Proceedings of the 3rd Croatian Computer Vision Workshop (CCVW 2014) [22.26 MiB]

Proceedings of the 3rd Croatian Computer Vision Workshop (CCVW 2014) [22.26 MiB]
Third Croatian
Computer Vision Workshop
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
CC V W
University of Zagreb
Center of Excellence
for Computer Vision
2 014
P ROC E E DI NG S
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop
OF
CCVW 2014, Year 2
Publisher: University of Zagreb Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Unska 3, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
ISSN 1849-1227
http://www.fer.unizg.hr/crv/proceedings
CCVW 2014
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop
Zagreb, Croatia, September 16, 2014
S. Lončarić, M. Subašić (Eds.)
Organizing Institution
Center of Excellence for Computer Vision,
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing,
University of Zagreb, Croatia
Technical Co-Sponsors
IEEE
IEEE
IEEE
IEEE
Croatia
Croatia
Croatia
Croatia
Section
Section Computer Society Chapter
Section Computational Intelligence Chapter
Section Signal Processing Society Chapter
Donators
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Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop
CCVW 2014, Year 2
Editor-in-chief
Sven Lončarić ([email protected])
University of Zagreb Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing
Unska 3, HR-10000, Croatia
Editor
Marko Subašić ([email protected])
University of Zagreb Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing
Unska 3, HR-10000, Croatia
Production, Publishing and Cover Design
Tomislav Petković ([email protected])
University of Zagreb Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing
Unska 3, HR-10000, Croatia
Publisher
University of Zagreb Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing
Unska 3, HR-10000 Zagreb, OIB: 57029260362
c 2014 by the University of Zagreb.
Copyright This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/
ISSN 1849-1227
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
ii
Preface
On behalf of the Organizing Committee it is my pleasure to invite you to Zagreb for the 3rd Croatian Computer Vision
Workshop. The objective of the Workshop is to bring together professionals from academia and industry in the area
of computer vision theory and applications in order to foster research and encourage academia-industry collaboration
in this dynamic field. The Workshop program includes oral and poster presentations of original peer reviewed research
from Croatia and elsewhere. Furthermore, the program includes invited lectures by distinguished international researchers
presenting state-of-the-art in computer vision research. Workshop sponsors will provide perspective on needs and activities
of the industry. Finally, one session shall be devoted to short presentations of activities at Croatian research laboratories.
The Workshop is organized by the Center of Excellence for Computer Vision, which is located at the Faculty of Electrical
Engineering and Computing (FER), University of Zagreb. The Center joins eight research laboratories at FER and research
laboratories from six constituent units of the University of Zagreb: Faculty of Forestry, Faculty of Geodesy, Faculty of
Graphic Arts, Faculty of Kinesiology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, and Faculty of Transport
and Traffic Sciences.
Zagreb is a beautiful European city with many cultural and historical attractions, which I am sure all participants will
enjoy. I look forward to meet you all in Zagreb for the 3rd Croatian Computer Vision Workshop.
September 2014
Sven Lončarić, General Chair
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
iii
Acknowledgements
The 2014 3rd Croatian Computer Vision Workshop (CCVW) is the result of the committed efforts of many volunteers.
All included papers are results of dedicated research. Without such contribution and commitment this Workshop would
not have been possible.
Program Committee members and reviewers have spent many hours reviewing submitted papers and providing extensive
reviews which will be an invaluable help in future work of collaborating authors. Managing the electronic submissions
of the papers, the preparation of the abstract booklet and of the online proceedings also required substantial effort and
dedication that must be acknowledged. The Local Organizing Committee members did an excellent job to guarantee a
successful outcome of the Workshop.
We are grateful to the Technical Co-Sponsors, who helped us in granting the high scientific quality of the presentations,
and to the Donators that financially supported this Workshop.
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
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Contents
Organizing Committee
.......................................................
1
Reviewers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
CCVW 2014 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
I. Lipovac, T. Hrkać, K. Brkić, Z. Kalafatić, S. Šegvić
Experimental Evaluation of Vehicle Detection based on Background Modelling in Daytime and
Night-Time Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3
I. Sikirić, K. Brkić, I. Horvatin, S. Šegvić
Multi-Label Classification of Traffic Scenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
V. Vukotić, J. Krapac, S. Šegvić
Convolutional Neural Networks for Croatian Traffic Signs Recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
K. Kovačić, E. Ivanjko, H. Gold
Real Time Vehicle Trajectory Estimation on Multiple Lanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
D. Jurić, S. Lončarić
Warning and Prohibitory Traffic Sign Detection based on Edge Orientation Gradients . . . . . . . . 27
Image and Video Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
K. Hrvatinić, L. Malovan, F. Petric, D. Miklić, Z. Kovačić
Object Tracking Implementation for a Robot-Assisted Autism Diagnostic Imitation Task . . . . . . 33
N. Markuš, M. Frljak, I. S. Pandžić, J. Ahlberg, R. Forchheimer
Fast Localization of Facial Landmark Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
K. Brkić, S. Šegvić, Z. Kalafatić, A. Aldoma, M. Vincze
Recognizing 3D Objects from a Limited Number of Views using Temporal Ensembles of Shape
Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
V. Zadrija, S. Šegvić
Experimental Evaluation of Multiplicative Kernel SVM Classifiers for Multi-Class Detection . . . . . 50
R. Cupec, D. Filko, I. Vidović, E. K. Nyarko, Ž. Hocenski
Point Cloud Segmentation to Approximatelly Convex Surfaces for Fruit Recognition . . . . . . . . . 56
Author Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
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v
Organizing Committee
General Chair
Sven Lončarić, University of Zagreb, Croatia
Technical Program Committe Chair
Marko Subašić, University of Zagreb, Croatia
Local Arrangements Chair
Tomislav Petković, University of Zagreb, Croatia
Publications Chair
Pavle Prentašić, University of Zagreb, Croatia
Technical Program Committee
Bart Bijnens, Spain
Hrvoje Bogunović, USA
Mirjana Bonković, Croatia
Karla Brkić, Croatia
Robert Cupec, Croatia
Albert Diosi, Slovakia
Hrvoje Dujmić, Croatia
Ivan Fratrić, Switzerland
Hrvoje Gold, Croatia
Mislav Grgić, Croatia
Sonja Grgić, Croatia
Andras Hajdu, Hungary
Edouard Ivanjko, Croatia
Bojan Jerbić, Croatia
Zoran Kalafatić, Croatia
Stanislav Kovačič, Slovenia
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
Zoltan Kato, Hungary
Josip Krapac, Croatia
Sven Lončarić, Croatia
Lidija Mandić, Croatia
Vladan Papić, Croatia
Renata Pernar, Croatia
Tomislav Petković, Croatia
Ivan Petrović, Croatia
Thomas Pock, Austria
Tomislav Pribanić, Croatia
Arnau Ramisa, Spain
Slobodan Ribarić, Croatia
Damir Seršić, Croatia
Darko Stipaničev, Croatia
Federico Sukno, Ireland
Siniša Šegvić, Croatia
1
Reviewers
Albert Diosi, Austraila
Arnau Ramisa, Spain
Edouard Ivanjko, Croatia
Federico Sukno, Argentina
Hrvoje Bogunović, USA
Karla Brkić, Croatia
Marko Subašić, Croatia
Robert Cupec, Croatia
Siniša Šegvić, Croatia
Stanislav Kovačič, Slovenia
Thomas Pock, Austria
Tomislav Petković, Croatia
Vladan Papić, Croatia
Zoltan Kato, Hungary
Zoran Kalafatić, Croatia
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
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Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
Experimental Evaluation of Vehicle Detection
Based on Background Modelling
in Daytime and Night-Time Video
Igor Lipovac, Tomislav Hrkać, Karla Brkić, Zoran Kalafatić and Siniša Šegvić
University of Zagreb
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing
Email: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]
Abstract—Vision-based detection of vehicles at urban intersections is an interesting alternative to commonly applied hardware
solutions such as inductive loops. The standard approach to
that problem is based on a background model consisting of
independent per-pixel Gaussian mixtures. However, there are
several notable shortcomings of that approach, including large
computational complexity, blending of stopped vehicles with
background and sensitivity to changes in image acquisition
parameters (gain, exposure). We address these problems by
proposing the following three improvements: (i) dispersed and
delayed background modelling, (ii) modelling patch gradient
distributions instead of absolute values of individual pixels,
and (iii) significant speed-up through use of integral images.
We present a detailed performance comparison on a realistic
dataset with handcrafted groundtruth information. The obtained
results indicate that significant gains with respect to the standard
approach can be obtained both in performance and computational speed. Experiments suggest that the proposed combined
technique would enable robust real-time performance on a lowcost embedded computer.
I. I NTRODUCTION
In this paper we consider vehicle detection at urban intersections. Traditionally, this problem has been solved by
inductive loop sensors capable of detecting the presence of
a vehicle. However, applying inductive loops for vehicle
detection is expensive, primarily due to the need to conduct
construction works and to stop the traffic during the installation
as well as for maintenance. Therefore, the traffic management
companies search for alternative solutions which would enable
easy sensor replacement and maintenance. Computer vision
techniques are very suitable for this task.
The usual computer vision scenario involves a fixed-view
camera above the road and suitable algorithms to detect
moving objects of appropriate size. This leads us to the well
known problem of background modelling for which numerous
solutions have been proposed. For the application scenario
which involves day and night video capture, it is necessary to
have an adaptive background model. Another constraint that
should be taken into account is that the target system should be
suitable for mounting at road infrastructure elements. Therefore, it would be beneficial to develop algorithms that could
run on embedded hardware, which would also significantly
reduce the installation costs.
We first considered the baseline background modelling
approach based on per-pixel Gaussian mixtures, and evaluated
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Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
it in the typical urban intersection scenario. This preliminary
evaluation identified several important problems.
1) during the red light phase, the vehicles stop for a relatively long period and due to the background adaptation
tend to influence the background model;
2) the classical running average model with exponential
learning curve [12] tends to overemphasize the influence
of the waiting vehicles;
3) automatic camera adaptation causes significant changes
of the image in some situations, leading to missdetections;
4) the detection of the vehicles of the color similar to the
color of the road is often unsuccessful.
In order to address these problems we evaluate several
improvements to the baseline background modelling approach.
Firstly, we delay the model used for object detection in
order to reduce the influence of waiting cars to their own
detection. The idea here is to use the background model built
before the arrival of the stopped cars and thus avoid using an
infected model. Secondly, we attempt to reduce the influence
of waiting cars by introducing a more appropriate weighting of
the incoming frames through a two-stage background model.
Thirdly, we attempt to reduce the dependence on absolute
pixel values by building gradient-based background models. In
order to improve the resistance to noise and at the same time
reduce computational complexity, we refrain from considering
individual pixels and instead model the gradient distribution
above an overlapping set of small rectangular image patches.
II. R ELATED WORK
Computer vision-based approaches to the estimation of
traffic flow parameters have been the subject of a lot of recent
research. A common approach to separate foreground objects
from the background scenery is based on background modelling. In such approaches, a statistical model that describes the
background state of each pixel is constructed and subsequently
compared to the current video frame. Pixels in which the
difference is significant are considered to belong to foreground
objects.
A number of methods for background model construction
has been proposed. Especially popular have been time-adaptive
Gaussian mixture models [14], [12], [15]. In these methods,
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Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
each pixel is represented with a set of weighted Gaussian
distributions. Based on the assumption that background is
visible most of the time in each pixel position, distributions
are ordered according to their weights, and those more relevant
are considered to model the background, while the remaining
model the foreground. The per-pixel models are updated with
each new observation, with older observations losing influence
over time.
A comparison of several different background subtraction
algorithms for detecting moving vehicles and pedestrians in
urban traffic video sequences is given in [4]. The tested
algorithms are classified as non-recursive (including simple
frame differencing, median filtering, linear predictive filtering
and non-parametric estimate of the pixel density function)
or recursive (approximated median filter, Kalman filter and
mixture of Gaussians). The evaluation is performed on four
different video sequences with manually annotated moving
objects in ten frames in each sequence as a ground truth.
The algorithms are then evaluated by measuring precision and
recall for different algorithm parameters. Mixture of Gaussians
produces the best results, but median filtering offers a simple
alternative with competitive performance. Frame differencing
produces significantly worse results than all the other schemes.
Herrero and Bescós [9] provide another detailed overview
and an evaluation of commonly used background subtraction
techniques. The approaches covered by the overview are
divided into simple (frame differencing, running average, median filtering), unimodal (Gaussian or chi-square modelling)
and multimodal (mixtures of Gaussians, mean-shift algorithm,
kernel density estimation and hidden Markov models). Evaluation is performed on video sequences from the dataset
introduced in [13], obtained by combining separately recorded
foreground and background videos, so the segmentation masks
are known. The evaluation results suggest that chi-square
modelling performs best in most scenarios. However, the
authors note that mixtures of Gaussians and simple median
filtering performed especially well in cases of highly dynamic
backgrounds. Overall, the experimental findings in the evaluation supports the notion that relatively good results can be
obtained with very simple techniques.
A more recent evaluation of bacground subtraction techniques with an emphasis on video surveillance is given by
Brutzer et al. [3]. Nine background subtraction methods are
compared at the pixel level. To alleviate the problem of
ground truth collection, the authors rendered complex artificial scenes that address several challenges in background
subtraction: gradual and sudden illumination changes, dynamic
background, objects similar to background, shadows, initialization with foreground objects present and noise. The topperforming method is ViBe, a method proposed by Barnich
and Van Droogenbroeck [1]. ViBe introduces several interesting innovations, e.g. storing a history of actual pixel values for
a given pixel instead of building a statistical model, having a
random update policy, doing background initialization from
a single frame by assuming that neighboring pixels share a
similar temporal distribution, etc.
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
Most background techniques assume a single rate of adaptation that determines how adaptive the model is to the change
in pixel value. However, this can be inadequate in scenes
such as traffic intersections, where objects move at a variety
of speeds. A fast-adapting algorithm can miss detection of
parts of homogeneous moving objects, since they quickly
become part of the background. On the other hand, slow
adapting algorithm leave long trails (”ghosts”) behind initially
stationary objects that suddenly start to move, such as cars
waiting at the crossroad. Algorithms with slow adaptation
rate are also more sensitive to sudden global illumination
changes. To cope with this, Cheung and Kamath [5] propose a
dual-stage algorithm that first builds a foreground mask using
a slow-adapting Kalman filter, and then validates individual
foreground pixels by a simple moving object model, built using
foreground and background statistics as well as the frame
difference.
Another approach was suggested by Harville [8]. He proposed a framework for guiding evolution of pixel-level mixture
of Gaussians models by using feedback from higher-level
modules, such as module for person detection and tracking, or
module for detection of rapid changes in global illumination,
camera gain or camera position. The feedback of each module
can be classified either as positive, which serves to enhance
correct foreground segmentation, or as negative, which aims
to adjust the pixel-level background model in order to prevent
the re-occurrence of detected foreground mistakes.
To improve the robustness of vehicle detection against
illumination changes and small camera movements, as well
as the ability to track vehicles in case of occlusions and
crowded events, Batista et al. [2] propose a dual-stage approach consisting of pixel-level and block-level stages. The
pixel-level stage uses a multi-layered and adaptive background
modelling, based on three image models. Two of them are
used to model the dynamics of the background allowing the
system to cope with intensity variations, while the third is used
in the cleaning/validation process, being a direct copy of the
past image. The block-level stage performs a 8x8 block-region
analysis to label the blocks belonging to different vehicles and
track them over a stack of images.
As a part of the University of South California Clever
Transportation Project, Kim et al. [10] propose a system for
real-time traffic flow analysis. The system aims to replace
traffic loop detectors with cameras utilizing computer vision
techniques. A special coprocessor, the Viewmont video analytics coprocessor, has been provided by Intel, who is a
partner on the project. The coprocessor is specifically tailored
toward video processing, enabling significant speed-up when
compared to a conventional CPU. At the time of writing there
is no information about the coprocessor on Intel’s webpage,
and it does not seem to be commercially available. In order
to use the system, one needs to define a region of interest
where the traffic is most visible, and within it a series of
virtual lines spanning across individual lanes. Background
is subtracted using frame averaging, and moving objects are
extracted. Morphological operations are applied to obtain crisp
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Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
boundaries of the moving objects and remove noise. Passing
of the vehicles is detected by counting the relative proportion
of pixels belonging to moving objects crossing a virtual line
to the total number of pixels comprising the line. In the
evaluation, the results obtained by the system are compared to
the output from real loop detectors. The main two identified
problems are dense traffic and vehicle shadows.
III. T HE STANDARD APPROACH AND ITS SHORTCOMINGS
All background modelling approaches assume that each
particular image pixel in most video frames is projected from
the background scenery. Thus, a fair estimate of the actual
background should be obtainable by some kind of an average
pixel value across many frames. By comparing the actual value
with the estimated model a pixel can finally be classified into
either the background or the foreground class.
Pixel averaging is usually achieved by fitting a Gaussian
mixture model with few components (n=2 or n=3) to each
individual pixel over a number of frames. Multiple components
are useful since they can account for small camera motions due
to vibrations. The recovered variances allow to perform the
classification by taking into account the actual camera noise.
In order to avoid the need for storing a large number of
video frames, the standard background modelling approach
estimates the required per-pixel Gaussian mixtures by employing the exponential moving average. In this approach,
the evolution of the single component model (µ, σ) at the
pixel (x, y) of the current image Ik can be described with the
following equations (note that the free parameter α regulates
the adaptivity of the model).
µk [x, y] = αIk [x, y] + (1 − α)µk−1 [x, y] ,
σk2 [x, y]
2
= α(Ik [x, y] − µk [x, y]) + (1 −
2
α)σk−1
[x, y]
(1)
. (2)
These equations are easily extended to the multi-component
case by weighting the contribution of the current pixel with
the distances from the component centers [15]. The model
needs to be initialized on a suitable video sequence either by
straight-forward Gaussian fitting (one component) or by the
EM algorithm (multiple components).
Unfortunately, it is very difficult to find the parameter α of
the standard approach (2) which achieves an optimal ballance
between robustness to stopped objects and adaptivity to daily
illumination changes. If α is too large, stopped cars start
disturbing the model. If α is too small, the model will not
be adaptive enough to follow illumination changes due to
meteorological conditions. This could be improved by storing
a history of values for each given pixel [1] and calculating the
correct running average:
µk [x, y] =
k−1
X
σk2 [x, y] =
i=k−N
IV. T HE PROPOSED IMPROVEMENTS TO THE BASELINE
APPROACH
A. Two stage background model
In order to deal with long term illumination changes and
stopped cars becoming part of the background model after
a prolonged period of waiting for the traffic light change,
we propose the following background modelling approach.
Specific to this approach is that we build two background
models and that is why we call it the two stage approach.
The first model in our two stage approach is the baseline
background model and it is updated with every frame of the
video. The second model is refreshed every N frames with
the representation from the first model that is 2N frames old.
This way we disperse and delay the contribution of the images
that were used for updating the first model and hopefully
we create a model that is more robust and deals better with
aforementioned problems. Also we keep our model adaptive
to long term changes and we do not lose information because
of the first stage model that is updated with every frame.
Both single stage (baseline approach) and two stage model
use exponential running average to update with the current
frame. Each frame contribution in both single stage and two
stage background model is discussed and presented.
The frame contribution in the standard model (2) features
(1)
the contribution Ck in the frame k:
(1)
Ii [x, y] ,
(3)
(Ii [x, y] − µk [x, y])2 .
(4)
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Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
(5)
Ck = α ,
(1)
Ck−1
(1)
Ck−2
(6)
= α(1 − α) ,
= α(1 − α)2 .
(7)
Let the index of the current frame again be given by k.
Then the frame contribution of the two stage dispersed and
delayed model in the frame i can be expressed in terms of
(1)
the contribution of the standard one-stage model Ci and the
update parameter β:
(2)
Ci
=
⌋
⌊ k−i−1
N
X
j=0
i=k−N
k−1
X
However, we refrain from that approach due to memory
requirements which would be difficult to meet on a lowcost embedded computer. The standard approach is also very
sensitive to global changes of the camera acquisition parameters, which occur whenever large white or black vehicle enter
the field of view. Finally, the standard approach makes it
difficult to process more than one video stream on a low-cost
embedded computer. These shortcomings shall be addressed
in the following subsections.
(1)
β(1 − β)j · Ci+j·N
(8)
The two contribution models are shown in Figure 1. In
comparison with the standard model (left), in the two stage
model the frame contribution is dispersed and the domination
of the most recent frames in the final contribution is reduced.
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Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
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Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
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Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
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Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
Multi-Label Classification of Traffic Scenes
Ivan Sikirić
Karla Brkić, Ivan Horvatin, Siniša Šegvić
Mireo d.d.
Buzinski prilaz 32, 10000 Zagreb
e-mail: [email protected]
University of Zagreb
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing
e-mail: [email protected],
[email protected], [email protected]
Abstract—This work deals with multi-label classification of
traffic scene images. We introduce a novel labeling scheme for the
traffic scene dataset FM2. Each image in the dataset is assigned
up to five labels: settlement, road, tunnel, traffic and overpass.
We propose representing the images with (i) bag-of-words and (ii)
GIST descriptors. The bag-of-words model detects SIFT features
in training images, clusters them to form visual words, and
then represents each image as a histogram of visual words. On
the other hand, the GIST descriptor represents an image by
capturing perceptual features meaningful to a human observer,
such as naturalness, openness, roughness, etc. We compare the
two representations by measuring classification performance of
Support Vector Machine and Random Forest classifiers. Labels
are assigned by applying binary one-vs-all classifiers trained
separately for each class. Categorization success is evaluated
over multiple labels using a variety of parameters. We report
good classification results for easier class labels (road, F 1 = 98%
and tunnel, F 1 = 94%), and discuss weaker results (overpass,
F 1 < 50%) that call for use of more advanced methods.
I.
I NTRODUCTION AND RELATED WORK
Traffic scene classification is an emerging topic with considerable importance in the field of intelligent transportation
systems. With the increased availability of cameras in vehicles
(either on mobile devices or as embedded hardware in luxurious car models), there are more and more possibilities for
simplifying common intelligent transportation tasks. We are
especially interested in improving fleet management systems.
Fleet management systems are used to track the status of fleets
of vehicles belonging to various kinds of companies (e.g. taxi,
delivery, cargo transport etc.). They use GPS sensors to track
the location of the vehicle, but have little information about
the vehicle’s environment. Some useful information about the
vehicle’s surroundings can be inferred by using a camera to
record images from the driver’s perspective, and then solving
a classification problem to detect interesting types of traffic
scenes and scenarios. For example, this approach can be
used to identify traffic jams, or to differentiate open road
environments from urban/rural roads or tunnels.
Image classification in general is a common topic in
computer vision, extensively researched in great number of
papers. Active research focuses mainly on recognizing images
in a large number of diverse classes [1]. The performance of
new image classification techniques is usually evaluated on
one or more of many publicly available benchmark datasets
(e.g. Pascal VOC, Caltech 101, LabelMe etc). This enables a
simple and meaningful comparison of state-of-the-art methods
applied on various domains.
A common approach to image classification is to first
reduce the dimensionality of the image representation using
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
an image descriptor, and then use a general-purpose classifier
to perform the classification. Commonly used classifiers are
Support Vector Machine (SVM) [2] and Random Forest [3].
Among the best performing general-purpose image descriptors
are the bag-of-words model [4], [5], [6], and its derivatives:
Locality-constrained Linear Coding (LLC) [7], Fisher vectors
(FV) [8] and Spatial Fisher vectors (SFV) [9]. The basis of
these methods is finding local image features (e.g. SIFT [10])
and expressing their distribution and relative spatial relations,
thus producing a short code that represents the image. Another
successful image descriptor is GIST [11], [12], which is not
general-purpose, but is designed specifically for scene classification purpose. It captures a set of semantic properties of an
image (e.g. naturalness or openness) by measuring responses
from several orientation filter over a fixed grid.
The volume of work focused on classifying traffic scenes
is considerably smaller than generic image classification research. A small number of works apply general-purpose methods on the problem [13]. Most works present methods that are
crafted specifically for classification and understanding of traffic scenes. For instance, Tang and Breckon [14] identify three
regions of interest in a traffic scene image: (i) a rectangular
region near the center of the image, (ii) a tall rectangular region
on the left side of the image and (iii) a wide rectangular region
at the bottom of the image. Each of the three regions of interest
is represented by a predefined set of local features, as specific
features are expected to respond to specific structures which
occur in a traffic scene image (e.g. road, or road edge). They
introduce a new dataset with four classes: motorway, offroad,
trunkroad and urban road. Mioulet et al. [15] build on the
ideas of Tang and Breckon [14], retaining the three predefined
regions of interest, but representing them with different types
of local features and using dedicated hardware.
In our previous work [16], [13], we evaluated classification
of traffic scenes in a single-label setup. The main focus was not
on the selected labeling approach, but instead on minimizing
the image representation size, and on discussing implementation issues specific to fleet management systems. In this
paper we evaluate the multi-label classification performance
of general purpose image classification methods on traffic
scene images. We use the bag-of-words and GIST descriptors
combined with SVM and Random Forest classifiers. The
performance is evaluated on the FM2 dataset1 [13] of traffic
scene images. Publicly available labeling assigns a single label
to each image, even in cases where an image clearly belongs
to two or more classes. We introduce a novel labeling scheme
for this dataset, in which each image is assigned up to five
1 http://www.zemris.fer.hr/∼ssegvic/datasets/unizg-fer-fm2.zip
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Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
labels: settlement, road, tunnel, traffic and overpass.
II.
T HE FM2 DATASET
The FM2 dataset contains 6237 images of traffic scenes
captured on Croatian roads from the driver’s perspective,
mostly on highways. The resolution of the images is 640x480.
Most of the images were taken on a clear and sunny day. No
images were taken during nighttime.
The publicly available labeling of the FM2 dataset assigns
a single label per image. In reality, many traffic scenes belong
to more than one class (for example, classes settlement and
overpass are not mutually exclusive). Using a single-label
classifier in such cases results in an unnecessary loss of
information. For that reason, a multi-label approach, in which
a set of class labels can be assigned to a single image is a
more appropriate solution. In our novel labeling scheme each
image is assigned a set of class labels.
We selected five class labels: settlement, road, tunnel,
traffic and overpass. The overview and brief description of the
classes is given in Table I. Classes settlement, open road and
tunnel describe the location of the vehicle, and their labels are
mutually exclusive. Classes overpass and traffic were chosen
because they are interesting for fleet management systems,
as described in [16], [13]. The overpass class label usually
coexists with the road label, but it can also occur in settlements.
The traffic label can occur with any other label. It is also
possible that it will be the only label assigned to an image (if
a large truck directly in front of camera completely obstructs
the view). Some examples of labeled images are shown in
Figure 1.
III.
M ETHODS
In this paper, we compare two different image representations in a multi-label classification setting. The first considered
representation is the bag-of-words model [17], and the second
considered representation is the GIST descriptor [11], [12].
For each of these representations, we trained two different
classifiers: Support Vector Machine (SVM) [2] and Random
Forest [3].
A. Multi-label classification methods
Existing methods for multi-label classification fall into
two main categories [18]: (i) problem transformation methods
and (ii) algorithm adaptation methods. The problem transformation methods transform the original problem into one or
more single-label classification or regression problems. The
algorithm adaptation methods do not transform the problem,
but rather they adapt the learning algorithms themselves to
handle multi-label data. Since we want to evaluate (among
other things) the performance of standard SVM algorithm on
this problem, we focus on the problem transformation methods.
Two most commonly used problem transformation methods
[19] are label power-set method [20] and binary relevance
[21].
Label power-set method works by assigning each distinct
subset of labels that occurs in the data its own unique label,
thus transforming multi-label problem into a single-label one.
This method will capture any existing dependence between
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
labels (e.g. in FM2 dataset label overpass must coexist with
either road or settlement label, while it cannot coexist with
tunnel label). One major problem with this approach is having
a large number of classes: in case of K labels, the number
of resulting classes can be up to 2K . This usually leads to
some classes being represented with very few examples. Since
number of examples per class is already low in the FM2
dataset, we chose not to use this method. Instead, we used
the binary relevance method.
Binary relevance method works by creating K datasets
from the original dataset, where K is the number of classes,
and training a separate classifier for each of them. Each of
the K datasets contains the same samples as the original
dataset, but the labels are different, as they indicate whether
the given sample belongs to the class k. Once the transformed
datasets are obtained, it is a simple matter to train a binary
classifier on each of them. The output for each sample is
the union of the outputs for all K classifiers. Even though
this method is unable to learn the dependence between labels,
it has other advantages. It is suited for applications where
label relationships may change over datasets (e.g. it might be
able to properly classify scenes with both labels settlement
and overpass, even if no such examples were present in the
original training dataset). Its main advantage, however, is its
low computational complexity, which scales linearly with the
number of classes.
B. The bag-of-words model
The bag-of-words image representation was adopted into
computer vision from the field of text mining. In text mining,
a bag-of-words model represents a textual document by a
histogram of occurrences of words from a dictionary (thus
disregarding their ordering in the document). Similarly, an
image can be represented by a histogram of visual words.
Local image features can be used as visual words, but the
number of all possible local features is too large to represent
a dictionary. For this reason, a dictionary of visual words is
obtained by sampling local image features from each image
in a dataset, and then clustering them into a set of more
manageable size. Each cluster center represents a single visual
word, and any local feature is considered to be the same
visual word as its nearest cluster center. In this work we used
SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) [10] algorithm to
extract local features, and k-means clustering [22] to produce
a dictionary of visual words.
Extraction of SIFT features was done using the implementation from the VLFeat library [23]. Local SIFT features are
considered to be stable if they are invariant to changes in scale,
orientation, illumination and noise. In the VLFeat library, the
amount of features extracted from an image is regulated by two
parameters of the extraction algorithm: peak-thresh and edgethresh. The peak-thresh parameter represents the threshold on
the contrast of the extracted features and is used to discard
the low-contrast features. The edge-thresh parameter represents
the threshold on the curvature of the extracted features, and is
used to discard edge responses in favor of corner responses.
The effect of varying these parameters can be seen on Figures
2, 3, 4 and 5.
A dictionary of visual words was obtained by organizing
sampled local features into clusters. We used k-means cluster-
10
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
class label
settlement
road
tunnel
traffic
overpass
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
class description
vehicle is in a settlement
an open road scene
vehicle is in a tunnel, or directly in front of it
other vehicles are visible
vehicle will soon be, or is already under an overpass
number of occurrences
412
5239
681
2411
194
TABLE I: Selected class labels
(a) road
(b) tunnel
(c) settlement, traffic
(d) road, overpass
(e) tunnel, traffic
(f) road, overpass, traffic
Fig. 1: Examples of labeled images
(a) Test image for setting the peak-thresh parameter
(a) Test image for setting the edge-thresh parameter
(b) Detected features for varying values of parameter peak-thresh
(starting from top left: 20, 10, 5, 0)
(b) Detected features for varying values of parameter edge-thresh
(starting from top left: 7, 10, 15, 25)
Fig. 2: Effects of varying the peak-thresh parameter
Fig. 3: Effects of varying the edge-thresh parameter
ing algorithm [22]. It is an iterative algorithm that minimizes
the error term:
is run several times to increase the chance of finding the global
optimum.
J=
K X
X
k=1 xi ∈Sk
||xi − µk ||2
(1)
where K is the desired number of clusters, µk is the centroid
of cluster k, and Sk is the set of all feature vectors xi in cluster
k. The initialization of centroids is random, so this algorithm
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
C. The GIST image descriptor
While the bag-of-words model can be applied to images of
any kind, the GIST descriptor [11], [12] has been developed
specifically for scene recognition. It is a low dimensional
representation of the scene that captures perceptual features
11
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
Fig. 4: SIFT features extracted on overpass images for extraction parameters of edge−thresh = 10 and peak−thresh = 5
Fig. 5: SIFT features extracted on overpass images for extraction parameters of edge−thresh = 10 and peak−thresh = 2
of the scene that are meaningful to a human observer, such as
naturalness, openness, roughness, etc. To calculate the GIST
descriptor, one first subdivides the image into 16 regions (a
4 × 4 grid), and then concatenates the average energies of 32
orientation filter responses (8 orientations on 4 scales) for each
cell. Therefore the length of the feature vector is 16·32 = 512.
Since GIST is designed to ignore accidental presence of small
objects in the scene, we expect it to perform better on class
labels road, settlement and tunnel than on traffic and overpass
(depending on how much the other vehicles / overpass are
dominant in the scene).
use a variant of the algorithm called soft-margin SVM. It introduces an error term ξi that allows for misclassified instances,
thus sacrificing linear separability in favor of stability:
X 1
2
arg min
||w|| + C
ξi
2
(2)
w,ξ,b
yi (xi · w − b) ≥ 1 − ξi , ξi ≥ 0
D. Support Vector Machine
Support Vector Machine (SVM) [2] is a binary classifier
which constructs a maximum-margin hyperplane that divides
two sets of vectors. The construction of the hyperplane is done
in the learning stage using labeled vectors. SVM is expected
to generalize well because of maximizing the margin between
sets. To allow for outliers in the learning dataset, we chose to
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
where yi is the class label of point xi , and w and b are the
parameters of the hyperplane. Parameter C can be used to
choose how much error is to be allowed in the classification
process. The lower it is, the more outliers will be tolerated.
The higher it is, the closer we get to regular SVM algorithm.
Figure 6 illustrates the effects of varying the parameter C. Big
circles represent the vectors that are taken into consideration
when maximizing the margin of the hyperplane.
E. Random Forest classifier
Random Forest classifier was developed by Breiman and
Cutler [3]. The basic idea of the algorithm is to combine
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Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
and m of the classifiers, but the results were nearly identical
for a wide range of parameter values.
The performance measure we chose to use if the F1
measure, which is the harmonic mean of precision and recall
measures, and is calculated as:
F1 =
Fig. 6: Examples of margins for various values of C parameter
in soft-margin SVM, illustrated on a toy problem in 2D space.
Points belong to two classes, red and blue. Support vectors are
circled. Figure courtesy of Yaroslav Bulatov.
many simple classifiers (decision trees) into a complex one. A
decision tree is a classifier in which leaf nodes represent the
outcome of the classification (class labels), and inner nodes
(called decision nodes) direct the traversal of the tree by
thresholding a specific subset of m attributes of the input
feature vector. The m attributes evaluated at a given node
are selected in a way that maximizes the information gain
in the current subset of training data. Hundreds of samples
are required to build a decision tree with good classification
performance.
A Random Forest consists of many decision trees, where
each tree is different because of randomized initialization. The
final outcome of the classification is decided by voting of all
decision trees. The error of a Random Forest classifier depends
on the errors of individual decision trees, as well as on the level
of correlation between trees (high correlation results in greater
error). Parameter m directly affects the level of correlation and
the error of individual trees. The higher the parameter m is,
the greater the correlation, but the lower the error of trees
becomes.
IV.
E XPERIMENTS AND RESULTS
In this section we describe the performed multi-label
classification experiments. Each image in the dataset was
represented using both bag-of-words and GIST image descriptors. Since we used binary relevance multi-label classification
method on the dataset with K = 5 classes, the labels of the
dataset were separated into five distinct sets, one for each class.
Subsequently, we trained five separate binary classifiers in a
one-vs-all fashion. We used 70% of each set for training, while
the rest was used for evaluation. The output for each sample is
the union of the outputs for all K classifiers. The classifiers we
evaluated were Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random
Forest. Two types of classifiers in combination with two types
of image descriptors yield a total of four different classification
setups.
For the GIST descriptor we used an implementation provided by its authors [11]. For the bag-of-words descriptor we
used the solution developed in [24], which uses the VLFeat library [23] implementation of the SIFT algorithm. For the SVM
and Random Forest classifiers we used the scikit-learn Python
library [25]. The same library provides an implementation of
k-means clustering algorithm, which was used to produce the
dictionary of visual words in bag-of-words model. A simple
grid search optimization was used to tune the parameters C
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
2Tp
2Tp + Fn + Fp
(3)
where Tp , Fn and Fp are the number of true positives, false
negatives and false positives, respectively.
The detailed per-class results are shown in Table II. All
combinations of classifiers and descriptors have shown similar
performance for every class. Very good performance was
achieved on road and tunnel classes (F 1 ≥ 0.94). Moderate
performance was achieved on settlement and traffic classes
(0.64 ≤ F 1 ≤ 0.86). Very poor performance was shown on
the class overpass (F 1 ≤ 0.51). For successful classification
of overpass and traffic images, in many cases it is necessary
to consider some small detail of the scene (the overpass and
vehicles are often in the distance, and rarely dominate the
scene). Since GIST is designed for scene recognition, rather
than being a general-purpose descriptor, it is not surprising
that it often fails to capture such details. Similarly, our implementation of bag-of-words model is expected to have problems
with the same type of images. Since the implementation we
used extracts only stable SIFT features, it is likely that in
many cases very few local features were extracted in the
regions of important, but small details in the scene. It is
important to note that the dataset contains several thousand
images with the traffic label, but only a couple hundred with
overpass label, which explains the difference in performance
for those classes. The class tunnel is easy to classify because
all the tunnel images are very similar to each other, and very
different from images of other classes. On the other hand,
the appearance of settlement images varies greatly, which
makes their classification a more difficult task. To improve
the classification performance of settlement class, we should
include much more training examples. The best performance is
achieved for road images, which are the most occurring image
type in in the dataset, are not defined by small details in the
scene, and are similar to each other in appearance.
V.
C ONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
The proposed methods have shown remarkably good results
for some class labels (road and tunnel), while performing
rather poorly on some other class labels (overpass). Both
classifiers (SVM and Random Forest), and both descriptors
(bag-of-words) showed similar level of performance (both
overall, and per-class). Therefore, we conclude that classes
settlement and traffic are moderately hard to classify, and the
class overpass is very hard to classify. This calls for use
of more advanced methods, and expansion of the dataset to
include much more instances of those classes (especially for
the case of settlement, which is the class with the greatest
variability in appearance). The GIST descriptor is designed
for scene classification, and is expected to perform poorly
in capturing small details in a scene (such as occasional
vehicle and overpass in the distance). Performance of bagof-words model is expected to be improved by using dense
SIFT extractor, instead of the keypoint-driven one, because
13
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
SVM (C = 1) on bag-of-words
precision
recall
F1
settlement
0.76
0.78
0.77
tunnel
0.94
0.94
0.94
road
0.98
0.97
0.98
traffic
0.62
0.70
0.66
0.47
0.39
0.42
overpass
average
0.86
0.88
0.87
SVM (C = 1) on GIST descriptor
precision
recall
F1
settlement
0.59
0.97
0.73
0.92
0.96
0.94
tunnel
road
0.99
0.98
0.99
traffic
0.71
0.79
0.75
overpass
0.36
0.87
0.51
average
0.88
0.92
0.90
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
Random Forest (500 trees) on bag-of-words
precision
recall
F1
settlement
0.96
0.56
0.71
tunnel
0.99
0.89
0.94
road
0.97
1.00
0.98
traffic
0.79
0.53
0.64
1.00
0.06
0.11
overpass
average
0.92
0.83
0.86
Random Forest (500 trees) on GIST descriptor
precision
recall
F1
settlement
0.90
0.82
0.86
0.99
0.91
0.95
tunnel
road
0.99
0.99
0.99
traffic
0.89
0.75
0.81
overpass
1.00
0.30
0.46
average
0.96
0.90
0.92
TABLE II: results for linear SVM (C = 1) and Random Forest classifiers (500 trees) on the bag-of-words and GIST descriptors
in many occasions there were too few local features captured
on some important part of the scene (such as a vehicle or an
overpass in the distance). Other possible improvements include
using RootSIFT method for comparing SIFT descriptors [26],
adding spatial coding to bag-of-words (SPM or 1+4+3), and
using RBF or other kernel in case of SVM. For our future
work, we plan to expand the scope of multi-label classification
experiments to the same extent as single-label experiments in
our previous work [13]. This includes evaluating other types
of image descriptors (Locality-constrained Linear Coding and
Spatial Fisher vectors) as well as considering very small image
representations. That will give us a strong basis for comparison
of single-label vs multi-label classification performance from
the user’s standpoint.
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]
[16]
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This research has been supported by the research project
Research Centre for Advanced Cooperative Systems (EU FP7
#285939).
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Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
Convolutional Neural Networks for Croatian
Traffic Signs Recognition
Vedran Vukotić, Josip Krapac and Siniša Šegvić
University of Zagreb - Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing
Zagreb, HR-10000, Croatia
Email: [email protected]
Traffic sign recognition is an example of the multiple
classes recognition problem. Classical approaches to this problem in computer vision typically use the following wellknown pipeline: (1) local feature extraction (e.g. SIFT), (2)
feature coding and aggregation (e.g. BOW) and (3) learning a
classifier to recognize the visual categories using the chosen
representation (e.g. SVM). The downsides of these approaches
include the suboptimality of the chosen features and the need
for hand-designing them.
CONVOLUTION
FEATURE MAPS
POOLING
OUTPUT LAYER
FEATURE MAPS
HIDDEN LAYER
In the first part of this article, CNNs are introduced and
their specifics, compared to classical neural networks, are presented. Ways and tricks for training them are briefly explained.
INPUT IMAGE
FEATURE MAPS
Following the results by [3], we were motivated to evaluate
a similar architecture on the Croatian traffic signs dataset FERMASTIF TS2010 [5]. To do so, we first developed a library
that would allow us to test different architectures easily. After
different subsets were tested for successful convergence, an
architecture similar to LeNet-5 was built and tested on the
MNIST dataset, yielding satisfactory results. Following the
successful reproduction of a handwritten digit classifier (an
error rate between 1.7% and 0.8%, where LeNet-X architectures yield their results), we started testing architectures for a
subset of classes of the FER-MASTIF TS2010 dataset.
Convolutional neural networks represent a specialization of
generic neural networks, where the individual neurons form a
mathematical approximation of the biological visual receptive
field [6]. Visual receptive fields correspond to small regions of
the input that are processed by the same unit. The receptive
fields of the neighboring neurons overlap, allowing thus robustness of the learned representation to small translations of the
input. Each receptive field learns to react to a specific feature
(automatically learned as a kernel). By combining many layers,
the network forms a classifier that is able to automatically learn
relevant features and is less prone to translational variance
in data. In this section, the specific layers (convolutional and
pooling layers) of CNNs will be explained. A CNN is finally
built by combining many convolutional and pooling layers,
so the number of output in each successive layer grows,
while size of images on the output is reducing. The output
of the last CNN layer is a vector image representation. This
image representation is then classified using a classical fullyconnected MLP [3], or another classifier, e.g. an RBF network
[1]).
KERNELS
CNNs approach this problem by learning meaningful representations directly from the data, so the learned representations
are optimal for the specific classification problem, thus eliminating the need for hand-designed image features. A CNN
architecture called LeNet-5 [1] was successfully trained for
handwritten digits recognition and tested on the MNIST dataset
[2] yielding state-of-art results at the time. An improved and
larger CNN was later developed [3] and current state-of-the-art
results on the GTSRB dataset [4] were obtained.
A RCHITECTURAL SPECIFICS OF CNN S
{
I NTRODUCTION
II.
{
I.
In the second part the datasets are described and the choice
of a subset of classes for the FER-MASTIF TS2010 dataset is
elaborated. In the last part of the paper, the experimental setup
is explained and the results are discussed. Finally, common
problems are shown and suggestions for future improvements
are given.
{
Abstract—We present an approach to recognition of Croatian
traffic signs based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs). A
library for quick prototyping of CNNs, with an educational scope,
is first developed1 . An architecture similar to LeNet-5 is then
created and tested on the MNIST dataset of handwritten digits
where comparable results were obtained. We analyze the FERMASTIF TS2010 dataset and propose a CNN architecture for
traffic sign recognition. The presented experiments confirm the
feasibility of CNNs for the defined task and suggest improvements
to be made in order to improve recognition of Croatian traffic
signs.
FULLY CONNECTED
LAYERS
Fig. 1: Illustration of the typical architecture and the different
layers used in CNNs. Many convolutional and pooling layers
are stacked. The final layers consist of a fully connected
network.
A. Feature maps
at https://github.com/v-v/CNN/
Fig. 2 shows a typical neuron (a) and a feature map (b).
Neurons typically output a scalar, while feature maps represent
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
15
1 Available
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
the two-dimensional output of an operation performed by
a CNN unit. Typical operations performed in a CNN are
convolutions and pooling operations. The former learns a
feature (convolution kernel), while the latter only reduces
the dimensionality by aggregation. These operations will be
discussed in the following subsections.
x1
current layer is connected only to a specific subset of feature
maps from the previous layer. The benefits of this approach are
reduced computational complexity and improved generalization, as the network is forced to learn different features. When
using fully connected convolutional layers there is a chance
that the network will learn a less diverse set of features [1],
[8].
b
w1
w2
x2
..
.
.)
σ(∙
Σ
y
b
wn
xn
a)
b)
b
Fig. 2: CNN elements: a) a classical neuron and its connectivity
b) a feature map in a convolutional operation (the two output
pixels are computed with the same kernels)
b
B. Convolution
Convolutional layers compute feature maps by convolving
the previous layer with a specific kernel. Let M l be a feature
map of layer l and M l−1 a feature map of the previous layer.
The width and height of a feature map is indicated with Mw
and Mh while the width and hight of kernels are indicated
with Kw and Kh . Let Sw and Sh represent the horizontal and
vertical steps of the kernel during a convolution operation. The
sizes of the output feature maps (of the current layer) are then
dependent on the sizes of feature maps from the previous layer,
kernels and stepping factors. The output width and height are
given by Eq (1) and Eq. (2), correspondingly.
Mwl−1
Mwl =
Mhl =
− Kw
+1
Sw
(1)
Mhl−1 − Kh
+1
Sh
(2)
1
l-
1
lM
E
U
F
E
M
l
P
A
P
M
A
R
T
A
E
E
R
L
N
E
b
U
F
K
E
T
A
l
P
A
M
E
M
R
F
E
a)
U
T
A
M
R
E
R
N
E
L
A
b
U
K
F
E
R
E
P
M
M
T
A
b)
Fig. 3: Illustrated convolution a) first step b) next step, after
moving the receptive field for Sw locations
After each convolution, a bias is added to each element and
the result is passed through an activation function (see II-D).
Convolutional layers can either have full connectivity or
sparse connectivity. In case of full connectivity, each feature
map of the current layer is connected with every feature map
from the previous layer. Each connection is represented by a
kernel, so a convolutional layer that is fully connected will
have |M l | · |M l−1 | kernels. Fully connected convolutional
layers are used by most authors, e.g. [7] and [3].
Sparse connectivity is a way of connecting feature maps
in convolution operations where each feature map from the
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
Fig. 4: An example of sparse connectivity of a convolutional
layer. Each feature map is connected to only a subset of feature
maps from the previous layer
C. Pooling
Pooling layers reduce dimensionality of feature maps from
the previous layer by aggregating and representing the grouped
features by one feature. An illustration of a generic pooling
operation is shown in Fig. 5 b) where the features of the
previous layer are grouped in 2 × 2 areas and are represented
in the current map with one element. There are many different
pooling operations but the most common ones are meanpooling and max-pooling. The former represents the group
with the average value of all the features withing the group,
while the latter represents the group with the maximum element found within the group. Mean pooling was used in earlier
works [1], but in recent works max pooling is mostly used, as
it always outperforms mean pooling [9] and is additionally
faster than mean pooling.
There are a few modern parametric pooling operations that
can outperform max-pooling in terms of the quality of representation [10], [11]. However they are more computational
expensive, require fine-tuning of additional hyper-parameters
and were thus not used in this work.
D. Activation functions
An activation function is a sigmoid-shaped function that
maps an input to its output, constrained to a defined range.
Just as in classical multilayer perceptrons, they are also used
in convolutional neural networks where they are applied to
each element of a feature map. To be able to use the error
backpropagation algorithm for training of CNN the activation
function should be derivable. The two most commonly used
activation functions [8], [12] are the logistic function, defined
16
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
B. Backpropagation for pooling layers
SAME KERNEL
a)
b)
Fig. 5: a) Weight sharing in convolutional layers, the same
kernel is used for all the elements within a feature map b) a
generic pooling operation
Pooling layers require a way to reverse the pooling operation and backpropagate the errors from the current feature
map to the previous one. For the case of max-pooling, the
error propagates to the location where the maximal feature
is located while the other locations receives an error of zero.
For mean-pooling, the error is equally distributed within the
locations that were grouped together in the forward pass and
can be expressed as E0 = E ⊗ 1, where E0 is the error of the
previous layer, E the error of the current layer and ⊗ represents
the Kronecker product.
in Eq. (3) and a scaled tanh sigmoidal function, defined in Eq.
(4)
f (x) = 1.7159 tanh
2
x
3
(3)
(4)
Weights and kernel elements are randomly initialized by
using a uniform distribution [13]. However, the sampling
interval depends on the choice of the activation function. For
the logistic function, the interval is given in (5), while for the
scaled tanh sigmoidal function the interval is given in (6). In
those equations nin indicates the number of neurons (or feature
map elements) in the previous layer, while nout indicates the
number of neurons (or feature map elements) in the current
layer. Improper initialization may lead to poor convergence of
the network.
r
6
,
nin + nout
r
−4
r
6
nin + nout
r
6
6
,4
nin + nout
nin + nout
III.
(5)
(6)
T RAINING CNN S
In supervised training, convolutional neural networks are
typically trained by the Backpropagation algorithm. The algorithm is the same as for multilayer perceptrons but is extended
for convolutional and pooling operations.
A. Backpropagation for convolutional layers
For convolutional layers, the backpropagation algorithm is
the same as for multilayer perceptrons (if every element of
a feature map is treated as a neuron and every element of
a kernel is treated as a weight) with the only exception that
weights are shared inside a feature map. Fig. 5 a) illustrates
weight sharing in a convolution between two feature maps.
The weight sharing easily fits into backpropagation algorithm:
because multiple elements of the feature map contribute to the
error, the gradients from all these elements contribute to the
same set of weights.
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
I MPROVING LEARNING
A. Backpropagation with momentum
2
f (x) =
−1
1 + e−βx
IV.
The classical Backpropagation algorithm uses a global
learning rate η to scale the weight updates. This modified
version scales the learning rate dynamically depending on the
partial derivative in the previous update. The method is defined
in the Eq. (7), where α represents the amortization factor
(typical values between 0.9 and 0.99).
∆w(t) = α∆w(t − 1) − η
∂E
(t)
∂w
(7)
B. Adding random transformations
Generalization can be improved by increasing the number
of training samples. However that usually requires additional
human effort for collection and labelling. Adding random
transformations can increase the generalization capability of
a classifier without additional effort. There are two main ways
for deploying random transformations into a system: (1) by
integrating them into the network, after the input layers [3]
or (2) by generating additional samples and adding them to
the training set [14]. In this work we opted for generating
additional samples since the code is currently not optimized
for speed, and adding an additional task to be performed for
each iteration would further slow the learning process.
C. Dropout
A typical approach in machine learning when improving
generalization consists of combining different architectures.
However, that can be computationally quite expensive. The
dropout method suggests randomly disabling some hidden
units during training, thus generating a large set of combined
virtual classifiers without the computational overhead [15].
For a simple multilayer perceptron with N neurons in one
hidden layer, 2N virtual architectures would be generated when
applying dropout. Usually, half the units are disabled in each
learning iteration and that is exactly what we used in this work.
V.
DATASETS
Two datasets were used in this work. The MNIST dataset of
handwritten digits [2] and the FER-MASTIF TS2010 dataset
of Croatian traffic signs [5] [16].
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Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
A. MNIST
The MNIST dataset consists of 10 classes (digits from 0
to 9) of 28 × 28 grayscale images. It is divided into a training
set of 60000 samples and a testing set of 10000 samples. The
dataset was unaltered except for preprocessing it to a mean of
zero and unit variance.
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
The random transformations applied are: (1) rotation sampled
from N (0, 5◦ ) and (2) translation of each border (that serves
the purpose of both scaling and translation), sampled from
N (0, 1px). In the end, every sample was preprocessed so that
it has a mean of zero and unit variance.
Fig. 6: Samples from the MNIST dataset
B. FER-MASTIF TS2010
This dataset consists of 3889 images of 87 different traffic
signs and was collected with a vehicle mounted video camera
as a part of the MASTIF (Mapping and Assessing the State of
Traffic InFrastructure) project. In [17], images were selected
by the frame number and split in two different sets, a training
set and a test set. This method ensured that images of the same
traffic sign do not occur in both sets. The sizes varies from 15
pixels to 124 pixels. We opted for classes containing at least
20 samples of sizes greater or equal to 44 × 44. Fig. 8 shows
the nine classes that met that criteria.
Fig. 8: The selected 9 classes of traffic signs.
VI.
E XPERIMENTS AND RESULTS
Different architectures were built and evaluated for each
dataset. In the following section the architectural specifics of
convolutional neural networks for each experiment are defined,
their performance is illustrated and results are discussed.
A. MNIST
The following architecture was built:
input layer - 1 feature map 32 × 32
first convolutional layer - 6 feature maps 28 × 28
first pooling layer - 6 feature maps 14 × 14
second convolutional layer - 16 feature maps 10×10
second pooling layer - 16 feature maps 5 × 5
third convolutional layer - 100 feature maps 1 × 1
hidden layer - 80 neurons
output layer - 10 neurons
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Fig. 7: Part of the histogram showing the number of samples
bigger or equal to 44×44 for two sets. The black line separates
the classes that we chose (more than 20 samples) for our
experiments.
Each sample was first padded with 2 pixels on each side
(thus expanding their size to 48×48) to allow the convolutional
layers to relevant features close to the border. The selected
subset of samples was then expanded by applying random
transformations until 500 samples per class were obtained.
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
Actual class
The network was trained by stochastic gradient descent
with 10 epochs of 60000 iterations each. No dropout and no
random transformations were used. Such network yielded a
result of 98.67% precision on the MNIST test set. Table I
shows the obtained confusion matrix. The three most common
mistakes are as shown in Fig. 9. It can be noticed that samples
that were mistaken share a certain similarity with the wrongly
predicted class.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
973
0
3
0
1
1
10
0
2
3
1
0
1127
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
2
2
1
4
1020
2
1
0
0
7
1
0
Predicted class
3
4
5
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
992
0
6
0
963
0
3
0
884
0
1
2
2
0
0
0
1
1
3
1
3
6
3
1
0
0
4
1
943
0
1
1
7
1
0
4
3
0
1
0
1014
3
4
8
2
2
5
5
2
0
0
1
962
3
9
0
0
0
2
11
2
0
3
3
989
TABLE I: Confusion matrix for the MNIST dataset
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Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
PREDICTED
CLASS
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
SAMPLES
C. FER-MASTIF TS2010 with smaller samples included
a) 9
b) 0
c) 2
Fig. 9: The three most common errors on the MNIST dataset:
a) number 4 classified as 9, b) number 6 classified as 0, c)
number 7 classified as 2
Fig. 11 shows the distribution of sample sizes (of the chosen 9 classes) in the FER-MASTIF TS2010 set. To determine
the influence of sample size to the classification error, we
scaled all samples to the same size (44 × 44 with padding
leading to an input image of 48 × 48), matching the input
of the network. In the previous experiment, samples smaller
than 44 × 44 that were not used. However, in the following
experiment they were included in the test set by upscaling to
the required size.
B. FER-MASTIF TS2010
The following architecture was built:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
input layer - 3 feature maps 48 × 48
first convolutional layer - 10 feature maps 42 × 42
first pooling layer - 10 feature maps 21 × 21
second convolutional layer - 15 feature maps 18×18
second pooling layer - 15 feature maps 9 × 9
third convolutional layer - 20 feature maps 6 × 6
third pooling layer - 10 feature maps 3 × 3
fourth convolutional layer - 40 feature maps 1 × 1
hidden layer - 80 neurons
output layer - 9 neurons
Fig. 11: Number of samples of different sizes (within the 9
chosen classes)
Fig. 12 shows the percentage of misclassified samples for
different sizes. It can be seen that samples bigger than 45 × 45
produce significantly lower error rates than smaller samples,
thus confirming our choice of the input dimensionality to the
CNN.
Actual class
The network was trained with 20 epochs of 54000 iterations
each by stochastic gradient descent. Random transformations
were used (as defined in Section V) while dropout was not
used. The trained network yielded a result of 98.22% on the
test set. Table II shows the full confusion matrix on the test
set and Fig. 10 shows the three most common errors made by
the network.
C02
A04
B32
A33
C11
B31
A05
B46
A03
C02
100
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
A04
0
99
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
B32
0
0
97
0
0
0
0
0
0
Predicted class
A33
C11
0
0
0
0
3
0
100
0
0
100
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
B32
0
0
0
0
0
100
0
0
0
A05
0
1
0
0
0
0
98
0
7
B46
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
100
0
A03
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
90
TABLE II: Confusion matrix obtained on the FER-MASTIF
TS2010 dataset
PREDICTED
CLASS
Fig. 12: Dependency of the error rate on the sample size. (The
vertical line denotes the limit of 44px from where samples for
the experiments in subsections A and B were taken.)
D. FER-MASTIF TS2010 with dropout
The same architecture was trained again with dropout in
the final layers. We used the previously defined 9 classes
and, again, only samples larger than 44 × 44. Using dropout
improved the network generalization capability that yielded a
result of 99.33% precision.
SAMPLES
E. Comparison of learned kernels
a)
A05
b)
A04
Fig. 13 shows a few learned convolutional kernels from
the first and second convolutional layers on the two different
datasets. It is clearly visible that the network adapted to the
dataset and learned different distinct features for each dataset.
VII.
c)
A33
Fig. 10: The three most common errors on the FER-MASTIF
TS2010 dataset a) A03 predicted as A05, b) A03 predicted as
A04, c) B32 predicted as A33
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
C OMMON PROBLEMS IN TRAINING CNN S
CNNs are difficult to train because they have many hyperparameters and learning procedure parameters, which need
to be set correctly in order for learning to converge. In this
section, we discuss a few issues that we had during the
development of our library and the two networks.
19
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
Each training session lasted about a week. In case of building
a bigger classifier for more classes of the FER-MASTIF
TS2010 we suggest improving the speed of the convolutional
operations and implementing mini-batch learning.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Fig. 13: Examples of learned kernels: a) first convolutional
layer on MNIST b) first convolutional layer on FER-MASTIF
TS2010 c) second convolutional layer on MNIST d) second
convolutional layer on FER-MASTIF TS2010
Choosing architectural parameters like the number of
layers and sizes of kernels and feature maps within each layer
depend on the dataset. It makes sense to first choose the size
of feature maps and kernels in the first layer according to
the scale of the features in the dataset. Networks for dataset
containing features of larger scale (like the FER-MASTIF
TS2010 dataset) should use larger kernels and feature maps
than networks that aim at classifying dataset with features of
smaller scale (like the MNIST dataset). The same is valid for
every other layer.
The choice of an activation function and number of
neurons in each layer should match the intervals for random
initialization for the weights and convolutional kernels. Also,
it is suggested to preprocess the data to zero mean and unit
variance.
CNNs are typically more difficult to train than MLPs, so
when developing a new library it is recommended to check the
gradients and test for convergence in all CNN layers. Like
in classical NNs, whether a network will converge depends
strongly on the choice of the learning rate. It is suggested to
experiment with learning rates of different scales (e.g. 0.001,
0.01, 0.1, etc.) and to implement an adaptive algorithm that
decreases the learning rate over time.
To improve the generalization capabilities of a CNN, it
is suggested to use dropout or sparse connectivity between
layers (dropout is a preferred method in modern state-of-the-art
methods [3]) and including random transformations.
VIII.
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
Regarding the FER-MASTIF TS2010 dataset, we suggest
gathering more data. More data is suggested even for the 9
selected classes that had enough samples and yielded satisfactory results when used with random transformations, but
especially for the remaining classes that didn’t have enough
samples to use (even when using random transformations to
generate more samples).
R EFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
C ONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
We developed a library that enabled us to easily prototype
and test different architectures of convolutional neural networks. After successfully testing the convergence of different
elements of the library, we built a network similar to LeNet-5
[1] and tested it on the MNIST dataset of handwritten digits
where we obtained comparable results.
In the second part of this work, we analyzed and prepared
the FER-MASTIF TS2010 dataset and built a convolutional
neural network for recognizing a subset of 9 classes. Although
limited to most numerous classes, the results were satisfactory.
Our library was developed having simplicity and clarity in
mind, for educational purposes. It was not optimized for speed.
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
[15]
[16]
[17]
Y. LeCun and Y. Bengio, “Convolutional networks for images, speech,
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1995.
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2012.
J. Stallkamp, M. Schlipsing, J. Salmen, and C. Igel, “Man vs. computer:
Benchmarking machine learning algorithms for traffic sign recognition,”
Neural Networks.
S. Šegvić, K. Brkić, Z. Kalafatić, and A. Pinz, “Exploiting temporal
and spatial constraints in traffic sign detection from a moving vehicle,”
Machine Vision and Applications.
M. Matsugu, K. Mori, Y. Mitari, and Y. Kaneda, “Subject independent
facial expression recognition with robust face detection using a convolutional neural network,” Neural Networks, 2003.
P. Simard, D. Steinkraus, and J. C. Platt, “Best practices for convolutional neural networks applied to visual document analysis.” in ICDAR,
2003.
Y. A. LeCun, L. Bottou, G. B. Orr, and K.-R. Müller, “Efficient
backprop,” in Neural networks: Tricks of the trade. Springer, 2012,
pp. 9–48.
D. Scherer, A. Müller, and S. Behnke, “Evaluation of pooling operations
in convolutional architectures for object recognition,” in ICANN 2010.
Springer, 2010.
P. Sermanet, S. Chintala, and Y. LeCun, “Convolutional neural networks
applied to house numbers digit classification,” in ICPR. IEEE, 2012,
pp. 3288–3291.
Y. Boureau, J. Ponce, and Y. LeCun, “A theoretical analysis of feature
pooling in vision algorithms,” in ICML, 2010.
Y. LeCun, L. Bottou, Y. Bengio, and P. Haffner, “Gradient-based
learning applied to document recognition,” Proceedings of the IEEE,
1998.
X. Glorot and Y. Bengio, “Understanding the difficulty of training deep
feedforward neural networks,” in AISTATS, 2010.
I. Bonači, I. Kusalić, I. Kovaček, Z. Kalafatić, and S. Šegvić, “Addressing false alarms and localization inaccuracy in traffic sign detection and
recognition,” 2011.
G. E. Hinton, N. Srivastava, A. Krizhevsky, I. Sutskever, and R. R.
Salakhutdinov, “Improving neural networks by preventing co-adaptation
of feature detectors,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1207.0580, 2012.
S. Šegvić, K. Brkić, Z. Kalafatić, V. Stanisavljević, M. Ševrović,
D. Budimir, and I. Dadić, “A computer vision assisted geoinformation
inventory for traffic infrastructure,” ITSC, 2010.
J. Krapac and S. Šegvić, “Weakly supervised object localization with
large fisher vectors.”
This research has been supported by the research project:
Research Centre for Advanced Cooperative Systems (EU FP7
#285939).
20
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
Real Time Vehicle Trajectory Estimation
on Multiple Lanes
Kristian Kovačić, Edouard Ivanjko and Hrvoje Gold
Department of Intelligent Transportation Systems
Faculty of Transport and Traffic Sciences
University of Zagreb
Email: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]
Abstract—Today’s road traffic management systems using intelligent transportation systems solutions need real time measurements of various traffic parameters like flow, origin-destination
matrices, vehicle type, etc. Cameras combined with image
processing algorithms are being more and more used as the
sensor capable to measure several traffic parameters. One such
parameter, also important for accurate simulation of road traffic
flow and evaluation of traffic safety, is the driving aggressiveness
factor which can be estimated from the vehicles trajectory. In
this paper an Extended Kalman Filter based approach to estimate
vehicle trajectories on multiple lanes using only one static camera
is described. To test the accuracy of the implemented approach
a synthetic road traffic environment is developed. Real time
capabilities of the approach are tested using real traffic video
footage obtained from Croatian highways.
I.
I NTRODUCTION
Today’s traffic in urban areas is starting to cause heavy
load to the existing road infrastructure. As road infrastructure
in many cases cannot be modified (lack of build-up space),
different approaches need to be taken in order to optimize
traffic flow. Such approaches consist of applying intelligent
transportation systems (ITS) which main goal is to apply a
holistic approach for solving traffic problems using information
and communication technologies. For optimal traffic control,
ITS based systems need high quality traffic data in real time.
Needed traffic data consists of various parameters such as
traffic flow, distance between vehicles, velocity of vehicles,
vehicle classification, etc. which all can be obtained from
various sensors. Mostly used road sensors are inductive loops
and nowadays video cameras also.
Video sensors or cameras combined with image processing
algorithms are becoming an important approach to todays road
traffic monitoring and control. From the obtained video footage
high level traffic information can be extracted, i.e. incident
detection, vehicle classification, origin-destination (OD) matrix
estimation, etc. This information is crucial in advanced traffic
management systems from the ITS domain. Commercial solutions for traffic monitoring by video cameras provide vehicle
detection and tracking in scenes where there is a small amount
of overlapping between the tracked vehicle and other objects
(infrastructure or other vehicles). Additional drawback is that
they need one camera per lane which is making such systems
rather expensive. Proposed system described in this work
has the main goal to achieve vehicle detection and tracking
using only one camera for several lanes. Such a system can
have a large number of ITS applications where it could be
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
implemented for driver aggressiveness factor analysis, incident detection, traffic violation detection, etc. So, more high
level traffic parameters measurements can be made enabling
development of advanced autonomic or cooperative road traffic
control approaches.
In today’s society, where the vast majority of people drive
on a daily basis in order to reach their destinations, aggressive
driving has become a serious issue. Aggressive driving behaviors include speeding, driving too close to the car in front,
not respecting traffic regulations, improper lane changing or
weaving, etc. Obtaining such information in most cases is done
by some kind of survey (eg. telephone survey) or by placing
humans to monitor the traffic of a problematic area for a short
amount of time [5]. Classic road sensors like inductive loops
can not measure such driver behavior. Another approach of
analyzing aggressiveness of driver behavior consists of using
computer vision algorithms which process videos obtained
from video cameras. By this approach, data can be obtained in
real time with high accuracy [6]. Interesting data in this case
is the vehicle trajectory on a road segment. By processing
images from traffic video cameras, traffic violation can also
be detected in the image as described in [7]. This system in
combination with other ITS services can be useful for traffic
law enforcement in cooperation with other agencies.
This paper is organized as follows: the second section
describes the algorithm which performs vehicle detection
and localization in the image. The third section describes
the vehicle tracking algorithm which computes the vehicle
trajectory. The fourth section describes optimizations made to
the proposed system to ensure real time capabilities. The fifth
section describes testing results of the proposed system. Paper
ends with conclusion and future work description.
II.
V EHICLE DETECTION
The first step in every vehicle detection algorithm beside
importing of an image from a video stream is image preprocessing. After an image is imported it contains a certain
percentage of noise. Noise complicates the vehicle detection
process and significantly reduces the accuracy of the proposed
system so it needs to be minimized. In [3], a Gaussian blur
filter is used for noise reduction in a video footage. It reduces
the number of details in the image including noise. In the
proposed system a 5 × 5 matrix is used for the implemented
Gaussian blur filter. Workflow of image preprocessing wherein
renderings are distributed between the Central Processing Unit
21
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
Fig. 3: Original image (a) passed through preprocessing algorithm (b)
and after Fg/Bg segmentation (c).
Fig. 1: Basic workflow of blur image preprocessing filter [1].
III.
(CPU) and the Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) is given in
Fig. 1.
After preprocessing of the imported image, various methods exist for vehicle detection. They can be divided into three
types: optical flow methods; temporal difference methods; and
background subtraction methods [9]. The system proposed in
this work uses the background subtraction method. Workflow
of the background subtraction method is shown in Fig. 2.
Process consists of creating a background model of the scene
and comparing computed background model with the latest
preprocessed image imported from the video [2]. To create
the background model the following equation is used:
P

 n sign(I −BG ) 
i
k−1 



BGk = BGk−1 +  i=1
,
n
(1)
where BGk represents the value of the specific pixel in the
background model for the current frame and BGk−1 is the
value of the specific pixel in the background model for the
previous frame, Ii is the value of a certain pixel in ith image,
and n is the constant number of consecutive images stored
in buffer ranging from the most recently acquired image k to
the last image in the buffer k − n + 1. By comparing mentioned pixels in imported images, every pixel in the currently
processed image can be classified. If the difference between
the current image pixel value and the background model pixel
value is larger than a specified threshold constant, the pixel
is classified as a part of a foreground object. Otherwise it is
considered as a part of the background model. The result of
preprocessing and Fb/Bg image segmentation is given in Fig. 3.
Fig. 2: Fg/Bg image segmentation workflow: a) background model
creation, and b) background model and current image comparison [1].
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
T RAJECTORY ESTIMATION
When a moving vehicle is detected by the vehicle detection
algorithm, its location in the image is obtained also. Detected
vehicle location is given with (x, y) pixel coordinates and it
contains information about the vehicle true location corrupted
with noise. Noise disturbs vehicle tracking algorithm as measured vehicle location gets shifted for a certain value which is
different for each image. This requires further processing of
measured data.
The approach described in [4] uses data association and
Kalman filtering for further processing of the object location.
A data association algorithm is used to recognize the same
object in series of consecutive images in order to track the
respective vehicle or estimate its trajectory through time. As
the measured object location contains noise, a Kalman filter is
used to filter it. State model of the used Kalman filter is defined
by object center (x, y) coordinates, area and velocity of an
object. The system proposed in [8] uses genetic algorithms for
data association and Kalman filter for trajectory estimation.
Object detection is performed with background subtraction
method based on mixture of Gaussian model [8].
The system proposed in this work processes object location using a modified data association algorithm mentioned
in [4] and Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for trajectory estimation. The first step in the data association algorithm is
pixel clustering performed in the latest image obtained from
the vehicle detection algorithm. Pixel clustering combines all
adjacent pixels in the image into clusters. After all clusters are
computed, they are compared with clusters from the previous
image. If there is a positive match between two clusters in two
consecutive images, both clusters are set to belong to the same
object. If a cluster from the latest image has no match with any
of the clusters in the previous image, it is considered to be a
new object. If a cluster from the previous image has no match
with any of the clusters in the latest image, it is considered
that it has left the current scene. Matching criteria for cluster
association in two consecutive images is given by the weights
defined with the following equations:
wdist =1 −
d − dmin
,
dmax − dmin
(2)
warea =1 −
a − amin
,
amax − amin
(3)
wcover =
ais
,
max(aobj , acl )
(4)
w
wdist + warea + wcover
,
3
(5)
=
22
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
where zx and zy represent x and y coordinates of the vehicle
in the image in [px] obtained by vehicle detection algorithm.
Computation in the prediction stage is done by the following equations:
Fig. 4: Basic workflow of implemented EKF for vehicle trajectory
estimation.
where d is distance between location of the specific cluster
and estimated object location in pixels, dmin and dmax are
minimum and maximum distance between all clusters and the
processed object in pixels, a is difference between the cluster
area (size) and the estimated object area, amin and amax are
minimum and maximum difference between all clusters area
and the estimated object area respectively, ais is intersection
area between cluster and object, aobj is area of the object, and
acl is the cluster area. All areas are expressed in pixels [px].
To compute the distance between the location of a specific
cluster and corresponding estimated object location their geometric centers are used. Cluster and object area are computed
as their surrounding bounding box area. Matching gives a
positive result only for cluster with the highest weight w and
if wcover ≥ 23 .
EKF combines measured data with predicted state estimate.
Result of this process can give more accurate trajectory then
the one obtained by using measured data only. Basic workflow
of the system is given in Fig. 4. The system first predicts state
vector xk|k−1 based on the state vector from the previous iteration performed by EKF in the update stage (xk−1|k−1 ). Then
the measurement obtained by the vehicle detection algorithm
is combined with the latest state vector xk|k−1 in the update
stage. The obtained new state vector xk|k is used in the next
iteration as input to the EKF (xk−1|k−1 ). State vector can be
defined with the following vector:




x=


xx
xy
xv
xa
xφ
xω




,


z=
zx
zy
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
,



,



(8)
where xk|k−1 is state vector and xk−1|k−1 is state vector from
previous iteration k − 1 computed in update stage and t is
interval (distance) between iteration k and k − 1 expressed in
the number of frames.
After the prediction stage is done, the predicted state
vector is updated with the previous state xk|k−1 and the latest
measurements vector zk . Computation of the new state vector
xk|k is done using the following equations:
h(x) =
yk
Fk−1
Hk
xx
xy
,
=zk − h(xk|k−1 ),
∂f =
,
∂x xk−1|k−1
=
∂h ,
∂x xk|k−1
(10)
(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)
(6)
Measurement vector z can be defined with the following
equation:

(9)
xk|k−1 = f (xk−1|k−1 ),
T
Pk|k−1 =Fk−1 Pk−1|k−1 Fk−1
+ Qk−1 ,
where x is state vector, xx and xy are vehicle x and y
coordinates in the image in [px], xv is velocity in [px /s ], xa
is acceleration in [px /s2 ], xφ is angle (direction) in [rad] and
xω is angular velocity of vehicle in 2D camera perspective in
[rad /s ].
f (x) =

x [x t sin(xω t+xφ )+cos(xω t+xφ )]
xx + xv t cos(xφ )+ a ω
x2ω

φ )−sin(xω t+xφ )]
 xy + xv t sin(xφ ) − xa [xω t cos(xω t+x
x2ω

 xv + xa t

 xa

xφ + xω t
xω
(7)
Sk
=Hk Pk|k−1 HkT + Rk ,
(15)
Wk
=Pk|k−1 HkT Sk−1 ,
(16)
xk|k
=xk|k−1 + Wk yk ,
(17)
Pk|k
= (I − Wk Hk ) Pk|k−1 ,
(18)
where yk is innovation vector, Pk|k−1 is the covariance matrix
of the predicted state estimate, Fk−1 is the state transition
matrix, Pk−1|k−1 is the covariance matrix of the predicted state
estimate from the previous iteration, Qk−1 is the covariance
23
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
Approach
Overlap
check
Trajectory
check
Total
matrix of process noise, Sk is the innovation covariance matrix,
Hk is the observation matrix, Rk is the covariance matrix of
the observation noise, Wk is the Kalman gain matrix and I is
identity matrix.
An important feature of the EKF is that before the first
iteration can be computed, state vector xk−1|k−1 and matrix
Pk−1|k−1 need to be initialized. In the proposed system the
initial values of vector xk−1|k−1 are estimated by a histogram.
Histogram is divided into i × j segments where each segment
covers specific rectangular area of the image. Histogram is
updated in every iteration of the EKF, where computed v, a,
φ, ω components of a state vector xk|k from the EKF are
added to the vector in the corresponding histogram segment.
Histogram segments are determined by reading values of x and
y components of a state vector xk−1|k−1 . Every component of
a vector in the histogram segment represents the sum of all
values in all previous iterations. If this sum is divided by the
number of elements which were used in the sum, mean value
can be obtained. In the first iteration of the EKF, values of x
and y components of a state vector xk−1|k−1 are set to values
obtained directly from the vehicle detection algorithm and
therefore they are not processed by the EKF. Other components
of a state vector xk−1|k−1 are set to mean values read from
histogram as shown in the Fig. 5. After initialization, for every
further EKF iteration, the state vector xk−1|k−1 is computed
only by the EKF (histogram values are ignored).
IV.
PARALLELIZATION BASED SPEED - UP
The first version of the implemented approach for vehicle
detection has shown to be efficient from accuracy aspect
according to the results given in Tab. 1. To ensure real time
capabilities further development with aspect of using parallel
computing abilities of today’s CPU and GPU architecture
has been done. Basic workflow of the proposed application
which uses multi-threading (MT) and GPU support is shown
in Fig. 6. Algorithms that process every pixel in the image
can be time consuming for CPU even with use of Streaming
SIMD Extensions (SSE) instructions support. Modern GPU
architecture consists of many stream processors that can
process data in parallel execution (SIMD instructions). This
represents main reason for considering use of GPU in further
development of current application. In the currently proposed
system, image preprocessing and vehicle detection algorithm
are entirely performed on GPU through pixel shaders. Pixel
clustering is performed on CPU with MT support which
improves performance of algorithm regarding execution time.
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
Left
Right
Hits
126
65
61
FP / FN
0/6
0/5
0/1
Accuracy
95.6%
92.9%
98.4%
Hits
129
68
61
FP / FN
1/4
0/3
1/1
Accuracy
96.2%
95.8%
96.8%
132
70
62
True vehicle count
Fig. 5: Setting initial state values of EKF by using histograms.
Vehicle count
Lane
Table 1: Counting results of the proposed system.
V.
R ESULTS
The proposed system has been tested using real world road
traffic video footage captured on a highway with two lanes
near the city of Zagreb in Croatia. Camera was mounted above
the highway and passing vehicles were recorded using a top
view camera perspective as given in Fig. 7. Duration of the
test video is 10 [min]. Obtained original video resolution is
1920 × 1080 [px] (RGB).
For vehicle detection results verification, two approaches
for vehicle counting were tested. Both are based on markers
(virtual vehicle detectors). Yellow and red rectangle markers
are placed in the bottom part of the scene on each lane as
shown in Fig. 7. Edges of markers are perpendicular to the
image x and y axis. When a vehicle passes through a marker
and a hit is detected, the counter for that marker is incremented.
The first approach checks if an object is passing through a
marker with its trajectory and the second approach performs
check if an intersection between a marker and an object exists.
Both approaches discard all objects whose trajectory direction
is outside of a specific interval. In the performed test, all
objects need to have their direction between 90 − 270 [◦ ] in
order not to be discarded. Objects also need to be on the
scene for more than 30 frames. The value of the threshold
constant used in Fg/Bg segmentation method is 10 and the
number of consecutive images used when creating background
model (n) is 105. Blue lines in Fig. 7 represent computed
vehicle trajectory. Experimental results are given in Tab. 1. FP
represents false positive and FN represents false negative hits.
True vehicle count is acquired by manually counting all passed
vehicles.
Fig. 6: Proposed workflow based on CPU/GPU computation distribution.
24
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
Fig. 7: Vehicle tracking and counting on two lanes.
Fig. 9: Comparison of real, measured, mean and EKF vehicle trajectory.
Fig. 8: Execution time of the proposed system.
In Fig. 8 execution time is given for various resolutions
tested on a Windows 7 (64bit) computer with CPU Intel
Core i7 - 2,4 GHz, GPU NVIDIA Quadro K1000M and
8 GB RAM. In the experimental testing, both approaches
(overlap and trajectory check) for vehicle counting had the
same execution time. From the acquired results it can be
concluded that real time vehicle detection can be performed
on SVGA 800×600 [px] resolution and lower using a standard
PC computer. On SVGA resolution, 17 [ms] is required to
process a single frame. This enables maximum frame rate of
58 [f ps]. At QVGA 320 × 240 [px] resolution, 142 [f ps] can
be achieved with 7 [ms] required to process a single frame. It
can also be concluded that the approach with trajectory check
gives better results regarding accuracy than the approach with
overlap check.
For testing of the implemented EKF based vehicle trajectory estimation, a synthetic road traffic video was made in
Autodesk 3ds Max. Video of synthetic environment simulates
passing of one vehicle on a road with two lanes. As the true
position of a vehicle in the synthetic environment is known, the
implemented EKF can be tested for its trajectory estimation
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
accuracy. In Fig. 9 different trajectories obtained by various
methods are compared. The real trajectory represents movement of vehicle geometric center defined during development
of the synthetic video. The measured trajectory is computed
by taking data (vehicle trajectory) from the vehicle detection
algorithm and adding noise to it in order to simulate values
which would be obtained by processing real world road traffic
video. Noise is defined by standard uniform distribution in
the interval [−2.5, 2.5] and it is added to each vector of the
vehicle trajectory. The mean trajectory is computed by taking
the last 3 x and y coordinates of the measured trajectory and
computing the mean value of them. So measurement noise
can be reduced without significantly affecting vehicle location
estimation accuracy. EKF trajectories are obtained by using
two different state models. The first model is already described
in the previous section. The second model is based on the first
model with the angular velocity component removed.
In Fig. 10, x-axis represents number of frame for which
error is computed and y-axis represents amount of error in
Fig. 10: Comparison of error in measured, mean and EKF vehicle
trajectories.
25
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
developed system uses only one camera to detect and track
vehicles on multiple lanes. It solves drawbacks of the currently
available commercial systems that use one camera per road
lane. The first vehicle detection results are promising with an
accuracy of over 95%.
Fig. 11: Change of covariance matrix Pk|k components.
[px]. Vehicle position error can be computed for any frame
using the following equation:
r
2 2
(k)
(k)
(k)
(k)
xr − xf
err(k) =
+ yr − yf
,
(19)
(k)
(k)
where k is the frame number, xr and yr are real measured
values in [px] of x and y coordinates for specific trajectory
(k)
(k)
vector, xf and xf are filtered values in [px] (using mean
value method or EKF) of x and y coordinates for specific trajectory vector. Mean error value for the measured trajectory is
48.4 [px], for trajectory obtained by mean method is 50.2 [px],
for trajectory obtained by EKF with constant vehicle direction
angle φ is 35.9 [px] and EKF with variable vehicle direction
angle φ is 31.2 [px].
Covariance matrix Pk|k changes through 39 frames as
shown in Fig. 11, where blue and green lines are x and
y coordinates, red line is velocity component, cyan is acceleration, purple is angle and yellow is angular velocity
component of the uncertainty matrix Pk|k . From the Fig. 11 it
can be concluded that estimate covariances for y coordinate,
angle and angular velocity have no rapid change in their
values over whole vehicle trajectory. Opposite to that estimate
covariances for velocity and acceleration decrease rapidly over
time. Estimated covariance for x coordinate increases rapidly
till it approximately reaches the value of estimate covariance
for y coordinate. Vehicle velocities and acceleration can be
estimated more accurately than the (x, y) vehicle coordinates.
This can be explained that tracked vehicle moves in the video
and enlarges during tracking. So, location measurements are
more accurate when the vehicle is detected (vehicle enters the
scene) than when it leaves the scene.
In Fig. 7 estimated trajectories of several vehicles on
multiple lanes can be seen. The presented processed traffic
scene proofs that the implemented system can successfully
simultaneously detect and track vehicles on multiple lanes in
real time.
VI.
C ONCLUSION
In this paper a system for vehicle detection and tracking
on multiple lanes based on computer vision is proposed. The
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
Additionally, vehicle trajectory estimation has been added
to the existing system. Because the trajectory of a vehicle
contains a large ratio of noise, trajectory is filtered by EKF. For
testing of the implemented EKF filter, synthetic environment
was developed in which groundtruth vehicle trajectory is
known. From the testing results in which the groundtruth data
is compared with the computed data, it can be concluded
that EKF can improve trajectory estimation accuracy. As the
proposed system is computationally expensive it was optimized
by implementing ability to execute specific image processing algorithms (preprocessing, Fg/Bg image segmentation)
on GPU. The algorithm for pixel clustering which was too
complex to execute on GPU was optimized by implementing
CPU MT support.
Future work consists of developing a tracking system which
would be able to perform license plate recognition and vehicle
type classification of detected vehicles. So additional data can
be obtained from which further analysis of the road traffic
video footage could be made.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This work has been supported by the IPA2007/HR/
16IPO/001-040514 project “VISTA - Computer Vision Innovations for Safe Traffic” which is co-financed by the European
Union from the European Regional and Development Fund and
by the EU COST action TU1102 - “Towards Autonomic Road
Transport Support Systems”. Authors wish to thank Dominik
Kovačić for developing the synthetic road traffic environment.
R EFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
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K. Kovačić, E. Ivanjko, H. Gold, Real time vehicle detection and tracking
on multiple lanes, WSCG, 2014, Czech Republic
K. Kovačić, E. Ivanjko, S. Varela, Real time vehicle country of origin
classification based on computer vision, ISEP, 2014, Slovenia
V. Braut, M. Čuljak, V. Vukotić, S. Šegvić, M. Ševrović, H. Gold,
Estimating OD matrices at intersections in airborne video - a pilot study,
MIPRO, 2012, Croatia
J. M. Jeong, T. S. Yoon, J. B. Park, The specific object tracking algorithm
based on Kalman filter in an environment where similar objects are
existing, ICCAS, 2013, Korea
E. Wells-Parker, J. Ceminsky, V. Hallberg, R. W. Snow, G. Dunaway,
S. Guiling, M. Williams, B. Anderson, An exploratory study of the
relationship between road rage and crash experience in a representative
sample of US drivers, Accident analysis and prevention, vol. 34, Social
Science Research Center, Mississippi State University, 2002, USA
H. B. Kang, Various approaches for driver and driving behavior monitoring: a review, ICCV Workshops, 2013
Y. C. Chung, J. M. Wang, S. W. Chen, A vision based traffic light
detection system at intersections, Journal of Taiwan Normal University:
Mathematics, Science & Technology, 2002, China
H. Wang, M. W. Ren, J. Y. Yang, Object tracking based on genetic
algorithm and Kalman filter, CIS, 2008, vol. 1, pp. 80-85, China
Y. Xia, S. Ning, H. Shen, Moving targets detection algorithm based on
background subtraction and frames subtraction, ICIMA, 2010, vol. 1,
pp. 122-125, China
26
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
Warning and Prohibitory Traffic Sign Detection
based on Edge Orientation Gradients
Darko Jurić and Sven Lončarić
University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing,
Department of Electronic Systems and Information Processing
Unska 3, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Email: {darko.juric, sven.loncaric}@fer.hr
Abstract—A method for traffic sign shape detection is presented, which does not require extensive training and is based
on fast template matching suitable for real-time applications.
The proposed method is able to detect prohibitory and warning
signs. Post processing phase enables detection verification thus
drastically increasing detection accuracy. All method parameters,
if required, can be tweaked without the need for time-consuming
retraining procedures. The method shows robustness to various
conditions that often impose problems for color based systems.
The proposed method can be used standalone or with already
developed methods as a verification layer.
Keywords—computer vision, traffic sign detection, template
matching
I.
I NTRODUCTION
Traffic sign detection and recognition is an important
problem in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). ADAS
utilize sophisticated algorithms, which not only address traffic
sign detection and recognition but other applications including
lane detection, driver distraction detection, and parking assistance. Poor visibility and/or driver fatigue can be one of the
main reasons that can lead to traffic accidents. While traffic
sign detection systems are commercially available, they still
present an open research topic. In recent years, speed limit
detection systems have been included in top-of-the-line vehicle
models from various manufactures, but these systems are still
limited to a subset of all traffic signs. Therefore, there is a
need for traffic sign detection and recognition methodology,
which is capable of detecting a wider selection of traffic
signs. Nowadays, embedded devices not only contain basic
FPGA units, which can be designed to support vectorized
array addition, but CPU support as well thus enabling much
broader range of usage. The important feature is ability to
tweak detection parameters without additional training. Many
methods that are considered state-of-the-art do not have such
possibility like [1] and [2]. The paper is organized as follows.
A short overview of related work is presented in Sec. II.
Sec. III describes the proposed method. Sec. IV gives used
parameters and results, which are obtained on videos that
contain challenging lightening conditions and extensive clutter.
Conclusion is given in Sec. V.
II.
R ELATED WORK
A. Color-based techniques
Some parts of the method presented in [3] are based on
simple thresholding to distinguish a particular color (red) from
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
others. However, various factors such as color change due
to illumination factor (e.g. time of a day) or non-uniform
illumination that produces shadows need more sophisticated
methods like [4] in which a light source color is estimated.
In [5] features are extracted after image segmentation process
which is done by using Gabor filters, K-means clustering and
smoothing filters. In [6] CIECAM97 color model is used where
only hue and chroma channels are used. Various daylight
viewing cases are considered. A general drawback of color
based techniques is that they require special measures to
achieve luminance invariance.
B. Shape-based techniques
The most common technique for shape-based approaches
is Hough transform. A method that uses a modified Hough
transform to detect circular, triangle and square shaped signs
is presented in [7]. Distance transform (DT) based techniques
are another popular approach for traffic sign detection. In [8],
a modified DT technique is used. First, edge orientations are
extracted from the image, then a DT image is built for every
edge orientation. A score match is obtained in a way that a
template is rotated and scaled and matched against every DT
image. The maximum score is taken as the score match. Hough
transform is more constrained regarding shape diversities – it
can approximate only simple shapes and traditional template
searching can be time consuming.
C. Machine learning based techniques
The most common used technique is based on work of
Viola and Jones presented in [9]. Although it was originally
developed for face-detection it can be successfully used for
detection of other objects, including traffic signs. In [2], a traffic sign detection and recognition method is presented, which
uses the mentioned technique. Although Viola-Jones approach
is widely used it suffers from the following problems. A large
amount of training samples is needed to train the detector.
For some problems this imposes a significant obstacle. By
introducing more object classes several detectors must be used
in order to classify them. This can impose performance penalty.
III.
P ROPOSED METHOD
In this paper, we present a novel method for traffic sign
detection, which is based on fast edge orientation template
matching [10]. The proposed method is robust to clutter
and is computationally efficient and suitable for real-time
27
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
Fig. 1: A method composed of template matching as the core
part and post processing stages which include shape verification as well as continuous tracking and detection consistency
verification.
applications. The outline of the proposed method is shown
in Fig. 1. The template matching algorithm [10] is modified in
this paper in order to improve its accuracy by using a different
gradient extraction method as described in Sec. III-A and
by extending the maximum number of features per template,
described in Sec. III-B1. However, the modified template
matching procedure is still not sufficient for successful traffics
sign detection due to higher false positive rate which is a result
of an extensive clutter (e.g. forest along the road).
The post processing phase consists of two steps. The first
step involves continuous traffic sign detection and tracking,
described in Sec. III-C which reduces false positives considerably. The second phase eliminates structures that have similar
shapes but do not have similar border color - validates traffic
sign border-color (redness) described in Sec. III-D.
A. Gradient orientation extraction
The crucial preprocessing step is edge extraction, where
an edge orientation image is an input image for the template
matching method [10]. One of the main reasons that image
orientations are chosen is their robustness to extensive light
changes and image noise. Gradient magnitude performs poorly
in scenes with background clutter due to many false positives.
In [10], a multi-channel Sobel operator has been used where a
pixel orientation is taken from the channel that has the largest
magnitude. In addition, orientations are filtered in a way that
only dominant orientations in a 3x3 neighborhood are retained.
Instead of the multichannel Sobel operator and orientation
filtering a standard grayscale Canny implementation is used
in the proposed method. By using this operator better results
are obtained in terms of a reduced number of false positives
in highly cluttered images (e.g. forest as background).
B. Template matching
After the gradient orientation extraction presented in Sec.
III-A is performed, the modified template matching algorithm
is used in order to detect circular and triangular shapes -
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
Fig. 2: Template matching pipeline. The red color highlights
the modified part.
traffic sign candidates. The outline of the template matching
procedure is shown in Fig. 2. Only relevant parts needed to
understand the modifications are going to be briefly discussed.
For full explanation of the procedure see [10].
The template matching procedure uses quantized edge
orientations as features where each quantized orientation is
encoded in 8-bit vector as a single bit flag. The template is
matched against every location within the image using the
operation equivalent to sliding a template over the input image.
In contrast to the standard template matching procedure the
input image is preprocessed so that the matching procedure can
be executed very fast by adding long arrays - linear memories
[10]. Each linear memory cell contains similarity in range
[0..n], where n is maximum user-specified similarity between
two quantized orientations These values are limited by the
number of bits in 8-bit value. The linear memory addition can
be done very efficiently by using SIMD processor architecture.
The addition process is done as follows.
Each template feature, see Fig. 5, which consists of a
location and its corresponding quantized orientation is used
to select linear memory (8-bit vector). The selected memories
are added to the 8-bit result vector initialized by zeroes. The
result vector contains the raw template matching scores in
range [0..255] for each location. The values are rescaled to
the range [0..100]. The result vector is thresholded in order
to extract only strong matches. For details about the linear
memory content and creation see [10].
1) Extending number of features: The 8-bit result vector
dictates the maximum number of features per template because
each linear cell contain value which maximum is n and
and the number of linear memories being added corresponds
to the number of template features. See Fig. 3 for details.
Therefore the maximum number of features per template,
in the original paper, is limited to b255/nc. This number
of features has not shown to be enough to robustly detect
triangular and circular shapes in strong clutter such as forest.
To overcome this limitation the linear maps are first added
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Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
Fig. 5: The samples of warning and prohibitory sign template.
Features (quantized gradient orientations) are superposed. In
practice 100 features per template is used.
Fig. 3: The proposed procedure for linear memory addition template matching. Linear memories are added to the buffer
which is periodically added to the final result vector. n
represents the maximum orientation similarity, and F is the
number of features of a template.
Fig. 6: The performance of the template matching procedure.
The left graph shows the number of false positives in relation
to the threshold - the minimum percentage of matched template
features. The right graph represents the true positive percentage
in relation to the threshold.
C. Object tracking
Fig. 4: Traditional and speeded-up template matching performance comparison. The number of features per template is
100. All tests are conducted on Intel Core i5-2500K CPU using
single core.
to a temporary buffer - 8 bit vector, and then before the
buffer overflows, the buffer is added to the final result array
(16-bit), which contains template matching scores. See Fig.
3 for details. This procedure is repeated for each template
feature. The buffer is cleared after its values are accumulated
to result array. The result is the increased maximum number
of features b65535/nc. Fig. 4 shows the significant speed-up
over traditional template matching approach.
2) Building traffic sign templates: Feature extraction can
be performed directly on color images, but better results are
obtained if a binarized image is used, which is first smoothed.
The number of extracted features is fixed (it does not depend
on an object size). At far distances Canny edge detector usually
cannot detect outer and inner circle or triangle, which are the
integral parts of the warning and prohibitory signs. Therefore,
to detect those traffic sign candidates simple circular and
triangle shapes are used - see Fig. 5. A scale and rotation
transforms are applied to those shape images in order to build
templates of various sizes.
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
Object tracking is achieved using Kanade-Lucas tracker
[11]. Some features due to extensive noise become invalid in
a sense they re no longer matched correctly. This problem
manifests in inaccurate tracked point speed and orientation.
Those features are filtered out by using their magnitude and
orientation as parameters as follows: mean and variance are
calculated. All features which magnitude and orientation variance are within ±σ are taken. Another difficulty is that objects
that are supposed to be tracked are moving with the same speed
as well as background so the additional filtering is hard to
apply. The minimum number of detections per trajectory is set
in advance. This phase greatly decreases the number of false
positives. The second stage provides additional filtering using
the border-redness feature Sec. III-D. Note that using temporal
constraint a traffic sign may not be detected at a long range
because those types of verifications are carried over several
video frames.
D. Color verification
As shown in Fig. 7 false positives are still present after
enforcing temporal constraint. The proposed verification step
takes advantage of the template representation and traffic sign
border redness - see Fig. 8 for details. The redness measure is
computed as:
Ir = IR − IG
(1)
where Ir is redness image, and IR and IG are red and
green image channels. Extracting just red image channel is not
enough because many green objects have high red component,
therefore the Eq. 1 is used to calculate image redness. After the
initial match the best matched template is taken and normals
are constructed at the feature locations - see Fig. 8. The length
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Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
(a)
(b)
Fig. 7: Samples of false positive detections that are remained
after temporal consistency enforcement. a) Warning sign false
positives b) Prohibitory sign false positives.
of the normal vector is proportionally resized according to the
template scale as shown in Fig. 9. As the matched templates
sometimes do not fit to the object’s edge, the worst case is
taken, where the matched templates are partly matched with
both sign borders as shown in Fig. 10.
Therefore a length of normals positioned in each template
feature position are increased in both directions. Pixels values
are taken along normals where the bilinear interpolation is
used. The obtained pixel values are smoothed in a way that
pixel values are clustered by kNN [12] algorithm in two classes
and a median operation is applied to the clustered array in order
to obtain final class indices. The pre-processed array can have
two minima corresponding to the inner and outer sign border
or just one minima corresponding to the outer sign border due
to low picture quality and small size where the redness spreads
into traffic sign interior. There should be at least one transition
from maxima to minima, jump, in order to classify the normal
as valid. This procedure is taken for every normal as shown
in Fig. 9. At the end valid lines are counted and compared
against threshold.
IV.
Fig. 8: Flow diagram of the color verification method. Operations executed on each normal are marked with ∗.
(a)
(b)
Fig. 9: Color (redness) verification of a warning sign and
a circular shape. Each image group shows original image,
detected shape with superposed normals and image redness.
Valid normals are marked with blue, red otherwise.
E XPERIMENTAL RESULTS
Validation of the proposed method has been conducted
using the following parameter values. The number of features
per template is set to 100, the neighbourhood size is 5 pixels
and the maximum similarity between angles is set to 4. The
number of quantized orientations (1st and 2nd quadrant) is
8. There are just two template prototypes: filled circle and
filled triangle that represent the prohibitory and the warning
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
Fig. 10: A best template in a match area partly matches outside
and inside circle in prohibitory sign or triangle is partlymatched in warning signs.
30
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
Area (urban / rural)
Duration
(hh:mm:ss)
Prohibitory #
Warning #
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
Video 0
rural
00:01:42
Video 1
rural
00:12:40
Video 2
urban / rural
0:11:06
Video 3
urban / rural
00:14:34
Video 4
rural
00:07:22
Video 5
urban / rural
00:02:13
1
3
14
12
6
17
9
17
1
5
22
2
TABLE I: Video sequences used for traffic sign detection and the number of signs in each sequence. V ideo 0 is used for
parameter settings.
signs. The original size of a template is 120x120. They are
scaled until their size does not drop below 20x20 and rotated
±5 degrees. There are 216 binarized templates (108 circles +
108 triangles), which are smoothed with Gaussian of σ value
3. The minimum number of matched features is set to 95%
meaning that in this case 95 features must be correctly matched
to mark the location as a candidate. The maximum number of
concurrent verifications is 4. Each tracker can use up to 15 KL
features. If there are less than 2 features an object is considered
lost. There should be at least one detection in 3 frames and at
least one positive verification. The minimum number of valid
normal vectors in shape verification is 60 (60 % as 100 features
per template is used).
A single video has been used for parameter selection during
the training process. Table I shows information about the video
sequences used in the experimental validation. The proposed
method is evaluated on five very challenging videos with
the length of more than 45 minutes in total. By using only
template matching algorithm with a fixed threshold of 95 a
very large number of false positive detections is obtained as
shown in Fig. 7 and Fig. 6. The most important parameter
is the template matching threshold, which is set to relatively
high due to extensive background clutter in non-urban scenes.
The performance of a detection without and with the post
processing stage is shown in Table II.
V.
C ONCLUSION
This paper presents a new method for detection of prohibitory and warning signs. The experimental validation has
shown that the proposed traffic sign detection procedure can
detect traffic signs in various conditions. By enforcing temporal consistency the number of false positives is significantly
reduced, but without reducing the true positive rate. The color
verification method in post-processing stage exploits pre-built
templates and image redness as described thus reducing false
positive rate even further. Although detection of only two
traffic sign types is addressed the proposed method could
be extended to detect other traffic signs by incorporating
other templates into the existing set. In addition the presented
method can be combined with machine-learning techniques to
increase detection speed (e.g. fast template matching + ViolaJones) or to efficiently reduce false positives (e.g. Viola-Jones
+ fast template matching).
R EFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
S. Maldonado-Bascon, S. Lafuente-Arroyo, P. Gil-Jimenez, H. GomezMoreno, and F. López-Ferreras, “Road-sign detection and recognition
based on support vector machines,” Intelligent Transportation Systems,
IEEE Transactions on, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 264–278, 2007.
C. Bahlmann, Y. Zhu, V. Ramesh, M. Pellkofer, and T. Koehler, “A
system for traffic sign detection, tracking, and recognition using color,
shape, and motion information,” in Intelligent Vehicles Symposium,
2005. Proceedings. IEEE, 2005, pp. 255–260.
S. Varan, S. Singh, R. Sanjeev Kunte, S. Sudhaker, and B. Philip,
“A road traffic signal recognition system based on template matching
employing tree classifier,” in Conference on Computational Intelligence
and Multimedia Applications, 2007. International Conference on, vol. 3.
IEEE, 2007, pp. 360–365.
M. Bénallal and J. Meunier, “Real-time color segmentation of road
signs,” in Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2003. IEEE CCECE
2003. Canadian Conference on, vol. 3. IEEE, 2003, pp. 1823–1826.
J. F. Khan, S. M. Bhuiyan, and R. R. Adhami, “Image segmentation
and shape analysis for road-sign detection,” Intelligent Transportation
Systems, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 83–96, 2011.
X. W. Gao, L. Podladchikova, D. Shaposhnikov, K. Hong, and
N. Shevtsova, “Recognition of traffic signs based on their colour and
shape features extracted using human vision models,” Journal of Visual
Communication and Image Representation, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 675–685,
2006.
M. Á. Garcı́a-Garrido, M. Á. Sotelo, and E. Martı́n-Gorostiza, “Fast
road sign detection using hough transform for assisted driving of
road vehicles,” in Computer Aided Systems Theory–EUROCAST 2005.
Springer, 2005, pp. 543–548.
D. Gavrila, “Traffic sign recognition revisited,” in Mustererkennung
1999. Springer, 1999, pp. 86–93.
P. Viola and M. J. Jones, “Robust real-time face detection,” International
journal of computer vision, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 137–154, 2004.
S. Hinterstoisser, C. Cagniart, S. Ilic, P. Sturm, N. Navab, P. Fua,
and V. Lepetit, “Gradient response maps for real-time detection of
textureless objects,” Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE
Transactions on, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 876–888, 2012.
J.-Y. Bouguet, “Pyramidal implementation of the affine lucas kanade
feature tracker description of the algorithm,” Intel Corporation, vol. 2,
p. 3, 2001.
N. S. Altman, “An introduction to kernel and nearest-neighbor nonparametric regression,” The American Statistician, vol. 46, no. 3, pp.
175–185, 1992.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This research has been partially supported by the European
Union from the European Regional Development Fund by the
project IPA2007/HR/16IPO/001-040514 VISTA - Computer
Vision Innovations for Safe Traffic.
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
31
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
Sign type / Video
Prohibitory #
Detected
False discovery
Missed
Warning #
Detected
False discovery
Missed
1
14
14
42
0
12
12
40
0
2
6
6
20
0
17
15
45
2
3
9
9
12
0
17
17
30
0
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
a)
4
1
1
5
0
5
4
51
1
5
22
22
0
0
2
2
0
0
1
14
14
1
0
12
12
1
1
2
6
6
2
0
17
17
2
2
3
9
9
2
1
17
17
1
0
b)
4
1
1
0
0
5
5
2
0
5
22
22
0
1
2
2
0
0
TABLE II: Number of true positives, false positives and false negatives per each sequence using a) template matching algorithm
with temporal consistency enforcement, b) template matching algorithm + temporal consistency enforcement + color verification.
The number of false discoveries is obtained by counting how many false objects are detected in each video, thus it does not
match the sum of true positives and false negatives.
Fig. 11: Warning and prohibition sign detection. Each pair represents the original image with found detections and the edge
magnitude image. The obtained results from template matching procedure are filtered by traffic sign candidate tracking and color
border verification as described in III-C and in III-D respectively. The execution time is shown in the upper-left corner of the
each original image. All tests are conducted on Intel Core i5-2500K CPU.
CCVW 2014
Computer Vision in Traffic and Transportation
32
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
Object Tracking Implementation for a
Robot-Assisted Autism Diagnostic Imitation Task
Kruno Hrvatinić, Luka Malovan, Frano Petric, Damjan Miklić and Zdenko Kovačić
University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, LARICS Laboratory, Unska 3, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract—Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a term used
to describe a range of neurodevelopmental disorders affecting
about 1% of the population, with increasing prevalence. Due to
the absence of any physiological markers, diagnostics is based
purely on behavioral tests. The diagnostic procedure can in some
cases take years to complete, and the outcome depends greatly on
the expertise and experience of the clinician. The predictable and
consistent behavior and rapidly increasing sensing capabilities
of robotic devices have the potential to contribute to a faster
and more objective diagnostic procedure. However, significant
scientific and technological breakthroughs are needed, particularly in the field of robotic perception, before robots can become
useful tools for diagnosing autism. In this paper, we present
computer vision algorithms for performing gesture imitation.
This is a standardized diagnostic task, usually performed by
clinicians, that was implemented on a small-scale humanoid robot.
We describe the algorithms used to perform object recognition,
grasping, object tracking and gesture evaluation in a clinical
setting. We present an analysis of the algorithms in terms of
reliability and performance and describe the first clinical trials.
I.
I NTRODUCTION
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder characterised by impairment in social interaction, verbal
and nonverbal communication and by repetitive behaviours
and interests. It has become a commonly diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorder, with increasing prevalence rates,
affecting about one in every 100 children [8], and there are no
medical markers of autism that could be used in a diagnostic
process. Therefore, the diagnosis of ASD is based solely
on behavioural observations made by experienced clinicians.
However, specific behaviors that are included in diagnostic
frameworks and the point at which individual differences in
behavior constitute clinically relevant abnormalities are largely
arbitrary decisions [4]. There exists a need for quantitative,
objective measurements of social functioning for diagnosis, for
evaluating intervention methods, and for tracking the progress
of individuals over time [6]. Modern robotic devices have the
potential to fill this need. They can perform actions consistently
and repeatably, and evaluate the child’s reactions in a quantitative and unbiased way. The tendency of autistic children to
interact with technical devices more than with humans around
them is another argument in favor of employing robotics for
improving the autism diagnostics procedures.
As a starting point for our work, we have chosen the
ADOS test [3], which represents the state of the art in autism
diagnostics. As described in a preliminary report [5], we have
chosen four tasks from the ADOS test and adapted them to the
capabilities of the Nao [1] humanoid robot. All of the tasks
require the robot to perform a specific action and monitor and
CCVW 2014
Image and Video Analysis
evaluate the reaction of the child. In this paper, we present
the computer vision algorithms that we have implemented in
order to perform the Functional and symbolic imitation task.
We describe the algorithms and present preliminary results of
evaluating their effectiveness in a clinical setting.
The paper is organized as follows. In Section II, we
describe the imitation task in detail, and mention the specific
circumstances relevant for image processing algorithm design. The three major components of our processing pipeline,
namely image segmentation, object tracking and gesture recognition, are described in Sections III, IV, V respectively. Algorithm evaluation results are described in Section VI, and
concluding remarks are given in Section VII.
II.
I MITATION TASK DESCRIPTION
The purpose of the imitation task is to assess the ability
of a child to perceive and reproduce a demonstrated gesture.
From the point of view of a robotic examiner, the task has
three phases:
1) Demonstration,
2) Encouragement for imitation,
3) Observation.
To start the task, the robot needs to make sure the child
has its head turned towards it. This can be accomplished
by using the robot’s built-in face detection software. In the
demonstration phase, the robot picks up an object, for example a cup, and demonstrates a gesture, such as drinking,
accompanied by appropriate sounds. It then places the object in
front of the child and encourages it, by speaking and pointing,
to perform the same gesture. Finally, it tracks the object in
order to estimate and evaluate the child’s reaction. The task
can be performed using an object with an obvious everyday
function, e.g., using a cup to demonstrate drinking, which is
called functional imitation. It can also be performed using for
example a wooden cylinder to demonstrate the flight of an
aeroplane, in which case it is called symbolic imitation.
The hardware platform used in our research is the Nao
H25 v4.0 humanoid robot, equipped with a 960p30fps RGB
camera. In terms of image processing algorithms necessary for
successfully conducting the imitation task, the robot needs to
perform image segmentation, in order to find the manipulated
object. After demonstrating the gesture and releasing the
object, the robot needs to keep tracking the object in order
to evaluate the gesture reproduced by the child. Since we are
considering autism diagnostic procedures performed in clinical
settings, we have some control of the environment layout, and
the number and type of objects that are visible to the robot.
33
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
Similarly, the a priori probability of a color interval occurring
can be approximated by
Nbg (k)
P (k) ≈ N̄bg (k) = PK
,
i=1 Nbg (i)
(2)
where Nbg (k) is the total number of pixels in the image that
are sorted in interval k. Finally, the a priori probability of a
pixel belonging to the object can be approximated by
PK
No (i)
P (o) ≈ PKi=1
.
(3)
i=1 Nbg (i)
Combining (1), (2) and (3) by the Bayes rule
Fig. 1: Layout of the examination room.
P (o|k) =
Taking into account the layout of the examination room that
was used for our research, shown in Figure 1, we have made
the following simplifying assumptions:
1) the object can be segmented by color, i.e., the color of
the manipulated object is significantly different from the
background),
2) the only person in the area of the room visible to the
robot is the child, i.e., if the object moves, it is because
either the robot or the child are moving it.
On the other hand, the following requirements must be
satisfied by the image processing algorithms:
1) the background is dynamic because of robot motion,
2) multiple objects need to be tracked simultaneously, in
order to register both the motion of the imitation object
and the motion of the child,
3) objects need to be tracked during temporary occlusions,
4) the algorithms need to provide soft real-time performance,
running on the robot’s onboard computer.
III.
I MAGE SEGMENTATION
Image segmentation is the first step of the image processing
pipeline. It separates the objects of interest, which are in
this case the imitation object and the child’s hands and face,
from the rest of the image. We have extended the work
described in [2], based on histogram back projection, to allow
simultaneous segmentation of several objects. We make use of
the assumption that the tracked object is of a specific, uniform
color, which is not over represented in the environment.
A. Histogram creation
Based on [7], [9], the YUV colorspace has been chosen
for segmentation. For each class of tracked object, an UV histogram must be provided (Y data is discarded), constructed from previously gathered training data. If we denote
by No (k), k ∈ [1, K] ⊂ N the number of pixels belonging to
an object, that are grouped in histogram bin k (out of a total
of K bins)1 , then the probability distribution of a given color
interval can be approximated by
No (k)
P (k|o) ≈ N̄o (k) = PK
.
i=1 No (i)
(1)
1 The implemented algorithm uses 64 × 64 = 4960 bins. The number of
bins per dimension is four times smaller than the data resolution to provide
some robustness to slight color variations
CCVW 2014
Image and Video Analysis
P (k|o)P (o)
,
P (k)
(4)
we obtain (after canceling corresponding terms)
P (o|k) ≈
No (k)
,
Nbg (k)
(5)
which says that the probability of a pixel of some known color
being part of an object can be approximated by dividing the
object histogram with the image histogram. That probability
will always be less then or equal to 1 because No (k) ≤ Nbg (k)
and it will be equal to 1 for object colors only. Several
pictures are used, obtained in different lighting conditions and
against different backgrounds, to create a histogram for each
object with background. For each image, a second histogram is
created by including only manually selected object pixels, and
then apply equation (5) on this pair of histograms. This process
allows for a segmentation procedure that is more robust to
varying lighting conditions and the presence of similar colors
in the background.
B. Image binarization
In order to identify objects in the input images obtained by
the robot’s camera, the image is first converted to YUV space,
and then filtered with a small window size median filter to reduce noise. For every object we wish to track, histogram back
projection is performed on the input image. This yields one
single channel image of probability per object. Separating the
object from the background is done by hysteresis thresholding.
In the first step of this procedure the image is binarized with
a fixed higher threshold. This yields a sub segmented image:
parts that surely belong to the object are separated, but some
parts of the object are missing. The area of the object is then
expanded by assigning to it adjacent pixels whose value is
greater than the lower threshold. This procedure is capable of
accurately segmenting an object while ignoring areas of similar
color that belong to the background.
Examples of the hysteresis thresholding procedure are
shown in Figure 2. Darker green areas in Figure 2b represent
areas segmented with the higher threshold, lighter green areas
were selected by the lower threshold. The bottom figures
demonstrate the ability of the algorithm to reject background
artifacts similar in color to the tracked object. The areas colored red in Figure 2d, which satisfy only the lower threshold,
are rejected as outliers.
As noted earlier, each object of interest is segmented
individually, yielding one binary image per object. All the
34
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
(a) Original image A.
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
(b) Segmented regions of
image A.
Fig. 3: Examples of ellipse models.
where
µx =
mxx =
(c) Original image B.
(d) Segmented regions of
image B.
images are then merged into one scene representation using
the binary OR operator. This composite binary image consists
of spatially 8-connected groups of pixels which represent one
or several objects. Individual objects are then extracted and
tracked using combined metrics of distance and color, as
described in the following section.
IV.
O BJECT TRACKING
Object segmentation and tracking are complementary procedures in our implementation. Information about object position in the previous time step provides a prediction for
its position in the current image. Segmentation provides the
update step for the current object position.
j=1
xj
M
PM
2
(x
−
µ
x)
j=1 j
M
mxy =
Fig. 2: Two examples of the hysteresis threshold procedure.
PM
, µy =
, myy =
PM
j=1
M
PM
yj
j=1 (yj
M
(x
−
µ
)(y
−
µ
x
j
y)
j=1 j
PM
M
(8)
,
− µy )2
.
,
(9)
(10)
Assuming a Gaussian distribution of points with expectation E[p] and covariance matrix Σ, the semi-axes lengths of an
ellipse containing the points within a 90% confidence interval
can be obtained as:
p
p
a = 2 sλ1 , b = 2 sλ2
(11)
where λ1 , λ2 are the covariance matrix eigenvalues, and s is
the value of the χ2 distribution for two degrees of freedom
with α = 1 − 0.9 = 0.1. For the selected confidence interval,
s = 4.605, eigenvalues are calculated by the equation:
q
(12)
K = m2xx + m2yy − 4(mxx myy − m2xy ),
mxx + myy + K
mxx + myy − K
, λ2 =
,
2
2
and the tilt angle of the ellipse θ is calculated as:
mxx − λ1
θ = arctan
.
−mxy
λ1 =
(13)
(14)
Examples of segmented objects and their corresponding
ellipse models are shown in figure 3.
A. Object model
For successful tracking, the object needs to be represented
by a simple model that captures all relevant information.
Because knowledge of the exact shape of the object is not
necessary for the tracking task, we use an ellipse model
described by mi = (cxi , cyi , ai , bi , θi ), where (cxi , cyi ) is the
ellipse centroid, ai and bi are semi-axis lengths and θi is the
rotation angle relative to the horizontal axis.
The ellipse model is constructed from the group of 8connected pixels representing the object by calculating the
covariance and centroid of their distribution. Let the object
be represented by M pixels pj = [xj , yj ]T , j ∈ [1, M ] ⊂ N.
The pixel coordinate distribution is expressed as:
E[p] =
PM
j=1 pj
M
mxx
Σ=
mxy
CCVW 2014
Image and Video Analysis
= [µx , µy ]T ,
mxy
,
myy
(6)
(7)
B. Assigning pixels to objects
Assigning segmented pixels to each object model combines
object model information available from the previous time step
(prediction), with the groups of 8-connected pixels obtained by
segmentation (correction). We make the following assumptions
in the assignment procedure:
1)
2)
3)
Each pixel of each group belongs to at least one
object
A pixel can belong to several objects
Only one group of pixels can be assigned to each
object
These assumptions take into account cases in which objects
are in contact or are covering each other and are met in most
real situations. It should be noted that the aforementioned
assumptions allow for a situation where no pixels are assigned
to an object. This is interpreted as the object having left the
scene.
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Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
V.
G ESTURE RECOGNITION
The implemented gesture recognition algorithm offers a
simple way of locating the parts of an object’s trajectory
which match a certain shape. A gesture model is defined as a
list of motion directions and compared to the trajectory. This
algorithm can determine if a gesture exists in objects trajectory,
but can also determine how many times, when and for how
long the gesture has been performed.
A. Selection of storage space for trajectories
Fig. 4: Flow chart of the procedure for establishing object-pixel
correspondence.
Assuming the object model is known in every time step, it
is possible to construct a trajectory of the object in image space
by storing the centroid in every time step. Such a representation
is appropriate for use with a fixed camera but fails to accurately
describe the object’s movement when the camera is in motion,
as is the case with a camera mounted to the actuated head of
a robot.
In order to perform the assignment, we use the metric
1
0 cos(θi ) − sin(θi )
c
d(mi , pj ) = ai 1
pj − x cy
0 bi sin(θi ) cos(θi )
(15)
which represents the distance of pixel j from object i as the
distance of the pixel from the origin of the coordinate system
obtained by mapping the ellipse to a unit circle. This metric
has the useful property that d(mi , pj ) < 1 for all pixels inside
the ellipse. The assignment procedure is outlined in Figure
4. In the first step, groups of pixels are assigned to objects
by calculating the distance metric for each object-pixel pair
and, for each object, storing the number of group pixels for
which the distance metric is d(mi , pj ) < 1. This results in
a matrix containing the number of pixels which belong to a
specific group and also fall within a specific object’s ellipse
model. After all pixels have been checked, the group which has
the largest number of pixels inside an object’s ellipse model is
assigned to that object. This way at most one group is assigned
to each model. If a pixel group was not assigned to any object
during this step, it is considered to be a new object.
Instead, using a properly calibrated pinhole camera model,
a line can be drawn through the camera’s focus and the
recorded point in the image plane. If the pitch and yaw angles
αy , αz of this line with regards to a coordinate system fixed
to the robot’s body are used as trajectory points, the trajectory
becomes independent of the robot’s head rotation. This is
the approach used for trajectory storage in the implemented
algorithm, as it produces a larger virtual field of view and
allows the robot to be placed much closer to the child.
The second step solves cases in which one group is
assigned to several objects, meaning that (partial) occlusion has
occurred. To resolve this, those objects must divide the group’s
pixels among themselves. All the pixels in such contested
groups are assigned to one of the contesting objects according
to the minimum value of the metric
The selected model is based on the trajectory angle β, the
angle of the object’s velocity vector computed as a difference
between consecutive trajectory points. Let the beginning of the
gesture be defined as an interval χ1 of angle β i.e. the object
beginning to move in a certain direction. Building off this
definition, one can define all other segments of the trajectory
also with respect to the trajectory angle, which results in the
gesture being represented as a set of time-sequential angle
intervals. A trajectory will satisfy such a model if its direction
smoothly crosses from one interval to another.
d2 = d(mi , pj )(1 + Pc (pj )),
(16)
where Pc (pj ) represents the probability that pixel pj belongs
to the histogram with which object i is segmented, calculated
by taking the histogram value for that pixel’s color.
After assigning all segmented pixels to objects (either
existing ones or new ones), we perform the prediction step.
Assuming that an object in motion will continue its motion
in similar direction and with similar speed, the ellipse model
center mj [k] is translated by
→
−
v = 0.5([c [k], c [k]] − [c [k − 1], c [k − 1]])T
(17)
2
x
y
x
y
The factor 0.5 is introduced because in actual situations such
as putting a cup back on the table or clapping hands, sudden
deceleration happens more often than sudden acceleration.
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B. Gesture model
In order for a gesture to be detected, it must be described by
a model. The model used was selected based on the following
requirements:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
Able to represent gestures in (αy , αz ) space
Invariant to scaling by width
Invariant to scaling by height
Invariant to translation
Not invariant to rotation
To enable modularity and simplify defining new gestures,
all gestures are to be described through the use of standard
angle intervals which are defined as follows:
h
i
2(i+1)π
S(i, δ) = 2(i−1)π
−
δ,
+
δ
, {i ∈ N|0 ≤ i ≤ 7}
8
8
(18)
Equation (18) defines eight intervals of width π4 + 2δ
with centers in iπ
4 . These intervals can be interpreted as
the directions {right, up − right, up, up − lef t, lef t, down −
lef t, down, down − right} with an overlap between adjacent
directions of δ.
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Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
The angle β is compared to the angle interval that corresponds to the current state. If β is within the current state’s
angle interval, the gesture is still being performed and the
next segment is retrieved. If β is outside the current state’s
angle interval, the trajectory has either transitioned into the
next state’s interval or the part of the trajectory from this part
onward does not represent the gesture. If the next state exists
and β belongs to its angle interval, the algorithm sets that state
to be the current state, otherwise the current state is set to the
beginning state and the gesture start point is reset.
Fig. 5: Flow chart of procedure for comparing model and
trajectory
Fig. 6: Comparison procedure
This model meets all the specified requirements and allows
for a comparison algorithm with O(N ) complexity. It is
human-readable and can be made robust to measurement errors
and the inadvertent inaccuracy of a person performing the
gesture by adjusting the parameter δ of the standard intervals.
If a segment that does not match the current state’s angle
interval is found, it is possible the gesture has just been
successfully completed. This is detected by using a simple
rule: if the algorithm is in the last state in the model, the
gesture is valid and finished.
Figure 6 shows the algorithm used for comparing the model
with the trajectory. Points marked with circles represent the
ends of segments and the color of the circle corresponds to
the action taken by the algorithm. Green circles represent
transitions to the next state or the ending points of the gesture,
yellow circles represent segments whose angles β correspond
to the current state’s angle interval and red circles represent
the ending points of segments that do not represent the gesture.
The colours on figure 5 also roughly correspond to these
transitions.
VI.
E XPERIMENTAL EVALUATION
Gestures that the robot recognizes during the imitation task
and their representations are summarized in table I.
TABLE I: Gesture representation
C. Comparing models and trajectories
Gesture
Representation
Alternative
Figure 5 shows the algorithm used for comparing a model
with a trajectory. The objective is to find every interval of
point indices [kstart , kstop ] among trajectory points Γ[k] =
[t[k], αy [k], αz [k]]T in which all the trajectory points represent
a gesture defined by the model χ = [χ1 , χ2 ...χL ] consisting
of L time-sequential angle intervals. The sensitivity of the
algorithm can be adjusted by using the distance and time limit
parameters ηd , ηt whose default values are ηd = 0.05rad, ηt =
1500ms.
Frog
Drink
Airplane
up-left, left, down-left
up, down
left, right
up-right, right, down-right
N/A
N/A
A ”frog jumping” gesture is defined as a series of arches
(in both directions), with motion having a noticeable horizontal
displacement. A ”drinking” gesture can be seen as a narrow
frog jump, with little or no horizontal displacement, resulting
in the gesture being modelled as upward motion followed by
downward motion. Due to ambiguity of human interpretation,
airplane gestures are simply modelled to be characterized by
alternating left and right motion, which may not be the most
accurate model but is chosen because there are no parts of the
model that are similar to the previous two gestures.
Since the procedure relies on dividing the trajectory into
segments, point distances in angle and time need to be defined:
q
dθ (Γ[sm ], Γ[sn ]) = (αy [sm ] − αy [sn ])2 + (αz [sm ] − αz [sn ])2
(19)
A. Benchmarking
dt (Γ[sm ], Γ[sn ]) = t[sm ] − t[sn ]
(20)
Benchmarking of the segmentation was performed through
1000
images with a framerate of 15 FPS with head tracking
A trajectory segment is defined as an interval of trajectory
turned
on and with head tracking turned off. The object
indices [sn , sm ], n > m for which dθ > ηd and/or dt > ηt
histogram used was constructed offline using 40 images of the
holds. The next segment of the trajectory can be retrieved by
object in 640×480 resolution. The images were captured using
increasing n from n = m + 1 until one of these conditions is
the robot’s internal camera under various lighting conditions
met. If the stopping condition is distance travelled, the object
and backgrounds and the pixels belonging to the object were
is moving and the trajectory angle β for the current trajectory
marked by a human operator using image editing software.
segment can be calculated:
The background image was then combined with pixel data to
αz [sm ] − αz [sn ]
produce a 64 × 64 bin two-dimensional U-V histogram, as
β = arctan
(21)
described in Section III. The object was tracked successfully
αy [sm ] − αy [sn ]
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Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
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TABLE II: Benchmarking results
Gesture
Frog
Frog
Drink
Drink
Tracking
Head OFF
Head ON
Head OFF
Head ON
Tests
10
10
10
10
As frog
7/10
5/10
0/10
0/10
As drink
2/10
3/10
10/10
10/10
Success rate
7/10
5/10
10/10
10/10
Session
Drink
H
R
H
Child
Child
Child
Child
X
X
×
×
X
×
X
X
X
X
Not performed (child not interested)
Not performed (robot malfunction)
TABLE III: Comparison of Human and Robot observations
#1
#2
#3
#4
Frog
R
Airplane
H
R
in every image without interruptions, confirming the efficiency
of the segmentation algorithm.
Gesture recognition tests were then performed for the frog
and drinking gesture, both shown to the robot 10 times.
As table II shows, the drinking gesture was recognized
much more consistently than the frog gesture, also, the drinking gesture was not mistaken for the frog gesture while
the opposite occurred several times. This is caused by the
similarities between these two gestures and variability in
human performance. Due to that variability, smaller horizontal
displacement during the frog-like gesture can occur, which is
in some cases interpreted as upward motion instead of up-right
or up-left, resulting in incorrect interpretation of the gestures.
However, in actual use cases the robot is expecting a
certain gesture meaning misclassifications are less of an issue.
Additionally the frog gesture is expected to be performed
by the child multiple times as opposed to the drink gesture
which the child performs only once. The algorithm is therefore
accurate enough for the purpose it was developed for.
B. Clinical evaluation of imitation task
During the first clinical tests, sessions with four children
(three with ASD, one typically developing) were performed,
the results of which are presented in table III. Observations
made by the robot are compared to those obtained by the expert
clinicians, which were additionally validated through analysis
of video recordings.
As can be seen in table III, only two sessions were
successfully performed, with one failing due to the child not
being interested in interaction with the robot, while the other
failed due to robot malfunction. In the first session with the
child, the robot correctly interpreted the drinking behaviour,
while failing to detect the airplane motion. Robot successfully
detected that the child did not perform a frog-like gesture.
During the session with the second child, the robot correctly
detected both the drinking and frog jumping gestures. Since
the robot failed to correctly demonstrate the airplane gesture,
the results for that part of the task were not obtained.
VII.
C ONCLUSIONS
In this paper, we have described the implementation of an
object tracking algorithm for gesture evaluation in the context
of robot-assisted autism diagnostics. The purpose of the algorithm is to detect and accurately classify a child’s ability to
reproduce a simple gesture, such as drinking or the imitation
CCVW 2014
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of a jumping frog. The implementation exploits specific conditions of the clinical setting in which the diagnostic procedure
is performed. Because the environment is semi-controlled, and
the properties of the manipulated objects can be more or less
freely chosen, object detection is primarily based on color.
Significant features of the described tracking procedure are
the ability to track multiple objects simultaneously as well as
robustness to background noise and partial object occlusion. It
is capable of extracting individual objects and keeping them
separated under strong interactions, even when the objects
belong to the same class, i.e., are of the same color. The gesture
recognition part is based on comparing the observed trajectory
to a parametric trajectory description that is compact and
invariant to scaling, translation and rotation. Initial deployment
in a clinical setting confirmed the usability of the approach.
As the presented work is part of a larger effort aimed
at developing a robot capable of acting as an assistant in
autism diagnostic procedures, future work will be focused
on performing clinical evaluations on a larger population of
children. Some drawbacks of the described tracking procedure
and classification procedure, such as sensitivity to lighting
conditions and handling of full occlusions will be improved.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This work has been supported in part by ACROSS - Centre
of Research Excellence for Advanced Cooperative Systems
(European FP-7 Capacities ”Research Potential” program,
grant no. 285939, FP7-REGPOT-2011-1) and by the Croatian
Science Foundation under the ADORE project (HRZZ-937432014).
R EFERENCES
[1]
Aldebaran Robotics. Nao Software Documentation, v1.14.5 edition,
2013. https://community.aldebaran-robotics.com/doc.
[2] Antonis A Argyros and Manolis IA Lourakis. Real-time tracking
of multiple skin-colored objects with a possibly moving camera. In
Computer Vision-ECCV 2004, pages 368–379. Springer, 2004.
[3] C. Lord, M. Rutter, P.C. Dilavore, and Risi. S. Autism Diagnostic
Observation Schedule. Western Psychological Services, 2002.
[4] C.F. Norbury and A. Sparks. Difference or disorder? Cultural issues in
understanding neurodevelopmental disorders. Developmental Psychology, 49(1):45–58, 2013.
[5] F. Petric, M. Cepanec, J. Stošić, S. Šimleša, K. Hrvatinić, A. Babić,
L. Malovan, D. Miklić, and Z. Kovačić. Four tasks of a robot-assisted
autism spectrum disorder diagnostic protocol: First clinical tests. In
Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC). IEEE, 2014. (To
appear).
[6] B. Scassellati, Henny A., and M. Mataric. Robots for use in autism
research. Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, 14(1):275–294,
2012.
[7] J-C Terrillon, Mahdad N Shirazi, Hideo Fukamachi, and Shigeru Akamatsu. Comparative performance of different skin chrominance models
and chrominance spaces for the automatic detection of human faces
in color images. In Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, 2000.
Proceedings. Fourth IEEE International Conference on, pages 54–61.
IEEE, 2000.
[8] K. Williams, S. MacDermott, G. Ridley, E.J. Glasson, and J.A. Wray.
The prevalence of autism in Australia. Can it be established for existing
data? Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 44(9):504–510, 2008.
[9] Ming-Hsuan Yang, David Kriegman, and Narendra Ahuja. Detecting
faces in images: A survey. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence,
IEEE Transactions on, 24(1):34–58, 2002.
38
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
1
Fast Localization of Facial Landmark Points
Nenad Markuš† , Miroslav Frljak† , Igor S. Pandžić† , Jörgen Ahlberg‡ , and Robert Forchheimer‡
†
University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Unska 3, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
‡ Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden
Abstract—Localization of salient facial landmark points, such
as eye corners or the tip of the nose, is still considered a
challenging computer vision problem despite recent efforts.
This is especially evident in unconstrained environments, i.e.,
in the presence of background clutter and large head pose
variations. Most methods that achieve state-of-the-art accuracy
are slow, and, thus, have limited applications. We describe a
method that can accurately estimate the positions of relevant
facial landmarks in real-time even on hardware with limited
processing power, such as mobile devices. This is achieved with
a sequence of estimators based on ensembles of regression trees.
The trees use simple pixel intensity comparisons in their internal
nodes and this makes them able to process image regions very
fast. We test the developed system on several publicly available
datasets and analyse its processing speed on various devices.
Experimental results show that our method has practical value.
I. I NTRODUCTION
The human face plays an essential role in everyday interaction, communication and other routine activities. Thus,
automatic face analysis systems based on computer vision
techniques open a wide range of applications. Some include biometrics, driver assistance, smart human-machine
interfaces, virtual and augmented reality systems, etc. This
serves as a strong motivation for developing fast and accurate
automatic face analysis systems.
In this paper we describe a novel method for estimating
the positions of salient facial landmark points from an image
region containing a face. This is achieved by extending
our previous work in eye pupil localization and tracking
[1]. The developed prototype achieves competitive accuracy
and runs in real-time on hardware with limited processing
power, such as mobile devices. Additionally, one of the main
advantages of our approach is its simplicity and elegance. For
example, we completely avoid image preprocessing or the
computation of special structures for fast feature extraction,
such as integral images and HOG pyramids: the method
works on raw pixel intensities.
A. Relevant recent work
Significant progress has been achieved recently in the area
of facial landmark localization. The methods considered to
be state-of-the-art are described in [2], [3], [4]. The approach
described by Belhumeur et al. [2] outperformed previously
reported work by a large margin. It combines the output of
SIFT-based face part detectors with a non-parametric global
shape model for the part locations. The main drawback
with this approach is its low processing speed. Cao et al.
[3] described a regression-based method for face alignment.
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Image and Video Analysis
Their idea is to learn a function that directly maps the whole
facial shape from the image as a single high-dimensional
vector. The inherent shape constraint is naturally encoded
in the output. This makes it possible to avoid parametric
shape models commonly used by previous methods. As
this is a tough regression problem, they fit the shape in a
coarse-to-fine manner using a sequence of fern1 ensembles
with shape-indexed pixel intensity comparison features. The
developed system is both fast and accurate. The system
developed by Sun et al. [4] is based on a deep convolutional
neural network trained to estimate the positions of five
facial landmarks. Additionally, simpler networks are used
to further refine the results. The authors report state-of-theart accuracy results. Recently, deep neural networks started
to outperform other methods on many machine learning
benchmarks (for example, see [6]). Thus, this is not at all
surprising. However, neural networks are usually slow at
runtime as they require a lot of floating point computations
to produce their output, which is particularly problematic
on mobile devices. Chevallier et al. [7] described a method
similar to the one we present in this paper. We address this
later in the text.
II.
M ETHOD
The basic idea is to use a multi-scale sequence of regression tree-based estimators to infer the position of each
facial landmark point within a given face region. We assume
that this region is known in advance. This does not pose
a problem since very efficient and accurate face detectors
exist (including our own work, currently submitted for review
[8]). In contrast to most prior work, we treat each landmark
point separately, disregarding the correlation between their
positions. Of course, a shape constraint could be enforced
in the post-processing step and there are many methods to
achieve this. We have decided to exclude this step in order to
focus on landmark localization itself. We explain the details
of the method in the rest of this section and compare it with
previous approaches.
A. Regression trees based on pixel intensity comparisons
To address the problem of image based regression, we
use an optimized binary decision tree with pixel intensity
comparisons as binary tests in its internal nodes. Variations
of this approach have already been used by other researchers
to solve certain computer vision problems (for example, see
[9], [10], [5]). We define a pixel intensity comparison binary
1A
simplified decision tree, see [5].
39
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
test on image I as
bintest(I; l1 , l2 ) =
0, I(l1 ) ≤ I(l2 )
1, otherwise,
where I(li ) is the pixel intensity at location li . Locations
l1 and l2 are in normalized coordinates, i.e., both are from
the set [−1, +1] × [−1, +1]. This means that the binary
tests can easily be resized if needed. Each terminal node
of the tree contains a vector that models the output. In our
case, this vector is two-dimensional since we are interested
in estimating the landmark position within a given image
region.
The construction of the tree is supervised. The training set
consists of images annotated with values in R2 . In our case,
these values represent the location of the landmark point in
normalized coordinates. The parameters of each binary test in
internal nodes of the tree are optimized in a way to maximize
clustering quality obtained when the incoming training data
is split by the test. This is performed by minimizing
X
X
Q=
kx − x̄0 k22 +
kx − x̄1 k22 ,
(1)
x∈C0
x∈C1
where C0 and C1 are clusters that contain landmark point
coordinates x ∈ R2 of all face regions for which the outputs
of binary test were 0 and 1, respectively. The vector x̄0
is the mean of C0 and x̄1 is the mean of C1 . As the set
of all pixel intensity comparisons is prohibitively large, we
generate only a small subset2 during optimization of each
internal node by repeated sampling of two locations from a
uniform distribution on a square [−1, +1] × [−1, +1]. The
test that achieves the smallest error according to equation
1 is selected. The training data is recursively clustered in
this fashion until some termination condition is met. In our
setup, we limit the depth of our trees to reduce training time,
runtime processing speed and memory requirements. The
output value associated with each terminal node is obtained
as the weighted average of ground truths that arrived there
during training.
It is well known that a single tree will most likely overfit
the training data. On the other hand, an ensemble of trees
can achieve impressive results. A popular way of combining
multiple trees is the gradient boosting procedure [11]. The
basic idea is to grow trees sequentially. Each new one added
to the ensemble is learned to reduce the remaining training
error further. Its output is shrunk by a scalar factor called
shrinkage, a real number in the set (0, 1], that plays a role
similar to the learning rate in neural networks training. We
set this value to 0.5 in our experiments.
B. Estimating the position of a landmark point
We have observed that accuracy and robustness of the
method critically depend on the scale of the rectangle within
which we perform the estimation. If the rectangle is too
small, we risk that it will not contain the facial landmark at
all due to the uncertainty introduced by face tracker/detector
used to localize the rectangle. If the rectangle is big, the
detection is more robust but accuracy suffers. To minimize
2 128
in our implementation.
CCVW 2014
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September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
2
these effects, we learn multiple tree ensembles, each for
estimation at different scale. The method proceeds in a
recursive manner, starting with an ensemble learned for
largest scale. The obtained intermediate result is used to
position the rectangle for the next ensemble in the chain. The
process continues until the last one is reached. Its output is
accepted as the final result. This was inspired by the work
done by Ong et al. [12].
The output of regression trees is noisy and can be unreliable in some frames, especially if the video stream is
supplied from a low quality camera. This can be attributed
to variance of the regressor as well as to the simplicity of
binary test at internal nodes of the trees: Pixel footprint size
changes significantly with variations in scale of the eyes and
we can expect problems with aliasing and random noise.
These problems can be reduced during runtime with random
perturbations [13]. The idea is to sample multiple rectangular
regions at different positions and scales around the face and
estimate the landmark point position in each of them. We
obtain the result as the median over the estimations for each
spatial dimension.
We would like to note that Chevallier et al. [7] described
a similar method for face alignment. The main difference
is that they use Haar-like features instead of pixel intensity
comparisons to form binary tests in internal nodes of the
trees. Also, they do not perform random perturbations in runtime. This is presumably not needed with Haar-like features
as they are based on region averaging which is equivalent
to low pass filtering and this makes them more robust to
aliasing and noise.
III. E XPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS
We are interested in evaluating the usefulness of the
method in relevant applications. Thus, we provide experimental analysis of its implementation in the C programming
language. We compare its accuracy with the reported stateof-the-art and modern commercial software. Also, we analyse
its processing speed and memory requirements.
A. Learning the estimation structures
We use the LFW dataset [14] and the one provided by
Visage Technologies (http://www.visagetechnologies.com/).
Both consist of face images with annotated coordinates of
facial landmarks. These include the locations of eyebrows,
nose, upper and lower lip, mouth and eye corners. Overall,
the total number of annotated faces is around 15 000. We
intentionally introduce position and scale perturbations in the
training data in order to make our system more robust. We
extract a number of samples from each image by randomly
perturbing the bounding box of the face. Furthermore, as
faces are symmetric, we double the size of the training data
by mirroring the images and modifying the landmark point
coordinates in an appropriate manner. This process results
in a training set that consists of approximately 10 000 000
samples.
Each landmark point position estimation structure is
learned independently in our framework. We have empirically found that 6 stages with 20 trees of depth equal to 9
give good results in practice. The ensemble of the first stage
40
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
3
1.0
1.0
0.8
0.8
0.6
0.6
accuracy
accuracy
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
0.4
0.4
Sunfetfal.
Ourfmethod
Luxand
Microsoft
0.0
0.000
Fig. 1.
0.025
0.050
0.075
0.100
normalizedferror
0.0
0.000
0.125
Accuracy curves on the BioID dataset.
Fig. 2.
is learned to estimate the position of a particular landmark
point from the bounding box of the face. Each next stage is
learned on a training set generated by shrinking the bounding
box by 0.7 and repositioning its center at the position output
by the ensemble of the previous stage. This process proceeds
until the last stage is reached. The learning of the whole
estimation structure for a single landmark point takes around
one day on a modern desktop computer with 4 cores and 16
GB of memory.
B. Accuracy analysis on still images
We use the BioID [15] and LFPW [2] face datasets to
evaluate the accuracy in still images. The normalized error
[15] is adopted as the accuracy measure for the estimated
landmark point locations:
e=
1
N
N
X
Dn
,
D
n=1
(2)
where N is the number of facial landmarks, D is the distance
between the eyes and Dn is the Euclidean distance between
the estimated landmark position and the ground truth. The
accuracy is defined as the fraction of the estimates having
an error smaller than a given number. Roughly, an error of
0.25 corresponds to the distance between the eye center and
the eye corners, 0.1 corresponds to the diameter of the iris,
and 0.05 corresponds to the diameter of the pupil.
First, we use the BioID and LFPW datasets to compare our
system to the state-of-the-art method based on convolutional
neural networks [4] and two modern commercial systems,
one provided by Microsoft [16] and the other by Luxand
[17]. We follow the protocol from [4] to obtain normalized
errors for five facial landmarks (eye centers, mouth corners
and tip of the nose). The results are reported in figures
1 and 2. We can see that our method outperforms both
commercial systems in accurate landmark point localization
(e ≈ 0.05) but the neural network-based system is clearly
the best. We could not include the method by Cao et al. [3]
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Sunfetfal.
Ourfmethod
Luxand
Microsoft
0.2
0.025
0.050
0.075
0.100
normalizedferror
0.125
Accuracy curves on the LFPW dataset.
0.05
OurBmethod
BelhumeurBetBal.
CaoBetBal.
SunBetBal.
0.04
averageBerror
0.2
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.00
Fig. 3.
LE
RE
N
facialBlandmark
LM
RM
Average accuracy comparison on the LFPW test set (249 images).
in this comparison since no code/binaries are available to
reproduce the results. We also excluded the results published
by Chevallier et al. [7] since they used the evaluation
methodology where they partitioned BioID in two parts: one
for training and the other for accuracy analysis. It has been
argued that this evaluation methodology is flawed since the
learning procedure overfits some particular features present
only in the used dataset and thus yields performance that is
not representative in the general case [18].
In order to compare our method also with the methods
excluded from the first experiment, we performed a second
comparison. This one is based on average errors reported on
the LFPW dataset (accuracy curves could not be obtained
due to the lack of data in [2] and [3]). The average error for
5 facial landmarks can be seen in Figure 3. As the average
error is sensitive to outliers and LFPW faces vary greatly
in pose and occlusions, our method performs worse than
other approaches that use some form of shape constraint.
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Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
4
Each landmark position estimator consisting of 120 trees,
each of depth 9, requires around 700 kB of memory. In our
opinion, these relatively large memory requirements are one
of the drawbacks with our approach as they are inconvenient
for some applications, such as face tracking in web browsers
or on mobile devices. The problem can be addressed by
quantizing the outputs in the leafs of each tree. In the current
implementation, we represent each output with two 32-bit
floating point values.
1.0
0.8
accuracy
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
0.6
0.4
E. Qualitative results
0.2
0.0
0.000
0.025
0.050
normalized error
Fig. 4.
Some qualitative results obtained by our system can be
seen in Figure 5 and in the video available at http://youtu.be/
xpBXpI39s9c. Furthermore, we prepared a demo application
for readers who wish to test the method themselves. It is
available at http://public.tel.fer.hr/lploc/.
IV.
Accuracy curve for The Talking Face Video.
Device
PC1
PC2
iPhone 5
iPad 2
iPhone 4S
TABLE I.
CPU
3.4GHz Core i7-2600
2.53GHz Core 2 Duo P8700
1.3GHz Apple A6
1GHz ARM Cortex-A9
800MHz ARM Cortex-A9
Time [ms]
1.3
2.1
5.0
8.8
10.9
AVERAGE TIMES REQUIRED TO ALIGN 5 FACIAL
LANDMARKS .
Nevertheless, we can see that, on average, the landmark
positions estimated by our system are within the pupil
diameter from the ground truth.
Numerical results show that our system is less accurate
than the reported state-of-the-art but more accurate than
two modern commercial products while being considerably
faster, in some cases even by a factor of 50. Its landmark
point position estimations are, on average, in the pupil
diameter (e ≈ 0.05) from human-annotated ground truth
values. Processing speed analysis shows that the system
can run in real-time on hardware with limited processing
power, such as modern mobile devices. This enables fast
and reasonably accurate facial feature tracking on these
devices. We believe that the method described in this paper
achieves acceptable accuracy and processing speed for a lot
of practical applications.
C. Tracking facial features
We use the Talking Face Video [19] to evaluate our system
quantitatively in real-time applications. The video contains
5000 frames taken from a video of a person engaged in
conversation. A number of facial landmarks were annotated
semi-automatically for each frame with an active appearance
model trained specifically for the person in the video. These
annotations include the locations of eye centers, mouth corners and the tip of the nose. The normalized error averaged
over the video sequence obtained by our system was equal
to 0.028. Accuracy curve can be seen in Figure 4. These
results show that most of the time our system estimated the
positions of facial landmarks with high accuracy.
D. Processing speed and memory requirements
Processing speeds obtained by our system on various
devices can be seen in Table I. Our system uses a single CPU
core although the computations can easily be parallelized.
Both Cao et al. [3] and Sun et al. [4] vaguely3 report
processing speeds on modern CPUs: their systems localize
29 and 5 facial landmarks, respectively, in 5 and 120 [ms],
respectively.
3 For
example, we are not sure if they used multi-core processing in
runtime (both papers mention it at some point).
CCVW 2014
Image and Video Analysis
C ONCLUSION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This research is partially supported by Visage Technologies AB,
Linköping, Sweden, by the Ministry of Science, Education and
Sports of the Republic of Croatia, grant number 036-03620272028 ”Embodied Conversational Agents for Services in Networked
and Mobile Environments” and by the European Union through
ACROSS project, 285939 FP7-REGPOT-2011-1.
R EFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
N. Markuš, M. Frljak, I. S. Pandžić, J. Ahlberg, and R. Forchheimer,
“Eye pupil localization with an ensemble of randomized trees,”
Pattern Recognition, 2014. 1
P. N. Belhumeur, D. W. Jacobs, D. J. Kriegman, and N. Kumar,
“Localizing parts of faces using a consensus of exemplars,” in CVPR,
2011. 1, 3
X. Cao, Y. Wei, F. Wen, and J. Sun, “Face alignment by explicit
shape regression,” in CVPR, 2012. 1, 3, 4
Y. Sun, X. Wang, and X. Tang, “Deep convolutional network cascade
for facial point detection,” in CVPR, 2013. 1, 3, 4
M. Ozuysal, P. Fua, and V. Lepetit, “Fast keypoint recognition in ten
lines of code,” in CVPR, 2007. 1
G. E. Hinton and R. R. Salakhutdinov, “Reducing the dimensionality
of data with neural networks,” Science, 2006. 1
L. Chevallier, J.-R. Vigouroux, A. Goguey, and A. Ozerov, “Facial
landmarks localization estimation by cascaded boosted regression,”
in International Conference on Computer Vision Theory and Applications (VISAPP), 2013. 1, 2, 3
42
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
Fig. 5.
section.
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
5
Some results obtained by our system on real-world images. Notice that we use more facial landmark point detectors than in the experimental
N. Markuš, M. Frljak, I. S. Pandžić, J. Ahlberg, and R. Forchheimer,
“A method for object detection based on pixel intensity comparisons,”
http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.4537v1, 2013. 1
J. Shotton, A. Fitzgibbon, M. Cook, T. Sharp, M. Finocchio,
R. Moore, A. Kipman, and A. Blake, “Real-time human pose recognition in parts from single depth images,” in CVPR, 2011. 1
Z. Kalal, K. Mikolajczyk, and J. Matas, “Tracking-learningdetection,” TPAMI, 2012. 1
J. H. Friedman, “Greedy function approximation: A gradient boosting
machine,” Annals of Statistics, 2001. 2
E.-J. Ong, Y. Lan, B. Theobald, and R. Bowden, “Robust facial
feature tracking using selected multi-resolution linear predictors,”
TPAMI, 2011. 2
P. Dollár, P. Welinder, and P. Perona, “Cascaded pose regression,” in
CVPR, 2010. 2
M. Dantone, J. Gall, G. Fanelli, and L. V. Gool, “Real-time facial
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Image and Video Analysis
[15]
[16]
[17]
[18]
[19]
feature detection using conditional regression forests,” in CVPR,
2012. 2
O. Jesorsky, K. J. Kirchberg, and R. W. Frischholz, “Robust face
detection using the hausdorff distance.” Springer, 2001, pp. 90–95.
3
“Microsoft research face sdk beta,” 2013. [Online]. Available:
http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/projects/facesdk/ 3
“Luxand facesdk,” 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.luxand.
com/facesdk/ 3
A. Torralba and A. A. Efros, “Unbiased look at dataset bias,” in
CVPR, 2011. 3
“The
talking
face
video,”
2013.
[Online].
Available: http://www-prima.inrialpes.fr/FGnet/data/01-TalkingFace/
talking face.html 4
43
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
Recognizing 3D Objects from a Limited Number of
Views using Temporal Ensembles of Shape
Functions
Karla Brkić∗ , Siniša Šegvić∗ , Zoran Kalafatić∗ , Aitor Aldomà,‡ , Markus Vincze‡
∗ University
of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Croatia
and Control Institute, Vienna University of Technology, Austria
Email: [email protected]
‡ Automation
Abstract—We consider the problem of 3D object recognition,
assuming an application scenario involving a mobile robot
equipped with an RGB-D camera. In order to simulate this
scenario, we use a database of 3D objects and render partial
point clouds representing depth views of an object. Using the
rendered point clouds, we represent each object with an object
descriptor called temporal ensemble of shape functions (TESF).
We investigate leave-one-out 1-NN classification performance on
the considered dataset depending on the number of views used to
build TESF descriptors, as well as the possibility of matching the
descriptors built using varying numbers of views. We establish
the baseline by classifying individual view ESF descriptors. Our
experiments suggest that classifying TESF descriptors outperforms individual ESF classification, and that TESF descriptors
offer reasonable descriptivity even when very few views are used.
The performance remains very good even if the query TESF and
the nearest TESF are built using a differing number of views.
I. I NTRODUCTION
3D object recognition is one of the essential tasks in practical robotics. In order to interact with the world, robots must
be capable of understanding which objects they encounter in
it. Although the objects in reality are three-dimensional, the
dimensionality of the data that a robot perceives depends on
the sensors used to acquire it. In this paper, we assume a
scenario in which a robot is equipped with an RGB-D camera
(e.g. Kinect or an equivalent sensor). The robot moves around
the object of interest, acquiring a number of depth views of the
object, as illustrated in Figure 1. We are interested exclusively
in the depth channel, so the RGB image is discarded. We
have previously proposed [1] a method for integrating multiple
depth views of a 3D object into a single descriptor, called
temporal ensemble of shape functions descriptor (TESF). In
order to build a TESF descriptor, depth information for each
view is represented as a point cloud. These point clouds are
then represented using individual ensemble of shape functions
descriptors (ESF) [2], and individual ESFs are combined to
form TESF descriptors. A TESF descriptor can be built using
an arbitrary number of object views. The resulting descriptor
is always of the same length. Therefore, TESF descriptors
are particularly suitable for object classification in practical
robotics, as a robot can acquire varying numbers of views for
different objects.
In this paper, we build on earlier work with temporal ensembles of shape functions. Previous experiments, detailed in [1],
CCVW 2014
Image and Video Analysis
point
cloud 1
point
cloud 4
point
cloud 2
point
cloud 3
time
Fig. 1: Our application scenario. The robot moves around the
object of interest (in this case, chair) and acquires several
views (in this case, four) using a depth camera. These views
are represented as point clouds.
focused on building TESF descriptors using a fixed number
of object views. In addition, these views were designed to
capture the object from all possible sides. TESF descriptors
proved to be very discriminative, performing equally well or
slightly better than state of the art solutions [3]. Still, some
open questions important in the context of practical robotics
remained:
1) how descriptive are TESF descriptors when built on very
few object views,
2) can a TESF descriptor classifier built using t1 views be
applied on TESF descriptors built using t2 views, t1 6=
t2 ?
The goal of this work is to provide detailed experiments to
answer these open questions. We do so by adhering to experimental setup from [1], where actual depth data is simulated
using rendered 3D models.
II. R ELATED WORK
The problem of 3D object recognition appears in computer
(i.e. robot) vision and in computer graphics. From the computer graphics perspective, the focus is on 3D object retrieval,
44
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
clouds could be obtained e.g. by a Kinect-like sensor, so that
each partial point cloud represents one depth view of the
object as seen by the sensor. Each of these partial views is
first represented using ensembles of shape functions (ESF),
introduced by Wohlkinger and Vincze [2].
…
View 1
View 2
Point cloud 1
Point cloud 2
ESF descriptor 1
ESF descriptor 2
…
…
…
A. The ESF descriptor
View t
Point cloud t
ESF descriptor t
TESF descriptor
(TESF1 or TESF2)
Fig. 2: From object views to TESF descriptors.
i.e. finding 3D objects similar to a query object. From the
computer vision perspective, the focus is on individual real
world 3D object classification.
Combining these two perspectives is becoming increasingly
common, and it is difficult to draw a hard line between
them. For example, Wohlkinger et al. [4] propose a 3D
object recognition framework for depth sensors that is trained
exclusively on CAD models downloaded from the Internet.
Tenorth et al. [5] propose decomposing CAD models of daily
used objects to learn about their functional parts, which could
be useful in robotic applications. Ohbuchi and Furuya [6]
propose a method for retrieving 3D models based on a singleview query using bags of visual features, which is an idea from
computer vision. Chen et al. propose measuring similarity of
contours extracted from rendered images of models, a purely
computer graphics approach that could easily be generalized to
computer vision. Daras and Axenopoulos [7] introduce a 3D
object retrieval framework that supports multimodal queries
(sketches, images or 3D models). Further details on 3D object
retrieval can be found in a number of surveys, e.g. [8] or [9].
Temporal ensembles of shape functions (TESF descriptors)
[1], used in this paper, are based on ensembles of shape
functions [2] and spatio-temporal appearance descriptors [10].
They combine a single-view object recognition method with
an idea of temporal integration from the domain of video
analysis. They can be readily applied in computer graphics.
When working with real images, however, RGB data itself
is not sufficient, as depth channel is necessary to generate
ensembles of shape functions. Different views of an object are
represented as 3D point clouds, encoded as ensembles of shape
functions and efficiently combined into a single descriptor.
This procedure is illustrated in Figure 2.
III. T EMPORAL E NSEMBLES OF S HAPE F UNCTIONS
To build a TESF descriptor of an object, we assume that
a number of partial point clouds representing the object are
available. In our envisioned application, these partial point
CCVW 2014
Image and Video Analysis
The basic idea of the ensemble of shape functions descriptor
is to represent a partial point cloud by distributions of values
of characteristic shape functions. Each point cloud represents a
(partial) surface of the object. The descriptor is an extension of
the idea of shape functions, as introduced by Osada et al. [11].
In order to represent the partial point cloud by a characteristic shape function, we randomly sample pairs of points on the
partial point cloud surface and measure their distance. We then
categorize the connecting line segment as lying mostly on the
surface, lying mostly off the surface, or being a combination
of both cases. For each of the cases, we maintain a 64-bin
histogram of recorded distances. For instance, if we measure
point distance of 12.27, and the line segment connecting the
two selected points is lying mostly off the partial surface, then
the value 12.27 will be entered into the histogram for lines
lying off surface.
The described procedure is repeated for randomly sampled
point triplets. However, instead of measuring point distances,
we now measure the area of the spanned triangle, as well
as a predefined angle in the triangle. The triangle is again
characterized as lying mostly on the surface, lying mostly off
the surface, or a combination of both, and the measured area
and angle are entered into the appropriate histogram.
By randomly sampling point pairs and triplets and measuring the obtained distances, areas and angles, we obtain
a total of 9 histograms. Additionally, we measure the ratios
of point triplet line distances, and enter them into another
histogram. This results in a total of 10 64-bin histograms
that are representative of individual partial point clouds. In
order to obtain the ESF descriptor of a partial point cloud, we
concatenate the described ten histograms into a single 640dimensional descriptor which is then normalized. Note that the
ESF computation algorithm ensures invariance to translation
and rotation.
In practice, in order to perform the described calculations
we approximate the partial point surface with a voxel grid.
Decisions whether a line or a triangle is on the surface,
off the surface or both are made on the basis of that grid
approximation. Further implementation details can be found
in [2].
B. Integrating individual ESF descriptors
ESF descriptors are built on a per-view basis, meaning
that for t partial views of an object we will obtain t ESF
descriptors. In a real robotics scenario, we would like to
classify the object that the robot is seeing using all available
descriptors. However, most standard classifiers expect a single
fixed-length feature vector as an input, so we need a way to
integrate t ESF descriptors into a single descriptor.
45
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
TESF1 = w. average
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
...
TESF2 =
...
histograms of
individual ESF
components
Fig. 3: Calculating TESF1 and TESF2 descriptors. Given a number of views and their corresponding ESF descriptors (drawn
in orange), TESF1 is obtained by weighted averaging of all the available ESFs. TESF2 is obtained by histogramming each
ESF component (represented here by framing three example components with a rectangle and building a histogram out of the
collected data).
In [1] we proposed two variants of integrating ESF descriptors into a single descriptor, namely
1) Temporal Ensembles of Shape Functions of the First
Order (TESF1), and
2) Temporal Ensembles of Shape Functions of the Second
Order (TESF2).
Let us assume that the robot is moving around the object
and looking at it, so that in each point in time θ we obtain
a view vθ and its corresponding ESF descriptor ESF(vθ ). We
now proceed to describe the algorithms for calculating TESF1
and TESF2 descriptors.
C. The TESF1 descriptor
t
X
αθ ESF(vθ ).
(1)
θ=1
Factors αθ are arbitrary, and should be set depending on a
particular application. For instance, it might be the case that
all the views are equally relevant, so it makes sense to set
αθ = 1 ∀θ. On the other hand, it might be the case that
we know something important about the way the views were
acquired, for instance that the robot is moving away from the
object. In that particular case it makes sense to decrease the
importance of latter views, e.g. by setting αθ = θc , where c is
an arbitrary constant. Different strategies for choosing αθ can
be derived by analogous reasoning.
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Image and Video Analysis
D. The TESF2 descriptor
The TESF2 descriptor is designed to be more expressive
than TESF1, by explicitly modeling the distribution of ESF
descriptor components over time.
Let us define a component vector, ci (t), as a vector of
values of the i-th component ESF(vθ )[i] of the ESF descriptor
ESF(vθ ) up to and including time t, 1 ≤ θ ≤ t:
T
Assume that we wish to build the TESF1 descriptor at the
point in time t. We have already obtained t views of the object
and their corresponding ESF descriptors ESF(vθ ), 1 ≤ θ ≤ t.
In order to obtain the TESF1 descriptor from these views, we
simply do a weighted averaging of the t ESF descriptors:
TESF1(t) =
TESF1 is a simple and effective descriptor [1]. However,
when averaging individual ESF descriptors, a lot of information is lost. Two very different sets of ESF descriptors can
produce the same TESF1 descriptor. To address this problem,
we have proposed the TESF2 descriptor.
ci (t) = (ESF(v1 )[i], ESF(v2 )[i], . . . , ESF(vt )[i]) . (2)
For a given point in time t, we will have a total of 640
component vectors ci (t), where 1 ≤ i ≤ 640. There will be
one component vector for each of the 640 components of the
modeled ESF descriptors. In time t, the length of each of these
component vectors will be equal to t.
To obtain the TESF2 descriptor in time t, each of the 640
component vectors is treated as a set of measurements and
modeled with a k-bin histogram. The TESF2 descriptor is a
concatenation of the bin frequencies of all 640 histograms,
which can be written as
T
TESF2(t) = [Hk (c1 (t)), Hk (c2 (t)), . . . , Hk (c640 (t))] .
(3)
The function Hk (c) builds a k-bin histogram of values
contained in the vector ci and returns a vector of histogram
bin frequencies. Given that the individual components of the
grid vector correspond to bins of individual ESF histograms,
TESF2 descriptors can be thought of as building histograms
of the second order, i.e. histograms of histograms.
46
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
Figure 3 illustrates the differences in calculating TESF1 and
TESF2 descriptors.
E. Solving the TESF2 binning problem
In practical implementations of the histogramming function
Hk (c), there is a problem in defining bin bounds of the
built histograms. The maximum theoretical value that can be
encountered in the components of an ESF descriptor is 1, as
ESF descriptors are normalized. In practice, ESF descriptor
components are typically of the order of magnitude of 10−3 ,
given that the normalization is performed over 640 vector
components. Therefore, it makes sense to employ non-linear
binning, in order to increase the binning resolution around
typically encountered values. In our experiments, we employ
the non-linear binning scheme from [1]. Further details on the
binning are omitted from this work, and the interested reader
is referred to [1]
IV. E XPERIMENTS WITH A LIMITED NUMBER OF VIEWS
In order to test the performance of TESF descriptors built
using varying numbers of views, we adhere to the experimental
setup from [1]. To simulate the performance of a Kinect-like
sensor, we use a database of 3D object models and partially
render each model from 20 different angles. The 20 views
are evenly distributed on a sphere around the object, and each
rendered view is assigned an index from 1 to 20. We employ
a 1-nearest neighbor classifier [12] using Euclidean distance
and leave-one-out cross-validation to obtain performance estimates. We use the publicly available implementation of ESF
available in the Point Cloud Library (PCL) [13]. The number
of point-pair and point-triplet samples is set to 40000, and a
64 × 64 × 64 voxel grid is used.
Fig. 4: A word cloud visualization of the considered classes
from the 3D-Net database. Word size is proportional to the
number of instances of the given class.
A. The 3D-Net database
In our experiments, we use a subset of the 3D-Net database
[2]. The considered subset consists of 1267 objects grouped
into 55 classes organized in a hierarchy according to the WordNet database [14]. The object classes range from common
household objects to vehicles and animals. A word cloud
visualization of all the used object categories is shown in
Figure 4, and a few example objects in Figure 5.
B. The baseline: individual ESF descriptor matching
The simplest way to classify an object seen from multiple
views is to ignore the fact that the views are related and
to treat each view as an individual observation. In the case
of 1-NN classification, object class is then determined by
comparing a view with a database of all stored views of all
the training objects. Assume that we are using the described
subset of 1267 objects from 3D-Net as our training set and 20
views per object. This effectively means comparing the ESF
descriptor of a view of a new object with 1267 × 20 = 25430
stored ESF descriptors. This procedure will be 20 times
slower than analogous matching of TESF1 descriptors and 20
k
times slower than analogous matching of TESF2 descriptors,
where k denotes the number of bins used for building TESF2
descriptors.
CCVW 2014
Image and Video Analysis
Fig. 5: Examples of objects from the 3D-Net database.
In order to speed up processing, one could consider matching only corresponding views. For example, if we assume
our setup where 20 views are spaced at predefined positions
around the object, view at position 14 of a query object could
be compared only to views at position 14 of all other objects.
The major problem with this kind of setup is that objects in the
3D-Net database are not necessarily equally aligned in the 3D
coordinate system, and their orientation is not known. Taking
the same view of two objects of the same class in the 3D-Net
database might yield quite different surfaces, as illustrated in
Figure 6. Therefore, we instead opt for comparing the ESF
47
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
Fig. 6: The same view (view 3) of two different trucks from
the 3D-Net database. The trucks are oriented differently in the
3D space, so viewing them from the same position yields two
different surfaces.
descriptor of a query view with all other views of all other
objects.
To investigate classification performance of individual ESF
descriptor matching, we set up the following experiment. For
each of the 1267 objects in the training set, we consider all
20 views of the object, and try to match each view’s ESF
descriptor with the remaining (1267 − 1) × 20 ESF descriptors
of all views of all other objects.
This kind of matching yields a 1-NN leave-one-out classification accuracy of 65.99%. In [1], we have shown that by
using TESF1 descriptors on the same problem one obtains
a classification accuracy of 77.03%, and by using TESF2
descriptors a classification accuracy of 82.64%. Hence, using
TESF descriptors we obtain not only faster, but also more
accurate classification.
C. Varying the number of views for query TESFs
Although TESF descriptors perform very well when sufficient number of views is sampled around the object of
interest, there are two essential questions that need to be
addressed when applying TESF descriptors in a practical
robotics scenario: (i) what is the influence of the number of
used views on classification accuracy, and (ii) is this approach
robust to a changing number of views?
As mentioned before, we are assuming that a robot is
moving around an object of interest and acquiring a number
of views of the object. These views are then represented by
their ESF descriptors. The robot need not be able to see the
object from all angles, and the number of acquired views can
vary depending on the situation. Using these views, the robot
builds a TESF descriptor and tries to determine which class the
object belongs to by finding the nearest neighbor to the built
TESF descriptor in its object descriptor database. The object
descriptor database contains precomputed TESF descriptors of
training objects. The stored TESF descriptors need not be built
on the same views as the query descriptor. Both view angles
and the total number of views might differ.
To investigate the robustness of TESF classification to
these changes in views, we vary the number of views used
in building TESF descriptors of query objects and measure
classification performance. At the start of each experiment, we
CCVW 2014
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September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
randomly select n view indices from the rendered 20 views of
objects in the 3D-Net (e.g. when selecting three views, views
3, 6 and 17 might be chosen). When evaluating leave-one-out
classification accuracy, we select individual objects from the
training set and build their TESF descriptors using only the
chosen n view indices. 1-NN classification of these descriptors
is then performed by searching for the nearest TESF descriptor
in the rest of the set. However, for the remainder of the
set (which simulates the object descriptor database of the
robot) we use the full 20-view range TESF descriptors. In
other words, when finding the nearest neighbor the left out
object is represented by a TESF descriptor using n views, and
this descriptor is then compared to TESF descriptors of other
objects built using 20 views to find the closest match. We test
both TESF1 and TESF2 descriptors.
Randomly selecting view numbers can be biased. It is possible to select very close views, leading to small information
gain over a single view scenario. On the other hand, it is
also possible to select views that are very far apart, which
might not be the case in real robotic scenarios, leading to
overly optimistic classification rates. To alleviate this problem,
we repeat the random selection of views 10 times for each
considered number of views n, and we report the average
obtained classification accuracy and the standard deviation.
Results are summarized in Table I.
Our first observation is that TESF1 descriptors consistently
perform worse than TESF2 descriptors, as is to be expected
given that TESF2 descriptors are more expressive. However,
TESF1 descriptors built using 8 views and above offer an
improvement over individual ESF descriptor matching. For
TESF2, we see that even with using very few views (3), we are
still likely to see an increase in performance over individual
ESF 1-NN classification (although the standard deviation of
performance is quite large). The classification performance
seems to steadily increase as we add more views, and the
standard deviation of the performance drops. As our views are
equally positioned around the object, selecting more and more
views means obtaining more information about the object.
At 8 views the object is already reasonably well represented,
and at 15 views the standard deviation is very small, which
means that regardless of which exact 15 views we choose, the
majority of the surface of the object will be seen and captured
in the resulting TESF descriptor.
D. Building the object descriptor database from fewer views
In previous experiments, we considered matching TESF
descriptors of query objects built using randomly selected 3,
5, 8 and 15 views with an object descriptor database built
using 20 object views. Now, we investigate how classification
performance would change if our object descriptor database
instead contained descriptors built using the same number of
views as the query object. Our goal is to see whether good
classification accuracy can be obtained even if the objects
stored in the database were seen from a limited number of
views, which is s realistic expectation in robotic applications.
To that end, we repeat the experiment described in the previous
48
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
Number of views n
1 (ESF)
3
5
8
15
20 [1]
TESF1 accuracy [%]
TESF2 accuracy [%]
65.99
57.64 (σ = 4.27)
70.19 (σ = 4.10)
62.00 (σ = 5.75)
75.94 (σ = 3.09)
71.87 (σ = 1.93)
80.64 (σ = 1.14)
76.55 (σ = 0.81)
82.09 (σ = 0.46)
77.03
82.64
TABLE I: Influence of the number of views used to build
TESF descriptors on classification accuracy. For each number
of views (3, 5, 8, 15), we randomly select view indices 10
times and run leave-one-out 1-NN cross-validation. Nearest
neighbors are found from an object database of 20-view
TESF2 descriptors. We report mean classification accuracy and
standard deviation over the 10 iterations.
Number of views n
3
5
8
15
Accuracy over 10 runs [%]
54.97 (σ = 4.01)
66.85 (σ = 7.34)
81.31 (σ = 0.61)
82.09 (σ = 0.46)
TABLE II: Using an object descriptor database containing
descriptors built from fewer than 20 views. For each number
of views (3, 5, 8, 15), we randomly select view indices 10
times and run leave-one-out 1-NN cross-validation. Nearest
neighbors are found in a database built using the same number
of views as the query objects, but differing in view indices.
We report mean classification accuracy and standard deviation
over the 10 iterations.
section, but this time with an object descriptor database built
using the same number of views as the query: 3, 5, 8 and 15.
Given that TESF2 consistently performed better than TESF1
in previous experiments, this experiment is done with TESF2
descriptors only.
In this experiment, we again measure the leave-one-out
classification accuracy over 10 iterations, randomly selecting
the views used for building the query objects in each iteration.
The object descriptor database is built only once for each
considered number of views, and view indices for building
the object descriptor database are selected randomly (e.g. for
5 views they are 17, 12, 14, 19, and 2).
Results are summarized in Table II. We see that for 3 and 5
views the results are worse than when 20-view descriptors are
used in the object descriptor database, while for 8 and 15 views
the results are quite similar. Adequate accuracy is obtained if
the object descriptor database is built using a sufficient number
of views that need not necessarily include all view angles.
This finding means that TESFs could be useful in scenarios
where learning, i.e. building the object descriptor database, is
conducted on the robot. Assume a robot equipped with some
kind of grasper, for instance a humanoid robot with arms. If
the robot is holding an object in its hand, it cannot see it from
all sides without moving it to the other hand and manipulating
it. However, by simply rotating its hand to obtain more views
of the object, it could learn the object well enough to be able
to classify similar objects later.
CCVW 2014
Image and Video Analysis
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
V. C ONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK
We have shown that TESF descriptors retain a lot of
descriptivity when built using only a few views, and offer
performance increases over simple matching of ESF descriptors. Our method can effectively combine any number of
views into a single descriptor, and the more surface of the
object is covered with the views, the better TESF performs.
TESF descriptors can be compared to one another in a 1NN classification setting even if they were built using varying
number of views. This makes them especially interesting in
robotic applications, where the robot sees an object of interest
from a number of views t1 , but stores representations of similar
objects built using t2 views, where in general t1 6= t2 . Further
analysis should be performed regarding the usability of TESF
descriptors in the worst case scenario, where the robot sees
an object from a limited viewpoint, i.e. from a series of very
close views.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This research has been supported by the research project
Research Centre for Advanced Cooperative Systems (EU FP7
#285939).
R EFERENCES
[1] K. Brkić, A. Aldomá, M. Vincze, S. Šegvić, and Z. Kalafatić, “Temporal
Ensemble of Shape Functions,” in Eurographics Workshop on 3D Object
Retrieval, (Strasbourg, France), pp. 53–60, Eurographics Association,
2014.
[2] W. Wohlkinger and M. Vincze, “Ensemble of Shape Functions for 3D
Object Classification,” in IEEE International Conference on Robotics
and Biomimetics (IEEE-ROBIO), 2011.
[3] M. Kazhdan, T. Funkhouser, and S. Rusinkiewicz, “Rotation invariant
spherical harmonic representation of 3D shape descriptors,” in Symposium on Geometry Processing, 2003.
[4] W. Wohlkinger, A. Aldoma, R. B. Rusu, and M. Vincze, “3DNet: Largescale object class recognition from CAD models,” in Robotics and
Automation (ICRA), 2012 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 5384–
5391, IEEE, 2012.
[5] M. Tenorth, S. Profanter, F. Balint-Benczedi, and M. Beetz, “Decomposing CAD models of objects of daily use and reasoning about their
functional parts,” in In IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent
Robots and Systems (IROS), 2013.
[6] R. Ohbuchi and T. Furuya, “Scale-weighted dense bag of visual features
for 3D model retrieval from a partial view 3D model,” in Computer
Vision Workshops (ICCV Workshops), 2009 IEEE 12th International
Conference on, pp. 63–70, Sept 2009.
[7] P. Daras and A. Axenopoulos, “A 3D shape retrieval framework supporting multimodal queries,” Int. J. Comput. Vision, vol. 89, pp. 229–247,
Sept. 2010.
[8] J. W. Tangelder and R. C. Veltkamp, “A survey of content based 3D
shape retrieval methods,” Multimedia Tools Appl., vol. 39, pp. 441–471,
Sept. 2008.
[9] Q. Liu, “A survey of recent view-based 3D model retrieval methods,”
CoRR, vol. abs/1208.3670, 2012.
[10] K. Brkić, A. Pinz, S. Šegvić, and Z. Kalafatić, “Histogram-based
description of local space-time appearance,” in Proceedings of the 17th
Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis, SCIA’11, pp. 206–217,
2011.
[11] R. Osada, T. Funkhouser, B. Chazelle, and D. Dobkin, “Shape distributions,” ACM Trans. Graph., vol. 21, pp. 807–832, Oct. 2002.
[12] T. Cover and P. Hart, “Nearest neighbor pattern classification,” Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 13, pp. 21–27, January 1967.
[13] R. B. Rusu and S. Cousins, “3D is here: Point Cloud Library (PCL),”
in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA),
(Shanghai, China), May 9-13 2011.
[14] C. Fellbaum, ed., WordNet: an electronic lexical database. MIT Press,
1998.
49
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
Experimental Evaluation of Multiplicative Kernel
SVM Classifiers for Multi-Class Detection
Valentina Zadrija
Siniša Šegvić
Mireo d.d.
Zagreb, Croatia
Email: [email protected]
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing
University of Zagreb
Zagreb, Croatia
Email: [email protected]
Abstract—We consider the multi-class object detection approach based on a non-parametric multiplicative kernel, which
provides both separation against backgrounds and feature sharing among foreground classes. The training is carried out through
the SVM framework. According to the obtained support vectors,
a set of linear detectors is constructed by plugging the foreground training samples into the multiplicative kernel. However,
evaluating the complete set would be inefficient at runtime,
which means that the number of detectors has to be reduced
somehow. We propose to reduce that number in a novel way,
by an appropriate detector selection procedure. The proposed
detection approach has been evaluated on the Belgian traffic sign
dataset. The experiments show that detector selection succeeds
to reduce the number of detectors to the half of the number
of object classes. We compare the obtained performance to the
results of other detection approaches and discuss the properties
of our approach.
I.
I NTRODUCTION
A long-standing goal of computer vision has been to design
a system capable of detecting various classes of objects in
cluttered scenes. Traditionally, this task has been solved by
building a dedicated detector for each class. This approach
requires a significant number of examples per each class, which
may not be available. In order to overcome the problem, additional partitioning into subclasses can be performed. However,
the problem is that domain-based partitioning may not be
optimal for the task. In case of multi-view object detection,
it can also be time consuming and error prone. Therefore, it
would be desirable to omit the manual partitioning stage and
embed the process into the classifier itself.
Another interesting idea is to train a single classification
function for all classes jointly. This approach may exploit
feature sharing among classes in order to improve classification
against backgrounds. The feature sharing offers great potential
for: (i) improving the detection rate for classes with a low number of examples, and (ii) reducing the runtime computational
complexity.
In this paper, we train a joint classification function with
the multiplicative kernel as presented in [1]. However, in
contrast to [1], where the authors aim to solve the detection and
recognition problems at the same time, we focus on the task
of detection. Once the object locations are known, object class
can be determined for those locations only, thus alleviating the
runtime complexity.
Multi-class detection and feature sharing is achieved by
means of a non-parametric multiplicative kernel. The approach
CCVW 2014
Image and Video Analysis
avoids the partitioning into subclasses by using the foreground
training samples as class membership labels. More details are
given in section III. After the training, we construct a set of
linear detectors as described in section III-A. According to
[1], each detector corresponds to a single foreground training
sample, which makes a detector set extremely large and
inefficient for the detection task. The contributions of our work
are as follows: (i) we propose an efficient detector selection
in order to identify a representative set of detectors out of the
large initial pool as described in section III-B, (ii) we show
the properties of the multiplicative kernel method and compare
the results with other methods on a Belgian traffic sign dataset
(BTSD) [2] as described in section IV.
II.
R ELATED W ORK
In recent years, a lot of work has been proposed in the area
of multi-class object detection. However, the work presented
in [3] achieved a significant breakthrough in the area. The
authors consider multiple overlapping subsets of classes. The
experiments have shown that a jointly trained classification
function requires a significantly smaller number of features
in order to achieve the same performance as independent
detectors. More specifically, the number of features grows
logarithmically with respect to the number of subclasses.
The approach presented in [4] employs a tree-based classifier structure called Cluster Boosted Tree (CBT) in order to
solve the multiview detection problem. The tree structure is
constructed automatically according to the weak learners selected by the boosting algorithm. The node splits are achieved
by means of unsupervised clustering. Therefore, in contrast to
[3], this approach does not require manual partitioning into
classes, but it implies the hierarchical feature sharing.
The authors in [5] consider a classifier structure comprised
out of several boosted classifiers. This approach also avoids
manual partitioning into classes, but the classifiers do not
share weak learners. Initially, the training data is partitioned
randomly into subsets. At each round of training, the sample
is (re)assigned to the subset corresponding to the classifier
that has the highest probability of classifying that sample. The
resulting classifiers are further transformed into decision trees,
which reduce the average number of weak learner evaluations
during classification.
The concept of feature sharing is also explored through
shape-based hierarchical compositional models [6], [7]. Different object categories can share parts or an appearance. The
50
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
(x,xi)
( , )
( ,. )
..
( , )
( , )
( ., )
..
( , )
Fig. 1.
1. SVM bootstrap
training
(xs1, xs2)
( ,. )
..
( , )
( , )
Shared support
vectors S
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
2. Detector construction
w( )
w( )
.
.
.
.
w( )
NF detectors
3. Detector selection
XFS=(
, ,..,
,
)
w( )
w(. )
.
w( )
N detectors
An Overview of the multiplicative kernel detection pipeline. Note that we use HOG vectors instead of image patches.
parts on lower hierarchy levels are combined into larger parts
on higher levels. In general, parts on lower levels are shared
amongst various object categories, while those in higher levels
are more specific in category.
In the more recent work [8], the authors employ Hough
forest for multi-class detection. In contrast to the above methods, this approach uses the implicit shape model for detection
rather than sliding window. The key feature of this approach
is the separation between feature appearance and location. The
appearance-based features are shared across classes providing
a generalization against backgrounds. However, in order to
become discriminative for individual classes, location needs to
be fixed. Due to the feature sharing, the number of necessary
votes grows sub-linearly with respect to the number of classes.
III.
M ETHODOLOGY
We employ a non-parametric detection approach proposed
in [1] as shown in steps one and two of Fig. 1. In the step
three, we introduce a novel detector selection algorithm. The
approach avoids the traditional partitioning of foreground object classes into subclasses. We treat the multi-class detection
as a binary problem considering all foreground classes as a
single class. Therefore, this method is also applicable in cases
where the labels for foreground classes are not available. We
obtain the required functionality by organizing the training
samples into pairs (x, xi ) as shown in Fig. 1. The first
element corresponds to the HOG vector of either foreground or
background image patch. The second element xi corresponds
to the HOG vector of the foreground image patch, i ∈ {1..NF},
where NF denotes the number of foreground training samples.
The purpose of xi is to denote the membership to foreground
classes. The idea behind this concept is that the descriptors
belonging to the same foreground class or subclass share
certain amount of similarity. However, rather than defining the
partitioning by ourselves, we let the classification function to
do that job. In this way, the foreground training pairs are actually duplicated foreground HOG descriptors. However, each
background sample x can be associated with any foreground
sample in order to form a valid negative pair. A total number
of negative pairs is therefore huge and corresponds to NF · NB,
where NB denotes the number of background samples x.
The classification function C(x, xi ) is therefore trained
jointly for all classes and provides a following decision:
> 0, x is a sign from the same class as xi
C(x, xi )
(1)
≤ 0, otherwise
CCVW 2014
Image and Video Analysis
In order to provide the above functionality, the function
C(x, xi ) is defined as follows:
X
C(x, xi ) =
αs · ki (xs2 , xi ) · kx (xs1 , x) (2)
(xs1 ,xs2 )∈S
The pair xs = (xs1 , xs2 ) denotes a support vector, where
xs1 corresponds to the HOG descriptor of either foreground or
background sample, while xs2 denotes the assigned foreground
training sample. Further, αs denotes the Lagrange multiplier
assigned to the support vector. The term ki (xs2 , xi ) denotes
the between-foreground kernel. The purpose of this kernel is
two-fold. Firstly, it is used to measure the similarity between
foreground classes, thus enabling the feature sharing. Secondly,
this kernel is also responsible for the foreground partitioning,
i.e. it produces higher values for the similar pairs of foreground
training samples. The kx (xs1 , x) term denotes the foregroundbackground kernel used for separation against backgrounds.
The classification function training can be achieved through
the SVM framework. Due to the memory constraints, we
cannot include all NF · NB negative pairs in the SVM training
at once. Therefore, similar to [1] and [9], we also perform
bootstrap training in order to identify the hard negatives.
Initially, NB negative pairs are chosen randomly and SVM
optimisation is performed. The obtained model is evaluated for
all negative pairs and false positives are added to the negative
sample set. The process converges when there are no more
false positives to add.
A. Detector Construction
The individual detectors w(x, xi ) are constructed from the
support vectors S by plugging the specific foreground sample
values xi into (2). With the known value of a parameter xi , the
value of between-foreground kernel can be precomputed. We
have chosen the non-linear Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernel
for ki . On the other hand, the foreground-background kernel
kx is evaluated at detection time, so it should be efficiently
computed. Therefore, we have chosen the linear kernel kx =
xT · x for that purpose. According to the chosen kernels, we
obtain the following detector w(x, xi ) = w(i) · x, where w(i)
denotes the vector of linear classifier weights:
X
w(i) =
αs · RBF (xs2 , xi ) · xTs1
(3)
(xs1 ,xs2 )∈S
The feature sharing is achieved through support vectors S. The
obtained number of the detectors corresponds to the number of
51
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
Given
1: Foreground samples XF S = {xj }, j ∈ {1 . . . NS}
2: Detectors W = {w(i)}, i ∈ {1 . . . NF}
Initialize
3: Evaluate W on XF S : to each example xj , assign a set of
detectors E(xj ) which detect that example
T RAVERSE(XF S , W ):
4: Find the example xm with the maximum nr. of detectors
5: repeat
6:
Find the detector w(r) ∈ E(xm ) with the minimum
nr. of detections
7:
while
8:
if removing w(r) doesn’t result with false negatives
9:
Remove w(r) from W , break
10:
else
11:
Find the next detector w(r) ∈ E(xm ) with with
minimum nr. of detections
12:
if w(r) is not found
13:
Proceed to the next example xm with maximum
nr. of detectors
14:
else
15:
Find the example xm with the maximum nr. of
detectors
16: until all examples are traversed
17: return selected set of detectors W
Fig. 2.
Detector selection algorithm.
foreground training samples NF. Evaluating all the detectors at
runtime is related to the k-nearest neighbours (k-NN) method
[10], with a parameter k = 1, i.e. the object is simply assigned
to the class of the single nearest neighbour selected among
all detectors. This approach would result in extremely slow
detection. Therefore, the number of detectors needs to be
reduced somehow. The authors in [1] propose clustering. On
the other hand, we argue that the selection algorithm presented
in the next section is a better approach.
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
Fig. 3. Visualisation of the support vectors for the multiplicative kernel [12].
IV.
C ASE S TUDY
As a case study, we apply the described methodology for
traffic sign detection. Traffic signs have been chosen because
they are characterized by a very large variation with respect to
the sign shape and the type of the ideogram. We use a subset of
the BTSD [2] containing 19 different classes shown in Fig. 4,
Fig. 5 and Fig. 7. The selected classes capture a representative
subset of traffic signs: triangular with a red rim, circular with
a red rim and white or blue interior as well as the rectangular
blue signs.
A. Implementation Details
There are 1024 sign images used for training and 393
sign images used for detector selection. There are also 11200
background training patches extracted from 16000 background
images. The HOG vectors [11], computed from training images, are cropped to 24 × 24 pixels. We use 10-fold stratified
cross-validation to determine the model parameters.
The test dataset contains 1027 images in 1628 × 1235
resolution. There are approximately 3 images per a single
physical traffic sign. The training and test datasets are disjoint.
We use the sliding window approach and scan the image using
the 1.05 scale step. We also consider 5 aspect ratios, i.e. from
ratio 1 to 3 with the step of 0.4 (height/width). We set the
scale space search range from 24 × 24 to 330 × 435 pixels.
B. Results
B. Detector Selection
We apply detector selection according to the pseudo-code
outlined in Fig. 2. The goal is to remove detectors which do not
contribute to the overall detection score. The resulting set of
detectors obtains the same recall as the original set of detectors
on the selection samples. The set of samples XF S is comprised
out of foreground HOG vectors as shown in step three of Fig.
1. Note that selection and training datasets are disjoint. We
traverse the selection examples according to the number of
detectors which detect particular example. In each round, we
consider the example with the maximum number of detectors
(line 4). The algorithm is greedy, i.e. among the detectors that
detect that example, we select the detector with the lowest
number of detections (line 6) as a candidate for removal. The
condition in line 8 ensures that the recall remains unchanged
by removing the detector. There is a possibility, that removing
every detector from the E(xm ) would result in a false negative
(line 12). In that case we proceed to the next example with
the lowest number of detectors (line 13). Due to the fact that
the algorithm is greedy, it may get stuck in a local optimum.
However, as the experiments in section IV show, it achieves a
very high performance rate.
CCVW 2014
Image and Video Analysis
All experiments are performed on a 3.4 GHz Intel Core i73770 CPU. We perform the bounding box evaluation according
to the scheme laid out in PASCAL object detection challenges
[13]. In order to evaluate performance, we use the area
under the precision-recall curve (AuPR) and area under the
receiver operating characteristics curve (AuROC). As indicated
in [14], the AuPR metric gives a more informative picture of a
method’s performance for highly skewed datasets. The sliding
window approach employed in this work generates a large
number of background candidate windows and only a small
number of windows containing a foreground object. Therefore,
the AuPR measure would seem to be the most relevant choice
for the metric. However, as the results in the section IV-B1
show, an algorithm that optimizes the AuPR is not guaranteed
to optimize the AuROC measure. More specifically, the method
with the maximum AuPR may not be the optimal choice
because of the very poor recall (detection rate). In addition,
we also report the detection rate and false positive rate per
image (FP/img). The rest of the section is organized as follows.
We discuss the multiplicative kernel results in section IV-B1.
Further, we compare these results with other approaches in
section IV-B2.
52
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
4
3
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
3
3
3
#FN = 20
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
#FN=62
33
1
11
5
3
3
3
2
1
1
(a) Distribution of selected detectors (b) Distribution of detectors for (c) Distribution of false negatives for Mult. (d) Distribution of false negatives for Mult.
for Mult. Selected
Mult. Clustered
Selected
Clustered
Fig. 4.
A comparison of detector selection (Mult. Selected) and clustering (Mult. Clustered) for multiplicative kernel.
(a) Speed bump
(b) Right of the way at the next crossroads
(c) No parking allowed
(d) No parking from the 1st to the 15th
of the month
Fig. 5. Example of detections for traffic signs without an assigned detector for Mult. Selected method. All instances of these signs are detected in test images.
1) Multiplicative Kernel Results: The SVM training described in section III yields a shared set of support vectors
containing 653 vectors out of which 23% corresponds to
the positive training pairs. Fig. 3 shows the examples of
support vectors obtained from the original image patches
according to the procedure described in [12]. The support
vectors correspond to the image patches containing the traffic
signs captured under difficult conditions, i.e. rotated signs and
hard perspective views. According to the obtained support
vector set, 1024 linear detectors are constructed. The number
of detectors is then reduced using the following methods:
a) Multiplicative Selected: This method employs the
detector selection algorithm as described in section III-B.
b) Multiplicative Clustered: This method employs the
clustering as proposed in [1]. As a clustering method, kmedoids with Euclidean distance is used. The purpose is to
determine if the detector selection is really necessary or the
problem can be solved with clustering.
The results shown in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 point out three
important consequences which indicate that the Multiplicative
Selected outperforms the Multiplicative Clustered approach.
Firstly, the selection approach converges with the number
of detectors (10) which is almost 50% percent smaller than
the number of classes (19). This suggests sub-linear detection
complexity. The target number of cluster centres was then
configured with the same value in order to provide a fair
comparison. The distribution in Fig. 4a points out that the
Parking reserved for disabled people is the most difficult
sign for detection using the Multiplicative Selected approach.
Hence, there are three detectors assigned to detect that sign. In
general, rectangular signs are assigned five detectors, triangular
three and circular only two signs. This would suggest that
circular signs benefit the most from feature sharing. This is
quite different from the detectors obtained by clustering, where
the circular signs exhibit the maximum number of detectors (5)
as shown in Fig. 4b.
CCVW 2014
Image and Video Analysis
Secondly, the selection approach yields a better set of
detectors than the clustering. The false negative distribution
shown in Fig. 4c and Fig. 4d supports that fact. The number
of false negatives obtained by the Multiplicative Clustered
method (62) is 3.1 times larger than the one obtained using
the Multiplicative Selected (20). In addition, despite the fact
that the Speed limit is assigned the maximum number of cluster
centres in Multiplicative Clustered method, this particular sign
exhibits the maximum number of false negatives (33). On
the other hand, selection approach yields only one detector
for the Speed limit class. However, almost all Speed limit
signs are detected as shown on Fig. 4c. This suggests that
the detectors obtained by clustering are not optimal for a
specific class and that the selection is a better option. Further
analysis of the false negatives for the Multiplicative Selected
method shows interesting results. One would expect that most
of false negatives belong to the classes which do not have a
corresponding detector. However, this is not entirely true, i.e.
9 out of 20 false negatives belong to such classes. The signs
with the assigned detector, Parking allowed for all vehicles,
Speed limit and Intersection with priority to the right have the
maximum number of false negatives (3). However, a detailed
analysis shows that these false negatives are a consequence of
difficult conditions, rather than the fact that they are “hard to
detect”. Typical examples include perspective views, worn-out,
occluded or difficult annotations as shown on Fig. 7.
Thirdly, there are 4 classes without an assigned detector
that do not have any false negatives shown in Fig. 5. Note
that Fig. 5b and Fig. 5c also contain detections of other signs.
This shows that the feature sharing improves performance with
respect to the dedicated detector approach.
2) Comparison with Other Approaches: We compare the
performance of the multiplicative kernel with the following
methods. All methods are implemented in C++ using the SVMLight library [15] for the SVM training.
53
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
1.0
1.0
One vs All, AUC = 58.89
SVM Baseline, AUC = 12.50
Mult. Selected, AUC = 27.80
Mult Clustered, AUC = 19.87
Comb. Linear, AUC = 27.11
0.8
True Positive Rate (Recall)
Precision
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.6
0.4
One vs All, AUC = 51.02
SVM Baseline, AUC = 89.94
Mult. Selected, AUC = 86.63
Mult Clustered, AUC = 79.54
Comb. Linear, AUC = 86.54
0.2
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
False Positive Rate
Recall
(a) PR curve
Fig. 6.
0.8
1.0
(b) ROC curve
Comparison with other approaches.
a) One vs All: This configuration includes 19 classspecific linear SVM detectors. Traffic signs are not used as
negatives.
TABLE I.
b) SVM Baseline: This is a baseline jointly-trained
approach. The classification function employs the linear SVM
which treats all traffic sign classes as a single foreground class:
X
C(x) =
αs · xTs · x
(4)
P ERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT DETECTION APPROACHES
Method
N
AuPR
AuROC
Det. rate
FP/img
One vs All
SVM Baseline
Mult. Selected
Mult. Clustered
Comb. Linear
19
1
10
10
1
58.8
12.5
27.8
19.8
27
51
89.9
86.6
79.5
86.5
81.2
97.8
98.2
94.4
96.9
0.9
69.8
15.6
14.5
21.2
xs ∈S
The parameter xs denotes a support vector, which is a HOG
vector of either foreground or background image patch.
c) Combined Linear: This approach is similar to the
multiplicative kernel because it also uses the notion of foreground training samples as class memberships. The classification function employs a single linear kernel with a concatenated vector [x, xi ] as a parameter, where x denotes a feature
vector which we want to classify and xi a foreground training
sample.
X
C(x, xi ) =
αs · [xs1 , xs2 ]T [x, xi ]
(5)
(xs1 ,xs2 )∈S
The parameter xs = (xs1 , xs2 ) denotes a support vector.
This method also produces a set of detectors w(x, xi ), each
corresponding to the specific foreground example xi . Similar
as in section III-A, individual detectors are constructed by
plugging the xi value into (5). We obtain the following
expression for the detector w(x, xi ) = w · x + b(i), where:
X
w=
αs · xTs1
(6)
(xs1 ,xs2 )∈S
b(i) =
X
(xs1 ,xs2 )∈S
αs · xTs2 · xi
(7)
In contrast to (3), where the weight vector depends of the
foreground sample xi , the equation (6) shows that this value
is the constant for all detectors. As a consequence, the detector
with the maximum value b(i) exhibits the same recall value
as the entire set of detectors. Therefore, in order to make
the detection process practical, we use only that detector
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Image and Video Analysis
Fig. 7.
Examples of false negatives for the Multiplicative Selected method.
at runtime. The purpose of this method is to assess if the
multiplicative kernel is really necessary to solve the problem.
Table I and Fig. 6 show the comparison results. For each
method, we report the number of employed SVM linear detectors N. Lower number of detectors enables faster detection.
The results point out four important facts.
Firstly, the individually trained One vs All method produces
the best results in the PR space with respect to the other
jointly trained methods. However, this is not a relevant measure
because this method exhibits the lowest detection rate (81.2%)
and the lowest AuROC value (51). Fig. 6b shows that this
method performs worse than chance for higher FPR values.
This is a result of the fact that certain true positives have lower
detection score than false positives. This proves that feature
sharing increases the performance in the ROC space.
Secondly, among the jointly trained methods, the SVM
Baseline yields the best result in ROC space at the cost of
the worst performance in the PR space (12.5). This method
exhibits almost 70 FP per image. Therefore, it does not produce
a good separation between foregrounds and backgrounds and
it is not applicable for the detection task. Further, all jointly
trained methods exhibit a low AuPR value. One possible
way to improve the performance of these methods would be
54
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
to apply the cascading approach. For example, training the
Multiplicative Selected on hard negatives obtained from the
first stage SVM Baseline classifier would decrease the number
of FP and increase precision.
we propose the cascading approach in order to increase the
precision.
Thirdly, the selection algorithm employed in the Multiplicative Selected outperforms clustering in the Multiplicative
Clustered method [1] in both ROC and PR space for 7% and
8%, respectively.
This work has been supported by research projects Vista
(EuropeAid/131920/M/ACT/HR) and Research Centre for Advanced Cooperative Systems (EU FP7 #285939). The authors
wish to thank Thomas Mensink for useful suggestions regarding the choice of Combined Linear approach for comparison.
Fourthly, the multiplicative kernel employed in the Multiplicative Selected produces marginally better results with
respect to the linear kernel of the Combined Linear in both PR
and ROC space. In addition, the Combined Linear method is
10 times faster than the Multiplicative Selected. However, the
recall of the single detector of the Combined Linear method is
equivalent to the recall of the complete detector set produced
by the equations (6) and (7). On the other hand, the recall of
the Multiplicative Selected could be improved by increasing
the number of detectors produced by the detector selection
procedure. The target number of detectors N could be used as a
stop condition in pseudo-code given in Fig. 2. To conclude, the
Combined Linear yields the acceptable performance in ROC
space at the low detection complexity. This result is somewhat
different than the original hypothesis that multiplicative kernel
is necessary in order to provide both feature sharing between
foregrounds as well as the separation against backgrounds.
V.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
R EFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
C ONCLUSION
We explore the properties of the multiplicative kernel [1]
for multi-class detection. In order to evaluate performance, we
use the Belgian traffic sign dataset [2].
[7]
There are several benefits of the multiplicative kernel
approach. Firstly, the experiments show that feature sharing
increases the AuROC up to 35.6% with respect to the individual
detector approach. This is because the individual detectors require a substantial number of samples per class to achieve good
performance. Secondly, this approach avoids the partitioning
into subclasses by using the foreground training samples as
class membership labels and the multiplicative kernel. As a
consequence, the number of obtained detectors equals to the
number of foreground samples. Thirdly, we use a selection
procedure in order to determine a representative set of detectors
from the large initial detector pool. The experiments show
that our approach converges with the number of detectors
which is half the size of the number of classes. This suggests
sub-linear detection complexity. In addition, detector selection
yields better results than the original clustering approach [1].
[8]
We also discuss the following issues. Firstly, whether the
multiplicative kernel is necessary in order to provide feature
sharing and separation against backgrounds. In contrast to our
initial hypothesis, the multiplicative kernel obtains marginally
better results with respect to the linear kernel based upon the
same concept of foreground samples as class memberships.
This suggests that this task could also be efficiently solved with
the linear kernel approach which is 10 times faster. Secondly,
we are also interested in the method precision. The results
in the PR space show that the multiplicative kernel yields
maximal AuPR of 27.8%, which is half the precision obtained
by the individual detector approach. Therefore, for future work,
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[9]
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M. Mathias, R. Timofte, R. Benenson, and L. J. V. Gool, “Traffic sign
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55
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
Point Cloud Segmentation to Approximately Convex
Surfaces for Fruit Recognition
Robert Cupec, Damir Filko, Ivan Vidović, Emmanuel Karlo Nyarko, Željko Hocenski
Faculty of Electrical Engineering
J. J. Strossmayer University of Osijek
Osijek, Croatia
[email protected]
Abstract—A fruit recognition approach based on segmenting
the point cloud acquired by a 3D camera into approximately
convex surfaces is considered. A segmentation approach which
transforms a depth image into a triangular mesh and then
segments this mesh into approximately convex segments is
applied to depth images of fruits on trees. An analysis of the
results obtained by this approach is performed with the intention
to determine how successful the studied method is in detecting
fruit as separate objects in a point cloud. The reported analysis
gives a valuable insight into the potential applicability of the
tested methodology in the preprocessing stage of a fruit
recognition system as well as its drawbacks.
Keywords—fruit
segmentation
recognition;3D
camera;
convex
sets;
I. INTRODUCTION
The very purpose of robotics and automation is to free the
humans from heavy, tedious and repetitive work. Although
many production tasks which had been done by humans in the
past are today performed by machines, there are many
operations in industrial and agricultural production process
which still require human involvement due to the lack of
suitable technical solutions. Tasks like textile handling, fruit
picking and many assembling tasks, although rather simple for
a human, represent a real challenge for a machine. Solving
such tasks requires highly advanced environment perception
capable of interpreting unstructured scenes and objects of
varying shapes.
In this paper, robotized fruit picking problem is considered.
In order to solve this task, a robot must be capable of
recognizing fruit on trees, usually occluded by leaves and
branches and under different lighting conditions. Unlike office
or household objects which are commonly used as case studies
in object recognition research [28] – [30], the shape, size and
color of fruit varies among samples of the same sort, which
makes their recognition more difficult. A robust and efficient
fruit recognition method should exploit both shape and color
properties of fruit.
The fruit recognition approach studied in this paper relies
on the fact that the shape of many fruit sorts can be
approximated by convex shapes. The proposed approach
consists of segmenting the point cloud acquired by a 3D
camera into approximately convex surfaces and applying an
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Image and Video Analysis
appropriate classifier based on color and shape in order to
distinguish between the fruit and other objects such as leaves
and branches. The focus of this paper is on the segmentation
stage, while the selection of an appropriate classification
method is not covered. The results of the point cloud
segmentation method proposed in [1] are analyzed in order to
assess its applicability in a fruit recognition scheme. In an ideal
case, the applied method should provide such point cloud
segmentation where each fruit is represented by a single
approximately convex surface. In reality, however, due to a
limited sensor accuracy and measurement noise, the points
representing a fruit can be merged with the points of adjacent
leaves or branches into an approximately convex surface which
exceeds the boundaries of the considered fruit. Furthermore,
due to occlusion and gaps in the point cloud caused by light
absorption effects and specular reflection, the set of points
representing a single fruit can be split into two or more
mutually disconnected subsets resulting in oversegmentation.
In order to evaluate the applicability of the investigated
segmentation approach, an experimental analysis is performed
whose goal is to determine the percentage of successful
segmentation results, i.e. the cases where a fruit is represented
by a single segment, as well as the percentage of false
segmentation results, where a single fruit is represented by two
or more segments or included in a segment which extends to
adjacent objects.
The paper is structured as follows. The overview of the
research in the field of fruit recognition is given in Section II.
The segmentation method which is in focus of this paper is
described in Section III. In Section IV, an experimental
analysis of the applicability of the considered segmentation
method for usage in a fruit recognition system is presented.
The discussion of the obtained results and some possible
directions for future research are given in Section V.
II. RELATED RESEARCH
Fruit detection, recognition or localization on trees has been
subject of many scientific papers. Fruit recognition systems are
used for different applications, like automatic harvesting, yield
estimation, phenotyping, breeding, etc. There are many
different approaches to solve the mentioned problems and
some of them are listed below.
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Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
One of the first papers in this field is [2] and it proposes a
method for fruit size and location detection. The method is
based on image color information and thus retraining is
necessary every time when fruit color changes significantly.
The detection accuracy under favorable conditions can reach
up to 75 %. Another color based approach for automatic
recognition of Fuji apple based on red color difference and
finding the maximum between-class variance in histogram is
given in [3]. Unlike [2], the algorithm is not sensitive to
lightening conditions, but because it relies on red color
difference it is limited to Fuji apples or similar color fruit
recognition. The obtained successful recogniton was over 88%,
but average error rate reached up to 18%. Detection of citrus
fruits using fusion of color map and luminance map is
proposed in [4]. The recognition accuracy under different
lightening conditions was up to 86,81% with a false detection
rate of 2,25%. Forward feature selection algorithm (FFSA) for
color feature selection is used in [5]. Different classifiers are
applied on selected features to seperate blueberry fruit from the
background and to classify the detected fruits according to
matureness. A mature citrus recognition method based on
YCbCr color model is proposed in [6]. Using an improved
fuzzy C-means algorithm, morphological operations and
optimized Circular Hough transform (CHT), fruits center and
radius are detected. Algorithm for citrus fruit and obstacles
recognition based on multi-class support vector machine
applied on color features is proposed in [7]. The recognition
rate was 92,4% and branches with diameter larger than 5 pixels
were also detected.
Instead of color features, authors in [8] used fruit shape
prosperities for wine grape berries recognition in controled
environment. After the image preprocessing, CHT is applied
for berries detection. Wine grape berries sizes estimation is
discussed in [9]. First berries are detected using CHT, then
histogram of oriented gradients (HoG) and gist features are
extracted followed by application of conditional random field
for classifying circles as berry and non-berry. Experiments
showed on average 1 mm difference of estimated size
compared to manual measurement. The authors also mentioned
possible usage of depth image to precisely determine berries
size. Immature citrus recognition and counting based on shape
analysis and texture classification is proposed in [10]. Shape
analysis based on CHT is used to detect circles while texture
classification is used for false positives removal. Algorithms
used for texture analysis are: support vector machine (SVM),
Canny edge detection combined with a graph-based connected
component algorithm, Hough line detection and scale invariant
feature points (SIFT) algorithm. The method is tested on
images captured in natural outdoor conditions and recognition
and counting rate was 80,4%.
In [11] a method for recognizing and counting peppers in
cluttered greenhouse is presented. The proposed method is a
two-step approach based on detecting peppers from multiple
views and applying a statistical method for combining the
detection results. Experiments are performed on 28 000 images
and 74,2% accuracy of detection is achieved. A new method
for grapevine berries size and weight determination and it's
extension to detection of other fruits is proposed in [12]. The
first step of the proposed method is peduncle detection and it is
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September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
based on a novel signature of the contour. The reported
experiments show that the grapevine berry weight and size can
be correctly estimated with correlation coeficient R2 > 0,96 and
R2 > 0,97 respectively. For other fruits, estimation of the size is
also accurate with R2 > 0,93. A vision system for automatic
apple harvesting is proposed in [13]. The method consists of
four steps: preprocessing by vector median filter, image
segmentation by seeded region growing method using color
features, color and shape feature extraction and fruit detection
using SVM. In the reported experiments 89% of apples were
successfully detected. The idea of applying convexity analysis
in fruit detection is used in [14], where intensity model is
created from 2D image and a convexity test is applied to that
model in order to detect apples on trees. The proposed method
detected 94% of visible apples, while 14% of the identified
objects were false positives.
Apple fruit counting and diameter estimation using thermal
image is proposed in [15]. The captured image is transformed
using normal difference index (NDI) and after that
morphological operations, feature extraction, particle selection
and classifier evaluation are applied. The correlation
coefficient with manual measuring was 0,88 and 0,70 for apple
counting and diameter estimation respectively. A drawback of
the method is recognizing the fruits growing deep in the treecrown and the authors sugest usage of some shape detection
algorithm for the mentioned problem. Fusion of vision and
thermal images for oranges detection is proposed in [16]. After
image registration, Laplacian pyramid transform (LPT) and
fuzzy logic are used for image fusion. It is shown that fuzzy
logic performs better and that image fusion improves fruit
detection when visible image was over-exposed or the fruit was
warmer.
In addition to the approaches mentioned so far which are
based on 2D images, many methods which use stereo vision
and 3D sensors are also proposed. In [17] stereo vision is used
for apple and pear detection and automatic harvesting.
Detection is based on a color intensity threshold and Linear
Color Models (LCM). The method is tested only in controlled
laboratory conditions. To overcome problems with uneven
illumination, partly occluded surfaces and similar background
features, the authors in [18] used a combination of the object’s
color, texture and 3D shape properties. Recognition of
clustered tomatoes using binocular stereovision is proposed in
[19]. The method is based on depth map filtering, Otsu
thresholding and edge curvature analysis. The recognition
accuracy of the clustered tomatoes was 87,9% when the leaf or
branch occlusion rate was less than 25%. Localization of
oranges for automatic harvesting is proposed in [20].
Harvesting is based on matching of oranges detected in stereo
images acquired from two robot arms and on applying double
traveling salesman problem (DTSP) for arm path computation.
A laser based computer vision system for automatic orange
harvesting is proposed in [21]. Both range and reflectance
information is used to generate four characteristic primitives:
contour pixels, crown pixels, convex regions and reflectivitybased regions. The generated primitives are used for spherical
object recognition and localization. The main drawback of the
proposed method is the image acquisition time which is 25
seconds for a 160 x 160 image. Another laser based approach is
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Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
proposed in [22]. The applied sensor is equipped with red and
infrared laser diodes and both beams scan an object
simultaneously. Cherries are detected using the difference in
the spectral reflection characteristics between the laser beams.
Good surveys on computer vision methods and algorithms
used in automation of fruit production process can be found in
[23] – [26].
Analogously to the research presented in [14], the approach
proposed in this paper relies on the convexity property of the
fruit. However, instead of analyzing intensity profiles between
two edge points in order to detect convex surfaces in 2D image,
we use a 3D camera and detect convex surfaces in the obtained
point clouds. We believe that by application of a 3D camera a
more robust performance can be achieved, because the
detection of convex surfaces in point clouds acquired by such
cameras is less dependent on illumination conditions.
(a)
In comparison to the work presented in [21], where laser
sensors are applied to detect geometric structures in the scene,
we investigate the application of a low-cost 3D camera which
acquires point clouds with a frame rate of 30 fps. Thereby, a
much faster detection of convex structures is achieved. On the
other hand, the sensor used in the experiments presented in this
paper provides less accurate measurements then the equipment
applied in [21] and we want to determine how useful the
measurements obtained by such sensor are in the context of
fruit recognition.
(b)
(c)
III. SEGMENTATION OF 3D POINT CLOUDS INTO
APPROXIMATELY CONVEX SURFACES
A point cloud obtained by a 3D camera such as Kinect or
PrimeSense sensor represents a set of 3D points lying on the
scene surfaces visible from a particular viewpoint. Each of
these points is the closest point to the camera in a particular
direction, i.e. there are no solid non-transparent objects
between a point in a considered point cloud and the camera.
Hence, each point in the point cloud projects onto the different
point on the camera image plane. Such a point cloud can
therefore be regarded as a depth image, i.e. an image where
each pixel is assigned its distance from the camera. An
example of an RGB image and the corresponding depth image
is shown in Fig. 1. (a) and (b) respectively. The depth image is
presented in grayscale, where the pixel intensity is proportional
to the depth except in the case of black color which represents
the pixels which are not assigned a depth value.
The efficient point cloud segmentation into approximately
convex surfaces proposed in [1] requires a preprocessing step
in which a triangular mesh is built from the point cloud. A
triangular mesh is a representation of a point cloud by a set of
triangles such that for each point in the point cloud there is a
triangle whose distance to this point is less than a predefined
threshold value. By representing a point cloud with a triangular
mesh a reduction of data is achieved since a triangle defined by
three points usually represents a set of many points of the point
cloud. This data reduction results in computation time saving.
It is especially efficient for scenes dominated by low curvature
surfaces, e.g. indoor scenes with large planar surfaces. To
generate a triangular mesh from a point cloud we use the
algorithm based on recursive triangulation refinement resulting
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Image and Video Analysis
(d)
(e)
Fig. 1. (a) Sample RGB image; (b) corresponding depth image; (c) triangular
mesh; (d), (e) triangular mesh with the RGB image projected onto it presented
in two different views.
in a Delaunay triangulation proposed in [27]. After the
triangulation is completed, each triangle for which the angle
between its normal and the optical ray corresponding to one of
its vertices is greater than 73° is rejected from the mesh
because such triangles mostly represent depth discontinuities
rather than an object surface. Furthermore, all triangles with
less than 50% supporting image points not assigned depth are
also rejected from the mesh, because they mostly represent
artefacts bridging gaps in the depth map rather than true
surfaces present in the scene. The triangular mesh created from
the depth image shown in Fig. 1. (b) is presented in Fig. 1. (c).
The obtained 3D model of the scene is visualized in Fig. 1. (d)
and (e) by projecting the RGB image shown in Fig. 1. (b) onto
the triangular mesh shown in Fig. 1. (c).
The triangular mesh is then segmented into approximately
convex surfaces. A method which builds a hierarchical convex
approximation of 3D shapes given a tetrahedral mesh is
proposed in [31]. Since a software implementation of that
method is not publically available, it is hard to assess its
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Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
computational efficiency. Nevertheless, from the data provided
in [31], we estimated that the method proposed in [1] is faster,
hence we used this method.
The procedure for segmentation of a triangular mesh
applied in [1] is described in the following. First, the largest
triangle is selected. This triangle represents the initial singletriangle set which is expanded by an iterative region growing
procedure. In each iteration, a triangle adjacent to one of the
triangles in the expanding set is added to this set, while
preserving the property of the set that the distance of every
triangle in the set from the convex hull of the set is below a
predefined threshold. The region growing procedure stops,
when no additional triangle can be appended to the considered
set without losing the aforementioned approximate convexity
property. After one segment is completed, the algorithm
continues applying the same procedure to the remaining
triangles which are not assigned to any segment. The described
segmentation approach is presented as Algorithm 1 given in the
following.
Algorithm 1: Point Cloud Segmentation into Approximately
Convex Surfaces
Input: Depth image, 
Output: Set of segments 
1
Create triangular mesh A from the input depth image
using the recursive triangulation refinement method
proposed in [27].
2
A' ← A.
3
Repeat
4
F ← triangle from A' with the greatest area.
5
Remove F from A'.
6
M ← {F}.
7
← set of all edges of F.
8
Repeat
9
E← edge from  for which the angle between the
normals of the triangles sharing that edge is the
smallest.
10
Remove E from  .
11
F' ← triangle from A' which is not in M and one
of its edges is E.
12
If F' is adjacent triangle to two or three triangles
from M then
13
Add F' to M.
14
else
15
M' ← M  {F'}.
16
Compute convex hull HM' of M'.
17
If the distance between M' and HM' is not
greater than  then M ← M'.
18
end if
19
If F' is added to M then
20
Remove F' from A'.
21
Add all edges of F' which are on the boundary
of M to .
22
end if
23
until  is empty
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September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
24
25
26
Add M to 
until A' is empty
Return 
A detailed explanation of how to compute the convex hull
in line 16 and how the distance between a segment and its
convex hull in line 17 is defined is given in [1]. The output of
the presented algorithm is the set  of segments representing
approximately convex surfaces. How close a surface must be
to its convex hull in order to be considered approximately
convex is specified by a user defined parameter . An example
of segmentation to approximately convex surfaces is shown in
Fig. 2, where segments obtained by applying the described
method to the triangular mesh shown in Fig. 1. (c) are
displayed.
IV. EXPERIMENT
In this section an analysis of the results obtained by
applying the segmentation algorithm proposed in [1] to RGB-D
images of fruit on trees is presented. Several sequences of
RGB-D images were taken in an orchard by a hand held
PrimeSense Carmine 1.09 short range sensor operating in
100m-mode. The image resolution was 320 × 240. From
these sequences four sets of images were selected, each set
containing images of one of the following fruit sorts: plum,
nectarine, pear and tomato. One of the criteria for image
selection was that the images had been taken while the camera
was steady or moving very slowly in order to avoid motion
blur or misalignment of depth and RGB image. The other
criterion was that the fruit in the image is not deep in a shadow
so that it can be unambiguously distinguished by visual
inspection. Although the evaluated method uses only depth
images, RGB images are used for visual inspection of the
results by a human evaluator and therefore, clear visibility of
the fruit in the image is very important in order for the
evaluator to be able to correctly categorize the results obtained
by the evaluated approach.
The investigated segmentation approach described in
Section III was applied to the four sets of acquired RGB-D
Fig. 2. Segmentation of the triangular mesh shown in Fig. 1. (c) into
approximately convex surfaces. Each segment is displayed in a different color.
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Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
images. Since the precision of the applied sensor degrades with
the distance, the tested algorithm was configured to consider
only the points of the acquired point clouds within the distance
of 0.6 m from the camera. Hence, in the following, the term
point cloud refers to this close subset of an original point cloud.
The threshold for generating triangular meshes from the depth
images was set to 2 mm, which means that the maximum
distance between any point in the point cloud and the closest
triangle of the mesh in the direction of the camera optical axis
is 2 mm at most. The segmentation threshold  explained in
Section III was set to 5 mm.
The obtained segmentation results were visually inspected
by human evaluators which categorized all segments
representing fruits into three categories:
C1: the fruit is represented by a single segment where the
boundary of this segment is very close to the fruit
boundary;
C2: the fruit is represented by two or more segments,
where the convex hull of these segments is very close
to the fruit boundary;
C3: the fruit is represented by a segment whose boundary
extends over a significant portions of adjacent objects.
The results of this analysis are presented in TABLE I.
Examples of three considered segmentation categories of
possible segmentation result are shown in Fig. 3. For
illustrative purposes, one segment is manually selected
between all segments obtained by the evaluated approach in
each example. In the top row a correct segmentation is shown.
It can be seen in the 3D display (right) that although two pears
are positioned very close to one another, the tested
segmentation algorithm separated them into two segment
according to their approximately convex shape. The middle
row of Fig. 3. is an example of oversegmentation, where the
visible surface of the tomato is represented by two segments
because of a concavity appearing on the top of the fruit. An
example of false segmentation, where a fruit is merged together
with adjacent leafs into one segment, is shown in the bottom
row of Fig. 3. In this example, the plum is positioned among
leafs in such a way that its surface aligns with their surfaces
forming an approximately convex surface.
The average execution time on a standard PC with an Intel
Core i5-3230M CPU at 2.6GHz measured over a sequence of
1433 images was 0.114 s.
From the presented analysis it can be concluded that there
are a high percentage of samples where fruits are merged with
adjacent leaves or branches (C3). Such merging occurs e.g. in
the case where a leaf covers a fruit tightly so that the union of
the point sets representing the fruit and the leaf is an
approximately convex surface. This indicates that additional
cues such as color and shape constraints must be used in order
to achieve reliable segmentation. Furthermore, a significant
percentage of fruit samples are oversegmented (C2). This can
be caused by small concavities in the fruit shape or sensor
noise. These effects could be reduced by increasing the
segmentation threshold . This would, however, increase the
percentage of undersegmentation (C3). The applied
CCVW 2014
Image and Video Analysis
Fig. 3. Sample results of segmentation to approximately convex surfaces.
Segments representing fruits are outlined by yellow contours in RGB images
(left) and displayed by red color (right). Examples of a correct segmentation
(top), oversegmentation (middle) and merging of fruit with adjacent objects
(bottom) are presented. Notice that the tomato in the middle row is
represented by two segments denoted by segment 1 and segment 2.
segmentation method is very sensitive to the choice of the
parameter  and, therefore, its value should be adjusted by an
optimization procedure, which is not considered in this paper.
V. CONCLUSION
The purpose of the research reported in this paper was to
determine whether the segmentation of point clouds acquired
by a 3D camera into approximately convex surfaces has a
potential to be used as a preprocessing step of a fruit
recognition system as well as to identify its drawbacks. The
obtained experimental results demonstrate that a relatively high
percentage of fruit in a close range of 0.6 m from the camera
can be detected by the studied method as separate segments.
However, oversegmentation as well as merging with adjacent
leaves or branches also appears very frequently. In order to
cope with the oversegmentation problem a higher-level
TABLE I.
SEGMENTATION RESULTS
Result Category
Fruit sort
#images
#fruits
C1 (%)
C2 (%)
C3 (%)
plum
99
653
76.6
4.0
19.5
nectarine
50
147
66.7
11.6
21.8
pear
61
407
71.7
7.9
20.4
tomato
38
96
59.4
9.4
31.3
60
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
algorithm which would group adjacent segments according to
their color and shape features can be applied. Furthermore, the
undersegmentation could be reduced by introducing a color cue
in the segmentation framework. Parameterized shape models of
particular fruit sorts can be used for grouping of adjacent
segments as well as for splitting the segments resulting from
false merging of fruits with adjacent objects.
The investigation reported in this paper can be considered
as a preliminary research in the development of a fruit
recognition system which uses an RGB-D camera as the sensor
and performs segmentation of the acquired point cloud into
primitives before applying a suitable classifier. A more
accurate evaluation of this approach can be made by testing it
in combination with state-of-the-art classifiers.
September 16, 2014, Zagreb, Croatia
[14]
[15]
[16]
[17]
[18]
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61
Author Index
A
Ahlberg, J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Aldoma, A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
B
Brkić, K. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 9, 44
C
Cupec, R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Hrkać, T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Hrvatinić, K. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Markuš, N. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Miklić, D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
I
Ivanjko, E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
N
Nyarko, E. K. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
J
Jurić, D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
P
Pandžić, I. S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Petric, F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
K
...
...
...
...
S
Šegvić, S. . . . . . . . . . . . 3, 9, 15, 44, 50
Sikirić, I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
F
Filko, D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Forchheimer, R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Frljak, M. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Kalafatić, Z.
Kovačić, K. .
Kovačić, Z. .
Krapac, J. .
G
Gold, H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
L
Lipovac, I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Lončarić, S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
V
Vidović, I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Vincze, M. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Vukotić, V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
M
Malovan, L. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Z
Zadrija, V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
H
Hocenski, Ž. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Horvatin, I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop, Year 2
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62
Proceedings of the Croatian Computer Vision Workshop
CCVW 2014, Year 2
Publisher: University of Zagreb Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Unska 3, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
ISSN 1849-1227
http://www.fer.unizg.hr/crv/proceedings
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