0.31
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
cultural deposit
401
189
4
1.56
1.22
0.28
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.5
fill
cultural deposit
401
191
6
0.74
0.75
0.19
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.2
fill
cultural deposit
103
222
Provenience
Designation
Number
Field
Specimen
Number
Length
(cm)
Width
(cm)
Thick
(cm)
Material Type
Reduction
Description
Count
Weight
(g)
Fill/
Assemblage
Position
Fill/ Assemblage
Type
Study
Unit
Number
229
4
2.33
1.24
0.32
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.7
fill
postabandonment
deposit
403
241
2
2.73
1.00
0.29
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.65
fill
postabandonment
deposit
114
243
7
1.50
0.95
0.26
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
postabandonment
deposit
115
247
7
2.70
1.43
0.27
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.9
fill
postabandonment
deposit
118
255
10
1.81
1.38
0.35
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.8
fill
postabandonment
deposit
139
257
12
2.30
1.48
0.27
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
1.1
fill
postabandonment
deposit
119
282
14
3.58
0.91
0.31
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
1.0
fill
postabandonment
deposit
119
282
15
2.69
1.36
0.45
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
1.1
fill
postabandonment
deposit
119
303
9
1.66
1.17
0.24
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.5
fill
cultural deposit
301
331
8
1.43
1.25
0.22
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.5
fill
collapsed structure
114
337
4
3.59
1.85
0.38
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
2.85
fill
cultural deposit
9002
223
Provenience
Designation
Number
Field
Specimen
Number
Length
(cm)
Width
(cm)
Thick
(cm)
Material Type
Reduction
Description
Count
Weight
(g)
Fill/
Assemblage
Position
Fill/ Assemblage
Type
Study
Unit
Number
351
17
2.38
1.50
0.39
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
1.1
fill
collapsed structure
107
358
6
1.68
1.38
0.3
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
collapsed structure
114
383
16
2.05
1.00
0.28
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
cultural deposit
502
420
5
1.93
1.15
0.31
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.6
surface
contact
mixed deposit
404
463
5
2.20
1.34
0.3
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.8
surface
contact
mixed deposit
1001
472
8
2.40
1.35
0.25
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.7
surface
contact
mixed deposit
129
478
4
5.53
2.27
0.56
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
6.6
surface
contact
mixed deposit
1001
517
8
2.16
1.24
0.26
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.7
fill
mixed deposit
801
518
8
2.24
1.55
0.36
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
1.2
fill
mixed deposit
801
522
6
3.68
1.56
0.61
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
3.7
fill
cultural deposit
901
526
2
1.57
1.28
0.28
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.7
fill
cultural deposit
901
224
Provenience
Designation
Number
Field
Specimen
Number
Length
(cm)
Width
(cm)
Thick
(cm)
Material Type
Reduction
Description
Count
Weight
(g)
Fill/
Assemblage
Position
Fill/ Assemblage
Type
Study
Unit
Number
538
12
1.10
1.30
0.25
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
cultural deposit
901
542
8
2.71
1.14
0.26
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
mixed deposit
801
552
8
1.80
1.38
0.29
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.7
fill
mixed deposit
901
586
6
1.50
0.90
0.25
Dakota/Burro Indeterminate
Canyon Silicified
reduction
Sandstone
stage
1
0.2
fill
cultural deposit
601
592
4
1.23
1.10
0.2
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
1.4
fill
mixed deposit
601
623
11
3.98
1.56
0.53
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
2.61
fill
postabandonment
deposit
116
623
12
4.82
2.25
5.2
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
6.6
fill
postabandonment
deposit
116
629
4
1.75
1.45
0.38
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.8
fill
mixed deposit
112
631
10
2.23
1.12
0.31
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.7
fill
collapsed structure
118
635
3
1.48
1.98
0.41
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
1.2
fill
mixed deposit
117
678
14
3.44
1.30
0.28
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
1.3
fill
collapsed structure
115
225
Provenience
Designation
Number
Field
Specimen
Number
Length
(cm)
Width
(cm)
Thick
(cm)
Material Type
Reduction
Description
Count
Weight
(g)
Fill/
Assemblage
Position
Fill/ Assemblage
Type
Study
Unit
Number
687
5
3.28
1.54
0.3
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
1.4
fill
postabandonment
deposit
305
714
3
3.00
1.40
0.3
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.8
fill
mixed deposit
201
763
13
2.34
1.90
0.43
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
2.1
fill
mixed deposit
903
766
8
1.86
1.42
0.35
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.8
fill
cultural deposit
901
775
6
1.84
1.24
0.34
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.9
fill
cultural deposit
102
783
7
1.64
1.29
0.26
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.52
fill
mixed deposit
102
785
5
2.20
1.20
0.3
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.8
fill
cultural deposit
102
856
3
1.53
1.09
0.27
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.3
fill
mixed deposit
901
872
58
1.71
0.89
0.22
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.3
fill
collapsed structure
115
884
8
1.66
1.26
0.22
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
mixed deposit
901
903
10
1.62
1.11
0.27
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
mixed deposit
101
226
Provenience
Designation
Number
Field
Specimen
Number
Length
(cm)
Width
(cm)
Thick
(cm)
Material Type
Reduction
Description
Count
Weight
(g)
Fill/
Assemblage
Position
Fill/ Assemblage
Type
Study
Unit
Number
921
9
1.25
1.17
0.29
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
mixed deposit
101
949
10
0.30
0.61
0.14
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
No data
fill
cultural deposit
901
964
12
1.21
0.96
0.23
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.3
fill
mixed deposit
111
1022
8
2.64
1.26
0.24
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.8
fill
mixed deposit
801
1037
17
1.40
0.90
0.25
Dakota/Burro Indeterminate
Canyon Silicified
reduction
Sandstone
stage
1
0.4
fill
mixed deposit
904
1076
2
3.08
1.53
0.47
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
2.4
surface
contact
postabandonment
deposit
900
1160
9
1.25
0.91
0.22
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.3
fill
cultural deposit
130
1192
2
1.85
1.16
0.21
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
mixed deposit
1102
1192
6
2.00
1.31
0.26
Dakota/Burro
Analysis not
Canyon Silicified
applicable
Sandstone
1
0.6
fill
mixed deposit
1102
1197
23
1.25
1.24
0.3
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
cultural deposit
1103
1222
22
2.06
1.20
0.34
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.7
fill
mixed deposit
203
227
Provenience
Designation
Number
Field
Specimen
Number
Length
(cm)
Width
(cm)
Thick
(cm)
Material Type
Reduction
Description
Count
Weight
(g)
Fill/
Assemblage
Position
Fill/ Assemblage
Type
Study
Unit
Number
1227
7
1.84
0.92
0.30
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.5
fill
collapsed structure
204
1253
7
1.79
1.22
0.25
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.5
fill
mixed deposit
124
1277
19
2.00
1.20
0.29
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.8
fill
cultural deposit
130
1279
9
1.97
2.47
0.58
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
2.7
fill
cultural deposit
134
1281
57
2.26
1.01
0.24
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
collapsed structure
110
1289
6
2.45
2.00
0.47
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
2.6
fill
mixed deposit
113
1305
46
2.06
1.44
0.35
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.9
fill
cultural deposit
1039
Primary
thinned
preform
(flake scars
to centerline)
1
0.7
fill
cultural deposit
1039
1305
53
2.50
0.90
0.32
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
1386
4
3.03
1.31
0.32
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
1.3
surface
contact
cultural deposit
904
1391
8
1.82
1.46
0.24
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
mixed deposit
1037
228
Provenience
Designation
Number
Field
Specimen
Number
Length
(cm)
Width
(cm)
Thick
(cm)
Material Type
Reduction
Description
Count
Weight
(g)
Fill/
Assemblage
Position
Fill/ Assemblage
Type
Study
Unit
Number
1414
4
2.16
0.79
0.34
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.7
fill
mixed deposit
106
1422
4
3.16
1.25
0.28
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
1.01
fill
cultural deposit
106
1426
6
3.20
1.68
0.25
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
1.5
fill
mixed deposit
106
1426
7
0.89
0.39
Dakota/Burro Indeterminate
Canyon Silicified
reduction
Sandstone
stage
1
0.7
fill
mixed deposit
106
1435
8
2.82
1.05
0.28
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
1
0.8
fill
collapsed structure
113
1467
6
2.12
1.31
0.44
Dakota/Burro Indeterminate
Canyon Silicified
reduction
Sandstone
stage
1
1.2
fill
cultural deposit
106
1560
4
2.10
1.80
0.35
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.7
fill
mixed deposit
142
1560
5
1.68
1.10
0.25
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
mixed deposit
142
1594
5
1.74
0.86
0.25
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.3
fill
mixed deposit
104
1600
11
2.09
1.31
0.28
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
mixed deposit
104
1604
5
2.12
1.20
0.32
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.8
fill
mixed deposit
104
229
Finished
biface
Provenience
Designation
Number
Field
Specimen
Number
Length
(cm)
Width
(cm)
Thick
(cm)
Count
Weight
(g)
Fill/
Assemblage
Position
Fill/ Assemblage
Type
Study
Unit
Number
1635
5
0.85
1.09
0.16
Dakota/Burro Indeterminate
Canyon Silicified
reduction
Sandstone
stage
1
0.2
surface
contact
mixed deposit
1042
1688
6
2.38
1.12
0.3
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.9
fill
mixed deposit
1042
1689
9
2.50
1.50
0.35
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
1.5
fill
mixed deposit
1042
1700
8
2.45
1.30
0.33
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.9
fill
mixed deposit
1043
1719
8
1.64
1.42
0.23
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.5
fill
cultural deposit
151
1730
8
3.21
1.36
0.51
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
2.1
fill
mixed deposit
149
1766
1
1.87
1.07
0.22
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
construction
deposit
9018
1799
7
2.04
1.28
0.27
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.7
fill
mixed deposit
104
1880
7
2.35
1.50
0.37
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.9
fill
mixed deposit
1101
1900
7
2.00
1.20
0.4
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
1.2
fill
mixed deposit
1101
1991
9
1.8
1.70
0.23
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
2.2
fill
mixed deposit
144
Reduction
Description
Material Type
230
Provenience
Designation
Number
Field
Specimen
Number
Length
(cm)
Width
(cm)
Thick
(cm)
Material Type
Reduction
Description
Count
Weight
(g)
Fill/
Assemblage
Position
Fill/ Assemblage
Type
Study
Unit
Number
2000
8
2.71
1.10
0.29
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.8
fill
cultural deposit
152
2000
9
2.21
1.19
0.30
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.7
fill
cultural deposit
152
2006
23
1.62
1.26
0.23
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
cultural deposit
151
2008
35
3.79
1.66
0.42
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
1.9
fill
cultural deposit
151
2010
29
1.55
1.21
0.25
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
cultural deposit
151
2155
8
1.86
0.83
0.24
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.3
fill
mixed deposit
104
2185
11
2.43
1.32
0.23
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.7
fill
cultural deposit
162
2187
4
2.24
1.08
0.31
Dakota/Burro
Canyon Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.6
surface
contact
mixed deposit
1000
60
5
4.00
1.40
0.41
Morrison Chert
Finished
biface
1
1.8
fill
mixed deposit
401
289
14
2.24
1.16
0.25
Morrison Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.7
fill
postabandonment
deposit
113
340
12
1.8
1.08
0.35
Morrison Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
mixed deposit
118
447
4
1.81
1.29
0.30
Morrison Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.6
surface
contact
mixed deposit
1001
231
Provenience
Designation
Number
Field
Specimen
Number
Length
(cm)
Width
(cm)
Thick
(cm)
Material Type
Reduction
Description
Count
Weight
(g)
Fill/
Assemblage
Position
Fill/ Assemblage
Type
Study
Unit
Number
562
11
2.35
1.22
0.20
Morrison Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
mixed deposit
904
637
4
1.69
1.02
0.25
Morrison Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
mixed deposit
110
1222
10
2.15
1.11
0.22
Morrison Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.5
fill
mixed deposit
203
1355
7
2.00
1.50
0.25
Morrison Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
cultural deposit
106
1
0.9
fill
mixed deposit
106
1522
5
2.15
1.32
0.38
Morrison Chert
Primary
thinned
preform
(flake scars
to centerline)
1640
7
0.84
1.29
0.24
Morrison Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.3
fill
mixed deposit
1042
1693
7
2.34
1.54
0.32
Morrison Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.9
fill
cultural deposit
1043
1864
6
2.56
1.19
0.26
Morrison Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.8
fill
mixed deposit
1101
2010
17
2.40
1.31
0.28
Morrison Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.9
fill
cultural deposit
151
245
11
1.82
1.24
0.29
Morrison
Mudstone
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
postabandonment
deposit
119
1391
7
2.45
1.50
0.30
Morrison
Mudstone
Finished
biface
1
1.0
fill
mixed deposit
1037
1656
7
2.06
1.08
0.37
Morrison
Mudstone
Finished
biface
1
0.7
fill
mixed deposit
1041
333
17
2.58
1.82
0.54
Nonlocal
Chert/siltstone
Finished
biface
1
2.4
fill
cultural deposit
139
915
13
1.80
2.47
0.56
Nonlocal
Chert/siltstone
Finished
biface
1
2.7
fill
mixed deposit
101
232
Provenience
Designation
Number
Field
Specimen
Number
Length
(cm)
Width
(cm)
Thick
(cm)
Material Type
Reduction
Description
Count
Weight
(g)
Fill/
Assemblage
Position
Fill/ Assemblage
Type
Study
Unit
Number
322
9
1.60
1.00
0.20
Obsidian
Finished
biface
1
0.2
fill
postabandonment
deposit
119
771
10
1.60
1.00
0.25
Obsidian
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
cultural deposit
102
854
6
1.90
0.64
0.21
Obsidian
Finished
biface
1
0.1
fill
mixed deposit
901
133
5
2.30
1.20
0.24
Red Jasper
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
cultural deposit
401
256
5
1.20
0.91
0.19
Red Jasper
Finished
biface
1
0.2
fill
postabandonment
deposit
118
1
0.4
fill
cultural deposit
901
743
8
1.97
0.92
0.30
Red Jasper
Unfinished
biface
(pressure
flaking,
notching)
1185
2
2.40
1.24
0.28
Red Jasper
Finished
biface
1
0.7
fill
cultural deposit
804
1558
11
2.50
1.12
2.50
Red Jasper
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
cultural deposit
151
2006
21
4.08
1.47
0.38
Red Jasper
Finished
biface
1
1.9
fill
cultural deposit
151
2006
22
2.40
1.16
0.21
Red Jasper
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
cultural deposit
151
2132
20
2.33
1.48
0.24
Red Jasper
Finished
biface
1
0.7
fill
mixed deposit
151
2184
10
2.17
1.34
0.30
Red Jasper
Finished
biface
1
0.7
fill
cultural deposit
162
281
8
1.84
0.93
0.25
Unknown
Chert/siltstone
Finished
biface
1
0.3
fill
postabandonment
deposit
118
281
11
1.98
1.06
0.38
Unknown
Chert/siltstone
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
postabandonment
deposit
118
233
Provenience
Designation
Number
Field
Specimen
Number
Length
(cm)
Width
(cm)
Thick
(cm)
Material Type
Reduction
Description
Count
Weight
(g)
Fill/
Assemblage
Position
Fill/ Assemblage
Type
Study
Unit
Number
340
11
3.09
1.06
0.23
Unknown
Chert/siltstone
Finished
biface
1
0.5
fill
mixed deposit
118
543
8
2.90
1.35
0.34
Unknown
Chert/siltstone
Finished
biface
1
1.2
fill
mixed deposit
801
575
3
0.90
1.25
0.20
Unknown
Chert/siltstone
Finished
biface
1
0.27
fill
mixed deposit
801
648
22
1.60
1.00
0.30
Unknown
Chert/siltstone
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
mixed deposit
602
678
15
2.22
1.28
0.35
Unknown
Chert/siltstone
Finished
biface
1
0.7
fill
collapsed structure
115
744
6
1.93
1.19
0.28
Unknown
Chert/siltstone
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
cultural deposit
901
840
15
3.78
1.90
0.38
Unknown
Chert/siltstone
Finished
biface
1
2.0
fill
collapsed structure
115
855
8
1.60
1.50
0.25
Unknown
Chert/siltstone
Finished
biface
1
0.5
fill
cultural deposit
901
944
9
2.50
2.10
0.70
Unknown
Chert/siltstone
Finished
biface
1
6.1
fill
mixed deposit
901
947
2
3.09
1.97
0.52
Unknown
Chert/siltstone
Finished
biface
1
2.6
fill
mixed deposit
901
966
9
2.58
2.59
0.43
Unknown
Chert/siltstone
Finished
biface
1
2.7
fill
mixed deposit
110
995
6
1.64
1.05
0.23
Unknown
Chert/siltstone
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
cultural deposit
912
1026
8
2.11
1.10
0.20
Unknown
Chert/siltstone
Finished
biface
1
0.5
fill
mixed deposit
801
1183
3
4.83
1.50
0.83
Unknown
Chert/siltstone
Finished
biface
1
5.5
surface
contact
postabandonment
deposit
800
1281
5
1.69
1.32
0.16
Unknown
Chert/siltstone
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
collapsed structure
110
1323
5
2.90
1.57
0.30
Unknown
Chert/siltstone
Finished
biface
1
0.6
fill
collapsed structure
904
234
Provenience
Designation
Number
Field
Specimen
Number
Length
(cm)
Width
(cm)
Thick
(cm)
Material Type
Reduction
Description
Count
Weight
(g)
Fill/
Assemblage
Position
Fill/ Assemblage
Type
Study
Unit
Number
1359
4
1.58
1.11
0.39
Unknown
Chert/siltstone
Finished
biface
1
0.7
fill
cultural deposit
106
1428
9
1.10
1.50
0.28
Unknown
Chert/siltstone
Finished
biface
1
0.4
fill
cultural deposit
106
2006
46
2.09
1.30
0.32
Unknown
Chert/siltstone
Finished
biface
1
0.9
fill
cultural deposit
151
2008
21
2.95
1.20
0.27
Unknown
Chert/siltstone
Finished
biface
1
0.85
fill
cultural deposit
151
250
7
2.54
1.23
0.29
Unknown Stone
Finished
biface
1
0.77
fill
collapsed structure
109
1319
22
1.98
1.27
0.25
Unknown Stone
Finished
biface
1
0.5
fill
cultural deposit
130
1076
1
2.45
1.17
0.25
Unknown
Silicified
Sandstone
Finished
biface
1
0.8
surface
contact
postabandonment
deposit
900
2204
5
2.00
1.38
0.27
Unknown
Silicified
Sandstone
No data
1
0.7
fill
cultural deposit
1043
743
9
1.7
1.21
0.27
Narbona Pass
Chert
Finished
biface
1
0.5
fill
cultural deposit
901
235
Table 6.28. Ratios of Projectile Point Counts to Gray Ware Weights, by Architectural Block,
Albert Porter Pueblo.
Architectural
Block
Count
Percent
Gray Ware (g)
Ratio
100
115
51.8
300,003
0.0004
200
7
3.2
24,484
0.0003
300
3
1.4
16,917
0.0002
400
13
5.9
19,289
0.0007
500
6
2.7
19,630
0.0003
600
3
1.4
13,629
0.0002
700
0
0
53
-
800
14
6.3
56,602
0.0002
900
27
12.2
56,495
0.0005
1000
23
10.4
45,827
0.0005
1100
11
5.0
19,703
0.0006
TOTAL
222
100.0
Note: Percentage shown as total may not add up to exactly 100% due to rounding.
Table 6.29. Ground-Stone Tools, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Category
Count
Percent by Count
Abrader
99
15.5
Basin Metate
2
0.3
Mano
79
12.4
Metate
36
5.6
Stone Mortar
4
0.6
One-hand Mano
14
2.2
Pestle
1
0.2
Slab Metate
32
5.0
Two-hand Mano
363
56.8
9
1.4
639
100.0
Trough Metate
TOTAL
236
Table 6.30. Ground-Stone Tools, by Architectural Block, Albert Porter Pueblo.
(a) Count
Architectural
Block
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
TOTAL
(b) Percent
Architectural
Block
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
TOTAL
Abrader
36
5
6
2
1
1
10
19
14
2
96
Abrader
37.5
5.2
6.2
2.1
1.0
1.0
10.4
19.8
14.6
2.1
100.0
Basin
Metate
2
Mano
Metate
38
2
2
2
17
2
3
2
One-hand
Mano
9
2
Pestle
1
1
1
2
2
Basin
Metate
100.0
100.0
Slab
Metate
20
Stone
Mortar
3
1
Trough
Metate
4
2
1
8
5
14
4
77
2
6
4
1
1
36
14
Mano
Metate
49.4
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6
10.4
6.5
18.2
5.2
100.0
47.2
5.6
8.3
5.6
5.6
16.6
11.1
100.0
One-hand
Mano
64.3
14.3
7.1
7.1
7.1
100.0
Note: Percentages shown as totals may not add up to exactly 100% due to rounding.
237
2
6
2
1
Pestle
100.0
100.0
Two-hand
Mano
179
12
9
13
4
12
32
4
9
34
41
41
17
362
Slab
Metate
62.5
3.1
3.1
6.2
18.8
6.2
100.0
Stone
Mortar
75.0
25.0
100.0
Trough
Metate
44.4
22.2
11.1
22.2
100.0
Two-hand
Mano
49.4
3.3
2.5
3.6
1.1
3.3
9.4
11.3
11.3
4.7
100.0
1
2
Table 6.31. Ground-Stone Tools by Condition, Albert Porter Pueblo.
(a) Count
Artifact Category
Abrader
Basin metate
Mano
Metate
Stone mortar
One-hand mano
Pestle
Slab metate
Two-hand mano
Trough metate
TOTAL
Complete
Fragment
Incomplete
TOTAL
54
38
2
70
35
3
3
10
93
6
1
23
318
9
502
19
95
2
72
35
4
14
1
32
350
9
614
Complete
Fragment
Incomplete
TOTAL
56.8
2.8
50.0
50.0
18.8
6.3
-
40.0
100.0
97.2
100.0
42.9
100.0
71.9
90.9
100.0
3.2
50.0
7.1
9.4
2.9
-
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
2
2
7
6
22
2
1
(b) Percent
Artifact Category
Abrader
Basin metate
Mano
Metate
Stone mortar
One-hand mano
Pestle
Slab metate
Two-hand mano
Trough metate
238
Table 6.32. Ground-Stone Tools by Provenience, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Trough
Metate
Fill
Two-hand
Mano
Architectural
Deposit
Slab
Metate
Pestle
One-hand
Mano
Stone
Mortar
Metate
Mano
Basin
Metate
Provenience
Abrader
(a) Count
311
8
1
92
2
Other
65
28
4
10
1
27
1
2
100.0
66.7
100.0
84.4
85.9
88.9
-
-
1.3
-
-
-
-
-
0.6
-
Surface
Contact
6.1
-
16.5
22.2
-
33.3
-
12.5
13.5
11.1
TOTAL
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
100.0 100.0
100.0
32
362
9
Trough
Metate
77.8
1
Two-hand
Mano
82.3
1
Slab
Metate
100.0
49
Pestle
93.9
4
One-hand
Mano
Architectural
Deposit
79
36
4
15
Stone
Mortar
Provenience
2
Metate
98
8
Mano
TOTAL
13
Basin
Metate
6
Abrader
Surface
Contact
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3.1
-
-
(b) Percent
Fill
Other
239
Table 6.33. Battered and Polished Tools by Architectural Block, Albert Porter Pueblo.
(a) Count
Architectural
Block
100
200
300
400
500
600
800
900
1000
1100
TOTAL
Axe
6
2
Axe/Maul Hammerstone
11
1
1
1
1
1
11
1
2
3
19
34
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
4
2
50
(b) Percent
Architectural
Axe Axe/Maul Hammerstone
Block
54.5
57.9
68.0
100
18.2
2.0
200
2.0
300
2.0
5.2
400
2.0
5.2
500
2.0
600
9.1
5.2
6.0
800
10.5
4.0
900
9.1
15.8
8.0
1000
9.1
4.0
1100
100.0
100.0
100.0
TOTAL
Maul
Peckingstone
5
6
255
28
14
18
11
10
41
46
68
18
509
Maul
Peckingstone
83.3
16.7
100.0
50.1
5.5
2.8
3.5
2.2
2.0
8.1
9.0
13.4
3.5
100.0
1
Note: Percentages shown as totals may not add up to exactly 100% due to rounding.
240
Polishing
Stone
33
2
3
2
1
9
5
3
1
59
Polishing
Stone
55.9
3.4
5.1
3.4
0.2
16.4
9.1
5.1
0.2
100.0
Polishing/
Single-bitted
Tchamahia
Hammerstone
Axe
7
2
10
3
1
2
1
2
1
1
3
1
2
10
5
21
Polishing/
Single-bitted
Tchamahia
Hammerstone
Axe
70.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
100.0
40.0
20.0
40.0
100.0
47.6
14.3
9.5
4.8
14.3
9.5
100.0
Table 6.34. Ratios of Battered/Polished Tools to Gray Ware Weights from Architectural Block 100 and
Architectural Blocks 200–1100.
Axe
Axe/Maul
Hammerstone
Maul
Peckingstone
Polishing
Stone
Polishing/
Hammerstone
Single-bitted
Axe
Tchamahia
Architectural
Block 100
0.00002
0.00004
0.00011
0.00002
0.00085
0.00011
0.00002
0.00001
0.00003
Architectural
Blocks
200–1100
0.00002
0.00003
0.00006
0
0.00093
0.0001
0.00001
0.00001
0.00004
Table 6.35. Battered/Polished Tools by Depositional Context, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Count
Percent
Hammerstone
Maul
Polishing
Stone
Polishing/
Hammerstone
Hammerstone
Maul
Polishing
Stone
Polishing/
Hammerstone
Fill (excludes roof fall
and below, when
present)
20
3
25
4
0.21
0.20
0.17
0.22
Midden
12
2
23
2
0.13
0.13
0.16
0.11
Roof fall and Below
32
5
48
6
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
Surface
32
5
48
6
0.33
0.33
0.33
0.33
TOTAL
96
15
144
18
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
Provenience
241
Table 6.36. Stone Disks Collected from Albert Porter Pueblo.
Count
Weight
(g)
Study Unit
Type
Fill
Assemblage
Position
(General)
Fill
Assemblage
Position
(Specific)
5
1
33.7
Nonstructure
Fill
Upper
228
6
1
85.1
Structure
Fill
139
333
16
1
4.2
Nonstructure
Fill
303
372
7
1
10.3
Structure
Fill
404
420
6
1
27.5
Arbitrary
Surface
Contact
801
578
8
1
11.4
Nonstructure
Fill
Upper
201
615
5
1
45.7
Nonstructure
Fill
Upper
903
763
14
1
60.9
Structure
Fill
Upper
102
775
25
1
55.2
Nonstructure
Fill
Upper
115
840
5
1
245.6
Structure
Fill
Roof Fall
901
885
3
1
1.3
Nonstructure
Fill
Upper
101
901
4
1
103.3
Nonstructure
Fill
Upper
Study
Unit
Provenience
Designation
Number
Field
Specimen
Number
401
134
402
242
Above
Wall/roof
Fall
Above
Wall/roof
Fall
Above
Wall/roof
Fall
Modern
Ground
Surface
Fill
Assemblage
Type
(General)
Cultural
Deposit
Fill Assemblage
Type (Specific)
Secondary Refuse
Mixed
Deposit
Not Further
Specified
Cultural
Deposit
Secondary Refuse
Postabandon
ment Deposit
Natural Processes
Mixed
Deposit
Recent Disturbance
Mixed
Deposit
Mixed
Deposit
Mixed
Deposit
Cultural
Deposit
Collapsed
Structure
Mixed
Deposit
Mixed
Deposit
Postabandonment
and Cultural Refuse
Postabandonment
and Cultural Refuse
Postabandonment
and Cultural Refuse
Secondary Refuse
With Mixed Refuse
Postabandonment
and Cultural Refuse
Postabandonment
and Cultural Refuse
Count
Weight
(g)
Study Unit
Type
Fill
Assemblage
Position
(General)
Fill
Assemblage
Position
(Specific)
11
1
122.4
Nonstructure
Fill
Upper
1014
1
2
1.7
Nonstructure
Fill
Lower
132
1127
6
1
89.8
Nonstructure
Fill
Above
Wall/roof
Fall
110
1281
11
1
85
Structure
Fill
Roof Fall
113
1285
11
1
66.8
Structure
Fill
Wall Fall
151
1711
18
1
73.2
Nonstructure
Fill
Above
Wall/roof
Fall
1101
1890
6
1
11.9
Nonstructure
Fill
Upper
151
2006
55
1
41.1
Nonstructure
Fill
151
2008
61
1
68.5
Nonstructure
Fill
151
2010
31
1
6.9
Nonstructure
Fill
151
2010
49
1
44.6
Nonstructure
Fill
1101
2072
5
1
28.8
Nonstructure
Fill
Study
Unit
Provenience
Designation
Number
Field
Specimen
Number
101
909
801
243
Above
Wall/roof
Fall
Above
Wall/roof
Fall
Above
Wall/roof
Fall
Above
Wall/roof
Fall
Lower
Fill
Assemblage
Type
(General)
Mixed
Deposit
Mixed
Deposit
Cultural
Deposit
Collapsed
Structure
Mixed
Deposit
Fill Assemblage
Type (Specific)
Postabandonment
and Cultural Refuse
Postabandonment
and Cultural Refuse
Mixed Refuse
With Mixed Refuse
Postabandonment
and Cultural Refuse
Cultural
Deposit
Secondary Refuse
Mixed
Deposit
Postabandonment
and Cultural Refuse
Cultural
Deposit
Secondary Refuse
Cultural
Deposit
Secondary Refuse
Cultural
Deposit
Secondary Refuse
Cultural
Deposit
Secondary Refuse
Mixed
Deposit
Postabandonment
and Cultural Refuse
Table 6.37. Other Stone Artifacts, Albert Porter Pueblo.
PD
No.
FS
No.
0
0
16
36
28
3
61
4
72
5
74
12
76
4
94
5
100
107
7
4
108
7
110
6
122
5
126
6
144
5
162
9
Point
Location
No.
Condition
Count
Weight
(g)
Comment
Study Unit
Type
Study
Unit
No.
Fill
Assemblage
(General)
Fragmentary
1
0.9
Denticulate object–ornament? Derives from a
subsurface context in Nonstructure 801,
Stratum 1.
General Site
0000
Not
Applicable
Fragmentary
1
0.5
Originally entered as PD 56, FS 5
Structure
502
Fill
Fragmentary
1
0.3
Structure
302
Fill
Clay
Complete
1
6.9
Nonstructure
201
Pigment
Unknown
Stone
Morrison
Silicified
Sandstone
Unknown
Chert/
siltstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
Complete
1
1.7
Nonstructure
301
Surface
Contact
Fill
Fragmentary
1
0.6
Nonstructure
301
Fill
Fragmentary
1
10.0
Nonstructure
301
Fill
Fragmentary
1
45.7
Nonstructure
301
Fill
Complete
Complete
1
1
7.1
21.3
Nonstructure
Nonstructure
301
301
Fill
Fill
Complete
1
2.5
Structure
302
Fill
Fragmentary
1
1.2
Nonstructure
301
Fill
Fragmentary
1
92.7
Nonstructure
201
Fill
Fragmentary
1
10.8
Nonstructure
201
Fill
1
12.8
Nonstructure
401
Fill
1
73.1
Structure
107
Fill
Material
Type
Morrison
Silicified
Sandstone
Unknown
Stone
Morrison
Chert
Sandstone
Unknown
Chert/
siltstone
Dakota
Mudstone
Unknown
Stone
Not
Applicable
Sandstone
Not
Applicable
Complete
Possibly modified bullet-shaped rock
Possible lightning stone
Sandstone ball
Ground into cydrillic shape
Shaft sharpener
244
PD
No.
FS
No.
162
16
166
4
170
176
4
10
217
21
219
11
234
243
4
11
245
5
247
26
250
3
258
8
281
285
5
43
289
22
304
322
4
5
331
7
334
4
Point
Location
No.
Material
Type
Dakota
Mudstone
Morrison
Silicified
Sandstone
Igneous
Sandstone
Unknown
Stone
Unknown
Stone
Slate/shale
Quartz
Unknown
Chert/
siltstone
Not
Applicable
Slate/shale
Unknown
Chert/
siltstone
Sandstone
Slate
Morrison
Mudstone
Sandstone
Pigment
Unknown
Chert/
siltstone
Sandstone
Study Unit
Type
Study
Unit
No.
Fill
Assemblage
(General)
Structure
107
Fill
0.5
Structure
109
Fill
1
1
119.2
2.5
Nonstructure
Nonstructure
103
103
Fill
Fill
Fragmentary
1
10.9
Edge modification
Structure
502
Fill
Fragmentary
1
4.8
Red, harder than pigment
Structure
502
Fill
Fragmentary
Fragmentary
1
1
2.7
6.2
Nonstructure
Structure
301
115
Fill
Fill
Fragmentary
1
0.7
Structure
119
Fill
1
18.4
Structure
118
Fill
1
63.0
Structure
109
Fill
Incomplete
1
1.2
Structure
107
Fill
Fragmentary
Incomplete
1
1
8.0
13.1
Structure
Nonstructure
118
139
Fill
Fill
Fragmentary
1
2.9
Possible tchamahia fragment
Structure
113
Fill
Fragmentary
Incomplete
1
1
87.9
5.1
Possible Morrison Siltstone
Structure
Structure
302
119
Fill
Fill
Fragmentary
1
0.8
Structure
114
Fill
Complete
1
492.9
Nonstructure
9002
Fill
Condition
Count
Weight
(g)
Incomplete
1
1.5
Fragmentary
1
Fragmentary
Fragmentary
Not
Applicable
Fragmentary
Comment
Possibly ground/shaped; triangular
245
PD
No.
FS
No.
334
334
14
15
337
24
351
25
353
25
356
7
361
3
366
1
373
11
468
6
473
15
Point
Location
No.
11
Material
Type
Nonstructure
Nonstructure
Study
Unit
No.
9002
9002
Fill
Assemblage
(General)
Fill
Fill
2.0
Nonstructure
9002
Fill
2.0
Structure
107
Fill
Structure
119
Fill
Structure
119
Fill
Structure
118
Fill
Structure
119
Fill
Structure
302
Fill
Condition
Count
Weight
(g)
Slate/shale
Slate/shale
Unknown
Stone
Obsidian
Fragmentary
Fragmentary
1
1
0.5
0.5
Fragmentary
1
Complete
1
Sandstone
Complete
1
Slate/shale Fragmentary
Brushy
Complete
Basin Chert
Sandstone
Complete
Not
Not
Applicable Applicable
Morrison
Incomplete
Mudstone
Not
Not
Applicable Applicable
1
Comment
Rectangular, worked obsidian
This object had at least two uses/functions;
however, a determination as to which was
used last cannot be made, hence its
designation as "OMS." This is a large slab of
sandstone, one side of which was used as a
slab metate, while the other side has several
pecked cupules. The stone measures 50
(length) × 32 (width) × 10 (thickness) cm.
The lateral margins of the object are well
26,600.0 shaped by flaking, pecking, and grinding,
while the ends are edge flaked. The metate
side is slightly concave (~0.9 cm deep in the
middle) and the ground surface covers an
area of about 36 (length) × 20 (width) cm.
The other side of the slab has five pecked
cupules that measure about 5 cm in diameter
and range in depth from 0.8 to 1.2 cm. The
surface into which the holes are pecked has
also been slightly ground.
0.4
Study Unit
Type
1
3.9
1
8.8
1
1.7
1
43.2
Has strange lines plough or prehistoric
Arbitrary Unit
1001
1
3.0
Possible pendant fragment
Arbitrary Unit
129
Small sandstone square
246
Surface
Contact
Surface
Contact
PD
No.
FS
No.
Point
Location
No.
Material
Type
Dakota/
Burro
Canyon
Silicified
Sandstone
Unknown
Chert/
siltstone
477
9
519
4
554
4
Igneous
560
569
8
12
570
7
586
5
614
7
Sandstone
Caliche
Morrison
Mudstone
Petrified
Wood
Morrison
Mudstone
615
15
625
14
632
8
635
12
659
6
721
724
724
7
8
9
slate/shale
Morrison
Silicified
Sandstone
Igneous
Brushy
Basin Chert
Unknown
Chert/
siltstone
Clay
Slate/shale
Slate/shale
Study Unit
Type
Study
Unit
No.
Fill
Assemblage
(General)
Arbitrary Unit
1001
Surface
Contact
Nonstructure
801
Fill
1.9
Nonstructure
901
Fill
1
1
2.9
1.0
Nonstructure
Nonstructure
901
901
Fill
Fill
Fragmentary
1
51.0
Nonstructure
901
Fill
Incomplete
1
1.9
Nonstructure
601
Fill
Fragmentary
1
3.8
Nonstructure
201
Fill
Complete
1
522.8
Nonstructure
201
Fill
Fragmentary
1
15.2
Structure
117
Fill
Fragmentary
1
58.3
Structure
107
Fill
Fragmentary
1
5.2
Structure
117
Fill
Fragmentary
1
2.3
Nonstructure
201
Fill
Fragmentary
Complete
Fragmentary
1
1
1
2.1
53.7
20.1
Nonstructure
Nonstructure
Nonstructure
801
801
801
Fill
Fill
Fill
Condition
Count
Weight
(g)
Fragmentary
1
3.1
Fragmentary
1
0.2
1
Not
Applicable
Incomplete
Complete
Comment
Ground—possible pendant? Appears to be
made from a white chert.
Lacks drilled hole
Three margins slightly ground—pendant
blank?
Ground and polished on two edges and both
sides
Broken; ground and flaked edges, possible
hoe, possibly made from a broken tchamahia
Ground edges, unpolished side
247
PD
No.
FS
No.
728
7
743
11
767
8
775
3
799
10
817
7
819
10
844
7
853
15
853
16
860
9
871
19
871
20
885
4
901
9
904
6
911
13
Point
Location
No.
Study Unit
Type
Study
Unit
No.
Fill
Assemblage
(General)
13.9
Nonstructure
801
Fill
1
0.5
Nonstructure
901
Fill
Fragmentary
1
4.7
Nonstructure
901
Fill
Fragmentary
1
496.0
Nonstructure
102
Fill
Fragmentary
1
3.1
Structure
110
Fill
Fragmentary
1
1.4
Flaked, polished, tabular shaped
Nonstructure
101
Fill
Fragmentary
1
6.8
Fragment has two ground edges
Nonstructure
101
Fill
Fragmentary
1
5.3
Possible tchamahia fragment
Nonstructure
601
Fill
Fragmentary
1
4.3
Nonstructure
901
Fill
Fragmentary
1
19.0
Nonstructure
901
Fill
Fragmentary
1
26.1
Nonstructure
901
Fill
Fragmentary
1
0.9
Structure
117
Fill
Fragmentary
1
2.0
Structure
117
Fill
Complete
1
2.0
Nonstructure
901
Fill
Complete
1
5.5
Nonstructure
101
Fill
Clay
Fragmentary
1
1.4
Nonstructure
101
Surface
Contact
Unknown
Stone
Complete
1
786.0
Nonstructure
101
Fill
Material
Type
Not
Applicable
Morrison
Mudstone
Sandstone
Burro
Canyon
Chert
Unknown
Quartzite
Unknown
Chert/
siltstone
Sandstone
Brushy
Basin Chert
Quartz
Dakota
Mudstone
Sandstone
Morrison
Mudstone
Morrison
Mudstone
Unknown
Material
Dakota
Mudstone
Condition
Count
Weight
(g)
Fragmentary
1
Fragmentary
Comment
Shaped and ground
Sphere about 1 cm in diameter
Two flakes from cobble; ground surface
possible.
248
Point
Location
No.
Study Unit
Type
Study
Unit
No.
Fill
Assemblage
(General)
Nonstructure
901
Fill
Structure
602
Fill
Shaped and polished?
Nonstructure
917
Fill
2.0
31.1
Possible hematite pigment on surface
Nonstructure
Nonstructure
801
901
Fill
Fill
1
0.9
Argillite?
Nonstructure
801
Fill
1
181.4
Structure
906
Fill
1
1
8.6
91.6
Nonstructure
Nonstructure
101
132
Fill
Fill
Fragmentary
1
34.2
Fragment is ground and polished on both
sides
Nonstructure
101
Fill
Fragmentary
1
11.5
Striations
Nonstructure
130
Fill
Fragmentary
1
2.9
Structure
803
Fill
1
14.4
Nonstructure
804
Fill
1
0.4
Nonstructure
804
Fill
Fragmentary
1
26.9
Nonstructure
804
Fill
Fragmentary
1
69.7
Nonstructure
804
Fill
PD
No.
FS
No.
Material
Type
Condition
Count
Weight
(g)
950
10
Pigment
Not
Applicable
1
0.5
960
8
Fragmentary
1
11.0
977
3
Fragmentary
1
0.2
987
997
4
3
Complete
Fragmentary
2
1
1017
8
Complete
1036
8
Igneous
1111
1127
4
26
Sandstone
Igneous
Not
Applicable
Complete
Fragmentary
1133
7
Sandstone
1149
17
1184
8
1185
12
Sandstone
1187
35
1188
5
1189
24
Sandstone
Dakota/
Burro
Canyon
Silicified
Sandstone
Morrison
Silicified
Sandstone
Morrison
Silicified
Sandstone
Unknown
Stone
Pigment
Sandstone
Unknown
Stone
Dakota
Mudstone
Unknown
Stone
Not
Applicable
Fragmentary
Comment
Hematite?
249
PD
No.
FS
No.
1192
28
1196
12
1205
1224
1228
1240
1242
4
11
1
9
15
1252
12
1256
9
1288
9
1291
11
1304
1304
14
34
1305
33
1305
48
1324
2
1338
8
1358
12
Point
Location
No.
6
Material
Type
Morrison
Silicified
Sandstone
Not
Applicable
Pigment
Sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
Brushy
Basin Chert
Morrison
Silicified
Sandstone
Pigment
Morrison
Silicified
Sandstone
Sandstone
Slate/shale
Unknown
Stone
Unknown
Silicified
Sandstone
Unknown
Chert/siltst
one
Sandstone
Dakota
Mudstone
Study Unit
Type
Study
Unit
No.
Fill
Assemblage
(General)
7.7
Arbitrary Unit
1102
Fill
1
1.3
Structure
1104
Fill
Complete
Fragmentary
Complete
Fragmentary
Fragmentary
1
1
1
1
1
2.4
10.6
27.6
3.0
0.8
Possible pendant blank
28-mm sphere
Slightly ground
Nonstructure
Nonstructure
Structure
Nonstructure
Structure
101
203
204
132
117
Fill
Fill
Fill
Fill
Fill
Complete
1
6.5
Edges modified; pendant blank?
Structure
112
Fill
Fragmentary
1
2.8
Ground/polished axe fragment?
Nonstructure
133
Fill
Fragmentary
1
0.6
Structure
115
Fill
Complete
1
60.1
Nonstructure
130
Fill
Complete
Complete
1
1
3.3
4.5
Nonstructure
Nonstructure
1039
1039
Fill
Fill
Complete
1
27.5
Nonstructure
1039
Fill
Fragmentary
1
695.2
Nonstructure
1039
Fill
Complete
1
0.7
Structure
904
Fill
Complete
1
347.1
Structure
110
Complete
1
2,938.0
Nonstructure
106
Fill
Surface
Contact
Condition
Count
Weight
(g)
Fragmentary
1
Fragmentary
Comment
Red stone with beveled use wear around the
edges. Possible polishing stone.
250
PD
No.
FS
No.
1360
7
1377
7
1391
Point
Location
No.
Nonstructure
Study
Unit
No.
106
Structure
136
Structure
1037
Fill
Assemblage
(General)
Fill
Surface
Contact
Fill
Ground on one surface
Nonstructure
Nonstructure
106
106
Fill
Fill
River cobble, possibly quartzite
Nonstructure
106
Fill
Structure
111
Fill
Nonstructure
Nonstructure
106
106
Fill
Fill
73.1
Nonstructure
9012
Fill
1
1.9
Nonstructure
106
Fill
Incomplete
1
50.7
Nonstructure
106
Fill
Fragmentary
1
1.7
Nonstructure
104
Fill
Complete
1
2.1
Nonstructure
104
Fill
Complete
1
0.8
Pendant blank. Broken at drill hole. Drilled
surface subsequently ground.
Nonstructure
1040
Fill
Fragmentary
1
1.1
Ground and polished on one surface
Nonstructure
1041
Fill
Fragmentary
1
1.0
Ground and polished on one surface
Nonstructure
1041
Fill
Fragmentary
1
0.5
Nonstructure
1041
Fill
Material
Type
Condition
Count
Weight
(g)
Sandstone
Complete
1
7.3
Sandstone
Incomplete
1
2,317.0
18
Sandstone
Fragmentary
1
25.2
1408
1412
5
5
Complete
Complete
1
1
39.5
29.2
1414
2
Fragmentary
1
46.9
1433
13
Sandstone
Sandstone
Unknown
stone
Sandstone
Fragmentary
1
1,084.0
1452
1456
7
6
Complete
Fragmentary
1
1
107.1
0.9
1458
2
Fragmentary
1
1465
5
Fragmentary
1470
6
1600
8
1602
8
1612
4
1622
4
1622
10
1628
4
9
2
Sandstone
Sandstone
Morrison
Silicified
Sandstone
Sandstone
unknown
Silicified
Sandstone
Dakota
Mudstone
Jet
Unknown
Chert/
siltstone
Unknown
Chert/
siltstone
Unknown
Chert/
siltstone
Morrison
Mudstone
Comment
Mano-shaped ground stone with concave
ground surface
Edge appears to be ground
Possible pendant blank
251
Study Unit
Type
PD
No.
FS
No.
1640
5
1640
12
1653
11
1655
3
1681
10
1691
6
1693
6
1697
8
1701
14
1753
6
1784
4
1802
7
1803
4
1810
34
1824
5
Point
Location
No.
Material
Type
Morrison
Silicified
Sandstone
Morrison
Silicified
Sandstone
Not
Applicable
Unknown
Chert/
siltstone
Sandstone
Dakota/
Burro
Canyon
Silicified
Sandstone
Unknown
Stone
Unknown
Chert/
siltstone
Brushy
Basin Chert
Conglomer
ate
Unknown
Stone
Sandstone
Unknown
Stone
Igneous
Not
Applicable
Study Unit
Type
Study
Unit
No.
Fill
Assemblage
(General)
22.9
Nonstructure
1042
Fill
1
3.0
Nonstructure
1042
Fill
Fragmentary
1
0.1
Less than 0.5 cm thick. Ground on one edge.
Nonstructure
1041
Fill
Fragmentary
3
3.9
Three fragments which refit. One surface has
been smoothed and polished.
Nonstructure
1041
Fill
Complete
1
4.6
Probable pendant blank, no drill hole
Nonstructure
1042
Fill
Complete
1
69.2
Nonstructure
1043
Fill
Fragmentary
1
13.1
Possible tchamahia fragment
Nonstructure
1043
Fill
Fragmentary
1
0.5
Possible pendant or pendant blank
Nonstructure
1042
Fill
Fragmentary
1
1.3
Believed to be a part of FS 13
Nonstructure
804
Fill
Fragmentary
1
1,280.7
Abraded groove on ground facet. Ground on
one side.
Structure
150
Fill
Complete
1
2.4
Possible hematite pigment or polishing stone
Nonstructure
9018
Fill
Complete
1
2,205.0
Cracked
Structure
143
Fill
Fragmentary
1
0.7
Possible pendant incised on both sides
Structure
141
Fill
Complete
Not
Applicable
2
121.1
Structure
112
Fill
1
0.3
Nonstructure
152
Fill
Condition
Count
Weight
(g)
Fragmentary
1
Fragmentary
Comment
252
PD
No.
FS
No.
1836
7
1841
1841
7
19
1850
21
1872
9
1872
19
1874
8
1878
6
1878
1892
8
6
1900
4
1907
9
1911
4
1931
17
1935
12
1936
7
1936
16
1943
8
1953
5
Point
Location
No.
Material
Type
Study
Unit
No.
Fill
Assemblage
(General)
Nonstructure
104
Fill
Found near FS 6 and FS 8
Split in two
Structure
Structure
150
150
3 pieces refit, burned, "lapstone"
Structure
150
3.1
Nonstructure
1101
Fill
Fill
Surface
Contact
Fill
1
0.3
Nonstructure
1101
Fill
1
1.1
Nonstructure
1101
Fill
Nonstructure
1101
Fill
Nonstructure
Nonstructure
1101
1101
Fill
Fill
Nonstructure
1101
Fill
Possible pendant blank
Nonstructure
101
Fill
Alluvial cobble. Faint striations apparent.
Nonstructure
1042
Fill
Structure
141
Fill
Nonstructure
155
Fill
Nonstructure
155
Fill
Nonstructure
155
Fill
Nonstructure
101
Fill
Structure
204
Fill
Count
Weight
(g)
Fragmentary
1
1.2
Fragmentary
Complete
1
2
166.6
1.5
Fragmentary
3
1,413.3
Sandstone
Complete
Morrison
Fragmentary
Mudstone
Brushy
Fragmentary
Basin Chert
Slate/shale Fragmentary
1
1
3.1
Slate/shale
Slate/shale
Not
Applicable
Dakota
Mudstone
Igneous
Brushy
Basin Chert
Morrison
Silicified
Sandstone
Unknown
Stone
Unknown
Stone
Not
Applicable
Unknown
Stone
Fragmentary
Incomplete
Not
Applicable
1
1
32.4
2.0
1
0.9
Fragmentary
1
0.6
Fragmentary
1
81.3
Incomplete
1
2.3
Fragmentary
1
1.0
Fragmentary
1
3.6
Fragmentary
1
0.3
Not
Applicable
1
0.3
Fragmentary
1
0.6
Unknown
Stone
Igneous
Sandstone
20
Study Unit
Type
Condition
Sandstone
Comment
Possible pendant fragment
Highly polished
Possible pendant or gaming piece
Refits PD 1707, FS 11, PL 11 pendant from
Structure 803, Surface 1.
253
PD
No.
FS
No.
1953
2006
9
10
2006
45
2008
3
2008
30
2010
34
2010
2010
52
53
2027
4
2069
2
2097
11
Point
Location
No.
Material
Type
Structure
Nonstructure
Study
Unit
No.
204
151
Fill
Assemblage
(General)
Fill
Fill
5.5
Nonstructure
151
Fill
1
34.1
Nonstructure
151
Fill
Incomplete
1
207.9
Nonstructure
151
Fill
Fragmentary
1
1.9
Nonstructure
151
Fill
Fragmentary
Fragmentary
1
1
32.4
17.1
Nonstructure
Nonstructure
151
151
Fill
Fill
Fragmentary
1
752.2
Nonstructure
152
Fill
Complete
1
3.6
Structure
153
Fill
Complete
1
1.8
Nonstructure
162
Fill
Structure
160
Fill
Condition
Count
Weight
(g)
Jet
Sandstone
Morrison
Silicified
Sandstone
Concretion
Complete
Fragmentary
1
1
0.9
2.1
Incomplete
1
Complete
Sandstone
Not
Applicable
Sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
Agate/
chalcedony
Unknown
Stone
Comment
Possible pendant blank
Soft sandstone
May be part of FS 52
One face is well ground. Two edges are wellpacked and make a corner. The slab is about
1 cm thick. Could be a pallet fragment or
perhaps a cover or lid for another artifact or
feature.
Study Unit
Type
2165
7
Morrison
Silicified
Sandstone
2170
2170
2206
134
15
16
5
5
Slate/shale
Igneous
Igneous
Sandstone
Fragmentary
Fragmentary
Complete
Fragmentary
1
1
1
1
10.8
357.2
4.0
33.7
Structure
Structure
Nonstructure
Nonstructure
176
176
1043
401
Fill
Fill
Fill
Fill
228
333
372
6
16
7
Sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
Complete
Complete
Fragmentary
1
1
1
85.1
4.2
10.3
Structure
Nonstructure
Structure
402
139
303
420
6
Sandstone
Complete
1
27.5
Arbitrary Unit
404
578
8
Sandstone
Complete
1
11.4
Nonstructure
801
Fill
Fill
Fill
Surface
Contact
Fill
Fragmentary
1
201.0
254
Point
Location
No.
PD
No.
FS
No.
Material
Type
615
763
775
5
14
25
840
5
885
901
909
1014
1127
1281
3
4
11
1
6
11
Sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
Unknown
Silicified
Sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
1285
11
Sandstone
1711
1890
18
6
2006
55
2008
2010
2010
2072
Nonstructure
Structure
Nonstructure
Study
Unit
No.
201
903
102
Fill
Assemblage
(General)
Fill
Fill
Fill
245.6
Structure
115
Fill
1
1
1
2
1
1
1.3
103.3
122.4
1.7
89.8
85.0
Nonstructure
Nonstructure
Nonstructure
Nonstructure
Nonstructure
Structure
901
101
101
801
132
110
Fill
Fill
Fill
Fill
Fill
Fill
1
66.8
Structure
113
Fill
1
1
73.2
11.9
Nonstructure
Nonstructure
151
1101
Fill
Fill
1
41.1
Nonstructure
151
Fill
1
1
1
68.5
6.9
44.6
Nonstructure
Nonstructure
Nonstructure
151
151
151
Fill
Fill
Fill
1
28.8
Nonstructure
1101
Fill
Condition
Count
Weight
(g)
Complete
Complete
Fragmentary
1
1
1
45.7
60.9
55.2
Fragmentary
1
61
31
49
Sandstone
Sandstone
Not
Applicable
Sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
Incomplete
Fragmentary
Fragmentary
Incomplete
Fragmentary
Fragmentary
Not
Applicable
Complete
Fragmentary
Not
Applicable
Complete
Fragmentary
Complete
5
Sandstone
Fragmentary
Comment
Single ground face
255
Study Unit
Type
Table 6.38. Miscellaneous Other Artifacts, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Material
Type
Fill
Fill
Study Study
Assemblage Assemblage
Unit
Unit
Position
Position
Type
No.
(General)
(Specific)
PD
No.
FS
No.
Artifact
Type
1377
15
Basketry
STR
136
Surface
Contact
1377
16
Basketry
STR
136
Surface
Contact
1377
17
Basketry
STR
136
Surface
Contact
1377
18
Basketry
STR
136
Surface
Contact
1377
26
Basketry
Basket was
not weighed
STR
136
Surface
Contact
1377
28
Basketry
Plaited basket
fragments
STR
136
Surface
Contact
1377
32
Basketry
STR
136
Surface
Contact
1377
33
Basketry
STR
136
Surface
Contact
225
4
Cylinder
Sandstone
Frag
2.60
STR
402
Fill
534
8
Cylinder
Pigment
Frag
4.20
NST
901
Fill
741
9
Cylinder
Sandstone
12.50 Cylinder
NST
901
Fill
Weight
Condition
Comment
(g)
Broken into
two pieces
256
Fill Assemblage
Type (General)
Fill Assemblage
Type (Specific)
Cultural Deposit
Primary Refuse
Cultural Deposit
Primary Refuse
Cultural Deposit
Primary Refuse
Cultural Deposit
Primary Refuse
Cultural Deposit
Primary Refuse
Cultural Deposit
Primary Refuse
Cultural Deposit
Primary Refuse
Cultural Deposit
Primary Refuse
Mixed Deposit
Not Further
Specified
Upper
Mixed Deposit
Postabandonment
and Cultural
Refuse
Upper
Cultural Deposit
Secondary Refuse
Prepared
Floor
Surface
Prepared
Floor
Surface
Prepared
Floor
Surface
Prepared
Floor
Surface
Prepared
Floor
Surface
Prepared
Floor
Surface
Prepared
Floor
Surface
Prepared
Floor
Surface
Above
Wall/roof
Fall
PD
No.
FS
No.
Artifact
Type
Material
Type
1186
25
Cylinder
Sandstone
Weight
Condition
Comment
(g)
Frag
2.60
Minimal
shaping
Cylinder
shape with
pointed end
and bent like
effigy arm
Cylindrical
piece, fired
Fill
Fill
Study Study
Assemblage Assemblage
Unit
Unit
Position
Position
Type
No.
(General)
(Specific)
Fill Assemblage
Type (General)
Fill Assemblage
Type (Specific)
NST
804
Fill
Above
Wall/roof
Fall
Cultural Deposit
Secondary Refuse
STR
502
Fill
Roof Fall
Collapsed
Structure
With Mixed
Refuse
NST
301
Fill
Lower
Cultural Deposit
Secondary Refuse
215
6
Effigy
Clay
Frag
2.30
237
4
Effigy
Clay
Frag
2.80
548
7
Effigy
Clay
Frag
2.20
NST
801
Fill
Upper
Collapsed
Structure
Postabandonment
and Cultural
Refuse
570
16
Effigy
Clay
Frag
3.80
NST
901
Fill
Upper
Cultural Deposit
Secondary Refuse
648
4
Effigy
Clay
Frag
146.20
STR
602
Fill
Above
Wall/roof
Fall
Mixed Deposit
Postabandonment
and Cultural
Refuse
801
Fill
Lower
Mixed Deposit
Postabandonment
and Cultural
Refuse
NST
102
Fill
Upper
Cultural Deposit
Secondary Refuse
Secondary Refuse
Molded
unfired clay
726
7
Effigy
Clay
Frag
5.50
Fired clay
object –
NST
possible effigy
leg?
773
4
Effigy
Unknown
Stone
C
2.60
Possible
effigy
851
7
Effigy
Clay
Frag
4.30
NST
901
Fill
Upper
Cultural Deposit
885
12
Effigy
Clay
Inc
9.40
NST
901
Fill
Upper
Mixed Deposit
943
7
Effigy
Clay
Frag
1.10
NST
901
Fill
Lower
Mixed Deposit
973
8
Effigy
Pottery
Inc
20.30
NST
901
Fill
Lower
Cultural Deposit
Unfired clay
leg or horn
257
Postabandonment
and Cultural
Refuse
Postabandonment
and Cultural
Refuse
Secondary Refuse
Fill
Fill
Study Study
Assemblage Assemblage
Unit
Unit
Position
Position
Type
No.
(General)
(Specific)
Fill Assemblage
Type (General)
Fill Assemblage
Type (Specific)
NST
106
Fill
Upper
Cultural Deposit
Secondary Refuse
STR
803
Fill
Roof Fall
With Mixed
Refuse
NST
151
Fill
Above
Wall/roof
Fall
Collapsed
Structure
Cultural Deposit
Secondary Refuse
NST
1101
Fill
Upper
Collapsed
Structure
Postabandonment
and Cultural
Refuse
NST
151
Fill
Cultural Deposit
Secondary Refuse
STR
502
Fill
Cultural Deposit
Secondary Refuse
STR
502
Fill
Above
Wall/roof
Fall
Cultural Deposit
Secondary Refuse
0.40
STR
119
Fill
Above
Wall/roof
Fall
Postabandonment
Natural Processes
Deposit
C
0.30
NST
901
Fill
Lower
Mixed Deposit
Unknown
Bone
C
0.40
NST
901
Fill
Lower
Mixed Deposit
Other
Vegetal
Frag
3.90
STR
110
Fill
Roof Fall
Collapsed
Structure
PD
No.
FS
No.
Artifact
Type
Material
Type
1526
7
Effigy
Pottery
Frag
6.60
1703
35
Effigy
Clay
Frag
2.80
1711
20
Effigy
Pottery
C
25.2
1890
7
Effigy
Clay
Frag
3.20
2008
86
Effigy
Clay
Frag
2.50
160
16
Gaming
Piece
Morrison
Chert/
siltstone
C
9.00
160
19
Gaming
Piece
Turquoise
C
1.20
322
10
Gaming
Piece
Unknown
Bone
C
980
8
Gaming
Piece
Unknown
Bone
980
9
Gaming
Piece
1281
61
Textile
Weight
Condition
Comment
(g)
Bird head
effigy
Insect effigy
on mug
handle
Pinched tube
with two side
holes
Refit
Shaped,
ground small
stone
Small tubular
shaped piece
pointed at
both ends
Possible
charred sandal
fragment
Note: Condition: C = Complete; Inc = Incomplete; Frag = Fragmentary
Study Unit Type: NST = Nonstructure; STR = Structure
258
Above
Wall/roof
Fall
Above
Wall/roof
Fall
Postabandonment
and Cultural
Refuse
Postabandonment
and Cultural
Refuse
With Mixed
Refuse
Table 6.39. Counts and Weights of Effigies, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Study Unit
PD No.
FS No.
Count
901
106
151
502
973
1526
1711
215
8
7
20
6
1
1
1
1
Weight
(g)
20.3
6.6
25.2
2.3
301
237
4
1
2.8
801
548
7
1
2.2
901
570
16
1
3.8
602
648
4
1
146.2
801
726
7
1
5.5
901
851
7
1
4.4
901
901
803
1101
151
885
943
1703
1890
2008
12
7
35
7
86
1
1
1
1
1
9.4
1.1
2.8
3.2
2.5
102
773
4
1
2.6
Material
Comment
Type
Pottery
Pottery Bird head effigy.
Pottery Insect effigy on pottery handle.
Clay
Probably effigy limb; has temper and is fired.
Squared cylinder. Likely effigy leg. Possible mineral paint.
Clay
Fired.
Clay
Tempered, lightly fired. Probably an effigy leg.
Twisted, shaped, and flattened coil, with impressions.
Clay
Possibly burned adobe.
Clay
Molded unfired clay
Fired clay object, likely an effigy leg, well-shaped, conical
Clay
with a rounded end.
Fired, charred on tip; probably an effigy leg similar to PD
Clay
726 FS 7.
Clay
Clay
Unfired clay leg or horn.
Clay
Fragment of clay tube, unfired; possibly an effigy leg.
Clay
Pinched tube with two side holes.
Clay
Refit.
Possible effigy or pendant blank. Has two small grooves
Unknown
around the object, one near the top (head) and one near the
Stone
bottom (body).
259
Table 6.40. Bone Artifacts by Artifact Type, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Artifact Category
Count
Percent
1
0.2
Awl
177
39.9
Bead
3
0.7
Gaming Piece
3
0.7
183
41.2
Pendant
1
0.2
Scraper
1
0.2
Tube
75
16.9
TOTAL
444
100.0
Antler Tool
Other Modified Bone
260
Table 6.41. Beads, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Study
Unit
No.
PD
No.
FS
No.
Max.
Diam.
(cm)
Max.
Max.
Max.
Thickness Length Width
(cm)
(cm)
(cm)
101
498
1
0.45
0.10
–
101
498
2
0.52
0.21
101
498
3
0.47
101
498
4
101
498
5
Material Type
Drill
Hole
Diam.
(cm)
Drill Hole
Description
0.17
Cylindrical
0.15
Cylindrical White
Bead Type
Condition
–
Disk
Complete
–
–
Disk
Complete
0.25
–
–
Disk
Complete
Slate/shale
0.19
0.50
0.18
–
–
Disk
Complete
Slate/shale
0.19
Cylindrical Dark gray
0.33
0.16
–
–
Disk
Complete
Slate/shale
0.20
Cylindrical Dark gray
0.15
Cylindrical Light gray
0.15
Cylindrical Light gray
0.15
Cylindrical Light gray
0.21
Cylindrical
Unknown
quartzite
Unknown
quartzite
Unknown
quartzite
Unknown
quartzite
Unknown
quartzite
Biconical
Comments
White, probably Dakota
silicified sandstone
Dark gray
101
498
6
0.47
0.22
–
–
Disk
Complete
101
498
7
0.31
0.13
–
–
Disk
Complete
101
498
8
0.57
0.21
–
–
Disk
Complete
101
911
14
0.60
0.48
–
–
Disk
101
919
7
0.48
0.21
–
–
Disk
Complete
Unknown stone
0.11
Dark gray, broken on one
edge
Cylindrical Light gray
101
921
2
0.53
0.16
–
–
Disk
Incomplete
0.20
Cylindrical White, surface spall
101
1112
5
0.66
0.22
–
–
Disk
Complete
0.23
Cylindrical Gray
101
1114
5
0.45
0.21
–
–
Disk
Complete
Shell
Unknown
silicified
sandstone
Unknown stone
0.24
Cylindrical Black
101
1138
4
0.47
0.16
–
–
Disk
Fragmentary Unknown stone
0.18
Cylindrical Gray
101
1213
18
0.45
0.21
–
–
Disk
Incomplete Unknown stone
0.16
Cylindrical Gray
101
1907
7
0.46
0.15
–
–
Disk
Complete
0.17
Cylindrical
101
1907
8
No data
No data
No
data
No
data
No data
No data
No data
No data
Incomplete Unknown stone
261
Unknown
quartzite
Unidentified
bone
White, probably Dakota
silicified sandstone
No data
Bead Type
Condition
Material Type
–
Cylindrical
Complete
Unknown stone
Drill
Hole
Diam.
(cm)
0.25
–
–
Disk
Complete
Unknown stone
0.16
0.09
–
–
Disk
Fragmentary Unknown stone
0.09
0.44
0.15
–
–
Disk
Complete
Slate/shale
0.12
Cylindrical Light gray
Very small stone bead,
Cylindrical
broken in half
Cylindrical Dark gray
10
–
–
1.45
1.53
Cylindrical
Incomplete
Clay
0.25
Cylindrical
1418
5
–
–
1.85
0.18
Other
Incomplete
Adobe
0.80
106
1463
4
–
–
0.63
0.58
Cylindrical
Complete
Shell
–
108
295
9
0.51
0.23
–
–
Disk
Complete
108
329
3
0.56
0.13
–
–
Disk
Complete
113
1300
11
0.49
0.20
–
–
Disk
Complete
114
241
11
No data
No data
0.59
0.56
Cylindrical
Complete
114
391
25
No data
No data
No
data
No
data
No data
Complete
129
472
6
0.44
0.20
–
–
Disk
Complete
150
1848
19
0.27
0.14
–
–
Disk
Complete
Unknown
silicified
sandstone
Unknown stone
203
1222
11
0.59
0.32
–
–
Disk
Complete
Unknown stone
Study
Unit
No.
PD
No.
FS
No.
Max.
Diam.
(cm)
Max.
Max.
Max.
Thickness Length Width
(cm)
(cm)
(cm)
101
1909
7
0.53
0.29
–
101
1909
8
0.33
0.12
101
1941
9
0.24
101
1943
7
102
779
106
262
Unknown
silicified
sandstone
Morrison
silicified
sandstone
Unknown stone
Unidentified
bone
Drill Hole
Description
Comments
Cylindrical Black
Gray, poorly fired clay,
almost round
Adobe reedgrass casting
impression, almost a
Other
circular shape, gray in
color
White, olivella shell,
Uniconical
intentionally worn ends
Black, thickness is uneven
from one side to the other
0.22
Cylindrical
0.16
Uniconical White
0.24
Cylindrical Black
Black in color, burned
Cylindrical
bone
0.22
Nonlocal chert No data
No data
Found in heavy fraction of
flotation sample
0.17
Cylindrical Dark gray
0.12
Cylindrical Black
0.20
Cylindrical Black
Bead Type
Condition
Material Type
Drill
Hole
Diam.
(cm)
0.60
Other
Incomplete
Shell
0.10
Cylindrical
–
–
Disk
Complete
0.20
Cylindrical Light gray
0.14
–
–
Disk
Complete
Unknown
silicified
sandstone
Shell
0.21
Uniconical White
0.59
0.23
–
–
Disk
Complete
Slate/shale
0.20
Biconical
7
0.51
0.18
–
–
Disk
1185
1
–
–
1.31
0.6
Cylindrical
900
1076
3
0.52
0.35
–
–
Disk
901
526
4
0.49
0.22
–
–
Disk
901
570
11
0.78
0.22
–
–
Disk
901
885
13
0.48
0.16
–
–
Disk
901
890
10
–
–
0.81
0.64
Cylindrical
Complete
Shell
–
903
1325
9
1.46
–
1.74
–
Tear-drop/
bilobe
Complete
Pottery
0.12
1000
2187
5
0.57
0.09
0
0
Disk
Complete
Shell
0.24
Cylindrical White
1037
1309
37
0.68
0.25
0
0
Disk
Complete
Jet
0.22
Cylindrical Black
Study
Unit
No.
PD
No.
FS
No.
Max.
Diam.
(cm)
Max.
Max.
Max.
Thickness Length Width
(cm)
(cm)
(cm)
305
690
3
–
–
1.39
501
14
6
0.47
0.14
800
1183
1
0.60
800
1183
4
801
1025
804
Drill Hole
Description
Comments
White, olivella shell, chip
missing by the hole
Dark gray, hole is drilled
off-center and bead is not
perfectly circular
Incomplete Unknown stone
0.18
Cylindrical White, surface spall
Incomplete
0.12
Cylindrical
0.19
Cylindrical Light gray, very smooth
0.12
Cylindrical Black
Pottery
Unknown
silicified
sandstone
Complete Unknown stone
Dakota/Burro
Canyon
Incomplete
silicified
sandstone
Complete Unknown stone
Complete
263
0.30
Biconical
0.16
Biconical
Light gray, made to look
like an olivella shell
Light gray, Dakota
silicified sandstone, small
chip missing on one side
Light gray
White, olivella shell bead,
Uniconical edges are ground; no drill
hole present
Gray; gray ware clay made
Cylindrical into bead, hole made
before firing
Study
Unit
No.
PD
No.
FS
No.
Max.
Diam.
(cm)
Max.
Max.
Max.
Thickness Length Width
(cm)
(cm)
(cm)
1042
1911
9
0.24
0.09
–
–
Disk
1043
499
2
0.56
0.15
0
0
Cylindrical
–
Bead Type
Condition
Material Type
Fragmentary Unknown stone
Complete
Unknown
quartzite
Disk
Complete
Unknown
quartzite
Drill
Hole
Diam.
(cm)
0.09
0.20
Drill Hole
Description
Comments
Very small, looks polished
Cylindrical at both ends, it is broken in
half
White, possibly Dakota
Cylindrical
silicified sandstone
0.17
White, probably Dakota
silicified sandstone, found
Cylindrical
approximately 10 meters
south of Structure 1037
0.12
Cylindrical White
0.23
Cylindrical
1043
499
3
0.51
0.15
No
data
1043
499
4
0.36
0.09
–
–
Disk
Complete
1043
499
5
0.51
0.14
–
–
Cylindrical
Incomplete
1043
499
6
0.50
0.23
–
–
Disk
Complete
1043
499
7
0.47
0.17
–
–
Disk
Complete
Slate/shale
0.20
1043
1648
5
0.50
0.15
–
–
Disk
Complete
Unknown stone
0.20
1043
1648
6
0.80
0.07
–
–
Cylindrical
Complete
Unknown stone
0.50
1043
1693
8
0.46
0.21
–
–
Disk
Complete
Unknown stone
0.17
1101
1899
1
0.25
0.10
–
–
Disk
Complete
Unknown stone
0.15
Cylindrical Black
Black, polished, even in
Cylindrical cross-section, edges are
rounded
Light gray, grooved around
the edge and spirals down
Uniconical
outside, also grooved in
hole, mimics olivella
Black, material might be
Cylindrical silicified sandstone or
mudstone
Cylindrical White, very tiny
1101
1961
6
0.45
0.12
–
–
Disk
Complete
Unknown
quartzite
0.18
Cylindrical
1101
1961
7
0.55
0.29
–
–
Disk
Complete
Jet
0.08
Cylindrical Black
264
Unknown
quartzite
Unknown
quartzite
Unknown
quartzite
0.19
White, probably Dakota
silicified sandstone
Light gray, probably
Cylindrical
Dakota silicified sandstone
Gray, probably Dakota
silicified sandstone
Study
Unit
No.
PD
No.
FS
No.
Max.
Diam.
(cm)
Max.
Max.
Max.
Thickness Length Width
(cm)
(cm)
(cm)
1101
1961
8
0.49
0.13
–
1101
2012
4
No data
No data
1101
2077
9
0.69
9019
1518
6
No data
Bead Type
Condition
–
Disk
Complete
No
data
No
data
No data
No data
0.23
–
–
Disk
Complete
No data
No
data
No
data
Disk
Fragmentary
265
Material Type
Drill
Hole
Diam.
(cm)
Drill Hole
Description
Unknown
quartzite
Unidentified
bone
Brushy Basin
chert
0.15
Cylindrical
No data
No data
Slate/Shale
No data
0.20
Comments
Dark gray, probably
silicified sandstone
No data
Cylindrical Red
No data
Found in heavy fraction of
flotation sample
Table 6.42. Nonlocal Pottery from Albert Porter Pueblo.
Pottery Type
Count Weight (g) Percent by Count Percent by Weight
Abajo Red-on-orange
32
129.9
5.0
4.1
Unknown Gray
37
288.3
5.8
9.0
Bluff Black-on-red
2
10.0
0.3
0.3
Other Gray, Nonlocal
29
246.7
4.5
7.7
Deadmans Black-on-red
170
653.5
26.5
20.4
Other Red, Nonlocal
15
55.6
2.3
1.7
Unknown White
5
18.6
0.8
0.6
Other White, Nonlocal
71
609.8
11.1
19.0
Indeterminate Local Red, Painted
55
189.8
8.6
5.9
Indeterminate Local Red,
Unpainted
173
666.4
26.9
20.8
Polychrome
19
141.8
3.0
4.4
Unknown Pottery
34
196.0
5.3
6.1
TOTAL
642
3,206.4
100.0
100.0
266
Table 6.43. Nonlocal Pottery by Context within the Great House.
Time Period
Count
Weight (g)
Gray Ware (g)
Ratio
Predating Great House
2
13.0
4,897
0.000408
Initial Use of Great House
3
6.4
11,520
0.00026
Final Use of Great House
121
1,657.3
305,243
0.000396
Count
Pueblo II
5
Pueblo III
121
Weight (g)
Gray Ware (g)
Ratio
19.4
16,418
0.000305
1,657.3
305,243
0.000396
Table 6.44. Obsidian Bifaces, Proveniences and Sources, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Provenience
Designation
Number
Field
Specimen
Number
Artifact Type
Count
Weight
(g)
Source
322
9
Projectile Point
1
0.2
El Rechuelos
771
10
Projectile Point
1
0.4
El Rechuelos
854
6
Projectile Point
1
0.1
Mount Taylor
2008
33
Projectile Point
1
3.5
El Rechuelos
1391
22
Biface
1
0.2
Mount Taylor
Table 6.45. Narbona Pass Chert from Selected Sites in the Central Mesa Verde Region.
Site Number
Site Name
Count
Weight (g)
42SA22760
Hedley Site Complex
1
0.6
5MT16805
Harlan Great Kiva
2
0.8
5MT3807
Shields Pueblo
8
15.2
Yellow Jacket Pueblo
13
17.8
5MT5
267
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Notes
1. Basketmaker Mudware generally predates A.D. 600, the beginning of the Basketmaker III
period in the central Mesa Verde region. I used Chapin Black-on-white and Chapin Gray as
indicators of the Pueblo I period, and Indeterminate Local Gray as an indicator of either the
Basketmaker III or Pueblo I period. I used Mancos Gray, Abajo Red-on-orange, Bluff Black-onred, Early White Unpainted, Indeterminate Neckbanded Gray, Moccasin Gray, Piedra Black-onwhite, and Early White Painted as indicators of the Pueblo I period. I used Indeterminate Local
Red Unpainted, Indeterminate Local Red Painted, and San Juan Red Ware as indicating either
the Pueblo I or Pueblo II period. Deadmans Black-on-red, Early Local Corrugated, Mancos
Black-on-white, Mancos Corrugated Gray, Partial Corrugated, Pueblo II White Painted, and
Cortez Black-on-white are indicators of the Pueblo II period. Indeterminate Local Corrugated
Gray, Late White Painted, Late White Unpainted, and Mummy Lake Gray are indicative of
either the Pueblo II or Pueblo III periods. Finally, McElmo Black-on-white, Pueblo III White
Painted, Mesa Verde Black-on-white, and Mesa Verde Corrugated Gray are indicators of the
Pueblo III period.
2. According to Kim Gerhardt (personal communication 2009), the term “quartzite” was retained
because the term was so ingrained in lithic raw-material classifications at the Anasazi Heritage
Center that it was not feasible to delete it entirely. Gerhardt used the term “metaquartzite” for
metamorphic rocks to differentiate it from “quartzite,” or silica-cemented sandstones.
3. The goal of the Village Ecodynamics Project is to understand long-term interactions between
ancestral Pueblo people and their environments (Kohler et al. 2010; Kohler et al. 2008).
4. It is important to note that people lived at Albert Porter Pueblo for centuries, but people lived
at Woods Canyon Pueblo for no longer than three generations. This difference may contribute to
this result.
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Chapter 7
Pollen Analysis
by Karen R. Adams
Introduction
Objectives of This Study
Botanical remains recovered systematically from Albert Porter Pueblo provide an opportunity
to examine the roles of plant resources in the subsistence economy of Pueblo Indians during
portions of three centuries―more specifically, during the late Pueblo II (A.D. 1060–1140) and
the late Pueblo III (A.D. 1225–1280) periods. This report presents the analytic results of pollen
samples collected from selected contexts to investigate the following: (1) ancient patterns of food
use through time, (2) activities that took place within pit structures and kivas at Albert Porter
Pueblo, and (3) environmental change and human impacts to the local environment.
The goal of collecting pollen samples from Albert Porter Pueblo was that the analytic results
would provide insight into the varied uses of pit structures and kivas. The uses of these structures
can be inferred from the features and artifacts they contain, from large plant materials including
seeds and charred wood left in situ, and from pollen deposited through plant usage. Pollen data
lend insight into the extent to which domestic activities such as the preparation, cooking, and
consumption of foods occurred in these structures.
Additionally, the pollen record might reveal changes in the composition of the surrounding plant
communities during the Pueblo II–Pueblo III occupation of Albert Porter Pueblo. Human
impacts and climatic shifts were two potential sources of landscape change. To distinguish
between these two sources, economic plants will be identified, changes in plant use will be
presented, and responses to anthropogenic―or human-caused ―impacts will be assessed.
Finally, pollen data complement data from larger plant remains recovered via flotation samples
and as macrofossils collected individually by archaeologists (also see Chapter 7). Some patterns
in the pollen data reinforce patterns observed in the larger plant remains, and others reveal
unique aspects of past plant use. Together, the data for pollen and larger plant remains from
Albert Porter Pueblo form a detailed record of past plant use and provide an enhanced means to
reconstruct plant communities in the vicinity of the settlement.
Nature of the Sample Set
Twenty pollen samples from Albert Porter Pueblo were analyzed. Eleven samples were collected
from sealed contexts on pit structure and kiva floors, seven were collected from naturally
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deposited sediments just above roof-fall debris in pit structures and kivas, and two were collected
from the modern ground surface. The samples were obtained from contexts dating from four
time periods (see Chronology chapter): late Pueblo II (A.D. 1060–1140), terminal Pueblo II
through initial Pueblo III (A.D. 1100–1180), early Pueblo III (A.D. 1140–1225), and late Pueblo
III (A.D. 1225–1280). In addition, two samples from recently disturbed vegetation on the
modern ground surface constitute control samples against which the ancient samples can be
compared.
Analytic Methods
Pollen was extracted from the samples and analyzed by John G. Jones, who was then affiliated
with Texas A&M University. The methods used to process these samples are reported by Jones
(1995). All pollen samples discussed here have a minimum count of 200 pollen grains, with the
exception of a sample collected from a late Pueblo III occupation surface (PD 370, FS 5) that
will not be discussed further in this chapter. In the full-count samples, a small percentage of
pollen grains (fewer than 5 percent) were labeled “indeterminate” and thus provide no insight
into past plant use.
Methods for Interpreting Pollen Data
Pollen data are difficult to interpret, because pollen is naturally transported by various means,
primarily by wind and insects, and also because, in archaeological contexts, culturally deposited
pollen can be difficult to distinguish from naturally deposited pollen. To interpret the pollen data
for Albert Porter Pueblo, I use an analytical framework that focuses on identifying the mode of
deposition (natural vs. cultural) and then on defining a set of source areas (local, restricted-local,
regional) for the pollen. This framework was developed to interpret pollen recovered from pit
structure floors and fill at Shields Pueblo (Adams 2015). Also see Adams (2015) for a review of
the natural processes that are likely to have affected pollen deposition at Shields Pueblo, because
similar processes probably affected pollen deposition at Albert Porter Pueblo. Adams (2015) also
discusses approaches for recognizing cultural origin of pollen types.
Pollen Interpretive Categories
The interpretation of pollen data is aided by defining pollen interpretive categories. Three
source-area categories (local, restricted-local, and regional) reflect differential distances from
Albert Porter Pueblo, and each category includes a limited quantity of representative plants
(Table 7.1). Although most of the plants from these source areas have been gathered and used by
people in both modern and ancient times, the presence of pollen from some plants can also
provide perspective on the changing natural environment immediately surrounding Albert Porter
Pueblo through time. A fourth category of plants includes many resources considered to be
economic or potentially economic (Table 7.2) and is utilized to help recognize cultural use of
plants within structures at Albert Porter Pueblo through time.
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Local Plants
Pollen types categorized here as “local” are from plants that are abundant in the area
immediately surrounding Albert Porter Pueblo: (1) plants in the pinyon pine/juniper (Pinus
edulis/Juniperus) woodland; (2) shrubs such as sagebrush (Artemisia) typical of open patches in
the woodland and of fallow agricultural fields; (3) plants of disturbed habitats such as members
of the goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae) and pigweed (Amaranthus), which are referred to in
this report as cheno-ams; and (4) oaks (Quercus) that occupy canyon slopes and are especially
abundant following wildfires. All of these local plants produce pollen carried primarily on wind
currents.
Restricted-Local Plants
Plants in the “restricted-local” category are local plants whose habitats are restricted to damp or
wet locations. Examples include willow (Salix), cattail (Typha), and greasewood (Sarcobatus).
Willow is insect pollinated, and cattail pollen occurs naturally in tetrads (clumps of four adhering
pollen grains), which restricts its ability to travel far from parent plants. Greasewood is wind
pollinated.
Regional Plants
Plants in the “regional” category grow primarily in the higher elevations of the region, and some
are found a great distance from Albert Porter Pueblo. Examples include ponderosa pine (Pinus
ponderosa), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga), spruce (Picea), and alder (Alnus). Plants within this
group are all wind pollinated, and their pollen grains can be carried long distances on air
currents.
Economic and Potentially Economic Plants
Plants within the “economic” category either have known ethnographic use(s), or the presence of
their remains in other archaeological sites in the Southwest has been interpreted to reflect
cultural use. Economic plants share pollination via insects or have heavy pollen grains that
cannot be transported far on wind currents. “Potentially economic plants” are all wind pollinated
and have recorded pre-Hispanic or historical̵ cultural use. The wide diversity of ethnographic
American Indian uses for economic and potentially economic plants as construction elements,
food, fuel, medicine, and for serving ritual needs and many other purposes can be viewed in an
ethnographic compendium (Rainey and Adams 2004) that is searchable by both scientific and
common names.
Other Analytical Issues
Analytical conventions affect how pollen data are interpreted. Because these data are
traditionally presented as a percentage of the total pollen grain count within a sample, the
representation of each taxon is affected by the relative presence (expressed as a percentage of the
total number of grains) of all other taxa in that sample. If, for example, the pollen of a particular
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taxon is especially abundant, the percentages of other taxa in the sample are automatically
reduced. Despite this limitation, pollen percentages are discussed in this report. Palynologists
sometimes report the concentration of pollen grains of a particular taxon as pollen grains per
cubic centimeter or pollen grains per gram of sediment examined. However, interpretations of
concentration values are hampered by differences among samples in, for example, the length of
time represented by each sample, which varies by archaeological context or other circumstances.
Pollen Sampling at Albert Porter Pueblo
The strategy for collecting pollen samples at Albert Porter Pueblo (Table 7.3) follows methods
developed during excavation projects conducted by the Crow Canyon Archaeological Center
(Ortman et al. 2005). This strategy is designed to enhance the ability to interpret pollen data by
focusing sampling on contexts in which both the mode of pollen deposition can be inferred and
the period of deposition can be specified. Restricting sampling to locations where pollen
deposition is likely to have been either primarily cultural or primarily natural and determining
the most likely time of deposition of the pollen in each sample lead to the most interpretable data
regarding the human uses of plants. Important to this sampling strategy are modern control
samples―samples from naturally deposited sediment located just above roof-fall debris in pit
structures and kivas as well as sealed contexts associated with the floors of pit structures and
kivas.
Modern Control Samples
Control samples from the modern ground surface (hereafter referred to as “modern samples”)
contain pollen deposited by natural processes, primarily by wind. The pollen in these modern
samples derives from known plant communities. The data from these samples can provide a
broad understanding of the relationship between particular vegetation communities and the
pollen signatures they produce. The presence of insect-carried pollen probably reflects sampling
locations in proximity to insect-pollinated plants.
Modern samples serve as a proxy record for the natural deposition of pollen in a given location
in the past, although there are some limitations to this approach. Pollen in modern samples
derives from biotic communities affected by modern disturbances such as grazing, fire
suppression, land development, and new agricultural technologies, and the pollen of plants
introduced historically from other continents may be present. Also, modern samples are usually
collected during the summer growing season, but ancient pollen was deposited during multiple
seasons; thus, the presence and abundance of specific types of pollen might reflect this
difference. In addition, the spectrum of taxa in ancient samples may be biased by differential
preservation, which could then affect comparisons of ancient vs. modern taxa. Nevertheless,
such comparisons provide a systematic way to identify anomalous pollen percentages in ancient
samples, which can be inferred to represent cultural use of plants in the past.
Two modern samples examined for this study of the pollen at Albert Porter Pueblo were acquired
during summer growing seasons when many plants were pollinating or had just finished
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pollination. Both samples were collected from an area of Albert Porter Pueblo (Arbitrary Unit
1000) that had recently been disturbed by excavation activities.
Samples from the Fills of Pit Structures
The seven pollen samples obtained from the fills of pit structures and kivas at Albert Porter
Pueblo contain pollen deposited during three different time spans (see Table 7.3). Samples
collected from sediment above roof-fall debris in pit structures or kivas are assumed to contain
sediments that were deposited naturally above roofing debris that was deposited culturally. Fill
began to enter structures soon after the structures ceased to be occupied; many of the roofs were
either deliberately burned or dismantled. The deposition of pollen in these sediments is assumed
to have occurred within a year or two of structure abandonment (Kilby 1998). The presence of
pollen from cultivated plants or other economic plants in fill samples is considered evidence of
the continued use of these plants near, but not inside, the abandoned structures.
By controlling for time and the mode of deposition, data from fill samples can be used to
reconstruct vegetation in the environment during the four time spans, providing a record of how
the environment might have changed through time. Pollen in the sample that was collected from
the fill of a structure that dated from the late Pueblo III period (A.D. 1225–1260) provides a
record of the surrounding environment during the decades leading up to regional depopulation.
Comparison of pollen data for the fills of pit structures and kivas dating from the late Pueblo II
and early Pueblo III period vs. those dating from the late Pueblo III period may reveal how the
250-year occupation of Albert Porter Pueblo might have altered local plant communities as well
as the degree to which human impacts could have contributed to the depopulation of both the
pueblo and the region.
Finally, when grouped by time period, samples from structure fills serve as controls that aid in
the interpretation of samples from the floors of pit structures and kivas. Because the pollen in the
fill samples was probably deposited shortly after the pit structures and kivas were abandoned, I
assume that this pollen was deposited during the same general time period as the pollen
associated with the structure floors. Therefore, differences between the types of pollen in fill vs.
floor samples that date from one time period are unlikely to have resulted from changes in the
environment through time. Rather, the differences might have resulted from natural vs. cultural
processes such that the pollen in fill was naturally deposited by wind and water, whereas pollen
on floors was deposited via economic utilization of plants when the structures were occupied.
Any economic pollen recovered from fill samples is assumed to have been deposited as a result
of the continued use of those plants in the vicinity of the abandoned structures or from refuse on
the prehistoric ground surface that was carried by wind or water into the structure depressions.
Samples from the Floors of Pit Structures
The pollen contained in the 11 samples that were collected from the floors of pit structures or
kivas at Albert Porter Pueblo date from four time periods (see Table 7.3). Two samples contain
pollen from the late Pueblo II period, one contains pollen from the terminal Pueblo II through
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initial Pueblo III span, six contain pollen from the early Pueblo III period, and two contain pollen
from the late Pueblo III period.
Floor pollen samples were collected from beneath stone slabs that rested directly on floors.
Sediments associated with floors of many structures were discolored from structure use. All
pollen samples taken from floors were collected from thin lenses of discolored floor sediments
lying directly beneath stone slabs.
Pollen recovered from the floors of pit structures and kivas probably includes some grains that
were deposited naturally. Wind-carried pollen probably entered structures through the roof
hatchway or through the ventilation system. The likelihood of insects depositing pollen on the
floors of pit structures and kivas seems slight; thus, pollen from insect-pollinated plants was
probably introduced when people brought plants into the structures.
Pollen in samples collected from sealed contexts on the floors of pit structures and kivas can be
very informative. First, it can reflect cultural actions within a structure during use, and because
the locations of these samples are protected, most such samples do not contain pollen deposited
after structure abandonment. Second, the pollen in these protected samples offers insight into
plants available in the region during the period of structure use, if the residents were drawing
resources from plant communities within the region. Finally, samples of pollen from different
time periods provide an opportunity to examine changes in cultural plant choice through time.
Results
The pollen samples analyzed from Albert Porter Pueblo will first be discussed by context:
modern controls, samples from the fills of pit structures and kivas, and samples from the floors
of pit structures and kivas. This discussion will be followed by an evaluation of changes through
time in economic pollen that was deposited. Finally, environmental changes and human impacts
on vegetation communities through time will be assessed. In the following sections, only
general-use categories (e.g., construction, food, fuel, medicine, ritual, and other) are listed for
plants considered economic or potentially economic.
Modern Control Samples
The pollen types within two modern samples represent recent disturbance at Albert Porter Pueblo
(Table 7.4). The disturbed context and small sample size necessitate cautious interpretation.
Local Pollen
The two modern samples contain an average of 24.6 percent juniper pollen and 14.1 percent
pinyon pine pollen; these percentages are comparable to pollen from modern open settings
around Shields Pueblo (Adams 2015). Sagebrush pollen (19.1 percent) and Cheno-am pollen
(29.5 percent) averages are also similar to those of modern open settings. Oaks (Quercus)
contributed only a small amount of background pollen to these recently disturbed locations.
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Because pollen grains of locally common saltbush (Atriplex) are indistinguishable from other
Cheno-am pollen grains, and the pollen grains of rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus) are grouped with
those of high-spine Asteraceae (members of the sunflower family), the representation of these
two common local shrubs in the pollen record cannot be assessed.
Restricted-Local Pollen
Local plants that require access to ground moisture are not well represented in the modern samples
(see Table 7.4). Willow and greasewood contributed only single pollen grains to each modern sample.
Regional Pollen
Negligible quantities of pollen grains from ponderosa pine trees, which grow at higher
elevations, were contained in the modern samples. No pollen grains from other regional trees,
such as spruce, fir, or Douglas fir, were contained in the two modern samples from Albert Porter
Pueblo (see Table 7.4).
Economic and Potentially Economic Plants
Modern pollen samples include low frequencies of pollen grains from plants classified
previously in this document as economic or potentially economic (see Table 7.4). The pollen of
no single economic type occurs naturally in percentages above 4.3 percent, which is consistent
with plants dropping small quantities of pollen grains to the ground. Higher percentages of
pollen grains from these plants in cultural contexts could indicate that these plants were used by
occupants of Albert Porter Pueblo. As for potentially economic plants, wind-pollinated members
of the sunflower family (low-spine Asteraceae) compose an average of 3.1 percent of pollen
grains in modern samples. Likewise, the mean percentage of grass (Poaceae) pollen is 2.2
percent. These natural levels of pollen can be compared to pollen recovered from cultural
contexts to help recognize significant departures suggestive of cultural plant use or
environmental shifts.
Overview of Modern Samples
Although the two modern samples from Albert Porter Pueblo were collected from the same area
of the site (Arbitrary Unit 1000), their pollen spectra differ notably. One sample (PD 2187, FS 1)
contains abundant sagebrush and juniper pollen, and the other (PD 2187, FS 2) contains a
relatively high proportion of pollen grains from weedy plants in the cheno-am group. These
differences may reflect a higher level of, or more recent, disturbance in the vicinity of the latter
sample. Despite these differences, both modern samples contained pollen from surrounding trees
and shrubs and from locally available plants. Few pollen grains from restricted-local and regional
plants were present in these two samples, indicating that pollen grains from plants in these
categories do not travel great distances naturally. Pollen grains of plants categorized here as
“economic” or “potentially economic” are also present in relatively low quantities, which
provides a threshold for evaluating the cultural use of those plants at Albert Porter Pueblo.
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Samples from the Fills of Pit Structures and Kivas
The pollen in samples collected from the fills of seven pit structures and kivas is assumed to
have been deposited naturally into the fills after the structures were abandoned. The resulting
data reveal types of pollen deposited during the late Pueblo II, early Pueblo III, and late Pueblo
III periods. As in the modern samples, the pollen grains in the samples from structure fills are
assumed to reflect primarily the environment during the period of deposition.
Local Pollen
The types of local pollen within the single fill sample that dates from the late Pueblo II period are
similar to those in the modern samples (Table 7.5). However, the lower frequency of juniper
pollen in the fill sample may reflect a reduction of juniper forest in the region by late Pueblo II
times. Samples from the fills of five structures that date from the early Pueblo III period contain
notably higher percentages of Cheno-am pollen and lower percentages of the pollen of other
woody plants such as pinyon pine and sagebrush. At nearly 50 percent, the higher incidence of
Cheno-am pollen may be related to the reduction in percentages of other pollen taxa. Percentages
of juniper pollen in fill samples that date from the early Pueblo III period are lower than those in
the modern pollen samples. The types of pollen in a single fill sample dating from a late Pueblo
III context suggest that use of cheno-ams continued to rise by that time, as did use of pinyon and
oak. Pollen data indicate that downward trends in the use of both juniper and sagebrush that
began in the early Pueblo III period continued into the late Pueblo III period. A small
background rain of oak pollen is present in pollen samples that date from all periods of the
occupation of Albert Porter Pueblo. The pollen data for the fills of structures dating from these
three time periods suggest that the vegetation around this settlement during the late Pueblo II
period was similar to that of the present day, and through the early and late Pueblo III periods the
vegetation began to shift notably to a more open and disturbed landscape with fewer juniper trees
and sagebrush shrubs and relatively more weedy plants that thrive in disturbed habitats. The
abundance of oak and pinyon trees in the surrounding region might have declined slightly.
Restricted-Local Pollen
Willow (Salix) pollen is much more abundant in samples from structure fills than in modern
samples from Albert Porter Pueblo (see Table 7.5). The incidence of willow pollen is slightly
lower in samples dating from the early Pueblo III period (3.6 percent) than from the late Pueblo
II period (5.2 percent); incidence is highest in samples dating from the late Pueblo III period (6.8
percent). This abundance of willow pollen in samples from the final period of occupation could
represent increased willow growth in the region or increased utilization of willow parts by
pueblo occupants, or both.
Regional Pollen
The only type of regional pollen present in samples from structure fills is ponderosa pine;
however, the percentage of this pollen in fill samples is the same as the percentage in modern
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samples, or 0.9 percent (see Table 7.5). These pollen grains were probably carried to the pueblo
on wind currents and entered the fill naturally.
Economic and Potentially Economic Plants
Pollen grains from numerous economic plants have been identified in samples collected from the
fills of pit structures and kivas that date from the late Pueblo II through the late Pueblo III
periods (Tables 7.6, 7.7, and 7.8). The percentage of some types of pollen in fills is greater than
that in the modern samples (Table 7.9). I assume that, because these types of pollen were absent
from the modern samples, the pollen of many plants (Apiaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Centaurea,
high-spine Asteraceae, Echinocereus, Eriogonum, Erodium, Fabaceae, Liguliflorae, Liliaceae,
Rhus, Solanaceae, Yucca and the domesticate Zea mays) entered structure fills via cultural
actions. Economic plants represented by pollen in fills of structures dating from the late Pueblo II
period include Liliaceae, Solanaceae, and Zea mays. Pollen grains from Caryophyllaceae, highspine Asteraceae, Echinocereus, Eriogonum, Fabaceae, Liguliflorae, Yucca, and Zea mays were
found in samples from structures dating from the early Pueblo III period. Pollen grains of
Echinocereus and Zea mays were found in samples from structures dating from the late Pueblo
III period. Thus, maize was processed or consumed in the vicinity of the sampled structures as
these structures filled with sediment. Uses of plants as food and for medicinal and ritual needs
could explain how the other economic plants left pollen grains in percentages greater than those
in the modern samples. Pollen grains from the remaining plants were probably deposited
naturally; they also occur in low percentages in the modern samples.
Pollen from plants that were potentially economic was found in samples from structures that date
from the late Pueblo II period; pollen grains of wind-pollinated members of the sunflower (lowspine Asteraceae) and the grass (Poaceae) family occur in percentages similar to, or greater than,
those in modern samples. Low-spine Asteraceae pollen grains are more numerous in samples
from structures dating from the early Pueblo III period than in the modern samples. Achenes
(fruit) of wind-pollinated Asteraceae plants such as sumpweed (Iva xanthifolia) can be harvested
when ripe, and grasses produce abundant pollen grains over the course of a growing season.
Some of these resources might have been utilized in the vicinity of the structures at Albert Porter
Pueblo as the buildings filled with sediment.
Samples from the Floors of Pit Structures and Kivas
Pollen grains that were protected beneath artifacts or sandstone rocks on the floors of pit
structures and kivas were probably carried into the structures through the cultural use of plants as
well as from natural entry through roof openings, ventilator shafts, and possibly from transport
on footwear or clothing. Ten samples from sealed floor contexts represent four time periods (see
Tables 7.6, 7.7, and 7.8; Table 7.10).
To help isolate the economic uses of plants at Albert Porter Pueblo, the types of pollen contained
in floor samples can be compared to those in fill samples and modern samples (see Tables 7.5
and 7.9). Plants represented by a greater percentage of pollen grains in floor samples than in
291
modern or fill samples might have been intentionally brought into pit structures and kivas during
use of the structures.
Late Pueblo II Period
Average percentages of sagebrush, pinyon pine, oak, and juniper pollen on the floors of pit
structures and kivas that date from the late Pueblo II period are generally similar to those in
structure fills of the same time period, as well as to pollen in modern samples (see Table 7.5).
Only the percentage of Cheno-am pollen was greater in samples from floors (30.7 percent) than
in those from fills (22.7 percent), but it was not greater than that in modern samples (28.6
percent). These results suggest that the floor samples might include wind-borne pollen of weedy
local plants. However, the occupants of Albert Porter Pueblo also used these plant resources as
food—these plants are represented in the archaeobotanical record of larger plant parts recovered
from the pueblo (see Chapter 8), and they were consumed by other Ancestral Pueblo residents in
the immediate area (Adams and Bowyer 2002) and more widely (Huckell and Toll 2004).
The percentage of willow pollen, a restricted-local plant, on the floors of pit structures and kivas
dating from the late Pueblo II period (1.8 percent), as compared to the percentage (0.4 percent) in
modern samples, suggests cultural use (see Table 7.5). The inference of cultural use is supported
by the percentage of willow pollen (5.2 percent) in the fill of a different structure. The
percentage of greasewood pollen in samples from floors (0.7 percent) exceeds the percentage in
fill and modern samples (0.4 percent), which suggests cultural use of greasewood. The presence
of regional ponderosa pine pollen on floors in quantities similar to those in fill and in modern
samples suggests natural transport.
Pollen from some types of economic and potentially economic plants that was absent from
modern samples was found in samples from floors of structures that date from the late Pueblo II
period (see Table 7.9). This pollen was from plants that include the carrot, lily, sunflower, and
potato/tomato families, as well as maize. The presence of pollen grains from these plants is
considered evidence of foods or of materials for household or other needs met when the
structures were occupied and later as structures filled with sediment. Pollen percentages of windpollinated members of the sunflower (low-spine Asteraceae) and grass families are also higher in
samples from floors than in modern samples, suggesting that they were gathered for food,
medicinal, or other household needs. The presence of maize pollen on the floors and in the fills
of structures dating from the late Pueblo II period clearly indicates cultural deposition. One
“indeterminate” pollen grain from the floor of Kiva 119 (PD 367, FS 7) was tentatively identified
by palynologist John Jones as cotton (Gossypium); the presence of this pollen would be very
unusual for southwestern Colorado, where cotton seeds and pollen are generally lacking. Pollen
grains of other plant taxa were either present in lower percentages in samples from floors than in
those from fill or were recovered in modern samples and are not considered indicative of plant
use during the late Pueblo II period.
292
Early Pueblo III Period
Pollen recovered from the six samples collected from the floors of structures that date from the
early Pueblo III period provides the best basis for inferring plant use within structures (see Table
7.7). The five pollen samples collected from the fills of structures that date from this time period
are useful for comparison. The types of local pollen in samples from the floors of structures that
date from the early Pueblo III period suggest continued use of sagebrush, pinyon pine, oak,
juniper, and of weedy plants in the cheno-am group. The differences in the percentages of local
pollen in samples from the floors of structures that date from the late Pueblo II period vs. the
early Pueblo III period are negligible, suggesting similarities in the intensity of plant usage
during those two periods. Compared with modern samples, there are more similarities than
differences in the percentages of these local plant pollen grains. The pollen in samples from the
fills of structures dating from the early Pueblo III period differs from the patterns of pollen in
samples from floor surfaces dating from that period; pollen from sagebrush, juniper, and pinyon
occurs in higher percentages, and Cheno-am pollen occurs in lower percentages on floors than in
fills. The data indicate that most local plants continued to be available during the early Pueblo III
period, and by the time structures were filling with sediment, the landscape was vegetated by
notable numbers of weedy plants in the cheno-am group.
The presence of pollen from one type of restricted-local resource—willow (Salix)—on the floors
of structures dating from early Pueblo III times probably represents use, because willow pollen
occurs in a higher mean percentage on floors than in modern samples (see Table 7.5). As with
late Pueblo II floors, the minimal presence of greasewood and ponderosa pine pollen on the
floors of structures dating from the early Pueblo III period suggests natural deposition.
The criteria defined above to recognize the cultural use of economic and potentially economic
pollen suggest that floors of structures dating from the early Pueblo III period contained
numerous types of culturally deposited pollen. These include members of the pink, legume, lily,
and sunflower families, along with wild buckwheat and lemonade berry; all of these plants
provided food or raw materials for other needs, or both. The presence of maize pollen on the
floors of structures that date from the early Pueblo III period is also considered cultural. None of
the other types of pollen on these floors occurs in frequencies suggestive of plant use in the past.
Terminal Pueblo II through Initial Pueblo III Period
A single floor sample from deposits dating from terminal Pueblo II through initial Pueblo III
times provides additional information on plant use at Albert Porter Pueblo (see Table 7.10). This
sample is similar to samples from late Pueblo II and early Pueblo III floors in terms of the
frequency of sagebrush pollen (see Table 7.5). However, the percentages of juniper and pinyon
pollen are lower, and those of oak and Cheno-ams are greater. When contrasted with the modern
samples, pollen from the disturbed-ground plants in the Cheno-am group appear to be the only
type of pollen from economic plants present on this floor that represent locally available plants.
The pollen of no restricted-local or regional plants is present in percentages indicative of use in
the past.
293
The presence of pollen from two economic or potentially economic resources suggests that these
plants served food, medicinal, and other needs in this transitional terminal Pueblo II through
initial Pueblo II period (see Table 7.9). These resources include maize and plants in the
Asteraceae (low-spine) group, and their pollen constitutes 13.4 percent of the pollen in the floor
sample. These pollen types occur in the modern samples at a much lower rate (3.1 percent).
Sumpweed (Iva xanthifolia) grows in the region and is represented in this pollen group.
Late Pueblo III Period
A single pollen sample was collected from the floor of a kiva that dates from the late Pueblo III
period (see Table 7.8). The resulting data contain no clear evidence of utilization of any local
wild plants (see Table 7.5). Nor do these data indicate use of restricted-local or regional plants.
Pollen from only a single economic plant—maize—was preserved on this floor; however, at 54.9
percent, it is the highest content of maize pollen of any pollen sample collected from Albert
Porter Pueblo (see Table 7.8). The presence of this pollen resulted from either the storage of
maize or a blessing that included maize pollen.
As with other structures in earlier periods, pollen grains from plants being used in the vicinity of
this structure entered this abandoned building with naturally deposited sediment. The single
sample obtained from this fill indicates an influx of both Cheno-am pollen and willow pollen in
percentages unlike those in modern samples (see Table 7.5), which suggests a fairly disturbed
environment that continued to include willow trees in damp locations within the general area.
This suggests that there was enough moisture available for people as well as these water-loving
trees even during the “great drought” (Van West and Dean 2000). In addition, the presence of a
single maize pollen grain reflects use of maize nearby as the structure filled.
Plant Use through Time at Albert Porter Pueblo
An examination of the pollen data for plants that were locally available through time reveals
patterns of plant use for Albert Porter Pueblo. The data for floor surfaces (Figure 7.1) and
structure fills (Figure 7.2) suggest that use of sagebrush and juniper decreased through time.
Residents during late Pueblo II through late Pueblo III times used sagebrush and juniper for
construction material and fuel, and it is reasonable to assume that the local availability of these
plants decreased through time. The percentage of pinyon pine pollen is similar in samples
collected from contexts dating from different time periods, possibly because the wood was not
often used for construction. These trees might have been spared because they are capable of
producing occasional abundant nut crops. The Cheno-am pollen data for floors suggest that use
of pinyon decreased during the Pueblo III period; however, the percentage of pinyon pollen
grains in the fill of a kiva dating from the late Pueblo III period is 50 percent. These contrasting
trends suggest that use of weedy cheno-am plants as food decreased as a locally disturbed
environment hosted greater plant populations. The pollen data generally reflect an increasingly
open landscape and eventual abandonment of agricultural fields, which allowed weedy species to
encroach on Albert Porter Pueblo as occupation of the pueblo declined. As a restricted-local
resource, willow also served various needs of Albert Porter Pueblo occupants. The availability
and use of willow increased during the Pueblo III period.
294
The residents of Albert Porter Pueblo gathered numerous other economic and potentially
economic plants. They grew maize throughout the occupation of the settlement and collected
grasses and wind-pollinated members of the sunflower family for food or other household needs.
The data for three pollen samples indicate that, during the late Pueblo II period at Albert Porter
Pueblo, occupants utilized 12 different plants. During the early Pueblo III period, occupants
procured at least 16 different plants whose pollen grains were preserved in 11 samples. Data for
two pollen samples collected from late Pueblo III contexts suggest use of nine plants. Because
sample size may affect these results, the main conclusion is that pollen data suggest a fairly
steady and regular use of plants through time.
Types of Activities Conducted in Pit Structures
The presence of pollen from economic plants in sealed contexts on the floors of pit structures and
kivas indicates that the plants were processed within these structures. Maize and wild plants were
routinely carried into these dwellings. The structures clearly served domestic purposes including
activities associated with preparing, cooking, and consuming foods. Pit structures and kivas were
probably used for ritual purposes as well, especially during the late Pueblo III period, when
maize pollen might have been sprinkled on the floor of Kiva 403 as a blessing.
Environmental Change and Human Impact on the Environment
The recovery of pollen of many of the same plant taxa from both ancestral Pueblo and modern
samples suggests general similarities between past and present plant communities. However, the
types of pollen within samples from the fills of pit structures and kivas also reflect changes in
specific taxa in the immediate environment around Albert Porter Pueblo during its 200-year
occupation.
The pollen data for local plants indicate a decrease in juniper trees and sagebrush shrubs from the
earliest to the latest contexts sampled (Figures 7.1 and 7.2). The percentage of pinyon pollen is
lower in samples collected from the floors of kivas that date from the late Pueblo III period. In
contrast, the percentage of pollen from cheno-ams—representative of plants that thrive in
disturbed settings—increases in samples from fills that were deposited in successively later
periods; the greatest relative abundance (50 percent) of Cheno-am pollen occurs in samples from
structures that date from the late Pueblo III period. Together these data suggest that, during the
occupation of Albert Porter Pueblo, a general decline occurred in the local pinyon pine/juniper
woodland that was accompanied by an increasingly open and disturbed landscape. The data
reflect a continuous decline in sagebrush, which suggests that the landscape, though increasingly
open, was not progressing routinely through a successional process that can include an invasive
growth of sagebrush in abandoned fields within a few years. Such an anomalous pattern might
have been produced by the residents of Albert Porter Pueblo clearing increasingly larger areas of
woodland for farming coupled with reduced field-fallow intervals during the later periods of the
pueblo occupation.
Modern pollen samples from disturbed ground contain higher percentages of pinyon pine and
juniper pollen than any of the samples from structure fills at Albert Porter Pueblo (see Table 7.5),
295
indicating that there was less woodland in the vicinity of the pueblo than is present today. The
percentages of sagebrush pollen in the modern samples are greater than those in late Pueblo
II/early Pueblo III samples and less than those in late Pueblo III samples; the data suggest
decreasing availability of sagebrush through time. Finally, average percentages of Cheno-am
pollen in modern samples are similar to those in samples from contexts dating from the late
Pueblo II period but are much lower than those in samples from fill contexts dating from the
Pueblo III period. These data suggest that, as the occupation of Albert Porter Pueblo came to
an end, the presence of weedy plants in the area was considerably greater than in the modern
disturbed landscape. Pollen from willow, a restricted-local plant, occurs at fairly high
percentages in structure fills (5.2–6.8 percent) and exceeds the level in modern samples
(0.4 percent). This suggests that damp locations for willow trees persisted through time, and that
the gathering of willow stems with pollen attached might have increased through time.
Summary
Twenty pollen samples from Albert Porter Pueblo were analyzed. These samples were collected
from three contexts: sealed floor contexts, structure fills, and the modern ground surface. The
resulting data provide insights into the uses of plants within pit structures and kivas and the
effects of long-term occupation of the landscape surrounding the settlement. Modern control
samples were used to establish a baseline for natural pollen deposition in open, recently
disturbed modern settings. These samples established levels of pinyon pine/juniper, sagebrush,
and other types of local pollen as well as the presence or absence of pollen from many plants
recognized as useful historically. The types of pollen within seven samples from structure fills
suggest that from the late Pueblo II to the late Pueblo III periods, the landscape surrounding
Albert Porter Pueblo experienced a reduction in pinyon pine/juniper woodland and sagebrush
parkland, and that substantially more weedy annual plants grew than at present.
Numerous plant resources were intentionally carried into pit structures and kivas. Pollen data
indicate that the following resources were brought into structures: maize and other food plants,
plant resources that served as construction materials, plants used for ritual and medicinal
purposes, and plant resources used for a wide variety of other household needs. Domestic
activities included food preparation, cooking, and consumption. Data indicate that the pattern of
plant use varied through time but generally reveal a consistent utilization of numerous plants that
deposited pollen grains.
Human impact on the environment during five centuries is reflected in patterns of pollen
deposition in the fills of pit structures and kivas. Human activities resulted in increased pressure
on woodlands and decreased availability of juniper trees. As lands were cleared for agricultural
fields, the quantity of sagebrush plants decreased; some new sagebrush shrubs became
established when fields were left fallow. Likewise, an increase in the quantity of weedy plants
(cheno-ams) through time reflects an increasingly open and disturbed landscape. An increase in
the percentage of Cheno-am pollen in samples from contexts dating from the late Pueblo III
period suggests that the last tended agricultural fields were beginning the process of plant
296
succession. These congruent patterns of pollen deposition are more likely to have resulted from
human activities affecting landscapes than from natural environmental shifts.
It is unlikely that human alterations of the environment ended the occupation of Albert Porter
Pueblo, but it is likely that these actions were a factor. Acquisition of fuelwood and construction
beams required increasingly longer trips from the settlement. Maize was grown in all periods, but
productivity could have declined as a result of overuse of fields and depletion of soil nutrients.
Amidst environmental difficulties in the A.D. 1270–1300 period (Van West and Dean 2000) and
possible social tensions, Albert Porter Pueblo experienced a complete depopulation similar to
that of all other regional communities near the end of the thirteenth century.
297
Figure 7.1. Key pollen types through time on floor surfaces, Albert Porter Pueblo.
298
Figure 7.2. Key pollen types through time in structure fills, Albert Porter Pueblo.
299
Table 7.1. Plant Communities and Selected Members that Make Up Local, Restricted-Local, and
Regional Pollen Source Categories.
Type
Common Name
Significance
Local
Artemisia
sagebrush
Dominant shrub, indicative of
fallow, formerly disturbed land
Juniperus and Pinus edulis
juniper and pinyon pine
Dominant woodland trees
Quercus
oak
Dominant shrub, especially in
steep terrain, and following fire
Cheno-ams
(Chenopodiaceae and/or
Amaranthus)
cheno-ams; goosefoot family Dominated by annuals,
members, and pigweed
indicative of disturbed lands
Restricted-local
Salix sarcobatus
willow/greasewood
Trees and shrubs in the area that
require some access to water
ponderosa pine
Higher-elevation pine present in
the region
Regional
Pinus ponderosa
300
Table 7.2. Economic and Potentially Economic Plants Represented in Pollen Samples,
Albert Porter Pueblo.
Type
Common Name or Description
Economic Types
Apiaceae
umbel family
Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)
mustard family
Caryophyllaceae
pink family
Centaurea
thistle (some species are not native)
Asteraceae (Compositae), high-spine
showy-flowered members of the sunflower family
Echinocereus
hedgehog cactus
Eriogonum
member of the buckwheat family
Erodium
some species are not native
Fabaceae (Leguminosae)
legume family
Liguliflorae
showy-flowered members of the sunflower family
Liliaceae
lily family
Polygonaceae
buckwheat family
Rhus
lemonade berry
Rosaceae
rose family
Solanaceae
potato/tomato family (includes Physalis)
Sphaeralcea
globemallow
Yucca
yucca
Zea mays
maize (corn)
Potentially Economic Types
Asteraceae (Compositae), low-spine
wind-pollinated members of the sunflower family
Ephedra nevadensis; E. torreyana
Mormon tea (ephedra)
Poaceae (Gramineae)
grass family
Note: Many of these are included in the ethnographic compendium of historic plant uses by American Indians
(Rainey and Adams 2004). Names in parentheses are alternate family names commonly reported in the ethnographic
and archaeobotanical literature.
301
Table 7.3. Number of Pollen Samples by Context and Time Period, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Pit Structure and
Kiva Floorsa
(N)
Pit Structure and
Kiva Fillsb
(N)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060 ̶ 1140)
2
1
Terminal Pueblo II through
Initial Pueblo III
(A.D. 1100 ̶ 1180)
1
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140 ̶ 1225)
6
5
11
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225 ̶ 1260)
2d
1
3
Time Period
TOTAL
3
1
Present Day
(A.D. 1990/2000)
TOTAL
Modern
Controlsc
(N)
11
7
a
2
2
2
20
Kiva or pit structure floor samples were collected from beneath objects, usually a sandstone rock or other large
artifact, resting directly on the floor; the sediments for the sample were scraped from the floor surface.
b
Kiva or pit structure fill samples were collected from naturally deposited sediment above roof-fall deposits in kivas
and pit structures; these deposits probably accumulated a few years after the abandonment of the structure (Kilby
1998).
c
Two modern control samples were collected from disturbed modern ground surface in the area of Arbitrary Unit
1000.
d
One late Pueblo III surface sample (PD 370, FS 5) contained only four pollen grains and will not be discussed
further.
302
Table 7.4. Modern Pollen Control Samples.
Time Period:
Sample No.
Setting
Study Unit
PD
FS
Grains Counted
Concentration
Local
Artemisia
Juniperus
Pinus edulis
Quercus
Cheno-am
Restricted-local
Salix
Sarcobatus
Regional
Pinus ponderosa
Economic
Brassicaceae
Centaurea-type
Erodium
Polygonaceae
Rosaceae
Sphaeralcea
Potentially Economic
Low Spine, Asteraceae
Ephedra nevadensis
Ephedra torreyana
Poaceae
Indeterminate
Present Day (A.D. 2000+)
19
20
Recent Disturbance,
Recent Disturbance,
Albert Porter Site
Albert Porter Site
ARB 1000
ARB 1000
2187
2187
1
2
234
217
117,393
24,742
N=
%
N=
%
70
72
38
5
18
29.9
30.8
16.2
2.1
7.7
18
40
26
1
111
8.3
18.4
12.0
0.5
51.2
1
1
0.4
0.4
1
1
0.5
0.5
1
0.4
3
1.4
1
0.4
1
2
2
0.5
0.9
0.9
1
0.5
4
1
1
3
1
1.8
0.5
0.5
1.4
0.5
3
2
1.3
0.9
10
2
4.3
0.9
7
3
3.0
1.3
Note: N = number of grains identified; % = percentage of the total grains identified within the sample.
ARB = Arbitrary Unit.
303
Table 7.5. Mean Percentage of Local, Restricted-Local, and Regional Pollen Types in Floor and Fill Samples, Grouped by
Time Period, in Comparison to Presence of Pollen from these Taxa in Modern Surface Samples, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Category of Plant
Local Plants
Restricted Local Plants
Regional
Plants
Context
No. of
Samples
Total Pollen
Grains in
Samples
Artemisia
Juniperus
Pinus
edulis
Quercus
Cheno-am
Salix
Sarcobatus
Pinus
ponderosa
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–
1140)
floor
2
440
24.3
19.3
8.0
0.9
30.7
1.8
0.7
0.5
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–
1140)
fill
1
229
23.6
12.7
9.2
0.4
22.7
5.2
0.4
0.9
Terminal
Pueblo II
through Initial
Pueblo III (A.D.
1100–1180)
floor
1
216
24.5
12.0
3.7
1.4
36.1
0.5
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–
1225)
floor
6
1,336
23.1
20.4
7.0
0.7
29.3
2.4
0.4
0.5
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–
1225)
fill
5
1,127
15.8
13.4
4.3
0.9
48.7
3.6
0.1
0.2
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–
1280)
floor
1
213
10.8
4.7
2.8
1.4
19.2
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–
1280)
fill
1
236
13.1
8.1
6.4
2.1
50.8
6.8
Modern surface
samples
control
2
451
19.5
24.8
14.2
1.3
28.6
0.4
Time Period
304
0.5
1.3
0.4
0.9
Table 7.6. Pollen on Surfaces and within Fill Samples from the Late Pueblo II Period,
Albert Porter Pueblo.
Time Period
Sample No.
Study Unit
Context
PD
FS
PL
Grains Counted
Concentration
Local
Artemisia
Juniperus
Pinus edulis
Quercus
Cheno-am
Restricted-local
Salix
Sarcobatus
Regional
Pinus ponderosa
Economic
Apiaceae
Brassicaceae
High Spine, Asteraceae
Liliaceae
Polygonaceae
Solanaceae
Sphaeralcea
Zea mays
Potentially Economic
Low Spine, Asteraceae
Ephedra nevadensis
Ephedra torreyana
Poaceae
Indeterminate
Late Pueblo II (A.D. 1060–1140)
14
18
16
Structure 906
Structure 176
Structure 176
Surface
Surface
Fill
1058
1915
1744
9
1
2
213
19,788
N=
%
227
13,125
N=
%
229
10,078
N=
%
48
62
22
1
48
22.5
29.1
10.3
0.5
22.5
59
23
13
3
87
26.0
10.1
5.7
1.3
38.3
54
29
21
1
52
23.6
12.7
9.2
0.4
22.7
2
2
0.9
0.9
6
1
2.6
0.4
12
1
5.2
0.4
1
0.5
1
0.4
2
0.9
1
0.4
1
1
0.5
0.5
1
1
1
1
8
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
3.5
11
1
1
7
5
5.2
0.5
0.5
3.3
2.3
3
1.3
1
3
0.4
1.3
15
6.6
21
2
9.2
0.9
3
6
1.3
2.6
15
9
6.6
3.9
Note: N = number of grains identified; % = percentage of the total grains identified within the sample.
305
Table 7.7. Pollen from Pit Structure and Kiva Surface and Fill Samples from the Early Pueblo III Period,
Albert Porter Pueblo.
Time Period
Early Pueblo III (A.D. 1140–1225)
Surface Samples
Fill Samples
Sample No.
1
5
8
9
12
13
2
3
7
10
11
Study Unit
Structure
109
Structure
119
Structure
502
Structure
302
Structure
107
Structure
108
Structure
108
Structure
107
Structure
302
Structure
100
Structure
116
PD
270
367
382
684
1041
1046
321
338
379
799
FS
18
7
12
4
1
6
11
9
1
11
963
Grains Counted
217
220
215
225
235
224
217
234
215
225
236
8,640
32,462
11,475
13,766
13,099
17,027
17,559
22,576
15,409
24,539
16,444
Concentration
N=
%
N=
%
N=
%
N=
%
N=
%
N=
%
N=
%
Artemisia
48
22.1
54
24.5
62
28.8
55
24.4
40
17.0
49
21.9
32
14.7
Juniperus
54
24.9
46
20.9
34
15.8
50
22.2
40
17.0
48
21.4
12
Pinus edulis
12
5.5
24
10.9
16
7.4
14
6.2
13
5.5
14
6.3
Quercus
1
0.5
1
0.5
4
1.8
1
0.4
2
0.9
Cheno-am
67
30.9
55
25.0
46
20.4
87
37.0
55
Salix
4
1.8
1
0.5
2
0.9
7
3.0
18
Sarcobatus
1
0.5
2
0.9
N=
%
N=
%
N=
%
N=
%
49 20.9
37
17.2
36
16.0
24
10.2
5.5
50 21.4
33
15.3
41
18.2
15
6.4
8
3.7
10
4.3
6
2.8
9
4.0
15
6.4
3
1.4
3
1.3
1
0.5
2
0.9
1
0.4
24.6 139
64.1
85 36.3 104
48.4
96
42.7 125 53.0
8.0
2.3
11
8
3.6
Local
81
37.7
Restricted-local
2
0.9
5
4.7
17
7.2
1
0.4
1
0.4
1
0.4
1
0.4
1
0.4
Regional
Pinus ponderosa
3
1.4
3
1.3
1
0.4
1
0.5
1
0.4
Economic
Brassicaceae
1
0.5
1
0.4
Caryophyllaceae
High Spine,
Asteraceae
1
0.5
3
1.4
1
0.4
1
1
0.4
1
0.4
Echinocereus
306
1
0.4
1
0.5
1
0.5
0.5
Time Period
Early Pueblo III (A.D. 1140–1225)
Surface Samples
Fill Samples
Sample No.
1
5
8
9
12
13
2
3
7
10
11
Study Unit
Structure
109
Structure
119
Structure
502
Structure
302
Structure
107
Structure
108
Structure
108
Structure
107
Structure
302
Structure
100
Structure
116
PD
270
367
382
684
1041
1046
321
338
379
799
FS
18
7
12
4
1
6
11
9
1
11
963
Grains Counted
217
220
215
225
235
224
217
234
215
225
236
8,640
32,462
11,475
13,766
13,099
17,027
17,559
22,576
15,409
24,539
16,444
Concentration
N=
N=
%
Eriogonum
1
0.5
Fabaceae
1
0.5
1
0.5
Liguliflorae
%
1
0.5
2
0.9
N=
1
%
0.5
N=
%
1
0.4
1
0.4
Liliaceae
Polygonaceae
1
0.5
Rhus
Rosaceae
Sphaeralcea
1
0.5
1
0.4
3
1.3
N=
%
1
0.4
1
0.4
2
0.9
1
0.4
N=
%
1
0.4
2
0.9
1
0.4
1
0.4
N=
1
1
%
N=
%
1
0.4
1
0.4
N=
%
N=
%
1
0.5
1
0.4
%
2
0.8
1
0.4
1
0.4
0.5
1
0.5
1
0.4
0.5
Yucca
Zea mays
N=
1
0.4
Potentially Economic
Low Spine,
Asteraceae
Ephedra
nevadensis
17
7.8
16
7.3
8
3.7
30
13.3
13
5.5
12
5.4
8
3.7
12
5.1
20
9.3
17
7.6
12
5.1
1
0.5
5
2.3
2
0.9
3
1.3
3
1.3
2
0.9
1
0.5
1
0.4
3
1.4
3
1.3
2
0.8
1
0.4
1
0.4
1
0.4
1
0.4
Ephedra torreyana
Poaceae
Indeterminate
4
1.8
6
2.7
3
1.4
5
2.2
7
3.0
7
3.1
1
0.5
1
0.4
6
2.8
1
0.4
9
3.8
4
1.8
6
2.7
4
1.9
7
3.1
11
4.7
9
4.0
5
2.3
10
4.3
3
1.4
9
4.0
6
2.5
Note: N = number of grains identified; % = percentage of the total grains identified within the sample.
307
Table 7.8. Pollen from Pit Structure and Kiva Surface and Fill Samples from the
Late Pueblo III Period, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–1260)
Time Period
15
Sample No.
4
Study Unit
Structure 403
Context
Fill
Surface
PD
344
FS
1
PL
Grains Counted
Concentration
Local
Artemisia
Juniperus
Pinus edulis
Quercus
Cheno-am
Restricted-local
Salix
Regional
Pinus ponderosa
Economic
Echinocereus
Polygonaceae
Sphaeralcea
Zea mays
Potentially Economic
Low Spine,
Asteraceae
Ephedra nevadensis
Poaceae
Indeterminate
Structure 136
1347
25
213
16,439
236
21,925
N=
%
N=
%
23
9
6
3
41
10.8
4.2
2.8
1.4
19.2
31
19
15
5
120
13.1
8.1
6.4
2.1
50.8
16
6.8
3
1.3
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
1
0.5
117
54.9
1
1
1
1
8
3.8
8
3.4
1
2
2
0.5
0.9
0.9
3
7
1.3
3.0
5
Note: N = number of grains identified; % = percentage of the total grains identified within the sample.
308
Table 7.9. Mean Percentage of Economic and Potentially Economic Pollen Types Present in Surface and Fill Samples, Grouped by
Time Period, in Comparison to Presence of Pollen from these Taxa in Modern Surface Samples, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Category of Plant
Economic Plants
Total
Pollen
Grains in
Samples
Time Period
Context
No. of
Samples
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Surface
2
440
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Fill
1
Terminal Pueblo II
through Initial
Pueblo III
(A.D. 1100–1180)
Surface
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Potentially Economic Plants
Brassicaceae Polygonaceae Rosaceae Sphaeralcea
0.7
0.2
5.9
0.2
229
0.4
0.4
9.2
0.9
6.6
1
216
0.0
0.5
13.4
0.5
0.9
Surface
6
1,336
0.1
0.4
0.2
7.2
1.2
0.2
2.4
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Fill
5
1,127
0.2
0.4
0.1
6.1
0.9
0.1
1.6
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–1280)
Surface
1*
213
0.5
3.8
0.5
0.5
0.9
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–1280)
Fill
1
236
0.4
0.4
3.4
1.3
Control
2
451
0.2
3.1
0.7
Modern surface
samples
0.2
Asteraceae, Ephedra
Ephedra
Poaceae
Low-Spine nevadensis torreyana
0.2
1.1
0.4
0.4
0.2
2.3
3.0
0.2
2.2
* One surface sample (PD370, FS5) omitted from discussion.
Note: Numerous other economic plants listed in Table 7.2 were not included in this table, as their pollen was not identified in the modern surface samples, and
hence they are automatically considered indicative of use in the past.
309
Table 7.10. Pollen on Surfaces from the Terminal Pueblo II through Initial Pueblo III Period.
Time Period
Terminal Pueblo II through Initial Pueblo III
(A.D. 1100-1180)
Sample No.
17
Study Unit
Structure 150
Context
Surface
PD
1850
FS
1
PL
Grains Counted
216
Concentration
18,060
N=
%
Artemisia
53
24.5
Juniperus
26
12.0
Pinus edulis
8
3.7
Quercus
3
1.4
Cheno-am
78
36.1
1
0.5
1
0.5
Rosaceae
1
0.5
Zea mays
8
3.7
Low Spine, Asteraceae
29
13.4
Ephedra nevadensis
1
0.5
Poaceae
2
0.9
5
2.3
Local
Restricted-local
Salix
Regional
Pinus ponderosa
Economic
Potentially Economic
Indeterminate
Note: N = number of grains identified; % = percentage of the total grains identified within the
sample.
310
Acknowledgments
Numerous individuals offered guidance and expertise in the analysis of the Albert Porter Pueblo
pollen samples and in the development of this report. Albert Porter Pueblo Project Director
Susan Ryan collected the samples during excavation, following previous pollen sample
collecting strategies established by former Crow Canyon Research Director Mark Varien.
John Jones of Texas A&M University processed the samples and identified the pollen within
them.
311
References Cited
Adams, Karen R.
2015 Pollen Analysis from Shields Pueblo. In The Archaeology of Shields Pueblo (Site
5MT3807): Excavations at a Mesa-Top Community Center in Southwestern Colorado,
edited by Susan C. Ryan. Electronic document,
http://www.crowcanyon.org/shieldspueblo, accessed 1 June 2015.
Adams, Karen R., and Vandy E. Bowyer
2002 Sustainable Landscape: Thirteenth-Century Food and Fuel Use in the Sand Canyon
Locality. In Seeking the Center Place: Archaeology and Ancient Communities in the
Mesa Verde Region, edited by Mark D. Varien and Richard H. Wilshusen, pp. 123–142.
University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Huckell, Lisa W., and Mollie S. Toll
2004 Wild Plant Use in the North American Southwest. In People and Plants in Ancient
Western North America, edited by Paul E. Minnis, pp. 37–114. Smithsonian Books,
Washington, D.C.
Jones, John G.
1995 Pollen Extraction Protocol for Southwestern U.S. Sediment Samples. Manuscript on file,
Archaeological Consulting Services, Tempe, Arizona.
Kilby, J. David
1998 A Geoarchaeological Analysis of Ten Pueblo III Pit Structures in the Sand Canyon
Locality, Southwest Colorado. Unpublished Master's thesis, Eastern New Mexico
University, Portales.
Ortman, Scott G., Erin L. Baxter, Carole L. Graham, G. Robin Lyle, Lew W. Matis, Jamie A.
Merewether, R. David Satterwhite, and Jonathan D. Till
2005 The Crow Canyon Archaeological Center Laboratory Manual, Version 1. Electronic
document, http://www.crowcanyon.org/labmanual, accessed 20 June 2009.
Rainey, Katharine D., and Karen R. Adams
2004 Plant Use by Native Peoples of the American Southwest: Ethnographic Documentation.
Electronic document, http://www.crowcanyon.org/plantuses, accessed 1 September 2012.
Van West, Carla R., and Jeffrey S. Dean
2000 Environmental Characteristics of the A.D. 900–1300 Period in the Central Mesa Verde
Region. Kiva 66(1):19–44.
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Chapter 8
Plant Use
by Karen R. Adams
Introduction
Objectives of the Study
Archaeobotanical data contributed to the achievement of numerous research objectives for
excavations at Albert Porter Pueblo. A major interest has been to reconstruct plant use through
time, focusing on plants exploited by the occupants of this settlement for food, fuel, construction,
and other material needs. Albert Porter Pueblo is a multi-component site to which various dating
schemes have been applied. Major occupations date from the following time spans: (a) middle
Pueblo II through late Pueblo III (A.D. 1020–1280), (b) late Pueblo II (A.D. 1060–1140), (c) late
Pueblo II through early Pueblo III (A.D. 1060–1225), (d) terminal Pueblo II through initial
Pueblo III (A.D. 1100–1180), (e) early Pueblo III (A.D. 1140–1225), and (f) late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–1280). Archaeobotanical samples from the site enable the evaluation of changes in
plant use over the course of 250 years. Particular attention focuses on the late Pueblo II (A.D.
1060–1140) subperiod, which coincides with Chaco influence in the region, on the early Pueblo
III (A.D. 1140–1225) post-Chaco transition subperiod, and on the late Pueblo III (A.D. 1225–
1280) subperiod, which occurred just before the depopulation of both Albert Porter Pueblo and
the region. Another important goal of this research is to understand the extent to which domestic
activities occurred within the kivas in this pueblo. Finally, the archaeobotanical samples provide
a record useful for reconstructing the surrounding environment through time and for assessing
the condition of the woodland near the pueblo near the time of regional depopulation.
Types of Samples
The archaeobotanical specimens discussed in this report were recovered primarily from flotation
samples and macrofossil samples. Flotation samples are 2-liter sediment samples from which
plant remains are extracted in the laboratory using a water-separation technique. Of the 657
flotation samples collected at Albert Porter Pueblo, 219 samples (33 percent) were processed and
analyzed for this report. Macrofossil samples are larger pieces of plant remains collected during
excavation. These include charred wood fragments, pieces of maize (Zea mays), and other types
of plant tissue. Of the 1,488 total macrofossil samples collected at Albert Porter Pueblo, 247 (17
percent) were analyzed for this report. In addition, several modified vegetal materials, including
basketry and textile fragments, were identified and are reported here. A detailed discussion of
flotation and macrofossil samples and field collection strategies is presented by Adams (2004).
313
Resources
Two documents pertaining to Albert Porter Pueblo and other sites excavated by the Crow
Canyon Archaeological Center support the interpretations provided here. One is an ethnographic
compendium (Rainey and Adams 2004) that reports historical uses of plants by American Indian
groups; this compendium represents the results of a thorough review of Southwestern
ethnographic literature on the uses of all plants recovered from sites excavated by Crow Canyon.
A second document (Adams and Murray 2004) presents identification criteria for the plant parts
recovered. This document includes metric and nonmetric observations on all archaeobotanical
wood and non-wood plant parts that were collected from these sites. To the extent possible, the
scientific terminology used in those documents and in this report conforms to that used by Welsh
et al. (1987).
Methods
Sample Collection
Wood provided fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting. Archaeologists systematically collected
flotation samples from thermal features and midden deposits. The contents of thermal features
such as hearths and firepits, and of ashpits, have the potential to illuminate plant use during short
periods of time. Midden samples document trash accumulated over longer periods of time,
providing a longer-term perspective of plant use by a household or larger group.
The contents of thermal features, ashpits, and middens have been the focus of previous Crow
Canyon research, providing a comparable archaeobotanical record from a variety of
archaeological sites. These contexts are also locations where archaeobotanical materials are
typically well preserved. Field decisions to acquire flotation samples emphasized those features,
especially hearths, that appeared to contain concentrations of plant remains. One bias of this
sampling strategy is that foods prepared by fire are over-represented and plants used without fire
are under-represented and are also less likely to be preserved. This sampling strategy may also
result in the under-representation of plants associated with other feature types. The recovery of
plant parts from middens reduces these biases as do macrofossil samples collected from a wide
variety of archaeological contexts.
Macrofossils are collected from any field context in which archaeologists notice plant materials.
These items provide a subjective sample of the larger plant materials at Albert Porter Pueblo.
Macrofossil samples are considered most useful for their role in representing plants not present
in flotation samples and in providing information on contexts not sampled by flotation, such as
roof-fall debris, where construction beams and roof-closing layers may be preserved.
Sample Selection
The tables in this report were developed with contextual data current as of September 2009. All
plant remains analyzed from Albert Porter Pueblo derive from one of four contextual categories
(Table 8.1): (a) thermal features and ashpits, (b) midden deposits, (c) roof-fall debris, and (d)
other. Thermal features such as hearths and firepits contain ash and botanical remains deposited
314
during the last use(s) of the features. Ashpits contain ash and botanical remains that were
removed from a nearby thermal feature. Refuse formed midden deposits during occupation of the
settlement and represents a variety of activities involving plants. Roof-fall samples exclude wallcollapse debris and primarily contain wood used as roof-construction elements and smaller plant
materials used as “closing” layers. Items stored on rooftops or suspended from roof beams may
also be included in these samples. Archaeobotanical samples in the “other” category include all
remaining Albert Porter contexts, including floor and bench surfaces, from which plant remains
have been recovered and analyzed.
Flotation Samples
Multiple criteria were used to select the subset of 219 flotation samples for analysis (Table 8.1).
The first goal was to choose a suite of samples that together would represent the entire
occupational span of Albert Porter Pueblo (A.D. 1020–1280). The second goal was to provide
spatial representation across the site. Third, samples were chosen for their high contextual
integrity and visible charred plant remains.
Despite the large quantity of flotation samples, the record is uneven in some respects. For
example, the early Pueblo III subperiod, considered the most robust occupation of the pueblo, is
well represented by flotation samples (n=87), with more than twice the quantity obtained for any
other subperiod. In contrast, the late Pueblo III subperiod is relatively poorly represented by
flotation samples (n=18) and has a scarcity of midden samples; historic plowing probably
destroyed many refuse deposits dating from this time period. Such uneven sample distribution
affects the strength of interpretations related to long-term patterns of plant use and environmental
change.
Many thermal features and ashpits from which flotation samples were collected (n=70) were
located inside kivas; numerous surface structures were probably destroyed by historic land-use
activities. Because most kivas and thus their thermal features can be dated, and the period when
the materials were deposited can be reasonably estimated, the interpretive potential of these
samples is enhanced. These samples are used to examine change in plant use and activities
within kivas through time.
Flotation samples from middens (n=67) provide information on the general use of plants for
food, fuel, and possibly other purposes. Most midden samples were collected from refuse
deposited in depressions of abandoned kivas; much of the refuse that had been discarded on the
prehistoric ground surface (especially during the late Pueblo III subperiod) has apparently been
disturbed by historic plowing. Middens were probably deposited over the course of a few years
or as much as several decades and are likely to reflect activities associated with kivas and surface
rooms, courtyards, and other activity areas used by a household or group of households. Some of
these structures and use areas have been damaged in recent times and others have probably been
destroyed. Because refuse can be dated via other material culture, especially pottery, changes in
plant use through time may be detected from midden samples.
Flotation samples collected from roof-fall strata (n=26) and “other” (n=56) contexts constitute
the remaining subset of samples. Roof-fall samples augment the record of structural timber
315
selection provided by Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research identification of the various species
represented in the specimens submitted for tree-ring dating. Roof-fall samples also offer insights
into materials that were used to form “closing” layers of roofs and reveal types of plant materials
associated with roofs that burned. Flotation samples from “other” contexts include materials
collected from kiva bench surfaces and floors, bins, postholes, ventilator tunnels, floor vaults,
and various extramural contexts.
Macrofossil Samples
Macrofossil samples were analyzed during a brief period of time by a small number of analysts
and their assistants; the resulting data are presented in Table 8.1. The 247 macrofossil samples
analyzed reflect the spatial, temporal, and contextual variability at Albert Porter Pueblo within
roof-fall debris (n=63), middens (n=95), thermal features and ashpits (n=3), and other contexts
(n=86). Most macrofossil samples (n=241) were assigned to a temporal subperiod.
Modified Plant Materials
Modification of plant materials in the form of cutting, knotting, or other intentional manipulation
is often preserved in the archaeobotanical record. Plant specimens were examined for
modification during analysis of both flotation and macrofossil samples. In addition, numerous
modified vegetal items, including basketry fragments and other specimens, were recovered from
a few locations at Albert Porter Pueblo (see Table 8.1).
Sample Size
The large size of the Albert Porter archaeobotanical sample enhances the ability to interpret
patterns of plant use. With 219 analyzed flotation samples and 247 analyzed macrofossil
samples, Albert Porter is one of the most intensively studied pueblos in the region in terms of
plant remains. By increasing the opportunities for rarer items to be found, the large size of this
sample potentially increases the diversity of plant taxa and parts identified. This, in turn,
provides a better approximation of the total range of plants used by the occupants of this
settlement. Despite the uneven sampling for some of the subperiods of occupation at Albert
Porter Pueblo, this large archaeobotanical sample contributes to both intrasite and intersite
comparative studies.
Processing and Analysis
Crow Canyon has adopted a set of standardized laboratory procedures for flotation and
macrofossil sample processing, analysis, and recording (Ortman et al. 2005). Along with
explanations of sample types and general field-collection strategies, a description of these
procedures is available (Adams 2004).
The Data Set
The archaeobotanical samples analyzed from Albert Porter Pueblo represent multiple occupation
spans; a few samples could not be dated (see Table 8.1). As stated above, the early Pueblo III
316
subperiod was sampled most heavily (n=185), followed by materials deposited during late
Pueblo II times (n=78). The remaining subperiods are represented by 58 or fewer total samples.
Eighteen samples could not be assigned to a subperiod. More samples from middens (n=162)
were analyzed than from any other single context, followed by samples from “other” contexts
(n=150), roof fall (n=90), and thermal features and ashpits (n=73).
Many different plant taxa and plant parts were represented in deposits at Albert Porter Pueblo,
including three domesticates (Zea mays, Cucurbita moschata, and Phaseolus vulgaris), at least
59 wild plants, and numerous specimens that could not be identified (Table 8.2). More than
27,600 individual plant specimens have been tallied from the archaeobotanical samples analyzed
from this site, and numerous taxa/parts were represented in both flotation and macrofossil
samples. Most of the smaller seeds and parts were unique to flotation samples. Uncharred plant
specimens (n=1,914) recovered from this site cannot be clearly attributed to ancient plant use.
The remainder of this report focuses on charred plant materials; most uncharred remains
probably entered the site via soil cracking and the activity of rodents and thus might be
noncultural in origin.
Food Use
Charred plant specimens considered representative of foods at Albert Porter Pueblo includes both
domesticates and wild plants. Table 8.3 includes all flotation and macrofossil samples. With the
exception of maize shanks (a stem on which the ear rests), only reproductive plant parts such as
seeds and fruit are considered indicative of food use.
Flotation samples contained nearly all of the food plants recovered. Macrofossil samples
contained some larger maize and bean specimens, a concentration of pigweed seeds, and a few
other specimens that had probably been used as foods. Ancient foods are well represented in
samples from all four major spatial contexts (Table 8.4), possibly because foods often spilled
into fires during parching or as they were added to cooking pots set over burning coals, and these
charred specimens were then transferred to middens when ashes in the thermal features were
removed and discarded. Foods were also processed on roofs, stored temporarily on roofs, and
suspended from roof timbers inside structures. Some foods were deposited as refuse into
collapsing roof debris in abandoned kivas.
Domesticated Foods
Maize (Zea mays), common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and squash (Cucurbita moschata,
Cucurbita, Cucurbitaceae) were all recovered from Albert Porter Pueblo. The widespread
presence of maize parts in deposits dating from all periods of occupation attests to the
importance of this domesticate (see Table 8.3). Use of maize cobs as a tinder and fuel source
increased opportunities for the preservation of cobs.
Numerous maize specimens from Albert Porter Pueblo are preserved well enough that they can
be measured and described (Table 8.5). Twenty-four incomplete maize cob segments represent
both round and elliptical ears; the ears averaged 10–12 kernel rows. Eighty-seven whole or
nearly whole kernels appear to contain either flint or pop endosperm. In addition, two shank
317
segments from Nonstructure 151 measure 35–47 mm in length, 12–15 mm in diameter, and have
two to four nodes (locations where husks arise).
These specimens of maize recovered from Albert Porter Pueblo compare well with unburned
maize specimens found at other sites in the Mesa Verde region that date from Basketmaker II/III
through Pueblo III periods (Cutler and Meyer 1965). Regional evidence suggests that most of
this maize belonged to a widespread and variable race called “Pima-Papago,” which includes
medium-sized ears with 10–16 rows of flint kernels and smaller ears with 12–14 rows of pop or
flint kernels (Adams 1994:277). The maize found at Albert Porter Pueblo fits this general
regional description.
In numerous contexts at Albert Porter Pueblo, concentrations of 50 or more maize specimens
were preserved (Table 8.6). Most of these contexts, including three middens, two extramural
surfaces, and fill inside one non-masonry surface room, probably represent routine discard of
household debris through time. However, Structures 136 and 150 contained maize on prepared
floors and in roof-fall debris. In both structures, the maize charred when the roofs burned. In
Kiva 136, many fragments of maize kernels were recovered within an open-weave, plaited
yucca-leaf (Yucca) basket, as well as within a coiled, lemonade berry (Rhus aromatica) stem
basket placed beneath the plaited basket. A pottery bowl had been inverted over the two baskets,
possibly to protect them. This arrangement suggests that maize kernels were in the process of
being ground and passed through the plaited basket to sort the kernel fragments by size before
additional grinding, and then the bowl was placed over both baskets. Before the processing was
completed, Kiva 136 burned, apparently during the late Pueblo III subperiod. Earlier, sometime
during the terminal Pueblo II or early Pueblo III subperiod, stored maize was present on the floor
and roof of Kiva 150 when that structure burned.
Maize parts are present in all flotation samples; however, the ubiquity (presence) of maize varied
through time (Table 8.7). The presence of waste products such as cobs, cupules, glumes, and
shanks, which were available for use as fuel or tinder, implies access to kernels. Maize is present
in approximately 59 to 73 percent of flotation samples that date from subperiods from which a
minimum of 18 samples were collected and analyzed; however, maize is present in only 44
percent of samples dating from the late Pueblo III subperiod. These data suggest that access to
maize declined during the final subperiod of occupation of Albert Porter Pueblo.
Albert Porter Pueblo residents were also growing other crops in their fields. Both common beans
(Phaseolus vulgaris) and squash (Cucurbita moschata) were being cultivated by the late Pueblo
II subperiod and possibly earlier. The low frequency (see Table 8.3) and ubiquity (see Table 8.7)
of these cultigens in samples that date from various periods probably result from the relatively
poor preservation potential of these two crop foods rather than lack of access or use. These two
domesticates are rarely preserved in quantity in archaeological deposits, because they are usually
prepared by boiling rather than parching, which lowers their potential for preservation.
Therefore, it is assumed that the level of use of both squash and beans was greater at Albert
Porter Pueblo than the frequencies of their preserved parts suggest.
Both whole beans (seeds) and half beans (cotyledons) were recovered from deposits dating from
all subperiods. One example of excellent bean preservation can be cited for Albert Porter Pueblo:
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a minimum of 35 whole beans and 17 cotyledons were being stored in a bin fashioned of vertical
sandstone slabs set into the floor of Structure 168, a non-masonry room, when the structure
burned. Evidence of squash seeds and rinds was recovered from deposits that date from most of
the Albert Porter Pueblo subperiods (see Table 8.7). The single whole squash seed displayed the
frayed edges characteristic of Cucurbita moschata.
The recovery of domesticates in archaeological sites implies the presence of people in those
locations on the landscape through much of the calendar year. Field preparation, planting,
tending, harvesting, drying, and storing can span the period from spring through fall, and some
field preparations could have occurred during the late winter. Agricultural products can be stored
in bulk in storage facilities throughout the year, so their period of use probably extended through
the winter and into the next growing season. The record of maize, squash, and common beans at
Albert Porter Pueblo suggests occupation during much, and perhaps all, of the calendar year.
Wild Plant Foods
Evidence of a minimum of 36 wild plant foods were preserved in the form of charred seeds, fruit,
or other reproductive parts (see Table 8.3). That these wild plants were used for food is
suggested both by ethnographic records of historic foods (Rainey and Adams 2004) and by the
contexts in which the remains were found. I infer that plant parts recovered from thermal features
were prepared there, and that parts contained within ashpits and middens accumulated during the
deposit of refuse materials from the regular cleaning of thermal features and food-preparation
locations. The interpretation of wild plant parts as foods is strengthened when many
archaeological sites in a region reveal similar patterning of plant remains in thermal features and
middens associated with food preparation and discard (Adams and Bowyer 2002).
Charred cheno-am (Chenopodium and/or Amaranthus) and pigweed (Amaranthus) seeds were
recovered from contexts dating from all subperiods. The associated weedy plants occupied
formerly cultivated maize fields and other disturbed locations surrounding Albert Porter Pueblo.
The ubiquity of these seeds in all flotation samples suggests remarkably stable use through time
(see Table 8.7). Likewise, the presence of purslane (Portulaca) seeds in samples dating from all
subperiods suggests harvest of the associated weedy plants as both greens and seeds.
Groundcherry (Physalis) seeds, the third most common seed type recovered, are produced by a
weedy perennial plant that, with adequate summer rains, is able to produce an abundant crop of
tiny edible groundcherries. Grasses also provided the occupants of Albert Porter Pueblo with
edible grains through time. The remaining wild plant taxa occur in relatively low frequencies
(see Table 8.3) and ubiquities (see Table 8.7).
The wild plants represented in the archaeological record at this site offer insight into the season
or seasons of occupation. The inventory includes important late spring/early summer resources
(Descurainia, Stipa comata, Stipa hymenoides) that become available before any agricultural
products, and most other wild plants, produce edible parts. It also includes summer/fall weeds
(Cleome, Helianthus annuus, Mentzelia albicaulis) associated with active and fallow fields as
well as numerous and usually dependable perennial resources (Amelanchier, Artemisia,
Echinocereus, Pinus, Prunus virginiana, Scirpus, Sphaeralcea, Yucca baccata). The seasons of
wild-plant gathering suggested by this record coincide with seasons of agricultural tasks such as
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field preparation and maintenance, and crop planting, tending, and harvesting, which occur in
early spring through fall. The collecting and processing of wild plants are linked to seasons of
resource availability, but because these products can be stored for indefinite periods, their
season(s) of actual use remains unknown.
The wild plants that were exploited by the residents of Albert Porter Pueblo varied through time.
For subperiods from which a minimum of 18 flotation samples were collected and analyzed (see
Table 8.7), the frequencies of different wild food taxa are similar for the late Pueblo II subperiod
and the late Pueblo II through early Pueblo III subperiod (n=16); these frequencies are
dramatically higher in the early Pueblo III samples (n=29), but, from this high, decline by more
than 50 percent in the late Pueblo III samples (n=14). If this pattern is not a result of differences
in sample size between the subperiods, wild plant use declined during the final subperiod of
occupation of this settlement. For all subperiods, the wild plant parts recovered represent a
mixture of weedy (cheno-ams, Cleome, Descurainia, Helianthus, Physalis, Portulaca,
Solanaceae) and non-weedy (Artemisia tridentata, Juniperus, Malvaceae, Opuntia, Prunus
virginiana, Scirpus, Sphaeralcea, Stipa spp., Yucca baccata) plants, revealing broad use of
species that thrive in disturbed ground as well as perennials that prefer more stable habitats.
Food Trends through Time
Maize and Cheno-ams
Plant data suggest that maize and cheno-am seeds were the foods consumed most frequently
through time at Albert Porter Pueblo. To gauge differential levels of reliance on agricultural
products vs. common garden weeds through time, the abundance of charred maize parts and
cheno-am seeds in flotation samples collected from in-situ ash in thermal features and ashpits
was compared to the abundance of those parts and seeds in samples from middens (Table 8.8).
I assume that thermal features were used as cooking facilities through time, and that their final
use did not occur during a season when cooking occurred exclusively elsewhere, such as
outdoors during the summer. This examination is hampered because different subperiods are
represented by different quantities of samples; in particular, abundant flotation samples were
collected from deposits dating from the early Pueblo III subperiod. Because of small sample size,
this study excludes one sample from a thermal feature that dates from sometime during the
terminal Pueblo II or the initial Pueblo III period as well as a sample from a midden deposited
during the late Pueblo III subperiod. It also excludes midden samples deposited sometime during
the middle Pueblo II through late Pueblo III period, in part because this span covers more than
200 years, and also because no samples were collected from thermal features or ashpits that date
from this period.
The presence of maize kernels within thermal features and ashpits at Albert Porter Pueblo clearly
indicates that maize was prepared as food during all subperiods of occupation. Cob parts
recovered from thermal features are the remnants of cobs used as fuel. The presence of these
edible and nonedible parts offers a means of gauging maize use through time (see Table 8.8).
The incidence of maize kernels is high (80 percent) in samples collected from thermal features
dating from late Pueblo II times but is progressively lower for samples collected from deposits
that date successively later in time; the lowest incidence of maize kernels (10 percent), was
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found in deposits dating from the late Pueblo III subperiod. Likewise, the presence of any maize
parts in samples from thermal features declines from 80 percent to 30 percent in samples dating
from the same subperiods. A pattern of regular use of cobs as fuel is also indicated.
Data for middens are generally consistent with the data for thermal features and ashpits. The
incidence of maize kernels, cob parts, and all maize parts is progressively lower in samples
collected from refuse deposited from late Pueblo II through early Pueblo III times. The single
midden sample obtained from refuse deposited during the late Pueblo III period is inadequate for
evaluating whether these trends continued until the end of the occupation of the settlement.
The flotation data for thermal features, ashpits, and middens suggest that maize use decreased
through time during the occupation of Albert Porter Pueblo. However, bone chemistry studies for
archaeological sites in the region suggest otherwise. The results of carbon isotope studies reveal
considerable reliance on maize and other foods such as amaranth, cactus fruits, and animals that
consumed C4 grasses (Katzenberg 1999) during the Pueblo III period. Flotation data for Albert
Porter Pueblo indicate that maize remained accessible during the latter part of the occupation of
the settlement, but that it was less abundant. Maize was clearly being processed as ground meal
in Kiva 136 when that structure burned before final pueblo depopulation.
During the entire occupation of Albert Porter Pueblo, people gathered and ate weeds, such as
cheno-am seeds, that would have been common in fallow gardens. Cheno-am seeds were found
in all flotation samples collected from thermal features and ashpits that dated from the late
Pueblo II subperiod and in 80 percent of samples that dated from the late Pueblo III subperiod.
Data for midden samples suggest relatively consistent use of cheno-am seeds through time.
These data suggest that weedy cheno-am plants provided an important and consistently available
wild food throughout the occupation of Albert Porter Pueblo.
Flotation data for samples from thermal features, ashpits, and middens suggest that the diversity
of additional plant foods exploited by the residents of Albert Porter Pueblo also varied through
time (see Table 8.8). In these samples, the frequency of additional plant foods ranges from seven
to 24. Notably, the frequency of wild plants in samples dating from the late Pueblo III subperiod
(n=8) is one-third that of wild plants in samples dating from the early Pueblo III subperiod
(n=24). The diversity of additional wild plant foods within midden samples is also lower in
samples that date from progressively later periods of occupation of Albert Porter Pueblo. As with
the record of all plant foods in all flotation samples discussed above (see Table 8.7), these results
support an inference that use of wild plant foods generally declined during much of the
occupation of this settlement, unless these patterns result from differences in sample size for the
various subperiods.
Changes in Food Use through Time
Data indicate broad patterns of domestic and wild plant food use that have been summarized
graphically (Figures 8.1 and 8.2). The diversity of wild plant foods peaked during the early
Pueblo III period and then dropped notably during the late Pueblo III period. The weeds in
fallow fields (cheno-ams) provided a consistent food resource through time, but maize
consumption—as reflected by the incidence of maize in samples from thermal features—
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declined through time. The incidence of maize in midden samples is also lower in the samples
dating from the early Pueblo III subperiod; the use of wild plant foods spiked during that time.
Although the data indicate that the final meals prepared in late Pueblo III thermal features
included some maize, the incidence of maize in samples dating from this period is lower than
that for any other subperiod.
A long period of favorable environmental conditions occurred during late Pueblo II times (Van
West and Dean 2000). The ability of the landscape around Albert Porter Pueblo to produce
dependable crops appears to have deteriorated as late Pueblo II transitioned into early Pueblo III,
and farmers were unable to produce as much maize as previously. Their problems might have
been various and cumulative: (1) long-term occupation; (2) increasing human population; and
(3) the approaching congruence of numerous unfavorable environmental variables such as
persistent drought, depressed alluvial water tables, stream-channel entrenchment, and marked
reduction in agricultural productivity between A.D. 1130 and 1180 (Van West and Dean 2000).
It is important to try to determine if the residents of Albert Porter Pueblo experienced difficulty
acquiring foods immediately before regional depopulation in the late Pueblo III period. At least
one structure dating from this time, Kiva 136, contained maize that burned when occupation of
the structure ended. However, less maize and a lower diversity of wild plants in samples from
thermal features dating from the late Pueblo III period than in samples dating from early Pueblo
III times suggest that food became increasingly difficult to procure. However, this assessment is
hampered by the absence of comparative data for late Pueblo III middens, refuse that was
presumably destroyed by plowing in historic times.
Fuel Use
The temporal distribution of charred non-reproductive plant specimens that are inferred to
represent fuels used at Albert Porter Pueblo, from all samples and contexts, is presented in
Table 8.9. The most direct evidence of fuel use is charred wood fragments recovered from
samples collected from thermal features; evidence that is less direct is contained in samples
obtained from middens—where refuse accumulates when the primary refuse in thermal features
and ashpits is removed and discarded, or where people discard debris produced by the
construction of tools or other household items (Table 8.10). The middens that were sampled at
Albert Porter Pueblo contained sparse burned adobe or sandstone suggestive of construction
debris; therefore, I assume that most charred wood fragments within this refuse are the remains
of fuel. This assumption is supported by ethnographic records of fuel choice among historic
groups (Rainey and Adams 2004). Only charred wood and nonreproductive plant parts are
examined as fuels here, with the exception of maize—cobs and other vegetative parts provided a
convenient source of tinder and fuel. Subperiods from which no samples or a single sample were
collected are omitted from the following discussion.
Types of Fuel
Evidence of fuels is preserved in a variety of plant parts recovered from thermal features and
ashpits (see Table 8.10). Charred juniper (Juniperus) and pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) wood, along
with maize (Zea mays) parts, occur most often, followed by sagebrush (Artemisia; A. tridentata).
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Other fuels have relatively less presence and were not found in samples dating from all
subperiods. Fuels in midden samples collected from the various subperiods are represented by
many of the same plant taxa and mimic the patterning of fuel choice evident in samples from
thermal features and ashpits.
Nature of the Surrounding Woodland
The fuelwood record suggests that the woodland surrounding Albert Porter Pueblo included
many of the same woody trees and shrubs that are present today. The reliance on juniper and
pinyon pine trees for fuel, as reflected in the plant record at this site, was probably a function of
availability and of the large quantities of wood produced by these trees. Both sagebrush
(Artemisia) and rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus) are common shrub components of the modern
regional pinyon/juniper woodland and tend to be among the first shrubs to become established in
abandoned agricultural fields. The other trees and shrubs offer fuels and additional raw materials
that would have been moderately accessible, as they are now.
Fuel Use through Time
For Albert Porter Pueblo, thermal features and ashpits provide data on how fuel used for heating,
lighting, and cooking changed through time (see Table 8.10). Samples from these features
indicate that juniper wood was the fuelwood of choice throughout the occupation of the pueblo.
Pinyon pine wood was also used regularly for fuel. Secondary use of maize parts as tinder and
fuel declined gradually through time, as reflected by an incidence as low as 30 percent in
samples dating from the late Pueblo III subperiod. The midden record of these three major fuels
mirrors these trends.
Use of Plant Materials in Construction
For Albert Porter Pueblo, evidence of the types of wood used in roof construction comes from
tree-ring samples collected from wall-collapse debris, burned and unburned roof-fall strata, and
other contexts. An evaluation of construction materials includes all tree-ring specimens
submitted to the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research (Table 8.11) and the species distribution of
tree-ring specimens from roof-fall contexts through time (Table 8.12). In addition to tree-ring
samples, flotation and macrofossil samples from roof contexts shed light on species used for
smaller roofing elements, including closing materials, and other plant resources associated with
roofs when they collapsed (Tables 8.13 and 8.14).
Major Roofing Elements
Most wood specimens submitted for tree-ring analysis (n=377) were identified to various
taxonomic levels (see Table 8.11). Clearly juniper (Juniperus) wood, which composes 92 percent
of identified specimens, was preferred by the residents of this settlement. Pinyon (Pinus edulis)
tree wood formed about 6 percent of the sample. The remaining specimens were identified as
ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), sagebrush (Artemisia), spruce/fir (Picea/Abies), or as nonconiferous elements. Ponderosa pine and spruce/fir would have required a journey of many
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kilometers to obtain and might have been procured on Ute Mountain (to the south), Mesa Verde
(to the southeast), or in the canyon of the Dolores River (to the north).
The subset of specimens from roof-fall contexts only (n=312) provides the same insight into
wood preference for construction beams (see Table 8.12). Juniper beams were preferred from
late Pueblo II through the late Pueblo III period, and pinyon pine was used for construction
beams to a limited extent. People transported at least one ponderosa pine beam during the late
Pueblo II subperiod as well as one spruce/fir beam during the early Pueblo III subperiod.
Materials from flotation and macrofossil samples collected from roofing debris (see Tables 8.13
and 8.14) confirm a preference for juniper wood and occasional use of pinyon.
Smaller Elements and Closing Layers
Flotation and macrofossil samples collected from roof debris contain evidence of smaller roofing
elements and closing layers (see Tables 8.13 and 8.14). Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata/
Artemisia) was commonly chosen for closing material. Numerous other trees and shrubs were
procured occasionally for use as smaller roofing elements or closing layers.
Construction Materials through Time
Both the tree-ring data and the materials associated with roofing debris suggest continued
availability of juniper wood for roofing needs throughout the occupation of the pueblo. Pinyon
wood was also available through time but was not preferred. Changes in ubiquity in flotation and
macrofossil samples (see Table 8.14) suggest that use of juniper and pinyon declined from the
early Pueblo III to the late Pueblo III subperiods; perhaps the woodland was dwindling after
centuries of wood procurement. People consistently gathered sagebrush for closing layers.
Other Plant Materials Associated with Roofs
Non-woody plant materials recovered within roofing strata include foods that might have been
dried or stored on roofs or suspended from roof rafters as well as other items of material culture.
Because many roofs collapsed onto floors, some items collected from roof-fall debris might have
originally been associated with floors. Some plant remains associated with roofing debris might
have been deposited as refuse thrown into structures or structure depressions after use of the
structure ended. Maize parts were associated with the debris of various roofs that date from
numerous times during the occupation of the settlement (see Tables 8.13 and 8.14). Maize might
have been dried on roofs, suspended in braids from roof beams inside structures, or stored inside
seed jars resting on benches or within niches. The clear association of maize processing and
storage on floors and within roof-fall debris in Kiva 136 and Kiva 150 has been discussed
previously; squash and common beans were also present. Yucca leaves probably provided the
raw material for cordage used for lashing roofing elements together or for suspending items.
Numerous other seeds and reproductive parts of wild plants are sparsely represented in the
archaeological record at this site—many of these were recovered from contexts dating from the
early Pueblo III subperiod, which was sampled heavily.
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Modified Plant Remains
Numerous archaeobotanical samples from Albert Porter Pueblo contained plant materials
intentionally modified by humans (Table 8.15). A possible yucca (Yucca) sandal or plaited
basket fragment and a possible fragment of a basket fashioned from the stems of lemonade berry
were both preserved within the roof-fall debris of Kiva 110. Archaeologists discovered two
nested baskets beneath an inverted bowl on the floor of Kiva 136. The upper basket was plaited
and was fashioned from yucca leaves; the lower basket was coiled and made of whole and split
lemonade berry stems. Each basket contained fragments of maize kernels that were in the
process of being winnowed through the plaited basket when the kiva roof burned and collapsed
onto the floor.
Modified pieces of juniper wood were recovered in Structure 143 (a masonry surface room) and
in Kiva 150. Numerous pieces of juniper wood in Kiva 150 had been cut into small rectangular
blocks. In the same structure, one larger, thin and flattened juniper artifact that is rounded on one
end was recovered. This item measures 7.5 cm long, 5.5 cm wide, and 1.6 cm thick and might
have been a small weaving batten. A weaving batten has been defined as a “smooth, swordshaped implement varying in length from eight to thirty inches and between one and three inches
wide . . . generally rounded at both ends, and a fairly sharp edge . . . given to one or both sides”
(Kent 1957:485).
Use of Kivas
Structure use can be inferred from evidence, such as features and material culture, of activities
that were conducted within the structure. For Albert Porter Pueblo, flotation samples from
thermal features and ashpits within kivas contribute important information about activities that
occurred within those structures (Table 8.16). Wood burned in hearths clearly provided heating
and lighting. If foods were regularly prepared in hearths, then cooking was regularly conducted
in kivas. Data presented here can address this issue.
Foods were preserved in thermal features and ashpits in kivas at Albert Porter Pueblo, which
suggests that thermal features in kivas were used for cooking and implies domestic use of these
structures (see Table 8.16). Both maize and common beans were prepared and probably
consumed in kivas. Some of the most common weedy resources (cheno-ams, Portulaca,
Physalis), as well as many other wild plants identified in the remains from this site, were
prepared regularly within kivas. The same fuels that were found in thermal features in other
locations at the site and that were discarded during all subperiods, particularly juniper, pinyon,
and sagebrush wood, were also found in thermal features in kivas. These data suggest that fires
within thermal features in kivas were fed the same fuels used elsewhere in the pueblo on a
regular basis, and that the same foods that were prepared within kivas were also prepared in
other locations across the pueblo.
A look at these data in chronological sequence reveals some of the same patterning already
discussed for Albert Porter Pueblo. Ubiquity of maize parts is lower in samples collected from
kiva thermal features and ashpits that date from the late Pueblo III subperiod as compared to
those from to earlier subperiods. Use of weedy cheno-ams and purslane plants continued at a
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high level or increased during the late Pueblo III subperiod. Data suggest that numerous wild
plants were prepared in kivas during the early Pueblo III subperiod; this abundance results in part
from the large number of flotation samples analyzed but reveals the potentially wide variety of
wild plant foods prepared within thermal features in kivas. Less juniper wood was used as fuel in
thermal features in kivas during late Pueblo III times than during the early Pueblo III subperiod,
in contrast to the use of pinyon wood, which did not decrease during the final subperiod. This
might reflect long-term effects of collecting juniper wood, which was preferred, from the
surrounding woodland.
Of the structures exposed during Crow Canyon’s excavations at Albert Porter Pueblo, only Kiva
112 was heavily influenced by Chacoan architectural style. Five thermal feature/ashpit flotation
samples collected in this kiva that dates from the early Pueblo III subperiod contain many of the
same foods and wood types found in samples from other kivas at Albert Porter. However, the
presence of charred tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata) seeds within two of the samples from Kiva
112 (see Table 8.16) represents the only evidence of tobacco use found at the site, with the
exception of tobacco remains that date from sometime during the middle Pueblo II through late
Pueblo III subperiods. Tobacco plants currently grow on the site in areas disturbed by
excavation, and uncharred tobacco seeds were noted in many flotation samples from this site.
However, it is reasonable to assume that the charred tobacco seeds from Kiva 112 represent
ritual uses of tobacco that might have been similar to those described in ethnographic accounts of
indigenous American Indian groups that have used tobacco in ritual and ceremonial contexts in
the Southwest during the historic period (Adams 1990). Kiva 112 was also the only location at
Albert Porter Pueblo in which a rare and unusual charred stoneseed (Lithospermum), capable of
being strung to produce a necklace of pearly white seeds, was preserved.
Two kivas at Albert Porter Pueblo contain special architectural features. Kiva 150, which dates
from terminal Pueblo II through initial Pueblo III times, and Kiva 108, which dates from early
Pueblo III, were both constructed with floor vaults, and Kiva 150 also contained socketed
pilasters. The presence of these traits suggests that these kivas were used for special functions.
Flotation samples from the thermal features and ashpits in these two subterranean kivas
contained preserved foods and fuels similar to those found in other kivas at this site; however,
Kiva 150 also contained modified pieces of juniper wood, the possible weaving batten discussed
under Modified Plant Remains, above, maize on the floor and in collapsed roofing debris that
was also discussed previously, and large quantities of charred pigweed (Amaranthus) seeds
approximately 20 cm above the floor in roof-fall debris. These pigweed seeds were probably
being stored, possibly in a jar that rested on the surface of the southern recess until the jar fell
from the surface and shattered. The estimated quantity of pigweed seeds recovered (1 liter) can
be evaluated for the return of energy it might provide. An energy return rate of 383 Kcal/hour
and a net caloric return of 1,927 Kcal/kg has been suggested for harvested and processed
goosefoot/lambsquarter (Chenopodium) and pigweed (Amaranthus) seeds (Diehl and Waters
2006:endnote 5). These estimates indicate that the 1-liter volume of pigweed seeds within Kiva
150 contained 1,927 Kcal of food energy, which was enough to fulfill one person’s daily caloric
requirement.
The plant evidence within flotation samples from last-used thermal features and ashpits in eight
kivas associated with the great house and that date from the early Pueblo III subperiod were
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compared to that from six kivas on the periphery, or outside, the great house and that date from
the same subperiod (Table 8.17). People utilizing these kivas all used juniper and pinyon wood
for fuel and ate maize and cheno-am seeds. However, numerous reproductive parts of plants such
as Cleome, Corispermum, Helianthus annuus, Lithospermum, Malvaceae, Mentzelia albicaulis,
Nicotiana attenuata, Polygonum/Scirpus, Scirpus, and Sphaeralcea, are unique to the kivas in the
great house. Also, numerous reproductive parts of other plants, such as Cycloloma
atriplicifolium, Descurainia, Leguminosae, Phaseolus vulgaris, Sporobolus, Stipa hymenoides,
and Yucca baccata, are unique to the kivas that are peripheral to, or outside, the great house. As
discussed previously, some of these plants, such as Lithospermum and Nicotiana attenuata,
probably represent ceremonial or ritual activities associated with the Great House. Three
fuelwoods (Fraxinus anomala, Quercus gambelii, and Rhus aromatica) are also unique to the
kivas within the great house. These patterns suggest differences in plant uses between kivas
within the great house vs. those outside the great house.
Reconstructing the Past Environment
The archaeobotanical remains provide an extensive record of plants available to the residents of
Albert Porter Pueblo during its long occupation, including both agricultural products and wild
resources. The record remains silent on local plants not procured, or that were used in places that
were not sampled, or that have degraded completely. Temporal patterns of preserved plant
remains provide indicators of changes in surrounding vegetation that were probably caused in
part by the occupants of Albert Porter Pueblo. The plant records for each subperiod reveal the
basic vegetation assemblage of that time and how plant use changed during the 250 years of
occupation.
Ancient and Modern Plant Communities
The plants recovered from flotation and macrofossil samples collected at Albert Porter Pueblo
(see Table 8.2) suggest that the pinyon-juniper woodland present in the region today was also
present when Albert Porter Pueblo was occupied. The presence of diverse juniper tree parts
(berry, bud, cone with pollen ball, scale leaf, twig, and wood) and pinyon tree parts (bark scale,
bud, cone scale, needle, twig, and wood) implies that these conifer trees grew within a
reasonable distance of the pueblo. Other trees and shrubs represented in the archaeological
record, such as Amelanchier/Peraphyllum, Artemisia tridentata/Artemisia, Atriplex
canescens/Atriplex, Cercocarpus montanus, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Ephedra viridis,
Fraxinus anomala, Populus/Salix, Prunus virginiana, Purshia, Quercus gambelii, Rhus
aromatica, and Rosaceae, form a list that is nearly identical to the plants in the current
surrounding woodland. Likewise, nearly all of the ancient perennials and annuals are
components of the modern vegetation. Exceptions to this include the few conifer beams brought
from some distance.
Agricultural Fields
The nearer agricultural fields were to a settlement the more likely that nonedible portions of the
maize plant (cobs, cupules, shanks) would be carried into that settlement. The presence of
diverse maize parts (see Table 8.3) and the quantities of maize in some contexts (see Table 8.6)
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imply that agricultural fields were relatively accessible to the residents of Albert Porter Pueblo.
This interpretation is supported by the consistent presence, in samples dating from all
subperiods, of cheno-am seeds, which were harvested from plants that thrive in the disturbed
ground of active and fallow agricultural fields. This interpretation is also supported by interviews
with modern successful dryland farmers in the Goodman Point area (Connolly 1992).
Human Impact to the Pinyon-Juniper Woodland through Time
In addition to the procurement of fuelwood (see Table 8.10) and construction elements (see
Table 8.14), residents opened the woodland for agricultural fields. Plant remains in flotation
samples collected from thermal features and ashpits indicate that juniper, pinyon, and sagebrush
wood, as well as maize cobs, were the major fuel sources used through time in this settlement. In
the late Pueblo III subperiod, maize cobs were no longer a significant fuel, and less juniper wood
was used as fuel in kivas. Instead, the use of sagebrush increased, and serviceberry/peraphyllum
shrub wood was procured for fuel more often. Midden data reveal that all four primary fuel
sources were used through the early Pueblo III subperiod, but midden data are lacking for the
late Pueblo III subperiod. The types of wood in roof debris suggest that residents consistently
used juniper and pinyon beams through all subperiods, although use of both of these conifers
declined by the late Pueblo III subperiod (see Table 8.14). This suggests that people had less
access to conifer trees that possessed trunks and branches of a size and shape acceptable for
construction.
Environmental Impact Relative to Regional Depopulation
Evidence of fuel and construction beam use suggests that the nature of the surrounding
environment had changed by the late Pueblo III subperiod. Maize harvests were less bountiful
than in earlier subperiods. Use of maize parts as fuel also decreased, and the wood of
serviceberry/peraphyllum shrubs was used more widely as fuel (see Table 8.10). Builders at
Albert Porter used fewer juniper and pinyon beams (see Table 8.14). This decline in the use of
conifer trees suggests that agricultural fields expanded during the late Pueblo III subperiod. A
reasonable conclusion from this plant evidence is that by the final subperiod, human impacts had
opened the woodland and reduced the availability of major trees as more land was brought under
cultivation.
Summary and Conclusions
A total of 219 flotation samples and 247 macrofossil samples from Albert Porter Pueblo provide
information on the use of plants for foods, fuels, construction elements, and other needs, as well
as perspective on the nature of the surrounding environment. This record includes materials from
six subperiods of occupation spanning A.D. 1020 to 1280 and enables us to look at changes in
plant use through time. Particular attention has been paid to the late Pueblo II (Chaco) to early
Pueblo III (post-Chaco) transition and to the late Pueblo III subperiod, which immediately
preceded regional depopulation. These plant materials have also provided perspective on whether
kivas were used for domestic activities. More than half of the flotation samples represent thermal
features, ashpits, and midden contexts, where evidence of food preparation and other daily
activities would be expected.
328
The large archaeobotanical sample makes Albert Porter among the best sampled sites in the
region. An overview of plant patterns at this site presents a condensed view of plant use by
subperiod. Despite uneven sampling that includes a large quantity of samples from the early
Pueblo III subperiod and a general lack of samples from middens dating from the late Pueblo III
subperiod, numerous observations can be made regarding plant use at Albert Porter Pueblo. Both
domesticates and wild plants were regularly used for food. More than 90 percent of the thermal
features and ashpits excavated at this site contained one or more reproductive parts, making
samples from these features prime locations to examine food use. Even though middens are
subject to a wide variety of degradation effects, more than 90 percent of the midden samples
analyzed also contained food evidence. Most roof-fall debris also contained foods, such as
maize, that might have been in storage.
The farmers who resided at Albert Porter Pueblo grew three types of domesticates. Maize was
present and clearly important in all subperiods. Both flint- and pop-type maize kernels were
recovered and, similar to other maize described for the region, ears held10 to12 rows of kernels.
Maize burned while being stored on the floors of two kivas—one dating from sometime during
the terminal Pueblo II/initial Pueblo III subperiod, and the other dating from the late Pueblo III
subperiod. Firm evidence of beans and squash dates from the late Pueblo II subperiod, and these
crops might have been cultivated earlier. The low frequency of common beans and squash in
archaeological contexts at this site is not unusual, and it is likely that these domesticates played a
greater role in subsistence than their limited frequency suggests.
Evidence of maize is abundant at this site, and the archaeobotanical data reflect the intensity of
maize use through time. Numerous trends are suggestive of reduced access to maize by the late
Pueblo III subperiod: (1) the ubiquity of maize parts in all flotation samples declines, (2) the
ubiquity of maize parts in thermal features and ashpits declines, (3) the ubiquity of maize parts in
middens declines, and (4) the frequency of maize kernels in thermal features and ashpits is
lowest in samples dating from the late Pueblo III subperiod. The occupants of this settlement
clearly had access to maize just before the pueblo was depopulated, but they had less access than
in earlier subperiods. Bone chemistry studies from other sites in the region suggest consistent
consumption of maize through time.
The recovery of domesticates implies that people resided in the immediate area for much of each
calendar year. The farmers needed to attend to the many agricultural tasks related to field
preparation, crop tending, harvest, and storage. It is reasonable to assume that the pueblo was
occupied year-round.
The more than 35 wild plants procured as food include a mix of annual weedy species
characteristic of disturbed habitats such as active and fallow agricultural fields and perennial
species associated with stable landscapes. Seasons of availability of these resources spanned
much of the growing season—from late spring/early summer through autumn. Plant remains
recovered from flotation samples from all contexts reveal that the diversity of wild plant foods
varied through time. This diversity peaked during the early Pueblo III subperiod, for which
contexts were heavily sampled, and then declined by more than 50 percent in the late Pueblo III
subperiod.
329
The most abundant wild resource, cheno-am seeds, preserved in all flotation samples from late
Pueblo II thermal features and ashpits and in approximately 67 to 83 percent of samples from all
subsequent subperiods. The incidence of cheno-am seeds in midden deposits appears relatively
unchanged through time except for the final subperiod, for which midden samples are lacking.
The data suggest that the occupants of Albert Porter Pueblo were gathering and preparing chenoam seeds regularly during the 250 years of pueblo occupation.
The most frequently utilized fuels were juniper, pine, and sagebrush wood, and maize cobs. The
use of these fuels fluctuated slightly during much of the occupation of the pueblo. The charred
plant parts within thermal features and ashpits suggest that, by the late Pueblo III subperiod,
there had been a shift away from the use of maize parts and an increased reliance on
serviceberry/peraphyllum wood. The record of fuels in midden deposits also shows less use of
maize parts by early Pueblo III times. Fuels within thermal features in kivas that were last used
in the late Pueblo III subperiod indicate that use of juniper as fuel had declined by that time.
Juniper trees were clearly preferred as roof construction elements. This is evident in both the
record of tree-ring samples and in the charred wood fragments preserved within flotation and
macrofossil samples associated with roof-fall strata. However, the use of both juniper and pinyon
as construction elements declined by the late Pueblo III subperiod. Obtaining trees such as
ponderosa pine and spruce/fir required traveling substantial distances. Sagebrush was
consistently used to form a closing layer in roof construction. Maize and other plant foods were
found in the collapsed roofing debris of numerous structures.
Numerous intentionally modified plant materials were recovered at Albert Porter Pueblo. On the
floor of Kiva 136, both a plaited yucca (Yucca) basket and the coiled lemonade berry (Rhus
aromatica) basket in which it was nested were being used for sifting ground maize kernels when
the roof burned and collapsed during the late Pueblo III subperiod. Portions of two possibly
similar baskets were preserved within the roof-fall debris of Kiva 110, a structure that dates from
the early Pueblo III subperiod. Modified pieces of juniper wood were recovered from Kiva 136,
Kiva 150, and Structure 143 (a masonry surface room). One specimen in Kiva 150 might have
been a weaving batten.
The plant record suggests that food was often prepared in kivas; these structures can thus be
considered locations of periodic domestic activities. The record also suggests that the main fuels
utilized during the long occupation of Albert Porter Pueblo were the same fuels burned regularly
in kiva hearths. Samples from thermal features and ashpits in kivas dating from the late Pueblo
III period also reflect a reduction in access to maize during that time. Kiva 112, which dates from
the early Pueblo III period and exhibits Chacoan architectural elements, contained an unusual
record of charred seeds of tobacco and stoneseed as well as other more commonly used foods
and fuels. The presence of these unusual plant remains suggests that ritual/ceremonial activities
occurred there. Two additional kivas with unusual architectural features, Kiva 150 (dating from
sometime during the terminal Pueblo II through initial Pueblo III) and Kiva 108 (dating from
early Pueblo III), contained foods and fuels similar to those in other excavated kivas at Albert
Porter Pueblo. However, Kiva 150 also contained modified pieces of juniper wood, including a
possible weaving batten, and a concentration of charred pigweed seeds. A comparison of plant
remains from eight kivas within the great house with six kivas located either on the periphery of
330
or outside the great house reveals differing patterns of plant food and wood use, which suggests
differences between these groups of kivas during the early Pueblo III subperiod.
The late Pueblo II subperiod (A.D. 1060–1140) coincides with the intensive occupation of Chaco
Canyon and Chaco influence in the northern Southwest. During this time, the occupants of
Albert Porter Pueblo discarded maize parts into middens more often than they did in the
following, post-Chaco, early Pueblo III subperiod. During the late Pueblo II period, occupants of
Albert Porter Pueblo also utilized fewer (n=16) wild plants than they did during the early Pueblo
III period; they might have been forced to gather broadly diverse wild foods (n=29) as maize
became less available. The late Pueblo II regional environment was relatively favorable, but
by early Pueblo III, the residents of Albert Porter Pueblo occupied a landscape increasingly
disturbed by their own activities and were plagued by prolonged drought between A.D. 1130
and 1180.
Before regional depopulation in the late Pueblo III subperiod, the residents of Albert Porter
Pueblo experienced some level of food stress. They had less access to maize than in previous
subperiods. A lower diversity of wild plant foods procured during this time relative to early
Pueblo III times suggests diminished availability of wild plants to supplement poor maize
harvests. Reliance on weedy plants in the cheno-am group was still high. The lack of middens
dating from the late Pueblo III period hamper inferences about routine food consumption during
this final subperiod; refuse dating from this period might have been destroyed by historic
plowing.
The area surrounding Albert Porter Pueblo was composed of pinyon/juniper woodland with an
understory of sagebrush, rabbitbrush, other woody trees and shrubs, herbaceous perennials, and
annuals. This woodland persisted during the 250 years of the occupation of the settlement.
Juniper and pinyon trees grew near enough to the pueblo that smaller parts such as bark scales,
berries, buds, cone scales, cones with pollen, needles, scale leaves, and twigs were occasionally
carried in with the wood. Many of the wild plants exploited as foods during the occupation
continue to grow in the area today. This includes both annual plants of disturbed habitats and
perennial plants of more stable landscapes.
At least some agricultural fields were located relatively near Albert Porter Pueblo. This is
implied by the diversity of nonedible maize parts (cobs, cupules, shanks) recovered, and the high
ubiquity of maize parts in most contexts. The success of modern dryland farmers in this area,
including the immediate environs of Albert Porter Pueblo, provides indirect evidence that ancient
fields were nearby. Harvest of cheno-am seeds appears to have been a regular endeavor in these
fields.
Before the region was depopulated in the late Pueblo III subperiod, the residents of Albert Porter
Pueblo had cleared some portions of the surrounding woodland for agricultural fields. It is likely
that the harvesting of construction elements had reduced the frequency of juniper and pinyon
trees. The increased presence of sagebrush wood in thermal features and ashpits dating from late
Pueblo III times suggests that this shrub, one of the first to become established in fallow
agricultural fields, was more plentiful than it had been previously. The plant evidence generally
suggests that by the late Pueblo III subperiod, residents had opened the pinyon/juniper woodland,
331
had less access to maize, and possibly had less access to the many weedy plants that encroached
on an increasingly disturbed environment.
332
Acknowledgments
A number of individuals offered guidance and expertise in the analysis of the Albert Porter plant
remains, and in the development of this report. Under my direction, Crow Canyon
Archaeological Center Environmental Archaeology interns Trisha Rude, R. Emerson Howell,
Cathryn Meegan and Michelle Elliott analyzed all the flotation samples, assisted in analysis of
the macrofossil samples, and entered all the sample data into the Crow Canyon Research
Database. Former Research Director Mark Varien and former Publications Director Mary
Etzkorn helped produce a report outline that would serve for Crow Canyon archaeobotanical
analyses and parallel the streamlined structure of other Crow Canyon Archaeological Center
web-based specialist reports. Former Research Director Scott Ortman collaborated on data
presentation and produced all the tables presented here via complex queries of Crow Canyon’s
research database. Albert Porter Pueblo Project Director Susan Ryan provided input throughout
the report-development process. This report benefitted significantly from the input of all these
individuals.
333
Wild Plant Diversity
100.00%
80.00%
60.00%
40.00%
20.00%
0.00%
Wild Plant Diversity
Late P II
Late P II - Early
P III
Early P III
Late P III
Figure 8.1. Trend in diversity of wild plant foods, Albert Porter Pueblo. Maximum wild
plant diversity = 36 taxa. See Table 8.7 for details.
100.00%
80.00%
Maize, Thermal Features
60.00%
Cheno-ams, Thermal Features
40.00%
Maize, Midden Deposits
20.00%
Cheno-ams, Midden Deposits
0.00%
Late P II
Late P II Early P III
Early P III
Late P III
Figure 8.2. Summary of trends in wild plant foods, maize (all parts), and cheno-am seeds,
Albert Porter Pueblo. See Table 8.8 for details on maize and cheno-ams in thermal features
and middens.
334
Table 8.1. Analyzed Archaeobotanical Samples, by Context and Subperiod, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Sample Type
Context
Basketry
Subtotal, basketry
samples
Other
Flotation sample
Flotation sample
Flotation sample
Flotation sample
Subtotal, flotation
samples
Other modified
vegetal
Subtotal, other
modified vegetal
samples
Textile
Subtotal, textile
samples
Macrofossil
Macrofossil
Thermal
features
and ashpits
Midden
deposits
Roof fall
Other
Middle
Late Pueblo II
Pueblo II
Late Pueblo II through Early
through Late
(A.D. 1060–
Pueblo III
Pueblo III
1140)
(A.D. 1060–
(A.D. 1020–
1225)
1280)
TOTAL
7
7
7
7
70
5
6
1
48
10
15
10
14
0
19
1
8
67
4
2
1
14
3
2
26
14
24
4
2
6
4
2
56
29
43
26
4
87
18
12
219
Other
Roof fall
Thermal
features
and ashpits
Midden
deposits
Terminal
Pueblo II
Early Pueblo III Late Pueblo III
through Initial
(A.D. 1140–
(A.D. 1225– Unassigned
Pueblo III
1225)
1280)
(A.D. 1100–
1180)
1
12
13
15
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
40
335
13
2
95
Sample Type
Macrofossil
Macrofossil
Subtotal,
macrofossil
samples
TOTAL,
all samples
Context
Middle
Late Pueblo II
Pueblo II
Late Pueblo II through Early
through Late
(A.D. 1060–
Pueblo III
Pueblo III
1140)
(A.D. 1060–
(A.D. 1020–
1225)
1280)
Roof fall
Other
9
7
14
5
5
19
11
22
33
9
11
1
3
63
86
21
35
25
30
97
33
6
247
50
78
51
35
185
58
18
475
336
Terminal
Pueblo II
Early Pueblo III Late Pueblo III
through Initial
(A.D. 1140–
(A.D. 1225– Unassigned
Pueblo III
1225)
1280)
(A.D. 1100–
1180)
TOTAL
Table 8.2. Counts of All Plant Taxa and Parts Identified in Analyzed Archaeobotanical Samples from Albert Porter Pueblo,
by Condition.
Basketry
Samples
Flotation
Samples
Other
Modified Textile Macrofossil
TOTAL
Vegetal Samples Samples
Samples
5
13
2,118
2,657
5
2
3
135
Taxon
Common Name
Part
Condition
Amaranthus-type
Amaranthus-type
Amaranthus-type
Amelanchier utahensis-type
Amelanchier/Peraphyllum-type
Amelanchier/Peraphyllum-type
pigweed
pigweed
pigweed
Utah serviceberry
serviceberry/peraphyllum
serviceberry/peraphyllum
fused mass
seed
seed
seed
twig
wood
charred
charred
uncharred
charred
charred
charred
8
539
5
2
3
135
big sagebrush
big sagebrush
sagebrush
sagebrush
charred
charred
charred
charred
5
109
54
35
5
109
54
35
charred
2
2
uncharred
1
1
sagebrush
sagebrush
seed
wood
achene
flower bud
flowering
head
flowering
head
leaf
seed
charred
charred
18
3
18
3
sagebrush
sagebrush
sagebrush
locoweed
locoweed
four-wing saltbush
four-wing saltbush
twig
wood
wood
seed
seed
fruit core
fruit core
charred
charred
uncharred
charred
uncharred
charred
uncharred
17
365
9
2
2
6
1
saltbush
seed
charred
1
Artemisia tridentata-type
Artemisia tridentata-type
Artemisia-type
Artemisia-type
Artemisia-type
Artemisia-type
Artemisia-type
Artemisia-type
Artemisia-type
Artemisia-type
Artemisia-type
Astragalus-type
Astragalus-type
Atriplex canescens-type
Atriplex canescens-type
Atriplex-type
sagebrush
sagebrush
337
1
18
365
9
2
2
6
1
1
Taxon
Atriplex-type
Atriplex-type
Cactaceae-type
Capparaceae-type
Celtis-type
Cercocarpus montanus-type
Cercocarpus montanus-type
Cercocarpus montanus-type
Cercocarpus montanus-type
Cercocarpus/Artemisia-type
Cheno-am
Cheno-am
Cheno-am
Cheno-am
Cheno-am
Chrysothamnus nauseosus-type
Cleome-type
Cleome-type
Compositae-type
Compositae-type
Corispermum-type
Basketry
Samples
Flotation
Samples
Other
Modified Textile Macrofossil
TOTAL
Vegetal Samples Samples
Samples
4
21
Common Name
Part
Condition
saltbush
saltbush
twig
wood
epidermis
fragment
stem
seed
charred
charred
4
21
uncharred
1
1
charred
uncharred
3
2
3
2
seed
charred
2
2
seed
uncharred
1
1
twig
charred
3
3
wood
charred
72
72
axillary bud
charred
2
2
embryo
charred
13
13
goosefoot/pigweed
goosefoot/pigweed
goosefoot/pigweed
goosefoot/pigweed
rubber rabbitbrush
beeplant
embryo
seed
seed
seed coat
wood
seed
uncharred
charred
uncharred
charred
charred
charred
1
1,078
1,136
1
35
7
1
1,083
1,136
1
35
7
beeplant
sunflower family
sunflower family
bugseed
seed coat
achene
achene
seed
charred
charred
uncharred
charred
1
1
7
9
cactus family
caper family
hackberry
alderleaf mountain
mahogany
alderleaf mountain
mahogany
alderleaf mountain
mahogany
alderleaf mountain
mahogany
mountain
mahogany/sagebrush
goosefoot/pigweed
338
5
1
1
7
9
Taxon
Basketry
Samples
Flotation
Samples
Other
Modified Textile Macrofossil
TOTAL
Vegetal Samples Samples
Samples
2
1
7
3
Common Name
Part
Condition
Cruciferae-type
Cucurbita moschata-type
Cucurbitaceae-type
Cucurbita-type
mustard family
butternut squash
gourd family
gourd/squash
seed
seed
rind
rind
uncharred
charred
charred
charred
2
1
7
3
Cucurbita-type
Cycloloma atriplicifolium-type
Cycloloma atriplicifolium-type
Descurainia-type
Descurainia-type
Dicotyledon-type
Dicotyledon-type
gourd/squash
winged pigweed
winged pigweed
tansy mustard
tansy mustard
dicots
dicots
seed
seed
seed
seed
seed
stem
twig
charred
charred
uncharred
charred
uncharred
charred
charred
5
17
10
10
35
6
1
5
17
10
10
35
6
1
Dicotyledon-type
Diffuse porous-type
Diffuse porous-type
Echinocereus-type
Ephedra viridis-type
Ephedra viridis-type
dicots
diffuse porous
diffuse porous
hedgehog
Mormon tea
Mormon tea
wood
twig
wood
seed coat
twig
wood
charred
charred
charred
charred
charred
charred
2
1
12
1
12
24
2
1
12
1
12
24
Erodium-type
Euphorbia-type
Euphorbia-type
Fraxinus anomala-type
Gramineae-type
Gramineae-type
storksbill
spurge
spurge
single leaf ash
grass family
grass family
seed
seed
seed
wood
caryopsis
caryopsis
uncharred
charred
uncharred
charred
charred
uncharred
24
2
1
32
42
90
24
2
1
32
42
91
grass family
grass family
grass family
embryo
floret
floret
charred
charred
uncharred
2
7
38
Gramineae-type
Gramineae-type
Gramineae-type
339
1
2
7
38
Taxon
Basketry
Samples
Flotation
Samples
Other
Modified Textile Macrofossil
TOTAL
Vegetal Samples Samples
Samples
2
7
10
4
Common Name
Part
Condition
grass family
grass family
grass family
grass family
glume
root
stem (culm)
caryopsis
uncharred
charred
charred
charred
2
7
10
4
Gramineae-type 4
Gymnospermae
Helianthus annuus-type
Helianthus annuus-type
Juniperus osteosperma-type
Juniperus osteosperma-type
Juniperus osteosperma-type
grass family
gymnosperms
common sunflower
common sunflower
Utah juniper
Utah juniper
charred
charred
charred
uncharred
charred
charred
1
76
5
73
1
3
1
76
5
73
1
3
charred
1
1
Juniperus osteosperma-type
Utah juniper
caryopsis
wood
achene
achene
berry
bud
cone with
pollen balls
fiber
charred
16
16
Juniperus osteosperma-type
Juniperus osteosperma-type
Juniperus osteosperma-type
Juniperus osteosperma-type
Juniperus osteosperma-type
Leguminosae-type
Utah juniper
Utah juniper
Utah juniper
Utah juniper
Utah juniper
legume (pea) family
scale leaf
scale leaf
twig
wood
wood
cotyledon
charred
uncharred
charred
charred
uncharred
charred
86
3
155
1,938
28
1
86
3
155
2,036
60
1
stoneseed
mallow family
mallow family
stickleaf
monocots
seed
seed
seed
seed
fiber
fibrovascular
bundles
charred
charred
uncharred
charred
charred
1
5
2
5
2
1
5
2
5
2
charred
106
106
Gramineae-type
Gramineae-type
Gramineae-type
Gramineae-type 3
Lithospermum-type
Malvaceae-type
Malvaceae-type
Mentzelia albicaulis-type
Monocotyledon-type
Monocotyledon-type
Utah juniper
monocots
340
11
1
86
32
Taxon
Basketry
Samples
Flotation
Samples
Common Name
Part
Condition
monocots
monocots
monocots
monocots
leaf
spine
stem
tissue
charred
charred
charred
charred
7
1
10
13
coyote tobacco
coyote tobacco
prickly pear
prickly pear
prickly pear
peraphyllum
common bean
seed
seed
embryo
embryo
seed
wood
bean (seed)
charred
uncharred
charred
uncharred
charred
charred
charred
3
72
2
2
1
2
13
common bean
common groundcherry
common groundcherry
common groundcherry
common groundcherry
pine family
cotyledon
fruit coat
seed
seed
seed coat
bark scale
charred
uncharred
charred
uncharred
charred
charred
16
1
124
43
1
1
Pinaceae-type
Pinus edulis-type
Pinus edulis-type
Pinus edulis-type
Pinus edulis-type
Pinus edulis-type
pine family
pinyon pine
pinyon pine
pinyon pine
pinyon pine
pinyon pine
wood
bark fragment
bark scale
bud
cone scale
cone scale
charred
charred
charred
charred
charred
uncharred
1
1
683
4
2
1
Pinus edulis-type
Pinus edulis-type
Pinus edulis-type
pinyon pine
pinyon pine
pinyon pine
needle
needle
twig
charred
uncharred
charred
48
2
13
Monocotyledon-type
Monocotyledon-type
Monocotyledon-type
Monocotyledon-type
Nicotiana attenuata-type
Nicotiana attenuata-type
Opuntia (prickly pear)-type
Opuntia (prickly pear)-type
Opuntia (prickly pear)-type
Peraphyllum-type
Phaseolus vulgaris-type
Phaseolus vulgaris-type
Physalis longifolia-type
Physalis longifolia-type
Physalis longifolia-type
Physalis longifolia-type
Pinaceae-type
341
Other
Modified Textile Macrofossil
TOTAL
Vegetal Samples Samples
Samples
7
1
10
13
34
48
3
10
3
3
72
2
2
1
2
47
64
1
124
43
1
1
1
1
683
4
5
1
58
2
16
Taxon
Basketry
Samples
Flotation
Samples
1
438
Other
Modified Textile Macrofossil
TOTAL
Vegetal Samples Samples
Samples
7
446
20
20
1
2
Common Name
Part
Condition
pinyon pine
pinyon pine
ponderosa pine
clammy-weed
wood
wood
needle
seed
charred
uncharred
charred
charred
Polygonum/Scirpus-type
Polygonum/Scirpus-type
Polygonum-type
Populus/Salix-type
Populus-type
Portulaca-type
Portulaca-type
bindweed/bullrush
bindweed/bullrush
bindweed
cottonwood/willow
cottonwood
purslane
purslane
achene
achene
achene
wood
wood
seed
seed
charred
uncharred
uncharred
charred
charred
charred
uncharred
8
3
4
29
3
129
33
Prunus virginiana-type
Prunus/Rosa-type
Prunus/Rosa-type
Purshia-type
Purshia-type
Purshia-type
chokecherry
chokecherry/rose
chokecherry/rose
cliff-rose/bitterbrush
cliff-rose/bitterbrush
cliff-rose/bitterbrush
seed
seed
wood
leaf
seed
wood
charred
charred
charred
charred
charred
charred
5
1
12
1
43
5
4
1
12
1
43
Gambel oak
wood
charred
35
35
lemonade berry
bark fragment
charred
lemonade berry
stem
charred
lemonade berry
twig
charred
lemonade berry
wood
charred
Pinus edulis-type
Pinus edulis-type
Pinus ponderosa-type
Polanisia-type
Quercus gambelii-type
Rhus aromatica var. trilobatatype
Rhus aromatica var. trilobatatype
Rhus aromatica var. trilobatatype
Rhus aromatica var. trilobatatype
342
1
2
8
3
4
29
3
129
33
4
260
460
93
353
2
1
3
5
75
540
20
20
Taxon
Basketry
Samples
Flotation
Samples
Other
Modified Textile Macrofossil
TOTAL
Vegetal Samples Samples
Samples
Common Name
Part
Condition
lemonade berry
wood
uncharred
1
1
ring porous
rose family
rose family
bulrush
semi-ring porous
wood
axillary bud
wood
achene
wood
charred
charred
charred
charred
charred
1
1
2
15
4
1
1
2
15
4
Solanaceae-type
Solanaceae-type
Sphaeralcea-type
Sphaeralcea-type
Sphaeralcea-type
Sphaeralcea-type
potato family
potato family
globemallow
globemallow
globemallow
globemallow
seed
seed
bract
fruit core
leaf
schizocarp
charred
uncharred
uncharred
uncharred
uncharred
uncharred
5
4
1
1
3
8
5
4
1
1
3
8
Sphaeralcea-type
Sphaeralcea-type
Sphaeralcea-type
Sporobolus-type
Sporobolus-type
Stipa comata-type
globemallow
globemallow
globemallow
dropseed
dropseed
needle-and-thread grass
seed
seed
seed coat
caryopsis
caryopsis
caryopsis
charred
uncharred
uncharred
charred
uncharred
charred
15
32
2
4
71
2
15
32
2
4
71
2
Stipa comata-type
Stipa hymenoides-type
Stipa hymenoides-type
Stipa hymenoides-type
Stipa hymenoides-type
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
needle-and-thread grass
Indian ricegrass
Indian ricegrass
Indian ricegrass
Indian ricegrass
unknown
unknown
caryopsis
caryopsis
floret
floret
palea
axillary bud
bark fragment
uncharred
charred
charred
uncharred
charred
charred
charred
5
6
26
2
1
2
1
5
6
26
2
1
2
2
Rhus aromatica var. trilobatatype
Ring porous-type
Rosaceae-type
Rosaceae-type
Scirpus-type
Semi-ring porous-type
343
1
Taxon
unknown botanical
Common Name
Part
Condition
Basketry
Samples
Flotation
Samples
Other
Modified Textile Macrofossil
TOTAL
Vegetal Samples Samples
Samples
unknown botanical
unknown
black
spherical
bodies
black
spherical
bodies
bud
charred
12
12
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
bud
capsule
caryopsis
disseminule
disseminule
embryo
uncharred
charred
charred
charred
uncharred
charred
1
1
6
52
11
6
1
1
6
52
11
6
unknown
epidermis
fragment
charred
3
3
unknown
epidermis
fragment
uncharred
18
18
charred
31
31
charred
9
9
uncharred
8
8
charred
charred
charred
charred
uncharred
charred
1
1
23
17
1
1
1
1
23
17
1
1
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
flower bud
flowering
head
flowering
head
fruit coat
fruit rind
fused mass
leaf
leaf
nutshell
charred
10
10
uncharred
7
7
344
Taxon
unknown botanical
Common Name
Part
Condition
Basketry
Samples
Flotation
Samples
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
organic
material
seed
seed
seed coat
spine
spiral embryo
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
stalk segment
tissue
twig
unknown
unknown
wood
charred
charred
charred
charred
uncharred
charred
2
48
402
359
4
3
unknown
unknown, Type 1
unknown, Type 2
unknown, Type 2
vervain
narrow-leaved yucca
wood
unknown
seed
unknown
seed
leaf
uncharred
charred
charred
charred
uncharred
charred
8
2
1
2
6
datil yucca
datil yucca
yucca
maize/corn
maize/corn
maize/corn
maize/corn
leaf
seed
leaf
cob fragment
cob segment
cob, whole
cupule
charred
charred
charred
charred
charred
charred
charred
unknown botanical
unknown, Type 1
unknown, Type 2
unknown, Type 2
Verbena-type
Yucca angustissima-type
Yucca baccata-type
Yucca baccata-type
Yucca-type
Zea mays
Zea mays
Zea mays
Zea mays
unknown
Other
Modified Textile Macrofossil
TOTAL
Vegetal Samples Samples
Samples
charred
2
2
charred
uncharred
charred
charred
charred
121
32
7
3
65
121
32
7
3
65
2
50
402
360
4
3
345
100
2
1
50
3
1
11
190
6
500
280
8
2
1
2
6
430
464
202
2
164
3
1
11
654
208
2
664
Taxon
Zea mays
Zea mays
Zea mays
Zea mays
Zea mays
Zea mays
Zea mays
Common Name
Part
Condition
maize/corn
maize/corn
maize/corn
maize/corn
embryo
fused mass
glume
kernel
charred
charred
charred
charred
maize/corn
maize/corn
maize/corn
kernel
embryo
shank
segment
stalk segment
Basketry
Samples
11
3,302
charred
Flotation
Samples
9
45
23
263
Other
Modified Textile Macrofossil
TOTAL
Vegetal Samples Samples
Samples
9
1,072
1,128
5
28
7,675
11,240
4
4
charred
charred
TOTAL
346
12
12
12,426
27,664
5
4,145
11,042
5
1
50
Table 8.3. Plant Foods at Albert Porter Pueblo: Counts of Individual Charred Non-Wood Plant Parts Identified in Flotation and
Macrofossil Samples from All Contexts, by Subperiod.
Middle Pueblo
Late Pueblo II
Late Pueblo
II through Late
through Early
II (A.D.
Pueblo III (A.D.
Pueblo III (A.D.
1060–1140)
1020–1280)
1060–1225)
Total Number of Flotation and
Macrofossil Samples
Domestic
Taxon
Part
or Wild
Cucurbita
domestic
seed
moschata-type
Cucurbitaceaedomestic
rind
type
domestic Cucurbita-type rind
domestic Cucurbita-type seed
Phaseolus
domestic
bean (seed)
vulgaris-type
Phaseolus
domestic
cotyledon
vulgaris-type
cob
domestic Zea mays
fragment
cob
domestic Zea mays
segment
domestic Zea mays
cob, whole
domestic Zea mays
cupule
domestic Zea mays
embryo
domestic Zea mays
fused mass
domestic Zea mays
glume
domestic Zea mays
kernel
kernel
domestic Zea mays
embryo
Terminal Pueblo
II through Initial
Pueblo III (A.D.
1100–1180)
Late
Early Pueblo Pueblo
III (A.D. Unassigned TOTAL
III (A.D.
1225–
1140–1225)
1280)
50
78
51
34
184
51
18
466
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
1
1
1
2
1
5
1
1
5
36
3
5
9
1
18
3
14
19
10
21
64
103
129
209
125
6
16
11
38
57
80
72
7
164
2
13
42
7
136
3
26
2
347
60
2
4
9
333
137
4
13
3
139
2
1
77
64
3
654
208
1
18
1
111
9,691
47
2
2
664
9
128
28
10,240
4
Middle Pueblo
Late Pueblo II
Late Pueblo
II through Late
through Early
II (A.D.
Pueblo III (A.D.
Pueblo III (A.D.
1060–1140)
1020–1280)
1060–1225)
Total Number of Flotation and
Macrofossil Samples
Domestic
Taxon
Part
or Wild
shank
domestic Zea mays
segment
Amaranthuswild
fused mass
type
Amaranthuswild
seed
type
Amelanchier
wild
seed
utahensis-type
Artemisia
wild
seed
tridentata-type
wild
Artemisia-type achene
wild
Artemisia-type flower bud
flowering
wild
Artemisia-type
head
wild
Artemisia-type seed
Astragaluswild
seed
type
Atriplex
wild
fruit core
canescens-type
wild
Atriplex-type seed
Cercocarpus
wild
seed
montanus-type
Cercocarpus/
wild
axillary bud
Artemisia-type
wild
Cheno-am
embryo
wild
Cheno-am
seed
Terminal Pueblo
II through Initial
Pueblo III (A.D.
1100–1180)
Late
Early Pueblo Pueblo
III (A.D. Unassigned TOTAL
III (A.D.
1225–
1140–1225)
1280)
50
78
51
34
184
51
18
466
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
3
1
8
12
13
2,648
13
3
6
2,657
2
2
2
1
1
3
4
2
12
1
1
37
28
1
1
4
155
1
2
54
35
2
2
1
3
1
2
6
6
1
1
2
2
1
100
5
1
166
348
156
9
436
55
2
15
13
1,083
Middle Pueblo
Late Pueblo II
Late Pueblo
II through Late
through Early
II (A.D.
Pueblo III (A.D.
Pueblo III (A.D.
1060–1140)
1020–1280)
1060–1225)
Total Number of Flotation and
Macrofossil Samples
Domestic
Taxon
Part
or Wild
wild
Cheno-am
seed coat
wild
Cleome-type
seed
wild
Cleome-type
seed coat
Compositaewild
achene
type
Corispermumwild
seed
type
Cycloloma
wild
atriplicifolium- seed
type
Descurainiawild
seed
type
Echinocereuswild
seed coat
type
Euphorbiawild
seed
type
Gramineaewild
caryopsis
type
Gramineaewild
embryo
type
Gramineaewild
floret
type
Gramineaewild
caryopsis
Type 3
Gramineaewild
caryopsis
Type 4
Terminal Pueblo
II through Initial
Pueblo III (A.D.
1100–1180)
Late
Early Pueblo Pueblo
III (A.D. Unassigned TOTAL
III (A.D.
1225–
1140–1225)
1280)
50
78
51
34
184
51
18
466
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
2
1
3
1
1
2
2
10
1
2
1
7
1
1
1
1
9
9
4
1
17
5
10
1
13
1
10
3
2
2
16
42
1
2
1
5
2
7
2
1
2
4
1
349
Middle Pueblo
Late Pueblo II
Late Pueblo
II through Late
through Early
II (A.D.
Pueblo III (A.D.
Pueblo III (A.D.
1060–1140)
1020–1280)
1060–1225)
Total Number of Flotation and
Macrofossil Samples
Domestic
Taxon
Part
or Wild
Helianthus
wild
achene
annuus-type
Juniperus
wild
osteosperma- berry
type
Juniperus
wild
osteosperma- bud
type
Juniperus
cone with
wild
osteospermapollen balls
type
Leguminosaewild
cotyledon
type
Lithospermumwild
seed
type
Malvaceaewild
seed
type
Mentzelia
wild
seed
albicaulis-type
Nicotiana
wild
seed
attenuata-type
Opuntia
wild
(prickly pear)- embryo
type
Opuntia
wild
(prickly pear)- seed
type
Terminal Pueblo
II through Initial
Pueblo III (A.D.
1100–1180)
Late
Early Pueblo Pueblo
III (A.D. Unassigned TOTAL
III (A.D.
1225–
1140–1225)
1280)
50
78
51
34
184
51
18
466
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
2
1
1
2
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
3
5
4
5
2
3
1
2
1
1
350
Middle Pueblo
Late Pueblo II
Late Pueblo
II through Late
through Early
II (A.D.
Pueblo III (A.D.
Pueblo III (A.D.
1060–1140)
1020–1280)
1060–1225)
Total Number of Flotation and
Macrofossil Samples
Domestic
Taxon
Part
or Wild
Physalis
wild
seed
longifolia-type
Physalis
wild
seed coat
longifolia-type
Pinus eduliswild
bud
type
Pinus eduliswild
cone scale
type
wild
Polanisia-type seed
Polygonum /
wild
achene
Scirpus-type
wild
Portulaca-type seed
Prunus
wild
virginianaseed
type
Prunus/Rosawild
seed
type
wild
Purshia-type
seed
wild
Rosaceae-type axillary bud
wild
Scirpus-type
achene
Solanaceaewild
seed
type
Sphaeralceawild
seed
type
Sporoboluswild
caryopsis
type
Terminal Pueblo
II through Initial
Pueblo III (A.D.
1100–1180)
Late
Early Pueblo Pueblo
III (A.D. Unassigned TOTAL
III (A.D.
1225–
1140–1225)
1280)
50
78
51
34
184
51
18
466
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
13
14
31
57
2
7
124
1
2
1
1
1
2
4
3
5
2
1
13
8
2
4
3
6
2
5
2
84
10
1
2
1
1
5
1
4
6
1
3
4
1
1
1
1
351
8
5
129
2
5
4
4
1
1
1
15
3
5
1
15
4
Middle Pueblo
Late Pueblo II
Late Pueblo
II through Late
through Early
II (A.D.
Pueblo III (A.D.
Pueblo III (A.D.
1060–1140)
1020–1280)
1060–1225)
Total Number of Flotation and
Macrofossil Samples
Domestic
Taxon
Part
or Wild
Stipa comatawild
caryopsis
type
Stipa
wild
hymenoidescaryopsis
type
Stipa
wild
hymenoidesfloret
type
Stipa
wild
hymenoidespalea
type
Yucca
wild
seed
baccata-type
unknown
unknown
axillary bud
botanical
unknown
unknown
bud
botanical
unknown
unknown
capsule
botanical
unknown
unknown
caryopsis
botanical
unknown
unknown
disseminule
botanical
unknown
unknown
embryo
botanical
Terminal Pueblo
II through Initial
Pueblo III (A.D.
1100–1180)
Late
Early Pueblo Pueblo
III (A.D. Unassigned TOTAL
III (A.D.
1225–
1140–1225)
1280)
50
78
51
34
184
51
18
466
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
1
1
2
2
2
2
7
1
1
1
2
4
7
352
6
14
26
1
1
1
1
1
2
6
4
2
4
1
12
1
1
6
6
39
52
4
6
Middle Pueblo
Late Pueblo II
Late Pueblo
II through Late
through Early
II (A.D.
Pueblo III (A.D.
Pueblo III (A.D.
1060–1140)
1020–1280)
1060–1225)
Total Number of Flotation and
Macrofossil Samples
Domestic
Taxon
Part
or Wild
unknown
unknown
flower bud
botanical
unknown
flowering
unknown
botanical
head
unknown
unknown
fruit coat
botanical
unknown
unknown
fruit rind
botanical
unknown
unknown
fused mass
botanical
unknown
unknown
nutshell
botanical
unknown
unknown
seed
botanical
unknown
unknown
seed coat
botanical
unknown
spiral
unknown
botanical
embryo
unknown,
unknown
seed
Type 2
TOTAL
Terminal Pueblo
II through Initial
Pueblo III (A.D.
1100–1180)
Late
Early Pueblo Pueblo
III (A.D. Unassigned TOTAL
III (A.D.
1225–
1140–1225)
1280)
50
78
51
34
184
51
18
466
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
3
3
6
16
3
31
9
9
1
1
1
1
16
7
23
1
15
12
2
2
3
12
19
64
1
9
2
121
3
48
7
1
1
65
1
307
617
610
3,440
1,539
1
10,212
62
16,787
Note: N = number of individual specimens counted. The word "type" following a family, genus or species designation indicates that the ancient botanical
specimen is similar to the taxon named, but that other taxon in the area may have similar-looking parts.
353
Table 8.4. Ubiquity of Charred Non-Wood Plant Parts Considered Foods in all Flotation and
Macrofossil Samples from all Contexts, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Number of
Samples
Number of
Samples with
One or More
Foods
Percent of
Samples with
Foods
Midden deposits
162
154
95.1
Other
142
124
87.3
Roof fall
89
78
87.6
Thermal features and ashpits
73
68
93.2
Context
Note: Includes all Zea mays parts recovered.
Table 8.5. Observations on 24 Charred Incomplete Maize Cob Segments and 87 Charred Kernels
from Albert Porter Pueblo.
Maize Cob Segments
Study Study
Unit Unit
Type No.
STR
STR
NST
NST
STR
STR
136
150
151
152
170
803
No. of
Cobs
PD
1
4
9
7
2
1
1376
1850
2008
1851
2149
1710
Study Study
No. of
Unit Unit
Kernels
Type No.
STR
136
22
STR
150
35
NST
151
30
PD
Mean Cob Mean
FS Length
Row
(mm)
Number
19
36
91
5
5
3
FS
1376, 19,
1377 9
32,
1850
36
2008 91
25.0
10.0
32.8
11.0
22.7
11.6
25.1
10.9
16.5
10.0
40.0
12.0
Maize Kernels
Mean
Mean
Kernel
Kernel
Length
Width
(mm)
(mm)
Mean
Cupule
Width
(mm)
6.0
5.5
4.6
4.9
5.0
4.0
Maximum Minimum
Cupule
Cupule
Width
Width
(mm)
(mm)
7.0
4.0
6.3
4.5
4.8
4.4
5.3
4.4
5.0
5.0
4.0
4.0
Mean
Kernel
Thickness
(mm)
Endosperm Type
5.5
6.5
3.5
pop
9.3
7.4
4.3
flint
7.5
8.4
3.4
flint
Note: STR = Structure; NST = Non-structure
354
Table 8.6. Contexts from which Zea mays was Recovered, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Time Period
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–1280)
Terminal Pueblo II
through Initial Pueblo
III (A.D. 1100–1180)
Terminal Pueblo II
through Initial Pueblo
III (A.D. 1100–1180)
Terminal Pueblo II
through Initial Pueblo
III (A.D. 1100–1180)
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–1280)
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–1280)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Fill/Assemblage Fill/Assemblage
Position–General Position–Specific
Fill/Assemblage
Type–General
Fill/Assemblage
Type–Specific
Taxon
TOTAL
prepared floor
surface
cultural deposit
primary refuse
Zea mays
9,656
surface contact
prepared floor
surface
cultural deposit
primary refuse
Zea mays
175
1848
fill
roof fall
Zea mays
156
subterranean
kiva
2136
surface contact
prepared floor
surface
Zea mays
151
STR 136
subterranean
kiva
1376
fill
roof fall
Zea mays
140
NST 130
midden
1319
fill
above wall/roof
fall
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
120
NST 182
extramural
surface
1531
fill
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
113
1913
fill
cultural deposit
primary refuse
Zea mays
79
2060
fill
cultural deposit
primary refuse
Zea mays
64
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
60
cultural deposit
primary refuse
Phaseolus
vulgaris-type
52
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
51
Study
Unit
Description
PD
STR 136
subterranean
kiva
1377
surface contact
STR 150
subterranean
kiva
1850
STR 150
subterranean
kiva
STR 150
nonmasonry
surface room
extramural
NST 167
surface
STR 168
NST 151
midden
2008
fill
STR 168
nonmasonry
surface room
1913
fill
NST 189
midden
2052
fill
surface feature
contents
surface feature
contents
above wall/roof
fall
surface feature
contents
below a cultural
surface
355
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
cultural deposit
primary refuse
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Fill/Assemblage
Type–General
Fill/Assemblage
Type–Specific
Taxon
TOTAL
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
primary refuse
Zea mays
38
fill
lower
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
38
1160
fill
above wall/roof
fall
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
36
midden
1291
fill
lower
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
33
NST 901
midden
855
fill
lower
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
32
NST 130
midden
1282
fill
upper
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
28
NST 186
extramural
surface
1855
fill
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
26
STR 150
subterranean
kiva
1755
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
25
NST 103
midden
200
fill
lower
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
23
NST 162
midden
1741
fill
not further
specified
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
21
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
STR
1037
subterranean
room
1391
fill
not further
specified
mixed deposit
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Zea mays
21
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
NST 162
midden
2162
fill
not further
specified
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
20
Time Period
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–1280)
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–1280)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–1280)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Terminal Pueblo II
through Initial Pueblo
III (A.D. 1100–1180)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III
(A.D. 1020–1280)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Fill/Assemblage Fill/Assemblage
Position–General Position–Specific
Study
Unit
Description
PD
STR 803
subterranean
kiva
1710
fill
NST 901
midden
852
NST 130
midden
NST 130
356
Time Period
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–1280)
Terminal Pueblo II
through Initial Pueblo
III (A.D. 1100–1180)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–1280)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III
(A.D. 1020–1280)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Fill/Assemblage Fill/Assemblage
Position–General Position–Specific
Fill/Assemblage
Type–General
Fill/Assemblage
Type–Specific
Taxon
TOTAL
lower
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
18
fill
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
primary refuse
Zea mays
18
1378
fill
roof fall
construction deposit
clean fill
Zea mays
17
midden
1187
fill
above wall/roof
fall
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
17
STR 904
subterranean
kiva
1388
fill
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
primary refuse
Zea mays
17
NST 130
midden
1149
fill
upper
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
17
NST 132
midden
1127
fill
above wall/roof
fall
cultural deposit
mixed refuse
Zea mays
16
NST 103
midden
197
fill
upper
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
16
STR 117
subterranean
kiva
399
fill
above wall/roof
fall
mixed deposit
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Zea mays
15
1851
fill
above wall/roof
fall
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
15
1753
fill
not further
specified
mixed deposit
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Zea mays
15
2136
surface contact
prepared floor
surface
cultural deposit
primary refuse
Phaseolus
vulgaris-type
15
Study
Unit
Description
PD
NST 130
midden
1318
fill
STR 150
subterranean
kiva
2137
STR 116
subterranean
kiva
NST 804
Early Pueblo III
NST 152
midden
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Terminal Pueblo II
subterranean
through Initial Pueblo STR 150
kiva
III (A.D. 1100–1180)
Terminal Pueblo II
subterranean
through Initial Pueblo STR 150
kiva
III (A.D. 1100–1180)
357
Time Period
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III
(A.D. 1020–1280)
Terminal Pueblo II
through Initial Pueblo
III (A.D. 1100–1180)
Terminal Pueblo II
through Initial Pueblo
III (A.D. 1100–1180)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–1280)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Fill/Assemblage Fill/Assemblage
Position–General Position–Specific
Fill/Assemblage
Type–General
Fill/Assemblage
Type–Specific
Taxon
TOTAL
above wall/roof
fall
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
14
fill
upper
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
14
1841
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
14
subterranean
kiva
1847
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
14
STR 117
subterranean
kiva
625
fill
postabandonment
deposit
natural processes
Zea mays
13
NST 804
midden
1188
fill
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
13
STR 170
nonmasonry
surface room
2149
fill
cultural deposit
primary refuse
Zea mays
13
NST 132
midden
1240
fill
above wall/roof
fall
above wall/roof
fall
surface feature
contents
above wall/roof
fall
cultural deposit
mixed refuse
Zea mays
12
NST 901
midden
744
fill
lower
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
11
316
fill
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
primary refuse
Zea mays
11
2034
fill
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
primary refuse
Zea mays
10
2010
fill
above wall/roof
fall
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
10
Study
Unit
Description
PD
NST 804
midden
1701
fill
NST 101
midden
1134
STR 150
subterranean
kiva
STR 150
subterranean
kiva
masonry
STR 145
surface
structure
STR 402
NST 151
midden
358
Time Period
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–1280)
Unassigned
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–1280)
Terminal Pueblo II
through Initial Pueblo
III (A.D. 1100–1180)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Fill/Assemblage Fill/Assemblage
Position–General Position–Specific
Study
Unit
Description
PD
NST
1039
midden
1305
fill
NST 901
midden
851
fill
NST 130
midden
1319
fill
NST 401
midden
137
fill
NST 151
midden
2006
fill
633
fill
353
fill
subterranean
kiva
subterranean
STR 119
kiva
STR 113
Fill/Assemblage
Type–General
Fill/Assemblage
Type–Specific
Taxon
TOTAL
above wall/roof
fall
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
10
upper
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
10
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
cultural deposit
Phaseolus
vulgaris-type
secondary refuse
Zea mays
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
9
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
8
above wall/roof
fall
above wall/roof
fall
postabandonment
deposit
natural processes
Zea mays
8
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
8
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
8
Phaseolus
vulgaris-type
8
above wall/roof
fall
lower
above wall/roof
fall
roof fall
10
10
NST 804
midden
1186
fill
NST 130
midden
1277
fill
upper
STR 150
subterranean
kiva
1848
fill
roof fall
283
fill
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
primary refuse
Zea mays
7
1830
fill
below wall fall
mixed deposit
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Zea mays
7
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
7
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Phaseolus
vulgaris-type
7
subterranean
kiva
masonry
STR 148
surface
structure
STR 109
NST 152
midden
1824
fill
NST 155
midden
1935
fill
above wall/roof
fall
not further
specified
359
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Fill/Assemblage Fill/Assemblage
Position–General Position–Specific
Study
Unit
Description
PD
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
STR 803
subterranean
kiva
1703
fill
roof fall
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
NST
1041
midden
1654
fill
upper
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–1280)
NST 130
midden
1337
fill
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–1280)
STR 141
1931
fill
1664
fill
1042
fill
Time Period
Unassigned
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
masonry
surface
structure
NST
extramural
9015
surface
subterranean
STR 107
kiva
NST 123
midden
880
fill
NST 139
midden
333
fill
Fill/Assemblage
Type–General
Fill/Assemblage
Type–Specific
Taxon
TOTAL
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
7
mixed deposit
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Zea mays
7
above wall/roof
fall
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
7
not further
specified
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
7
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
7
cultural deposit
primary refuse
Zea mays
6
mixed deposit
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Zea mays
6
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
6
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
6
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
6
surface feature
contents
surface feature
contents
not further
specified
above wall/roof
fall
surface feature
contents
extramural
surface
subterranean
STR 803
kiva
NST
midden
9002
18
fill
1705
fill
roof fall
337
fill
above wall/roof
fall
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
6
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
NST 201
midden
619
fill
upper
mixed deposit
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Zea mays
6
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
NST
1103
midden
1197
fill
upper
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
6
NST 504
360
Time Period
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Fill/Assemblage Fill/Assemblage
Position–General Position–Specific
Fill/Assemblage
Type–General
Fill/Assemblage
Type–Specific
Taxon
TOTAL
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Cucurbitatype
6
fill
lower
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
6
1517
fill
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
6
366
fill
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
primary refuse
Zea mays
5
217
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Cucurbitaceae
-type
5
217
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
5
806
fill
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
5
1642
fill
upper
mixed deposit
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Zea mays
5
1329
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
5
1466
fill
upper
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
5
2135
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure
not further
specified
Zea mays
5
Study
Unit
Description
PD
NST 182
extramural
surface
1531
fill
NST 901
midden
858
NST
9019
extramural
surface
subterranean
kiva
subterranean
STR 502
kiva
subterranean
STR 502
kiva
extramural
NST 206
surface
STR 119
NST
1043
midden
Late Pueblo II through
subterranean
Early Pueblo III
STR 903
kiva
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
NST 106
midden
III
(A.D. 1020–1280)
Terminal Pueblo II
subterranean
through Initial Pueblo STR 150
kiva
III (A.D. 1100–1180)
361
Time Period
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Study
Unit
Description
subterranean
kiva
subterranean
STR 115
kiva
STR 115
STR 117
subterranean
kiva
subterranean
kiva
subterranean
STR 119
kiva
STR 117
PD
Fill/Assemblage Fill/Assemblage
Position–General Position–Specific
Fill/Assemblage
Type–General
Fill/Assemblage
Type–Specific
Taxon
TOTAL
359
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
4
634
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
4
676
fill
above wall/roof
fall
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Zea mays
4
1245
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
4
356
fill
mixed deposit
wall fall and roof
collapsed structure with mixed refuse Zea mays
fall
not further
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
specified
postabandonment
Phaseolus
and cultural
wall fall
mixed deposit
vulgaris-type
refuse
above wall/roof
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
fall
not further
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
specified
surface feature
cultural deposit
primary refuse
Zea mays
contents
above wall/roof
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
fall
above wall/roof
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
fall
NST 133
midden
1343
fill
ARB
149
noncultural
1858
fill
NST 152
midden
1770
fill
NST 155
midden
1860
fill
STR 302
subterranean
kiva
685
fill
NST 804
midden
1185
fill
NST 804
midden
1189
fill
STR
1037
NST
1039
subterranean
room
1443
fill
roof fall
midden
1200
fill
above wall/roof
fall
362
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
Zea mays
4
Zea mays
4
Fill/Assemblage Fill/Assemblage
Position–General Position–Specific
Fill/Assemblage
Type–General
Fill/Assemblage
Type–Specific
Taxon
TOTAL
above wall/roof
fall
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
4
fill
lower
mixed deposit
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Zea mays
4
1098
fill
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
4
midden
1535
fill
below a cultural
surface
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
4
NST 604
extramural
surface
932
fill
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
4
NST 901
midden
569
fill
upper
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
4
NST 901
midden
742
fill
lower
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
4
NST 901
midden
745
fill
lower
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
4
NST 901
midden
881
fill
upper
mixed deposit
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Zea mays
4
NST 103
midden
180
fill
upper
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
4
Study
Unit
Description
PD
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
NST
1039
midden
1302
fill
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
NST
1042
midden
1911
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III
(A.D. 1020–1280)
NST
9003
extramural
surface
NST 165
Time Period
363
Time Period
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III
(A.D. 1020–1280)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III
(A.D. 1020–1280)
Terminal Pueblo II
through Initial Pueblo
III (A.D. 1100–1180)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Fill/Assemblage Fill/Assemblage
Position–General Position–Specific
Fill/Assemblage
Type–General
Fill/Assemblage
Type–Specific
Taxon
TOTAL
lower
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
4
fill
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
4
1844
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
4
1433
fill
874
fill
635
fill
1261
fill
257
fill
1333
fill
Study
Unit
Description
PD
NST 106
midden
1665
fill
NST
9104
extramural
surface
1551
STR 150
subterranean
kiva
subterranean
kiva
subterranean
STR 113
kiva
STR 111
STR 117
subterranean
kiva
subterranean
kiva
subterranean
STR 119
kiva
masonry
STR 125
surface
structure
STR 117
NST 151
midden
2008
fill
NST 162
midden
1741
fill
NST 301
midden
231
fill
surface feature
contents
surface feature
contents
above wall/roof
fall
surface feature
contents
above wall/roof
fall
cultural deposit
primary refuse
Zea mays
3
cultural deposit
primary refuse
Zea mays
3
mixed deposit
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Zea mays
3
cultural deposit
primary refuse
Zea mays
3
postabandonment
deposit
natural processes
Zea mays
3
not further
specified
Zea mays
3
wall fall and roof
collapsed structure
fall
above wall/roof
fall
not further
specified
upper
364
cultural deposit
cultural deposit
cultural deposit
Phaseolus
vulgaris-type
Phaseolus
secondary refuse
vulgaris-type
secondary refuse
secondary refuse
Zea mays
3
3
3
Fill/Assemblage Fill/Assemblage
Position–General Position–Specific
Fill/Assemblage
Type–General
Fill/Assemblage
Type–Specific
Taxon
TOTAL
lower
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
3
fill
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
primary refuse
Zea mays
3
1708
fill
lower
mixed deposit
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Zea mays
3
subterranean
kiva
671
fill
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
primary refuse
Zea mays
3
STR 158
nonmasonry
surface room
1743
fill
not further
specified
mixed deposit
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Zea mays
3
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
STR 204
subterranean
kiva
1230
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
3
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
NST
1042
midden
1687
fill
lower
mixed deposit
Zea mays
3
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
NST
1043
midden
1699
fill
lower
mixed deposit
Zea mays
3
824
fill
upper
mixed deposit
Zea mays
3
1062
fill
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
3
1077
fill
wall fall and roof
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
fall
Zea mays
3
Study
Unit
Description
PD
NST 301
midden
233
fill
STR 602
subterranean
kiva
2084
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
STR 803
subterranean
kiva
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
STR 118
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Time Period
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
NST 801
midden
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo II through
extramural
Early Pueblo III
NST 806
surface
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo II through
subterranean
Early Pueblo III
STR 903
kiva
(A.D. 1060–1225)
365
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Time Period
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III
(A.D. 1020–1280)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III
(A.D. 1020–1280)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III
(A.D. 1020–1280)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III
(A.D. 1020–1280)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Fill/Assemblage Fill/Assemblage
Position–General Position–Specific
Fill/Assemblage
Type–General
Fill/Assemblage
Type–Specific
Taxon
TOTAL
upper
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
3
fill
upper
mixed deposit
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Zea mays
3
1833
fill
lower
mixed deposit
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Zea mays
3
1427
fill
lower
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
3
267
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
2
1281
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
2
1334
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
2
1159
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure
Zea mays
2
1300
fill
above wall/roof
fall
mixed deposit
Zea mays
2
1336
fill
roof fall
Zea mays
2
1505
fill
surface feature
contents
Zea mays
2
Study
Unit
Description
PD
NST 101
midden
925
fill
NST 101
midden
1091
NST 104
midden
NST 106
midden
subterranean
kiva
subterranean
STR 110
kiva
subterranean
STR 110
kiva
subterranean
STR 111
kiva
STR 109
STR 113
subterranean
kiva
subterranean
kiva
subterranean
STR 116
kiva
STR 116
366
not further
specified
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
cultural deposit
primary refuse
Fill/Assemblage Fill/Assemblage
Position–General Position–Specific
Study
Unit
Description
PD
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
STR 117
subterranean
kiva
1242
fill
roof fall
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
ARB
120
noncultural
757
fill
wall fall
NST 133
midden
1256
fill
NST 133
midden
1311
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
ARB
149
noncultural
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
NST 152
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
STR 803
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
STR 142
Time Period
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
NST 186
Fill/Assemblage
Type–General
Fill/Assemblage
Type–Specific
Taxon
TOTAL
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
2
mixed deposit
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Zea mays
2
below wall fall
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
2
fill
not further
specified
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
2
1827
fill
wall fall
mixed deposit
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Zea mays
2
midden
1763
fill
above wall/roof
fall
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
2
subterranean
kiva
1184
fill
above wall/roof
fall
mixed deposit
Zea mays
2
1726
fill
below wall fall
mixed deposit
Zea mays
2
1856
fill
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
2
masonry
surface
structure
extramural
surface
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
NST 201
midden
651
fill
lower
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Cucurbitatype
2
NST 201
midden
651
fill
lower
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
2
NST
1039
midden
1304
fill
above wall/roof
fall
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
2
NST
1043
midden
1695
fill
upper
mixed deposit
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Zea mays
2
367
Time Period
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–1280)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III
(A.D. 1020–1280)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III (A.D. 1020–1280)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III (A.D. 1020–1280)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III (A.D. 1020–1280)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III (A.D. 1020–1280)
Fill/Assemblage Fill/Assemblage
Position–General Position–Specific
Fill/Assemblage
Type–General
Fill/Assemblage
Type–Specific
Taxon
TOTAL
lower
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
2
fill
lower
mixed deposit
postabandonment
Phaseolus
and cultural
vulgaris-type
refuse
1001
fill
lower
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
2
extramural
surface
1518
fill
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
2
STR 136
subterranean
kiva
1342
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
2
NST 101
midden
1128
sterile
not further
specified
Zea mays
2
NST 103
midden
170
fill
upper
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
2
NST 103
midden
195
fill
upper
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
2
NST 106
midden
1428
fill
lower
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
2
NST 106
midden
1473
fill
lower
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
2
Study
Unit
Description
PD
NST 801
midden
1021
fill
NST 901
midden
950
NST 901
midden
NST
9019
undisturbed
sediment or
noncultural deposit
geologic deposit
368
2
Time Period
Study
Unit
Description
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo NST 106
midden
III (A.D. 1020–1280)
Terminal Pueblo II
subterranean
through Initial Pueblo STR 150
kiva
III (A.D. 1100–1180)
subterranean
Unassigned
STR 137 structure, type
unknown
extramural
Unassigned
NST 912
surface
Early Pueblo III
subterranean
STR 107
(A.D. 1140–1225)
kiva
Early Pueblo III
subterranean
STR 107
(A.D. 1140–1225)
kiva
PD
Fill/Assemblage Fill/Assemblage
Position–General Position–Specific
Fill/Assemblage
Type–General
undisturbed
sediment or
noncultural deposit
geologic deposit
Fill/Assemblage
Type–Specific
Taxon
TOTAL
not further
specified
Zea mays
2
Zea mays
2
1478
sterile
1754
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
1538
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure
not further
specified
Zea mays
2
995
fill
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
2
639
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
1
672
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
1
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
STR 108
subterranean
kiva
1152
fill
below a cultural
surface
other deposit
fill/assemblage
type is not in this
list
Zea mays
1
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
STR 112
aboveground
kiva
1777
fill
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
primary refuse
Zea mays
1
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
STR 113
subterranean
kiva
1285
fill
wall fall
mixed deposit
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Zea mays
1
840
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
1
1243
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
1
1049
fill
not further
specified
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Zea mays
1
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
subterranean
kiva
subterranean
STR 117
kiva
STR 115
NST 123
midden
369
mixed deposit
Fill/Assemblage Fill/Assemblage
Position–General Position–Specific
Fill/Assemblage
Type–General
Fill/Assemblage
Type–Specific
Taxon
TOTAL
roof fall
mixed deposit
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Zea mays
1
fill
below wall fall
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
1
1275
fill
below wall fall
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
1
noncultural
1828
fill
not further
specified
mixed deposit
Zea mays
1
ARB
149
noncultural
1858
fill
wall fall
mixed deposit
Zea mays
1
NST 151
midden
1711
fill
NST 151
midden
2010
fill
NST 162
midden
2144
fill
NST 197
extramural
surface
1815
fill
NST 501
midden
12
fill
lower
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
1
STR 502
subterranean
kiva
383
fill
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
primary refuse
Zea mays
1
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
NST 601
midden
842
fill
lower
mixed deposit
Zea mays
1
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
STR 602
subterranean
kiva
642
fill
above wall/roof
fall
mixed deposit
Zea mays
1
Study
Unit
Description
PD
STR 128
masonry
surface
structure
1270
fill
NST 134
midden
1259
NST 134
midden
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
ARB
147
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Time Period
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
above wall/roof
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
fall
above wall/roof
Phaseolus
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
fall
vulgaris-type
not further
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
specified
surface feature
construction deposit
other
Zea mays
contents
370
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
1
1
1
1
Time Period
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Study
Unit
Description
subterranean
kiva
subterranean
STR 803
kiva
subterranean
STR 118
kiva
nonmasonry
STR 158
surface room
STR 803
PD
Fill/Assemblage Fill/Assemblage
Position–General Position–Specific
1706
fill
1710
fill
256
fill
2166
fill
roof fall
surface feature
contents
above wall/roof
fall
roof fall
Fill/Assemblage
Type–General
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
postabandonment
deposit
natural processes
Zea mays
1
Phaseolus
vulgaris-type
1
refuse fill
Zea mays
1
primary refuse
Cucurbita
moschata-type
1
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
below a cultural
construction deposit
surface
surface feature
cultural deposit
contents
STR 168
nonmasonry
surface room
1913
fill
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
STR 170
nonmasonry
surface room
2147
fill
not further
specified
mixed deposit
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
STR 170
nonmasonry
surface room
2147
fill
not further
specified
mixed deposit
NST 201
midden
618
fill
lower
cultural deposit
1953
fill
roof fall
717
fill
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
mixed deposit
STR 906
earth-walled
pit structure
1010
fill
not further
specified
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
STR 908
nonmasonry
surface room
764
fill
roof fall
371
1
1
fill
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Zea mays
Phaseolus
vulgaris-type
2026
subterranean
kiva
extramural
NST 206
surface
TOTAL
primary refuse
midden
STR 204
Taxon
cultural deposit
NST 164
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Fill/Assemblage
Type–Specific
postabandonment
Phaseolus
and cultural
vulgaris-type
refuse
postabandonment
and cultural
Zea mays
refuse
1
1
secondary refuse
Zea mays
1
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
1
secondary refuse
Zea mays
1
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Zea mays
1
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
1
Study
Unit
Description
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
STR
1037
STR
1037
subterranean
room
subterranean
room
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
NST
1041
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Time Period
PD
Fill/Assemblage Fill/Assemblage
Position–General Position–Specific
Fill/Assemblage
Type–General
Fill/Assemblage
Type–Specific
Taxon
TOTAL
1309
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
1
1442
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
1
midden
1626
fill
upper
mixed deposit
Zea mays
1
NST
1041
midden
1733
fill
lower
mixed deposit
Zea mays
1
NST
9003
NST
9003
extramural
surface
extramural
surface
1093
fill
1095
fill
NST 182
extramural
surface
1531
fill
NST 801
midden
824
NST 801
midden
NST 801
NST 805
surface feature
contents
surface feature
contents
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
1
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
1
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Phaseolus
vulgaris-type
1
fill
upper
mixed deposit
987
fill
upper
mixed deposit
midden
1030
fill
lower
mixed deposit
extramural
surface
1028
fill
surface feature
contents
cultural deposit
372
postabandonment
Cucurbitaceae
and cultural
-type
refuse
postabandonment
and cultural
Zea mays
refuse
postabandonment
and cultural
Zea mays
refuse
secondary refuse
Zea mays
1
1
1
1
Time Period
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo II through
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–1225)
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–1280)
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–1280)
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–1280)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III (A.D. 1020–1280)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III (A.D. 1020–1280)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III (A.D. 1020–1280)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III (A.D. 1020–1280)
Fill/Assemblage Fill/Assemblage
Position–General Position–Specific
Fill/Assemblage
Type–General
Fill/Assemblage
Type–Specific
Taxon
TOTAL
upper
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
1
fill
upper
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
1
1326
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
1
1327
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
1
1350
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
1
1371
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
1
1376
fill
roof fall
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Cucurbitaceae
-type
1
Study
Unit
Description
PD
NST 901
midden
536
fill
NST 901
midden
570
STR 903
subterranean
kiva
STR 904
subterranean
kiva
subterranean
kiva
subterranean
STR 136
kiva
subterranean
STR 136
kiva
STR 136
NST 101
midden
1213
fill
upper
mixed deposit
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Zea mays
1
NST 102
midden
814
fill
upper
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
1
NST 102
midden
815
fill
lower
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
1
NST 103
midden
286
fill
lower
cultural deposit
secondary refuse
Zea mays
1
373
Time Period
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III (A.D. 1020–1280)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III (A.D. 1020–1280)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III (A.D. 1020–1280)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III (A.D. 1020–1280)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III (A.D. 1020–1280)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III (A.D. 1020–1280)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III (A.D. 1020–1280)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III (A.D. 1020–1280)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late Pueblo
III (A.D. 1020–1280)
Terminal Pueblo II
through Initial Pueblo
III (A.D. 1100–1180)
Fill/Assemblage Fill/Assemblage
Position–General Position–Specific
Fill/Assemblage
Type–General
Study
Unit
Description
PD
NST 104
midden
1602
fill
upper
mixed deposit
NST 104
midden
1610
fill
upper
mixed deposit
NST 104
midden
2155
fill
lower
mixed deposit
NST 105
midden
1572
fill
upper
mixed deposit
NST 106
midden
1416
fill
upper
mixed deposit
NST 106
midden
1420
fill
upper
cultural deposit
NST 106
midden
1457
fill
lower
mixed deposit
NST 106
midden
1475
fill
lower
mixed deposit
NST 106
midden
1477
fill
lower
cultural deposit
STR 150
subterranean
kiva
1846
fill
roof fall
374
Fill/Assemblage
Type–Specific
Taxon
postabandonment
and cultural
Zea mays
refuse
postabandonment
and cultural
Zea mays
refuse
postabandonment
Phaseolus
and cultural
vulgaris-type
refuse
postabandonment
and cultural
Zea mays
refuse
postabandonment
and cultural
Zea mays
refuse
TOTAL
1
1
1
1
1
Zea mays
1
Zea mays
1
Zea mays
1
secondary refuse
Zea mays
1
collapsed structure with mixed refuse
Zea mays
1
secondary refuse
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
Time Period
Study
Unit
Description
Terminal Pueblo II
subterranean
through Initial Pueblo STR 150
kiva
III (A.D. 1100–1180)
PD
Fill/Assemblage Fill/Assemblage
Position–General Position–Specific
Fill/Assemblage
Type–General
Fill/Assemblage
Type–Specific
Taxon
TOTAL
masonry
Zea mays
1
Zea mays
1
Zea mays
Zea mays
Zea mays
1
1
1
Phaseolus
vulgaris-type
1
2002
surface contact
bench surface
construction deposit
Unassigned
ARB
124
noncultural
1253
fill
wall fall
mixed deposit
Unassigned
Unassigned
Unassigned
NST 401
NST 401
NST 401
midden
midden
midden
132
138
142
fill
fill
fill
cultural deposit
cultural deposit
cultural deposit
Unassigned
ARB
1004
noncultural
663
not applicable
upper
upper
lower
fill/assemblage
position is not
applicable
postabandonment
and cultural
refuse
secondary refuse
secondary refuse
secondary refuse
mixed deposit
sampling column
Note: ARB = Arbitrary Unit; STR = Structure; NST = Nonstructure
375
Table 8.7. Plant Foods at Albert Porter Pueblo: Ubiquity of Charred Non-Wood Parts in all Flotation Samples, by Subperiod.
Total Number of Flotation Samples
Analyzed
Number of Flotation Samples
Containing the Taxon/Part, and %
Domesticated Taxa
Part(s)
Cucurbita moschataseed
type
Cucurbitaceae-type
rind
Cucurbita-type
rind
Phaseolus vulgaris- bean (seed),
type
cotyledon
cob fragment,
cob segment,
cupule,
Zea mays
embryo, fused
mass, glume,
kernel, kernel
embryo
Wild Plant Taxa
Part(s)
fused mass,
Amaranthus-type
seed
Amelanchier
seed
utahensis-type
Artemisia tridentataseed
type
Artemisia-type
achene
Astragalus-type
flower
Middle Pueblo II
through Late
Pueblo III (A.D.
1020–1280)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–
1140)
29
43
N=
17
%
58.6
Late Pueblo II
Terminal
through Early
Pueblo II
Pueblo III
through Initial
(A.D. 1060– Pueblo III (A.D.
1225)
1100–1180)
26
N=
%
1
2.3
1
%
2.3
1
3
2
4.7
26
60.5
3.4
2
6.9
1
2.3
1
3.4
4
1
9.3
2.3
Late Pueblo
III (A.D.
1225–1280)
Unassigned
87
18
12
4
N=
1
Early Pueblo
III (A.D.
1140–1225)
N=
%
N=
%
3.8
11.5
1
1.1
1
5.6
1
3.8
1
1.1
19
73.1
5
376
19.2
N=
%
4
100.0
51
58.6
8
44.4
1
25.0
2
2.3
3
16.7
1
1.1
19
1
21.8
1.1
2
11.1
1
25.0
N=
%
6
50.0
Total Number of Flotation Samples
Analyzed
Number of Flotation Samples
Containing the Taxon/Part, and %
Atriplex canescensflowering head
type
Atriplex-type
seed
Cercocarpus
seed
montanus-type
Cercocarpus/
axillary bud
Artemisia-type
embryo, seed,
Cheno-am
seed coat
Cleome-type
seed, seed coat
Compositae-type
achene
Corispermum-type
seed
Cycloloma
seed
atriplicifolium-type
Descurainia-type
seed
Echinocereus-type
seed coat
Euphorbia-type
seed
caryopsis,
Gramineae-type
embryo, floret
Gramineae-type 3
caryopsis
Gramineae-type 4
caryopsis
Helianthus annuusachene
type
Juniperus
berry
osteosperma-type
Middle Pueblo II
through Late
Pueblo III (A.D.
1020–1280)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–
1140)
29
43
N=
%
N=
26
%
1
2.3
18
62.1
31
72.1
2
6.9
1
2.3
1
3.4
2
1
6.9
3.4
8
27.6
1
3.4
1
3.4
Late Pueblo II
Terminal
through Early
Pueblo II
Pueblo III
through Initial
(A.D. 1060– Pueblo III (A.D.
1225)
1100–1180)
N=
20
2.3
9
20.9
1
2.3
2
2
Late Pueblo
III (A.D.
1225–1280)
Unassigned
87
18
12
4
%
76.9
N=
3
3
1
Early Pueblo
III (A.D.
1140–1225)
7.7
7.7
%
75.0
75.0
N=
%
1
1.1
1
1.1
1
1.1
N=
%
1
5.6
63
72.4
14
77.8
2
1
4
2.3
1.1
4.6
1
5.6
4
4.6
1
5.6
3
3.4
2
2.3
16
18.4
1
377
1
3.8
1
1.1
2
7.7
2
2.3
N=
%
8
66.7
1
8.3
1
8.3
5.6
Total Number of Flotation Samples
Analyzed
Number of Flotation Samples
Containing the Taxon/Part, and %
Leguminosae-type
cotyledon
Lithospermum-type
seed
Malvaceae-type
seed
Mentzelia albicaulisseed
type
Nicotiana attenuataseed
type
Opuntia (prickly
embryo
pear)-type
Physalis longifoliaseed, seed coat
type
Pinus edulis-type
bud
Polanisia-type
seed
Polygonum / Scirpusachene
type
Portulaca-type
seed
Prunus virginianaseed
type
Purshia-type
seed
Rosaceae-type
axillary bud
Scirpus-type
achene
Solanaceae-type
seed
Sphaeralcea-type
seed
Sporobolus-type
caryopsis
Stipa comata-type
caryopsis
Middle Pueblo II
through Late
Pueblo III (A.D.
1020–1280)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–
1140)
29
43
N=
%
N=
Late Pueblo II
Terminal
through Early
Pueblo II
Pueblo III
through Initial
(A.D. 1060– Pueblo III (A.D.
1225)
1100–1180)
26
%
N=
1
1
3.4
1
3.4
7
24.1
10
23.3
1
2.3
3.4
6
20.7
1
3.4
4
%
N=
3
10.3
1
2.3
7.7
10
38.5
4
1
1
13.8
3.4
3.4
1
1
1
2.3
2.3
2.3
3
11.5
1
3.8
1
1
3
1
378
%
3.8
2
9.3
Late Pueblo
III (A.D.
1225–1280)
Unassigned
87
18
12
4
1
1
Early Pueblo
III (A.D.
1140–1225)
3.8
3.8
11.5
3.8
2
N=
%
N=
%
N=
%
1
1
1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1
5.6
2
16.7
2
2.3
2
2.3
15
17.2
3
16.7
3
25.0
2
2.3
4
4.6
2
11.1
26
29.9
7
38.9
5
41.7
2
11.1
1
5.6
3
16.7
1
8.3
25.0
50.0
1
5
3
4
1
1.1
5.7
3.4
4.6
1.1
Total Number of Flotation Samples
Analyzed
Number of Flotation Samples
Containing the Taxon/Part, and %
Stipa hymenoidescaryopsis,
type
florets
Yucca baccata-type
seed
Total Number of Wild Food Taxa per
Subperiod, excluding non-edible
tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata) and
stoneseed (Lithospermum)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late
Pueblo III (A.D.
1020–1280)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–
1140)
29
43
Late Pueblo II
Terminal
through Early
Pueblo II
Pueblo III
through Initial
(A.D. 1060– Pueblo III (A.D.
1225)
1100–1180)
26
Early Pueblo
III (A.D.
1140–1225)
Late Pueblo
III (A.D.
1225–1280)
Unassigned
87
18
12
4
N=
%
N=
%
N=
%
N=
%
N=
%
1
3.4
4
9.3
4
15.4
1
25.0
10
11.5
1
1.1
21
16
16
7
Note: N = number of grains identified; % = percentage of the total grains identified within the sample.
379
29
N=
%
14
N=
%
7
Table 8.8. Zea Mays and Cheno-am Seeds at Albert Porter Pueblo: Ubiquity of Charred Non-Wood Plant Parts in Flotation Samples
from Thermal Feature/Ashpit and Midden Deposits, by Subperiod, and including the Number of Additional Food Taxa in the Samples.
Context(s)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late
Pueblo III (A.D.
1020–1280)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–
1140)
0
5
Late Pueblo II
Terminal
through Early
Pueblo II
Pueblo III
through Initial
(A.D. 1060– Pueblo III (A.D.
1225)
1100–1180)
Early Pueblo
III (A.D.
1140–1225)
Late Pueblo
III (A.D.
1225–1280)
Unassigned
48
10
0
Thermal Features and Ashpits
Total Number of Flotation Samples
Analyzed
Number of Flotation Samples
Containing the Taxon/Part, and %
Taxon
Part
Cheno-am embryo, seed, seed coat
Zea mays
all parts
Zea mays
kernels only
Zea mays
cob parts only
Number of Additional Food Taxa
N=
0
0
0
0
%
0
6
1
N=
%
N=
%
N=
%
N=
%
N=
%
N=
5
4
4
2
100.0
80.0
80.0
40.0
8
5
3
2
3
83.3
50.0
33.3
50.0
1
1
1
1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
32
28
13
23
66.7
58.3
27.1
47.9
8
3
1
3
80.0
30.0
10.0
30.0
0
0
0
0
7
1
24
8
%
0
Midden Deposits
Total Number of Flotation Samples
Analyzed
Number of Flotation Samples
Containing the Taxon/Part, and %
Taxon
Part
Cheno-am embryo, seed, seed coat
Zea mays
all parts
Zea mays
kernels only
Zea mays
cob parts only
Number of Additional Food Taxa
15
10
14
0
N=
%
N=
%
N=
%
N=
13
13
3
13
86.7
86.7
20.0
86.7
8
9
4
8
80.0
90.0
40.0
80.0
11
13
7
12
78.6
92.9
50.0
85.7
0
0
0
0
18
6
12
19
%
0
Note: N = number of grains identified; % = percentage of the total grains identified within the sample.
380
1
8
N=
%
N=
%
N=
%
16
11
4
11
84.2
57.9
21.1
57.9
1
1
1
1
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
6
5
1
5
75.0
62.5
12.5
62.5
9
1
5
Table 8.9. Fuels at Albert Porter Pueblo: Counts of All Charred Non-Reproductive Parts and Zea mays Non-Food Parts in Flotation
and Macrofossil Samples from All Contexts, by Subperiod.
Wild or
Domestic
domestic
domestic
domestic
domestic
domestic
domestic
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
Taxon
Zea mays
Zea mays
Zea mays
Zea mays
Zea mays
Zea mays
Amelanchier/
Peraphyllum-type
Amelanchier/
Peraphyllum-type
Artemisia tridentata-type
Artemisia-type
Artemisia-type
Artemisia-type
Artemisia-type
Artemisia-type
Atriplex-type
Atriplex-type
Capparaceae-type
Cercocarpus montanus-type
Cercocarpus montanus-type
Chrysothamnus nauseosus-type
Dicotyledon-type
Dicotyledon-type
Part
cob fragment
cob segment
cob, whole
cupule
shank segment
stalk segment
twig
wood
wood
flower bud
flowering head
leaf
twig
wood
twig
wood
stem
twig
wood
wood
stem
twig
Middle
Late
Terminal
Pueblo II
Pueblo II Pueblo II
Late
Early
Late
through
through
through
Pueblo II
Pueblo Pueblo III
Late
Early
Initial
(A.D.
III (A.D. (A.D.
Unassigned
Pueblo III
Pueblo III Pueblo III
1140–
1060–
1225–
(A.D.
(A.D.
(A.D.
1225)
1140)
1280)
1020–
1060–
1100–
1280)
1225)
1180)
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
21
64
103
129
209
125
3
6
16
11
38
57
80
1
1
72
164
136
60
137
77
18
3
1
8
5
3
9
2
7
28
4
18
1
3
30
2
1
75
6
3
N=
654
208
2
664
12
5
3
19
18
2
TOTAL
1
12
2
381
4
1
1
2
2
86
6
51
28
2
16
6
169
2
18
3
3
41
25
6
1
2
4
65
13
3
8
1
4
1
9
1
135
109
35
2
18
18
365
4
21
3
3
72
35
6
1
Wild or
Domestic
Taxon
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
Dicotyledon-type
diffuse porous-type
diffuse porous-type
Ephedra viridis-type
Ephedra viridis-type
Fraxinus anomala-type
Gramineae-type
Gramineae-type
Juniperus osteosperma-type
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
Juniperus osteosperma-type
Juniperus osteosperma-type
Juniperus osteosperma-type
Monocotyledon-type
Monocotyledon-type
Peraphyllum-type
Pinaceae-type
Pinaceae-type
Pinus edulis-type
Pinus edulis-type
Pinus edulis-type
Pinus edulis-type
Pinus edulis-type
Pinus edulis-type
Pinus ponderosa-type
Populus/Salix-type
Populus-type
Prunus/Rosa-type
Part
wood
twig
wood
twig
wood
wood
root
stem (culm)
cone with pollen
balls
scale leaf
twig
wood
leaf
stem
wood
bark scale
wood
bark fragment
bark scale
cone scale
needle
twig
wood
needle
wood
wood
wood
Middle
Late
Terminal
Pueblo II
Pueblo II Pueblo II
Late
Early
Late
through
through
through
Pueblo II
Pueblo Pueblo III
Late
Early
Initial
(A.D.
III (A.D. (A.D.
Unassigned
Pueblo III
Pueblo III Pueblo III
1140–
1060–
1225–
(A.D.
(A.D.
(A.D.
1225)
1140)
1280)
1020–
1060–
1100–
1280)
1225)
1180)
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
1
1
1
8
4
2
10
1
1
3
17
2
3
29
2
2
2
1
3
2
4
1
1
9
13
180
1
4
27
44
339
3
2
9
23
247
41
1
4
3
46
30
27
1
6
5
43
2
17
2
159
1
1
382
2
2
TOTAL
N=
2
1
12
12
24
32
7
10
1
2
133
38
61
761
2
4
2
1
1
11
3
10
563
3
19
1
153
3
21
1
3
11
292
1
1
16
1
22
1
1
84
6
2
13
86
155
2,036
7
10
2
1
1
1
683
5
58
16
446
1
29
3
1
Wild or
Domestic
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
Taxon
Purshia-type
Purshia-type
Quercus gambelii-type
Rhus aromatica var. trilobatatype
Rhus aromatica var. trilobatatype
Rhus aromatica var. trilobatatype
Rhus aromatica var. trilobatatype
ring porous-type
Rosaceae-type
semi-ring porous-type
Yucca angustissima-type
Yucca baccata-type
Yucca-type
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
Part
leaf
wood
wood
bark fragment
Middle
Late
Terminal
Pueblo II
Pueblo II Pueblo II
Late
Early
Late
through
through
through
Pueblo II
Pueblo Pueblo III
Late
Early
Initial
(A.D.
III (A.D. (A.D.
Unassigned
Pueblo III
Pueblo III Pueblo III
1140–
1060–
1225–
(A.D.
(A.D.
(A.D.
1225)
1140)
1280)
1020–
1060–
1100–
1280)
1225)
1180)
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
12
8
4
3
26
2
7
3
1
23
1
stem
1
twig
wood
wood
wood
wood
leaf
leaf
leaf
bark fragment
flower bud
flowering head
leaf
stalk segment
twig
wood
TOTAL
1
353
2
3
3
3
3
50
1
6
1
2
480
1
18
981
Note: N=Number of individual specimens.
383
744
407
1
16
9
12
2
400
3
3,123
370
3
11
3
4
1829
340
20
1
2
1
N=
12
43
35
353
339
1
TOTAL
166
1
2
4
420
3
11
2
31
9
17
2
402
3
7,730
Table 8.10. Fuels at Albert Porter Pueblo: Ubiquity of Charred Non-Reproductive Plant Parts and Zea Mays Non-Food Parts in
Flotation Samples from Thermal Features, Ashpits, and Middens, by Subperiod.
(a) Table 8.10, Thermal Features and Ashpits
Total number of flotation
samples analyzed
Number of flotation samples
containing the taxon/part, and %
Amelanchier/Peraphyllum-type
Artemisia tridentata-type
Artemisia-type
Atriplex-type
Cercocarpus montanus-type
Chrysothamnus nauseosus-type
Dicotyledon-type
diffuse porous-type
Ephedra viridis-type
Fraxinus anomala-type
Gramineae-type
Juniperus osteosperma-type
Monocotyledon-type
Peraphyllum-type
Pinaceae-type
Pinus edulis-type
Populus/Salix-type
Purshia-type
Quercus gambelii-type
Rhus aromatica var. trilobatatype
ring porous-type
unknown botanical
Zea mays (all parts)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late
Pueblo III (A.D.
1020–1280)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–
1140)
Late Pueblo II
through Early
Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–
1225)
Terminal Pueblo
II through Initial
Pueblo III (A.D.
1100–1180)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–
1225)
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–
1280)
Unassigned
0
5
6
1
48
10
0
N=
%
N=
%
1
2
3
20.0
40.0
60.0
1
20.0
N=
5
%
83.3
5
1
100.0
20.0
5
83.3
5
100.0
1
1
20.0
20.0
3
2
2
50.0
33.3
33.3
2
2
40.0
40.0
3
50.0
384
N=
1
1
1
%
100.0
100.0
100.0
N=
%
N=
%
9
6
27
4
11
5
1
5
4
3
18.8
12.5
56.3
8.3
22.9
10.4
2.1
10.4
8.3
6.3
4
40.0
9
90.0
2
20.0
3
30.0
47
2
1
1
38
7
8
2
97.9
4.2
2.1
2.1
79.2
14.6
16.7
4.2
1
10
1
10.0
100.0
10.0
10
100.0
2
1
20.0
10.0
1
2.1
1
10.0
1
6
23
2.1
12.5
47.9
4
3
40.0
30.0
N=
%
(b) Table 8.10, Midden Deposits
Total number of flotation
samples analyzed
Number of flotation samples
containing the taxon/part, and %
Amelanchier/Peraphyllum-type
Artemisia tridentata-type
Artemisia-type
Atriplex-type
Capparaceae-type
Cercocarpus montanus-type
Chrysothamnus nauseosus-type
diffuse porous-type
Ephedra viridis-type
Fraxinus anomala-type
Gramineae-type
Juniperus osteosperma-type
Monocotyledon-type
Pinus edulis-type
Populus/Salix-type
Populus-type
Prunus/Rosa-type
Purshia-type
Quercus gambelii-type
Rhus aromatica var. trilobatatype
Rosaceae-type
semi-ring porous-type
unknown botanical
Zea mays (all parts)
Middle Pueblo II
through Late
Pueblo III (A.D.
1020–1280)
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–
1140)
Late Pueblo II
through Early
Pueblo III
(A.D. 1060–
1225)
Terminal Pueblo
II through Initial
Pueblo III
(A.D. 1100–
1180)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–
1225)
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–
1280)
Unassigned
15
10
14
0
19
1
8
N=
%
N=
%
7
1
7
2
46.7
6.7
46.7
13.3
1
10.0
7
1
70.0
10.0
3
1
20.0
6.7
1
1
1
6.7
15
4
10
1
100.0
26.7
66.7
6.7
1
6.7
1
6.7
1
1
1
13
6.7
6.7
6.7
86.7
N=
%
5
7
35.7
50.0
10.0
10.0
1
7.1
1
10.0
3
21.4
2
10
20.0
100.0
2
14
14.3
100.0
8
80.0
11
78.6
1
7.1
2
14.3
1
1
1
8
10.0
10.0
10.0
80.0
3
12
21.4
85.7
Note: N=Number of individual specimens.
385
N=
%
N=
%
N=
%
3
5
9
15.8
26.3
47.4
1
100.0
1
100.0
1
5
3
1
5.3
26.3
15.8
5.3
1
1
19
1
17
4
5.3
5.3
100.0
5.3
89.5
21.1
1
3
3
5.3
15.8
15.8
4
11
21.1
57.9
1
%
5
1
62.5
12.5
3
1
37.5
12.5
1
8
12.5
100.0
6
75.0
1
12.5
5
62.5
100.0
1
1
100.0
1
100.0
1
N=
100.0
Table 8.11. Counts and Percents of All Albert Porter Pueblo Tree-Ring Specimens.
Tree Species
Number Identified
Percent
Juniper
347
92.0
Pinyon
24
6.4
Nonconiferous
3
0.8
Ponderosa pine
1
0.3
Sagebrush
1
0.3
Spruce/fir
1
0.3
TOTAL
377
100
Note: Identifications made by the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research.
Table 8.12. Counts of All Identified Tree-Ring Specimens from Roof-Fall Contexts,
by Subperiod, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Late Pueblo
Terminal
II through
Pueblo II
Late Pueblo
Early Pueblo Late Pueblo
Early
through
II (A.D.
III (A.D.
III (A.D.
Unassigned
Pueblo III Initial Pueblo
1060–1140)
1140–1225) 1225–1280)
III (A.D.
(A.D. 1060–
1225)
1100–1180)
Tree Species
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
Juniper
21
1
64
101
98
7
Pinyon
3
1
5
3
2
Nonconiferous
Ponderosa pine
3
1
Sagebrush
1
Spruce/fir
1
TOTAL
25
2
69
109
100
7
Note: N = Number of individual specimens. Counts include specimens with cutting dates, non-cutting dates, and no dates.
386
Table 8.13. Construction Materials and Plants Associated with Roofs at Albert Porter Pueblo: Counts of All Charred Parts in
Flotation and Macrofossil Samples from Roofs, by Subperiod.
Wild or
Domestic
domestic
domestic
domestic
domestic
domestic
domestic
domestic
domestic
domestic
domestic
domestic
domestic
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
Taxon
Cucurbitaceae-type
Phaseolus vulgaris-type
Phaseolus vulgaris-type
Zea mays
Zea mays
Zea mays
Zea mays
Zea mays
Zea mays
Zea mays
Zea mays
Zea mays
Amaranthus-type
Amaranthus-type
Amelanchier/Peraphyllumtype
Artemisia tridentata-type
Artemisia-type
Artemisia-type
Artemisia-type
Artemisia-type
Artemisia-type
Artemisia-type
Artemisia-type
Astragalus-type
Atriplex canescens-type
Atriplex-type
Atriplex-type
Cercocarpus montanus-type
Part(s)
rind
bean (seed)
cotyledon
cob fragment
cob segment
cob, whole
cupule
embryo
fused mass
glume
kernel
shank segment
fused mass
seed
wood
wood
achene
flower bud
flowering head
leaf
seed
twig
wood
seed
fruit core
twig
wood
wood
Late Pueblo
Terminal
Late
II through
Pueblo II
Early
Late Pueblo
Pueblo III
Early
through
Pueblo III
II (A.D.
(A.D.
Unassigned TOTAL
Pueblo III Initial Pueblo (A.D. 1140–
1060–1140)
1225–
(A.D. 1060–
III (A.D.
1225)
1280)
1225)
1100–1180)
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
5
1
6
4
4
1
4
5
3
5
21
27
56
1
1
15
8
2
27
1
1
1
2
28
21
52
1
1
1
41
42
5
5
6
2
151
21
100
2
282
1
1
2
5
5
1,119
3
5
1,127
7
1
1
13
2
1
387
1
9
2
8
2
15
1
6
54
1
6
2
6
10
17
5
10
2
8
2
15
1
11
81
1
6
2
6
8
4
13
Wild or
Domestic
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
Taxon
Cheno-am
Cheno-am
Cleome-type
Cleome-type
Compositae-type
Corispermum-type
Descurainia-type
Dicotyledon-type
Dicotyledon-type
Dicotyledon-type
diffuse porous-type
diffuse porous-type
Ephedra viridis-type
Ephedra viridis-type
Gramineae-type
Gramineae-type
Gramineae-type
Gramineae-type
Juniperus osteosperma-type
Juniperus osteosperma-type
Juniperus osteosperma-type
Juniperus osteosperma-type
Juniperus osteosperma-type
Malvaceae-type
Monocotyledon-type
Physalis longifolia-type
Pinaceae-type
Pinus edulis-type
Pinus edulis-type
Pinus edulis-type
Pinus edulis-type
Polanisia-type
Part(s)
embryo
seed
seed
seed coat
achene
seed
seed
stem
twig
wood
twig
wood
twig
wood
caryopsis
floret
root
stem (culm)
bud
fiber
scale leaf
twig
wood
seed
stem
seed
wood
bark scale
needle
twig
wood
seed
Late Pueblo
Terminal
Late
II through
Pueblo II
Early
Late Pueblo
Pueblo III
Early
through
Pueblo III
II (A.D.
(A.D.
Unassigned TOTAL
Pueblo III Initial Pueblo (A.D. 1140–
1060–1140)
1225–
(A.D. 1060–
III (A.D.
1225)
1280)
1225)
1100–1180)
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
1
1
8
7
120
72
12
1
220
2
2
1
1
1
1
7
7
1
2
3
6
6
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
10
10
9
9
3
3
1
1
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
16
16
2
32
1
35
2
2
25
1
30
51
20
81
134
94
27
407
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
13
1
16
10
7
17
3
3
10
3
5
16
34
2
2
388
Wild or
Domestic
Taxon
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
unknown
unknown
Polygonum / Scirpus-type
Populus/Salix-type
Portulaca-type
Quercus gambelii-type
Rhus aromatica var.
trilobata-type
Scirpus-type
semi-ring porous-type
Solanaceae-type
Stipa hymenoides-type
Stipa hymenoides-type
Stipa hymenoides-type
Yucca angustissima-type
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
unknown botanical
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
Part(s)
achene
wood
seed
wood
stem
achene
wood
seed
caryopsis
floret
palea
leaf
bark fragment
black spherical
bodies
bud
disseminule
epidermis fragment
flower bud
flowering head
fruit coat
fused mass
leaf
seed
seed coat
spiral embryo
twig
unknown
wood
TOTAL
Late Pueblo
Terminal
Late
II through
Pueblo II
Early
Late Pueblo
Pueblo III
Early
through
Pueblo III
II (A.D.
(A.D.
Unassigned TOTAL
Pueblo III Initial Pueblo (A.D. 1140–
1060–1140)
1225–
(A.D. 1060–
III (A.D.
1225)
1280)
1225)
1100–1180)
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
N=
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
6
1
6
7
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
50
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
1
70
1
20
5
7
1
16
9
4
99
60
Note: N=Number of individual specimens.
389
1,579
11
1
5
1
1
400
28
1
1,108
5
1
1
1
5
1
2
329
47
1
7
1
17
9
1
16
2
5
1
1
400
34
1
3,222
Table 8.14. Construction Materials and Plants Associated with Roofs at Albert Porter Pueblo: Ubiquity of All Charred Parts in
Flotation and Macrofossil Samples from Roofs by Subperiod.
Wild or
Domestic
domestic
domestic
domestic
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
Taxon
Part(s)
Total number of flotation and macrofossil samples
analyzed
Number of flotation and macrofossil samples
containing the taxon/part(s), and %
Cucurbitaceae-type
rind
Phaseolus vulgaris-type
bean (seed),
cotyledon
Zea mays
cob fragment, cob
segment, cob
(whole), cupule,
embryo, fused mass,
glume, kernel,
shank segment
Amaranthus-type
fused mass, seed
Amelanchier/Peraphyllum- wood
type
Artemisia tridentata-type
wood
Artemisia-type
achene
Astragalus-type
seed
Atriplex canescens-type
fruit core
Atriplex-type
twig
Cercocarpus montanus-type wood
Cheno-am
embryo seed
Cleome-type
seed, seed coat
Compositae-type
achene
Corispermum-type
seed
Descurainia-type
seed
Dicotyledon-type
stem, twig, wood
diffuse porous-type
twig, wood
Ephedra viridis-type
twig, wood
Gramineae-type
root, stem (culm)
Terminal
Late Pueblo II
Late Pueblo II
Pueblo II
Early Pueblo
through Early
(A.D. 1060–
through Initial
III (A.D.
Pueblo III (A.D.
Pueblo III (A.D. 1140–1225)
1140)
1060–1225)
1100–1180)
11
N=
7
%
1
9.1
6
54.5
N=
5
20
%
71.4
N=
Unassigned
12
3
36
%
N=
%
N=
%
1
2.8
1
8.3
1
5.0
13
65.0
26
72.2
9
75.0
3
15.0
2
5.6
2
16.7
3
8.3
3
10
1
1
2
8.3
27.8
2.8
2.8
5.6
11
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
4
30.6
2.8
2.8
5.6
5.6
2.8
2.8
5.6
11.1
1
1
9.1
9.1
2
28.6
1
5.0
1
3
9.1
27.3
1
2
14.3
28.6
1
5.0
1
9.1
1
9.1
390
Late Pueblo
III (A.D.
1225–1280)
3
25.0
2
16.7
1
1
8.3
8.3
N=
%
1
33.3
1
33.3
2
1
66.7
33.3
1
33.3
Wild or
Domestic
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
wild
Taxon
Part(s)
Total number of flotation and macrofossil samples
analyzed
Number of flotation and macrofossil samples
containing the taxon/part(s), and %
Juniperus osteosperma-type bud, fiber, scale
leaf, twig, wood
Malvaceae-type
seed
Monocotyledon-type
stem
Physalis longifolia-type
seed
Pinaceae-type
wood
Pinus edulis-type
bark scale, needle,
twig, wood
Polanisia-type
seed
Polygonum / Scirpus-type
achene
Populus/Salix-type
wood
Portulaca-type
seed
Quercus gambelii-type
wood
Rhus aromatica var.
stem
trilobata-type
Scirpus-type
achene
semi-ring porous-type
wood
Solanaceae-type
seed
Stipa hymenoides-type
caryopsis
Yucca angustissima-type
leaf
Terminal
Late Pueblo II
Late Pueblo II
Pueblo II
Early Pueblo
through Early
(A.D. 1060–
through Initial
III (A.D.
Pueblo III (A.D.
Pueblo III (A.D. 1140–1225)
1140)
1060–1225)
1100–1180)
11
7
20
Late Pueblo
III (A.D.
1225–1280)
Unassigned
12
3
36
N=
%
N=
%
N=
%
N=
%
N=
%
N=
%
5
45.5
3
42.9
5
25.0
17
47.2
3
25.0
2
66.7
1
1
1
2.8
2.8
2.8
1
8.3
1
8.3
7
19.4
1
8.3
1
2.8
1
2
2.8
5.6
1
8.3
1
2.8
1
8.3
2
16.7
3
1
27.3
2
9.1
1
9.1
1
9.1
1
28.6
14.3
4
20.0
1
5.0
1
1
5.0
5.0
1
2
1
Note: N=Number of individual specimens.
391
2.8
5.6
2.8
Table 8.15. Intentionally Modified Artifacts Made of Charred Wild Plant Materials Recovered from All Sample Types,
Albert Porter Pueblo.
PD
No.
FS
No.
Artifact
Category
1281
61
textile
1334
7
vegetal
1376
20
flotation
sample
14, 15,
16, 17,
18, 20,
1377 21, 22,
26, 28,
29, 30,
33
15, 16,
17, 18,
1377
21, 26,
28, 32
Fill/
Scientific
Common
Assemblage
Subperiod
Item Description
Name
Name
Type
collapsed
Early Pueblo
Yucca
narrow- Possible charred
Structure subterranean
fill: roof fall structure: with III (A.D. angustissima- leaved sandal or plaited
110
kiva
mixed refuse 1140–1225)
type
yucca
basket fragment.
Rhus
collapsed
Early Pueblo
Structure subterranean
aromatica
lemonade Possibly part of a
fill: roof fall structure: with III (A.D.
var.
berry
basket.
110
kiva
mixed refuse 1140–1225)
trilobata-type
Wood fragments;
collapsed
Late Pueblo
Juniperus
Utah
Structure subterranean
some split and
fill: roof fall structure: with III (A.D. osteospermajuniper having right
136
kiva
type
mixed refuse 1225–1280)
angles.
Study
Unit
Fill/
Study Unit
Assemblage
Description
Position
vegetal,
basketry,
flotation
sample
Complete and split
surface
Rhus
stem fragments
cultural
Late Pueblo
aromatica
Structure subterranean
contact:
lemonade from a coiled
deposit:
III (A.D.
var.
basket that
prepared
berry
136
kiva
primary refuse 1225–1280)
trilobata-type
contained maize
floor surface
fragments.
basketry
Structure subterranean
136
kiva
surface
cultural
Late Pueblo
contact:
deposit:
III (A.D.
prepared
primary refuse 1225–1280)
floor surface
392
Zea mays
Kernel fragments
maize/corn from within a
coiled basket.
PD
No.
FS
No.
Artifact
Category
Study
Unit
Fill/
Study Unit
Assemblage
Description
Position
Fill/
Assemblage
Type
Subperiod
1377
20, 21,
22, 32
flotation
sample,
basketry
surface
cultural
Late Pueblo
contact:
Structure subterranean
deposit:
III (A.D.
prepared
136
kiva
primary refuse 1225–1280)
floor surface
1813
4
vegetal
Structure
143
1753
1848
23
30, 33
masonry
surface
structure
Scientific
Name
Yucca-type
collapsed
Juniperus
fill: wall and
structure: with Unassigned osteospermaroof fall
mixed refuse
type
Common
Name
yucca
Leaves fashioned
into a plaited
basket. This
basket contained
maize kernel
fragments.
Utah
juniper
Possibly modified
wood fragments.
vegetal
Structure subterranean
150
kiva
Terminal
mixed deposit: Pueblo II
Juniperus
through
postosteospermaInitial
abandonment
type
Pueblo III
and cultural
(A.D. 1100–
refuse
1180)
Utah
juniper
vegetal
Terminal
Pueblo II
Juniperus
through
collapsed
Structure subterranean
osteospermaInitial
fill: roof fall structure: with
150
kiva
type
Pueblo III
mixed refuse
(A.D. 1100–
1180)
Utah
juniper
fill: not
further
specified
393
Item Description
Modified wood
fragments, cut into
squares and
slightly
rectangular
blocks, ranging
from 5 to 35 cm
long and 3 to 8 cm
wide.
Modified wood,
cut into squares to
slightly
rectangular
blocks, some
almost
quadrangular in
shape, 1–12 cm
wide, 2–10 cm
long.
PD
No.
1850
FS
No.
33
Artifact
Category
other
modified
vegetal
Study
Unit
Fill/
Study Unit
Assemblage
Description
Position
Fill/
Assemblage
Type
Subperiod
Scientific
Name
Terminal
Pueblo II
surface
Juniperus
through
cultural
contact:
Structure subterranean
osteospermaInitial
deposit:
prepared
150
kiva
type
primary refuse Pueblo III
floor surface
(A.D. 1100–
1180)
394
Common
Name
Item Description
Utah
juniper
Modified wooden
artifact, broken
into two pieces.
Formally a large
item, flattened on
two sides, rounded
on one end. At
least 7.5 cm long,
5.5 cm wide, and
1.6 cm thick.
Table 8.16. Charred Plant Parts within Flotation Samples from Thermal Features and Ashpits
of Kivas at Albert Porter Pueblo.
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–1280)
Total number of kivas
3
14
3
Total number of flotation samples analyzed
9
47
10
Number of flotation samples containing the
taxon/part, and %
Taxon
Part
N=
%
N=
%
N=
%
1
11.1
7
14.9
4
40.0
3
6.4
Amelanchier/Peraphyllum-type
wood
Artemisia tridentata-type
wood
Artemisia-type
achene
5
55.6
5
10.6
1
10.0
Artemisia-type
flower bud
2
22.2
4
8.5
1
10.0
Artemisia-type
leaf
2
22.2
1
2.1
Artemisia-type
twig
1
11.1
Artemisia-type
wood
8
88.9
26
55.3
9
90.0
Atriplex-type
seed
1
2.1
Atriplex-type
wood
4
8.5
Cercocarpus montanus-type
twig
1
2.1
Cercocarpus montanus-type
wood
1
11.1
8
17.0
Cercocarpus/Artemisia-type
axillary bud
1
11.1
1
10.0
8
80.0
2
20.0
3
30.0
1
10.0
Cheno-am
embryo
Cheno-am
seed
Cheno-am
2
4.3
3
6.4
seed coat
1
2.1
Chrysothamnus nauseosus-type
wood
5
10.6
Cleome-type
seed
1
2.1
Corispermum-type
seed
2
4.3
Cycloloma atriplicifolium-type
seed
4
8.5
Descurainia-type
seed
1
2.1
Dicotyledon-type
wood
1
2.1
diffuse porous-type
wood
5
10.6
Ephedra viridis-type
wood
4
8.5
Euphorbia-type
seed
1
2.1
Fraxinus anomala-type
wood
3
6.4
6
12.8
8
88.9
Gramineae-type
caryopsis
Gramineae-type
embryo
1
2.1
Gramineae-type
floret
1
2.1
Gramineae-type
root
1
395
11.1
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–1280)
Total number of kivas
3
14
3
Total number of flotation samples analyzed
9
47
10
Number of flotation samples containing the
taxon/part, and %
Taxon
Part
Gramineae-type 3
caryopsis
N=
%
1
11.1
Gymnospermae
wood
Helianthus annuus-type
achene
1
Juniperus osteosperma-type
scale leaf
Juniperus osteosperma-type
Juniperus osteosperma-type
N=
%
N=
%
1
10.0
1
2.1
11.1
1
2.1
2
22.2
3
6.4
1
10.0
twig
5
55.6
7
14.9
3
30.0
wood
7
77.8
44
93.6
1
10.0
Leguminosae-type
cotyledon
1
2.1
Lithospermum-type
seed
1
2.1
Malvaceae-type
seed
1
2.1
Mentzelia albicaulis-type
seed
2
4.3
Monocotyledon-type
fiber
1
2.1
Monocotyledon-type
2
4.3
1
10.0
Monocotyledon-type
fibrovascular
bundles
leaf
1
2.1
1
10.0
Monocotyledon-type
spine
1
2.1
Monocotyledon-type
stem
1
2.1
Nicotiana attenuata-type
seed
2
4.3
Phaseolus vulgaris-type
cotyledon
1
2.1
Physalis longifolia-type
seed
9
19.1
1
10.0
Physalis longifolia-type
seed coat
1
10.0
Pinaceae-type
bark scale
1
10.0
7
70.0
1
10.0
1
3
11.1
33.3
1
Pinus edulis-type
bark fragment
Pinus edulis-type
bark scale
Pinus edulis-type
needle
Pinus edulis-type
twig
1
11.1
Pinus edulis-type
wood
3
33.3
Polygonum/Scirpus-type
achene
Populus/Salix-type
wood
2
Portulaca-type
seed
4
Purshia-type
seed
Purshia-type
wood
3
33.3
7
Quercus gambelii-type
wood
1
11.1
2
6
396
66.7
28
2.1
59.6
25
53.2
6
60.0
3
6.4
2
20.0
22.2
6
12.8
44.4
22
46.8
6
60.0
1
10.0
14.9
2
20.0
4.3
1
10.0
Late Pueblo II
(A.D. 1060–1140)
Early Pueblo III
(A.D. 1140–1225)
Late Pueblo III
(A.D. 1225–1280)
Total number of kivas
3
14
3
Total number of flotation samples analyzed
9
47
10
Number of flotation samples containing the
taxon/part, and %
Taxon
Part
Rhus aromatica var. trilobatatype
twig
Rhus aromatica var. trilobatatype
wood
ring porous-type
Rosaceae-type
Scirpus-type
N=
%
N=
%
1
2.1
wood
1
2.1
axillary bud
1
2.1
achene
1
11.1
5
10.6
Sphaeralcea-type
seed
1
11.1
2
4.3
Sporobolus-type
caryopsis
1
11.1
1
2.1
Stipa hymenoides-type
floret
2
4.3
Yucca baccata-type
seed
1
2.1
3
6.4
1
2.1
21
44.7
Zea mays
cob fragment
Zea mays
cob segment
Zea mays
cupule
Zea mays
embryo
2
4.3
Zea mays
glume
1
2.1
Zea mays
kernel
5
55.6
9
19.1
Zea mays
kernel embryo
1
11.1
2
4.3
1
3
11.1
33.3
N=
%
1
10.0
2
20.0
2
20.0
3
30.0
1
10.0
Note: Late Pueblo II kivas include: Structures 118, 903, and 904. Early Pueblo III kivas include: Structures 107,
108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 116, 117, 119, 302, 502, 602, and 803. Late Pueblo III kivas include: Structures 114,
402, and 403. A single thermal feature sample is from terminal Pueblo II through initial Pueblo III (A.D. 1100–
1180). Structure 150 has not been included here.
397
Table 8.17. Charred Plant Parts within Flotation Samples from Thermal Features and Ashpits
of Kivas within the Great House (Structures 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, and 119) or
on the Periphery of the Great House (Structures 116 and 117) or Outside of the Great House
(Structures 302, 502, 602, and 803), Albert Porter Pueblo.
Inside Great House
Total number of kivas
Total number of flotation samples analyzed
Number of flotation samples containing the
taxon/part, and %
Taxon
Part
Amelanchier/Peraphyllum-type
Artemisia tridentata-type
Artemisia-type
Artemisia-type
Artemisia-type
Artemisia-type
Atriplex-type
Atriplex-type
Cercocarpus montanus-type
Cercocarpus montanus-type
Cheno-am
Cheno-am
wood
wood
achene
flower bud
leaf
wood
seed
wood
twig
wood
embryo
seed
Cheno-am
Chrysothamnus nauseosus-type
Cleome-type
Corispermum-type
Cycloloma atriplicifolium-type
Descurainia-type
Dicotyledon-type
seed coat
wood
seed
seed
seed
seed
wood
diffuse porous-type
Ephedra viridis-type
Euphorbia-type
Fraxinus anomala-type
Gramineae-type
Gramineae-type
wood
wood
seed
wood
caryopsis
embryo
Gramineae-type
Gymnospermae
Helianthus annuus-type
Juniperus osteosperma-type
Juniperus osteosperma-type
floret
wood
achene
scale leaf
twig
8
27
Periphery of or Outside
Great House
6
20
N=
%
N=
%
4
14.8
2
2
1
13
7.4
7.4
3.7
48.1
3
3
3
2
15
15
15
10
13
65
1
1
1
3
3.7
3.7
3.7
11.1
3
15
17
63.0
5
2
13
25
10
65
2
1
2
7.4
3.7
7.4
1
3
5
15
4
1
20
5
2
3
1
10
15
5
5
25
1
5
1
2
5
10
1
3.7
3
1
11.1
3.7
3
1
1
11.1
3.7
3.7
1
1
2
5
398
3.7
3.7
7.4
18.5
Inside Great House
Total number of kivas
Total number of flotation samples analyzed
Number of flotation samples containing the
taxon/part, and %
Taxon
Juniperus osteosperma-type
Leguminosae-type
Lithospermum-type
Malvaceae-type
Mentzelia albicaulis-type
Monocotyledon-type
Monocotyledon-type
Part
wood
cotyledon
seed
seed
seed
fiber
8
27
N=
%
N=
%
26
96.3
18
1
90
5
1
1
2
1
3.7
3.7
7.4
3.7
2
10
1
5
1
4
5
20
10
11
50
55
2
7
10
35
2
10
1
5
1
5
2
1
2
1
12
2
10
5
10
5
60
10
fibrovascular
bundles
Monocotyledon-type
Monocotyledon-type
Monocotyledon-type
Nicotiana attenuata-type
Phaseolus vulgaris-type
Physalis longifolia-type
leaf
spine
stem
seed
cotyledon
seed
Pinaceae-type
Pinus edulis-type
Pinus edulis-type
Polygonum/Scirpus-type
Populus/Salix-type
Portulaca-type
Periphery of or Outside
Great House
6
20
1
1
2
3.7
3.7
7.4
5
18.5
bark scale
bark scale
wood
achene
wood
seed
1
18
14
3
4
15
3.7
66.7
51.9
11.1
14.8
55.6
Purshia-type
Quercus gambelii-type
Rhus aromatica var. trilobatatype
ring porous-type
Rosaceae-type
Scirpus-type
Sphaeralcea-type
Sporobolus-type
wood
wood
wood
5
2
18.5
7.4
1
3.7
wood
axillary bud
achene
seed
caryopsis
1
3.7
Stipa hymenoides-type
Yucca baccata-type
Zea mays
Zea mays
Zea mays
Zea mays
floret
seed
cob fragment
cob segment
cupule
embryo
5
2
18.5
7.4
1
3.7
9
33.3
399
Inside Great House
Total number of kivas
Total number of flotation samples analyzed
Number of flotation samples containing the
taxon/part, and %
Taxon
Zea mays
Zea mays
Zea mays
Part
glume
kernel
kernel embryo
8
27
N=
%
1
3
3.7
11.1
Note: All kivas date to the Early Pueblo III subperiod (A.D. 1140–1225).
400
Periphery of or Outside
Great House
6
20
N=
%
6
2
30
10
References Cited
Adams, Karen R.
1990 Prehistoric Reedgrass (Phragmites) "Cigarettes" with Tobacco (Nicotiana) Contents:
A Case Study from Red Bow Cliff Dwelling, Arizona. Journal of Ethnobiology 10:123–
139.
1994
A Regional Synthesis of Zea Mays in the Prehistoric American Southwest. In Corn and
Culture in the Prehistoric New World, edited by Sissel Johannessen and Christine A.
Hastorf, pp. 273–302. Westview Press, Boulder.
2004
Archaeobotanical Analysis: Principles and Methods. Electronic document,
http://www.crowcanyon.org/plantmethods, accessed 3 September 2010.
Adams, Karen R., and Vandy E. Bowyer
2002 Sustainable Landscape: Thirteenth-Century Food and Fuel Use in the Sand Canyon
Locality. In Seeking the Center Place: Archaeology and Ancient Communities in the
Mesa Verde Region, edited by Mark D. Varien and Richard H. Wilshusen, pp. 123–142.
University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Adams, Karen R., and Shawn S. Murray
2004 Identification Criteria for Plant Remains Recovered from Archaeological Sites in the
Central Mesa Verde Region. Electronic document, http://www.crowcanyon.org/plantID,
accessed 15 September 2010.
Connolly, Marjorie R.
1992 The Goodman Point Historic Land-Use Study. In The Sand Canyon Archaeological
Project: A Progress Report, edited by William D. Lipe, pp. 33–44. Occasional Papers,
No. 2. Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, Cortez, Colorado.
Cutler, Hugh C., and Winton Meyer
1965 Corn and Cucurbits from Wetherill Mesa. In Contributions of the Wetherill Mesa
Archeological Project, assembled by Douglas Osborne, edited by Bernard S. Katz, pp.
136–152. Memoirs of the Society for American Archaeology Number 19, Vol. 31, No. 2,
Part 2.
Diehl, Michael W., and Jennifer A. Waters
2006 Aspects of Optimization and Risk during the Early Agricultural Period in Southeastern
Arizona. In Behavioral Ecology and the Transition to Agriculture, edited by Douglas J.
Kennett and Bruce Winterhalder, pp 63–86. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Katzenberg, M. Anne
1999 Human Skeletal Remains. In The Sand Canyon Archaeological Project: Site Testing,
edited by Mark D. Varien, Chapter 19. CD-ROM, Version 1.0. Crow Canyon
Archaeological Center. Cortez, Colorado.
401
Kent, Kate P.
1957 The Cultivation and Weaving of Cotton in the Prehistoric Southwestern United States.
Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 47(3), Philadelphia.
Ortman, Scott G., Erin L. Baxter, Carole L. Graham, G. Robin Lyle, Lew W. Matis, Jamie A.
Merewether, R. David Satterwhite, and Jonathan D. Till
2005 The Crow Canyon Archaeological Center Laboratory Manual, Version 1. Electronic
document, http://www.crowcanyon.org/labmanual, accessed 20 June 2010.
Rainey, Katharine D., and Karen R. Adams
2004 Plant Use by Native Peoples of the American Southwest: Ethnographic Documentation.
Electronic document, http://www.crowcanyon.org/plantuses, accessed 15 September
2010.
Van West, Carla R., and Jeffrey S. Dean
2000 Environmental Characteristics of the A.D. 900–1300 Period in the Central Mesa Verde
Region. Kiva 66(1):19–44.
Welsh, Stanley L., N. Duane Atwood, Sherel Goodrich, and Larry C. Higgins (editors)
1987 A Utah Flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, No. 9. Brigham Young University, Provo,
Utah.
402
Chapter 9
Human Skeletal Remains
by Kathy Mowrer
Introduction
In this chapter, I describe the human skeletal remains and mortuary practices for Albert Porter
Pueblo. Analytic data on human remains and mortuary practices provide important information
about the lives, health, social dynamics, and deaths of ancestral Pueblo people who occupied
Albert Porter Pueblo. This chapter provides an overview of the analytical methods and an
inventory of the human remains as well as information about bone preservation, age and sex,
pathologies, metric measurements, nonmetric traits, and mortuary practices. This information is
followed by a summary of the analysis. In the final section, I discuss the similarities and
differences between the human remains found at Albert Porter Pueblo and those discovered at
selected other sites in the Mesa Verde region.
Adhering to the policy of the Crow Canyon Archaeological Center concerning the treatment of
human remains and associated funerary objects, archaeologists did not intentionally seek out
human remains. However, during the four years of excavation, 12 human remains occurrences
(HROs) and 11 isolated human bones (IHBs) were found. Crow Canyon defines a “human
remains occurrence” as either a burial or a concentration of articulated or disarticulated human
skeletal remains from one or more individuals. “Isolated human bone” is defined as fewer than
five disarticulated bones. A “skeletal element” is defined as a bone or tooth. Crow Canyon has
compiled a Human Remains Occurrence database that includes maps, photographs, and other
information that is not available to the general public because of the sensitivity of the material.
In most cases, fewer than 25 percent of the human skeletal remains of a particular individual
were exposed; remains ranged from portions of complete burials with associated funerary objects
to isolated remains consisting of a single tooth or bone. All HROs were analyzed in situ with
minimal disturbance to the bones and were reburied immediately after the recording process was
complete.
During the four-year research project at Albert Porter Pueblo, three analysts were contracted to
examine the skeletal remains. HROs 1–7 and IHBs 1–10 were analyzed by Cynthia Bradley,
HRO 8 was analyzed by Elizabeth Perry and Kathy Mowrer, and HROs 9–12 and IHB 11 were
analyzed by Kathy Mowrer. Standards for Data Collection for Human Skeletal Remains, or SOD
(Buikstra and Ubelaker 1994), provided the primary method of analysis for all analysts, thereby
minimizing analytic discrepancies. In a few cases, the criteria used to determine sex or age was
not specified by Bradley; this information was extrapolated from the data and photographs.
403
Methods
Osteological analysis drew from several sources (Buikstra and Ubelaker 1994; Ortner 2003;
Scheuer and Black 2000). The following data were recorded where possible: (1) adult age and
sex, (2) immature bone epiphyseal closure (infant, child, and subadult age), (3) dental
development and wear, (4) primary nonmetric traits, (5) immature cranial and postcranial
measurements, (6) adult cranial and postcranial measurements; (7) dental and skeletal
pathologies and trauma, (8) age-related degenerative changes, (9) congenital anomalies, and
(10) cultural modification.
Demographics
Data on age and sex provided the foundation for all subsequent analysis. Studies that examine
diet, pathologies, activity patterns, behavior, social dynamics, and death all involve the
separation of individuals by sex and age. Wherever possible, multiple lines of evidence were
used to increase the accuracy of age and sex determinations.
Sex Determination
The primary methods used to determine sex for adult skeletal remains consisted of analyzing
attributes found on the pelvis and skull. Pelvic traits carried more weight, because there is a
tendency for the female skull to exhibit an increasingly masculine appearance with increasing
age. Also, a male skull can retain a gracile, female appearance into adolescence (Buikstra and
Ubelaker 1994). Pelvic and cranial attributes were scored with the five-point scale outlined in
Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994) in which the gracile, female characteristics are at the lower end of
the range, and the robust, male characteristics are at the higher end of the range.
For the pelvis, three criteria for the subpubic area and two for the ilium were used to determine
sex. The subpubic characteristics include the shape of the subpubic concavity, the width of the
medial surface of the ischiopubic ramus ridge, and the shape of the ventral arc. The
characteristics of the ilium consist of the absence or presence and size of the preauricular sulcus
and the form of the greater sciatic notch (Buikstra and Ubelaker 1994). The criteria for the skull
include robusticity of the nuchal crest, the size of the mastoid process as compared with
surrounding structures, the prominence of the supraorbital margin, the prominence of glabella,
and the prominence of the mental eminence (Buikstra and Ubelaker 1994).
Primary sex characteristics have not fully developed in infants (0–2 years of age), children
(3–12 years of age), and some subadults, (13–18 years of age), which precludes specific sex
determination. As a result, these individuals were classed as “immature” to differentiate between
the remains of younger individuals and those of adults for which sex could not be determined.
The categories for recording sex consist of the following: (1) female, (2) probable female,
(3) ambiguous (displays characteristics of male and female), (4) probable male, (5) male,
(6) indeterminate, and (7) immature.
404
Age Determination
Criteria adapted from SOD (Buikstra and Ubelaker 1994) were used to determine age. Similar to
the pelvic attributes for determining sex, the pelvis provides the most reliable criteria for
assessing the age at death in adult human remains. Techniques for scoring the pubic symphysis
included the10-phase scoring system of Todd (1921a, 1921b) and Brooks and Suchey (1990) as
well as the five-phase system of Suchey et al. (1984). Morphological changes to the auricular
surface were scored with an eight-phase scoring system adapted from Lovejoy et al. (1985) and
Meindl and Lovejoy (1989).
To supplement the pelvic age assessment, or if the pelvis was not observable, Meindl and
Lovejoy’s (1985) cranial composite scoring system described in SOD for determining age on the
basis of suture closure was used. If cranial composite scores could not be calculated from the
exposed portions of the crania, age was assessed from the observable sutures and thickness of the
cranium. Corroborating lines of evidence, including dental development (Buikstra and Ubelaker
1994; Hillson 2002; Ubelaker 1989), epiphyseal union (Buikstra and Ubelaker 1994; Scheuer
and Black 2000), and long-bone length (Scheuer and Black 2000) were used to strengthen age
assessment wherever possible.
For subadults and children, age determination relied largely on dental development, epiphyseal
union, and long-bone length. Long-bone length was given less weight in determining age,
because health conditions and some genetic and congenital conditions can influence long-bone
length. The age categories used are listed here: (1) fetus = < birth; (2) infant=0 months–2 years
of age; (3) child=3–12 years of age; (4) subadult=13–18 years of age; (5) young adult=19–35
years of age; (6) middle adult=36–49 years of age; (7) old adult=50+ years of age.
Pathologies and Trauma
All observable signs of disease were recorded, with emphasis on skeletal markers that have
demonstrated favorable results when assessing health in prehistoric populations of the U.S.
Southwest. These included, but were not limited to, cribra orbitalia and porotic hyperostosis,
localized and systemic infections, periosteal lesions, osteoarthritis, spinal osteophytosis, dental
caries, enamel hypoplasia, and periodontal disease.
Periostitis and Infectious Disease
Periostitis is defined as an inflammatory condition of the osteogenic tissue (periosteum) that
surrounds the bone. Infectious diseases, traumatic injury, nutritional deficiency, and other
conditions (Cook 1984; Lambert 1999; Ortner and Putschar 1985) can cause periosteal reactions.
Periosteal reactions that involve multiple long bones, often bilaterally, are likely to have been the
result of systemic infectious diseases, whereas many isolated reactions are the result of localized
trauma (Martin et al. 1991).
405
Porotic Hyperostosis
Porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia are caused by an expansion of the diploë, an increase in
the thickness of the cranial vault, and a reduction or destruction of the outer table of the cranium.
Researchers have sought the causes of porotic hyperostosis in Western populations and generally
agree that this condition is the result of a complex set of variables involving diet and infectious
disease (Mensforth et al. 1978).
Enamel Hypoplasia
Enamel hypoplasia is a pathological condition of tooth enamel that is considered by many
researchers to be a reliable indicator of health stress. Hypoplastic lesions form when childhood
growth is disturbed by systemic metabolic disturbances, usually from nutritional stress or
disease, although some are hereditary or traumatic in origin. Hypoplasia is especially useful to
analysts because the lesions provide a record of the age and duration of the affliction. The
defects most often occur as linear, horizontal grooves, but can be vertical lines, pits, notches, or
amorphous areas of enamel irregularity on the labial surface of the tooth (Kreshover 1960; Sarnat
and Schour 1941).
Dental Caries
Dental caries is a chronic disease in which acids produced by bacteria demineralize or destroy
tooth enamel. This demineralization creates an environment favorable for the growth of bacteria,
which can lead to accelerated tooth decay and tooth loss. The impact of caries on the health of
the individual is usually not significant unless the disease progresses, spreads to other parts of the
body, and becomes a serious health risk. Dental caries can develop in deciduous and permanent
dentition but is most common in the latter. Dental caries is usually considered a progressive agerelated disease (Larsen 1983, 1995). The frequency of caries in pre-Contact agricultural
communities varies widely.
Degenerative Joint Disease
Osteoarthritis, or degenerative joint disease (DJD), is a progressive disease of the synovial and
intervertebral joints (Ortner 2003). The three major stages include Stage 1 DJD, which is the
development of bony outgrowths, lipping on the vertebral articular surfaces and joints (especially
the elbow and knee), and bony outgrowths, or osteophytes, on the vertebral centra. Stage 2 DJD
is the development of small deposits of bone or pitting on the vertebral articular surfaces and
joints. In Stage 3 DJD, the bony deposits may grow large enough to destroy cartilage. When this
occurs, bone rubs on bone, producing eburnation―abrasion or polishing on the surfaces
(Ubelaker 1989). Although DJD is thought to be a normal part of the aging process, lifestyle and
activity patterns can have a significant influence on the inception and progress of the disorder.
Repetitive activities associated with biomechanical stress can result in distinct patterns of
osteoarthritis within and between skeletal elements. These patterns can provide insights about
workload and patterns of movement. Different types of stress will affect the development of
arthritis in different ways (Ortner 2003; Solomon 2001). In archaeological populations, DJD is
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found most commonly at the elbow—which was probably caused by flexion/extension and
rotation movements associated with the joint that stimulates osteophyte formation (Ortner
2003)—and second most commonly at the knee. All joint surfaces and vertebrae at Albert Porter
Pueblo were examined for evidence of DJD. The vertebral articular surfaces, arms, legs, and
extremities were scored for DJD, and the intervertebral joints (vertebral bodies) were scored for
osteophytosis.
Spinal osteoarthritis, or osteophytosis, is similar to joint changes seen in the appendicular
skeleton and can range from minimal to significant. Osteophytosis is characterized by osteophyte
formation, lipping, or bony protrusions along the superior and inferior margins of the centrum. It
generally occurs in individuals over the age of 40 but can occur as early as the third decade of
life. Any segment of the spine can be affected, and one vertebra or multiple vertebrae can be
involved (Ortner 2003).
Trauma
Traumatic injuries can provide information about physical and social settings and the ability of a
population to safeguard itself against risks. All exposed bones were examined for evidence of
postmortem and perimortem traumatic injury, including burning and fractures.
Metrics
Estimates of long-bone length can provide useful information about age, sex, stature, and activity
patterns (Krogman and Iscan 1986; Ubelaker 1989). Stature can be an important indicator of
overall health. Nutritional deficiencies and infection can have a direct effect on development and
growth. Cranial and postcranial measurements were recorded in millimeters using digital sliding
calipers, a measuring tape, or a metric ruler. Stature measurement followed Genovés (1967) for
Mesoamerican adult females and males. Scheuer and Black’s (2000) guide was used as necessary
to determine age for children and subadults from the length of long bones.
Biodistance
The significance of studying nonmetric traits—also termed discrete traits, epigenetic traits, or
discontinuous morphological traits—is that these variants can show familial inheritance in Homo
Sapiens (Saunders and Popovich 1978; Selby et al. 1955; Torgersen 1951a, 1951b, 1963).
Population differences in skeletal morphology are often the result of genetic and environmental
differences between groups. Cranial and postcranial nonmetric traits were recorded wherever
possible.
Cultural Modification
Cranial deformation is one of the most ubiquitous cultural practices found throughout the world
(Ortner 2003; Ortner and Putschar 1985; Rogers 1992; White and Folkens 1999). In ancestral
Pueblo populations, cranial deformation is thought to have been caused by “cradleboarding.”
According to Reed (2000), a marked increase in flattened heads occurred during the transition
from the Basketmaker III period (about A.D. 400–750) to the Pueblo I period (about A.D. 750–
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900). Piper’s (2002) examination of cradleboards from the Colorado Plateau demonstrated that,
with the adoption of agriculture as the chief subsistence strategy, practices for the care of infants
and young children changed. Piper (2002) suggests that cranial flattening resulted from how
cradleboards were used: babies attached to cradleboards were laid flat or propped against a wall,
tree, or rock while parents performed tasks nearby. The principal types of cranial deformation
seen in the Southwest consist of occipital or lambdoidal deformation (Piper 2002). Occipital
deformation is characterized by a flattened area at the back of the skull at a 90-degree angle from
the Frankfort plane (a standard plane of reference extending from the upper border of the
external auditory meatus through the lower border of the eye orbit). Lambdoidal-deformed crania
are flattened on the upper portion of the occiput (the posterior part of the head above the base of
the neck) at an angle of 50–60 degrees. All observable crania at Albert Porter Pueblo were
examined for cradleboarding.
Mortuary Practices
The study of mortuary practices examines one of the most complex and varied of human
interactions—the relationship between the living and the dead (Mowrer 2003). Studies by Saxe
(1970) and Binford (1971) are considered by many anthropologists to be the starting point for
mortuary studies (McHugh 1999). Both researchers examined cross-cultural differentiation that
includes age and gender differentiation, rank, status, social position, and social affiliation
(membership in a clan, sodality, or moiety) and how these differences are reflected in mortuary
practices (Binford 1971; Saxe 1970). Archaeologists continue to examine mortuary studies for
age and gender differentiation (Buikstra and Beck 2006; Crown 2000; Mowrer 2003; Neitzel
2000) but now often integrate osteological data, such as nutrition and trauma information, to see
how these data correlate with mortuary practices (Lambert 1999; Martin 2000). Other
archaeologists have expanded mortuary studies to include the examination of mortuary attributes
for clues about symbolism, religion, and ideology (Brown 1996, 1997: Hill 1998; Plog and
Heitman 2010; Schlanger 1992) and to provide a context for mortuary sites as part of the overall
landscape in which people live (Beck 1995).
In the following section, I provide an overview of ancestral Pueblo mortuary practices found
throughout much of the Four Corners area. This section is followed by examples of inferences
regarding ancestral Pueblo peoples from the Basketmaker II through the Pueblo IV periods. The
first four examples are from the northern Southwest, whereas the final two are from south-central
Utah and east-central Arizona, respectively, and are included because, as the discussion below
indicates, many aspects of ancestral Pueblo mortuary practice appear to be ubiquitous throughout
much of the Southwest.
Many formal burials were placed in a prepared oval or rectangular pit with the individual’s legs
semi-flexed (legs together and knees drawn up), flexed (fetal), or extended with the hands along
the sides of, or folded across, the body (Bradley 2002, 2003; Cattanach 1980; Hinkes 1983;
Karhu 2000; Kuckelman and Martin 2007; Morris 1924; Mowrer 2003; Nordenskiöld 1979;
Schlanger 1992; Stodder 1987; Turner and Turner 1999; Wiener 1984). Funerary objects,
particularly pottery vessels, accompanied many individual burials, especially adult burials (Akins
1986; Bradley 2002; Rohn 1971, 1977; Whittlesey and Reid 2004). Formal burials were placed
primarily in middens from the Basketmaker II through the Pueblo II periods (Schlanger 1992).
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However, formal burials have also been discovered in pit structures, abandoned rooms, in burial
pits under floors in rooms that continued to be used after interment, in rooms that appear to have
been intentionally sealed after entombment, in the fill of kivas, on the floor of kivas, and in rock
crevices (Bradley 1988; Bradley 2002; Cattanach 1980; Kuckelman and Martin 2007). The few
formal burials that have been found on kiva floors are inferred to result from an unusual event
(Bradley 2002). Some archaeologists (Bradley 2002; Huber 1989; Katzenberg 1999; Kuckelman
2000; Kuckelman and Martin 2007; Morris 1924) have observed a greater quantity of burials in
rooms dating from the Pueblo III period (A.D. 1150–1300) than in rooms dating from earlier
periods. This pattern is discussed in more detail below under “Mortuary Practices.”
Many informal burials are found in abandonment contexts and differ considerably from formal
burials. The remains are often sprawled, loosely flexed, prostrate, or haphazardly placed on the
floor of a structure (Martin 2000). Some remains are disarticulated and exhibit perimortem
(occurred around the time of death) trauma or healed fractures of cranial or postcranial elements,
or some combination of these features (Kuckelman and Martin 2007; Martin 2000). There is no
prepared burial pit or associated funerary objects (Kuckelman and Martin 2007; Martin 2000).
Informal burials found in abandonment contexts have been observed in a variety of locations
including structure floors, ventilator shafts, structure roof fall, room floors, and structural
collapse within rooms (Kuckelman and Martin 2007). Cater (2007) found that most skeletal
remains that exhibited trauma or were disarticulated, or both, were found in pit structures, kivas,
and surface rooms, and that children as well as adults died as a result of trauma. The age group
most abundantly represented was adults between 30 and 40 years of age (Cater 2007). Isolated or
scattered human remains are also found throughout much of the Southwest. Crow Canyon
defines an IHB as fewer than five disarticulated bones. Isolated human bone can be found in the
same types of contexts as formal or informal burials.
I compiled late Archaic and Basketmaker II (about 2000 B.C.–A.D. 500) mortuary data for the
Four Corners area in the northern Southwest (Mowrer 2003) to determine if social differentiation
was expressed through mortuary practices during that time. In this study, I found that, in
Basketmaker II societies, the most prominent distinctions in mortuary practices reflect age rather
than gender or status. The funerary items that accompanied adults (atlatls, bifaces, projectile
points, manos, metates, etc.) suggest economic role, whereas funerary items that accompanied
children and infants (blankets and bedding) suggest body preparation, grief, or both (Mowrer
2003).
Neitzel (2001) calculated “grave lot values” (GLV), defined as an “estimate of the aggregate
value of all the grave goods buried with an individual” (Neitzel 2000:152). a measure utilized in
several mortuary studies (Brunson 1989; Effland 1988; Hagopian 1994; McGuire 1992) to
determine whether gender differentiation was characterized by a gender hierarchy and, if so, to
define the ranking of males and females for various sites from the Pueblo I period (A.D. 900–
1150) through the Pueblo III period (A.D. 1150–1300). Neitzel found that the GLV at Pueblo I,
McPhee Phase (A.D. 850 ̶ 975) burials near Dolores, Colorado, suggest comparative gender
equality, whereas at a late Pueblo II–Pueblo III (A.D. 1000–1200s) Yellow Jacket site northwest
of Cortez, Colorado, the GLV suggest male-dominated gender hierarchies. In contrast, at Chaco
Canyon in northwest New Mexico, which was occupied from the Pueblo I through the Pueblo III
periods (approximately A.D. 900 through A. D. 1300), the GLV suggest both males and females
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exhibited hierarchical distributions, indicating that gender hierarchies might have changed
through time (Neitzel 2000).
A study of several Pueblo II (about A.D. 950–1100) sites in the La Plata valley by Martin (2000)
combined osteological evidence with an examination of mortuary practices to determine how
political centralization and hierarchy effected gender and age differentiation. The osteological
data indicate that a subgroup of females frequently experienced blunt-force trauma to the head
and lower body, and bone degeneration related to strenuous muscle strain. This same group of
women did not receive the same consideration at death as most of the individuals buried at the
La Plata sites. Most of the formal burials were flexed or semi-flexed, accompanied by funerary
objects, and placed in abandoned structures or storage pits (Martin 2000.) In contrast, the
subgroup females were placed haphazardly in abandoned pit structures with no associated
funerary objects (Martin 2000). Martin (2000) states that the osteological and mortuary data may
indicate that labor could have been divided by sex as well as by “class” at the La Plata sites.
In a recent study, Plog and Heitman (2010) examined mortuary practices at Chaco Canyon for
social differentiation and to address questions about the chronology of social and political
processes within the canyon. They focused on mortuary patterns for great houses and smallhouse settlements. At small-house settlements, many burials were found in middens. Because
small-house middens have been subject to professional and nonprofessional excavations since
the late 1880s, artifact counts and the types of artifacts that accompanied individuals were
difficult to determine; however, documented excavations indicate that an average of 1.5 vessels
were placed with each burial in a small-house midden (Akins 1986). In contrast, at Pueblo
Bonito, burials were placed in rooms, and the number of burials was much lower than expected
for a pueblo that might have had as many as 1,000 occupants (Judd 1954). Most of the burials at
this site were clustered in two mortuary crypts composed of four rooms each―one in the north
and one in the west section of the pueblo. Funerary items included turquoise beads and pendants,
shell, jet, and unusual artifacts such as flutes, wooden ceremonial staffs, cylinder jars, and conch
shell trumpets (Plog and Heitman 2010). Plog and Heitman (2010) concluded that social
differentiation occurred in Chaco Canyon as early as the A.D. 1000s, and that the difference
between great-house and small-house mortuary practices was a result of cultural rules that
specified that particular individuals could be buried in Pueblo Bonito and other great houses.
Moreover, they suggest that great-house burials and associated funerary objects provided
important social, ritual, and cosmological connections by linking people to founders, ancestors,
and cosmological forces (Plog and Heitman 2010).
At RB568, a Pueblo III (A.D. 1150–1350) site near Kayenta, Arizona, the most elaborate burials
were those of older adult females (Crotty 1983), and all adult male burials were more elaborate
than subadult burials. Crotty (1983) concluded that the funerary items at Site RB568 reflect age
and gender differentiation. However, at Grasshopper Pueblo, a Pueblo IV (about A.D. 1300–
1450) site located in east-central Arizona, funerary items were found in more male burials than
female burials, and the types of funerary items that accompanied the male vs. female burials
differed and suggested gender-specific roles during life. Flint-knapping kits and projectile points
accompanied male burials; food-processing tools, such as manos and metates, accompanied
female burials (Whittlesey and Reid 2004).
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As the examples above demonstrate, studying mortuary practices can provide important insights
about an individual and a society. As reported in Mowrer (2003), most adult Basketmaker II
burials in the Four Corners area and most Grasshopper Pueblo burials in east-central Arizona
Whittlesey and Reid (2004) contained funerary items that suggest economic roles in life. Neitzel
(2000), calculating GLV, determined that gender hierarchies changed through time and differed
from site to site. The Pueblo I burials near Dolores, Colorado, reflect gender equality, whereas
the Pueblo II–Pueblo III burials at Yellow Jacket, northwest of Cortez, Colorado, suggest maledominated hierarchies. In contrast, at Chaco Canyon, which was occupied from the Pueblo I to
the Pueblo III periods, funerary items suggest the presence of both male- and female-dominated
hierarchies that changed through time. Martin (2000) examined osteological data and mortuary
practices at the Pueblo II La Plata sites in northwestern New Mexico and was able to determine
that labor might have been divided by sex as well as by “class.” Plog and Heitman’s (2010)
examination of funerary items and burial locations at Chacoan great-house and small-house
settlements also demonstrates how funerary items can provide clues about status as well as belief
systems, political systems, and roles in life. Crotty (1983) found that the mortuary practices at
RB568, a late Pueblo III site near Kayenta, Arizona, reflect gender and age differentiation.
In sum, mortuary practices can provide information at the individual level about roles in life,
rank, status, and social and political position. At a broader level, mortuary practices can provide
insights into a society’s belief systems, political systems, and social complexity and how these
aspects of a group can change through time. All pertinent mortuary information was recorded for
the Albert Porter Pueblo population.
Analytical Data
In this section, I present a detailed description of the osteological analysis for Albert Porter
Pueblo, including bone condition, skeletal inventory, age and sex assessment (Table 9.1),
skeletal and dental pathologies (Table 9.2), mortuary data (Table 9.3), metric measurements, and
nonmetric traits. The osteological data are followed by a description of the mortuary context,
including body position, head direction, and associated funerary items.
The skeletal remains of 23 individuals were analyzed at Albert Porter Pueblo, including 12
HROs and 11 IHBs. The condition of the skeletal remains varied from excellent, with minimal
ground weathering, to poor, with moderate to severe ground weathering, water damage,
postmortem breaks, and disturbances from bioturbation. No evidence of trauma was observed on
any element analyzed. The context, temporal assignment, age, and sex of each HRO and IHB can
be found in Table 9.1.
HRO 1
HRO 1 is the remains of an infant or young child approximately one to three years of age. Fewer
than 25 percent of the skeletal elements were found, and those were exposed in a 1-x-1-m unit in
Nonstructure 801. The fill surrounding the burial consisted of secondary refuse. Neither head
orientation nor body position could be determined from the exposed elements, and no funerary
objects were associated with this individual. The skeletal elements consist of the superior section
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of the cranium, including partial left and right frontals and parietals. The skeletal elements were
in good condition.
Age was assessed on the basis of cranial sutures and thickness of the cranial fragments. The
anterior fontanelle, which usually fuses between one and two years of age (Scheuer and Black
2000), is fused. This age assessment is supported by the articulated but unfused sagittal and
coronal sutures and the thickness of the cranial fragments. Sex cannot be determined for an
individual this young. Cranial and postcranial metric measurements and nonmetric traits could
not be recorded, because only a few fragments of the cranium were exposed. No evidence of
pathology was observed.
HRO 2
HRO 2 consists of the remains of an adult of indeterminate sex. Fewer than 25 percent of the
skeletal elements were exposed; these bones were found in a 1-x-1-m midden unit in the
northeastern portion of Nonstructure 901. No burial pit was evident; however, the remains
probably represent a formal burial disturbed by heavy rodent activity. The body and associated
funerary objects appear to have been placed within secondary refuse and covered with additional
midden deposits. The bones were in poor condition from rodent disturbance and ground
weathering. Body position and head direction could not be determined from the exposed
elements. Two associated funerary objects, a complete Chaco/McElmo-style miniature pitcher
(Vessel 2) that was probably produced A.D. 1050–1300 (Blinman and Wilson 1989) and
approximately one-half of a large Mancos Corrugated jar (Vessel 3) that probably dates A.D.
1050–1200 (Blinman and Wilson 1989), were placed above the burial, possibly near the lower
legs.
The skeletal elements designated HRO 2 include three tibia mid-shaft fragments (side
indeterminate), an adult first, second, third, or fourth distal phalanx, one premolar fragment, and
one possible tibia fragment. The size of the bone fragments, the fusing of the distal phalanx, and
the stage of dental development suggest that these elements are from one individual. The
complete development of the premolar suggests this individual was at least 13 years of age,
whereas the bone robusticity indicates that this person was an adult at least 19 years of age. Sex
could not be determined from the exposed elements. Metric measurements and nonmetric traits
could not be recorded, and no evidence of pathology was observed on the exposed elements.
HRO 3
HRO 3 is the remains of a young adult or middle adult, possibly female, who was between 30
and 35 years of age. The skeletal elements were exposed in three adjacent 1-x-1-m midden units
in Nonstructure 901. No burial pit could be discerned; the elements were heavily disturbed by
rodent activity and damaged by ground weathering. However, this was probably a formal burial.
The burial fill consisted of secondary midden deposits placed over the individual. Fewer than 50
percent of the skeletal elements were present. Head direction and body position could not be
determined for this individual, nor were any funerary objects observed. The elements were in fair
condition.
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No cranial elements were exposed. The axial skeleton includes a partial right pubic symphysis,
with a fragmentary portion of the pubis and ramus visible, and a partial left sacrum that consists
of the superior vertebral surface and upper one-third of the anterior surface. The ribs include
three fragmentary mid-shaft rib fragments (side indeterminate), one partial left rib minus the
head, and the distal portion of one left rib. A partial left scapula with a complete associated
acromion process represents the shoulder girdle. The long bones include a fibula mid-shaft
fragment (side indeterminate), a tibia fragment (side indeterminate), and a long tibia- or femurshaft fragment (side indeterminate). The extremities consist of one distal foot phalanx (side
indeterminate).
The pelvic girdle indicates that HRO 3 was a young adult, probably female, 30–35 years of age.
The pubic symphysis suggests an age between 30 and 35 years. The pelvic criteria for sex, the
pubis and ramus, fall in the “probable female” range. No pathologies were observed, and
nonmetric traits could not be recorded for this individual. One IHB, a premolar from a child fiveto-six years of age, was exposed with HRO 3 and is discussed in the IHB section below.
HRO 4
HRO 4 consists of the remains of a child between four and 12 years of age. Fewer than 25
percent of the skeletal elements were exposed, and these were found during the excavation of
a 1-x-1-m midden unit in Nonstructure 606. An oval-to-rectangular burial pit (Feature 1) was
defined, and the fill surrounding the burial consisted of secondary refuse and natural sediments.
Body position could not be determined; however, the head was oriented to the east. No
associated funerary objects were found with HRO 4. The bones were in poor condition from
extensive ground weathering and surface weathering.
The skeletal remains consisted of a fragment of the left temporal bone with part of the petrous
portion and sphenosquamosal and squamosal suture lines exposed. The size and vault thickness
suggest that the temporal fragment represents a child between four and 12 years of age.
This estimate is supported by the sphenosquamosal and squamosal sutures, which exhibited
postmortem breaks but appear to be unfused. Sex could not be determined, and cranial
measurements and nonmetric traits could not be recorded, because only a few fragments of
the cranium were exposed. No evidence of pathology was observed on the exposed bones.
HRO 5
HRO 5 consists of the remains a child between three and five years of age. Fewer than 25
percent of the skeletal elements were exposed; these were found during the excavation of a 1-x1-m midden unit in Nonstructure 901. Although a burial pit was not visible in profile, the
presence of a pit is likely. The body was covered with secondary refuse deposits. Body position
and head direction could not be determined, and no funerary objects were observed. The bones
had been subjected to ground weathering and surface weathering and were in good to poor
condition.
The exposed skeletal remains consisted of partial left and right parietals and partial left and right
occipitals. The unfused condition of the sagittal and lambdoidal sutures, as well as the thickness
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of the cranium, indicates that this individual was a child between three and five years of age. Sex
cannot be determined for an individual this young. Metric measurements and nonmetric traits
could not be recorded, because only a few fragments of the cranium were exposed. No evidence
of pathology was observed on these skeletal elements.
HRO 6
HRO 6 is the remains of a young- or middle-adult female who was between 27 and 40 years of
age. Fewer than 50 percent of the skeletal elements were exposed; these were found during the
excavation of a 2-x-2-m midden unit in Nonstructure 1103. A burial pit could not be defined;
however, it is likely the visible remains represent a small portion of a complete inhumation. It
appears that the body was placed in midden deposits and covered with additional refuse. Body
position could not be determined. The head was oriented to the southwest and was facing
upwards. Two Mancos Black-on-white bowls that were probably produced about A.D. 1000–
1150 (Blinman and Wilson 1989) were located near the skull. The bones were in excellent
condition with minimal ground weathering.
The skeletal elements consisted of complete left and right facial bones including the zygomatics,
lacrimals, nasal bones, and maxillae. Partial elements include left and right frontals, parietals,
and mandibles, the left greater wing of the sphenoid, and the vomer. All of the maxillary
dentition was present except the left and right third molars and the right second molar.
Observable mandibular dentition included the left and right central and lateral incisors and
canines.
Cranial suture closure, and dental wear and development, indicates this was a young-to-middle
age adult. Cranial composite scores could not be calculated, because not all of the suture sites
were exposed. However, the degree of suture closure for the lateral anterior sites indicates that
this individual was probably between 27 and 50 years of age. Dental development indicates an
age of at least 21 years, because the root apex is closed on all observable teeth; however, dental
wear is moderate to heavy, suggesting that the individual was older than 25 years of age. An age
younger than 40 years is suggested by minimal dental pathologies and the absence of
antemortem tooth loss.
Three cranial sex criteria suggest that this individual was female. The supraorbital margin and
glabella fell at the extreme end of the range for female, whereas the mental eminence fell into the
probable female range. This assessment should, however, be considered tentative, because no
other elements could be assessed for sex, and cranial sex indicators are not considered as reliable
as pelvic sex indicators (Buikstra and Ubelaker 1994).
Cranial and postcranial measurements could not be recorded, because only a portion of the
cranium was exposed. Nonmetric traits include the presence of a metopic suture, left and right
supraorbital sutures, infraorbital sutures and foramina, and zygomatic facial foramina. No
evidence of pathology was observed on the cranial elements.
Tooth wear was moderate to heavy with significant dentin exposure especially on the mandibular
incisors and canines. No antemortem tooth loss was observed. The entire observable maxillary
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dentition exhibits Type A (small amounts) calculus, and the mandibular incisors and canines
exhibit Type B (moderate amounts) calculus. Mild porosity and minimal bone resorption is
present on the alveolar bone surrounding the central mandibular incisors, which suggests mild
periodontal disease in that location.
HRO 7
HRO 7 consists of the remains of a middle adult of indeterminate sex between 35 and 45 years of
age. Fewer than 25 percent of the skeletal elements were discovered; these were found during the
excavation of a 1-x-1-m midden unit in Nonstructure 9004. An oval-shaped burial pit (Feature 1)
was apparently excavated into undisturbed native sediment, and the body was covered with
secondary refuse. Head direction and body position could not be determined, except that the right
arm appeared to extend down the body with the hand near the right knee. No associated funerary
objects were identified. The elements are in good condition with some postmortem fracturing
and ground weathering.
Only portions of the appendicular skeleton and extremities were exposed in the excavation unit.
The arm bones included the distal epiphyses for the right radius and ulna. The leg bones included
a fragmentary mid-shaft section of the left tibia and partial proximal shaft portions of the right
tibia and fibula. The extremities consist of complete right third and fourth metacarpals, several
complete proximal carpal phalanges (side indeterminate), and one complete first distal carpal
phalanx (side indeterminate).
Epiphyseal union and age-related degenerative changes indicate this individual was a middle
adult between 35 and 45 years of age. The distal epiphyses on the radius and ulna are completely
fused, indicating an age of at least 20 years (Scheuer and Black 2000). The presence of Stage 1
DJD on the distal right radius and ulna, metacarpals, and carpal phalanges, suggest that this
individual was probably a middle adult older than 30 years of age. This assessment is supported
by the development of ligamentous attachments on the palmar surface of the proximal phalanges.
There is no evidence of Stage 2 pitting, or Stage 3 DJD that would suggest an older adult. Sex
could not be determined; however, the field analyst noted that the bones appeared small and
gracile, suggesting that HRO 7 was female, but not enough of the remains were exposed to
confirm this observation.
Cranial and postcranial measurements and nonmetric traits could not be recorded, because only
a portion of the cranium was exposed. No pathologies, other than age-related degenerative
changes, were observed on the exposed elements. These remains exhibited Stage 1 DJD,
consisting of slight to moderate lipping on the bones of the right arm and hand. The articular
margins of the distal epiphyses of the radius and ulna exhibit lipping, whereas the hands exhibit
lipping on the proximal and distal articular surfaces of the third and fourth metacarpals, the
proximal and distal articular surfaces of two proximal carpal phalanges, and the proximal
articular surface of the first distal carpal phalanx. The proximal phalanges exhibit ligamentous
attachments on the palmar surface.
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HRO 8
HRO 8 consists of the remains of a middle adult of indeterminate sex between 35 and 45 years of
age. Fewer than 25 percent of the skeletal elements were discovered; these were exposed during
the excavation of a 2-x-2-m unit in Structure 1104 and consisted of a cluster of disarticulated
bones. It appeared that the skeletal elements were placed on or within the top layer of roof
sediments of a pit structure. Head direction and body position could not be determined, because
the elements were not articulated. No associated funerary objects were observed. The bones were
in good condition with slight ground weathering.
Only portions of the axial skeleton were exposed. These include a complete atlas, a partial third
lumbar vertebra, four complete left ribs, and one rib fragment (side indeterminate). The fusing of
the vertebral annular epiphyseal rings and presence of age-related degenerative changes indicate
that this was a middle adult between 35 and 45 years of age. The complete fusing of the superior
and inferior vertebral annular epiphyses on the vertebrae indicates an age of at least 19 years
(Scheuer and Black 2000). The presence of moderate to significant osteophytosis (lipping) on the
superior body of the third lumbar vertebra, Stage 1 DJD (slight to moderate lipping) on the
superior and inferior facets of the third lumbar vertebra and on the inferior articular facets of the
atlas, suggest that this individual was a middle adult between 35 and 45 years of age (Ubelaker
1989). The presence of moderate to significant osteophytosis suggests that age is likely to have
been nearer to 45 years. Sex could not be determined from the exposed elements, nor could
cranial and postcranial measurements and nonmetric traits be recorded from the exposed
elements. No evidence of pathology other than age-related degenerative changes to the bone
was observed on the exposed elements.
This individual exhibited moderate to significant Stage 1 DJD: lipping on the vertebrae and ribs
and osteophytosis on the third lumbar vertebra. The inferior articular facets of the first cervical
vertebra (the atlas) exhibit slight lipping, whereas the third lumbar vertebra exhibits slight to
moderate lipping on the superior and inferior articular facets. The observable vertebral articular
facets on the ribs exhibit Stage 1 DJD along the margins. Moderate to significant osteophytosis
(lipping) is present on the superior aspect of the centrum of the third lumbar vertebra.
HRO 9
HRO 9 consists of the remains of a child who was probably between two and four years of age.
Fewer than 25 percent of the skeletal elements were exposed; the one element was found during
the excavation of a 1-x-1-m midden unit in Nonstructure 101. A partial adult rib, IHB 11 (see
Table 9.1), was also exposed in this excavation unit and is discussed in the “Isolated Human
Bone” section. The excavation unit exhibited disturbance from rodent burrowing; however, it
appeared that the remains of this individual were placed in refuse mixed with natural sediments.
Body position and head direction could not be determined, nor were any funerary objects
identified. The bone had been subjected to ground weathering and rodent activity and was in
good to poor condition.
The skeletal element observed consists of a complete right femur, with the posterior aspect of the
bone exposed. The greater trochanter, femoral head and distal epiphysis (condyles) are unfused,
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indicating an age of less than 14 years. The maximum length of the femur diaphysis is 198 mm
(+/-5 mm) long, which narrows the possible age to between two and four years (Scheuer and
Black 2000). However, the age assessment should be considered an estimate, because health
conditions and some genetic and congenital conditions can influence long-bone length. Sex
could not be determined for an individual this young. No acceptable method to determine stature
for a child has been developed. No other postcranial or cranial measurements or nonmetric traits
could be recorded for this individual. No evidence of pathology was observed.
HRO 10
HRO 10 consists of the remains of a child between six and 10 years of age. Fewer than 25
percent of the skeletal elements were discovered; these were exposed in a 1-x-1-m midden unit
in Nonstructure 9007. The visible remains were probably a small portion of a complete
inhumation. The body was apparently placed in a burial pit (Feature 1) and covered with midden
material mixed with natural sediments. The shape of the burial pit could not be defined. The
cranium was oriented to the west, and it faced north. Body position could not be determined.
Associated funerary objects consist of two Pueblo III side-notched projectile points (PLs 2 and
3). Placement of the projectile points in relation to the body is unknown. The bone was in
excellent condition with slight ground weathering.
This individual is represented by portions of the cranium and one middle phalanx. The cranium
consists of complete left and right maxillae, and partial left and right frontals that include
complete left and right orbital plates and zygomatics. The deciduous dentition includes complete
upper left and right canines, first molars, and the left second molar. The permanent dentition
includes complete upper right central and lateral incisors, the left canine and first premolar, and a
lower first premolar. The extremities are represented by a fragment of a middle phalanx (side
indeterminate).
Dental development indicates that this child was between six and 10 years of age. The crown
and root of the second deciduous molar are complete, whereas the apex tip of the root is
approximately one-half closed. The permanent dentition had complete crowns but had not
erupted and had not developed roots. Sex could not be determined for an individual this young.
Cranial and postcranial measurements could not be recorded from the skeletal remains exposed.
Nonmetric traits could not be recorded for this individual. No evidence of pathology was
observed on the exposed bones.
HRO 11
HRO 11 consists of the remains of a middle adult male between 35 and 49 years of age. Fewer
than 25 percent of the skeletal elements were exposed; these were discovered during the
excavation of a 1-x-1-m midden unit in Nonstructure 1041. No burial pit could be defined;
however, the visible remains probably represent a small portion of a complete inhumation. It
appears that the remains were placed on, and covered with, secondary refuse mixed with natural
sediments. The head was oriented to the northeast. Body position could not be determined, and
no associated funerary objects were observed. The bones were in excellent condition.
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This individual is represented by a nearly complete cranium and one metatarsal. Complete
elements of the cranium consist of left and right occipitals, including the nuchal crest, and the
right parietal. Partial cranial elements consist of the following: left parietal, superior portion; the
right temporal including the external auditory meatus; the mastoid process; and the zygomatic
process. The extremities are represented by the proximal fourth right metatarsal.
The degree of suture closure and the fusing of the epiphysis on the metatarsal suggest that this
individual was between 35 and 49 years of age. This age determination reflects a general range
of years, because only a portion of the cranium and the fourth metatarsal were exposed.
Composite cranial suture scores could not be calculated for all sites on the cranium; however, the
superior sphenotemporal and midlambdoid sutures exhibit significant closure, as does bregma
(the intersection of the sagittal and coronal sutures) and lambda (the intersection of the sagittal
and lambdoidal sutures). Moreover, the anterior sagittal suture and obelion are completely
obliterated, which further suggests this was an adult, probably between 35 and 49 years of age.
This age assessment is further supported by the complete fusing of the proximal epiphysis on the
fourth metatarsal.
Sex was determined by observable cranial characteristics. Characteristics of the nuchal crest, the
supraorbital margin, and the mastoid process all fall into the extreme end of the range for males.
However, given the lack of supporting pelvic or other postcranial characteristics used to
determine sex, and the tendency of the skull to exhibit increasing masculine morphology with
increasing age, this designation should be considered tentative. Cranial and postcranial metric
measurements could not be recorded from the exposed remains. No evidence of pathology was
observed on the cranium or fourth metatarsal.
Observable nonmetric traits consist of three extra sutural bones. These include two lambdoidal
ossicles: one on the left side of the occipital near midlambdoid and one along the right side of the
occipital near bregma, and an asterionic bone along the right lambdoid suture near the
intersection of the parietal, temporal, and occipital bones.
Occipital cranial deformation suggests cradleboarding. A 30-x-29-mm depression is present
approximately 12 mm below lambda. This depression is inferred to be associated with
cradleboard remodeling rather than the result of trauma because there was no observable
indication of active or healed trauma.
HRO 12
HRO 12 consists of the remains of a middle adult between 35 and 45 years of age. Fewer than 25
percent of skeletal elements were exposed; these were observed during excavations in a 1-x-1-m
midden unit in Nonstructure 101. The remains probably represent a small portion of a formal
burial; however, no burial pit was defined. The body was placed on top of, and covered with,
secondary refuse mixed with natural sediments. The body had been placed on its right side with
the legs flexed. Head direction could not be determined, and no associated funerary objects were
observed with these remains. The bones were in excellent condition, although some ground
weathering and postmortem breaks were observed.
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The skeletal elements consist of the articulated portion of the left knee and one hand bone.
A portion of the femoral distal epiphysis including the lateral condyle was almost completely
exposed, and the medial condyle and the left patella were partly exposed. The lower leg bones
consist of a partial left tibia including the anterior and lateral portions of the proximal epiphysis,
a portion of the articular surface, and the proximal third of the tibia shaft. The fibula includes the
anterior and lateral portions of the proximal epiphysis and proximal third of the shaft. The hand
is represented by a complete left trapezium.
Age was assessed through observation of epiphyseal union and age-related degenerative changes.
The complete fusing of the distal epiphysis on the femur and of the proximal epiphyses on the
tibia and fibula (with total obliteration of the epiphyseal line), indicate an age of at least 25 years
(Scheuer and Black 2000). The left trapezium and the medial condyle on the distal femur exhibit
Stage 1 DJD. Slight to moderate lipping on the margins of the articular surfaces, and the anterior
tubercle on the left tibia, indicates slight to moderate ligament ossification. This stage of DJD
and ligament ossification is indicative of normal age-related degenerative changes that suggest
that this individual was probably a middle adult. There is no evidence of severe DJD
characteristic of older adults such as pitting, eburnation, or osteoporosis. Given these general
indicators, it is likely that the age range for this individual is 35–45 years. Sex could not be
determined from the elements exposed.
Cranial and post-cranial metric measurements and nonmetric traits could not be recorded for this
individual. No evidence of pathology, other than age-related degenerative changes, was observed
on the exposed bones. The DJD exhibited at the hands and knee is probably stress-related and
might be indicative of the type of work the individual participated in, such as grinding activities
that require kneeling and repetitive hand movement. The left trapezium exhibits Stage 2 DJD,
with lipping and pitting on the articular surfaces. The articular surfaces for the distal femur, the
medial condyle, and the condyle articular surface on the proximal tibia exhibit Stage 2 DJD, and
the tibial anterior tubercle exhibits slight ossification.
Isolated Human Bone
In this section, I describe the isolated human bones exposed at Albert Porter Pueblo. As noted
above, an IHB is defined as five or fewer disarticulated bones.
IHB 1
One isolated occurrence, a premolar from a child five-to-six years of age, was exposed with
HRO 1 (a young adult female) during the excavation of a 1-x-1-m unit in Nonstructure 901.
Dental development suggests that IHB 1 represents a child between five and six years of age.
No evidence of pathology was observed on the tooth.
IHBs 2, 3, and 4
IHBs 2, 3, and 4 were exposed during the excavation of a 1-x-1-m unit in a kiva, Structure 502.
The elements represent at least two individuals—a subadult (Individual 1) and an adult
(Individual 2). The bones were in fair condition with some postmortem breaks. Individual 1,
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a subadult, is represented by an unfused metatarsal distal epiphysis and a premolar. The lack of
fusing of the metatarsal distal epiphysis and the premolar development indicate that this was a
subadult between 13 and 18 years of age (Scheuer and Black 2000). Sex could not be determined
and no evidence of pathology was observed.
IHB 3 represents Individual 2, an adult of indeterminate age, and is a temporal fragment that
includes the mastoid process. Adult age was estimated from the size and thickness of the cranial
fragment. Sex could not be determined and no evidence of pathology was observed. A third bone
was exposed and is a possible navicular fragment that might be human or faunal. No further data
were collected for the bone.
IHB 4 is a lumbar vertebra, possibly L1. This bone was in fair condition with postmortem
breaks. The presence of osteophytosis, or slight lipping, on the superior surface of the centrum
suggests that this vertebra represents a middle adult between 35 and 45 years of age. Sex could
not be determined.
IHB 5
These skeletal elements represent a child between six and 10 years of age. The bones were
exposed during the excavation of a 1-x-1-m unit in Structure 502, a kiva. The elements were in
fair to good condition with some postmortem breaks. IHB 5 consists of a fragmentary left
maxilla and several teeth. The deciduous dentition includes the right first molar and the left first
and second molars. The permanent maxillary dentition includes the left central and lateral
incisors. The development and wear on the dentition suggest this individual was a child between
six and 10 years of age. The roots on the deciduous dentition are completely developed, and the
crowns on the permanent lateral and central incisors are completely developed. In addition, the
root on the permanent lateral incisor is 25 percent developed, indicating an age between six and
10 years (Hillson 2002). This age assessment is supported by extreme wear on the deciduous first
molars. Sex could not be determined for an individual this young. The teeth were fractured,
which precluded taking measurements and assessing for dental pathologies. No evidence of
pathology was observed on the maxilla fragment.
IHB 6
IHB 6 represents an adult of indeterminate age. This fragmentary os coxa, side indeterminate,
was exposed during the excavation of a 1-x-1-m midden unit in Nonstructure 401. The bone was
in fair condition. Age is based on bone robusticity. Sex could not be determined and no evidence
of pathology was observed.
IHB 7
These skeletal elements represent an infant between six months and two years of age. The
remains were exposed in a 1-x-1-m midden unit in Nonstructure 401.The bones were in good
condition and consist of a partial cranium that includes partial left and right parietals and partial
left and right frontals. The unfused developmental stage of the anterior fontanelle suggests that
this individual was less than two years of age. This estimate is supported by the size and
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thickness of the cranium, as well as by the unfused but articulated frontal and left and right
parietals, which indicate that this individual was an infant between six months and two years of
age (Scheuer and Black 2000). Sex could not be determined and no evidence of pathology was
observed.
IHB 8
This left proximal radius fragment was exposed in a 1-x-1-m midden unit in Nonstructure 904.
The bone was eroded but in fair condition with moderate surface weathering, ground weathering,
and postmortem breaks. Bone robusticity and the fusing of the proximal epiphysis on the radius
indicate that this individual was at least 20 years of age (Buikstra and Ubelaker 1994). Sex could
not be determined. No evidence of pathology was observed.
IHB 9
This complete proximal phalanx (side indeterminate) was exposed in a 1-x-1-m midden unit in
Nonstructure 901. The bone was in good condition. The fusing of the proximal epiphysis
suggests an age of at least 20 years (Scheuer and Black 2000). This age estimate is supported by
the robusticity of the bone. Sex could not be determined, and no evidence of pathology was
observed.
IHB 10
This fragmentary left rib and fragmentary tibia mid-shaft were exposed in a 1-x-1-m midden unit
in Nonstructure 904. The bones were in fair condition with moderate ground weathering and
postmortem breaks. Bone robusticity suggests that the skeletal elements represent an adult. Sex
could not be determined, and no pathology was observed.
IHB 11
This partial rib (side indeterminate) was discovered during the excavation of a 1-x-1-m midden
unit in Nonstructure 101. The entire unit exhibited evidence of rodent disturbance. The bone was
in good condition. Bone robusticity and DJD indicates that this partial rib represents a middle
adult 35 to 49 years of age. Stages 1 and 2 DJD and moderate lipping and pitting on the vertebral
margins of the rib suggest that this individual was probably a middle adult between 35 and 49
years of age. Sex could not be determined.
Comparisons with Selected Assemblages
In this section, I compare the Albert Porter Pueblo burials with burials from sites in the
surrounding area that were at least partly contemporaneous with the Albert Porter occupational
components. Sand Canyon Pueblo (A.D. 1250–1280) and Woods Canyon Pueblo (A.D. 1140–
late 1200s) in southwestern Colorado were chosen for to their proximity to Albert Porter Pueblo.
Woods Canyon is approximately 1.8 km (1.1 mi) west of Albert Porter Pueblo, and Sand Canyon
Pueblo is approximately 10 km (6.2 mi) south-southwest of Albert Porter Pueblo. Salmon Ruins
(A.D. 1090 and the 1280s) in northwestern New Mexico is approximately 88 km (55 mi)
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southeast of Albert Porter Pueblo and was chosen for comparison to present a broader picture of
the demographics, health, and mortuary practices during the Pueblo III period in the Southwest.
Sand Canyon Pueblo, a late Pueblo III site, was a village occupied from approximately A.D.
1250 until about 1280. The site consists of an estimated 420 rooms, 90 kivas, and 14 towers, an
enclosed plaza, a D-shaped bi-wall building, and a great kiva. Crow Canyon Archaeological
Center conducted excavations at Sand Canyon Pueblo from 1984 through 1989 and from 1991
through 1993 (Kuckelman 2007).
Woods Canyon Pueblo was occupied from about A.D. 1140 until the late 1200s, a span that
generally corresponds to the Pueblo III period. The village included hundreds of surface rooms,
50 kivas, 16 towers, several checkdams, and extramural walls that might have served as terrace
walls for gardens (Churchill 2002).
Salmon Ruins are on the north bank of the San Juan River in northwestern New Mexico
approximately 3.2 km (2 mi) west of Bloomfield and 14 km (9 mi) east of Farmington. Salmon
Ruins was founded about A.D. 1090 and consisted of 275–300 rooms spread across three stories,
with an elevated tower kiva in the central portion and a great kiva in the plaza. Subsequent use,
from A.D. 1125 to 1280, resulted in widespread modification to the original structure, including
the division of large Chaco-style rooms into smaller rooms, the modification of several rooms
into small kivas, and the creation of a plaza area (Reed 2006).
Data for 42 burials recovered from Room 64W, the tower kiva, at Salmon Ruins were not
utilized for comparisons here because of the unusual context of the bones. These skeletal remains
are fragmented and commingled and subject to numerous interpretations (Akins 2008), including
that they resulted from a planned cremation of individuals that had died previously
(Bergschneider 1996).
Seventy-one inhumations and 34 isolated human remains were recovered from locations other
than Room 64W. Only the data for the 100 inhumations and isolated human remains recovered
from deposits dating from the second occupation were compared with the skeletal remains data
for Albert Porter, Woods Canyon, and Sand Canyon pueblos.
Age, Sex, and Demographics
In this section, I compare the age and sex of individuals at Albert Porter Pueblo, Sand Canyon
Pueblo, Woods Canyon Pueblo, and Salmon Ruins (Table 9.4). Age categories for Sand Canyon
were modified to more closely align with the age categories suggested by Buikstra and Ubelaker
(1994). In the Sand Canyon Pueblo data, adolescents 18 years of age were placed in the “adult”
category and individuals 12 to 17 years of age were classed as subadults. Individuals for which
the age category was listed as adolescent (15 to 20 years) were left in the “adolescent/subadult”
category. The Woods Canyon “adolescent” category is slightly different from the “subadult”
category delineated in SOD (Buikstra and Ubelaker 1994) and includes individuals 19 years of
age. The Salmon Ruins “adolescent” category coincides with the “subadult” category defined in
SOD (Buikstra and Ubelaker 1994) and was utilized for the Albert Porter Pueblo population.
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The average age at death of the Albert Porter Pueblo population varies somewhat from that of
Sand Canyon Pueblo, Woods Canyon Pueblo, and Salmon Ruins (see Table 9.4). At Albert
Porter Pueblo, 61 percent of the individuals represented were adults older than 18 years of age;
39 percent were under 18 years of age, including 4 percent subadults, 26 percent children, and 10
percent infants. In contrast, at Sand Canyon Pueblo, 41 percent of the burials were adults; 59
percent were under 18 years of age, including 25 percent adolescents, 9 percent children, and 25
percent infant/fetus/newborn burials. At Woods Canyon Pueblo, 36 percent of the burials were
adults; 65 percent of the individuals were 19 years of age or younger, including 10 percent
infants, 10 percent adolescents between 12 and 20 years of age, and 45 percent children between
three and 11 years of age. The burials at Salmon Ruins present a similar profile: 47 percent of the
burials were adults; 54 percent were under 18 years of age, including 6 percent adolescents 12 to
17 years of age, 21 percent children, and 27 percent infants/fetuses/newborns (Shipman 2006).
The infant mortality percentage for Albert Porter Pueblo and Woods Canyon Pueblo (10 percent)
suggests that the infant survival rate was higher at these sites than at Sand Canyon Pueblo and
Salmon Ruins, because the infant mortality rates at Sand Canyon Pueblo and Salmon Ruins were
more than double (25 and 27 percent, respectively) those of Albert Porter Pueblo.
The subadult or adolescent mortality rates and child mortality rates were similar for Albert Porter
Pueblo and Salmon Ruins, with an adolescent/subadult and child mortality rate of approximately
27 percent. Sand Canyon had a somewhat higher adolescent/subadult and child mortality rate of
34 percent. At 45 percent, the child mortality was highest at Woods Canyon Pueblo. These data
suggest that, as with many sites throughout the Southwest, life was somewhat precarious for
infants, children, and subadults; however, if an individual reached approximately 18 to 20 years
of age, the chance of survival into at least middle-age was relatively good. This is consistent with
the burial data for Albert Porter Pueblo: 75 percent of the adult burials for which age could be
assessed (six of eight) were middle adults more than 35 years of age, and 25 percent were young
adults. This contrasts with the data for Sand Canyon and Salmon Ruins, in which the youngadult mortality rate was higher than that for middle adults. At Sand Canyon, 50 percent were
young adults 20 to 35 years of age, 40 percent were middle adults, and 10 percent, or one
individual, was an older adult more than 50 years of age. The data for Salmon Ruins are similar:
40 percent, or 11 of 28 individuals, were between 18 and 29 years of age; 21 percent, or six
individuals, were between 30 and 39 years of age; 21 percent were between 40 and 49 years of
age; and 18 percent, or five individuals, were more than 50 years of age. At Woods Canyon
Pueblo, the remains of all three of the adults that could be assessed for age were young adults
between 20 and 35 years of age.
Sex could not be determined for 11 (78 percent) of the adults analyzed at Albert Porter Pueblo
(see Table 9.4). One individual was male and two individuals were female. This is consistent
with the demographics for Sand Canyon Pueblo and Woods Canyon Pueblo but contrasts with
those for Salmon Ruins (Table 9.5). At Woods Canyon Pueblo, two individuals (50 percent)
were female, and sex could not be determined for the other two individuals. Similar to Sand
Canyon and Woods Canyon pueblos, few male skeletal remains were discovered at Albert Porter
Pueblo. That is not to say that there were no males at these sites. Rather, it suggests that many
adult males died elsewhere. In addition, the majority of the adult burials encountered at Albert
Porter and Woods Canyon pueblos were examined in situ, and the skeletal elements used to
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assess sex were not visible. At Salmon Ruins the ratio of males to females is less skewed, with
14 individuals (42 percent) female and 16 individuals (48 percent) male.
Health Profile
Overall, it appears that the residents of Albert Porter Pueblo experienced relatively good health
(see Table 9.2). One individual exhibited evidence of mild periodontal disease. None of the
skeletal remains exhibited periosteal reactions that would indicate past or current skeletal
infections or fractures. And none of the exposed elements exhibited any evidence of trauma in
the form of healed or active fractures. This contrasts with surrounding Pueblo III villages such as
Sand Canyon Pueblo (Kuckelman and Martin 2007) and Castle Rock Pueblo (Kuckelman, ed.
2000; Kuckelman et al. 2002). However, it should be noted that the absence of any trauma or
pathologies, other than age-related degenerative bone changes, is unusual and may be the result
of sampling basis. Less than 25 percent of most of the HROs or IHBs at Albert Porter were
exposed; therefore, inferences regarding health status from this small sample should be
considered tentative.
Periosteal Reactions
Periosteal reactions can be caused by infectious diseases, traumatic injury, nutritional deficiency,
and other conditions (Cook 1984; Lambert 1999; Ortner 2003; Ortner and Putschar 1985). None
of the elements at Albert Porter Pueblo exhibited periosteal reactions, and only 6 percent of the
individuals from Salmon Ruins exhibited periosteal reactions (Shipman 2006). This contrasts
with remains at Sand Canyon Pueblo; six of 30 individuals (20 percent) exhibited slight to severe
periosteal reactions (Kuckelman and Martin 2007) and Woods Canyon Pueblo, where two of 11
individuals (18 percent) exhibited possible periosteal reactions (Bradley 2002). The absence or
low percentages of periosteal reactions suggest that the Albert Porter Pueblo population and most
of the Salmon Ruins occupants did not suffer from infectious disease, injuries, or nutritional
stress.
Cribra Orbitalia or Porotic Hyperostosis
None of the crania from Albert Porter Pueblo exhibited the cribra orbitalia or porotic
hyperostosis that suggests a poor diet or infectious disease. In contrast, two of five individuals
(40 percent) from Woods Canyon, (Bradley 2002), five of the 22 crania (23 percent) analyzed
from Sand Canyon Pueblo (Kuckelman and Martin 2007), and nine crania (13 percent) from
Salmon Ruins exhibited cribra orbitalia or porotic hyperostosis (Angel 1967). The absence of
cribra orbitalia and porotic hyperostosis supports the suggestion that the Albert Porter Pueblo
population did not suffer from nutritional stress or infectious disease.
Dental Caries
None of the teeth analyzed from Albert Porter or Woods Canyon pueblos exhibited dental caries,
whereas at Sand Canyon Pueblo, 45 percent of the individuals with dentition exhibited dental
caries (Kuckelman and Martin 2007), and at Salmon Ruins, 38 percent of the individuals
exhibited dental caries (Shipman 2006). The caries were found primarily in adult dentition; only
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one child and one subadult exhibited caries at Sand Canyon Pueblo and Salmon Ruins,
respectively. Although the rate of dental caries varies from site to site (Bradley 2002), it is
unusual, especially at maize-dependent Pueblo III period habitations, that none of the individuals
from Albert Porter or Woods Canyon pueblos exhibited dental caries. The rate at Sand Canyon
Pueblo and Salmon Ruins is more consistent with many other Pueblo III sites.
Enamel Hypoplasia
Individuals exposed at Albert Porter Pueblo did not exhibit any enamel hypoplasia―defects
suggestive of nutritional deficiencies―whereas several individuals from Sand Canyon Pueblo,
Woods Canyon Pueblo, and Salmon Ruins did exhibit enamel hypoplasia. Defects were present
on 69 percent of the individuals from Sand Canyon Pueblo, all of whom had lesions on multiple
teeth (Kuckelman and Martin 2007). At Woods Canyon Pueblo, 100 percent of the individuals
who could be assessed exhibited enamel hypoplasia. Shipman (2006) does not specify the
number of people at Salmon Ruins with this condition, stating only that several individuals
exhibited enamel hypoplasia. The absence of enamel hypoplasia from Albert Porter Pueblo
suggests that the residents of Porter Pueblo enjoyed better health than those of surrounding
communities.
Age- or Stress-Related Pathologies
Similar to the rates at Sand Canyon and Woods Canyon pueblos and Salmon Ruins, five
individuals at Albert Porter Pueblo―HROs 7, 8, and 12 and IHBs 4 and 11, all middle adults
between 35 and 49 years of age―exhibit age-related degenerative bone disease or stress-related
markers, or both. HRO 8 and IHBs 4 and 11 exhibited osteoarthritis on vertebrae or ribs or both,
whereas HROs 7 and 12 exhibited age and/or stress-related markers at the wrist and on the
hands, probably associated with age and repetitive activity involved in hand and arm movements
such as movements associated with grinding and perhaps gathering. HRO 12 also exhibited ageand/or stress-related markers at the knee that might have been caused by bending or kneeling
actions associated with gathering and grinding activities.
Kuckelman and Martin (2007) note that DJD was present on the remains of five individuals from
Sand Canyon Pueblo who were at least 30 years of age. Two individuals exhibited osteoarthritis
at the elbow, and one had this condition at the shoulder; osteoarthritis in either location could
result from grinding activities. Two individuals exhibited age-related degenerative osteoarthritis
of the spine. Only one individual from Woods Canyon Pueblo, a female, exhibited evidence of
DJD or stress-related markers, or both. This female had a well-developed foramen magnum facet
at the base of the cranium as well as flattening and lipping of the axis (second cervical vertebra)
that can result from hyperextension of the neck. Such hyperextension may occur from the use of
a tumpline―a strap that is placed across the forehead to support a heavy burden (Bruhns and
Stothert 1999). These remains also exhibited DJD at the elbow, which can be the result of the
repetitive action of grinding activities. At Salmon Ruins, six individuals at least 25 years of age
exhibited varying degrees of DJD of the spine, and two individuals exhibited DJD on rib heads,
at the ankle, knee, and hand (Shipman 2006).
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Osteophytosis
Two individuals at Albert Porter Pueblo, HRO 8 and IHB 4, exhibited slight to moderate
osteophytosis (lipping) on the superior aspect of lumbar centra. None of the individuals exposed
at Sand Canyon Pueblo or Woods Canyon Pueblo exhibited osteophytosis. This could be due to
the young age of the individuals at Woods Canyon and Sand Canyon pueblos. The remains of
four individuals from Salmon Ruins exhibited osteophytosis on lumbar vertebrae. The lower
back is the most common site for the manifestation of osteophytosis and was probably caused by
the aging process (Ortner 2003).
Trauma
None of the individuals analyzed at Albert Porter Pueblo showed any evidence of antemortem
or perimortem trauma. At Sand Canyon Pueblo, at least seven individuals exhibited antemortem
skull fractures and at least four individuals show evidence of perimortem trauma (Kuckelman
and Martin 2007). Many of the skeletons were incomplete or disarticulated with perimortem
skull fractures that suggest these individuals died in one or more violent events. The human
remains exposed at Woods Canyon Pueblo did not exhibit any evidence of trauma (Bradley
2002). At least five individuals from Salmon Ruins exhibit trauma in the form of antemortem
fractures, and one individual exhibited a green-stick fracture (Shipman 2006). As with
pathologies, it is highly unlikely that none of the individuals at Albert Porter Pueblo experienced
any broken bones or head injuries during the course of their daily lives; however, no trauma was
represented in this dataset.
Metric Measurements and Stature
Metric measurements and stature could not be recorded for any of the individuals at Albert
Porter Pueblo. It is likely that stature estimates for individuals at this site would fall within the
ranges for the remains from Sand Canyon Pueblo, Woods Canyon Pueblo, and Salmon Ruins
(Table 9.6). Height for males ranged between 166 cm (65.35 in) and 161.22 cm (63.47 in) and
between 156 cm (61.41 in) and 153.32 cm (60.36 in) for females (see Table 9.6). Analysts for all
three sites used Genovés’ (1967) method to estimate stature.
Skeletal Evidence of Relatedness
Congenital Anomalies
Barnes (1994) notes that “every population has its own genetic pattern of developmental
tendencies for producing particular defects.” However, no congenital anomalies were observed
on the remains at Albert Porter Pueblo. At Sand Canyon Pueblo, congenital anomalies included
postaxial polydactyly, various dental anomalies, craniosynostosis (a congenital deformity in
which at least one cranial suture fuses prematurely), and sternal anomalies (Kuckelman and
Martin 2007). At Woods Canyon Pueblo, several congenital anomalies were observed, including
the premature fusion of an epiphysis, fusion anomalies involving digits, and possible nonfusion
of the fourth and fifth sacral vertebrae. The unfused fourth and fifth vertebrae may be normal or
a mild case of spina bifida. Shipman (2006) does not discuss congenital anomalies for remains at
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Salmon Ruins. The absence of any congenital anomalies at Albert Porter Pueblo is unusual and is
probably the result of sampling strategies and the small population exposed during excavations.
Biological Distance
It appears that a minimum of one individual, HRO 11, a middle-adult male at Albert Porter
Pueblo, shared at least one nonmetric trait―lambdoidal ossicles―with HRO 3, a young adult
female at Sand Canyon Pueblo, and several individuals at Chaco Canyon (Akins 1986), that
suggests relatedness. This suggestion is supported by the proximity of Sand Canyon Pueblo,
which is 10 km (6.2 mi) south-southwest of Albert Porter Pueblo. However, the presence of
lambdoidal ossicles (extra sutural or wormian bones) appears to have been a fairly common
occurrence throughout the northern Southwest and has been observed on remains dating from as
early as the Pueblo I period (Akins 1986; Bennett 1965; Douglas and Stodder 2010). Therefore,
without further corroborating evidence, inferences regarding relatedness should be considered
tentative. Because the observable nonmetric traits were located on different portions of the
cranium for HROs 6 and 11 (the face and back of the skull, respectively) at Albert Porter Pueblo,
no inferences can be drawn concerning intrasite or intersite relatedness. It is worth noting,
however, that Douglas and Stodder (2010) found that the presence of infraorbital sutures and
foramina, traits also found on HRO 6 at Albert Porter Pueblo, increased from the Basketmaker
II/III period to the Pueblo I/II period in Canyon de Chelly in northeastern Arizona. For Woods
Canyon, Bradley (2002) indicates that nonmetric traits were observed on four individuals but
does not identify them in her report. Nor did Shipman (2006) provide information about
nonmetric traits for the Salmon Ruins population.
Cultural Modification
Occipital cradleboarding was the only form of cultural modification observed at Albert Porter
Pueblo, and this modification was observed on the remains of only one individual―HRO 11.
At Sand Canyon Pueblo, Woods Canyon Pueblo, and Salmon Ruins, both occipital and
lambdoidal cranial modification was observed. At Sand Canyon Pueblo, seven cases of occipital
cradleboarding were observed, and three cases of lambdoidal flattening were observed
(Kuckelman and Martin 2007). All three of the skulls that could be assessed for cradleboarding
at Woods Canyon Pueblo exhibited lambdoidal flattening, whereas at Salmon Ruins, at least
seven individuals exhibited lambdoidal flattening, and one individual exhibited occipital
flattening (Espinosa 2006).
Mortuary Practices
In this section, I examine and compare mortuary practices at Albert Porter Pueblo with mortuary
practices at Sand Canyon Pueblo, Woods Canyon Pueblo, and Salmon Ruins. I discuss formal
burials, skeletal remains found in abandonment contexts, and IHBs.
Formal Burials
Many ancestral Pueblo people used middens as locations to formally bury their dead (Hurst and
Till 2006). Burial rooms have been discovered at large pueblos including Pueblo Bonito in
427
Chaco Canyon (Akins 1986, 2003; Judd 1954) and Aztec Ruins (Morris 1924) in northwestern
New Mexico, at smaller sites in the La Plata valley (Morris 1939) in northwestern New Mexico,
and at Mesa Verde (Fewkes 1909; Nordenskiöld 1979). During the Pueblo III period (A.D. 1150
to 1300), the remains of many individuals were interred in structures and possibly in
undetermined locations (Bradley 2002, 2003; Huber 1989; Katzenberg 1999; Kuckelman 2000).
Structures appear to have been the preferred location for formal burials at Sand Canyon Pueblo,
Woods Canyon Pueblo, and Salmon Ruins. At Sand Canyon Pueblo, seven of the nine formal
burials (78 percent) were found in rooms; the other two individuals were located in the southwest
corner of a courtyard and in a midden (Kuckelman and Martin 2007). At Woods Canyon Pueblo,
10 of the 11 formal burials (91 percent) discovered were exposed on one kiva floor, and one
individual was found in a formally prepared pit on a talus slope (Bradley 2002). Salmon Ruins
and Albert Porter Pueblo had similar occupational histories: a Pueblo II component and a Pueblo
III component. All burials discovered at Salmon Ruins were found in rooms. In contrast, 11 of
12 formal burials discovered at Albert Porter Pueblo were located in middens. Two midden
burials date from the late Pueblo II period (A.D. 1060–1150), five date from late Pueblo II ̶ early
Pueblo III times (A.D. 1060–1225), and four date from the span from mid-Pueblo II to late
Pueblo III (A.D. 1020–1280). One individual appears to have been placed in or on pit-structure
roof fall and dates from the late Pueblo II ̶ early Pueblo III span (see Table 9.1 and Table 9.3);
however, if this was a formal burial, it would have been a secondary inhumation.
These data suggest that structures were preferred interment locations for formal burials at Sand
Canyon Pueblo, Woods Canyon Pueblo, and Salmon Ruins, and that middens were preferred at
Albert Porter Pueblo. However, Kuckelman and Martin (2007) caution that because middens at
Sand Canyon Pueblo were sampled relatively lightly, it is not clear if the preference for
structures at that site is a strong pattern, and Bradley (2002) suggests that the presence of the
remains of 10 individuals on the floor of a kiva at Woods Canyon Pueblo might indicate an
unusual or catastrophic event.
However, further research suggests that the absence of formal burials in rooms and the use of
middens for formal burials at Albert Porter Pueblo might be an anomaly. A preference for
placing burials in rooms has been observed at a minimum of one other Pueblo II ̶ Pueblo III site.
At Aztec Ruins (A.D. 1085–1120) in northwestern New Mexico, approximately 21 km (13 mi)
north-northeast of Salmon Ruins, four burials dating from the Pueblo II period were recovered.
Two of the Pueblo II burials were found in rooms, and the other two were in a midden. All but
two of 149 burials dating from the Pueblo III period were discovered in rooms (Morris 1924).
It is possible that the HROs at Albert Porter Pueblo that date from the middle-to-late Pueblo II
or early Pueblo III time span might have been interred during the Pueblo II period; however, this
would not explain the absence of burials dating from the Pueblo III period from the excavated
rooms at that site.
At Albert Porter Pueblo, only two burials pits could be defined, and these were oval to
rectangular. The shape of these pits, the positions of the remains, and the association of funerary
objects indicate that these individuals were interred in a manner similar to burials dating from
Pueblo II ̶ Pueblo III times throughout much of the northern Southwest. The right arm of HRO 6
was extended down the right side of the body, and HRO 12 was resting on the right side with
legs possibly flexed. Kuckelman and Martin (2007) note that most of the formally buried
428
individuals at Sand Canyon Pueblo were either flexed or semi-flexed. At Woods Canyon Pueblo,
HR0 11, the remains of a child that were exposed on a talus slope, had been placed in a prepared
pit in a semi-flexed position (Bradley 2002). The remains of the 10 individuals in a kiva had not
been placed in burial pits; rather, they were laid out on the floor. Six of the 10 individuals were
supine with the legs extended, one individual was semi-flexed, and body position could not be
determined for the other three individuals. Although the mortuary context of these remains is
unusual, multiple burials have been reported at Pueblo sites dating from the Basketmaker
through Pueblo III periods (Nordenskiöld 1979; Turner and Turner 1999). Researchers tend to
interpret mass burials as resulting from epidemics especially when the remains of children are
present (Morris 1939). This appears to be the case for Woods Canyon; Bradley (2002) notes that
care was taken in the placement of the bodies, and no perimortem trauma was observed. The
burials associated with the second component at Salmon Ruins were interred in a manner similar
to those at Albert Porter and Woods Canyon pueblos. With one exception, the bodies at Salmon
Ruins were flexed, supine, or resting on one side (Shipman 2006); body position could not be
determined for burials dating from the earlier component.
Body orientation and head direction varied at Albert Porter Pueblo. HRO 2, an adult, was
oriented along an east-west axis with the head to the east. HRO 6, a female between 27 and 39
years of age, was oriented along a southwest axis with the head to the southwest and facing up.
HRO 10, a child between 6 and10 years of age, was oriented with the head to the west and facing
up. Body orientation and head direction was not listed in the Sand Canyon Pueblo report. All 10
individuals exposed in the kiva at Woods Canyon Pueblo were oriented south-to-north with the
head to the south, whereas the remains of the child encountered on the talus slope was oriented
along a northwest axis with the face to the north (Bradley 2002). At Salmon Ruins, body
orientation and head direction varied (Shipman 2006).
Associated funerary objects were identified with the remains of three individuals at Albert Porter
Pueblo. HRO 2, an adult, was accompanied by a Chaco/McElmo Black-on-white-style miniature
pitcher that was probably produced A.D. 1075–1300 (Blinman and Wilson 1989) and a Mancos
Corrugated jar that probably dates A.D. 920–1180; the funerary objects were placed on the
individual, possibly near the lower legs. HRO 6, a female 27 to 40 years of age, was
accompanied by two Mancos Black-on-white bowls that probably date A.D. 1000–1150
(Blinman and Wilson 1989); the bowls had been placed near the head. HRO 10, a child six to 10
years of age, was accompanied by two Pueblo III side-notched projectile points. The location of
the projectile points relative to the body is unknown. Although funerary objects were identified
with only three burials at Albert Porter Pueblo, other burials might also contain funerary items.
Excavating human remains was not part of the research design, and therefore excavation stopped
when remains were encountered without any attempt to expose additional elements or associated
funerary objects.
Four of the nine formal burials at Sand Canyon Pueblo were accompanied by funerary objects
(Kuckelman and Martin 2007:Table 1). The pottery included Pueblo III White ware, including
Mesa Verde Black-on-white, dating from about A.D. 1100–1300, and McElmo Black-on-white,
dating from about A.D. 1075–1300 (Blinman and Wilson 1989). One formal burial, that of a
subadult/young adult between 15 and 20 years of age, contained numerous possible grave goods
including one Pueblo III White Unpainted bowl, one Pueblo III White Painted mug, a Mesa
429
Verde Black-on-white mug, two Mesa Verde Black-on-white bowls, one McElmo Black-onwhite bowl, and one Pueblo III White Painted bowl. Lithic artifacts included one abrader, one
core, five fragments of chipped-stone debris, one modified flake, and one mano. At Woods
Canyon Pueblo, two vessels accompanied an individual buried in a prepared pit on a talus slope.
Possible associated funerary items were in proximity to several of the 10 individuals on the kiva
floor at Woods Canyon: a pottery disk was near the remains of one child, a quartz stone was near
the remains of another child, an axe was found under the remains of an adult, and partly
reconstructible vessels were near the remains of two adults. Because of the unusual context of
these burials, it was difficult to determine whether the items were intended to be funerary objects
(Bradley 2002). At Salmon Ruins, funerary objects were recovered with the remains of males
and females as well as all age groups, including infants. The funerary objects included wood
items, baskets, textiles, basketry, faunal and floral material, and, most frequently, pottery vessels
(Espinosa 2006). The pottery includes several Mesa Verde Black-on-white bowls and at least one
McElmo Black-on-white bowl. The presence and types of funerary objects at Albert Porter
Pueblo are consistent with those at Sand Canyon Pueblo, Woods Canyon Pueblo, Salmon Ruins,
and many other sites in the northern Southwest.
The presence of an unusual, Chaco/McElmo vessel with HRO 2 suggests that this individual
might have been an important person; this appears to be the only suggestion of social
differentiation in funerary objects at Albert Porter Pueblo. The presence of two projectile points
with HRO 10 reflects a practice of placing funerary objects with the remains of children; the
significance of the projectile points is unknown but could represent gender, belief systems, or
grief. The placement of the remains of a person of status in a midden and the use of middens for
formal burials during the Pueblo III period (see Table 9.1) supports the inference that, in contrast
to at least four other sites with Pueblo III components―Woods Canyon and Sand Canyon
pueblos, and Salmon and Aztec ruins―middens, rather than rooms or other structures, were the
preferred location for formal burials at Albert Porter Pueblo during the Pueblo III period.
Informal Burials and IHBs
In this section, I discuss the IHBs and the skeletal remains found in abandonment contexts at
Albert Porter and Woods Canyon pueblos. Shipman (2006) and Espinosa (2006) do not discuss
the isolated human remains at Salmon Ruins. All of the human remains exposed in structures
at Albert Porter Pueblo were IHBs, and most consist of one or two bones or bone fragments.
The bones were disarticulated, and no formal burial pits or associated funerary objects were
observed. IHBs 2, 3, 4, and 5, which date from the early Pueblo III (A.D. 1150–1225)
occupation, were recovered from kiva (Structure 502) fill and represent individuals ranging in
age from child to adult (see Table 9.1). The other two isolated elements dating from the Pueblo
III period, IHBs 6 and 7, elements from an adult and an infant, respectively, were discovered in
midden contexts. IHBs 1, 8, 9, and 10 were also discovered in middens and date from the late
Pueblo II ̶ early Pueblo III time span (A.D. 1060–1225). IHB 11 was found in a midden dating
mid-Pueblo II ̶ late Pueblo III. The informal burials and isolated remains discovered at Woods
Canyon Pueblo were found in similar contexts, and no perimortem or antemortem trauma or
modification was observed. Twenty-four isolated elements were found at Woods Canyon Pueblo;
seven of these were in structure fill and 17 were in nonstructure areas such as middens (Bradley
2002). The origins of the IHBs in structures at Albert Porter Pueblo are ambiguous; they might
430
have been intentionally placed in the kiva fill, they might be portions of one or more disturbed
burials, or they might have been moved from their original location by natural processes. Sex
could not be determined for any of the remains in structures.
Conclusions
The Albert Porter Pueblo skeletal remains and mortuary practices contribute important and
interesting information to our knowledge of the Pueblo II ̶ Pueblo III periods in the Mesa Verde
region and the northern Southwest. In many respects, the osteological analysis and mortuary
practices suggest that life at Albert Porter Pueblo differed from that at nearby Woods Canyon
and Sand Canyon pueblos and as far south as Salmon Ruins. Other aspects of the skeletal and
mortuary analytic results are consistent with Pueblo II ̶ Pueblo III sites over much of the northern
Southwest. The skeletal remains suggest that, in contrast to the comparison sites of Sand Canyon
Pueblo, Woods Canyon Pueblo, and Salmon Ruins, the residents of Albert Porter Pueblo were in
excellent health, with the remains of only one individual exhibiting evidence of infection. The
same can be said of degenerative changes to bone and of stress markers that reflect repetitive
activity. On the basis of the available data, I suggest that the Albert Porter population
experienced better health than the residents of the comparison sites. It would be interesting to see
how the Albert Porter population compares with other Pueblo II ̶ Pueblo III sites in the northern
Southwest.
Nor is there evidence of any antemortem or perimortem trauma. This suggests that not only did
the residents of Albert Porter Pueblo enjoy relatively good health, but they were not subject to
the violent events that occurred at nearby Sand Canyon Pueblo near the time of permanent
regional abandonment in the late A.D. 1200s. The remains in the burials at nearby Woods
Canyon Pueblo exhibit some evidence of health issues, but no evidence of violence was observed
on those remains, either. The absence of trauma on exposed remains at these two sites poses
interesting questions that deserve further attention, because there is evidence that violence
occurred near the time of regional abandonment at a minimum of one additional nearby site―
Castle Rock Pueblo, which was occupied from A.D. 1250 until about 1280 (Kuckelman et al.
2002). In other words, at four sites in relative proximity, two, Sand Canyon and Castle Rock
pueblos, show evidence of violence and two, Albert Porter and Woods Canyon pueblos, show no
evidence of violence. One explanation for the difference is that the residents of the latter sites
controlled the surrounding region and were the aggressors at Sand Canyon and Castle Rock
pueblos. Nevertheless, research at other nearby sites might shed light on the relationship between
Albert Porter Pueblo and surrounding sites.
Another difference that deserves attention between Albert Porter Pueblo and the comparison sites
is burial location. As noted earlier, during the Pueblo III period, most formal burials were placed
in structures. This does not appear to have been the case at Albert Porter Pueblo. The mortuary
data indicate that middens remained the preferred location for formal burials. There are
numerous reasons for placing an individual in a particular location including ideology,
symbolism, rank, and gender. Whatever the reason, the residents of Albert Porter Pueblo appear
to have continued to formally bury their dead in middens, whereas the residents of Sand Canyon
Pueblo and possibly Woods Canyon Pueblo, as well as Salmon and Aztec ruins, placed formal
431
burials in structures. This suggests another fundamental difference between Albert Porter Pueblo
and other Pueblo III sites that warrants further investigation, particularly with nearby sites.
There are similarities between the Albert Porter Pueblo burials, burials at the comparison sites,
and Pueblo II–Pueblo III burials across the northern Southwest. Two individuals at Albert Porter
Pueblo exhibit stress markers on bone that suggest repetitive activities such as bending and
grinding. Similar to burials throughout much of the northern Southwest, formally buried remains
at Albert Porter Pueblo were placed in prepared burial pits with the legs flexed, semi-flexed, or
extended, were positioned with variable head direction and body orientation, and funerary
objects were included with at least three individuals. Although funerary objects were identified
with only three individuals, it is likely that funerary objects accompanied at least some of the
other formal burials. If present, such items might have remained obscured as a result of Crow
Canyon’s policy to stop excavation when human remains are discovered. The lack of identified
funerary objects precludes inferences about status, age, or gender differentiation, other than the
presence of the Chaco/McElmo vessel that accompanied one formal adult burial, which is an
unusual vessel type and may indicate high status, and that the presence of funerary objects with
a child is consistent with Pueblo II–Pueblo III mortuary practices throughout the Southwest.
The type of funerary items with the child―Pueblo III projectile points―is unusual and might
indicate high status.
Although the funerary items at Albert Porter Pueblo are suggestive of social differentiation, a
closer look at Pueblo II–Pueblo III funerary objects from contemporary sites could provide
insights into age and gender differentiation and economic roles during the Pueblo II–Pueblo III
time span. Previous mortuary studies tend to focus on elite vs. non-elite burials. A study that
focuses on the individual and how economic roles, age, and gender are reflected in mortuary
practices would be informative at the site and regional level. Moreover, whereas body orientation
and head direction varied and exhibited no discernible pattern, further research is warranted.
These characteristics might have been determined by age or sex, or on other factors including
clan, rank, or ideological beliefs, or some combination of these factors. For example, Albert
Yava (1978), a Tewa-Hopi elder from northern Arizona, explains that the different groups that
came to live on the Hopi Mesas brought their own ideas about the treatment of the dead. Some
Hopi, the Oraibis, buried their dead facing west towards the Grand Canyon, whereas the Walpis
and Tewas buried their dead facing east or with the feet to the east, so that they could sit up and
look to the east (Yava 1978).
In conclusion, the remains discovered at Albert Porter Pueblo offer new insights into the Pueblo
II–Pueblo III time span in the Mesa Verde region. The sample from Albert Porter Pueblo is
small, and that must be taken into consideration. However, two glaring contrasts with nearby,
generally contemporaneous, sites are evident. Both the absence of perimortem trauma at village
abandonment and the use of middens for formal burials add to knowledge of Pueblo II–Pueblo
III mortuary practices. Both raise questions about possible ideological, social, and political
differences between settlements and the relationships between the residents of Albert Porter
Pueblo, their neighbors, and the occupants of other pueblos throughout the region.
432
Table 9.1. Demographics, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Context
Temporal
Assignment*
Individual
Age (years)
Sex
HRO #
1
NST 801 (midden)
LPII–EPIII
1
Infant/Child 1–3
Immature
2
NST 901 (midden)
LPII–EPIII
1
Adult
Indeterminate
3
NST 901 (three midden units) LPII–EPIII
1
Young Adult 30–35 Possible female
4
NST 601 (midden)
LPII–EPIII
1
Child 4–12
Immature
5
NST 901 (midden)
LPII–EPIII
1
Child 3–5
Immature
6
NST 1103 (midden)
LPII
1
Young AdultPossible female
Middle Adult 27–40
7
NST 101 (midden)
Mid PII–LPIII
1
Middle Adult 35–45 Indeterminate
8
STR 1104 (pit structure)
LPII–EPIII
1
Middle Adult 35–45 Indeterminate
9
NST 101 (midden)
Mid PII–LPIII
1
Child 2–4
Immature
10
NST 101 (midden)
Mid PII–LPIII
1
Child 6–10
Immature
11
NST1041 (midden)
LPII
1
Middle Adult 35–49 Male
12
NST 101 (midden)
Mid PII–LPIII
1
Middle Adult 35–45 Indeterminate
IHB #
1
NST 901 (three midden units) LPII–EPIII
2 (HRO-3)
Child 5–6
Immature
2
STR 502 (kiva)
EPIII
1
Subadult
Immature
3
STR 502 (kiva)
EPIII
2 (IHB-2)
Adult
Indeterminate
4
STR 502 (kiva)
EPIII
1
Middle Adult 35–49 Indeterminate
5
STR 502 (kiva)
EPIII
1
Child 6–10
Immature
6
NST 401 (midden)
PIII
1
Adult
Indeterminate
7
NST 401 (midden)
PIII
1
Infant 0.5–2
Immature
8
NST 904 (midden)
LPII–EPIII
1
Adult
Indeterminate
9
NST 901 (midden)
LPII–EPIII
1
Adult
Indeterminate
10
NST 904 (midden)
LPII–EPIII
1
Adult
Indeterminate
11
NST 101 (midden)
Mid PII–LPIII
2
* Temporal Assignments:
LPII = Late Pueblo II (A.D. 1060–1140)
LPII–EPIII = Late Pueblo II–Early Pueblo III (A.D. 1060–1225)
Mid PII–LPIII = Mid-Pueblo II–Late Pueblo III (A.D. 1020–1280)
EPIII = Early Pueblo III (A.D. 1040–1225)
PIII = Pueblo III (A.D. 1140–1225)
433
Middle Adult 35–49 Indeterminate
Table 9.2. Pathologies, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Dental Pathologies
Trauma
Degenerative Joint
Disease/Stress Markers
Age (years)
Sex
1
Infant/Child 1–3
Immature
N/A
None
N/A
2
Adult
Indeterminate
None
None
None
3
Young Adult 30–35 Possible female N/A
None
None
4
Child 4–12
Immature
N/A
None
None
5
Child 3–5
Immature
N/A
None
None
6
Calculus, and mild
periodontal disease at
Young AdultPossible female alveolar bone around None
Middle Adult 27–40
central mandibular
incisors
None
7
Middle Adult 35–45 Indeterminate
N/A
None
Stage 1 DJD on the hand at
the right distal ulna and
radius and hand phalanges
8
Middle Adult 35–45 Indeterminate
N/A
None
Stage 1 DJD at C-1 and L-3;
osteophytosis at L-3
vertebrae
9
Child 2–4
Immature
N/A
None
None
10
Child 6–10
Immature
None
None
None
11
Middle Adult 35–49 Male
N/A
None
None
HRO #
Middle Adult 35–45 Indeterminate
N/A
None
Stage 2 DJD at the knee on
the distal femur and
proximal tibia and
ossification on the tibia
anterior tubercle
1
Child
Immature
None
None
N/A
2
Subadult
Immature
None
None
None
3
Adult
Indeterminate
N/A
None
None
4
Middle Adult 35–49 Indeterminate
N/A
None
Osteophytosis at L-1
vertebrae
5
Child 6–10
Immature
None
None
None
6
Adult
Indeterminate
N/A
None
None
7
Infant
Immature
N/A
None
N/A
8
Adult
Indeterminate
N/A
None
None
9
Adult
Indeterminate
N/A
None
None
10
Adult
Indeterminate
N/A
None
None
11
Middle Adult 35–49 Indeterminate
N/A
None
Stages 1 and 2 DJD at the
vertebral margins of the ribs
12
IHB #
434
Table 9.3. Mortuary Practices, Albert Porter Pueblo.
HRO #
Age
(years)
Midden Inhumations
1
Infant
Sex
Burial Pit
Immature
Indeterminate
Funerary Objects
Head Direction
Body Position
Single/
Multiple
Burial
Indeterminate
Chaco/McElmo
miniature jar and
Mancos Corrugated
jar
Indeterminate
None
Indeterminate
2 Mancos Blackon-white bowls
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Single
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Single
Indeterminate
East
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Single
Single
Southwest/face up
Indeterminate
Single
2
Adult
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
3
4
5
30–35
4–12
3–5
Probable female
Immature
Immature
Indeterminate
Oval/rectangular
Indeterminate
6
27–40
Probable female
Indeterminate
7
35–45
Indeterminate
Oval
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
9
2–4
Immature
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
10
6–10
Immature
Indeterminate
11
35–49
Male
Indeterminate
2 Pueblo III period
side-notched
West/face north
projectile points
Indeterminate
Northeast
12
35–45
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Comments
Located near
lower legs
Child premolar
Right arm extended
Single
down body
Indeterminate
Single
Indeterminate
Single
Indeterminate
Single
Cradleboarding
Right side-possible
Single
flexed
Structure Inhumations
8
35–45
Indeterminate
No
None
Indeterminate
435
Indeterminate
Single
Disarticulated
cluster of bones,
possibly not a
formal burial
Table 9.4. Age and Sex Distribution at Albert Porter Pueblo and Selected Sites.
Age Range (years)
Albert Porter Pueblo
Infant
Child
Subadult (12–18)
Adult
TOTAL, Albert Porter Pueblo
Sand Canyon Pueblo
Infant
Child
Adolescent (12–18)
Adult
TOTAL, Sand Canyon Pueblo
Woods Canyon Pueblo
Infant
Child
Adolescent (12–20)
Adult
TOTAL, Woods Canyon Pueblo
Salmon Ruins
Infant (and newborn/fetus)
Child (3–11)
Adolescent (12–17)
Adult
TOTAL, Salmon Ruins
Males/
Probable
Males
Females/
Probable
Females
Age and/or
Sex
Unknown
1
2
0
16
TOTAL
Percent
2
2
6
1
11
2
6
1
14
23
10
26
4
61
100
10
8
3
8
1
8
3
8
13
32
25
9
25
41
100
2
1
5
1
2
1
5
1
4
11
10
45
10
36
100
14
19
15
4
3
19
15
4
33
71
27
21
6
47
100
Note: Percentages shown as totals may not add up to exactly 100% due to rounding.
436
Table 9.5. Male and Female Burials at Albert Porter Pueblo, Sand Canyon Pueblo,
Woods Canyon Pueblo, and Salmon Ruins.
Males/
Probable
Males
Females/
Probable
Females
Sex
Unknown
TOTAL
1
2
1
4
2
10
2
14
0
2
2
4
16
14
3
33
Albert Porter Pueblo
Sand Canyon Pueblo
Woods Canyon Pueblo
Salmon Ruins
Table 9.6. Average Stature Estimates for Individuals at Sand Canyon Pueblo,
Woods Canyon Pueblo, and Salmon Ruins.
Sand Canyon Pueblo
Woods Canyon Pueblo
Salmon Ruins
Males
166 cm
(65.35 inches)
(one
individual)
N/A
161.22 cm
(63.47 inches)
437
Females
156 cm
(61.41 inches)
Source
Kuckelman
and Martin
2007
153.60 cm
Bradley 2002
(60.50 inches)
153.32 cm
Shipman
(60.36 inches) 2006
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Chapter 10
Faunal Remains
by Shaw Badenhorst and Jonathan C. Driver
Introduction
Albert Porter Pueblo (Site 5MT123) is located in the central Mesa Verde region in what was the
most densely settled area of the northern San Juan (Varien 1999, 2000:1–2). Driver (2002a)
presents an overview of faunal patterns for the northern San Juan region that spans the
Basketmaker II period to the Pueblo III period. His main conclusions consist of the following:
(1) domestic turkey first became an important food item during the Pueblo II period, and turkey
consumption increased significantly compared to rabbit consumption during the Pueblo III
period; (2) the consumption of jackrabbits declined in relation to that of cottontails during the
Pueblo III period; and (3) the consumption of Artiodactyla declined relative to rabbit
consumption in the Pueblo III period (Driver 2002a:157–158). These changes in animal usage
were probably associated with an increase in human populations especially during the Pueblo III
period. As large-bodied animals such as deer became sparser from over-hunting, more turkeys
were raised. Deforestation from increasing human populations in the region could have created
favorable conditions for cottontails (Driver 2002a:158). The data from excavations at Albert
Porter Pueblo (Ryan 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005) offer an opportunity to determine whether faunal
exploitation at this settlement was consistent with regional-scale patterns. Additionally, intrasite
spatial variations in faunal remains are examined.
Albert Porter Pueblo is a multi-component site consisting of a great house, surrounding unit
pueblos, and associated middens (Ryan 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005). Study units at this site were
dated using dendrochronology, pottery, stratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, archaeomagnetic
dating, and structural morphology (see Chapter 3). The following time periods were assigned:
Pueblo I/III period (mixed); Pueblo II period (A.D. 900–1150); Pueblo II–III period (A.D. 900–
1350); and Pueblo III period (A.D. 1150–1350). Fine-resolution dating of some deposits was also
possible (e.g., early Pueblo III and late Pueblo III). Study units and their assigned dates are
summarized in Table 10.1. Study units from which no faunal remains were recovered are
excluded from this report.
With relatively few zooarchaeological studies of great houses completed to date, little is known
about the associated archaeofauna (e.g., Durand and Durand 2006; Fothergill 2008; Kantner and
Mahoney 2000). Fauna have been reported from the following great houses in the central Mesa
Verde region: Ida Jean, Bluff, Escalante, Wallace, Morris 31, Lowry, Yellow Jacket, and Comb
Wash (Badenhorst 2008; Driver 2002a). The Albert Porter Pueblo faunal assemblage will
therefore add to our knowledge of animal usage at great houses in the central Mesa Verde region.
Results of this faunal analysis were used to address the following research questions:
448
•
Are there differences between the archaeofauna from the Albert Porter Pueblo great
house compared to surrounding residential units during the Pueblo II, II/III, and III
periods that might suggest differential access to resources?
•
Are there changes in faunal usage through the Pueblo II, II/III, and III periods?
•
How does the faunal assemblage from Albert Porter Pueblo compare to assemblages from
other villages and great houses in the northern San Juan Basin?
Methods
The faunal remains collected from Albert Porter Pueblo were analyzed by Badenhorst and Driver
of Simon Frasier University. The general analytical approach used in this analysis is that of
Driver (1991, 2005). During analysis, the taxon and skeletal element of specimens were
identified. Each specimen was described using a code system (Driver 2005) that includes side,
age, breakage (e.g., spiral, transverse, irregular), and taphonomic modification. Essentially, this
method assumes that all specimens that can be identified as to element are “identifiable” and
attributable to a taxon. Furthermore, although loose teeth are recorded and considered
identifiable, these are excluded from any subsequent quantification. Many teeth fracture into
numerous pieces, and because all of these fragments are regarded as “identifiable,” they inflate
species counts. Also, teeth of small animals such as cottontails and rodents fall through screens
in the field, and thus the quantity of specimens that are collected do not accurately represent
abundance. Eggshell fragments, which are fragile and break into numerous small pieces, are also
excluded from species counts. Details of this analysis are presented by Badenhorst (2008).
This study used the Number of Identified Specimens (NISP) as the most basic quantification
method. NISP is the preferred method of quantification for sites in the northern San Juan region
(e.g., Driver 2002a; Muir 1999; Rawlings 2006). Using methods described elsewhere (Binford
1978; Pickering et al. 2003), Minimum Number of Elements (MNE) and Minimum Animal Units
(MAU) were also calculated; these methods aid in the investigation of body-part frequencies of
taxa. Minimum Number of Individuals (MNI), a method used by many researchers (e.g.,
Grayson 1979; Lyman 2008; Perkins 1973; Plug and Plug 1990; Reitz and Wing 1999), was not
used in this study because of its research limitations.
Indices were calculated for artiodactyls, rabbits, and turkeys. Indices are ratios of NISP counts
between different animal groups or species and are designed to highlight specific aspects of a
faunal assemblage. An index that changes through time suggests that the ratios between different
taxa changed (e.g., Driver 2002a; Durand and Durand 2006; Szuter and Bayham 1989). The
Artiodactyla Index compares artiodactyls to rabbits (Szuter and Bayham 1989) and measures the
relative use of large and small game. The Lagomorph Index measures the ratio of cottontails to
all lagomorphs and is designed to reveal environmental differences resulting from either natural
or anthropogenic factors (Driver and Woiderski 2008; Szuter and Bayham 1989). The Turkey
Index is the ratio of turkeys to cottontails and jackrabbits (lagomorphs) and reflects the relative
importance of domestic turkey in relation to wild game (Driver 2002a; Spielmann and AngstadtLeto 1996).
449
Results
The total faunal assemblage from Albert Porter Pueblo consists of 19,438 specimens, excluding
teeth and eggshell fragments. In total, 9,977 specimens (51 percent) were identified. Most of the
faunal remains recovered date from the Pueblo III period, followed by remains from contexts
dating from the Pueblo II/III category, the Pueblo II period, and the unassigned, mixed Pueblo
I/III category (Table 10.2). The faunal assemblage for the unassigned, mixed Pueblo I/III
category contained only seven specimens—these results will be excluded from the tables because
of the small size of this subassemblage.
Mammal, bird, fish, reptile, and amphibian remains were identified in the Albert Porter Pueblo
assemblage. Mammal remains included a variety of carnivore, artiodactyla, squirrel, rodent, and
rabbit bones, although cottontail remains dominate the mammal assemblage. A variety of birds
are represented; turkey and indeterminate large bird bones (which probably are turkey) are
common in the subassemblages for all time periods, particularly the Pueblo III period. Few
amphibian, reptile, and fish remains were identified (Table 10.3).
For Albert Porter Pueblo, time periods (e.g., Pueblo III) have been divided into sub-phases on the
basis of pottery and architectural data. The identified fauna are presented by sub-phase in Table
10.4. The faunal remains indicate that turkeys (and indeterminate large birds) first became
prominent during the early Pueblo III period (A.D. 1140–1225).
The lagomorph, artiodactyla, and turkey indices are presented in Table 10.5 by general time
period. The Lagomorph Index is greater for the Pueblo II period (0.87) than the Pueblo II/III
category (0.69) but similar to the Pueblo III period (0.83). The Artiodactyla Index is low for all
time periods. The Turkey Index for the Pueblo II period (0.18) is about one-half of that for the
Pueblo II/III period (0.31), and the Turkey Index for the Pueblo III period (0.81) is more than
double the index for the Pueblo II/Pueblo III assemblage (see Table 10.5).
Table 10.6 presents the indices as calculated for the following date spans: early Pueblo III period
(A.D. 1140–1225), terminal Pueblo II–initial Pueblo III period (A.D. 1100–1180), the late
Pueblo III period (A.D. 1225–1280), and the late Pueblo II period (A.D. 1060–1140). Some subperiods were excluded due to their long time span and small sample size. The Artiodactyla Index
is low for all periods of occupation of Albert Porter Pueblo but is lowest for the late Pueblo III
period. The Lagomorph Index is similar for the late Pueblo II period (0.87) and the late Pueblo
III period (0.94). The Turkey Index is the lowest for the late Pueblo II period, significantly
higher for the terminal Pueblo II–early Pueblo III period and is greatest for the late Pueblo III
period.
We addressed possible differences in animal use between residents of the great house vs. those of
the surrounding unit pueblos. Few faunal remains were obtained from masonry surface rooms at
Albert Porter Pueblo, because excavations focused largely on kivas and middens, and because
few rooms contained midden deposits. Most faunal remains recovered from the site were
collected from middens.
450
Cottontail, jackrabbit, and turkey/large bird NISPs were totaled for each study unit within the
great house and surrounding residences. These data are expressed as percentages in Tables 10.7,
10.8, and 10.9. For comparative purposes, all study units in Architectural Block 100—which
includes the great house as well as additional middens and kivas—are grouped together in the
“great house” category. All other study units are grouped as “outside” features.
Minor differences are apparent in the cottontail and turkey/large bird subassemblages. All
common taxa were deposited in nearly equal proportions within and outside the great house
during the Pueblo II period. This indicates that, during the Pueblo II period, faunal utilization
was similar between the users of the great house and those occupying surrounding unit pueblos.
Cottontail is the most common taxon represented in the assemblage (see Table 10.7). Higher
percentages of cottontail and jackrabbit were present in contexts assigned to the Pueblo II/III
category in the residences outside the great house. However, a higher percentage of turkey/large
bird remains were associated with the great house. Turkey/large bird remains were more plentiful
in deposits assigned to the Pueblo II/III category and are the most common taxa represented in
the great house assemblage (see Table 10.8). Within the great house, cottontail remains occur in
similar frequencies in deposits that date from the Pueblo III period and in deposits that could be
dated no more precisely than “Pueblo II/III.” In deposits dating from the Pueblo III period,
jackrabbit remains were found in greater frequencies in areas outside the great house than within
the great house. Turkey/large bird remains were found inside and outside the great house in
similar frequencies (see Table 10.9). The data suggest that use of turkey increased in the great
house during Pueblo II/III times, and use increased in the surrounding residences during the
Pueblo III period (see Tables 10.7, 10.8, and 10.9).
Ethnographic accounts (e.g., Beaglehole 1970; Gnabasik 1981; Schroeder 1968) suggest that all
animals identified in the Albert Porter Pueblo faunal assemblage, except rodents, had ritual
connotations in recent times. These views might have originated during the Pueblo II or Pueblo
III periods. Remains of carnivores and birds of prey were found in all contexts at the site and
these animals might have been used for purposes other than consumption. No significant spatial
patterning is evident for the site. Unfortunately, subassemblages of ritual taxa are too small to be
compared by context (e.g., kiva floor vs. kiva fill). In addition, comparisons of subassemblages
are all hampered by the following: element fragmentation and poor preservation, which interfere
with taxon identification; possible disturbance of deposits; and variation in sample size. Contexts
with larger samples yielded a larger variety of taxa that might not have been consumed (e.g.,
wild carnivores and wild birds). One particular deposit does provide direct evidence of ritual
activities—75 vertebrae and 114 ribs of a snake were found on the floor of Structure 502, a
masonry-lined kiva. This snake was decapitated before being placed near the hearth. Snakes had
strong ritual significance ethnographically (Beaglehole 1970).
The age structure represented in the remains of a hunted population can provide evidence of the
intensity of predation. Variation in population-age structure is documented most easily in species
that have relatively long lives and reproduce relatively slowly, such as deer. Teeth provide the
most useful data; however, few deer teeth were found at Albert Porter Pueblo. Thus, the
following method was used to assess the average age of the deer whose remains were recovered
from the site.
451
Long-bone epiphyses fuse to the diaphysis (bone shaft) in a specific sequence as the animal
matures. The ratio of artiodactyls killed before or after attaining skeletal maturity can be
determined by inspecting the state of fusion of the epiphyses that fuse last (proximal humerus,
distal radius, proximal and distal femur, proximal tibia). In the Albert Porter Pueblo assemblage,
83 percent (15 of 18) of these late-fusing epiphyses were unfused. Data from all time periods
were combined because of the small sample of artiodactyla elements and the relatively brief time
periods. Rawlings (2006) noted the same finding in the deer remains from Shields Pueblo, which
is also located in the central Mesa Verde region. Because unfused epiphyses are more susceptible
to destruction than fused bones, the remains recovered can be inferred to reflect the minimum
percentage of immature deer that were harvested. High frequencies of immature specimens
suggest intensive predation (Munro 2004); thus, the data for Albert Porter Pueblo are consistent
with the conclusion that the deer population declined in the northern San Juan region as a result
of intensive hunting (Driver 2002a).
Taphonomy
An ongoing issue in Southwest archaeology is whether fossorial (burrowing) small animals such
as squirrels, wood rats, and pocket gophers were consumed by humans (Szuter 1994), or whether
the presence of these elements represent natural intrusions into the archaeological record (Muir
1999; Rawlings 2006). We use the following multiple lines of evidence to determine whether the
small rodents and squirrels represented in the faunal assemblage for Albert Porter Pueblo were
consumed: ethnographic evidence of the consumption of small rodents and squirrels by Pueblo
groups; a low frequency of fresh and sun-bleached specimens; fresh spiral fractures on long
bones; the presence of charred mandibles; and ethological considerations such as live weights,
group size, and burrowing habits (Badenhorst 2008). On the basis of the types of evidence listed
above, we infer that small rodents and squirrels were consumed at Albert Porter Pueblo.
Percentage NISP indicates that small rodents are nearly equally represented in the Pueblo II (11
percent) and Pueblo III (10 percent) subassemblages. Therefore, rodents were not used as an
emergency food supply as the population of larger game animals declined.
Artiodactyla limb bone MNE, MAU, and percentage MAU for Albert Porter Pueblo were
compared to density values (Table 10.10) taken from Brain (1981) and Lyman (1994) as applied
by Rawlings (2006:110). Unfortunately, few artiodactyla remains were recovered from Albert
Porter Pueblo. Bones with less density, such as humeri, were absent from this assemblage. No
anthropogenic activities are discernible in the artiodactyla, lagomorph, or turkey subassemblages
(Table 10.11).
Numerous specimens in the Albert Porter Pueblo faunal assemblage were burned. The Pueblo
II/III subassemblage contains the highest incidence (19 percent of the total sample) of burned
bone (Table 10.12), whereas the Pueblo III subassemblage contains the lowest (10 percent).
A few bones from this site display butchering damage in the form of cut marks and chop marks
(Table 10.13). A total of 89 bones from a variety of taxa show carnivore chew marks, although
no particular pattern can be discerned (Table 10.14). A few specimens display rodent gnaw
marks (Table 10.15), although it is not possible to determine if these were inflicted during or
after occupation of the settlement.
452
Modified Bone
In total, 444 artifacts of modified bone were identified in the faunal assemblage for Albert Porter
Pueblo. These objects were made from the remains of various taxa (Table 10.16). Only a few
items are burned; high frequencies of burned-bone artifacts may indicate special treatment of
these specimens during manufacture. Most of the abraded bone artifacts from this site are
fragments with evidence of polish; none could be assigned an artifact type. Of 444 worked bones
from this site, 177 have sharpened points and are probably awls. Another 78 specimens are
complete or broken tubes or beads. Three small oval gaming pieces are also present. Other than
the awls, gaming pieces, beads, and tubes, the sample consists largely of fragments that show
some evidence for use as tools. Many different elements were used to make bone tools, but no
meaningful patterns are discernible. Most bone tools were manufactured from turkey and
indeterminate large bird remains that date from the Pueblo III period. The frequency of bone
tools correlates strongly with the size of the sample.
Discussion
The Use of Animals
The carnivore remains found in the Albert Porter Pueblo assemblage indicate that the residents
hunted or trapped carnivores. It is unlikely that many of these carnivores were eaten, although
such a possibility cannot be excluded. Many of the wild carnivores, such as wolf, fox, lynx,
badger, and weasel, might have been sought for their pelts, which might have had ritual or
ceremonial value.
Artiodactyla were hunted by the residents of this settlement, although bison were probably not
hunted. Bison meat might have been traded from the plains east and north of the Four Corners
(Driver 1990). Although only two specimens were identified as bison, another four indeterminate
artiodactyla and 20 indeterminate large mammal elements may also be bison. These specimens
date from all time periods and a variety of contexts, and no particular patterns are discernible. It
is possible that more bison remains are present in the sample of unidentified bones. Some
specimens identified as “indeterminate large mammal” may be bear.
It is not surprising that deer remains dominate the small artiodactyla sample from Albert Porter
Pueblo. The deer represented in this assemblage are probably mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus),
which inhabit the Four Corners region today (Anderson and Wallmo 1984). Artiodactyla meat
was probably prized highly for its nutritive value (Driver 2002a).
Most of the squirrels, wood rats, pocket gophers, and even smaller rodents such as mice and
voles represented in the Albert Porter Pueblo assemblage were consumed rather than being
natural intrusions. Only the few specimens that are sun-bleached or fresher than the other bones
in the assemblage may be natural intrusions. Cottontail bones dominate many Ancestral Pueblo
faunal assemblages, although jackrabbits are also well represented (Driver 2002a; Lang and
Harris 1984; Muir 1999; Rawlings 2006; Szuter 1991). Jackrabbits might have been used in
feasting (Potter 1997), although it cannot be determined if they were used in this way at Albert
Porter Pueblo.
453
The variety of wild birds is represented by few specimens, which suggests that wild birds were
not procured regularly. Many taxa, such as small birds, might not have been a source of protein
but instead provided materials such as feathers for ritual paraphernalia (Schroeder 1968). The
turkeys at this site were probably kept not only for their meat and eggs but also for their feathers.
A probable burial of a headless turkey in Nonstructure 151—midden deposited above burned
roofing debris in Structure 150, a masonry-lined kiva—dates from the late A.D. 1100s.
Faunal Changes through Time
Turkeys were raised during the Pueblo II occupation of Albert Porter Pueblo; however, the low
frequency of specimens suggests that turkeys were not important in the diet. Turkey remains are
much more frequent in the early Pueblo III subassemblage from the site. Driver’s (2002a:157)
overview of faunal assemblages from the northern San Juan region indicates that turkeyspecimen frequencies increase in Pueblo II and Pueblo III assemblages. Subsequent research in
the northern San Juan region showed a similar pattern (Badenhorst 2008; Rawlings 2006).
Turkey use at Albert Porter Pueblo conforms to the regional trend (Driver 2002a).
The Lagomorph Index for Albert Porter Pueblo is the same for the Pueblo II and the Pueblo III
subassemblages. However, the dietary contribution of lagomorphs decreased through time as
turkey became the dominant protein source during the Pueblo III period. It is probable that much
of the area surrounding the settlement was covered in sagebrush that would have provided a
favorable environment for cottontails. The abundance of cottontail remains in the site
assemblage therefore relates to environmental conditions around the settlement, the natural
prevalence of cottontails over jackrabbits in this area, and the slower reproduction rates of
jackrabbits (Driver 2002a).
The site assemblage contains few artiodactyl remains; the predominance of immature animal
remains suggests that these animals had been hunted intensively. It may also be possible that
rabbits were easier to procure than artiodactyls. Other assemblages from the northern San Juan
region also contain lower frequencies of artiodactyl than of rabbit and turkey (Driver 2002a;
Muir 1999; Rawlings 2006).
Use of the Great House
The individuals who occupied or used the great house and the residents of the surrounding
habitations utilized a similar array of animals. There is no evidence to suggest sumptuary rules.
Taxa of birds of prey, small colorful birds, and carnivores are represented in remains from
middens and kivas dating from all time periods and contexts across the site. Many of these taxa
probably had ritual significance. This suggests that ritual or ceremonial activities were conducted
in a variety of locations and contexts (cf. Durand 2003). No evidence was found to suggest that
the great house at Albert Porter Pueblo was provisioned with artiodactyla meat, and no evidence
was found of feasting on jackrabbits (Potter 1997) or other animals.
454
Fauna from Other Sites in the Northern San Juan Region
Driver (2002a:160) points out that artiodactyls might have been preferred game in the northern
San Juan region in terms of nutrition, meat weight, fat, raw materials, ceremonies, and prestige.
Moreover, the decline in the availability of artiodactyls by the Pueblo III period was more
pronounced north of McElmo Creek, where human settlement was densest and neighboring
settlements formed barriers between hunters and deer habitats. It is conceivable that deer
increased in value during the Pueblo III period, and that specific individuals or groups controlled
access to deer (Driver 2002a:160).
No clear differences exist either in relative proportion or spatial distribution between the animal
taxa represented at Albert Porter Pueblo and other sites in the central Mesa Verde region. Muir
(1999) found that cottontail and turkey remains dominated the faunal assemblage from Sand
Canyon Pueblo, a well studied, single-component village dating from the late Pueblo III period.
An array of carnivores, artiodactyls, squirrels, rodents, and wild birds are also represented in that
assemblage. Interestingly, Muir (1999) found carnivore and artiodactyla remains associated with
abandonment contexts in towers at Sand Canyon Pueblo. Moreover, wild birds are associated
with a D-shaped bi-wall building (Block 1500) and towers at that site. Apart from these possibly
ritual deposits, the composition of this faunal assemblage is similar to that of Albert Porter
Pueblo. The faunal assemblage from Shields Pueblo is also similar to that of Albert Porter
Pueblo (Rawlings 2006).
Other sites in the northern San Juan region yielded similar results with regard to animal usage
(Badenhorst 2008; Driver 2002a); that is, a dominance of cottontail and turkey and lower
frequencies of jackrabbit. An array of carnivore, artiodactyl, rodent, and wild bird remains are
also present. Differences in taxa composition probably result from differences in sample size and
slight local environmental variation. These patterns were also noted in the Pueblo III
subassemblage from Woods Canyon Pueblo (Driver 2002b), the assemblage from the late Pueblo
III village of Castle Rock (Driver 2000), and the assemblage for Yellow Jacket Pueblo, which
dates from the Pueblo II and Pueblo III periods (Muir and Driver 2003).
It is interesting that great house communities, most notably Ida Jean, Bluff, Escalante, Wallace,
Morris 31, Lowry, Yellow Jacket, Comb Wash, and other settlements in the Mesa Verde region,
had similar faunal usage. This is hardly surprising considering the relative uniformity of extant
animal taxa in the northern San Juan region (e.g., Hall 1981). The data thus suggest that great
houses and villages used animal resources in similar ways. In terms of taxa representation,
settlements with great houses outside Chaco Canyon, at least in the northern San Juan region,
cannot be differentiated from settlements that did not contain great houses.
Conclusions
The faunal assemblage from Albert Porter Pueblo is similar to the assemblages from other
villages and great houses in the central Mesa Verde region that date from the Pueblo II and
Pueblo III periods. Cottontail generally dominates these assemblages, although the use of turkey
increased significantly during the early Pueblo III period. No conclusive evidence was found at
Albert Porter Pueblo to suggest differential animal usage between the great house and
455
surrounding residences. The presence of the remains of ritually important taxa such as
artiodactyls, carnivores, and birds of prey in various contexts and locations at this site and that
date throughout its occupation suggests that rituals were performed in various contexts, and that
the great house was not a place where distinctive activities involving fauna occurred.
456
Table 10.1. Study Units and Assigned Time Periods Yielding Faunal Remains,
Albert Porter Pueblo.
Architectural
Block
Structure
Description
Sub-Phase
Range of Years
LPII
LPII
LPII
LPII
LPII
LPII
LPII
LPII
LPII
LPII
LPII
LPII
LPII
LPII
A.D. 1060–1140
A.D. 1060–1140
A.D. 1060–1140
A.D. 1060–1140
A.D. 1060–1140
A.D. 1060–1140
A.D. 1060–1140
A.D. 1060–1140
A.D. 1060–1140
A.D. 1060–1140
A.D. 1060–1140
A.D. 1060–1140
A.D. 1060–1140
A.D. 1060–1140
MPII – LPIII
MPII – LPIII
MPII – LPIII
MPII – LPIII
MPII – LPIII
MPII – LPIII
A.D. 1020–1280
A.D. 1020–1280
A.D. 1020–1280
A.D. 1020–1280
A.D. 1020–1280
A.D. 1020–1280
TPII – IPIII
A.D. 1100–1180
LPII – EPIII
LPII – EPIII
LPII – EPIII
LPII – EPIII
A.D. 1060–1225
A.D. 1060–1225
A.D. 1060–1225
A.D. 1060–1225
LPII – EPIII
Pueblo III
A.D. 1060–1225
Pueblo II
100
200
900
1000
1037
1040
1041
1042
1043
1100
100
100
118
201
900
901
906
1039
1037
1040
1041
1042
1043
1101
NST
STR
STR (Kiva)
NST
STR
NST
STR (Kiva)
NST
STR
NST
NST
NST
NST
NST
Pueblo II–III
100
500
600
800
900
1100
100
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
100
150
501
601
801
901
903
904
1101
1104
NST
NST
NST
NST
NST
NST
NST
STR
STR
NST
NST
NST
NST
STR (Kiva)
STR (Kiva)
NST
STR (Kiva)
100
NST
457
Architectural
Block
Structure
900
100
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
119
136
201
301
305
302
303
401
402
403
501
502
601
602
801
803
901
100
800
900
100
801
901
200
300
400
500
600
800
Description
Sub-Phase
STR
STR (Kiva)
EPIII
STR (Kiva)
EPIII
STR (Kiva)
EPIII
STR (Kiva)
EPIII
STR (Kiva)
EPIII
STR (Kiva)
EPIII
STR (Kiva)
EPIII
STR (Kiva)
LPIII
STR (Kiva)
EPIII
STR (Kiva)
EPIII
STR (Kiva)
EPIII
STR (Kiva)
EPIII
STR (Kiva)
LPIII
NST
NST
EPIII
STR
EPIII
STR (Kiva)
EPIII
STR (Kiva)
EPIII
NST
STR (Kiva)
LPIII
STR (Kiva)
LPIII
NST
EPIII
STR (Kiva)
EPIII
NST
EPIII
STR (Kiva)
EPIII
NST
STR (Kiva)
EPIII
NST
Pueblo I/III (mixed)
NST
NST
NST
Range of Years
A.D. 1140–1225
A.D. 1140–1225
A.D. 1140–1225
A.D. 1140–1225
A.D. 1140–1225
A.D. 1140–1225
A.D. 1140–1225
A.D. 1225–1260
A.D. 1140–1225
A.D. 1140–1225
A.D. 1140–1225
A.D. 1140–1225
A.D. 1225–1280
A.D. 1140–1225
A.D. 1140–1225
A.D. 1140–1225
A.D. 1140–1225
A.D. 1225–1260
A.D. 1225–1260
A.D. 1140–1225
A.D. 1140–1225
A.D. 1140–1225
A.D. 1140–1225
A.D. 1140–1225
Note: NST = Nonstructure, STR = Structure, EP = Early Pueblo, MP = Middle Pueblo, LP = Late
Pueblo, TP = Terminal Pueblo, IP = Initial Pueblo.
458
Table 10.2. Assemblage Size of Faunal Remains, Albert Porter Pueblo.
Pueblo I/III
Period
Pueblo II
Period
Pueblo II/III
Period
Pueblo III
Period
TOTAL
Identified
2
1,531
2,534
5,910
9,977
Unidentified
5
1,584
2,704
5,168
9,461
TOTAL
7
3,115
5,238
11,079
19,438
29%
49%
48%
53%
51%
Percent
Identified
Table 10.3. Taxa Represented, by Time Period, Presented by Number of Identified Specimens,
Albert Porter Pueblo.
Taxa
Common Name
Lagomorpha
Rabbit, hare
Sylvilagus sp.
Cottontail
Lepus sp.
Jackrabbit
Sciuridae
Squirrel
Eutamias sp.
Chipmunk
Spermophilus
variegatus
Rock squirrel
Spermophilus sp.
Ground squirrel
Cynomys gunnisoni
Gunnison's prairie dog
Cynomys sp.
Prairie dog
Tamiasciurus
hudsonicus
Red squirrel
Geomyidae
Pocket gopher
Perognathus sp.
Pocket mouse
Peromyscus sp.
Mouse
Microtus sp.
Vole
Muridae
Deer mice, vole
Neotoma sp.
Wood rat
Castor canadensis
Erethizon dorsatum
PI/PIII
Period
PII Period
1
PII/PIII
Period
PIII
Period
TOTAL
32
180
160
372
736
792
1,505
3,034
108
342
308
758
44
36
120
200
1
3
4
1
1
3
8
14
1
1
2
17
32
61
1
1
100
180
3
12
33
47
1
5
1
8
33
46
1
14
15
2
2
34
20
61
115
Beaver
1
1
8
10
Porcupine
1
1
7
9
459
Taxa
Common Name
PI/PIII
Period
PII Period
32
PII/PIII
Period
PIII
Period
42
TOTAL
Small rodent
Small rodent
203
Large rodent
Large rodent
Carnivora
Carnivore
Canis sp.
Dog, wolf, coyote
Canis lupus
Wolf
Canis familiaris
Dog
Vulpes vulpes
Red fox
Vulpes sp.
Red or kit fox
Ursidae
Bear
1
Bassariscus astutus
Ringtail
1
Mustela sp.
Weasel
2
2
Mustela erminea
Ermine
2
2
Mustela frenata
Long-tailed weasel
Taxidea taxus
Badger
1
Lynx sp.
Lynx or bobcat
1
Small carnivore
Small carnivore
2
Medium carnivore
Medium carnivore
2
Cervidae
Deer family
Odocoileus sp.
Deer
Antilocapra
americana
Pronghorn
Ovis canadensis
Bighorn sheep
Bison bison
Bison
1
1
1
1
1
5
7
1
1
2
5
8
11
24
4
5
2
11
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
Medium Artiodactyla Medium artiodactyla
277
1
1
2
1
6
2
4
8
16
1
1
10
27
23
61
1
1
1
3
3
2
5
1
1
2
34
43
79
156
2
1
1
4
Large Artiodactyla
Wapiti, bison-sized
artiodactyla
Small mammal
Small mammal
66
242
163
471
Medium mammal
Medium mammal
14
64
49
127
Large mammal
Large mammal
5
8
7
20
Falconiformes
Vulture, hawk, eagle
2
1
3
Buteo sp.
Hawk
5
7
13
Buteo swainsoni
Swainson's hawk
2
2
Small falcon
Small falcon
1
1
1
460
Taxa
Common Name
Medium
Falconiformes
Medium falcon
Galliformes
PI/PIII
Period
PII Period
PII/PIII
Period
PIII
Period
1
1
Grouse, quail, turkey
1
4
Tetraonidae
Grouse
7
Centrocercus
urophasianus
Sage grouse
Meleagris gallopavo
Turkey
Grus canadensis
TOTAL
2
4
9
1
8
1
156
270
1
1,567
1,993
Sandhill crane
1
1
Scolopacidae
Sandpiper
1
1
Zenaida macroura
Mourning dove
3
3
Strigiformes
Owl
1
1
Colaptes auratus
Common flicker
2
2
Passeriformes
Perching bird
2
6
Corvidae
Jay, crow
1
1
Pica pica
Magpie
1
1
Turdidae
Thrushes, robin
Small bird
Small bird
Medium bird
Medium bird
Large bird
Large bird
Amphibia
Amphibian
Snake
Snake
Reptilia
Pisces
4
1
1
2
6
31
39
19
6
8
33
148
328
1,143
1,619
2
2
192
196
Reptiles
1
1
Fish
8
8
5,910
9,977
4
TOTAL NISP
2
461
1,531
2,534
Table 10.4. Taxa Represented by Sub-Period, Presented by Number of Identified Specimens (NISP), Albert Porter Pueblo.
Taxa
Lagomorpha
Sylvilagus sp.
Lepus sp.
Sciuridae
A.D. 1020– A.D. 1060– A.D. 1060– A.D. 1100– Unassigned A.D. 1140– A.D. 1225–
1280
1140
1225
1180
PII–III Period
1225
1280
22
34
157
133
22
124
757
659
17
60
10
111
46
273
24
9
2
Eutamias sp.
Spermophilus
variegatus
Spermophilus sp.
1
Tamiasciurus
hudsonicus
Geomyidae
3
4
12
20
143
33
302
86
9
29
5
3
1
1
1
1
3
7
1
1
13
28
1
4
33
25
1
71
29
27
6
7
6
1
1
Peromyscus sp.
5
Microtus sp.
2
1
5
1
Muridae
2
5
34
1
1
Castor canadensis
Small rodent
1,328
1
Perognathus sp.
Neotoma sp.
Erethizon
dorsatum
Unassigned
PI–PIII Period
4
1
1
Cynomys
gunnisoni
Cynomys sp.
19
Unassigned
PIII Period
17
15
48
9
5
54
6
7
1
1
32
24
8
4
462
139
1
Taxa
A.D. 1020–
1280
A.D. 1060–
1140
Large rodent
Canis sp.
1
A.D. 1060– A.D. 1100– Unassigned A.D. 1140–
1225
1180
PII–III Period
1225
1
1
5
Canis lupus
Canis familiaris
1
2
5
6
1
9
Vulpes vulpes
2
4
3
2
Vulpes sp.
A.D. 1225–
1280
1
Unassigned
PIII Period
Unassigned
PI–PIII Period
1
1
Ursidae
Bassariscus
astutus
1
Mustela erminea
Mustela frenata
1
1
2
Mustela sp.
1
1
Taxidea taxus
2
1
Lynx sp.
Small carnivore
1
2
2
Medium carnivore
2
5
1
6
1
1
Carnivora
Cervidae
Odocoileus sp.
10
Antilocapra
americana
10
17
1
23
1
1
1
3
2
Ovis canadensis
Bison bison
1
1
Medium
Artiodactyla
14
35
36
2
463
78
1
5
A.D. 1020– A.D. 1060– A.D. 1060–
1280
1140
1225
Large Artiodactyla
1
2
Taxa
A.D. 1100– Unassigned A.D. 1140– A.D. 1225–
1180
PII–III Period
1225
1280
1
Small mammal
24
67
214
1
Medium mammal
23
14
36
5
6
5
1
Large mammal
Buteo sp.
4
Galliformes
30
1
2
3
2
5
1
1
4
7
2
1
1
1
1
3
Tetraonidae
Centrocercus
urophasianus
Meleagris
gallopavo
1
2
2
2
3
7
116
161
1
1
132
21
4
1,289
Grus canadensis
1
Scolopacidae
1
Zenaida macroura
2
Strigiformes
209
1
Colaptes auratus
Passeriformes
Unassigned
PI–PIII Period
130
45
Buteo swainsoni
Small falcon
Medium
Falconiformes
Falconiformes
Unassigned
PIII Period
4
4
464
61
1
Taxa
A.D. 1020–
1280
A.D. 1060–
1140
A.D. 1060–
1225
A.D. 1100– Unassigned A.D. 1140–
1180
PII–III Period
1225
Corvidae
A.D. 1225–
1280
Unassigned
PIII Period
Unassigned
PI–PIII Perio