Watlow Controls 8LS User`s guide

Watlow Controls 8LS User`s guide
8LS
User’s Guide
Watlow Controls
1241 Bundy Blvd.
Winona, MN 55987
Customer Service
Phone: (800) 414-4299
Fax:
(800) 445-8992
Technical Support
Phone: (507) 494-5656
Fax:
(507) 452-4507
Email: [email protected]
Part No. 10585-00. Revision 9.2
July 1996
Copyright © 1996
Watlow Anafaze
Information in this manual is subject to change without notice. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form without written permission
from Watlow Anafaze.
Warranty
Watlow Anafaze, Incorporated warrants that the products furnished under this Agreement will be
free from defects in material and workmanship for a period of three years from the date of shipment. The customer shall provide notice of any defect to Watlow Anafaze, Incorporated within one
week after the Customer's discovery of such defect. The sole obligation and liability of Watlow
Anafaze, Incorporated under this warranty shall be to repair or replace, at its option and without
cost to the Customer, the defective product or part.
Upon request by Watlow Anafaze, Incorporated, the product or part claimed to be defective shall
immediately be returned at the Customer's expense to Watlow Anafaze, Incorporated. Replaced or
repaired products or parts will be shipped to the Customer at the expense of Watlow Anafaze,
Incorporated.
There shall be no warranty or liability for any products or parts that have been subject to misuse,
accident, negligence, failure of electric power or modification by the Customer without the written
approval of Watlow Anafaze, Incorporated. Final determination of warranty eligibility shall be
made by Watlow Anafaze, Incorporated. If a warranty claim is considered invalid for any reason,
the Customer will be charged for services performed and expenses incurred by Watlow Anafaze,
Incorporated in handling and shipping the returned unit.
If replacement parts are supplied or repairs made during the original warranty period, the warranty
period for the replacement or repaired part shall terminate with the termination of the warranty
period of the original product or part.
The foregoing warranty constitutes the sole liability of Watlow Anafaze, Incorporated and the customer's sole remedy with respect to the products. It is in lieu of all other warranties, liabilities, and
remedies. Except as thus provided, Watlow Anafaze, Inc. disclaims all warranties, express or
implied, including any warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.
Please Note: External safety devices must be used with this equipment.
Contents
Overview
1
System Diagram.....................................................................2
Parts List ..........................................................................2
Safety .....................................................................................3
Introduction
5
Specifications.........................................................................7
Analog Inputs...................................................................7
Control Capability............................................................8
Digital Outputs.................................................................8
Digital Inputs ...................................................................8
Pulse Counting Input .......................................................8
Serial Interface .................................................................8
Power Supply ...................................................................8
Installation
9
Read This Before Installation ................................................10
Mounting The 8LS.................................................................11
External Wiring................................................................13
General Wiring Requirements .........................................13
Cable Recommendations .................................................15
Noise Suppression............................................................16
Terminal Block And Connector Layout ..........................18
RTB Connections.............................................................19
Analog Inputs...................................................................20
Input Scaling ..........................................................................21
Resistor Installation .........................................................22
Voltage Inputs..................................................................23
Milliamp Inputs................................................................23
Thermocouple Inputs .......................................................23
RTD Inputs ......................................................................24
Infrared Non-contact Temp. Sensors ...............................24
Pulse Input .......................................................................25
Carbon Probe Input ..........................................................25
Control Outputs......................................................................27
PID Output Termination TB (Primary) or
Flat Ribbon (Secondary)..................................................27
8LS User’s Guide i
PID Control Relay Outputs ..............................................28
Primary Screw Terminal Outputs ....................................28
Digital Outputs On The Screw Terminal Blocks.............29
Primary Analog Outputs ..................................................29
Analog Output Dip Switch Setting
for 0-5v/4-20mA ..............................................................30
CPU Dip Switch...............................................................31
Secondary Outputs 50 Pin Ribbon Cable ........................31
Communications Set-up and Connections .............................33
RS-232 Connections........ ................................................33
RS-485 Description And Connections.............................34
Using the 8LS
37
Front Panel .............................................................................37
Front Panel Keys..............................................................38
Displays .................................................................................40
Bar Graph Display ...........................................................40
Single Loop Display ........................................................41
Scanning Display .............................................................41
Alarm Display..................................................................41
Operator Menus .....................................................................43
Changing the Setpoint......................................................43
Selecting Status Mode .....................................................43
Autotune...........................................................................44
Ramp/Soak.......................................................................44
Setup
45
How to enter the Setup menus? .......................................45
How to edit a menu? ........................................................45
Setup Global Parameters Menu .............................................47
Save as Job.......................................................................48
Restore a Job ....................................................................48
Set Alarm Delay...............................................................48
Set R/S Time Base ...........................................................49
Lock Panel .......................................................................49
Power Up Output Status ..................................................49
Controller Address ...........................................................50
Communication Error Checking......................................50
Communication Baud Rate..............................................51
Communication Protocol .................................................51
AC Line Frequency..........................................................51
EPROM Version ..............................................................52
Setup Inputs Menu .................................................................53
ii 8LS User’s Guide
Input Type........................................................................54
Pulse Sample Time ..........................................................55
Input Units .......................................................................55
Linear Scaling Menus ......................................................56
Input Offset ......................................................................58
Setup Control Menu...............................................................59
Heat/Cool PB ...................................................................60
Heat/Cool TI ....................................................................60
Heat/Cool TD...................................................................60
Heat/Cool Output Filter ...................................................60
Heat/Cool Spread .............................................................61
Setup Outputs Menu ..............................................................62
Output Type .....................................................................63
Cycle Time.......................................................................63
Output Action ..................................................................64
Output Limit ....................................................................64
Output Limit Time ...........................................................65
Nonlinear Output Curve...................................................65
Heat Output......................................................................66
Setup Alarms..........................................................................67
Alarm Types ....................................................................68
High Process Alarm Setpoint...........................................69
High Process Alarm Status ..............................................69
High Process Alarm Output Number...............................69
Deviation Band Alarm .....................................................70
Deviation Band Alarm Status ..........................................70
High Deviation Alarm Output Number ...........................70
Low Deviation Alarm Output Number ............................71
Low Process Alarm Setpoint ...........................................71
Low Process Alarm Status ...............................................71
Low Process Alarm Output Number ...............................72
Alarm Deadband ..............................................................72
Alarm Delay.....................................................................72
Test I/O ..................................................................................73
Digital Input Testing ........................................................73
Test Output ......................................................................74
Digital Output Test ..........................................................74
Tuning and Control
75
Introduction............................................................................75
Control Modes .......................................................................76
Control Outputs................................................................78
Digital Output Control Forms..........................................78
8LS User’s Guide iii
Setting Up and Tuning PID Loops ........................................80
General PID Constants by Application..................................82
Troubleshooting
85
Stand Alone Systems .............................................................85
Checking Control Outputs ...............................................85
Checking Digital I/O........................................................85
Computer Supervised Systems ..............................................86
Computer Problems .........................................................86
Computer Software ..........................................................86
Communications Problems ..............................................87
Serial Interface .................................................................87
Appendix A: Ramp Soak
89
Introduction............................................................................89
R/S Features .....................................................................89
Specifications...................................................................90
Configuring Ramp/Soak ........................................................90
Setting the R/S Time Base ...............................................91
Editing R/S Parameters ....................................................91
Choosing a Profile to Edit................................................91
Copying the Setup from Another Profile .........................92
Editing the Tolerance Alarm Time ..................................92
Editing the Ready Setpoint ..............................................93
Editing the Ready Event States........................................93
Choosing an External Reset Input ...................................94
Editing a Segment ............................................................94
Setting Segment Time......................................................94
Setting a Segment Setpoint ..............................................95
Configuring Segment Events ...........................................95
Editing Event Outputs......................................................96
Changing Event States .....................................................96
Editing Segment Triggers ................................................96
Assigning an Input to a Trigger .......................................97
Changing a Trigger’s True State......................................97
Latching or Unlatching a Trigger ....................................97
Setting Segment Tolerance ..............................................98
Ending a Profile ...............................................................98
Repeating a Profile...........................................................98
Using Ramp/Soak ..................................................................99
Assigning a Profile to a Loop...........................................99
Running a Profile .............................................................100
Ramp/Soak Displays........................................................101
iv 8LS User’s Guide
Holding a Profile or Continuing from Hold.....................103
Resetting a Profile ............................................................104
Appendix B: 8LS-CP
105
Key Features ....................................................................105
System Configuration ............................................................106
Specifications.........................................................................108
Analog Inputs...................................................................108
Control Capability............................................................108
CP Control .............................................................................109
Trim Gas Temperature Alarm Output ...................................109
Recommended CP Trim Gas Alarm for Continuous
Applications .....................................................................109
Recommended CP Trim Gas Alarm for Batch Applications110
Carbon Probe .........................................................................111
General Guidelines ..........................................................111
Probe Burn Off.......................................................................112
Carbon Probe Burn Off Requirements: ...........................112
Burn Off Procedures ........................................................112
Burn Off Function............................................................113
Setup Menus ..........................................................................114
Setup Inputs .....................................................................114
Setup Carbon Burn Off ....................................................116
Setup Alarms....................................................................119
CP and DP Display ..........................................................119
Appendix C: 8LS Cascade
121
Introduction............................................................................121
8LS Cascade Menus...............................................................121
Cascade Main Menu ........................................................121
Choosing the Primary Loop.............................................122
Setting the High End of the Secondary Setpoint .............122
Setting the Low End of the Secondary Setpoint ..............122
Glossary
123
8LS User’s Guide v
vi 8LS User’s Guide
Overview
Overview
This manual describes how to install, setup, and operate an 8LS
controller. Included are six chapters, Appendixes describing the 8LS-CP
(Carbon Potential) and the 8LS-RS (Ramp/Soak), and a glossary of
terms. Each chapter covers a different aspect of your control system and
may apply to different users. The following describes the chapters and
their purpose.
• Introduction: Gives a general description of the 8LS and its related
specifications.
• Installation: Describes how to install the 8LS.
• Using the 8LS: Provides an overview of system displays and operator menus.
• Setup: Describes all the setup displays for the controller, and how to
access them.
• Tuning and Control: Explains PID control and provides tips for
tuning your system.
• Troubleshooting: Gives some basic guidelines for solving control
problems.
• Appendix A: Describes the Ramp and Soak function in the 8LS controller.
• Appendix B: Describes the 8LS-CP controller—its function, features, and additional menus.
8LS User’s Guide 1
Overview
System Diagram
The illustration below shows how the parts of the 8LS are connected.
When unpacking your system, use the diagram and parts list below to
ensure all parts have been shipped. Please don’t hesitate to call Watlow
Anafaze’s Technical Service Department if you have problems with
your shipment, or if the 8LS components are missing or damaged.
Signal Inputs and
Primary Outputs
50-Pin Ribbon Cable
8LS to RTB
8LS
System Power
Secondary Outputs
and Alarms
50-Pin RTB
Parts List
• 8LS controller
• Controller mount kit
• RTB
• 50 pin flat ribbon cable
• 8LS manual
2 8LS User’s Guide
Overview
Safety
Watlow Anafaze has made efforts to ensure the reliability and safety of
the 8LS controller and to recommend safe usage practices in systems
applications. Please note that, in any application, failures can occur.
These failures may result in full control outputs or other outputs which
may cause damage to or unsafe conditions in the equipment or process
connected to the 8LS controller.
Good engineering practices, electrical codes, and insurance regulations
require that you use independent external safety devices to prevent
potentially dangerous or unsafe conditions. Assume that the Watlow
Anafaze 8LS controller can fail with outputs full on, outputs full off, or
that other unexpected conditions can occur.
Install high or low temperature protection in systems where an
overtemperature or undertemperature fault condition could present a fire
hazard or other hazard. Failure to install temperature control protection
where a potential hazard exists could result in damage to equipment and
property, and injury to personnel.
The 8LS includes a reset circuit that sets the control outputs off or to the
data stored in memory if the microprocessor resets—normally the result
of a power failure and power return. If a memory-based restart will be
unsafe for your process, program the 8LS controller to restart with
outputs off. For additional safety, program the computer or other host
device to automatically reload the desired operating constants or process
values on return of operating power. However, these safety features do
not eliminate the need for external, independent safety devices in
potentially dangerous or unsafe conditions.
Watlow Anafaze also offers ANASOFT®, an optional software
program for IBM-AT® or IBM-PC® compatible computers. In the
event of a reset, ANASOFT will reload the 8LS controller with the
current values in computer memory. The user must ensure that this reset
will be safe for the process. Again, use of ANASOFT does not eliminate
the need for appropriate external, independent, safety devices.
Contact Watlow Anafaze immediately if you have any questions about
system safety or system operation.
8LS User’s Guide 3
Overview
4 8LS User’s Guide
Introduction
Introduction
The 8LS is a powerful 1/4 DIN controller that delivers 8 fully
independent loops of PID control. It can function as a stand alone
controller and as the key element in a computer supervised data
acquisition and control system. An LED front panel display and a touch
keypad are available for local entry of control and other operating
parameters. The 8LS can also be supervised by a computer or
programmable controller through the standard serial interface.
The 8LS features include:
Direct Connection of Mixed Sensors: Versatile analog inputs let you
directly connect most industrial T/C sensors. Thermocouple inputs
feature reference junction compensation, linearization, upscale break
detection, and a choice of °F or °C display. Other analog inputs require
scaling resistors on the 8LS inputs.
Automatic Scaling: All sensors can be automatically scaled by
entering any two measurement points. For example, to scale a pressure
sensor, enter two points such as 28% is 80 PSI, and 82% is 260 PSI. All
subsequent values will be in PSI.
Selectable Control Outputs: Each PID primary control output can be
selected as digital for on/off, time proportioning, or as analog for
proportional 0-5vdc /4-20madc. The PID secondary output can be
selected as digital for on/off, time proportioning, or distributed zero
crossing. Each loop can be independently set for on/off, P, PI, or PID
control with reverse acting [heat] or direct acting [cool] output.
Complete Process Monitoring: A unique alarm capability is included.
You can set a deviation band alarm, and high and low process [fixed]
alarms independently for each loop. In addition to global annunciator
digital output, each alarm can include a single or grouped digital output.
For example, the digital output from all the high process alarms can be
directed to a single output for automatic process shutdown.
Front Panel or Computer Operation: You can set up and run the 8LS
from the front panel or from a local or remote computer. We offer
ANASOFT, an IBM PC or compatible menu driven program, to set the
8LS parameters. In addition, ANASOFT features graphic trend plotting,
process overviews, printouts, and data archiving.
Multiple Job Storage: You can store up to 8 jobs in protected memory
and access them by entering a single job number. Each job is a set of
operating conditions, including setpoints and alarms. Thus if a single
oven is producing multiple products, entry of the job number will setup
all the loops.
8LS User’s Guide 5
Introduction
Dual Output Standard: The 8LS includes dual control outputs for
each loop with a second set of control constants for heating and cooling
applications.
Optional Ramp and Soak: The 8LS is available with a built in
powerful Ramp and Soak programmer for batch processing.
Optional Extruder or Carbon Potential: The 8LS is available with
built in Extruder or Carbon Potential parameters for controlling these
processes.
6 8LS User’s Guide
Introduction
Specifications
Analog Inputs
Analog inputs
8, solid state, differential
Optical isolation
120 Vac between inputs; 175 Vac from input to ground
A/D converter
Integrating voltage to frequency
DC voltage range
-10 to 60 mV. You can change it with scaling resistors to
any range from 0 to 25V
Resolution
0.02%, greater than 12 bits
Accuracy
0.05% at 25°C
Calibration
Automatic zero and full scale
Temperature coefficient
Less than 50 ppm/C, 0.005%/°C
Normal mode rejection
60 db at 60 Hz, full scale range maximum
Loop update time
2 times per second, every input
T/C burnout
Full upscale reading of input standard
DC milliamp inputs
4-20 mA, 10-50 mA, 0-50 mA, etc., with scaling resistors
Input Range
0-1V, 0-5V, 0-10V, 0-12V, up to 0-25 Vdc, with scaling
resistors
Infrared inputs
Power supply included, with scaling resistors
Source impedance
Measurements are within specification with up to 500
ohms source resistance
Thermocouple Ranges
J
-350 to 1400°F
-212 to 760°C
K
-450 to 2500°F
-268 to 1371°C
T
-450 to 750°F
-268 to 399°C
B
150 to 3200°F
66 to 1760°C
S
0 to 3200°F
-18 to 1760°C
R
0 to 3210°F
-18 to 1766°C
N
-450 to 2370°F
-268 to 1299°C
RTD Ranges
RTD1
-148.0 to +572.0°F
-100 to 300°C
0.1°
RTD2
-184.0 to +1544.0°F
-120 to 840°C
0.2°
8LS User’s Guide 7
Introduction
Control Capability
Number of loops
8, dual output
Control outputs
Cycle Time Proportioning, Distributed Zero Crossing, On/Off or Analog; all independently selectable for each loop
Control action
Reverse [heat] or Direct [cool], independently selectable for each
loop
Digital PID outputs
Nominal 5 Vdc at 20 mA to drive optically-isolated solid-state relays
Cycle time
Programmable for each loop, 1-255 seconds
Analog PID outputs
Selectable 0 to 5 Vdc at 20 mA maximum or 4 to 20 mAdc 500 ohm
maximum load
Output resolution
12 bits
Digital Outputs
Number
31
Configuration
1 Global Alarm (terminals)
30 for alarms or events (1-4 terminals, 5-30 RTB connector)
Digital Inputs
Number
12
Configuration
12 for Ramp/Soak triggers
(1-8 RTB connector, 9-12 terminals)
Number
Selectable 1 per unit
Type
Open collector, 5 Vdc max.
Frequency
1 to 20 Khz
Pulse Counting Input
Serial Interface
Type
RS-232 or RS-485 4 wire, jumper select
Isolation
RS-232: optical
RS-485: To RS-485 Specification
Baud Rate
2400 or 9600, menu selectable
Protocol
Form of ANSI X3.28-1976, compatible with Allen Bradley
PLC, full Duplex
Error check
BCC or CRC, menu selectable
No. of controllers
Each communications line: 32 with RS-485, 1 with RS-232
Power Supply
Power input
8 8LS User’s Guide
85 to 132 Vac, .1A typical, 47 to 440 Hz
Installation
Installation
This section explains how to install the 8LS. The instructions are written
for nontechnical users. If you are technically proficient and they seem
simple, at least skim all of the instructions, so you don’t miss anything
vital.
These symbols are used throughout this manual:
DANGER
This symbol warns you of a hazard to human life.
WARNING
This symbol warns you of possible damage to
property or equipment.
NOTE
This symbol denotes information you must know
in order to proceed.
8LS User’s Guide 9
Installation
Read This Before Installation
DANGER
Shut off power to your process before you install
the 8LS. High voltage may be present even when
power is turned off! Reduce the danger of electric
shock after installation--mount the 8LS in an
enclosure that prevents personal contact with electrical components.
The 8LS measures input signals that are not normally referenced to ground, so the 8LS inputs and
other signal lines can have high voltage present
even when power is turned off. For example, if you
inadvertently short a thermocouple to the AC
power line.
WARNING
During installation and wiring, place temporary
covers over the housing slots and the rear of the
8LS so dirt and pieces of wire don't fall through
the slots. When you are finished with installation,
remove the covers.
Install the 8LS so the airflow to the slots in the
housing is not restricted after installation. Make
sure that other equipment does not block airflow
to the housing slots.
Use #20 or #22 AWG wires and trim wire insulation to 1/4" (5 mm). Wire should fit inside the
terminal with no bare wire exposed, to prevent
contact between wires and the grounded case. Tin
any stranded wire.
Support power, input and output cables to reduce
strain on the terminals and to prevent wire
removal.
NOTE
Choose a panel location that leaves enough clearance to install and remove the 8LS and it s
components.
10 8LS User’s Guide
Installation
Mounting The 8LS
The 8LS consists of a 1/4 DIN housing with a front plug in electronics
module. The 8LS-OF (Open Frame) is suitable for sub-plate mounting
inside an enclosure without a front panel. An 8LS-DK will supply the
front panel keyboard with a 10-foot plug- in cable.
For optimum performance when directly connecting thermocouple
inputs, the unit should be protected from thermal shocks whenever
possible. This will minimize any temperature gradients across the
terminal strips and ensure the highest accuracy.
1. Use the dimensions below to cut a hole in the panel.
92 mm
3.6’’
92 mm
3.6 ’’
Cut the hole carefully; the 1/4 DIN specification only allows a front
panel of 96mm x 96mm [3.78in x 3.78in], so there’s not a lot of room
for error.
2. After the hole is cut, insert the 8LS through the front of the panel and
screw the top and bottom clamps into place. If excessive vibration is
anticipated a rear support may be required both for the 8LS and the
interconnecting cables.
8LS User’s Guide 11
Installation
.
Front
Rear
PIO
LOOP
1
PROCESS
2
3
4
UNITS
5
6
7
TB4
8
3.78’’
3.58 ’’
90.9 mm
96 mm
ALARM
YES
SETPOINT
NO
STATUS
BACK
OUTPUT%
ENTER
TB3
ALARM
ACK
MAN
AUTO
CHNG
SP
TB2
TB1
RAMP
SOAK
3.58 ’’
90.9 mm
3.78’’
96 mm
Side
3.78’’
3.58’’
96 mm
90.9
mm
9.4’’
238.7mm
10.5’’
266.7mm
12 8LS User’s Guide
Installation
0.29’’
Remote Panel Mounting Dimensions
Insert grommet
3.78’’
7/16 dia
0.91’’
125 dia
4 places
3.20’’
Notes:
1. Dashed line indicates panel outline.
2. Drill holes as indicated.
3. Install grommet and feed wire
through grommet.
4. Attach panel using 4 #4 screws
(from behind).
Top
0.29’’
3.78’’
3.20’’
External Wiring
During wiring, it is recommended that the 8LS electronics be removed
or that temporary covers be put over the housing slots to ensure pieces
of wire do not enter the housing and lodge in the electronics. Always
ensure that the housing is clean when the electronics is plugged in.
A successful installation of an 8LS control system depends on selecting
the proper equipment and using correct installation techniques with
appropriate material. One area of concern is the wiring type and
placement of the wiring.
The wiring is selected according to the function of the wire, the
installation requirements, and the possible mechanical electrical
problems that may occur.
The function of the wire is divided into two basic categories: Inputs and
Outputs. The process control requirements will dictate the type of
inputs and the outputs along with the mechanical electrical requirements
of the individual installation.
The term AC power is applied to the 120 VAC control supply. High
power is applied to 240 VAC or higher, primarily used for control loads.
General Wiring Requirements
1. Use stranded wire. Solid wire is recommended for fixed service
and tends to make intermittent connections when moving the field
wiring around for maintenance.
8LS User’s Guide 13
Installation
2. Use 20 or 22 AWG size wire. The use of 16,18,20,22, or 24 AWG is
permissible also. The power requirement is not a factor in the wire
size. Only the mechanical strength and the ohmage of the wire may
be factors to consider. Smaller or larger sizes
are not easily
installed, may be easily broken and/or cause intermittent connections.
3. Use shielded wire. The electrical shield is used primarily to protect
from unwanted electrical noise.
Normal use of the input wiring shield is to connect one end only to
the 120 VAC panel ground at the 8LS panel location. Another method
is to connect it at the sensor site ground and to the Analog Ground
terminal of the 8LS.
Normal use of the output wiring shield would be to connect one end
only to the 120 VAC panel ground in the panel that the 8LS is
mounted in. Actual use of the shields will be determined by the
installation requirement.
For additional noise suppression measures see NOISE SUPPRESSION FOR Digital Outputs.
4. Use Thermocouple Extension Wire for all thermocouple (T/C)
inputs. Most T/C Ext. Wire is solid wire unshielded. When using
such, the shield function cannot be utilized and only 16, 18, or 20
AWG should be used. Install all T/C wiring in its own conduit away
from AC Power and High Power wiring. Depending on type and wire
size up to 400-500 feet in length may be used to be within stated
accuracy and source impedance.
5. Use multiconductor stranded shielded cable for analog inputs. Most
inputs will use a shielded twisted pair, but some may require a 3 wire
input. Run all analog input wiring in its own conduit away from AC
Power and High Power wiring. Wire sizes of 20, 22, or 24 AWG may
be used.
6. Use multiconductor stranded shielded cable for analog outputs and
PID digital outputs connected to panel mount SSR's. The analog
output will normally use a twisted pair while the digital outputs will
be up to 9 or 20 conductors depending on wiring techniques. All
cables will be shielded. The wiring size will normally be 24 AWG.
The maximum length for the digital outputs should not exceed 25
feet. The maximum length for the analog outputs should not exceed
400 feet. All wiring must be in a separate conduit away from AC
Power and High Power wiring.
When using the 50 conductor flat ribbon cable for the I/O, use of
the 50-pin connector is recommended for both ends of the cable.
The wire is too small to withstand much flexing when connected to
a screw terminal. The cable length should not exceed 15 feet.
7. When installing communications wiring, by pulling in an extra pair, a
sound power phone system could be used for communications
between the 8LS and the computer. This could be used for maintenance, checking calibration and many other functions. A David Clark
#H5030 sound powered system has been used successfully in systems requiring this function.
8. When installing any I/O wiring to the 8LS inside a panel, it should
never be run in the same bundle as AC power wiring.
14 8LS User’s Guide
Installation
Wiring bundles of low power Watlow Anafaze circuits next to bundles of high power AC wiring should never be done. The physical
separation of the high power circuits from the controllers should be
of prime importance. In fact, most AC voltage high power circuits are
installed in a separate panel.
Cable Recommendations
Use these cables or their equivalent.
MFR P/N
# of
Wires
AWG
Analog Inputs
Belden #9154
Belden #8451
2
2
20
22
RTD Inputs
Belden #8772
Belden #9770
3
3
20
22
T/C Inputs
T/C Ext. Wire
2
Carbon Probe Input
Belden #88760
2
18
Digital PID Outputs and Digital
I/O
Belden #9539
Belden #9542
Ribbon Cable
9
20
50
24
24
Analog Outputs
Belden #9154
Belden #8451
2
2
20
22
Computer Communication:
Belden #9729
Belden #9730
Belden #9842
Belden #9843
4
6
4
6
24
24
24
24
Function
RS232, RS422, RS485, or 20
mA
8LS User’s Guide 15
Installation
Noise Suppression
When using the digital outputs from Watlow Anafaze multiloop
controllers to energize dry contact electrical-mechanical relays with
inductive loads, generation of RFI may become a problem.
This may cause the 8LS display to blank out and then re-energize as if
power had been momentarily turned off. It may also cause the CPU in
the equipment to reset, losing the PID output levels. It may also damage
the digital output IC circuit, thus not being able to energize the digital
outputs. If the IC circuit is damaged, factory repair will be required.
The type of loads that may cause a problem are motor starters, alarm
horns, etc. The RFI is generated upon opening of the metallic relay
contacts.
To correct the problem of RFI noise problems:
1. Use Solid State Relays (SSR) wherever possible in place of electricalmechanical relays (E-M relays).
2. When using E-M relays, if possible do not mount them in the same
panel as the Watlow Anafaze equipment.
3. Separate the 120 vac power leads from the low level input and outputs leads from the Watlow Anafaze. Do not run the digital outputs or
PID control outputs leads in the same wire bundle as any 120 vac
wires. Inputs leads should never be run in the same bundle with any
high power leads.
4. If E-M relays are required and must be in the same panel as the Watlow Anafaze equipment, use a .01 uF at 1000 vdc or higher vdc disk
capacitor in series with a 47 ohm 1/2 W resistor across the NO contacts of the relay load contacts. This is the most important step in suppressing RFI from relay contacts. This network is known as arc
suppressor or snubber networks.
5. Use of other voltage suppressing devices may also be used, but are
not normally required. A device known as a MOV rated at 130 vac
for 120 vac control circuits may be placed across the load. This will
limit the peak ac voltage to about 180 vac. A device known as a transorb (back to back zeners) may be used across the digital output. The
rating of 5 vdc should be used. This will limit the dc voltage to 5 vdc
on the digital output loop.
See diagrams for proper placement of the above devices. The parts for
RFI suppression are available from Watlow Anafaze.
16 8LS User’s Guide
Installation
The above steps should eliminate any noise problems that might be
present with using E-M relays. If, problems persists and/or any
questions about the above steps arises, please call Watlow Anafaze
Technical Service Department at (408) 724 3800.
L1
L2
120 VAC
8LS
+
+
K1
SSR
5 V Transorb
NC
K1
HORN
NO
.01uf
1000 VDC
or higher
47 ohm
1/2 W
MOV
130 VAC rating
8LS User’s Guide 17
Installation
Terminal Block And Connector Layout
The 8LS terminal blocks and connectors are assigned according to the
following two pages. Subsequent sections provide detailed connection
descriptions.
Communications Terminal Block 4
Jumper*
RxChas Gnd
6
4
5
3
2
COM Rx COM Tx
6
Ana In 3-
8
Ana In 4-
10
Ana in 5-
12
Ana in 6-
14
Ana In 7-
16
Ana in 8-
18
Analog COM
20
Dig In 10
22
Logic COM
24
SHLD
RS-232 Connections
50 Pin
Conn
PID 1 Out +
2
Ana In 1+
Ana In 2+
50 49
PID 3 Out +
4
PID 4 Out +
Ana In 3+
R
6
PID 6 Out +
Ana In 4+
8
9
I
11
Ana In 5+
B
13
Ana In 6+
15
Ana In 7+
Analog COM
5
7
Ana In 8+
17
19
Analog COM
21
Dig In 9
23
Dig In 11
Terminal block 3
1
1
Terminal
Block 2
Terminal
Block 1
1
Analog COM 2
3
Ana In 14
Ana In 2-
RS-485 Connections
Rx+ Tx- Tx+
2
PID 7 Out + 10
Pulse In +
12
B
Dig In 12
14
O
Dig Out 1
16
N
Dig Out 2
18
Dig Out 3
2
1
20
Dig Out 4
22
Global
Alarm Out
24
1
Logic COM
3
+ PID 2 Out
5
Logic COM
7
+ PID 5 Out
9
Logic COM
11
+ PID 8 Out
13
Logic COM
15
17
Logic COM
19
Logic COM
21
+5 Vdc
23
+5 Vdc
Red marker on flat ribbon cable
3
Chas AC
AC
Gnd Neutral HOT
(green) (white) (black)
* It is suggested with noisy electrical environments, a heavy gauge jumper wire be connected between the chassis ground and shield terminals on the rear terminal block as
shown.
18 8LS User’s Guide
Installation
RTB Connections
The RTB provides the control outputs and additional digital inputs and
outputs as follows:
Terminal
Function
Terminal
Function
1
+5 Vdc
2
+5 Vdc
3
Logic COM
4
Logic COM
5
Spare
6
Spare
7
Spare
8
Spare
9
PID 1 Out
10
Dig 30 Out
11
PID 2 Out
12
Dig 29 Out
13
PID 3 Out
14
Dig 28 Out
15
PID 4 Out
16
Dig 27 Out
17
PID 5 Out
18
Dig 26 Out
19
PID 6 Out
20
Dig 25 Out
21
PID 7 Out
22
Dig 24 Out
23
PID 8 Out
24
Dig 23 Out
25
Dig 5 Out
26
Dig 22 Out
27
Dig 6 Out
28
Dig 21 Out
29
Dig 7 Out
30
Dig 20 Out
31
Dig 8 Out
32
Dig 19 Out
33
Dig 9 Out
34
Dig 18 Out
35
Dig 10 Out
36
Dig 17 Out
37
Dig 11 Out
38
Dig 16 Out
39
Dig 12 Out
40
Dig 15 Out
41
Dig 13 Out
42
Dig 14 Out
43
Dig 1 In
44
Dig 2 In
45
Dig 3 In
46
Dig 4 In
47
Dig 5 In
48
Dig 6 In
49
Dig 7 In
50
Dig 8 In
All digital outputs and the PID outputs on this ribbon connection are
Sink Outputs. They are in reference to the 5Vdc supply. The outputs will
be low when they are on.
All digital inputs are TTL level inputs and may be selected from
software if they will be high/false or low/true inputs.
8LS User’s Guide 19
Installation
NOTE
When using the RTB, proper polarity of the flat
ribbon cable is necessary for correct pin terminations. Install the red marker indicating pin #1 to
the left when terminal #1 of the RTB is to the left.
The flat ribbon cable should have the red marker
down when installing it on the back of the 8LS. To
confirm proper polarity, check that pin #1 is +5vdc
with respect to pin #3.
Analog Inputs
Connecting analog signals to the 8LS is normally straightforward. Most
thermocouples can be directly connected and mixed in any order. Other
types of analog signals such as RTD's or mAdc or Vdc require scaling
resistors installed on the 8LS inputs. Some problems may occur that
could reduce accuracy and possibly damage the unit. Below are some of
the potential areas for concern.
Common Mode Voltage
Common mode voltage is the voltage between the ground at the sensor
and the ground at the 8LS. It can be an AC or DC voltage and appears
equally at the high and low input terminals. Frequently it is caused by
large currents flowing in the ground path between the 8LS and the
sensors. Use isolated sensors or ungrounded thermocouples and locate
the 8LS as close as possible to the sensors in order to minimize the
effects. Do not exceed the maximum common mode voltage of 175 Vac.
Normal Mode Voltage
Normal mode voltage appears across the terminals of the input and is
the signal from the sensor plus any undesirable noise. The major cause
of this noise is AC power line pick-up. The effects are reduced by the
8LS capacity to integrate the signal over a multiple of the power line
frequency. Further reduction can be achieved by locating the 8LS near
the sensors and by using twisted and shielded sensor wires.
To ensure accurate readings, the maximum of normal mode plus signal
should not exceed -10mv to +60mv.
Grounding
For best accuracy, observe the grounding recommendations for
connecting each input and output signal. The analog signal grounds
should be connected to the analog ground terminals. The
communication and control outputs should be connected to their
respective grounds. Do not mix the grounds or connect them together. If
possible, route the analog signal cables separately from the
communication, control and power cables.
20 8LS User’s Guide
Installation
Source Impedance
Each sensor has a certain output impedance which is effectively
connected across the 8LS input amplifier when a measurement is made.
To reach the rated accuracy, the maximum source impedance should not
exceed 500 ohms. Consult Watlow Anafaze for operation with higher
source impedance.
Input Scaling
The 8LS contains an area that can be used to install resistors to scale
input voltages and convert milliamp inputs to match the -10 to 60mv (16.7% to 100%) input range. The input circuit is designed to enable
connection of current inputs (such as 4 to 20ma), voltage inputs, and 3Wire RTD. Watlow Anafaze will supply input scaling as needed -- order
option 8LS-SI-XX. The input circuit is shown below:
Ana In + = Analog signal + input
Ana In - = Analog signal - input
Ana Gnd = Analog signal ground
+10 Vdc Reference
Terminal
Block
RB Alternate
RC
Ana In +
+ IN
RB
Ana In -
RA
Measurement
Input
- IN
RD
Ana Gnd
Analog Ground
RA is shorted by a jumper on the PC board, REMOVE THIS JUMPER
TO INSTALL RA.
Resistors should be 0.1% metal film, 1/4 watt. Note that the resistors
must be stood on end due to the compact size of the unit. Other
components such as capacitors can be installed for signal conditioning.
Please consult Watlow Anafaze. The PC board silk screen shows the
resistor locations.
8LS User’s Guide 21
Installation
Resistor Installation
For scaling resistors the body of the resistor goes vertically into the hole
with the white silk screen. The lead on the top then goes into the
adjacent indicated hole. The resistor positions are highlighted.
RC1
RB1
RC2
RB2
RC3
RB3
RC4
RB4
RC5
RB5
RC6
RB6
RC7
RB7
RC8
RB8
22 8LS User’s Guide
RD1
RA1
RD2
RA2
RD3
RA3
RD4
RA4
RD5
RA5
RD6
RA6
RD7
RA7
RD8
RA8
Installation
Voltage Inputs
DC Voltage inputs should be connected with the positive side to the
High terminal and the negative side to the Low terminal. The input
range is -10 to +60 mV. Signals greater than 60 mv must be scaled with
resistors to match the input full scale to 60 mv. The scaling resistor RA
is selected as the voltage dropping and/or current limiting resistor. RB is
selected for the 60 mv full scale dropping resistor. It should normally be
less then 300Ω and no greater then 1000Ω. Any value above 1000Ω for
RB will cause error due to the upscale burnout circuit.
This table shows scaling resistors values.
Output
Voltage Range
RA
RB
Accuracy
0-100 mV
499 Ω
750 Ω
+ .1 %
0-500 mV
5.49 KΩ
750 Ω
+ .1 %
0-1 V
6.91 KΩ
442 Ω
+ .2 %
0-5 V
39.2 KΩ
475 Ω
- .2 %
0-10 V
49.9 KΩ
301 Ω
- .1 %
The above values are .1% standard metal film resistor values and will
give an accuracy of +0.25%. The above values at .1% are our factory
stock. Any possible error due to resistor tolerance error may be
corrected by using the built in linear scaling. Remove the jumper in the
RA location to install RA.
Milliamp Inputs
Current inputs from transmitters are accommodated by placing resistors
in the input section to convert the current input into a voltage. Different
current input ranges are accommodated by selecting the proper resistor
values.
A single 0.1% resistor is used as follows:
4 to 20 ma
RB = 3.000 Ω
0 to 10 ma
RB = 6.000 Ω
Thermocouple Inputs
All thermocouple types may be directly connected to the Watlow
Anafaze 8LS. Types J, K, T, R, S, B, and N linearization and cold
junction compensation are provided standard in the Watlow Anafaze
8LS. For other thermocouple types, optional input ranges are required.
Thermocouples should be connected with the positive lead to Ana In +
terminal and the negative lead to Ana In- terminal of TB1. RA is the
only resistor used for T/C inputs and it is a jumper.
8LS User’s Guide 23
Installation
RTD Inputs
The standard industrial RTD is a 100 ohm Platinum three wire
assembly. We highly recommend using the 3-wire RTD. The 8LS will
be configured for the standard three wire RTD input.
Watlow Anafaze offers two standard DIN 385 Curve RTD input ranges,
as shown in the table below:
RTD
Type
Input
Range
Display
Resolution
RTD1
-100.0 to +300.0 °C
0.1°
-148.0 to +572.0 °F
-120.0 to 840.0 °C
RTD2
0.2°
-184.0 to +1544.0 °F
RTD Range resistors are Watlow Anafaze factory stock in .05%
tolerance.
Range
RA
RB Alternate
RC
RTD1
80 Ω
22 KΩ
22 KΩ
RTD2
100 Ω
48 KΩ
48 KΩ
Infrared Non-contact Temp. Sensors
The IRSM (infrared sensing module) is ideally suited for many infrared
non-contact temperature applications. It can be supplied by Watlow
Anafaze as a fully integrated system with the 8LS configured to provide
power for up to four IRSM modules and for direct connection of the
IRSM output. The following connections are required if the IRSM
internal ambient sensor is not used:
24 8LS User’s Guide
IRSM Wires
8LS
Signal
Pin
Color
Analog In +
A
Orange
Signal Out (0-10 mAdc)
Analog In -
B
White
Signal Ground
Analog Gnd
K
+5 Vdc
E
Red
+5 Vdc supply
Logic Gnd
C
Black
Power Ground
Logic Gnd
J
Brown
No Peak Hold
No Connection
D
Green
+15 Vdc supply
No Connection
F
Blue
Ambient Sensor
No Connection
H
Yellow
Track and Hold
Function
Shield
Installation
The range of the standard IRSM is 0-1000 degrees F with an output of
0-10ma dc. The input of the Watlow Anafaze 8LS is configured for a 010madc input.
To use more than four IRSM's with the 8LS, use an external power
supply of 8-15vdc.
If desired, a second input may be used to monitor the internal IRSM
ambient temperature. Consult Watlow Anafaze for more information.
Pulse Input
The single pulse input is used when a speed or flow input is available as
a Open Collector signal of 5Vdc maximum from the transducer. The
frequency range of the input is from 1Hz to 20KHz. The sample time
period is adjustable from 1 to 20 seconds. To enable the pulse input,
select PLS for the input type of the loop that is to be used for the pulse
input. Do not use the analog input terminals. Connect the transducers
output using shielded wiring to the pulse input pin 12 of TB2 as shown:
Transducer
8LS TB2
Pulse
+
12 Input
5 Vdc Maximum
-
Logic
13 Ground
Carbon Probe Input
The standard zirconia carbon probe as used by the metal treating
industry will have two outputs.
One is the T/C output. A type K, N, R, or S is used. This output will use
standard T/C Extension Wire connecting it to the 8LS.
The second output is the carbon probe output. This output requires using
a special cable due to the electrical and temperature requirements of the
probe and its environment. The cable requirements are two wire with
shield with a high ambient temperature rating of at least 150o C.
8LS User’s Guide 25
Installation
The Belden cable part number 88760 is highly recommended for the
connection of the carbon probe to the 8LS. An equivalent cable may be
used.
Chas
TB4
Gnd
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
2
T/C
+
-
4
Probe
+
_
6
3
5
Shield
Probe Cable Belden #88760.
Connect Shield to TB4-6 Chassis Ground.
No. of CP
Loops
26 8LS User’s Guide
T/C input
Loop Number
Carbon Probe Input
Loop No.
CP-1
1
2
CP-2
3
4
CP-3
5
6
CP-4
7
8
Installation
Control Outputs
WARNING
Control outputs are connected to the 8LS logic
ground. Be careful when you connect external
devices that may have a low side at voltage other
than controller ground, since you may create
ground loops.
If you expect grounding problems, use isolated
solid state relays and isolate the control device
inputs.
PID Output Termination TB (Primary) or
Flat Ribbon (Secondary)
The 8LS PID control outputs are Dual Outputs for each loop. For
identification these are called primary and secondary control outputs.
Therefore, each loop has control of two outputs, a primary and a
secondary. These are set by factory default to be for Heat/Cool
applications whether or not they will be used for heat/cool operation.
Primary simply means that it is physically implemented on the terminal
block instead of the 50 pin ribbon cable. This is because many
applications use only one output, and a user will not have to buy a
remote terminal block to use the primary output. Also, the primary
outputs are the only ones which can be programmed to analog. Primary
outputs cannot be programmed for DZC outputs.
The default output assignment is for the heat output to be on the primary
terminal outputs and the cool output to be on the secondary 50 pin
ribbon outputs. This can be changed, however, on an individual channel
basis by assigning the heat output to the ribbon cable. The primary and
secondary outputs do not have to be used for heat/cool since:
1. Each output may be individually programmed as a different type:
ON/OFF, TP (both outputs), DZC (secondary only) and ANALOG
(primary only).
2. Each output can be individually programmed to be direct or reverse
acting [both outputs can be the same].
3. There may be a deadband programmed for heat/cool, and in that
deadband both outputs will be off.
8LS User’s Guide 27
Installation
Pid Control Relay Outputs
Typical ON/OFF, TP, DZC control outputs utilize external opticallyisolated solid-state relays. These relays use a 3 to 32vdc input for
control and can be sized to switch up to 100amps at 480vac. For larger
currents these relays can be used to drive contactors.
Primary Screw Terminal Outputs
The primary PID positive output for each loop is located on the screw
terminal blocks and labeled Ctl Out 1+ through Ctl Out 8+. The
negative side of the output is Logic Ground.
NOTE
Primary control outputs are a source supplying
5vdc when the output is On. They should be connected to the positive (+) side of SSRs. Analog
outputs are positive with respect to logic ground.
Connections are made as follows:
SSR 1
Screw Terminal
Block 2
Pin
#
PID Ctl Out 1+
(TP or ON/OFF)
2
PID Ctl Out 2+
(TP or ON/OFF)
3
Logic Ground
1
PID Ctl Out 3+
(Analog 4-20 mAdc) 4
28 8LS User’s Guide
+
-
I/P
SSR 2
+
-
-
+
Installation
Digital Outputs On The Screw Terminal Blocks
NOTE
Alarms and events outputs are sinking +5vdc to
ground when the output is ON. They should be
connected to the minus (-) side of SSRs.
Connections are made as follows:
Screw Terminal
Block 2
Pin
#
Digital Out 1
(Alarm ON/OFF)
16
Digital Out 2
(Event On/Off)
18
+5Vdc Supply
21
PID Ctl Out 1+
(TP or On/Off)
4
Logic Ground
1
Alarm
SSR 1
Event
SSR 2
_ +
_ +
Control
SSR 3
_ +
See Terminal Block and Connector Layout.
Primary Analog Outputs
The 8LS provides either 4 to 20mA with 500 ohms maximum load or 05vdc at 5mA maximum. Selection is made on internal dip switches.
The control outputs are shipped as voltage outputs, and can be
converted from voltage to current by changing the dip switch settings on
the control output card. If you are using the output as a digital mode,
such as TPV, you should leave the output in voltage mode. These
switches are accessible from the top of the electronics assembly after it
has been removed from the housing.
There are two dip switch packages on the Output Card, each with 8
switches. Each channel requires two switches. The dip switch package
near the rear panel controls the odd numbered outputs, while the dip
switch package near the front panel controls the the even channels.
When the unit is viewed from the top, with the rear panels to the left, the
channels are in ascending order from left to right [See silk screen on the
printed circuit board].
For each channel, a switch pair will have the switches set in
complementary states. If the first switch of the pair is down and the
second is up, the output is in voltage mode. If the first is up and the
8LS User’s Guide 29
Installation
second is down, the output is in current mode. Thus if switch 3 is down
and 4 is up on the dip switch package near the rear panel, then channel 3
is set for voltage.
Rear DIP Switch
F
1O
8 Odd
Front DIP Switch
F
1
8 Even
O
CPU DIP Switch
8
o
1F
Output switches are set to voltage mode; in CPU switch all special
features are set to Off.
Analog Output Dip Switch Setting
for 0-5v/4-20mA
Loop
Switch
1
Rear
1
Position
0-5 Vdc
4-20 mA
1
O
F
Rear
2
F
O
3
Rear
3
O
F
3
Rear
4
F
O
5
Rear
5
O
F
5
Rear
6
F
O
7
Rear
7
O
F
7
Rear
8
F
O
2
Front
1
O
F
2
Front
2
F
O
4
Front
3
O
F
4
Front
4
F
O
6
Front
5
O
F
6
Front
6
F
O
8
Front
7
O
F
8
Front
8
F
O
O indicates an On switch, F indicates an Off switch.
30 8LS User’s Guide
Installation
CPU Dip Switch
WARNING
Normal mode of operation is for all positions to be
Off. Positions that are On will effect the 8LS normal operation mode.
Position 1 ON--Clears the battery backed RAM and re-initializes the
factory default values into the RAM.
1. Turn off power.
2. Set DIP switch position 1 ON.
3. Turn on power for 10 seconds, and then turn it off.
4. Set DIP switch position 1 OFF.
5. Turn on power.
Positions 2 to 8 are not used for normal 8LS operations. All positions
must be OFF.
NOTE
Turn off the power before you set any DIP switch.
After the new settings, turn on the power to energize the new DIP switch settings.
Secondary Outputs 50 Pin Ribbon Cable
NOTE
Secondary control outputs are sinking +5vdc to
ground when the output is on. Connect them to the
minus (-) side of SSRs.
8LS User’s Guide 31
Installation
Connections are made as follows:
Remote Terminal Block
Or
Ribbon Cable Pin
PID Ctl Out 1 9
PID Ctl Out 2 11
+5Vdc Supply 1
32 8LS User’s Guide
SSR 1
- +
SSR 2
- +
Installation
Communications Set-up and Connections
The 8LS offers two types of serial communications: RS- 232 and RS485. Up to 32 addresses can be set in the 8LS for one communication
line. RS-232 can not be used for more than 1 controller.
Unless otherwise specified in the purchase order, units are shipped
configured for RS-232. They may be easily modified to RS- 485 by
moving a cable and a jumper plug. These may both be reached from the
bottom of the electronics assembly after it has been removed from the
chassis. The cable has a 4 pin connector which plugs into 4 pins on an 8
pin header on the processor card. RS-232 is on the 4 pins closest to the
front panel, while RS-485 is on the 4 pins nearest to the rear panel. The
connector is always installed with the red lead nearest the front panel.
The jumper plug is located near the cable connector. The position
closest to the rear panel is for RS-232, while the position nearest the
front panel is for RS-485.
RS-232 Connections
The optically-isolated RS-232 interface is connected using the
Communications terminal block 1. See table below for connections.
Computer Connector
8LS
Watlow Anafaze
DB 25
DB 9
TB 4 Pin No.
Cable
RX Pin 3
RX Pin 2
TX Pin 2
White
TX Pin 2
TX Pin 3
RX Pin 4
Red
GND Pin 7
GND Pin 5
GND Pin 5
Black
The computer pins are for the normal 25 pin RS-232 connector [DB25]
and the normal 9 pin connector [DB9]. On some computers transmit TX
and receive RX may be reversed. Please check your computer manual
for details.
485
232
232 485
8LS User’s Guide 33
Installation
RS-485 Description And Connections
The RS-485 is a voltage balanced long distance multi-point
transmission interface. It may use 2 or 4 lines depending on system
requirements. The 8LS uses four lines [two lines can be accommodated
on special order -- contact Watlow Anafaze].
RS-485 Description
The EIA Standard RS-485 specifies only the electrical characteristics of
generators (transmitters) and receivers for use in digital multi-point
systems. The specification of transmission lines, signaling rates,
protocols, etc. is left entirely up to the user. The transmitters and
receivers selected by Watlow Anafaze also meet the requirements of
RS-422.
The following information is intended to make recommendations for the
application of the RS-485 interface to Watlow Anafaze equipment.
The maximum signaling rate used by the Watlow Anafaze 8LS and
associated equipment is 9600 baud. Since this is far below the
maximum signaling rate covered by the specification, satisfactory
performance may be expected without strict adherence to all of the
design rules. Watlow Anafaze has presented conservative
recommendations to insure reliable operation. If deviations are
necessary, please contact Watlow Anafaze.
Cable Recommendations
We recommend twisted shielded pairs for the RS-485 cables. The
transmitters and receivers specified in RS-485 are very tolerant of cable
characteristics, and some leeway is possible unless distances and
signaling rates push the specification limits.
One requirement is very important, as it impacts performance even
down to low frequency operation. The loop resistance of the
transmission line [wire only -- not terminating resistor] must not exceed
200Ω for a properly terminated line with a reasonable margin for noise.
Thus the following recommendations for distance and wire gauge
should be observed:
Distance
Wire Gauge
Recommended Cable
4000 ft.
24 AWG
Belden # 9729/9842
6000 ft.
22 AWG
Belden # 9184
The use of a shield depends on the noise environment and grounding
considerations. The above cables are shielded.
34 8LS User’s Guide
Installation
RS-485 Connections
Connection of Watlow Anafaze controllers to a system computer
requires an interface at the computer to convert RS-232 levels to RS485. Watlow Anafaze recommends two options:
• B&B Electronics 485OIC with 485PS2 or 485OISPR with 485PS.
• Black Box Model LD485A. The LD485A should be configured for
DCE operation, with the RTS/CTS delay jumper in the "on" position. Watlow Anafaze can supply this converter configured and
checked out with the system on request.
Jumper setup for the B&B Electronics:
1. JP1
Off
2. JP2
Installed
Normal Operation LD485A installation setup:
1. DCE operation (Dip shunt in XW1A socket)
2. Normal operation (Front panel switch out)
3. Full Duplex operation (Jumper W8 on Full)
4. RTS/CTS Delay set to ON (Jumper W9 to ON)
5. Unterminated operation (Switch S2 to Unterm)
6. No jumper at position W7
The RS-485 specification is for "balanced line" operation, and is not
true differential. Thus a common connection is required between all
stations on the communication line. This can be accomplished by either
a 5th wire (which could be shield) or a common ground connection.
The Watlow Anafaze system more conveniently supports the common
ground connection, although 5th wire can be supported if required due
to common mode voltages generated in a given installation. The 3rd
wire connection would be required only if the "common mode" voltage
between stations exceeds the RS-485 specification of 7 volts peak.
To make sure the communication system works, the controller chassis
must be electrically tied to Earth ground, and the host computer
communication must be tied to Earth ground. If the host computer RS232 communication is not referenced to Earth ground, install the 100Ω
resistor in W7 as recommended by Black Box.
The following diagram shows the recommended system hookup. The
transmitter from the host computer connects in parallel to the controller
receivers, and the host computer receiver connects in parallel to the
controller transmitters. A single "daisy chain" is recommended. Octopus
connections or "spurs" are discouraged.
8LS User’s Guide 35
Installation
A termination resistor is required at each end of the transmission line.
This is accomplished by applying a 200Ω resistor across the line at the
farthest point from the computer transmitter. Check with Watlow
Anafaze for setting the Black Box SW2 to the "term" position to
terminate the computer receive line.
The fifth wire for RS-485 communications is recommended for noisy
environment.
NOTE
Connect the cable shields to equipment ground
only at the 8LS controller sites. Do not connect the
shield at the computer site to Ground. Connect a
200 ohm terminating resistor between RX- and
RX+ at the 8LS.
For multiple units connect the system in parallel as follows:
B&B Electronics
485OIS 485OIC
DB-25 Screws
#2
Black Box
LD485A
8LS (1)
8LS (n)
TDA
TXA
RX+ # 4
RX+ # 4
#14
TDB
TXB
RX- # 5
RX- # 5
#5
RDA
RXA
TX+ # 2
TX+ # 2
#17
RDB
RXB
TX- # 3
TX- # 3
200
Or
The "fifth"
wire
36 8LS User’s Guide
12 VDC Com
12 VDC Com
Logic COM
Logic COM
Using the 8LS
Using the 8LS
This Chapter will show you how to use the 8LS from the front panel.
Front Panel
The 8LS front panel provides a convenient interface with the controller
for both viewing the process conditions and operating the controller.
You can program and operate the 8LS with the front panel keys shown
below, or you can use ANASOFT, a program designed specifically for
Watlow Anafaze controllers.
LOOP
1
Yes
Select a menu
Answer Yes to Yes/No
prompts.
Increase a number or
choice
Alarm Ack
Acknowledge an alarm,
reset global alarm digital
output
ALARM
PROCESS
2
3
4
SETPOINT
UNITS
5
6
STATUS
7
8
OUTPUT%
YES
NO
BACK
ENTER
ALARM
ACK
CHNG
SP
MAN
RAMP
AUTO
SOAK
Enter
Store Data or
choice after
editing
Proceed to the
next menu
Ramp/Soak
Assign R/S profile
to a loop
Perform operations
on existing profile
Change Setpoint
No
Back
Adjust the setpoint
Skip a menu
Abort editing
Man/Auto
Answer No to Yes/No
Return to previous menu
Toggle loop status
prompts.
between
manual and
Decrease a number or
Auto.
choice
Adjust output power level
of loops in Manual mode
8LS User’s Guide 37
Using the 8LS
Front Panel Keys
YES
Yes/Up
Press Yes to
• Select a menu when prompt is blinking
• Answer Yes to Yes/No prompts
• Increase a number or choice you are editing
NO
No/Down
Press No to
• Skip a menu when prompt is blinking
• Answer No to Yes/No prompts
• Decrease a number or choice you are editing
BACK
Back
Press Back to
• Abort editing
• Return to a previous menu
ENTER
Enter
Press Enter to
• Store data or menu choice after editing
• Proceed to the next menu
ALARM
ACK
Alarm Ack
Press Alarm Ack to
• Acknowledge an alarm condition, reset global alarm digital output
38 8LS User’s Guide
Using the 8LS
CHNG
SP
Chng SP
Press Chng SP to
• Adjust the setpoint on displayed loop
MAN
AUTO
Man/Auto
Press Man/Auto to
• Toggle loop status between Manual and Auto
• Adjust output power level of loops in Manual mode
RAMP
SOAK
Ramp/Soak
Press Ramp/Soak to
• Assign a Ramp/Soak profile to selected loop
• Perform operations on profile you have assigned
NOTE
If the Ramp/Soak function is not installed, this key
has no function.
8LS User’s Guide 39
Using the 8LS
Displays
The next section discusses the 8LS displays:
• Bar Graph display
• Single Loop display
• Scanning display
• Alarm display
Bar Graph Display
This is the default display on power-up. It provides a system overview
by displaying a deviation bar graph for each loop. Loop status including
acknowledged alarms, manual or auto are also displayed.
LOOP
1
PROCESS
2
3
4
5
UNITS
6
7
8
AM A M A A AM
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS
OUTPUT%
The upper display shows the Bar Graph for each loop.
The highest and lowest level of the Bar Graph display are the upper and
lower deviation alarms. If deviation alarms are Off, the display range is
+5% of setpoint. The intermediate levels are linearly spaced between
the upper and lower limits.
The lower display shows each loop’s status. The table below shows the
loop status symbols.
Loop Status Symbol
Loop
Function
40 8LS User’s Guide
Description
Loop Display
AUTO
A
Single output loop is in automatic control mode.
The output power percentage displayed is for the
heat output.
HEAT
H
T
Dual output loop is in automatic control and the
heat output is active. The output power percentage
displayed is for the heat output.
COOL
C
L
Dual output loop is in automatic control and the
cool output is active. The output power percentage
displayed is for the cool output.
MANUAL
M
Loop is in manual control mode. Output power
percentage displayed is for the heat output.
Using the 8LS
The table below shows the status symbols for the Ramp and Soak
option.
Loop Status Symbol
Description
Loop Function
Loop Display
START
S
Ramp/Soak profile loaded, ready to start
RUN
R
Ramp/Soak profile is running
HOLD
H
Ramp/Soak profile is in hold
WAIT
W
Ramp/Soak loop is waiting for a trigger state to be
satisfied
TOLERANCE
ERROR
T
Ramp/Soak loop is out of tolerance and loop is in
hold
If an acknowledged alarm exists, the Bar Graph is replaced by an alarm
symbol.
Press Back to see the Single Loop display.
Single Loop Display
This display shows the detailed information for one loop at a time.
Press the Back key to return to the Bar Graph display.
LOOP
PROCESS
ALARM
°F
76
8
1
UNITS
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
130 A 100
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Scanning Display
Pressing both Yes and No arrow keys when you’re in Single Loop
display, activates the Scanning display.
In this mode, the controller will automatically step through the active
channels, showing the Single Loop display for each, for about a second.
Press any arrow key to return to the Single Loop display.
Alarm Display
The Alarm display is the same as the Single Loop display except the
alarm status is flashing.
8LS User’s Guide 41
Using the 8LS
The table below shows the alarm symbols.
Alarm
Symbol
High process
High deviation
Low deviation
Low process
Tolerance error
T
The Alarm display interrupts any system display. If more than one alarm
is present, the first one is shown.
When you press the Alarm Ack key, the flashing stops but the alarm
indicator remains as long as the alarm condition exists.
42 8LS User’s Guide
Using the 8LS
Operator Menus
You can perform these tasks from Single Loop display.
Changing the Setpoint
Press CHNG SP from the loop you want to change. This display
appears:
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
5
1
2
3
4
5
6
SP ?
ALARM
7
8
25
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
• Press Yes to change the setpoint.
• Press Yes or No to change the setpoint value.
• Press Enter to save your changes and return to Single Loop display.
• Press No or Back to return to Single Loop display without saving the
new setpoint.
Selecting Status Mode
• Press Man/Auto from the loop you want to change. This display
appears:
LOOP
PROCESS
6
1
UNITS
= AUTO
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
SET? TUNE
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
• Press No to switch between Auto, Manual, and Tune.
• Press Yes and then Enter to store your choice.
• Press Back if you want to go back to Single Loop display without
changing the mode.
8LS User’s Guide 43
Using the 8LS
If you have set the current loop to Manual control, this display appears
after you press Enter:
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
6 SET MAN
1
2
3
OUT
ALARM
4
5
H
T
?
6
7
8
0
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
• Press Yes to change the output power.
• Press Yes or No to select a new power output level.
• Press Enter to store your choice and go back to Single Loop display
Autotune
If you set the current loop control status to Tune and press Enter, the
controller automatically sets the loop to manual control, 100% output.
The autotune function then calculates the appropriate PID constants for
the loop and puts the loop in automatic control with the calculated PID
values.
The Autotune function will abort if:
• Process variable goes over 75% of the setpoint.
• PID constants were not calculated after 10 seconds (a failure of some
sort).
Ramp/Soak
Use the Ramp/Soak key only if the optional Ramp/soak package is
included in the controller. Information pertaining to programming and
operation of ramp and soak profiles is included in the Ramp/Soak
section.
44 8LS User’s Guide
Setup
Setup
The Setup menus let you change the 8LS detailed configuration
information.
If you have not set up a modular system before, or if you don’t know
what values to enter, please read the next section first, Tuning and
Control, which contains PID tuning constants and useful starting values.
How to enter the Setup menus?
1. In Single Loop display, select the loop you wish to edit.
2. Enter this pass sequence: Enter, Alarm Ack, and Chng SP.
ENTER
ALARM
ACK
CHNG
SP
3. The first Setup menu appears.
How to edit a menu?
• Press Yes to select this menu or No to advance to the next menu.
(When you select a menu, the blinking question mark changes to an
equal sign.)
• Press Yes (up) or No (down) to toggle between the options.
• Press Enter to store the value you have selected, or Back to stop
editing and return to the main menu.
The Setup section contains detailed information about the submenus of
the main menus.
The next page shows a diagram of the six main menus (plus the Ramp/
Soak main menu if the option’s installed) and all their submenus.
8LS User’s Guide 45
Setup
Setup
Globals?
Setup
Input?
Save as
job# ?
Input type?
Restore
Job# ?
Input smplt?
Alarm
delay?
(only Pulse)
Input unit?
Hi PV?
R/S time
base?
(only Linear &
Pulse)
Panel
lock?
(only Linear &
Pulse)
Power up
outs?
(only Linear &
Pulse)
Hi RDG?
Lo PV?
Lo RDG?
Contrllr
addr?
Comm err
chk?
(only Linear &
Pulse)
Setup
Outputs?
Setup
control?
Control
PB HT ?
Comm
baud?
Typ HT
C
L
Alarms
HP?
?
Control
TI HT ?
Outputs
Control
TD HT ?
Outputs
Act HT CL ?
Control
FIL HT
?
Outputs
Lim HT CL ?
Control
PB CL ?
Outputs
Ltm HT CL ?
Lo dev
Outpn?
Control
TI CL ?
Outputs
H C
NLO T L ?
Alarms
LP?
CT
Control
TD
C
L
H
T
?
Offset?
(T/C & RTDs)
Outputs
Setup
Alarms?
Control
FIL CL ?
Control
spr?
H
T
C
L
C
L
?
out?
Hi pro
outpn?
Alarms
Dev?
Hi dev
Outpn?
Lo pro
Outpn?
Alarms
Dbd?
Alarm
Dly?
Setup
R/S Pro?
R/S pro
Prof ?
INS =
R/S pro
Copy ?
Test out
NR ?
Outtol
T?
Ready
SP ?
Ready
Events ?
Extrst
In NR ?
Edit
Seg ?
Seg
T?
Seg
SP ?
Seg
Events ?
Comm
ptcl?
Seg
AC line?
Triggrs ?
PROM
info
Seg
Tol ?
The R/S menu appears only if
the Ramp and Soak option
is installed in your 8LS. If it ’s
not, the Test I/O display appears
right after the Setup Alarms
display.
46 8LS User’s Guide
Test I/O ?
Seg
Last ?
Edit
Seg ?
111
11111111
Dig out
NR01 ?
Setup
Setup Global Parameters Menu
The Setup global parameters menu looks like this:
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
SETUP
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
GLOBALS?
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Answering Yes to this prompt gets you into the globals submenus.
Below is the setup global parameters menu tree. Notice the default
values inside the boxes.
Setup
Globals?
Save as
Job #? 1
Contrllr
Addr? 1
Restore
Job # ?
1
Comm Err
Chk? BCC
Alarm
Delay?
0
Comm
Baud? 96
R/S Time
Base ? H/M
Panel
Lock? Off
Power Up
Outs? Off
Comm
Ptcl? ANA
AC Line?
60 HZ
PROM
Information
8LS User’s Guide 47
Setup
Save as Job
Use this menu to save the job information for every loop to one of eight
jobs in the battery-backed memory.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
SAVE AS
1
2
3
4
5
6
JOB #?
ALARM
7
8
1
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Range: 1-8.
Restore a Job
Use this menu to load a job from the memory .
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
RESTORE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
JOB # ? 1
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Range: The last job number or job 1.
Set Alarm Delay
Use this menu to set a startup delay for all system alarms. Alarm
checking will be delayed for the number of minutes you enter. This is
used to avoid nuisance alarms when starting up a system.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
ALARM
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
DELAY ? 0
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Range: 0-60 minutes.
48 8LS User’s Guide
Setup
Set R/S Time Base
Use This menu to set the global ramp and soak time base to units of
hours and minutes or minutes and seconds. All time entries in r/s
profiles will assume the units you set here.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
R/S TIME
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
BASE?H/M
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: Hours and minutes or minutes and seconds.
NOTE
This prompt appears only if your 8LS has the
Ramp and Soak option installed.
Lock Panel
Use this menu to disable the front panel keys Chng SP, Man/Auto, and
Ramp/Soak.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
PANEL
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
LOCK?OFF
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: On or Off.
Power Up Output Status
Use this menu to configure the initial power-up state of the control
outputs. If you choose Off, all control outputs are initially set to Manual
mode at 0% output level. If you choose Mem, the outputs are restored to
their condition when power was removed.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
POWER UP
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
OUTS?OFF
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: Off and Mem.
8LS User’s Guide 49
Setup
WARNING
Set safe start up conditions. Do not use memory
startup if there is any chance the process could
start in an unsafe state.
Controller Address
Use this menu to set the 8LS controller address. This address is used for
communications and each 8LS in a system must have a different
address. Begin with address 1 for the first controller and assign each
subsequent controller the next higher address.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
CONTRLLR
1
2
3
4
5
6
ADDR?
ALARM
7
8
1
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable range: 1 to 32.
Communication Error Checking
Use this menu to set the data check algorithm used in the WatlowAnafaze communications protocol.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
COMM ERR
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
CHK? BCC
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: BCC (Block Check Character) or CRC (Cyclic
Redundancy Check).
NOTE
If you are using ANASOFT, be sure to set ANAINSTL to the same error checking method you set in
this menu.
50 8LS User’s Guide
Setup
Communication Baud Rate
Use this menu to set the communications baud rate.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
COMM
1
2
3
4
5
6
BAUD?
ALARM
7
8
96
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: 2400 or 9600.
NOTE
If you are using ANASOFT, be sure to set ANAINSTL to the same baud rate you set in this menu.
Communication Protocol
Use this menu to set the protocol type to either Allen Bradley or
ANAFAZE.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
COMM
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
PTCL? ANA
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: ANA (ANAFAZE) or A/B (Allen Bradley).
AC Line Frequency
Use this menu to configure the controller to match the AC line
frequency. Since the controller reduces the effect of normal mode noise
by integrating the signal over the period of the AC line frequency, that
accuracy will be reduced if this is not set correctly.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
AC LINE?
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
60 HZ
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: 60 Hz or 50 Hz.
8LS User’s Guide 51
Setup
EPROM Version
Use this menu to see the controller’s EPROM version and checksum.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
8LS-RS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
V3.20
ALARM
52 8LS User’s Guide
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Setup
Setup Inputs Menu
The Setup input main menu lets you access menus which change loop
input parameters:
• Input type
• Engineering units
• Scaling
The Setup inputs menu looks like this:
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 SETUP
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
INPUT?
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Answering Yes to this prompt, gets you into the Inputs submenus.
Below is the setup inputs menu tree. Notice the default values inside the
boxes.
1 Input
Type? J
1 Input
Type? J
(Only Pulse)
1 Input
Smplt? 1
1 Hi Rdg
? 1000
1 Lo PV
? 0
1 Input
Unit? °F
1 Lo Rdg
? 0
1 Hi PV
? 1000
1 Offset
?
0
(Only Linear & Pulse)
(Only T/C & RTDs)
8LS User’s Guide 53
Setup
Input Type
Use this menu to configure the input sensor for each loop as one of these
input types:
• Thermocouple types (J, K, T, S, R, B, and N)
• RTD. Two ranges: RTD1 (Platinum class A: DIN 43760-1980,
Alpha=.00385), and RTD2 (Platinum class B: DIN 43760-1980,
Alpha=.00385).
• Linear and Pulse inputs.
• Skip. Scanning display doesn’t show loops you set to Skip.
LOOP
PROCESS
1
UNITS
INPUT
1
2
3
4
TYPE?
ALARM
5
6
7
8
J
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable range: See the table below for the input types and ranges
available for the 8LS.
he is editing. Character editing proceeds left to right one character at a time.
54 8LS User’s Guide
Input Type
Fahrenheit
Range
Celsius
Range
J
-350 to +1400
-212 to +760
K
-450 to +2500
-268 to +1371
T
-450 to +750
-268 to +399
S
0 to +3200
-18 to +1760
R
0 to +3210
-18 to +1766
B
+150 to +3200
+66 to +1760
N
-450 to +2370
-268 to +1299
RTD1
-148.0 to +572.0
-100.0 to +300.0
RTD2
-184 to +1544
-120 to +840
Pulse
0-20 KHz
Skip
Loop is not scanned or displayed
Linear
See Linear scaling section in this chapter
Setup
Pulse Sample Time
You can connect a digital pulse signal of 20 KHz to the controller’s
pulse input. Use this menu to specify the pulse sample period. Every
sample period, the number of pulses the controller receives is divided by
the sample time. The controller scales this number and uses it as the
pulse loop’s PV.
LOOP
PROCESS
1
INPUT
1
2
3
4
5
UNITS
6
7
8
SMPLT? 1
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable range: 1-20 seconds.
Input Units
Use this menu to choose a description for the loop’s engineering units.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 INPUT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
UNIT = º F
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable range: The table below shows the character set for input
units.
Input
Character Set
T/C & RTDs
ºF or ºC
Linear & Pulse
0-9, A-Z, %, degrees, /,
space
When entering three-character description (for Linear and Pulse), the
editing proceeds left to right, one character at a time. After you enter the
third character ,the display advances to the next menu.
8LS User’s Guide 55
Setup
Linear Scaling Menus
NOTE
The next four menus appear only for Linear or
Pulse loops.
For all inputs automatic scaling is provided. To set the scaling enter a
high process variable in engineering units and a corresponding high
reading. Then enter a low process variable in engineering units and a
corresponding reading. Using points as near as possible to zero and full
scale is best. After these entries the process variable, the setpoint and
alarms will all be in engineering units.
High PV Display
LOOP
PROCESS
1 HI
1
2
3
UNITS
PV
4
5
6
7
8
? 1000
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable range: 0-9999.
High RDG Display
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 HI RDG
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
? 1000
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable range: 0-9999.
The high input reading is referenced to 60mV and is calculated using
this equation:
(Sensor output @ High PV)
HIGH RDG = (1000)
*
60 mV
Low PV Display
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 LO PV
1
?
ALARM
2
3
4
5
6
8
0
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable range: 0-9999.
56 8LS User’s Guide
7
Setup
Low RDG Display
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 LO RDG
1
2
3
?
ALARM
4
5
6
7
8
0
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable range: 0-9999.
The low input reading is referenced to 60mV and is calculated using this
equation:
(Sensor output @ Low PV)
LOW RDG = (1000)
*
60 mV
Linear Input Scaling Example:
Problem:
You want to connect a pressure sensor to be able to read pressure
directly in PSI. The sensor has an output of 4-20mA over a range of
100-400PSI. The 4-20mA is converted to 12-60mV. How will you set
the input scaling?
Solution:
1. Set the High PV to 400 and enter the units as P, S, and I.
2. Calculate the High RDG and enter it:
High RDG = 1000
*
(60 mV)
Sensor output @ high PV
(60 mV)
Full scale 8LS input
=1000
3. Set the Low PV to 100 and enter the units as P, S, and I.
4. Calculate the Low RDG and enter it:
Low RDG = 1000
*
(12 mV)
Sensor output @ low PV
(60 mV)
Full scale 8LS input
=200
8LS User’s Guide 57
Setup
Input Offset
NOTE
The next menu appears only for Thermocouple or
RTD loops.
Use this menu to make up for the input signal’s inaccuracy. For
example, at temperatures below 400ºF , a type J thermocouple may be
inaccurate ("offset") by several degrees. To correct for offset errors,
change the factory default setting to a positive or negative value for the
loop you are editing. A positive value increases the reading and a
negative value decreases it.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 OFFSET
1
?
ALARM
2
3
0
4
5
º
6
7
8
F
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable range: -300 to +300.
58 8LS User’s Guide
Setup
Setup Control Menu
The Setup Control menu allows you to set control parameters for both
heat and cool outputs of the selected loop.
These are the parameters you can edit.
• Proportional Band
• Integral
• Rate
• Output Filter
• Spread between heat and cool outputs
The Setup Control menu looks like this:
LOOP
PROCESS
1
1
UNITS
SETUP
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
CONTROL ?
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Answering Yes to this prompt gets you into the control submenus.
Below is the setup control menu tree. Notice the default values inside
the boxes.
The letters H
T for Heat or
for Cool do not appear
together on the display.
There are four displays
for Heat and four displays for Cool.
C
L
1 Setup
Control?
Control
H
C
TD T L ?
Control
PB HT CL ?
Control
H
C
FIL T L ?
Control
H
C
TI T L ?
Control
SPR?
NOTE
If you set the Cool output PB to Off, the loop
becomes a single output channel and will no longer
function as a heat/cool loop. Further programming
of Cool output parameters is skipped and the display returns to the Setup Control prompt.
8LS User’s Guide 59
Setup
Heat/Cool PB
Use this menu to set the Proportional Band.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 CONTROL
1
2
3
PB
ALARM
4
H
T
5
6
?
7
8
50
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Heat/Cool TI
Use this menu to set the Integral Term.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 CONTROL
1
2
3
4
H
T
TI
ALARM
5
6
7
8
? 180
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable range: 0-5000 seconds.
Heat/Cool TD
Use this menu to set the Derivative constant.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 CONTROL
1
2
3
TD
ALARM
4
H
T
5
6
?
7
8
0
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable range: 0-255 seconds.
Heat/Cool Output Filter
Use This menu to dampen the heat or cool output’s response. The output
responds to a step change by going to approximately 2/3 of its final
value within the number of scans you set here.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 CONTROL
1
2
3
FIL
ALARM
H
T
4
5
6
8
? 2
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable range: 0-255.
60 8LS User’s Guide
7
Setup
Heat/Cool Spread
Use this menu to set the spread between the heat and cool output and the
spread of the On/Off control action.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 CONTROL
1
2
3
4
SPR?
ALARM
5
6
7
8
10
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable range: 0-255 engineering units.
8LS User’s Guide 61
Setup
Setup Outputs Menu
The Setup Outputs Menu allows you to edit output parameters such as:
• Output type
• Cycle time
• Control action
• Output level limit
• Output limit duration
• Heat/Cool nonlinear output curve
• Terminal Block or Ribbon
The Setup Outputs Menu looks like this:
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 SETUP
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
OUTPUTS?
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Answering Yes to this prompt gets you into the Setup Outputs
submenus. Below is the setup outputs menu tree. Notice the default
values inside the boxes.
H
T
The letters
for Heat
and LC for Cool are displayed depending on
whether you set the heat
or cool control.
The heat output parameters are programmed first,
and then the same parameters for the cool output.
1 Setup
Outputs?
Outputs
Lim HT CL ?100
Outputs
H C
Typ T L ? TP
Outputs
Ltm HT CL ?C
Outputs
H C
CT T L ?10
Outputs
H C
Nlo T L ?Off
Outputs
Act HT CL ?Rev
H/T Out?
Term blk
NOTE
If the channel is operating as a single output loop,
all prompts for the Cool output data are suppressed. When the last Heat output var iable is
programmed, the display returns to the Setup Outputs prompt.
62 8LS User’s Guide
Setup
Output Type
Use this menu to to set the output type.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 OUTPUTS
1
2
3
TYP
ALARM
4
5
H
T
?
6
7
8
TP
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: The next table shows the available output types.
Display
Code
Output Type
Definition
TP
Time Proportioning
Percent output is converted to a percent duty
cycle over the programmed cycle time.
DZC
Distributed Zero Crossing. Available only on
secondary (50 pin Ribbon
output).
Output On/Off state calculated for every AC line
cycle.
O/F
On/Off
Output either full On or full
Off.
ANA
Analog 0-5 Vdc or 4-20
mAdc.
Output is proportional over
the range of the voltage or
current output selected by
Dip switch setting.
Available only on primary (terminal).
Cycle Time
Use this menu to set the Cycle Time for the TP outputs.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 OUTPUTS
1
2
3
CT
ALARM
4
H
T
5
6
7
8
? 10
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: 1-255 seconds.
NOTE
This menu appears only if you set the output type
to TP.
8LS User’s Guide 63
Setup
Output Action
Use this menu to select the control action for the current output loop.
The default is Reverse for heat outputs and Direct for cool outputs.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 OUTPUTS
1
2
3
ACT
ALARM
4
5
H
T
6
7
?REV
8
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: Reverse or Direct.
Output Limit
The output from each loop's dual heat/cool output may be limited to a
value less than 100%. This level may not be exceeded by the PID
control action. This limit on the control output may be limited by a
period of time and then returned to full 100% output or it may be a
continuous limit until changed by the programming keys. The limit time
delay is restarted whenever you:
• Enter a new time period
• Switch a loop’s mode from Manual to Auto
• Power up the controller
The time period is adjustable from 1 to 999 seconds for a maximum
period of time of over 16 minutes. A time of 0 seconds will be displayed
as C, the same as for Continuous.
The output limiting is disabled by setting the value to 100%. The control
mode of ON/OFF has no output limiting available.
You may use the output limiting for "Soft Start" type of requirements of
different processes, or to restrict the energy into a process, tailoring the
controller output to the process needs.
Use this menu to limit the maximum PID control output for a loop’s heat
and cool outputs. This may be a constant limit or a temporary one
subject to the output limit delay.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 OUTPUTS
1
2
3
LIM
ALARM
4
H
T
5
6
7
? 100
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable range: 0-100%.
64 8LS User’s Guide
8
Setup
Output Limit Time
Use this menu to set the time limit for the output limit.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 OUTPUTS
1
2
3
LTM
ALARM
4
5
6
7
8
? C
H
T
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: 1-999 seconds or C (Continuous).
Nonlinear Output Curve
Use this menu to select one of two nonlinear output curves for nonlinear
processes.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 OUTPUTS
1
3
4
NLO
H
T
ALARM
2
5
6
7
8
?OFF
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: 1 (curve 1), 2 (curve 2), or Off (linear/no curve). The
linear curves are shown below.
8LS User’s Guide 65
Setup
Heat Output
Use this menu to select the Terminal Block or the Flat Ribbon for the
heat output termination. The heat output is usually defaulted to the
screw terminals of TB2, while the cool output is on the 50 pin flat
ribbon connections of P10. However, you can switch the outputs, so
heat is switched to the flat ribbon output, and cool--to the screw
terminals of TB2.
LOOP
PROCESS
1 HT
1
2
3
UNITS
OUT?
4
5
6
7
8
TERM BLK
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: Term Blk or Flat Rib.
NOTE
The analog output is not available on the ribbon
cable, and the DZC is not available on the screw
terminals.
66 8LS User’s Guide
Setup
Setup Alarms
The Setup Alarms main menu lets you access menus which change the
alarm functions for the selected loop.
You can edit these parameters:
• High process alarm
• Deviation band alarm
• Low process alarm
• Alarm Deadband
The Setup Alarms main menu looks like this:
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 SETUP
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
ALARMS?
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Answering Yes to this prompt, gets you into the Alarms submenus.
Below is the setup alarms menu tree. Notice the default values inside the
boxes.
1 Setup
Alarms?
1 Alarms
HP? 1000
1 Lo Dev
Outpn? 0
1 Alarms
HP? Off
1 Alarms
Lp? 0
1 HI Pro
Outpn? 0
1 Alarms
Lp? Off
1 Alarms
Dev? 10
1 Lo Pro
Outpn? 0
1 Alarms
Dev? Off
1 Hi Dev
Outpn? 0
1 Alarms
Dbd? 2
1 Alarm
Dly? 0s
8LS User’s Guide 67
Setup
Alarm Types
Global Alarms
Global alarms occur when a loop alarm, set to Alarm, is
unacknowledged, or when there are any unacknowledged failed sensor
alarms. (If an alarm occurs, the 8LS front panel displays an appropriate
alarm code). Even if the alarm condition goes away, the global alarm
stays on until you use the Alarm Ack key (or ANASOFT) to
acknowledge it.
Process Alarms
Process alarms include high and low deviation and high and low process
alarms. You can set each of these alarms to Off (no alarm function) or
On (Standard alarm function).
• High process and high deviation alarms activate when the process
variable goes above a value you set. They remain active until the
process variable goes below that value minus the deadband. (See
diagram below.)
• If you don’t use a digital output for PID control, you can assign it to
one or more process variable alarms. The output is active if any of
its alarms are active. All alarm outputs are active Low or active
High, depending on the global alarm output polarity setting.
• Low process and low deviation alarms activate when the process
variable goes below a value you set. They remain active until the
process variable goes above that value plus the deadband. (The diagram below shows these alarms.)
When the controller powers up or the setpoint changes, deviation alarms
do not activate until the process goes inside the deviation alarm band-preventing deviation alarms during a cold start. (High and low process
alarms are always enabled.)
High process alarm on
High process alarm off
High Alarm Limit
} Deadband
High deviation alarm on
SP + Deviation
} Deadband
High deviation alarm off
Setpoint
Low deviation alarm off
} Deadband
SP - Deviation
Low deviation alarm on
} Deadband
Low Alarm Limit
Low process alarm on
Low process alarm off
68 8LS User’s Guide
Setup
High Process Alarm Setpoint
Use this menu to select the setpoint at which the high process alarm
activates. The high process alarm activates when the process variable
(PV) goes above the high process setpoint. It deactivates when the PV
goes below the high process setpoint minus the deadband value, if you
have set one.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 ALARMS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
HP? 1000
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: Any point within the scaled sensor range.
High Process Alarm Status
Use this menu to enable or disable the high process alarm.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 ALARMS
1
2
3
4
HP?
ALARM
5
6
7
8
OFF
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: On, Off.
High Process Alarm Output Number
Use this menu to assign the digital output that activates when the loop is
in high process alarm.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 HI PRO
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
OUTPN = 0
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: 0-30.
8LS User’s Guide 69
Setup
Deviation Band Alarm
Use this menu to set the deviation bandwidth, a positive and negative
alarm point relative to the setpoint. If the setpoint changes, the alarm
points also changes. You can assign a separate digital output to the high
and low deviation alarm setpoints. (For example, the high deviation
alarm turns on a fan, and a low deviation alarm turns on a heater.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 ALARMS
1
2
3
4
5
DEV ?
ALARM
6
7
8
10
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: 0-255.
Deviation Band Alarm Status
Use this menu to set the deviation alarm status. You can enable or
disable the alarm function.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 ALARMS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
DEV ? OFF
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: On , Off.
High Deviation Alarm Output Number
Use this menu to assign a digital output which activates when the loop is
in high deviation alarm.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 HI DEV
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
OUTPN? 0
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: 0-30.
NOTE
All digital outputs are "OR’ed" together (combined). Therefore, you can assign more than one
alarm to the same output number, and that output
will be On if any of those alarms is On.
70 8LS User’s Guide
Setup
Low Deviation Alarm Output Number
Use this menu to assign a digital output which activates when the loop is
in low diviation alarm.
LOOP
PROCESS
1 LO
1
2
3
4
UNITS
DEV
5
6
7
8
OUTPN ? 0
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: 0-30.
Low Process Alarm Setpoint
Use this menu to set a low process alarm setpoint. The low process
alarm activates when the process variable (PV) goes below the low
process alarm setpoint. It deactivates when the PV goes above the low
process alarm setpoint plus the deadband.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 ALARMS
1
2
3
4
5
6
LP?
ALARM
7
8
0
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: Any value within the input sensor’s range.
Low Process Alarm Status
Use this menu to enable or disable the low process alarm.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 ALARMS
1
2
3
LP?
ALARM
4
5
6
7
8
OFF
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: On, Off.
8LS User’s Guide 71
Setup
Low Process Alarm Output Number
Use this menu to assign the digital output that activates when the loop is
in low process alarm.
LOOP
PROCESS
1 LO
1
2
3
UNITS
PRO
4
5
6
7
8
OUTPN? 0
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: 0-30.
Alarm Deadband
Use this menu to set an alarm deadband. This deadband value applies to
the high process, low process, high deviation, and low deviation alarms
for the loop you are editing. Use the alarm deadband to avoid repeated
alarms, as the PV cycles slightly around an alarm value.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 ALARMS
1
2
3
4
5
6
DBD?
ALARM
7
8
2
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: 0-255.
Alarm Delay
Use this menu to set a loop alarm delay. This delay is set seperately for
each loop. It delays failed sensor and process alarms until the alarm
condition has been continuously present for longer than the alarm delay
time you set.
LOOP
PROCESS
1
1
ALARM
2
3
4
DLY?
ALARM
UNITS
5
6
7
8
0S
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: 0-255 seconds.
72 8LS User’s Guide
Setup
Test I/O
The Test I/O main menu lets you view menus which can help you test
the digital inputs and the digital outputs.
The main menu looks like this:
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
TEST
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
I/O ?
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Answering Yes to this prompt gets you into the I/O test submenus.
Below is the menu tree. Notice the default values in the boxes.
Test
I/O?
Ins=1111
11111111
Test out
NR? 27
Dig out
NR27? On
Digital Input Testing
Use this view-only menu to see the logic state of the 12 digital inputs as
1’s (High) or 0’s (Low). the menu displays inputs 1 through 12.
Input 12
Input 9
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
INS = 1 1 1 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
11111111
ALARM
Input 1
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Input 8
8LS User’s Guide 73
Setup
Test Output
Use this menu to select one of the 30 digital outputs for manual
operation.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
TEST OUT
1
2
3
4
5
NR =
ALARM
6
7
8
1
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: 1-30.
Digital Output Test
Use this menu to toggle the state of a digital output between On and Off.
LOOP
PROCESS
DIG
1
2
3
UNITS
OUT
4
5
6
7
8
NR01? OFF
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: On, Off.
NOTE
Before leaving this menu, turn Off all the outputs
you have turned On.
74 8LS User’s Guide
Tuning and Control
Tuning and Control
Introduction
This chapter explains PID control and supplies some starting PID values
and tuning instructions, so that you can use control parameters
appropriate for your system. If you would like more information on PID
control, consult the Watlow Anafaze Practical Guide to PID.
The control mode dictates how the controller responds to an input
signal. The control mode is different from the type of control output
signal (like analog or pulsed DC voltage). There are several control
modes available: On/Off, Proportional (P), Proportional and Integral
(PI), Proportional with Derivative, and Proportional with Integral and
Derivative (PID). P, PI, or PID control are necessary when process
variable (PV) cycling is unacceptable or if the process or setpoint (SP) is
variable.
NOTE
For any of these control modes to function, the
loop must be in automatic mode.
8LS User’s Guide 75
Tuning and Control
Control Modes
The next sections explain the different modes you can use to control a
loop.
On/Off Control
On/Off control is the simplest way to control a process; a controller
using On/Off control turns an output on or off when the process variable
reaches a certain limit above or below the desired setpoint. You can
adjust this limit, since Watlow Anafaze controllers use an adjustable
spread. For example, if your setpoint is 1000ºF, and your limit (spread)
is 20ºF, the output switches On when the process variable goes below
980ºF and Off when the process goes above 1000ºF. (The next diagram
shows a process under On/Off control.)
Proportional Control
A process using On/Off control frequently cycles around the setpoint.
When process variable cycling is unacceptable or the process or setpoint
are variable, use proportional control. Proportional control, or Gain,
eliminates cycling by increasing or decreasing the output proportional to
the process variable's distance from the setpoint.
The limits of proportional control are defined by the Proportional Band
(PB); outside this band of control, the output is either 100% or 0%. For
example--using the same values from the example above and a PB of
20º--the output is:
• 50% when the process variable is 990ºF
• 75% when the process variable is 985ºF
• 100% when the process variable is 980ºF or below.
76 8LS User’s Guide
Tuning and Control
However, a process which uses only Proportional control may settle at a
point above or below the setpoint; it may never reach the setpoint at all.
This behavior is known as “offset” or “droop”. (This diagram shows a
process under proportional control only.)
Proportional and Integral Control
For Proportional and Integral control, use the Integral term, or Reset,
with Proportional control. The Integral term corrects for offset by
repeating the Proportional band's error correction until there is no error.
For example, if a process tends to settle about 5ºF below the setpoint,
use Integral control to bring it to the desired setting. (The next diagram
shows a process under proportional and integral control.)
8LS User’s Guide 77
Tuning and Control
Proportional, Integral and Derivative Control
For an improved level of control, use Derivative control with
Proportional or Proportional and Integral control. Derivative control
corrects for overshoot by anticipating the behavior of the process
variable and adjusting the output appropriately. For example, if the
process variable is rapidly approaching the setpoint, Derivative control
reduces the output, anticipating that the process variable will reach
setpoint. Use it to eliminate the process variable overshoot common to
PI control. (This figure shows a process under full PID control).
Control Outputs
The 8LS provides a 5 Vdc digital output signal for PID control outputs.
These outputs normally control the process using relays.
Digital Output Control Forms
The next section explains different modes for control outputs.
On/Off
On/Off output is very simple: it turns the output on or off according to
the control signal of the On/Off control.
Time Proportioning (TP)
Time Proportioning attempts to digitally simulate an analog output
percentage by turning the output on or off for each time step so that the
cumulative average of the output is the desired setting. You must enter a
cycle time for TP outputs. The cycle time is the time over which the
output is proportioned, and it can be any value from 1 to 255 seconds.
For example, if the output is 30% and the Cycle Time is 10 seconds,
then the output will be on for 3 seconds and off for seven seconds. The
figure below shows typical TP and DZC graphs.
78 8LS User’s Guide
Tuning and Control
Distributed Zero Crossing (DZC)
DZC output is essentially a Time Proportioning output. However, for
each AC line cycle the controller decides whether the power should be
On or Off. There is no Cycle Time since the decision is made for each
line cycle. Since the time period for 60 Hz power is 16.6 ms, the
switching interval is very short and the power is applied uniformly.
Switching is done only at the zero crossing of the AC line, which helps
reduce electrical “noise”.
DZC output is primarily used for very fast acting electrical heating loads
using Solid State Relays (SSRs). For instance, the open air heater coil is
an example of a fast acting load. Do not use DZC output for
electromechanical relays.
The combination of DZC output and a solid state relay can
inexpensively approach the effect of analog phase angle fired control,
and can increase heater life.
Output Digital Filter
The output filter digitally filters the PID control output signal. It has a
range of 0-255 levels, which gives a time constant of 0-127.5 seconds.
Use the output filter if you need to filter out erratic output swings due to
extremely sensitive input signals, like a turbine flow signal or an open
air thermocouple in a dry air gas oven.
The output filter can also enhance PID control. Some processes are very
sensitive and require a high PB, so normal control methods are
ineffective. You can use a smaller PB- and get better control- if you use
the digital filter to reduce the high and low process output swings.
You can also use the filter to reduce output noise when a large derivative
is necessary, or to make badly tuned PID loops and poorly designed
processes behave properly.
Reverse and Direct Action
Reverse action is an output control action in which an increase in the
process variable causes a decrease in the output. Direct action is an
output control action in which an increase in the process variable causes
an increase in the output. Heating applications normally use reverse
action and cooling applications usually use direct action.
8LS User’s Guide 79
Tuning and Control
Setting Up and Tuning PID Loops
After you have installed your control system, tune each control loop and
then set the loop to automatic control. (When you tune a loop, you
choose PID parameters that will best control the process.) If you don't
mind minor process fluctuations, you can tune the loop in automatic
control mode. This section gives PID values for a variety of heating and
cooling applications.
Tuning is a slow process. After you have adjusted a loop, allow about 20
minutes for the change to take effect.
Proportional Band (PB) Settings
The table below shows PB settings for various temperatures in degrees
F.
Temperature
Setpoint
PB
Temperature
Setpoint
PB
Temperature
Setpoint
PB
-100 to 99
20
1100 to 1199
75
2200 to 2299
135
100 to 199
20
1200 to 1299
80
2300 to 2399
140
200 to 299
30
1300 to 1399
85
2400 to 2499
145
300 to 399
35
1400 to 1499
90
2500 to 2599
150
400 to 499
40
1500 to 1599
95
2600 to 2699
155
500 to 599
45
1600 to 1699
100
2700 to 2799
160
600 to 699
50
1700 to 1799
105
2800 to 2899
165
700 to 799
55
1800 to 1899
110
2900 to 2999
170
800 to 899
60
1900 to 1999
120
3000 to 3099
175
900 to 999
65
2000 to 2099
125
3100 to 3199
180
1000 to 1099
70
2100 to 2199
130
3200 to 3299
185
As a general rule, set the PB to 10% of the setpoint below 1000° and 5%
of the setpoint above 1000°. This setting is useful as a starting value.
80 8LS User’s Guide
Tuning and Control
Integral Term (TI) Settings
This table shows TI settings vs. Reset settings.
TI
(secs./repeat)
Reset
(repeats/min)
TI
(secs./repeat)
Reset
(repeats/min)
30
2.0
210
0.28
45
1.3
240
.25
60
1.0
270
.22
90
.66
300
.20
120
.50
400
.15
150
.40
500
.12
180
.33
600
.10
As a general rule, use 60, 120, 180, or 240 as a starting value for the TI.
Derivative Term (TD) Settings
This table shows Derivative term (TD) versus Rate Minutes (RM);
Rate=TD/60.
TD
(secs./repeat)
Rate
(repeats/min)
TD
(secs./repeat)
Rate
(repeats/min)
5
.08
35
.58
10
.16
40
.66
15
.25
45
.75
20
.33
50
.83
25
.41
55
.91
30
.50
60
1.0
As a general rule, set the TD to 15% of TI as a starting value.
8LS User’s Guide 81
Tuning and Control
General PID Constants by Application
This section gives PID values for many applications. They are useful as
control values or as starting points for PID tuning.
Proportional Band Only (P)
PB: Set the PB to 7% of the setpoint (SP) (Example: Setpoint = 450, so
Proportional Band = 31).
Proportional with Integral (PI)
PB: Set the PB to 10% of SP (Example: Setpoint = 450, so PB = 45).
Set TI to 60.
Set TD to Off.
Set the Output Filter to 2.
PI with Derivative (PID)
PB: Set the PB to 10% of the SP (Example: Setpoint = 450, so PB = 45).
Set the TI to 60.
Set the TD to 15% of the TI (Example: TI = 60, so TD = 9).
Set the Output Filter to 2.
The next table shows general PID constants by application.
Application
PB
TI
TD
Filter
Output Type
Cycle Time
Action
Electrical heat w/ SSR
(Solid State Relays)
50º
60
15
4
TP or
3
Reverse
Electrical heat w/
Mechanical relays
50º
60
15
6
TP
20
Reverse
Gas heat with motorized valves
60º
120
25
8
ANA
NA
Gas heat SP>1200
100º
240
40
8
ANA
NA
Extruders w/cooling
Heat w/SSR
Set spread to 0
50º
300
90
8
Cool-TP
3
Reverse
Cool w/ solenoid valve
10º
Off
Off
4
TP
20
Direct
Cool w/ fans
10º
off
Off
4
TP
60
Direct
Electric heat w/ open
heat coils
30º
20
off
4
DZC
NA
Reverse
Electric heat w/ SCR
Controllers
60º
60
15
4
ANA
NA
Reverse
82 8LS User’s Guide
DZC
Heat-DSC
Tuning and Control
8LS User’s Guide 83
Tuning and Control
84 8LS User’s Guide
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting
NOTE
If you need to return the 8LS to Watlow-Anafaze,
please call first for a Returned Materials Authorization (RMA) number. This number helps us track
your equipment and return it to you as soon as
possible.
Stand Alone Systems
If the unit has no display, check the 120vac power supply.
If you insert a spare unit, enter the values from the original unit. You
can store and enter these values using a standard IBM PC or compatible
computer and ANASOFT software.
Checking Control Outputs
To check control outputs:
1. Set the loop you want to check to Manual mode.
2. Set the output power percentage to the desired level.
3. Set the output type to On, Off or TP.
A very simple test is to use a LED with a series 1K resistor connected
across a TP or DZC output to see if it’s pulsing. You can also use a
voltmeter to check the outputs.
Checking Digital I/O
Check the digital I/O from the Test I/O menu. You can also use a LED
with a series 1k resistor to see the outputs turn On and Off.
8LS User’s Guide 85
Troubleshooting
Computer Supervised Systems
These four items must work together to operate the 8LS:
1.
The 8LS
2.
The computer including the RS-232 or other serial interface
3.
The communications link
4.
The computer software
If the system does not work on initial startup, check the 8LS, the
computer, and the serial link. First, check the 8LS in the stand alone
mode. If there’s a problem, return the 8LS to Watlow-Anafaze for
service. The serial link must be RS485 when using more than one 8LS.
If ANASOFT is running in the system, when a unit is replaced,
ANASOFT will detect a controller reset [indicated on initial power up]
and automatically reload the current parameters in ANASOFT.
If the system includes multiple Watlow-Anafaze 8LS controllers, the
address must be set correctly. This should be done using a spare housing
before plugging the unit into the system housing. If the address is not
changed the unit will probably have the default address 1. If the address
must be changed while the system is up and on line, ANASOFT will
indicate communication errors as it will probably get responses from
two controllers at once. The address should be set as quickly as possible,
and the current job reloaded to ensure the correct parameters are at each
controller.
Computer Problems
To check the computer, run standard programs that use the display and
the printer. The serial interface must be functioning. This is harder to
test since most programs do not use the serial interface. Check any
computer problems with the computer supplier.
Computer Software
This can be divided into: ANASOFT and user written software:
User Written Software
If you don't want to use ANASOFT as your software interface to the
8LS, you are responsible for the correct operation of the software you
buy or write. You can request the Watlow-Anafaze Communications
Specification if you want to write your own software. Watlow-Anafaze
will answer any technical questions that arise during your software
development process, but Watlow-Anafaze does not otherwise support
user software in any way.
86 8LS User’s Guide
Troubleshooting
If you write your own software, first write a routine that sends and
receives display commands to and from the 8LS. The protocol includes
all characters, so the display should show the hexadecimal values of the
data sent in both directions. If you have problems with the software you
write, you can use this program to test your communications.
ANASOFT
If ANASOFT is not working, check these things first:
1. ANAINSTL (the ANASOFT installation program) has the correct
path for the program and data files.
2. All the necessary files exist in the directory specified by the path.
3. Your computer has enough memory. ANASOFT requires up to 640K
of free memory to run. to maximize the amount of free memory available, use a memory manager (like HIMEM from DOS 5.0).
4. Your computer is not running memory-resident programs. Check
your AUTOEXEC.BAT file to make sure that no memory-resident
programs automatically run on startup; they may interfere with ANASOFT.
5. The software key is properly installed on the printer port. It should be
plugged into the printer port with the female end toward the computer
and the male end toward the printer. Do not remove the screws on the
software key to connect it.
If, after you check these things , ANASOFT still does not work
correctly, consult the ANASOFT User’s Guide for more troubleshooting
information.
Communications Problems
If the computer is functioning properly, check the communication
interface, cables and connections. A number of problems have been
traced to bad cables or connections.
Serial Interface
The serial interface must be correctly installed in the computer and set
according to the manufacturers directions. ANASOFT communicates
using Comm Port 1. Some multi-function interface cards allow setting
of the comm port -- this should be done correctly. In addition, make sure
only one communications channel is set as comm port 1. If necessary,
you can change the communications port in the install program.
When the communications interface is correctly installed, you can use a
scope to check the transmit line to insure characters are being sent to the
8LS.
8LS User’s Guide 87
Troubleshooting
88 8LS User’s Guide
Appendix A: Ramp Soak
Appendix A: Ramp Soak
Introduction
This Appendix will teach you how to set up and use Ramp/Soak profiles
in 8LS controllers.
The Ramp/Soak feature turns your 8LS into a powerful and flexible
batch controller. The Ramp/Soak feature lets you program the controller
to change a process setpoint in a preset pattern over time. This preset
pattern, or temperature profile, consists of several segments. During a
segment, the temperature goes from the previous segment’s setpoint to
the current segment’s setpoint.
• If the current segment’s setpoint is larger or smaller than the previous
segment’s setpoint, it is called a ramp segment.
• If the current segment’s setpoint is the same as the previous segment’s setpoint, it is called a soak segment.
Each segment can have up to two triggers. At least one must be true
before the segment can start. While the input is not true, the profile
waits (this wait state is called trigger wait).
You can use any one of the eight digital inputs for triggers. You can also
use the same trigger for more than one segment or more than one
profile.
Each segment can also have up to four events (external signals
connected to the digital outputs). Events occur at the end of a segment.
You can use any of the digital outputs for events.
R/S Features
• User-configurable time base: Watlow Anafaze’s Ramp/Soak lets
you set your profiles to run for hours and minutes or for minutes and
seconds—Whichever is appropriate for your application.
• Repeatable profiles: You can set any profile to repeat from 1 to 99
times or continuously.
• Fast setup for similar profiles: You can set up one profile, then
copy it and alter it to set up the rest.
• External reset: Use the 8LS external reset menu to configure a digital input you can use to reset a profile to the Ready state.
8LS User’s Guide 89
Appendix A: Ramp Soak
Specifications
Number of possible profiles
8
Number of times to repeat a profile
1-99 or continuous
Number of segments per profile
1-20
Number of triggers per segment
Up to 2
Type of triggers
Latched/
Unlatched
Number of possible inputs for triggers
8
Number of events per segment
4
Number of possible outputs for events
(At least one of these outputs must be used for control)
30
Configuring Ramp/Soak
This section will teach you how to set up R/S profiles. The following
diagram shows the R/S configuration menu tree.
Setup R/S profiles?
Edit R/S profile?
Copy Setup from
profile?
Tolerance alarm
Time?
Ready segment
setpoint?
Ready segment
edit events?
Ready event
output XX
External reset
input number?
Edit segment
number?
Segment time?
Back
Segment setpoint?
Edit segment
events?
Segment event
output #?
Segment event
active state?
Edit segment
triggers?
Trigger input #?
Trigger active
state?
Edit segment
tolerance?
No
Last segment?
Repeat cycles?
90 8LS User’s Guide
Back
Trigger latch
status?
Appendix A: Ramp Soak
Setting the R/S Time Base
The R/S time base menu is in the Setup Globals main menu.
Use this menu to set the time base in all your R/S profiles.
LOOP
PROCESS
R/S
1
2
3
UNITS
TIME
4
5
6
7
8
BASE? H/M
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Values: H/M (Hours/Mins) or M/S (Mins/Secs).
Editing R/S Parameters
You can reach the rest of the menus in this section from the Setup
Ramp/Soak profile main menu. This menu is located between the Setup
Loop Alarms main menu and the Manual I/O Test main menu.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
SETUP
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
R/S PRO?
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Answering Yes to this prompt allows you to setup or edit R/S profiles.
Choosing a Profile to Edit
Use this menu to choose a profile to set up or edit.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
R/S PRO
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
PROF? A
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Values: A to H (8 profiles).
8LS User’s Guide 91
Appendix A: Ramp Soak
Copying the Setup from Another Profile
Use this menu to setup similar profiles quickly, by copying a profile to
another one.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
R/S PRO
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
COPY? H
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Values: A to H.
Editing the Tolerance Alarm Time
Use this menu to set a tolerance time that applies to the entire profile.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
A OUTTOL
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
T? 1:00
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
When the segment goes out of tolerance,
• The segment goes into tolerance hold.
• The segment timer holds.
• The loop’s single loop display shows TOHO (Tolerance Hold).
When the segment has been out of tolerance for more than the tolerance
alarm time,
• The controller goes into tolerance alarm.
• The tolerance timer resets.
You must acknowledge the tolerance alarm by pressing the ALARM
ACK key before you can do any other editing.
Selectable Values: 0:00 to 99:59 (minutes or hours, depending on the
time base setting).
92 8LS User’s Guide
Appendix A: Ramp Soak
Editing the Ready Setpoint
When you assign a profile to a loop, the profile doesn’t start
immediately; instead, it goes to the ready segment (segment 0) and stays
there until you put the profile in Start mode.
You can set a setpoint, assign events, and set event states for the ready
segment. Use this menu to set the ready segment setpoint.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
A READY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
SP? OFF
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Values: -999 to 9999, or Off.
Editing the Ready Event States
Use this menu to set the ready state for all outputs that are not used for
control. When you assign a profile, the controller starts the ready
segment: it goes to the ready setpoint and puts all the outputs in the
ready state you set here. The outputs stay in the ready state until the end
of segment 1, when segment 1’s events become active.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
A READY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
EVENTS?
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
When you press NO, you will advance to the next menu. If you press
YES, this menu appears:
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
A READY
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
DO01?OFF
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Values: On or Off.
8LS User’s Guide 93
Appendix A: Ramp Soak
Choosing an External Reset Input
Use this menu to select an external reset input. Toggle the input to reset
a profile to Ready state when it is in Run, Hold, or Wait mode. You can
make any of the eight digital inputs the external reset input.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
A EXTRST
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
IN NR? 0
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Values: 0-12.
Editing a Segment
Each profile is made up of several segments (up to 20). Use this menu to
choose the segment to edit.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
A EDIT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
SEG? 1
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Values: 1-20.
The first time you use this menu, it defaults to segment 1. when you
have finished editing a segment, the controller returns you to this menu
and goes to the next segment. This loop continues until you make a
segment the last segment of a profile.
Setting Segment Time
Use this menu to change the segment’s time.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
A SEG 01
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
T? 0:00
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Values: 000:00-999:59 (minutes or seconds, depending on
the selected time base).
94 8LS User’s Guide
Appendix A: Ramp Soak
Setting a Segment Setpoint
Use this menu to set a setpoint for the segment you are editing. The
process will go to this setpoint by the end of the segment time.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
A SEG 01
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
SP? OFF
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Values: -999 to 9999, or Off (no segment setpoint).
Configuring Segment Events
You can assign up to four digital outputs—Events—to each segment.
When the segment ends, the events you select go to the output state you
specify. Use this menu to select events and specify their output states.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
A SEG 01
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
EVENTS?
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Values: YES or NO.
Starting a segment with an event
If you want a segment to start with an event (usually events happen at
the end of the segment), program the previous segment for the event.
You can also use this trick:
1. Setup the segments that come before the first segment.
2. Setup an extra segment with time 000:00 and with the events for the
first segment.
3. Setup the first segment.
If you also want to have events at the end of the segment, or you want
the event to go off at the end of the segment, setup the first segment with
the desired event number and event output state.
8LS User’s Guide 95
Appendix A: Ramp Soak
Editing Event Outputs
This menu appears only if you answered YES to the previous menu. Use
it to assign a digital output to each event. Assign digital outputs that are
not being used for PID control.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
A S01EV1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
DOUT?NO
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Values: 1-30, except those IN USE, or No (no event).
Changing Event States
Use this menu to assign an output state to each event: On (High) or Off
(Low). When the event occurs, the output goes to the state you assign
here.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
A S01EV1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
DO01?OFF
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Values: Off (Low) or On (High).
Editing Segment Triggers
Each segment has two triggers (digital inputs). One of these triggers
must be true before the segment can begin. If a segment times out and at
least one of the next segment’s triggers is not true, the profile goes into
trigger wait state.
Use this menu to edit triggers for the current segment.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
A SEG 01
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
TRIGGRS?
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Values: YES (to edit triggers of current segment), or NO (to
advance to the Edit Segment Tolerance menu).
96 8LS User’s Guide
Appendix A: Ramp Soak
Assigning an Input to a Trigger
This menu appears only if you answered YES to the Edit Segment
Triggers menu. Use it to assign one of the controller’s eight digital
inputs to a segment trigger. You can assign any digital input to ant
trigger. You can also assign the same digital input to multiple triggers.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
A S01TR1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
DIN? NO
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Values: 1-12, or No (no input assigned). Setting a trigger to
No disables it.
Changing a Trigger’s True State
Use this menu to toggle a trigger’s true state between On and Off. This
menu appears only if you answered YES to the Edit Segment triggers
menu.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
A S01TR1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
DI03?OFF
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Values: Off or On.
Latching or Unlatching a Trigger
Use this menu to make a trigger latched or unlatched.
• A latched trigger is checked once, at the beginning of a segment.
• An unlatched trigger is checked constantly while a segment is running. If an unlatched trigger becomes false, the segment timer stops
and the loop goes into trigger wait state.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
A S01TR1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
LATCH? N
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Values: N (No: unlatched), Y (Yes: latched).
8LS User’s Guide 97
Appendix A: Ramp Soak
Setting Segment Tolerance
Use this menu to set a positive or negative tolerance value for each
segment. this value is displayed in the engineering units of the process
and is a deviation from the setpoint.
Positive Tolerance Value
Negative Tolerance Value
PV out of tolerance
PV within tolerance
Setpoint
Setpoint
PV within tolerance
PV out of tolerance
• If you enter a positive tolerance, the process is out of tolerance when
the PV goes above the setpoint plus the tolerance.
• If you enter a negative tolerance, the process goes out of tolerance
when the PV goes below the setpoint minus the tolerance.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
A SEG 01
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
TOL? OFF
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Values: -99 to +99, or Off (no tolerance).
Ending a Profile
Use this menu to make a segment the last one in the profile.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
A SEG 01
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
LAST? NO
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Values: No or Yes.
Repeating a Profile
Use this menu to set the number of times you want a profile to repeat or
cycle.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
A
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
CYCLE? 1
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Values: 1-99, or C (continuous cycling).
98 8LS User’s Guide
Appendix A: Ramp Soak
Using Ramp/Soak
This section explains how to assign a profile to a loop, how to put a
profile in Run, Continue, or Hold mode, how to reset a profile, and how
to display profile statistics.
The next figure shows the Ramp/Soak key menus.
Press R/S Key
Assign Ramp/Soak
Profile
If profile is already
assigned
Time Remaining
Press R/S Key
Cycle Number
Press R/S Key
Ramp/Soak Mode
Press R/S Key
Ramp/Soak Reset
From the Ramp/Soak Reset display:
• Press NO to return to Single Loop display.
• Press BACK to return to the Time Remaining display.
Assigning a profile to a loop
Use this menu to assign a profile to a loop.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 SELECT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
PROF? 0
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Values: A-H, or 0.
8LS User’s Guide 99
Appendix A: Ramp Soak
Assigning a profile the first time
To assign a profile to a loop that doesn’t have a profile, follow these
steps:
1. In Single Loop display, switch to the loop you want to edit.
2. Press the RAMP/SOAK key. The assigning menu appears. (See menu
in previous page)
3. Choose one of the available profiles and press ENTER.
4. Press BACK if you wish to return to Single Loop display without saving any changes.
Assigning a different profile
To assign a new profile to a loop that already has one assigned, follow
these steps:
1. Press the RAMP/SOAK key three times.
2. Press the NO key. You will see the Reset Profile menu.
3. Press YES, then ENTER, to reset the profile. You will see the Assign
Profile menu. (See previous page.)
4. Choose one of the available profiles and press ENTER.
5. Press BACK if you wish to return to Single Loop display without saving any changes.
Running a Profile
When you assign a profile, it does not start running immediately;
instead, the loop enters the Ready segment (segment 0). Use this menu
to start a profile (put it in Start mode).
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1A00/20S
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
SET? RUN
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Starting a profile
You can start a profile only when it’s in the Ready segment.
1. Press the RAMP/SOAK key repeatedly until you see the Ramp/Soak
mode menu.
2. While the profile is in Ready segment, the only mode available is the
Run mode.
3. Press YES to start the profile, and then ENTER to advance to the next
menu.
100 8LS User’s Guide
Appendix A: Ramp Soak
Running several profiles simultaneously
To run several profiles simultaneously, follow these steps:
1. Setup the profiles so that segment 1 of each profile has the same
latched trigger.
2. Assign the profiles to the appropriate loops. The loops will go to the
Ready segment of each profile.
3. Set each profile to Run mode.
4. Trip the trigger.
Editing a profile while it is running
You can edit a profile while it is running, but the changes you have
made will not take effect until the next time it runs.
Ramp/Soak Displays
The Single loop and Bar Graph displays show additional codes for R/S
controllers.
Single loop display
When the controller is running a profile, the Single Loop display shows
the profile mode where it would usually show MAN or AUTO. The next
table shows the available codes and their meaning.
Code
Mode
STRT
The profile is in the Ready segment.
RUN
The profile is running.
HOLD
The user has put the profile in Hold mode.
TOHO
The profile is in tolerance hold.
WAIT
The profile is in trigger wait state.
This is the Single Loop display when a profile is running.
Process variable
Engineering units
Loop number
LOOP
PROCESS
3
1
Setpoint
2
UNITS
73
3
4
5
F
6
7
8
73 S 0
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Profile mode
Output percentage
8LS User’s Guide 101
Appendix A: Ramp Soak
Bar graph display
Loops that are running R/S profiles have different Bar Graph display
codes. For these loops, you will see the first letter of each mode where
the controller would normally display M (for Manual control) or A (for
Automatic control).
LOOP
1
PROCESS
2
3
4
5
UNITS
6
7
8
RMSMMMRS
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
The next table shows the codes you would see in loops running R/S
profiles.
Code
Meaning
R
A profile is running.
H
A profile is holding.
S
A profile is in Ready state.
O
A profile is in tolerance hold.
Ramp/Soak Key Displays
Use the RAMP/SOAK key to see the time left in the current profile, the
profile’s status, or the number of times the profile has cycled.
All the menus you can reach from the RAMP/SOAK key have the same
information on the top line.
Profile letter
Loop number
LOOP
Current segment
PROCESS
UNITS
1A00/20S
1
2
3
4
5
Number of segments
in profile
6
7
8
Mode
(Run/Hold/Continue)
SET? RUN
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
How long has the profile run?
From Single Loop display, press the RAMP/SOAK key once.
The next menu appears only if you have already assigned a profile to the
loop.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1A00/20S
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
TR 0:00
ALARM
102 8LS User’s Guide
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Appendix A: Ramp Soak
How many times has it cycled?
From Single Loop display, press the RAMP/SOAK key twice. The next
menu will appear. This menu displays the number of times the profile
has run out of the total number of cycles.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1A00/20S
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
CYC 1/1
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Holding a Profile or Continuing from Hold
Use the profile mode menu to hold a profile or continue from Hold. The
next table shows the available modes.
Current
Mode
Available
Mode
Start
Run
Begin running the assigned profile.
Hold
Cont
Continue from user-selected hold. Profile runs
from the point when you put the profile in Hold
mode. (You cannot continue from a tolerance
hold or a trigger wait.)
Description
After you choose this mode, the controller
switches back to Run mode.
Run
Hold
Hold the profile.
Holding a profile
In Hold mode, all loop parameters stay at their current settings until you
change the mode or reset the profile. To put a profile in hold, follow
these steps:
• Press RAMP/SOAK key repeatedly until you see the R/S mode
menu.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1A00/20S
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
SET?HOLD
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
• While the profile is running, the only mode you will be able select is
Hold.
• Press YES to hold the profile, and then ENTER to advance to the
next menu.
8LS User’s Guide 103
Appendix A: Ramp Soak
Continuing a profile
If a profile is holding and you want it to run, you can put it in Continue
mode.
• Press RAMP/SOAK key repeatedly until you see the R/S mode
menu
• While the profile is holding, the only mode you will be able select is
Cont (Continue).
• Press YES to continue the profile, and then ENTER to advance to the
next menu.
Resetting a profile
Use this menu to reset a profile. When you reset a profile, the following
happens:
• The profile returns to the ready segment. The PV goes to the ready
setpoint, and the ready segment events go to the state you specified
in the Edit Ready Event State menu.
• The controller shows you the Assign Profile menu in case you would
like to assign a different profile to the loop.
To reset a profile, follow these steps:
1. Press RAMP/SOAK key repeatedly until you see the R/S mode menu
2. Press the NO key. You should see the menu below.
3. Press YES to reset the profile, and then ENTER to confirm your
choice.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1A00/20S
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
RESET? A
ALARM
104 8LS User’s Guide
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Appendix B: 8LS-CP
Appendix B: 8LS-CP
The 8LS-CP controller with a Zirconia Carbon Probe assembly can
control and record the Dew point of atmosphere generators or the
percentage of Carbon Potential of hardening and sintering furnaces.
The 8LS-CP can accept direct connection of one to four Zirconia carbon
probes without any special external signal conditioning amplifiers. The
high impedance amplifier with the proper filter components mounted in
the 8LS-CP provide a correct reading of the probe millivolt output
without using an external probe amplifier. Direct connection of the
probe reference type N, K, R, or S thermocouple is standard.
Loops that are not used for carbon input may be used as standard inputs
for PID control and recording of other process parameters such as
temperature zones.
Key Features
• Selectable direct reading and control of Dew Point (DP), percentage
of Carbon Potential (CP), or probe Millivolts (mV).
• Automatic indication of probe out of range conditions as to high/low
temperature or high/low probe millivolt.
• Easily adjustable CO+CO2 and Hydrogen percentage levels for correct atmosphere reading.
• Easily adjustable process variable offset corrects for thermocouple or
probe sensor irregularities.
• Automatic probe Burn Off function with selectable contact or interval timer start.
• Trim Gas temperature warning alarm 1400-2400ºF output per probe
input.
• Independent Ramp/Soak temperature carbon programmer for boost
carbon control.
8LS User’s Guide 105
Appendix B: 8LS-CP
System Configuration
The 8LS-CP uses a modified input with discreet components per carbon
input. Each CP input requires two loops. The 8LS-CP is factory
configured to contain between 1 to 4 CP loops. The unit must be ordered
for the number of CP inputs required per 8LS. Loops not used for the
CP input may be used as standard inputs.
The analog output of loops 7 and 8 can be used for recording analog
process signal representing the PV of loops 2 and 4 (carbon probe
inputs). This function is selected through the DIP Switch setting on the
CPU board. Position #4 must be On in order to use the PV recording
function.
Model
Number
Loop
#
8LS-CP-1
1
2
3, 4, 5, 6, 8
7
Ref. T/C for loop #2 probe temp
Carbon Probe input
Standard PID loops
Recording analog process signal representing
the PV of loop 2.
8LS-CP-2
1
2
3
4
5, 6
7
Ref. T/C for loop #2 probe temp
Carbon Probe input
Ref. T/C for loop #4 probe temp
Carbon Probe input
Standard PID loops
Recording analog process signal representing
the PV of loop 2.
Recording analog process signal representing
the PV of loop 4.
8
106 8LS User’s Guide
Loop Function
8LS-CP-3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7-8
Ref. T/C for loop #2 probe temp
Carbon Probe input
Ref. T/C for loop #4 probe temp
Carbon Probe input
Ref. T/C for loop #6 probe temp
Carbon Probe input
Standard PID loops
8LS-CP-4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Ref. T/C for loop #2 probe temp
Carbon Probe input
Ref. T/C for loop #4 probe temp
Carbon Probe input
Ref. T/C for loop #6 probe temp
Carbon Probe input
Ref. T/C for loop #8 probe temp
Carbon Probe input
Appendix B: 8LS-CP
The 8LS-CP is not only ordered for the number of carbon input loops
desired, but the CPU DIP Switch on the CPU board must be set
correctly to reflect the number of carbon inputs.
Number of Carbon Loops
CPU DIP Switch
#7
#8
CP-1
Off
Off
CP-2
Off
On
CP-3
On
Off
CP-4
On
On
The figure below presents a typical 8LS-CP control system.
Loop #1 Probe temperature input
120 VAC
Supply
Loop #3
8 loop controller
must use digital
CP gas output
Probe
Burn off
digital
output
Probe T/C
Loop #2 Carbon input
Alternate
Connection
for
.
Temperature
Control
CP
trim gas
digital
output
Carbon probe
Furnace temperature controlT/C
Generator
Loop #1 or #3 PID primary output
Reverse Action TP or analog
Furnace/Generator
Furn T/C
1400-2400
CO+CO2: 1-30%
Furn heat control
Loop #2 PID primary output
Reverse action TP or analog
SSR
External
High limit
Relay
GAS
Supply
Gas valve
Atmosphere
Control
N.C.
CP gas shut off valve.
Closed when loop #1 PV(1400 or PV>2400ºF.
Loop #2 PID secondary output
Direct Action TP only
Requires DAC for
analog output
Air valve
Atmosphere
Control
DAC
AIR
Supply
SSR
Probe
air
supply
Air flow
regulator
N.C.
Burn -off
solenoid valve
To carbon probe
burn-off port
To carbon probe
reference port
8LS User’s Guide 107
Appendix B: 8LS-CP
Specifications
The standard specifications listed in the Introduction section of this
manual apply to the 8LS-CP with the following additions:
Analog Inputs
Each CP Input:
• 1 Loop Selectable Type N, K, R, or S T/C Reference Temperature for
CP
• 1 Loop Selectable % Carbon Potential (CP), Dew point (DP), or DC
MV
• Carbon probe input
Carbon Probe Input Range:
• mV Range: 960 to 1275 mVdc
• CP Range: .10 to 1.40% Carbon
• Adjustable CO+CO2 Range: 1-30%
• DP Range: -40 to 300º F/C
• Adjustable Hydrogen Range: 1-100%
Control Capability
CP PID Control
T/C Loop has standard PID control.
Carbon Probe Loop PID control is reference to T/C Loop: output is
available for control when T/C Loop is between 1400 to 2400ºF.
CP Trim Gas
A separate output is available for each CP input.
Selectable Digital Output 1-30 will be On when T/C Loop PV is
between 1400 to 2400ºF and Off when PV is outside those limits.
Carbon Burn Off
Selectable Digital Output 1-30 with adjustable interval timer or contact
start and burn off period timer. A separate output is available for each
CP input.
• Interval timer range: 1 to 255 hours.
• Contact Start: Selectable Digital Input 1-12.
• Burn Off Period range: 1-45 minutes.
• Maximum Allowable Temperature: 1900 or 2100ºF
108 8LS User’s Guide
Appendix B: 8LS-CP
CP Control
The temperature control may be accomplished by using a standard
Analog Input/Output loop or it may be installed so that the T/C
Reference Loop of the CP input is the temperature control for the
system. A standard PID control and output function is available from
the T/C Reference Loop.
When using the Carbon Burn Off function, the T/C Reference Loop
should not be used for temperature control.
The carbon probe input loop has a dual closed loop PID output for the
control of the atmosphere. The control may use trim gas or air as control
variables. The reverse action output is connected to the enriching gas
supply valve, and the direct action output is connected to the air supply
valve. The CP Loop PID control outputs are only available when the T/
C Reference Loop is between 1400 to 2400ºF. Temperatures outside
these limits will set the PID outputs to zero percent output.
Trim Gas Temperature Alarm Output
The 8LS-CP has a digital output, available for each CP input, that is
called the CP Gas Alarm. This output is selectable from the alarm menu
of the CP loop as one of the 1-30 digital outputs available. It will be On
when the temperature of the T/C Reference Loop is between 1400 to
2400ºF. Below or above these limits, the CP gas alarm output is Off.
For batch type furnaces, where the temperature will drop below the
1400ºF limit of the CP gas alarm, a latching CP gas alarm function is
required. This special latching alarm function is accomplished by
setting a setpoint on the low process alarm of the probe reference
temperature loop. Setting a low alarm setpoint keeps the CP gas alarm
On below 1400ºF.
The process temperature must first go above 1400ºF to turn On the CP
gas alarm output, and it will not turn Off until the actual temperature has
gone below the low process alarm setpoint. The lowest setting of the
low process alarm for this feature is 900ºF. To use this feature, after
selecting a digital output for the CP gas alarm output, select the same
digital output for the reference temperature loop low process alarm
output and set the setpoint of the low process alarm for the desired alarm
warning.
This output could be used to power a Normally Closed solenoid valve
installed in the enriching gas supply line to the trim gas control valve.
As always, an external temperature safety device should be used in
series with the CP gas alarm output.
8LS User’s Guide 109
Appendix B: 8LS-CP
Recommended CP Trim Gas Alarm for Continuous
Applications
When using the 8LS-CP for controlling the gas atmosphere, it is
required to prevent gas from being introduced by the control system
until the temperature is above 1400ºF (760ºC). The 8LS-CP has a
digital output for each carbon input that will be On or Low whenever the
PV of the reference T/C input is between 1400 to 2400ºF. When the PV
is below 1400ºF or above 2400ºF, the digital output will be Off or High.
This output—known as the CP Gas Output—is selectable as one of the
30 digital outputs that are available on the 8LS. There could be more
than one output (up to 4)—depending on the number of CP inputs. The
setpoint of this output is not adjustable in the field.
To use this output correctly, it must be wired in series with a safety
shutdown temperature device to provide for redundant limit/warning of
the carbonizing gas control system.
Recommended CP Trim Gas Alarm for Batch Applications
When using the 8LS-CP for controlling the gas atmosphere in a batch
furnace, it is required to prevent gas from being introduced by the
control system until the temperature is above 1400ºF (760ºC) and to still
be able to maintain the atmosphere when temperature goes below
1400ºF. This requires that the CP gas alarm output will be maintained
below the 1400ºF limit.
The 8LS-CP gas output of the carbon loop alarm function will be On or
Low whenever the PV of the reference T/C input is between 1400 to
2400ºF. Use the CP gas digital output also for the reference T/C loop
low process alarm digital output. After the PV reaches 1400ºF, it allows
the CP gas output to stay On below 1400ºF, and until the SP of the low
process alarm is exceeded, it will stay On. The lowest setting of the low
process alarm is 900ºF.
If the low process alarm setpoint is exceeded (PV goes below SP), the
CP gas output will turn Off and stay Off until the temperature on the
reference T/C goes above 1400ºF.
110 8LS User’s Guide
Appendix B: 8LS-CP
Carbon Probe
In general practice, follow the probe manufacturer’s recommendations
as to installation and maintenance schedule.
General Guidelines
1. The probe must be exposed to the same atmosphere as the work load.
2. Be sure of the physical location as to length so the work load will not
hit the probe and—for free atmosphere—flow around the probe.
3. Reference air flow should be in the range of .2-1.0 SCFH. Air flow
below .2 SCFH will cause incorrect readings.
4. Useful service life of 12 months is normal. Probes should routinely be
rebuilt by the probe manufacturer.
5. Furnace temperature should be 300ºF or less when installing the Zirconia probe.
6. Do not install probes in new or rebricked furnaces until they have
been dried out for at least 8 hours at 1700ºF with a reducing atmosphere.
The use of the Zirconia probe in carburizing applications is trouble free
except for two common problems:
• Zirconia probes are sensitive to thermal shock. rapid temperatures
changes will cause the Zirconia probe to crack.
To minimize thermal shock to the probe:
a. When inserting the probe, the recommended rate of insertion is
1"/minute. Too slow is better than too fast.
b. To avoid thermal shock upon opening the furnace door to ambient air, correct placement of the probe inside the furnace is a
must.
• Carbon build-up on the probe is a very common problem and is one
of the reasons for the probe to measure the oxygen level incorrectly.
To minimize carbon build-up:
a. Avoid high carbon sooting if at all possible.
b. Clean off the carbon on the probe with a carbon burn-off.
8LS User’s Guide 111
Appendix B: 8LS-CP
Probe Burn Off
Carbon Probe Burn Off Requirements:
1. To burn off carbon, excess fresh air is supplied to the end of the
probe.
2. The excess fresh air burning off the carbon will cause the temperature
of the probe to increase. The temperature must be monitored from the
probe internal T/C, so that the maximum temperature of the probe is
not exceeded.
3. The excess fresh air flow requirement is 1 to 2 SCFH.
4. The frequency and length of the burn off may be controlled from a
timer or from a contact.
5. The frequency is normally measured in hours and the amount of time
for the burn off is in minutes.
6. The CP controller PID output must be maintained, so that there is no
change of the enriching gas, due to the misreading of the CP probe
during burn-off.
7. The level of the PID control signal must be maintained following the
burn off cycle to allow the probe to recover before automatic control
is restored.
8. The method of burn-off is determined by the type of furnace.
Burn off Procedures
Continuous Furnace
(In time mode)
Batch Furnace
(in input mode)
Recommended air flow
2 SCFH
1 SCFH
Purge period
5 minutes set by operator
Time set by operator
Burn off cycle
3 hours set by operator
Cycles with open door
Method of operation
1. Hold enrichment gas at current
level during purge cycle.
2. Monitor carbon probe temperature with the built in T/C.
1. Disable enrichment gas
during cycle.
2. Monitor carbon probe temperature with the built in T/C.
Set the SP for maximum probe temperature of either 1900 or 2100ºF. The carbon burn off
cycle will stop if temperature exceeds the limit. The burn off will continue when temperature goes below the limit.
112 8LS User’s Guide
Appendix B: 8LS-CP
The figure below describes the typical installation of a carbon burn off
system.
Carbon probe
8LS-CP-1
T/C
CP/DP PID control
Burn off digital
Input
Burn off
digital output
SSR
Optional for batch furnace
Solenoid
valve
Air
Enriching gas
Batch furnace
N.C.
Solenoid
valve
Carbon control
valve
N.O
Door open contact
N.O
Demand push-button
Burn Off Function
The carbon probe burn off function of the 8LS-CP is designed to supply
excess fresh reference air to the outside of the probe assembly. When
the excess air is exited at the end of the probe assembly, it supplies
excess oxygen for the burning off of the built up carbon on the end of
the probe.
The burn off selectable digital output of 1-30 will use an interval timer
with a range setting of 1-255 hours or a selectable digital input of 1-12
for a contact closure to start the burn off procedure. The burn off period
timer range is 1-45 minutes.
While in the burn off function, the Time mode selection for a continuous
furnace, or Input mode for a batch furnace, will determine the control
action of the PID output of the CP Loop.
• In the Time mode, the interval timer will start the burn off and hold
the CP PID control output to the value it was at when the burn off
was started.
• In the Input mode, a contact on a digital input generated by a door
opening, or a switch closure, for instance, can start the burn off. The
CP PID output will be held at the value it was at when the burn off
started.
8LS User’s Guide 113
Appendix B: 8LS-CP
If you want to disable the enrichment gas during the burn off period, a
Normally Open solenoid valve should be installed in the enriching gas
line and powered from the same SSR that is supplying power to the burn
off air solenoid valve.
In both modes, the control output signal will be held an additional two
minutes after the burn off period to allow the probe to stabilize before
resuming automatic control.
The burn off function digital output will be turned Off if the probe T/C
exceeds the maximum allowable probe temperature of a selectable 1900
or 2100ºF. It will remain off until the temperature falls at least 100ºF
below the selectable limit.
Setup Menus
This section describes the additional editing parameters for the CP
functions.
Setup Inputs
Input Type
For the Reference Temperature Loop input, there are only four
selectable T/C types available: K, R, S, N.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 INPUTS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
TYPE? K
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Values: K, R, S, N.
For the Carbon Probe Loop input, three engineering functions types
are available: Carbon Potential(CP), Dewpoint (DP), or Millivolt(MV).
Upon selecting either CP or DP another menu item becomes available:
CO+CO2% and % of Hydrogen. The mV selection is not referenced to
the temperature loop and is a direct reading of the probe millivolts.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
2 INPUTS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
TYPE? CP
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable values: CP, DP, or MV.
114 8LS User’s Guide
Appendix B: 8LS-CP
CO+CO2% and % of Hydrogen
Upon selecting CP as the input type, the following menu is available.
Use it to adjust the amount of CO+CO2% in the atmosphere.
LOOP
PROCESS
2
1
UNITS
CO%
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
?20
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Range: 1-30%.
Upon selecting DP as the input type, the following menu is available.
Use it to adjust the amount of Hydrogen in the atmosphere.
LOOP
PROCESS
2
H%
1
2
3
4
5
UNITS
6
7
8
? 40
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Range: 1-100%.
Engineering Units
The engineering units of the carbon loop can be edited only for the
Dewpoint type. The engineering units for CP and MV are fixed: "%CP"
for CP and "MV" for MV.
Upon selecting the DP type and following the Hydrogen menu, the next
menu is available. Use it to select if the reading is in ºF or ºC.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
2 INPUTS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
UNIT? ºF
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Values: F or C.
8LS User’s Guide 115
Appendix B: 8LS-CP
Offset Calibration
If the carbon probe input type is set to CP or DP, a menu is available for
editing an offset calibration of the probe input in the engineering units
of the process variable.
The MV input is in direct reading of the millivolt output of the carbon
probe with no offset adjustable available.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
2 OFFSET
1
2
3
4
?
ALARM
5
6
7
8
0 ºF
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Range:
Input
Type
Offset Range
CP
-.99 to +9.99% of Carbon
DP
-300 to +300ºF/C
WARNING
Incorrect setting of these values may cause incorrect operation of the 8LS-CP.
Setup Carbon Burn Off
Use the following menus to edit the carbon burn off function of the 8LSCP.
LOOP
PROCESS
2
1
UNITS
CP
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
BURNOFF?
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Burn Off Start Mode
This menu allows you to edit the burn off start mode. Setting it to Off
will deactivate the burn off. Selecting Time means the burn off
procedure will be started periodically based on a time interval. This is
116 8LS User’s Guide
Appendix B: 8LS-CP
typically used in continuous furnace applications. Setting the start mode
to Input means the burn off procedure will be started based on a digital
input signal. This is typically used in batch furnace applications.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
2BO STRT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
MD? OFF
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Values: Off, Time, Input.
Burn Off Time Interval
This menu is displayed if the start mode is set to Time. Use it to edit the
time interval between the burn off function.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
2BO INTR
1
2
3
4
5
HRS?
ALARM
6
7
8
3
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Range: 1-255.
Burn Off start Input
This menu is displayed if the start mode is set to Input. Use it to edit the
digital input number which will initiate the burn off procedure. When
the input is set to 0, the procedure will not start from any digital input
and the burn off function will be deactivated.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
2BO STRT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
INPUT? 0
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Range: 1-12, or 0.
8LS User’s Guide 117
Appendix B: 8LS-CP
Burn Off Time Period
This menu is displayed if the start mode is set to either Input or Time.
Use it to edit the time period of the burn off. This is the time that the
burn off air flow output will be set On to allow air flow to the probe
burn off port.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
2BO TIME
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
MINS? 5
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Range: 1-45.
Maximum Allowable Probe Temperature
This menu is displayed if the start mode is set to either Input or Time.
Use it to edit the maximum allowable probe temperature during the burn
off procedure. When this temperature exceeds the burn off air flow,
digital output is set Off until the probe temperature is 100ºF below the
Maximum Allowable Probe Temperature Setpoint. When the output is
Off, the air flow to the probe should stop, allowing the probe to cool
down.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
2BO TEMP
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
MAX? 1900
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Range: 1900ºF or 2100ºF (1038ºC or 1149ºC).
Burn Off Air Flow Output Number
This menu is displayed if the start mode is set to either Input or Time.
Use it to edit the digital output number that controls the burn off air
flow. Setting the number to 0 means the air flow digital output will not
be activated.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
2BO AIR
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
OUTPT? 0
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Range: 1-30 or 0.
118 8LS User’s Guide
Appendix B: 8LS-CP
Setup Alarms
CP Gas Alarm
This menu is available from the Setup Alarms main menu. Use it to set
the digital output number for the CP trim gas alarm output. This output
is On when the temperature of the T/C Reference Loop is between 1400
to 2400ºF and Off when the temperature is outside these limits. When
setting it to 0, the CP GAS output is disabled.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
2CP GAS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
OUTPN? 0
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Range: 1-30, or 0.
CP and DP Display
The display of the carbon probe loop process variable depends upon the
input values of the T/C Reference Loop and the probe millivolt level.
In order to display the engineering values of the input, both the T/C and
probe loops must be within limits of the carbon probe variables for
correct reading of the probe.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
2 HIT %CP
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
. 25 M 0
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
• If the CP loop is in automatic mode, an out of range reading will set
both CP control outputs to 0.
• If the control is in manual mode, it will not effect the outputs.
The next table shows the CP loop out of range indications.
Process condition
Indication
Reference T/C is below 1400ºF
LOT
Reference T/C is above 2400ºF
HIT
Probe MV is below 960 MVDC
LOV
Probe MV is above 1275 MVDC
HIV
8LS User’s Guide 119
Appendix B: 8LS-CP
120 8LS User’s Guide
Appendix C: 8LS Cascade
Appendix C: 8LS Cascade
Introduction
The Cascade control feature allows the output percentage of one control
loop to be used as the setpoint of a second control loop. The loop
providing the output is called the Master or Primary loop. The loop that
is using the output is called the Slave or Secondary loop.
In Watlow Anafaze multiloop controllers, the Master loop output can
supply more than one secondary setpoint loop with a cascade setpoint.
The cascade control provides an adjustable range of the Secondary
setpoint on a per loop basis.
The 0% level of the Primary loop control ouput sets the low end of the
Secondary setpoint. The 100% level of the Primary loop control output
sets the high end of the Secondary setpoint.
Selection of Cascade control is done on a per loop basis.
8LS Cascade Menus
Cascade Main Menu
The following is the cascade main menu. It appears after the Setup
Outputs main manu.
Pres Yes if you wish to edit Cascade parameters. If you press No, the
Setup Alarms main menu appears.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
1 SETUP
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
CASCADE
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
8LS User’s Guide 121
Appendix C: 8LS Cascade
Choosing the Primary Loop
Use this selection to choose the primary loop for cascade control. This
loop provides the output for the Secondary loop, which is the current
loop as it appears on the upper line of the display.
LOOP
Current loop
Also the
Secondary loop.
PROCESS
UNITS
1 SP?
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
OUTPUT 2
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Primary loop. This
loop’s output will
be the setpoint for
the current loop.
Setting the High End of the Secondary Setpoint
Use this selection to set the high end of the secondary loop setpoint.
This setting determines the high end setpoint of the Secondary loop (in
this case loop 2) when the Primary loop’s output reaches 100%.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
2 100% ?
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
100 °F
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Range: The range of the input type selected on the
secondary loop.
Setting the Low End of the Secondary Setpoint
Use this menu to set the low end of the secondary loop’s setpoint.
This setting determines the low end setpoint of the Secondary loop (in
this case loop 2) when the Primary loop’s ouput reaches 0%.
LOOP
PROCESS
UNITS
2 0% ?
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0 °F
ALARM
SETPOINT STATUS OUTPUT%
Selectable Range: The range of the input type selected on the
secondary loop.
122 8LS User’s Guide
Glossary
A
AC
See Alternating Current.
AC Line Frequency
The frequency of the AC power line measured in
Hertz (Hz), usually 50 or 60 Hz.
Accuracy
Closeness between the value indicated by a measuring instrument and a physical constant or
known standards.
Action
The response of an output when the process variable is changed. See also Direct action, Reverse
action.
Address
A numerical identifier for a controller when used
in computer communications.
Alarm
A signal that indicates that the process has
exceeded or fallen below a certain range around
the setpoint. For example, an alarm may indicate
that a process is too hot or too cold. See also:
Deviation Alarm
Failed Sensor Alarm
Global Alarm
High Deviation Alarm
High Process Alarm
Loop Alarm
Low Deviation Alarm
Low Process Alarm
Alarm Delay
The lag time before an alarm is activated.
Alternating Current (AC)
An electric current that reverses at regular intervals, and alternates positive and negative values.
Ambient Temperature
The temperature of the air or other medium that
surrounds the components of a thermal system.
123 8LS User’s Guide
American Wire Gauge (AWG)
A standard of the dimensional characteristics of
wire used to conduct electrical current or signals.
AWG is identical to the Brown and Sharpe
(B&S) wire gauge.
Ammeter
An instrument that measures the magnitude of an
electric current.
Ampere (Amp)
A unit that defines the rate of flow of electricity
(current) in the circuit. Units are one coulomb
(6.25 x 1018 electrons) per second.
Analog Output
A continuously variable signal that is used to represent a value, such as the process value or setpoint value. Typical hardware configurations are
0-20mA, 4-20mA or 0-5 Vdc.
Automatic Mode
A feature that allows the controller to set PID
control outputs in response to the Process Variable (PV) and the setpoint.
Autotune
A feature that automatically sets temperature
control PID values to match a particular thermal
system.
B
Bandwidth
A symmetrical region above and below the setpoint in which proportional control occurs.
Baud Rate
The rate of information transfer in serial communications, measured in bits per second.
Block Check Character (BCC)
A serial communications error checking method.
An acceptable method for most applications,
BCC is the default method. See CRC.
Glossary
Bumpless Transfer
A smooth transition from Auto (closed loop) to
Manual (open loop) operation. The control output
does not change during the transfer.
C
Calibration
The comparison of a measuring device (an
unknown) against an equal or better standard.
Celsius (Centigrade)
Formerly known as Centigrade. A temperature
scale in which water freezes at 0°C and boils at
100°C at standard atmospheric pressure. The formula for conversion to the Fahrenheit scale is:
°F=(1.8x°C)+32.
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
The unit of a computing system that includes the
circuits controlling the interpretation of instructions and their execution.
Circuit
Any closed path for electrical current. A configuration of electrically or electromagnetically-connected components or devices.
Closed Loop
A control system that uses a sensor to measure a
process variable and makes decisions based on
that feedback.
Cold Junction
Connection point between thermocouple metals
and the electronic instrument.
Common Mode Rejection Ratio
The ability of an instrument to reject electrical
noise, with relation to ground, from a common
voltage. Usually expressed in decibels (dB).
Communications
The use of digital computer messages to link
components.
See Serial Communications.
See Baud Rate.
Control Action
The response of the PID control output relative to
the error between the process variable and the
setpoint. For reverse action (usually heating), as
the process decreases below the setpoint the output increases. For direct action (usually cooling),
as the process increases above the setpoint, the
output increases.
Control Mode
The type of action that a controller uses. For
example, On/Off, time proportioning, PID, Automatic or manual, and combinations of these.
Current
The rate of flow of electricity. The unit of measure is the ampere (A).
1 ampere = 1 coulomb per second.
Cycle Time
The time required for a controller to complete
one on-off-on cycle. It is usually expressed in
seconds.
Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)
An error checking method in communications. It
provides a high level of data security but is more
difficult to implement than Block Check Character (BCC).
See Block Check Character.
D
Data Logging
A method of recording a process variable over a
period of time. Used to review process performance.
Deadband
The range through which a variation of the input
produces no noticeable change in the output. In
the deadband, specific conditions can be placed
on control output actions. Operators select the
deadband. It is usually above the heating proportional band and below the cooling proportional
band.
Default Parameters
The programmed instructions that are permanently stored in the microprocessor software.
124 8LS User’s Guide
Glossary
Derivative Control (D)
The last term in the PID algorithm. Action that
anticipated the rate of change of the process, and
compensates to minimize overshoot and undershoot. Derivative control is an instantaneous
change of the control output in the same direction
as the proportional error. This is caused by a
change in the process variable (PV) that
decreases over the time of the derivative (TD).
The TD is in units of seconds.
Deutsche Industrial Norms (DIN)
A set of technical, scientific and dimensional
standards developed in Germany. Many DIN
standards have worldwide recognition.
Deviation Alarm
Warns that a process has exceeded or fallen
below a certain range around the setpoint.
Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)
A device that converts a numerical input signal to
a signal that is proportional to the input in some
way.
Direct Action
An output control action in which an increase in
the process variable, causes an increase in the
output. Cooling applications usually use direct
action.
Direct Current (DC)
An electric current that flows in one direction.
Distributed Zero Crossing (DZC)
A form of digital output control. Similar to burst
fire.
E
Earth Ground
A metal rod, usually copper, that provides an
electrical path to the earth, to prevent or reduce
the risk of electrical shock.
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
Electrical and magnetic noise imposed on a system. There are many possible causes, such as
switching ac power on inside the sine wave. EMI
can interfere with the operation of controls and
other devices.
Electrical-Mechanical Relays
See Relay, electromechanical.
Emissivity
The ratio of radiation emitted from a surface
compared to radiation emitted from a blackbody
at the same temperature.
Engineering Units
Selectable units of measure, such as degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit, pounds per square inch,
newtons per meter, gallons per minute, liters per
minute, cubic feet per minute or cubic meters per
minute.
EPROM
Erasable Programmable, Read-Only Memory
inside the controller.
Error
The difference between the correct or desired
value and the actual value.
F
Fahrenheit
The temperature scale that sets the freezing point
of water at 32ºF and its boiling point at 212ºF at
standard atmospheric pressure. The formula for
conversion to Celsius is: ºC=5/9 (ºF-32ºF).
Failed Sensor Alarm
Warns that an input sensor no longer produces a
valid signal. For example, when there are thermocouple breaks, infrared problems or resistance
temperature detector (RTD) open or short failures.
Electrical Noise
See Noise.
8LS User’s Guide 125
Glossary
Filter
Filters are used to handle various electrical noise
problems.
Digital Filter (DF) — A filter that allows the
response of a system when inputs change unrealistically or too fast. Equivalent to a standard
resistor-capacitor (RC) filter
Digital Adaptive Filter — A filter that rejects
high frequency input signal noise (noise spikes).
Heat/Cool Output Filter — A filter that slows
the change in the response of the heat or cool output. The output responds to a step change by
going to approximately 2/3 its final value within
the numbers of scans that are set.
Frequency
The number of cycles over a specified period of
time, usually measured in cycles per second. Also
referred to as Hertz (Hz). The reciprocal is called
the period.
G
Gain
The amount of amplification used in an electrical
circuit. Gain can also refer to the Proportional (P)
mode of PID.
H
Hertz(Hz)
Frequency, measured in cycles per second.
High Deviation Alarm
Warns that the process is above setpoint, but
below the high process variable. It can be used as
either an alarm or control function.
High Power
Any voltage above 24 VAC or Vdc and any current level above 50 mAac or mAdc.
High Process Alarm
A signal that is tied to a set maximum value that
can be used as either an alarm or control function.
High Process Variable (PV)
See Process Variable (PV).
High Reading
An input level that corresponds to the high process value. For linear inputs, the high reading is a
percentage of the full scale input range. For pulse
inputs, the high reading is expressed in cycles per
second (Hz).
I
Global Alarm
Alarm associated with a global digital output that
is cleared directly from a controller or through a
user interface.
Infrared
A region of the electromagnetic spectrum with
wavelengths ranging from one to 1,000 microns.
These wavelengths are most suited for radiant
heating and infrared (noncontact) temperature
sensing.
Global Digital Outputs
A pre-selected digital output for each specific
alarm that alerts the operator to shut down critical
processes when an alarm condition occurs.
Input
Process variable information that is supplied to
the instrument.
Ground
An electrical line with the same electrical potential as the surrounding earth. Electrical systems
are usually grounded to protect people and equipment from shocks due to malfunctions. Also
referred to a "safety ground".
126 8LS User’s Guide
Input Scaling
The ability to scale input readings (readings in
percent of full scale) to the engineering units of
the process variable.
Input Type
The signal type that is connected to an input, such
as thermocouple, RTD, linear or process.
Glossary
Integral Control (I)
Control action that automatically eliminates offset, or droop, between setpoint and actual process
temperature.
See Auto-reset.
J
Job
A set of operating conditions for a process that
can be stored and recalled in a controller’s memory. also called a Recipe.
Junction
The point where two dissimilar metal conductors
join to forma thermocouple.
Low Deviation Alarm
Warns that the process is below the setpoint, but
above the low process variable. It can be used as
either an alarm or control function.
Low Process Alarm
A signal that is tied to a set minimum value that
can be used as either an alarm or control function.
Low Reading
An input level corresponding to the low process
value. For linear inputs, the low reading is a percentage of the full scale input range. For pulse
inputs, the low reading is expressed in cycles per
second (Hz).
M
L
Lag
The delay between the output of a signal and the
response of the instrument to which the signal is
sent.
Linear Input
A process input that represents a straight line
function.
Linearity
The deviation in response from an expected or
theoretical straight line value for instruments and
transducers. also called Linearity Error.
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
A type of digital display made of a material that
changes reflectance or transmittance when an
electrical field is applied to it.
Manual Mode
A selectable mode that has no automatic control
aspects. The operator sets output levels.
Manual Reset
See Reset.
Milliampere (mA)
One thousandth of an ampere.
N
No Key Reset
A method for resetting the controller's memory
(for instance, after an EPROM change).
Noise
Unwanted electrical signals that usually produce
signal interference in sensors and sensor circuits.
See Electromagnetic Interference.
Load
The electrical demand of a process, expressed in
power (watts), current (amps), or resistance
(ohms). The item or substance that is to be heated
or cooled.
Noise Suppression
The use of components to reduce electrical interference that is caused by making or breaking
electrical contact, or by inductors.
Loop Alarm
Any alarm system that includes high and low process, deviation band, deadband, digital outputs,
and auxiliary control outputs.
Non Linear
Through Watlow-Anafaze software, the Non Linear field sets the system to linear control, or to
one of two non linear control options. Input 0 for
Linear, 1 or 2 for non linear.
8LS User’s Guide 127
Glossary
O
Offset
The difference in temperature between the setpoint and the actual process temperature. Offset
is the error in the process variable that is typical
of proportional-only control.
On/Off Control
A method of control that turns the output full on
until setpoint is reached, and then off until the
process error exceeds the hysteresis.
Open Loop
A control system with no sensory feedback.
Operator Menus
The menus accessible from the front panel of a
controller. These menus allow operators to set or
change various control actions or features.
Optical Isolation
Two electronic networks that are connected
through an LED (Light Emitting Diode) and a
photoelectric receiver. There is no electrical continuity between the two networks.
Output
Control signal action in response to the difference
between setpoint and process variable.
Output Type
The form of PID control output, such as Time
Proportioning, Distributed Zero Crossing,
SDAC, or Analog. Also the description of the
electrical hardware that makes up the output.
Overshoot
The amount by which a process variable exceeds
the setpoint before it stabilizes.
P
Panel Lock
A feature that prevents operation of the front
panel by unauthorized people.
128 8LS User’s Guide
PID
Proportional, Integral, Derivative. A control
mode with three functions:
Proportional action dampens the system
response, Integral corrects for droops, and Derivative prevents overshoot and undershoot.
Polarity
The electrical quality of having two opposite
poles, one positive and one negative. Polarity
determines the direction in which a current tends
to flow.
Process Variable
The parameter that is controlled or measured.
Typical examples are temperature, relative
humidity, pressure, flow, fluid level, events, etc.
The high process variable is the highest value of
the process range, expressed in engineering units.
The low process variable is the lowest value of
the process range.
Proportional (P)
Output effort proportional to the error from setpoint. For example, if the proportional band is
20º and the process is 10º below the setpoint, the
heat proportioned effort is 50%. The lower the
PB value, the higher the gain.
Proportional Band (PB)
A range in which the proportioning function of
the control is active. Expressed in units, degrees
or percent of span.
See PID.
Proportional Control
A control using only the P (proportional) value of
PID control.
Pulse Input
Digital pulse signals from devices, such as optical encoders.
R
Ramp
A programmed increase in the temperature of a
setpoint system.
Glossary
Range
The area between two limits in which a quantity
or value is measured. It is usually described in
terms of lower and upper limits.
Recipe
See Job.
RTD
See Resistance Temperature Detector.
Reflection Compensation Mode
A control feature that automatically corrects the
reading from a sensor.
Relay
A switching device.
Electromechanical Relay — A power switching
device that completes or interrupts a circuit by
physically moving electrical contacts into contact
with each other. Not recommended for PID control.
Solid State Relay (SSR) — A switching
device with no moving parts that completes or interrupts a circuit electrically.
Reset
Control action that automatically eliminates offset or droop between setpoint and actual process
temperature.
See also Integral.
Automatic Reset — The integral function of a
PI or PID temperature controller that adjusts the
process temperature to the setpoint after the system stabilizes. The inverse of integral.
Automatic Power Reset
ing limit controls that
Reverse Action
An output control action in which an increase in
the process variable causes a decrease in the output. Heating applications usually use reverse
action.
— A feature in latch-
Resistance
Opposition to the flow of electric current, measured in ohms.
Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD)
A sensor that uses the resistance temperature
characteristic to measure temperature. There are
two basic types of RTDs: the wire RTD, which is
usually made of platinum, and the thermistor
which is made of a semiconductor material. The
wire RTD is a positive temperature coefficient
sensor only, while the thermistor can have either
a negative or positive temperature coefficient.
S
Serial Communications
A method of transmitting information between
devices by sending all bits serially over a single
communication channel.
RS-232—An Electronics Industries of America
(EIA) standard for interface between data terminal equipment and data communications equipment for serial binary data interchange. This is
usually for communications over a short distance
(50 feet or less) and to a single device.
RS-485—An Electronics Industries of America
(EIA) standard for electrical characteristics of
generators and receivers for use in balanced digital multipoint systems. This is usually used to
communicate with multiple devices over a common cable or where distances over 50 feet are
required.
Setpoint (SP)
The desired value programmed into a controller.
For example, the temperature at which a system
is to be maintained.
Shield
A metallic foil or braided wire layer surrounding
conductors that is designed to prevent electrostatic or electromagnetic interference from external sources.
Signal
Any electrical transmittance that conveys information.
Solid State Relay (SSR)
See Relay, Solid State.
8LS User’s Guide 129
Glossary
Span
The difference between the lower and upper limits of a range expressed in the same units as the
range.
Spread
In heat/cool applications, the +/- difference
between heat and cool. Also known as process
deadband.
See deadband.
The transmitter acts as a variable resistor with
respect to its input signal. Transmitters are desirable when long lead or extension wires produce
unacceptable signal degradation.
U
Upscale Break Protection
A form of break detection for burned-out thermocouples. Signals the operator that the thermocouple has burned out.
Stability
The ability of a device to maintain a constant output with the application of a constant input.
Undershoot
The amount by which a process variable falls
below the setpoint before it stabilizes.
T
V
T/C Extension Wire
A grade of wire used between the measuring
junction and the reference junction of a thermocouple. Extension wire and thermocouple wire
have similar properties, but extension wire is less
costly.
Volt (V)
The unit of measure for electrical potential, voltage or electromotive force (EMF).
See Voltage.
TD (Timed Derivative)
The derivative function.
Thermistor
A temperature-sensing device made of semiconductor material that exhibits a large change in
resistance for a small change in temperature.
Thermistors usually have negative temperature
coefficients, although they are also available with
positive temperature coefficients.
Voltage (V)
The difference in electrical potential between two
points in a circuit. It’s the push or pressure behind
current flow through a circuit. One volt (V) is the
difference in potential required to move one coulomb of charge between two points in a circuit,
consuming one joule of energy. In other words,
one volt (V) is equal to one ampere of current (I)
flowing through one ohm of resistance (R), or
V=IR.
Z
Thermocouple (T/C)
A temperature sensing device made by joining
two dissimilar metals. This junction produces an
electrical voltage in proportion to the difference
in temperature between the hot junction (sensing
junction) and the lead wire connection to the
instrument (cold junction).
TI (Timed Integral)
The Integral term.
Transmitter
A device that transmits temperature data from
either a thermocouple or RTD by way of a twowire loop. The loop has an external power supply.
130 8LS User’s Guide
Zero Cross
Action that provides output switching only at or
near the zero-voltage crossing points of the ac
sine wave
Glossary
8LS User’s Guide 131
Glossary
132 8LS User’s Guide
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement