Encore SIM EDITOR SOFTWARE User guide

Encore SIM EDITOR SOFTWARE User guide
VirSim User Guide
Version 4.3
About this Manual
Contents
Chapter 1 — VirSim Overview
Chapter 2 — Starting VirSim
Chapter 3 — Hierarchy Browser
Chapter 4 — Waveform Window
Chapter 5 — Source Window
Chapter 6 — Logic Browser
Chapter 7 — Register Window
Chapter 8 — Interactive Window
Chapter 9 — Project Window
Chapter 10 — Time Units
Chapter 11 — Radices
Chapter 12 — Event Origin
Chapter 13 — Building Buses
Chapter 14 — Markers
Chapter 15 — Expressions
Chapter 16 — VirSim Setup
Chapter 17 — VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
Chapter 18 — Translating VCD and VCD+
Chapter 19 — Viewing OpenVera Assertions
Appendix — Waveform Defaults
Index
VirSim
User Guide
Version 4.3-2003.01, January 2003
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Document Order Number: 37568-000 PA
VirSim User Guide, v4.3-2003.01
iv
Contents
1. VirSim Overview
Operation Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-2
Post Simulation Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-2
Interactive Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-3
Advantages of VirSim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-3
Key Terms and Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-5
VirSim Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-7
Interactive Window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-8
Hierarchy Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1-9
Waveform Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11
Register Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12
Source Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Logic Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
Project Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
VirSim Navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16
Using Mouse Buttons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16
Selecting Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18
v
Drag-and-drop Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19
Linking Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-21
Accelerator Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-23
2. Starting VirSim
VCS VirSim GUI Startup Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-2
Opening VirSim in Interactive Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-2
Creating Value Change Data (VPD) for Post Processing . . . . .
Compile Options for Creating a VPD File from VCS . . . . . .
2-3
2-4
Starting VirSim in Post-Processing Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Options for Starting VirSim in Post Processing Mode . . . . .
2-5
2-6
Scirocco VirSim GUI Startup Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-7
Starting Scirocco VirSim Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-7
VHDL Command Line Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-8
Scirocco VirSim Command Line Arguments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-9
Standalone VirSim GUI Startup Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Starting Standalone VirSim Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
Standalone VirSim Command Line Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12
Standalone VirSim Command Line Arguments . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
Opening and Closing History Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
File Types and File Designators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-16
Opening the Open File Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
Open File Dialog Display Area Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17
Opening a Single History File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22
Opening Multiple History Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23
Closing History Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23
vi
Reopening History Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-25
Saving and Loading a Configuration File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-26
Saving a Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-27
Loading a Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-28
Configuration File Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-29
Nested Configuration Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-30
Incremental Loading of Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-30
Loading Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31
3. Hierarchy Browser
Introducing the Hierarchy Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-2
Selecting a Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-3
Choosing View Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-4
Navigating the Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-6
Searching for Scopes and Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-7
Filtering Signals Displayed on the Signals Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-8
Adding Signals to a Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-9
Toolbar and Menu Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Context Sensitive Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hierarchy Pane Context Sensitive Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Signal Pane Context-Sensitive Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Search Pane Context-Sensitive Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-11
3-11
3-12
3-12
Menu Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
vii
File Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Display Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
View Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-13
3-14
3-14
3-15
4. Waveform Window
Introducing the Waveform Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-2
Signal Name Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-4
Signal Value Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-4
Waveform Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-6
Cursor Pane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-7
Status Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-8
Selecting and Viewing Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-9
Adding and Reordering Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Adding Signals to a Signal Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Reordering Signals in a Signal Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Editing Signal Names and Bit Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Using Multiple Signal Groups to View Relevant Data . . . . . . . .
Manually Creating a Signal Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automatically Creating AutoGroups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switching Between Multiple Signal Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-11
4-12
4-13
4-13
Expanding and Collapsing Vectors, Arrays, Records, or User Defined
Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13
Zooming Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14
Navigating and Viewing the Time Domain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
Measuring Time and Controlling Zoom Regions Using Cursors 4-15
Using Markers to Quickly Display a Time Range at a Later Time 4-16
viii
Finding the Next or Previous Edge on Selected Signals . . . . . . 4-17
Searching a Signal (Vector or Scalar) for a Specified Value . . . 4-17
Expanding Time to Display Exact Order of Events Using Delta Cycles
4-19
Delta Cycle Recording for Verilog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19
Delta Cycle Recording for VHDL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20
Expand and Collapse Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20
View Delta Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21
Cursor Movement in Delta Cycle Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-22
Advanced Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23
Locating the Cause of Signal Transitions with Event Origin. . . . 4-23
Locating Events Using Breakpoint Groups with Enabled Expressions
4-24
Creating Breakpoint Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24
Searching with Breakpoint Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27
Collecting and Displaying Unique Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27
Changing the Display Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-29
Selecting Drawing Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-30
Modifying Waveform Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-31
Adding and Deleting Blank Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-31
Displaying Strength Based Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-32
Using the Waveform Style Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-33
Additional Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-36
Monitoring a Running Simulation Using Update Mode . . . . . . . 4-36
Printing Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-38
Printing a Time Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-39
Distributing a Printout Across Several Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-39
ix
Controlling Paper Size and Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying a Printer Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing to Postscript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting the Signal Name Printout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-40
4-41
4-41
4-42
Toolbar and Menu Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-43
Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-43
Context Sensitive Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-46
Signal Group Pane Context Sensitive Menu (CSM) . . . . . . . 4-46
Signal Pane Context Sensitive Menu (CSM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-48
Menu Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zoom Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Display Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
View Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-49
4-50
4-51
4-52
4-52
4-53
5. Source Window
x
Introducing the Source Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-2
Execution Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-3
Source Text Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-4
Control Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-5
Before Using the Source Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-7
Verilog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-7
VHDL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-7
Navigate and View a Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-8
Edit the Correct Design File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-9
Debug Behavior Using Value Annotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-9
View Signal Values for All Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-9
View Signal Values for One Signal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
Follow and Control Source Execution Using Stepping and Breakpoints
5-11
Follow Source Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Control Source Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Using Breakpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Breakpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clear Breakpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Run to Breakpoints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-11
5-11
5-12
5-12
Using Instance Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
Define Markers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16
Capture Line Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17
Debug Behavior by Analyzing Execution Counts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17
Toolbar and Menu Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18
Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18
Source Text Pane Context Sensitive Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-20
Menu Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Display Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
View Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-22
5-22
5-23
5-24
5-25
6. Logic Browser
Introducing the Logic Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-2
xi
Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-2
Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-4
Before Using the Logic Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-4
Getting Started. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-4
Graphic Objects and Value Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-5
Viewing Graphic Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-5
Viewing and Loading Value Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-7
Navigating a Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
Navigating the Design with Graphic Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
Navigating the Design in the Time Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Navigating Using the Connection Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13
Using Event Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-14
Using the Connection Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-14
Navigating from the Connection Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
Selecting a Signal with Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-16
Expressions Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-17
Editing Source from Logic Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-19
Changing the Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-19
Toolbar and Menu Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-21
Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Context-Sensitive Menus (CSM’s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Logic Browser CSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Module Instance CSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Port Instance CSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selected Net CSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xii
6-21
6-23
6-23
6-25
6-26
6-28
Menu Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Display Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
View Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6-29
6-29
6-30
6-30
6-31
7. Register Window
Introducing the Register Window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-1
Window Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What is a View? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Which Signals are Loaded? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-1
7-2
7-3
Edit Views. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-4
Undo Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-5
Using Event Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-6
Display Unique Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-6
Set Time Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-6
Align Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-7
Distribute Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-7
Display File Designators for SIgnals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-8
Toolbar and Menu Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-9
Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7-9
Signal Properties CSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12
Menu Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15
File Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-16
Edit Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17
xiii
Graphics Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-18
Display Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-19
View Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-20
8. Interactive Window
Introducing the Interactive Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-2
History Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-2
Command Prompt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-2
User-Defined Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-3
Simulator Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scope Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-3
8-3
8-4
8-4
Window Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-5
Invoking an Interactive Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-6
Starting a Session Via the Simulator Invocation Dialog. . . . . . .
8-6
Starting a Session Via the VirSim Command Line . . . . . . . . . .
8-8
Controlling the Simulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-9
Summary of Simulator Control Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10
Breakpoint Durations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10
Expression Breakpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
Control Simulation from the Waveform Window. . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12
Control Simulation from the Source Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13
Line Breakpoints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-14
Control Simulation from the Logic Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-15
Control Simulation from the Register Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-15
xiv
Controlling Simulation from Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-16
Default Buttons Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-16
Creating User-Defined Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-17
Defining a Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-18
Selection Substitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-19
Toolbar and Menu Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-20
Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-20
Menu Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sim Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
View Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8-21
8-21
8-21
8-22
8-23
9. Project Window
Introducing the Project Window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-1
Defining Projects and Workspaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-3
What is a Workspace? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-3
What is a Project? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-4
What is a Design Top? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-4
Workspace Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-5
View Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-9
Workspace Folder View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-9
Project Folder View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
Design Top Folder View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11
Source File Folder View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12
Dependency Folder View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-14
xv
Library Folder View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-15
Library View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-18
Tear Off Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-20
Output Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-20
Toolbar and Menu Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-22
Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-22
Menu Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Project Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tools Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
View Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Windows Menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-23
9-23
9-24
9-25
9-27
9-28
9-28
Dialogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-29
New Workspace Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-29
Select a Directory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-29
Open File Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-31
Add Files Dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-33
Select a Directory Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-35
Edit Setup Constants Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-36
New Verilog Library Dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Library Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Path Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ok. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cancel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xvi
9-38
9-38
9-38
9-39
9-39
9-39
9-39
Using the Options Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Options Dialog Buttons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Analyze Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Elaborate Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Simulate Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Verilog Compile Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Verilog Run Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9-39
9-40
9-41
9-42
9-44
9-45
9-46
Executing Commands from the Command Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-47
Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-48
Files and Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-54
Moving Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-55
Using a Makefile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-56
10. Time Units
Display Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Display Precision (Button opens option menu) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3
11. Radices
Using a Radix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
Radix Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3
Radix Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4
Mapping List Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5
Creating a User-Defined Radix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6
xvii
12. Event Origin
Before Using Event Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
Where You Can Use Event Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
How to Use Event Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3
Display the Event Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-5
Choose from Multiple Drivers for an Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6
Event Origin Classifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-7
Debug with Event Origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-8
13. Building Buses
Using Bus Builder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1
Bus Builder Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-3
Using Buses in the VirSim Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6
Logic Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6
Source Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6
Hierarchy Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-7
Waveform Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8
14. Markers
How VirSim Uses Markers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
Markers Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3
Opening the Marker Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-5
Creating a Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-5
xviii
Deleting a Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-6
Editing a Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-6
Setting a Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-6
15. Expressions
Expressions Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2
Entering Signal Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6
Opening the Expressions Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-7
Creating Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-7
Updating Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-8
Displaying Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-9
Trigger Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-10
Searching with Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-11
Level Sensitive Searches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-12
Edge-triggered Searches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-13
16. VirSim Setup
Caution: Before You Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2
VirSim Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2
X Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-3
Windows NT Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-3
Common Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-4
Mouse Button Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5
xix
Warning if Configuration Is Modified . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-7
Signals Loaded/Registered with Simulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-7
User Defined Unique Event Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-8
Waveform Window Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-8
Source Window Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-10
Hierarchy Window Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-11
Logic Browser Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-12
Register Window Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-13
Interactive Window Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-14
Settings for X Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-15
Tool Tips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-15
X Color System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-16
Color Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-16
Switching Color Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-17
17. VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
Advantages of VCD+. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2
System Tasks and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-3
System Tasks to Generate a VCD+ File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-3
System Tasks and Functions for MDAs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-7
Syntax for Specifying MDAs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-8
Using $vcdplusmemon and $vcdplusmemoff. . . . . . . . . . . . 17-9
Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-10
System Tasks for Capturing Source Statement Execution Data 17-17
How to Capture Verilog Source Statement Execution . . . . . 17-18
Source Statement System Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-19
xx
System Tasks for Capturing Delta Cycle Information. . . . . . . . . 17-20
System Tasks for Capturing Unique Event Information . . . . . . . 17-21
Simulator Run-Time Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-24
VCD+ Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-27
Advantages of Separating Simulation from Analysis . . . . . . . . . 17-28
Conceptual Example of Using Verilog VCD+ System Tasks . . . 17-28
VCD+ On/Off PLI Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-31
Performance Tips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-32
18. Translating VCD and VCD+
vcd2vpd Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2
vpd2vcd Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-5
19. Viewing OpenVera Assertions
Introducing OpenVera Assertions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2
Built-in Test Facilities and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2
How Sequences Are Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-3
Viewing OVA Results in VirSim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-5
20. Waveform Defaults
Waveform Style: Verilog Defaults. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-2
Waveform Style: VHDL Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-4
Waveform Style: EPIC Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A-6
Index
xxi
xxii
About this Manual
FIX ME!
This manual explains the use of VirSim for running and debugging
active simulations and historical records of simulations and where
appropriate, provides conceptual information to help you understand
the application of VirSim features.
This preface covers the following topics:
•
Audience
•
Licensing
•
Platforms
•
Other sources of information
•
Conventions
About this Manual
xxiii
Audience
The VirSim User Guide provides product description, tutorial, and
reference information to help you use the VirSim simulation debug
environment.
The information in this document serves as a primary reference
source and procedural guide for VirSim users. This guide assumes
that the user has the following background.
•
Working knowledge of the OSF/Motif™.
•
Working knowledge of the Verilog™ language and the
construction of designs using Verilog; also a working knowledge
of Verilog simulators, or a working knowledge of the VHDL™
language and the construction of designs using VHDL; also a
working knowledge of VHDL simulators.
Licensing
Licensing is implemented using the GLOBEtrotter Software product,
FLEXlm™. Licenses are checked out as each feature is invoked. For
example, a VCD+ license is checked out when a simulation is run to
create files for the VirSim environment. The VirSim licenses float and
are independent of each other.
About this Manual
xxiv
Platforms
VirSim is available for both UNIX and Windows. For Unix, the X
Resources file defines specific settings for system behavior. For
Windows, settings and system behavior are controlled through the
Register file. For information on VirSim setup, see Chapter 16, VirSim
Setup.
Other Sources of Information
For more information about Virsim and other Synopsys products, refer
to the following sections.
Related Publications
Use the following manuals with this manual:
VHDL
•
VHDL by Doug Perry, MacGraw-Hill, Inc.
•
A VHDL Primer by J. Bhasker, Prentice Hall
•
An Introduction to VHDL: Hardware Description and Design by
Lipsett and Schaeffer, Kluwer Academic Publishers
•
Digital Design and Modeling with VHDL and Synthesis by Chang,
CS Press
•
VHDL for Designers by Sjoholm and Lindh, Prentice Hall
•
1076-1987 Standard VHDL Language Reference Manual, IEEE
Standards, Not available from IEEE. Available from Menchini &
Associates, contact [email protected]
About this Manual
xxv
Verilog
Two books are available from Open Verilog International, 15466 Los Gatos
Blvd., Suite 109-071, Los Gatos, CA 95032 408-353-8899:
•
The Verilog HDL Language Reference Manual
•
Programming Language Interface (PLI)
•
The Verilog-XL Reference Manual
Commercial book available from Automata Publishing Company,
1072 S. Saratoga Sunnyvale Road, Building A107, San Jose, CA
95129 408-255-0705:
•
Digital Design with Verilog HDL by Eli Sternheim, Rajvir Singh
and Yatin Trivedi
Commercial book available from Kluwer Academic Publishers, 101
Phillip Drive, Norwell, MA 02061 617-871-6300:
•
The Verilog Hardware Description Language by Donald Thomas
and Phil Moorby
Motif
There are many commercially available books on Motif.
•
OSF/Motif User’s Guide, Revision 1.2, from the Open Software
Foundation, Inc.
X Resources
•
Xlib Programming Manual
About this Manual
xxvi
SOLV-IT! Online Help
SOLV-IT! is the Synopsys electronic knowledge base. It contains
information about Synopsys and its tools and is updated daily.
Access SOLV-IT! through e-mail or through the World Wide Web
(WWW). For more information about SOLV-IT!, send e-mail to
[email protected]
or view the Synopsys Web page at
http://www.synopsys.com
Customer Support
If you have problems, questions, or suggestions, contact the VirSim
technical support in one of the following ways:
•
Send e-mail to [email protected]
•
Call 1-800-837-4564 (1-800-VERILOG)
About this Manual
xxvii
About this Manual
xxviii
1
VirSim Overview
1
VirSim is a modular debug system designed to run in an OSF/Motif™
or Windows NT environment. VirSim can simultaneously post process
multiple data files (VCD+, EPIC, etc.) or run an interactive session
using a supported simulator. You can view the results of simulations
and the source files used to generate the simulations in VirSim
windows. Debug sessions can be saved in a configuration file,
allowing the session to be resumed.
VirSim is by default installed in each copy of VCS and Scirocco
simulators.
VirSim Overview
1-1
Operation Modes
VirSim presents simulation history in two user-friendly operation
modes:
•
Post Simulation Mode
•
Interactive Mode
Post Simulation Mode
VirSim de-couples the debug activity from event driven simulation by
using VCD+ history files as its input. In VirSim, we call this post
simulation. In post simulation, VirSim uses a Verilog or VHDL
simulator in batch mode to generate a VCD+ history file containing
the simulation results. Then, by invoking VirSim, any number of users
can simultaneously analyze simulation results recorded in the VCD+
file.
Post simulation provides the following distinct advantages:
•
Frees the simulator for other users during debugging.
•
Many designers can simultaneously use the results of a single
simulation.
•
Debug is easier and faster when debug is performed separately
from interactive simulation.
•
An equivalent debug environment is maintained independent of
simulators.
VirSim Overview
1-2
Interactive Mode
VirSim runs the simulator and displays simulation data in real-time in
VirSim debug windows. You can start the simulation and synchronize
debug operations from the Interactive Window. Data is saved to a
VCD+ file for later processing. VirSim can run the following simulators
interactively: VerilogXL or VCS, and Scirocco.
While in interactive mode, VirSim also can analyze any number of
history files from previous runs. This allows for easy comparison with
previous results.
Advantages of VirSim
VirSim offers significant advantages in debug analysis technology
that dramatically improve the overall speed of design analysis:
An intuitive and easy to use GUI
• Drag and drop of data between windows and panes.
•
Configuration files to save and reload the setup of your debug
environment.
Powerful debug capabilities allow you to quickly find answers
• Access to source provides exact knowledge on design
connectivity.
•
An Event Origin command to identify what design elements cause
each transition.
VirSim Overview
1-3
•
A Logic Browser to clearly present design connectivity: structural
and behavioral, fanins and fanouts, values and delay information
included.
•
A Source Window in which to view, execute or debug the complete
source.
•
Data from different runs or designs can be viewed in the same
window.
•
Windows can be synchronized to the same or different times.
•
Execution can be backward or forward in time.
•
View stand-alone compiled sources to debug Verilog source, even
before your fist simulation.
Performance and memory usage are optimized to handle large
designs
• Data files use binary VCD+ format for compactness and highperformance access. These can be up to 100 times smaller than
VCD files and contain more information.
•
Memory is used efficiently during simulation and analysis.
•
Algorithms are optimized for fast loading of data and screen
updates.
Support of multiple languages, platforms, and simulators.
VirSim Overview
1-4
Key Terms and Concepts
The VirSim User Guide uses the following terms and concepts in
feature descriptions and procedures.
Click Left, Click
Middle, and Click
Right
Procedures in this manual use the terms click left, click
middle, and click right to refer to the use of one of the mouse
buttons to select or operate on an object. Position the cursor
on the object and click the appropriate mouse button.
Drag-and-Drop
The manual uses the term drag-and-drop in procedures to
refer to the drag-and-drop operation. In VirSim, you can drag
scopes and signals from one window or dialog and drop them
into another window or dialog. For more information see the
Drag-and-Drop section later in this chapter.
Context Sensitive
Menus
VirSim relies heavily on hidden Context Sensitive Menus
(CSM) in windows and panes. Point at an object, hold the
right mouse button (RMB) down, point to one of the choices
and release the button. Objects can be signals, instances,
ports, nets, values, panes, register memories and
transitions. The choices in the CSM are relevant to these
objects.
Tear-Off Menus
Any menu with a dotted line at the top can be torn off and
placed on the display for easy access. Click middle above
the dotted line, and then drag the menu to a convenient
position.
Designator
A designator is a two character abbreviation for a VCD+.
VCD, or EPIC file name, It is frequently used in names to
designate the history file for the signal. Compiled source use
a Z1 designator. Interactive sessions use an I1 designator.
EPIC
EPIC™ refers to EPIC Design Technology, Inc. and the
associated EPIC analog simulators (TimeMill and
PowerMill), or the output file generated from those
simulators.
VirSim Overview
1-5
Environment
OSF/Motif™ and
Windows NT™
You can run VirSim in either the OSF/Motif™ environment
or the Microsoft Windows NT™ operating system. Most
screen examples in this manual show VirSim screens for
Windows NT. Where features and screen format differ
significantly, the manual also includes the OSF/Motif™
format. This manual assumes you have a working knowledge
of OSF/Motif or Windows NT.
Scope (Verilog)
A scope is any instance of a module, task, function, or
named block in the Verilog Hardware Description Language
(HDL) source code. These structures are used to organize
and describe logical, structural, and functional groupings of
code. Modules can contain more modules, tasks, functions,
and named blocks. Tasks, functions, and named blocks can
only contain named blocks.
Scope (VHDL)
In VHDL, a scope is any instance of an entity/architecture
component. (The entity/architecture component is
analogous to a module in the Verilog language.) Blocks,
Packages, Processes, Procedures, and Functions are also
considered scopes.
Variables and
Signals
(Verilog)
The term variables is used interchangeably with the term
signals. Variable was adapted from the standard VCD
technology and can refer to any of the following Verilog terms:
Net
Reg
Real Number
Integer
Named Event
Time Variable
Variables and
Signals
(VHDL)
The VHDL language distinguishes between signals and
variables. In general, VirSim uses the term signals to refer
to both signals and variables. There are some exceptions to
this rule, but these exceptions are either explicitly stated or
implied by the context of its usage. (For example, a dialog
that has both a selection for Signals and a selection for
Variables is obviously distinguishing between the two.) It is
also important to recognize that because most variables are
dynamic, simulators may not trace them and consequently
they will not show up in the hierarchy.
VCD+
VCD+ is a proprietary binary format for simulation history
data, which is generated by a PLI program linked to the
simulator. It is used for both Verilog and VHDL simulation
VirSim Overview
1-6
Verilog Language
VirSim uses standard Verilog terms including the language,
keywords, syntax, system tasks, and PLI calls.
VHDL Language
VirSim uses standard VHDL terms including the language,
keywords, syntax, etc.
Window
VirSim uses windows to display data and organize features
for specific VirSim applications. For example, the Source
Window displays source code and provides features for
debugging source code.
Pane
Panes are sub-windows within VirSim windows that display
specific types of information. For example, the Waveform
Window contains separate panes for signal names, signal
values, and signal waveforms.
View
A view is a graphical display in the Register Window
consisting of graphics, labels, and values at a specific
simulation time.
Group
A group is an ordered set of signals that are identified by a
group name. Groups are used in the Waveform Window.
VirSim Windows
VirSim is a multi-window system. This allows you to have as many of
each type of debug window open as desired. Windows can be opened
from within any window or with accelerator keys. The following VirSim
screens are covered in this section:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Interactive Window
Hierarchy Browser
Waveform Window
Register Window
Source Window
Logic Browser (Verilog only)
Project Window (VHDL or Mixed VHDL/Verilog)
VirSim Overview
1-7
Interactive Window
The Interactive Window is used to control a simulator and display real
time information from the simulator (see Figure 1-1, Sample
Interactive Window).
Figure 1-1
VirSim Overview
1-8
Sample Interactive Window
Hierarchy Browser
The Hierarchy Browser displays the design as modules that are color
coded to distinguish the different types of modules in the design (see
Figure 1-2, Sample Hierarchy Browser. Navigate up and down the
design by pointing and clicking on modules and defining roots in the
hierarchy tree. When you select a scope, the Signal Select pane can
filter and list the internal signals for that scope. You can display objects
in other windows by dragging either modules or selected signals from
the Hierarchy Browser. If you do not use a configuration file, VirSim
opens at the Hierarchy Browser.
VirSim Overview
1-9
Figure 1-2
VirSim Overview
1-10
Sample Hierarchy Browser
Waveform Window
The Waveform Window displays waveforms for simulation output.
Cursors, markers, and expressions let you designate and trace events
in simulation time (see Figure 1-3, Sample Waveform Window).
Dialogs let you define expressions, buses, signal groups, and
breakpoint groups.
Figure 1-3
Sample Waveform Window
VirSim Overview
1-11
Register Window
The Register Window allows you to create custom views of signals
with descriptive text and graphics (see Figure 1-4, Sample Register
Window). You can create views by using the drag-and-drop, cut and
paste, and editing tools.
Figure 1-4
VirSim Overview
1-12
Sample Register Window
Source Window
The Source Window displays the code for the selected source
instance or groups of instances (see Figure 1-5, Sample Source
Window). You may display values of all signals, set and clear
breakpoints in this window, step through lines, or run to a breakpoint.
Figure 1-5
Sample Source Window
VirSim Overview
1-13
Logic Browser
(Verilog only) The Logic Browser displays connectivity information
(see Figure 1-6, Sample Logic Browser). By selecting a module port
or primitive terminal, you can trace net connectivity up and down the
hierarchy.
Figure 1-6
VirSim Overview
1-14
Sample Logic Browser
Project Window
The Project Window is used to analyze, elaborate, and simulate VHDL
or mixed VHDL and Verilog projects.
Figure 1-7
Sample Project Window
VirSim Overview
1-15
VirSim Navigation
The following section describes features used to navigate in VirSim:
•
Using Mouse Buttons
•
Selecting Signals
•
Drag-and-drop Operation
•
Linking Windows
•
Accelerator Keys
Using Mouse Buttons
The VirSim system can be configured for either a two-button or threebutton mouse. Depending on the type of mouse, the buttons work
differently for some operations.
Note:
On some third party X Server packages (such as Exceed) that
run on PCs, the two-button mouse can emulate a three-button
mouse. In this case, hold down the left and right mouse button on
a two-button mouse to emulate the middle button of a three-button
mouse.
For maximum efficiency in this highly interactive graphical
interface, we strongly recommend the use of a three-button
mouse.
Click the left mouse button:
•
on a signal or scope to select it.
•
on a corner to resize windows and dialogs.
VirSim Overview
1-16
•
on a dialog to select menu options.
•
in the Waveform pane to set the Cursor 1 (C1) position.
•
in the Register Window to select and manipulate graphics tools.
Click the middle mouse button:
•
on a signal or scope to drag-and-drop, move, or copy it.
•
in the Waveform pane to set the Cursor 2 (C2) position.
Click the right mouse button:
•
on a valid object to invoke a context sensitive menu.
•
in the timescale area of the Waveform pane to Zoom Cursors.
VirSim Overview
1-17
Selecting Signals
In the Signal Select pane of the Hierarchy Browser and the Signal
Name Pane of the Waveform Window, it is often desirable to select a
range of signals when dragging or editing. VirSim allows this by using
a combination of the left-mouse button and right-mouse buttons with
the Shift and Control (Ctrl) keys on the keyboard.
To
Do This
Effect
Select individual signal
Click left on signal
Deselects all previously
selected signals.
Selects and highlights the new
signal.
Sets an anchor point at the
selected signal for range
selection
Deselect all signals
Click left in another
window.
Deselects all signals.
Select a sequential
range of signals
Either
(1) click left on the first
signal, press Shift, and
click left on the last
signal, or
(2) click left on the first
signal and drag mouse
over signals
Selects and highlights all signals
in the range.
Toggle select individual
signal without
deselecting
Press Ctrl and click left
on signal
Selects or deselects the signal
you are pointing at without
deselecting other signals.
Resets the anchor point when
you want to select/deselect
multiple non-contiguous ranges
of signals within the same list.
VirSim Overview
1-18
Drag-and-drop Operation
Drag-and-drop is used to move or copy scopes, signals, and text (see
Figure 1-8, Drag-and-drop Operation). With a 3-button mouse, hold
down the middle mouse button to perform drag-and-drop.
Use the following operations to drag-and-drop objects within the same
window (move is the default):
To move objects within the same window
Use drag-and-drop or use Shift+drag-and-drop.
To copy objects within the same window
Use Ctrl+drag-and-drop.
To move objects between windows
Use Shift+drag-and-drop or use drag-and-drop.
To copy objects between windows
Use Ctrl+drag-and-drop.
VirSim Overview
1-19
Figure 1-8
Drag-and-drop Operation
Move cursor to object.
Press mouse button(s)
Drag
object
Release
mouse button(s)
Moving an Array that is Too Large
If during a drag and drop or cut and paste operation the number of
elements in an array or radix exceeds the resource value
numberOfElementsAllowed default=512, the Sub Range Dialog is
automatically opened. The dialog is used to define an object having
fewer elements or to cancel the drop operation.
VirSim Overview
1-20
Linking Windows
In linked windows, operations initiated in one window can affect views
in other windows. Some VirSim windows (Waveform Window, Source
Window, Logic Browser, and Register Window) must be linked in order
to synchronize operations, such as breakpoint searches, value
changes, and change times. Changing the time in one window
automatically changes the view in the other linked windows to that
time. The linked windows display a common link letter in the upperright corner of the window.
There are two ways to link windows:
•
Open a window from the window to which you want to create a
link. Choose the window type from the Window menu.
•
For windows that are already open, link the windows with the Link
icon (see Figure 1-9, Linking Window).
VirSim Overview
1-21
Figure 1-9
Linking Window
To link windows:
1. Click left on the Link icon to open a link menu.
2. Choose the link letter of the window
to which you want to create a link.
Link Letter
VirSim Overview
1-22
Accelerator Keys
By using Accelerator keys, you can perform many menu bar
commands quickly from the keyboard. Table 1-1, Common
Accelerator Keys, shows commands and accelerator keys for both
UNIX and NT Windows environments,and the VirSim windows in
which the commands are used. To perform a command, press the
accelerator keys indicated in the table.
The Common Accelerator Keys table uses the following codes to
identify VirSim windows associated with the accelerator keys.
Table 1-1
VirSim Window
Code
Hierarchy Browser
HB
Waveform Window
WW
Source Window
SW
Logic Browser
LB
Register Window
RW
Interactive Window
IW
Common Accelerator Keys
Operation
Accelerator
Keys
HB
WW
SW
LB
RW
IW
Open History File
Ctrl+O
X
X
X
X
X
Close History File
Ctrl+K
X
X
X
X
X
Save Configuration
File
Ctrl+S
X
X
X
X
X
X
Load Configuration
File
Ctrl+L
X
X
X
X
X
X
Print
Ctrl+P
Delete Text in Field
Ctrl+U
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
VirSim Overview
1-23
Table 1-1
Common Accelerator Keys (Continued)
Operation
Accelerator
Keys
HB
WW
SW
LB
RW
IW
Move Cursor to
Beginning of Line
Ctrl+B
X
X
X
X
X
X
Group
Ctrl+Shift+G
Views
Ctrl+Shift+V
Marker
Ctrl+Shift+M
X
Expression
Ctrl+Shift+E
X
X
Radix
Ctrl+R
X
X
Zoom In
Ctrl+F
X
Zoom Out
Ctrl+G
X
Next Edge
n
X
Previous Edge
p
X
New Hierarchy
Browser
Ctrl+Shift+H
X
X
X
X
X
Reopen
Ctrl+Alt+R
X
X
X
X
X
Breakpoints
Ctrl+Shift+R
New Waveform
Window
Ctrl+Shift+W
X
X
X
X
X
X
New Source Window
Ctrl+Shift+S
X
X
X
X
X
X
New Logic Browser
Ctrl+Shift+L
X
X
X
X
X
X
New Register Window
Ctrl+Shift+R
X
X
X
X
X
X
Edit Parent
Ctrl+Alt+P
X
Edit Source
Ctrl+Alt+S
X
Cut
Shift+Del
X
X
X
Copy
Ctrl+Ins
X
X
X
Delete
Del
X
X
X
Paste
Shift+Ins
X
X
X
VirSim Overview
1-24
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Table 1-1
Common Accelerator Keys (Continued)
Operation
Accelerator
Keys
HB
WW
SW
LB
RW
IW
Undo
Ctrl+Z
Stop Simulator
Ctrl+C
X
X
X
X
X
X
Finish Simulation
Ctrl+D
X
X
X
X
X
X
Exit VirSim
Ctrl+X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Invoke Simulator
Ctrl+Shift+I
Instance Groups
Ctrl+Shift+I
X
Clear Instance Breaks
Ctrl+Shift+B
X
Clear Group Breaks
Ctrl+Shift+G
X
Load Sources
Ctrl+Shift+A
Move up one signal
Up Arrow
X
Move down one signal
Down Arrow
X
Move up one page of
signals
Shift+Up Arrow
X
Move down one page
of signals
Shift+Down Arrow
X
Go to top
Ctrl+Up Arrow
X
Go to bottom
Ctrl+Down Arrow
Move right one pane
Right Arrow
Move left one pane
Left Arrow
Move right 1/10 of
pane
Shift+Right Arrow
Move left 1/10 of pane
Shift+Left Arrow
Go to end of time
Ctrl+Right Arrow
X
Go to beginning of time
Ctrl+Left Arrow
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
VirSim Overview
1-25
VirSim Overview
1-26
2
Starting VirSim
1
This chapter describes procedures required to start and run VirSim.
There are two ways to start VirSim: entering multiple command line
options that specify all the files that you need, or entering only the
required options and using the interface to specify the remaining files.
The following information is covered in this section:
•
VCS VirSim GUI Startup Procedures
•
Scirocco VirSim GUI Startup Procedures
•
Standalone VirSim GUI Startup Procedures
•
Opening and Closing History Files
•
Saving and Loading a Configuration File
•
Loading Sources
Starting VirSim
2-1
VCS VirSim GUI Startup Procedures
Opening VirSim in Interactive Mode
Open the VirSim GUI from the command line using switches to specify
how VirSim opens, for example:
VCS -RI -f source.f +cfgfile+default.cfg <options>
optional .cfg file
provides the VCS
VirSim GUI with a
previously saved
configuration.
other VirSim or
VCS simulator
options.
.f file includes source file list
starts VirSim in interactive mode
-RI
Run Interactive. Compiles model for interactive use, invokes the
VirSim graphical debugging system immediately after compilation,
and pauses simulation at time zero.
-RIG
Run Interactive Debug. Like -RI, except you use an existing
executable file (such as the simv or simv.exe file) instead of compiling
and linking a new one. Even though you have already compiled your
source code, you must include the source code on the command line
with this option. Also make sure that running VirSim was enabled
when you created the simv or simv.exe file, you would have done that
with the -I, -RI or -PP compile-time options.
Starting VirSim
2-2
+cfgfile+<filename>
(Optional.) Specifies using a configuration file that you recorded in a
previous session with VirSim. A configuration file specifies what
windows to open and what groups, expressions, etc. to use. You can
also use the Load Configuration dialog to specify a configuration file.
See Saving and Loading a Configuration File.
+vslogfile+<filename>
Enables logging of VirSim commands. If you do not specify a filename,
the log is automatically saved to your working directory as VirSim.log.
+vslogfilesim+<filename>
Enables logging of simulator communication messages. If you use
both +vslogfile and +vslogfilesim, VirSim commands and simulator
messages are saved to the same file. If you do not specify a filename,
the log is automatically saved to your working directory as VirSim.log.
Creating Value Change Data (VPD) for Post Processing
Modeling the Design
In the Verilog source, save hierarchy and value data for the design by
adding the system task: $vcdpluson(<levels>, <scope>,
<signal>). See System Tasks and Functions in Chapter 1, VCD+
(vpd) File Generation for additional system tasks.
Compiling the Design
Build the simulator from source files (.v .vhd). The simulator must be
built with a VirSim interface so that simulation results can be saved
in a compressed VCD+ format. To access the interface, include the I argument on the command line.
Starting VirSim
2-3
Simulating the Design
Run the simulation using run-time options to modify how VCS writes
history files (.vpd). See Simulator Run-Time Options in Chapter 1,
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation for a list of run-time switches.
Compile Options for Creating a VPD File from VCS
-I
Instructs VCS to automatically include the +cli (command line
interface), -P virsims.tab (default VirSim PLI table), and -lm (math
library) options. The virsims.tab file defines the VCD+ system tasks,
such as $vcdpluson. You need this option, or the -PP or -RI option,
to create VCD+ files. If you use this option instead of the -RI option,
simulation with VirSim does not start after compilation but you can
do postprocessing of the VCD+ file after simulation.
-PP
Does the same thing as the -I option but minimizes detail of net data
for faster post-processing.
Starting VirSim
2-4
Starting VirSim in Post-Processing Mode
Open the VirSim GUI from the command line using VCS compile time
options to specify how VirSim opens, for example:
VCS -RPP -f run.f +vpdfile+vcdplus.vpd +cfgfile+default.cfg
optional .cfg file
provides the VCS
VirSim GUI with a
previously saved
configuration.
.vpd file includes simulation results
.f file includes source file list
starts VirSim in post-processing mode
This opens the design in VirSim using a pre-saved environment
configuration (.cfg file). For example, your configuration might have
opened the Hierarchy Browser, the Waveform Window and the Logic
Browser.
If you do not use a .cfg file, VirSim opens at the Hierarchy Browser.
From the Hierarchy Browser you can drag and drop signals and
scopes into any of VirSim’s windows for debug.
Starting VirSim
2-5
Options for Starting VirSim in Post Processing Mode
-RPP
Run Post-Processing mode. Starts VirSim for post-process a VCD+
file. Requires a VCD+ file created by the $vcdpluson system task.
You can specify the name of the VCD+ file with the +vpdfile option.
In post-processing mode VirSim will need to read your source code
to use the Logic Browser, so include the source code on the command
line with this option.
+vcdfile+<filename>
Specifies the VCD file you want to use for post-processing. VCS
translates the VCD file to a VCD+ file and loads the new VCD+ file
into VirSim.
+cfgfile+<filename>
Specifies using a configuration file that you recorded in a previous
session with VirSim. A configuration file specifies what windows to
open and what groups, expressions, etc. to use.
+vslogfile+<filename>
Enables logging of VirSim commands to the specified file. If you do
not specify a filename, the log is automatically saved to your home
directory as VirSim.log.
+vpdfile+filename+start+start_time+end+end_time
For post-processing, specifies the VCD+ file you are using to display
simulation results. The optional +start+start_time and
+end+end_time arguments specify you only want VirSim to load and
display the results from between these simulation times. For example,
to load a .vpd simulation file from time 700 to time 1000 without
source but with a .cfg configuration file in post simulation mode (RPP):
vcs -RPP +vpdfile+vcdplus.vpd+start+700+end+1000
+cfgfile+default.cfg
Starting VirSim
2-6
Scirocco VirSim GUI Startup Procedures
When starting the Scirocco VirSim GUI, the following
procedures must be performed in the following order:
1. Compile the design.
1. Elaborate the design.
2. Run the simulation.
3. Start the Scirocco VirSim GUI from the command line.
4. Open history files or start a Scirocco interactive simulation.
5. Load configuration files (optional).
Starting Scirocco VirSim Example
The Scirocco VirSim GUI command line specifies options used to run
the Scirocco VirSim GUI. Figure 2-1, Scirocco VirSim GUI Command
Line, shows the effect of a command line with arguments in the
Scirocco VirSim GUI. Once a simulation has been run, you can load
a simulation history file (.vpd) in the Scirocco VirSim GUI.
Starting VirSim
2-7
Figure 2-1
Scirocco VirSim GUI Command Line
Simulation Environment
1. History files (.vpd) are produced from the
simulation of source files (.vhd or .v).
VHDL (.vhd)
Verilog (.v) or
Source files
Compile
virsim
Elaborate Simulate
.vpd
File
+vpdfile+vcdplus.vpd
+cfgfile+default.cfg
VirSim Debug Environment
2. VirSim command line can
specify history files (.vpd),
and configuration files
(.cfg).
Scirocco VirSim GUI
Windows
- HB - PW
- WW - RW
- SW
3. .vpd file includes simulation
results.
4. .cfg file provides the Scirocco
VirSim GUI with a previously defined
and saved user environment configuration.
VHDL Command Line Syntax
For VHDL, the Scirocco VirSim command line uses the following
syntax:
virsim
[+vpdfile+<filename>[+start+<time>+end+<time>]]
[+sim+<simulator-path>] [+simtype+<simulator>]
[+simargs+<parameters>] [+cfgfile+<filename>]
Example 1: Load a .vpd simulation file from time 700 to time 1000
with a .cfg configuration file in post simulation mode.
virsim +vpdfile+inter.vpd+start+700+end+1000
+cfgfile+default.cfg
Starting VirSim
2-8
Example 2: Start an interactive session and load a .cfg configuration
file.
virsim +simtype+Scirocco +cfgfile+default.cfg
Example 3: Start interactive session, load a .cfg configuration file,
and supply simargs.
virsim +simtype+Scirocco +cfgfile+default.cfg
+simargs+"-time ns"
Scirocco VirSim Command Line Arguments
The command line arguments are described as follows.
+vpdfile+<filename>+start+<time>+end+<time>
The +vpdfile+<filename> command automatically loads a VCD+
history file immediately on startup. If Verilog source files are supplied
on the command line, it is assumed that these source files match the
VCD+ file. You can load multiple files by repeating the
+vpdfile+<filename> command for each file.
The optional +start+<time>+end+<time> command loads a time
range from a file. You do not need to specify both times. You can
specify just the start load time (to load everything from a certain point
on), just an end time (to load everything up to a certain point), both
the start and end times (to load everything in a range) or neither (to
load all available data from the file)
+sim+<simulator-path>
The +sim+<simulator-path> command immediately starts an
interactive session using the given simulator.
Starting VirSim
2-9
Note:
If the default simulator type is not correct, you must also use the
+simtype command to select the simulator type.
+simtype+<simulator>
The +simtype+<simulator> command is used to select the
simulator type. When +simtype is entered at the command line, the
simulator starts automatically and the Interactive Window appears.
This argument may be used in conjunction with +sim and +simargs
to override default simulator names and arguments. The Invocation
Dialog Type menu lists the legal simulator types.
+simargs+<parameters>
The +simargs+<parameters> command allows additional
arguments to be passed to the simulator when it is invoked. You can
specify multiple arguments within double quotes.
+cfgfile+<filename>
The +cfgfile+<filename> command loads the given configuration
file upon startup. A configuration file specifies what windows to open
and what groups, expressions, etc. to use.
+vslogfile+<filename>
Enables logging of VirSim commands to the specified file. If you do
not specify a filename, the log is automatically saved to your home
directory as VirSim.log.
Starting VirSim
2-10
Standalone VirSim GUI Startup Procedures
When starting the standalone VirSim GUI, the following
procedures must be performed in the following order:
1. Install and setup the environment (see Install Notes).
2. Build the simulator.
3. Run the simulation.
4. Start VirSim from the command line.
5. Open history files or start interactive simulation.
6. Load configuration files (optional).
Starting Standalone VirSim Example
The standalone VirSim command line specifies options used to run
VirSim. Figure 2-2, Command Line, shows the effect of a command
line with arguments in VirSim. Once a simulation has been run, you
can load a simulation history file (.vpd) in VirSim.
Starting VirSim
2-11
Figure 2-2
Command Line
Simulation Environment
1. History files (.vpd) are produced from the
simulation of source files (.v .vhd).
Verilog (.v) or
VHDL (.vhd)
Source files
virsim -f run.f
Compiler
or
Simulator
Analyzer
PLI
+vpdfile+vcdplus.vpd
.vpd
File
+cfgfile+default.cfg
VirSim Debug Environment
2. VirSim command line can
specify source file (.v or
.f), history files (.vpd),
configuration files (.cfg),
and simulator.
VirSim
Windows
Compiler
- HB - LB
- WW - RW
- SW
3. .f file includes source file list.
4. .vpd file includes simulation
results.
5. .cfg file provides VirSim with a previously defined and saved user environment configuration.
Standalone VirSim Command Line Syntax
The command line uses the following syntax
virsim [<Verilog Source Info>]
[+vpdfile+<filename>[+start+<time>+end+<time>]]
[+vcdfile+<filename>]
[+sim+<simulator-path>] [+simtype+<simulator>]
[+simargs+<parameters>] [+cfgfile+<filename>]
Starting VirSim
2-12
Example 1: Load a .vpd simulation file from time 700 to time 1000
without source but with a .cfg configuration file in post simulation
mode.
virsim +vpdfile+vcdplus.vpd+start+700+end+1000
+cfgfile+default.cfg
Example 2: Start interactive session and load a .cfg configuration
file and the verilog source files listed in run.f.
virsim +sim+/usr/local/simv +cfgfile+default.cfg -f
run.f
Standalone VirSim Command Line Arguments
The command line arguments are described as follows.
<Verilog Source Info>
The <Verilog Source Info> consists of the same command line
arguments that are provided to the Verilog simulator. In the previous
example, -f run.f is used to identify Verilog source (.v) files used
to run the VirSim simulation. You can also specify source files by
listing all the .v files at the command line. You can also supply
libraries, etc. as specified by standard IEEE-1364 specifications.
In the command line, the source argument is optional. You can also
load sources from within VirSim from the Load Sources Dialog
described later in this chapter. The Verilog sources are compiled
when they are required for use by Virsim, for example when the Logic
Browser is used. If you do not enter sources on the command line,
the Load Source Dialog opens automatically to request sources when
sources are required (see Loading Sources).
Starting VirSim
2-13
+vcdfile+<filename>
The +vcdfile+<filename> command automatically translates the
VCS file to vpd format, then loads it immediately on startup. If Verilog
source files are supplied on the command line, it is assumed that
these source files match the VCD file. You can load multiple files by
repeating the +vcdfile+<filename> command for each file.
+vpdfile+<filename>+start+<time>+end+<time>
The +vpdfile+<filename> command automatically loads a VCD+
history file on startup. If Verilog source files are supplied on the
command line, it is assumed that these source files match the VCD+
file. You can load multiple files by repeating the
+vpdfile+<filename> command for each file.
The optional +start+<time>+end+<time> command loads a time
range from a file. You do not need to specify both times. You can
specify just the start load time (to load everything from a certain point
on), just an end time (to load everything up to a certain point), both
the start and end times (to load everything in a range) or neither (to
load all available data from the file).
+sim+<simulator-path>
The +sim+<simulator-path> command immediately starts an
interactive session using the given simulator. If Verilog sources are
supplied on the command line, it is assumed that these source files
match the interactive simulation to be started.
Note:
If the default simulator type is not correct, you must also use
the+simtype command to select the simulator type.
Starting VirSim
2-14
+simtype+<simulator>
The +simtype+<simulator> command is used to select the
simulator type. When +simtype is entered at the command line, the
simulator starts automatically and the Interactive Window appears.
This argument may be used in conjunction with +sim and +simargs
to override default simulator names and arguments. The Invocation
Dialog Type menu lists the legal simulator types.
+simargs+<parameters>
The +simargs+<parameters> command allows additional
arguments to be passed to the simulator when it is invoked. You can
specify multiple arguments within double quotes.
Note:
For Verilog Users: Because VirSim uses the argument +vpdfile+
to specify the .vpd file to create, and VirSim also uses the
argument to open a previously created .vpd file, the user may
use the +simargs+ command to pass the +vpdfile+ runtime
argument to the simulator (e.g. virsim
+vpdfile+file1.vpd+simargs+"+vpdfile+file2.vpd" tells
VirSim to open file1.vpd for analysis and pass the argument
+vpdfile +file2vpd to the simulator when it is invoked.
+cfgfile+<filename>
The +cfgfile+<filename> command loads the given configuration
file upon startup. A configuration file specifies what windows to open
and what groups, expressions, etc. to use. If you do not use a .cfg
file, VirSim opens at the Hierarchy Browser. From the Hierarchy
Browser you can drag and drop signals and scopes into any of
VirSim’s windows for debug.
Starting VirSim
2-15
+vslogfile+<filename>
Enables logging of VirSim commands to the specified file. If you do
not specify a filename, the log is automatically saved to your working
directory as VirSim.log.
Opening and Closing History Files
VirSim provides dialogs for opening and closing history files. You must
open a history file or start an interactive session before you can load
a configuration. The Open File Dialog and the Close File Dialog are
described in the following sections:
•
File Types and File Designators
•
Opening the Open File Dialog
•
Open File Dialog Display Area Descriptions
•
Opening a Single History File
•
Opening Multiple History Files
File Types and File Designators
The definition of specific file types and file designators follow:
File Types: VCD, VCD+, EPIC, or compiled source (compiled sources
are designated with a Z1 identifier). VirSim translates a vcd file to
VCD+ before running Virsim.
Starting VirSim
2-16
File Designator: A two-character identifier that differentiates between
open files in VirSim. The file designator allows you to differentiate
signals with the same hierarchical name but from different simulation
history files.
Opening the Open File Dialog
The Open File Dialog is used to open and re-open history files. To
open this dialog, choose Open from the File menu in the menu bar
or press the Ctrl+O accelerator keys.
Open File Dialog Display Area Descriptions
The Open File Dialog has the following display areas and control
buttons (see Figure 2-3, Open File Dialog).
Starting VirSim
2-17
Figure 2-3
Open File Dialog
Open Files
Displays a list of files that are currently open (includes the twocharacter file designator). If necessary, use the vertical scroll bar to
view all files, or use the horizontal scroll bar to read the full filename.
Starting VirSim
2-18
StartTime/End Time
Allows loading a time range from within a file. The File Range fields
list the file’s time range. The Load Range fields allow you to specify
the range that you want to load. Select the button next to the fields
that you want to specify.
Type
Allows selection of the type of file to open from an option menu.
Note:
When you open a VCD file, it is first translated to a VCD+ file,
which then is opened.
Designator
A unique two character designator for the history file that is used
throughout VirSim. The file designator allows you to differentiate
signals with the same hierarchical name but from different simulation
history files.
Use Sources
(Verilog only) When enabled, Use Sources allows VirSim to use
Verilog sources for VCD+ history files that are opened in post
simulation. Use Sources is enabled in order to associate loaded
Verilog source data with the file that is opened. Sources may be
required by the Source Window or Logic Browser. Users may want
to disable Use Sources if the sources loaded do not apply to the
history file opened.
Use Sources is enabled by default for VCD+ files. Use Sources is not
sensitive for EPIC files because the VirSim EPIC interface does not
allow sources. For VHDL VCD+ files, the setting of the Use Sources
button is ignored.
Starting VirSim
2-19
If the Source Window or Logic Browser requires sources, the Load
Sources Dialog will open automatically to request sources. You must
then load the appropriate sources in order to continue.
Include Delta Cycle Data (VCD translation only)
Indicates whether or not to filter out delta cycle information during
translation of .vcd to .vpd.
Filter (Motif Only)
Applies the filter specification entered in the Filter field. The pathname
and filename are used in the Filter field to filter the directories and
text files. Directories and files that match the filter specification are
displayed in the Directories and Files lists.
To display (or update) the files for the selected directory, enter the file
path and filter specification in the Filter field and click left on the Filter
button. The filter file specification can include the wild card characters
* and ?. For example:
/u/product/virsim/rel4.2.dev/examples/tutorial/verilog/risc1/*.vpd
Figure 2-4, Open File Dialog, Filter Example, shows a filter
specification that lists all files with a specific extension, in this case,
files with the extension .vpd.
Starting VirSim
2-20
Figure 2-4
Open File Dialog, Filter Example
Directories
Initially, shows the current directory (highlighted) and its associated
files in the Files list. Click left on a different directory to search for
other files or to go up a directory level.
Files
List of files that match the Filter specification. To open a file:
Double-click left on a filename in the Files list, or click left on a filename
to select the file, then click left on Ok or Apply.
Selection
The full filename of the file to open. If a file is selected in the Open
Files list or Files list, the filename is automatically shown. If desired,
modify this selection to specify the file to open and then click left on
Ok or Apply.
Starting VirSim
2-21
Ok
Opens the file selected in the Files list; this Open File Dialog closes
after you click left on Ok.
Apply
Opens the file selected in the Files list. The selected file appears in
the Open Files list in the Open File Dialog.
Cancel
Closes the Open File Dialog.
Help
Opens user information about the Open File Dialog.
Opening a Single History File
To open only a single history file at a time:
•
Select the file and click left on Ok.
To reopen a single history file:
•
Select the new history file in the Open Files list and click left on
Ok to open it.
In this case, the previous version of the file is closed, all of the data
is deleted, and the new file is loaded. Assuming that none of the signal
names have changed, all definitions of windows, groups, and
expressions remain unchanged.
Starting VirSim
2-22
Opening Multiple History Files
To open multiple history files:
•
Click left on Apply after selecting each file. A unique file designator
is automatically assigned to each file.
Note:
Once a file is opened, it is not possible to change the Designator.
If you are using a configuration file, make sure that the designators
created match the designators in the configuration file. The Use
Source button is enabled by default.
Closing History Files
The Close File Dialog is used to close history files. To open this dialog,
choose Close in the File menu. Figure 2-5, Close File Dialog, shows
the file display areas and control buttons for the Close File Dialog.
Starting VirSim
2-23
Figure 2-5
Close File Dialog
Close File
Displays a list of files that are currently open (including the twocharacter file designator). If desired, use the vertical scroll bar to view
all files or use the horizontal scroll bar to read the full filename.
To close a file: Click left on a filename in the Close File list, then click
left on Ok or on Apply. This closes the file, frees all memory used for
the file, and removes all signals and scopes from all VirSim windows.
Note:
It is not possible to close an interactive session from the Close
File Dialog. Use the Interactive Window to terminate the session.
Caution!
Because closing a file removes all signals from all windows,
groups, views, and expressions, you may want to save the current
configuration before you close the file.
Ok
Closes the selected file in the Close File list and closes the Close File
Dialog.
Starting VirSim
2-24
Apply
Closes the file selected in the Close File list; the Close File Dialog
remains displayed after you click Apply.
Cancel
Closes the Close File Dialog.
Help
Opens user information specific to the Close File Dialog.
Reopening History Files
The File menu includes a Reopen command that reopens all VCD,
VCD+ or EPIC history files that have been changed or updated since
the data file was last loaded by VirSim. This command is useful if you
debug and resimulate history files but do not exit from VirSim. You
can then reopen all files in one operation.
To reopen history files:
1. In the menu bar, click left on File to open the File menu.
2. Select Reopen.
3. To list open files, open the Open File Dialog or click left on the
Design icon in the Hierarchy Browser, as shown below. You can
choose a file to display in the Hierarchy Browser from this menu.
In the Hierarchy Browser
Design Icon
Starting VirSim
2-25
Saving and Loading a Configuration File
The following section provides guidelines for saving and loading a
configuration file. Configuration files are ASCII files that contain
information that allows VirSim to start in a predefined configuration.
The configuration file can include information, such as open windows,
signals, instances, expressions, and breakpoints.
When a configuration file is saved, it includes links to all active design
files along with their attributes. This maintains a clear relationship
between a configuration file and a set of design files. When you open
a configuration file (either from the command line or using the Load
Configuration command), you need only specify a configuration file.
The designs saved in the configuration file are opened automatically.
VirSim opens design files from the configuration file only when there
are no currently opened design files or interactive session and no
design file specified on the command line. If you are using multiple
configuration files, only the design files found in first configuration file
are used.
The following information is covered in this section:
•
Saving a Configuration File
•
Loading a Configuration File
•
Configuration File Format
•
Incremental Loading of Configuration Files
Starting VirSim
2-26
Saving a Configuration File
To save a configuration file from a VirSim window:
1. In the window menu bar, click left on File.
2. Choose Save Configuration to open the Save Configuration dialog
(see Figure 2-6, Save Configuration).
Figure 2-6
Save Configuration
Starting VirSim
2-27
Loading a Configuration File
1. Click left on File in the menu bar and choose Load Configuration
to open the Load File Dialog (see Figure 2-7, Load Configuration
Dialog).
2. Use the Filter field and Directories field to find the desired file.
3. Click left on the file in the Files field and click left on Ok. VirSim
restores the configuration defined in the configuration file.
Figure 2-7
Starting VirSim
2-28
Load Configuration Dialog
Configuration File Format
The configuration file can be created or edited with an ASCII text
editor independent of VirSim. However, when working with
configuration files in an editor, maintain the following order of
definitions:
1. Version
2. Design Statements
3. Language Definition (Verilog or VHDL)
4. Buses
5. Expressions
6. Expression Breakpoint Groups
7. Links
8. Markers
9. Radices
10. Register Window Views
11. Waveform Window Groups
12. Source Window Instance Groups
13. Breakpoints
14. Waveform Styles
15. All Open Windows
16. Update Dialog Information
Caution!
The sequence of the definitions in the configuration file must be
in the above order. When creating or modifying a configuration
file in ASCII, do not alter this order.
Starting VirSim
2-29
Nested Configuration Files
To nest second level configuration files inside a top level configuration
file, use an include command as follows:
include “~/abc/def/secondlevel.cfg”
You can use as many include statements as you like, but all definitions
included within both the main configuration file and all included
configuration files must follow the order defined in “Configuration File
Format” on page 1-29.
Caution!
When you close VirSim, the program asks if you would like to save
the current configuration. If you choose to save, VirSim writes over
the include statements with the current configuration.
Incremental Loading of Configuration Files
A configuration file can be manually edited and loaded without
changing the existing configuration.
1. Click left on File in the menu bar and choose Load Configuration
to open the Load File Dialog (see Figure 2-7, Load Configuration
Dialog).
2. Use the Filter field and Directories field to find the desired file.
3. Click left on the Incremental Load toggle button.
4. Click left on the file in the Files field.
5. Click left on Apply. VirSim incrementally loads the selected
configuration file.
6. Repeat steps four and five for any additional configuration files.
Starting VirSim
2-30
Note:
Make sure that the configuration files are self contained. For
example, if you define signal groups in the incremental
configuration file, everything in the signal group must also exist
(i.e., expression, radices, etc.).
Note:
All parts of an incremental configuration file (signal groups,
radices, expressions, etc.) must be unique to be loaded. If an
element in the incremental configuration file has the same name
as a like thing in the existing configuration, that element is not
modified.
Loading Sources
(Verilog only) The Load Sources Dialog is used to load verilog source
files and constructs (see Figure 2-8, Load Sources Dialog). Loaded
verilog source files are listed in the open file list with a Z1 designator.
There are two ways to load Verilog sources:
1. The recommended way to load sources is to supply the sources
in the VirSim command line. VirSim automatically compiles the
sources when they are required for use.
2. If the desired sources are not supplied in the command line, you
can load sources in the Load Sources Dialog (see Figure 2-8,
Load Sources Dialog). If no sources are loaded in the command
line and VirSim requires sources, the Load Sources Dialog opens
automatically to request sources. You can also use the Load
Sources Dialog to compile sources for stand-alone viewing - no
simulation is required and no VCD or VCD+ files need be loaded.
Starting VirSim
2-31
Figure 2-8
Load Sources Dialog
To use the Load Sources Dialog:
1. Choose Load Sources from the File menu to open the dialog.
2. Type the Verilog sources in the Source Arguments field or the
name of a file listing all source (as shown above).
3. Click left on Ok. The Compilation Log lists the load status of each
source as it is compiled. If the sources are successfully compiled,
the following message displays:
Compilation Completed Successfully.
Otherwise, error messages are displayed in the dialog.
Starting VirSim
2-32
Compiled sources are listed in the Select icon list with a Z1
designator. To view stand-alone sources, click the Select Design
icon in the Hierarchy Browser and select Z1 Verilog Sources.
4. To close the Load Sources Dialog, click left on Done.
Starting VirSim
2-33
Starting VirSim
2-34
3
Hierarchy Browser
1
The Hierarchy Browser is used to locate and select scopes, signals,
and ports (as well as variables, generics and constants for VHDL) for
use in other windows. If you do not use a configuration file, VirSim
opens at the Hierarchy Browser.
The Hierarchy Browser works on any one of a number of
simultaneously open design hierarchies. You may also open multiple
Hierarchy Browser windows. By navigating up and down the
hierarchy, you can locate the scopes and signals you want, and then
drag them to other panes or windows for viewing or signal selection.
Filters allow you to selectively locate items for display.
Hierarchy Browser
3-1
Introducing the Hierarchy Browser
Figure 3-1
Sample Hierarchy Browser
The Hierarchy Pane is used to
navigate within the design hierarchy. You can expand and collapse
the hierarchy, view single or multiple levels, create bookmarks, and
drag scopes from this pane to other
windows or dialogs.
The Signals Tab displays the signals, ports, variables, generics and constants for scopes selected
in the Hierarchy Pane. You can drag signals from
the Signals tab into other windows or dialogs or add
them to signal groups for display in the Waveform
Window using the Groups option.
The Search Tab is used to locate specific
scopes or signals You can drag signals from
the Search Tab into other windows or dialogs.
Hierarchy Browser
3-2
Selecting a Design
To
Do This
Open a history file from the
command line.
Specify the VCD file you want to
use on the command line when you start VirSim
using +vcdfile+filename. See Starting
VirSim in Chapter 1.
Open a history file from a
configuration file.
When you open a configuration file (either from the
command line or using the Load Configuration
command), if no other design is specified, the
designs saved in the configuration file are opened
automatically. See “Saving and Loading a
Configuration File” on page 1-26.
Open a new history file from the 1. Click left on the File menu.
File menu.
2. Select Open.
3. In the Open File Dialog, if necessary, change
the directory and file type.
4. Select the History File type (VCD+, VCD, or
EPIC).
5. Select the History File.
Reopen history files that have
been updated.
1. Click left on the File menu.
2. Select Reopen. All currently open VCD,
VCD+, VCD, or EPIC history files that have
been changed or updated since VirSim last
loaded them are reopened.
Display an open history file or a 1. In the Hierarchy Browser toolbar, click left on
compiled source file in the
the Design icon.
Hierarchy Browser.
2. Select the appropriate history file or
compiled source (Z1) file.
Hierarchy Browser
3-3
Choosing View Options
You can view the hierarchy in either Outline or Block Views. For both
views, you can choose to view in One-Level or Multi-Level mode. In
Block View scopes are identified by labeled buttons. In Outline View
scopes are defined by icons. Click the Display menu to select view
options. See Figure 3-2, Outline View in One-Level and Multi-Level
Modes and Figure 3-3, Block View in One-Level and Multi-Level
Modes.
In One-Level View the Hierarchy Pane displays only one level of the
hierarchy tree at a time. The parent scope is displayed with an up
arrow icon and all child scopes contained within that level are
displayed below. The parent scope displays the full hierarchical path
and name for its position in the design hierarchy. The child scope
names are local to the parent scope
In Multi-Level View the Hierarchy Pane displays all or selected
portions of the hierarchy tree. When you select multi-level view,
initially only the hierarchy above the currently displayed scope will be
added to the display. Once this is done, you can add additional
hierarchy to the view by moving up or down the hierarchy, or
expanding or collapsing sections of the hierarchy.
Hierarchy Browser
3-4
Figure 3-2
Outline View in One-Level and Multi-Level Modes
Outline View/One Level
Figure 3-3
Outline View/Multi Level
Block View in One-Level and Multi-Level Modes
Block View/One Level
Block View/Multi Level
Hierarchy Browser
3-5
Navigating the Hierarchy
To
Do This
View all top-level scopes in the
design at once.
Click left on the Root/Bookmark icon and
choose <root>.
Traverse the hierarchy using
and
arrows.
(Arrow hierarchy controls appear in
single-level block and outline view
and multi-level block view.)
Click left on the up or down arrows in the
parent scope. An up arrow indicates
additional hierarchy above the scope. A
down arrow indicates additional hierarchy
below the scope. If a scope does not have
any hierarchy below, it does not include a
down arrow.
Traverse the hierarchy using
and
controls.
(+/- hierarchy controls appear only in
multi-level outline view.)
Click the + and - symbols to expand and
collapse the hierarchy tree, or right click to
open a CSM and select Expand Tree or
Collapse Tree.
Note: Because the Expand Tree command
expands the hierarchy tree for all
descendents of the scope, this operation can
use a significant amount of memory for large
hierarchies.
Bookmark a Hierarchy Pane view.
Click right and Select Create Bookmark.
Jump to a bookmarked Hierarchy
Pane view or another root.
1. Click left on the Root/Bookmark icon.
2. Select the desired root or bookmark.
Go to the root scope currently in use. 1. Click right in an unoccupied part of the
Hierarchy pane.
2. Select Go To Top.
Drag-and-drop a scope to find its
location in the hierarchy.
In any window or dialog, drag-and-drop a
scope or signal into the Hierarchy Pane.
Display multiple levels of the design 1. Click left on the Display menu and
hierarchy in Block View.
choose Multi-Level. At this point the
entire hierarchy down to the currently
visible instance will be visible.
2. Traverse down the hierarchy using the
down arrows. As you move down the
hierarchy, additional levels are added
to the view.
Hierarchy Browser
3-6
Searching for Scopes and Signals
The Search Tab is used to find all scopes or signals that match a
search pattern and exist in a selected section of the hierarchy. The
search results are a function of the currently selected scope, the
search toggle buttons (scopes, signals), the search range, and the
search pattern. Available ranges are All, Selected, and Children:
Range
Description
All
All scopes or signals in the design
hierarchy that match the filter.
Children
All scopes or signals below the selected
scope that match the filter.
Selected
All scopes or signals in the selected
scopes that match the filter.
Display scopes or signals in the
Search Pane.
1. Click left on either the Scopes or
Signals toggle button.
2. Click left on the Search button to
open the Search menu and select
one of the following ranges: All,
Selected, or Children.
3. Enter a text string in the Text Entry
field to further narrow the range.
When used alone, the wildcard (*)
displays all signals or ports for the
selected range.
4. Click left on a scope to select it.
The filter can accept two wildcard characters: * and ?. The * wildcard
can match zero or more characters. When used alone in the filter, it
can find all instances in the selected range or scope. The ? wildcard
can match any one character.
Hierarchy Browser
3-7
Filtering Signals Displayed on the Signals Tab
The Signals Tab filter controls can be used to find all signals that
match a search pattern and exist in a selected section of the hierarchy.
1. Click left on the Constants, Generics, Variables, Signals, or Ports
toggle buttons (only Signals and Ports for Verilog).
2. Enter a text string in the text Entry field to narrow the range. When
used alone, the wildcard (*) displays all signals or ports for the
selected range.
3. Click left on a signal to select it.
The filter can accept two wildcard characters: * and ?.
•
The * wildcard can match zero or more characters. When used
alone in the filter, it can find all instances in the selected range or
scope.
•
the ? wildcard can match any one character.
Note:
For simulators that use VCD+ PLI/DKI system tasks, use the
+vpdports option on the simulator command line to save port
information in a .vpd file. VirSim can then separate signals and
ports. If not used, all are considered signals.
Hierarchy Browser
3-8
Adding Signals to a Group
The Add button adds selected signals to an existing signal group. The
Signal Group is selected via the Signal Group menu (see Figure 3-4,
Signal Group Menu). Signal groups are used to display related signals
in the Waveform Window. When you click left on the Signal Group
button, the menu of existing signal groups opens. If there are no
available groups, the Group button displays AutoGroup0 (a
predefined signal group).
Figure 3-4
Signal Group Menu
Selected Signals
Group
Menu
Add button
To add signals to a group:
1. Select one or more signals in the Signal Select Pane.
2. Click left on the Signal Group button to open the menu and select
the group to which you want to add the signals.
3. Click left on Add. The signals are added to the group.
Hierarchy Browser
3-9
Toolbar and Menu Reference
Toolbar
You can toggle display of toolbar icons from the View menu.
Select Design Icon
Root/Bookmark
Icon
Update Icon
The Design icon is used to select which design
hierarchy to display in the Hierarchy Browser. In
post-simulation or interactive mode, the Design
icon lists all open history files (VCD+,VCD, or
EPIC) and compiled sources. VCD+ and VCD
history files are labeled V1, V2, V3, etc. EPIC files
are labeled E1, E2, E3, etc. Compiled sources are
labeled Z1. In interactive mode, the icon also lists
the interactive design, labeled I1. Left click and
then drag the cursor to your choice.
The Root/Bookmark icon opens a list of userdefined bookmarks and the <root> or / view.
Choose the <root> or / view to display all top-level
scopes in the Hierarchy Browser. When you
choose a root or bookmark from the menu, the
Hierarchy Browser displays the root-level scope or
bookmark at the top of the Hierarchy Pane and the
portion of the hierarchy tree beginning with the
root-level scope.
The Update icon can be used during Update mode
to manually read any new design information that
has been written to the VCD+ file.
These icons allow you to open new VirSim windows
from the Hierarchy Browser toolbar.
New Window Icons
Hierarchy Browser
3-10
Context Sensitive Menus
Hierarchy Pane Context Sensitive Menu
Figure 3-5
Hierarchy Pane CSM
Expand Tree
Expands the hierarchy tree.
Collapse Tree
Collapse the hierarchy tree.
Create Bookmark
Defines the selected item as a bookmark. To return to the bookmark,
click the Root/Bookmark icon and select the bookmark from the
displayed list.
Go To Top
Return to the top of the hierarchy.
Hierarchy Browser
3-11
Signal Pane Context-Sensitive Menu
Figure 3-6
Signal Pane CSM
Expand Variable
Expands the selected variable to display its individual elements.
Select All
Selects all signals in the Signal Pane
Search Pane Context-Sensitive Menu
Figure 3-7
Search Pane CSM
Create Bookmark
Creates a bookmark for a Hierarchy view. The bookmark is added to
the Root/Bookmark Icon menu.
Remove Bookmark
Removes a defined bookmark.
Select All
Selects all signals in the Search Pane
Hierarchy Browser
3-12
Menu Bar
Note:
Any menu with a dotted line at the top can be torn off and placed
on the display for easy access. Click middle above the dotted line,
and then drag the menu to a convenient position.
File Menu
Open - Opens the file browser to load a
VCD+, VCD, or EPIC history file.
Reopen - Reopens all history files that have
changed since they were last loaded.
Close - Closes an open history file.
Load Sources - Compiles Verilog source
files. Compiled sources are listed, along with
history files, when you click the Select Design
icon.
Save Configuration - Saves the current
configuration.
Load Configuration - Loads a configuration
file.
Update - Sets interval for display update.
Close Window - Closes the Hierarchy
Browser window.
Exit - Exits VirSim.
Hierarchy Browser
3-13
Edit Menu
Copy - Copies the selection to the Clipboard.
Select All (Signal Pane) - Selects all signals
in the Signal Pane
Select All (Search Pane) - Selects all
signals or scopes in the Search Pane.
Display Menu
One Level - Displays a One Level view of the
scope hierarchy.
Multi-Level - Displays a Multi-level view of
the scope hierarchy.
Outline View - Displays an outline view of the
hierarchy. See “Choosing View
Options” on page 1-4.
Block View - Displays a block view of the
hierarchy. See “Choosing View
Options” on page 1-4.
Hierarchy Browser
3-14
View Menu
View Menu settings are saved when you close VirSim.
Hierarchy - Toggles display of the Hierarchy
tools (Design, Root/Bookmark, and Update
icons).
Window Icons - Toggles display of the
Window icons.
Hierarchy Browser
3-15
Hierarchy Browser
3-16
4
Waveform Window
1
The Waveform Window is used to analyze signal data over time and
to find causes for transitions. Waveform Window features let you
select signals to view and navigate the time domain in both simple
and complex ways using tools like Delta Cycle, Markers, Event Origin,
and Breakpoints.
Waveform Window
4-1
Introducing the Waveform Window
Refer to Figure 4-1, Sample Waveform Window. The Waveform
Window has three major panes:
•
The Signal Name Pane displays the names of signals and
expressions that are in the currently selected group. By default,
the Signal Name Pane only displays the last component of the
signal’s hierarchical name. To see the signal’s full hierarchy name,
scroll or enlarge the pane or point at the signal to see the
information in the Status Bar.
•
The Signal Value Pane displays the signal values in user-selected
radices at Cursor 1 (C1) time.
•
The Waveform Pane displays the signal waveforms. The time
scale at the top of the Waveform Pane shows times at which
signals change values. You can expand a sample time to show a
Delta Cycle Region which displays signal changes that occurred
within a single simulation time (see Expanding Time to Display
Exact Order of Events Using Delta Cycles on page 4-19).
These panes may be resized with the pane separator sashes. Each
pane can be scrolled horizontally either with X-axis scroll bars or
keyboard arrow keys (up and down arrows scroll the pane, shift+arrow
moves a page at a time, and Ctrl+arrow moves to the beginning or
end of the information in the pane). All three panes are synchronized
vertically and can be adjusted vertically with a single Y-axis scroll bar.
In addition, there also are two simpler panes:
•
The Cursor Pane displays additional information about time for
the cursors.
Waveform Window
4-2
•
The File Designator Pane displays a two-character identifier
associated with each open history file.
The window also has the following standard areas:
•
At the top there is a menu bar and a toolbar.
•
At the bottom there is a status bar.
Figure 4-1
Sample Waveform Window
Unique Event
(Verilog Only)
Timescale Delta
Area
Cycle Region
Cursor
Menu Bar
Toolbar
Cursor
Pane
File
Designator
Pane
Signal Name
Pane
Signal
Value Pane
Waveform
Pane
Status Bar
Waveform Window
4-3
Signal Name Pane
The Signal Name Pane displays the names of signals and
expressions that are in the currently selected group (see Using
Multiple Signal Groups to View Relevant Data on page 4-11). The
Signal Name Pane displays the last component of the signal’s
hierarchical name. To see the signal’s full hierarchy name scroll to the
left, enlarge the pane, or point at the signal to see the full hierarchical
name in the Status Bar.
You can perform the following procedures within the Signal Name
Pane:
•
Adding and Reordering Signals
•
Expanding and Collapsing Vectors, Arrays, Records or UserDefined Buses
Signal Value Pane
The Signal Value Pane displays the value of signals at the time pointed
to by cursor C1. Each signal has a default radix, as shown in Table
4-1, Default Radices for Verilog, and Table 4-2, Default Radices for
VHDL.
Note:
In Interactive mode, you must unlink VirSim from the simulator in
order to display the current value of signals at cursor C1.
Otherwise, moving cursor C1 has no effect on the values displayed
in the Signal Value Pane, and the value displayed is the last
simulated value of the signal (at the Icur cursor).
Waveform Window
4-4
To change signal radices select a signal or group of signals and right
click on the signal value to view the Radix context sensitive menu.
Click on a radix enumeration to select it. Select Radix from the Edit
menu to create a user-defined radix (see Chapter 11, Radices).
Table 4-1
Table 4-2
Default Radices for Verilog
Signal Type
Default
Change Formats
Scalars
Strength
yes
Vectors
Hexadecimal
yes
Integers
2’s complement
yes
Time
Hexadecimal
yes
Events
Event
no
Real Numbers
Real
no
Parameters
NA
NA
Expressions
Hexadecimal
yes
Triggers
Event
no
Default Radices for VHDL
Type of Signal, Variable,
Constant or Generic
Default
Change Formats
Bit
BIT
no
Bit Vector
Hexadecimal
yes
Boolean
BOOLEAN
no
Character
CHARACTER
no
String
STRING
no
Enum
determined by
enumeration type
no
Integer
signed
yes
Integer vector
INTEGER_VECTOR
no
Physical
first unit
yes
Waveform Window
4-5
Table 4-2
Default Radices for VHDL (Continued)
Type of Signal, Variable,
Constant or Generic
Default
Change Formats
Real
SIGNED
no
Real vector
REAL_VECTOR
no
Record‘
RECORD
no
Std logic
STD_LOGIC
no
Std logic vector
hexadecimal
yes
Time
NS
yes
For information on user-defined radices, see Radix Dialog in Chapter
11, Radices.
Waveform Pane
The Waveform Pane displays the waveforms of the signals and
expressions listed in the Signal Name Pane. It also displays the
simulation time bar, cursors C1 and C2, markers, names of cursors
and markers, and the names of expressions.
This pane also is used to locate an event origin for display in either
the Logic Browser or the Source Window. (See Chapter 5, Source
Window.)
Also see the following sections:
•
Adding and Reordering Signals
•
Finding the Next or Previous Edge on Selected Signals
•
Monitoring a Running Simulation Using Update Mode
•
Measuring Time and Controlling Zoom Regions Using Cursors
Waveform Window
4-6
Cursor Pane
The Cursor Pane displays waveform and delta values for cursor types
C1, C2, and Icur (Current Time of Simulator). The Icur cursor is
displayed only when the Waveform Window is linked to SIM in
Interactive mode.
The Delta value displays the difference in time between the two cursor
values. To choose the cursor types, select them from the two pull
down menus in the Cursor Pane.
Figure 4-2, Displaying Cursor Values, shows an example of cursor
values displayed for cursors C1 and C2.
Figure 4-2
Displaying Cursor Values
Waveform Window
4-7
Status Bar
The status bar, located at the bottom of the Waveform Window,
displays the information listed in Table 4-3, Status Bar Information
Display, according to the position of the pointer.
Table 4-3
Status Bar Information Display
With Pointer Over:
The Status Bar Displays:
A signal in the Signal Name Pane
File designator, full signal name, value of
signal at cursor C1
A value in the Value Pane
File designator, full signal name, value of
signal at cursor C1
A file designator in the File Designator
Pane
File designator, full filename for the history
file
An active toolbar icon button
A brief description of the button function
A digital signal in the Waveform Pane
File designator, full signal name, value of
signal at pointer
An analog signal in the Waveform Pane
File designator, full signal name, signal
range for the signal, value of signal at
pointer (may be interpolated), time
Waveform Window
4-8
Selecting and Viewing Signals
Adding and Reordering Signals
Adding Signals to a Signal Group
You can add signals to a signal group in one of four ways:
•
Drag-and-drop signals from another window to the Waveform
Window by dropping them in either of the Signal Name, Signal
Value, or Waveform Panes where you want them inserted. When
multiple signals are dragged in a single drag operation, they are
added to the group in the order in which they were selected.
•
Drag-and-drop a scope from another window to the Waveform
Window by dropping them in either of the Signal Name, Signal
Value, or Waveform Panes where you want them inserted. All
signals contained in the scope are sorted in alphanumeric order
and then added to the group.
•
Select a signal or signals in the Signal Select Pane of the Hierarchy
Browser or select a group from the Hierarchy Browser Group icon,
then click the Add button. The signals are added to the end of the
group.
•
Drag-and-drop expressions from the Expressions Dialog. (For
information on creating expressions, see Chapter 15,
Expressions.)
Waveform Window
4-9
Reordering Signals in a Signal Group
To reorder signals in the group, perform the following in the Signal
Name Pane:
•
Drag-and-drop the signal name.
•
Cut or copy and then paste using the Waveform Window Edit
Menu.
Editing Signal Names and Bit Ranges
You can edit or change a signal name as long as the new name is a
valid signal.
If you select a vector, you can modify the part select as long as the
bits you enter are valid. This is useful when you encounter a large
vector and just want to view a particular part of it.
To edit a signal or a bit range:
1. In the Signal Name pane, right-click and hold down your mouse
over a particular signal name or bit range.
The Signal Group Pane CSM appears.
Figure 4-3
Signal Group Pane CSM
Waveform Window
4-10
2. In the Signal Group Pane CSM, select Edit...
The Edit Signal dialog appears.
Figure 4-4
Edit Signal Dialog
3. Edit the signal name or bit range as appropriate, and click OK.
The signal name and/or bit range of the selected signal changes
in the Signal Name pane.
Using Multiple Signal Groups to View Relevant Data
A signal group is an arbitrary set of signals and expressions you group
together. Once created, the group is global to all Waveform Windows.
You can create an unlimited number of groups and edit any group at
any time.
The following information is covered in this section:
•
Manually Creating a Signal Group
•
Automatically Creating AutoGroups
•
Switching Between Multiple Signal Groups
Waveform Window
4-11
Manually Creating a Signal Group
1. Click left on Edit in the menu bar and choose Groups or select the
Group icon and choose New Group... to open the Groups Dialog,
See Figure 4-5, Sample Groups Dialog.
2. Click left in the Name field and type a group name.
3. Click left on the Add button, or press Enter, to add the name
entered to the Groups list and enable the group for use.
4. Click left on the Done button to close the Groups Dialog.
Figure 4-5
Sample Groups Dialog
The Groups field
displays the names
of all defined
Groups. Select a
group name and it
appears in the
Name field.
The Name field is
used to enter the
name of a new group
or rename an existing Group.
Closes the
Groups
Dialog.
Waveform Window
4-12
Adds a new
group with the
given name.
Renames the group Removes all sigDeletes the
selected in the
nals and expresgroup.
Groups List to the
sions from a group.
name entered in the
Name field.
Automatically Creating AutoGroups
An AutoGroup is a group with a system generated name. If you dragand-drop a scope or signal into the Signal Name Pane without first
selecting a group, VirSim automatically creates an AutoGroup. The
name assigned is AutoGroupN where N is a sequentially assigned
number starting with 0.
Switching Between Multiple Signal Groups
To switch between multiple signal groups, click the Group icon. This
opens a menu containing all defined signal groups. The five most
recently used groups appear at the top of the menu, with the most
recent group first. The remainder of the menu contains all groups
listed in alphabetical order.
Selecting a group loads the signals for that group and displays the
group name in the title bar of the Waveform Window. As you move
between signal groups, VirSim remembers the most recent position
of the vertical scroll bar for each group.
Expanding and Collapsing Vectors, Arrays, Records, or
User Defined Buses
Expand an element such as a vector, memory, or record (VHDL) into
its components by quickly double clicking its name in the Signal Name
Pane. The individual components are displayed directly below the
vector or memory. Quickly double clicking again on the expanded
element collapses it. Expanded signals can be moved within the
window or to another window. Signals moved to another window, or
relocated within the same window, remain after the element is
collapsed.
Waveform Window
4-13
Zooming Waveforms
Several tools are available to zoom waveforms:
To select an area to
display by dragging
the mouse over it.
To zoom in.
To zoom out.
Click on a waveform. Hold the mouse button down and drag
to define a time range. When you release the button, the
selected time range will be expanded to fill the horizontal
space.
Click
(Zoom in icon). The zoomed display centers
around the C1 cursor.
Click
(Zoom out icon). The zoomed display centers
around the C1 cursor.
To zoom to a selected
Click
(Zoom Percent icon). Displays a pop-up menu of
percentage.
zoom percentages: 100%, 75%, 50%, and 25%.
To zoom to cursors
C1 and C2.
Click
(Zoom Cursors icon). This zooms the Waveform
Pane to display a time range between cursor C1 and C2. You
can also zoom the cursors by right clicking in the Timescale
Pane or selecting Zoom Cursors from the context sensitive
menu.
To zoom vertically to
(Vertical Compress icon). This toggles between
compress Waveform. Click
normal and condensed waveforms.
Waveform Window
4-14
Navigating and Viewing the Time Domain
The following information is covered in this section:
•
Measuring Time and Controlling Zoom Regions Using Cursors
•
Using Markers to Quickly Display a Time Range at a Later Time
•
Finding the Next or Previous Edge on Selected Signals
•
Searching a Signal (Vector or Scalar) for a Specified Value
•
Expanding Time to Display Exact Order of Events Using Delta
Cycles
Measuring Time and Controlling Zoom Regions Using
Cursors
Table 4-4, Cursor C-1 and C-2 Positioning, explains how to position
cursors C1 and C2 (using default placement). You can move the
cursors to the nearest signal edge or to a specific signal time. If there
are no edges or you click in the Time Scale Pane area, the cursor
moves to the position where you clicked the mouse. The default
behavior can be changed in the X resources file. For more information,
see Chapter 16, VirSim Setup.
Waveform Window
4-15
Table 4-4
Cursor C-1 and C-2 Positioning
TwoButton
Mouse
ThreeButton
Mouse
With Pointer
on Verilog
Signal
With Pointer
on Analog
Signal
With Pointer
on Analog
Signal
Displayed as
Digital
With Pointer
in Timescale
Pane
Click Left
Click Left
C1 to nearest
edge
C1 to time
Snap C1 to
50% of
threshold
Sets C1
Shift + Click
Left
Shift + Click
Left
C1 to time
C1 to time
Snap C1 to
50% of
min/max
--
Ctrl + Click Left Click Middle
C2 to nearest
edge
C2 to time
Snap C2 to
50% of
threshold
Sets C2
Shift + Ctrl +
Click Left
Shift + Click
Middle
C2 to time
C2 to time
Snap C2 to
50% of
min/max
Sets C2
Click Right
Click Right
CSM
CSM
CSM
Zooms area
between C1
and C2
Using Markers to Quickly Display a Time Range at a Later
Time
Markers function as user-defined aliases for specific simulation times.
They are used to bookmark specific points in simulation time in VirSim
windows so that specific simulator times can be easily accessed.
Waveform Window
4-16
Finding the Next or Previous Edge on Selected Signals
To find the next or previous edge of a signal or group of signals:
1. Select the signal(s).
2. Position the mouse in the Waveform Pane and right click to open
the Waveform Pane CSM.
3. Select Next Edge or Previous Edge from the CSM.
VirSim locates the next or previous edge that occurs in any of the
selected signals.
OR
1. Select the signal(s).
2. Use the N and P shortcuts in an active Waveform Window.
Note:
Find Next/Previous Edge also stops on any expression breakpoint
that is turned on in the currently active breakpoint group.
Searching a Signal (Vector or Scalar) for a Specified
Value
To find the next or previous specified value of a signal or group of
signals, using the Expression dialog, create an expression with the
signal name and the Verilog expression you want, then enable the
search for the expression in the Waveform window.
1. Choose Expressions from the Waveform Window Edit menu. This
opens the Expressions dialog.
Waveform Window
4-17
2. Enter a name for the expression in the Name field.
3. Drag the signal(s) of interest into the Expression pane (or enter
the full hierarchical signal name).
Note:
The expression must be legal Verilog code and can consist of
multiple signals with associated values.
4. Enter the value that you want to search for. For example, an
expression that searches for a value might look like the following:
V1$test.risc1.data[7:0] == 8`h91
Or an expression that searches for multiple values might look like
the following:
$V1$test.risc1.alu_out[7:0] == 8'h02 & $V1$test.risc1.pcaddr[4:0] == 5'h06
5. Click Add to place the expression in the list of Breakpoints.
6. To enable the Breakpoint for searching in the Waveform Window,
click the button next to the breakpoint name. This enables the
Search Prior and Search Next expression icons in the Waveform
Window.
7. In the Waveform Window, click the Search Next icon to search for
the next point at which the expression is true. VirSim places a
marker with the expression name at the point where the
expression is true.
Note:
You can also drag expressions from the Breakpoint pane to the
Waveform and Register windows to quickly find the areas where
the expression is true - even for expressions that consist of
multiple signals and conditions.
Waveform Window
4-18
For detailed information on creating and using expressions, refer to
Chapter 15, Expressions. Also see Locating Events Using Breakpoint
Groups with Enabled Expressions on page 4-24.
Expanding Time to Display Exact Order of Events Using
Delta Cycles
The Delta Cycle feature allows you to display detailed value change
data, or delta cycles, that occurred within single sample times. If, for
example, at time 800 you see that 8 signals changed state, you could
expand time 800 to show the sequence of signal changes. Delta Cycle
is also useful when investigating glitches or race conditions, where a
signal may change multiple times within one sample time.
Delta Cycle Recording for Verilog
Enable reporting of delta cycle information in the VCD+ file using the
$vcdplusdeltacycleon command to use this function in postprocessing mode. For more information, refer to Chapter 17, VCD+
(vpd) File Generation, System Tasks for Capturing Delta Cycle
Information.
When running in interactive mode, you can toggle recording of delta
cycle information in the Interactive Window by selecting Delta Cycle
Recording from the Sim Menu.
Note:
When you select Delta Cycle Recording in Interactive mode,
actual recording starts at the beginning of the next time sample.
If you are at or past the time for which you want delta cycle
information, turn on Record Delta Cycle Data then from the Sim
menu select Re-Exec to rerun the simulation.
Waveform Window
4-19
Delta Cycle Recording for VHDL
You can enable the capture of delta cycle information before
simulating your design and not during runtime. To capture delta cycle
information, set the VPDDELTACAPTURE variable to ON or OFF
(default is OFF) in the .synopsys_vss.setup file or use the command
line switch -vpddeltacapture on|off when simulating.
When viewing the simulation results in the waveform window, you can
observe changes at the delta cycle level by pointing at a signal
transition with the mouse and using the right-mouse button. A popup
menu appears, select the Expand time option to open up the series
of transitions to show the sequence of delta cycle changes.
The trade-off for capturing delta cycle information is longer simulation
runtime and larger VPD databases. Therefore, use this feature only
for debugging delta delay problems.
Expand and Collapse Times
To expand a time to view delta cycle information:
1. Right click on the edge of a waveform that includes a delta-cycle
event to open the Waveform Pane CSM.
2. Select Expand Time.
You can collapse either all delta cycle regions or a selected delta cycle
region. To collapse all delta cycle regions, right click anywhere in the
Waveform Pane and select Collapse All Time from the CSM. To
collapse a single delta cycle region, right click in the region to open
the Waveform Pane CSM and select Collapse Time.
Waveform Window
4-20
View Delta Cycles
When you expand a time, a delta cycle area is inserted into Waveform
and Timescale panes at the time currently pointed at. Refer to Figure
4-6, Sample Delta Cycle Region. Only cycles that have changes on
signals active in the window are displayed, and the cycles are evenly
spaced. Spacing for delta cycles is controlled with the
VirSim*deltaCycleWidth variable in the Resource file, refer to Chapter
16, VirSim Setup. The default is 8 pixels.
When you change the precision or units of the Waveform Window, all
current delta cycle regions are collapsed. If there are any files open
with a loss of precision with respect to the current display precision,
delta cycle is disabled (insensitive) until the precision changes.
Note:
Delta cycle waveform areas do not zoom.
The group displayed in the Waveform Window might contain a mixture
of signals with and without delta cycle information (for example, if
some displayed signals are from a file for which delta cycle information
was not saved). In this case, any edge for a signal without delta cycle
information appears in the last delta column. This column has an
asterisk above the tick in the timescale region. If you move the mouse
over this column, the status bar gives a time such as 12,350 dNA
indicating delta cycle data was not available.
Waveform Window
4-21
Figure 4-6
Sample Delta Cycle Region
Time for the first
tick mark in the
Delta Cycle area.
Delta cycle area is inserted to display
intermediate cycles with actual signal
changes within a single simulation time.
Delta cycle time. In
this example, cursor C1 is at time
460 delta cycle 3.
Each tick mark represents a value
change, or the next
delta cycle displayed. Major tick
marks are placed at
every fifth displayed
cycle.
Cursor Movement in Delta Cycle Regions
Click left in the Timescale area to snap cursor C1 to the nearest delta
cycle. Click middle in the Timescale area to snap C2 to the nearest
delta cycle. When placed within a Delta Cycle region, C1 and C2
times are displayed in the delta cycle time format in the C1 and C2
fields of the cursor information area.
Waveform Window
4-22
When both cursors are placed in the same delta cycle region, the
Delta field (time between C1 and C2) displays the number of delta
cycles between cursors. If the cursors are in different delta cycle
regions or if only one cursor is in a delta cycle region and the other
is in nonexpanded time, the Delta field displays the difference
between the two time samples with no reference to delta cycles.
When C1 is at the right edge of a Delta Cycle Area (at the end of a
sample time), information is presented as if at the end of the expanded
sample time.
Advanced Features
The following information is covered in this section:
•
Locating the Cause of Signal Transitions with Event Origin
•
Locating Events Using Breakpoint Groups with Enabled
Expressions
•
Collecting and Displaying Unique Events
Locating the Cause of Signal Transitions with Event
Origin
Using the position of the mouse pointer as a reference, the Event
Origin feature can obtain precise information about the source of a
signal value change at a specific time. Click right on a waveform edge
and hold the mouse button to open the Waveform Pane CSM to use
the feature. This is a Verilog only feature. For more information, see
Chapter 12, Event Origin.
Waveform Window
4-23
Locating Events Using Breakpoint Groups with Enabled
Expressions
A breakpoint group defines a subset of all defined expression
breakpoints for which expression search is enabled. An expression
is added to a breakpoint group by enabling it for that breakpoint group
in the Expressions Dialog. Expressions can be enabled for more than
one breakpoint group. When searching with a breakpoint group,
VirSim stops when any expression enabled in the breakpoint group
is satisfied.
The following procedures describe how to create and use breakpoint
groups. For specific information on creating expressions and triggers,
see Chapter 15, Expressions.
•
Creating Breakpoint Groups
•
Adding Breakpoints to Breakpoint Groups
•
Searching with Breakpoint Groups
Creating Breakpoint Groups
The Breakpoint Groups Dialog is used to add new breakpoint groups
to the pane and Breakpoint Groups menus in the Waveform, Register,
Source, and Logic Browser windows. Breakpoint groups are empty
until expressions are assigned to them in the Expressions Dialog.
(See Figure 4-7, Breakpoint Groups Dialog)
Waveform Window
4-24
Figure 4-7
Breakpoint Groups Dialog
To create breakpoint groups:
1. Type the name of the breakpoint group in the Name field and click
left on Add. The breakpoint group is added to the Breakpoint
Groups Pane.
2. Click left on Edit in the menu bar and choose Breakpoints to open
the Breakpoint Groups Dialog.
3. When you are finished, click left on Done to close the Breakpoint
Groups Dialog.
Adding Breakpoints to Breakpoint Groups
After breakpoint groups have been created, the Expressions Dialog
is used to define the contents of the breakpoint groups. A breakpoint
group consists of a subset of all user-defined expressions. The
Breakpoints Pane of the Expressions Dialog lists the full set of
available expressions.
Waveform Window
4-25
Figure 4-8
Expressions Dialog
Breakpoint Groups
Icon and Name
Enabled Search on
Expression for
Breakpoint Group
FindXOR
To add expression breakpoints to a breakpoint group:
1. Click left on Edit in the menu bar and choose Expressions to open
the Expressions Dialog.
2. In the Expressions Dialog, click left on the Breakpoint Groups icon
to open the Breakpoint Groups Menu. The menu displays the
breakpoint groups created from the Breakpoint Groups Dialog.
3. Choose a breakpoint group from the Breakpoint Groups Menu.
The breakpoint group name is displayed to the right of the icon.
4. In the Breakpoints Pane, enable each expression you want to
include in the breakpoint group. To enable or disable the
expression, click left on the toggle box for the expression.
5. After you have enabled the expressions you want in this
breakpoint group, either go to step 2 to work on a different group
or click left on Done to close the Expression Dialog.
Waveform Window
4-26
Searching with Breakpoint Groups
After creating a breakpoint group and defining expressions, you can
use the breakpoint group to perform searches on enabled
expressions. Each VirSim window includes a Breakpoint Group icon
to open a menu of available breakpoint groups. All windows linked to
the same Link group use the same breakpoint group.
1. In any window, click left on the Breakpoint Groups icon to open
the Breakpoint Groups Menu and choose the desired breakpoint
group. If the breakpoint group contains enabled expressions, the
Search arrows in the toolbar are sensitized.
2. Click left on either the forward or backward search arrows to
perform the breakpoint search. The C1 cursor stops at each
breakpoint. In the previous example, select FindXOR and click left
on forward search to locate the next XOR execution.
Collecting and Displaying Unique Events
The Unique Events feature allows you to display symbols for unique
events in the Waveform Window, Register Window, and Logic
Browser. This is a Verilog only feature. By default, display of unique
events is on. To turn off display of unique events, click left on the
Display Menu in the menu bar and click Unique Events. Two types of
unique events are currently available: glitch and user defined.
•
Glitch events provide an indication that a signal has multiple value
changes within one simulation time. They are always marked by
a yellow diamond. When you place the cursor on the glitch event
marker, the signal name and the message "multiple value
changes" appear in the status bar.
Waveform Window
4-27
•
User defined events are defined using the $vcdplusevent
command (refer to System Tasks and Functions on page 17-3).
You can specify the type of event as a text string and the shape
and color of the event marker for up to 244 different combinations.
When you place the cursor on the event marker, the signal name
and the event string appear in the status bar.
To enable glitch unique events in interactive mode, toggle recording
of unique events in the Interactive Window by selecting Record Glitch
Events from the Sim Menu. Actual recording starts at the beginning
of the next time sample. If you are at or past the time for which you
want to record glitch events, turn on Record Glitch Events then from
the Sim Menu select Re-Exec to rerun the simulation. In postprocessing mode you must enable reporting of unique events in the
VCD+ file using $vcdplusglitchon for glitch events and $vcdplusevent
for user defined events. For more information, refer to System Tasks
and Functions on page 17-3.
Waveform Window
4-28
Figure 4-9
Displaying Unique Events
Unique event
symbols
Place the cursor
on the event
symbol and the
event string
appears in the
status bar.
Changing the Display Format
The following information is covered in this section:
•
Selecting Drawing Mode
•
Modifying Waveform Height
•
Adding and Deleting Blank Lines
•
Displaying Strength Based Colors
•
Using the Waveform Style Editor
Waveform Window
4-29
Selecting Drawing Mode
(EPIC and Verilog only) The drawing mode lets you display a vector
in either digital or analog mode.
To select the Drawing mode:
1. In the Waveform Window, click right on the waveform to open the
context sensitive menu.
2. Choose Drawing Mode and select the drawing mode type from
the context sensitive menu.
There are three drawing modes: Analog (StairStep), Analog (Pt to
Pt), and Digital. See Figure 4-10, Drawing Modes (EPIC and Verilog
Only). Analog displays are typically used for EPIC signals, but can
also be used to display vectors and reals as analog signals. In analog
modes, the bottom of the signal wave represents the minimum value,
and the top of the signal wave represents the largest possible value.
Figure 4-10 Drawing Modes (EPIC and Verilog Only)
Analog (StairStep) -- Displays the
value of a vector or real as an analog
waveform that stays at the value until the
next reported value change.
Analog (Pt to Pt) -- Displays the
value of a vector or real as an analog
waveform that is linearly interpolated
between each reported value change.
Digital -- Displays the value of a vector
or real as a numeric value.
Waveform Window
4-30
Modifying Waveform Height
To modify the waveform height:
1. In the Waveform Window place your cursor on a waveform or
select a group of waveforms and place your cursor on any one of
the waveforms. Click right to open the context sensitive menu.
2. Select Waveform Height and then choose a multiple (from 1 to
20) of the standard height. The current size is grayed out. Your
selection is applied to all selected waveforms.
Adding and Deleting Blank Lines
Blank lines are used to vertically space waveforms to improve the
readability of waveforms in the Waveform Pane.
To insert a blank line above a waveform:
1. Click right on the waveform to open the context sensitive menu.
2. Select Blank. A blank line appears above the waveform.
To delete a Blank Line:
1. Click left on the blank space in the Signal Name Pane to select
the blank line.
2. Select Cut or Delete from the Edit menu.
Waveform Window
4-31
Displaying Strength Based Colors
The Waveform window can display different colors for different
strengths. You display strength colors by incrementally loading the
strengths.cfg file that is located in the $VIRSIMHOME/
virsims_support/appfiles directory.
UNIX users can also display strength colors by setting the
VirSim*enableStrengthBasedEncoding X resource to True. If your
environment is set up so that XUSERFILESEARCHPATH is set to
./%N:~/%N:$XUSERFILESEARCHPATH, you can do this by copying
the $VIRSIMHOME/appfiles/VirSim file to either your current or home
directory and editing the following line:
Virsim*enableStrengthBasedEncoding: True
Upon loading strengths.cfg or changing the resource, the default
colors for strengths are automatically displayed as follows:
supply0, supply1
tan
strong0, strong1
green
pull0, pull1
purple
large0, large1
magenta
weak0, weak1
cyan
medium0, medium1
blue
small0, small1
pink
highz
gold
The difference between 0 and 1 strengths is the position of the line,
for example, supply0 is a tan line at the bottom, supply1 is a tan line
at the top.
Waveform Window
4-32
You can change the default strength colors using the waveform style
editor. You can, for example, use this editor to specify different colors
for supply0 and supply1. Then, for future use, you can save a
configuration file to incrementally load your preferred color scheme.
Using the Waveform Style Editor
The Waveform Style Editor is used to modify the waveform color and
style for selected encoding types. First, the file type determines the
available encoding types. Then, the encoding type determines the
available signal types (for example, values 0, 1, X, and Z for Verilog
Scalar). Finally, for each signal type, its associated color and style
can be set. The style settings can be saved in the VirSim configuration
file and restored upon subsequent loading of that configuration file.
Default Waveform Styles for Verilog, VHDL, and EPIC are described
in Appendix A, Waveform Defaults.
Note:
The default waveform colors and style settings are defined in the
X Resources file. For information on changing the default settings,
see Waveform Highlighting in Chapter 16, VirSim Setup.
Waveform Window
4-33
Figure 4-11 Waveform Style Editor
The Waveform Style Editor has the following style menus and action
buttons.
File Type
The File Type Menu is used to select the file type: Verilog, VHDL, or
EPIC. Each file type has a unique set of options for encoding signal
types, signal values, and waveform styles from which you can select.
Waveform Window
4-34
Encoding
The Encoding Menu is used to select signal types for the Verilog,
VHDL, or EPIC file you select. Verilog signal types include Scalar,
Vector, Real, and Event. EPIC signal types include Scalar, Vector,
and Analog. VHDL signal types include all standard types and all user
defined types in all VHDL files that are currently open.
Value
The Value Menu is used to select the signal value. The Value Menu
contains the available signal values for the selected signal type. When
you select a value, the defined color and waveform style are displayed
in the Color Palette and Waveform Style Menu.
Color
The Color Palette is used to set the signal color of the currently
selected signal value and signal type. Colors identify the signal value
and signal type. When you select a signal value, the palette displays
a black border around the color assigned to the signal.
Waveform Style
The Waveform Style Menu is used to set the display style for the
waveform. The file type, encoding type, and signal value determine
the available set of waveform styles. When you open the menu, the
current waveform style is desensitized.
OK
OK changes waveform styles to the styles set and closes the
Waveform Style Editor.
Waveform Window
4-35
Apply
Apply changes waveform styles to the styles set and leaves the
Waveform Style Editor open.
Cancel
Cancel closes the Waveform Style Editor without saving any changes.
Help
Help opens online help for the Waveform Style Editor.
Additional Features
The following information is covered in this section:
•
Monitoring a Running Simulation Using Update Mode
•
Printing Waveforms
Monitoring a Running Simulation Using Update Mode
The Update Dialog (see Figure 4-12, Update Dialog) is used to control
periodic reading and display of new data. This allows VirSim to view
results when either running an interactive session or reading a history
file while the simulator is writing to that file.
To open the Update Dialog, click left on File in the menu bar and
choose the Update command. This command is activated only during
an interactive session or when reading a VCD+ file that is being
written.
Waveform Window
4-36
Figure 4-12 Update Dialog
The Update Dialog has Periodic Update buttons, an Update Interval
field, and three action buttons.
Periodic Update
Toggles periodic update on or off. Click left on the appropriate toggle
button to enable or disable periodic update.
Update Interval
Specifies the update interval (in seconds) to check the simulation
history file for new data.
OK
Accepts the entry made in the Update Interval field and closes the
Update Dialog.
Cancel
Closes the Update Dialog without saving changes.
Help
Opens online help for the Update Dialog.
Waveform Window
4-37
Printing Waveforms
To access the Print Dialog from the Waveform Window, click left on
the File Menu and choose Print. If multiple Waveform Windows are
displayed, the Print Dialog simply associates with the Waveform
Window from which it is selected.
When using the default Print Dialog settings, printed output is very
similar to what is viewed in the associated Waveform Window, with
the following differences.
•
Time-axis display is more elaborate. Default time tick intervals are
always {1, 2, or 5} x 10n and are chosen by VirSim to maximize
the readability and reference value of the output. Time values may
also be vertically staggered in certain cases to allow for more
frequent labels without loss of readability. Also, vertical grid lines
are lightly drawn through the data area to provide more visual
cues.
•
All signals in a Group are included in a print job, even those that
are not directly visible in the Waveform Window.
•
The Value Pane of the Waveform Window is not printed.
•
The Print Dialog provides time display options, which provide
user-control of display and scaling of time-axis values.
This section includes the following information:
•
Printing a Time Range
•
Distributing a Printout Across Several Pages
•
Controlling Paper Size and Orientation
•
Specifying a Printer Name
Waveform Window
4-38
•
Printing to Postscript
•
Adjusting the Signal Name Printout
Printing a Time Range
Use the Begin Time and End Time fields to specify the time range to
print. By default, Begin Time displays time at the left edge of the
Waveform Pane and End Time displays time at the right edge. The
controls automatically constrain entries to times within the simulation.
Distributing a Printout Across Several Pages
Use the Time Slices and Signal Slices controls to distribute printouts
across pages.
To print the time axis across several pages:
Use Time Slices to divide the time (x) axis into up to 50 slices (pieces)
and print a slice on each page. For example, to print from time 1000
to time 2500 across four pages, set Begin Time to 1000, End Time
to 2500, and Time Slices to 4. Each page in the printout has (2500 1000) / 4 = 375 time units.
Waveform Window
4-39
To print the signal axis across several pages:
Use Signal Slices to divide the signal (y) axis into up to 20 slices
(pieces) and print a slice on each page. If the last time slice is only
partial, the remainder appears on the last page. For example, if you
are printing a group with 37 signals, and Time Slices is set to 1, a
request for 4 Signal Slices results in 10 signals on the first three pages
and 7 on the last. If Signal Slices is set to one, all 37 signals appear
on one printed page. If there are 100 signals in the current group, and
Time Slices is one and Signal Slices is 4, 25 signals will be printed
per page.
You can print with both multiple time slices and multiple signal slices
to break a job up into as many as 1000 (50 time slices * 20 signal
slices) sheets. Each page of the output is numbered (for example, 5
of 12).
Controlling Paper Size and Orientation
To select a standard paper size:
Select the Standard Paper Size button then select one of the following
sheet size options from the associated pull-down menu: American
standard A, B, C, D, or E size sheets, or Metric Standard A3, A4, or
A5 sheets.
To specify a custom sheet size:
Select the Custom Sheet Size button then enter values for Width,
Height, and Units. Width and Height fields. You can select units in
inches (in), centimeters (cm), and millimeters (mm) from the Units
pull-down menu.
Waveform Window
4-40
To rotate the output:
Many PostScript output devices assume a portrait orientation for their
output space. By default, VirSim prints in landscape mode. Thus, it
sets the Rotate Output toggle on. If you prefer portrait orientation, set
the toggle off.
Specifying a Printer Name
For Windows users, use the Print Command field to specify a printer
port such as LPT1 for a local printer or a path and printer name such
as \\helga\engprinter for a network printer.
Note:
For Unix, the only command accepted in this field is lpr.
Printing to Postscript
To print to a PostScript file:
When you select the Print Only to File option, PostScript output is
sent only to the specified file. This can be extremely useful in
conjunction with a PostScript preview tool. For example, you can
interactively adjust and view your print job prior to generating
hardcopy by making print option adjustments, pressing the Apply
button to generate a new PostScript file, then reading the file in your
PostScript previewer. You can view the exact print job before
submitting it to the printer
Note:
If you do not select Print Only to File, Apply sends the print job to
the printer instead of a PostScript file.
Waveform Window
4-41
To create an Encapsulated PostScript file:
The Encapsulated PostScript (EPSF) toggle button is associated with
the Print To File toggle button, and has the sole effect of centering
the PostScript image on the page with margins equal to 25% of the
page width and height. The generated PostScript is fully scalable (i.
e. all graphics are drawn relative to the image origin), and may be
relocated anywhere on the page using whatever tools are provided
by the importing application. The PostScript image emitted using Print
To File is fully scalable even without this option, but the margins are
set such that the image occupies most of the page. The Encapsulated
PostScript option outputs an image that is more easily manipulated
in the importing application.
Adjusting the Signal Name Printout
To print the local signal name or hierarchical signal name:
Select Local Name or Full Name from the Signal Name pane.
To adjust the width of the signal name in the printout:
Select Shrink to Fit to automatically size the signal name column to
fit the longest signal name. To specify a width for the signal name
column, select Signal Width and enter a value in the Width field. You
can select units in inches (in), centimeters (cm), and millimeters (mm)
from the Units pull-down menu.
Waveform Window
4-42
Toolbar and Menu Reference
Toolbar
You can toggle display of toolbar icons from the View menu.
Group Icon
Marker Icon
Load Icon
Zoom In Icon
Zoom Out Icon
The Group icon opens a menu containing all defined
signal groups. The five most recently used groups
appear at the top of the menu, with the most recent
group first. The remaining groups are listed in
alphabetical order in the lower portion of the menu.
Selecting a group loads the signals for that group and
displays the group name in the title bar of the
Waveform Window. For more information on working
with groups, see Using Multiple Signal Groups to View
Relevant Data.
The Marker icon opens a menu containing all defined
markers. In post simulation mode, selecting a marker
from the menu moves the C1 cursor to the set marker.
If the zoom was saved, selecting he marker restores
the zoom factor. In Interactive mode (SIM Link), the
marker advances the simulator to the time selected in
the linked window. For more information on markers,
see Chapter 12, Markers.
The Load icon can be used during Update mode to
manually read any new information that has been
written to the VCD+ file.
The Zoom In icon zooms in the Waveform pane to
display approximately 50% of the previous time range
in the Waveform Pane. The zoomed display centers
around the C1 cursor.
The Zoom Out icon zooms out the Waveform Pane to
display approximately 2005 of the previous time range
in the Waveform Pane. The zoomed display centers
around the C1 cursor.
Waveform Window
4-43
Zoom Cursors Icon
Zoom Percent Icon
Vertical Compress
Search Icons
Waveform Window
4-44
The Zoom Cursors icon zooms the Waveform Pane
to display a time range between cursor C1 and C2. To
avoid rounding errors, the Waveform Pane may
display a larger time range than that marked by
cursors C1 and C2. You can also zoom the cursors by
right clicking in the Timescale Pane or selecting Zoom
Cursors from the context sensitive menu.
The Zoom Percent icon displays a pop-up menu of
zoom percentages: 100%, 75%, 50%, and 25%.
When you select one of these options, the Waveform
Pane zooms to that percentage of the simulation time.
Percentages are based on the minimum and
maximum simulation time range of signals for all data
files loaded.
The Vertical Compress icon toggles between normal
and condensed waveforms. Condensed waveforms
provide an overview mode which displays as many
waveforms as possible with enough detail to
determine what areas need further investigation.
The Search icons initiates a search backward or
forward in time from the C1 cursor to the next
breakpoint. The search includes active expression
breakpoints and line breakpoints in any Source
Window in the Waveform Window.
If the search finds a breakpoint or event for an active
expression, C1 is placed at the event in the Waveform
Pane. The name of the expression satisfied is
displayed above C1. If multiple expressions are
satisfied at the same simulation time, VirSim displays
an asterisk and the name of the first expression.
Additional searches in the same direction cycle
through the remaining expression names. No names
are displayed for line breakpoints. If the search does
not find any events for any active expression, the
system bell sounds.
These icons allow you to open new VirSim windows
from the Waveform Window toolbar.
New Window Icons
Breakpoint Group Icon
Link Icon
The Breakpoint Group icon opens the Breakpoint
Groups menu. Breakpoint Groups consist of groups
of expressions that are used to search for breakpoints.
You can select available breakpoint groups from the
menu.
Breakpoint groups are created in the Breakpoint
Groups Dialog. The group expressions are defined in
the Expressions Dialog. For information on creating
Breakpoint Groups, see Monitoring a Running
Simulation Using Update Mode.
Windows may be linked so that changes in time in one
window are reflected in all other windows. The linked
windows display the current link as a capital letter or
SIM next to the Link icon. To link or unlink a window,
click the Link icon and select the desired link. Moving
or placing Cursor C1 changes the time of the other
linked windows. In the case of an interactive
simulation, all windows linked to SIM are linked to the
current time in the Waveform Window. In this case,
Cursor C1 is used only for Zoom Cursors.
Waveform Window
4-45
Context Sensitive Menus
Signal Group Pane Context Sensitive Menu (CSM)
The Waveform Pane CSM is used to display and format waveforms,
expand and collapse times, and obtain event origins (see Figure 4-13,
Waveform Pane CSM). To open the Waveform Pane CSM, click right
on the waveform or a waveform edge.
Figure 4-13 Waveform Pane CSM
Zoom Cursors
Displays a waveform time range between cursors C1 and C2.
Event Origin
Brings up a sub menu of Event Origin options: Automatically Select
Window, Point to Preferred Window, View In New Window. Refer to
Chapter 12, Event Origin.
Waveform Window
4-46
Drawing Mode
Brings up a menu of drawing mode options: Digital, Analog
(StairStep), and Analog (Pt to Pt). Refer to Selecting Drawing Mode
on page 4-30.
Waveform Height
Allows you to choose a multiple (from 1 to 20) of the standard height.
The current size is grayed out.
Add Blank
Places a blank line above the waveform on which you clicked to open
the CSM. To delete the blank line, click left on the blank space in the
Signal Name Pane to select the blank line then select Cut or Delete
from the Edit menu.
Add Drivers
Allows you to display the drivers for a signal either directly below the
signal or at the end of the current group.
Expand Time
Expands a time to view delta cycle information. Refer to Expanding
Time to Display Exact Order of Events Using Delta Cycles on page
4-19.
Collapse Time
Collapses delta cycle information for the time on which you clicked to
open the CSM. Refer to Expanding Time to Display Exact Order of
Events Using Delta Cycles on page 4-19.
Waveform Window
4-47
Collapse All Time
Collapses all expanded delta cycle information. Refer to Expanding
Time to Display Exact Order of Events Using Delta Cycles on page
4-19.
Next Edge
Locates the next edge that occurs in any of the selected signals. Refer
to Finding the Next or Previous Edge on Selected Signals on page
4-17.
Previous Edge
Locates the previous edge that occurred in any of the selected signals.
Refer to Finding the Next or Previous Edge on Selected Signals on
page 4-17.
Signal Pane Context Sensitive Menu (CSM)
The Signal Pane CSM is used to select all signals in the pane. (see
Figure 4-14, Signal Pane CSM). To open the Signal Pane CSM, click
right in the Signal Pane.
Figure 4-14 Signal Pane CSM
Select All
Selects all signals in the Signal Pane.
Waveform Window
4-48
Edit ...
Opens a dialog that allows you to edit the name or bit range.
Menu Bar
The following menus include commands specific to the Waveform
Window:
•
File Menu
•
Edit Menu
•
Zoom Menu
•
Display Menu
•
View Menu
Note:
Any menu with a dotted line at the top can be torn off and placed
on the display for easy access. Click middle above the dotted line,
and then drag the menu to a convenient position.
Waveform Window
4-49
File Menu
Open - Opens the file browser to load an
EPIC, VCD, or VCD+ history file.
Reopen - Reopens all history files that have
changed since they last were loaded.
Close - Closes an open history file.
Load Sources - Compiles Verilog source.
Save Configuration - Saves the current
configuration.
Load Configuration - Loads a configuration
file.
Update - Opens the Update Dialog to enable
or disable periodic reading of history files from
an active simulation or, in interactive mode, a
running simulation.
Print - Opens the Print Dialog for printing
signal data.
Close Window - Closes the Waveform
window.
Exit - Exits VirSim.
Waveform Window
4-50
Edit Menu
Cut - Cut the selection and move it to the
clipboard.
Copy - Copy the selection to the clipboard.
Paste - Paste the clipboard to a designated area.
Delete - Delete the selection.
Select All - Selects all signals in the window.
Groups - Open the Groups Dialog. A group is a
set of signals that are global to all Waveform
windows. You create groups in the Groups
Dialog.
Markers - Open the Markers Dialog. The dialog
is used to define markers for specific simulation
times.
Expressions - Open the Expressions Dialog.
The dialog is used to define and enable
expressions for breakpoint groups.
Buses - Open the Bus Builder Dialog.
Breakpoints - Open the Breakpoint Groups
Dialog. The dialog is used to create breakpoint
groups for grouping breakpoint expressions.
Radix - Open the Radix Dialog. The dialog is
used to create user-defined radices.
Styles - Open the Waveform Style Editor Dialog.
In the dialog, you can set waveform styles for the
file type, encoding, color, and waveform position
and shape.
Waveform Window
4-51
Zoom Menu
Zoom In - increases waveform detail. It
displays approximately 50% of the previous
time range.
Zoom Out - increase waveform viewing area.
It displays 200% of the previous time range.
Zoom Cursors - displays a waveform time
range between cursors C1 and C2.
Zoom Percent - Displays a popup menu to
choose Zoom Percent of the total time range:
100%, 75%, 50% and 25%
Vertical Compress - toggles compression of
display vertically.
Display Menu
Time Scale - Opens the Time Scale Dialog
which is used to set the display unit and
display precision for VirSim display time.
Unique Events - Toggles Unique Events on
or off. When on, unique events display in the
Waveform Window. When off, unique events
do not display.
Waveform Window
4-52
View Menu
View Menu settings are saved when you close VirSim.
Waveform Tools - Toggles display of
the Waveform tools.
Zoom Tools - Toggles display of the
Zoom tools.
Search Tools - Toggles display of the
Search tools.
Window Icons - Toggles display of the
Window icons.
Break Group Icon - Toggles display of
the Breakpoint Group icon.
Link Icon - Toggles display of the Link
icon.
Waveform Window
4-53
Waveform Window
4-54
5
Source Window
1
Using the Source Window you can:
•
Navigate and view the design and transparently access all its
elements in complex file hierarchies.
•
Easily edit the correct file using your preferred editor.
•
Debug design behavior with current signal values annotated next
to the signals.
•
Use Event Origin to locate the origin of any signal change.
•
Follow and control source execution in selected sections of the
design using breakpoints and stepping.
•
Debug design behavior by analyzing execution counts for the
code.
Source Window
5-1
Introducing the Source Window
The Source Window has the following three panes:
•
Execution Pane
•
Source Text Pane
•
Control Pane
In addition, there is a toolbar for commonly used commands.
Figure 5-1, Sample Source Window, shows an example of the Source
Window.
Figure 5-1
Sample Source Window
Menu Bar
Toolbar
Execution Pane
Displays statement
execution arrows or
line execution count,
line breakpoints,
breakable lines, and
source line numbers.
Source Text Pane
Displays the Verilog
source for an instance.
Control Pane
Shows status, indicates and modifies the
current instance or
time, and searches the
current source for
matching text.
Source Window
5-2
Execution Pane
The Execution pane normally displays arrows to indicate statement
execution and dots to indicate line breakpoints (see Table 5-1,
Statement Indicators in Execution Mode).
Table 5-1
Statement Indicators in Execution Mode
Indicator
Description
In Post Simulation mode, small green dots represent
lines that have been executed at least once in the
simulation and where a breakpoint might be set. In
Interactive mode, the small dots indicate lines that may
potentially execute.
For a given simulation time, multiple arrows may be
displayed to indicate concurrent statement execution.
A single yellow arrow indicates the current statement
execution. In Post Simulation mode, only one current
statement per linked Source Window can execute at a
time. You can single step the arrow forward and
backward.
A red dot is displayed on lines where breakpoints have
been set. Pink dots indicate breakpoints se in other
instance groups. For VHDL, pink dots also indicate
breakpoints set from the command line of the
Interactive Window. To set or clear a breakpoint, left
click on the dot.
(Verilog only) An off-white outline arrow marks the
results of an Event Origin operation or indicates source
text that resulted from dragging and dropping any of
the following from the Logic Browser into the Source
Window:
• Assignment object
• Module instance object
• Primitive graphical object
A filled yellow arrow indicates the Event Origin or
source text is also the current execution file.
Source Window
5-3
Alternatively, the Display menu commands Show Execution and
Show Coverage toggle the Execution pane between execution and
coverage display modes. Selecting Show Coverage displays the line
execution count in place of the statement execution arrows. Selecting
Show Execution displays the arrows again.
In order to obtain line info and/or line trace data, the simulator may
have to be built with or supplied appropriate options or commands.
In Interactive mode when the All group is enabled, line execution data
is not saved. There will be no hollow blue arrows indicating concurrent
statement execution.
Source Text Pane
The Source Text pane displays the Verilog source code for the
instance. To select an instance, either
•
enter the full name in the Scope field and left click on the OK
button, or
•
drag-and-drop a scope to the field from another VirSim window.
When you drag a scope into the source text pane, an instance is
added to the currently enabled instance group. If no instance groups
have been created, VirSim creates and automatically names a group
(AutoInstanceGroupX, where X is numeric).
You can drag-and-drop signal names from the Source Text pane to
other windows or dialogs. To select text, double click on the text or
left click and drag the cursor across the text.
Source Window
5-4
The source text is color coded to designate user identifiers, keywords
and comments.
Color
Use
Blue
User-defined identifiers
Red
Keywords
Yellow
Comments
Green
All other text
Gray
Defined or protected source
Note:
Colors shown above are the ones defined in the standard
configuration.
Control Pane
The control pane includes the following controls (see Table 5-2,
Control Pane).
Table 5-2
Control Pane
Control
Description
File
Specifies the file designator for the source history file or
compiled sources (Z1 file). The file designator is selected from
the pull-down menu next to the File field. NOTE: For files
created with non-VCS and Scirocco simulators, only VCD+
history files (or interactive session) that have Use Sources
enabled appear in the File menu.
Scope
Specifies the full name of the scope loaded in the Source Text
pane. When you enter a scope, the Source Window displays
the instance of that
Source Window
5-5
Table 5-2
Control
Description
Time
Specifies the time of the window and al windows linked to this
window.
Find
Searches the current source for matching text. The Find field
includes a text entry field and forward and backward search
buttons. If the signal is dragged into the Source Window, the
Find box is seeded with the signal name and automatically
highlights the first occurrence. To search text, enter the
character string to search for in the text entry field and left click
on the search button.
Note:
- The Find field does not support wildcard characters.
- Search text does not search text spanning line breaks.
- If a forward search reaches the end of the instance before
finding text, the search continues at the beginning of the
instance.
- If no match is found, the status bar displays an error and the
console beeps.
Status bar
Displays a description of the toolbar buttons and informative
messages.
Source Window
5-6
Control Pane
Before Using the Source Window
Verilog
Verilog source information can come from either the Verilog source
or from the simulator PLI for certain simulators. The VCD+ file
produced by VCS or Scirocco when compiled with the -line option
contains information that allows the VirSim Source Window to work
without first compiling the source. When the VCD+ file is from other
simulators, the Verilog source must be compiled by VirSim. The Load
Sources dialog will automatically pop up if VirSim needs to compile
sources and source file information was not provided on the command
line. The source files do not necessarily need to reside in your local
directory; however, if they do not, you must provide the full path. You
may provide the source arguments on the VirSim command line, and
the compilation then will be performed when the information first is
required.
Line trace information can come from either a VCD+ file or via a PLI
from an interactive run. For line trace data to be stored in the VCD+
file, the simulator must have been explicitly instructed to store line
trace information in the Verilog code using $vcdplustraceon. When
the information is coming from a VCD+ file created with a simulator
other than VCS, the VCD+ file also must have been opened with the
Use Sources switch enabled (which is the default).
VHDL
You need to analyze the source code in debug mode before running
simulation.
Source Window
5-7
Note:
You can not display the cycle portion of your design in the source
window.
Navigate and View a Design
Drag-and-drop a scope from any other window to the Source Window,
and the Source Window displays source for that instance module. An
instance can be any module, task, function, or named block in the
Verilog source code. Instances may be placed in groups so that a
group of instances may be debugged. A special All Group instance
group allows source debugging of the entire design in interactive
mode or those portions for which line trace data was saved in postprocessing mode.
Use the context sensitive menu to descend new instances or to go to
the parent of the currently displayed instance. Each instance visited
is added to the current instance group for use when following or
controlling source execution.
Access any signal or signals from the Source Window for use in any
other window by dragging and dropping individual signals or a
selected range of code to another window. Signal hierarchy is added
to the names, signals are sorted and duplicates are removed.
Source Window
5-8
Edit the Correct Design File
The Source Window Edit menu includes two commands for opening
source code in a text editor: Edit Source and Edit Parent.
To
Do This
Open the Source File for the
current instance
In the Menu Bar, left click on Edit and choose Edit
Source. For example, if the current instance
displayed is test.risc1.instdec, then the text editor
displays source code for test.risc1.instdec.
Edit a specific line of source
code or an included file.
Left click on the line in the Source Text pane and
then from the menu bar choose Edit and Edit
Source. This also allows editing included files.
Open the source file for any
parent instance of the
currently displayed
instance.
In the Menu bar, left click on Edit and choose Edit
Parent. For example, if the current instance is
test.risc1.instdec, then the text editor will display
source code for test.risc1.
Note:
If you change the source file, you must resimulate.
Debug Behavior Using Value Annotation
View Signal Values for All Signals
To view current values for all signals, select Show Values from the
Display menu. Current signal values appear below the variable name.
If there is not enough space for a signal value to appear, an asterisk
appears next to the signal name. Move your cursor over the signal
name to view a popup of the current signal value.
Source Window
5-9
Figure 5-2
Source Window with Show Values Turned On
Current signal
values appear
below the variable name
An asterisk
appears when
there is not
enough space
to display the
value. Move
the mouse
over the variable to view a
value popup
View Signal Values for One Signal
To view the current value for one signal, click the Load Value Changes
icon if necessary, then move your cursor over the signal name to view
a popup of the current signal value.
Source Window
5-10
Follow and Control Source Execution Using Stepping
and Breakpoints
Follow Source Execution
The Source Window displays arrows to indicate all lines that execute
this sample time and what line will execute next. Source execution is
followed for all instances in the current instance group.
Control Source Execution
Use the Next/Previous Line icons to follow execution. You can also
use the Run icon or any other means to change the current sample
time to see all lines that execute at a sample time.
Using Breakpoints
Set Breakpoints
In the Execution pane, green dots next to a statement line indicate
lines that can have breakpoints. Each instance group has its own set
of breakpoints. Setting a breakpoint on a line of an instance only
affects the current instance group. When All Group is being used,
pink dots indicate that a breakpoint is set in one or more of the other
instance groups. To set a breakpoint, left click on the green or pink
dot. A large red dot replaces the dot, indicating a breakpoint has been
set at that line.
Source Window
5-11
Clear Breakpoints
The Edit menu contains two commands for clearing breakpoints:
Clear Instance Breaks and Clear Group Breaks.
•
The Clear Instance Breaks command removes all line breakpoints
in the instance currently being shown.
•
The Clear Group Breaks command removes all line breakpoints
in all the instances in the instance group currently in use.
In the menu bar, left click on Edit and choose the appropriate
breakpoint command.
To clear individual breakpoints, left click on the red breakpoint dot.
The red dot is replaced by a green dot. If a pink dot is displayed, you
must go to the instance group which set the breakpoint.
Run to Breakpoints
The Step Breakpoint icons set the Source Window time to the
previous or next time a line containing a breakpoint executed. When
All Group is selected, all lines for which a breakpoint has been set in
any group are considered. Otherwise, only those lines in the current
instance group with breakpoints set are considered.
Note:
VirSim might stop before a line containing a breakpoint if it
encounters an expression breakpoint.
Source Window
5-12
Using Instance Groups
Instance groups are used to filter trace execution information. Only
statements executed in instances listed in the current instance group
are displayed.
The Instance Group Edit Dialog is used to create and edit instance
groups. You can add instances to the group by dragging them into
the Instance List. You also can add instances to the current instance
group by dragging them into the Source Window.
For example, If you are debugging a problem, you can create and use
an instance group that contains only those instances in which the
problem may occur. When you step lines, the Source Window only
steps through instances in the order executed.
A special All Group instance group allows source debugging of the
entire design in interactive mode or those portions for which line trace
data was saved in post-processing mode.
Figure 5-3, Instance Group Edit Dialog, shows an example of the
Instance Group Edit Dialog. To open the Instance Group Edit Dialog,
left click on Edit in the Menu Bar and choose Instance Groups.
Source Window
5-13
Figure 5-3
Instance Group Edit Dialog
Instance Groups
Instances in
the Instance
Group Highlighted
Adding an
Instance to
Instance Group
Highlighted
The Instance Group Edit Dialog has the following options.
Instance Group List
Lists the names of the current instance groups.
To display the instance group:
•
Source Window
5-14
left click on an instance group in the Instance Group List. The
instances in the group appear in the Instance list.
To add instances to the instance group:
•
with the instance group highlighted, enter a new instance in the
Instance field and left click on Add, or
•
drag-and-drop a scope into the Instance List pane.
Instance Group
Used to enter a new instance group. Type the name of the instance
group in the text field and left click on Add. The name appears in the
Instance Group List.
Instance List
Lists the names of instances in the instance group. To display the
instance list, left click on an instance group in the Instance Group List.
Instance
Used to enter an instance in an instance group. To enter an instance,
either:
•
type the full hierarchy name of the instance in the Instance text
field and left click on Add, or
•
drag-and-drop the instance into the instance name text field and
left click on Add, or
•
drag-and-drop the instance directly into the Instance list.
Add
Adds an instance to the Instance List or an instance group to the
Instance Group List.
Source Window
5-15
Delete
Deletes the selected instance from the Instance List or the selected
group from the Instance Group List.
OK
Saves changes to the Instance Group Edit Dialog and closes the
dialog.
Apply
Saves changes to the Instance Group Edit Dialog and leaves the
dialog open.
Cancel
Closes the Instance Group Edit Dialog without saving any changes.
Help
Opens on-line help for the Instance Group Edit Dialog.
Define Markers
The Markers Dialog is used to define markers for simulation times.
To open the Markers Dialog, left click on the Edit menu in the menu
bar and choose Markers. For more information on markers, see
Chapter 14, Source Window.
Source Window
5-16
Capture Line Data
The Capture Line Data command is used to capture and display line
execution data in the Interactive mode. To capture line execution data,
left click on the Display menu and then left click on the toggle box to
enable Capture Line Data.
By disabling capture of line data, you gain significantly improved
performance when using line breakpoints in interactive Verilog-XL
simulations. The default for Capture Line Data is on.
Note:
When you set breakpoints from the Source Window, indications
of which lines are breakable (green dots) may change. This is due
to differences in VirSim's algorithm for determining breakable lines
using the line trace method versus the simulator's ability to break
at a given line (using the $db_breakatline command).
Note:
When using the All Group in Interactive Mode, the Capture Line
Data selection on the Display menu is insensitive as line data is
not captured in this optional mode.
Debug Behavior by Analyzing Execution Counts
To display line execution counts, left click on Display in the menu bar
and left click Show Coverage. This feature can provide valuable
information when debugging. For example, it can tell you if the
appropriate lines were executed or if inappropriate lines were
executed.
Source Window
5-17
Line stepping is disabled when Show Coverage is selected.
Toolbar and Menu Reference
This section includes the following information:
•
Toolbar
•
Source Text Pane Context Sensitive Menu
•
Menu Bar
Toolbar
You can toggle display of toolbar icons from the View menu.
Instance Group
Source Window
5-18
The Instance Group icon opens a menu of available
instance groups. An instance group is a set of instances
for which source tracing can be enabled. Left click on
an instance group to select it. When the instance group
is changed and the currently displayed instance is not
in the new group, the first instance within the group is
displayed. For information on creating instance groups,
see Using Instance Groups.
The All Group instance group is a special instance
group that allows source level debug of the entire
design. If running interactively and All Group is
selected, line stepping will stop at any line in the model.
When in Interactive Mode and using the All Group, line
data is not saved in VirSim memory. Therefore, no line
concurrent execution indication appears in the Source
Window Execution Pane. Also, when switching to the
show coverage view, the line would will not be
implemented for lines executed while the All Group is
active. In post-simulation, only those scopes which had
line tracing enabled during simulation are active for line
stepping.
Select Instance
Load Value Changes
Marker
Step Breakpoint
Step Line
New Window Icons
The Select Instance Group icon opens an alphabetized
list of all instances in the currently selected instance
group. Left click on an instance to select it. The selected
instance will then appear in the Source Text pane.
Due to the size and ambiguity of the instance list, this
icon is inactive when the All Group instance group is
selected.
The Load Value Changes icon loads value changes for
all signals in the current scope. Once loaded, you can
display current signal values by positioning the mouse
cursor over a signal name in the Source Window. After
a short delay, VirSim displays the current value of the
signal in a small pop-up window.
The swLoadValueChanges X-resource allows value
changes to be automatically loaded. If this is set to Auto,
the Load Value Changes icon is insensitive.
The Marker icon opens a menu of defined markers. Left
click on the Marker icon to set the Source Window to
the time of that marker. In Interactive Mode (SIM link),
the marker advances the simulator to the time selected
in the linked window. For more information on markers,
see Chapter 12, Markers.
The Step Breakpoint icons set the Source Window time
to the previous or next time a line contacting the
breakpoint executed. These buttons are enabled when
a line breakpoint is set. When All Group is selected, all
lines for which a breakpoints has been set in any group
are considered. Otherwise, only those lines in the
current instance group with breakpoints set are
considered.
The Step Line icons set the current statement arrow to
the previous or next statement execution. If there are
no more statements to execute at the current time, the
Source Window time is set to the previous or next time
any statement was executed.
These icons allow you to open new VirSim windows
from the Source Window toolbar. You can toggle display
of these buttons by selecting Window Icons from the
View menu.
Source Window
5-19
Breakpoint Group
Link Icon
The Breakpoint Group icon opens the Breakpoint
Groups menu. Breakpoint Groups consist of groups of
expressions that are used to search for breakpoints.
You can select available breakpoint groups from the
menu.
Selecting a breakpoint group only affects expression
breakpoints. The line breakpoints remain the same.
Different sets of line breakpoints may be activated with
the selection of different instance groups.
Breakpoint groups are created in the Breakpoint
Groups dialog. The group expressions are defined in
the Expressions Dialog. For information on creating
breakpoint groups, see Locating Events Using
Breakpoint Groups with Enabled Expressions.
Windows may be linked so that changes in time in one
window are reflected in all other windows. The linked
windows display the current link next to the Link icon.
The link indicator may either be SIM, which indicates
the window is linked to the simulator, or a capital letter
which indicates it is linked to all windows with the same
link and not linked to the simulator. To link or unlink a
window, click the Link icon and select the desired link.
Unlike other analysis windows, only one Source
Window per link is allowed. This window, however, can
handle any combination of instances as defined in the
instance group.
Source Text Pane Context Sensitive Menu
To open the CSM, point and click right in the Source Text pane.
Figure 5-4
Source Window
5-20
Source Text Pane CSM
Descend Instance
Selects the new scope, adds it if necessary to the current instance
group, and displays its source in the Source Text pane. This command
is enabled when the word currently being pointed at if appended to
the current instance results in a legal instance name for a module.
Go to Parent
Selects the parent of the currently displayed scope, adds it if
necessary to the current instance group, and displays its source in
the Source Window. The equivalent action is also taken by left clicking
the Display menu and selecting Go to Parent.
Select All
Selects all signals in the Source Text Pane.
Event Origin
Brings up a sub menu of Event Origin options: Automatically Select
Window, Point to Preferred Window, View In New Window. Refer to
Chapter 12, Event Origin.
Source Window
5-21
Menu Bar
Note:
Any menu with a dotted line at the top can be torn off and placed
on the display for easy access. Click middle above the dotted line,
and then drag the menu to a convenient position.
File Menu
Open - Opens the file browser to load an
EPIC, VCD, or VCD+ history file.
Reopen - Reopens all history files that have
changed since they last were loaded.
Close - Closes an open history file.
Load Sources - Compiles Verilog source.
Save Configuration - Saves the current
configuration.
Load Configuration - Loads a
configuration file.
Close Window - Closes the Source
Window.
Exit - Exits VirSim.
Source Window
5-22
Edit Menu
Copy - Copies the selection to the clipboard.
Select All - Selects all signals in the window.
Edit Source - Opens the source file for the
current scope in a text editor window.
Edit Parent - Opens the source file for the
parent scope in a text editor window.
Clear Instance Breaks -Removes all line
breakpoints from the instance in use.
Clear Group Breaks - Removes all line
breakpoints from the instance group in use.
Instance Groups - Opens the Instance
Group Edit Dialog. The dialog is used to
create instance groups.
Markers - Opens the Markers Dialog. The
dialog is used to define markers for specific
simulation times.
Source Window
5-23
Display Menu
Show Execution - Shows execution
information for the source file in the
Execution pane. Arrows show activity.
Show Coverage - Shows coverage
information in place of execution information.
Coverage displays the execution counts
(number of times the line was executed) and
disables stepping through source code.
Show Values - Displays current values for
all signals. Current signal values appear
below the variable name. If there is not
enough space for a signal value to appear,
an asterisk appears next to the signal name.
Moving the cursor over the signal name
displays a popup of the current signal value.
Unique Events - Toggles Unique Events
on or off. When on, unique events display in
the Source Window. When off, unique events
do not display.
Capture Line Execution - Captures and
displays line execution data in Interactive
mode.
Time Scale - Opens the Time Scale Dialog,
which is used to set the display unit and
display precision for VirSim display time.
Go to Parent - Selects the parent of the
currently dis9played scope, adds it if
necessary to the current instance group, and
displays its source in the Source Window.
Source Window
5-24
View Menu
View Menu settings are saved when you close VirSim.
Source Tools - Toggles display of the
Source Window tools.
Search Tools - Toggles display of the
Search tools.
Window Icons - Toggles display of the
Window icons.
Break Group Icon - Toggles display of
the Breakpoint Group icon.
Link Icon - Toggles display of the Link
icon.
Source Window
5-25
Source Window
5-26
6
Logic Browser
1
The Logic Browser (Verilog only) is a compact, easy-to-read
schematic window designed for analysis of complex designs. Drag a
scope, signal or group of selected signals into the Logic Browser and
click on ports to expand connectivity in relevant areas. Explore the
design behavior by analyzing the annotated values for ports and nets
as you go backwards and forwards in time.
The Logic Browser dramatically simplifies debugging of bus collisions,
tracing of undesired X values through complex circuitry, and
understanding of design connectivity.
Logic Browser
6-1
Introducing the Logic Browser
Features
Using Logic Browser you can:
•
Easily trace signal connectivity and view change history.
•
Perform all functions in post-simulation mode as well as interactive
mode. This frees the simulator to perform other work in parallel
with debugging.
•
View all instances and assignments driving or driven by connected
nets.
•
See all ports on instances with their names and values.
•
Navigate the time domain; jump to the next change in the selected
nets OR next change in any displayed net or port.
•
Navigate the design domain by simply clicking inside or outside
of ports to traverse the hierarchy.
•
Conveniently view assignments as instances.
•
Find the cause of signal transitions using Event Origin.
•
Load values only for signals of interest, saving time and memory.
•
Quickly locate signals that changed at the current time
Logic Browser
6-2
Figure 6-1
Sample Logic Browser
• All instances and assignments driven
by the displayed nets are shown.
• Nets are displayed with type, name
and current value.
• The selected nets are displayed in
pink, all others are in green.
• Ports on all instances are shown with
the connection expression text and
value of that expression. Note: only
values for the connected ports are
loaded by default.
Logic Browser
6-3
Getting Started
The following information is covered in this section:
•
Before Using the Logic Browser
•
Getting Started
Before Using the Logic Browser
Logic Browser accesses simulation value change results either from
a VCD+ file or interactively. The Logic Browser requires connectivity,
expressions, variables, and other information that are inappropriate
to store in a VCD+ file and are not available from the Verilog PLI. The
Logic Browser gets this information from the database image
produced by the Verilog Source Compiler (VSC).
When Logic Browser requires connection information, VirSim checks
if the Verilog source has been compiled; if not VirSim compiles the
source either automatically with the arguments provided on the
VirSim command line or manually prompted by the Load Sources
Dialog.
The VSC accepts the same command line switches, has the same
library search rules, and interprets the design in the same way as the
Verilog simulator.
Getting Started
To begin using the Logic Browser, simply drag a scope, signal or
selected group of signals into the window from any of the other
windows.
Logic Browser
6-4
Graphic Objects and Value Text
Many graphical objects are used when displaying the loads and
drivers of a signal. You may interact directly with the graphic objects
to navigate through a design, display signal values, and perform other
functions such as editing source files.
The following information is covered in this section:
•
Viewing Graphic Objects
•
Viewing and Loading Value Text
Viewing Graphic Objects
Object
Text
Port
Value text is displayed to the right of the port name.
Port Instance
Value text is displayed to the right of the port name.
Text shows what is connected to the outside of this port (For this
example, clock.) When Port and Net is selected from the Display
menu, the port definition is displayed. For Verilog, this name is
obtained by looking at what is connected on the inside of this
port. Note that no definition text is shown when the inside
connection is some expression like (i1 | i2).
Primitive Terminal
Value text is displayed to the right of the port name.
Text shows what is connected to the outside of this primitive
terminal. When Port and Net is selected from the Display menu,
the port definition is displayed. For Verilog, this is the terminal
position. (For example, the first port is connected to the net clk.)
Logic Browser
6-5
Object
Text
Module Instance
Logic Browser displays the module instance name. (For example,
SubmodWithBiDirInst) and the type of module instance (for
example, Submod).
Primitive
Instance
The primitive instance name. (For example, aPrimitive) is
displayed along with the primitive instance type (for example,
and).
Assignment
Statements
All contributors to any assignment statement are displayed as
drivers to an instance. Assignments act like primitives with the
exceptions listed below. an input port appears for each instance
of the nets contained in the expression on the left side of the
assignment, An output port is created for the net on the right side
of the assignment. The high conn expression for each of these
ports is the instance of the net that caused the port to be created.
Exceptions to the primitive display model are as follows:
• The name of the object is the entire assignment
statement.
• The module definition name does not appear in the logic
browser.
• There is a single output port. This means that
assignments with a concatenation on the left hand side
of the equal sign have a single output port with the
concatenation expressions as the high conn.
• There are no port names.
Note:
The values displayed on the ports are calculated using the values
of the nets at the end of the currenttime. In the case of a
procedural assignment, these may not be the actual values that
existed when the assignment was executed. In the case of
continuous/last assignments with delays, the output value is
calculated without analyzing delay information.
Logic Browser
6-6
Viewing and Loading Value Text
Value text on the Logic Browser display shows variable data such as
signal load status, data availability, and data values. It is dynamically
updated according to time viewed, signal load status, and display
radix selection. The underlying signal values are obtained either from
a VCD+ history file (post-processing mode) or from a running
simulation (interactive mode).
Any text that is too long to fit in the available space is abbreviated and
followed by an asterisk. Place your cursor over the abbreviated text
and the full text appears in the status bar. Allowable length for value
text is controlled with an X resource. See Chapter 16, VirSim Setup.
Loading Signal Values
For best performance, the Logic Browser supports incremental signal
loading. An NL indicates that the signal has not yet been loaded for
value display. After a load, the NL value text is replaced by actual
simulation values. A connection with NL value text may require
loading of multiple signals, depending on the expression. To avoid
unnecessary load delays, use the toolbar Load Value Changes icon
and the Logic Browser CSM Load Values commands judiciously.
Because a Logic Browser view may contain hundreds of signals, a
substantial delay may occur when these commands are used with
extremely large files. To avoid lengthy delays, use the appropriate
context sensitive menus to load only signals for specific modules or
port instances.
Logic Browser
6-7
Note:
To automatically load values for all objects shown in the Logic
Browser, select Autoload Values from the Display menu.
To
Do This
Load all signal values for the
current view.
Click the Load Signal Values icon or select Load
View NL from the Logic Browser context sensitive
menu.
Load values for all signals
connected to ports on a
specific module instance.
Select Load Inst NL from the Module Instance
context sensitive menu.
Load values for one or more
signals required to display
the value associated with a
port instance.
Select Load Values for the Port Instance context
sensitive menu. Often only a single signal is
loaded, but multiple signals may be loaded in the
case of complex expressions.
Unavailable Signals
A value of NA means that the signal is not available as it was not
saved in the database. History recording for scopes and signals may
be turned on or off at any time during a simulation.
Hierarchically Resolved Signals
When displaying values for a net, an HR in front of the value indicates
that the value of the signal at the port was hierarchically resolved. For
a port this means this is the combined value of all the drivers outside
of the current hierarchy.
For a port instance, this is the combined value of all the drivers inside
the instance. For a primitive terminal this is the value that terminal is
driving onto the signal.
Logic Browser
6-8
Note that HR values only occur when a signal has more than one
driver. A port value - means that VirSim only has the resulting net
value and not the values of individual drivers. Add +vpddrivers to
the simulator command line to save this data.
Note:
When a net is driven by multiple instances, the net shows the
resultant value, while each driving port shows a hierarchically
resolved (HR) value. The HR value is the net contribution from
within this instance. For example, if the net resultant value should
be 0 but is X and the two driving ports show HR:0 and HR:1, then
we know to debug the 1 path. An open wire without fanins may
still be an input to control statements such as @ (posedge clock),
if (cnt > 0) etc. Drag the wire into a SW and use the Find arrows
to locate its uses. When examining output port values from
assignments, be aware that they reflect the current value of the
driven net and not the current or scheduled value of the
expression. Control statements and delays will need to be
considered to determine if that assignment has affected the net
value.
Logic Browser
6-9
Navigating a Design
This section includes the following information:
•
Navigating the Design in the Time Domain
•
Navigating Using the Connection Dialog
•
Navigating the Design with Graphic Objects
Navigating the Design with Graphic Objects
To move up one level of the hierarchy:
Click left on a port to move up one level of hierarchy. In this case, clk is a port on the deltst1
instance.
Logic Browser
6-10
To descend one level of the hierarchy:
Click left on the inside of a port to navigate to a lower level of the design
hierarchy. Signal routing from your
previous view is maintained.
To clear signal routing, select Clear All
Routing or Clear Displayed Routing
from the Edit menu.
To navigate across the design hierarchy:
Click left on the outside of
a port to add a wire to the
schematic
The new, or selected, wire
appears in pink. All others
appear in green.
Logic Browser
6-11
Navigating the Design in the Time Domain
Using Next/Previous Net Change Commands
To navigate the time domain using Next/Previous, either click:
Next/Previous Selected Signals Change icons for the next/
previous change in the selected net.
Green arrows
Next/Previous Any Change icon for the next/previous
change in any displayed net that has values loaded.
Pink arrows
You can also click right on an object to display an associated context
sensitive menu. Choose the Next/Prev Change commands to move
the view backward and forward in time. The values affected depend
on the type of object selected and Verilog expressions for that object.
For example, in the Port Instance CSM, Next Change advances the
view to the next time the value changes for the port instance
expression. In the Module Instance CSM, Next Change takes into
account all value expressions on the periphery of that instance and
advances the view to the nearest time change of any one of these
expressions.
Using the Time Field
Enter a valid time in the Time field at the bottom of the Logic Browser
(see Figure 6-2, Time Field). The Time field rejects non-numeric
values and time values that are out of range for the loaded VCD+ file.
Then press [ENTER] or click left on OK.
Figure 6-2
Logic Browser
6-12
Time Field
Using Window Links
Change the time in a window to which the Logic Browser is linked.
Logic Browser updates the values for that time.
Navigating Using the Connection Dialog
The Connection Dialog can be useful when navigating complex
expressions.Click on an object and select View Connection from the
context sensitive menu. The Connection Dialog displays a detailed
port connection breakout map, Double click on a navigable signal or
bit from one of the lists. Logic Browser displays the selected signal.
An item is not navigable if it is generated from another expression,
such as a single bit generated from the expression a & b or a
nonexistent bit due to a port size mismatch. For more information,
see “Using the Connection Dialog” on page 6[ChapTitle]>6-14.
Logic Browser
6-13
Using Event Origin
Using the position of the mouse pointer as a reference, the Event
Origin feature can obtain precise information about the source of a
value change at a specific time. For more information, see Chapter
12, Event Origin.
To
Do This
Find the source of a value
change on the net.
Position the cursor over a net and click right to open
the context sensitive menu. Select Event Origin.
Find the source of a value
change on a connected
signal.
Point and click right on the port instance symbol (either
the HiConn or LoConn half) to open the Port Instance
context sensitive menu and select Event Origin.
For primitive terminals and port instances, Event
Origin is done on the high conn net. For ports, Event
Origin is don on the low conn net. Event Origin is not
available if the port is connected to an expression.
Using the Connection Dialog
The Connection Dialog is a complex dialog that contains two text
fields and seven scroll lists (see Figure 6-3, Connection Dialog). The
Connection Dialog displays a detailed port connection breakout map,
which can greatly aid in debugging connectivity errors. To open the
Connection Dialog, click on an object and select View Connection
from the context sensitive menu.
The following information is covered in this section:
•
Navigate from the Connection Dialog
•
Select a Signal with Expressions
Logic Browser
6-14
•
Figure 6-3
Expressions Example
Connection Dialog
Navigating from the Connection Dialog
To navigate directly from the Connection Dialog, either:
•
Double click left on navigable signals or bits from one of the lists.
•
Select a navigable signal or bit and click left on the OK or Apply
button.
An item is not navigable if it is generated from another expression,
such as a single bit generated from the expression a & b or a
nonexistent bit due to a port size mismatch.
Logic Browser
6-15
Selecting a Signal with Expressions
Verilog permits complex expressions to drive port and terminal
connections. A basic problem with complex expressions is that they
can present ambiguity in signal selection. The Connection Dialog lets
you further define the focus.
The HiConn expression and LoConn expression fields display the text
of the HiConn and LoConn port expressions for a port instance.
(Because primitive terminals do not have a LoConn, their LoConn
field is empty.)
The HiConn Signal/Value and LoConn Signal/Value lists show all of
the signals used in the port connection. For simple port connections,
there may be only a single signal/value pair. For more complex port
connections, the list displays each signal of the port expression and
that signal’s value.
The HiConn/LoConn Bit and Signal/Value lists can be very useful for
tracking connectivity problems, because they display a bit per bit, right
justified text, and mapping of the HiConn port expression to the
LoConn port expression. The list displays the least significant to most
significant bits from top to bottom. The string "***" is used as a place
holder for constants and parameters.
The HiConn Signal/Value, LoConn Signal/Value, and HiConn/
LoConn Bit/Value lists scroll in synchronization as a group.
Logic Browser
6-16
Expressions Example
The following example illustrates the types of complex port
expressions that are legal in the Verilog HDL. Consider the following
Verilog code:
module mid ({i1,i2}, {o1, o2[3:2], o2[0]});
input [4:0] i1;
input [2:0] i2;
output
o1;
output [3:0] o2;
buf g0 (o2[3], i1[4]);
not g1 (o2[2], i1[3]);
buf g2 (o2[1], i1[2]);
not g3 (o2[0], i1[0]);
buf g4 (o1, &i2);
endmodule
module top;
wire
y, z;
wire [1:0] netv1;
reg [1:0] a, b;
initial
begin
$vcdplusdeltacycleon;
$vcdpluson;
$vcdplustraceon;
repeat (10) #10 {a,b} = $random;
end
mid m0 ({a ^ b, 2'b01, a, b}, {z,y});
and andNet2 (z, y, a[0]);
assign netv1 = {y | a[0], y & a[0]};
endmodule
Assume that we have compiled this design and we view the focus
top.a in the Logic Browser. The Logic Browser view is shown in Figure
6-4, Connection Dialog Example.
Logic Browser
6-17
Figure 6-4
Connection Dialog Example
Note the port connection expressions {a^b,2’b01,a,b} and {z,y}. Right
click on the port instance with expression text {a^b,2’b01,a,b}, and
choose View Connection from the context sensitive menu. The
Connection Dialog appears (see Figure 6-3, Connection Dialog). By
double-clicking on either i1 or i2 you can select which signal to follow
when descending the hierarchy into the mid module.
Logic Browser
6-18
Editing Source from Logic Browser
The Logic Browser includes two commands for opening source code
in a text editor: Edit at Definition and Edit at Instance. The editor used
to edit text is determined from the EDITOR environment variable. In
Unix, if there is no editor environment variable set, the editor defaults
to VI. In Windows, if there is no editor environment variable set, the
program looks for a file association. If there is no file association, the
editor defaults to WordPad.
To
Do This
Open the Source file for
the current instance.
Right click on a Module instance and select Edit Current
Instance for the Module Instance Context Sensitive menu.
Open the Source file for
the module type
definition
Right click in the Logic Browser graphics area to open the
Logic Browser context sensitive menu, or right click on a
module instance to bring up the Module Instance context
sensitive menu. From either menu, select Edit Module
Type Definition.
Note:
If you change the source file you need to resimulate, reload data
and recompile the source in VirSim.
Changing the Display
Port and Net Display Setting
In the menu bar, the Display menu includes two commands for
toggling the display text settings. Choose Net Only to display net
names only. Choose Port and Net to display both port and net names.
Logic Browser
6-19
Time Scale Settings
You can select the display unit and display precision for time values
from the Time Scale Dialog. To open the Time Scale Dialog, click left
on the Display menu in the menu bar and choose Time Scale. A dialog
provides the time-scale selections. For more information on the Time
Scale Dialog, see Chapter 10, Time Units.
Show Single or Multiple Nets
In most cases you will want to use the Logic Browser’s multi-net
schematic. Choose Show Single Net from the Display menu to view
a simpler, single-net at a time view. This corresponds to the preVirSim 4.0 Logic Browser.
Note:
We recommend that you do not switch back and forth between
single and multi-level views. The two modes share a data
structure, and some history may be lost.
Displaying Unique Events
From the Display menu, toggle Unique Events on or off. When on,
unique events display in the Logic Browser.
Change the Radix Display
Right click on either the selected net or the port instance and select
Radix from a context sensitive menu. From the displayed Radix menu,
you can select a radix base (binary, hexadecimal, octal, etc.) for the
selected port instance or net. Refer to Chapter 11, Radices.
Changing the Color Scheme
Refer to Logic Browser Settings on page 16-12.
Logic Browser
6-20
Toolbar and Menu Reference
Toolbar
You can toggle display of toolbar icons from the View menu.
Load Value
Changes
Previous View
Next View
The Load Value Changes icon loads values for all
signals in the current view. After a load, the NL value
text is replaced by NL value text may require loading
of multiple signals, depending on the expression.
This command is sensitive only if there are NL values
in the view. To avoid lengthy load delays, use the
toolbar icon judiciously. Because a Logic Browser
may contain hundreds of signals, a substantial delay
may occur when this command is used with
extremely large files. To avoid lengthy delays, use
the appropriate context sensitive menus to load only
signals for specific modules or port instances.
Following a load operation, the affected Logic
Browsers automatically refresh for new data (even
when the load is triggered from another window). NL
values immediately update to show actual simulation
values.
These icons are used to move through previous
Logic Browser views. In multiple-net mode, if you add
nets to a view, the added nets will appear when you
move to the scope using the Previous/Next View
tools. VirSim always navigates according to the
current Single/Multiple level setting in the Display
menu. For example, if you are in single-net mode and
use the Previous View button to view a multi-net view,
any navigation from the multi-net view will be in
single net mode. We recommend that you do not
switch back and forth between single and multi-level
views because the two modes share a data
structure, and some history may be lost.
Logic Browser
6-21
Next Selected
Signals Change
Next Any Change
The Next Selected Signals Change icons search
forward or backward in time for next or previous value
change in selected signals. When a change is
located, all values are updated to reflect the new
time, and the value change is highlighted to indicted
which values have changed. Any other windows that
are linked also update to the new time.
The Any Change icons work similarly to the Selected
Signals Change icon except that all signals in the
view are used to find the next value change.
Consequently, the time changes affected by these
arrows are always less than or equal to those
affected with the Selected Signals Change Arrows.
If you want to find the next or previous change for an
individual object or instance, use the contextsensitive menu.
These icons allow you to open new VirSim windows
from the Logic Browser toolbar.
New Window Icons
Breakpoint Group Icon
Link Icon
Logic Browser
6-22
The Breakpoint Group icon opens the breakpoint
groups menu. Breakpoint groups consist of groups
of expressions that are used to search for
breakpoints. You can select available breakpoint
groups from the menu.
Breakpoint groups are created in he Breakpoint
Groups Dialog. The group expressions are defined
in the Expressions Dialog. For information on
creating Breakpoint Groups, see Locating Events
Using Breakpoint Groups with Enabled Expressions.
The Link icon links windows so that any change in
time in one window is reflected in all other windows.
A capital letter in the Link buttons shows the current
link. To link or unlink a window, click the Link button
and select the desired link.
Context-Sensitive Menus (CSM’s)
Logic Browser context-sensitive menus provide convenient access to
the most frequently used operations for various types of objects. The
CSM opens when you point and click right on an object.
The following context-sensitive menus are covered in this section:
•
Logic Browser CSM
•
Module Instance CSM
•
Module Instance CSM
•
Port Instance CSM
•
Selected Net CSM
Note:
The editor used to edit text is determined from the EDITOR
environment variable. In NT Windows, VirSim can also use an
editor associated with the file in the Windows File Manager. For
information on associating files, see Windows NT documentation.
Logic Browser CSM
Commands in the Logic Browser CSM apply to the whole Logic
Browser view (see Figure 6-5, Logic Browser CSM). To open the Logic
Browser CSM, point and click right in the Logic Browser graphics area
(in free-space), but not over an object.
Figure 6-5
Logic Browser CSM
Logic Browser
6-23
Prev/Next Change
Searches backward and forward in time for previous or next value
changes on any object in the view for which values are loaded. These
menu commands are sensitive whenever one or more port instances
are loaded.
Load View NL
Loads all signals in the current view. After a load, the NL value text
is replaced by actual simulation values. A connection with NL value
text may require loading multiple signals, depending on the
expression. This command is sensitive only if there are NL values in
the view.
This command is equivalent to using the Load button in the toolbar
and similar precautions apply. Because a Logic Browser view may
contain hundreds of signals, a substantial delay may occur when this
command is used with extremely large files.
Note:
To avoid lengthy delays, use other context sensitive popup menus
to load only signal values for specific modules or port instances.
Edit At Definition
Opens an editor at the first line of the module type definition for the
scope which contains the selected signal. For example, if the current
signal’s are in the scope top.cpu.regpc, then the source of the module
type definition for type reg32 is displayed in the editor.
Note:
Logic Browser
6-24
The editor used to edit text is determined from the EDITOR
environment variable. In Unix, if there is no editor environment
variable set, the editor defaults to VI. In Windows, if there is no
editor environment variable set, the program looks for a file
association. If there is no file association, the editor defaults to
WordPad.
Module Instance CSM
The commands in the Module Instance CSM apply only to that module
instance and do not affect other Logic Browsers that may display the
same module instance (see Figure 6-6, Module Instance CSM). To
open the Module Instance CSM, point and click right on a module
instance symbol.
Figure 6-6
Module Instance CSM
Prev/Next Change
Searches backward and forward in time for any changes in the
periphery of specific module instances. On any object for which
values are loaded (not NL), the view moves forward or backward to
the previous or next value change. These menu commands are
sensitive whenever one or more port instances are loaded.
Load Inst NL
Loads values for all signals connected to ports on this module
instance. The command is sensitive only if the instance has ports that
have not been loaded (NL).
Logic Browser
6-25
Edit At Definition
Opens an editor at the module type definition line for the module
instance.
Edit At Instance
Opens an editor for the file containing the definition of the module
type for the instance. If possible, you are positioned at the line where
the module definition starts (the “module” line).
Note:
The editor used to edit text is determined from the EDITOR
environment variable. In Unix, if there is no editor environment
variable set, the editor defaults to VI. In Windows, if there is no
editor environment variable set, the program looks for a file
association. If there is no file association, the editor defaults to
WordPad.
Port Instance CSM
The commands in the Port Instance CSM apply to that port instance
only and do not affect other Logic Browsers that may display the same
port instance (see Figure 6-7, Port Instance CSM). To open the CSM,
point and click right on the port instance symbol (either the HiConn
or LoConn half).
Figure 6-7
Logic Browser
6-26
Port Instance CSM
Radix
Opens the Radix menu. Selecting a radix sets the display value for
that port instance only to the selected radix base (binary,
hexadecimal, octal, etc.). Refer to Chapter 11, Radices.
Prev/Next Change
Searches forward or backward in time to the next or previous value
change for the selected port instance. Value changes show
expression values at different points in time for the port instance.
These menu commands are sensitive only when all signals are
loaded.
Event Origin
Obtains precise information about the origin of the current value of
the connected signal. Refer to Chapter 12, Event Origin. For primitive
terminals and port instances, the high conn net is used. For ports,
the low conn net is used. This option is not available if the port is
connected to an expression.
Load Value
When selected, loads one or more signals required to display the
value associated with the port instance. Often, only a single signal is
loaded, but multiple signals may be loaded in the case of complex
expressions. This command is sensitive only if the port value has not
been loaded (NL).
View Connection
Opens the Connection Dialog (see Using the Connection Dialog on
page 6-14) and displays connection information for the port instance.
The Connection Dialog remains open across multiple View
Connection operations on different ports, port instances, and primitive
terminals.
Logic Browser
6-27
Selected Net CSM
The commands in the Selected Net CSM apply to the net on which
your cursor is pointing and do not affect other Logic Browsers that
may display the same net (see Figure 6-8, Focus CSM). To open the
CSM, position the cursor over a net and click right.
Figure 6-8
Focus CSM
Radix
Opens the Radix menu. Selecting a radix sets the display value for
that focus net only to the selected radix base (binary, hexadecimal,
octal, etc.). Refer to Chapter 11, Radices.
Prev/Next Change
Searches forward or backward in time to the next or previous value
change for the selected net. Value changes show expression values
at different points in time for the net. These menu commands are
sensitive only when all signals are loaded.
Event Origin
Obtains precise information about the origin of the current value of
the net. Refer to Chapter 12, Event Origin.
Logic Browser
6-28
Menu Bar
Note:
Any menu with a dotted line at the top can be torn off and placed
on the display for easy access. Click middle above the dotted line,
and then drag the menu to a convenient position.
File Menu
Open - Opens the file browser to load an
EPIC, VCD, or VCD+ history file.
Reopen - Reopens all history files that have
changed since they last were loaded.
Close - Closes an open history file.
Load Sources - Compiles Verilog source.
Save Configuration - Saves the current
configuration.
Load Configuration - Loads a
configuration file.
Close Window - Closes the Logic Browser
window.
Exit - Exits VirSim.
Logic Browser
6-29
Edit Menu
Clear Displayed Routes - Clear the
displayed routes. To view routes previous to
the last change, drag the signal back into the
Logic Browser from another window.
Clear All Routes - Clear all routes, even
those not currently displayed. Dragging a
signal in again displays the signal with no
previous routing.
Markers - Open the Markers Dialog. The
dialog is used to define markers for specific
simulation times.
Display Menu
Show Multiple Nets - Displays a multi-net
schematic,
Show Single Net - Displays a single net at
a time, which corresponds to the Focus Net
mode in previous VirSim Releases.
Net Only - Displays only the net name at the
port instance.
Port and Net - Displays the net and port
name at the port instance.
Time Scale - Open the Time Scale Dialog
for setting the display unit and display
precision for VirSim display time.
Unique Events -Toggle Unique Events on
or off. When on, unique events are displayed
with signal values in the Logic Browser. When
off, unique events do not display.
Autoload Values - Automatically loads
signal values as new signals are added to the
display.
Logic Browser
6-30
Note:
We recommend that you do not switch back and forth between
single and multi-level views. The two modes share a data
structure, and some history may be lost.
View Menu
View Menu settings are saved when you close VirSim.
Source Browser Tools - Toggles
display of the Logic Browser tools.
Search Tools - Toggles display of the
Search tools.
Window Icons - Toggles display of the
Window icons.
Break Group Icon - Toggles display of
the Breakpoint Group icon.
Link Icon - Toggles display of the Link
icon.
Logic Browser
6-31
Logic Browser
6-32
7
Register Window
1
The Register Window is used to create Design Views using simple
graphics tools. The view can show items such as boxes, lines, text,
signal values and expression results at specific simulation times,
signal names, and user created labels.
Introducing the Register Window
Window Areas
Note:
If you use a two-button mouse, you cannot drag and drop signals
from the Register Window to other windows. Instead, you must
cut or copy and paste.
Register Window
7-1
The Register Window consists of one main display area, a Time field,
and a status bar. These are described below.
Display Area
The design view is created and displayed by
placing signals and objects in the display area. You
can load the desired design view from a previous
configuration or construct it within the display area.
The Register Window provides basic drawing tools
to construct and enhance the view.
Time Field
(Time Control Text Field)
Use the time field to jump to a specific time. To
display values for a new simulation time, enter the
time and press Enter or click left on the OK button.
All windows linked to the Register Window also
display the new simulation time. The time entered
must also be within the time range of the simulation
file.
Status Bar
The Status Bar, located at the bottom of the
window, displays descriptions of window areas,
hierarchical signal names, descriptions of unique
event indicators, and control buttons within the
window.
What is a View?
A view is a free graphics display that is often used as a scratch pad.
It can be saved to the configuration file and reused by loading the
configuration file. A name is assigned to the view with View Editor
(opened from the Edit menu). To display a menu of available views,
click left on the binoculars icon in the toolbar. Automatically named
views are called AutoViewN, where N is a sequentially assigned
number starting with 0 for the first group.
Register Window
7-2
Which Signals are Loaded?
By default, all signals for all defined Register Window views and
Waveform Window signal groups are registered in interactive mode
or loaded in post-processing mode, regardless of whether they are
currently being displayed. You can modify VirSim’s setup to register
or load only those signals that are displayed in the currently active
Waveform signal group or Register Window view. This may be more
efficient when you are analyzing large designs. For more information,
see Common Settings on page 16-4.
Figure 7-1
Sample Register Window
Logic Browser
7-3
Edit Views
The View Editor Dialog is used to create, display, rename, and delete
views (see Figure 7-2, View Editor Dialog). A view is a named
collection of text, signals, and graphics displayed in the Register
Window.
Figure 7-2
View Editor Dialog
In addition to views manually created with the View Editor Dialog, a
view is automatically created when anything is added to an empty
Register Window.
The View Editor Dialog has the following display areas:
Views
Displays a list of the currently defined views.
Register Window
7-4
Name
Used to enter or edit a view name. Names may only contain
alphanumeric characters, underscores, and dollar signs. Names must
begin with an underscore or alpha character.
To
Do This
Create a View
Enter the view name in the Name field
and click left on the Add button.
Delete a View
Click left on the view name in the
Views list and click left on the Delete
button.
Rename a View
Click left on the view name in the
Views list. Then click left in the Name
field and enter the new name. The
arrow keys and backspace key may
be used to edit the name. After modifying the name, click left on the
Rename button.
Undo Command
You can undo the effects of most commands using the Undo
command. To undo the last command, click left on the Edit menu and
choose Undo.
Logic Browser
7-5
Using Event Origin
Event Origin can obtain precise information about the cause of a
signal value change. Point and click right on a signal to open a context
sensitive menu and select an option from the Event Origin menu. For
more information, see Chapter 12, Event Origin.
Display Unique Events
(Verilog only) The Unique Events feature allows you to display
symbols on signal values for events of interest in the Waveform
Window, Register Window, Source Window, and Logic Browser. To
display unique events click left on the Display menu in the menu bar
and select Unique Events. For more information on creating Unique
Events, refer to Chapter 4, Waveform Window.
Set Time Scale
You can select the display unit and display precision for time values
from the Time Scale Dialog. To open the Time Scale Dialog, click left
on the Display menu in the menu bar and choose Time Scale. A dialog
provides the time-scale selections. For more information on the Time
Scale Dialog, see Chapter 10, Time Units.
Register Window
7-6
Align Objects
You can select and align objects (left, right, top, bottom, vertical
center, or horizontal center) in relation to an anchor object. The last
object you select becomes the anchor object. To align objects:
1. Select the objects you want to align.
2. Click left on the Graphics menu and choose Align.
3. From the Align popup menu, choose the desired alignment: Left,
Right, Top, Bottom, Vertical, or Horizontal.
Distribute Objects
You can select and distribute objects equidistant between two points.
The two points are determined to be the two extreme points of the
selected objects (see Figure 7-3, Distributing Objects Example).
To distribute objects:
1. Select the objects you want to distribute.
2. Click left on the Graphics menu and choose Distribute.
3. From the Distribute popup menu, choose the desired distribution:
Vertical or Horizontal.
Logic Browser
7-7
Display File Designators for SIgnals
The Display menu Designator command toggles file designators for
signals on or off. When turned on, the file designator appears in front
of the signal (for example, V1 clock), so that when comparing data
from more than one file, you know which file the signal comes from.
When turned off, only the signal name appears (for example, clock).To
toggle the file designator on or off, in the menu bar click left on Display
and choose Designator.
Figure 7-3
Distributing Objects Example
And Then
Distribute
Vertically
Extreme
Points
Register Window
7-8
Distribute
Horizontally
Toolbar and Menu Reference
Toolbar
You can toggle display of toolbar icons from the View menu.
Previous/Next
Change Icons
View Icon
Marker Icon
The Previous/Next Change icons search backward
and forward in time for the next or previous change
on any of the signals in the current view. It then
updates all values in the Register Window for the
new time. The signals that changed value since the
previous display are presented in pink, while the
unchanged signals are white.
All linked windows will follow and display the state at
this new time.
The View icon opens a pop-up list of all defined
views. To display another view in the Register
Window, click left on the View icon in the toolbar to
open the pop-up list and then click left on the desired
view.
The Marker icon opens a pop-up list of all defined
markers. Click left on a marker to set the Register
Window and all windows linked to the Register
Window to the simulation time of that marker. For
information on defining markers, see Chapter 14,
Markers.
Logic Browser
7-9
Text Tool Icon
The Text Tool icon activates a text cursor to enter text
in the register display area. Click left on the Text Tool
icon and move the cursor anywhere you want in the
register display area. then click left to position the
cursor at the insertion point and type the text.
• To delete the previous character(s), press the
Backspace key.
• To start a new line, press Return.
• To cancel text mode, press Esc (escape key)
or select another function.
• To edit text, select the Text Tool and click left
in existing text.
Line Tool Icon
Rectangle Tool Icon
The Line Tool icon is used to draw straight lines. Click
left on the Line Tool icon to select this drawing mode.
Depress the left mouse button where the line is to
start. Hold down the left mouse button and drag the
line to the end point. Release the button to complete
the line. Simultaneously pressing Shift while drawing
the line forces the line to snap to grid. To edit a line,
select the line, hold down the left mouse button on
an end point, and drag it to a new location. Release
the mouse button to complete the move.
The Rectangle Tool icon is used to draw rectangles.
Click left on the Rectangle Tool to select this drawing
mode. Depress the left mouse button where the first
corner is to be placed. Hold down the left mouse
button where the first corner is to be placed. Hold
down the left mouse button and drag diagonally to
form the desired rectangle. Release the button to
complete the rectangle. To edit a box, select the box,
hold down the left mouse button on any edit point,
and drag the box to a new location. Release the
mouse button to complete the move.
These icons allow you to open new VirSim windows
from the Register Window toolbar.
New Window Icons
Register Window
7-10
Breakpoint Group Icon
Link Icon
The Breakpoint Group icon opens a pop-up list of
available breakpoint groups. Breakpoint groups
consist of groups of user-defined HDL expressions
that may be enabled for searching. You can select
available breakpoint groups from the menu.
Breakpoint groups are created int he Breakpoint
Groups Dialog. The expressions are created in the
Expressions dialog. For information on creating
breakpoint groups, see Locating Events Using
Breakpoint Groups with Enabled Expressions.
The Link icon links windows so that any change in
time in one linked window is reflected in all linked
windows. The capital letter next to the Link icon
shows the current link. To link or unlink a window,
click left on the Link icon and choose a different link.
Logic Browser
7-11
Signal Properties CSM
The Signal Properties CSM is used to change radix, control signal
name display, control right-left justification, and find the cause of
signal value changes (through the Event Origin command). To open
the CSM, point and click right on a signal. This opens the Signal
Properties menu (see Figure 7-4, Signal Properties CSM).
Figure 7-4
Signal Properties CSM
The Signal Properties menu contains the following selections:
Radix
The Radix selection is used to change the radix of a signal value. To
change the radix, click left on Radix and choose a new radix from the
list of standard and user-defined radices (see Figure 7-5, Radix
Menu). The available choices depend on whether the signal is a scalar
or vector.
Register Window
7-12
Figure 7-5
Radix Menu
User Defined
Radices
Verilog Radix Menu
VHDL Radix Menu
Event Origin
(Verilog only) Event Origin can obtain precise information about the
source of a signal value change in the Register Window at a specific
time. For more information, see Chapter 12, Event Origin.
Label
Label is used to enable or disable the display of the signal name for
selected signals. Click left on a label and choose Enable or Disable
(see Figure 7-6, Label Selection Options).
Figure 7-6
Label Selection Options
Logic Browser
7-13
Format
Format is used to format the text position of a selected group of
signals, (see Figure 7-7, Format Text Positioning Options). Click right
on text to open the Format menu and then choose from the following
left and right text positions: Left-Left: Lines up the left side of each
selected label and value text pairs.
Left-Right: Lines up the left side of each label text and the right side
of each corresponding value text of each selected pair.
Right-Left: Lines up the right side of each label text and the left side
of each corresponding value text of each selected pair.
Right-Right: Lines up the right side of each selected label and value
text pair.
Figure 7-7
Format Text Positioning Options
Select All
Selects all signals and objects in the window.
Register Window
7-14
Menu Bar
The following menu bars include commands specific to the Register
Window:
•
File Menu
•
Edit Menu
•
Graphics Menu
•
Display Menu
•
View Menu
Note:
Any menu with a dotted line at the top can be torn off and placed
on the display for easy access. Click middle above the dotted line,
and then drag the menu to a convenient position.
Logic Browser
7-15
File Menu
Open - Displays the file browser to
open an EPIC, VCD, or VCD+ history
file.
Reopen - Reopens all history files that
have changed since they last were
opened.
Close - Displays the Close File dialog
to close an open history file.
Load Sources - Displays the Load
Sources dialog to compile Verilog
source.
Save Configuration - Displays the
Configuration dialog to save the current
configuration.
Load Configuration - Displays the
Configuration dialog to load a configuration file.
Close Window - Closes the Register
Window.
Exit - Exits VirSim.
Register Window
7-16
Edit Menu
Undo - Undoes the effects of your last
command.
Cut - Cuts the selection and moves it
to the clipboard.
Copy - Copies the selection to the clipboard.
Paste - Pastes the clipboard to a designated area.
Delete - Deletes the selection.
Select All - Selects all signals and
objects in the window.
Views - Opens the Views Dialog to
create, rename, and delete views.
Markers - Opens the Markers Dialog.
The dialog is used to define markers
for specific simulation times.
Expressions - Opens the Expressions
Dialog. The dialog is used to define
and enable expressions for breakpoint
groups.
Buses - Opens the Bus Builder Dialog.
Breakpoints - Opens the Breakpoint
Groups Dialog. The dialog is used to
create breakpoint groups for searching
on enabled HDL expressions.
Radix - Opens the Radix Dialog. The
dialog is used to create mnemonics, or
user-defined radices.
Logic Browser
7-17
Graphics Menu
The Graphics menu includes the following commands for positioning
objects in the Register Window:
•
Distribute Menu
•
Align Menu
Align Menu
The following are commands for aligning selected objects in the
Register Window. Select the objects you want to align. The Register
Window aligns the selected objects with an anchor object. The last
object you choose becomes the anchor object.
Left - Aligns objects with Left edge of
anchor object.
Right - Aligns objects with Right edge
of anchor object.
Top - Aligns objects with Top edge of
anchor object.
Bottom - Aligns objects with Bottom
edge of anchor object.
Vertical - Aligns objects centered
Vertically with anchor object.
Horizontal - Aligns objects centered
Horizontally with anchor object.
Register Window
7-18
Distribute Menu
Using the Distribute commands, you can select and distribute objects
equal distance between two points. The two points are determined
to be the two extreme points of the selected objects.
Vertical - Distributes objects Vertically.
Horizontal - Distributes objects
Horizontally.
Display Menu
Time Scale - Opens the Time Scale
Dialog for setting the display unit and
display precision for VirSim display
time.
Unique Events - Toggles Unique
Events on or off. When on, unique
events display in the Register Window. When off, unique events do not
display.
Designator - Toggles Designators on
or off. When on, file designators
appear ahead of the signal name.
When off, file designators do not
appear.
Logic Browser
7-19
View Menu
View Menu settings are saved when you close VirSim.
Register Tools - Toggles display of the
Register Window tool icons.
Search Tools - Toggles display of the
Search tool icons.
Palette Tools - Toggles display of the
Palette tool icons.
Window Icons - Toggles display of the
Window icons.
Break Group Icon - Toggles display of
the Breakpoint Group icon.
Link Icon - Toggles display of the Link
icon.
Register Window
7-20
8
Interactive Window
1
The Interactive Window is used to interactively control the simulator
using a graphical interface. Using the Interactive Window you can
send commands to and view the output of the simulator.
The Interactive Window can be synchronized with the other VirSim
windows by using the link group SIM. When the Waveform Window,
Source Window, Register Window, or Logic Browser are linked to the
SIM link group, they can be used to monitor and control the simulation,
as well as dynamically set interactive breakpoints.
The window’s ability to operate on selected nets or scopes can
significantly reduce the need for typing.
Interactive simulation results are available afterwards in a vpd file for
post-processing debugging. For Verilog the default vpd file is
vcdplus.vpd: for VHDL the default vpd file is inter.vpd. You can specify
the vpd file name using +simargs+ on the command line.
Interactive Window
8-1
Introducing the Interactive Window
The Interactive Window has the following areas.
•
History Pane
•
Command Prompt
•
User-Defined Buttons
•
Simulator Controls
•
Window Status
History Pane
The History Pane displays the history of all commands sent to the
simulator and a simulation log. By default, the scrolled history window
displays the last 1000 lines of information. The value can be changed
using saveLines as described in Common Settings on page 16-4.
Command Prompt
The command prompt is used to enter simulator commands during
the course of the session. Click left in the Command region, enter the
command, and press Return.
Interactive Window
8-2
User-Defined Buttons
The user-defined buttons in the display area are used to send
commands to the simulator. Yellow text buttons denote that a
command applies to a selected object. White text buttons do not need
a selected object. All user-defined buttons may be changed. See
Controlling Simulation from Buttons on page 8-16 for more
information.
Simulator Controls
The Simulator Control Area has the following controls:
•
Step Control
•
Scope Control
•
Time Display
Step Control
Select Step Time, Step Signal, or Go To Time to run a simulator for
a specified time, to a change on specified signal, or to a specified time.
Step Button Menu
Entry Field Contains
Step Time
Time Units
Step Signal
Signal name
Go To Time
Time Units
Interactive Window
8-3
Scope Control
The Scope Control is used to specify and display the current scope.
Entering a scope and clicking OK is equivalent to using a $scope()
command.
Time Display
The Time Display shows the current simulation time and time units.
The time units are read from the simulator. For Verilog, initially the
units are the unit from the last timescale directive compiled. A
$timeformat() can be used to override this value.
VirSim ignores precision and units string specified in the
$timeformat() command.
Note:
$timeformat() does not take effect until the statement is
executed. A $timeformat() entered interactively takes effect
immediately. A $timeformat() in an initial block, for example,
only takes effect when it is executed. For example, #30 $stop;
entered interactively may mean 30 ps before a $timeformat()
command in an initial block is executed, but 30 ns after. This can
cause unexpected, but correct, results during start-up.
Interactive Window
8-4
Window Status
This status bar gives a brief description of the object pointed at.
Figure 8-1
Sample Interactive Window
Stop and Update icons. Active only
during simulation.
Interactive Window
8-5
The Interactive Window provides menu and toolbar controls,
simulation log, simulator control, and a pane containing pre-defined
and user-defined buttons.
Invoking an Interactive Session
The following information is covered in this section:
•
Starting a Session Via the Simulator Invocation Dialog
•
Starting a Session Via the VirSim Command Line
Starting a Session Via the Simulator Invocation Dialog
The Simulator Invocation Dialog (Figure 8-2, Simulator Invocation
Dialog) is used to invoke the simulator in interactive mode and specify
the simulation command line arguments. It opens when you select
the Interactive button in the Main Menu.
Note:
You can invoke the Interactive Window from the Simulator
Invocation Dialog or directly from the VirSim command line.
Interactive Window
8-6
Figure 8-2
Simulator Invocation Dialog
Simulation
Command
Line
The Simulation Command Line text area is used to invoke the
simulator in an interactive session. Click left in the Command Line
area, enter or modify the simulator invocation command, and click
left on OK.
When enabled, Use Sources allows VirSim to use Verilog sources as
supplied on the command line. Sources may be required by the
Source Window, Logic Browser, or Event Origin command.
Note that VirSim only allows one set of sources on the command line.
For example, you may open a VCD+ file for design XYZ then start an
interactive session for design ABC. Since VirSim only allows one set
of sources on the command line, only one of the designs should have
the Use Sources button set to On.
Use Sources is enabled by default for VCD+ files. Use Sources is not
sensitive for EPIC files because the VirSim EPIC interface does not
allow sources. For VHDL VCD+ files the Use Sources button is
inactive.
Interactive Window
8-7
Starting a Session Via the VirSim Command Line
You can change the default simulator and invocation arguments
on the VirSim command line by using the following options:
1. +simtype+<simulator_type>, where simulator_type is VCS,
Scirocco, or VXL.
2. +sim+<simulator_path>, where simulator_path is a path to
your simulator executable (for example, myvxl, mysimv, or
/usr/local/mysim).
3. +simargs+<simulator_option> /
+simargs+"<simulator_options>", where
simulator_options could be "+define+DUMPVPD
+vpdfile+myfile.vpd".
For example:
virsim source.v +simtype+VCS +sim+/usr/local/my_simv
If the above command line options are used, the Interactive Window
immediately opens. The above options can be combined with the
+cfgfile+<cfg_name> option to also load a configuration file.
Depending on the platform, you also can change the defaults in the
X Resources file on Unix or the registry on NT. See Common Settings
on page 16-4 for more information.
Note:
Simulation invocation entries must be a full path to your simulator.
There should not be environment variables or script names.
Interactive Window
8-8
Controlling the Simulator
This section describes several ways to start and control the simulator.
The simulator runs forward until it is stopped (using the Stop icon or
Ctrl+C), finishes, or a breakpoint is reached. You can set breakpoints
from the Interactive Window or any other window linked to the SIM
link group.
To go backwards in a window, that window first must be unlinked from
SIM.
The following information and procedures are covered in this section:
•
Summary of Simulator Control Commands
•
Breakpoint Durations
•
Expression Breakpoints
•
Control Simulation from the Waveform Window
•
Control Simulation from the Source Window
•
Control Simulation from the Logic Browser
•
Control Simulation from the Register Window
Interactive Window
8-9
Summary of Simulator Control Commands
Simulator control commands set the run time interval, run the
simulator to the next change on a specified signal, or run to a specified
simulation time. You can choose the appropriate commands from a
menu in the Simulator Control pane. The following commands are
available for most simulators.
Step Time
The Step Time command runs the simulator for a
specified time interval and then stops. The
specified time must be between 0 and the
maximum simulation time.
Step Signal
The Step Signal command runs the simulator to the
next value change of the specified signal and then
stops.
Go To Time
The Go To Time command runs the simulator to
the specified time and then stops. the specified
time must be between 0 and maximum simulation
time.
Breakpoint Durations
There are three different durations for breakpoints:
1. Transient breakpoint: These are automatically cleared the next
time the simulator stops.
2. Temporary breakpoint: These are set until the breakpoint is
satisfied or until manually cancelled.
3. Permanent breakpoint: These must be manually cancelled to
remove the breakpoint.
Interactive Window
8-10
Setting a line breakpoint or searching on an HDL expression are
examples of setting a permanent breakpoint. The simulator controls
described below set different types of breakpoints.
Expression Breakpoints
In the Waveform Window, use the Expression Dialog and Breakpoint
Group Dialog to create the desired HDL expressions to search for
breakpoint groups. For each desired expression, click the Breakpoints
toggle button on to enable searching. After the expression
breakpoints are set, continue the simulator. As soon as one of the
HDL expressions is found, the simulator stops and displays the
updated results in all windows linked to the SIM link group and any
Waveform Window.
Note:
The VHDL simulator handles only true and false expressions,
whereas VirSim and Verilog allow expressions based on signal
value. If you are using VHDL or mixed VHDL/Verilog with a
Scirocco simulator, be sure that expressions are written for a True/
False result. For example, use (signal1 or signal2) = ’1’ rather than
(signal1 or signal2).
For information on using breakpoint groups, see Locating Events
Using Breakpoint Groups with Enabled Expressions. For information
on creating expressions, see Chapter 15, Expressions.
When the simulator stops because of an expression breakpoint, a
message displays in the History area of Interactive Window. For
example:
Simulator stopped on expression search: expr_name
Interactive Window
8-11
The name of the expression satisfied is displayed; in the above
example, it is expr_name.
Control Simulation from the Waveform Window
There are two ways to control the simulator from the Waveform
Window.
1. Search Next
Causes the simulator to continue to the next breakpoint.
2. Go to a cursor or a marker
The Markers icon in the toolbar pops up a list of cursors and
markers. If the time of the marker or cursor is greater than the
current simulation time, selecting the marker sets a breakpoint at
the marker time and causes simulation to continue.
Note:
A convenient way to go to a time is to set C2 at the desired time
then select C2 from the toolbar Marker menu. Keep in mind that
the simulator will stop at any other previously set breakpoint.
3. Go to the Next Edge or Previous Edge of a selected signal or
group of signals.
Position the mouse in the Waveform Pane and right click to open
the CSM. Select Next Edge or Previous Edge from the CSM.
VirSim locates the next or previous edge that occurs in any of the
selected signals.
Interactive Window
8-12
Note:
Find Next/Previous Edge also stops on any expression
breakpoint that is turned on in the currently active breakpoint
group.
Control Simulation from the Source Window
There are four ways to control the simulator from the Source
Window. Note that in the discussion below, all breakpoints refer
to the currently active Instance Group. Only one Source Window
may be linked to the simulator at any point in time, and only one
Instance Group may be active.
1. Next Line (Transient breakpoint)
The Next Line icon steps the simulator to the next line executed
in any module in the current instance group.
2. Next Breakpoint (Permanent breakpoint)
The Breakpoint icons run the simulator to the next breakpoint in
the current instance group.
3. Time (Temporary breakpoint)
Enter a time greater than the current simulator time in the Time
field and select OK. This sets a breakpoint for an absolute time
breakpoint and causes the simulator to continue.
4. Marker (Temporary breakpoint)
The Markers icon in the toolbar pops up a list of markers. If the
time of the marker or cursor is greater than the current simulation
time, selecting the marker sets a breakpoint at an absolute time
and causes simulation to continue.
Interactive Window
8-13
Note:
When controlling the simulator from the Source Window, the
simulator runs until it encounters any breakpoint. Therefore, the
simulator may stop before the desired point for one of two reasons:
(1) a breakpoint was entered directly in the simulator command
line, or (2) an expression breakpoint was active in the breakpoint
group and evaluated as TRUE.
Line Breakpoints
After a scope is loaded in the Source Window, green dots are
displayed in the left side of the Source Window to represent executed
lines. Each executed line can have a breakpoint. To set a line
breakpoint, click left on the green dot. The dot changes to red when
the breakpoint is set. The line breakpoint is permanent until removed.
If the Source Window is linked to the SIM link group, the line
breakpoints set simulator breakpoints. After all breakpoints are set,
you can continue the simulator. As soon as the simulator executes a
line with a breakpoint, it stops and displays the updated results in all
windows.
When the simulator stops because of a line breakpoint, a message
displays in the History area of the Interactive Window. For example:
Simulator stopped at line breakpoint: Line 12, Module top
If the Source Window is not linked to the SIM link group, the line
breakpoints do not stop the simulator.
Interactive Window
8-14
Control Simulation from the Logic Browser
(Verilog only) There are three ways to control the simulator from
the Logic Browser.
1. Next Selected Net (Transient breakpoint) - Causes the simulator
to continue until the selected net changes.
2. Next Any Change (Transient breakpoint) - Causes the simulator
to continue until there is a change on any of the displayed signals.
3. Time (Temporary breakpoint) - Sets a breakpoint at an absolute
time and causes the simulator to continue. Enter a time greater
than the current simulator time in the Time field and press OK.
Control Simulation from the Register Window
There are three ways to control the simulator from the Register
Window.
1. Markers (Temporary breakpoint) - The Markers icon in the toolbar
pops up a list of bookmarked times. If the time of the marker or
cursor is greater than the current simulation time, selecting the
marker sets a breakpoint at an absolute time and causes
simulation to continue to the marker time.
2. Next Any Change (Transient breakpoint) - The simulator runs until
a signal in the Register Window changes state value.
3. Time (Temporary breakpoint) - Sets a breakpoint at an absolute
time and causes the simulator to continue. Enter a time greater
than the current simulator time in the Time field and press OK
Interactive Window
8-15
Controlling Simulation from Buttons
The scroll area titled User Defined Buttons consists of buttons for
which you can configure behavior, layout, and color.
The following information is covered in this section:
•
Default Buttons Files
•
Creating User-Defined Buttons
•
Defining a Button
•
Selection Substitution
Default Buttons Files
The buttons are defined in ASCII button files named
iwbuttons.<sim> in $VIRSIMHOME/appfiles, where <sim> is
a 3 character extension to identify the simulator. You can modify this
file to add buttons for frequently used commands. The Button Area
is divided into sections with each section identified by a section title
(first row) and any number of buttons. Figure 8-3, Pre-Defined Button
Layout for a Verilog Simulator, shows the default for a Verilog
simulator.
Interactive Window
8-16
Figure 8-3
Pre-Defined Button Layout for a Verilog Simulator
The buttons file is searched for in the following locations (in order).
•
The current directory
•
The users HOME directory
•
The installation directory
The button definition file is used to define button sections. In Figure
8-3, Pre-Defined Button Layout for a Verilog Simulator, there are five
button sections. After a button section is defined you may define
buttons for each section. These buttons may explicitly specify the
command to be executed or may use a selection substitution. See
Selection Substitution later in this chapter.
Note:
On Windows NT, the button files must be located in the APPFILES
subdirectory under VIRSIMHOME.
Creating User-Defined Buttons
The following is an example of a button section in the button file. On
Windows NT, colors such as White Smoke are identified by
hexadecimal numbers.
Interactive Window
8-17
The title displayed in the User-Defined Button area is Control Buttons.
It has two columns of buttons and the title text uses the color White
Smoke. The label, numcolumns, and foreground are all options. If
unspecified, the following defaults are used:
label = same as section name
numcolumns = 1
foreground = default foreground in X Resource file
The individual options are separated by commas, and the entire
section definition is terminated with a semicolon.
Note:
In X Resource files, if the color specified has embedded spaces,
it is necessary to enclose the color in double quotes.
Defining a Button
The following is an example of a button definition:
# Uses red for foreground and black for background
define button Control
label "Save",
command "$save("saved.exe")",
foreground "Red",
background "Black";
The above definition creates a user defined button in the Control
section. The button label is Save. When the button is pressed, the
command $save("saved.exe") is sent to the simulator. The
button foreground is red and the background is black.
The label and command options are required; the foreground and
background are optional. If alternative settings are not specified, the
options use the default window settings.
Interactive Window
8-18
The individual options are separated by commas, and the entire
button definition is terminated with a semicolon.
Selection Substitution
A button definition may contain a command that includes a $*. When
you execute the button, this special string is replaced with the
currently selected text. For example, the button definition file may
specify the command $display($*) to select a signal and click the
button. If you select top.m0.a then click the button, the command
$display(top.m0.a) is sent to the simulator.
Note:
To help distinguish between normal buttons and the buttons that
have selection substitution, it is recommended that all special
buttons have a special foreground color. The default button file
shipped with this product sets the foreground color to khaki for
emphasis.
Interactive Window
8-19
Toolbar and Menu Reference
Toolbar
You can toggle display of toolbar icons from the View menu.
Go Icon
The Go icon causes the simulator to continue. It is the
same as selecting Continue from the Sim pull down
menu.
The Stop icon stops the simulator. It is the same as
selecting Stop from the Sim menu or entering Ctrl+C.
Stop Icon
Update Icon
When the simulator is running, the Update icon loads
data from the RAM buffer. Normally, the data in RAM is
only loaded when the simulator stops.
These icons allow you to open new VirSim windows
from the Interactive Window toolbar.
New Window Icons
Breakpoint Group Icon
Link Icon
Interactive Window
8-20
The Breakpoint Group icon opens a pop-up list of
available breakpoint groups. Breakpoint groups consist
of groups of user-defined HDL expressions that may be
enabled for searching. You can select available
breakpoint groups from the menu.
Breakpoint groups are created in the Breakpoint Groups
Dialog. The expressions are created in the Expressions
Dialog. For information on creating breakpoint groups,
see Locating Events Using Breakpoint
Groups with Enabled Expressions on page 424.
The Link icon is similar to the Link icon in the Source,
Waveform, Logic, and Register windows. These
windows can link to the SIM link. Their time then is
synchronized with the simulator, and they also can
control the simulator. The Interactive Window is always
linked to the SIM link and cannot be changed.
Menu Bar
Note:
Any menu with a dotted line at the top can be torn off and placed
on the display for easy access. Click middle above the dotted line,
and then drag the menu to a convenient position.
File Commands
Load Sources - Displays the Load Sources
dialog to compile Verilog source.
Save Configuration - Displays the
Configuration dialog to save the current
configuration.
Load Configuration - Displays the
Configuration dialog to load a configuration
file.
Close Window - Closes the Interactive
Window.
Exit - Exits VirSim.
Edit Commands
Cut - Cuts the selection and moves it to the
clipboard.
Copy - Copies the selection to the clipboard.
Paste - Pastes the clipboard contents to a
designated area.
Delete - Deletes the selection.
Interactive Window
8-21
Sim Commands
Continue - Continues to run the
simulator.
Stop - Stops the simulator.
Finish - Finishes the simulation.
Re-exec - Reruns the simulation with
same arguments as the previous run. If a
simulation is currently running, it
automatically terminates.
Invoke Sim... - Opens the Simulator
Invocation Dialog to start a new simulation
or edit simulation options.
Rebuild and Re-exec - Rebuilds and
reruns the simulator without exiting from
VirSim. (For use with compiled code
simulators.)
Record Delta Cycle Data - Toggles
recording of delta cycle information while
running in interactive mode.
Record Glitch Events (Verilog only.) Toggles recording of glitch information
while running in interactive mode.
Interactive Window
8-22
View Menu
View Menu settings are saved when you close VirSim.
Interactive Tools - Toggles display of
the Interactive Window tool icons.
Window Icons - Toggles display of the
Window icons.
Break Group Icon - Toggles display of
the Breakpoint Group icon.
Link Icon - Toggles display of the Link
icon.
Interactive Window
8-23
Interactive Window
8-24
9
Project Window
1
The Project Window is used to analyze, elaborate, and simulate VHDL
or mixed VHDL and Verilog projects.
Introducing the Project Window
The Project Window has three panes as shown in Figure 9-1, Sample
Project Window.
•
Workspace Pane - Displays the content of a Workspace.
•
View Pane - Displays the contents of Folders and Libraries.
•
Output Pane - Displays analyze and elaboration output including
error messages.
Project Window
9-1
In addition to the three panes, the Project window includes the
following areas:
•
Title bar - Displays the name of the open workspace, the name
of the active project, and the name of the active design top.
•
Toolbar - Contains analyze, elaborate, stop and simulate icons.
•
Command Line - Allows you to execute commands and scripts
without using the GUI.
Figure 9-1
Workspace
Pane
Sample Project Window
View
Pane
Output
Pane
Command
Line Edit
Field
Project Window
9-2
Defining Projects and Workspaces
The Project Window displays a workspace and a number of projects.
Only one workspace can be open in the Project window.
What is a Workspace?
A workspace contains one or more projects. A workspace has settings
that can be shared by all projects in the workspace. You can have
one workspace or multiple workspaces. A workspace can contain all
of your projects or there can be a workspace for each project.
A workspace containing multiple projects can have only one active
project. The active project is the project being analyzed, elaborated,
or simulated. Finally, a workspace can have one active design top.
The active design top belongs to the active project and is the design
unit currently being elaborated or simulated.
A directory is created for each new workspace if the directory does
not exist. Child directories and files used by the Project Window are
created in the workspace directory. A new directory beneath the
workspace directory is created for each project. The project directory
contains a file for recreating the project, an analyze history file and a
library directory named WORK. The library using the directory WORK
is named DEFAULT.
Project Window
9-3
What is a Project?
A project contains VHDL and Verilog source file paths, libraries that
receive analyzer output, references to other projects that might need
to be analyzed when the project is analyzed, and names of design
units that are used as design tops for elaboration and simulation.
VHDL and Verilog source files are added to a project. The project is
analyzed and analyze errors are corrected. The project is then
elaborated and simulated. To troubleshoot the design, open individual
Virsim Windows.
Multiple projects can be used to partition a design into manageable
units and to build multiple libraries for a design.
What is a Design Top?
A design top is an entity, configuration or package declaration. The
active design top is the design unit that will be passed to the Analyze
or Simulate command.
To add a design top to a project first analyze the project, and then
view the contents of the library containing analyzer output (right-click
on the library name). The view displays entities, package
declarations, and configurations. Use the View popup menu to add a
design top to the project.
Project Window
9-4
Workspace Pane
The workspace pane displays the content of a workspace. The pane
allows you to expand and collapse the Workspace folder, Project
folders, and Library folders. The content of the selected folder is
displayed in the View pane.
A workspace contains projects and settings common to all the
projects. For example, all projects in a workspace can share certain
analyzer settings.
Projects contain source files, design tops, libraries and names of other
projects (dependencies) that might need to be analyzed if changes
occur. Projects also contain analyze, elaborate, and simulator
command line information.
Each project contains a DEFAULT library that is created when the
project is created. Other libraries may be added to a project. There
is always an active library in a project. Analyzer output goes to the
active library, unless the Options Dialog has been used to specify the
library that will receive analyzer output.
The active project and active library in a project are colored gold.
Project Window
9-5
Figure 9-2
Workspace Pane
When a new project is created, the new project is displayed in a text
edit field with a default name (see Figure 9-3, Renaming a Project).
To accept the name, click the mouse outside the text edit field.
Change the new project name by clicking the mouse in the text edit
field. Delete the old name and type in a new name, then press the
enter key. The folder name “Project” cannot be removed. To cancel
editing and accept the original name press the ESC key.
Figure 9-3
Renaming a Project
An expanded view of the workspace Libraries folder is shown in Figure
9-4, Workspace Library.
Project Window
9-6
The Workspace library folder contains Libraries known to Scirocco
and libraries defined by the user. When a workspace is opened,
VirSim executes show_setup to obtain libraries known to Scirocco.
(show_setup is part of the Scirocco installation.) Libraries defined in
the synopsys_sim.setup files found in the Scirocco installation and in
your home directory are found by show_setup.
A Scirocco library logical name can be changed using rename. The
new library mapping appears in the synopsys_sim.setup file created
by the project browser when analyzing or simulating a project (see
Library Folder View.) Deleting the renamed library restores the
original Scirocco library.
Figure 9-4
Workspace Library
Project Window
9-7
Workspace Pane Context Sensitive Menu
New VHDL Library
Creates new workspace or project VHDL library. Shows default library
name in text edit field. The VHDL library has a name and directory
path.
New Verilog Library Work
Creates new project Verilog library Work. The library is named
VERILOG_WORK. Verilog libraries are placed in the
VERILOG_WORK library during Verilog compilation.
New Verilog Library Other...
Opens the New Verilog Dialog that is used to create Verilog libraries
for the project. The Verilog libraries are entered in the
synopsys_sim.setup file.
New Project
Creates a new project. Sets project as active project and displays
default project name in text edit field.
Set Active
Sets project as active project. Double clicking a project also sets a
project as the active project.
Rename
Renames a project or library. Project or library name is displayed in
text edit field and you can modify the name.
Project Window
9-8
Delete
Deletes a project or library.
Add Files...
Opens Add File dialog so you can add files to a project.
View Pane
The View pane displays contents of folders and libraries. There are
six folders that can be displayed in the View Pane: Workspace,
Project, Library, Source Files, Design Tops, and Dependencies. To
view the folders content, double click a folder in the View Pane.
Workspace Folder View
The Workspace Folder View displays the workspace library folder and
project folders in the workspace. The active project is displayed with
a unique color.
Figure 9-5
Workspace Folder View
Project Window
9-9
Workspace Folder View Context Sensitive Menu
This menu is displayed when pressing the right mouse button.
Set Active
Sets a project as the active project.
Rename
Renames a project. The project name is displayed in a text edit field
in Workspace View.
Delete
Deletes a project. Selecting the project and pressing the Delete key
also deletes project.
Project Folder View
The four project folders are displayed in Figure 9-6, Project Folder
View. To view its content, double click a folder.
Figure 9-6
Project Window
9-10
Project Folder View
Project Folder View Context Sensitive Menu
Set Active
Sets a project as the active project.
Add Files...
Opens Add File dialog so you can add files to active project.
Design Top Folder View
This view displays design tops contained in the projects design top
folder. The active design top is displayed with a unique color.
Figure 9-7
Design Top Folder View
Design Top Folder View Context Sensitive Menu
Delete
Deletes design top from the project. A design top can also be deleted
by pressing the Delete key after the design top is selected.
Set Active
Sets design top as the active top.
Project Window
9-11
Source File Folder View
Display source files in the right splitter pane by double clicking the
source files folder. Red, green, and yellow icons are displayed near
the source file name.
•
Yellow icon indicates that a source file needs to be analyzed.
•
Green icon indicates that the source file was analyzed correctly.
•
Red icon indicates an analyze error.
Source files are analyzed in the order displayed. Use the Source File
View to reorder files. Select a file and use Ctrl-UpArrow or CtrlDownArrow to move the file.
The project contains source file paths, not a file copy. So, adding and
deleting project source files does not remove the file from the file
system.
Figure 9-8
Project Window
9-12
Source File Folder View
Source File Folder View Context Sensitive Menu
Add Files Before...
Opens Add File dialog so you can add files to a project before file
pointed to by mouse.
Add Files After...
Opens Add File dialog so you can add files to a project after file pointed
to by mouse.
Delete
Removes file from project. A source file can also be removed by
pressing the Delete key after the source file is selected.
Options...
Opens Options Dialog which allows you to set analyze options for
VHDL files or compile options for Verilog files.
Display Analyze Errors
Displays analyze errors in the output pane.
Edit Source
Displays the source file in an editing window.
Project Window
9-13
Full Detail View
The full detail view shows the file name, Path, Last Modified Date and
Last Compiled Date.
Dependency Folder View
Dependent projects are analyzed in the order displayed and before
source files in the project. Use the Dependency View to reorder files.
Select a project name and use Ctrl-UpArrow or Ctrl-DownArrow to
move the dependent project.
When an active project is analyzed, projects in the dependency list
are analyzed if they are out of date. A project is out of date when its
library is cleaned, a source file is modified, dependent projects are
out of date, or analyze errors are detected.
Figure 9-9
Project Window
9-14
Dependency Folder View
Dependency Folder View Context Sensitive Menu
Add Dependency
Adds the selected project from the submenu to the end of dependency
list.
Add Dependency Before
Adds the selected project from the submenu before the selected
project.
Add Dependency After
Adds the selected project from the submenu after the selected project.
Delete
Removes a dependent project. You can also use Delete key to remove
a dependent project.
Library Folder View
The library folder view displays libraries in the workspace library folder
or a project library folder.
You can use the Library Folder view to add libraries or rename
libraries. Use the rename command to change individual library fields.
Project Window
9-15
When a project is analyzed, elaborated, or simulated, the Project
Window automatically creates a synopsys_sim.setup file. The file is
created in the active project directory when a project is analyzed and
in the simulation directory (Using the Options Dialog on page 9-39)
when a project is elaborated or simulated. VirSim changes the
directory setting to the project directory when analyzing or the
simulation directory when elaborating or simulating. Scirocco uses
the new setting from the synopsys_sim.setup file in the project
directory.
Libraries in a projects Library Folder are added to the
synopsys_sim.setup file created by the Project Window in the order
that they appear in the Library Folder. Libraries in the workspace
library folder that were created for the open workspace, or workspace
libraries that are modified, are written to the synopsys_sim.setup file
after project libraries.
You can create three types of libraries: VHDL libraries, Verilog
libraries, or a special Verilog library named VERILOG_WORK. VHDL
libraries and the VERILOG_WORK library are associated with a
directory path with the form ’name:path’ in the synopsys_sim.setup
file. Verilog libraries are associated with a path to a Verilog library file
or Verilog library directory with the form ’name < path’ in the
synopsys_sim.setup file. If the Library is a library directory, after the
path name enter a colon (:) followed by one or more filename
extensions to specify the extensions of the files in the library that you
want searched (to resolve module instances). For example:
VLOGLIB1 < /net/cores/vloglib1:.v+.vp
Project Window
9-16
Figure 9-10 Library Folder View
Library Folder View Context Sensitive Menu
New VHDL Library
Creates new workspace or project VHDL library. Shows default library
name in text edit field. The VHDL library has a name and directory
path.
New Verilog Library Work
Creates new project Verilog library Work. The library is named
VERILOG_WORK. Verilog libraries are placed in the
VERILOG_WORK library during Verilog compilation.
New Verilog Library Other...
Opens the New Verilog Dialog that is used to create Verilog libraries
for the project. The Verilog libraries are entered in the
synopsys_sim.setup file.
Delete
Deletes a library from a project or workspace.
Rename
Renames the library logical name or path.
Project Window
9-17
When a library path is renamed, a button is displayed next to the text
edit field containing the path. The button can be used to open the
“Select a Directory” Dialog. Pressing the Ok button in the Dialog
transfers the selected directory to the text edit field.
Set Active
Sets the library as the active library. The active library receives
analyzer output when a library has not been specified using the
Options Dialog.
Clean
Removes all files from the library.
Library View
The Library View displays the primary design units (entity,
configuration, and package declarations) and secondary design units
(architecture and package body’s). Secondary design units are
shown by expanding the primary design unit.
Project Window
9-18
Figure 9-11 Library View
Library View Context Sensitive Menu
Add Top
Adds a design unit to the active project’s Design Tops folder. Sets this
design unit as active design top.
Edit Source
Displays source file containing design unit in text editor.
Clean
Removes all files from the library.
View Full Detail
Displays the design unit, Cycle, Compiled, Debug flags, and the
Source File.
Project Window
9-19
Tear Off Windows
Any of the View Pane views can be displayed in a separate window.
Use the View-Tear Off command from the Project Browser Main Menu
to create a separate window containing the current View Pane View.
Multiple Tear Off windows can be created. Context Sensitive menus
are supported in Tear-Off windows.
Figure 9-12 Tear Off Window
Output Pane
The Output pane displays a history of executed commands, analysis
and elaboration output, and error messages.
Project Window
9-20
Commands can be transferred from the Output Pane to the Command
Line Edit Field by double clicking the command in the Output Pane.
In Figure 9-13, Output Pane With Commands, “activate project
Group1” command is transferred to the command line by double
clicking. The command can be edited further or executed by pressing
the carriage return.
Figure 9-13 Output Pane With Commands
You can use the Output pane to read analyzer errors and to edit source
files for correcting analyzer errors. Figure 9-14, Output Pane With
Analyzer Output shows analyzer output and an error message. With
the mouse over the error message, bring up the Context Sensitive
Menu to edit the source or explain the error.
Figure 9-14
Output Pane With Analyzer Output
Project Window
9-21
Output Pane Context Sensitive Menu
Edit Source
Opens a source file in the text edit window.
Explain Error
Opens window with text explaining error.
Toolbar and Menu Reference
This section includes the following information:
•
Toolbar
•
Menu Bar
Toolbar
The Project Window toolbar contains the following icons.
Analyze Icon
The Analyze icon analyzes the active project and all
dependent projects. The message “Project is up to date”
appears in the Output Pane when the project and all
source files are previously analyzed and they do not
need to be reanalyzed.
Use Tools-Analyze All to unconditionally analyze a
project. The project is always analyzed, even when it’s
up to date.
The Elaborate icon elaborates the active design top.
Elaborate Icon
Project Window
9-22
The Stop icon stops the analyzer or elaborator. This icon
is enabled when the analyzer or elaborator is running.
Stop Icon
Simulate Icon
The Simulate icon opens the Virsim Interactive window,
starts Scirocco, and simulates the active design top.
Simulate options for the active design top are passed to
the simulator.
You can start Scirocco from the Interactive Window if it
is open. However, using the Simulate Icon transfers the
latest Simulate options to the simulator.
Menu Bar
File Menu
New - Opens a
submenu for creating
new workspaces,
projects, and libraries.
The description of this
submenu immediately
follows this description
of the File menu.
Open Workspace… Displays the Open File
dialog. The dialog only
displays *.vws files.
The selected
workspace file is
opened in the Project
window.
Close Workspace - Closes the open workspace.
Save Workspace - Saves the open workspace. Saving the workspace will create
a workspaceName.wvs file in the workspace directory and a projectName.vpj file
in each project directory. The .wvs and .vpj files contain commands that restore
the workspace.
Open… - Displays the Open dialog to open an EPIC, VCD or VCD+ history file.
Project Window
9-23
Close… - Displays the Close File dialog to close an open history file.
Close Window - Closes the Project Window.
Exit - Exits VirSim.
Previously Opened Workspaces - Displays a list of previously opened
workspaces in the File Command Menu. Selecting one of the workspaces opens
it.
New Workspace - Displays the New
Workspace dialog. Use this dialog
to create a new workspace.
New Project - Creates a new
project. Sets the project as the
active project and displays the
default project name in a text edit
field in the Workspace pane.
New Workspace VHDL Library - Creates a new workspace VHDL library. Shows
the default library name in a text edit field in the Workspace pane.
New Project VHDL Library - Creates a new project VHDL library in the active
project. Shows the default library name in a text edit field in the Workspace pane.
New Project Verilog Library Work - Creates a new VERILOG_WORK library
in the active project.
New Project Verilog Library Other... - Opens a dialog for creating a new Verilog
library in the active project.
Edit Menu
Cut - Cuts the selection and moves it to
the clipboard.
Copy - Copies the selection to the
clipboard.
Paste - Pastes the clipboard to a
designated area.
Delete - Deletes the selection.
Project Window
9-24
Project Menu
Set Active Project - Sets
the project selected from
the submenu as the active
project.
Add Files… - Displays the
Add Files Dialog. Files are
added to the active project.
Set Active Design Top Sets the design top selected
from the submenu as the
active design top.
Add Dependency - Adds the project selected from the submenu to the active project.
Import Synopsys Setup File...- Displays the Open File dialog. The dialog only
displays synopsys_sim.setup files. Use the dialog to import a synopsys_sim.setup file
into the active project. Constants and libraries are added to the active project. (and to
the synopsys_sim.setup file created by the Project window.) Examples are shown
below.
synopsys_sim.setup contains:
WORK > RTL_LIB
RTL_LIB : ./work
ALU > ALU8
ALU8 : /tmp/ALU8
VERILOG < test.v
TIMEBASE = NS
Project Window
9-25
Added to active project:
RTL_LIB: ./work -Note WORK > RTL_LIB is ignored
ALU :/tmp/ALU8
ALU8 :/tmp/ALU8
VERILOG < test.v
TIMEBASE = NS
Import List of Files... - Displays the Open File dialog. Use the dialog to select a text
file containing a list of Verilog or VHDL files. The files will be added to the active project,
in the order that they appear. The list file may contain text comment lines that begin
with ‘#’ ,text lines that contain alpha/numeric names (which are ignored) that can
optionally begin with ‘-‘, and text lines that contain file names (name.extension)
separated by white space A text line may end with a backslash(‘\’). Examples are
shown below.
#!/bin/csh -f (Lines beginning with # are ignored)
vhdlan {vhdlan options} (name or -name is ignored)
file1.vhd
file2.VHD \
file3.vhd file4.vhd file5.vhd
file6.v file9.V \
Edit Setup Constants - Opens the Edit Setup Constants dialog. Use this dialog to
add, modify, or delete synopsys_sim.setup constants in the active project. The
constants displayed in the dialog are added to the synopsys_sim.setup file created by
the Project window when a project is analyzed, elaborated, or simulated.
Project Window
9-26
Tools Menu
Analyze All - Unconditionally analyzes
the active project and its dependent
projects.
Analyze Project - Analyzes the active
project and its dependent projects only
if they are out of date. A project is out of
date when the project library is cleaned,
when source files are modified, when
dependent projects are out of date, or
when there are analyze errors.
Analyze Files - Analyzes the selected
files in the Source File pane. The
selected files must belong to the active
project.
Sto
Analyze From File - Analyzes the files beginning with the selected file in the
Source File pane. The selected files must belong to the active project.
Elaborate - Elaborates the active design top for the active project.
Simulate - Simulates the active design top for the active project.
Stop - Stops analysis or elaboration.
Clean - Cleans all libraries in active project. Does not clean dependent projects.
Clean All - Cleans all libraries in the active project and the dependent projects.
Options... - Displays the Options dialog.
Create Makefile - Creates a makefile in the active project’s directory. Use the
makefile to analyze, elaborate, and simulate in batch mode. See Using a
Makefile on page 9-56.
Project Window
9-27
View Menu
Command Line - Shows or hides the
command line edit window.
Full Detail - When checked, view pane
shows all details.
Tear Off - The displayed view pane is
displayed in a separate window.
Windows Menu
Hierarchy - Opens Hierarchy window.
Waveform - Opens Waveform window.
Register - Opens Register window.
Source - Opens Source window.
Interactive - Opens Interactive
Invocation dialog.
Close Tear Offs - Closes all Tear Off
windows.
List of Tear Off Windows - Moves
selected Tear Off window to forefront.
Project Window
9-28
Dialogs
New Workspace Dialog
Use the New Workspace dialog to create a new workspace. A new
project and a new project library named WORK are automatically
created for the workspace. The new project name is displayed in a
text edit field in the Workspace pane.
Figure 9-15 New Workspace Dialog
Name
Shows the name of the workspace.
Path
Shows the parent workspace directory.
Select a Directory
Opens the Select Directory dialog. The selected directory is placed
in the Path field.
Project Window
9-29
Simulate
Shows the name of the simulator.
Ok
Creates a new workspace and closes the dialog.
Cancel
Closes the dialog and exits. Does not create a new workspace.
A new directory that has the workspace name is created in the ‘Path’
or parent workspace directory, if it does not already exist. The
workspace file is placed in the workspace directory. The full name for
the workspace file is /Path/workspaceName/workspaceName.vws.
New project directories, files, and libraries are created in the
workspace directory.
Project Window
9-30
Open File Dialog
Use the Open File dialog to find a file to open. The dialog displays
files that match the selected Filter.
Figure 9-16 Open File Dialog
Filter
Selects type of file to open.
Project Window
9-31
Files
Displays list of files that match filter.
Folders
Lets you browse through the directory tree.
Ok
Opens file selected in “Enter file name” field.
Update
Updates Folders list.
Cancel
Closes Dialog.
Project Window
9-32
Add Files Dialog
Use the Add Files Dialog to add files to a project.
Figure 9-17 Add Files Dialog
Filter
Lets you choose a file filter. Displays valid VHDL and Verilog file
extensions defined in BuildDialog file (see Files and Directories).
Files
Displays filtered files in Files list.
Add File
Adds the selected file to the active project.
Project Window
9-33
Add All
Adds all Verilog and VHDL files in Files list to the project.
Folders
Use the Folders List to browse through the directory tree.
Ok
Adds the file to the project and closes dialog.
Update
Updates Folders list.
Cancel
Closes Dialog.
Project Window
9-34
Select a Directory Dialog
Use the Select a Directory dialog to select a directory.
Figure 9-18 Select a Directory
Filter
Not Used.
Project Window
9-35
Folders
Lets you browse through the directory tree. The selected directory is
placed in the file name field.
Ok
Returns contents of file name field and closes dialog.
Update
Updates the Folders list.
Cancel
Closes the Dialog.
Edit Setup Constants Dialog
The Edit Setup Constants Dialog is used to create, modify, and delete
constants in the active project. The constants are written to the Project
window synopsys_sim.setup file when the active project is analyzed,
elaborated, or simulated.
Figure 9-19 Edit Setup Constants Dialog
Project Window
9-36
Setup Constants
Displays list of constants in active project.
Name
Edit field for defining the name of a constant.
Value
Edit field for defining a constant value.
Done
Closes the dialog.
Add
Adds the constant in the Name edit field.
Update
Changes the value of the selected constant.
Delete
Deletes selected constant.
Project Window
9-37
New Verilog Library Dialog
The New Verilog Library dialog is use to create new Verilog libraries.
Verilog libraries have the form ’name < pathname’ in the
synopsys_sim.setup file.
Figure 9-20 New Verilog Library Dialog
Library Name
Specifies the logical name of the Verilog library
Path Name
Specifies the pathname of the Verilog library file or directory. If the
Library is a library directory, after the path name enter a colon (:)
followed by one or more filename extensions to specify the extensions
of the files in the library that you want searched (to resolve module
instances). For example:
VLOGLIB1 < /net/cores/vloglib1:.v+.vp
Project Window
9-38
Ok
Creates the new library entry in the synopsys_sim.setup file and
closes the dialog.
Add
Creates the new library entry in the synopsys_sim.setup file and
clears the fields so you can specify more libraries.
Cancel
Closes the Dialog.
Help
Displays an menu page for help topics on Verilog Libraries
Using the Options Dialog
A project can be analyzed, elaborated, and simulated using default
command line settings. The Options dialog is used to change the
default settings.
The Options Dialog always displays the Analyze, Elaborate, and
Simulate tab panes. Both the Verilog Compile tab and Verilog Run
tab are displayed when a workspace contains Verilog files.
The left hand Workspace view pane displays objects whose options
can be changed. The objects displayed under Project Folders (source
files and design tops) change when the tab is changed.
Project Window
9-39
Options Dialog Buttons
Ok
Sets options on selected objects and closes the dialog.
Apply
Sets options on selected objects.
Apply Defaults
Sets selected tab pane to default values. Use Ok or Apply to set
options for selected Workspace view objects.
Cancel
Closes the dialog.
Help
Displays help information.
Project Window
9-40
Setting Analyze Options
Figure 9-21 Analyze Options
Use the Analyze tab to set analyze options for a workspace, project,
or VHDL source file.
Options are set using check buttons, the Library combo box, and the
Options edit field. The Command field displays options that are
passed to the analyzer.
The Library combo box is used to select a library that receives
analyzer output. Use the radio button to choose a workspace library
or a project library.Analyzer output will go the active project library
until a library is specified with this combo box.
Project Window
9-41
Options can be modified for the workspace, projects, or VHDL source
files. Separate sets of options are maintained for the workspace,
project and files. Initially the three sets of options are identical.
Analyze settings for a VHDL source file are determined as follows:
Use the file options if they are changed, otherwise use the project
options if they are changed, otherwise use the workspace options. A
black triangle icon indicates that options are changed.
Setting Elaborate Options
Figure 9-22 Elaborate Options
Use the Elaborate tab to set elaborate options for a workspace,
project, or design top.
Project Window
9-42
Options are set using check buttons, the Time Units combo box, the
Name edit field, the Directory edit field and the Options edit field. The
Command field displays options that are passed to the analyzer.
The Name Edit field is used to name the simulation executable.
The Directory edit field contains the simulator directory. The
elaborator places the simulator in this directory. The interactive VCD+
history file is found in this directory, after the simulator is executed. If
a VHDL design contains a file that is loaded during simulation, change
the contents of the Directory field to the directory containing the file.
The button next to the directory edit field can be used to open the
“Select a Directory Dialog”.
Options can be modified for the workspace, projects, or design tops.
Separate sets of options are maintained for the workspace, project,
and design tops. Initially the three sets of options are identical.
Elaborate settings for a design top are determined as follows: use the
design top options if they are changed otherwise use the project
options if they are changed otherwise use the workspace options. A
black triangular icon indicates that options are changed.
Project Window
9-43
Setting Simulate Options
Figure 9-23 Simulate Options
Use the Simulate tab to set runtime simulator options for a workspace,
project or design top.
Options are set using check buttons and the Options edit field. The
Command field displays options that are passed to the analyzer. The
Command field also displays the name of the simulation executable,
from the elaborate tab.
Options can be modified for the workspace, projects, or design top.
Separate sets of options are maintained for the workspace, project
and design top. Initially the three sets of options are identical.
Project Window
9-44
Simulate runtime settings for a design top are determined as follows:
Use the design top options if they are changed otherwise use the
project options if they are changed otherwise use the workspace
options. A black triangular icon indicates that options are changed.
Setting Verilog Compile Options
Figure 9-24 Verilog Compile Options
Use the Compile tab to set VCS compile-time options. These options
are passed to the elaborator as a string using the -verilogcomp
option.
Options are set using check buttons and the Options edit field. The
Command field displays options that are passed to the Verilog
compiler.
Project Window
9-45
Options can be modified for the workspace or project. Separate sets
of options are maintained for the workspace. Initially the two sets of
options are identical.
Compile settings for a Verilog project are determined as follows: use
the project options if they are changed, otherwise use the workspace
options. A black triangular icon indicates that options are changed.
Setting Verilog Run Options
Figure 9-25 Verilog Run Options
Use the Verilog Run tab to set VCS runtime options. These options
are passed to VCS as a string using the -verilogrun option.
Options are set using the check buttons and the Options edit field.
The Command field displays the options that are passed to VCS.
Project Window
9-46
Options can be modified for a workspace, project, or a design top.
You can maintain separate sets of options for different workspaces,
projects, and design tops. Initially the three sets of options are
identical.
VCS runtime options for a design top are determined as follows: use
the design top options if they have been changed, otherwise use the
project options if they have been changed, otherwise use the
workspace options. A black triangle icon indicates that options have
been changed.
Executing Commands from the Command Line
The command line is used to execute commands and scripts without
using the GUI. At the command line prompt, enter a command and
press the Enter key. The command is executed and the History pane
displays the command and any error messages.
Commands executed from the command line are placed in a history
buffer. Use the up/down arrow keys to move commands from the
command buffer to the command line edit field.
Figure 9-26 Command Line
Project Window
9-47
Commands
The Project Window commands can be executed from the GUI, the
command line, or placed in a file and then executed.
Definitions
•
filename – quoted, full path name of a file. For example “/tmp/
alu.vhd”.
•
librarydir, workspacedir – quoted, full path name of a directory.
For example “/tmp/test”.
•
[ ] – fields inside brackets are optional.
•
{option | option1 | …} use one of the list of options.
•
library libname [project projname] specifies a workspace library
unless the project option is used, then it specifies a project library.
The Project Window commands are as follows:
active library libname
Sets ’libname’ as the default library for the active project.
activate project projname
Sets ‘projname’ as the active project.
activate top topname library libname [project projname]
Sets ‘topname’ as the active design top. ‘topname’ is found in
library libname.
add [before | after filename] file filename1
Adds source file ‘filename1’ to the active project. The command
has an option to place the file before or after ‘filename’.
Project Window
9-48
add constant string
Add constant to the active project.
add top topname library libname [project projname]
Adds design unit ‘topname’ to the active projects list of design
tops.
add [before | after projname] dependent projname1
Adds project ‘projname1’ to the active projects dependency list.
The command has an option to place the project before or after
‘projname’.
add filelist filename
File filename contains a list of Verilog or VHDL source files that
are added to the active project.
add setup setupdir
Directory setupdir contains a synopsys_sim.setup file that is read
into the active project. Adds constants, and both VHDL and Verilog
libraries to the project.
add constant name value
Adds a constant and value to the active project. The constant is
written to the synopsys_sim.setup file created by the Project
window.
analyze project
Analyzes active project and each dependent project only if each
project needs to be analyzed.
analyze all
Unconditionally analyzes the active project and all dependent
projects.
Project Window
9-49
analyze from filename
Analyzes the active projects list of source files beginning with
‘filename’.
analyze file filename [filename1 [filename2…]]
Analyzes the list of files for the active project.
clean [all]
Cleans the active projects libraries. The all option causes all
dependent project libraries to be cleaned, in addition to the active
project. All files in a library directory are removed, when a library
is cleaned.
clean {workspace | project} libname
Cleans the indicated library.
close workspace
Closes the open workspace.
delete constant string
Deletes the constant from the active project
delete file filename [filename1 [filename2..]]
Removes the list of files from the active project.
delete top topname library libname [project projname]
Removes the design top from the active project.
delete project projname
Deletes ‘projname’ from the workspace.
delete dependent projname
Removes ‘projname’ from the active projects dependency list.
Project Window
9-50
delete library {workspace | project} libname
Deletes ‘libname’ from the workspace or project.
delete library verilog libname
Deletes Verilog library libname from the active project.
delete constant name
Deletes a constant from the active project.
elaborate
Elaborates the active design top.
exit
Exits VirSim.
move {before | after} filename file filename1
move {up | down} file filename1
move {before | after} projname dependent projname1
move {up | down} dependent projname1
Moves the position of file ‘filename1’ or dependent project
‘proname1’ in the active project.
new workspace workspacedir [simulatorname]
Creates a new workspace. The workspace directory
‘workspacedir’ is created if it does not already exist. The name of
the workspace simulator is defined by simulatorname. The default
simulator is Scirocco.
new project projname
Creates a new project ‘projname’ and a project library DEFAULT.
The parent directory for the library is the project directory.
Project Window
9-51
new library {workspace | project} libname [librarydir]
Creates a new workspace or project library ‘libname’. If directory
‘librarydir’ is not specified, the library is created in the workspace
or project directory using libname as the directory name.
new library verilog libname pathname
Creates a new workspace or project library ’libname.’ THe
pathname can be either a quoted string or a character string.
open workspace filename
Opens workspace ‘filename’.
rename project projname
Changes the name of the active project to ‘projname’.
rename library {workspace | project} oldname newname
[librarydir]
Renames a workspace or project library. To change ‘librarydir’
without changing the library name, set ‘newname’ equal to
‘oldname’. Note that like the new library command, ‘librarydir’
can be an empty string.
rename library verilog oldname newname pathname
Renames a project Verilog library. To change the pathname
without changing the library name, set ’newname’ to ’oldname.’
save workspace
Saves the workspace creating new *.vws and *.vpj files.
save makefile
Saves a makefile in the active project directory.
Project Window
9-52
set option_type {workspace | project projname} string
set option_type file filename string
set option_type top topname string library libname [project
projname]
The set command uses the following definitions.
option_type = {analyze | elaborate | verilog compile |
verilog run}
string = quoted string of options (“-time PS –directory /users/tmp”)
You use this command to set analyze, elaborate, compile, and
simulate options for the active project or workspace. Examples of
these commands can be found in workspace (.vws) and project
(.vpj) files when you use the Options dialog to set options for
workspace, projects, files and design tops.
simulate
Simulates the active design top.
source filename
Executes commands in ‘filename’.
stop
Stops elaborating or analyzing the design.
Project Window
9-53
Files and Directories
When the Workspace dialog is used to create a workspace, three
new directories are created if they do not already exist, the workspace
directory ./workspaceName, the project directory ./workspaceName/
PROJECT1 and a project library ./workspaceName/PROJECT1/
WORK. Saving the new workspace creates two new files,
workspaceName.vws, which is in the workspace directory and
PROJECT1.vpj, which is in the project directory. The vws and vpj files
contain commands that restore the workspace when it is opened.
The Project Window creates files in a project directory when a project
is analyzed. The analyzeHistory file contains analyze history
information. A sysnopsy_sim.setup file is created when source files
are analyzed.
A synopsys_sim.setup file is created in the simulation directory (see
Setting Elaborate Options on page 9-42), when elaborating or
simulating a design.
The Project Window creates a directory called .virsim in your home
directory if it does not already exist. The directory contains files used
by the Project Window.
File ./virsim/projectBrowser contains configuration information and it
must not be modified. VirSim creates the file if it does not exist.
File BuildDialog is in VIRSIMHOME/appfiles. This file defines Options
dialog buttons and can be modified. The file also contains valid Verilog
and VHDL file extensions. You can place a modified copy of this file
in .virsim directory. The Project Window first looks for this file in the
.virsim directory and then in the VIRSIMHOME/appfiles directory.
Project Window
9-54
By default, the interactive simulation file is placed in the project
directory, unless you use the Options dialog to specify a different
simulation directory.
Moving Projects
Saved paths in a workspace are relative to the workspace path. Thus,
a user can easily move a workspace.
For example, assume the workspace path is /users/hkrohn/risc and
workspace name is ws_relative. The Project Window creates a new
directory ws_relative and saves the workspace in /users/hkrohn/risc/
ws_relative/ws_relative.vws. A new project directory is also created
called /users/hkrohn/risc/ws_relative/PROJECT1. The project is saved as
./ws_relative/PROJECT1/PROJECT1.vpj.
If a source file path is /users/hkrohn/risc/alu.vhd, then the saved path
will be ./alu.vhd otherwise the complete path is saved. This makes it
possible to move(copy) the workspace directory to a new location.
To move the workspace when source files are not in the workspace
path: cd /users/hkrohn/risc ; mv ws_relative newlocation;. To move the
workspace and source files, cd /users/hkrohn ; mv risc newlocation ;.
Project Window
9-55
Using a Makefile
To create a makefile for a project, make sure the project is active then
select Create Makefile from the Tools menu. The makefile has four
targets: all, analyze, elab and sim. When the makefile is created, a
synopsys_sim.setup file is written to the workspace path, overwriting
any existing setup file.
To run the makefile, go to the parent workspace directory and execute
the makefile that is contained in the project directory. For example, if
the workspace parent directory is /users/hkrohn/risc, do the following:
cd /users/hkrohn/risc
make -f ws_relative/PROJECT1/Makefile analyze
Project Window
9-56
10
Time Units
1
This chapter describes how to set display unit and precision values
for Time Units.
The Time Scale Dialog allows you to configure display units and
precision. Because the use of multiple history files may involve
different units and precision, it may be necessary to configure the
time scale.
The Time Scale Dialog has two option menus (Display Unit and
Display Precision) and four action buttons.
See Figure 10-1, Time Scale Dialog.
Time Units
10-1
Figure 10-1 Time Scale Dialog
Display Unit
Opens an option of valid time units (see Figure 10-2, Time Selection
Menu). Click left on the Display Unit button to change the units that
VirSim uses to display time. In the popup menu, click left on the
desired time unit. The new time appears on the button face.
Figure 10-2 Time Selection Menu
Time Units
10-2
Display Precision (Button opens option menu)
Opens an option menu of time precision values. From the popup
menu, click left on the desired time precision selection. The new time
appears on the button face.
OK
Changes time values to the unit and precision selected and closes
the Time Scale Dialog.
Apply
Changes time values to the unit and precision selected and leaves
the Time Scale Dialog open.
Cancel
Closes the Time Scale Dialog without saving any changes.
Help
Opens online help for the Time Scale Dialog.
Note:
Changes in display unit and precision are not stored in
configuration files.
Time Units
10-3
Time Units
10-4
11
Radices
1
This chapter describes the use of the Radix Dialog to create, modify
and delete custom radices. A custom radix is used to map vector
values to user-defined text strings. For example, the logic value of
6’h04 may be mapped to a display string of HLT. By setting a signal’s
radix (for example, in the Waveform Window Signal Value pane) to
the new radix, all values of 6’h04 are displayed as HLT.
Using a Radix
Use the following procedure to change the radix of a signal
displayed in a VirSim window.
1. Point the cursor over the value for a signal or group of selected
signals and click right. A popup menu appears with a list of the
standard and user-defined radices, (see Figure 11-1, Radix List).
Radices
11-1
2. Position the mouse over the desired radix and release the mouse
button.
For radix value strings, each character represents one bit for
binary, 3 bits for octal, and 4 bits for hex. Values are grouped from
right to left (e.g. 6’b1xzzzz would be 6’hXz where X=1x and
z=zzzz). For decimal values you will either get one non-numeric
character or a decimal number representing all the bits.
Figure 11-1 Radix List
Radices
11-2
Radix Dialog
(Verilog only) Figure 11-2, Sample Radix Dialog shows the major
areas of the Radix Dialog.
Figure 11-2 Sample Radix Dialog
Radix Editor
Mapping List Editor
Action Buttons
Radices
11-3
Radix Editor
(Verilog only) The Radix Editor is used to create new Radices, edit
the mappings of a Radix, rename a Radix, and delete a Radix.
Radix List
Displays all Radices that have been entered. Selecting a Radix Name
in this area, then clicking Edit fills in all fields of the dialog with the
values associated with this Radix and allows editing of the Mapping
List for this Radix. A radix must be added to the Radix List with the
Radix Add button before it can be edited with the mapping editor.
File Type
Select the file type that can use this radix. Not all file types can use
user-defined radix features.
Name
Used to enter a Radix Name. Radix Names may only contain
alphanumeric characters and underscores and can begin with either
an alpha character or underscore.
Radices
11-4
Mapping List Editor
(Verilog only) The Mapping List Editor is used to create, update, and
delete a Radix’s mapping of values to text strings.
Mapping List
Displays all mappings that have been entered. Selecting a mapping
in this area fills in the fields of the dialog with the values associated
with this mapping and allows editing of the mapping.
Value
Used to enter the value to be mapped. The value uses the Verilog
number format and can be entered in binary, decimal, octal or
hexadecimal. Legal values include -15, 4’hf, ‘o777 and 17’d9. In
addition, the wildcard ? can be used to indicate that any single digit
is allowed in the wildcard position. Examples of this are 16’hfaa?
and 4’b000?. The wildcard ? cannot be used in decimal values.
Display
Used to enter the text string to be displayed in place of the actual
value. Any alphanumeric character is allowed.
Radices
11-5
Creating a User-Defined Radix
(Verilog only) Use the following procedure to create a userdefined radix.
1. Click left in the Name field and type a radix name.
2. After the radix name, press Enter to add the name and enable
Edit.
3. Click left on Edit or press Enter to edit the value mappings for the
new Radix.
4. Type a value to be mapped and press Enter.
5. Type the text string to be displayed for the previously entered value
and click left on Add or press Enter.
6. To enter additional mappings, repeat step 3 and 4 and then click
left on Done after the last mapping.
Radices
11-6
12
Event Origin
1
The VirSim Event Origin feature (Verilog only) can help you to obtain
precise information about the origin of a signal value change at a
specific time. VirSim can display signals from all levels of a design
hierarchy, including signals named differently but logically equivalent
by connection through a module port. Whatever the signal data type
and location in the hierarchy, there is a root cause for every signal
change, referred to as its event origin.
Event Origin
12-1
Before Using Event Origin
Event Origin requires that VirSim compile the Verilog source so it can
obtain information about the design that is not available from the
simulator or vpd file. Source and compile options used must match
those that were used when the simulation was run. If the Verilog code
has not already been compiled, you will be prompted for the source
by the Load Sources Dialog box when Event Origin is selected.
If line trace data was saved in the VCD+ file, the Event Origin function
will point to the line of source that caused the transition. It also uses
this data to eliminate possible drivers that were not actually executed
at the time the event occurred.
Note:
Older VCD+ files are missing some information to allow driver
elimination. To use this feature you should create your VCD+ files
using a VirSim 3.0 or later PLI.
Where You Can Use Event Origin
Event Origin is allowed at various places in the different
windows. When event origin is not allowed it is not sensitive,
which is due to one of the following:
1. The window is linked to SIM. Event origin is not allowed when the
window is linked to a simulator. Unlink from SIM and then try event
origin.
2. A single net can not be determined from the current mouse
location (expressions are not allowed).
Event Origin
12-2
The following is a list of objects for each window where event origin
is allowed:
•
Waveform Window: Any waveform.
•
Register Window: Any signal.
•
Source Window: Any valid signal name.
•
Logic Browser: Any port, port instance, primitive terminal, or focus
net.
The starting time is the current time displayed for the given window
unless you are in the Waveform Window. In this case, the time is
determined by the position of the mouse cursor. The event time is
found by looking for the first change that occurred at or before the
starting time.
Event Origin works on vectors as well as scalars. For vectors, only
the bits that changed at the event time are considered.
How to Use Event Origin
To use event origin place the cursor on the object for which you wish
to see the origin(s), then right click to bring up the context sensitive
menu. Select Event Origin from the menu. This brings up a sub menu
of Event Origin options.
Event Origin
12-3
Figure 12-1 Event Origin Menu via the Context Sensitive Menu
Automatically Select Window
This option will select an existing window or create a new window.
Primitive terminals and continuous assignments are displayed in a
Logic Browser window. Procedural assignments are displayed in a
Source Window. If this window is already open it will be used to display
the Event Origin. Otherwise, a new one will be created and linked to
the one you are in.
Point to Preferred Window
This option allows you to select either a Source Window or Logic
Browser to display the driver. When this option is selected, the cursor
will change to a left pointing hand. Left click in the desired Source or
Logic Browser window and the selected window displays the event
origin(s). (If you do not click in a valid window, Event Origin terminates,
and VirSim returns to normal processing.)
Event Origin
12-4
View In New Window
This option will always create a new window. The type of window is
determined as described in the Automatically Select Window option.
If possible the new window will be linked to the same link group as
the window where this option was selected. Otherwise the window
will get a new link group.
Display the Event Origin
When the event origin is displayed in a Source Window, the instance
containing the origin is placed in the EventOrigin instance group. The
window is then changed to use the EventOrigin instance group and
display the proper source. The line representing the driver is marked
with an off-white outline arrow. The arrow is filled in with yellow if line
data was saved and the line data was saved for the driving signal.
This indicates that you can step forward or backward from the point
where this line was executed. If the arrow is hollow, line stepping
occurs at the beginning of the time when the event occurred. All the
other source window functions are still available to help you analyze
why a particular change occurred.
When displayed in the Logic Browser, the net being driven by the
event origin is displayed and the time is set to the beginning of the
time the event occurred. You can then use the normal logic browser
navigation and change search features to further analyze the
problem.
Event Origin
12-5
Choose from Multiple Drivers for an Event
If you invoke the event origin function and there is more than one
driver contributing to the event, the Multiple Drivers Dialog appears.
This dialog shows all drivers contributing to an event and allows you
to select an item for display. To display a driver, you can double leftclick on any of the three items for that driver, or you can single leftclick to select an item and use the OK or Apply buttons.
Figure 12-2 Multiple Drivers Dialog
Full hierarchical signal name.
Current value of the signal.
Previous value of the signal.
Time the event occurred.
The Bit column contains the name of the
driven bit. For scalars this is the net name,
and for vectors it is the net name and bit.
Only bits that changed at the time specified
in the Event Time field are displayed.
Driver Module is the module type that
contains the driver of the driven bit.
Driver Instance is the hierarchical name of
the instance that contains the driver.
Closes the dialog
and displays the
selected item in an
appropriate window.
Event Origin
12-6
Closes the dialog
Displays the
selected item in an without taking any
action.
appropriate window while leaving
the dialog open.
Event Origin Classifications
The event origin depends on the type of signal, which can be
classified into one of three major categories:
1. Register (reg, integer, time and real) variables, where the
values are assigned by procedural statements within initial blocks,
tasks, and functions. For these variables, the event origin is
defined as the procedural statement that last modified the variable
at the event time. These statements often exist in the same scope
as the variable declaration, but need not, as in the case of a
statement that assigns to a variable by hierarchical reference (For
example, top.cpu.PC = 32’h0000ff00).
2. Net (wire, tri, or, wor, and, wand, trireg, tri1, and tri0)
variables, which derive values from one or more continuous
assign statements, primitive terminal connections, or register
variables, drive values onto the net through port connections. The
drivers can exist in the same scope as the net, but can just as
easily exist in a different scope in the hierarchy, as is often the
case of a net connected to a module port instance.
3. Signals representing the output of a single primitive to a multidriver net. Such signals do not correspond to a variable in the HDL
source, but are produced by the VirSim VCD+ writer during
simulation to allow more accurate analysis of multi-driver nets.
The origin in this case is simply the primitive that produced the
contribution. These signals are only produced when the
+vpddrivers argument is given to the simulator.
Event Origin
12-7
Debug with Event Origin
For a register variable (reg, integer, time, or real), a value
change always results from the execution of a procedural statement.
For a signal declared as a net data type (wire, tri1, etc.), a value
change usually results from a change in the output of a driving
primitive gate or continuous assign statement (often in a different
scope of the hierarchy from the net declaration itself), or may result
from a procedural force statement.
Since force statements are done outside the logic of the HDL
source code, doing an Event Origin on a force statement may
give misleading results. If line trace information was not saved,
all the drivers of the affected net will be listed but may not be
the cause of the change if the force occurred after the driver was
executed. If line trace information was saved there are two
possible outcomes.
1. A driver was executed at the same time the force was entered.
This case is similar to when line trace data was not saved. The
driver(s) will be displayed but if the force was entered after a driver
executed, that driver would not be the cause of the change.
2. No drivers were executed at the time the force was entered. VirSim
will display the Event Origin.
For a net driven by a single primitive or continuous assign (with the
exception of a procedural force to the net), the event origin is fixed.
For nets and register variables with multiple drivers, the event origin
may change. One or more drivers may be responsible for a particular
net value change, and the set of responsible drivers varies. Since the
drivers may reside in any scope. It can be problematic to establish
the underlying cause of the net value change.
Event Origin
12-8
Using the +vpddrivers option can aid in debugging problems with
multiple drivers since you can see the values of each driver instead
of only the resolved value (see Simulator Run-Time Options on
page 17-24).
For register variables, which are commonly assigned values by
multiple statements throughout the course of a simulation, it is
exceedingly difficult to determine which line of code correlates to a
particular value change using standard debug facilities. The Event
Origin feature can leverage some of the more advanced capabilities
of VirSim to help with these problems. Saving line trace data can
eliminate the consideration of drivers that were not executed at the
time of the change (see Chapter 17, VCD+ (vpd) File Generation).
Event Origin
12-9
Event Origin
12-10
13
Building Buses
1
Use VirSim’s Bus Builder function to easily create and customize
buses.
User-created buses can contain signals as well as other user-created
buses. Created buses then can be expanded, collapsed, and
accessed in the Hierarchy Browser in the same way as vectors,
memories, or records.
Using Bus Builder
Access the Bus Builder dialog from the Edit pull-down menu in either
the Waveform or Register windows.
Building Buses
13-1
By dragging signals into the Bus Builder Dialog, the component
signals are displayed in the dialog and the appropriate default values
are set. You can modify any of the dialog settings and then click Ok
to create the bus.
All components of a bus must be signals from the same history file.
Buses can not have components that are expressions. You can not
edit a part select using the Bus Builder Dialog. You can create a bus
that contains just the desired range of bits, but it will not follow the
conventions for part-select names. It must be a valid bus name.
After a bus is created, it can be used as any other signal in the design.
By default it will reside in the highest level scope common to its
components. Drag its name from the Bus Builder dialog to the
Hierarchy Browser Signal Select pane to see its home scope. Drag
it to a Waveform Window or Register Window to display its data.
To create a new bus
Drag components from any window into the Component
list. Modify the dialog settings as necessary. Click Add to
create the bus.
To edit an existing bus
Select the bus from the Buses window. Modify the settings
and add and delete components as necessary. Click
Update to make the changes to the bus.
To delete a component
from a bus
Select a component, then either click the Delete button
under the Component pane or press the Delete key on your
keyboard.
To delete a bus
Select a bus from the Buses list and click the delete button
on the Bus Builder dialog.
To view buses from
another open file
Click the file menu and select the file designator for the file
you want to view.
Building Buses
13-2
Bus Builder Dialog
Figure 13-1, Bus Builder Dialog, shows the major areas of the Bus
Builder Dialog.
Figure 13-1 Bus Builder Dialog
Name
Buses can be named any legal name for the language (e.g., Verilog,
VHDL). The bit ranges should not be specified as part of the name
as they are added automatically (like any other vector). If no name is
specified, by default buses are numbered consecutively within each
design file (Bus1 through BusN).
Building Buses
13-3
File
Specifies the file designator for the source history file. File designators
are selected from the pull down menu next to the File field. As you
switch files, the Bus Builder dialog lists only the buses associated
with the selected file. You can not drag a component from one file into
a bus created from another file.
Scope
When a bus is created, it is associated with a scope in the design.
The bus will be displayed in the Hierarchy Browser Signal Select pane
for its associated scope. The Scope field allows you to modify the
default scope. The default scope is determined by the following:
•
If all components are from the same scope, that is the default
scope.
•
If all components have a common ancestor, the scope is that
ancestor.
•
If there are no common ancestors, the scope will be the root scope.
Ascending/Descending
Specifies whether the bits are numbered in ascending order (0-5) or
descending order (5-0).
Bit Range
By default the bit range is 0 to N. You may edit these values.
Invert
Inverts each data bit in the bus. For example, 4’b1010 inverted would
become 4’b0101.
Building Buses
13-4
Components
Lists the components of the currently selected bus. You can drag
signals into the components list from the Waveform Window and
Hierarchy Browser.
Reverse
Reverses the order of selected bus subcomponents.
Delete (below Components list)
Deletes selected components.
Hide
Bus components are displayed in the Hierarchy Browser’s Signal
Select list only as part of that bus. When Hide is off, signals are
displayed in the Signal Select window both individually and as
components of the bus.
Buses
Lists all defined buses for the selected file.
Done
Closes the Bus Builder Dialog.
Add
Creates a new bus and displays it in the Buses List.
Update
Updates an existing bus.
Building Buses
13-5
Delete
Deletes an existing bus. Use the delete key to delete components of
a bus.
Help
Opens on-line help for the Bus Builder Dialog.
Using Buses in the VirSim Windows
Logic Browser
The Logic Browser can not show a bus made up of different signals.
When a bus is loaded into the Logic Browser, the Connection Dialog
allows you to select which component you want to track.
Source Window
When a bus is dropped into a Source Window it is displayed in the
bus’ scope. If the bus uses the artificial root as the scope, then the
following message is displayed:
Bus <busname> does not have a scope.
Building Buses
13-6
Hierarchy Browser
When you create a bus it appears in the Hierarchy Browser Signal
Select pane when its associated scope is selected. Click on a bus in
the Hierarchy Browser Signal pane to expand it. When expanded, a
bus shows the components which, if they are not scalars, can be
further expanded.
If a bus was created with Hide selected, components that make up
that bus are displayed in the Hierarchy Browser only as part of the
bus. The individual components are hidden from view in the Hierarchy
Browser.
Figure 13-2 Expanded Bus in Hierarchy Browser Signal Select Pane
Building Buses
13-7
Waveform Window
Double click on a bus name in the signal name pane to expand it and
show its individual components. Double click again to collapse a bus.
Figure 13-3 Buses in the Waveform Window
Expanded bus.
Collapsed bus.
Building Buses
13-8
14
Markers
1
Markers function as user-defined aliases for specific simulation times.
They are used to bookmark specific points in simulation time in VirSim
windows so that specific simulator times can be easily accessed.
How VirSim Uses Markers
Markers are displayed in the Waveform Window and can be used to
set time in the Waveform, Register, and Source Windows. If any of
these windows are linked, setting time to a marker in one window
changes the time displayed in all linked windows.
In the Waveform Window, a marker displays as a solid vertical line in
a Waveform pane with the marker name at the top (see Figure 14-1,
Marker in Waveform Window).
Markers
14-1
Figure 14-1 Marker in Waveform Window
Marker knownOk set
Markers
14-2
Markers Dialog
The Markers Dialog is used to create, edit, or delete markers (see
Figure 14-2, Markers Dialog).
Figure 14-2 Markers Dialog
The Markers Dialog has a Markers list, a Name text field, a Time text
field, a Save Zoom toggle button, and five action buttons.
Markers (List)
Displays the names of all defined markers. When you select a marker
name in this area, all fields of the Marker Dialog display values
associated with that marker.
Markers
14-3
Name (Text Field)
Used to enter the name of a new or existing Marker. The name may
only contain alpha-numeric characters and underscores and must
begin with an alphabetic character.
Time (Text Field)
When the Marker Dialog is opened, the Time field contains the time
at C1. If you have multiple Waveform Windows open, the last
placement of C1 is displayed. You can use the C1 time or enter a new
time.
Save Zoom (Toggle Button)
If the Save Zoom is toggled on, VirSim saves the zoom factor with
the marker for the current Waveform Window. Subsequently, when
you go to that marker, the zoom factor is restored. This field is sensitive
only when the Markers Dialog is opened from the Waveform Window.
Done
Closes the Markers Dialog.
Add
Creates a new marker.
Update
Changes the marker name, time, or zoom setting of an existing
marker.
Delete
Deletes an existing marker.
Markers
14-4
Help
Opens on-line help for the Markers Dialog.
Opening the Marker Dialog
In the menu bar, click left on Edit and choose Markers.
Creating a Marker
To create a marker in the Markers Dialog:
1. Click left in the Name field and enter a Marker name.
2. Click left in the Time field and enter a simulation time or default
to current C1 time.
3. If you want to save the zoom factor, click left on the Save Zoom
toggle button. A pressed button indicates that the zoom factors
will be saved.
4. Click left on the Add button to save the marker.
Deleting a Marker
To delete a marker:
1. Click left on a marker name in the Markers field.
2. Click left on the Delete button to delete the marker.
Markers
14-5
Editing a Marker
To edit a marker in the Markers Dialog:
1. Click left in the Name field and enter a marker name.
2. Click left in the Time field and enter a simulation time.
3. To save the zoom factor, click left on the Save Zoom toggle button.
4. Click left on the Update button to update edit changes to the
marker.
Setting a Marker
The following procedure explains how to set a marker. You can
set a marker in either the Waveform Window, Register Window,
or Source Window.
1. Click left on the Marker icon in the toolbar. A list of configured
markers appears.
Figure 14-3 Setting a Marker
Marker icon
Marker list
Markers
14-6
2. Click left on a marker name in the list. All linked windows display
simulation data at the time designated by the marker.
Markers
14-7
Markers
14-8
15
Expressions
1
Expressions are used to create pseudo signals and search for events.
Expressions are created with Verilog or VHDL expression syntax and
operators. You can search for events that are either level sensitive,
edge-triggered, or a combination of both.
Expressions can be used for searches in the Waveform Window and
results can be displayed in both the Waveform and Register windows.
Note:
The VHDL simulator handles only true and false expressions,
whereas VirSim and Verilog allow expressions based on signal
value. If you are using VHDL or mixed VHDL/Verilog with a
Scirocco simulator, be sure that expressions are written for a True/
False result. For example, use (signal1 or signal2) = ’1’ rather than
(signal1 or signal2).
Expressions
15-1
Expressions Dialog
The Expressions Dialog is used to create or edit an expression. Figure
15-1, Sample Expressions Dialog, shows an example of an
expression definition in the Expressions Dialog. The expression must
have a name and an expression or trigger statement that defines the
search criteria. In the example, the expression searches the opcode
signal for a signal value of 3’h4.
Figure 15-1 Sample Expressions Dialog
Expressions
15-2
The Expressions Dialog has a Breakpoints list, a Name field, a
reference File designator menu, a reference Scope field, a Trigger
field, an Expression field, and five action buttons.
Breakpoints
Displays the names of all expressions that have been entered and
indicates if the expression is being used for searching in the currently
active breakpoint group.
•
Use the Breakpoint icon to select among the defined breakpoint
groups. Note that the breakpoint group associated with any open
window is not affected by toggling the group displayed in this
dialog.
•
To display values in all fields associated with the expression,
select an expression name in the Breakpoints List. All fields of the
dialog display values associated with this expression.
•
To enable searching on an expression, click left on the toggle to
the left of the expression name.
•
To display expressions in the Waveform or Register Window, drag
and drop the expression name from this area to the window.
Name
Lists the name of the expression. Use Name to name or rename the
expression. Names can include any combination of alphanumeric
characters and underscores, but they must not begin with a number.
Use of short names is advised. When the expression completes a
search in the Waveform Window, the expression name is displayed
above the C1 cursor.
Expressions
15-3
File
Specifies the file designator for the file associated with signal name.
File designators are selected from the pull-down menu next to the
File field. Not all file types support expressions. The File field displays
only those open files that support expressions. If the Trigger or
Expression field contains the file designator, the File field is ignored
(see Scope below).
Scope
Specifies a scope from which signal names in the Trigger and
Expression fields are referenced. If the Trigger and Expression fields
include the file designator and full hierarchy names of the scope, the
Scope field is ignored.
For example, the following expression does not require a file
designator and scope because it includes the file designator and full
hierarchy name:
Verilog:
($V1$test.risc1.alu_out[7:0])===($V1$test.risc1.accum[7:0])
VHDL:
$V1$test/risc1/alu_out(7 Downto 0)===
$V1$test/risc1/accum(7 Downto 0)
The following expression requires a file designator and scope
because it does not include the file designator and full hierarchy
name:
Verilog:
(alu_out[7:0])===(accum[7:0])
Expressions
15-4
VHDL
alu_out(7 Downto 0)===accum(7 Downto 0)
When the expression does not include the full hierarchy name, VirSim
looks for all signals in the referenced scope. If you drag in a signal
from another window, VirSim automatically adds the file designator
and full hierarchy name to the expression.
Verilog Trigger
The trigger is edge-sensitive. The trigger can use two Verilog edge
operators: posedge and negedge or, if the trigger uses just the signal
name, any transition of that signal satisfies the expression. If it uses
posedge, then only the rising transitions (x->1, 0->1, z->1) satisfy
the expression. If it uses negedge, then only the falling transitions
(x->0, 1->0, 1->z) satisfy the expression.
VHDL Trigger
The trigger is edge-sensitive. The trigger can use VHDL signal
attribute S’event. For example, clk’event and clk==1--rising
edge clk, and clk’event and clk==0--following edge clk. If the
trigger uses just the signal name, any transition of the signal satisfies
the expression.
Expression
The expression is level-sensitive. To enter an expression, type the
expression, drag and drop in signals, and insert operators. For signals
that you drag and drop, the file designator and full hierarchy name
are automatically inserted in the expression.
Expressions
15-5
Done
Closes the Expressions Dialog.
Add
Creates a new expression and displays it in the Breakpoints List.
Update
Updates edit changes to an existing expression.
Delete
Deletes an existing expression.
Help
Opens on-line help for the Expressions Dialog.
Entering Signal Names
To mix signals from different open files, the file designator must be
prefixed to the signal name. For example, for Verilog a file designator
of V2 and a signal name of test.risc1.reset would be entered
as:
$V2$test.risc1.reset
in the Expression or Trigger fields.
Other signal naming considerations include:
•
Expressions
15-6
Signals dragged and dropped from other windows automatically
include the file designator in the hierarchy name.
•
Signals that have the same file designator as the File option do
not need the designator added as a prefix to the hierarchy name.
•
Signals from different file types (for example, VCD+ and EPIC)
cannot be mixed in the same expression.
Opening the Expressions Dialog
In the menu bar, click left on the Edit menu and choose Expressions.
Creating Expressions
To create a new expression:
1. Click left in the Name field and enter an expression name.
2. Choose a file designator from the File pull-down menu. (This field
is optional if the expression includes the full hierarchy name with
designators.)
3. Click left in the Scope field and enter the full hierarchy name of
the scope you are using for signal selection. For example:
Verilog
$V1$test.risc1.alu1 or $test.risc1.alu1
VHDL
$V1$test/risc1/alu1 or $test/risc1/alu1
Instead of typing, you can drag and drop a scope from the
Hierarchy Window into the Scope field. (This field is optional if the
expression includes the full hierarchy name.)
Expressions
15-7
4. Click left in the Trigger field and enter an edge-triggered
expression. (If the Expression field is used, this field is optional.)
5. Click left in the Expression field and enter a level sensitive
expression. (This field is optional if the Trigger field is used.)
For more details on how these expressions behave, see the level
sensitive and edge-triggered search examples later in this
chapter.
6. To assign expressions to a breakpoint group, click left on the
breakpoint group icon (in the upper-right corner) to open a menu
of available breakpoint groups and choose the desired group.
7. In the Breakpoints list, enable expressions for searching. Click left
on the toggle button for each expression that you want to include
in the expression group. When the expression is enabled, the
toggle button is back lit.
8. Click left on the Add button. To add additional expressions, repeat
steps 2 through 7.
Updating Expressions
To update edit changes to expressions:
1. Click left on the expression name in the Breakpoints list. All the
fields are filled in for editing.
2. Edit values in the Scope, File, Trigger, and Expression fields as
required.
3. After editing the expression, click left on the Update button.
Expressions
15-8
Displaying Expressions
To display the signal generated by an expression, drag the expression
name from the Expressions Dialog to the Signal Name Pane of the
Waveform Window or to the Register Window. A $E$ prefix is added
to the expression name and a $T$ prefix is added to the trigger name.
The expression signal indicates level sensitive changes in the
waveform. Figure 15-2, Displaying Expressions Example, shows how
expressions are displayed.
Figure 15-2 Displaying Expressions Example
1. Create expression in Expressions Dialog. Either type the
expression or drag and drop signals from the Waveform
Signal Name Pane. (Expressions use Verilog format.)
2. Drag and drop the expression name to the Waveform
Name Pane. The expression signal appears in the
Waveform Pane.
Expressions
15-9
Trigger Types
The trigger expression can specify the negative edge, positive edge,
or both edges of a signal to trigger on. To specify the edge to trigger
on, the trigger expression should include the appropriate eventcontrol statement (see Table 15-1, Trigger Expressions).
Table 15-1
Trigger Expressions
Trigger Expression
Signal Edge
clkt
Trigger on both negative and positive edge.
Verilog:
negedge clkt
Trigger on negative edge.
VHDL:
clk’event and clk=’0’
Verilog:
posedge clkt
VHDL:
clk’event and clk=’1’
Expressions
15-10
Trigger on positive edge.
Searching with Expressions
There are two search arrow icons in the Waveform Window toolbar
that allow you to search forward or backward from the C1 cursor. Their
search parameters are set by activating the desired expressions or
breakpoint groups in the Expressions Dialog.
Multiple expressions can be activated concurrently in any breakpoint
group, but only one breakpoint group may be active per window link.
The first expression that finds an event stops the search, and the
expression name is displayed above the C1 cursor name. If multiple
expressions find events at the same simulation time, the name of the
first expression in the list is displayed with an asterisk. Pressing the
Search icon in the same direction then causes C1 to display the name
of the next expression found and so on. Also see Searching a Signal
(Vector or Scalar) for a Specified Value on page 4-17.
The following types of searches are covered in this section:
•
Level Sensitive Searches
•
Edge-triggered Searches
Expressions
15-11
Level Sensitive Searches
Level sensitive expressions search for when events defined in the
expression first become true. These expressions do not have a
trigger.
Level Sensitive Searching Example:
Time
0 1 2 3
4 5
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Sig A
Sig B
Result
Stop 2
Stop 1
S1
Stop 3
The search criteria is A low and B high. The expression searches
backwards from S1 at time 8.
VirSim stops at time 4 (Stop 1) the first time where the criteria became
true. If you push the search backwards arrow again from time 4,
VirSim stops at time 0 (Stop 2). The level sensitive search finds any
point where A is 0 and B is 1.
If you search forward from S1, VirSim stops at time 14 (Stop 3) where
the search criteria first became true. To view the results of the
expression in the Waveform Pane, drag the expression name into the
Signal Name Pane of the Waveform Window.
Expressions
15-12
Edge-triggered Searches
Edge-triggered expressions search for the specified edge, then check
the level sensitive condition designated in the expression.
The signal generated for trigger expressions is a vertical arrow for
each time the trigger condition occurs.
Edge-Triggered Searching Example:
0 1 2 3
Time
4 5
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Sig A
Sig B
Result 1
Result 2
Result 3
S1
S2
Expressions
15-13
•
Searching forward from S1 for B positive edge produces Result 1.
•
Searching backward from S2 for B negative edge produces Result
2.
•
Searching forward from S1 for A or B produces Result 3.
Expressions
15-14
16
VirSim Setup
1
You can individually customize VirSim by defining settings for certain
VirSim features and screen colors in the appropriate X Resource file
or Windows NT Registry.
X Resources enables the user to run VirSim for UNIX with Motif™.
VirSim settings are defined in the VirSim specific application defaults
file named VirSim.
VirSim Setup
16-1
Caution: Before You Start
Whenever you change the X Resource file, always make a backup
copy. For NT systems, use the Export feature of the Registry editor
to back up Registry settings prior to editing. Use the existing VirSim
NT Registry or X Resource file as the basis for changes to settings
to assure that the formatting is correct. Changes are not checked for
validity and may have adverse affects. Changes mistakenly entered
in non-VirSim files and variables can affect the performance of your
system in unpredictable ways. Contact your system administrator for
information about changing your NT Registry or X Resource files.
Defaults have been carefully chosen for good contrast and aesthetic
appeal. In the interests of quality product support, it is wise to limit
the number of changes.
VirSim Platforms
VirSim is designed to run on the following operating system platforms.
Each platform has a specific mechanism for defining settings for
application behavior.
These platforms include:
•
OSF/Motif for UNIX
•
Windows NT
VirSim Setup
16-2
X Resources
X Resources enables the user to run VirSim for UNIX with Motif™.
VirSim settings are defined in the VirSim specific application defaults
file named VirSim. For information on setup for X Resources, see the
section Settings for X Resources on page 16-15.
To modify selected settings on a per-user basis, add the selected
variables from the $VIRSIMHOME/appfiles/VirSim file into your
~/.Xdefaults file and modify the settings. Then execute
xrdb -m ~/.Xdefaults to merge the new variables into your X
environment. Your new settings should take effect the next time you
start a VirSim session.
For example, putting the following line in your .Xdefaults file:
enableWaveformHighlight: True
will cause the actual waveforms of selected signals in the Waveform
Window to be highlighted in a grey color.
Windows NT Registry
In the Windows NT™ version, VirSim settings are defined in the
Registry (regedit). See Figure 16-1, VirSim Setup in Registry. To
access regedit, choose Run from the Start menu and type regedit in
the Open field.
VirSim Setup
16-3
Figure 16-1 VirSim Setup in Registry
Summit Design
Version 4.0
Common Settings
This section lists VirSim settings that you may wish to change. It is
organized in the following sections:
•
Mouse Button Settings (Windows NT only)
•
Numeric and Vector Separator Settings
•
Warning if Configuration is Modified
•
Waveform Window Settings
•
Logic Browser Settings (Verilog Only)
•
Register Window Settings
•
Interactive Window Settings
In Windows NT, you must run VirSim once before you can change
any settings. The first run sets the default values for all entries.
VirSim Setup
16-4
Note:
In X Resources, the variable name is preceded by the prefix
VirSim. For example:
VirSim.lbModCellColor: Khaki4
VirSim*lbMainFormFM*lbGraphicsDA.background: Black
Different platforms use different values for variables. Only X
Resources can use color names as values. MainWin and
Windows NT require a hex value to identify the color. For example:
In X Resources:
rwSignalValueForegroundColor: WhiteSmoke
In Windows NT
rwSignalValueForegroundColor: #f5f5f5
WindowsNT uses the RGB format #RRGGBB.
Mouse Button Setting
(Windows NT Only) VirSim is designed for use with either a two-button
or three-button mouse. The MouseButtonMode variable is used to
set the mouse type.
MouseButtonMode: n
Where n is:
2 for a two-button mouse
3 for a three-button mouse
A for Auto. Auto automatically detects the mouse type
Note:
Auto mode is only available on Windows NT systems. However,
Windows NT may not be able to accurately detect the mouse type
100% of the time because of known NT configuration problems.
VirSim Setup
16-5
Numeric and Vector Separator Settings
The vectorSeparator variable sets the grouping separator for
binary, octal, decimal, or hexadecimal vector values. Legal separators
are ",", "_", and ".". With the separator set to "_" and a spacing of 2,
a 32-bit value of all-ones is displayed as hexadecimal ff_ff_ff_ff.
vectorSeparator: _
The spacing variables listed below set the number of digits between
each vector separator for each radix. A value of zero turns off the
separator for that radix.
binarySpacing: 8
octalSpacing: 4
decimalSpacing: 3
hexSpacing: 2
The numericSeparator variable sets the decimal separator for all time
values. Legal separators are ",", "_", or "none". With the separator set
to a comma, a time value of 150000.50 is displayed as 150,000.50.
numericSeparator: ,
The timeSpacing variable sets the number of digits between each
numeric separator.
timeSpacing: 3
VirSim Setup
16-6
Warning if Configuration Is Modified
The warnIfConfigurationModified variable controls the display of the
warning dialog: Current configuration has changed. VirSim
can be configured to display the dialog when you exit without saving
the configuration. When True, the dialog displays when the
configuration has changed. The default value is False.
warnIfConfigurationModified: False
Signals Loaded/Registered with Simulator
The isDeferredLoadData variable controls the registering of signals
in interactive mode and the loading of signals from the vpd file in post
processing mode.
When True, data is registered or loaded only for those signals that
are displayed in the currently active Waveform signal group or
Register Window view. This setting reduces memory usage.
When False, all signals for all defined Register Window views and
Waveform Window signal groups are registered or loaded, regardless
of whether they are currently being displayed.
The default value is False.
isDeferredLoadData: False
VirSim Setup
16-7
User Defined Unique Event Colors
(Verilog only) Table 16-1, User Define Unique Event Colors, shows
settings for colors that signify the severity of unique events.
Table 16-1
User Define Unique Event Colors
Item
Variable
Error Unique Event
dsiColor67: red
Warning Unique Event
dsiColor68: yellow
Information Unique Event
dsiColor69: green
Waveform Window Settings
Table 16-2 and Table 16-3 show settings for the Waveform Window.
Colors for dsiColor01 to dsiColor25 appear in the Waveform
Style Dialog.
Table 16-2
Settings for Waveform Window (Verilog and EPIC)
Item
Unset -- no value set for signal (EPIC)
Z signal Value for scalar and vector encoding
types (Verilog and EPIC)
0 signal value for a scalar encoding type
(Verilog and EPIC)
Data signal value for a vector encoding type
(Verilog); U for unset or Z for logic Z (EPIC)
Any signal value for a real encoding type
(Verilog)
Any signal value 1 for a scalar encoding type
(Verilog)
X signal value for an scalar encoding type
(Verilog); All unset (EPIC)
Enable background color of displayed
waveforms
VirSim Setup
16-8
Variable
dsiColor03: gray
dsiColor03: gold
dsiColor03: SkyBlue1
dsiColor03: aquamarine
dsiColor03: cyan
dsiColor03: green
dsiColor03: red
enableWaveformHighlight:
True
Item
Waveform background color This color is
used as background for signals or for
highlighting signals if one of these modes is
enabled.
Enable waveform zoom centered around C1.
When True, the Waveform Window zooms in
centered on cursor C1. When False, the
Waveform Window zooms in on the center of the
screen
Enable waveform highlight line. When True,
waveforms for signals that are selected are
highlighted as well as the signal name. When
False, waveforms are not highlighted.
Delta Cycle Width The width of a delta cycle is
determined by a variable in the VirSim resource
file. It sets the number of pixels to draw between
each delta cycle. The Default is eight, which
corresponds to eight pixels. The minimum is one
pixel per delta cycle.
Table 16-3
Variable
waveformHighlightColor:
Thistle4
enableWaveformHZoomInOnC1:
False
enableWaveformHighlightLine:
False
VirSim*deltaCycleWidth: 8
Settings for Waveform Window (VHDL)
Data Type
STD_Logic
Bit
BOOLEAN
Other scalar types
All vector types
Value
’U’
’X’
’0’
’1’
’Z’
’W’
’L’
’H’
’-’
’0’
’1’
FALSE
TRUE
Any value
Any value
Variable
dsiColor03:
dsiColor23:
dsiColor13:
dsiColor18:
dsiColor06:
dsiColor03:
dsiColor13:
dsiColor18:
dsiColor24:
dsiColor13:
dsiColor18:
dsiColor18:
dsiColor18:
dsiColor18:
dsiColor18:
Gray
Red
Blue
Green
Gold
Red
Blue
Green
Brown
Blue
Green
Green
Green
Green
Green
VirSim Setup
16-9
Source Window Settings
Table 16-4 shows settings for the Source Window.
Table 16-4
Item
Variable
Line and block comments
dsiColor26: Khaki1
Keywords
dsiColor27: LightPink1
Source Data
dsiColor28: SeaGreen1
Character Strings
dsiColor28: SeaGreen1
Identifiers
dsiColor30: SeaGreen1
System tasks
dsiColor32: LightPink1
Compiler directives
dsiColor33: LightPink1
Truncation selection
VirSim*truncateOnLeft: 0
VirSim Setup
16-10
Settings for Source Window (Verilog and VHDL)
Hierarchy Window Settings
Table 16-5, and Table 16-6, show settings for the Hierarchy Window.
Table 16-5
Settings for Hierarchy Window (Verilog)
Item
Variable
Foreground text
dsiColor37: Black
Module scope
dsiColor38: Gray
Task scope
dsiColor39: SkyBlue2
Function scope
dsiColor40: LightPink1
Named begin
dsiColor33: LightPink1
Named fork
dsiColor33: LightPink1
EPIC foreground
dsiColor33: LightPink1
EPIC background
dsiColor33: LightPink1
Root scope
dsiColor33: LightPink1
Table 16-6
Settings for Hierarchy Window (VHDL)
Scope
Color
Mapping
Root or Parent Level
PaleVioletRed1
hbTopBackgroundColor
Entity/Architecture
Gray
dsiColor38
Block
SkyBlue2
dsiColor39
Procedure
PaleGreen2
dsiColor40
Function
PaleGreen2
dsiColor40
Package
Gold2
dsiColor41
Process
Papayawhip
dsiColor42
Foreground text
Black
dsiColor37
VirSim Setup
16-11
Logic Browser Settings
Table 16-7 shows settings for the Logic Browser. Windows NT format
uses hex values to represent colors.
Table 16-7
Item
Variable
Logic Browser text font
ibTextFond: fixed
Maximum number of characters
in displayed values Increasing
this value increases the size of the
layout
lbwValMaxChars: 10
When True, shows value of base
spec (for example, .8’h in 8’h7f)
lbwValShowBaseSpec: True
Truncation selection True
truncates values on lsb end
lbwValTruncMsb: False
Automatically load value
changes When True, automatically
loads value changes for all ports in
Logic Browser
lbwAutoLoadValueChanges: True
VirSim Setup
16-12
Settings for the Logic Browser
Register Window Settings
Table 16-8 shows settings for the Register Window:
Table 16-8
Settings for Register Window
Item
Variable
Color of label
rwLabelForegroundColor: Khaki
Color of label background
rwLabelBackgroundColor: Khaki
Color of signal
rwSignalValueForegroundColor:
WhiteSmoke
Color of signal foreground
rwSignalValueBackrgoundColor: Black
Color of box
rwBoxForegroundColor:
Color of line
rwLineForegroundColor:
Color that indicates a signal
change value
rwLSignalValueChangedColor: HotPink
Green2
Green2
VirSim Setup
16-13
Interactive Window Settings
Table 16-9, Settings for Interactive Window, shows settings used to
change the default behavior of the Invocation Dialog and simulation
start-up in interactive mode. These resources are shown below with
their default values.
There are specific defaults for each supported simulator (for example,
vxlDefaultSimulator, and vcsDefaultSimulator). There is a specific
iwbuttons file for each type of simulator supported (for example,
iwbuttons.vxl).
Table 16-9
Item
Variable
Name of the default simulator
The name can be any VirSim
supported simulator.
defaultSimulatorType: VXL
Name of the Verilog XL
simulator The name can be a file
name or an absolute path name.
vxlDefulatSimulator:
<path_to_verilog>/verilog
Default arguments for the
simulator Arguments can be
edited in the Invocation Dialog
vxlDefaultSimulatorArgs:
Step Time field value
defaultStepTime: 20
X Resource save lines The
value limits the number of lines
saved in the History window. The
minimum value is 10, the
maximum value is limited by
available memory.
saveLines: 1000
User-defined Button files
Simulator-specific files
containing the definitions to be
used for interactive buttons
vcsUserButtonFile: -peter/
.iwbuttons.vcs
VirSim Setup
16-14
Settings for Interactive Window
Table 16-9
Settings for Interactive Window (Continued)
Item
Variable
Force time synchronization for
all windows Default is true.
Changing the setting to false
allows you to move backwards in
time in all windows except the
Source Window without unlinking
from SIM
forceSimLinkSync: true
Settings for X Resources
By default, VirSim automatically uses the X Resource file installed
with VirSim. To customize this file for individual users, you must
replace the VirSim script with your own version and customize it as
desired.
Tool Tips
Tool tips and the tool label appear when you position the cursor over
a button in any of the VirSim toolbars. Tool tips are automatically
enabled on Windows NT. In Motif, tool tips must be enabled as
described below.
To enable this feature, set the following entry to True.
VirSim*enableToolTips: True
Some window managers require additional configuration for correct
tool tip operation. The setup for two common window managers is
described below:
VirSim Setup
16-15
MWM
No additional setup required.
OLWM
Set the following X resource:
olwm.MinimalDecor: ToolTipWindow
You may add ToolTips to an existing minimal decorations setting. For
example:
olwm.MinimalDecor: xclock ToolTipWindow
X Color System
The following briefly describes the X color system and how VirSim
uses this system:
•
Color Model
•
Switching Color Maps
For more details on this complex subject, refer to the Xlib
Programming Manual, listed in the Preface.
Color Model
The two structures are used by X to define the color model used on
a system: visual and the colormap.
VirSim Setup
16-16
visual
The visual determines if the system can use color or shades of gray,
and if the colors are fixed (read-only) or changeable (read-write).
VirSim uses the default visual defined by the X server.
colormap
The colormap designates the colors available on a display. In most
color systems, the colormap contains up to 256 color cells, each of
which may contain a unique color. Each application you run typically
uses up some of the available color cells. When all color cells have
been used up, the VirSim application creates a custom colormap. The
custom colormap created by VirSim minimizes the technicolor effect
for applications that do not use the current colormap. Because most
systems support only a single colormap, you may need to switch color
maps when moving between applications.
Switching Color Maps
The method used to switch between color maps depends on which
window manager is used. The following is a summary of the mwm
and olwm window managers.
Switch Color maps with mwm
The mwm supports several methods of switching between different
color maps. We recommend setting the mwm resource as follows:
Mwm*colormapFocusPolicy: explicit
VirSim Setup
16-17
This option requires that the user explicitly switch between color
maps. Other resource options include the keyboard and pointer.
These options typically result in unacceptable screen flashing and
color changes.
Once you have set the colormapFocusPolicy (and restarted mwm),
you can change color maps using the mwm Window Menu Button
(upper left corner of the border). The menu that pops up should have
a color option that initiates installation of the color map. If your mwm
popup does not contain color as an option, you can add it by editing
.mwmrc and adding the following menu option:
"Color" f.focus_color
If it becomes necessary for VirSim to create a custom color map, the
user must switch to the VirSim color map. To make this switch, set
the colormapFocusPolicy, as previously described.
Switching Color maps with olwm
Refer to the olwm man page for more details on color maps. There
are several options for configuring olwm. In brief, <Ctrl> L2 in the title
bar locks the color map.
VirSim Setup
16-18
17
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
1
VCD+ files, also referred to as vpd files, are binary files containing
simulation history data. They are created from $vcdplus system tasks
in verilog simulation and by default are named vcdplus.vpd. System
tasks include the vcdplus name in the tasks, for example, $vcdpluson,
$vcdplusoff, $vcdplusfilename, etc. These system tasks are entered
in Verilog code or at the Interactive Window command prompt. Refer
to System Tasks and Functions. There are also simulator run time
options that control how VCD+ files are generated. Run time options
include +vpd in their names, for example, +vpdbufsize, +vpdignore,
etc. Refer to Simulator Run-Time Options.
When you include the -I, -RI, or -PP switches at compile time, VCS
automatically links to VirSim’s PLI to convert simulator output into the
VCD+ file format. Refer to Compile Options for Creating a VPD File
from VCS.
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-1
For Verilog simulators other than VCS, the correct VCD+ interface
must be linked to the simulator in order to produce VCD+ files. This
linkage is done as part of VirSim installation and new simulator
installation. Refer to the VirSim Installation Notes (separate from this
manual).
The Scirocco simulator has a built in interface to create VCD+ files.
Refer to the Scirocco Reference Manual for details.
Advantages of VCD+
VCD+ offers significant advantages over the standard VCD ASCII
format.
•
VCD+ provides a compressed binary format that dramatically
reduces file size as compared to VCD and other proprietary file
formats.
•
The VCD+ compressed binary format dramatically reduces signal
load time.
•
VCD+ allows data collection for signals or scopes to be turned on
and off during a simulation run, thus, dramatically improving
simulation run time and file size.
•
VCD+ can also save Verilog source-statement execution data.
This allows instant replay of your Verilog source execution in the
VirSim Source Window.
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-2
VCD+ has command-line options that affect performance and file
sizes. These options, presented in subsequent sections, allow the
user to run VCD+ in the most effective manner. To optimize
simulator performance and VCD+ file size, consider the size of
the design, the RAM memory capacity of the user workstation,
swap space, disk storage limits, and the methodology used in the
project.
Note:
For simulators other than VCS, the VirSim PLI must be linked to
your simulator executable. Refer to the Installation Notes
distributed with the VirSim software.
System Tasks and Functions
VCD+ system tasks are used to capture and save value change data
in a binary format so that the data can be viewed in the Waveform
Window, Register Window, Source Window, and Logic Browser. The
following VCD+ system tasks may be included in source files or
entered at the simulator interactive prompt:
System Tasks to Generate a VCD+ File
Note:
The $vcdpluson and $vcdplusoff system tasks accept the
same arguments as the Verilog $dumpvars system task. Unlike
standard VCD, this lets you turn recording on or off for variables
during the same simulation.
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-3
$vcdpluson
The $vcdpluson task begins recording signal value changes of the
specified scope(s) or signals to the VCD+ history file.
Syntax:
$vcdpluson (level,scope*,signal*);
The descriptions of the task arguments is as follows:
level
Specifies the number of hierarchy scope levels to desend to record
signal value changes (a zero value records all scope instances to
the end of the hierarchy; default is all).
scope
Specifies the name of the scope in which to record signal value
changes (default is all).
signal
Specifies the name of the signal in which to record signal value
changes (default is all).
Note: * indicates argument can have a list of more than one value
(for scopes or signals).
Example 1: Record all signal value changes.
$vcdpluson;
Example 2: Record signal value changes for scope
test.risc1.alureg and all levels below.
$vcdpluson(test.risc1.alureg);
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-4
Example 3: Record two levels of signal value changes: Scope (test)
and one level below.
$vcdpluson(2, test);
$vcdplusoff
The $vcdplusoff task stops recording the signal value changes
for specified scope(s) or signal(s).
Syntax:
$vcdplusoff (level,scope*,signal*);
Example 1: Turn recording off.
$vcdplusoff();
Example 2: Stop recording signal value changes for scope
test.risc1.alu1.
$vcdplusoff(test.risc1.alu1);
Example 3: Stop recording signal value changes for
test.risc1.alu1 and test.risc1.instreg.d1.
$vcdplusoff(test.risc1.alu1, test.risc1.instreg.d1);
Example 4: Stop recording signal value changes for scope
test.risc1.alu1 and 39 levels below. In this example, 40 is a
number large enough to ensure all lower levels are turned off.
$vcdplusoff(40, test.risc1.alu1);
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-5
Note:
The $vcdpluson/off commands increment/decrement an
internal counter for each signal to be recorded. If multiple
$vcdpluson commands cause a given signal to be saved, the
signal will continue to be saved until an equivalent number of
$vcdplusoff commands apply to the signal. This approach
allows multiple users to instrument the Verilog sources to meet
their individual recording requirements for the same simulation run.
$vcdplusflush
The $vcdplusflush task flushes to the VCD+ data file any value
changes that have been reported by the simulator but have not yet
been written to the VCD+ data file.
Syntax:
$vcdplusflush;
$vcdplusautoflushon
When simulation stops, the $vcdplusautoflushon task
automatically flushes to the VCD+ data file any value changes that
have been reported by the simulator but have not yet been written to
the VCD+ data file.
Syntax:
$vcdplusautoflushon;
$vcdplusautoflushoff
The $vcdplusautoflushoff task turns off the automatic flush
(enabled by the $vcdplusautoflushon task).
Syntax:
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-6
$vcdplusautoflushoff;
$vcdplusfile
The $vcdplusfile specifies a VCD+ file name. If not specified,
VCD.vpd is default for VHDL and vcdplus.vpd is default for Verilog.
Syntax:
$vcdplusfile ("filename");
$vcdplusclose
The $vcdplusclose terminates all tracing, flushes data to file,
closes the current VCD+ file, and resets all default settings.
Syntax:
$vcdplusclose;
System Tasks and Functions for MDAs
This section describes system tasks and functions that provide
visibility into multi-dimensional arrays (MDAs).
There are two ways to view MDA data:
•
The first method, which uses the $vcdplusmemon and
$vcdplusmemoff system tasks, records data each time an MDA
has a data change.
•
The second method, which uses the $vcdplusmemorydump
system task, stores data only when the task is called.
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-7
Syntax for Specifying MDAs
The following syntax is required for specifying MDAs using the
$vcdplusmemon, $vcdplusmemoff, and $vcdplusmemorydump
system tasks:
system_task( Mda [, dim1Lsb [, dim1Rsb [, dim2Lsb [, dim2Rsb
[, ... dimNLsb [, dimNRsb]]]]]] );
The description of the syntax is as follows:
system_task
Name of the system task (required): $vcdplusmemon,
$vcdplusmemoff, or $vcdplusmemorydump.
Mda
This argument specifies the name of the MDA to be recorded. It
must not be a part select. If no other arguments are given, then
all elements of the MDA are recorded to the VPD file.
dim1Lsb
This is an optional argument that specifies the name of the
variable that contains the left bound of the first dimension. If no
other arguments are given, then all elements under this single
index of this dimension are recorded.
dim1Rsb
This is an optional argument that specifies the name of variable
that contains the right bound of the first dimension.
Note: The dim1Lsb and dim1Rsb arguments specify the range
of the first dimension to be recorded. If no other arguments are
given, then all elements under this range of addresses within the
first dimension are recorded.
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-8
dim2Lsb
This is an optional argument with the same functionality as
dim1Lsb, but refers to the second dimension.
dim2Rsb
This is an optional argument with the same functionality as
dim1Rsb, but refers to the second dimension.
dimNLsb
This is an optional argument that specifies the left bound of the
Nth dimension.
dimNRsb
This is an optional argument that specifies the right bound of the
Nth dimension.
Note that MDA system tasks can take 0 or more arguments, with the
following caveots:
•
No arguments: The whole design will be traversed and all
memories and MDAs will be recorded.
Note that this process may cause significant memory usage, and
simulator drag.
•
One argument: If the object is a scope instance, all memories/
MDAs contained in that scope instance and its children will be
recorded. If the object is a memory/MDA, that object will be
recorded.
Using $vcdplusmemon and $vcdplusmemoff
You can use the $vcdplusmemon and $vcdplusmemoff tasks to
turn on and off, respectively, the recording of changes within
memories or MDAs in a design. By using these tasks in VCS, you are
able to view changes of memories and MDAs in VirSim windows.
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-9
Running VCS
In order for VCS 7.0 to provide MDA data using the $vcdplusmemon
and $vcdplusmemoff tasks, the VCS +memcbk and the +v2k
switches are required.
VCS command line example: vcs -R -I mda.v +memcbk +v2k
MDA declaration example: reg [1:0] mem [3:0] [6:4];
In order for VCS 7.0 to provide memory data, the VCS +memcbk
switch is required.
VCS command line example: vcs -R -I mda.v +memcbk
Memory declaration example: reg [1:0] mem [3:0];
Examples
This section provides examples and graphical representations of
various MDA and memory declarations using the $vcdplusmemon
and $vcdplusmemoff tasks.
Note that mem01 in the following example is a three-dimensional array.
It has 3x3x3 (27) locations; each location is 8 bits in length.
reg [3:0] addr1L, addr1R, addr2L, addr2R, addr3L, addr3R;
reg [7:0] mem01 [1:3] [4:6] [7:9]
(See Figure 17-1 for an graphical representation of the previous
example).
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-10
Figure 17-1
Diagram of example: reg [7:0] mem01 [1:3] [4:6] [7:9]
Dimension 2
Dimension 1
5
4
[76543210]
1
6
Dimension 3
[76543210] [76543210]
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
2
7
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
3
1
[76543210]
[76543210] [76543210]
8
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
2
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
3
[76543210]
1
[76543210] [76543210]
9
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
2
Note: Unlimited dimensions
can be used.
3
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-11
$vcdplusmemon( mem01 );
// Records all elements of mem01 to the VPD file.
addr1L = 2;
$vcdplusmemon( mem01, addr1L );
// Records elements mem01[2][4][7] through mem01[2][6][9]
The elements highlighted by the
demonstrate the previous example.
in the diagram in Figure 17-2
Figure 17-2 Diagram of example: $vcdplusmemon( mem01, addr1L );
Starting bound:
mem01[2][4][7]
5
4
[76543210]
1
6
[76543210] [76543210]
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
2
7
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
3
Ending bound:
mem01[2][6][9]
1
[76543210]
[76543210] [76543210]
8
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
2
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
3
[76543210]
1
[76543210] [76543210]
9
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
2
3
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-12
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
addr1L = 2;
addr1R = 3;
$vcdplusmemon( mem01, addr1L, addr1R );
// Records elements mem01[2][4][7] through mem01[3][6][9]
The elements highlighted by the
demonstrate the previous example.
in the diagram in Figure 17-3
Figure 17-3 $vcdplusmemon( mem01, addr1L, addr1R );
Starting bound:
mem01[2][4][7]
5
4
[76543210]
1
6
[76543210] [76543210]
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
2
7
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
3
Ending bound:
mem01[3][6][9]
1
[76543210]
[76543210] [76543210]
8
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
2
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
3
[76543210]
1
[76543210] [76543210]
9
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
2
3
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-13
addr1L = 2;
addr1R = 2;
addr2L = 5;
$vcdplusmemon( mem01, addr1L, addr1R, addr2L );
// Records elements mem01[2][5][7] through mem01[2][5][9]
The elements highlighted by the
demonstrate the previous example.
Figure 17-4
in the diagram in Figure 17-4
$vcdplusmemon( mem01, addr1L, addr1R, addr2L );
Starting bound:
mem01[2][5][7]
5
4
[76543210]
1
6
[76543210] [76543210]
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
2
7
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
3
Ending bound:
mem01[2][5][9]
1
[76543210]
[76543210] [76543210]
8
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
2
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
3
[76543210]
1
[76543210] [76543210]
9
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
2
3
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-14
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
addr1L = 2;
addr1R = 2;
addr2L = 5;
addr2R = 6;
$vcdplusmemon( mem01, addr1L, addr1R, addr2L, addr2R );
// Records elements mem01[2][5][7] through mem01[2][6][9]
The elements highlighted by the
demonstrate the previous example.
Figure 17-5
in the diagram in Figure 17-5
$vcdplusmemon( mem01, addr1L, addr1R, addr2L, addr2R );
Starting bound:
mem01[2][5][7]
5
4
[76543210]
1
6
[76543210] [76543210]
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
2
7
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
3
Ending bound:
mem01[2][6][9]
1
[76543210]
[76543210] [76543210]
8
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
2
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
3
[76543210]
1
[76543210] [76543210]
9
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
2
3
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-15
addr1L = 2;
addr1R = 2;
addr2L = 5;
addr2R = 5;
addr3L = 8;
addr3R = 8;
$vcdplusmemon( mem01, addr1L, addr1R, addr2L, addr2R, addr3L
);
$vcdplusmemon( mem01, addr1L, addr1R, addr2L, addr2R,
addr3L, addr3R );
// Either command records element mem01[2][5][8]
The element highlighted by the
demonstrates the previous example.
in the diagram in Figure 17-6
Figure 17-6 Selected element: mem01[2][5][8]
5
4
[76543210]
1
6
[76543210] [76543210]
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
2
7
Selected element:
mem01[2][5][8]
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
3
1
[76543210]
[76543210] [76543210]
8
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
2
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
3
[76543210]
1
[76543210] [76543210]
9
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
2
3
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-16
[76543210] [76543210] [76543210]
Using the $vcdplusmemorydump Task
The $vcdplusmemorydump task dumps a snapshot of memory
locations. When the function is called, the current contents of the
specified range of memory locations are recorded (dumped).
The complete set of multi-dimensional array elements to be dumped
can be specified only once. You can specify multiple element subsets
of an array using multiple $vcdplusmemorydump commands, but
they must occur in the same simulation time. In subsequent simulation
times, $vcdplusmemorydump commands must use the initial set of
array elements or a subset of those elements. Dumping elements
outside the initial specifications will cause a warning.
Within VirSim, multi-dimensional arrays can be expanded in each
dimension in much the same way as memories. By default, only the
portions of the multi-dimensional array that have data are shown in
VirSim.
System Tasks for Capturing Source Statement
Execution Data
(Verilog only) The Source Window requires the use of VCD+ options
to save source hierarchy information and VCD+ tasks to capture
source statement execution information in VCD+ files. Capturing
source statement execution allows you to view and trace statement
execution in the Source Window.
Note that saving statement execution data can significantly increase
simulation time and VCD+ file size.
The following information is covered in this section:
•
How to Capture Verilog Source Statement Execution
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-17
•
Source Statement System Tasks
How to Capture Verilog Source Statement Execution
Figure 17-7 shows three ways to capture source statement execution.
Figure 17-7 Three Ways of Capturing Verilog Source Statement Execution
1. For viewing in post simulation mode, include $vcdplustraceon.
Source File (.v)
//
$vcdpluson;
$vcdplustraceon;
VCD+ File
Simulator
PLI
Source
Execution
Data
2. For viewing in post simulation mode, enter the appropriate trace task at the simulator
command line.
>$vcdpluson
>$vcdplustraceon
VCD+ File
Simulator
PLI
Source File (.v)
3. For viewing in interactive mode in the VirSim Source Window,
Capture Line Data must be enabled (enabled by default).
To also generate a VCD+ file for viewing in post simulation
mode, include the appropriate trace task in the source file.
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-18
Source
Execution
Data
Source Statement System Tasks
•
$vcdplustraceon
•
$vcdplustraceoff
Note:
For VCS you also must supply the -line option when creating
the simulator executable.
$vcdplustraceon
The $vcdplustraceon task turns on line tracing. Line trace
information is saved in the VCD+ file.
Syntax:
$vcdplustraceon (<level>,<scope>*);
where
level specifies the number of hierarchy scope levels to descend to
record line tracing (a zero value records all line tracing to the end of
the hierarchy; default is 1 level).
scope specifies the name of the scope in which to record line tracing
(default is 1 level).
* indicates that argument can have a list of more than one value (for
scopes).
$vcdplustraceoff
The $vcdplustraceoff task turns off line tracing.
Syntax:
$vcdplustraceoff (<level>,<scope>*);
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-19
where
level specifies the number of hierarchy scope levels to desend to
stop recording line tracing (a zero value stops the recording of all line
tracing to the end of the hierarchy; default is 1 level).
System Tasks for Capturing Delta Cycle Information
The following VCD+ system tasks are used to capture and display
Delta Cycle information in the Waveform Window.
•
$vcdplusdeltacycleon
•
$vcdplusdeltacycleoff
$vcdplusdeltacycleon
This command enables reporting of Delta Cycle information from the
simulator CLI or the Verilog source code. This must be followed by
the appropriate $vcdpluson/$vcdplusoff commands.
Glitch detection is automatically turned on when
$vcdplusdeltacycleon is executed unless you have previously used
$vcdplusglitchon/off. Once you have used
$vcdplusglitchon/off, VirSim allows you explicit control of glitch
detection.
Syntax:
$vcdplusdeltacycleon;
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-20
Note:
Delta Cycle collection can start only at the beginning of a time
sample. vcdplusdeltacycleon must precede the vcdpluson
command to ensure that Delta Cycle collection will start at the
beginning of the time sample.
$vcdplusdeltacycleoff
This command turns off reporting of Delta Cycle information starting
at the next sample time.
Glitch detection is automatically turned off when
$vcdplusdeltacycleoff is executed unless you have previously
used $vcdplusglitchon/off. Once you have used
$vcdplusglitchon/off, VirSim allows you explicit control of glitch
detection.
Syntax:
$vcdplusdeltacycleoff;
System Tasks for Capturing Unique Event Information
The following VCD+ system tasks are used to capture unique events
and glitch information.
•
$vcdplusglitchon
•
$vcdplusglitchoff
•
$vcdplusevent
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-21
$vcdplusglitchon
The $vcdplusglitchon task turns on checking for zero delay
glitches and other cases of multiple transitions for a signal in one
sample time. Glitch detection is automatically turned on when
$vcdplusdeltacycleon is executed unless you have previously
used $vcdplusglitchon/off. Once you have used
$vcdplusglitchon/off, VirSim allows you explicit control of glitch
detection.
When a glitch is detected for a signal, a zero delay glitch event is
recorded. The default setting is not to perform zero delay glitch
detection.
Syntax:
$vcdplusglitchon;
$vcdplusglitchoff
The $vcdplusglitchoff task turns off checking for zero
delay glitches. Glitch detection is automatically turned off when
$vcdplusdeltacycleoff is executed unless you have previously
used $vcdplusglitchon/off. Once you have used
$vcdplusglitchon/off, VirSim allows you explicit control of glitch
detection.
Syntax:
$vcdplusglitchoff;
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-22
$vcdplusevent
The $vcdplusevent task allows the user to record a unique event
for a signal at the current simulation time unit. These events can be
displayed in the Waveform Window, Logic Browser, and Register
Window.
There can be a maximum of 244 unique events, plus the pre-defined
"glitch" event which is automatically generated by the pli, and a "Too
many events" event which all unique events beyond the allowed 244
will be automatically named.
Syntax:
$vcdplusevent (<signal>, "<event_name>",
"<severity><shape>");
where
signal is any valid signal name.
event_name is a unique string which describes the event. This
event_name will appear in the status bar of the Waveform Window,
Logic Browser, or Register Window when the mouse is placed on the
event marker.
severity is a single character with legal values E, W, or I, which
indicates the severity of the event. The severity of the event may be
Error, Warning, or Information respectively. Colors associated with
the severity level are set in the X Resource file or NT registry. The
defaults are Red=Error, Yellow=Warning, and Green=Information. If
the severity is not interpretable, it will default to E.
shape is a single character with legal values S, T, or D which indicates
the geometry of the event as drawn by Virsim, and are Square,
Triangle, and Diamond respectively. If the geometry is not
interpretable, it will default to T.
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-23
Simulator Run-Time Options
Specific command line options are used to generate VCD+. These
options are used to set the RAM buffer size, provide the VCD+ default
file name, specify the VCD+ file size, ignore file calls, check licenses,
and control what information is stored. This section describes the
following commands:
•
+vpdbufsize to control RAM Buffer Size
•
+vpdfile to set the output file name
•
+vpdfilesize to control maximum file size
•
+vpdignore to ignore $vcdplus calls in code
•
+vpddrivers to store driver information
•
+vpdports to store port information
•
+vpdnocompress to bypass data compression
+vpdbufsize to control RAM Buffer Size
To gain efficiency, VCD+ uses an internal buffer to store value
changes before saving them on disk. The +vpdbufsize command
modifies the size of that internal buffer. The minimum size allowed is
what is required to share two value changes per signal.
Syntax:
+vpdbufsize+nn
Where nn is buffer size in megabytes (default is the size required to
store 15 value changes for each signal but not less than 2 megabytes).
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-24
Note:
The buffer size automatically is increased as needed to comply
with the above limit.
+vpdfile to set the output file name
The vpdfile command allows specification of the output file name.
Syntax:
+vpdfile+xxx
Where xxx is the VCD+ filename (default is vcdplus.vpd). You
must include the full file name with the .vpd extension.
+vpdfilesize to control maximum file size
The +vpdfilesize command creates a VCD+ file, which has a
moving window in time while never exceeding a specified file size nn
megabytes. When the VCD+ file size limit is reached, VCD+ will
continue saving simulation history by overwriting older history.
File size is a direct result of circuit size, circuit activity, and the data
being saved. Test cases show that VCD+ file sizes will likely run from
a few megabytes to a few hundred megabytes. Many VirSim users
can share the same VCD+ history file, which may be a reason for
saving all time value changes when you do simulation. You can save
one history file for a design and overwrite it on each subsequent run.
Syntax:
+vpdfilesize+nn
Where nn is the file size in megabytes.
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-25
+vpdignore to ignore $vcdplus calls in code
The +vpdignore command instructs the simulator to ignore any
$vcdplusxx calls and license checking. By default, the simulator
checks out a VCD+ PLI license if there is a $vcdplusxx in the Verilog
source. In some cases, this statement is never executed and VCD+
PLI license checkout should be suppressed. The +vpdignore
command performs the license suppression.
Syntax:
+vpdignore
+vpddrivers to store driver information
By default, VCD+ records value changes only for the resolved value
for each net. To also report value changes for all its drivers when there
are more than one driver, use the +vdpdrivers option when simulating.
The driver values, for example, enable the Logic Browser to identify
which drivers produce an undesired X on the resolved net.
This option affects performance and memory usage for larger designs
or longer runs.
Syntax:
+vpddrivers
+vpdports to store port information
By default, VCD+ does not store the port type for each signal, and
the Hierarchy Browser views all signals as internal and not connected
to a port.
The +vpdports option causes VCD+ to store port information, which
is then used by the Hierarchy Browser to show whether a signal is a
port and if so its direction. This option to some extent affects
simulation initialization time and memory usage for larger designs.
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-26
Syntax:
+vpdports
+vpdnocompress to bypass data compression
By default, VCD+ compresses data as it is written to the VCD+ file.
The user may disable this feature by supplying the +vpdnocompress
command line option.
Syntax:
+vpdnocompress+
vpdnostrengths to not store strength information
By default, VCD+ stores strength information on value changes to the
VCD+ file. Use of this option may lead to slight improvements in
simulator performance.
Syntax:
+vpdnostrengths
VCD+ Methodology
The following information explains how to manage the VirSim and
VCD+ functions and features to optimize simulation and analysis.
•
Advantages of Separating Simulation from Analysis
•
Conceptual Example of Using Verilog VCD+ System Tasks
•
VCD+ On/Off PLI Rules
•
Performance Tips
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-27
Advantages of Separating Simulation from Analysis
When a problem is debugged, traditionally, interactive debugging has
required a user to occupy one simulator license while simulating,
thinking, resimulating, thinking...
Simulating once and efficiently storing as much data as possible
allows for a more efficient debug methodology:
•
The simulator is used once and then released to others.
•
The analysis tool can go both forwards and backwards in time and
analyze the complete set of data.
•
The same set of data can be used by multiple engineers to debug
one or more problems in parallel.
Conceptual Example of Using Verilog VCD+ System
Tasks
The example in Figure 17-8, Example Definition of VCD+ Signal
Capture (Recording), shows the entry of the $vcdplus system tasks
in Module B scope. The dump saves all the variables in Module B
from time 100 to 300, all variables in module C from time 200 to 500,
and a single variable in module D1.clk from time 600 to 900. Zero
delay glitch detection is on while value change data is being recorded
throughout the simulation. Delta cycle information is stored starting
at the first value change that occurs after time 200 and ending after
the last value change during time 300. At time 700 a unique event is
added to signal D.clk.
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-28
Figure 17-8 Example Definition of VCD+ Signal Capture (Recording)
fork
#0 $vcdplusglitchon;
#100 $vcdpluson (1,B);
#200 $vcdplusdeltacycleon;
#200 $vcdpluson (1,C);
#300 $vcdplusdeltacycleoff;
#300 $vcdplusoff (1,B);
#500 $vcdplusoff (1,C);
#600 $vcdpluson (D.clk);
#700 $vcdplusevent (D.clk, "UserEvent", "IS");
#900 $vcdplusoff (D.clk);
Module A
Module B
join
Module C
Module D
Methods
You can implement signal data capture (recording) control in the
source code and at the shell command line, as shown in the following
Verilog examples.
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-29
•
Create a task in source:
task sigon_instreg;
begin
$vcdpluson(test.risc1.instreg);
end
endtask
Then call the task from source code.
initial
sigon_instreg;
Or, enter the task name at the simulator
interactive prompt.
C1> sigon_instreg;
•
Using a shell command argument to enable task
execution:
vcs -f run.f +signal_on
initial
if ($test$plusargs("signal_on"))
sigon_instreg;
task sigon_instrg;
begin
$vcdpluson(test.risc1.instreg);
end
endtask
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-30
VCD+ On/Off PLI Rules
•
VCD+ On/Off PLI system tasks follow these basic rules.
•
vcdpluson and vcdplusoff tasks may be inserted in source
code or entered at the simulator interactive prompt.
•
vcdpluson and vcdplusoff tasks accept one level but multiple
scopes/signals as arguments.
•
vcdpluson and vcdplusoff tasks when applied to the same
signal(s) toggle the recording on and off. The count for each signal
is accumulative; (+,-). ..on/..on/..off leaves the signal recording on.
For example using the hierarchy of Figure 17-8, the following
command sequence will still report on Module D since it was
added twice but only removed once.
$vcdpluson(A); $vcdpluson(B); $vcdplusoff(D);
•
On large designs, you should selectively turn signal data capture
(dumping) on or off. Multiple use of vcdpluson and vcdplusoff
allow on and off selection
•
vcdpluson and vcdplusoff tasks executed in the same
simulation time period may execute in any order. To ensure that
one or the other executes last, separate them by at least one
simulation time unit.
•
Signals that are turned off may have signal value changes
recorded if a higher/ lower level of the same signal is turned on.
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-31
Performance Tips
The following tips explain how to manage performance of the
simulator and VCD+.
•
Normally you should save data for all signals that you may require
for analysis. The time range should be such that it very likely
contains the origination of the problem.
•
Generally, the bigger you make the RAM buffer size (via the
+vpdbufsize option), the faster the simulation will complete.
The effects are so dependent on circuit and activity that
rules-of-thumb do not apply. We suggest doubling the RAM size
for the same simulation on your own design while measuring
simulator performance to get a figure for an appropriate setting.
When making this measurement, compare sizeable simulation
runs to overcome the effects of compile time. Naturally, the above
requires that you have physical memory to accommodate the
simulation. Swapping will significantly reduce performance.
Making the buffer size too large can cause excessive swapping,
which can dramatically slow the simulation.
•
Saving line-execution data enables more efficient debug of
misbehavior in behavioral code. Access to such data allows
breakpointing on particular activities in the code and stepping
through the exact execution of the source. Correctly used, the cost
of reporting on line execution data (slower simulation) will more
than pay for itself by enabling much faster location of the code
deficiencies
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-32
•
Saving statement execution for an entire design can increase
simulation time by eight times or more. To limit performance
degradation, limit the use of statement saves to certain scopes.
Instead of saving statement execution from time 0, turn on tracing
just prior to the time of a suspected problem and off after that time.
•
The file size increases from 200 to 500 percent when saving line
execution data.
•
Glitch detection and delta cycle may significantly increase the size
of the vpd file.
•
The option +vpdports costs some CPU time and memory in the
initialization. It allows telling ports from internal signals in the
hierarchy browser.
•
The option +vpddrivers costs some CPU time and memory
during the simulation. However, it allows visibility to the individual
values of drivers of a multiply driven net.
•
The option +vpdfilesize (file wrap) can be used in a verification
environment where stimuli is automatically generated or read and
the results are verified by the test bench. Then, the simulation can
be made to stop when an error occurs, and one is guaranteed to
have the required history data even in a relatively small file that
is left.
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-33
VCD+ (vpd) File Generation
17-34
18
Translating VCD and VCD+
1
This section covers two optional utilities: vcd2vpd and vpd2vcd.
These utilities convert VCD or EVCD files to VCD+ files or VCD+ files
to VCD files. VirSim ships with a built in vcd2vpd utility so one could
open a VCD file from within VirSim.
Note:
These two utilities apply to Verilog only.
Translating VCD and VCD+
18-1
vcd2vpd Command
The command performs one of the following operations:
•
Converts a standard VCD file to a VCD+ file (.vpd extension).
•
Converts an LSI Logic EVCD file with $port definitions and
associated data to a VCD+ file. For information on the mapping
of EVCD signals to VCD+ signals, see Table 18-1, Table 18-2, and
Table 18-3.
Syntax
vcd2vpd <options> <evcd_options> <vcd_file or evcd_file>
<vpd_file>
Options
-b#
The buffer size in kilobytes(#) to use to store value change
data before writing the data to disk.
-f#
The file size in kilobytes (#). Wrap around occurs if the
specified file size is exceeded.
-h
Translate hierarchy information only.
-m
Give translation metrics during the conversion.
+deltacycle
Add delta cycle information to each signal value change.
Translating VCD and VCD+
18-2
EVCD Options
+dut+<dt_prefix>
Modifies the string identifier for the Device-Under-Test
(DUT) half of the split signal. The default name is DUT.
+tf+<tf_prefix>
Modifies the string identifier for the Test Fixture (TF) half of
the split signal. The default name is TF.
+indexlast
Appends the bit index of a vector bit as the last element of
a name.
In SVCD translation, an EVCD signal is split into two new
signals: one signal for the test-fixture (TF) value and one
signal for the Device-Under-Test (DUT) value. For example:
•
•
•
•
foo_DUT_1
foo_DUT_2
foo_TF_1
foo_TF_2
In the default (if the +indexlast option is omitted), the
signals are split in two and organized by the index number:
•
•
•
•
foo_1_DUT
foo_1_TF
foo_2_DUT
foo_2_TF
Files
vcd_file or evcd_file
The VCD source file that is converted to the VCD+ file.
vpd_file
The VCD+
Translating VCD and VCD+
18-3
Mapping EVCD to VCD+ Signals
In the conversion, each EVCD port maps to two new VCD+ signals:
a Test Fixture (TF) signal and a Device-Under-Test (DUT) signal.
Table 18-1, Table 18-2, and Table 18-3 show the mapping of values
in the EVCD file to values in the VCD+ file.
Table 18-1
Mapping In Input Mode (TF Drives)
EVCD Value Maps
To VCD+ TF
To VCD+ DUT
D low
St0
HiZ
U high
St1
HiZ
N unknown
StX
HiZ
Z tri-state
SmZ
HiZ
d low (2 or more drivers active)
Su0
HiZ
u high (2 or more drivers active)
Su1
HiZ
Table 18-2
Mapping In Output Mode (DUT Drives)
EVCD Value Maps
To VCD+ TF
To VCD+ DUT
L low
HiZ
St0
H high
HiZ
St1
X unknown (value not important)
HiZ
Stx
T tri-state
HiZ
SmZ
l low (2 or more drivers active)
HiZ
Su0
h high (2 or more drivers active)
HiZ
Su1
EVCD Value Maps
To VCD+ TF
To VCD+ DUT
0 low (Both TF and DUT active with 0 value)
St0
St0
1 high (both TF and DUT active with 1 value)
St1
St1
? unknown
StX
StX
Table 18-3
Mapping in Bidirectional Mode
Translating VCD and VCD+
18-4
Table 18-3
Mapping in Bidirectional Mode (Continued)
EVCD Value Maps
To VCD+ TF
To VCD+ DUT
F tr-state (TF and DUT unconnected)
HiZ
HiZ
A unknown (TF 0 and DUT 1)
St0
St0
a unknown (TF 0 and DUT x)
St0
StX
B unknown (TF 0 and DUT 0)
St1
St0
b unknown (TF 1 and DUTX)
St1
Stx
C unknown (TF X and DUT 0)
StX
St0
c unknown (TF X and DUT 1)
Stx
St1
f unknown (TF and DUT tri-stated)
Smz
Smz
vpd2vcd Command
The vpd2vcd command converts the binary VCD+ file to the standard
VCD file in ASCII format.
Syntax
vpd2vcd <options> <vpd_file> <vcd_file>
Translating VCD and VCD+
18-5
Options
-h
Translate hierarchy information only
-m
Give translation metrics during the conversion
-s
Allow sign extension for vectors. Reduces size of
<vcd.file>
+morevhdl
Translate VHDL types that are not directly mappable to
verilog types. These VHDL types are in addition to the ones
that are directly mappable. See VHDL Mapping.
+ignoredelta
Leave delta cycle information out of the translation. This
improves efficiency when the VPD file contains delta cycle
information that you do not need in the VCD file.
+start+<value>
Translate value changes starting after start time <value>.
+end+<value>
Translate value changes ending before end time <value>.
Files
vpd_file
The VCD+ file that is to be converted VCD file.
vcd_file
The VCD file generated from the VCD+ file.
Translating VCD and VCD+
18-6
VHDL Mapping
The following VHDL constructs are mapped for translation from VPD
to VCD. Additional VHDL constructs can be pseudo mapped using
the +morevhdl switch (see VHDL Mapping). Using the +morevhdl
switch allows you to view the additional VHDL constructs, but there
may be inaccuracies in the pseudo mapped signals, and you cannot
translate a VCD file that uses pseudo mapping back into a VPD file.
Table 18-4
Mapping of VHDL Constructs for Translation to VCD
VHDL Construct
vpd2vcd Mapping
package
module
entity
module, task
process
function (always or initial statement)
block
begin
bit
wire
Std_logic n
wire n/4 (n is an integer divisible by 4)
Integer
integer
real
real
time
time
boolean
wire
character
wire 8
enum
integer
arrays
wire/integer/real
Translating VCD and VCD+
18-7
Translating VCD and VCD+
18-8
19
Viewing OpenVera Assertions
1
This chapter introduces OpenVera Assertions and explains how to
view them in VirSim.
The following topics are covered in this chapter:
•
Introducing OpenVera Assertions
•
How Sequences Are Tested
•
Viewing OVA Results in VirSim
Viewing OpenVera Assertions
19-1
Introducing OpenVera Assertions
OpenVera Assertions (OVA) provides a clear, easy way to describe
sequences of events and facilities to test for their occurrence. With
clear definitions and less code, testbench design is faster and easier.
And you can be confident that you are testing the right sequences in
the right way.
OpenVera Assertions is a declarative method that is much more
concise and easier to read than the procedural descriptions provided
by hardware description languages such as Verilog. With OpenVera
Assertions:
•
Descriptions can range from the most simple to the most complex
logical and conditional combinations.
•
Sequences can specify precise timing or a range of times.
•
Descriptions can be associated with specified modules and
module instances.
•
Descriptions can be grouped as a library for repeated use.
OpenVera Assertions includes a Checker Library of commonly
used descriptions.
Built-in Test Facilities and Functions
OpenVera Assertions has built-in test facilities to minimize the amount
of code that you need to write. In addition, OpenVera Assertions works
seamlessly with other Synopsys tools to form a complete verification
environment. OpenVera Assertions:
Viewing OpenVera Assertions
19-2
•
Tests Verilog, VHDL, and mixed-HDL designs using the VCS and
Scirocco simulators.
•
Automatically tests and reports results on all defined sequences.
You just write the definitions.
•
Produces results that can be viewed with VirSim.
•
Can be monitored and controlled as part of a Vera testbench.
How Sequences Are Tested
Testing starts with a temporal assertion file, which contains the
descriptions of the sequences and instructions for how they should
be tested. OpenVera Assertions is designed to resemble Verilog with
similar data types, operators, and lexical conventions.
Example 19-1 shows an example temporal assertion file. It tests for
a simple sequence of values (4, 6, 9, 3) on the device’s outp bus.
Example 19-1 Temporal Assertion File, cnt.ova
/* Define a unit with expressions and assertions (or select
one from the Checker Library).
*/
unit 4step
#(parameter integer s0 = 0)
// Define parameters
(logic clk, logic [7:0] result); // Define ports
// Define a clock to synchronize attempts:
clock posedge (clk)
{
// Define expressions:
event t_0 : (result == s0);
event t_1 : (result == 6);
event t_2 : (result == 9);
event t_3 : (result == 3);
event t_normal_s: t_0 #1 t_1 #1 t_2 #1 t_3;
}
Viewing OpenVera Assertions
19-3
// Define an assertion:
assert c_normal_s : check(t_normal_s, "Missed a step.");
endunit
/* Bind the unit to one or more instances in the design.
*/
// bind module cnt : // All instances of cnt or
bind instances cnt_top.dut : // one instance.
4step start_4
// Name the unit instance.
#(4)
// Specify parameters.
(m_clk, outp); // Specify ports.
When the temporal assertion file is compiled and run with a simulator,
the assertions are continuously tested for the duration of the
simulation. New attempts to match each assertion to the simulation’s
values are started with every cycle of the assertion’s associated clock.
Each attempt continues until it either fails to match or succeeds in
matching the complete expression. See Figure 19-2. The up arrow
at clock tick 7 indicates a match that started at tick 4. The down arrows
are failures. The failure or success of each attempt is logged to a file
that can be reviewed later.
Figure 19-2 Assertion Attempts for cnt.ova
posedge m_clk
1
outp
2
06
3
04
4
08
5
04
6
06
7
09
8
03
9
0d
10
0e
11
04
12
06
13
09
14
06
c_normal_s
A Vera testbench can monitor and control the testing. Using built-in
object classes, you can stop and start attempts to match the selected
assertion; monitor attempts, failures, and successes; and
synchronize the testbench with the testing process.
Viewing OpenVera Assertions
19-4
Viewing OVA Results in VirSim
You can view OVA results in VirSIm from a VCS, Scirocco, or MixedHDL simulation run if a design is compiled with the -ova_debug or
-ova_debug_vpd option.
To view the assertion results, start VirSim and load the VPD file from
the simulation run. Then go to the scope where the assertion is
declared. The scope shows the assertion plus design signals and
OVA variables related to the assertion. Drag the assertion and any
other signals of interest into the Waveform Viewer. Use the features
of VirSim to debug the results in the same way as debugging other
simulation results. Figure 19-3 shows the Waveform Viewer with four
assertions.
Figure 19-3 VirSim Display of Assertion Results
Viewing OpenVera Assertions
19-5
An assertion shows each evaluation attempt as a colored box: green
for success, red for failure, gray for incomplete. A solid, gray bar from
the beginning of the simulation time indicates that no attempts have
started yet. The left edge of the box marks the start time of the attempt.
However, because attempts can overlap, the right edge is not
meaningful and the length of the box does not represent the length
of the sequence. (The right edge is just the beginning of the next
attempt.)
The start and end times are noted in the box as start/end. An end
time of “X” means incomplete. An asterisk (*) means the left-most
characters were truncated for lack of space. An empty box is also
because of lack of space. To see the times, zoom in.
Expanding an assertion displays three component “signals” (see
Figure 19-4):
•
“clk” shows the ticks of the clock used by the assertion.
•
“result” shows the result of each attempt: a green up arrow for
success, a red down arrow for failure, a gray line for incomplete.
The result markers are placed at the start times of the attempts.
•
“end_time” notes the end time for each attempt. An “X” means
incomplete.
Viewing OpenVera Assertions
19-6
Figure 19-4 VirSim Display with Expanded Assertion Results
Markers mk_2 and mk_1
Expanded assertions
Data for one assertion attempt
(started at time 170 but never finished)
Figure 19-4 shows four assertions that have been expanded. The
vertical markers, mk_1 and mk_2, highlight typical display elements.
Marker mk_1 (at time tick 250) is at the beginning of an attempt on
each of the first three assertions. Assertion c_a_vector shows a
success that started and ended at 250. Assertion c_another_if shows
a failure that started and ended at 250. Assertion c_second_clka
shows an incomplete attempt that started at 250 and never ended.
Viewing OpenVera Assertions
19-7
Assertion c_inc_pc_2_fetch, at marker mk_2, shows a display of
overlapping attempts. The first box for the assertion shows an attempt
that started at 10 and ended at 60. The second box shows an attempt
that started and ended at 40—after the first attempt started but before
it ended.
Assertion c_inc_pc_2_fetch also shows truncated start/end times
marked with asterisks. You can also see that this assertion was
evaluated with a different clock than the other three assertions.
Viewing OpenVera Assertions
19-8
A
Waveform Defaults
2
Waveform Defaults
A-1
Waveform Style: Verilog Defaults
Table A-1, Verilog Waveform Defaults, describes the waveform display
characteristics of Verilog signals in the Waveform Window. The Waveform
Style Editor lets you assign waveform characteristics to a configuration.
When setting Verilog styles, consider how the following miscellaneous
Waveform display characteristics apply to Verilog.
•
Vector values are displayed inside the signal confines. If the zoom factor
is too small to display the entire value, VirSim truncates as many
characters as necessary and inserts an asterisk (*) on the truncated
side of the value. If there is not enough room for at least two characters,
no value is displayed. The values at C1 are displayed in the Signal
Value pane.
•
Named events are represented by single vertical arrows at the time the
event occurs.
•
A full gray bar indicates that no data is present for the signals at the
time period displayed. During interactive simulation, the display is gray
and updates as time advances. Since VCD+ allows you to turn signals
on and off during simulation, signal displays may turn gray for a time
period, then revert to normal logic values.
•
Each waveform shows values in the radix enumeration selected for the
waveform. Radices are selected from the Radix Menu
Table A-1
Verilog Waveform Defaults
Signal
Value
Encoding
Type
Default
Color
Waveform Display
Resource
Variable
Small 0
Scalar
Blue
line at bottom
eDsiColor13
Medium 0
Scalar
Blue
line at bottom
eDsiColor13
Weak 0
Scalar
Blue
line at bottom
eDsiColor13
Waveform Defaults
A-2
Table A-1
Signal
Value
Verilog Waveform Defaults (Continued)
Encoding
Type
Default
Color
Waveform Display
Resource
Variable
Large 0
Scalar
Blue
line at bottom
eDsiColor13
Pull 0
Scalar
Blue
line at bottom
eDsiColor13
Strong 0
Scalar
Blue
line at bottom
eDsiColor13
Supply 9
Scalar
Blue
line at bottom
eDsiColor13
Small 1
Scalar
Green
line at top
eDsiColor18
Medium 1
Scalar
Green
line at top
eDsiColor18
Weak 1
Scalar
Green
line at top
eDsiColor18
Large 1
Scalar
Green
line at top
eDsiColor18
Pull 1
Scalar
Green
line at top
eDsiColor18
Strong 1
Scalar
Green
line at top
eDsiColor18
Supply 1
Scalar
Green
line at top
eDsiColor18
Small X
Scalar
Red
filled box
eDsiColor23
Medium X
Scalar
Red
filled box
eDsiColor23
Weak X
Scalar
Red
filled box
eDsiColor23
Large X
Scalar
Red
filled box
eDsiColor23
Pull X
Scalar
Red
filled box
eDsiColor23
Strong X
Scalar
Red
filled box
eDsiColor23
Supply X
Scalar
Red
filled box
eDsiColor23
High Z
Scalar
Gold
line at midpoint
dsiColor06
Range
Scalar
Yellow
open box with value
dsiColor68
Waveform Defaults
A-3
Table A-1
Verilog Waveform Defaults (Continued)
Signal
Value
Encoding
Type
Default
Color
Waveform Display
Resource
Variable
Data
Vector
Aqua
open box with value
dsiColor14
Some X
Vector
Red
open box with value
dsiColor23
Some Z
Vector
Gold
open box with value
dsiColor06
All X
Vector
Red
filled box
dsiColor23
All Z
Vector
Gold
line at midpoint
dsiColor06
Any Value
Real
Cyan
open box with value
dsiColor15
Any Event
Event
Green
vertical arrow
dsiColor18
All X
Memory
Red
filled box
dsiColor23
Some X
Memory
Red
open box with value
dsiColor23
All Z
Vector
Gold
line at midpoint
dsiCoior06
Some Z
Vector
Aqua
open box with value
dsiColor14
Data
Vector
Aqua
open box with value
dsiColor14
Waveform Style: VHDL Defaults
Table A-2, VHDL Defaults, describes the waveform display
characteristics of VHDL signals in the Waveform Window. With the
Waveform Style Editor you can modify these characteristics. The Waveform
Waveform Defaults
A-4
Style Editor settings are saved in the configuration file. You can also modify
the waveform color by modifying the resource variables. See Chapter 16,
VirSim Setup for more information about modifying resources.
Table A-2
VHDL Defaults
Signal Value
STD_Logic
Encodin
g Type
Default
Color
Waveform
Display
Resource
Variable
"U’
Gray
Filled box
dsiColor03
’X’
Red
Filled box
dsiColor23
’0’
Blue
Line at bottom
dsiColor13
’1’
Green
Line at top
dsiColor18
’Z’
Gold
Line at midpoint
dsiColor06
’W’
Red
Filled box
dsiColor03
’L’
Blue
Line at bottom
dsiColor13
’H’
Green
Line at top
dsiColor18
’-’
Brown
Filled box
dsiColor24
’0’
Blue
Line at bottom
dsiColor13
’1’
Green
Line at top
dsiColor18
FALSE
Blue
Line at bottom
dsiColor13
TRUE
Green
Line at top
dsiColor18
Other scalar
types
Any vale
Blue‘
Open box with value
dsiColor13
All vector types
Any value
Aqua
Open box with value
dsiColor13
Bit
BOOLEAN
Waveform Defaults
A-5
Waveform Style: EPIC Defaults
The following tables describe rules for waveform display of EPIC values in
the Waveform Window. The value strings also apply to the Register
Window. The Waveform Style Editor identifies signals by the Signal Value
listed in the table.
Table A-3
EPIC Scalar Signal Values
Scala
r
Value
Signal
Type
Waveform
Display
0
Logic zero (strong drive)
Strong ZERO
Blue line at bottom of
waveform
1
Logic one (strong drive)
Strong ONE
Green line at top of
waveform
U
Undefined (strong drive)
Strong
UNDEF
Solid red box
L
Logic zero (high
impedance)
Hi-Z ZERO
Gold line at bottom of
waveform
H
Logic zero (high
impedance)
Hi-Z ONE
Gold line at top of waveform
X
Logic zero (high
impedance)
Hi-Z UNDEF
Solid gold box
N
Logic zero
(driving bi-directional port)
Biput ZERO
Blue line at bottom of
waveform
T
Logic zero
(driving bi-directional port)
Biput ONE
Green line at top of
waveform
Y
Logic zero
(driving bi-directional port)
Biput UNDEF
Solid red box
?
Logic zero
(no value set for signal)
UNDEF
Solid gray box
Waveform Defaults
A-6
Signal
Value
Table A-4
EPIC Vector Waveforms
Vector
Value
Signal
Type
Signal
Value
Waveform
Display
All unset
All ?
All UNSET
Solid gray box
All high
impedance
All L,H, or X
All Hi-Z
Solid gray box
Some undefined
All U or Y
Some
UNDEF
Solid red box
Some unset
At least one ? and
any other value
Some
UNSET
Gray open box with
string
Some high
impedance
‘No ?, at least one L,
H, or X and any other
value
Some Hi-Z
Gold open box with
string
Some undefined
No ?, L, H, or X. At
least one U or Y and
any other value
Some
UNDEF
Red open box with
string
All 0’s and 1’s
0, 1, N, or T
All data
Aquamarine open box
with string
Table A-5
EPIC Vector Value Strings
Vector
Value
Signal
Value
Waveform
Display
Unset
All or some bits ?
?
All bits high impedance
All H, L, or X
Z
Some high impedance
No ?. At least one L, H, or
X and any other value
U
Undefined
No ?. Some or all U
U
All 0’s and 1’a
All 0, 1, N, or T
0 through f
Waveform Defaults
A-7
Waveform Defaults
A-8
Index
Symbols
-I 2-4
-PP 2-4
-RPP 2-6
$vcdplusautoflushoff 17-6
$vcdplusautoflushon 17-6
$vcdplusdeltacycleoff 17-21
$vcdplusdeltacycleon 17-20
$vcdplusevent 17-23
$vcdplusflush 17-6
$vcdplusglitchoff 17-22
$vcdplusglitchon 17-22
$vcdplusoff 17-5
$vcdplustraceoff 17-19
$vcdplustraceon 17-19
+simargs 2-10, 2-15
+vcdfile 2-6
+vpdbufsize 17-25
+vpddrivers 17-26
+vpdfile 17-25
+vpdfilesize 17-25
+vpdignore 17-26
+vpdnocompress 17-27
+vpdnostrengths 17-27
+vpdports 17-27
A
Adding signals to groups 3-9
Align Command 7-18
assertion files 19-3
Assertions, OpenVera 19-1
Assignment Statements 6-6
audience i-xxiv
AutoGroups 4-13
B
benefits of OpenVera Assertions 19-2
binarySpacing 16-6
Breakpoint Group icon 8-20
Breakpoints
Clearing 5-12
Expression 8-11
Line 8-14
Setting 5-11
Statement indicators 5-3
Building Buses 13-1
Bus Builder 13-1
Button file iwbuttons 8-16
Selection substitution 8-19
IN-1
C
E
C1 Cursor 4-5, 4-16
Searching with expressions 15-11
C2 Cursor 4-16
Clear Breakpoints Command 5-12, 5-23
cnt.txp 19-3
Colormap 16-17
Configuration file
Command line, loading from 2-3, 2-10
Format of 2-29
Incremental loading of 2-30
Nesting configuration files 2-30
Saving and loading 2-26
Context-Sensitive Menus, See CSM
CSM
Format 7-14
Label 7-13
Logic Browser 6-23
Module Instance 6-25
Port Instance 6-26, 6-28
Radix 7-12
Edge-triggered expressions 15-13
Edit Parent Command 5-23
Encapsulated PostScript 4-42
EPIC
Waveform display characteristics A-6
EVCD
Converting to VCD+ 18-2
Event Origin
Classifications 12-7
Debugging 12-8
example
temporal assertion file 19-3
Expressions 15-1
Creating expressions 15-7
Displaying expressions 15-9
Edge-triggered searches 15-13
Entering signal names 15-6
Expressions Dialog 15-2
Level sensitive searches 15-12
Requirements 15-2
Searching 15-11
Trigger Types 15-10
Updating expressions 15-8
Expressions Dialog 15-2
D
decimalSpacing 16-6
Defining buttons 8-16
Delta Cycle Information
Capturing delta cycle information 17-20
Design top 9-4
Designator 7-8
Dialogs
Expressions Dialog 15-2
Markers Dialog 14-3
Radix Dialog 11-1
Simulator Invocation Dialog 8-6
Time Scale Dialog 10-1
View Editor Dialog 7-4
Display Command 7-19
Display Unit, configure 10-2
Distribute Command 7-19
Drivers
Signal drivers in Waveform Window 4-47
IN-2
F
facilities, test 19-2
files, temporal assertion 19-3
flow 19-5
G
Go icon 8-20
Grouping signals 3-9
Groups 4-11– 4-13
H
help
Synopsys Technical Support Center ixxvii
hexSpacing 16-6
Hierarchical Resolution 6-8
Hierarchy
navigation 3-6
Hierarchy Browser
Adding Signals to Groups 3-9
Definition 1-9
Menu Bar 3-13
History file
Closing from GUI 2-16
Displaying open 3-6
Multiple files, opening 2-23
Opening from GUI 2-16
Reopen after updating 3-6
Single file, open 2-22
Switching between open designs 3-6
HR 6-8
I
-I 2-4
Ignoring Calls and License Checking 17-26
information, other sources i-xxv
Instance Group Edit Dialog
Options 5-14
Instance Groups 5-13
Interactive Window 8-1
$timeformat 8-4
button file iwbuttons 8-16
Command prompt 8-2
Continuing simulation 8-20
Defining buttons 8-16
Definition 1-8
Displaying data 8-20
Edit commands 8-21
File commands 8-21
History pane 8-2
Invoking 8-6
Menu Bar commands 8-21
Setting breakpoints 8-9
Sim Commands 8-22
Simulation command line 8-8
Simulator controls 8-3
Simulator Invocation Dialog 8-6
Status 8-5
Tool Bar 8-20
User-defined buttons 8-3
Window areas 8-2
introducing OpenVera Assertions 19-2
K
Key Terms and Concepts 1-4
L
Level sensitive expressions 15-12
Link
Linking windows 1-21
Link icon 8-20
Loading configuration files 2-26
Logic Browser
Connection Dialog 6-14
Context-Sensitive Menus 6-23
Controlling simulation 8-15
Definition 1-14
Graphical objects 6-5
Point-and-click navigation 6-10
Previous View/Next View 6-21
Setting display text 6-19
Single net
Multiple net 6-30
Tool Bar 6-21
Verilog Source Compiler 6-4
M
manual
audience i-xxiv
related publications i-xxv
Mapping List Editor 11-5
Markers
Creating 14-3, 14-5
Editing 14-3, 14-6
Linking windows 1-21
Setting 14-6
Markers Dialog 14-3
IN-3
Multiple nets in Logic Browser 6-30
N
NA 6-8
NA text 6-8
Navigating a design
Hierarchy navigation 3-6
Searching for signals 3-7
Selecting Signal Range 1-18
Next View 6-21
NL 6-7
numericSeparator 16-6
O
octalSpacing 16-6
OpenVera Assertions
benefits 19-2
flow 19-5
introduction 19-2
overview 19-3
OpenVera Assertions, viewing 19-1
OVA, see OpenVera Assertions
-ova_debug option 19-5
-ova_debug_vpd option 19-5
P
-PP 2-4
Precision, configure 10-3
Previous View 6-21
Project Window 9-1
Active library 9-5
Adding files 9-33
Adding libraries 9-5
Analyze options 9-41
Command line, executing commands 947
Commands 9-48
Constants, creating and modifying 9-36
Default library 9-5
Default settings, changing 9-39
IN-4
Defining projects and workspaces 9-1
Definition 1-15
Dependency folder view 9-14
Design top folder view 9-11
Directory, selecting 9-35
Elaborate options 9-42
Files and directories 9-54
Library folder view 9-15
Library view 9-18
Makefiles 9-56
Moving projects 9-55
Opening files 9-31
Output Pane 9-20
Project folder view 9-10
Simulate options 9-44
Source file folder view 9-12
Tearing off windows 9-20
Verilog compile options 9-45
Verilog libraries, creating 9-38
Verilog run options 9-46
View pane 9-9
Workspace directory
Project directory
Project library 9-54
Workspace folder view 9-9
Workspace pane 9-5
Workspace, creating 9-29
R
Radix
editing radix 11-4
editor
user defined 11-3
mapping 11-5
selecting in Waveform window 4-5
using a radix 11-1
Register Window 7-1
Align Commands 7-18
Aligning objects 7-7, 7-8
Controlling simulation 8-15
Designator 7-8
Display Command 7-19
Display menu 7-8
Distribute Commands 7-19
Distributing objects 7-8
Edit commands 7-17
File Commands 7-16
Graphics Menu 7-18
Menu Bar commands 7-15
Signal properties CSM 7-9
Tool bar 7-9
Two-button mouse 7-1
View Editor Dialog 7-4
Views Command 7-17
Window areas 7-1
results 19-5
-RPP 2-6
S
Search pane 3-2
Searching
Events, searching for 4-44
Filters, using 3-7
Signal values, searching for in Wave
Window 4-17
Signals, searching for 3-7
Using wildcard characters 3-7
sequence of events, describing 19-2
Setup
Common Settings 16-4
VirSim Platforms 16-2
Signal groups
Adding signals 3-9
Signal Name pane 4-2, 4-4
Signal Select pane 3-2
Signal Value pane 4-4
Signals
AutoGroups 4-13
Expanding or collapsing waveform
vectors arrays, records, or busses 413
Loading view 6-7
Reordering signals for waveforms 4-10
Searching for 3-7
Types 4-5
Using groups 4-11
Verilog waveform characteristics A-2
Waveform color styles A-2
Simulation
Controlling simulation
From Logic Browser 8-15
From Register Window 8-15
From Waveform Window 8-12
Invoking Interactive Window 8-6
Simulation command line 8-8
Simulator controls
Scope control 8-4
Step controls 8-3
Time display 8-4
Simulator Invocation Dialog 8-6, 8-7
Single nets in Logic Browser 6-30
Source Window 5-1
Clear Breakpoints Command 5-23
Clearing Breakpoints 5-12
Control Panel 5-5
CSM commands 5-20
Defining markers 5-16
Definition 1-13
Display menu 5-24
Edit Menu 5-23
Edit Parent Command 5-23
Edit Source Command 5-23
Entering a scope 5-4
Execution pane 5-3
File Menu 5-22
Instance Groups 5-13
Menu Bar commands 5-22
Setting breakpoints 5-11
Show Execution Command 5-24
Source Text pane 5-4
Tool bar 5-18
Window areas 5-2
Sources
In Logic Browser 6-4
Loading 2-31
Use Sources 2-19
Starting VirSim 2-1
Configuration files, loading from GUI 2-26
History files, loading from GUI 2-16
Opening history files from GUI 2-16
Overview 2-7
Scirocco, starting VirSim from 2-7
Standalone Installations, starting Virsim
from 2-11
VCS, starting VirSim from 2-2
Creating history files for 2-3
IN-5
Interactive mode 2-2
Post-processing mode 2-5
VCD+ files 2-3
Stop icon 8-20
support
Synopsys Technical Support Center ixxvii
T
temporal assertion files 19-3
test facilities 19-2
The 2-17
Time Scale Dialog 10-1
Configuring Precision 10-3
Time Units 10-1– 10-3
timeSpacing 16-6
Translating VCD and VCD+ 18-1
Trigger types 15-10
U
Undo Command 7-17
Unique Events
$vcdplusevent 17-23
$vcdplusglitchoff 17-22
$vcdplusglitchon 17-22
Update Icon 8-20
Use Sources 2-19
User-Defined Buttons, Register Window 83
V
VCD
Converting to VCD+ 18-2
VCD+ 17-2
Advantages 17-2
Capturing data 17-3
Closing from GUI 2-16
Command line arguments 2-9, 2-14
Command line options
IN-6
Buffer size 17-25
Bypass data compression 17-27
Control maximum file size 17-25
Do not store strength information 17-27
Ignore $vcdplus calls in code 17-26
Set output file name 17-25
Store driver information 17-26
Store port information 17-26
Conversion from VCD 18-2
Managing simulation 17-27
Opening from GUI 2-16
System Tasks
$vcdplusautoflushoff 17-6
$vcdplusautoflushon 17-6
$vcdplusdeltacycleoff 17-21
$vcdplusdeltacycleon 17-20
$vcdplusevent 17-23
$vcdplusflush 17-6
$vcdplusglitchoff 17-22
$vcdplusglitchon 17-22
$vcdplusoff 17-5
$vcdpluson
vcd2vpd command 18-2
+vcdfile 2-6
vectorSeparator 16-6
verify 19-5
Verilog 2-13
System Tasks
$vcdplustraceoff 17-19
$vcdplustraceon 17-19
Waveform display characteristics A-2
View Editor Dialog 7-4
Views
Designing 7-1
Views Command 7-17
VirSim 19-5
VirSim platforms 16-2– 16-3
vpd2vcd command 18-5
VSC 6-4
W
warnIfConfigurationModified 16-7
Waveform pane 4-6
Waveform Window
Controlling simulation 8-12
Debugging Event Origin 12-8
Definition 1-11, 4-2
Drivers in 4-47
Edit Menu Commands 4-51
Expanding and collapsing vectors, arrays,
records, or busses 4-13
Expressions, using 15-1
File Menu Commands 4-49, 4-50
Groups
4-11
Creating AutoGroups 4-13
Manually creating 4-12
Switching between multiple groups 413
Positioning Cursor C1 and C2 4-16
Reordering signals 4-9, 4-10
Searching for a signal value 4-17
Selecting signals 4-9
Signal groups 4-11
Signal Name pane 4-2, 4-4
Signal Value pane 4-2, 4-4
Status bar 4-8
Tool Bar 4-43
Load icon 4-43
Search icons 4-44
Zoom In 4-43
Zoom Percent icon 4-44
Waveform height 4-31
Waveform pane 4-2, 4-6
Zoom Commands 4-52
Zooming waveforms 4-14
Waveforms
EPIC display characteristics A-6
Grouping signals 4-11
Modifying height 4-31
Printing 4-38
Searching for events 4-44
Verilog display characteristics A-2
Windows NT™ 16-3
X
X Resources 16-3
Color model 16-16
Z
Z1 2-31
Zoom
Commands 4-52
Zoom Percent icon 4-44
IN-7
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