Behringer EURODESK SX4882 User manual

Behringer EURODESK SX4882 User manual
User Manual
Ultra-Low Noise Design 48/24-Input 8-Bus In-Line
Mixer with XENYX Mic Preamplifiers, British EQs
and Integrated Meterbridge
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
Table of Contents
Thank you........................................................................ 2
Important Safety Instructions....................................... 3
Legal Disclaimer.............................................................. 3
Limited warranty............................................................. 3
1. Introduction................................................................ 4
2. EURODESK Overview................................................. 5
3. Input/Output Channel................................................ 5
4. Inserts.......................................................................... 8
5. Subgroup and Direct Outputs................................... 8
6. Master Panel............................................................... 9
7. Connections............................................................... 12
8. The Patchfield........................................................... 16
9. Equalization.............................................................. 17
10. Gain Optimization.................................................. 18
11. Impedances and Tuning......................................... 18
12. (Un)balanced Lines................................................. 18
13. Start-up.................................................................... 19
14. 8-track MIDI Suite/Dance Production Studio...... 20
15. 16-Track Recording with 2 Samplers.................... 21
16. Professional 24-Track Studio................................. 22
17. Live P.A. with 2-Track Recording............................ 23
18. Live Concert with 24-Track Recording.................. 23
19. Expanding the EURODESK..................................... 24
20. Timecode................................................................. 24
21. Bouncing................................................................. 25
22. Input/Output Configuration................................. 25
23. Modifications.......................................................... 25
24. Specifications......................................................... 26
Thank you
Congratulations! With the EURODESK you have acquired a state-of-the-art mixing
console that sets new standards. Right from the very start it has been our goal to
design a revolutionary unit that can be used for a great variety of applications.
And indeed, this overwhelming mixing console gives you plenty of functionality
and a broad range of connection and expansion options.
BEHRINGER is a company with its roots in professional recording studio
technology. For many years now we have been successful in developing products
for studio and live use. These include microphones and studio gear of all kinds
(compressors, enhancers, noise gates, tube processors, headphone amplifiers,
digital effects, DI boxes, etc.), monitor and P.A. speakers as well as professional
live and recording mixers. Our entire technical know-how has gone into your
EURODESK mixing console.
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
Important Safety
Terminals marked with this symbol carry
electrical current of sufficient magnitude
to constitute risk of electric shock.
Use only high-quality professional speaker cables with
¼" TS or twist-locking plugs pre-installed. All other
installation or modification should be performed only
by qualified personnel.
This symbol, wherever it appears,
alerts you to the presence of uninsulated
dangerous voltage inside the
enclosure - voltage that may be sufficient to constitute a
risk of shock.
This symbol, wherever it appears,
alerts you to important operating and
maintenance instructions in the
accompanying literature. Please read the manual.
To reduce the risk of electric shock, do not
remove the top cover (or the rear section).
No user serviceable parts inside. Refer servicing to
qualified personnel.
To reduce the risk of fire or electric shock,
do not expose this appliance to rain and
moisture. The apparatus shall not be exposed to dripping
or splashing liquids and no objects filled with liquids,
such as vases, shall be placed on the apparatus.
9. Do not defeat the safety purpose of the polarized
or grounding-type plug. A polarized plug has two blades
with one wider than the other. A grounding-type plug
has two blades and a third grounding prong. The wide
blade or the third prong are provided for your safety. If the
provided plug does not fit into your outlet, consult an
electrician for replacement of the obsolete outlet.
10. Protect the power cord from being walked on or
pinched particularly at plugs, convenience receptacles,
and the point where they exit from the apparatus.
11. Use only attachments/accessories specified by
the manufacturer.
12. Use only with the
cart, stand, tripod, bracket,
or table specified by the
manufacturer, or sold with
the apparatus. When a cart
is used, use caution when
moving the cart/apparatus
combination to avoid
injury from tip-over.
13. Unplug this apparatus during lightning storms or
when unused for long periods of time.
14. Refer all servicing to qualified service personnel.
Servicing is required when the apparatus has been
damaged in any way, such as power supply cord or plug
is damaged, liquid has been spilled or objects have fallen
into the apparatus, the apparatus has been exposed
to rain or moisture, does not operate normally, or has
been dropped.
15. The apparatus shall be connected to a MAINS socket
outlet with a protective earthing connection.
16. Where the MAINS plug or an appliance coupler is
used as the disconnect device, the disconnect device shall
remain readily operable.
These service instructions are for use
by qualified service personnel only.
To reduce the risk of electric shock do not perform any
servicing other than that contained in the operation
instructions. Repairs have to be performed by qualified
service personnel.
1. Read these instructions.
2. Keep these instructions.
3. Heed all warnings.
4. Follow all instructions.
5. Do not use this apparatus near water.
6. Clean only with dry cloth.
7. Do not block any ventilation openings. Install in
accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
8. Do not install near any heat sources such as
radiators, heat registers, stoves, or other apparatus
(including amplifiers) that produce heat.
© 2013 MUSIC Group IP Ltd.
Trident Chambers, Wickhams Cay, P.O. Box 146,
Road Town, Tortola, British Virgin Islands
For the applicable warranty terms and conditions
and additional information regarding MUSIC Group’s
Limited Warranty, please see complete details online at
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
1. Introduction
1.2 Before you get started
1.1 The manual
1.2.1 Shipment
1.1.1 Nomenclature
Your product was carefully packed at the factory to ensure safe transport.
Nevertheless, if the box is damaged inspect the unit immediately for signs of damage.
Most specialist subjects are not really all that difficult provided you understand
the language used, and the vocabulary of mixing is pretty straightforward.
Nevertheless, it is as well to be clear about what certain terms mean. A “slot”
in a recorder will always be referred to as a TRACK, while that in a mixer will
invariably be a CHANNEL. A GROUP will always refer to a submix of channels,
never a collection of musicians. Similarly the term BAND will be mentioned
only in conjunction with FREQUENCY. We will attempt to be as unambiguous as
possible with terms, since much confusion can arise from sloppy definitions.
Some terms can have a plurality of meanings. TRACK, in mixing parlance,
refers to a tape recorder. In electronic circuits, components on a PCB
(printed circuit board) are linked by flat conductors called TRACKS.
Hopefully, where terms have different meanings the contexts will be
sufficiently diverse so as to avoid any possible confusion.
1.1.2 An unholistic approach
It is virtually impossible to fully explain one aspect of a mixing console
(e.g. CHANNEL ROUTING) without also making it clear what those routes are,
where they go, are they migratory, etc. That’s why we have compartmentalized
the EURODESK manual into sections, making it easy to find problem solving
information and advice. You might find that several cross-sectional references
have been made, where areas of interest overlap. E.g.: Channel EQ is specified and
described in the “Main equalizer” section 3.4, while EQUALIZATION has its own
section, reflecting it’s importance and weight as a subject in its own right.
If we keep repeating ourselves concerning the use of B-channels and the MIX-B
bus, it’s because a proper understanding of this area of the board will greatly
expand your mixing repertoire.
1.1.3 Key
All DESK functions will be numbered consistently throughout the manual,
whether they be in the text or in an illustration. In addition the following prefixes
will be used to denote the various types of function control in any illustrations/
text respectively:
◊ If the unit is damaged please do NOT return it to us, but notify your
dealer and the shipping company immediately; otherwise, claims for
damage or replacement may not be granted.
◊ We recommend that you use a flight case to give the unit optimum
protection during use or transport.
◊ Always use the original box to prevent damage during storage
or transport.
◊ Make sure that children cannot play unsupervised with the unit or
its packaging.
◊ Please ensure proper disposal of all packing materials.
1.2.2 Initial operation
Ensure adequate air supply and to avoid overheating do not place the unit near
radiators etc.
◊ Before you change the fuse, switch off the device and pull the plug to
avoid electric shock or damage to the device.
◊ Blown fuses must be replaced by fuses of the correct rating!
Please refer to the “Specifications” section for the applicable rating.
For connection to the mains use the enclosed power cord with cold connector
which complies with the relevant safety regulations.
◊ Please make sure that all devices are properly grounded. For your own
safety, never remove or disable the ground conductors from the devices
or on the power cords. The unit must always be connected to the mains
outlet with a protective grounding connection.
Important notes concerning installation
◊ The sound quality may diminish within the range of powerful
broadcasting stations and high-frequency sources. Increase the
distance between the transmitter and the device and use shielded
cables for all connections.
Tab. 1.1: Meaning of the used prefixes
1.2.3 Online Registration
After every prefix you will find the FUNCTION NUMBER. Numbering starts at the
top of a CHANNEL, works its way through a stereo GROUP, and finally through the
MASTER SECTION. The phantom power and tape operating level switches are not
included in the numbering system.
Please register your new BEHRINGER equipment right after your purchase
by visiting and read the terms and conditions of our
warranty carefully.
Should your BEHRINGER product malfunction, it is our intention to have it
repaired as quickly as possible. To arrange for warranty service, please contact
the BEHRINGER retailer from whom the equipment was purchased. Should your
BEHRINGER dealer not be located in your vicinity, you may directly contact
one of our subsidiaries. Corresponding contact information is included in the
original equipment packaging (Global Contact Information/European Contact
Information). Should your country not be listed, please contact the distributor
nearest you. A list of distributors can be found in the support area of our website
Registering your purchase and equipment with us helps us process your repair
claims more quickly and efficiently.
Thank you for your cooperation!
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
2. EURODESK Overview
2.1 Architecture
The EURODESK SX4882 is a hybrid SPLIT/INLINE console. Input channels cover
most of the surface from the left, while the outputs to tape are to the right.
Tape monitor returns, however, are housed within the channel strips, not next
to the tape outputs, as would be the case in a conventional “split” design.
This architecture enables much flexibility to be bestowed onto the tape monitor
signal path, not least being its ability to pick up functions easily from the main
channel. Also, during mixdown, when tape tracks are no longer monitored
but MIXED, the signal path between tape input and main channel is kept
to a minimum.
The configuration is 24 into 8 into 24. This means that there are 24 channels,
eight subgroups or “submixes” (or four stereo subgroups) and 24 tape
monitor returns, one for each channel. There are 24 100 mm channel faders,
eight subgroup faders, and a stereo pair of faders driving the L/R main mix.
In remix mode 48 channels are available, all with EQ and access to the aux buses.
There are six additional stereo FX returns, giving a grand total of 60 separate
line-level inputs: and that’s before you even consider using the subgroup insert
points to provide eight more!
There are six aux buses accessed by four potentiometers, two headphone mixes
and professional recording, monitoring and talkback facilities. If you can afford to
lose the extra 24 line inputs, the MIX-B bus can also act as a separate stereo aux
send, giving eight aux buses in all.
◊ In SOLO/PFL mode a 0 dB meter reading matches an internal operating
level of 0 dBu (0.775 V). However, when looking at the mix, 0 dB is
referenced to +4 dBu, the 2-track operating level. I.e. if only ONE signal
is present in the main mix bus, SOLOing that signal will cause the meter
reading to increase by +4 dB.
3. Input/Output Channel
3.1 Channel strip
On the EURODESK SX4882 the 24 INPUT + OUTPUT (I/O or “normal”)
channels cover most of the console. Most of each strip is occupied by the main
or A-CHANNEL, accepting MIC, LINE or TAPE inputs, depending on the positions
of (S1) and (S3) (see fig. 3.1 and 3.2). Each channel strip also sports a secondary
B-CHANNEL (fig. 3.6) Anything routed to a B-channel is directed to a separate
MIX-B bus. (See section 3.7 “B-channel” and also section 6.2 “MIX-B master”).
3.2 Input switching
First, look at the MIC/LINE switch (S1). In the UP position it selects MIC, in the
DOWN position LINE. The next switch (S3) chooses whether A-channel looks at
INPUT or TAPE. If INPUT is routed to A-channel, TAPE is offered to B-channel.
If TAPE is routed to A-channel, INPUT is offered to B-channel. Depressing the
PAD switch ((S1a)) lowers an incoming mic signal by -20 dB, if necessary.
A comprehensive set of inputs and outputs include MIC (+48 V), line,
tape (+4 dBu or -10 dBV), inserts all round, direct channel outs and all master
recorder and monitoring options. Just about everything you’d expect from a
massive console.
In addition, a 1/4" jack expander bay (INPUT ONLY) allows direct patching into
all buses within the EURODESK (except PFL and SOLO). Hence two EURODESK
consoles may be linked, or the EURODESK coupled to ANY OTHER CONSOLE,
large or small, provided that the other console has (or can be MADE to have)
similar access (see section 19 “Expanding the EURODESK”).
Last, and probably least, two BNC connectors on top of the built-in meterbridge
await optional gooseneck desk lights, available from all good gooseneck desk
light stores. A must for those darkened auditoria, or when you’re into your third
consecutive night in the studio.
2.2 Metering
The 1 to 24 channels have signal (-20 dB, (L25)) and overload LEDs (PEAK, (L24)).
The built-in meterbridge provides 12 segment bargraph meters for all channels
and subgroups as well as for the main mix. By the DISPLAY MODE switch
((S100), top left of the master section) you decide between CHANNEL and
TAPE MODE. Your choice will be indicated by a LED.
In CHANNEL MODE, which is the best for live mixing purposes, the LED meters
read the channel’s direct OUTPUT, which is post EQ, post mute and post fader
(you may alter that to pre mute and pre fader by the modification described
In TAPE MODE the channel meters will mirror the multitrack’s meters,
because they read the tape return inputs – after the OPERATING LEVEL switch,
but unaffected by anything else happening in the channel. 0 dB is referenced to
the selected tape operating level (+4 dBu or -10 dBV).
The main mix meters double up as mono PFL or stereo SOLO meters, or 2-track
return meters, or EXTERNAL return meters (in general, what you HEAR is what
you SEE). During PFL/SOLO only the main mix bargraph meters illuminate.
Fig. 3.1: Input
When laying tracks, it is usual to use the MIX-B inputs for monitoring the signal
from TAPE, while the A-channels take care of microphones, Dl’s, etc. For MIXING
purposes, TAPE tracks are normally “flipped” onto the main channels, leaving the
B-channels free for other applications, such as offering extra line inputs.
These rules are, however, made to be broken.
(S23) applies to the B-channel only and replaces the normal TAPE or INPUT source
with a tap from the main channel, taken post mute and pre fader. Now MIX-B acts
as an extra stereo aux send or extra stereo mix. You should remove MIX-B from
the main mix (via (S48), master section) in this configuration.
Fig. 3.2: Channel input switching architecture
◊ The B-channels 25 to 48 are only routable EN BLOC to the main mix,
via (S48). Therefore, the MIX-B bus can only have one function at any one
time, either as a stereo AUX or secondary mix send ((S48) UP) or as a set
of 24 extra line or tape inputs to the main mix ((S48) DOWN).
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
3.3 Input gain setting
The channel input level is set by the TRIMPOT ((P2)). Use SOLO/PFL ((S26)) to bring
the channel’s input onto the L/R bargraph meters under the master section of
the EURODESK SX4882. This also sends the SOLO/PFLed signal to the left and right
speakers. Channel PFL/SOLO ((S26)) has an associated LED ((L26)). (See also 13.1
“A-channel setting up procedure” and 6.5 “PFL/SOLO”.)
◊ For level-setting (as opposed to localized listening) choose to use the
mono PFL rather than the post fader SOLO bus ((S95) DOWN).
◊ SOLO/PFL never interrupts the mix at the main recording outputs.
It follows that aux sends and subgroups must also be unaffected,
since they can contribute directly to the main mix.
In addition to switchable PFL/SOLO metering, a couple of LEDs ((L24) and (L25))
continuously monitor whether a signal is present (-20 dB) or the channel is
going into overload (PEAK). These take their cue from three test points: input,
post EQ and post fader. In all cases the higher level wins. You do NOT want the
overload light to come on, or if it does no more than very intermittently during
a take or a mix.
3.4 Main equalizer
Secondly, there are two semi-parametric swept mids, Q fixed at 1, which cover
the bands 300 Hz to 20 kHz and 50 Hz to 3 kHz. An unusually broad frequency
range is catered for, and there is an enormous 3-plus octave overlap between
the two mid bands ((P5), (P6), (P7) and (P8)). No experienced engineer will complain
about that! All four bands offer 15 dB of cut and boost.
Thirdly, there is a steep high pass (low cut) filter ((S11)), slope @ 12 dB/octave,
-3 dB @ 75 Hz, for reducing floor rumble, plosives, woolly bottom end, etc.
3.5 Aux sends
All six aux sends are mono and post EQ. They are switchable PRE/POST fader
in two banks ((S13) and (S16)). For aux sends 1 and 2, two dedicated pots
((P12) and (P13)) are used. These can be taken from a point before or after the
channel fader, i.e. PRE or POST ((S13)). Aux sends 3 and 4, and 5 and 6 are serviced
by two potentiometers ((P14) and (P15)). The SHIFT button ((S15)) determines
whether buses 3 and 4 or 5 and 6 are addressed. Also, these four sends can be
derived from the main mix or MIX-B, depending on SOURCE ((S17)), and, as before,
can be pre or post ((S16)).
Fig. 3.4: Aux sends
◊ For almost all FX SEND purposes, you will want auxes to be post
Fig. 3.3: Main equalizer
The main equalizer can be switched ((S10)) out of circuit for easy A/B comparisons
between EQed and straight signals, or when you know that you don’t want to use
desk EQ at all. It is best considered in three sections. First, there are two Baxendall
shelving frequency controls for treble and bass, at 12 kHz and 80 Hz respectively
((P4) and (P9)). These are DUPLICATED for the B-channel ((P18) and (P19)), not merely
“SPLIT” off from the main EQ. I.e. you can have a full 4-band EQ on the main
channel AND a 2-band EQ on B-channel.
fader, so that when a fader level is adjusted, any reverb send from
that channel follows the fader. Otherwise, when the fader is pulled
down, the reverb from that channel would still be audible. For CUEing
purposes, aux sends will usually be set pre fader, i.e. independent of
the channel fader ((S13) and (S16)).
◊ Most reverbs etc. sum up the left and right inputs internally. The very
few that don’t may be driven in true stereo either by 1) 2 aux sends or 2)
the MIX-B bus (see section 3.7 “B-channel”).
◊ There is +15 dB of gain on every aux send. Such a high boost is only
appropriate where the channel fader is set around -15 dB or lower.
Here, an almost exclusively WET signal will be heard. Previously, in most
consoles, such a wet mix required the use of a PRE setting for the
channel auxiliary send. This meant losing fader control over the signal.
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
3.6 Routing and muting
ROUTING means selecting which BUS you want a channel to address. There are
actually six stereo buses in the EURODESK SX4882 (plus a stereo SOLO bus).
The main mix bus is selected by (S32) (see figure 3.5), while the subgroups
are selected by switches (S28) (for groups 1 and 2), (S29) (3 and 4), (S30) (5 and
6) and (S31) (7 and 8). Odd and even numbered groups are selected via the
main A-channel PAN (P24), as are the left and right mix buses. (The sixth
stereo bus is the MIX-B bus, with it’s own independent pan control (P20);
see section 3.7 “B-channel”). Usually, only one of (P28) to (S31) will be selected for a
particular channel (See block schematics).
◊ An exception to this rule is when laying down voice takes. It is often
convenient to have the mic channel(s) routed to alt potential TAKE
tracks simultaneously, since you are often dropping in quickly between
four or more tracks. It means one less button press each time you
switch tracks.
The level to the subgroup and main mix buses is ultimately determined by the
channel faders. These are designed to give a smooth logarithmic taper of a
type more usually associated with the name of some pretty expensive brand ...
The low level performance particularly is far smoother than that of a normal
“budget” fader.
The MUTE button ((S27)), like that for SOLO has an LED indicator ((L27)) and
removes the A-channel signal from all buses, save any auxes set to pre fader.
It is ergonomically placed immediately above the fader and engaging MUTE is
equivalent to setting a fader level of minus infinity.
3.7 B-channel
The B-channel (fig. 3.6) comprises a secondary channel with its own high and low
EQ, pan and level ((P18), (P19), (P20) and (P21)). The EQ is a replica of the A-channel
shelving EQ. The B-channel ALWAYS feeds into the MIX-B stereo bus, but its source
can be switched between TAPE, LINE, MIC and A-CHANNEL, depending on how (S1),
(S3) and (S23) are set (see fig. 3.2 and section 3.2). Unusually for an 8-bus console,
B-channels also have their own MUTE buttons ((S22)). Aux sends 3/4/5/6 may be
diverted from the A to the B-channel via (S17). Therefore, if the B-channel is being
used to monitor off-tape, some FX processing e.g. reverb and echo can still be
applied. (See section 16.3 “Wet monitoring”.)
◊ When B-channel looks at A-channel ((S23) DOWN), the signal comes
A-channel mute switch and pre fader. A modification can convert this
PRE stereo aux send to POST fader. (See 23.2 “MIX-B source > post fader”.)
Fig. 3.6: B-channel
Fig. 3.5: Routing
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
4. Inserts
Insert points are useful for adding dynamic processing or equalization to a
channel, subgroup or the mix. Unlike reverbs, etc., which are usually added to
the dry signal, dynamic processing is normally applied across an entire signal.
Here, an aux send would be inappropriate. Instead the signal is intercepted
somewhere along the channel/subgroup/mix, fed through the dynamics
processor and/or EQ and then returned to the console at the same point where it
left. The insert point is invisible or normalized, until a jack is plugged into it.
All subgroups and channels have got insert points, as does the main stereo
output. Both SEND and RETURN are accommodated on a single stereo 1/4" jack
socket wired tip=send, ring=return. Inserts are always pre fader and also pre
EQ / aux sends for channels.
Insert points may also be used as pre EQ direct outputs without interrupting
the signal flow. This is obvious when looking at the patchbay wiring (section 8,
fig. 8.1). If you want to insert a dynamics processor post EQ, the insert point must
either be taken from a subgroup, or via a second channel / aux return as follows:
As well as always functioning as subgroups for track laying via the SUBGROUP
OUTPUTS, groups can be routed directly into the main mix bus for submixing.
Main mix routing is handled by switches (S37) and (S38). (S37) routes an odd
numbered group to the left bus, while (S38) sends an even numbered subgroup to
the right bus. That’s fine for stereo submixes. If you want a pair of mono submixes
instead, also press the MONO buttons ((S35) and (S36)). Now these subgroups feed
into the center of the main mix stereo image, i.e. equally to L and R. You could have
the first subgroup feeding into the left hand side, while the second one appears in
mono, but we can’t think of many real situations where you’d want to do this.
Subgroup SOLO ((S33) + (S34)) follows the mix assignment. E.g.: If the main mix is
selected, then that stereo subgroup will be monitored in stereo. If mono is also
selected, monitoring is in mono.
◊ Try inserting compression / de-essing / an exciter / a gate across
grouped signals (e.g. backing vocals, drums, layered synths).
1) Insert a compressor/gate/EQ across a subgroup, and route the channel to be
processed (and only that channel) to that subgroup.
2) Alternatively, patch a channel’s direct out into a compressor/gate/EQ.
Take the output from that compressor/gate/EQ and feed it back into the
desk via a secondary input (channel, aux return, etc.).
Figure 4.1 illustrates how you might insert into a channel post EQ for mixdown or
track-laying (their requirements are different). Mixdown requires one A and one
B-channel. Recording requires two A-channels.
Fig. 4.1: Post EQ channel insert
◊ In this arrangement you might find that compression tends to soften
the perceived amount of EQ applied. The solution? Apply more EQ.
This creates a real “pressure” sound, great for high energy music such
as dance. (For a more subtle approach, use the desk insert points word
for word.)
◊ Using a group insert to effect post EQ processing precludes the use of
POSTPROCESSING AUX SENDS without some serious re-patching.
5. Subgroup and Direct Outputs
5.1 Subgroups
The principal routes to the multitrack are via the SUBGROUP OUTPUTS. There are
four stereo (or eight mono) subgroups, numbered 1 to 8. All main channels
can access all of them, as can the STEREO AUX RETURNS 1 and 2. (For this
reason it is usually wise to bring your best two FX processors back on these
returns (or A-channels, for that matter), so that they can easily be sent to tape.
(See also section 6.1 “Aux masters”.)
Why are there 16 subgroup output jacks on the EURODESK when there are only
8 subgroups? Well, each subgroup output is duplicated, so that the EURODESK can
interface with up to 16 tracks via the group outputs without having to re-patch.
Fig. 5.1: Stereo subgroup channel schematic
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
◊ Try merging a dry signal with a little wet, then compressing the sum
heavily. Though the reverb proportion will be low when a signal is
present, the resultant reverb tail pumped up by the compressor at the
start of each silence will give the illusion that the reverb was massive
alt the time. (The listener will be left wondering how the singer could
sound so clear in such a wet acoustic!)
◊ EURODESK insert points are, of course, simultaneously inputs and
outputs. Get them onto a patchbay, where they can appear as
independent sockets, and do away with all these fiddly Y leads
that always seem to be the first to get knotted in the flightcase.
(See section 8 “The patchfield”.) Now it is possible to do the following
incredibly useful patch without having to make up what would
amount to a ring-to-tip, tip-to-ring stereo patch lead.
Fig. 5.2: Using insert to add channel EQ to subgroup output (while keeping the number of line
inputs unchanged!)
5.2 Direct outputs
Each of the 24 main channels on the EURODESK SX4882 has its own DIRECT
OUTPUT, which is taken from a point immediately after the fader (i.e. post EQ
and after the aux sends, see block schematics). This can feed a tape track directly
without having to resort to the subgroups, enabling more than eight different
tracks to be recorded simultaneously. Almost alone among the EUROjacks,
these are on unbalanced mono sockets at +4 dB. (See section 22 “Input/output
configuration”, also section 16.1 “Recording”.)
6. Master Panel
6.1 Aux masters
6.1.1 Aux sends
Much of the master section is taken up by master aux sends and returns.
We’ll start with the sends (see fig. 6.1).
Stacked in a vertical column are six master aux send levels, one for each of
buses 1 to 6 ((P41) to (P46)). Each one has a gain structure of minus infinity to
+15 dB. The extra 15 dB of gain comes in once a knob passes a center detente
(representing the “normal” unity gain position), enabling insensitive outboard
FX to be properly driven. Each aux send has a SOLO button ((S41) to (S46)), and,
as with other areas of mixer, a LOCAL SOLO LIGHT ((L47)), which illuminates when
any of the AUX master sends are solo-ed. This is to help you see exactly what
has been solo-ed. Any experienced engineer will have had occasion to search
painstakingly through every solo button on his/her console trying to find out why
the main solo light was on, and the control room monitors silent!
Fig. 6.1: Aux sends.
6.1.2 Aux returns
Next to the aux sends are the stereo aux returns (see fig. 6.3). These can be
thought of as a dozen extra line inputs configured as six stereo pairs. On these
inputs there is up to 20 dB of gain available. Alternatively, a mono (center-panned)
signal may be returned by plugging into the left aux return jack only.
◊ This feature is disabled if all line-level I/Os from the EURODESK are
wired permanently to a patchbay (see section 8).
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
◊ As always, there are exceptions to the above rule. Some short stereo
delay effects (say 30 ms to L, 50 ms to right) cause a psychoacoustic
effect where the earlier delay seems louder. A similar effect is
noticeable when harmonizing in stereo: a slight pitch shift upwards
will seem louder than one that goes down. In both cases use the
BALANCE control ((P51)) to compensate.
◊ When carrying out the above mentioned information, or any other
stereo imaging exercise, don’t just rely on the control room monitors.
Get a pair of headphones and listen in stereo and in reverse stereo,
to allow for any hearing discrepancy between your ears.
b) Aux returns 3 to 6
And so to aux returns 3 through 6. These too have a routing matrix ((S55) to
(S58) for aux return 3), but this time it is designed to facilitate monitoring rather
than recording. The options are MAIN (L/ R) MIX, and PHONES 1/2. Gain pots and
solo switches complete the picture.
Below each column of aux returns lies a local solo LED ((L61) & (L74)).
These illuminate whenever a SOLO button in the column above is pressed.
There is no absolute reason why the send from aux 1 should feed into a processor
whose outputs are sent to the aux return 1. The processor could just as easily
be patched into the aux return 3, or even a pair of channels. For many purposes,
however, it is sensible to set up a default patch where the aux outputs and inputs
correspond. It is logical to put your premier FX units into the aux 1 and aux 2
loops, since these returns enable you to record to tape without re-patching.
◊ An exception to the above is when recording a group of performers live
to multitrack. (See section 16.3 “Wet monitoring”).
◊ Sometimes an engineer wants to narrow the stereo width of a reverb
field. To do this you will have to come back on either A or B-channels,
which have full PAN facilities.
6.2 MIX-B master
Fig. 6.3: Mix-B
Only two controls occupy the MIX-B master (fig. 6.4). (P48) offers the standard
EURODESK gain of up to +15 dB. (S48) is crucial: it routes the MIX-B bus output into
the main mix bus. MIX-B can have three basic functions:
It can act as an entirely separate mixer-within-a-mixer to provide a completely
separate mix ((S48) UP, (S23) DOWN). (See also section 17.)
Fig. 6.2: Stereo aux returns
a) Aux returns 1 and 2
Aux returns 1 and 2 have full subgroup routing matrices to enable returning
FX to be sent to tape, plus main mix bus assignment. The functions for aux return
1 (mirrored by aux return 2) are: ROUTING ((S49)/(S50)/(S51)/(S52)/(S53)) LEVEL
((P49)), BALANCE ((P51)) and SOLO ((S54)). LEVEL controls the amount of signal
being blended into the mix or a subgroup, while BALANCE controls the relative
amounts of L and R processed signal. We doubt if you’ll often want to adjust
BALANCE away from center.
It can act as an additional stereo aux feed to FX as well as a pre fader monitoring
aid during mixdown ((S48) UP, (S23) DOWN).
It can provide 24 extra B-inputs to the mix ((S48) DOWN, (S23) UP).
◊ For live applications try using MIX-B to feed a secondary set of speakers.
These could be sidefills, or even more spectacular, the rearward portion
of a quadraphonic sound system.
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
There is no SOLO provision for MIX-B. However, you can audition it by selecting
only MIX-B ((S83)) in the monitor sourcing matrix.
◊ If MIX-B is assigned to the main mix ((S48) DOWN), do not listen to MIX-B
((S83)) and the main mix ((S82)) simultaneously. That way you’ll be
monitoring MIX-B twice over, and what you hear won’t correspond with
what’s going down to tape.
6.3 Monitoring
◊ Owners of MIDI production suites might like to drive a second pair
of control room speakers from the studio output, but take care
when using the TALKBACK mic: no -20 dB offset is applied to the
studio output!
We would like to recommend you to use half-a-dozen sets of speakers on an
external switching matrix, including studio monitors, ghettoblaster, club system,
car stereo and overblown 2" speakers loosely screwed into a less-than-airtight
cardboard box.
◊ If you are using the STUDIO output to drive a pair of monitors actually
in the studio, do not ever leave (P82) turned up during a take. Howls and
howlround may well be the result.
Lastly, there is a MONO button ((S86)), useful for checking the phase
correlation and/or coherence of a stereo signal. Again, this does not affect
the main mix output.
6.4 Headphones
Both HEADPHONES 1 & 2 masters are identical.
Fig. 6.4: Monitoring
Though most of you will want to audition the main mix most of the time there
are exceptions. These include PFL/SOLO, and 2-TRACK PLAYBACK. The SOURCING
matrix ((S82) to (S85), see fig. 6.5) allows you to monitor the main mix, the MIX-B
and two external sources marked 2-track and EXTERNAL. The master meters
follow whatever source is being auditioned. The meters won’t make much sense
if more than one source is selected!
◊ EXTERNAL could be “normalled” to a HiFi pre-amp, allowing you to
monitor extra sources such as vinyl, cassette, CD, etc.
◊ Altering what goes into the control room’s monitors does not affect the
signal from the main recording outputs. Just as well, or every time you
wanted to do a quick SOLO during a mix, you’d have to start again!
The CONTROL ROOM LEVEL pot (P86) sets the level to the control room monitors.
This is sourced post the main main mix stereo fader setting: otherwise you
wouldn’t be able to hear your fades. There is also a similar STUDIO volume
pot ((P82)).
Fig. 6.5: Phones
A SOURCING matrix picks up any or all of MIX-B ((S76)), CONTROL ROOM
(as chosen in monitor section, (S77)), AUX 3/4 ((S78)), AUX 5/6 ((S79)) and
EXTERNAL ((S80)). In addition to the sources which are directly selectable from
the headphones masters, aux returns 3 to 6 may be “force-fed” into (HP1) & (HP2)
from the aux returns masters ((S55), (S56), etc.).
The headphone mix level is controlled by a master volume pot ((P75)), and the
gain is sufficient to drive headphones directly. This is fine for a MIDI suite
with overdub booth, but for the bigger studio’s headphone network we’d
recommend using a separate headphones distribution amplifier like our
BEHRINGER POWERPLAY PRO HA4400. This can offer the added advantage
of independent headphones level control for every performer.
A SOLO button ((S81)), with its own LED, enables monitoring of the headphones
amplifier’s output signal.
This way the engineer can monitor what’s going on in the cans on the control
room monitors, though in our experience this does not give as true a picture as
auditioning the cue feed from a set of headphones identical to those worn by
the performer(s).
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
The built in mic (above the main mix faders) allows you to converse with
artists remotely. The most important controls are the VOLUME ((P99)) and
PHONES & STUDIO button ((S99), see fig. 6.7). It is possible to route the talkback
mic to any of the following: aux 1, aux 2, subgroups, and phones and studio
((S96) to (S99)).
Complex headphone or stage monitoring networks could be constructed where
(HP1), (HP2), aux 1 (pre), aux 2 (pre) and one or more subgroups all feed separate
monitor mixes. (See section 16.2 “Very tricky headphones”).
However, since the four pushbuttons are non-latching it might drive you crazy.
If you are using many headphone feeds, you may find it easier to patch a separate
microphone for talkback straight into a channel, where it can be routed pretty
much anywhere.
Engaging TALKBACK (S99) dims the control room (monitors, not lights) by -20 dB
to restrict the possibility of feedback. All other talkback routes are unaffected.
Fig. 6.6: Solo section
7. Connections
6.5.1 PFL
Pressing (S95) disengages the stereo SOLO bus, and replaces it with a separate
mono PFL (Pre-Fader-Listen) bus. Now anything at all which is SOLOed, isn’t.
It is PFLed instead. PFL should be used for gain-setting. (See also the essential
section 13 “Start-up”.)
6.5.2 SOLO
SOLO is short for SOLO IN PLACE, and is the preferred method for auditioning
an isolated signal or a group of signals. Whenever a SOLO button is pressed,
all unselected channels are muted in the monitors. Stereo panning is maintained.
The SOLO bus is derived from the output of the channel PANs, aux send/return
pots, etc., and is always post fader.
7.1 Rear panel
Expander port bus inputs
If you want to add another console to your EURODESK SX4882, the expander
port bus inputs give access to all subgroups, auxes and mix busses via an array of
1/4" jacks, situated top left on the rear panel.
In addition to any local solo LEDs which might be activated, the ultra-bright
MAIN SOLO LED ((L95)) illuminates whenever anything is SOLO/PFLed. (P94) controls
the master SOLO/PFL level. Set to unity gain (center detente), this will match the
mix level.
6.6 Talkback
Fig. 7.1: Expander port bus inputs
Fig. 6.7: Talkback
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
Auxiliary sends
2-track/external inputs
Unbalanced 1/4" jacks, wired tip = signal (+ve) and sleeve = ground/screen.
They operate at +4 dBu.
Two additional stereo inputs, this time on unbalanced 1/4" jacks,
wired tip = signal (+ve) and sleeve = ground/screen.
Fig. 7.2: Auxiliary sends
Auxiliary returns
All six stereo pairs, to be located immediately below the aux sends,
are on unbalanced 1/4" jacks and operate at 0 dBu.
Fig. 7.6: Additional connectors
Main inserts
As above, but for the main mix.
Stereo outputs
Fig. 7.3: Auxiliary returns
The control room output (monitors) main mix, MIX-B and studio output are all on
a pair of unbalanced 1/4" jacks, nominal output level +4 dBu. The main mix is also
available as a fully balanced pair.
Subgroup inserts
Phones 1/2
Unbalanced send and return from a single stereo jack socket, wired tip = out,
ring = in and sleeve = ground/screen.
These are on stereo jacks, wired tip = left signal, ring = right signal and
sleeve = ground/screen (see section 6.4 “Headphones”).
Meter/analyzer out
Unbalanced jacks at +4 dBu for use with external measuring equipment,
e.g. the built-in real-time analyzer of our BEHRINGER ULTRACURVE PRO DEQ2496
(signal = master LED meters).
Fig. 7.4: Subgroup inserts
2-track in/out
Master balanced outputs
Balanced XLR for connecting to the mastering recorder. Wired pin 1 ground/
screen, pin 2 hot and pin 3 cold. Maximum level is +28 dBu.
RCA sockets for use with tape recorders, etc., signal = main mix, wired center
post = signal (+ve) and sleeve = ground/screen.
Fig. 7.7: Main balanced outputs
Fig. 7.5: 2-track in/out
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
Fig. 7.9: MIX-B operating level switch and phantom power switch
Subgroup outputs/tape sends
The eight subgroups are each connected to two stereo jack sockets, for easy
patching into 16 track recording systems (or 24 track, if you use Y-adaptors).
Once again, the operating level is switchable between +4 dBu and -10 dBV in two
banks of (2x) 4.
Fig. 7.8: A and B-channel input section
A-channel line inputs
The A-channel line inputs accept balanced or unbalanced 1/4” jacks, tip = hot,
ring = cold and sleeve = ground/screen.
Fig. 7.10: Subgroup outputs/tape sends and operating level switch
7.2 Connector pinout
You will need a lot of cables for a lot of purposes. Here’s how they should look:
¼" mono (TS) plugs
Mic inputs
These are via XLR-type connectors, wired pin 1 = ground, pin 2 = hot and
pin 3 = cold, for balanced low-level operation. Since most quality capacitor
microphones require a 48 V DC offset to charge the plates, phantom power
is provided and can be switched on or off in three blocks of eight via a switch
situated below channels 8, 16 and 24.
Unbalanced ¼" TS connector
Strain relief clamp
◊ Care should be taken not to plug microphones into the console
(or stagebox / wallbox) while the phantom power is on. Also, mute the
monitor / PA speaker when turning phantom power on or off. Allow one
minute after powering up for the system to equilibrate before setting
input gains.
Channel inserts
These provide for unbalanced send and return from a single stereo jack socket.
Wiring is: tip = out, ring = in and sleeve = ground/screen.
Direct outputs
This tap comes from just after the channel fader. Unbalanced 1/4" jacks.
B-channel inputs/tape returns
They also accept balanced or unbalanced 1/4" jacks and are switchable,
in groups of eight, between -10 dBV (unbalanced) and +4 dBu (balanced),
corresponding to the standard semi-professional and professional operating
levels and configurations respectively. Consult your multitrack manual to find out
which one applies.
You’ll need this kind for:
• Expander Port Bus Inputs
• Subgroup Outputs / Tape Sends
• Direct Outs
• Aux Sends
• Control Room Output
• Main Mix Out
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
• Mix-B Output
• Studio Output
Balanced ¼" TRS connector
• Aux Returns
strain relief clamp
• 2-Track Input
• Meter/Analyzer Out
¼" stereo (TRS) plugs
Insert send return ¼" TRS connector
strain relief clamp
cold (-ve)
hot (+ve)
For connection of balanced and unbalanced plugs,
ring and sleeve have to be bridged at the stereo plug.
You’ll need this kind for:
return (in)
send (out)
Connect the insert send with the input and the
insert return with the output of the effects device.
• Line In
• Inputs-B / Tape Returns
Tip = Out
Ring = In
Sleeve =
You’ll need this kind for:
To mixer
• Inserts
• Subgroup Inserts
• Main Inserts
Maybe you will need this ´Y´-shaped thing for Insert purposes:
¼" TRS headphones connector
strain relief clamp
right signal
left signal
You’ll need this kind for:
• Headphones
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
XLR plugs
Break the normalizing on this bay.
Tie lines: usually, in a MIDI setup, racks and keyboards etc. are scattered around
the control room. Plugging these directly into the front of the patchbay would
result in Spaghetti Junction. Instead, it is better to connect TIE LINE jacks to wall
boxes strategically positioned near to where MIDI hardware congregates.
Balanced use with XLR connectors
2 1
1 = ground/shield
2 = hot (+ve)
3 = cold (-ve)
It’s always good to have a few 4-way links around for splitting signals up to
3 ways (one in, three out). E.g. one tape track has four different instruments on
it. Patch the DIRECT out of its CHANNEL into a 4-way split, returning to a further
3 channels via LINE INPUT. Set up each of the paralleled 4 channels for one
instrument, and use mutes (preferably MIDI controlled) to mute the 3 unwanted
channels at any one time).
◊ Break the NORMALIZING LINKS on positions 21 - 24. Note also that the
MIX-B outputs are adjacent to the aux sends. This is because one of the
two functions of MIX-B (source switches set to CHANNEL) is to provide
an extra stereo aux send.
◊ You can treat MIX-B as two mono sends using GAIN for level and PAN for
blending. Setting pan to the center will give a 50/50 ratio of the “aux 7”
and “aux 8” effect, hard left 100% “aux 7”, etc.
For unbalanced use, pin 1 and pin 3 have to be bridged
You’ll need this kind for:
• Main balanced outputs
• Mic inputs
◊ Be sure to read also the sections 8 and 12!
8. The Patchfield
Break NORMALIZING LINKS here. If you’ve got more than 5 or 6 stereo
dynamics/EQ processors, you might spill over onto another dedicated bay,
or alternatively have to find some suitable extra space somewhere else in the
patchfield. Remember, most dynamics processors also have sidechain/KEY inputs,
and therefore require 3 holes per channel.
◊ Enhancers are usually applied across INSERTS like compression and
EQ etc., but most BEHRINGER enhancers have a SOLO mode, in which
they can be addressed via an aux send and blended back into the main
mix like any other reverb.
Bay 1
Nomenclature clarification:
• FIELD= entire patching area
• BAY= a unit of 48 jack sockets arranged as 24 outs over 24 ins
If you really want to make the most of your home studio, invest in a patchfield.
We know that you will often put off doing a complex patch if there is no patchfield:
Bay 2
Bay 3
1) because it’s so much bother and
2) in case you inadvertently damage or pull out a lead.
Bay 4
8.1 The normalized bay
Most decent jackbays offer two rows of 24 normalized jacks in a 1 U of rack space.
Lucky you’ve got a 24/48 channel desk, eh? The term normalized refers to the fact
that the top row (outputs) are internally connected to the bottom row (inputs),
unless you plug something into an input socket. Plugging into the output socket
of a normalized insert pair does not break the internal connection, but it does
provide an alternative direct output. Where normalizing is not wanted on a
patchbay (there are a few cases!) it is possible to remove it by cutting certain
PCB tracks. Refer to the patchbay instructions for how to do this.
Bay 5
Bay 6
Bay 7
8.2 The patchfield
If you want to do the only decent thing and construct a patchfield for your
studio, here’s how to do it. Note that we have laid it out in order that a minimum
number of cables are likely to be needed. We have also completely left out the
microphone inputs. Unlike everything else, these operate at a level several orders
of magnitude lower than line (+4 dBu or -10 dBV). It is best to plug microphones
directly into the EURODESK SX4882, or via special XLR-type wall boxes connected
to the EURODESK microphone inputs by a good quality balanced (2-core + screen)
multicore. (See also section 12 “(Un)balanced lines”.)
Bay 8
Fig. 8.3: Example of patchbay configurations
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
9. Equalization
Bay 8:
L7 & R8 equals the L/R recording input to the 2-tracks. On Bay 8 we have
hard-wired these to recording outputs 1 to 6 in order to drive all recorders
simultaneously. Copying from any 2-track source to all recorders may be done by
patching the source outputs into L7 and R8.
We have assumed you have a HiFi amp available to enable a variety of secondary
sources to be condensed into the XTRN (external) input for easy monitoring
selection via the HiFi amp’s input selector switch, if you want to record from
any of these sources, best patch direct from the individual outputs (17 to 22)
rather than the HiFi amp mix (15 and 16) for the cleanest result. (The exception
being vinyl, which will need to use the HiFi amp’s RIAA pre-amp to present the
mixer with a flat response signal).
The variable parameters of the channel A and B equalizers on the
EURODESK SX4882 are described in sections 3.4 and 3.7.
Few people buying the EURODESK will need to be told how an equalizer works.
But how to get the best out of it? Well, that’s another story.
In the beginning EQ was an instrument for removing unwanted frequencies,
or compensating for imperfect microphone response curves, or bumps in a studio’s
acoustic. It was a corrective device. Tamla Motown turned that notion upside
down in the sixties with the novel idea that you try to find for each instrument a
characteristic frequency not shared by the other instruments in the mix. Then you
whack up its gain. This makes individual voices punch through a mix in a slightly
unnatural but exciting way. In general, corrective EQ usually involves broadband
(slope) contouring, together with narrowband notching of unwanted resonances.
The narrower the notch or “Q”, the less the total signal will be affected.
◊ Finding bad resonances is made easier by first frequency sweeping in
boost mode.
All output / input pairs normalised!
Fig. 8.4: Wiring for bay 8 (for advanced wiring scheme refer to section 11)
8.3 Looming problems
Loom wiring is an art in itself, and it is worth taking time out to get it right.
First, it is important to avoid earth loops. (A looped wire acts as an arial,
picking up electromagnetic radiation.) Think of a tree: Every part of that tree is
connected to every other part, but only by one route. That’s how the total earth
picture for your entire studio should look. Don’t take the earth off your power
cable plug to reduce audible 50 Hz mains hum (or its harmonics). Rather you
should be looking at disconnecting the signal screen somewhere.
You could do worse than ensure that all screens are commoned at the patchbay
in which case all unearthed equipment would pick up earth from this point
via a single screen (more than 1 route = an earth loop), while mains-earthed
equipment would have all screens cut at the equipment end.
◊ Some quality equipment has an independent signal and mains earth.
In this case, at least one and possibly all screens should carry earth to
the equipment. Sometimes the only way to find out is “suck and see”.
Take care to ensure that using the patchbay does not disturb the studio’s earth
architecture. Always use short as possible patch leads with the screen connected
at both ends.
If you’re really serious about hum levels, you could run balanced lines wherever
appropriate. The earth wiring scheme would be the same as before. By shorting
the ring to the barrel for all balanced jack sockets connected to unbalanced
equipment, you could use balanced patch leads throughout. (There is no
percentage in wiring a balanced output to a balanced input with a mono patch
cord!) (See section 12 “(Un)balanced lines”.)
Having designed mains hum out of the system, make up your cable looms from
the patchbays outwards, and use cable ties, flexible sheaths, multicores etc.
to keep the back of your racks tidy. It’s going to get very busy in there, and loose
cables will inevitably mean lost signals. Possibly even lost equipment!
“Motown” EQ is achieved by applying boost in a fairly broadband way. The broader
the band, the more musical but less instrument-specific the effect. Applying
boost over a narrow bandwidth will sound “Honky”. The two semi-parametric
bands of the EURODESK EQ have had their Q fixed at 1, a typical and sensible value.
For sounds which require drastic corrective EQ (remember no MIDI instrument
should need it), it is advisable to have a couple of channels of fully comprehensive
equalization in your rack. (You can always bounce tracks though the outboard EQ,
freeing up the unit for the next task). Check out our BEHRINGER ULTRACURVE PRO
DEQ2496, which promises to be another price/performance buster.
The EURODESK EQ might be applied to a signal as follows: First, trim the LF and
HF shelves to achieve the required slope or “LOUDNESS”. (These controls mirror
the tone controls of a typical HiFi amp.) Now use one parametric band to boost
the nicest frequency, and another to cut the nastiest. Over all channels in the mix,
if too many of the nicest frequencies coincide, then you might have to settle for
second best in some cases! Often you might want to boost two nice frequencies.
Really nasty frequencies will need notching. Time to go outboard.
Why does the upper mid bell frequency go up to 20 kHz? A more pertinent
question might be, why has it taken so long to get there? After all, even 16 bit
(the lowest acceptable quality) digital audio sports a 20k bandwidth: surely if
20k is important then so is controlling it. OK. You and I will never hear a pure 20k
sine tone. However, Rupert Neve, the audiophile Guru, would argue that when it
comes to real instruments, what happens even above 20k may have a perceptible
effect on the listener. It seems that one reason why high- quality (1/2" at 30 IPS)
analog tape sounds better than DAT to many discerning ears is because,
although its frequency response begins to roll off at 12 dB/octave somewhere
around 15 to 20 kHz, it is not abruptly cut off at 20!
We have heard, or “detected”, a 20+ kHz low pass filter being switched in and
out when monitoring an analog master tape through a speaker system that
included piezo-electric tweeter elements capable of reproducing up to 40 kHz.
Perhaps less controversially it can be shown that if cut/boost is applied at 20 kHz,
a significant portion of the resulting EQ curve for all but the tightest of Q’s
actually occurs in the audible spectrum, below 16 to 18 kHz. For example if the
BEHRINGER EQ is boosted by +15 dB at 20 kHz, the amount of boost at 10 kHz
will be 3 dB. The resulting EQ curve will bear no relation to one where 3 dB of
boost is applied at 10 kHz.
◊ A good vocal signal can be enhanced by applying a significant
boost in the 15 k region or higher, above the nasty sibilance region.
Especially effective if you’ve got a de-esser post EQ.
◊ Use the LF cut to tighten up channels in a mix: maybe remove it only
for the bass, kick drum, toms, tablas, didgeridu and other deliberate
subsonics. (When recording classical music ignore this advice).
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
◊ With an LF cut at 100 Hz and a low shelf boost at 80 to 160 Hz, you have
pretty much got a peak response rather than shelving at the bottom.
◊ Look at the extraordinary width of the frequency sweep of the upper
mid EQ -300 Hz all the way up. Set to maximum boost and play about
with the frequency in real time. We bet you’ll get some stunning filter
sweeps. Try it on drumloops – great for dance music!
◊ You can cascade channel EQs by connecting the DIRECT OUT
(see section 7 “Connections”) of one channel into the LINE or TAPE
INPUT of another. The first channel should first be un-routed to all
buses, including L/R and aux sends. The second channel then becomes
the “control” channel, routing to the buses. You now have a 23- channel
mixer, but one channel has a 4-band (semi)-parametric plus 30 dB of
shelving swing!
◊ Remember EQ contouring can be done with CUT as well as BOOST.
E.g.: cutting away the top and bottom, then pushing up the gain is
equivalent to MID-RANGE BOOST! EQ is NOT a 1-way street!
◊ Always re-set a channel’s input gain after altering the amount of
EQ cut or boost applied (see 3.3).
11. Impedances and Tuning
Electronic inputs tend to have impedances measured in tens of kiloOhms.
Outputs, on the other hand, are generally two or three orders of magnitude less.
This is just as well, otherwise a signal at an output might find that the line of
least resistance is the limit of the preceding unit.
In the patchbay section we recommended that you parallel the MAIN MIX
output of the EURODESK SX4882 into all 2-track recording inputs. It would not
do any harm to buffer each output from the primary one (i.e. that feeding into
your most expensive DAT recorder or 1/2” mastering machine) with a 470 Ohm
resistor. Cassette, DAT and reel to reel recorders’ input impedances should be
similar, but just in case they aren’t, it is better to add a fraction of a dB of thermal
noise to the inputs of the secondary recorders in the shape of a resistor, rather
than having an unusually low impedance input grabbing most of the signal.
Another neat idea is to parallel the Monitor L/R output via a 47 kOhm resistor
pair. Now you can safely connect e.g. a tuner to either extra hole, without
shifting the stereo image (this would happen if a low impedance tuner input was
connected directly across one side of the monitor output). Now, whenever you
monitor an instrument’s input level with the PFL/SOLO function, you can check
its tuning also. That should impress the customers. Especially those using old,
unstable, but very desirable analog synths.
10. Gain Optimization
PFL (Pre-Fader-Listening) is the way to set a desk level. Setting up the channel
input gain is discussed in the essential section 13. Optimum master aux send
levels will be dependent on the sensitivity of the FX device being driven,
but unity gain is a useful starting point. As the mix progresses, more and more
channels are likely to be sending to effects via the aux buses, and it’s best to
PFL all sends (aux, subgroup, MIX-B) just before setting up for the final mix.
Outboard reverbs etc. should all be made to work hard. There’s no point in having
an 85 dB dynamic range if the input meter of your reverb is barely flickering.
On the other hand, digital distortion is not one of the nicer noises around.
Fortunately you can SOLO the FX returns. Here you’ll have to rely on your ears
to detect digital distortion, since different outboard processors calibrate their
meters differently, and their dynamic range is not sufficient to allow, say, 15 dB of
headroom (as is the case with DAT etc.). The PFL/SOLO meter, on the other hand,
looks only at the desk’s analog aux input level, if you hear distortion, but the
meter says you’re just hitting 0 dB, then it must be coming from the aux send
amp or the FX unit. If PFL on the aux send reveals nothing amiss, turn down the
input on the FX unit, and turn up the desk’s aux return.
◊ 99 times out of 100 distortion in the aux send > FX > aux return loop
will come from the FX unit (FX GAIN TOO HIGH), and the same goes for a
high noise level (FX GAIN TOO LOW).
◊ Noisy FX (or synth) returns can be greatly improved by the addition
of single-ended noise reduction between FX output and aux
(or channel) returns.
◊ We found out that using analog single ended noise reduction can
help warm the sound of certain digital reverbs which sound too cold/
metallic, and also give that “Echoplex” sound to digital delay decays.
◊ Analog multitrack tape should be driven quite hard, since its dynamic
range (without noise reduction) is likely to be 20 to 30 dB worse than
other elements in the recording chain. Try to record bright. You can
always mix back duller. Brightening up an off-tape signal will bring up
the level of tape noise.
◊ When mixing or recording, keep the channel FADER levels around or
below 0 dB. If you do find the faders creeping up or down, apply a
suitable offset over all channel faders, and try to control your bad habit
in future!
All output / input pairs normalised!
Fig. 11.1: Resistor-buffered parallel wiring for bay 8 (see section 8 “The patchfield”)
12. (Un)balanced Lines
Balanced inputs and outputs are offered on most audio connections on the
EURODESK SX4882 (inserts and direct outs being the major exceptions).
Why? Though all audio cables (except speaker cables) have earthed screens,
the shielding they afford from the electromagnetic garbage that permeates
the atmosphere is never perfect. The balanced line is a simple but effective
mechanism to overcome this problem. Instead of one insulated audio
conductor, two, usually twisted together, are contained within a single screen.
One conductor, wired to pin 2 of an XLR-type connector by international
convention (after decades of total confusion!) carries a signal variously referred to
as “hot” or “positive”. Pin 3 is wired to the “cold” or “negative” conductor.
What does this mean? Consider an unbalanced line. Now, that’s much easier
to understand. You have one “hot” or “positive” core, and an earthed screen.
The “hot” wire’s waveform, if looked at on an oscilloscope, would be directly
correlated to the audio signal waveform. If you looked closely at the trace,
you‘d see random noise along the X axis. What you probably wouldn’t see,
however, is any superposition of 50, 100 Hz, etc. corresponding to mains hum
interference, since these frequencies would be tangled up in the audio signal
(to spot them visually you’d need to perform a FOURIER TRANSFORM). AC mains
frequency and its overtones are picked up by any wire, and some will always leak
through a cable screen. The question is, when does it become audible?
Well, all other things being equal, the amount of mains hum picked up by a cable
is independent of the signal level. Speaker lines run 50 or more volts, enough to
diminish the effect of mains radiation to vanishingly small even with no screen.
(In fact, at these voltages another effect comes into play: capacitive resistance.
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
It is positively undesirable to use screened cable to wire an amp to a speaker.
Speaker leads should be as thick and short as possible, with XLR or wound
post terminals.) Line-level signals can usually be run unbalanced over short
or moderate distances (rack to desk etc.), but NOT from the back of the hall
to the stage, always provided that there are no earth loops (see section 8.3
“Looming problems” A loop acts as an aerial, positively inviting electromagnetic
radiation to flow around the system). Microphone lines, however, are another
story altogether.
Most microphones generate not volts, but millivolts. Protecting such a low
level signal requires a more sophisticated solution. Hence, all mic networks run
along balanced lines. It works like this. The mic diaphragm moves forwards and
backwards according to the air pressure increases and decreases that constitute
sound waves. Diaphragm movement generates a corresponding electrical
signal, which is either positive or negative depending on the direction of travel.
The +ve and -ve signals are mirror images of each other: if you shorted + and you’d end up with nothing: one would cancel out the other. In fact this cancelling
effect is what makes the balanced line work. Instead of simply shorting the
negative line to earth, as would be the case in an unbalanced system (losing half
the signal, or 6 dB, in the process), the two lines are kept apart until they reach an
electronic (or transformer) balanced input.
Here something exquisitely simple happens:
You may not know this, but whenever a signal is amplified, its polarity is
reversed. By inverting the negative side and adding it 1:1 to an unchanged
positive, a balanced input wastes none of the available signal energy. In doing
so, it also subtracts all the radiation picked up along the line. Random noise
is unaffected, but you’ll hear no hum, and much reduced thyristor noise
(from poorly-screened lighting dimmers). Live, you could not run a rig
without balanced mic lines, and although in the studio cable runs are shorter,
the recorded medium’s demand on signal to noise is far greater.
When patching a balanced input/output to an unbalanced one, simply short the
-ve and screen together at the unbalanced input or output.
13.1.2 Initializing channel for gain-setting
1) Set GAIN ((P2)) and all aux sends ((P12), (P13), (P14) and (P15)) to OFF
(fully counterclockwise).
2) EQ switch ((S10)) UP (off).
3) LOW CUT switch ((S11)) ON for microphones, OFF for signals with desired low
frequency content.
4) CHANNEL MODE set to PFL ((S95) UP).
5) Channel PFL/SOLO ((S26)) switch UP ((L26) off).
6) Check that main PFL/SOLO LED ((L95)) is not lit.
7) Channel PFL/SOLO switch ((S26)) DOWN ((L26) and (L95) should light).
13.1.3 Auditioning a signal
1) Make a typical noise, or roll the tape. The -20 dB light should flicker,
showing that a signal is present. There should also be some activity at the
MAIN MIX bargraph meters, indicating the SOLOed level.
2) For LINE INPUTS: Adjust GAIN control ((P2)) until transient peaks are regularly
hitting 0 dB.
3) For MIC INPUTS: If your meters are reading 0 dB although the GAIN control is
completely turned counterclockwise, push the PAD switch ((S1a)) to lower the
input signal by 20 dB before you continue the gain adjustment.
4) TAPE inputs do not pass through the GAIN pot ((P2)). This is why it is
important to match the operating level of the desk (-10 dBV or +4 dBu) to
that of your machine. If the signal is low (due to incorrect operating level
setting or too low a level having been recorded to tape), try the -10 dBV
setting. If too high, try +4 dBu. If neither gives a good level, try patching the
tape track output into a line input and repeat steps 13.1.1 and 13.1.2.
5) lf EQ is used, repeat steps 13.1.1 & 13.1.2.
6) If an insert is used to patch in a compressor, gate, EQ, etc., use any
outboard processor’s BYPASS or EFFECT OFF switch to A/B monitor the effect.
Adjust the processor’s output level so that effected and bypassed signals
are level matched.
7) Channel PFL/SOLO switch ((S26)) UP. Move onto next channel.
13.2 Desk/tape setting up procedures
Fig. 12.1: A balanced microphone line
13. Start-up
13.1 A-channel setting up procedure
13.1.1 Selecting inputs
• MICROPHONE: MIC/LINE switch ((S1)) UP, PAD switch ((S1a)) UP,
FLIP switch ((S3)) UP
13.2.1 Desk normalization
All board settings should be set to the normal default condition before or after
every session. Usually faders are set to zero (minus infinity), EQs set flat and
switched out, trimpots and channel aux sends turned fully anticlockwise etc.
The natural initial setting for some pots, e.g. master aux sends, is unity gain.
However, some settings, such as selecting PRE or POST for channel aux sends
and whether TAPE or MIC/LINE is flipped onto B-channel etc. will depend
on the operating environment, whether in a MIDI or A/V suite, 24-track
studio or live venue, or even just on the engineer’s preferred way of working.
Ultimately, the object of the excercise is:
• LINE: MIC/LINE switch DOWN, FLIP switch UP
13.2.2 Multitrack initialization
• TAPE: FLIP switch DOWN
Set up the multitrack so that any track in “record ready” condition has its input
monitored when the tape is stationary. Place all tracks to be recorded into
“record ready” status (once a recording has been made, these tracks should
automatically switch to tape playback). Check that the input levels to each
TRACK are optimized before recording commences.
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
13.2.3 Recording levels
14.2 Auxless headphones mix
When recording to digital, it’s a good idea to keep the recorder’s PEAK READING
meters below 0 dB. Engage “peak hold” on your recorder if you want to confirm
that you haven’t inadvertently overstepped the mark during a take or mix.
Most digital recorders (though not SAMPLERS) read 0 dB with some headroom
left. This is because, unlike with analog, the onset of digital distortion is as
sudden as it is horrible, and the manufacturers of digital recorders don’t want you
to hear this! If you really want to take your recording level to the limit (and fully
exploit digital’s 96 dB dynamic range), you’ll have some calibrating to do.
You could run a tone at 0 dB from the mixer, and use that as your DAT or digital
multitrack recorder reference. But your DAT or digital multitrack recorder may still
be 10 to 20 dB off its headroom limit. Probably a better way to work out just how
hard you can drive your recorder is to incrementally increase the record level until
it well distorts, subtract, say 6 dB, and never ever exceed that level.
The vocalist will probably want to hear her-/himself above the normal mix level.
With the following headphone sources you can do this without tying up any aux
sends or MIX-B. Passing the DIRECT OUT through any 1 in 2 out delay/reverb device
enables the vocalist to choose an effect she/he is comfortable singing along with.
When recording to analog, the tape machine’s VU meters should show around
+3 dB on BASS, but only around −10 dB for HI HAT. Although analog distortion
is more like compression at modest overload levels (often desirable on bottom
end), higher frequencies cause saturation even at modest levels (an unpleasant
“crunchiness”). Also, VU meters tend to progressively under-read above 1 kHz,
due to their sluggish response time.
13.2.4 Auditioning a mix
In order to be heard other than when PFL/SOLO-ed, channels must be routed to
the main mix bus. This can be either from the channel routing matrix directly,
via one of the subgroups, or from the MIX-B bus ((S48) DOWN).
Fig. 14.2: Simple auxless headphones mix
Here the MIC CHANNEL FADER controls the amount of extra voice blended into
the main mix. Adjust the FADER level first until the vocalist is happy, then set the
level to tape with the SUBGROUP FADER(S).
Split the microphone onto two channels and use one to feed the routing matrix
while the other drives the EXTERNAL input via its direct out. Now you have totally
indepedent monitoring and tape send levels for the vocal signal.
Channels going to tape are usually monitored via the tape return channel,
whether A or B. In this case the main mix button of the channel going to tape
should be UP, while that coming back should be DOWN (if on an A-channel).
Tape tracks returning on B-channels will always be heard so long as the
MIX-B/MAIN MIX switch ((S48)) is depressed.
Some to-tape channels will have no routing other than a direct out patch into the
recorder, others may be routed through subgroups. When a subgroup is sending
to tape, the subgroup L/R assignment buttons ((S37), (S38)) should be UP. I.e.
that subgroup should not feed into the main mix bus directly.
14. 8-track MIDI Suite/Dance
Production Studio
8-track MIDI studio with sampler, 8-track recording system, one vocal
microphone and an array of synthesizers and FX. MIDI sequencer driven.
A typical dance production suite.
Fig. 14.3: Slightly more complicated auxless headphones mix
If you need to hear the harmonies, but they’re putting the vocalist off key,
you’ll want to be able to delete channels from the headphone mix. If you still
don’t want to assign a couple of aux buses to headphones monitoring because
this would disturb the main mix, the following suggestion might prove useful.
Set up a separate channel assignment on a spare subgroup pair. Feed the output
into aux return 3. Route aux return 3 to headphones 1 ((S55)) and de-assign the
main mix ((S77)). Now you can delete distracting channels from the vocalist’s
backing track mix (see fig. 14.4).
14.1 Sends
Fig. 14.4: Subgroup-driven auxless headphones mix
Fig. 14.1: Send routing
In a dance production, effects are often of paramount importance in creating
interesting/evolving sounds, and aux sends are usually all dedicated to this
purpose. Also, it is not unusual for a vocalist to be drafted in to add some colour
to the mix at a late stage. The following set-ups avoid using aux sends for
headphone monitoring, while enabling both the vocalist and engineer to get a
comfortable headphone mix.
This configuration does not allow for anything coming in on B-channels to be
sent to headphones. If you need to do this, (S76) must also be depressed.
◊ In all cases the WET/DRY balance of the extra vocal signal takes place
within the FX processor.
◊ The above example refers to aux 3 return > headphones 1.
An analogous situation is possible for aux 4/5/6 return > headphones
1 or 2.
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
14.3 Returns
15. 16-Track Recording with 2 Samplers
Channels 1 to 8: When you’ve only got eight tape returns, you can afford to bring
them back on main channels to enable e.g. chorus vocal comps. or recorded
real-time mixing effects such as frequency sweeping to be quickly bounced or
sampled off via subgroups.
15.1 Recording
Channels 9 to 23: The most important SYNTH/SAMPLER outputs. Those most
likely to need full EQ or to be recorded to tape. You might have one Minimoog,
but half-a-dozen uses for it. Put it on an A-channel. You’ll want to record and/or
sample it in action.
Channel 24 is of course the MIC input. A compressor might be patched into the
channel 24 insert. Keep this channel free until the mix absolutely demands its
services, just in case you want to add in any last minute singing, or any last
minute anything!
The B-channel line inputs (tape returns) can accomodate even more
MIDI expanders and synths, etc.
14.4 Lining up record/sample inputs
Set the relevant TAPE OUTPUT and INPUT switches (located at the rear of
the console) to match the operating level of your 8-track (consult manual,
“phone manufacturer”, or simply “suck & see” to find which setting works best).
The sampler’s variable input gain range should be more than wide enough to
accept either -10 dBV or +4 dBu. There is no oscillator in the EURODESK SX4882,
but you can use a simple unmodulated sustained tone from a keyboard.
Choose one around 1 kHz (B above middle C is 997 or 1002 Hz depending on
whether you are using the tempered scale or “just” tuning: either way it’s close
enough for jazz). Set the channel EQ to OFF, and line up the channel according
to the “Setting up procedure” (section 13.1). Route this signal to all subgroups
and adjust the SUBGROUP OUTPUT FADERS until the bargraph meters read 0 dB.
Now put the recorder into INPUT mode on all channels, and the sampler into
SAMPLE mode. If the tape operating level switches are correctly set, then 0 dB on
the subgroup output meters should also show 0 dB on the tape recorder’s input
meters. A discrepancy of +/-14 dB indicates a wrong operating level selection.
Small discrepancies may be taken up by the SUBGROUP FADERs, though a better
solution would be to get the multitrack, properly aligned. (Refer to multitrack
manual and/or qualified personnel.) Adjust the sampler’s input level until it
also reads 0 dB.
Subgroup outputs/tape sends 1 to 16 should be wired to the multitrack record
inputs 1 to 16. Sampler inputs should be connected to subgroup outs 5, 6,
7 and 8 via custom-made Y-adaptors. Lining up is as per the previous example
(see section 14.3). When choosing which outputs where to assign, you have
to consider that you have got maybe 16 tape and 16 or 20 sampler outputs to
accommodate onto 24 A-channels (and 24 B-channels)! We’d suggest all audio
tape tracks be returned on A-Channels, while at least one stereo output from a
sampler is also brought back on a pair of A-channels for “flying in” (a sampler can
pick up e.g. chorus vocal and drop it into all choruses, or sample a particularly
nifty bit of flanging on a drum loop etc.; then lay the effected loop back to tape,
without re-patching). Most other sampler outputs and MIDI keyboards which
need to be heard but not recorded can be assigned to B-channels. The remaining
six or so A-channels may then be used for overdubs.
15.2 Headphones
While auxless headphone monitoring (see section 14.2) is still an option
(and a pretty good one), a small general purpose studio might require a more
straightforward way of working using one or two discrete headphone mixes.
Here, it would be best to keep aux sends 1 and 2 free for monitoring purposes
until mixdown time.
Aux returns 3/4/5//6 can be routed directly to headphones 1 and/or 2. A good idea
would be to drive (HP2) from a combination of aux return 3 ((S55)) and MIX-B ((S76)),
while (HP2) picked up its signal from aux return 4 ((S69)) and MIX-B ((S88)). Channel
auxes 3 and 4 would be routed to A-channels. In this configuration a reasonable
degree of balancing between the MIX-B and aux 3/4 level into the cans is possible
by adjusting (P55)/(P68) (minus infinity to +15 dB).
◊ With the headphone configuration shown below, there is no easy way
to get FX returns into the cans. Bring these back on A or B channels
instead, until mixdown time.
◊ Beware of inaccurate/uncalibrated sampler input meters. Work out
how hard you can safely drive the sampler’s input, reference this to
0 dB on a EURODESK subgroup meter, then take note of the sampler’s
input gain pot setting. (Or use soft adhesive tape etc. to hold it in
one position.)
(For more info on digital metering and associated problems see section 13.2.3.)
14.5 Mixdown
The situation here is no different from record, really, save that the subgroups
may now be routed directly to the main mix (L/R) bus ((S35) to(S38)) for easier
mixing. Remember, you started off with the tape returns coming up on
A-channels 1 to 8, therefore there is no need to “flip” them. You will probably
(definitely) be running lots of MIDI sequencer tracks live. Take care not to
encourage MIDI delays.
Fig. 15.1: Headphones
15.3 Mixdown
With 24 A-channels and up to 36 significant tape and sampler tracks to
accommodate, some thought will need to be given to mixdown assignments.
Tracks which need little EQ and no access to the main track reverbs/echoes on
auxes 1 and 2 may be parked on B-channels. Lead tracks and prominent rhythm/
melodic voices should be placed onto A-channels. Remember that auxes 3/4/5/6
can be dedicated either to A or B-channels by SOURCE switch (S17).
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
16. Professional 24-Track Studio
16.1 Recording
Chances are you’ll occasionally want to record more than eight tracks at once,
e.g. ou’re recording a band playing together live. The following example covers a
rock band with drums, bass, two guitars, percussionist, brass section, lead and
backing vocals. In the real world, you’ll hardly ever be taking all these artists at
once, but if you are:
Hi Hat
Tom 1
Tom 2
Tom 3
Tom 4
Cymbals (overheads) L
Cymbals (overheads) R
Bass microphone
Bass DI
Escaping prisoners
BVs 1
BVs 2
BVs 3
Conga L
Conga R
Guitar 1 microphone
Guitar 2 microphone
Lead vocal
Direct out
Direct out
Direct out
Subgroups 5 and 6
Subgroups 5 and 6
Subgroups 5 and 6
Subgroups 5 and 6
Direct out
Direct out
Subgroup 3
Subgroup 3
Subgroup 4
Subgroups 1 and 2
Subgroups 1 and 2
Subgroups 1 and 2
Subgroups 7 and 8
Subgroups 7 and 8
Subgroups 7 and 8
Direct out
Direct out
Direct out
Direct out
Direct out
Track 2
Track 3
Track 4
Tracks 5 and 6
Tracks 5 and 6
Tracks 5 and 6
Tracks 5 and 6
Track 7
Track 8
Track 1
Track 1
Who knows?
Tracks 9 and 10
Tracks 9 and 10
Tracks 9 and 10
Tracks 11 and 12
Tracks 11 and 12
Tracks 11 and 12
Track 13
Track 14
Track 15
Track 16
Track 17
◊ Choose to send to subgroups 7 and 8 from channels which are routed
to tape from their DIRECT OUT. Otherwise CHANNEL PAN, which will
already have been set for recording via another group, is unlikely to be
pointing to where you want the cue signal to go. Aux sends 1 and 2 are
available as two separate mono headphone feeds, or as a single stereo
headphone feed. You’ll need an extra stereo amplifier to amplify the
aux 1 and 2 outputs to drive headphones properly.
It’s all change. Flip the recorded music onto A-channels, in order to feed from
tape into all the headphones buses.
(and probably much more sensibly): use the headphones routine outlined in
section 15.2 (fig. 15.1).
16.3 Wet monitoring
It is customary with live recording to lay tracks dry. (Not so with MIDI setups:
often a tape track is used to record a complex effect. In a MIDI studio a take is
generally MIDI sequencer driven, and hence reproducible should the recorded
effected track eventually prove to be unsuitable, in live recording, a great take
is irreplaceable! Hence the extra caution when laying live tracks.) With dry
recording you will probably want to audition tape tracks with some reverb
and/or echo, to get a better idea of how the final mix might sound. By pressing
the AUX 3/4/5/6 SOURCE switch ((S17)), aux buses 3 and 4 are available to the
B-channels, i.e. tape monitoring. You could send to reverb from input channels,
but the FX would disappear on tape playback. Bring the FX back on aux returns
1, 2, 5 or 6. Remember 3 and 4 have been used for headphones patching.
16.4 Mixdown
All aux sends and subgroups are now available for mixing, as are
A-channels 23 and 24.
Tab. 16.1: Channel assignment
Tape Monitoring will be via MIX-B in tape return mode. Once tracks are layed,
they will be flipped onto the A-channels (1 to 17), and overdubbing can
commence via tracks 18 to 24. Also “bouncing”, reducing several tracks onto one
or a stereo pair, requires access to the full routing matrix. This is available to the
A-channels, but not the B-channels.
16.2 Very tricky headphones
In a multi-musician scenario you’ll probably want as many different headphones
mixes as you can muster. With the current channel/group/track assignments it
is possible to set up four independent, or semi-independent, headphone feeds
while still keeping back auxes 3/4/5/6 for “wet” monitoring (see 16.3).
Subgroup 7 => aux return 3 =>
headphones 1
Main mix (and)/or MIX-B =>
headphones 1
Active switches: S55/(S82, S77)/S76
In the above configuration (HP1) and (HP2) comprise a blend of the main mix, MIX-B
and an additional feed from a subgroup. The subgroup feed can be used to select
which channel(s) should be boosted in the cans relative to the main mixes.
Subgroup 8 => aux return 4 =>
headphones 2
Main mix (and)/or MIX-B =>
headphones 2
Active switches: S69/(S82, S89)/S88
See also fig. 14.4 “Subgroup-driven auxless headphones mix” and
associated text.
◊ If you have two different instruments recorded onto one track,
the mixdown settings for each might be totally different. Set up two
A-channels. One for each instrument, and switch between them.
The B-channels may be used e.g. as FX returns in place of the normal aux returns
(the advantage being that these channels have PAN and EQ) or as an extra stereo
aux send.
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
17. Live P.A. with 2-Track Recording
In this example we’ll use the aux sends 1 and 2 for stage foldback, and 3/4/5/6 for
front-of-house effects. The P.A. is driven from the main mix. MIX-B will be used to
set up the mix to DAT.
Hi Hat
Tom 1
Tom 2
Tom 3
Tom 4
Keyboards L
Keyboards R
Bass DI
BVs 1
BVs 2
BVs 3
Conga L
Conga R
Guitar 1
Guitar 2
Lead vocal
FX 1 L
FX 1 R
Subgroups 1
and 2 / MIX-B
Subgroups 1
and 2 / MIX-B
Subgroups 1
and 2 / MIX-B
Subgroups 1
and 2 / MIX-B
Subgroups 1
and 2 / MIX-B
Subgroups 1
and 2 / MIX-B
Subgroups 1
and 2 / MIX-B
Subgroups 1
and 2 / MIX-B
Subgroups 3
and 4 / MIX-B
Subgroups 3
and 4 / MIX-B
Main mix /
Subgroups 5
and 6 / MIX-B
Subgroups 5
and 6 / MIX-B
Subgroups 5
and 6 / MIX-B
Subgroups 7
and 8 / MIX-B
Subgroups 7
and 8 / MIX-B
Subgroups 7
and 8 / MIX-B
Main mix /
Main mix /
Main mix /
Main mix /
Main mix /
Main mix /
Main mix /
Wedges /
Aux send 1 and 2
Aux send 4
Aux send 1 and 2
Aux send 1 and 2
Aux send 4
Aux send 4
Aux send 4
Aux send 4
Aux send 1 and 2
Aux send 1 and 2
Aux send 1 and 2
Aux send 5
Aux send 2
Aux send 5
Aux send 2
Aux send 5
Aux send 2
◊ S48 is UP, i.e. MIX-B is NOT blended into the main mix.
◊ Bringing the DAT back on aux 1 return P49 (as opposed to the 2-track or
external inputs) enables not only auditioning of DAT playback, but also
balancing playback level against the main mix, in case you also want
to use it to play a pre-recorded intro tape to set the scene for the
coming performance.
◊ Be sure to have aux return 1 turned all the way down or de-assigned
when recording to DAT. Otherwise expect massive and terminal
(as far as the P.A. and gig are concerned) howlround.
18. Live Concert with
24-Track Recording
Stereo (quadraphonic) P.A. with sidefills, three infills, two wedge mixes,
four FX and simultaneous 24-track recording.
Tape route
Hi Hat
Tom 1
Tom 2
Tom 3
Tom 4
Cymbals (overheads)
Keyboards L
Keyboards R
Bass DI
BVs 1
BVs 2
BVs 3
Conga L
Conga R
Guitar 1 microphone
Guitar 2 microphone
Lead vocal
Main echo /
reverb return
Main echo /
reverb return
Direct out
Direct out
Direct out
Subgroups 5 and 6
Subgroups 5 and 6
Subgroups 5 and 6
Subgroups 5 and 6
Direct out
Direct out
Direct out
Direct out
Direct out
Direct out
Direct out
Direct out
Direct out
Direct out
Direct out
Direct out
Direct out
Direct out
Direct out
Track 1
Track 2
Track 3
Tracks 5 and 6
Tracks 5 and 6
Tracks 5 and 6
Tracks 5 and 6
Track 4
Track 7
Track 8
Track 9
Track 10
Track 11
Track 12
Track 13
Track 14
Track 15
Track 16
Track 17
Track 18
Track 19
Track 20
(Send = aux 3)
Track 21
(Send = aux 3)
Track 22
Aux send 2
Aux send 2
Aux send 1 and 2
Aux send 1 and 2
Aux send 5
and 6
Aux send 1 and 2
Tab. 18.1: Channel assignments 24-track (track 24 pre-striped with SMPTE)
None of the tape tracks can be auditioned in this configuration. The channel fader
controls the level to tape, MIX-B adjusts the P.A. level.
Aux send 5
and 6
Aux send 5
and 6
Aux send 5
and 6
Aux send 1 and 2
Aux send 1 and 2
Aux send 1 and 2
Tab. 17.1: Channel assignments 2-track
Every B-channel has its own LEVEL, PAN and HIGH and LOW EQ. MIX-B in fact is
acting here like a totally independent separate mixer, albeit with fewer facilities
than the main mix. The primary stereo reverb/echo unit’s outputs have been
patched into A-channels rather than an aux return, to enable them to be sent to
the MAIN MIX and MIX-B independently.
The channel inserts (which are pre fader), may be used as virtual direct outs.
Hopefully you will be able to set the input gains ((P2)) to suit the multitrack on
any channel that does not have a massive EQ (i.e. energy) swing away from
0 dB. The consequent lack of any desk EQ on your tape tracks might even be an
advantage when it comes to remixing the concert back in the studio.
Using this setup, you can even change the P.A. to a quadrophonic system.
Positioning takes place by balancing the main mix (channel fader, PANpot (P24))
against MIX-B ((P20), (P21)).
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
Aux send 4
Aux send 1
and 2
Hi Hat
Aux send 4
Aux send 4
Aux send 4
Aux send 4
Tom 1
Tom 2
Tom 3
Tom 4
Keyboards L
Keyboards R
Subgroups 1/2, 3/4
and 7/8
Subgroups 1/2
and 3/4
Subgroups 1/2
and 3/4
Bass DI
BVs 1
BVs 2
BVs 3
Aux send 5
Aux send 5
Aux send 5
Aux send 5
and 6
Aux send 5
and 6
Aux send 5
and 6
Aux send 1
and 2
Aux send 1
and 2
Aux send 1
and 2
Subgroup 12
Subgroup 12
Subgroups 1/2,
3/4 and 7/8
Conga L
Conga R
Subgroups 3 and 4
Subgroups 3 and 4
Aux send 1
Aux send 1
Aux send 1
Guitar 1
Guitar 2
Lead vocal
FX 1 L
FX 1 R
Aux send 5
and 6
Subgroups 1/2,
3/4 and 7/8
Subgroups 1/2,
3/4 and 7/8
Tab. 8.2: Front/rear/stage monitors routing
For front of house route all channels to the MIX-B bus > main mix. For live P.A.
effects use auxes 3/4/5/6. For wedge monitors use aux 1 and 2 in pre mode > aux
1and 2 output. For sidefills use phones 1 output. For infill for guitarist, keyboard
player and drummer use subgroups 1/2, 3/4 and 7/8.
◊ No subgrouping is used as a mixing aid to the FOH mix.
◊ Infill sends use up one group pair each as a consequence of the routing
matrix being dependent on the channel PANpot ((P24)).
◊ All channels should be set for: aux 1/2: PRE ((S13) DOWN) > WEDGES;
aux 3/4/5/6: POST ((S16) UP) > FX; MIX-B SOURCE = CHANNEL ((S23) DOWN);
FLIP = Mic/Line SIGNAL ((S3) UP)
◊ In a quadrophonic setup MIX-B should be kept separate from the main
mix ((S48) UP).
OK: This example has been extreme. Chances are if you were touring with the
sort of PA / multitrack described above you’d also have a massive FOH console,
separate foldback mixer, and a rider that would make Bill Graham blanche.
None of the applications examples are designed to be used as a BLUEPRINT.
Rather, they should give you some idea of the scope and flexibility of your
EURODESK SX4882. Use your imagination to find novel ways of solving problems
and creating extra facilities.
19. Expanding the EURODESK
19.1 Connections
The EXPANDER PORT is input only, and provides access to all but the PFL/SOLO
buses. Since the nominal internal operating level of your EURODESK SX4882 is
0 dB, and that at the jack outputs +4 dB, the sends from the outputs of console
2 must be attenuated by +4 dB if unity gain between it and the primary console
is to be maintained. Wiring is as follows:
> -4 dB >
Subgroup outputs 1 to 8
Aux outputs 1 to 6
Main mix output
MIX-B output
manufacturer’s desk
EXPANDER PORT subgroup inputs 1 to 8
EXPANDER PORT aux inputs 1 to 6
EXPANDER PORT main mix inputs
> -X dB >
Subgroup outputs 1 to 8
Aux outputs 1 to 6
Main mix output
MIX-B output
EXPANDER PORT subgroup inputs 1 to 8
EXPANDER PORT aux inputs 1 to 6
EXPANDER PORT main mix inputs
19.2 Alignment
To find out the value of “X” align the consoles in the following way. Patch a 1 kHz
sine tone (or play a sustained B above middle C on a keyboard) into a channel
on each console. Set up each console so that the signal produces unity gain
(0 dB) at every output (use each console’s PFL or equivalent function to do this).
Now, connect the outputs of the second console into the EURODESK EXPANDER
PORT. Mute the channel on the EURODESK carrying the signal, and look at the
EURODESK outputs. Systematically adjust the reading on each bus until they all
read 0 dB by adjusting the master send levels of console 2 (i.e.: master aux send
controls, main mix master faders, subgroup faders, etc.).
20. Timecode
In analog multitrack recording timecode usually goes down on the edge of the
tape: track 8, 16 or 24, with the adjacent track left clear (GUARD BAND) to stop
bleeding between recorded tracks and code. Digital formats do not waste any
audio tracks on timecode: a separate sync is provided.
Ideally, timecode should be patched from the multitrack out directly into the
synchronizer input. Normally, a 24 track tape is striped with timecode before a
session commences. Any sequenced music, click track, mix automation is then
referenced to it.
Always check sync before laying down any sequenced music: record a click
track, then check to see that a “live” playback doesn’t drift. Timecode comes
in various formats. The general rule is: format (and make/model) of timecode
generator must be matched to the reader. This shouldn’t be a problem if
recording and mixing take place in-house and under one roof. It’s when tapes
move around that problems arise (be sure to include every conceivable technical
detail on a tracksheet accompanying the master tape). Fortunately, there are
ways to generate fresh in-sync timecode even where none existed in the
first place, otherwise most remixes would never happen. You would rather
not have to, though, since it takes time, effort, and an intelligent “learning”
synchronizer to do it.
If the gain from the recorder is too low to drive the sync unit,
• re-stripe at a higher level or
• amplify the recorded timecode somehow, possibly via a desk channel not
routed to any of the main buses. In this case use the channel’s direct out to
drive the synchronizer’s input, in order to keep the timecode as remote as
possible from the audio (timecode crosses over like nothing else we know).
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
21. Bouncing
◊ Excuse us for repeating ourselves once again: BEHRINGER is not
Sometimes you want to play back from one or more tracks, route the signals to
a new track or pair of tracks, and re-record. This process is commonly referred to
as bouncing. Examples would be when reducing 4 lead vocal take tracks down
to 1, reducing 4 separate tom-tom tracks down to a stereo pair via noise gates,
putting a wild effect or EQ onto a dry signal, “comping” backing vocal tracks, etc.
On an analog tape recorder, bouncing to an adjacent track is to be avoided.
A feedback loop can be set up, since for all overdubs or bounces you will be using
the same (sync) head for both playback and record. Organize your track layout so
that any bounces you might have to do are always over at least one track.
There are no restrictions when using digital multitracks.
22. Input/Output Configuration
Nominal level
EURODESK internal
+4 dBu
XLR microphone input
Line A input
Line B / tape input
Aux sends
Aux returns
MIX-B output
Subgroup output
Main mix 1/4" jack
+4 dBu
+4 dBu / -10 dBV
+4 dBu
0 dBu
+4 dBu
+4 dBu / -10 dBV
+4 dBu
+4 dBu (max. +28
+4 dBu
+4 dBu
+4 dBu
+4 dBu
+4 dBu
+4 dBu
0 dBu
0 dBu
0 dBu
0 dBu
+4 dBu
+4 dBu
+4 dBu
Trimpot / PAD
Gain switch
Gain switch
Main mix XLR
2-track out RCA
2-track in 1/4" jack / RCA
External input
Channel insert out
Channel insert in
Channel direct out
Subgroup insert out
Subgroup insert in
Main mix insert out
Main mix insert in
Control room out
Studio out
Meter / analyzer out
Tab. 22.1: Input/output configuration
The EXPANDER PORT inputs have a nominal level of -2 dBu (subgroup/mix)
and +2 dBu (aux).
◊ All variable gain circuits offer +15 dB (except aux returns,
which offer +20 dB).
◊ All balanced jack sockets are automatically unbalanced when using an
unbalanced jack patch lead!
23. Modifications
responsible for anything what happens after you start disassembling
your EURODESK SX4882. Don’t even think of it, if you make much of your
warranty privileges.
◊ Links should not be threaded into holes on the PCB. They should be
soldered to the tinned areas around the holes, and bowed slightly
upwards in between.
23.1 Aux sends > post EQ
All channel aux sends are post mute and pre fader. If you want to convert these
to post EQ, carry out the following modification to each channel. You will find a
corresponding printing on the PCB (see fig. 23.1).
1) Disconnect power supply.
2) Cut the “post mute” track.
3) Add in a “post EQ” link.
4) Repeat for all channels you want to be modified.
Fig. 23.5: Modifications aux send > post EQ
23.2 MIX-B source > post fader
That’s it. You’ve decided to use the MIX-B as a stereo aux send to FX rather
than a separate stereo feed. You can move the tap from the A-channel from
pre to post the channel fader as follows. Again, look for the printing on the
PCB shown below.
1) Disconnect power supply.
2) Cut the “pre” track.
3) Add in a “post” link.
4) Repeat for all channels you want to be modified.
Fig. 23.5: Modifications MIX-B source > post fader
23.3 LED meters > pre fader
In channel mode the meterbridge monitors the DIRECT OUT signal (post EQ,
post mute and post fader). You would prefer to see what’s going on pre mute
and pre fader? Once you found the corresponding printing on the PCB, all you
have do is:
1) Disconnect power supply.
2) Cut the “line out” track.
3) Add in a “pre fade” link.
4) Repeat for all channels you want to be modified.
◊ These modifications require you to do some soldering. Attempt only
if you are experienced in using an iron on PCBs. Otherwise, refer to
qualified personnel. After modification the warranty
becomes discretionary.
Fig. 23.5: Modifications LED meters > pre fader
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
24. Specifications
Main Channel Strip
Mix B Channel Strip
Gain range
0 dB to +15 dB / off
electronically balanced,
discrete input circuit
Hi shelving
12 kHz, ±15 dB
Lo shelving
80 Hz, ±15 dB
@ 150 Ω source
-129.0 dBu / -117.3 dBqp
Subgroup Section
input shortened
-132.0 dBu / -122.0 dBqp
Distortion (THD + N)
0.007 % @ +4 dBu, 1 kHz,
bandwidth 80 kHz
Gain range
+10 dB to +50 dB
Max. input level
+12 dBu (+32 dBu @ PAD)
Mic input
Mic E.I.N.1 (22 Hz - 22 kHz)
Line input
bus noise @ fader 0 dB‑102.5 dBr
24 chs. assigned (input B) & set @ 0 dB gain‑92.5 dBr
16 chs. assigned
(input B) & set @ 0 dB gain‑94.5 dBr
Submaster output
max. output level
+22 dBu, balanced / unbalanced
Submaster insert
max. output level
+22 dBu
+10 dB to -85 dB / off
Submaster insert
max. input level
+22 dBu
0 dB to +15 dB / off
Fader range
+10 dB to ‑85 dB / off
electronically balanced
Gain range
0 dB to +40 dB
(-20 dB to +20 dB @ PAD)
Max. input level
+22 dBu
Channel fader range
Aux send gain range
Main Mix Section
Hi shelving
12 kHz, ±15 dB
Hi mid sweep
300 Hz to 20 kHz, ±15 dB
bus noise @ fader 0 dB‑101.0 dBr
Lo mid sweep
50 Hz to 3 kHz, ±15 dB
Lo shelving
80 Hz, ±15 dB
24 chs. assigned
(input B) & set @ 0 dB gain‑92.5 dBr
Lo cut (HPF)
75 Hz, 12 dB/oct.
Channel Direct Out
16 chs. assigned
(input B) & set @ 0 dB gain‑94.5 dBr
Max. output level
+28 dBu, XLR connector,
balanced / +22 dBu, ¼" jacks,
Max. output level
+22 dBu
Noise @ 0 dB gain
-94 dBu
Aux returns gain range
0 dB to +20 dB / off
Output impedance
120 Ω
Aux sends
max. output level
+22 dBu
Tape returns¼" jacks, balanced / unbalanced,
globally switchable from
+4 dBu to ‑10 dBV
Channel Inserts
Max. in/out
+22 dBu
Channel to channel crosstalk
-95 dB @ 1 kHz
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
System Data
Distortion (THD + N)
0.007 % @ +4 dBu, 1 kHz, bandwidth
80 kHz < 0.02 %, 22 Hz to 22 kHz at
normal operating levels, any input to
any output, bandwidth 80 kHz
Frequency response
20 Hz to 40 kHz
±1 dB (any input to any output)
10 Hz to 120 kHz±3 dB
@ fader 0 dB‑102.5 dBr
24 chs. assigned
(input B) & set @ 0 dB gain‑92.5 dBr
16 chs. assigned
(input B) & set @ 0 dB gain‑94.5 dBr
Power Supply
Power consumption
250 W
Mains voltage
100 - 240 V~ (50/60 Hz)
T 3.15 A H 250 V
Mains connector
standard IEC receptacle
Dimensions (H x W x D)
approx. 72 mm / 220 x 940 x 750 mm
(2.8" / 8.7 x 37 x 29.5")
approx. 27.72 kg (61.2 lbs)
Equivalent Input Noise
ref. +4 dBu
BEHRINGER is constantly striving to maintain the highest professional standards. As a result of these efforts,
modifications may be made from time to time to existing products without prior notice. Specifications and
appearance may differ from those listed or illustrated.
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
EURODESK SX4882 User Manual
Responsible Party Name:
MUSIC Group Services US Inc.
18912 North Creek Parkway,
Suite 200 Bothell, WA 98011,
Phone/Fax No.:
Phone: +1 425 672 0816
Fax: +1 425 673 7647
complies with the FCC rules as mentioned in the following paragraph:
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B
digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed
to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential
installation. This equipment generates, uses and can radiate radio frequency
energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause
harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that
interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause
harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined
by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the
interference by one or more of the following measures:
• Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
• Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
• Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the
receiver is connected.
• Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC rules. Operation is subject to the
following two conditions:
(1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and
(2) this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may
cause undesired operation.
Important information:
Changes or modifications to the equipment not expressly approved by MUSIC Group
can void the user’s authority to use the equipment.
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