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Grupa RZ [206,92 KiB]
CuriOS: Improving Reliability through Operating System Structure
Francis M. David, Ellick M. Chan, Jeffrey C. Carlyle, Roy H. Campbell
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
{fdavid,emchan,jcarlyle,rhc}@illinois.edu
Abstract
Additionally, these systems are extremely expensive to
build and use [44].
Errors in a monolithic OS can easily propagate and
corrupt other parts of the system [22, 52], making recovery extremely difficult. Microkernel designs componentize the OS into servers managed by a minimal kernel. These servers provide functionality such as the file
system, networking and timers. User applications and
other OS components are modeled as clients of these
servers. Inter-component error propagation is significantly reduced because, in many microkernel designs,
servers usually execute in their own restricted address
spaces similar to user processes [25, 37].
Recovery from a microkernel server failure is typically
attempted by restarting it. The intuition behind this approach is that reinitializing data structures from scratch
by restarting a server usually fixes a transient fault. This
is similar to microrebooting [10]. In Minix3 [25], for
example, server restarts are performed by the Reincarnation Server [47]. If the server managing a printer crashes,
it causes a temporary unavailability of the printer until
it is restarted. Unfortunately, this approach to recovery
does not always work. Many OS services maintain state
related to clients. In such cases, a server restart results
in the loss of this state information and affects all clients
that depend on the server. For example, a failure of the
file system server in Minix3 impacts all clients that were
using the file system. Simply restarting the file system
server does not prevent errors from occurring in these
existing clients. Reads and writes to existing open files
cannot be completed because the restarted server cannot
recognize the file handles that are presented to it. Thus,
while stateless servers such as some device drivers can
be restarted to recover the system, this technique is not
applicable for many important OS services that manage
client-related state.
Writing clients to take into account OS service restarts
and state loss is a possible solution. This requires clients
to subscribe to server failure notifications and can re-
An error that occurs in a microkernel operating system
service can potentially result in state corruption and service failure. A simple restart of the failed service is not
always the best solution for reliability. Blindly restarting a service which maintains client-related state such as
session information results in the loss of this state and affects all clients that were using the service. CuriOS represents a novel OS design that uses lightweight distribution, isolation and persistence of OS service state to mitigate the problem of state loss during a restart. The design also significantly reduces error propagation within
client-related state maintained by an OS service. This
is achieved by encapsulating services in separate protection domains and granting access to client-related state
only when required for request processing. Fault injection experiments show that it is possible to recover from
between 87% and 100% of manifested errors in OS services such as the file system, network, timer and scheduler while maintaining low performance overheads.
1 Introduction
Operating system reliability has been studied for several
decades [39, 19, 34, 46], but remains a major concern today [47]. Operating system errors can be caused by both
hardware and software faults. Hardware faults can arise
due to various factors, some of which are aging, temperature, and radiation-induced bit-flips in memory and registers (Single Event Upsets [30]). Software faults (bugs)
are also very common in large and complex operating
systems [13].
In the past, designs for reliable computer systems have
used redundancy in hardware and OS software to attempt
recovery from errors [5, 6]. Redundancy can mask transient and permanent hardware faults as well as some software faults [4]. However, it does not address the insidious problem of the propagation of undetected errors [34].
1
is illustrated in figure 1. A server failure that occurs
when servicing a client can only affect that client and the
restarted server can continue to process other requests
normally.
Distribution of state information from servers to
clients for fault tolerance is not new. Researchers have
exploited this technique to improve the reliability of file
system services in distributed operating systems such
as Sprite [53] and Chorus/MiX [33]. A more widely
known example is Sun’s stateless Network File System (NFS) [41]. But these designs do not protect the
state information from being manipulated by clients and
leads to various security problems such as those with
NFS [51, 32]. Our design supports safe distribution of
state by protecting the state from modification by clients.
Our implementation is also lightweight because we use
virtual memory remapping instead of memory copying to
grant access to state. Additionally, we provide a generic
framework for implementing distributed state and recovery for any OS service, not just the file system.
CuriOS is written in C++ and is based on the Choices
object-oriented operating system [8]. It is being developed to provide a highly reliable OS environment for
mobile devices such as cellular phones powered by an
ARM processor.
Our work is complementary to other research in OS
error detection such as the language-based type-safety
techniques used in SafeDrive [55] and software guards
used in the XFI system [50]. Employing such techniques
in CuriOS can improve error detection latency and further reduce error propagation.
A preliminary design for CuriOS is available in a previous publication [18]. The contributions of this paper
include:
sult in increased code complexity. Another possible
solution is to provide some form of persistence to the
server’s client-related state information. This allows a
restarted server to continue processing requests from existing clients. Some microkernel operating systems like
Chorus and Minix3 support the ability to persist state in
memory through restarts; but they do not use this functionality for OS servers and, currently, only provide it as
a service for user applications or device drivers.
Attempts to solve the state loss problem by simply persisting server state across a restart do not address the
possible corruption of this state due to error propagation. An error that occurs in an OS server, like a typical software error, can potentially corrupt any part of
its state [27] before being detected. This highlights yet
another significant limitation of traditional microkernel
systems. While such systems minimize inter-component
error propagation, nothing prevents intra-component error propagation.
Checkpointing OS service state in order to mitigate the
effects of error propagation is not a viable solution because rolling back to a consistent system state requires
checkpointing of client state as well. Additionally, multiple checkpoints may have to be maintained in order to
avoid rolling back to an incorrect state. This may be expensive in terms of memory and performance.
In this paper, we present CuriOS, which adopts an
approach that significantly minimizes error propagation
between as well as within OS services and recovers
failed services transparently to clients. We accomplish
this by lightweight distribution, isolation and persistence
of client-specific state information used by OS servers.
Client-specific state is stored in client-associated, but
client-inaccessible memory and servers are only granted
access to this information when servicing a request. Because this state is not associated with the server, it persists after a server restart. This distribution of state
1. A comparison and analysis of the effect of memory
errors on OS services of several popular microkernel architectures, some of which are designed for
reliability.
Traditional Microkernel OS Service
Code
Data
Client1
Server
Client2
Client1Local
ServerLocal
Client2Local
2. A detailed description of the state management
framework implementation in CuriOS that reduces intra-component error propagation and enables transparent OS service recovery.
Client1 state
Client2 state
3. An evaluation of the CuriOS design using faultinjection experiments performed on several OS services.
CuriOS Service
Code
Data
Client1
Server
Client2
Client1Local
ServerLocal
Client2Local
Client1 state
The remainder of this paper is organized as follows.
We investigate several related operating systems in Section 2. In Section 3, we look at the results of our investigations and present our observations for an operating system design that supports transparent recovery.
Section 4 presents a brief introduction to the CuriOS architecture and details the framework used to manage OS
Client2 state
Figure 1: State Distribution
2
service state information. Section 5 describes the design
and implementation of a few transparently restartable
CuriOS components and drivers. We present an evaluation of several aspects of our current implementation
in 6. We discuss a number of additional related topics
in Section 7 and conclude in Section 8. In this paper,
we limit our scope to the reliability aspects of CuriOS.
A short discussion of some security issues is available in
Section 7.
The dependability related terms used in this paper
conform to the taxonomy suggested by Avizienis et
al [3]. All names that use the font Class represent C++
classes.
Minix3 data store provides some protection from errors
in a server because it resides in a separate address space
from the server. It has been used to implement failure
resilience for device drivers [26]. A drawback of the data
store approach is the additional communication and data
copying overhead involved. This approach also does not
restrict intra-component error propagation.
2.2 L4/Iguana
Iguana [35] is a suite of OS services that are implemented
for the L4 microkernel [37]. This comprises basic OS
services such as naming, memory management, timer
and some device drivers. Our experiments study the
behavior of some Iguana services when they encounter
memory errors. Unlike Minix3, there isn’t any support
for restartable services. An analysis of the source code
shows that server restartability, if implemented, still does
not solve the problem of preventing the corruption of
state and recovering it. As an example, the Iguana timer
service maintains information about clients to which it
periodically sends messages. This information will be irrecoverably lost upon a restart. A stateless server like the
serial driver, on the other hand, can be restarted and may
continue to work for existing clients.
More complex functionality such as a file system is
part of the L4Linux [23] suite, which implements a complete Linux system as a user-mode server. Since most
of the functionality required by Linux applications is implemented in this server, the reliability of all L4Linux
applications depends on the reliability of this server, and
thus, this design is not any more reliable than the normal monolithic Linux OS. This has been improved to
some extent by isolating device drivers in separate virtual L4Linux servers [36].
2 Related Operating Systems
Some microkernel operating systems that are closely related to our work are Minix3 [25], L4 [37], Chorus [40]
and EROS [43]. For the evaluation of each of these
microkernel-based operating systems, we manually inject memory access errors into different OS servers to explore the effect of an OS error on its reliability. A memory access error is the typical manifestation of a hardware
or software fault in an OS [52].
In all our experiments, a memory access error results
in the termination of the OS server. Table 1 shows the
results of our experiments. The effect of server termination after encountering the memory access error is shown
in the third column. The last column presents our analysis of whether a restarted server will continue serving
existing clients correctly (if restartability support were
included in the corresponding OS). Except for Minix3,
which already implements restartable services, this observation is based purely on source code analysis. Brief
explanations for our conclusions are provided in each
row. The entries in the last column for Minix3 are actual experimental results.
The rest of this Section discusses reliability aspects of
the previously mentioned systems and several other related operating systems in more detail.
2.3 Chorus
The Chorus OS [40] is designed for high reliability and
is used in several telecommunication systems. In contrast to Minix3 and L4, services are executed in privileged mode and share the same address space as the microkernel. Chorus includes “Hot Restart” technology [1]
that allows servers to maintain state in persistent memory
and resume execution quickly after a failure. Unlike both
the design we use in CuriOS and the Minix3 data store,
all allocated persistent memory in Chorus is permanently
mapped into the server domain. There is no mechanism
in place that prevents state information saved in the allocated persistent memory from being potentially corrupted by an error that occurs in a server. Unfortunately,
Chorus’ operating system services do not take advantage
of the “Hot Restart” functionality.
2.1 Minix3
Reliability support in Minix3 is provided by the Reincarnation Server which is able to restart both failed services
and device drivers. Server restarts work well only for
device drivers [47, 24]. This is substantiated by our experiments (Table 1). The file system server crashes on
all invalid memory accesses and results in an unusable
system. Even if the file system server were restarted correctly, existing open files would be inaccessible because
of the lost server state.
Minix3 includes a data store server that can be used to
store state that persists after a failure induced restart. The
3
µkernel
Minix3
L4
Chorus
EROS
Table 1: Microkernel Operating System Recoverability after Server Failures
Failed Server
Immediate Effect
After Restart
File System (fs)
System unusable.
× Server is not restarted because the Reincarnation Server depends on the file system.
Also, all current file system state information is lost.
Network (inet)
All existing network connec- × Restart does not help re-establish connections fail.
tions because state information is lost.
Random Numbers
Temporary read failure.
X Once the server is restarted, client reads be(random)
gin working again.
Printer
Driver Temporary printer access X Print job completes successfully after
(printer)
failure.
spooler retries request to the restarted
printer server.
Timer (ig timer)
System unusable.
× All clients stop receiving timer interrupts.
Restart does not help because clients waiting on interrupts can’t re-register.
Name
Server No immediate effect.
× But many critical services inaccessible be(ig naming)
cause lookup of registered names fail.
Restart does not help because all registered
clients need to re-register.
Serial (ig serial)
Serial port inaccessible.
X Request retries will eventually work.
File System (vfs)
System unusable.
× Restart does not help because file system
state information is lost.
Network (netinet)
System unusable.
× Restart does not help recover existing network connections.
Timer (kern)
System unusable.
× Restart does not address clients waiting on
timeout.
Memory allocator
System unusable.
X Restore from a previous checkpoint may fix
(spacebank)
this error.
Process Creator
System cannot create new X Restore from a previous checkpoint may fix
processes.
this error.
2.4 EROS
2.5 Other Systems
EROS [43] is a capability-based system which saves
periodic snapshots of the entire machine state to disk.
When the system recovers after a crash, the last written
snapshot is reloaded. This approach only works when
the error is not present in the snapshot. Though the
system performs some consistency checks on snapshots,
correctness cannot be assured and several previous
snapshots may have to be reloaded before a working
version is obtained. Minix3’s approach of restarting an
erroneous server results in a re-creation of all internal
state and has better chances of eliminating errors.
Another drawback is that snapshots of large systems
and device state (not currently performed by EROS)
can be expensive in terms of memory and performance.
Reverting to a previous system snapshot on a failure also
results in a loss of all work done since the snapshot. This
may be undesirable in some situations. For example all
user input since the last snapshot is lost.
The Exokernel OS architecture [21] places most operating system abstractions in an application library and
securely multiplexes machine resources. Similar to a
monolithic kernel, error propagation is possible throughout the library OS and the application. There is no mechanism that provides transparent recovery for an application when errors occur in the associated library OS. An
important advantage of the exokernel approach is that errors only affect the process in which they occur. This
benefit is at the cost of a complex design for multiplexing shared resources like the storage subsystem. Four
design iterations were required to build the XN storage
system [31]. The Nemesis OS [29] also adopted a vertical structure similar to the exokernel architecture while
providing explicit low-level guarantees for reserved resources. Error propagation was limited by enforcing isolation between device driver, system and application domains. The design of Nemesis was driven by QoS considerations and not surprisingly, does not include recov4
ery support for arbitrary errors in components. However,
Nemesis provides QoS isolation between the clients of
a system service. Services are designed to prevent one
client from adversely affecting the QoS observed by others.
The Singularity system [28] adopts a radically different approach to security and reliability by using software
enforcement of address spaces. CuriOS relies on hardware support to enforce memory protection.
Persistence of client-related state: When a service is
restarted, requests from clients must not fail because the
server lost client-related state. Client-related state must
be preserved and made available to the restarted server.
Chorus and Minix3 have some support for in-memory
state preservation, but this is not exploited by any of the
OS services they support. An alternative is to save this
information to stable storage. In EROS, all computation
since the last saved checkpoint is lost.
3 Observations
Isolation of client-related state: Designs of existing microkernel operating systems provide unrestricted
access to client-related state within a server. An error
that occurs in the server can potentially corrupt state
related to all clients. This intra-component error propagation problem exists in a large number of important
microkernel OS services. In EROS, error propagation
may lead to inconsistent data being checkpointed.
From our study of the operating systems in the previous
Section, we are able to make several observations about
how the design of an operating system can impact its
ability to transparently recover in the event of the failure
and restart of an OS service.
Transparency of addressing: Clients should be
able to use the same address to access the OS service
after it is restarted. In EROS, since the whole system
is restored to a previous checkpoint, this property is
true. This is not supported by Chorus, whose hot restart
algorithm restarts servers with a new address. Nor is
this supported by L4 or Minix3 since a restarted server
would be assigned a different address. A name server
can be used to ameliorate this problem by maintaining
a consistent name for the server across a restart. The
restarted server would register its new address with the
name server to provide continued availability.
Minix3 achieves transparency of addressing to some
degree by using the file system server as a name server.
A server can register itself as the handler for a device
entry on the file system. For instance, the Minix3
random server mentioned in table 1 handles requests for
the /dev/random file system entry. In our experiment,
we opened /dev/random using the open system call and
used the returned file handle to read a stream of random
numbers from the server. If the random server crashed,
reads using this file handle failed; however, once the
server was restarted, reads using the same handle began
to work once again.
In the next Section, we describe how CuriOS fulfills
all of these requirements and enables transparentlyrestartable OS components.
4 CuriOS Design
4.1 Structure and Overview
CuriOS is structured as a collection of interacting objects
that represent various components and services. An object can be confined to an isolated memory protection
domain in order to reduce error propagation. We refer to
such an object as a protected object (PO). All methods on
a protected object are executed with reduced privileges
and run with hardware enforced memory protection. CuriOS applies the principle of least privilege to protected
objects and only grants them access to memory regions
that are required for correct operation. This prevents an
error that occurs while running code in a protected object from corrupting other parts of the system by overwriting memory outside of the protected object. The reduced privilege execution mode also prevents protected
object code from executing privileged processor instructions. Devices can be made accessible from within protected objects in order to encapsulate device drivers.
A protected object in CuriOS is analogous to a
“server” in a traditional microkernel system. Our implementation of protected objects on the ARM platform
only enforces restrictions on memory access. Implementations of protected objects on other platforms such as the
x86 can additionally exploit architectural features to provide access control for other resources such as IO ports.
Protected objects work together with a small kernel,
known as CuiK, in order to provide standard OS services
as shown in figure 2. CuiK is a thin layer of the OS that
Suspension of clients for duration of recovery:
Clients should not time out or initiate new requests
during the recovery phase. This property is supported
by Chorus. In Minix3, clients are allowed to run when
the server is restarting, and this results in errors when a
client attempts to communicate with it. This is also the
case in L4; the client will receive an error when it tries
to communicate with a server that may be restarting.
The whole system is restored to a previous checkpoint
in EROS and therefore, this property is not applicable.
5
CuriOS
App1
Unprivileged
Mode
Privileged
Mode
App2
App3
System Interface API
App1
Protected Protected
Object
Object
App2
App3
Protected Protected
Object
Object
Unprivileged
Mode
Privileged
Mode
Protected Method Calls
Application Interface Object
CuiK
CuiK
Figure 3: CuriOS Threads
Figure 2: CuriOS Organization
heaps and stacks. In our current implementation, wrapper classes use multiple inheritance and also inherit from
the class representing the object being wrapped. This allows the wrapper to exploit polymorphism and substitute
the protected object anywhere in the system.
C++ exception handling is used as the error signaling
mechanism in CuriOS [17]. Exceptions are raised for
both processor signaled errors such as invalid memory
accesses and for externally signaled errors such as OS infinite loop lockups (signaled by a watchdog timer) [16].
Exceptions are raised when errors are detected while
executing code within a protected object. Exceptions
that are not handled within the object are intercepted at
the wrapper which attempts to destroy and re-create the
protected object. The wrapper maintains a copy of the
constructor arguments (if any) in order to re-create the
protected object. This is similar to microrebooting or
server restarts in Minix3 and can be used to fix transient
hardware or software faults. The protected object is recreated in-place in memory ensuring that external references to it remain valid. This provides transparency of
addressing. The method call is immediately retried on
the newly constructed protected object. Multiple retry
failures cause an exception to be returned to the caller.
All normal system activity is suspended until the recovery is completed. Thus clients are suspended for the duration of recovery.
runs with the highest privileges. It is composed of a small
set of objects that manage low level architecture specific
functionality such as interrupt dispatching and context
switching. Communication between protected objects is
managed by CuiK.
CuiK uses protected method calls to invoke operations
on protected objects. Each protected object is assigned a
private heap. A private stack is reserved for every thread
that accesses the protected object. This stack is allocated
at the first invocation of a protected method, contributing
to a small delay in processing the first call to a protected
object. Subsequent invocations of protected methods on
the same protected object by the same thread reuse this
stack. A protected method call results in a switch to a reduced privilege execution mode and constrained access
rights to memory. The private stack and the heap are
mapped in with read-write privileges. The rest of CuriOS is mapped in with read-only privileges. Permissions
to write to any additional memory has to be explicitly
granted by CuiK.
Our current implementation of protected method calls
uses a wrapper object that intercepts method calls to a
protected object and manages memory access control,
processor mode switching and recovery. The combination of protected objects and CuiK results in a single
address space operating system [11], where virtual addresses are identical across various components, but access permissions differ.
Threads in CuriOS are managed by CuiK. Using
defined interfaces, a thread executing in CuriOS can
cross user-space application, kernel, and protected object boundaries. For example, a system call in an application causes the thread to cross from user-space into the
CuiK kernel. This same thread can cross from CuiK into
a protected object using a protected method call. Some
example threads are illustrated in figure 3.
CuriOS is written in C++ and uses object-oriented
techniques to minimize code duplication and improve
portability. Wrapper classes, for example, inherit from
a common base class that provides the support functions
used to switch protection domains and manage private
4.2 Server State Management
A server providing an OS service is implemented using
a protected object. Clients are either user applications,
or other protected objects. A protected object that represents an OS service can in turn operate as a client to
another server.
A server that needs to maintain state information about
clients uses state management functionality provided
by CuiK to distribute, isolate, and persist client-related
state. Servers that are completely stateless can be easily
restarted and do not require this functionality.
A Server State Region (SSR) is an object represent6
Client Request
Code
Client Protected Server
Method
Call
Data
Local
Local
SSR
SSR mapped in
for request
Server Response
know one client’s seed in order to service a request from
that client. Such servers can store client information in
SSRs and can be transparently restarted upon a failure.
All future client requests will continue to work correctly
because its SSRs and the information stored in them is
not lost.
The second type is a server that requires knowledge
about all of its clients in order to service a request. Examples of this type are OS services like the scheduler and
timer managers. Such servers can store client related information in SSRs and can redundantly cache this information locally to process requests. Upon a restart, such
a server should be able to re-create its internal state from
its distributed SSRs.
Many CuriOS components and drivers are stateless or
structured as one of these two types of servers. When
restarting, the server’s recovery routine re-creates internal state from all SSRs. It is possible that the SSR that
was in use at the time an error occurs is corrupted. The
recovery routine can check the consistency of the objects in SSRs using simple heuristics before using them.
CuriOS uses magic numbers in objects and these can
be checked for corruption. We also use server-specific
checks to ensure that pointers and numbers are within
expected ranges. Unlike EROS which does consistency
checks of all state during normal running time, these SSR
consistency checks in CuriOS are only performed on exceptional conditions that require server recovery.
CuriOS servers can be multi-threaded and our current
implementation shares the same virtual memory mappings for all threads. Thus, it is possible that multiple
SSRs are mapped in when an error occurs. In this case,
the error propagation is limited to the SSRs that are currently mapped in. This can be further improved by including support for thread-level protection.
Protected
Server
Client Method
Return
Local
SSR
SSR
Local
SSR unmapped
after request
completion
Figure 4: Request Processing
ing a region of memory that is allocated to store an
OS server’s client-related information. An SSR is created when a client establishes a connection to the server.
For accounting purposes, the memory associated with
the SSR is charged to the client. SSRs are protected
from both the server and the client through hardwaresupported virtual memory protection mechanisms. A
client is never granted access to its SSR. A server is only
granted write access to a client’s SSR when it is processing a request from that client (see figure 4). The SSR is
passed as an argument to the server’s protected method
call. The server can then use the SSR to store clientrelated information. It has full control over management
of the memory within the SSR. Write permissions to the
SSR are revoked when the protected method call returns.
SSRs are implemented using a C++ object that holds a
pointer to a hardware-protectable region of memory.
All SSRs in CuriOS are managed by a singleton object
called the SSRManager. The SSRManager provides
the functions used to register a new server, bind a client
to a server (resulting in the creation of an SSR), undo
a client-server binding (deletion of the associated SSR)
and enumerate all the SSRs associated with a server.
Each server using SSRs is required to provide a recovery
routine that is invoked immediately after the server object is re-created upon a failure. This routine can query
the SSRManager to obtain all associated SSRs in order
to re-create the internal state of the restarted server.
The SSR-based state management framework provides persistence and isolation of client-related state.
4.4 Recoverable Errors
Protected method calls to servers are designed to retry the
request after a server fails and restarts during the processing of the request. SSR-based recovery addresses a large
class of errors that result in corrupted local OS service
state. Complete reconstruction of service local state during recovery can remedy any such corruption. When an
SSR is corrupted and multiple attempts at recovery fail,
only the client associated with the corrupted SSR is affected and will need to be notified of a failure. The other
clients of the service can continue to function normally.
Thus, SSR-based recovery can minimize the impact of
a software bug that is triggered by a specific client request and a consequent failure. When repeated attempts
at processing the request fail, the client can be notified
and the service can continue processing other requests
that do not trigger the bug.
4.3 OS Service Construction
How should the state of a generic OS server be structured
in order to use the state management support provided by
CuiK? There are two types of stateful servers. The first
type is a server that does not require collective information about all of its clients in order to service a request.
A server that provides pseudo random numbers based on
a per-client seed is one such example. It only needs to
7
example, this includes all information necessary to service the incoming and outgoing packets of a connection.
This includes the network addresses, ports, windows,
sequence numbers and so on. If the TCP service crashes
and is restarted, this information is used to resume the
processing of packets. If this state information is not
preserved during a restart, the unfortunate consequence
is that all network connections in progress will be
terminated.
Each SSR is associated with a client Socket object
and is mapped into the TCP PO’s address space when
interacting with it. When there is an incoming packet,
the corresponding SSR is located and mapped in before
sending it through the stack. A similar approach is used
to provide access to SSRs for the TCP PO’s timer driven
events.
All the assert code in LWIP was converted to throw
exceptions instead of halting the stack. This comprehensive error detection in LWIP helps reduce error
propagation and improves recovery rates.
Restarting a service that has visible external effects
may not always result in correct behavior. For example,
restarting a printer driver due to a failure may cause another copy of the print job to be dispatched. This problem
may be ameliorated to some degree by writing code that
is restart-aware. This is achieved by incorporating some
means of recording the progress made in servicing a request. This limitation has also been acknowledged for
device driver restarts in Minix3 [26]. Similar to the approach taken by Minix3, we advocate notification of possible non-transparent recovery to applications or users.
5 CuriOS Services
Timer Management: A PeriodicTimerManager
service provided by CuriOS allows user applications to
access timer functionality. There is only one instance of
this class in the system and it is created as a PO. Clients
can start a timer by placing a request to be notified periodically. The job of the PeriodicTimerManager is
to periodically signal a semaphore that the client waits
upon. In order to support recovery from a restart of the
PeriodicTimerManager service, SSRs are used to
persist and distribute information regarding each client.
The timer period, starting time and semaphore are stored
in every client’s SSR. The PeriodicTimerManager
is implemented using a linked list of pending client
notifications.
Upon a failure-induced restart, the
PeriodicTimerManager can re-create this complete internal linked list from the timer period and
starting time information in the distributed SSRs.
File Systems: CuriOS currently supports two different file systems. CramFSFileObject is a class
that provides access to a compressed file on the readonly CramFS file system [14]. When a file is opened, an
instance of this class is created as a PO. This instance
only has information about its backing storage and does
not maintain any state regarding clients. Hence it does
not require usage of the server state management functionality. The method call to read a file provides both
the offset into the file and the required number of bytes.
The PO is only granted privileges to modify its own data
and the destination buffer. Calls to other objects like the
backing storage are mediated by CuiK. Using a PO for
each file has several reliability benefits. An error that
occurs when processing one file is contained within the
PO and cannot corrupt arbitrary memory in the system.
If the error were transient, a restarted PO can continue
serving clients. If there is an error in a compressed
file stored on the disk that causes the decompression
routines to fail, it only causes an error in the clients that
were reading that particular file.
CuriOS also includes support for the Linux ext2 file
system. An Ext2Container PO is created for every
ext2 file system on disk. This manages the inode and
free space bitmaps. If this PO crashes and restarts, it can
re-read this information from disk. An Ext2Inode PO
is tasked with managing all interaction with a file. This
PO only has privileges to modify the inode it represents,
which, in turn, has all the pointers to disk blocks comprising the file. This has similar reliability benefits as
the CramFSFileObject protected object. Since POs
are re-created in-place, the same objects can be used to
access the file after the service is restarted.
Scheduling: CuriOS schedulers are modeled as
process containers which manage a collection of processes and provide a scheduling strategy by presenting
a method to pick the next process to run. A FIFO
scheduler, for example, is implemented using a linked
list of processes. The scheduler is created as a PO with
clients as individual processes. A client SSR includes
the pointer to the corresponding Process object and
scheduling strategy-specific information such as priorities. If the scheduler is restarted after a failure, it queries
the SSRManager for all its clients and re-creates its
internal list.
Networking: The recovery mechanisms in CuriOS
allow for the construction of an extremely reliable
network stack. CuriOS uses the LWIP networking
stack [20] encapsulated in two restartable protected
objects: one for managing TCP connections and the
other for UDP. LWIP creates a tcp pcb or a udp pcb
data structure to manage state information for every
connection. We refactored LWIP code to place these
data structures within SSRs. In the case of TCP, for
8
It is important to realize that when we refer to file system service recovery, we are not dealing with recovering
corrupted file system state on disk. There are many other
programs that are designed to handle corrupted data on
disk and this is an orthogonal problem with recovering
the state information maintained in a live file system
server.
Detected and successfully recovered
Detected but not recovered
Not Detected by PO
% total manifested faults
100
Device Drivers: The serial port driver in CuriOS
is implemented as a PO with complete access to the
memory mapped registers of the serial port controller.
This PO is stateless and only has one client: the CuriOS
console object. Errors that occur when reading or writing to the serial port are handled by restarting this PO
and retrying the request. CuriOS has a NOR flash driver
that is implemented as a stateless PO. This PO is created
with read/write access rights to physical memory regions
that map to NOR flash chips. An error that occurs in
this PO can lead to potential corruption of arbitrary data
stored in NOR flash, but cannot easily corrupt read-only
mapped system memory. Protected objects are also used
to encapsulate drivers for interacting with the hardware
timers. These are used to start, query and stop the
hardware timers. Interrupts from the hardware timers
are also dispatched to them. These are currently stateless
and can be restarted. The PeriodicTimerManager
service depends on the correct functioning of these
driver objects.
80
60
40
20
0
MR
Timer
MR
Scheduler
MR
Net
MR
Filesys
Figure 5: Error Recovery after Fault Injection
Our fault injection tool is used to inject two types of
faults. The first type of fault is a memory access fault
(an ARM processor “data abort”). These virtual memory
faults are instantaneously detected at the injected instruction and immediately cause an error. The fault latency is
zero in this case and error propagation is limited. The
other type of fault that we inject is a register bit-flip. The
tool randomly flips a bit in one of the register operands
for the selected instruction. Register bit-flips do not always lead to errors (a corrupted register can be overwritten). They can, however, lead to latent errors which may
not be detected immediately. This has been used to emulate several common programming errors such as incorrect assignment statements and pointer corruptions [38].
After recovery, we terminate experiments once we are
able to verify that the OS is still functional (ability to
schedule processes and access the disk).
We present error recovery results for the timer manager, system scheduler, networking stack and file system.
In all of our experiments, we consider the system to be
usable and successfully recovered if, at the end of the
experiment, CuriOS can schedule new processes and
can access the disk. We perform between 250 and 600
fault injection experiments per server and the results are
shown in figure 5. The “M” columns present results
for the memory access fault experiments and the “R”
columns present results for the register bit-flip experiments. The Y axis represents the percentage of faults
that had some visible manifestation (errors). Note that
6 Evaluation
CuriOS has been implemented and runs on the Texas Instruments OMAP1610 H2 mobile device development
platform [48] and the QEMU [7] emulated Integrator/CP
platform [2]. In this Section we evaluate the CuriOS implementation in terms of error recovery capabilities as
well as performance and memory overheads. We also
present a brief analysis of the refactoring effort involved
in constructing CuriOS services.
6.1 Error Recovery
In order to evaluate the error recovery capabilities of the
CuriOS implementation, we resort to fault injection experiments using a modified version of the QEMU emulator. We have verified that error recovery works equally
well on real hardware and we only use the emulator in
order to enable non-intrusive and large-scale automated
fault injection. Our QEMU-based fault injection tool
picks a random instruction in pre-specified functions and
injects a fault just before that instruction is executed. In
each experiment run, we inject exactly one fault and observe the behavior of the system.
9
all of these manifested faults would result in a service
or system failure in most existing operating systems,
which do not implement restart recovery with state
management as used in CuriOS. An error is reported
as successfully recovered if the system is usable after
recovery. In some cases, a client’s connection to a server
is terminated because of a corrupted SSR or repeated
errors while the system, as well as other clients using
the restarted service, still remain usable. We count such
cases as successful system recovery in the figure shown.
In the face of arbitrary errors that corrupt a client’s SSR
or request, there is no possibility of maintaining the
unfortunate client’s connection.
incoming IP packet, the packet is silently dropped by the
IP layer. This has no effect on the correctness of TCP
because this is similar to packet loss on the network and
is recovered by the TCP stack. If an exception is thrown
back to a client with a TCP connection handle, the TCP
connection for that client is terminated. We verify that
the network stack is still usable and other connections
are unaffected in spite of a single connection failure. For
the network stack, 5% of the manifested register-bit flip
faults are not detected and consequently, not recovered.
While the system is recovered in 95% of the cases, 45%
of these recoveries were at the cost of a single client’s
TCP connection termination due to state corruption.
Timer Manager: This experiment is set up so that
a couple of processes that use the timer are started
before faults are injected into the server. These are
applications like a clock that displays the time of day.
While the memory abort errors are fully recovered by
reconstructing the internal timer queue, in the register
bit-flip injections we see a few cases (3%) where errors
are detected but are not recovered. These happen when
the recovery procedure itself encounters an error and
is unable to complete. We are working on eliminating
such cases by improving the robustness of the recovery
routines. 6% of the register-bit flips evade detection by
the protected object mechanism and cause unrecoverable
errors in other parts of CuriOS. This is because register
bit-flip errors can propagate to other CuriOS subsystems
through invalid method call arguments and results. We
do not yet perform an exhaustive check of the validity
of all method call arguments and results. This is a work
in progress and we expect it to significantly reduce this
inter-component error propagation.
File System: We inject faults into the code for the
ext2 file system that is used when accessing a file on
disk (in Ext2Inode). The memory abort faults are
always completely recovered after a retry. 13% of the
manifested register bit-flip faults are not detected by
the protected object mechanism and are therefore not
recovered. Again, this is due to error propagation via
corrupted method call arguments and results.
6.2 Performance
A protected method call incurs additional processing
overhead in comparison to a normal C++ method call.
We made use of both of CuriOS’ supported platforms to
measure the overhead associated with protected method
calls. On the OMAP1610 hardware platform we measured the overhead in terms of microseconds of execution, and on the QEMU emulator we measured the overhead in terms of instructions executed. The OMAP1610
was clocked at 96MHz, and the same test source code
was used for both platforms. Table 2 shows the overheads for the two types of protected method calls: a protected call into a stateless server that does not require the
mapping of an SSR and a protected call info a server that
uses an SSR to manage state information. In the second
case, additional processing is required to map the SSR
into memory. The time overhead for switching into and
out of a protected object domain is comparable to the cost
of performing two context switches (148 microseconds
for two switches) in CuriOS. Since a protected method
call is analogous to switching between two microkernel
domains, we believe that this represents acceptable performance. The numbers reported here are the average
System Scheduler: This experiment is set up similar to the timer manager experiment with several
processes in the system. The goal of this experiment is
to examine if a failure in the scheduler can be recovered
and if CuiK can continue scheduling processes. For the
memory abort experiments, re-creation of the internal
linked list is always successful. In the case of the register
bit-flip experiments, 6% of the errors are not detected by
the PO mechanism and cause CuriOS to crash.
Network: We run a simple web server and an
echo server in CuriOS while also running an HTTP
client that fetches a half-megabyte file from an external
host. Faults are injected into the LWIP code for TCP
processing of IP packets on both the send and receive
paths. If an error is detected, the TCP stack PO is
restarted and the request is retried. If multiple attempts
at executing a protected method fail, an exception is
thrown. If this exception is thrown when processing an
Table 2: Protected Method Call Performance
Protected Call Instruction Time Overhead
Overhead
(microseconds)
Without SSR
1594 ± 4
195.7 ± 0.5
With SSR
4893 ± 3
378.9 ± 0.9
10
of 100 trials with error estimates provided by the sample
standard deviation. We believe that these overheads may
be further reduced with careful code optimization.
Apart from the extra code implementing the protected
object mechanism, a major source of overhead is the
need to flush the TLB when switching between page tables. While the ARM architecture allows for selective
flushing of TLB entries, our current implementation does
not support this feature. The single address space design
of CuriOS helps to keep the costs of protected method
calls down by obviating the need to flush the virtually
tagged caches on the OMAP1610 ARM processor.
How fast does recovery happen? When an error is detected, the exception handling framework signals the error and the C++ library unwinds the stack and destroys
stack objects. Restarting the server requires re-running
the constructor for the PO and code to recover information from SSRs (if required). Altogether, the time from
error detection to a recovered system is usually on the
order of a few hundred microseconds.
utilize our state management framework. The protected
object support in CuriOS is implemented through wrapper objects. Wrappers are currently written by hand and
consist of a one line statement per object method. The
statement is a C++ preprocessor macro that expands to
the code required to switch into and out of the associated
protection domain. This additional complexity may also
be avoided by using an automated wrapper generation
tool. Code-changes are also required to refactor OS services so that they can make use of the state management
framework. The use of SSR-based state management in
the file system, scheduler and the timer manager required
less than 50 additional lines of code in each component.
In order to convert the LWIP networking stack to use
SSRs, we had to change around 100 lines of code. This
mostly involved replacing calls to its internal allocator
with the SSR-based state management code.
7 Discussion
7.1 Security
6.3 Memory Overheads
Our security model relies primarily on address space isolation. We only map in memory that is necessary for a
protected object to execute. This includes the unprivileged code and stack for the object as well as the SSR
region for the request. Our model is most closely related
to Nooks, which uses similar protection policies for kernel memory. We differ from Nooks in that protected objects execute in an unprivileged processor mode. This
prevents a malfunctioning or compromised server from
affecting the integrity or confidentiality of information
used by inactive clients. Although we restrict the scope
of possible damage, our current implementation does not
consider intentionally malicious modules. We are working on fortifying the protected method call and server
state management mechanisms by borrowing ideas from
systems like EROS.
Protected objects, like user applications, require additional page tables to enforce memory protection and this
results in some memory overhead. Each PO also has an
associated heap and a stack for each thread that can execute within the protected domain. The memory overhead
due to stacks depends on the number of threads that use
the PO. The use of SSRs also results in some memory
overheads. We use hardware protection to isolate SSRs.
However, hardware protection is not always available for
small memory regions. Thus the minimum size of an
SSR is determined by the smallest hardware-protectable
region of memory. For example, on the ARM platform,
this is a 1 KB page. Our current implementation uses
a page for the minimum size of an SSR. This results in
some memory waste. If this is a concern for small embedded devices, our design can be extended so that multiple SSRs share the same protected area. This saves space
at the cost of better isolation between the SSRs. This
problem may be mitigated by future architectural support
for finer granularity of access control such as Mondriaan
Memory Protection [54]. Nevertheless, the total memory
overhead per protected object in CuriOS is only on the
order of tens of kilobytes when there are a small number
of clients. This includes 20 KB for a minimal set of page
tables plus memory pages for the heap, per-thread stack
and per-client SSR (at least one page for each).
7.2 Fault-Tolerance
A number of standard fault tolerance techniques are
available in literature. These include redundancy in hardware and software, transactions, error correction codes
for memory, majority or Byzantine voting, and other
software fault tolerance approaches [49]. Some of these
techniques can be directly applied to CuriOS to further
improve its fault tolerance. These techniques may be
used to ensure that the core of the system (CuiK and recovery code) itself is protected from failure.
VINO [42] used transactions to roll-back changes
made by misbehaving kernel extensions. We have also
investigated the use of software transactional memory
techniques to protect component state in Choices [15].
6.4 Refactoring Effort
Our proposed OS design requires writing OS service
code to encapsulate objects in protected domains and to
11
The use of transactional semantics alone to recover complete component state is only effective when errors are
detected before commits. When this property cannot be
enforced, there are no constraints on error propagation
within the component. However, when used together
with our SSR-based approach that reduces error propagation, transactions can provide an additional layer of
protection to SSRs while they are being manipulated by
a service.
In addition to some of the operating systems discussed
in Section 2, many other system designs incorporate virtual memory protection to improve reliability. In the Rio
project [12], virtual memory was used to protect the file
cache from corruption by errors occurring elsewhere in
the system. The protected object concept is similar to a
virtual memory protected region in Nooks [46]. However, unlike Nooks, a protected object executes in an
unprivileged processor mode. More importantly, while
Nooks is designed to wrap OS extensions such as device drivers, a protected object can encapsulate core OS
components. Unlike the shadow driver mechanism [45]
used by Nooks, the SSR-based recovery mechanisms can
isolate requests that cause crashes because of a software
bug and continue servicing requests that do not trigger
the bug. This is possible because of the rigorous partitioning of per-client state in CuriOS. When using the
shadow driver approach, the bug will be triggered in the
shadow driver just as it was in the original driver since
the same code is used.
OS service design using SSRs is closely related to the
principle of crash-only software [9]. Similar to crashonly components, recovery involves a component restart
and component crashes are masked from end users using
transparent component-level retries.
cannot cause a denial of service problem at a server by
creating a large number of connections to it. Our design
also makes it possible to transparently upgrade a server
by simply terminating the old server and starting a newer
version while preserving the SSRs. If the new server can
interpret the existing SSRs (backwards compatible), it
can continue serving existing clients.
7.5 Drawbacks
While there are several advantages of adopting our approach to OS design, there are also several drawbacks.
Apart from the performance and memory overheads
quantified in Section 6, there is still the added complexity
involved in separating state from services and hopefully
not introducing new software faults (bugs) in the process.
We have tried to quantify this additional complexity in
terms of lines of code in Section 6. Our observations indicate that it requires about 12-24 person-hours to design
and refactor an OS service to work with our framework.
This includes the time spent in fixing most bugs uncovered using fault injection.
8 Concluding Remarks
In this paper, we have analyzed some of the reasons why
current designs for reliable microkernel operating systems struggle with client-transparent recovery. Through
simple fault injection experiments with various systems,
we gain insights into properties that are essential for successful client-transparent recovery of OS services. We
have described a design for structuring an OS that preserves these properties. CuriOS minimizes error propagation and persists client information using distributed
and isolated OS service state to enhance the transparent
restartability of several system components. Restricted
memory access permissions prevent erroneous OS services from corrupting arbitrary memory locations. Our
experimental results show that it is possible to isolate and
recover core OS services from a significant percentage of
errors with acceptable performance.
The source code for our CuriOS implementation
and the code for the QEMU-based fault injector can
be found on our website at http://choices.cs.
uiuc.edu/.
7.3 Applicability to Other Systems
The state separation approach described in this work may
also be applied to other microkernel systems which provide isolation for OS services such as L4 and Minix3.
This would require some modifications to these kernels
to incorporate SSR management and changes to server
APIs. These systems would need to also be augmented to
support the other requirements for transparent recovery
detailed in Section 3. The benefits of state partitioning
for operating systems that do not use inter-component
isolation is debatable. Since there are no constraints on
error propagation, it is difficult to determine which OS
subsystem needs to be restarted.
Acknowledgments
We are very grateful for the insights and feedback from
Galen Hunt (our shepherd) and the anonymous reviewers. Part of this research was made possible by grants
from DoCoMo Labs USA and Motorola as well as generous equipment support from Texas Instruments.
7.4 Additional Benefits
There are several additional benefits of our design. Since
memory usage of SSRs can be attributed to clients, they
12
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